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Sample records for acute beryllium disease

  1. Chronic Beryllium Disease

    ... an immune response or “allergy” to beryllium metal, ceramic or alloy, termed beryllium sensitization (BeS). Beryllium sensitization occurs after ... Mroz MM, Newman LS. Beryllium disease screening in ceramics industry: Blood test ... at a metal, alloy and oxide production plant. Occup Environ Med 1997; ...

  2. Advances in Identifying Beryllium Sensitization and Disease

    Peter Kowalski

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Beryllium is a lightweight metal with unique qualities related to stiffness, corrosion resistance, and conductivity. While there are many useful applications, researchers in the 1930s and l940s linked beryllium exposure to a progressive occupational lung disease. Acute beryllium disease is a pulmonary irritant response to high exposure levels, whereas chronic beryllium disease (CBD typically results from a hypersensitivity response to lower exposure levels. A blood test, the beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT, was an important advance in identifying individuals who are sensitized to beryllium (BeS and thus at risk for developing CBD. While there is no true "gold standard" for BeS, basic epidemiologic concepts have been used to advance our understanding of the different screening algorithms.

  3. The natural history of beryllium sensitization and chronic beryllium disease.

    Newman, L. S.; Lloyd, J.; Daniloff, E.

    1996-01-01

    With the advent of in vitro immunologic testing, we can now detect exposed individuals who are sensitized to beryllium and those who have chronic beryllium disease (CBD) with lung pathology and impairment. Earlier detection and more accurate diagnostic tools raise new questions about the natural history of sensitization and granulomatous disease. Preliminary data suggest that early detection identifies people who are sensitized to beryllium and that these individuals are at risk for progressi...

  4. Current Treatment of Chronic Beryllium Disease

    Sood, Akshay

    2009-01-01

    The current mainstay of management of chronic beryllium disease involves cessation of beryllium exposure and use of systemic corticosteroids. However, there are no randomized controlled trials to assess the effect of these interventions on the natural history of this disease. Despite this limitation, it is prudent to remove patients with chronic beryllium disease from further exposure and consider treating progressive disease early with long-term corticosteroids. The effect of treatment shoul...

  5. Clinical approach to chronic beryllium disease and other nonpneumoconiotic interstitial lung diseases.

    Maier, Lisa A

    2002-10-01

    Exposures in the workplace result in a diverse set of diseases ranging from the pneumoconiosis to other interstitial lung diseases to acute lung injury. Physician awareness of the potential disease manifestations associated with specific exposures is important in defining these diseases and in preventing additional disease. Most occupational diseases mimic other forms of lung disease, including pulmonary fibrosis, sarcoidosis, adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and bronchiolitis. A "sarcoidosis"-like syndrome, usually limited to the lungs, may result from exposure to bioaerosols and a number of metals. Exposure to beryllium in the workplace produces a granulomatous lung disease clinically indistinguishable from sarcoidosis, chronic beryllium disease (CBD). Beryllium's ability to produce a beryllium-specific immune response is used in the beryllium lymphocyte proliferation tests to confirm a diagnosis of CBD and exclude sarcoidosis. Exposure to other metals must also be considered in the differential diagnosis of sarcoidosis. When an individual presents acutely with ARDS or acute lung injury, an acute inhalational exposure must be considered. Exposure to a number of irritant substances at high levels may cause a "chemical pneumonitis" or acute lung injury, depending on the solubility and physicochemical properties of the substance. Some of the most notable agents include nitrogen and sulfur oxides, phosgene, and smoke breakdown products. Ingestion of paraquat may also result in an ARDS syndrome, with pulmonary fibrosis eventually resulting. Bronchiolitis is a rare manifestation of inhalational exposures but must also be considered in the clinical evaluation of inhalational exposure. PMID:12362066

  6. Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program Report

    Lee, S

    2012-03-29

    This document describes how Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) meets the requirements and management practices of federal regulation 10 CFR 850, 'Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program (CBDPP).' This revision of the LLNL CBDPP incorporates clarification and editorial changes based on lessons learned from employee discussions, observations and reviews of Department of Energy (DOE) Complex and commercial industry beryllium (Be) safety programs. The information is used to strengthen beryllium safety practices at LLNL, particularly in the areas of: (1) Management of small parts and components; and (2) Communication of program status to employees. Future changes to LLNL beryllium activities and on-going operating experience will be incorporated into the program as described in Section S, 'Performance Feedback.'

  7. 75 FR 80734 - Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program

    2010-12-23

    ... Beryllium Disease Prevention Program (CBDPP) (63 FR 66940). After considering the comments received, DOE... CFR Part 850 RIN 1992-AA39 Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program AGENCY: Office of Health... beryllium disease prevention program. The Department solicits comment and information on the...

  8. Development of Biomarkers for Chronic Beryllium Disease in Mice

    Gordon, Terry

    2013-01-25

    Beryllium is a strategic metal, indispensable for national defense programs in aerospace, telecommunications, electronics, and weaponry. Exposure to beryllium is an extensively documented occupational hazard that causes irreversible, debilitating granulomatous lung disease in as much as 3 - 5% of exposed workers. Mechanistic research on beryllium exposure-disease relationships has been severely limited by a general lack of a sufficient CBD animal model. We have now developed and tested an animal model which can be used for dissecting dose-response relationships and pathogenic mechanisms and for testing new diagnostic and treatment paradigms. We have created 3 strains of transgenic mice in which the human antigen-presenting moiety, HLA-DP, was inserted into the mouse genome. Each mouse strain contains HLA-DPB1 alleles that confer different magnitude of risk for chronic beryllium disease (CBD): HLA-DPB1*0401 (odds ratio = 0.2), HLA-DPB1*0201 (odds ratio = 15), HLA-DPB1*1701 (odds ratio = 240). Our preliminary work has demonstrated that the *1701 allele, as predicted by human studies, results in the greatest degree of sensitization in a mouse ear swelling test. We have also completed dose-response experiments examining beryllium-induced lung granulomas and identified susceptible and resistant inbred strains of mice (without the human transgenes) as well as quantitative trait loci that may contain gene(s) that modify the immune response to beryllium. In this grant application, we propose to use the transgenic and normal inbred strains of mice to identify biomarkers for the progression of beryllium sensitization and CBD. To achieve this goal, we propose to compare the sensitivity and accuracy of the lymphocyte proliferation test (blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid) with the ELISPOT test in the three HLA-DP transgenic mice strains throughout a 6 month treatment with beryllium particles. Because of the availability of high-throughput proteomics, we will also identify

  9. Defense programs beryllium good practice guide

    Within the DOE, it has recently become apparent that some contractor employees who have worked (or are currently working) with and around beryllium have developed chronic beryllium disease (CBD), an occupational granulomatous lung disorder. Respiratory exposure to aerosolized beryllium, in susceptible individuals, causes an immunological reaction that can result in granulomatous scarring of the lung parenchyma, shortness of breath, cough, fatigue, weight loss, and, ultimately, respiratory failure. Beryllium disease was originally identified in the 1940s, largely in the fluorescent light industry. In 1950, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) introduced strict exposure standards that generally curtailed both the acute and chronic forms of the disease. Beginning in 1984, with the identification of a CBD case in a DOE contractor worker, there was increased scrutiny of both industrial hygiene practices and individuals in this workforce. To date, over 100 additional cases of beryllium-specific sensitization and/or CBD have been identified. Thus, a disease previously thought to be largely eliminated by the adoption of permissible exposure standards 45 years ago is still a health risk in certain workforces. This good practice guide forms the basis of an acceptable program for controlling workplace exposure to beryllium. It provides (1) Guidance for minimizing worker exposure to beryllium in Defense Programs facilities during all phases of beryllium-related work, including the decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) of facilities. (2) Recommended controls to be applied to the handling of metallic beryllium and beryllium alloys, beryllium oxide, and other beryllium compounds. (3) Recommendations for medical monitoring and surveillance of workers exposed (or potentially exposed) to beryllium, based on the best current understanding of beryllium disease and medical diagnostic tests available. (4) Site-specific safety procedures for all processes of beryllium that is

  10. 20 CFR 30.207 - How does a claimant prove a diagnosis of a beryllium disease covered under Part B?

    2010-04-01

    ... this section), together with lung pathology consistent with chronic beryllium disease, including the...) Occupational or environmental history, or epidemiologic evidence of beryllium exposure; and (ii) Any three of...) Lung pathology consistent with chronic beryllium disease. (D) Clinical course consistent with a...

  11. Beryllium allergy

    Beryllium is not only a high potent allergen, but also a fotoallergen and can provoke contact allergic reactions, fotoallergic reactions, granulomatous skin reactions, pulmonary granulomatous diseases and sometimes even systemic diseases. The authors present 9 own cases of a patch test positive beryllium allergy, 7 patients with relevant allergy and 5 patients with an allergic contact stomatitis. (author)

  12. Defense programs beryllium good practice guide

    Herr, M.

    1997-07-01

    Within the DOE, it has recently become apparent that some contractor employees who have worked (or are currently working) with and around beryllium have developed chronic beryllium disease (CBD), an occupational granulomatous lung disorder. Respiratory exposure to aerosolized beryllium, in susceptible individuals, causes an immunological reaction that can result in granulomatous scarring of the lung parenchyma, shortness of breath, cough, fatigue, weight loss, and, ultimately, respiratory failure. Beryllium disease was originally identified in the 1940s, largely in the fluorescent light industry. In 1950, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) introduced strict exposure standards that generally curtailed both the acute and chronic forms of the disease. Beginning in 1984, with the identification of a CBD case in a DOE contractor worker, there was increased scrutiny of both industrial hygiene practices and individuals in this workforce. To date, over 100 additional cases of beryllium-specific sensitization and/or CBD have been identified. Thus, a disease previously thought to be largely eliminated by the adoption of permissible exposure standards 45 years ago is still a health risk in certain workforces. This good practice guide forms the basis of an acceptable program for controlling workplace exposure to beryllium. It provides (1) Guidance for minimizing worker exposure to beryllium in Defense Programs facilities during all phases of beryllium-related work, including the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of facilities. (2) Recommended controls to be applied to the handling of metallic beryllium and beryllium alloys, beryllium oxide, and other beryllium compounds. (3) Recommendations for medical monitoring and surveillance of workers exposed (or potentially exposed) to beryllium, based on the best current understanding of beryllium disease and medical diagnostic tests available. (4) Site-specific safety procedures for all processes of beryllium that is likely to

  13. Control of beryllium powder at a DOE facility

    Beryllium is contained in a number of domestic and national defense items. Although many items might contain beryllium in some manner, few people need worry about the adverse effects caused by exposure to beryllium because it is the inhalable form of beryllium that is most toxic. Chronic beryllium disease (CBD), a granulomas and fibrotic lung disease with long latency, can be developed after inhalation exposures to beryllium. It is a progressive, debilitating lung disease. Its occurrence in those exposed to beryllium has been difficult to predict because some people seem to react to low concentration exposures whereas others do not react to high concentration exposures. Onset of the disease frequently occurs between 15 to 20 years after exposure begins. Some people develop the disease after many years of low concentration exposures but others do not develop CBD even though beryllium is shown to be present in lungs and urine. Conclusions based on these experiences are that their is some immunological dependence of developing CBD in about 3--4% of the exposed population, but the exact mechanism involved has not yet been identified. Acute beryllium disease can occur after a single exposure to a concentration of greater than 0.100 mg/m3 (inhalation exposure); it is characterized by the development of chemical pneumoconiosis, a respiratory disease. The acute effect of skin contact is a dermatitis characterized by itching and reddened, elevated, or fluid-accumulated lesions which appear particularly on the exposed surfaces of the body, especially the face, neck, arms, and hands. Small particles of beryllium that enter breaks in the skin can lead to the development of granulomas and/or open sores that do not heal until the beryllium has been removed. Our interest is only airborne beryllium, which is found in areas that machine or produce beryllium

  14. A role for cell adhesion in beryllium-mediated lung disease

    Hong-geller, Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is a debilitating lung disorder in which exposure to the lightweight metal beryllium (Be) causes the accumulation of beryllium-specific CD4+ T cells in the lung and formation of noncaseating pulmonary granulomas. Treatment for CBD patients who exhibit progressive pulmonary decline is limited to systemic corticosteroids, which suppress the severe host inflammatory response. Studies in the past several years have begun to highlight cell-cell adhesion interactions in the development of Be hypersensitivity and CBD. In particular, the high binding affinity between intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (I-CAM1) on lung epithelial cells and the {beta}{sub 2} integrin LFA-1 on migrating lymphocytes and macrophages regulates the concerted rolling of immune cells to sites of inflammation in the lung. In this review, we discuss the evidence that implicates cell adhesion processes in onset of Be disease and the potential of cell adhesion as an intervention point for development of novel therapies.

  15. Acute radiation disease

    Features of clinical trends in acute period of radiation disease at personnel who suffered from Chernobyl accident are considered. The main attention is paid to the results of 10 year observation of organs, systems and metabolic processes in patients. Used therapeutic, rehabilitation and preventive actions in stationary, ambulatory and sanatorium - health resort stages are described

  16. Structural Basis of Chronic Beryllium Disease: Linking Allergic Hypersensitivity and Autoimmunity

    Clayton, Gina M.; Wang, Yang; Crawford, Frances; Novikov, Andrey; Wimberly, Brian T.; Kieft, Jeffrey S.; Falta, Michael T.; Bowerman, Natalie A.; Marrack, Philippa; Fontenot, Andrew P.; Dai, Shaodong; John W Kappler

    2014-01-01

    T cell-mediated hypersensitivity to metal cations is common in humans. How the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) recognizes these cations bound to a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) protein and self-peptide is unknown. Individuals carrying the MHCII allele, HLA-DP2, are at risk for chronic beryllium disease (CBD), a debilitating inflammatory lung condition caused by the reaction of CD4 T cells to inhaled beryllium. We show here that the T cell ligand is created when a Be2+ cation becomes bu...

  17. Low Prevalence of Chronic Beryllium Disease among Workers at a Nuclear Weapons Research and Development Facility

    Arjomandi, M; Seward, J P; Gotway, M B; Nishimura, S; Fulton, G P; Thundiyil, J; King, T E; Harber, P; Balmes, J R

    2010-01-11

    To study the prevalence of beryllium sensitization (BeS) and chronic beryllium disease (CBD) in a cohort of workers from a nuclear weapons research and development facility. We evaluated 50 workers with BeS with medical and occupational histories, physical examination, chest imaging with HRCT (N=49), and pulmonary function testing. Forty of these workers also underwent bronchoscopy for bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and transbronchial biopsies. The mean duration of employment at the facility was 18 yrs and the mean latency (from first possible exposure) to time of evaluation was 32 yrs. Five of the workers had CBD at the time of evaluation (based on histology or HRCT); three others had evidence of probable CBD. These workers with BeS, characterized by a long duration of potential Be exposure and a long latency, had a low prevalence of CBD.

  18. Analysis of HLA-DP association with beryllium disease susceptibility in pooled exposed populations

    Cesare Saltini, Massimo Amicosante

    2009-12-19

    Berylliosis or Chronic Beryllium Disease is a chronic granulomatous disorder primarily involving the lung associated with the exposition to low doses of Beryllium (Be) in the workplace. Berylliosis risk has been associated with the presence of a glutamate at position 69 of the HLA-DP beta chain (HLA-DPbetaGlu69) that is expressed in about 97% of disease cases and in 27% of the unaffected Be-exposed controls (p<0.0001) (Richeldi et al. Science 1993; 262: 242-244.12). Since this first observation of an immunogenetic association between berylliosis and HLA-DPbetaGlu69 a number of studies have confirmed the role of this marker as the primary gene of susceptibility of berylliosis (Richeldi et al Am J Ind Med. 1997; 32:337-40; Wang et al J. Immunol. 1999; 163: 1647-53; Saltini et al Eur Respir J. 2001 18:677-84; Rossman et al Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002 165:788-94). Moreover, a structure/function interaction between HLA-DP molecules carrying Glu69 and beryllium in driving and developing the immune response against beryllium itself has been observed as: (1) Be-specific T-cells clones obtained from berylliosis patients recognize beryllium as antigen only when presented in the context of the HLA-DP{beta}Glu69 molecules but not in the context of HLA-DP allelic variants carrying Lys69 (Lombardi G et al. J Immunol 2001; 166: 3549-3555), and (2) beryllium presents an affinity for the HLA-DP2, carrying the berylliosis marker of susceptibility HLA-DPGlu69, from 40 to 100 times higher that the HLA-DP molecule carrying Lys69 (Amicosante M. et al Hum. Immunol. 2001; 62: 686-93). However, although the immunogenetic studies performed have been addressed a number of different questions about the genetic association between berylliosis and/or beryllium sensitization, exposure levels to beryllium and HLA markers, a number of questions are still open in the field mainly due to the limitation imposed by the low number of subjects carrying berylliosis or beryllium sensitization enrolled

  19. Statistical methods for the analysis of a screening test for chronic beryllium disease

    Frome, E.L.; Neubert, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Mathematical Sciences Section; Smith, M.H.; Littlefield, L.G.; Colyer, S.P. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States). Medical Sciences Div.

    1994-10-01

    The lymphocyte proliferation test (LPT) is a noninvasive screening procedure used to identify persons who may have chronic beryllium disease. A practical problem in the analysis of LPT well counts is the occurrence of outlying data values (approximately 7% of the time). A log-linear regression model is used to describe the expected well counts for each set of test conditions. The variance of the well counts is proportional to the square of the expected counts, and two resistant regression methods are used to estimate the parameters of interest. The first approach uses least absolute values (LAV) on the log of the well counts to estimate beryllium stimulation indices (SIs) and the coefficient of variation. The second approach uses a resistant regression version of maximum quasi-likelihood estimation. A major advantage of the resistant regression methods is that it is not necessary to identify and delete outliers. These two new methods for the statistical analysis of the LPT data and the outlier rejection method that is currently being used are applied to 173 LPT assays. The authors strongly recommend the LAV method for routine analysis of the LPT.

  20. Structural basis of chronic beryllium disease: linking allergic hypersensitivity and autoimmunity.

    Clayton, Gina M; Wang, Yang; Crawford, Frances; Novikov, Andrey; Wimberly, Brian T; Kieft, Jeffrey S; Falta, Michael T; Bowerman, Natalie A; Marrack, Philippa; Fontenot, Andrew P; Dai, Shaodong; Kappler, John W

    2014-07-01

    T-cell-mediated hypersensitivity to metal cations is common in humans. How the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) recognizes these cations bound to a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) protein and self-peptide is unknown. Individuals carrying the MHCII allele, HLA-DP2, are at risk for chronic beryllium disease (CBD), a debilitating inflammatory lung condition caused by the reaction of CD4 T cells to inhaled beryllium. Here, we show that the T cell ligand is created when a Be(2+) cation becomes buried in an HLA-DP2/peptide complex, where it is coordinated by both MHC and peptide acidic amino acids. Surprisingly, the TCR does not interact with the Be(2+) itself, but rather with surface changes induced by the firmly bound Be(2+) and an accompanying Na(+) cation. Thus, CBD, by creating a new antigen by indirectly modifying the structure of preexisting self MHC-peptide complex, lies on the border between allergic hypersensitivity and autoimmunity. PMID:24995984

  1. Technical Basis for PNNL Beryllium Inventory

    Johnson, Michelle Lynn

    2014-07-09

    The Department of Energy (DOE) issued Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 850, “Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program” (the Beryllium Rule) in 1999 and required full compliance by no later than January 7, 2002. The Beryllium Rule requires the development of a baseline beryllium inventory of the locations of beryllium operations and other locations of potential beryllium contamination at DOE facilities. The baseline beryllium inventory is also required to identify workers exposed or potentially exposed to beryllium at those locations. Prior to DOE issuing 10 CFR 850, Pacific Northwest Nuclear Laboratory (PNNL) had documented the beryllium characterization and worker exposure potential for multiple facilities in compliance with DOE’s 1997 Notice 440.1, “Interim Chronic Beryllium Disease.” After DOE’s issuance of 10 CFR 850, PNNL developed an implementation plan to be compliant by 2002. In 2014, an internal self-assessment (ITS #E-00748) of PNNL’s Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program (CBDPP) identified several deficiencies. One deficiency is that the technical basis for establishing the baseline beryllium inventory when the Beryllium Rule was implemented was either not documented or not retrievable. In addition, the beryllium inventory itself had not been adequately documented and maintained since PNNL established its own CBDPP, separate from Hanford Site’s program. This document reconstructs PNNL’s baseline beryllium inventory as it would have existed when it achieved compliance with the Beryllium Rule in 2001 and provides the technical basis for the baseline beryllium inventory.

  2. The results of medical surveillance of beryllium production personnel

    The report presents results of surveillance of 1836 workers of beryllium production of Ulba Metallurgical Plant JSC with the acute and chronic forms of occupation diseases for 52 years of its operation. The dependence of acute and chronic occupation lesions on the protection degree is shown. It has been found out that, the risk of getting an occupation disease increases sharply at the moments of experimental works and at the time of reconstruction and some other extreme conditions in the production, that is supported by fixed lesions of eye mucous coat, skin and lung lesions. In this case, the readiness of people for their work in deleterious conditions and their personal responsibility for following the regulations of safety occupational standards plays a definite role. Therefore, the issues of protection are of paramount importance in prophylaxis both of acute and chronic exposure to beryllium. An influence of duration of service and occupation on chronic beryllium diseases is shown. A parallel between the lung beryllium disease and skin lesions by insoluble beryllium compounds is drawn for the first time. (author)

  3. Ultrasound in Acute Kidney Disease.

    Meola, Mario; Nalesso, Federico; Petrucci, Ilaria; Samoni, Sara; Ronco, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Kidneys' imaging provides useful information in acute kidney injury (AKI) diagnosis and management. Today, several imaging techniques give information on kidneys anatomy, urinary obstruction, differential diagnosis between AKI and chronic kidney disease (CKD), renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate. Ultrasound is a safe, non-invasive and repeatable imaging technique so it is widely used in the first level work-up of AKI. The utility of contrast-enhanced computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in AKI or in AKI during CKD is limited because of renal toxicity associated with contrast agents used. PMID:27169556

  4. Acute Chagas Disease in a Returning Traveler

    Carter, Yvonne L.; Juliano, Jonathan J; Montgomery, Susan P.; Qvarnstrom, Yvonne

    2012-01-01

    Acute Chagas disease is rarely recognized, and the risk for acquiring the disease is undefined in travelers to Central America. We describe a case of acute Chagas disease in a traveler to Costa Rica and highlight the need for increased awareness of this infection in travelers to Chagas-endemic areas.

  5. Focus on acute diarrhoeal disease

    Fabio Baldi; Maria Antonia Bianco; Gerardo Nardone; Alberto Pilotto; Emanuela Zamparo

    2009-01-01

    Diarrhoea is an alteration of normal bowel movement characterized by an increase in the water content,volume, or frequency of stools. Diarrhoea needs to be classified according to the trends over time (acute or chronic) and to the characteristics of the stools (watery, fatty, inflammatory). Secretory diarrhoeas,mostly acute and of viral aetiology in more than 70% of cases, are by far the most important subtype of diarrhoeas in terms of frequency, incidence and mortality (over 2.5 million deaths/year in developing countries). Natural and synthetic opiates such as morphine, codeine, and loperamide which react with endogenous opiates (enkephalins, beta-endorphins,dynorphins) mainly act on intestinal motility and slow down transit. An antidiarrhoeal drug developed in recent years, racecadotril, acts as an enkephalinase inhibitor.Clinical studies have shown that it is just as effective as loperamide in resolving acute diarrhoea but with greater reduction in pain and abdominal distension.Some studies have explored the prevalence of diarrhoea in old age. An epidemiological study carried out in Italy by 133 General Practitioners on 5515 elderly outpatients reported a prevalence of diarrhoea, defined according to the Rome criteria, of 9.1%. Infectious diseases (19%) and drug use (16%) were the most commoncauses of diarrhoea in old age. Regardless of the cause,the treatment of elderly patients with diarrhoea must include rehydration and nutritional support. Every year,more than 50 million tourists travel from industrialized countries to places where hygiene levels are poor. At least 75% of those travelling for short periods mention health problems, and in particular traveller's diarrhoea.

  6. Is acute recurrent pancreatitis a chronic disease?

    Mariani, Alberto; Testoni, Pier Alberto

    2008-01-01

    Whether acute recurrent pancreatitis is a chronic disease is still debated and a consensus is not still reached as demonstrated by differences in the classification of acute recurrent pancreatitis. There is major evidence for considering alcoholic pancreatitis as a chronic disease ab initio while chronic pancreatitis lesions detectable in biliary acute recurrent pancreatitis (ARP) seem a casual association. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene mutation, hereditary a...

  7. Obstructive lung disease in acute medical patients.

    Seemungal, T.; Harrinarine, R.; Rios, M.; Abiraj, V.; Ali, A.; Lacki, N.; Mahabir, N.; Ramoutar, V.; King, C. P.; Bhowmik, A.; Wedzicha, J A

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the proportion of adult medical patients who have chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), using the Global initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease guidelines (GOLD), and its relation to vascular disease. METHODS: This is a prospective cross-sectional study of adult patients admitted to acute medical wards. Interviewer administered questionnaire, anthropometric and spirometric measurements were done. RESULTS: Spirometry was performed in 720 acute admissio...

  8. Diarrheal Diseases - Acute and Chronic

    ... and drinking contaminated or raw foods and beverages. Screening/Diagnosis Most episodes of acute diarrhea resolve quickly without antibiotic therapy and with simple dietary modifications. See a ...

  9. Beryllium Toxicity

    ... Favorites Del.icio.us Digg Facebook Google Bookmarks Yahoo MyWeb Beryllium Toxicity Patient Education Care Instruction Sheet ... Favorites Del.icio.us Digg Facebook Google Bookmarks Yahoo MyWeb Page last reviewed: May 23, 2008 Page ...

  10. Is acute recurrent pancreatitis a chronic disease?

    Alberto Mariani; Pier Alberto Testoni

    2008-01-01

    Whether acute recurrent pancreaUtis is a chronic disease is still debated and a consensus is not still reached as demonstrated by differences in the classification of acute recurrent pancreatitis.There is major evidence for considering alcoholic pancreatitis as a chronic disease ab initio while chronic pancreatitis lesions detectable in biliary acute recurrent pancreatitis (ARP) seem a casual association.Cystic fibrosis transmembrane con ductance regulator (CFTR) gene mutation,hereditary and obstructive pancreatitis seem an acute disease that progress to chronic pancreatitis,likely as a consequence of the activation and proliferation of pancreatic stellate cells that produce and activate collagen and therefore fibrosis.From the diagnostic point of view,in patients with acute recurrent pancreatitis Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) seems the more reliable technique for an accurate evaluation and follow-up of some ductal and parenchymal abnormalities suspected for early chronic pancreatitis.

  11. Thrombolysis in Acute Cerebrovascular Disease

    刘泽霖

    2003-01-01

    @@ Large-scale trials have shown that thrombolytic therapy reduces mortality and preserves left ventricular function in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). That's a rationale for the use of thrombolytic agents in the management of ischemic stroke.

  12. An Acute Hemorrhagic Infectious Disease: Ebola Virus Disease

    Lei JIAO

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Ebola virus disease (EVD is an acute hemorrhagic infectious disease caused by ebola virus, with high infectivity and fatality rate. At present, it mainly occurs in areas of Central Africa and West Africa and no effective vaccine and antiviral drugs are available for the clinical treatment.

  13. Microcirculation in Acute and Chronic Kidney Diseases.

    Zafrani, Lara; Ince, Can

    2015-12-01

    The renal microvasculature is emerging as a key player in acute and chronic kidney diseases. Renal microvascular disease involves alterations in endothelial barrier permeability, exaggerated inflammation, impairment of endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation involving the nitric oxide system, increased oxidative stress, and loss of angiogenic factors. Moreover, evidence suggests that there is a microvascular component to the pathogenesis of renal scarring. New technology is being developed to explore renal microcirculation in vivo in experimental models and humans. This technology will provide a better understanding of the pathogenesis of kidney diseases and will help guide specific therapeutic strategies aimed at restoring the renal microcirculation. This article reviews the cellular and molecular mechanisms of renal microvascular dysfunction in acute and chronic kidney diseases and the potential diagnostic and therapeutic implications of these findings. Recent developments in the monitoring of renal microcirculation are described with respect to their advantages and limitations, and future directions are outlined. PMID:26231789

  14. Crohn's Disease and Acute Pancreatitis: A Review of Literature

    Sarfaraz Jasdanwala; Mark Babyatsky

    2015-01-01

    Crohn's disease, a transmural inflammatory bowel disease, has many well-known extra-intestinal manifestations and complications. Although acute pancreatitis has a higher incidence in patients with Crohn's disease as compared to the general population, acute pancreatitis is still relatively uncommon in patients with Crohn's disease. Patients with Crohn's disease are at an approximately fourfold higher risk than the general population to develop acute pancreatitis. The risk of developing acute ...

  15. Strain Echocardiography in Acute Cardiovascular Diseases.

    Favot, Mark; Courage, Cheryl; Ehrman, Robert; Khait, Lyudmila; Levy, Phillip

    2016-01-01

    Echocardiography has become a critical tool in the evaluation of patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with acute cardiovascular diseases and undifferentiated cardiopulmonary symptoms. New technological advances allow clinicians to accurately measure left ventricular (LV) strain, a superior marker of LV systolic function compared to traditional measures such as ejection fraction, but most emergency physicians (EPs) are unfamiliar with this method of echocardiographic assessment. This article discusses the application of LV longitudinal strain in the ED and reviews how it has been used in various disease states including acute heart failure, acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and pulmonary embolism. It is important for EPs to understand the utility of technological and software advances in ultrasound and how new methods can build on traditional two-dimensional and Doppler techniques of standard echocardiography. The next step in competency development for EP-performed focused echocardiography is to adopt novel approaches such as strain using speckle-tracking software in the management of patients with acute cardiovascular disease. With the advent of speckle tracking, strain image acquisition and interpretation has become semi-automated making it something that could be routinely added to the sonographic evaluation of patients presenting to the ED with cardiovascular disease. Once strain imaging is adopted by skilled EPs, focused echocardiography can be expanded and more direct, phenotype-driven care may be achievable for ED patients with a variety of conditions including heart failure, ACS and shock. PMID:26823931

  16. Acute dysautonomia associated with Hodgkin's disease.

    van Lieshout, J. J.; Wieling, W.; van Montfrans, G A; Settels, J J; Speelman, J D; Endert, E.; Karemaker, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    A patient is described with acute dysautonomia associated with Hodgkin's disease. Testing of cardiovascular reflex control showed that this patient had a rare manifestation of autonomic cardiovascular neuropathy, namely intact parasympathetic heart rate control in combination with a sympathetic postganglionic lesion affecting the control of the vascular tree.

  17. Minimal Residual Disease in Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    Ommen, Hans Beier; Nederby, Line; Toft-Petersen, Marie;

    2014-01-01

    This chapter discusses how minimal residual disease (MRD) is detected and managed in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. The most commonly used techniques to detect residual leukemia in patients in complete remission (CR) are quantitative PCR (qPCR) and multicolor flow cytometry (MFC). While q...

  18. Method for welding beryllium

    Dixon, R.D.; Smith, F.M.; O`Leary, R.F.

    1995-12-31

    A method is provided for joining beryllium pieces which comprises: depositing aluminum alloy on at least one beryllium surface; contacting that beryllium surface with at least one other beryllium surface; and welding the aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces together. The aluminum alloy may be deposited on the beryllium using gas metal arc welding. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be subjected to elevated temperatures and pressures to reduce porosity before welding the pieces together. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be machined into a desired welding joint configuration before welding. The beryllium may be an alloy of beryllium or a beryllium compound. The aluminum alloy may comprise aluminum and silicon. Beryllium parts made using this method can be used as structural components in aircraft, satellites and space applications.

  19. OVERVIEW OF BERYLLIUM SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS

    Brisson, M

    2009-04-01

    Because of its unique properties as a lightweight metal with high tensile strength, beryllium is widely used in applications including cell phones, golf clubs, aerospace, and nuclear weapons. Beryllium is also encountered in industries such as aluminium manufacturing, and in environmental remediation projects. Workplace exposure to beryllium particulates is a growing concern, as exposure to minute quantities of anthropogenic forms of beryllium may lead to sensitization and to chronic beryllium disease, which can be fatal and for which no cure is currently known. Furthermore, there is no known exposure-response relationship with which to establish a 'safe' maximum level of beryllium exposure. As a result, the current trend is toward ever lower occupational exposure limits, which in turn make exposure assessment, both in terms of sampling and analysis, more challenging. The problems are exacerbated by difficulties in sample preparation for refractory forms of beryllium, such as beryllium oxide, and by indications that some beryllium forms may be more toxic than others. This chapter provides an overview of sources and uses of beryllium, health risks, and occupational exposure limits. It also provides a general overview of sampling, analysis, and data evaluation issues that will be explored in greater depth in the remaining chapters. The goal of this book is to provide a comprehensive resource to aid personnel in a wide variety of disciplines in selecting sampling and analysis methods that will facilitate informed decision-making in workplace and environmental settings.

  20. Method for welding beryllium

    Dixon, R.D.; Smith, F.M.; O`Leary, R.F.

    1997-04-01

    A method is provided for joining beryllium pieces which comprises: depositing aluminum alloy on at least one beryllium surface; contacting that beryllium surface with at least one other beryllium surface; and welding the aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces together. The aluminum alloy may be deposited on the beryllium using gas metal arc welding. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be subjected to elevated temperatures and pressures to reduce porosity before welding the pieces together. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be machined into a desired welding joint configuration before welding. The beryllium may be an alloy of beryllium or a beryllium compound. The aluminum alloy may comprise aluminum and silicon. 9 figs.

  1. Acute recurrent pancreatitis: An autoimmune disease?

    Raffaele Pezzilli

    2008-01-01

    In this review article,we will briefly describe the main characteristics of autoimmune pancreatitis and then we will concentrate on our aim,namely,evaluating the clinical characteristics of patients having recurrence of pain from the disease.In fact,the open question is to evaluate the possible presence of autoimmune pancreatitis in patients with an undefined etiology of acute pancreatitis and for this reason we carried out a search in the literature in order to explore this issue.In cases of recurrent attacks of pain in patients with "idiopathic"pancreatitis,we need to keep in mind the possibility that our patients may have autoimmune pancreatitis.Even though the frequency of this disease seems to be quite low,we believe that in the future,by increasing our knowledge on the subject,we will be able to diagnose an ever-increasing number of patients having acute recurrence of pain from autoimmune pancreatitis.

  2. MINIMAL RESIDUAL DISEASE IN ACUTE LYMPHOBLASTIC LEUKEMIA

    Campana, Dario

    2009-01-01

    In patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), monitoring of minimal residual disease (MRD) offers a way to precisely assess early treatment response and detect relapse. Established methods to study MRD are flow cytometric detection of abnormal immunophenotypes, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of antigen-receptor genes, and PCR amplification of fusion transcripts. The strong correlation between MRD levels and risk of relapse in childhood ALL is well established; studies in...

  3. Beryllium colorimetric detection for high speed monitoring of laboratory environments.

    Taylor, Tammy P; Sauer, Nancy N

    2002-08-01

    The health consequences of beryllium (Be2+) exposure can be severe. Beryllium is responsible for a debilitating and potentially fatal lung disease, chronic beryllium disease (CBD) resulting from inhalation of beryllium particles. The US Code of Federal Register (CFR), 10 CFR 850, has established a limit of 0.2 microg beryllium/100 cm(2) as the maximum amount of beryllium allowable on surfaces to be released from beryllium work areas in Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The analytical technique described herein reduces the time and cost of detecting beryllium on laboratory working surfaces substantially. The technique provides a positive colorimetric response to the presence of beryllium on a 30.5 cm x 30.5 cm (1 ft(2)) surface at a minimum detection of 0.2 microg/100 cm(2). The method has been validated to provide positive results for beryllium in the presence of excess iron, calcium, magnesium, copper, nickel, chromium and lead at concentrations 100 times that of beryllium and aluminum and uranium (UO2(2+)) at lesser concentrations. The colorimetric detection technique has also been validated to effectively detect solid forms of beryllium including Be(OH)2, BeCl2, BeSO4, beryllium metal and BeO. PMID:12137989

  4. Crohn's Disease and Acute Pancreatitis: A Review of Literature

    Sarfaraz Jasdanwala

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Crohn's disease, a transmural inflammatory bowel disease, has many well-known extra-intestinal manifestations and complications. Although acute pancreatitis has a higher incidence in patients with Crohn's disease as compared to the general population, acute pancreatitis is still relatively uncommon in patients with Crohn's disease. Patients with Crohn's disease are at an approximately fourfold higher risk than the general population to develop acute pancreatitis. The risk of developing acute pancreatitis is higher in females as compared to males. Acute pancreatitis can occur at any age with higher incidence reported in patients in their 20s and between 40- 50 years of age. The severity and prognosis of acute pancreatitis in patients with Crohn's disease is the same as in general population. Acute pancreatitis can occur before onset of intestinal Crohn's disease, this presentation being more common in children than adults. It can also occur as the presenting symptom. However, most commonly it occurs after intestinal symptoms have manifest with a mean time interval between the initial presentation and development of acute pancreatitis being 2 years. There are several etiological factors contributing to acute pancreatitis in patients with crohn's disease. It is not clear whether acute pancreatitis is a direct extra-intestinal manifestation of Crohn's disease; however majority of the cases of acute pancreatitis in patients with Crohn's disease are due to GS and medications. Drugs used for the treatment of Crohn's disease that have been reported to cause acute pancreatitis include 5-ASA agents, azathioprine and 6 mercaptopurine, metornidazole and corticosteroids. Recent evidence has emerged correlating both type 1 and 2 autoimmune pancreatitis with Crohn's disease. Understanding the association between the two disease entities is key to effectively manage patients with Crohn's disease and acute pancreatitis.

  5. Transvaginal sonography of acute pelvic inflammatory disease

    To determine the value of transvaginal sonography in evaluating women with acute pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). Transvaginal sonography was performed in 25 patients with clinically suggested PID during recent 36 months. The sonographic findings of fallopian tubes and ovaries were analyzed and correlated with pathological findings of 2 fallopian tubes and 19 ovaries in 16 patients who had operations. The correct diagnosis of acute PID was made in 20/25 (80%) by transvaginal sonography. the abnormal sonographic findings of the fallopian tube include tubal thickening or dilatation with internal echo. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for tubal abnormality were 88%, 96%, and 86% , respectively. Ovarian changes were seen on TVS in 14/19 (73%), which include multiple follicular enlargement in 5, tubo-ovarian complex in 9 (tubo-ovarian adhesion in 3, tubo-ovarian abscess in 6). At surgery, the ovay was not involved in all three women who showed tubo-ovarian adhesion on TVS. Among 6 women who showed tubo-ovarian abscess on TVS, tubo-ovarian abscess was confirmed in 3 and the remaining 3 had ovarian cysts. Trandvaginal sonography, a facilitative and accurate modality, is highly sensitive in detecting the abnormality of the tube and useful in differentiating the tubo-ovarian complex in patients with acute PID.

  6. Acute renal dysfunction in liver diseases

    2007-01-01

    Renal dysfunction is common in liver diseases, either as part of multiorgan involvement in acute illness or secondary to advanced liver disease. The presence of renal impairment in both groups is a poor prognostic indicator. Renal failure is often multifactorial and can present as pre-renal or intrinsic renal dysfunction. Obstructive or post renal dysfunction only rarely complicates liver disease. Hepatorenal syndrome (MRS) is a unique form of renal failure associated with advanced liver disease or cirrhosis, and is characterized by functional renal impairment without significant changes in renal histology. Irrespective of the type of renal failure, renal hypoperfusion is the central pathogenetic mechanism, due either to reduced perfusion pressure or increased renal vascular resistance. Volume expansion, avoidance of precipitating factors and treatment of underlying liver disease constitute the mainstay of therapy to prevent and reverse renal impairment. Splanchnic vasoconstrictor agents, such as terlipressin, along with volume expansion, and early placement of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) may be effective in improving renal function in HRS. Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) and molecular absorbent recirculating system (MARS) in selected patients may be life saving while awaiting liver transplantation.

  7. A case of acute viral hepatitis interfering with acute fatty liver disease of pregnancy

    Abdulkadir Turgut

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Acute hepatitis A is a rarely seen infection during pregnancy.In terms of clinical and laboratory findings, it can beinterfere with acute fatty liver disease which can be quitemortal during pregnancy. Since liver function tests are elevatedin both conditions, hepatitis A infection should alsobe kept in mind in differential diagnosis. We present a 30year-old pregnant woman with 35 weeks of gestation whopresented to our clinic with a suspection of acute fattyliver disease but finally diagnosed as acute hepatitis A infection.J Clin Exp Invest 2013; 4 (1: 123-125Key words: Hepatitis A, pregnancy, acute fatty liver disease

  8. Pathophysiology of acute small bowel disease with CT correlation

    The objective of this article is to review the pathophysiology of acute small bowel diseases, and to correlate the mechanisms of disease with computed tomography (CT) findings. Disease entities will be classified into the following: immune mediated and infectious causes, vascular causes, mechanical causes, trauma, and others. Having an understanding of acute small bowel pathophysiology is a useful teaching tool, and can lead to imaging clues to the most likely diagnosis of acute small bowel disorders.

  9. Pathophysiology of acute small bowel disease with CT correlation

    Sarwani, N., E-mail: nsarwani@hmc.psu.ed [Department of Radiology, Section of Abdominal Imaging, Penn State Milton Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA (United States); Tappouni, R.; Tice, J. [Department of Radiology, Section of Abdominal Imaging, Penn State Milton Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA (United States)

    2011-01-15

    The objective of this article is to review the pathophysiology of acute small bowel diseases, and to correlate the mechanisms of disease with computed tomography (CT) findings. Disease entities will be classified into the following: immune mediated and infectious causes, vascular causes, mechanical causes, trauma, and others. Having an understanding of acute small bowel pathophysiology is a useful teaching tool, and can lead to imaging clues to the most likely diagnosis of acute small bowel disorders.

  10. Beryllium facilities in India

    Due to its unique combination of physical, mechanical, thermal and nuclear properties, beryllium is indispensable for many applications in the fields of nuclear and space sciences. Beryllia and copper beryllium alloys have also found extensive applications in the electrical and electronic industries. Beryllium facilities at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) have been set up to meet indigenous requirements for these materials. Besides developing beryllium technology, the project team has also designed and developed a number of special purpose equipment. (Author)

  11. Acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease.

    Carapetis, Jonathan R; Beaton, Andrea; Cunningham, Madeleine W; Guilherme, Luiza; Karthikeyan, Ganesan; Mayosi, Bongani M; Sable, Craig; Steer, Andrew; Wilson, Nigel; Wyber, Rosemary; Zühlke, Liesl

    2016-01-01

    Acute rheumatic fever (ARF) is the result of an autoimmune response to pharyngitis caused by infection with group A Streptococcus. The long-term damage to cardiac valves caused by ARF, which can result from a single severe episode or from multiple recurrent episodes of the illness, is known as rheumatic heart disease (RHD) and is a notable cause of morbidity and mortality in resource-poor settings around the world. Although our understanding of disease pathogenesis has advanced in recent years, this has not led to dramatic improvements in diagnostic approaches, which are still reliant on clinical features using the Jones Criteria, or treatment practices. Indeed, penicillin has been the mainstay of treatment for decades and there is no other treatment that has been proven to alter the likelihood or the severity of RHD after an episode of ARF. Recent advances - including the use of echocardiographic diagnosis in those with ARF and in screening for early detection of RHD, progress in developing group A streptococcal vaccines and an increased focus on the lived experience of those with RHD and the need to improve quality of life - give cause for optimism that progress will be made in coming years against this neglected disease that affects populations around the world, but is a particular issue for those living in poverty. PMID:27188830

  12. A case of acute viral hepatitis interfering with acute fatty liver disease of pregnancy

    Abdulkadir Turgut; Ali Özler; Neval Yaman Görük; Senem Yaman Tunç; Nurullah Peker; Recep Tekin

    2013-01-01

    Acute hepatitis A is a rarely seen infection during pregnancy.In terms of clinical and laboratory findings, it can beinterfere with acute fatty liver disease which can be quitemortal during pregnancy. Since liver function tests are elevatedin both conditions, hepatitis A infection should alsobe kept in mind in differential diagnosis. We present a 30year-old pregnant woman with 35 weeks of gestation whopresented to our clinic with a suspection of acute fattyliver disease but finally diagnosed ...

  13. Beryllium chemistry and processing

    Walsh, Kenneth A

    2009-01-01

    This book introduces beryllium; its history, its chemical, mechanical, and physical properties including nuclear properties. The 29 chapters include the mineralogy of beryllium and the preferred global sources of ore bodies. The identification and specifics of the industrial metallurgical processes used to form oxide from the ore and then metal from the oxide are thoroughly described. The special features of beryllium chemistry are introduced, including analytical chemical practices. Beryllium compounds of industrial interest are identified and discussed. Alloying, casting, powder processing, forming, metal removal, joining and other manufacturing processes are covered. The effect of composition and process on the mechanical and physical properties of beryllium alloys assists the reader in material selection. The physical metallurgy chapter brings conformity between chemical and physical metallurgical processing of beryllium, metal, alloys, and compounds. The environmental degradation of beryllium and its all...

  14. Beryllium. Evaluation of beryllium hydroxide industrial processes. Pt. 3

    This work continues the 'Beryllium' series. It is a historical review of different industrial processes of beryllium hydroxide obtention from beryllium ores. Flowsheats and operative parameters of five plants are provided. These plants (Degussa, Brush Beryllium Co., Beryllium Corp., Murex Ltd., SAPPI) were selected as representative samples of diverse commercial processes in different countries. (Author)

  15. Acute Diarrhoeal Diseases Among Preschool Children in Western Maharashtra, India.

    Mahesh B Tondare , Vaishali V Raje, Satish V Kakade , Madhavi V Rayate

    2014-01-01

    "Background: Malnutrition and infectious diseases both occur in the same unfortunate children and together they play a major role in causing the high morbidity and mortality in them. Out of all the childhood illnesses, acute respiratory tract infections, diarrhoeal diseases and malnutrition are the principle causes of illness and death in the developing countries. Acute Diarrhoeal diseases (ADD’s) are reported to be the 2nd leading cause of child morbidity and mortality. Objectives: ...

  16. Minimal residual disease in acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Campana, Dario

    2009-01-01

    In patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), monitoring of minimal residual disease (MRD) offers a way to precisely assess early treatment response and detect relapse. Established methods to study MRD are flow cytometric detection of abnormal immunophenotypes, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of antigen-receptor genes, and PCR amplification of fusion transcripts. The strong correlation between MRD levels and risk of relapse in childhood ALL is well demonstrated; studies in adult patients also support its prognostic value. Hence, results of MRD studies can be used to select treatment intensity and duration, and to estimate the optimal timing for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Practical issues in the implementation of MRD assays in clinical studies include determining the most informative time point to study MRD and the levels of MRD that will trigger changes in treatment intensity, as well as the relative cost and informative power of different methodologies. The identification of new markers of leukemia and the use of increasingly refined assays should further facilitate routine monitoring of MRD and help to clarify the cellular and biologic features of leukemic cells that resist chemotherapy in vivo. PMID:19100372

  17. Potential exposures and risks from beryllium-containing products.

    Willis, Henry H; Florig, H Keith

    2002-10-01

    Beryllium is the strongest of the lightweight metals. Used primarily in military applications prior to the end of the Cold War, beryllium is finding new applications in many commercial products, including computers, telecommunication equipment, and consumer and automotive electronics. The use of beryllium in nondefense consumer applications is of concern because beryllium is toxic. Inhalation of beryllium dust or vapor causes a chronic lung disease in some individuals at concentrations as low as 0.01 microg/m3 in air. As beryllium enters wider commerce, it is prudent to ask what risks this might present to the general public and to workers downstream of the beryllium materials industry. We address this question by evaluating the potential for beryllium exposure from the manufacturing, use, recycle, and disposal of beryllium-containing products. Combining a market study with a qualitative exposure analysis, we determine which beryllium applications and life cycle phases have the largest exposure potential. Our analysis suggests that use and maintenance of the most common types of beryllium-containing products do not result in any obvious exposures of concern, and that maintenance activities result in greater exposures than product use. Product disposal has potential to present significant individual risks, but uncertainties concerning current and future routes of product disposal make it difficult to be definitive. Overall, additional exposure and dose-response data are needed to evaluate both the health significance of many exposure scenarios, and the adequacy of existing regulations to protect workers and the public. Although public exposures to beryllium and public awareness and concern regarding beryllium risks are currently low, beryllium risks have psychometric qualities that may lead to rapidly heightened public concern. PMID:12442995

  18. Pathophysiology of coronary artery disease leading to acute coronary syndromes

    Ambrose, John A; Singh, Manmeet

    2015-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and sudden cardiac death (SCD) are among the most serious and catastrophic of acute cardiac disorders, accounting for hundreds of thousands of deaths each year worldwide. Although the incidence of AMI has been decreasing in the US according to the American Heart Association, heart disease is still the leading cause of mortality in adults. In most cases of AMI and in a majority of cases of SCD, the underlying pathology is acute intraluminal coronary thrombus f...

  19. Beryllium: genotoxicity and carcinogenicity

    Beryllium (Be) has physical-chemical properties, including low density and high tensile strength, which make it useful in the manufacture of products ranging from space shuttles to golf clubs. Despite its utility, a number of standard setting agencies have determined that beryllium is a carcinogen. Only a limited number of studies, however, have addressed the underlying mechanisms of the carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of beryllium. Importantly, mutation and chromosomal aberration assays have yielded somewhat contradictory results for beryllium compounds and whereas bacterial tests were largely negative, mammalian test systems showed evidence of beryllium-induced mutations, chromosomal aberrations, and cell transformation. Although inter-laboratory differences may play a role in the variability observed in genotoxicity assays, it is more likely that the different chemical forms of beryllium have a significant effect on mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. Because workers are predominantly exposed to airborne particles which are generated during the machining of beryllium metal, ceramics, or alloys, testing of the mechanisms of the mutagenic and carcinogenic activity of beryllium should be performed with relevant chemical forms of beryllium

  20. ACUTE RESPIRATORY DISEASE AS THE DEBUT OF SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS

    A. Yu. Ischenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus — a chronic autoimmune disease that is often associated with infectious processes. The paper presents two clinical cases of systemic lupus erythematosus , debuted with acute respiratory infection.

  1. [Acute pancreatitis with hypertriglyceridemia--an underestimated disease?].

    Wild, Wolfgang; Tajjiou, Morad; Ferschke, Melanie; Bormann, Fabian; Dörr, Pius; Schwarzbach, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia is a rare, but since a long time well known etiology for acute pancreatitis. It could occure alone or coactive with other triggers like alcohlic excess. Nevertheless it found no approach to the current classifications and parameters of prognosis of the acute pancreatitis. We refer about two patients with hypertriglyceridemia and acute pancreatitis, whose initial disease was limited on the tail of the pancreas with just a circumscripted or--in the other case--no necrosis. However, in both cases and although a consequent treatment started immediately, a serious process developed including a life-threatening acute respiratory distress syndrome in one case, which necessitated an extracorporal membrane oxygenation. PMID:26710203

  2. Acute Demyelinating Disease after Oral Therapy with Herbal Extracts

    Alex Kostianovsky

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system demyelinating processes such as multiple sclerosis and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis constitute a group of diseases not completely understood in their physiopathology. Environmental and toxic insults are thought to play a role in priming autoimmunity. The aim of the present report is to describe a case of acute demyelinating disease with fatal outcome occurring 15 days after oral exposure to herbal extracts.

  3. Safety handling of beryllium for fusion technology R and D

    Feasibility of beryllium use as a blanket neutron multiplier, first wall and plasma facing material has been studied for the D-T burning experiment reactors such as ITER. Various experimental work of beryllium and its compounds will be performed under the conditions of high temperature and high energy particle exposure simulating fusion reactor conditions. Beryllium is known as a hazardous substance and its handling has been carefully controlled by various health and safe guidances and/or regulations in many countries. Japanese regulations for hazardous substance provide various guidelines on beryllium for the protection of industrial workers and environment. This report was prepared for the safe handling of beryllium in a laboratory scale experiments for fusion technology R and D such as blanket development. Major items in this report are; (1) Brief review of guidances and regulations in USA, UK and Japan. (2) Safe handling and administration manuals at beryllium facilities in INEL, LANL and JET. (3) Conceptual design study of beryllium handling facility for small to mid-scale blanket R and D. (4) Data on beryllium toxicity, example of clinical diagnosis of beryllium disease, and environmental occurence of beryllium. (5) Personnel protection tools of Japanese Industrial Standard for hazardous substance. (author) 61 refs

  4. [Demyelinating diseases in children with acute neurological symptoms].

    Olofsson, Isa Amalie; Skov, Liselotte; Miranda, Maria Jose

    2015-12-01

    Demyelinating diseases in children is a broad group of illnesses, which affect the central nervous system. Demyelinating diseases can be monophasic or chronic and comprise acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, optic neuritis, transverse myelitis, multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica. Demyelinating diseases are rare, but it is important for the physician to recognize these diseases, as well as to understand the differential diagnoses. This review summarizes the current knowledge of demyelinating disorders in children, focusing on an approach to diagnosis and management. PMID:26651911

  5. Cerebrospinal Fluid Proteome of Patients with Acute Lyme Disease

    Angel, Thomas E.; Jacobs, Jon M.; Smith, Robert P.; Pasternack, Mark S.; Elias, Susan; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Shukla, Anil K.; Gilmore, Edward C.; McCarthy, Carol; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.

    2012-10-05

    Acute Lyme disease results from transmission of and infection by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi following a tick bite. During acute infection, bacteria can disseminate to the central nervous system (CNS) leading to the development of Lyme meningitis. Here we have analyzed pooled cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) allowing for a deep view into the proteome for a cohort of patients with early-disseminated Lyme disease and CSF inflammation leading to the identification of proteins that reflect host responses, which are distinct for subjects with acute Lyme disease. Additionally, we analyzed individual patient samples and quantified changes in protein abundance employing label-free quantitative mass spectrometry based methods. The measured changes in protein abundances reflect the impact of acute Lyme disease on the CNS as presented in CSF. We have identified 89 proteins that differ significantly in abundance in patients with acute Lyme disease. A number of the differentially abundant proteins have been found to be localized to brain synapse and thus constitute important leads for better understanding of the neurological consequence of disseminated Lyme disease.

  6. Validation of cleaning method for various parts fabricated at a Beryllium facility

    Davis, Cynthia M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-12-15

    This study evaluated and documented a cleaning process that is used to clean parts that are fabricated at a beryllium facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The purpose of evaluating this cleaning process was to validate and approve it for future use to assure beryllium surface levels are below the Department of Energy’s release limits without the need to sample all parts leaving the facility. Inhaling or coming in contact with beryllium can cause an immune response that can result in an individual becoming sensitized to beryllium, which can then lead to a disease of the lungs called chronic beryllium disease, and possibly lung cancer. Thirty aluminum and thirty stainless steel parts were fabricated on a lathe in the beryllium facility, as well as thirty-two beryllium parts, for the purpose of testing a parts cleaning method that involved the use of ultrasonic cleaners. A cleaning method was created, documented, validated, and approved, to reduce beryllium contamination.

  7. Blocking Interleukin-1β in Acute and Chronic Autoinflammatory Diseases

    Dinarello, Charles A

    2011-01-01

    An expanding spectrum of acute and chronic inflammatory diseases are considered “autoinflammatory” diseases. This review considers autoinflammatory diseases as being distinct from “autoimmune” diseases. Autoimmune diseases are associated with dysfunctional T-cells and treated with “biologicals” including anti-TNFα, CTLA-Ig, anti-IL-12/23, anti-CD20, anti-IL-17 and anti-IL-6 receptor. In contrast, autoinflammatory diseases are uniquely due to a dysfunctional monocyte caspase-1 activity and sec...

  8. The beryllium "double standard" standard.

    Egilman, David S; Bagley, Sarah; Biklen, Molly; Golub, Alison Stern; Bohme, Susanna Rankin

    2003-01-01

    Brush Wellman, the world's leading producer and supplier of beryllium products, has systematically hidden cases of beryllium disease that occurred below the threshold limit value (TLV) and lied about the efficacy of the TLV in published papers, lectures, reports to government agencies, and instructional materials prepared for customers and workers. Hypocritically, Brush Wellman instituted a zero exposure standard for corporate executives while workers and customers were told the 2 microgram standard was "safe." Brush intentionally used its workers as "canaries for the plant," and referred to them as such. Internal documents and corporate depositions indicate that these actions were intentional and that the motive was money. Despite knowledge of the inadequacy of the TLV, Brush has successfully used it as a defense against lawsuits brought by injured workers and as a sales device to provide reassurance to customers. Brush's policy has reaped an untold number of victims and resulted in mass distribution of beryllium in consumer products. Such corporate malfeasance is perpetuated by the current market system, which is controlled by an organized oligopoly that creates an incentive for the neglect of worker health and safety in favor of externalizing costs to victimized workers, their families, and society at large. PMID:14758859

  9. Acute Chagas Disease Induces Cerebral Microvasculopathy in Mice

    Nisimura, Lindice Mitie; Estato, Vanessa; de Souza, Elen Mello; Reis, Patricia A.; Lessa, Marcos Adriano; de Castro-Faria-Neto, Hugo Caire; Pereira, Mirian Claudia de Souza; Tibiriçá, Eduardo; Garzoni, Luciana Ribeiro

    2014-01-01

    Cardiomyopathy is the main clinical form of Chagas disease (CD); however, cerebral manifestations, such as meningoencephalitis, ischemic stroke and cognitive impairment, can also occur. The aim of the present study was to investigate functional microvascular alterations and oxidative stress in the brain of mice in acute CD. Acute CD was induced in Swiss Webster mice (SWM) with the Y strain of Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi). Cerebral functional capillary density (the number of spontaneously perf...

  10. Beryllium Manufacturing Processes

    Goldberg, A

    2006-06-30

    This report is one of a number of reports that will be combined into a handbook on beryllium. Each report covers a specific topic. To-date, the following reports have been published: (1) Consolidation and Grades of Beryllium; (2) Mechanical Properties of Beryllium and the Factors Affecting these Properties; (3) Corrosion and Corrosion Protection of Beryllium; (4) Joining of Beryllium; (5) Atomic, Crystal, Elastic, Thermal, Nuclear, and other Properties of Beryllium; and (6) Beryllium Coating (Deposition) Processes and the Influence of Processing Parameters on Properties and Microstructure. The conventional method of using ingot-cast material is unsuitable for manufacturing a beryllium product. Beryllium is a highly reactive metal with a high melting point, making it susceptible to react with mold-wall materials forming beryllium compounds (BeO, etc.) that become entrapped in the solidified metal. In addition, the grain size is excessively large, being 50 to 100 {micro}m in diameter, while grain sizes of 15 {micro}m or less are required to meet acceptable strength and ductility requirements. Attempts at refining the as-cast-grain size have been unsuccessful. Because of the large grain size and limited slip systems, the casting will invariably crack during a hot-working step, which is an important step in the microstructural-refining process. The high reactivity of beryllium together with its high viscosity (even with substantial superheat) also makes it an unsuitable candidate for precision casting. In order to overcome these problems, alternative methods have been developed for the manufacturing of beryllium. The vast majority of these methods involve the use of beryllium powders. The powders are consolidated under pressure in vacuum at an elevated temperature to produce vacuum hot-pressed (VHP) blocks and vacuum hot-isostatic-pressed (HIP) forms and billets. The blocks (typically cylindrical), which are produced over a wide range of sizes (up to 183 cm dia. by 61

  11. Intestinal acute graft versus host disease

    Rovani, C; Danse, E; Dragean, C

    2010-01-01

    Background: We present a case of a 23-year-old man having drug addiction. He is managed by the department of hematology for an idiopathic medullar aplasia. Two months before his admission, he was treated with bone marrow transplantation. During follow-up, we noted a nonspecific recent cutaneous lesion. He was admitted for acute digestive symptoms including anorexia, nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain.

  12. Relationship between acute and chronic disease epidemiology.

    Kuller, L.H. (Lewis H.)

    1987-01-01

    Epidemiology is the study of epidemics. The primary goal of epidemiological studies should be the identification of the determinants of disease in order to decrease morbidity and mortality. Epidemiological studies evolve through descriptive, analytical, and experimental approaches. The traditional infectious disease epidemiology studies were primarily concerned with identification of an agent, incubation period, mode of transmission, population at risk, and methods of disease control. Chronic...

  13. Spectrum of diseases in acute intestinal obstruction

    To determine the etiological spectrum of acute intestinal obstruction in our clinical setup Military Hospital Rawalpindi. Study Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Surgical department of Military Hospital, Rawalpindi from Jul 2012 to Jul 2013, over a period of about 1 year. Material and Methods: A total of 120 patients with acute mechanical intestinal obstruction who underwent laparotomy were included in our study while those with non-mechanical intestinal obstruction like history of trauma and paralytic ileus were excluded from the study. All the patients were selected by non-probability purposive sampling technique. Emergency laparotomy was done and operative findings were recorded. Results: A total of 120 patients with mechanical intestinal obstruction were included in this study out of which 93 (69.17%) were female and remaining 27 (30.83%) were males. Male to female ratio was 1:2.24. Age range of patients was 22-85 years. Out of 120 patients operated for acute intestinal obstruction post-op adhesions were found in 37 (30.83%) patients followed by intestinal tuberculosis in 23 (19.17%) patients, obstructed inguinal hernias in 13 (10.83%), gut malignancies in 15 (12.5%) , Meckel's diverticulum with bands in 7 (5.83%), volvulus in 7 (5.83%), perforated appendix in 6 (5%), intussusception in 2 (1.7%), inflammatory bands in 5 (4.17%), trichobezoar and faecal impaction in 2 (1.7%) while in 3 (2.5%) patients no definite cause was found. Conclusion: Post-op adhesions are the commonest cause of mechanical intestinal obstruction in our setup followed by intestinal tuberculosis as second most common clinical pattern of presentation. (author)

  14. Beryllium development programme in India

    India has fairly large deposits of beryl. The requirement of beryllium and copper-beryllium alloys in space and electronic industries has provided the incentive for the setting up of an indigenous base for the development of beryllium process metallurgy. The paper presents the developmental work carried out, in the Metallurgy Division of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, on the preparation of beryllium metal and its alloys starting from Indian beryl. A laboratory facility incorporating essential precautionary measures has been set up for the safe handling of beryllium and its compounds. Based on the laboratory investigations a flow-sheet suitable to Indian conditions has been developed. The flow-sheet involves preparation of anhydrous beryllium fluoride from beryl through the silico-fluoride route, magnesiothermic reduction of beryllium fluoride for the production of beryllium metal or its master alloy with copper or aluminium, and fabrication of beryllium metal. (author)

  15. Blood transfusion for the treatment of acute anaemia in inflammatory bowel disease and other digestive diseases

    García-Erce, José Antonio; Gomollón, Fernando; Muñoz, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    Allogeneic blood transfusion (ABT) is frequently used as the first therapeutic option for the treatment of acute anaemia in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), especially when it developed due to gastrointestinal or perioperative blood loss, but is not risk-free. Adverse effects of ABT include, but are not limited to, acute hemolytic reaction (wrong blood or wrong patient), febrile non-hemolytic transfusional reaction, bacterial contamination, transfusion-related acute lung injury...

  16. Is Progressive Chronic Kidney Disease a Slow Acute Kidney Injury?

    Cowgill, Larry D; Polzin, David J; Elliott, Jonathan; Nabity, Mary B; Segev, Gilad; Grauer, Gregory F; Brown, Scott; Langston, Cathy; van Dongen, Astrid M

    2016-11-01

    International Renal Interest Society chronic kidney disease Stage 1 and acute kidney injury Grade I categorizations of kidney disease are often confused or ignored because patients are nonazotemic and generally asymptomatic. Recent evidence suggests these seemingly disparate conditions may be mechanistically linked and interrelated. Active kidney injury biomarkers have the potential to establish a new understanding for traditional views of chronic kidney disease, including its early identification and possible mediators of its progression, which, if validated, would establish a new and sophisticated paradigm for the understanding and approach to the diagnostic evaluation, and treatment of urinary disease in dogs and cats. PMID:27593574

  17. Acute Diarrhoeal Diseases Among Preschool Children in Western Maharashtra, India.

    Mahesh B Tondare , Vaishali V Raje, Satish V Kakade , Madhavi V Rayate

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available "Background: Malnutrition and infectious diseases both occur in the same unfortunate children and together they play a major role in causing the high morbidity and mortality in them. Out of all the childhood illnesses, acute respiratory tract infections, diarrhoeal diseases and malnutrition are the principle causes of illness and death in the developing countries. Acute Diarrhoeal diseases (ADD’s are reported to be the 2nd leading cause of child morbidity and mortality. Objectives: To study the attack rate of Acute Diarrhoeal Disease among pre-school children and to study the socio-demographic variables of pre-school children suffering from Acute Diarrhoeal Disease. Methods: A Longitudinal study was conducted among preschool children (3-5years who were selected from Private pre-primary school of urban area and followed for the period of one year. Mother/guardian/teacher was interviewed by using pre-tested proforma during this period. Results: About 56% of children found suffering from ADD with 0.6 episodes per children per year among private pre-primary school. Higher proportions of ADD affected children were residing in nuclear type of family, belonging to middle socio-economic class, mothers were literate & housewives, born with order >2 compared to non ADD affected children. Conclusion: Maximum number of children from private pre-primary schools suffered with nearly one attack of Acute Diarrhoeal Disease with maternal illiteracy and working mothers found favorable factors. Immunization coverage, EBF and proper weaning play a very important role in prevention of infections."

  18. Oxygen therapy in acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Wedzicha, Wisia

    2014-01-01

    Simon E Brill, Jadwiga A Wedzicha Airway Disease Section, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College, London, UK Abstract: Acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are important events in the history of this debilitating lung condition. Associated health care utilization and morbidity are high, and many patients require supplemental oxygen or ventilatory support. The last 2 decades have seen a substantial increase in our understanding of the best way to ma...

  19. Acute type II cryoglobulinaemic vasculitis mimicking atherosclerotic peripheral vascular disease.

    Saeed, A

    2012-01-31

    Atherosclerotic peripheral vascular disease is a common presenting cause for digital ischaemia in life long smokers. Acute severe Type II Cryoglobulinaemic vasculitis is a rare yet important cause, which may present with similar clinical features and which if undiagnosed may be rapidly fatal. Following the instigation of therapy with intravenous methylprednisolone and cyclophosphamide this patient made an excellent recovery.

  20. Beryllium Health and Safety Committee Data Reporting Task Force

    MacQueen, D H

    2007-02-21

    On December 8, 1999, the Department of Energy (DOE) published Title 10 CFR 850 (hereafter referred to as the Rule) to establish a chronic beryllium disease prevention program (CBDPP) to: {sm_bullet} reduce the number of workers currently exposed to beryllium in the course of their work at DOE facilities managed by DOE or its contractors, {sm_bullet} minimize the levels of, and potential for, expos exposure to beryllium, and {sm_bullet} establish medical surveillance requirements to ensure early detection of the disease.

  1. [Acute cardiovascular disease and job retention].

    Fantoni-Quinton, Sophie; Tellart, Anne-Sophie; Cambier-Langrand, Evodie; Fassier, Jean Baptiste; Mounier-Vehier, Claire

    2016-05-01

    Since it allows a better quality of life, return to work must be considered ever since the early stages of the health care pathway following a cardiovascular disease. Seeing the occupational physician beforehand, so as to anticipate the return to work, is crucial. Dialogue between cardiologists, general practitioners and occupational physician, still observing medical confidentiality, must allow a better quality of return to work. Being recognized as a handicapped worker is a key element in the prevention of socio-professional exclusion. Even when dealing with long sick leave, permanent functional injuries or job loss, guiding the patients towards the appropriate person can improve return to work and job retention in the long term. PMID:27021479

  2. Pulmonary thromboembolic disease. Clinical management of acute and chronic disease.

    Torbicki, Adam

    2010-07-01

    Pulmonary thromboembolism falls between the areas of pulmonology and cardiology, internal medicine and intensive care, radiology and nuclear medicine, and hematology and cardiothoracic surgery. Depending on their clinical background, physicians faced with a patient with a pulmonary thromboembolism may speak different languages and adopt different treatment approaches. Now, however, there is an opportunity to end the Tower of Babel surrounding pulmonary thromboembolism. There is a growing acknowledgement that the key clinical problems in both acute pulmonary embolism and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension are linked to right ventricular pressure overload and right ventricular failure. As a result, cardiologists and cardiac intensive care specialists are taking an increasing interest in understanding and combating these conditions. The European Society of Cardiology was the first to elaborate comprehensive clinical practice guidelines for pulmonary thromboembolism and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. The task forces involved in producing these guidelines included radiologists, pulmonologists, hematologists, intensive care physicians and surgeons, which ensured that the final document was universally acceptable. The aim of this article was to provide an overview of the epidemiology, risk factors, diagnosis, treatment, prognosis and prevention of acute pulmonary thromboembolism and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension, while taking into account European Society of Cardiology guidelines and incorporating new evidence where necessary. PMID:20609317

  3. Acute renal failure: outcomes and risk of chronic kidney disease.

    Block, C A; Schoolwerth, A C

    2007-09-01

    Acute renal failure (ARF) is a common condition, especially among the critically ill, and confers a high mortality. The incidence of ARF is increasing. Efforts such as the Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative (ADQI) are being undertaken to establish a consensus definition of ARF, and to distinguish between varying degrees of acute kidney injury that might confer a different prognosis. Data are emerging to allow comparison of the epidemiology of ARF across institutions internationally. There is ongoing recognition of the important interaction between ARF and chronic kidney disease and more information regarding recovery from ARF is available. Controversy exists regarding the optimal management of ARF. Recent publications emphasize the importance of timing and dose of renal replacement therapy rather than the modality of treatment (intermittent hemodialysis vs continuous therapies). These issues are explored in this review. PMID:17912228

  4. Managing acute and chronic renal stone disease.

    Moran, Conor P; Courtney, Aisling E

    2016-02-01

    Nephrolithiasis, or renal stone disease, is common and the incidence is increasing globally. In the UK the lifetime risk is estimated to be 8-10%. On a population level, the increase in stone incidence, erosion of gender disparity, and younger age of onset is likely to reflect increasing prevalence of obesity and a Western diet with a high intake of animal protein and salt. Stones can be detected by a variety of imaging techniques. The gold standard is a non-contrast CT of kidneys, ureters and bladder (CT KUB) which can identify > 99% of stones. CT KUB should be the primary mode of imaging for all patients with colic unless contraindicated. In such instances, or if a CT KUB is not available, an ultrasound KUB is an alternative. This has advantages in terms of radiation exposure and cost, but is limited in sensitivity, particularly for ureteric stones. Once diagnosed, a plain film KUB can be used for follow-up of radiopaque stones. For most patients diclofenac is a reasonable first choice of analgesia, e.g. 50-100 mg rectally, or 75 mg IM. Opioid medication can worsen nausea and be less effective, but should be used if there is a contraindication to NSAIDs. A combination of diclofenac, paracetamol, and/or codeine regularly can provide adequate pain control in many cases. Failure of this analgesic combination should prompt consideration of secondary care support. If a ureteric stone 10 mm in diameter should be discussed with the urology service as they are unlikely to pass spontaneously. PMID:27032222

  5. Type 2 Gaucher Disease (Acute Infantile Gaucher Disease or Neuropathic Type

    Mohammad Mehdi TAGHDIRI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite this Article: Taghdiri MM. Type 2 Gaucher Disease (Acute Infantile Gaucher Disease or Neuropathic Type. Iran J Child Neurol Autumn 2012; 6:4 (suppl. 1:12. Pls see PDF. 

  6. Minimal Residual Disease Assessment in Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Thörn, Ingrid

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, response to treatment in hematological malignancies is evaluated by light microscopy of bone marrow (BM) smears, but due to more effective therapies more sensitive methods are needed. Today, detection of minimal residual disease (MRD) using immunological and molecular techniques can be 100 times more sensitive than morphology. The main aim of this thesis was to compare and evaluate three currently available MRD methods in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL): (i) real-t...

  7. Aspirin as Primary Prevention of Acute Coronary Heart Disease Events

    Glasser, Stephen P.; Hovater, Martha; Brown, Todd M.; Howard, George; Safford, Monika M.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objective Aspirin for primary prophylaxis is controversial. This study evaluated associations between prophylactic aspirin use and incident acute coronary heart disease (CHD) events. Methods and Results The Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study was accessed for aspirin use examining black and white hazards for incident CHD, for men and women, each adjusting incrementally for sampling, sociodemographics, and CHD risk factors. Stratified models exami...

  8. Investigation of the acute inflammatory response in Crohn's disease.

    MARKS, D. J. B.

    2006-01-01

    Most theories concerning the primary cause of Crohn's disease focus on over-activation of the immune response. Paradoxically, the defect may instead relate to diminished acute inflammation. Neutrophil accumulation to sites of dermal trauma has been shown to be reduced. Were the same phenomenon to occur in the gut, it might impair bacterial clearance thus provoking granuloma formation. In this thesis, a novel technique demonstrated attenuated neutrophil accumulation following trauma to the bow...

  9. Metabolomics and Its Application to Acute Lung Diseases.

    Stringer, Kathleen A; McKay, Ryan T; Karnovsky, Alla; Quémerais, Bernadette; Lacy, Paige

    2016-01-01

    Metabolomics is a rapidly expanding field of systems biology that is gaining significant attention in many areas of biomedical research. Also known as metabonomics, it comprises the analysis of all small molecules or metabolites that are present within an organism or a specific compartment of the body. Metabolite detection and quantification provide a valuable addition to genomics and proteomics and give unique insights into metabolic changes that occur in tangent to alterations in gene and protein activity that are associated with disease. As a novel approach to understanding disease, metabolomics provides a "snapshot" in time of all metabolites present in a biological sample such as whole blood, plasma, serum, urine, and many other specimens that may be obtained from either patients or experimental models. In this article, we review the burgeoning field of metabolomics in its application to acute lung diseases, specifically pneumonia and acute respiratory disease syndrome (ARDS). We also discuss the potential applications of metabolomics for monitoring exposure to aerosolized environmental toxins. Recent reports have suggested that metabolomics analysis using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS) approaches may provide clinicians with the opportunity to identify new biomarkers that may predict progression to more severe disease, such as sepsis, which kills many patients each year. In addition, metabolomics may provide more detailed phenotyping of patient heterogeneity, which is needed to achieve the goal of precision medicine. However, although several experimental and clinical metabolomics studies have been conducted assessing the application of the science to acute lung diseases, only incremental progress has been made. Specifically, little is known about the metabolic phenotypes of these illnesses. These data are needed to substantiate metabolomics biomarker credentials so that clinicians can employ them for clinical decision-making and

  10. Noninvasive imaging in acute coronary disease. A clinical perspective

    Numerous highly complex and sensitive noninvasive imaging techniques have enhanced the care of patients with acute myocardial infarction. Optimum use requires specific objectives to be defined in advance, including a review of the potential impact of the test on subsequent decisions. An additional issue that is subject to scrutiny in the current climate of cost containment relates to the incremental value of a specific examination. The imaging modality to be used will partially depend on other issues, including accessibility, cost, and interindividual or institutional expertise with a particular technique. Major applications in noninvasive imaging in the acute coronary syndromes include the following: (1) diagnosis, including identification of associated diseases and contraindications for acute reperfusion; (2) evaluation and management of complications; (3) determination of prognosis (both early and late); (4) estimation of myocardial viability; (5) assessment of therapeutic efficacy; (6) investigational approaches, including 99mTc-sestamibi tomographic imaging, ultrafast cine computed tomographic scanning, and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging. Previous studies in the prethrombolytic era have documented the powerful impact of radionuclide stress testing on prognosis, but this needs to be reevaluated in the light of the changing current population undergoing stress testing. Preliminary data imply that the prognostic accuracy of stress testing after thrombolytic therapy is diminished. Moreover, the role of the open infarct-related artery in traditional estimates of prognosis requires further study. Noninvasive imaging has multiple applications in the diagnosis and management of patients with acute coronary disease, but the decision to use a specific technology in a particular circumstance mandates good clinical judgment and selectivity. 82 references

  11. Reprocessing technology development for irradiated beryllium

    Kawamura, H.; Sakamoto, N. [Oarai Research Establishment, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Tatenuma, K. [KAKEN Co., Ibaraki-ken (Japan)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    At present, beryllium is under consideration as a main candidate material for neutron multiplier and plasma facing material in a fusion reactor. Therefore, it is necessary to develop the beryllium reprocessing technology for effective resource use. And, we have proposed reprocessing technology development on irradiated beryllium used in a fusion reactor. The preliminary reprocessing tests were performed using un-irradiated and irradiated beryllium. At first, we performed beryllium separation tests using un-irradiated beryllium specimens. Un-irradiated beryllium with beryllium oxide which is a main impurity and some other impurities were heat-treated under chlorine gas flow diluted with Ar gas. As the results high purity beryllium chloride was obtained in high yield. And it appeared that beryllium oxide and some other impurities were removed as the unreactive matter, and the other chloride impurities were separated by the difference of sublimation temperature on beryllium chloride. Next, we performed some kinds of beryllium purification tests from beryllium chloride. And, metallic beryllium could be recovered from beryllium chloride by the reduction with dry process. In addition, as the results of separation and purification tests using irradiated beryllium specimens, it appeared that separation efficiency of Co-60 from beryllium was above 96%. It is considered that about 4% Co-60 was carried from irradiated beryllium specimen in the form of cobalt chloride. And removal efficiency of tritium from irradiated beryllium was above 95%.

  12. Beryllium. Its minerals. Pt. 1

    With this work a series of reports begins, under the generic name 'Beryllium', related to several aspects of beryllium technology. The target is to update, with critical sense, current bibliographic material in order to be used in further applications. Some of the most important beryllium ores, the Argentine emplacement of their deposits and world occurrence are described. Argentine and world production, resources and reserves are indicated here as well. (Author)

  13. Compared with parenteral nutrition, enteral feeding attenuates the acute phase response and improves disease severity in acute pancreatitis

    Windsor, A; Kanwar, S; Li, A.; Barnes, E.; Guthrie, J; Spark, J; Welsh, F.; Guillou, P; Reynolds, J

    1998-01-01

    Background—In patients with major trauma and burns, total enteral nutrition (TEN) significantly decreases the acute phase response and incidence of septic complications when compared with total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Poor outcome in acute pancreatitis is associated with a high incidence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and sepsis. 
Aims—To determine whether TEN can attenuate the acute phase response and improve clinical disease severity in patients with ac...

  14. Lithium-induced minimal change disease and acute kidney injury

    Parul Tandon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Lithium carbonate is a psychiatric medication commonly used in the treatment of bipolar disorder. It has been implicated in inducing nephrogenic diabetes inspidus, chronic tubulointerstitial nephropathy, and acute tubular necrosis. We describe a case of lithium-induced minimal change disease (MCD and acute kidney injury (AKI. Case Report: A 32-year-old female with a medical history of bipolar disorder treated with chronic lithium therapy presented with anasarca, fatigue, and tremors. Work-up revealed supra-therapeutic lithium levels, hypoalbuminemia, and significant proteinuria. The patient was treated conservatively with fluids and discontinuation of lithium therapy. Subsequently, she developed significant AKI and persistent proteinuria. She underwent a renal biopsy that demonstrated effacement of podocyte foot processes consistent with lithium-induced MCD. This was treated with corticosteroids, which decreased the proteinuria and resolved all the patient′s symptoms. Conclusion: Lithium-induced MCD is a rare disease that affects patients of all ages. It is often associated with therapeutic lithium and is typically resolved with discontinuation of lithium. In some cases, concurrent AKI may result due to vascular obstruction from hyperalbuminuria and associated renal interstitial edema. Corticosteroids may be needed to reduce the proteinuria and prevent progression to chronic kidney disease. As such, patients on lithium therapy may benefit from monitoring of glomerular function via urinalysis to prevent the onset of nephrotic syndrome.

  15. Relationship Between Periodontal Disease and Acute Myocardial Infarction

    M Zamirian

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Conventional risk factors for coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction do not explain all of the clinical and epidemiological features of the disease. Periodontal disease is a common bacterial and destructive disorder of oral tissues. Many studies demonstrate close association between chronic periodontitis and development of generalized inflammation, vascular endothelial injury, and atherosclesis. Periodontal disease has been convincingly emerging as an important independent risk factor for ischemic heart disease. A case - control study was carried out to assess the prevalence of periodontitis in patients with Acute myocardial Infarction (AMI and evaluate the possible relationship between AMI and chronic periodontitis. Patients and Methods: A number of 160 patients, aged 35 to 70 years old, enrolled in the study. Eighty patients (43 men, 37 women were examined four days after hospitalization due to AMI. Control group consisted of 80 persons (38 men, 42 women with normal coronary angiography. The following periodontal parameters were examined: Plaque index (PI, gingiral index (GI, bleeding on probing (BOP, probing depth (PD, clinical attachment loss (CAL and number of sites with CAL.Results: The case, compared to control showed significantly worse results for some periodontal variables studied: The mean of PD and PD > 3 mm, CAL, and number of sites with CAL, had worse results compared to control despite similar oral hygiene and frequency of brushing. The confounding factors for the present study were found to be hypertension and diabetes. Conclusion: The association between periodontitis and acute myocardial infarction was significant after adjusting for conventional risk factors for AMI.

  16. Joining of Beryllium

    Goldberg, A

    2006-02-01

    A handbook dealing with the many aspects of beryllium that would be important for the users of this metal is currently being prepared. With an introduction on the applications, advantages and limitations in the use of this metal the following topics will be discussed in this handbook: physical, thermal, and nuclear properties; extraction from the ores; purification and casting of ingots; production and types of beryllium powders; consolidation methods, grades, and properties; mechanical properties with emphasis on the various factors affecting these properties; forming and mechanical working; welding, brazing, bonding, and fastening; machining; powder deposition; corrosion; health aspects; and examples of production of components. This report consists of ''Section X--Joining'' from the handbook. The prefix X is maintained here for the figures, tables and references. In this section the different methods used for joining beryllium and the advantages, disadvantages and limitations of each are presented. The methods discussed are fusion welding, brazing, solid state bonding (diffusion bonding and deformation bonding), soldering, and mechanical fastening. Since beryllium has a high affinity for oxygen and nitrogen with the formation of oxides and nitrides, considerable care must be taken on heating the metal, to protect it from the ambient atmosphere. In addition, mating surfaces must be cleaned and joints must be designed to minimize residual stresses as well as locations for stress concentration (notch effects). In joining any two metals the danger exists of having galvanic corrosion if the part is subjected to moisture or to any type of corroding environment. This becomes a problem if the less noble (anodic) metal has a significantly smaller area than the more noble (cathodic) metal since the ions (positive charges) from the anodic (corroding) metal must correspond to the number of electrons (negative charges) involved at the cathode. Beryllium

  17. Pathogenic mechanisms of Acute Graft versus Host Disease

    Ferrara James L.M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD is the major complication of allogeneic Bone Marrow Transplant (BMT. Older BMT recipients are a greater risk for acute GVHD after allogeneic BMT, but the causes of this association are poorly understood. Using well-characterized murine BMT models we have explored the mechanisms of increased GVHD in older mice. GVHD mortality and morbidity, and pathologic and biochemical indices were all worse in old recipients. Donor T cell responses were significantly increased in old recipients both in vivo and in vitro when stimulated by antigen-presenting cells (APCs from old mice. In a haploidential GVHD model, CD4+ donor T cells mediated more severe GVHD in old mice. We confirmed the role of aged APCs in GVHD using bone marrow chimera recipient created with either old or young bone marrow. APCs from these mice also stimulated greater responses from allogeneic cells in vitro. In a separate set of experiments we evaluated whether alloantigen expression on host target epithelium is essential for tissue damage induced by GVHD. Using bone marrow chimeras recipients in which either MHC II or MHC I alloantigen was expressed only on APCs, we found that acute GVHD does not require alloantigen expression on host target epithelium and that neutralization of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1 prevents acute GVHD. These results pertain to CD4-mediated GVHD and to a lesser extent in CD8-mediated GVHD, and confirm the central role of most APCs as well as inflammatory cytokines.

  18. Role of anaerobes in acute pelvic inflammatory disease

    Saini S

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Pouch of Douglas aspirates were collected from 50 women with history and examination suggestive of acute pelvic inflammatory disease (PID and 20 healthy women admitted for tubal ligation served as control. A total of 57 microorganisms were isolated from 37 patients out of 50 in study group. Of 37 positive cultures 21(56.7% were monomicrobial and 16(43.2% were polymicrobial. Most common symptom in study group was lower abdominal pain (90%, vaginal discharge (70% and irregular bleeding (40% and 30% patients had history of intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD implantation. The predominant aerobic isolates were Escherichia coli, Coagulase Negative Staphylococcus (CONS, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae while common anaerobes were Bacteroides fragilis, Prevotella melaninogenica, Fusobacterium nucleatum and Peptostreptococcus spp. Our study shows that cefotaxime, cefuroxime and gentamicin may be used for gram negative aerobic bacilli; cloxacillin, cephaloridine and erythromycin for aerobic gram positive cocci and amikacin and ceftazidime for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Thus for optimum therapy of acute PID it is beneficial to keep in mind major conceptual changes and therapeutic realities that have influenced current understanding of acute PID and have affected the choice of therapy.

  19. Role of anaerobes in acute pelvic inflammatory disease.

    Saini, S; Gupta, N; Batra, G; Arora, D R

    2003-01-01

    Pouch of Douglas aspirates were collected from 50 women with history and examination suggestive of acute pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and 20 healthy women admitted for tubal ligation served as control. A total of 57 microorganisms were isolated from 37 patients out of 50 in study group. Of 37 positive cultures 21(56.7%) were monomicrobial and 16(43.2%) were polymicrobial. Most common symptom in study group was lower abdominal pain (90%), vaginal discharge (70%) and irregular bleeding (40%) and 30% patients had history of intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) implantation. The predominant aerobic isolates were Escherichia coli, Coagulase Negative Staphylococcus (CONS), Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae while common anaerobes were Bacteroides fragilis, Prevotella melaninogenica, Fusobacterium nucleatum and Peptostreptococcus spp. Our study shows that cefotaxime, cefuroxime and gentamicin may be used for gram negative aerobic bacilli; cloxacillin, cephaloridine and erythromycin for aerobic gram positive cocci and amikacin and ceftazidime for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Thus for optimum therapy of acute PID it is beneficial to keep in mind major conceptual changes and therapeutic realities that have influenced current understanding of acute PID and have affected the choice of therapy. PMID:17643017

  20. Beryllium. Beryllium oxide, obtention and properties. Pt.4

    As a continuation of the 'Beryllium' series this work reviews several methods of high purity beryllia production. Diverse methods of obtention and purification from different beryllium compounds are described. Some chemical, mechanical and electrical properties related with beryllia obtention methods are summarized. (Author)

  1. Formas agudas de periodontitis Acute conditions of periodontal disease

    L. Pérez-Salcedo

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available La clasificación de las Enfermedades Periodontales ha cambiado en las últimas décadas. En la clasificación la AAP de 1989 la periodontitis necrotizante ocupaba el cuarto lugar. En el Workshop Europeo de 1993 la periodontitis necrotizante aparece en el grupo de los descriptores primarios. Según el Internacional Workshop for a Classification of Periodontal Diseases and Conditions 1999 en el que se revisó y se modificó la clasificación de las patologías periodontales, las enfermedades periodontales necrotizantes ocupan el punto cinco, diferenciándose entre Gingivitis Necrotizante y Periodontitis Necrotizante. Y se añade en la clasificación el grupo de abscesos periodontales. En este artículo de revisión vamos a profundizar acerca de las formas agudas de periodontitis.The Periodontal Diseases classification had changed in the last decades. In AAP classification of 1989 the necrotize was in the 4th position. In the European Workshop was in the group of primary descriptors. According to the International Workshop for a Classification of Periodontal Diseases and Conditions 1999, review and modificated the classification of periodontal pathologies, the periodontal necrotize diseases are in the 5th position, distinguishing between Necrotize Gingivitis and Necrotize Periodontitis. And Peridontal Abscesses was add to the classification. In this paper we are going to review about the acute forms of Periodontal Diseases.

  2. Plasma spraying of beryllium and beryllium-aluminum-silver alloys

    A preliminary investigation on plasma-spraying of beryllium and a beryllium-aluminum 4% silver alloy was done at the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Beryllium Atomization and Thermal Spray Facility (BATSF). Spherical Be and Be-Al-4%Ag powders, which were produced by centrifugal atomization, were used as feedstock material for plasma-spraying. The spherical morphology of the powders allowed for better feeding of fine (<38 μm) powders into the plasma-spray torch. The difference in the as-deposited densities and deposit efficiencies of the two plasma-sprayed powders will be discussed along with the effect of processing parameters on the as-deposited microstructure of the Be-Al-4%Ag. This investigation represents ongoing research to develop and characterize plasma-spraying of beryllium and beryllium-aluminum alloys for magnetic fusion and aerospace applications

  3. The uses and adverse effects of beryllium on health

    Cooper, Ross G.; Harrison, Adrian Paul

    2009-01-01

    the current review for selecting articles were adopted from proposed criteria in The International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health. Articles were classified based on acute and chronic exposure and toxicity of beryllium. Results: The proportions of utilized and nonutilized...... articles were published in sources unobtainable through requests at the British Library, and some had no impact factor and were excluded. Conclusion: Beryllium has some useful but undoubtedly harmful effects on health and well-being. Measures needed to be taken to prevent hazardous exposure to this element...

  4. Acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: causes and impacts.

    Chhabra, Sunil K; Dash, Devi Jyoti

    2014-01-01

    Acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) are recognised clinically as episodes of increased breathlessness and productive cough requiring a more intensive treatment. A subset of patients with this disease is especially prone to such exacerbations. These patients are labelled as 'frequent exacerbators'. Though yet poorly characterised in terms of host characteristics, including any genetic basis, these patients are believed to represent a distinct phenotype as they have a different natural history with a more progressive disease and a poorer prognosis than those who get exacerbations infrequently. Most exacerbations appear to be associated with infective triggers, either bacterial or viral, although 'non-infective' agents, such as air pollution and other irritants may also be important. Susceptibility to exacerbations is determined by multiple factors. Several risk factors have been identified, some of which are modifiable. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations are major drivers of health status and patient-centered outcomes, and are a major reason for health care utilisation including hospitalisations and intensive care admissions. These are associated with considerable morbidity and mortality, both immediate and long-term. These episodes have a negative impact on the patient and the disease including high economic burden, increased mortality, worsening of health status, limitation of activity, and aggravation of comorbidities including cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis and neuro-psychiatric complications. Exacerbations also increase the rate of progression of disease, increasing the annual decline in lung function and leading to a poorer prognosis. Evaluation of risk of exacerbations is now included as a major component of the initial assessment of a patient with COPD in addition to the traditionally used lung function parameter, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1). Decreasing the risk of exacerbations

  5. Beryllium coprecipitation with iron hydroxide

    Coprecipitation and sorption are studied of beryllium with hydroxide of Fe(3) in solutions of NH4NO3, KNO3, NH4HCO3, and H2O2 over a wide range of pH of the medium. The conditions are found for concentrating and separating beryllium from the carrier within definite ranges of pH of the medium

  6. Detection of acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) in Mexico.

    Nunan, Linda; Lightner, Donald; Pantoja, Carlos; Gomez-Jimenez, Silvia

    2014-08-21

    Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND), which has also been referred to as early mortality syndrome (EMS), initially emerged as a destructive disease of cultured shrimp species in Asia in 2009. The pathogen associated with the disease, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, subsequently spread to the Western Hemisphere and emerged in Mexico in early 2013. The spread to the Western Hemisphere is a major concern to shrimp producers in the region. To date, the only peer-reviewed published method for determining whether mortalities are due to AHPND is through histological examination. A novel PCR detection method was employed to assess samples from Mexico in order to confirm the presence of the pathogen in this country. This manuscript details the detection methods used to confirm the presence of AHPND in Mexico. Both immersion and per os challenge studies were used to expose the Penaeus vannamei to the bacteria in order to induce the disease. Histological analysis confirmed AHPND status following the challenge studies. Also provided are the details of the molecular test by PCR that was used for screening candidate V. parahaemolyticus isolates. A rapid PCR assay for detection of AHPND may help with early detection and help prevent the spread of AHPND to other countries. PMID:25144120

  7. Thermal fatigue of beryllium

    Deksnis, E.; Ciric, D.; Falter, H. [JET Joint undertaking, Abingdon (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    Thermal fatigue life of S65c beryllium castellated to a geometry 6 x 6 x (8-10)mm deep has been tested for steady heat fluxes of 3 MW/m{sup 2} to 5 MW/m{sup 2} and under pulsed heat fluxes (10-20 MW/m{sup 2}) for which the time averaged heat flux is 5 MW/m{sup 2}. These tests were carried out in the JET neutral beam test facility A test sequence with peak surface temperatures {le} 600{degrees}C produced no visible fatigue cracks. In the second series of tests, with T{sub max} {le} 750{degrees}C evidence for fatigue appeared after a minimum of 1350 stress cycles. These fatigue data are discussed in view of the observed lack of thermal fatigue in JET plasma operations with beryllium PFC. JET experience with S65b and S65c is reviewed; recent operations with {Phi} = 25 MW/m{sup 2} and sustained melting/resolidification are also presented. The need for a failure criterion for finite element analyses of Be PFC lifetimes is discussed.

  8. Managing the acutely ill adult with sickle cell disease.

    Brown, Marvelle

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an autosomal recessively inherited condition, affecting the structure of the haemoglobin. SCD is a long-term chronic condition which is manifested by periods of acute painful sickling crisis, known as vaso-occlusive crisis (VOC) and is the cause of 90% of sickle cell-related hospital admissions. SCD is one of the most common genetic conditions worldwide and in the UK there are approximately 12,500 people living with it (Streetly et al,1997; Howard et al, 2008), making it more common than cystic fibrosis, yet there still remains many challenges in managing these patients when they become acutely ill. Lack of awareness and understanding of the illness, concerns regarding addiction and limited attention to the psycho-social implications of the illness, leads to less than effective care for this patient group when they are hospitalized. The aims of this article are to outline the pathophysiology of SCD, identify the causes of VOC and discuss the key principles of nursing management for patients experiencing a VOC. PMID:22306637

  9. Oxygen therapy in acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Brill SE

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Simon E Brill, Jadwiga A Wedzicha Airway Disease Section, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College, London, UK Abstract: Acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD are important events in the history of this debilitating lung condition. Associated health care utilization and morbidity are high, and many patients require supplemental oxygen or ventilatory support. The last 2 decades have seen a substantial increase in our understanding of the best way to manage the respiratory failure suffered by many patients during this high-risk period. This review article examines the evidence underlying supplemental oxygen therapy during exacerbations of COPD. We first discuss the epidemiology and pathophysiology of respiratory failure in COPD during exacerbations. The rationale and evidence underlying oxygen therapy, including the risks when administered inappropriately, are then discussed, along with further strategies for ventilatory support. We also review current recommendations for best practice, including methods for improving oxygen provision in the future. Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, exacerbation, oxygen therapy, respiratory failure, hypercapnia

  10. Mitochondrial dysfunction in inherited renal disease and acute kidney injury.

    Emma, Francesco; Montini, Giovanni; Parikh, Samir M; Salviati, Leonardo

    2016-05-01

    Mitochondria are increasingly recognized as key players in genetic and acquired renal diseases. Most mitochondrial cytopathies that cause renal symptoms are characterized by tubular defects, but glomerular, tubulointerstitial and cystic diseases have also been described. For example, defects in coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) biosynthesis and the mitochondrial DNA 3243 A>G mutation are important causes of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis in children and in adults, respectively. Although they sometimes present with isolated renal findings, mitochondrial diseases are frequently associated with symptoms related to central nervous system and neuromuscular involvement. They can result from mutations in nuclear genes that are inherited according to classic Mendelian rules or from mutations in mitochondrial DNA, which are transmitted according to more complex rules of mitochondrial genetics. Diagnosis of mitochondrial disorders involves clinical characterization of patients in combination with biochemical and genetic analyses. In particular, prompt diagnosis of CoQ10 biosynthesis defects is imperative because of their potentially reversible nature. In acute kidney injury (AKI), mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to the physiopathology of tissue injury, whereas mitochondrial biogenesis has an important role in the recovery of renal function. Potential therapies that target mitochondrial dysfunction or promote mitochondrial regeneration are being developed to limit renal damage during AKI and promote repair of injured tissue. PMID:26804019

  11. CT appearance of acute inflammatory disease of the renal interstitium

    Today, infection remains the most common disease of the urinary tract and constitutes almost 75% of patient problems requiring urologic evaluation. There have been several major factors responsible for our better understanding of the nature and pathophysiology of urinary tract infection. One has been quantitated urine bacteriology and another, the discovery that a significant part of the apparently healthy adult female population has asymptomatic bacteriuria. Abnormal conditions such as neurogenic bladder, bladder malignancy, prolonged catheter drainage and reflux, altered host resistance, diabetes mellitus, and urinary tract obstruction, as well as pregnancy, may either predispose to or be implicated in the pathogenesis of urinary tract infection. There is a wide range of conditions that result in acute renal inflammation and those under discussion affect primarily the interstitium. This term refers to the connective tissue elements separating the tubules in the cortex and medulla. Hence, the interstitial nephritides are to be distinguished from the glomerulonephritides and fall into two general etiologic categories: infectious and noninfectious

  12. Acute Psychosis as Major Clinical Presentation of Legionnaires’ Disease

    Ricardo Coentre

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a 61-year-old woman who presented with acute psychosis as a major manifestation of Legionnaires’ disease in the absence of other neuropsychiatric symptoms. Clinical history revealed dry cough and nausea. Observation showed fever and auscultation crackles in the lower lobe of the right lung. Laboratory testing demonstrated elevated C-reactive protein and lung chest radiograph showed patchy peribronchial and right lower lobe consolidation. Soon after admission, she started producing purulent sputum. Epidemiological data suggested Legionella pneumophila as possible cause of the clinical picture that was confirmed by urinary antigen detection and polymerase chain reaction of the sputum. She was treated with levofloxacin 750 mg/day for 10 days with complete remission of pulmonary and psychiatric symptoms. She has not had further psychotic symptoms.

  13. Invasive fungal diseases in patients with acute lymphoid leukemia.

    Nicolato, Andrea; Nouér, Simone A; Garnica, Marcia; Portugal, Rodrigo; Maiolino, Angelo; Nucci, Marcio

    2016-09-01

    Invasive fungal disease (IFD) represents an important complication in patients with acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL). The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of IFD in ALL patients with neutropenia, identify factors associated with IFD, and estimate the impact of IFD on the outcome. All patients with ALL who developed febrile neutropenia from 1987 to 2013 were evaluated. Cases of IFD were classified as proven or probable. Factors associated with IFD were evaluated by comparing episodes with and without a diagnosis of IFD. Among 350 episodes of febrile neutropenia, 31 IFDs were diagnosed (8.8%). Prolonged neutropenia was the only factor associated with IFD caused by yeasts. Factors associated with IFD caused by molds by multivariate analysis were the period after 2008, receipt of allogeneic transplant, relapsed ALL and prolonged neutropenia. Patients in relapse should receive induction chemotherapy in rooms with HEPA filter and receive antifungal prophylaxis. PMID:26949001

  14. Physicochemical characteristics of aerosol particles generated during the milling of beryllium silicate ores: implications for risk assessment.

    Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Chipera, Steve J; Day, Gregory A; Sabey, Phil; Dickerson, Robert M; Sbarra, Deborah C; Duling, Mathew G; Lawrence, Robert B; Stanton, Marcia L; Scripsick, Ronald C

    2008-01-01

    Inhalation of beryllium dusts generated during milling of ores and cutting of beryl-containing gemstones is associated with development of beryllium sensitization and low prevalence of chronic beryllium disease (CBD). Inhalation of beryllium aerosols generated during primary beryllium production and machining of the metal, alloys, and ceramics are associated with sensitization and high rates of CBD, despite similar airborne beryllium mass concentrations among these industries. Understanding the physicochemical properties of exposure aerosols may help to understand the differential immunopathologic mechanisms of sensitization and CBD and lead to more biologically relevant exposure standards. Properties of aerosols generated during the industrial milling of bertrandite and beryl ores were evaluated. Airborne beryllium mass concentrations among work areas ranged from 0.001 microg/m(3) (beryl ore grinding) to 2.1 microg/m(3) (beryl ore crushing). Respirable mass fractions of airborne beryllium-containing particles were 80% in high-energy input areas (beryl melting, beryl grinding). Particle specific surface area decreased with processing from feedstock ores to drumming final product beryllium hydroxide. Among work areas, beryllium was identified in three crystalline forms: beryl, poorly crystalline beryllium oxide, and beryllium hydroxide. In comparison to aerosols generated by high-CBD risk primary production processes, aerosol particles encountered during milling had similar mass concentrations, generally lower number concentrations and surface area, and contained no identifiable highly crystalline beryllium oxide. One possible explanation for the apparent low prevalence of CBD among workers exposed to beryllium mineral dusts may be that characteristics of the exposure material do not contribute to the development of lung burdens sufficient for progression from sensitization to CBD. In comparison to high-CBD risk exposures where the chemical nature of aerosol

  15. Preventive measures for Acute Rheumatic Fever/ Rheumatic Heart Disease : A literature review

    Shrestha, Usha; Kunwar, Nabina

    2013-01-01

    Acute rheumatic disease is a major burden in the developing countries and also a major cause of premature death in children and young adults every year. Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate the factors contributing to prevention of acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease in developing countries. This will offers appropriate knowledge to the care provider to identify risk factors for acute rheumatic fever and implement in-terventions timely. The research questions are followi...

  16. Acute Kidney Injury due to Crescentic Glomerulonephritis in a Patient with Polycystic Kidney Disease

    Maggard, Reuben; Makary, Raafat; Monteiro, Carmela l.; James, Leighton R.

    2013-01-01

    Polycystic kidney disease is an inherited condition, characterized by the development of cysts in the kidney, as well as in other organs. Patients with polycystic kidney can suffer from the same causes of acute kidney injury as the general population. Nephritic syndrome is an uncommon cause of acute kidney injury in the general population and less common in patients with polycystic kidney disease. We report the second case of crescentic glomerulonephritis, causing acute kidney injury, in a pa...

  17. Uric acid levels and their relation to incapacities in acute cerebrovascular disease

    Julio López Argüelles; Joan Rojas Fuentes; Ricardo Verdecia Fraga

    2010-01-01

    Background: cerebrovascular disease and ischemic cardiopathy can be considered as an epidemic and constitute the first cause of incapacities in developed countries. Multiple studies have shown the association between uric acid levels and cerebrovascular diseases. Objective: To correlate the levels of serum uric acid and incapacities in the acute phase of cerebrovascular disease. Methods: A correlational study was carried out with 217 patients with acute cerebrovascular disease. The patient’s ...

  18. Coronary heart disease is not significantly linked to acute kidney injury identified using Acute Kidney Injury Group criteria

    Yayan J

    2012-01-01

    Josef YayanDepartment of Internal Medicine, Vinzentius Hospital, Landau, GermanyBackground: Patients with unstable angina or myocardial infarction are at risk of acute kidney injury, which may be aggravated by the iodine-containing contrast agent used during coronary angiography; however, the relationship between these two conditions remains unclear.Objective: The current study investigated the relationship between acute kidney injury and coronary heart disease prior to coronary angiography.M...

  19. Beryllium usage in fusion blankets and beryllium data needs

    Increasing numbers of designers are choosing beryllium for fusion reactor blankets because it, among all nonfissile materials, produces the highest number (2.5 neutron in an infinite media) of neutrons per 14-MeV incident neutron. In amounts of about 20 cm of equivalent solid density, it can be used to produce fissile material, to breed all the tritium consumed in ITER from outboard blankets only, and in designs to produce Co-60. The problem is that predictions of neutron multiplication in beryllium are off by some 10 to 20% and appear to be on the high side, which means that better multiplication measurements and numerical methods are needed. The n,2n reactions result in two helium atoms, which cause radiation damage in the form of hardening at low temperatures (300/degree/C). The usual way beryllium parts are made is by hot pressing the powder. A lower cost method is to cold press and then sinter. There is no radiation damage data on this form of beryllium. The issues of corrosion, safety relative to the release of the tritium built-up inside beryllium, and recycle of used beryllium are also discussed. 10 figs

  20. Characterization of shocked beryllium

    Explosively driven arrested beryllium experiments were performed with post mortem characterization to evaluate the failure behaviors. The test samples were encapsulated in an aluminum assembly that was large relative to the sample, and the assembly features both axial and radial momentum traps. The sample carrier was inserted from the explosively-loaded end and has features to lock the carrier to the surrounding cylinder using the induced plastic flow. Calculations with Lagrangian codes showed that the tensile stresses experienced by the Be sample were below the spall stress. Metallographic characterization of the arrested Be showed radial cracks present in the samples may have been caused by bending moments. Fractography showed the fractures propagated from the side of the sample closest to the explosives, the side with the highest tensile stress. There was evidence that the fractures may have propagated from the circumferential crack outward and downward radially.

  1. Diagnostic criteria for acute liver failure due to Wilson disease

    Christoph Eisenbach; Olivia Sieg; Wolfgang Stremmel; Jens Encke; Uta Merle

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To describe the diagnostic criteria for acute liver failure due to Wilson disease (WD), which is an uncommon cause of acute liver failure (ALF).METHODS: We compared findings of patients presenting with ALF due to WD to those with ALF of other etiologies.RESULTS: Previously described criteria, such as low alkaline phosphatase activity, ratio of low alkaline phosphatase to total bilirubin or ratio of high aspartate aminotransferase (AST) to alanine aminotransferase (ALT), failed to identify patients with ALF due to WD. There were significant differences in low ALT and AST activities (53 ± 43 vs 1982 ± 938, P < 0.0001 and 87 ± 44 vs 2756 ± 2941, P = 0.037, respectively), low choline esterase activity (1.79 ± 1.2 vs 4.30 ± 1.2, P = 0.009), high urine copper concentrations (93.4 ± 144.0 vs 3.5 ± 1.8, P = 0.001) and low hemoglobin (7.0 ± 2.2 vs 12.6 ± 1.8, P < 0.0001) in patients with ALF caused by WD as compared with other etiologies. Interestingly, 4 of 7 patients with ALF due to WD survived without liver transplantation.CONCLUSION: In ALF, these criteria can help establish a diagnosis of WD. Where applicable, slit-lamp examination for presence of Kayser-Fleischer rings and liver biopsy for determination of hepatic copper concentration still remain important for the diagnosis of ALF due to WD. The need for liver transplantation should be evaluated carefully as the prognosis is not necessarily fatal.

  2. Pathogenesis of acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) in shrimp.

    Lai, Hung-Chiao; Ng, Tze Hann; Ando, Masahiro; Lee, Chung-Te; Chen, I-Tung; Chuang, Jie-Cheng; Mavichak, Rapeepat; Chang, Sheng-Hsiung; Yeh, Mi-De; Chiang, Yi-An; Takeyama, Haruko; Hamaguchi, Hiro-o; Lo, Chu-Fang; Aoki, Takashi; Wang, Han-Ching

    2015-12-01

    Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND), also called early mortality syndrome (EMS), is a recently emergent shrimp bacterial disease that has resulted in substantial economic losses since 2009. AHPND is known to be caused by strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus that contain a unique virulence plasmid, but the pathology of the disease is still unclear. In this study, we show that AHPND-causing strains of V. parahaemolyticus secrete the plasmid-encoded binary toxin PirAB(vp) into the culture medium. We further determined that, after shrimp were challenged with AHPND-causing bacteria, the bacteria initially colonized the stomach, where they started to produce PirAB(vp) toxin. At the same early time point (6 hpi), PirB(vp) toxin, but not PirA(vp) toxin, was detected in the hepatopancreas, and the characteristic histopathological signs of AHPND, including sloughing of the epithelial cells of the hepatopancreatic tubules, were also seen. Although some previous studies have found that both components of the binary PirAB(vp) toxin are necessary to induce a toxic effect, our present results are consistent with other studies which have suggested that PirB(vp) alone may be sufficient to cause cellular damage. At later time points, the bacteria and PirA(vp) and PirB(vp) toxins were all detected in the hepatopancreas. We also show that Raman spectroscopy "Whole organism fingerprints" were unable to distinguish between AHPND-causing and non-AHPND causing strains. Lastly, by using minimum inhibitory concentrations, we found that both virulent and non-virulent V. parahaemolyticus strains were resistant to several antibiotics, suggesting that the use of antibiotics in shrimp culture should be more strictly regulated. PMID:26549178

  3. Review of Elephant Endotheliotropic Herpesviruses and Acute Hemorrhagic Disease.

    Long, Simon Y; Latimer, Erin M; Hayward, Gary S

    2016-02-24

    More than 100 young captive and wild Asian elephants are known to have died from a rapid-onset, acute hemorrhagic disease caused primarily by multiple distinct strains of two closely related chimeric variants of a novel herpesvirus species designated elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV1A and EEHV1B). These and two other species of Probosciviruses (EEHV4 and EEHV5) are evidently ancient and likely nearly ubiquitous asymptomatic infections of adult Asian elephants worldwide that are occasionally shed in trunk wash secretions. Although only a handful of similar cases have been observed in African elephants, they also have proved to harbor their own multiple and distinct species of Probosciviruses-EEHV2, EEHV3, EEHV6, and EEHV7-found in lung and skin nodules or saliva. For reasons that are not yet understood, approximately 20% of Asian elephant calves appear to be susceptible to the disease when primary infections are not controlled by normal innate cellular and humoral immune responses. Sensitive specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) DNA blood tests have been developed, routine monitoring has been established, the complete large DNA genomes of each of the four Asian EEHV species have now been sequenced, and PCR gene subtyping has provided unambiguous evidence that this is a sporadic rather than epidemic disease that it is not being spread among zoos or other elephant housing facilities. Nevertheless, researchers have not yet been able to propagate EEHV in cell culture, determine whether or not human antiherpesvirus drugs are effective inhibitors, or develop serology assays that can distinguish between antibodies against the multiple different EEHV species. PMID:26912715

  4. Beryllium technology workshop, Clearwater Beach, Florida, November 20, 1991

    This report discusses the following topics: beryllium in the ITER blanket; mechanical testing of irradiated beryllium; tritium release measurements on irradiated beryllium; beryllium needs for plasma-facing components; thermal conductivity of plasma sprayed beryllium; beryllium research at the INEL; Japanese beryllium research activities for in-pile mockup tests on ITER; a study of beryllium bonding of copper alloy; new production technologies; thermophysical properties of a new ingot metallurgy beryllium product line; implications of beryllium:steam interactions in fusion reactors; and a test program for irradiation embrittlement of beryllium at JET

  5. IMMUNOBIOLOGY OF ACUTE GRAFT-VERSUS-HOST DISEASE

    G. A. Efimov

    2016-01-01

    significant limitation for clinical applications of stem cell transplantation. Severe immunesuppression or depletion of mature donor T cells from the transplant leads to increased probability of relapse and weakens anti-infectious immunity. Hence, further search for alternative, more specific ways to prevent GVHD is required. This review will focus on the mechanisms of alloreactive T lymphocyte clone development and key pathogenetic stages of acute “graft versus host” disease.

  6. Acute kidney injury: Renal disease in the ICU.

    Seller-Pérez, G; Más-Font, S; Pérez-Calvo, C; Villa-Díaz, P; Celaya-López, M; Herrera-Gutiérrez, M E

    2016-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) in the ICU frequently requires costly supportive therapies, has high morbidity, and its long-term prognosis is not as good as it has been presumed so far. Consequently, AKI generates a significant burden for the healthcare system. The problem is that AKI lacks an effective treatment and the best approach relies on early secondary prevention. Therefore, to facilitate early diagnosis, a broader definition of AKI should be established, and a marker with more sensitivity and early-detection capacity than serum creatinine - the most common marker of AKI - should be identified. Fortunately, new classification systems (RIFLE, AKIN or KDIGO) have been developed to solve these problems, and the discovery of new biomarkers for kidney injury will hopefully change the way we approach renal patients. As a first step, the concept of renal failure has changed from being a "static" disease to being a "dynamic process" that requires continuous evaluation of kidney function adapted to the reality of the ICU patient. PMID:27388683

  7. Etanercept for steroid-refractory acute graft versus host disease following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    Park, Joo Han; Lee, Hyo Jung; Kim, Sei Rhan; Song, Ga Won; Lee, Seung Kyong; Park, Sun Young; Kim, Ki Chan; Hwang, Sun Hyuk; Park, Joon Seong

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims The treatment for steroid-refractory acute graft versus host disease (GVHD) after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) needs to be standardized. We report our clinical experience with etanercept for steroid-refractory acute GVHD. Methods Eighteen patients who underwent allo-SCT and presented with steroid-refractory acute GVHD at Ajou University Hospital were studied retrospectively. They were given 25 mg of etanercept subcutaneously twice weekly for 4 weeks. The cli...

  8. Beryllium-induced immune response in C3H mice

    Studies conducted at ITRI over the past several years have investigated whether Beagle dogs, monkeys, and mice are suitable models for human chronic beryllium-induced lung disease (CBD). Recent studies have focused on the histopathological and immunopathological changes occurring in A/J and C3H/HeJ mice acutely exposed by inhalation to Be metal. Lung lesions in both strains of mice included focal lymphocyte aggregates comprised primarily of B lymphocytes and lesser amounts of T-helper lymphocytes and microgranulomas consisting chiefly of macrophages and T-helper lymphocytes. The distribution of proliferating cells within the microgranulomas was similar to the distribution of T-helper cells. These results strongly suggested that A/J and C3H/HeJ mice responded to inhaled Be metal in a fashion similar to humans in terms of pulmonary lesions and the apparent in situ proliferation of T-helper cells. Results of these studies confirm lymphocyte involvement in the pulmonary response to inhaled Be metal

  9. Beryllium-induced immune response in C3H mice

    Benson, J.M.; Bice, D.E.; Nikula, K.J. [and others

    1995-12-01

    Studies conducted at ITRI over the past several years have investigated whether Beagle dogs, monkeys, and mice are suitable models for human chronic beryllium-induced lung disease (CBD). Recent studies have focused on the histopathological and immunopathological changes occurring in A/J and C3H/HeJ mice acutely exposed by inhalation to Be metal. Lung lesions in both strains of mice included focal lymphocyte aggregates comprised primarily of B lymphocytes and lesser amounts of T-helper lymphocytes and microgranulomas consisting chiefly of macrophages and T-helper lymphocytes. The distribution of proliferating cells within the microgranulomas was similar to the distribution of T-helper cells. These results strongly suggested that A/J and C3H/HeJ mice responded to inhaled Be metal in a fashion similar to humans in terms of pulmonary lesions and the apparent in situ proliferation of T-helper cells. Results of these studies confirm lymphocyte involvement in the pulmonary response to inhaled Be metal.

  10. Effects of chronic kidney disease on platelet response to antiplatelet therapy in acute myocardial infarction patients

    邓捷

    2012-01-01

    Objective To elucidate the effects of dual antiplatelet therapy on platelet response in acute myocardial infarction patients with chronic kidney disease. Methods From September 2011 to June 2012,a total of 195 acute myocardial infarction patients with drug eluting stent implanting were enrolled. Among them,133 cases had normal

  11. Processing Irradiated Beryllium For Disposal

    T. J. Tranter; R. D. Tillotson; N. R. Mann; G. R. Longhurst

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop a process for decontaminating irradiated beryllium that will allow it to be disposed of through normal radwaste channels. Thus, the primary objectives of this ongoing study are to remove the transuranic (TRU) isotopes to less than 100 nCi/g and remove {sup 60}Co, and {sup 137}Cs, to levels that will allow the beryllium to be contact handled. One possible approach that appears to have the most promise is aqueous dissolution and separation of the isotopes by selected solvent extraction followed by precipitation, resulting in a granular form for the beryllium that may be fixed to prevent it from becoming respirable and therefore hazardous. Beryllium metal was dissolved in nitric and fluorboric acids. Isotopes of {sup 241}Am, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 85}Sr, and {sup 137}Cs were then added to make a surrogate beryllium waste solution. A series of batch contacts was performed with the spiked simulant using chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide (CCD) and polyethylene glycol diluted with sulfone to extract the isotopes of Cs and Sr. Another series of batch contacts was performed using a combination of octyl (phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) in tributyl phosphate (TBP) diluted with dodecane for extracting the isotopes of Pu and Am. The results indicate that greater than 99.9% removal can be achieved for each isotope with only three contact stages.

  12. Blood transfusion for the treatment of acute anaemia in inflammatory bowel disease and other digestive diseases

    José Antonio García-Erce, Fernando Gomollón, Manuel Muñoz

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Allogeneic blood transfusion (ABT is frequently used as the first therapeutic option for the treatment of acute anaemia in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, especially when it developed due to gastrointestinal or perioperative blood loss, but is not risk-free. Adverse effects of ABT include, but are not limited to, acute hemolytic reaction (wrong blood or wrong patient, febrile non-hemolytic transfusional reaction, bacterial contamination, transfusion-related acute lung injury, transfusion associated circulatory overload, transfusion-related immuno-modulation, and transmission of almost all infectious diseases (bacteria, virus, protozoa and prion, which might result in increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Unfortunately, the main physiological goal of ABT, i.e. to increase oxygen consumption by the hypoxic tissues, has not been well documented. In contrast, the ABT is usually misused only to increase the haemoglobin level within a fixed protocol [mostly two by two packed red blood cell (PRC units] independently of the patient’s tolerance to normovolemic anaemia or his clinical response to the transfusion of PRC units according to a “one-by-one” administration schedule. Evidence-based clinical guidelines may promote best transfusion practices by implementing restrictive transfusion protocols, thus reducing variability and minimizing the avoidable risks of transfusion, and the use of autologous blood and pharmacologic alternatives. In this regard, preoperative autologous blood donation (PABD consistently diminished the frequency of ABT, although its contribution to ABT avoidance is reduced when performed under a transfusion protocol. In addition, interpretation of utility of PABD in surgical IBD patients is hampered by scarcity of published data. However, the role of autologous red blood cells as drug carriers is promising. Finally, it must be stressed that a combination of methods used within well-constructed protocols

  13. {sup 1}H-MRS for the diagnosis of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis: insight into the acute-disease stage

    Ben Sira, Liat; Miller, Elka [Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Tel-Aviv (Israel); Artzi, Moran [Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Functional Brain Imaging Center, Tel-Aviv (Israel); Tel Aviv University, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv (Israel); Fattal-Valevski, Aviva; Constantini, Shlomi [Tel Aviv University, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv (Israel); Tel Aviv Medical Center, Paediatric Neurology Unit, The Paediatric Neurosurgery Department, Tel Aviv (Israel); Ben Bashat, Dafna [Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Functional Brain Imaging Center, Tel-Aviv (Israel)

    2010-01-15

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system (CNS). Differentiating ADEM from other inflammatory disorders, such as multiple sclerosis, is not always conclusive using conventional MRI. To evaluate longitudinal magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) changes that distinguish ADEM from other inflammatory disorders. MRI/MRS scans were performed in seven patients with ADEM during the acute and chronic phases of the disease. Partial recovery was detected between the acute and chronic phases in choline/creatine ratio. Major elevation of lipids and reduction in myo-inositol/creatine ratio was detected in all patients during the acute phase, followed by a reduction in lipids peak and elevation above normal in myo-inositol/creatine ratio during the chronic phase. Consistent and unique MRS changes in metabolite ratios between the acute and chronic presentations of the disease were found. To the best of our knowledge, these patterns have not been described in other inflammatory disorders and might assist in the early diagnosis of ADEM. (orig.)

  14. Status of beryllium materials for fusion application

    The possible use of beryllium as a material for fusion reactors is discussed. Based on the results of recent Russian elaborations, which were not covered previously in the scientific literature, an attempt of complex analysis of the techniques of using beryllium is made. The specific requirements on beryllium as a protective material for first wall and divertor are considered. Also the possibility of creating a fusion grade of beryllium is discussed and an optimum strategy is suggested. (orig.)

  15. Acute Myocardial Infarction: The First Manifestation of Ischemic Heart Disease and Relation to Risk Factors

    Manfroi Waldomiro Carlos

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between cardiovascular risk factors and acute myocardial infarction as the first manifestation of ischemic heart disease, correlating them with coronary angiographic findings. METHODS: We carried out a cross-sectional study of 104 patients with previous acute myocardial infarction, who were divided into 2 groups according to the presence or absence of angina prior to acute myocardial infarction. We assessed the presence of angina preceding acute myocardial infarction and risk factors, such as age >55 years, male sex, smoking, systemic arterial hypertension, lipid profile, diabetes mellitus, obesity, sedentary lifestyle, and familial history of ischemic heart disease. On coronary angiography, the severity of coronary heart disease and presence of left ventricular hypertrophy were assessed. RESULTS: Of the 104 patients studied, 72.1% were males, 90.4% were white, 73.1% were older than 55 years, and 53.8% were hypertensive. Acute myocardial infarction was the first manifestation of ischemic heart disease in 49% of the patients. The associated risk factors were systemic arterial hypertension (RR=0.19; 95% CI=0.06-0.59; P=0.04 and left ventricular hypertrophy (RR=0.27; 95% CI=0,.8-0.88; P=0.03. The remaining risk factors were not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Prevalence of acute myocardial infarction as the first manifestation of ischemic heart disease is high, approximately 50%. Hypertensive individuals more frequently have symptoms preceding acute myocardial infarction, probably due to ventricular hypertrophy associated with high blood pressure levels.

  16. Gender differences in the management and outcome of patients with acute coronary artery disease

    Raine, R; Black, N; Bowker, T; Wood, D.

    2002-01-01

    Study objectives: To compare the clinical management and health outcomes of men and women after admission with acute coronary syndromes, after adjusting for disease severity, sociodemographic, and cardiac risk factors.

  17. Spectrographic measurement of beryllium in the atmosphere

    We describe here a method for the spectrographic determination of beryllium on filters which is valid for amounts varying between 0,01 and 30 μg of beryllium and which is independent of the nature of the beryllium compound involved. This is a flux method (graphite-lithium carbonate mixture), the excitation being by a direct current arc. (author)

  18. Elemental diet as primary treatment of acute Crohn's disease: a controlled trial.

    O'Moráin, C; Segal, A. W.; Levi, A J

    1984-01-01

    Acute exacerbations of Crohn's disease are usually treated with prednisolone or potentially more toxic immunosuppressive drugs or by surgery. In pilot studies replacing the normal diet by a protein free elemental diet also induced remission. A controlled trial was therefore conducted in which 21 patients acutely ill with exacerbations of Crohn's disease were randomised to receive either prednisolone 0.75 mg/kg/day or an elemental diet (Vivonex) for four weeks. Assessment at four and 12 weeks ...

  19. Effect of revascularization strategy in patients with acute myocardial infarction and renal insufficiency with multivessel disease

    Park, Hyukjin; Hong, Young Joon; Rhew, Si Hyun; Kim, Sung Soo; Jeong, Young Wook; Jeong, Hae Chang; Cho, Jae Yeong; Jang, Soo Young; Lee, Ki Hong; Park, Keun Ho; Sim, Doo Sun; Yoon, Nam Sik; Yoon, Hyun Ju; Kim, Kye Hun; Park, Hyung Wook

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims The aim of this study was to compare the risk of complications and outcome between infarct-related artery (IRA)-only revascularization and multivessel (MV) revascularization in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) with renal insufficiency and MV disease. Methods A total of 1,031 acute MI patients with renal insufficiency and MV disease who were registered in the Korea Working Group on Myocardial Infarction were enrolled. They were divided into two groups (IRA-only re...

  20. A CASE REPORT ON SICKLE CELL DISEASE WITH HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA, NEPHROTIC SYNDROME AND ACUTE CHEST SYNDROME

    Putta; Yamini Devi

    2015-01-01

    Sickle cell disease is an autoimmune hemolytic anemia due to abnormal hemoglobin. Sickling of RBCs occur due to abnormal hemoglobin which leads to vaso - occlusive crisis. This disease manifests as hemolytic anemia, acute chest syndrome, stroke, ischemic leg ulcers and nephrotic syndrome. This patient presented with hemolytic anemia, nephrotic syndrome and acute chest syndrome. This case was diagnosed by electrophoresis of h emoglobin and peripheral smear. Thi...

  1. Neutron irradiation of beryllium pebbles

    Gelles, D.S.; Ermi, R.M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Tsai, H. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1998-03-01

    Seven subcapsules from the FFTF/MOTA 2B irradiation experiment containing 97 or 100% dense sintered beryllium cylindrical specimens in depleted lithium have been opened and the specimens retrieved for postirradiation examination. Irradiation conditions included 370 C to 1.6 {times} 10{sup 22} n/cm{sup 2}, 425 C to 4.8 {times} 10{sup 22} n/cm{sup 2}, and 550 C to 5.0 {times} 10{sup 22} n/cm{sup 2}. TEM specimens contained in these capsules were also retrieved, but many were broken. Density measurements of the cylindrical specimens showed as much as 1.59% swelling following irradiation at 500 C in 100% dense beryllium. Beryllium at 97% density generally gave slightly lower swelling values.

  2. Therapeutic Approach to the Management of Pediatric Demyelinating Disease: Multiple Sclerosis and Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis.

    Brenton, J Nicholas; Banwell, Brenda L

    2016-01-01

    Acquired pediatric demyelinating diseases manifest acutely with optic neuritis, transverse myelitis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, or with various other acute deficits in focal or polyfocal areas of the central nervous system. Patients may experience a monophasic illness (as in the case of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis) or one that may manifest as a chronic, relapsing disease [e.g., multiple sclerosis (MS)]. The diagnosis of pediatric MS and other demyelinating disorders of childhood has been facilitated by consensus statements regarding diagnostic definitions. Treatment of pediatric MS has been modeled after data obtained from clinical trials in adult-onset MS. There are now an increasing number of new therapeutic agents for MS, and many will be formally studied for use in pediatric patients. There are important efficacy and safety concerns regarding the use of these therapies in children and young adults. This review will discuss acute management as well as chronic immunotherapies in acquired pediatric demyelination. PMID:26496907

  3. Bacterial etiology in acute hospitalized chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations

    Asli Gorek Dilektasli; Ezgi Demirdogen Cetinoglu; Nilufer Aylin Acet Ozturk; Funda Coskun; Guven Ozkaya; Ahmet Ursavas; Cuneyt Ozakin; Mehmet Karadag; Esra Uzaslan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The most common cause of acute COPD exacerbation (AECOPD) is the respiratory tract infections. We sought to determine the bacteriological etiology of hospitalized acute exacerbations of COPD requiring hospitalization in consecutive two years. Methods. We aimed to determine the bacteriological etiology underlying in patients whom admitted to Uludag University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pulmonary Medicine and hospitalized with AECOPD in the last two years. Medical records ...

  4. T2-weighted cardiovascular magnetic resonance in acute cardiac disease

    Eitel Ingo; Friedrich Matthias G

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) using T2-weighted sequences can visualize myocardial edema. When compared to previous protocols, newer pulse sequences with substantially improved image quality have increased its clinical utility. The assessment of myocardial edema provides useful incremental diagnostic and prognostic information in a variety of clinical settings associated with acute myocardial injury. In patients with acute chest pain, T2-weighted CMR is able to identify acu...

  5. Acute necrotizing encephalopathy of childhood: typical findings in an atypical disease

    Skelton, Brandon W.; Phillips, C.D. [University of Virginia Health System, Department of Neuroradiology, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Hollingshead, Michael C.; Castillo, Mauricio [University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Neuroradiology Section, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Sledd, Andrew T. [University of Virginia Health System, Department of Pediatrics, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2008-07-15

    Acute necrotizing encephalopathy of childhood (ANEC) is a disease entity seen nearly exclusively in East Asian children that is characterized by multifocal, symmetric lesions involving the thalami, brainstem, cerebellum, and white matter. We present a child who developed dramatic neurologic symptoms following a viral prodrome. Serial MRI examinations demonstrated characteristic lesions of ANEC, while laboratory analyses revealed evidence of acute infection with human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6). We highlight the MRI findings in both the acute and convalescent phases of ANEC, discuss the implications of neuroimaging on the child's clinical course, and emphasize the integral role of the radiologist in correctly diagnosing this rare disease. (orig.)

  6. Cryogenic Properties of Aluminum Beryllium and Beryllium Materials

    Gamwell, Wayne R.; McGill, Preston B.

    2003-01-01

    Ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, and elongation were obtained for the aluminum-beryllium alloy, AlBeMetl62 (38%Al-62%Be), at cryogenic (-195.5 C (-320 F) and (-252.8 C) (-423 F)) temperatures, and for an optical grade beryllium, O-30H (99%Be), at -252.8 C. AlBeMetl62 material was purchased to the requirements of SAE-AMS7912, "Aluminum-Beryllium Alloy, Extrusions." O-30H material was purchased to the requirements of Brush Wellman Inc. specification O-30H Optical Grade Beryllium. The ultimate tensile and yield strengths for extruded AlBeMetl62 material increased with decreasing temperature, and the percent elongation decreased with decreasing temperature. Design properties for the ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, and percent elongation for extruded AlBeMetl62 were generated. It was not possible to distinguish a difference in the room and cryogenic ultimate strength for the hot isostatically pressed (HIP'ed) O-30H material. The O30H elongation decreased with decreasing temperature.

  7. Cryogenic Properties of Aluminum-Beryllium and Beryllium Materials

    Gamwell, Wayne R.; McGill, Preston B.

    2003-01-01

    Ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, and elongation were obtained for the aluminum- beryllium alloy, AlBeMetl62 (38%Al-62%Be), at cryogenic (-195.5 C (-32O F) and (- 252.8 C) (-423 F)) temperatures, and for an optical grade beryllium, O-30H (99%Be), at -252.8 C. AlBeMet162 material was purchased to the requirements of SAE- AMs7912, "Aluminum-Beryllium Alloy, Extrusions". O-30H material was purchased to the requirements of Brush Wellman Inc. specification O-30H Optical Grade Beryllium. The ultimate tensile and yield strengths for extruded AlBeMet162 material increased with decreasing temperature, and the percent elongation decreased with decreasing temperature. Design properties for the ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, and percent elongation for extruded AlBeMetl62 were generated. It was not possible to distinguish a difference in the room and cryogenic ultimate strength for the hot isostatically pressed (HIP'ed) O-30H material. The O-30H elongation decreased with decreasing temperature.

  8. Risk of acute pancreatitis in patients with cronic inflammatory bowel disease

    Rasmussen, Henrik Højgaard; Fonager, Kirsten; Sørensen, Henrik Toft;

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are few epidemiologic data about the risk of acute pancreatitis in chronic inflammatory bowel diseases; we therefore wanted to estimate the risk of a first episode of acute pancreatitis in patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis in the total Danish population. METHODS......: The study included all patients discharged from Danish hospitals with a diagnosis of Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis registered in the Danish National Registry of Patients in the period from 1977 to 1992. The first episode of acute pancreatitis was identified in the cohort. The observed number...... of patients with acute pancreatitis was compared with expected numbers on the basis of age, sex, and calendar-specific incidence rates in the general population. RESULTS: Overall, 15,526 patients were discharged and followed up for 112,824 person-years. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) for...

  9. Prediction of Acute Respiratory Disease in Current and Former Smokers With and Without COPD

    Kim, Victor; Regan, Elizabeth; Williams, André A. A.; Santorico, Stephanie A.; Make, Barry J.; Lynch, David A.; Hokanson, John E.; Washko, George R.; Bercz, Peter; Soler, Xavier; Marchetti, Nathaniel; Criner, Gerard J.; Ramsdell, Joe; Han, MeiLan K.; Demeo, Dawn; Anzueto, Antonio; Comellas, Alejandro; Crapo, James D.; Dransfield, Mark; Wells, J. Michael; Hersh, Craig P.; MacIntyre, Neil; Martinez, Fernando; Nath, Hrudaya P.; Niewoehner, Dennis; Sciurba, Frank; Sharafkhaneh, Amir; Silverman, Edwin K.; van Beek, Edwin J. R.; Wilson, Carla; Wendt, Christine; Wise, Robert A.; Curtis, Jeffrey; Kazerooni, Ella; Hanania, Nicola; Alapat, Philip; Bandi, Venkata; Guntupalli, Kalpalatha; Guy, Elizabeth; Lunn, William; Mallampalli, Antara; Trinh, Charles; Atik, Mustafa; DeMeo, Dawn; Hersh, Craig; Jacobson, Francine; Graham Barr, R.; Thomashow, Byron; Austin, John; MacIntyre, Neil; Washington, Lacey; Page McAdams, H.; Rosiello, Richard; Bresnahan, Timothy; McEvoy, Charlene; Tashjian, Joseph; Wise, Robert; Hansel, Nadia; Brown, Robert; Casaburi, Richard; Porszasz, Janos; Fischer, Hans; Budoff, Matt; Sharafkhaneh, Amir; Niewoehner, Dennis; Allen, Tadashi; Rice, Kathryn; Foreman, Marilyn; Westney, Gloria; Berkowitz, Eugene; Bowler, Russell; Friedlander, Adam; Meoni, Eleonora; Criner, Gerard; Kim, Victor; Marchetti, Nathaniel; Satti, Aditi; James Mamary, A.; Steiner, Robert; Dass, Chandra; Bailey, William; Dransfield, Mark; Gerald, Lynn; Nath, Hrudaya; Ramsdell, Joe; Ferguson, Paul; Friedman, Paul; McLennan, Geoffrey; van Beek, Edwin JR; Martinez, Fernando; Han, MeiLan; Thompson, Deborah; Kazerooni, Ella; Wendt, Christine; Allen, Tadashi; Sciurba, Frank; Weissfeld, Joel; Fuhrman, Carl; Bon, Jessica; Anzueto, Antonio; Adams, Sandra; Orozco, Carlos; Santiago Restrepo, C.; Mumbower, Amy; Crapo, James; Silverman, Edwin; Make, Barry; Regan, Elizabeth; Samet, Jonathan; Willis, Amy; Stinson, Douglas; Beaty, Terri; Klanderman, Barbara; Laird, Nan; Lange, Christoph; Ionita, Iuliana; Santorico, Stephanie; Silverman, Edwin; Lynch, David; Schroeder, Joyce; Newell, John; Reilly, John; Coxson, Harvey; Judy, Philip; Hoffman, Eric; San Jose Estepar, Raul; Washko, George; Leek, Rebecca; Zach, Jordan; Kluiber, Alex; Rodionova, Anastasia; Mann, Tanya; Crapo, Robert; Jensen, Robert; Farzadegan, Homayoon; Murphy, James; Everett, Douglas; Wilson, Carla; Hokanson, John

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The risk factors for acute episodes of respiratory disease in current and former smokers who do not have COPD are unknown. METHODS: Eight thousand two hundred forty-six non-Hispanic white and black current and former smokers in the Genetic Epidemiology of COPD (COPDGene) cohort had longitudinal follow-up (LFU) every 6 months to determine acute respiratory episodes requiring antibiotics or systemic corticosteroids, an ED visit, or hospitalization. Negative binomial regression was used to determine the factors associated with acute respiratory episodes. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to determine adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for time to first episode and an acute episode of respiratory disease risk score. RESULTS: At enrollment, 4,442 subjects did not have COPD, 658 had mild COPD, and 3,146 had moderate or worse COPD. Nine thousand three hundred three acute episodes of respiratory disease and 2,707 hospitalizations were reported in LFU (3,044 acute episodes of respiratory disease and 827 hospitalizations in those without COPD). Major predictors included acute episodes of respiratory disease in year prior to enrollment (HR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.15-1.24 per exacerbation), airflow obstruction (HR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.91-0.96 per 10% change in % predicted FEV1), and poor health-related quality of life (HR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.06-1.08 for each 4-unit increase in St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire score). Risks were similar for those with and without COPD. CONCLUSIONS: Although acute episode of respiratory disease rates are higher in subjects with COPD, risk factors are similar, and at a population level, there are more episodes in smokers without COPD. PMID:24945159

  10. Reactivity test between beryllium and copper

    Kawamura, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Kato, M. [NGK Insulators, Ltd., Aichi-ken (Japan)

    1995-09-01

    Beryllium has been expected for using as plasma facing material on ITER. And, copper alloy has been proposed as heat sink material behind plasma facing components. Therefore, both materials must be joined. However, the elementary process of reaction between beryllium and copper alloy does not clear in detail. For example, other authors reported that beryllium reacted with copper at high temperature, but it was not obvious about the generation of reaction products and increasing of the reaction layer. In the present work, from this point, for clarifying the elementary process of reaction between beryllium and copper, the out-of-pile compatibility tests were conducted with diffusion couples of beryllium and copper which were inserted in the capsule filled with high purity helium gas (6N). Annealing temperatures were 300, 400, 500, 600 and 700{degrees}C, and annealing periods were 100, 300 and 1000h. Beryllium specimens were hot pressed beryllium, and copper specimens were OFC (Oxygen Free Copper).

  11. Worker Environment Beryllium Characterization Study

    This report summarizes the conclusion of regular monitoring of occupied buildings at the Nevada Test Site and North Las Vegas facility to determine the extent of beryllium (Be) contamination in accordance with Judgment of Needs 6 of the August 14, 2003, 'Minnema Report.'

  12. Worker Environment Beryllium Characterization Study

    NSTec Environment, Safety, Health & Quality

    2009-12-28

    This report summarizes the conclusion of regular monitoring of occupied buildings at the Nevada Test Site and North Las Vegas facility to determine the extent of beryllium (Be) contamination in accordance with Judgment of Needs 6 of the August 14, 2003, “Minnema Report.”

  13. Relationship Between Periodontal Disease and Acute Myocardial Infarction

    M. Zamirian; S Raoofi; Khosropanah, H; R Javanmardi

    2008-01-01

    Background: Conventional risk factors for coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction do not explain all of the clinical and epidemiological features of the disease. Periodontal disease is a common bacterial and destructive disorder of oral tissues. Many studies demonstrate close association between chronic periodontitis and development of generalized inflammation, vascular endothelial injury, and atherosclesis. Periodontal disease has been convincingly emerging as an important independ...

  14. Acute bone crises in sickle cell disease: the T1 fat-saturated sequence in differentiation of acute bone infarcts from acute osteomyelitis

    Aim: To prove the hypothesis that acute bone infarcts in sickle cell disease are caused by sequestration of red blood cells (RBCs) in bone marrow, and to evaluate the unenhanced T1 fat-saturated (fs) sequence in the differentiation of acute bone infarction from acute osteomyelitis in patients with sickle-cell disease. Materials and methods: Two studies were undertaken: an experimental study using in-vitro packed red blood cells and normal volunteers, and a retrospective clinical study of 86 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies. For the experimental study containers of packed RBCs were placed between the knees of four healthy volunteers with a saline bag under the containers as an additional control, and were scanned with the pre-contrast T1-fs sequence. Signal intensity (SI) ratios were obtained for packed RBCs:skeletal muscle and packed RBCs:saline. For the clinical study, the SIs of normal bone marrow, packed RBCs, bone and/or soft-tissue lesions, and normal skeletal muscle of 74 patients (86 MRI studies) were measured using unenhanced, T1 fat-saturated MRI. The ratios of the above SIs to normal skeletal muscle were calculated and subjected to statistical analysis. Results: Fifty-one of 86 MRI studies were included in the final analysis. The ratios of SIs for normal bone marrow, packed red cells, bone infarction, acute osteomyelitis, and soft-tissue lesions associated with bone infarct, compared with normal skeletal muscle were (mean ± SD) 0.9 ± 0.2, 2.1 ± 0.7, 1.7 ± 0.5, 1.0 ± 0.3, and 2.2 ± 0.7, respectively. The difference in the ratio of SIs of bone infarcts and osteomyelitis was significant (p = 0.003). The final diagnoses were bone infarction (n = 50), acute osteomyelitis (n = 1), and co-existent bone infarction and osteomyelitis (n = 2). Seven patients who had suspected osteomyelitis underwent image-guided aspiration. Conclusion: Acute bone infarcts in sickle cell disease are caused by sequestration of red blood cells in the bone marrow. The

  15. Acute bone crises in sickle cell disease: the T1 fat-saturated sequence in differentiation of acute bone infarcts from acute osteomyelitis

    Jain, R. [Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat (Oman)], E-mail: rajeevjn@yahoo.com; Sawhney, S. [Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat (Oman); Rizvi, S.G. [Department of Community Medicine and Public Health, College of Medicine, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat (Oman)

    2008-01-15

    Aim: To prove the hypothesis that acute bone infarcts in sickle cell disease are caused by sequestration of red blood cells (RBCs) in bone marrow, and to evaluate the unenhanced T1 fat-saturated (fs) sequence in the differentiation of acute bone infarction from acute osteomyelitis in patients with sickle-cell disease. Materials and methods: Two studies were undertaken: an experimental study using in-vitro packed red blood cells and normal volunteers, and a retrospective clinical study of 86 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies. For the experimental study containers of packed RBCs were placed between the knees of four healthy volunteers with a saline bag under the containers as an additional control, and were scanned with the pre-contrast T1-fs sequence. Signal intensity (SI) ratios were obtained for packed RBCs:skeletal muscle and packed RBCs:saline. For the clinical study, the SIs of normal bone marrow, packed RBCs, bone and/or soft-tissue lesions, and normal skeletal muscle of 74 patients (86 MRI studies) were measured using unenhanced, T1 fat-saturated MRI. The ratios of the above SIs to normal skeletal muscle were calculated and subjected to statistical analysis. Results: Fifty-one of 86 MRI studies were included in the final analysis. The ratios of SIs for normal bone marrow, packed red cells, bone infarction, acute osteomyelitis, and soft-tissue lesions associated with bone infarct, compared with normal skeletal muscle were (mean {+-} SD) 0.9 {+-} 0.2, 2.1 {+-} 0.7, 1.7 {+-} 0.5, 1.0 {+-} 0.3, and 2.2 {+-} 0.7, respectively. The difference in the ratio of SIs of bone infarcts and osteomyelitis was significant (p = 0.003). The final diagnoses were bone infarction (n = 50), acute osteomyelitis (n = 1), and co-existent bone infarction and osteomyelitis (n = 2). Seven patients who had suspected osteomyelitis underwent image-guided aspiration. Conclusion: Acute bone infarcts in sickle cell disease are caused by sequestration of red blood cells in the bone

  16. Soluble CD163 is increased in patients with acute pancreatitis independent of disease severity.

    Karrasch, Thomas; Brünnler, Tanja; Hamer, Okka W; Schmid, Karin; Voelk, Markus; Herfarth, Hans; Buechler, Christa

    2015-10-01

    Macrophages are crucially involved in the pathophysiology of acute pancreatitis. Soluble CD163 (sCD163) is specifically released from macrophages and systemic levels are increased in inflammatory diseases. Here, sCD163 was measured in serum of 50 patients with acute pancreatitis to find out possible associations with disease activity. Admission levels of systemic sCD163 were nearly three-fold higher in patients with acute pancreatitis compared to controls. In patients sCD163 did not correlate with C-reactive protein and leukocyte count as established markers of inflammation. Levels were not associated with disease severity assessed by the Schroeder score, Balthazar score, Acute Physiology, Age, and Chronic Health Evaluation (Apache) II score and peripancreatic necrosis score. Soluble CD163 was not related to complications of acute pancreatitis. These data show that serum sCD163 is increased in acute pancreatitis indicating activation of macrophages but is not associated with disease severity and outcome. PMID:26209500

  17. Acute interstitial pneumonia in mink kits inoculated with defined isolates of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus

    Alexandersen, Søren; Larsen, S; Aasted, B;

    1994-01-01

    The present study addressed the causal role of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV) in acute interstitial pneumonia in mink kits. All the examined isolates of ADV caused interstitial pneumonia in newborn kits, although the severity of disease and the mortality varied. These findings indicate that...

  18. Acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease provide a unique opportunity to take care of patients

    Bianca Beghé

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (ECOPD identifies the acute phase of COPD. The COPD patient is often frail and elderly with concomitant chronic diseases. This requires the physician not only looks at specific symptoms or organs, but to consider the patient in all his or her complexity.

  19. Optimal combinations of acute phase proteins for detecting infectious disease in pigs

    Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Stockmarr, Anders; Piñeiro, Matilde;

    2011-01-01

    The acute phase protein (APP) response is an early systemic sign of disease, detected as substantial changes in APP serum concentrations and most disease states involving inflammatory reactions give rise to APP responses. To obtain a detailed picture of the general utility of porcine APPs to dete...

  20. Relationship between haze and acute cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and respiratory diseases in Beijing.

    Zhang, Jin-Jun; Cui, Meng-Meng; Fan, Da; Zhang, De-Shan; Lian, Hui-Xin; Yin, Zhao-Yin; Li, Jin

    2015-03-01

    Haze is an atmospheric phenomenon in which dry particulate pollutants obscure the sky. Haze has been associated with chronic diseases, but its relationship with acute diseases is less clear. We aimed to determine the association between haze and acute cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and respiratory diseases, in order to determine the influence of haze on human health. We compared the number of cases of acute cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and respiratory diseases in Beijing Emergency Center between 2006 and 2013, with haze data from Beijing Observatory. The relationship between the number of hazy days and the number of cases of the above types of diseases was analyzed using univariate analyses. Both the number of cases and the number of hazy days showed a rising trend. The average number of cases per day for all three diseases was higher on hazy days than on non-hazy days. There was a positive correlation between the number of hazy days and the number of cases, and this correlation showed a hysteretic quality. Haze has an influence on acute cardiovascular (CVDs), cerebrovascular (CBDs), and respiratory system (RSDs) diseases. Haze seems to have an additive effect, since the associations between haze and number of cases were stronger in the following month than in the preceding month. The increasing trend in the number of hazy days might worsen the problem of haze-related diseases. PMID:25292298

  1. FIRST REPORT OF ACUTE CHAGAS DISEASE BY VECTOR TRANSMISSION IN RIO DE JANEIRO STATE, BRAZIL

    Luiz Henrique Conde SANGENIS

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Chagas disease (CD is an endemic anthropozoonosis from Latin America of which the main means of transmission is the contact of skin lesions or mucosa with the feces of triatomine bugs infected by Trypanosoma cruzi. In this article, we describe the first acute CD case acquired by vector transmission in the Rio de Janeiro State and confirmed by parasitological, serological and PCR tests. The patient presented acute cardiomyopathy and pericardial effusion without cardiac tamponade. Together with fever and malaise, a 3 cm wide erythematous, non-pruritic, papule compatible with a "chagoma" was found on his left wrist. This case report draws attention to the possible transmission of CD by non-domiciled native vectors in non-endemic areas. Therefore, acute CD should be included in the diagnostic workout of febrile diseases and acute myopericarditis in Rio de Janeiro.

  2. Acute Splenic Sequestration Crisis in a 70-Year-Old Patient With Hemoglobin SC Disease.

    Squiers, John J; Edwards, Anthony G; Parra, Alberto; Hofmann, Sandra L

    2016-01-01

    A 70-year-old African American female with a past medical history significant for chronic bilateral shoulder pain and reported sickle cell trait presented with acute-onset bilateral thoracolumbar pain radiating to her left arm. Two days after admission, Hematology was consulted for severely worsening microcytic anemia and thrombocytopenia. Examination of the patient's peripheral blood smear from admission revealed no cell sickling, spherocytes, or schistocytes. Some targeting was noted. A Coombs test was negative. The patient was eventually transferred to the medical intensive care unit in respiratory distress. Hemoglobin electrophoresis confirmed a diagnosis of hemoglobin SC disease. A diagnosis of acute splenic sequestration crisis complicated by acute chest syndrome was crystallized, and red blood cell exchange transfusion was performed. Further research is necessary to fully elucidate the pathophysiology behind acute splenic sequestration crisis, and the role of splenectomy to treat hemoglobin SC disease patients should be better defined. PMID:27047980

  3. Beryllium - A Unique Material in Nuclear Applications

    Beryllium, due to its unique combination of structural, chemical, atomic number, and neutron absorption cross section characteristics, has been used successfully as a neutron reflector for three generations of nuclear test reactors at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), the largest test reactor in the world, has utilized five successive beryllium neutron reflectors and is scheduled for continued operation with a sixth beryllium reflector. A high radiation environment in a test reactor produces radiation damage and other changes in beryllium. These changes necessitate safety analysis of the beryllium, methods to predict performance, and appropriate surveillances. Other nuclear applications also utilize beryllium. Beryllium, given its unique atomic, physical, and chemical characteristics, is widely used as a ''window'' for x-rays and gamma rays. Beryllium, intimately mixed with high-energy alpha radiation emitters has been successfully used to produce neutron sources. This paper addresses operational experience and methodologies associated with the use of beryllium in nuclear test reactors and in ''windows'' for x-rays and gamma rays. Other nuclear applications utilizing beryllium are also discussed

  4. [Acute gastrointestinal involvement in dengue disease by serotype 4: a case report and literature review].

    Marín, Johan; Vilcarromero, Stalin; Forshey, Brett M; Celis-Salinas, Juan C; Ramal-Asayag, Cesar; Morrison, Amy C; Laguna-Torres, Alberto; Casapía, Martín; Halsey, Eric S

    2013-10-01

    Dengue fever is the world's most important arboviral disease, presenting a wide clinical spectrum. We report for the first time in Peru, a case caused by dengue virus serotype 4 with significant gastrointestinal involvement (acute acalculous cholecystitis and acute hepatitis). In addition we carried out a review of the literature atypical presentation illustrating the importance of the characteristics of abdominal pain (right upper quadrant); presence of Murphy's sign, ultrasound, and liver enzymes levels, for appropriate diagnosis and clinical management. PMID:24248170

  5. ACUTE PHASE REACTANCTS IN PERICARDIAL FLUID ARE INDICATORS OF CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE

    Yılmaz Mehmet Ali; Simsek Erdal; Karapinar Kasim; Azboy Davut; Erdolu Burak

    2012-01-01

    Inflammation in formation of atherosclerosis, and acute phase reactants in the site of inflammation have major functions. Thus, do the acute phase reactants constitute the biggest risk factor for coronary artery disease? 55 patients are included in the study. Patients with coronary artery bypass surgery are included in Group I (38 patients) and patients with valve operation are included in Group II (17 patients). CABG patients are further divided into two sub-groups as on-pump and off-pump. I...

  6. Review of ventilatory techniques to optimize mechanical ventilation in acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Reddy, Raghu M.; Guntupalli, Kalpalatha K.

    2007-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major global healthcare problem. Studies vary widely in the reported frequency of mechanical ventilation in acute exacerbations of COPD. Invasive intubation and mechanical ventilation may be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. A good understanding of the airway pathophysiology and lung mechanics in COPD is necessary to appropriately manage acute exacerbations and respiratory failure. The basic pathophysiology in COPD exacerbat...

  7. Hanford Site Beryllium Program: Past, Present, and Future - 12428

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has a long history of beryllium use because of the element's broad application to many nuclear operations and processes. At the Hanford Site beryllium alloy was used to fabricate parts for reactors, including fuel rods for the N-Reactor during plutonium production. Because of continued confirmed cases of chronic beryllium disease (CBD), and data suggesting CBD occurs at exposures to low-level concentrations, the DOE decided to issue a rule to further protect federal and contractor workers from hazards associated with exposure to beryllium. When the beryllium rule was issued in 1999, each of the Hanford Site contractors developed a Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program (CBDPP) and initial site wide beryllium inventories. A new site-wide CBDPP, applicable to all Hanford contractors, was issued in May, 2009. In the spring of 2010 the DOE Headquarters Office of Health, Safety, and Security (HSS) conducted an independent inspection to evaluate the status of implementation of the Hanford Site Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program (CBDPP). The report identified four Findings and 12 cross-cutting Opportunities for Improvement (OFIs). A corrective action plan (CAP) was developed to address the Findings and crosscutting OFIs. The DOE directed affected site contractors to identify dedicated resources to participate in development of the CAP, along with involving stakeholders. The CAP included general and contractor-specific recommendations. Following initiation of actions to implement the approved CAP, it became apparent that additional definition of product deliverables was necessary to assure that expectations were adequately addressed and CAP actions could be closed. Consequently, a supplement to the original CAP was prepared and transmitted to DOE-HQ for approval. Development of the supplemental CAP was an eight month effort. From the onset a core group of CAP development members were identified to develop a mechanism for

  8. Increased Serum Phospholipase A2 Activity in Advanced Chronic Liver Disease as an Expression of the Acute Phase Response

    Mario Pirisi; Carlo Fabris; Maria Piera Panozzo; Giorgio Soardo; Pierluigi Toniutto; Ettore Bartou

    1993-01-01

    Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) modifications were investigated in patients with acute and chronic liver diseases, PLA2 variations were related to indices of liver function as well as to parameters of the acute phase response. Serum PLA2 activity modifications were f1uorimetrically measured in 105 patients affected by acute and chronic liver diseases or extra-hepatic diseases. One-way ANOV A demonstrated a significant difference among groups (F= 4.53, P

  9. Post-infectious glomerulonephritis presenting as acute renal failure in a patient with Lyme disease

    Rolla, Davide; Conti, Novella; Ansaldo, Francesca; Panaro, Laura; Lusenti, Tiziano

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: We report a case of a patient with acute renal failure in Lyme disease-associated focal proliferative mesangial nephropathy. Lyme disease is a vector-borne disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, transmitted by the bite of an infected ixodes tick. Post-infectious glomerulonephritis (GN)secondary to Borrelia burgdorferi infection in man could be fatal, as it is in canine Lyme borreliosis. Case: A 61-year old man with chronic ethanolic hepatitis was admitted to a provincial hospit...

  10. Life-threatening acute pneumonitis in mixed connective tissue disease: a case report and literature review.

    Rath, Eva; Zandieh, Shahin; Löckinger, Alexander; Hirschl, Mirko; Klaushofer, Klaus; Zwerina, Jochen

    2015-10-01

    Mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) is a rare connective tissue disease frequently involving the lungs. The main characteristic is a systemic sclerosis-like picture of slowly progressing interstitial lung disease consistent with lung fibrosis, while pulmonary arterial hypertension is rare. Herein, we present a case of a newly diagnosed MCTD patient developing life-threatening acute pneumonitis similar to lupus pneumonitis. Previous literature on this exceptionally rare complication of MCTD is reviewed and differential diagnosis and management discussed. PMID:26142172

  11. Acute Kidney Injury after Using Contrast during Cardiac Catheterization in Children with Heart Disease

    Hwang, Young Ju; Hyun, Myung Chul; Choi, Bong Seok; Chun, So Young; Cho, Min Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is closely associated with the mortality of hospitalized patients and long-term development of chronic kidney disease, especially in children. The purpose of our study was to assess the evidence of contrast-induced AKI after cardiac catheterization in children with heart disease and evaluate the clinical usefulness of candidate biomarkers in AKI. A total of 26 children undergoing cardiac catheterization due to various heart diseases were selected and urine and blood ...

  12. Psychiatric Disease and Post-Acute Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Zgaljardic, Dennis J; Seale, Gary S; Schaefer, Lynn A; Temple, Richard O; Foreman, Jack; Elliott, Timothy R

    2015-12-01

    Psychiatric disorders are common following traumatic brain injury (TBI) and can include depression, anxiety, and psychosis, as well as other maladaptive behaviors and personality changes. The epidemiologic data of psychiatric disorders post-TBI vary widely, although the incidence and prevalence rates typically are higher than in the general population. Although the experience of psychiatric symptoms may be temporary and may resolve in the acute period, many patients with TBI can experience psychopathology that is persistent or that develops in the post-acute period. Long-term psychiatric disorder, along with cognitive and physical sequelae and greater risk for substance use disorders, can pose a number of life-long challenges for patients and their caregivers, as they can interfere with participation in rehabilitation as well as limit functional independence in the community. The current review of the literature considers the common psychiatric problems affecting individuals with TBI in the post-acute period, including personality changes, psychosis, executive dysfunction, depression, anxiety, and substance misuse. Although treatment considerations (pharmacological and nonpharmacological) are referred to, an extensive description of such protocols is beyond the scope of the current review. The impact of persistent psychiatric symptoms on perceived caregiver burden and distress is also discussed. PMID:25629222

  13. Outcomes of Noninvasive Ventilation for Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in the United States, 1998–2008

    Chandra, Divay; Stamm, Jason A.; Taylor, Brian; Ramos, Rose Mary; Satterwhite, Lewis; Krishnan, Jerry A.; Mannino, David; Sciurba, Frank C.; Holguín, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: The patterns and outcomes of noninvasive, positive-pressure ventilation (NIPPV) use in patients hospitalized for acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) nationwide are unknown.

  14. Acute pelvic inflammatory disease: pictorial essay focused on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings

    Febronio, Eduardo Miguel; Rosas, George de Queiroz; D' Ippolito, Giuseppe, E-mail: giuseppe_dr@uol.com.br [Department of Imaging Diagnosis, Escola Paulista de Medicina - Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPMUnifesp), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-11-15

    The present study was aimed at describing key computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings in patients with acute abdominal pain derived from pelvic inflammatory disease. Two radiologists consensually selected and analyzed computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging studies performed between January 2010 and December 2011 in patients with proven pelvic inflammatory disease leading to presentation of acute abdomen. Main findings included presence of intracavitary fluid collections, anomalous enhancement of the pelvic excavation and densification of adnexal fat planes. Pelvic inflammatory disease is one of the leading causes of abdominal pain in women of childbearing age and it has been increasingly been diagnosed by means of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging supplementing the role of ultrasonography. It is crucial that radiologists become familiar with the main sectional imaging findings in the diagnosis of this common cause of acute abdomen (author)

  15. Elemental diet as primary treatment of acute Crohn's disease: a controlled trial.

    O'Moráin, C; Segal, A W; Levi, A J

    1984-06-23

    Acute exacerbations of Crohn's disease are usually treated with prednisolone or potentially more toxic immunosuppressive drugs or by surgery. In pilot studies replacing the normal diet by a protein free elemental diet also induced remission. A controlled trial was therefore conducted in which 21 patients acutely ill with exacerbations of Crohn's disease were randomised to receive either prednisolone 0.75 mg/kg/day or an elemental diet (Vivonex) for four weeks. Assessment at four and 12 weeks showed that the patients treated with the elemental diet had improved as much as and by some criteria more than the steroid treated group. Elemental diet is a safe and effective treatment for acute Crohn's disease. PMID:6428577

  16. Acute pelvic inflammatory disease: pictorial essay focused on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings

    The present study was aimed at describing key computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings in patients with acute abdominal pain derived from pelvic inflammatory disease. Two radiologists consensually selected and analyzed computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging studies performed between January 2010 and December 2011 in patients with proven pelvic inflammatory disease leading to presentation of acute abdomen. Main findings included presence of intracavitary fluid collections, anomalous enhancement of the pelvic excavation and densification of adnexal fat planes. Pelvic inflammatory disease is one of the leading causes of abdominal pain in women of childbearing age and it has been increasingly been diagnosed by means of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging supplementing the role of ultrasonography. It is crucial that radiologists become familiar with the main sectional imaging findings in the diagnosis of this common cause of acute abdomen (author)

  17. Belgian research on fusion beryllium waste

    Future fusion power plants will generate important quantities of neutron irradiated beryllium. Although recycling is the preferred management option for this waste, this may not be technically feasible for all of the beryllium, because of its radiological characteristics. Therefore, at SCK·CEN, we initiated a research programme aimed at studying aspects of the disposal of fusion beryllium, including waste characterisation, waste acceptance criteria, conditioning methods, and performance assessment. One of the main issues to be resolved is the development of fusion-specific waste acceptance criteria for surface or deep geological disposal, in particular with regard to the tritium content. In case disposal is the only solution, critical nuclides can be immobilised by conditioning the waste. As a first approach to immobilising beryllium waste, we investigated the vitrification of beryllium. Corrosion tests were performed on both metallic and vitrified beryllium to provide source data for performance assessment. Finally, a first step in performance assessment was undertaken. (author)

  18. Compatibility problems with beryllium in ceramic blankets

    Compatibility of beryllium with structural materials (316L austenitic steel and 1.4914 martensitic steel) and with tritium breeding ceramics (lithium aluminate or silicate) has been studied in contact tests between 550 C and 700 C and for durations reaching 3000 hours. Beryllium-ceramic interaction is negligeable in all the temperature range with aluminate and up to 600 C with silicates. On the other hand, noticeable interaction is observed between beryllium and 316L steel at 580 C and above. Beryllium interaction with 1.4914 steel is visible only at 650 C and above and its amplitude is lower than 316L steel one. In these two cases, the superficial layer is brittle, and adherent to the steel. Comparison between beryllium - 0.4 wt% calcium alloy and beryllium at 700 C shows that interaction with steels or ceramics is qualitatively the same but slightly weaker. (author). 6 refs.; 6 figs.; 3 tabs

  19. Atypical presentation of acute and chronic coronary artery disease in diabetics

    Hadi; AR; Hadi; Khafaji; Jassim; M; Al; Suwaidi

    2014-01-01

    In patients with diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease is the principal cause of mortality and chest pain is the most frequent symptom in patients with stable and acute coronary artery disease. However, there is little knowledge concerning the pervasiveness of uncommon presentations in diabetics. The symptomatology of acute coronary syndrome, which comprises both pain and non-pain symptoms, may be affected by traditional risk factors such as age, gender, smoking, hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. Such atypical symptoms may range from silent myocardial ischemia to a wide spectrum of non-chest pain symptoms. Worldwide, few studies have highlighted this under-investigated subject, and this aspect of ischemic heart disease has also been under-evaluated in the major clinical trials. The results of these studies are highly diverse which makes definitive conclusions regarding the spectrum of atypical presentation of acute and even stable chronic coronay artery disease difficult to confirm. This may have a significant impact on the morbidity and mortality of coronary artery disease in diabetics. In this up-to-date review we will try to analyze the most recent studies on the atypical presentations in both acute and chronic ischemic heart disease which may give some emphasis to this under-investigated topic.

  20. Uric acid levels and their relation to incapacities in acute cerebrovascular disease

    Julio López Argüelles

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: cerebrovascular disease and ischemic cardiopathy can be considered as an epidemic and constitute the first cause of incapacities in developed countries. Multiple studies have shown the association between uric acid levels and cerebrovascular diseases. Objective: To correlate the levels of serum uric acid and incapacities in the acute phase of cerebrovascular disease. Methods: A correlational study was carried out with 217 patients with acute cerebrovascular disease. The patient’s incapacity level was measured by using the Barthel Index and those results were related with the serum uric acid levels and other variables. Results: Male patients have higher levels of uric acid (p=0, 04; r=0, 13. Age and Barthel index were p < 0,001; r = -0, 30 and uric acid levels and Barthel Index were p=0, 03; r=-0, 14. The principal predicting factors of incapacity in the acute phase of cerebrovascular disease were the high levels of uric acid, age and diabetes mellitus. Conclusions: It is shown that the highest is the level of uric acid at advanced age; the greatest is the risk of suffering from incapacity in acute phases of cerebrovascular diseases.

  1. Thermodynamic properties of beryllium hydroxide

    The study of the hydro-thermal decomposition of beryllium hydroxide has made it possible to determine the free energy of formation and the entropy. The results obtained are in good agreement with the theoretical values calculated from the solubility product of this substance. They give furthermore the possibility of acquiring a better understanding of the BeO-H2O-Be (OH)2 system between 20 and 1500 C. (authors)

  2. MEASUREMENTS OF THE PROPERTIES OF BERYLLIUM FOIL

    The electrical conductivity of beryllium at radio frequency (800 MHz) and liquid nitrogen temperature were investigated and measured. This summary addresses a collection of beryllium properties in the literature, an analysis of the anomalous skin effect, the test model, the experimental setup and improvements, MAFIA simulations, the measurement results and data analyses. The final results show that the conductivity of beryllium is not as good as indicated by the handbook, yet very close to copper at liquid nitrogen temperature

  3. New audio applications of beryllium metal

    The major applications of beryllium metal in the field of audio appliances are for the vibrating cones for the two types of speakers 'TWITTER' for high range sound and 'SQUAWKER' for mid range sound, and also for beryllium cantilever tube assembled in stereo cartridge. These new applications are based on the characteristic property of beryllium having high ratio of modulus of elasticity to specific gravity. The production of these audio parts is described, and the audio response is shown. (author)

  4. A Puzzle of Vestibular Physiology in a Meniere’s Disease Acute Attack

    Marta Martinez-Lopez; Raquel Manrique-Huarte; Nicolas Perez-Fernandez

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present for the first time the functional evaluation of each of the vestibular receptors in the six semicircular canals in a patient diagnosed with Meniere's disease during an acute attack. A 54-year-old lady was diagnosed with left Meniere's disease who during her regular clinic review suffers an acute attack of vertigo, with fullness and an increase of tinnitus in her left ear. Spontaneous nystagmus and the results in the video head-impulse test (vHIT) are shown ...

  5. HIDA and ultrasound scans in the diagnosis of acute gall bladder disease

    97 patients with suspected acute gall bladder disease were subjected to cholescintigraphy (HIDA) and ultrasonography (US) to evaluate their diagnostic accuracy in detecting acute cholecystitis (AC). Three patients with non-biliary disease had normal HIDA and sonography scans, while the remaining 94 were operated on within 48 hours of admission to the hospital. Of these 62 (66%) were proved to have AC at operation and on histopathological examination. HIDA scans correctly diagnosed AC in 57 of them (92%), while sonography revealed dilated and oedematous gall bladders, and thus diagnosed AC in 30 patients (48%). (orig.)

  6. Recommended design correlations for S-65 beryllium

    The properties of tritium and helium behavior in irradiated beryllium are reviewed, along with the thermal-mechanical properties needed for ITER design analysis. Correlations are developed to describe the performance of beryllium in a fusion reactor environment. While this paper focuses on the use of beryllium as a plasma-facing component (PFC) material, the correlations presented here can also be used to describe the performance of beryllium as a neutron multiplier for a tritium breeding blanket. The performance properties for beryllium are subdivided into two categories: properties which do not change with irradiation damage to the bulk of the material; and properties which are degraded by neutron irradiation. The approach taken in developing properties correlations is to describe the behavior of dense, pressed S-65 beryllium as a function of temperature. As there are essentially no data on the performance of porous and/or irradiated S-65 beryllium, the degradation of properties with as-fabricated porosity and irradiation are determined form the broad data base on S-200F, as well as other types and grades, and applied to S-65 beryllium by scaling factors. The resulting correlations can be used for Be produced by vacuum hot pressing (VHP) and cold-pressing (CP)/sintering(S)/hot-isostatic-pressing(HIP). The performance of plasma-sprayed beryllium is discussed but not quantified

  7. (Beryllium). Internal Report No. 137, Jan. 15, 1958

    After a brief summary of the physical and chemical properties of beryllium, the various chemical treatments which can be applied to beryllium minerals either directly or after a physical enrichment are discussed. These various treatments give either the hydroxide or beryllium salts, from which either beryllium oxide or metallic beryllium can easily be obtained. The purification, analysis and uses of beryllium are also briefly discussed. (author)

  8. The ultrasonographic findings of acute pelvic inflammatory disease

    Choi, Yeon Nam; Park, Jai Soung; Lee, Hae Kyung; Chung, Moo Chan; Lee, Beong Ho; Kim, Ki Jung [Soonchunhyang University, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1987-08-15

    Although ultrasonographic findings of female pelvic mass are frequently reported, those of acute PID are not well established. But differentiation of fluid collection and mass lesion of PID is exactly made by ultrasonography. We analysed the ultrasonographic findings in 26 cases of acute PID having satisfactory operative or histological proofs, examined at Soonchunhyang University Hospital from Oct. 1985 to Feb. 1987. The results were as follows: 1. The age was ranged from 17 years to 53 years of age and the majority was between 21 years and 50 years of age. 2. Ultrasonographic findings are classified to fluid collection in cul de sac 17, tuboovarian abscess, 7 pyosalpix 2, endometritis 1 and normal 2 cases. 3. In cases of pelvic mass formation, their ecnogenecity were cystic form in 6 cases (22%), mixed form in 19 cases (71%), solid form in 2 cases (7%), and shapes were mainly ovoid with irregular, ill-defined margin. The location of mass is unilateral in 17 cases (63%) bilateral in 10 cases (37%)

  9. The ultrasonographic findings of acute pelvic inflammatory disease

    Although ultrasonographic findings of female pelvic mass are frequently reported, those of acute PID are not well established. But differentiation of fluid collection and mass lesion of PID is exactly made by ultrasonography. We analysed the ultrasonographic findings in 26 cases of acute PID having satisfactory operative or histological proofs, examined at Soonchunhyang University Hospital from Oct. 1985 to Feb. 1987. The results were as follows: 1. The age was ranged from 17 years to 53 years of age and the majority was between 21 years and 50 years of age. 2. Ultrasonographic findings are classified to fluid collection in cul de sac 17, tuboovarian abscess, 7 pyosalpix 2, endometritis 1 and normal 2 cases. 3. In cases of pelvic mass formation, their ecnogenecity were cystic form in 6 cases (22%), mixed form in 19 cases (71%), solid form in 2 cases (7%), and shapes were mainly ovoid with irregular, ill-defined margin. The location of mass is unilateral in 17 cases (63%) bilateral in 10 cases (37%)

  10. Acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis as the initial presentation of the disease

    K. Sakamoto

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The clinical course of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF is generally marked by a decline in pulmonary function over time, although recently there is increasing recognition that fatal deterioration from acute exacerbation can occur at any stage. The patient described in the present case study was a 65-yr-old male who presented with exertional dyspnoea and fever of 2 weeks' duration. He had no history of chronic lung disease or physiological or radiological hallmarks of pre-existing disease. He underwent surgical lung biopsy and the histological examination showed a background pattern of usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP with a pattern of focal acute diffuse alveolar damage (DAD in the area where normal lung architecture was preserved. It is notable that the pathological diagnosis of this rapidly progressive interstitial pneumonia was DAD on UIP, which is typically seen in acute exacerbations of IPF. Unusual findings on high-resolution computed tomography scan were also noted. We presume that in this case acute exacerbation developed in the very early course of IPF. Given the possibility that similar cases may have arisen among patients diagnosed with acute interstitial pneumonia or acute respiratory distress syndrome, the histopathology of rapidly progressive interstitial pneumonia may need to be revisited.

  11. The role of inflammation and interleukin-1 in acute cerebrovascular disease

    Galea J

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available James Galea,1 David Brough21Manchester Academic Health Sciences Center, Brain Injury Research Group, Clinical Sciences Building, Salford Royal Foundation Trust, Salford, UK; 2Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester, AV Hill Building, Manchester, UKAbstract: Acute cerebrovascular disease can affect people at all stages of life, from neonates to the elderly, with devastating consequences. It is responsible for up to 10% of deaths worldwide, is a major cause of disability, and represents an area of real unmet clinical need. Acute cerebrovascular disease is multifactorial with many mechanisms contributing to a complex pathophysiology. One of the major processes worsening disease severity and outcome is inflammation. Pro-inflammatory cytokines of the interleukin (IL-1 family are now known to drive damaging inflammatory processes in the brain. The aim of this review is to discuss the recent literature describing the role of IL-1 in acute cerebrovascular disease and to provide an update on our current understanding of the mechanisms of IL-1 production. We also discuss the recent literature where the effects of IL-1 have been targeted in animal models, thus reviewing potential future strategies that may limit the devastating effects of acute cerebrovascular disease.Keywords: cerebral ischemia, stroke, inflammation, microglia, interleukin-1, caspase-1

  12. Proprioception in Parkinson's disease is acutely depressed by dopaminergic medications

    O'Suilleabhain, P; Bullard, J; Dewey, R

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—Impaired proprioception has been previously reported in patients with Parkinson's disease. It was hypothesised that dopaminergic medications transiently depress proprioception, with amplification of adventitious movements as a result. This study tested for effects on proprioception of dopaminergic drugs, and for associations between such effects and drug induced dyskinesias.
METHODS—In 17 patients with Parkinson's disease, arm proprioception was tested in the ...

  13. Psycho-social factors are important for the perception of disease in patients with acute coronary disease

    Bekke-Hansen, Sidsel; Weinman, John; Thastum, Mikael;

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Little is presently known about determinants of cardiac illness perceptions, especially regarding psycho-social factors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Questionnaire study among 97 consecutively recruited inpatients (72.2% male; mean age 60.6 years) with acute coronary syndrome. We examined...... the role of socio-demographic, illness-related and psycho-social factors (Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, General Self-Efficacy Scale and Life Orientation Test-Revised) for perceived consequences, controllability and causes (Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire) with standard....... Also, gender, educational status, previous heart disease and family history of cardiovascular disease were significantly related to illness perceptions, whereas present disease severity (Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events) was not. CONCLUSION: Psycho-social resources and illness history were more...

  14. A CASE REPORT ON SICKLE CELL DISEASE WITH HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA, NEPHROTIC SYNDROME AND ACUTE CHEST SYNDROME

    Putta

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sickle cell disease is an autoimmune hemolytic anemia due to abnormal hemoglobin. Sickling of RBCs occur due to abnormal hemoglobin which leads to vaso - occlusive crisis. This disease manifests as hemolytic anemia, acute chest syndrome, stroke, ischemic leg ulcers and nephrotic syndrome. This patient presented with hemolytic anemia, nephrotic syndrome and acute chest syndrome. This case was diagnosed by electrophoresis of h emoglobin and peripheral smear. This patient recovered with blood transfusion, antibiotics, steroids, diuretics and oxygen inhalation. Sickle cell patients have a known predisposition to bacterial infection, particularly pneumococcal infection. The most si gnificant advance in the therapy of sickle cell anemia has been the introduction of hydroxyurea, but hydroxyurea should be considered in patients experiencing repeated episodes of acute chest syndrome. But in this patient as this is first episode, hydroxyu rea was not given and he recovered well.

  15. Gene rearrangement study for minimal residual disease monitoring in children with acute lymphocytic leukemia

    Juliana Godoy Assumpcao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To detect markers for minimal residual disease monitoring based on conventional polymerase chain reaction for immunoglobulin, T-cell receptor rearrangements and the Sil-Tal1 deletion in patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia. METHODS Fifty-nine children with acute lymphocytic leukemia from three institutions in Minas Gerais, Brazil, were prospectively studied. Clonal rearrangements were detected by polymerase chain reaction followed by homo/heteroduplex clonality analysis in DNA samples from diagnostic bone marrow. Follow-up samples were collected on Days 14 and 28-35 of the induction phase. The Kaplan-Meier and multivariate Cox methods were used for survival analysis. RESULTS Immunoglobulin/T-cell receptor rearrangements were not detected in 5/55 children screened (9.0%. For precursor-B acute lymphocytic leukemia, the most frequent rearrangement was IgH (72.7%, then TCRG (61.4%, and TCRD and IgK (47.7%; for T-acute lymphocytic leukemia, TCRG (80.0%, and TCRD and Sil-Tal deletion (20.0% were the most common. Minimal residual disease was detected in 35% of the cases on Day 14 and in 22.5% on Day 28-35. Minimal residual disease on Day 28-35, T-acute lymphocytic leukemia, and leukocyte count above 50 x 109/L at diagnosis were bad prognostic factors for leukemia-free survival in univariate analysis. Relapse risk for minimal residual disease positive relative to minimal residual disease negative children was 8.5 times higher (95% confidence interval: 1.02-70.7. CONCLUSION Immunoglobulin/T-cell receptor rearrangement frequencies were similar to those reported before. Minimal residual disease is an independent prognostic factor for leukemia-free survival, even when based on a non-quantitative technique, but longer follow-ups are needed.

  16. The worldwide epidemiology of acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease

    Seckeler, Michael D.; Hoke, Tracey R

    2011-01-01

    Michael D Seckeler, Tracey R HokeDepartment of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USAAbstract: Acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and rheumatic heart disease (RHD) are significant public health concerns around the world. Despite decreasing incidence, there is still a significant disease burden, especially in developing nations. This review provides background on the history of ARF, its pathology and treatment, and the current reported worldwide incidence...

  17. Association between Periodontal Disease and Elevated C-reactive Protein in Acute Myocardial Infarction Patients

    G. Radafshar; B. Shad; M. Mirfeizi

    2006-01-01

    Statement of problem: Periodontal disease (PD) has been linked to adverse cardiovascular events by unknown mechanisms. C-reactive protein (CRP) is a prognostic marker for cardiovascular disease, with reported elevated serum levels during PD.Purpose: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between PD and higher CRP levels in the serum of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients.Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, periodontal examinations and CRP serum l...

  18. [Sweet syndrome (acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis) and erythema nodosum in Crohn disease].

    Schlegel Gómez, R; Kiesewetter, F; von den Driesch, P; Hornstein, O P

    1990-07-01

    We report on 2 patients who developed an acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis (Sweet's syndrome) and erythema nodosum in association with Crohn's disease. The first patient showed symmetrical painful erythemas on her cheeks after hemicolectomy. Additionally, red painful nodules appeared on her lower legs. The second patient disclosed typical Sweet's syndrome-like lesions with pustules and plaques on her face, scalp and extremities after activation of Crohn's disease. Simultaneously, erythema nodosum-like lesions appeared on her lower legs. PMID:2144848

  19. Crypt abscess-associated microbiota in inflammatory bowel disease and acute self-limited colitis

    Harry; Sokol; Nadia; Vasquez; Nadia; Hoyeau-Idrissi; Philippe; Seksik; Laurent; Beaugerie; Anne; Lavergne-Slove; Philippe; Pochart; Philippe; Marteau

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate whether crypt abscesses frominflammatory bowel disease(IBD)patients containbacteria and to establish their nature.METHODS:We studied 17 ulcerative colitis patients,11 Crohn's disease patients,7 patients with acute selflimited colitis(ASLC)and normal colonic biopsies from5 subjects who underwent colonoscopy for colon cancer screening.A fluorescent in situ hybridization techniquewas applied to colonic biopsies to assess the microbiotacomposition of the crypts and crypt abscesses.RESULTS:Crypts...

  20. Sympathoadrenal activation and endothelial damage in patients with varying degrees of acute infectious disease

    Ostrowski, Sisse R; Gaïni, Shahin; Pedersen, Court;

    2015-01-01

    infectious disease severity, correlated with SOFA score, and predicted mortality together with plasma noradrenaline. Sympathoadrenal activation......PURPOSE: To investigate levels, associations between, and predictive value of plasma catecholamines and biomarkers of endothelial damage in patients with acute infectious illness stratified according to infection type and sepsis severity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is a post hoc study of plasma...... with increasing disease severity (both P

  1. Acute myocardial ischemia in adults secondary to missed Kawasaki disease in childhood

    Rizk, SRY; El Said, G; Daniels, LB; Burns, JC; El Said, H; Sorour, KA; Gharib, S; Gordon, JB

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Coronary artery aneurysms that occur in 25% of untreated Kawasaki disease (KD) patients may remain clinically silent for decades and then thrombose resulting in myocardial infarction. Although KD is now the most common cause of acquired heart disease in children in Asia, the United States, and Western Europe, the incidence of KD in Egypt is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that young adults in Egypt presenting with acute myocardial ischemia may have ...

  2. Circulating endothelial cells in coronary artery disease and acute coronary syndrome

    Schmidt, David E; Manca, Marco; Höfer, Imo E

    2015-01-01

    Circulating endothelial cells (CECs) have been put forward as a promising biomarker for diagnosis and prognosis of coronary artery disease and acute coronary syndromes. This review entails current insights into the physiology and pathobiology of CECs, including their relationship with circulating en

  3. Bacteriology in acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients admitted to hospital

    Larsen, Mette V; Janner, Julie H; Nielsen, Susanne D; Friis-Møller, Alice; Ringbaek, Thomas; Lange, Peter

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the bacterial flora and antimicrobial sensitivity in sputum from patients admitted to hospital with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) in order to recommend the best empirical treatment for these patients. The survey was a retrospective study of a...... AECOPD we recommend either cefuroxime for intravenous treatment or amoxicillin-clavulanate for oral treatment....

  4. ACUTE PHASE REACTANCTS IN PERICARDIAL FLUID ARE INDICATORS OF CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE

    Yılmaz Mehmet Ali

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation in formation of atherosclerosis, and acute phase reactants in the site of inflammation have major functions. Thus, do the acute phase reactants constitute the biggest risk factor for coronary artery disease? 55 patients are included in the study. Patients with coronary artery bypass surgery are included in Group I (38 patients and patients with valve operation are included in Group II (17 patients. CABG patients are further divided into two sub-groups as on-pump and off-pump. In both groups, homocystein, high sensitivity C reactive protein, ceruloplasmin, lipoprotein A and serum amyloid A protein levels are analyzed from blood and pericardial fluid. In patients with coronary artery disease, the measured high specific C- reactive protein levels from blood and pericardial fluid are found to be significantly high compared to patients with valve operation.Homocystein levels of pericardial fluids of patients with CABG are found to be higher than patients with valve operation and it is confirmed that the situation is correlated with blood homocystein levels. Although there are lots studies expressing the relation between coronary artery disease and lipoprotein A, ceruloplasmin and serum amyloid A protein levels; no significant difference for those parameters was obtained in our study. We determined that other phase reactants are higher in patients with coronary artery disease, in accordance with the literature. We aimed to state that acute phase reactants not only increase as a result of disease, but their levels are also elevated beforehand, as an indicator of the disease.

  5. Managing the acute painful episode in sickle cell disease

    B. Kaya

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Sickle cell pain is a complex but frequently experienced symptom. Acute painful events in children can be managed effectively in the community with appropriate support and education. If hospital management is required, rapid access to a consistent, reliable and safe analgesic pathway is recommended to ensure a good standard of care. Use of oral opiates in addition to short acting easily administrable forms of analgesia and strict adherence to protocoled monitoring will enable the acute event to be well managed and the negative pain experience minimised. An important part of the outpatient evaluation is determining the impact pain events are having on the child’s quality of life. Addressing psycho-social aspects, defining and modifying precipitating factors, if any are identified, and having a holistic approach to pain management is helpful. Education and use of self-management techniques can also be productive. Use of sickle modifying interventions such as hydroxycarbamide therapy or transfusion therapy can have a significant impact on reducing the severity and frequency of the acute pain event. 镰状细胞疼痛是一种复杂的常发症。 通过适当的支助和教育,儿童急性疼痛症可以得到有效抑制。 如果需要在医院进行护理,患者应尽快寻求持续可靠且安全的止痛方式,确保良好的护理。 除采取作用短、管理方便的止痛治疗和遵守监测协议之外,患者还需口服鸦片剂,这样,急性症状可以得到良好的抑制,还可尽量减轻疼痛感。 诊断门诊病人一个重要的部分就是确定疼痛症对患儿生活质量产生的影响。 问询生理社会方面问题,确定和修改诱发因子(如有),并整体分析可行的疼痛护理方法。 教育和使用个人护理法也很有效果。 采用镰状细胞修改干预法,例如羟基尿素疗法或输液疗法,对减轻急性疼痛症和减少发作频率有着显著效果。

  6. Some aspects of beryllium disposal in Kazakhstan

    Historically in Kazakhstan all disposals of used beryllium and beryllium wasted materials were stored and recycled at JSC ''Ulba Metallurgical Plant''. Since Ulba Metallurgical Plant (beside beryllium and tantalum production) is one of the world largest complex producers of fuel for nuclear power plants as well it has possibilities, technologies and experience in processing toxic and radioactive wastes related with those productions. At present time only one operating Kazakhstan research reactors (EWG1M in Kurchatov) contains beryllium made core. The results of current examination of that core allow using it without replacement long time yet (at least for next five-ten years). Nevertheless the problem how to utilize such irradiated beryllium becomes actual issue for Kazakhstan even today. Since Kazakhstan is the member of ITER/DEMO Reactors Projects and is permanently considered as possible provider of huge amount of beryllium for those reactors so that is the reason for starting studies of possibilities of large scale processing/recycling of such disposed irradiated beryllium. It is clear that the Ulba Metallurgical Plant is considered as the best site for it in Kazakhstan. The draft plan how to organize experimental studies of irradiated beryllium disposals in Kazakhstan involving National Nuclear Center, National University (Almaty), JSC ''Ulba Metallurgical Plant'' (Ust-Kamenogorsk) would be presented in this paper as well as proposals to arrange international collaboration in that field through ISTC (International Science Technology Center, Moscow). (author)

  7. ICT diagnostic method of beryllium welding quality

    To avoid the interference of high density material for the quality assay of beryllium welding line, a slice by slice scanning method was proposed based upon the research results of the Industrial Computerized Tomography (ICT) diagnostics for weld penetration, weld width, off-centered deviation and weld defects of beryllium-ring welding seam with high density material inside

  8. Investigation of beryllium/steam interaction

    Chekhonadskikh, A.M.; Vurim, A.D.; Vasilyev, Yu.S.; Pivovarov, O.S. [Inst. of Atomic Energy National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakstan Semipalatinsk (Kazakhstan); Shestakov, V.P.; Tazhibayeva, I.L.

    1998-01-01

    In this report program on investigations of beryllium emissivity and transient processes on overheated beryllium surface attacked by water steam to be carried out in IAE NNC RK within Task S81 TT 2096-07-16 FR. The experimental facility design is elaborated in this Report. (author)

  9. Modeling of hydrogen interactions with beryllium

    Longhurst, G.R. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, improved mathematical models are developed for hydrogen interactions with beryllium. This includes the saturation effect observed for high-flux implantation of ions from plasmas and retention of tritium produced from neutronic transmutations in beryllium. Use of the models developed is justified by showing how they can replicated experimental data using the TMAP4 tritium transport code. (author)

  10. Metastable defects in beryllium oxide crystals

    The metastable luminescence centers of regular lattice are investigated in binary beryllium oxide crystals. Beryllium oxide hexagonal crystals are the simplest among low-symmetry oxide scintillators and serve as a model system. The anisotropy of energy transformation and transfer is analyzed

  11. BERYLLIUM MEASUREMENT IN COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE WET WIPES

    Youmans-Mcdonald, L.

    2011-02-18

    Analysis for beryllium by fluorescence is now an established method which is used in many government-run laboratories and commercial facilities. This study investigates the use of this technique using commercially available wet wipes. The fluorescence method is widely documented and has been approved as a standard test method by ASTM International and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). The procedure involves dissolution of samples in aqueous ammonium bifluoride solution and then adding a small aliquot to a basic hydroxybenzoquinoline sulfonate fluorescent dye (Berylliant{trademark} Inc. Detection Solution Part No. CH-2) , and measuring the fluorescence. This method is specific to beryllium. This work explores the use of three different commercial wipes spiked with beryllium, as beryllium acetate or as beryllium oxide and subsequent analysis by optical fluorescence. The effect of possible interfering metals such as Fe, Ti and Pu in the wipe medium is also examined.

  12. Assessment of LANL beryllium waste management documentation

    The objective of this report is to determine present status of the preparation and implementation of the various high priority documents required to properly manage the beryllium waste generated at the Laboratory. The documents being assessed are: Waste Acceptance Criteria, Waste Characterization Plan, Waste Certification Plan, Waste Acceptance Procedures, Waste Characterization Procedures, Waste Certification Procedures, Waste Training Procedures and Waste Recordkeeping Procedures. Beryllium is regulated (as a dust) under 40 CFR 261.33 as ''Discarded commercial chemical products, off specification species, container residues and spill residues thereof.'' Beryllium is also identified in the 3rd thirds ruling of June 1, 1990 as being restricted from land disposal (as a dust). The beryllium waste generated at the Laboratory is handled separately because beryllium has been identified as a highly toxic carcinogenic material

  13. Beryllium for fusion application - recent results

    Khomutov, A.; Barabash, V.; Chakin, V.; Chernov, V.; Davydov, D.; Gorokhov, V.; Kawamura, H.; Kolbasov, B.; Kupriyanov, I.; Longhurst, G.; Scaffidi-Argentina, F.; Shestakov, V.

    2002-12-01

    The main issues for the application of beryllium in fusion reactors are analyzed taking into account the latest results since the ICFRM-9 (Colorado, USA, October 1999) and presented at 5th IEA Be Workshop (10-12 October 2001, Moscow Russia). Considerable progress has been made recently in understanding the problems connected with the selection of the beryllium grades for different applications, characterization of the beryllium at relevant operational conditions (irradiation effects, thermal fatigue, etc.), and development of required manufacturing technologies. The key remaining problems related to the application of beryllium as an armour in near-term fusion reactors (e.g. ITER) are discussed. The features of the application of beryllium and beryllides as a neutron multiplier in the breeder blanket for power reactors (e.g. DEMO) in pebble-bed form are described.

  14. Postirradiation examination of beryllium pebbles

    Gelles, D.S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1998-03-01

    Postirradiation examinations of COBRA-1A beryllium pebbles irradiated in the EBR-II fast reactor at neutron fluences which generated 2700--3700 appm helium have been performed. Measurements included density change, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The major change in microstructure is development of unusually shaped helium bubbles forming as highly non-equiaxed thin platelet-like cavities on the basal plane. Measurement of the swelling due to cavity formation was in good agreement with density change measurements.

  15. Treatment disparities in acute coronary syndromes, heart failure, and kidney disease.

    McCullough, Peter A; Maynard, Robert C

    2011-01-01

    It has been consistently observed that patients with renal dysfunction have more premature, severe, complicated, and fatal cardiovascular disease than age- and sex-matched individuals with normal renal function. There have been 4 major explanations for this finding: (1) positive confounding by third variables associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD), including diabetes mellitus and hypertension; (2) therapeutic nihilism or lesser use of beneficial therapies in CKD; (3) greater toxicities of therapies, such as bleeding from anticoagulants or contrast-induced kidney injury; (4) biological factors which result directly from CKD that work to promote and accelerate cardiovascular disease. In this paper, we focus on the issue of treatment disparities or therapeutic nihilism and its contribution to poor outcomes in the setting of acute coronary syndromes and acutely decompensated heart failure. This issue is important because if we can overcome barriers to the utilization of beneficial treatments, then clinical outcomes should improve over time. PMID:21625092

  16. Celiac disease unmasked by acute severe iron deficiency anemia

    Marcelle G. Meseeha; Maximos N. Attia; Kolade, Victor O.

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of celiac disease (CD) appears to be increasing in the United States. However, the proportion of new CD cases with atypical presentations is also rising. We present the case of a 49-year-old woman who was diagnosed with CD in the setting of new, severe iron-deficiency anemia, 13 years into treatment of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome associated with chronic mildly elevated liver function tests. While CD and iron deficiency anemia are common, this is a rare present...

  17. Celiac disease unmasked by acute severe iron deficiency anemia

    Meseeha, Marcelle G.; Attia, Maximos N.; Kolade, Victor O.

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of celiac disease (CD) appears to be increasing in the United States. However, the proportion of new CD cases with atypical presentations is also rising. We present the case of a 49-year-old woman who was diagnosed with CD in the setting of new, severe iron-deficiency anemia, 13 years into treatment of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome associated with chronic mildly elevated liver function tests. While CD and iron deficiency anemia are common, this is a rare presentation of CD. PMID:27406450

  18. Acute chondrolysis complicating Legg-Calve-Perthes disease

    Of 270 children with Legg-Calve-Perthes (LCP) disease, roentgenographic evidence of chondrolysis was noted in 12 (4.5%) within one year after diagnosis and appropriate management. Only in six hips of these 12 patients did the retrospective clinical, histological, and orthopedic findings fulfill the diagnostic requirements for chondrolysis. Sequential roentgenographic findings included initial periarticular osteoporosis and subchondral cortical irregularities, subsequent narrowing of the joint space, premature fusion of the growth plate, and eventual development of degenerative arthritis. The early roentgenographic recognition of chondrolysis is emphasized because it has an untoward effect on the prognosis of LCP and should therefore prompt a different orthopedic approach. (orig.)

  19. The burden of acute disease in Mahajanga, Madagascar - a 21 month study.

    Vijay C Kannan

    Full Text Available Efforts to develop effective and regionally-appropriate emergency care systems in sub-Saharan Africa are hindered by a lack of data on both the burden of disease in the region and on the state of existing care delivery mechanisms. This study describes the burden of acute disease presenting to an emergency unit in Mahajanga, Madagascar.Handwritten patient registries on all emergency department patients presenting between 1 January 2011 and 30 September 2012 were reviewed and data entered into a database. Data included age, sex, diagnosis, and disposition. We classified diagnoses into Clinical Classifications Software (CCS multi-level categories. The population was 53.5% male, with a median age of 31 years. The five most common presenting conditions were 1 Superficial injury; contusion, 2 Open wounds of head; neck; and trunk, 3 Open wounds of extremities, 4 Intracranial injury, and 5 Unspecified injury and poisoning. Trauma accounted for 48%, Infectious Disease for 15%, Mental Health 6.1%, Noncommunicable 29%, and Neoplasms 1.2%. The acuity seen was high, with an admission rate of 43%. Trauma was the most common reason for admission, representing 19% of admitted patients.This study describes the burden of acute disease at a large referral center in northern Madagascar. The Centre Hôpitalier Universitaire de Mahajanga sees a high volume of acutely ill and injured patients. Similar to other reports from the region, trauma is the most common pathology observed, though infectious disease was responsible for the majority of adult mortality. Typhoid fever other intestinal infections were the most lethal CCS-coded pathologies. By utilizing a widely understood classification system, we are able to highlight contrasts between Mahajanga's acute and overall disease burden as well as make comparisons between this region and the rest of the globe. We hope this study will serve to guide the development of context-appropriate emergency medicine systems in the

  20. The prevalence of natural health product use in patients with acute cardiovascular disease.

    Aws Alherbish

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Natural health products (NHP use may have implications with respect to adverse effects, drug interactions and adherence yet the prevalence of NHP use by patients with acute cardiovascular disease and the best method to ascertain this information is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To identify the best method to ascertain information on NHP, and the prevalence of use in a population with acute cardiovascular disease. METHODS: Structured interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of consecutive patients admitted with acute cardiovascular disease to the University of Alberta Hospital during January 2009. NHP use was explored using structured and open-ended questions based on Health Canada's definition of NHP. The medical record was reviewed, and documentation of NHP use by physicians, nurses, and pharmacists, compared against the gold-standard structured interview. RESULTS: 88 patients were interviewed (mean age 62 years, standard deviation [SD 14]; 80% male; 41% admitted for acute coronary syndromes. Common co-morbidities included hypertension (59%, diabetes (26% and renal impairment (19%. NHP use was common (78% of patients and 75% of NHP users reported daily use. The category of NHP most commonly used was vitamins and minerals (73% followed by herbal products (20%, traditional medicines including Chinese medicines (9%, homeopathic preparations (1% and other products including amino acids, essential fatty acids and probiotics (35%. In a multivariable model, only older age was associated with increased NHP use (OR 1.5 per age decile [95%CI 1.03 to 2.2]. When compared to the interview, the highest rate of NHP documentation was the pharmacist history (41%. NHP were documented in 22% of patients by the physician and 19% by the nurse. CONCLUSIONS: NHP use is common in patients admitted with acute cardiovascular disease. However, health professionals do not commonly identify NHP as part of the medication profile despite its potential importance

  1. Acute coronary syndrome after infliximab therapy in a patient with Crohn's disease

    Vasilios Panteris; Anna Perdiou; Vasilios Tsirimpis; Demetrios Georgios Karamanolis

    2006-01-01

    Infliximab is a potent anti-TNF antibody, which is used with great success in Crohn's disease patients. Since its release in clinical practice, several adverse reactions have been observed. The interest in possible consequences of its administration is still high because of the recent introduction of the drug for the long-term maintenance therapy of refractory luminal and fistulizing Crohn's disease. We present a case of acute coronary syndrome (non-STEMI) in a patient with corticoid resistant Crohn's disease after his first dose of infliximab. By reviewing the scant articles that exist in the literature on this topic we made an effort to delineate the possible mechanisms of this phenomenon.

  2. Lethal acute demyelinization with encephalo-myelitis as a complication of cured Cushing's disease.

    Chevalier, N; Hieronimus, S; Vandenbos, F; Delmont, E; Cua, E; Cherick, F; Paquis, P; Michiels, J-F; Fenichel, P; Brucker-Davis, F

    2010-12-01

    Cushing's disease is usually associated with higher mortality rate, especially from cardiovascular causes. Development or exacerbation of autoimmune or inflammatory diseases is known to occur in patients with hypercortisolism after cure. We report for the first time a 34-year old woman with a psychiatric background, who developed four months after the surgical cure of Cushing's disease an acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) presenting initially as a psychiatric illness. We hypothesize that the recent correction of hypercortisolism triggered ADEM and that the atypical presentation, responsible for diagnosis delay, led to the death of this patient. PMID:20850107

  3. Immune Mechanisms of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy for Acute Graft versus Host Disease

    Tobin, Laura M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the role of Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in the modulation of immune responses, focusing on suppression and induction of immune tolerance. To date, MSC therapy has proved beneficial for the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, such as acute Graft versus Host Disease (aGvHD) and Crohn’s disease. However, the exact mechanisms of therapeutic benefit remain unclear. The key goals of this study were to identify the role of MSC derived soluble a...

  4. Technical issues for beryllium use in fusion blanket applications

    Beryllium is an excellent non-fissioning neutron multiplier for fusion breeder and fusion electric blanket applications. This report is a compilation of information related to the use of beryllium with primary emphasis on the fusion breeder application. Beryllium resources, production, fabrication, properties, radiation damage and activation are discussed. A new theoretical model for beryllium swelling is presented

  5. Impact of invasive fungal disease on the chemotherapy schedule and event-free survival in acute leukemia patients who survived fungal disease: a case-control study

    Even, Caroline; Bastuji-Garin, Sylvie; Hicheri, Yosr; Pautas, Cécile; Botterel, Francoise; Maury, Sébastien; Cabanne, Ludovic; Bretagne, Stéphane; Cordonnier, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Patients with acute leukemia who initially survive invasive fungal disease must receive chemotherapy or go on to transplant. Many centers change subsequent chemotherapy to decrease the risk of fungal reactivation. This case-control study compared acute leukemia patients (n=28) who developed a proven or probable fungal disease and survived four weeks later, to patients who did not (n=78), and assessed the impact of fungal disease on the chemotherapy regimens, and overall and event-free survival.

  6. Gas retention in irradiated beryllium

    Helium (an inert gas) with low solubility in beryllium is trapped in irradiated beryllium at low temperatures (22 n/cm2 (E > 1 MeV). In these samples the calculated helium generated was ∼ 14,000 appm. They are described in terms of swelling, annealing, microstructure, and helium bubble behavior (size, density and mobility). A second sample was irradiated to ∼5 x 1022 n/cm2 (E > 1 MeV). In that one the calculated helium and tritium generated were ∼24,000 appm He and ∼3720 appm, and tritium content was examined in a dissolution experiment. Most of the tritium was released as gas to the glovebox indicating the generated tritium was retained in the helium bubbles. In a third set of experiments a specimen was examined by annealing at a succession of temperatures to more than 600 degree C for tritium release. In the temperature range of 300--500 degree C little release (0.01--0.4%) occurred, but there was a massive release at just over 600 degree C. Theories of swelling appear to adequately describe bubble behavior with breakaway release occurring at high helium contents and at large bubble diameters. 8 refs., 6 figs

  7. New Insight for the Diagnosis of Gastrointestinal Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease

    Florent Malard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT is a curative therapy for different life-threatening malignant and nonmalignant hematologic disorders. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD remains a major source of morbidity and mortality following allo-SCT, which limits the use of this treatment in a broader spectrum of patients. Early diagnostic of GVHD is essential to initiate treatment as soon as possible. Unfortunately, the diagnosis of GVHD may be difficult to establish, because of the nonspecific nature of the associated symptoms and of the numerous differential diagnosis. This is particularly true regarding gastrointestinal (GI acute GVHD. In the recent years many progress has been made in medical imaging test and endoscopic techniques. The interest of these different techniques in the diagnosis of GI acute GVHD has been evaluated in several studies. With this background we review the contributions, limitations, and future prospect of these techniques in the diagnosis of GI acute GVHD.

  8. The epidemiology and outcome of acute renal failure and the impact on chronic kidney disease.

    Block, Clay A; Schoolwerth, Anton C

    2006-01-01

    Acute renal failure (ARF) is a common condition, especially among the critically ill, and confers a high mortality. Recent publications have highlighted changes in the epidemiology and improvement in mortality that was long thought to be static despite improvements in clinical care. The incidence of ARF is increasing. Efforts, such as the Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative, are being undertaken to establish a consensus definition of ARF, and to distinguish between varying degrees of acute kidney injury. Data are emerging to allow comparison of the epidemiology of ARF across institutions internationally. There is ongoing recognition of the important interaction between ARF and chronic kidney disease. Two brief case reports are offered to help frame the context and clinical impact of this disorder, followed by a review of some of the recent literature that addresses these points. PMID:17150044

  9. Fluorimetric method for determination of Beryllium

    The old fluorimetric method for the determination of Beryllium, based essentially on the fluorescence of the Beryllium-Morine complex in a strongly alkaline solution, is still competitive and stands the comparison with more modern methods or at least three reasons: in the presence of solid or gaseous samples (powders), the times necessary to finalize an analytic determination are comparable since the stage of the process which lasts the longest is the mineralization of the solid particles containing Beryllium, the cost of a good fluorimeter is by far Inferior to the cost, e. g., of an Emission Spectrophotometer provided with ICP torch and magnets for exploiting the Zeeman effect and of an Atomic absorption Spectrophotometer provided with Graphite furnace; it is possible to determine, fluorimetrically, rather small Beryllium levels (about 30 ng of Beryllium/sample), this potentiality is more than sufficient to guarantee the respect of all the work safety and hygiene rules now in force. The study which is the subject of this publication is designed to the analysis procedure which allows one to reach good results in the determination of Beryllium, chiefly through the control and measurement of the interference effect due to the presence of some metals which might accompany the environmental samples of workshops and laboratories where Beryllium is handled, either at the pure state or in its alloys. The results obtained satisfactorily point out the merits and limits of this analytic procedure

  10. Electrocardiographic abnormalities in acute cerebrovascular events in patients with/without cardiovascular disease

    Mansoureh Togha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Electrocardiographic (ECG changes are reported frequently after acute strokes. It seems that cardiovascular effects of strokes are modulated by concomitant or pre-existent cardiac diseases, and are also related to the type of cerebrovascular disease and its localization. We aimed to determine the pattern of ECG changes associated with pathophysiologic categories of acute stroke among patients with/without cardiovascular disease and to determine if specific ECG changes are related to the location of the lesion. Materials and Methods : The electrocardiographic records of 361 patients with acute stroke were studied to assess the relative frequencies of ECG abnormalities among the pathophysiologic categories of stroke. Results: In the present study, the most common ECG abnormalities associated with stroke were T-wave abnormalities, prolonged QTc interval and arrhythmias, which were respectively found in 39.9%, 32.4%, and 27.1% of the stroke patients and 28.9%, 30.7%, and 16.2 of the patients with no primary cardiac disease. We observed that other ECG changes comprising pathologic Q- wave, ST-segment depression, ST-segment elevation, and prominent U wave may also occur in selected or non-selected stroke patients; thereby simulate an acute myocardial injury. We observed an increased number of patients with abnormal T-wave and posterior fossa bleedings and more rhythm disturbances for ischemic lesions, localized in the anterior fossa. Conclusion: Ischemia-like ECG changes and arrhythmias are frequently seen in stroke patients, even in those with no history or signs of primary heart disease, which support a central nervous system origin of these ECG abnormalities. Further study is necessary to better define the brain-heart interaction.

  11. Recommended design correlations for S-65 beryllium

    The properties of tritium and helium behavior in irradiated beryllium are reviewed, along with the thermal-mechanical properties needed for ITER design analysis. Correlations are developed to describe the performance of beryllium in a fusion reactor environment. While this paper focuses on the use of beryllium as a plasma-facing component (PFC) material, the correlations presented here can also be used to describe the performance of beryllium as a neutron multiplier for a tritium breeding blanket. The performance properties for beryllium are subdivided into two categories: properties which do not change with irradiation damage to the bulk of the material; and properties which are degraded by neutron irradiation. The irradiation-independent properties described within are: thermal conductivity, specific heat capacity, thermal expansion, and elastic constants. Irradiation-dependent properties include: yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, plastic tangent modulus, uniform and total tensile elongation, thermal and irradiation-induced creep strength, He-induced swelling and tritium retention/release. The approach taken in developing properties correlations is to describe the behavior of dense, pressed S-65 beryllium -- the material chosen for ITER PFC application -- as a function of temperature. As there are essentially no data on the performance of porous and/or irradiated S-65 beryllium, the degradation of properties with as-fabricated porosity and irradiation are determined from the broad data base on S-200F, as well as other types and grades, and applied to S-65 beryllium by scaling factors. The resulting correlations can be used for Be produced by vacuum hot pressing (VHP) and cold-pressing (CP)/sintering(S)/hot-isostatic-pressing (HIP). The performance of plasma-sprayed beryllium is discussed but not quantified

  12. Recommended design correlations for S-65 beryllium

    Billone, M.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The properties of tritium and helium behavior in irradiated beryllium are reviewed, along with the thermal-mechanical properties needed for ITER design analysis. Correlations are developed to describe the performance of beryllium in a fusion reactor environment. While this paper focuses on the use of beryllium as a plasma-facing component (PFC) material, the correlations presented here can also be used to describe the performance of beryllium as a neutron multiplier for a tritium breeding blanket. The performance properties for beryllium are subdivided into two categories: properties which do not change with irradiation damage to the bulk of the material; and properties which are degraded by neutron irradiation. The irradiation-independent properties described within are: thermal conductivity, specific heat capacity, thermal expansion, and elastic constants. Irradiation-dependent properties include: yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, plastic tangent modulus, uniform and total tensile elongation, thermal and irradiation-induced creep strength, He-induced swelling and tritium retention/release. The approach taken in developing properties correlations is to describe the behavior of dense, pressed S-65 beryllium -- the material chosen for ITER PFC application -- as a function of temperature. As there are essentially no data on the performance of porous and/or irradiated S-65 beryllium, the degradation of properties with as-fabricated porosity and irradiation are determined from the broad data base on S-200F, as well as other types and grades, and applied to S-65 beryllium by scaling factors. The resulting correlations can be used for Be produced by vacuum hot pressing (VHP) and cold-pressing (CP)/sintering(S)/hot-isostatic-pressing (HIP). The performance of plasma-sprayed beryllium is discussed but not quantified.

  13. Research of flaw assessment methods for beryllium reflector elements

    Reflector elements made from metal beryllium is widely used as neutron reflectors to increase neutron flux in test reactors. When beryllium reflector elements are irradiated by neutron, bending of reflector elements caused by swelling occurs, and beryllium reflector elements must be replaced in several years. In this report, literature search and investigation for non-destructive inspection of Beryllium and experiments for Preliminary inspection to establish post irradiation examination method for research of characteristics of metal beryllium under neutron irradiation were reported. (author)

  14. Preliminary proposal for a beryllium technology program for fusion applications

    The program was designed to provide the answers to the critical issues of beryllium technology needed in fusion blanket designs. The four tasks are as follows: (1) Beryllium property measurements needed for fusion data base. (2) Beryllium stress relaxation and creep measurements for lifetime modelling calculations. (3) Simplified recycle technique development for irradiated beryllium. (4) Beryllium neutron multiplier measurements using manganese bath absolute calibration techniques

  15. The fecal microbiome in dogs with acute diarrhea and idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease.

    Jan S Suchodolski

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent molecular studies have revealed a highly complex bacterial assembly in the canine intestinal tract. There is mounting evidence that microbes play an important role in the pathogenesis of acute and chronic enteropathies of dogs, including idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. The aim of this study was to characterize the bacterial microbiota in dogs with various gastrointestinal disorders. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Fecal samples from healthy dogs (n = 32, dogs with acute non-hemorrhagic diarrhea (NHD; n = 12, dogs with acute hemorrhagic diarrhea (AHD; n = 13, and dogs with active (n = 9 and therapeutically controlled idiopathic IBD (n = 10 were analyzed by 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and qPCR assays. Dogs with acute diarrhea, especially those with AHD, had the most profound alterations in their microbiome, as significant separations were observed on PCoA plots of unweighted Unifrac distances. Dogs with AHD had significant decreases in Blautia, Ruminococcaceae including Faecalibacterium, and Turicibacter spp., and significant increases in genus Sutterella and Clostridium perfringens when compared to healthy dogs. No significant separation on PCoA plots was observed for the dogs with IBD. Faecalibacterium spp. and Fusobacteria were, however, decreased in the dogs with clinically active IBD, but increased during time periods of clinically insignificant IBD, as defined by a clinical IBD activity index (CIBDAI. CONCLUSIONS: Results of this study revealed a bacterial dysbiosis in fecal samples of dogs with various GI disorders. The observed changes in the microbiome differed between acute and chronic disease states. The bacterial groups that were commonly decreased during diarrhea are considered to be important short-chain fatty acid producers and may be important for canine intestinal health. Future studies should correlate these observed phylogenetic differences with functional changes in the intestinal

  16. Respiratory protection and emerging infectious diseases: lessons from severe acute respiratory syndrome

    John H. Lange

    2005-01-01

    @@ The severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) that emerged 2002-2003 and apparently again 2004 (reported by the news media on December 27, 2003) as the first confirmed case by the World Health Organization (WHO)1,2 raised awareness of emerging infectious diseases.3 Every year there are both new and old infectious diseases emerging as potential pandemic agents.4-6 However, few of these diseases receive the public attention and concern expressed as occurred during the emergence of SARS. Much of this concern was a result of the rapid spread of the novel coronavirus (CoV) to different regions of the world and its high infectivity, especially for health care workers (HCW).3 In many ways, the high percent of HCW infected is a warning of the potential hazards of old and emerging infectious diseases.6 However, SARS was not the only disease (e.g. Monkeypox) that emerged in 2003,3 rather it received the greatest attention.

  17. Iron-containing phases in commercial beryllium

    The effect of hot and cold rolling with subsequent heat treatment on the interrelation of iron-containing phases and texture in commercial beryllium is considered. Using the Moessbauer microscopy it has been established that iron impurities are present both in solid solution and in the composition of intermetallide AlFeBe4 the texture for iron solid solution in beryllium is determined. Beryllium quenching results in nearly complete disappearance of intermetallic phase and iron transfers into substitutional solid solution. Further cold rolling does not result in any phase transformation

  18. Radiodiagnosis programs for the recognition of acute surgical diseases of the abdominal organs, retroperitoneal space and complications thereof

    Program for complex use of X-ray and ultrasonic diagnostic methods, X-ray computerized tomography was worked out in diseases of the abdominal organs, retroperitoneal space. Creation of such program was necessary due to acute surgical intervention in diseases of these organs (1750 patients with clinical picture of acute abdomen, 1350 patients with acute diseases of abdomen cavity organs). Obtaining of momentary information for diagnosis is required in most of cases. Schemes are suggested for complex usage of these diagnostic methods in different pathology, clinical symptoms, severity in patient state, technical possibilities of medical establishments

  19. Monitoring beryllium during site cleanup and closure using a real-time analyzer

    Schlager, R.J.; Sappey, A.D.; French, P.D. [ADA Technologies, Inc., Englewood, CO (United States)

    1998-12-31

    Beryllium metal has a number of unique properties that have been exploited for use in commercial and government applications. Airborne beryllium particles can represent a significant human health hazard if deposited in the lungs. These particles can cause immunologically-mediated chronic granulomatous lung disease (chronic beryllium disease). Traditional methods of monitoring airborne beryllium involve collecting samples of air within the work area using a filter. The filter then undergoes chemical analysis to determine the amount of beryllium collected during the sampling period. These methods are time-consuming and results are known only after a potential exposure has occurred. The need for monitoring exposures in real time has prompted government and commercial companies to develop instrumentation that will allow for the real time assessment of short-term exposures so that adequate protection for workers in contaminated environments can be provided. Such an analyzer provides a tool that will allow government and commercial sites to be cleaned up in a more safe and effective manner since exposure assessments can be made instantaneously. This paper describes the development and initial testing of an analyzer for monitoring airborne beryllium using a technique known as Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS). Energy from a focused, pulsed laser is used to vaporize a sample and create an intense plasma. The light emitted from the plasma is analyzed to determine the quantity of beryllium in the sampled air. A commercial prototype analyzer has been fabricated and tested in a program conducted by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, and ADA Technologies, Inc. Design features of the analyzer and preliminary test results are presented.

  20. Subacute radiation dermatitis: a histologic imitator of acute cutaneous graft-versus-host disease

    The histopathologic changes of radiation dermatitis have been classified either as early effects (necrotic keratinocytes, fibrin thrombi, and hemorrhage) or as late effects (vacuolar changes at the dermal-epidermal junction, atypical radiation fibroblasts, and fibrosis). Two patients, one exposed to radiation therapeutically and one accidentally, are described. Skin biopsy specimens showed an interface dermatitis characterized by numerous dyskeratotic epidermal cells with lymphocytes in close apposition (satellite cell necrosis); that is, the epidermal changes were similar to those in acute graft-versus-host disease. Because recipients of bone marrow transplants frequently receive total body irradiation as part of their preparatory regimen, the ability of radiation to cause persistent epidermal changes similar to those in acute graft-versus-host disease could complicate the interpretation of posttransplant skin biopsy specimens

  1. Outbreak of acute Chagas disease associated with oral transmission in the Rio Negro region, Brazilian Amazon

    Rita de Cássia de Souza-Lima

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Chagas disease is considered as emerging in the Brazilian Amazon, usually occurring in acute outbreaks. Methods We describe 17 cases of acute Chagas disease in Rio Negro, Amazonas. Results There were 15 males (average age, 31.3 years, all positive for Trypanosoma cruzi in fresh blood smear examination, and 14 positive by xenodiagnosis and PCR. The top clinical manifestations were fever, asthenia, abdominal pain, and palpitations. Electrocardiograms featured low-voltage QRS, anterosuperior divisional block, and right bundle branch block associated with anterosuperior divisional block. Conclusions All patients had consumed açaí products from Monte Alegre in the rural area around Santa Izabel do Rio Negro, Brazil.

  2. Outbreak of acute Chagas disease associated with oral transmission in the Rio Negro region, Brazilian Amazon

    Rita de Cassia de Souza-Lima

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Chagas disease is considered as emerging in the Brazilian Amazon, usually occurring in acute outbreaks. Methods We describe 17 cases of acute Chagas disease in Rio Negro, Amazonas. Results There were 15 males (average age, 31.3 years, all positive for Trypanosoma cruzi in fresh blood smear examination, and 14 positive by xenodiagnosis and PCR. The top clinical manifestations were fever, asthenia, abdominal pain, and palpitations. Electrocardiograms featured low-voltage QRS, anterosuperior divisional block, and right bundle branch block associated with anterosuperior divisional block. Conclusions All patients had consumed açaí products from Monte Alegre in the rural area around Santa Izabel do Rio Negro, Brazil.

  3. PIXE analysis of trace elements in hair and their correlation with acute cerebrovascular diseases

    The PIXE (proton induced X-ray emission) technique has been used to analyze trace elements in more than 200 human hair samples from 60 patients with acute cerebrovascular diseases and 28 normal controls. Trace element differences in hair between the patients and the normal controls have been observed. A Van de Graaff accelerator and a Si(Li) semiconductor at Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology of Sichuan University were used. (author)

  4. Competitive PCR for quantification of minimal residual disease in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    Nyvold, C; Madsen, H O; Ryder, L P;

    2000-01-01

    A very precise and reproducible polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was developed in order to quantify minimal residual disease (MRD) in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). A clone-specific competitor was constructed by introducing a restriction site in a PCR product identical to...... at least one malignant cell in 10(5) normal cells. This method may be used for treatment stratification based on the early response to antileukaemic therapy. Udgivelsesdato: 2000-Jan-13...

  5. Phenyl-α-tert-Butyl Nitrone Reverses Mitochondrial Decay in Acute Chagas’ Disease

    Wen, Jian-jun; Bhatia, Vandanajay; Popov, Vsevolod L.; Garg, Nisha Jain

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the mechanism(s) of mitochondrial functional decline in acute Chagas’ disease. Our data show a substantial decline in respiratory complex activities (39 to 58%) and ATP (38%) content in Trypanosoma cruzi-infected murine hearts compared with normal controls. These metabolic alterations were associated with an approximately fivefold increase in mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production rate, substantial oxidative insult of mitochondrial membranes and respir...

  6. Role of damage control enterostomy in management of children with peritonitis from acute intestinal disease

    Ameh, Emmanuel A; Michael A Ayeni; Stephen A Kache; Philip M Mshelbwala

    2013-01-01

    Background: Intestinal anastomosis in severely ill children with peritonitis from intestinal perforation, intestinal gangrene or anastomotic dehiscence (acute intestinal disease) is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Enterostomy as a damage control measure may be an option to minimize the high morbidity and mortality. This report evaluates the role of damage control enterostomy in the treatment of these patients. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of 52 children with acu...

  7. The Fecal Microbiome in Dogs with Acute Diarrhea and Idiopathic Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Jan S. Suchodolski; Melissa E Markel; Garcia-Mazcorro, Jose F.; Unterer, Stefan; Heilmann, Romy M.; Scot E Dowd; Kachroo, Priyanka; Ivanov, Ivan; Minamoto, Yasushi; Dillman, Enricka M.; Steiner, Jörg M.; Cook, Audrey K.; Toresson, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent molecular studies have revealed a highly complex bacterial assembly in the canine intestinal tract. There is mounting evidence that microbes play an important role in the pathogenesis of acute and chronic enteropathies of dogs, including idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of this study was to characterize the bacterial microbiota in dogs with various gastrointestinal disorders. Methodology/Principal Findings Fecal samples from healthy dogs (n = 32), dogs wi...

  8. Haemodialysis is an effective treatment in acute metabolic decompensation of maple syrup urine disease

    P.S. Atwal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Acute metabolic decompensation in maple syrup urine disease can occur during intercurrent illness and is a medical emergency. A handful of reports in the medical literature describe the use of peritoneal dialysis and haemodialysis as therapeutic inventions. We report the only patient from our centre to have haemodialysis performed in this setting. Combined with dietary BCAA restriction and calorific support, haemodialysis allows rapid reduction in plasma leucine concentrations considerably faster than conservative methods.

  9. Endothelial-cell injury in cutaneous acute graft-versus-host disease.

    Dumler, J S; Beschorner, W. E.; Farmer, E R; Di Gennaro, K. A.; Saral, R; Santos, G. W.

    1989-01-01

    The presence of an erythematous skin rash and hemorrhagic complications in acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) suggest that the vasculature may be involved in the immunopathologic process. We reviewed endothelial and vascular histopathologic changes on light microscopy and on immunoperoxidase stained sections of skin biopsies obtained from 41 HLA-identical allogeneic marrow transplant recipients with at least grade 2 GVHD. Biopsies taken from 14 allogeneic HLA-identical bone marrow transpl...

  10. Pathophysiology, prevention, and treatment of acute graft-versus-host disease

    Abhinav Deol; Voravit Ratanatharathorn; Uberti, Joseph P.

    2011-01-01

    Abhinav Deol, Voravit Ratanatharathorn, Joseph P UbertiDepartment of Oncology, Blood and Marrow Stem Cell Transplant Program, Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, USAAbstract: Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) is an immunologically mediated inflammatory reaction, which continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Although the occurrence and severity...