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Sample records for acute atropine intoxication

  1. Acute atropine intoxication with psychiatric symptoms by herbal infusion of Pulmonaria officinalis (Lungwort

    Enrique Baca-García

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Lungwort infusion is a preparation extracted from Pulmonaria officinalis which is occasionally used as a folk remedy for the common cold. The current report aims to describe acute atropine intoxications with delirium caused by Lungwort infusion in several members of the same family. Methods: Description of three case reports. Search of literature through Medline. Results: Three generations of a same family presented acute and moderately severe atropine intoxications after drinking an infusion prepared with Pulmonaria officinalis. Conclusions: Despite the lack of scientific evidence for its clinical use, medicinal plants continue being widely used. In spite of severe adverse effects reported, the general thought is that herbal remedies are harmless. To our knowledge, this is the first report of acute atropine intoxications with psychiatric symptoms secondary to Pulmonaria officinalis in several members of a family. We suspect that the lungwort infusion may have been contaminated with some other substance with atropinic properties.

  2. Acute Theophylline Intoxication: Case Report

    Zehra Baykal Tutal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Theophylline is an efficient bronchodilatator, which is used in the treatment of the disease such like Chronic Obstructive Pulmoner Disease (COPD neonatal apnea, bradycardial syndrome. Blood levels of theophylline above 15 ug/ml have risk of intoxication. Acute and chronic intoxication can be seen. Nausea, vomitin, agitation, palpitation and metabolic abnormalities such as, hyperglisemia, hypokalemia, impairment in acid base equilibrium and leukocytosis can be seen in acute theophylline intoxication. Acute theophylline intoxications can result life threatening situations such as convulsions, ventricular arrhythmias and death. Theophylline intoxications are often iatrogenic. In this case, the clinical course of a patient with COPD who took theophylline with the intention of suicide attempt is to mentioned and discussion of diagnosis, treatment and clinical course of acute theophylline intoxication was to aimed.

  3. Acute bromadiolone intoxication.

    Grobosch, Thomas; Angelow, Boris; Schönberg, Lena; Lampe, Dagmar

    2006-05-01

    A 55-year-old man came to the hospital with a bleeding wound on his tongue. The coating of his tongue was green, and his sputum was red. Because an increased international normalized ratio-value was measured, a blood sample was sent to our laboratory with the suspicion of coumarin intoxication. Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) analysis confirmed the poisoning was by bromadiolone, with its maximum serum concentration at 440 microg/L. The analysis of further samples resulted in a calculated elimination half-life of 140 h. The analytical method described was developed for the determination and quantitation of bromadialone using LC-MS. This method is suitable for the simultaneous identification and quantitation of 10 indirect anticoagulants in human serum, which include five superwarfarins (brodifacoum, bromadiolone, difenacoum, difethialone, and flocoumafen) as rodenticides licenced in Germany and five other vitamin K antagonists (acenocoumarol, coumatetralyl, coumachlor, phenprocoumon, and warfarin). The method is based on an acidic (pH 4.2) liquid-liquid extraction followed by LC-ESI-MS analysis. Analytical separation was carried out using an Atlantis C18 column (2.1 x 20 mm, 3 microm). The mobile phase consisted of methanol/0.1% formic acid; the flow rate was 0.6 mL/min, and the time needed for analysis was 5 min. The lower limit of quantitation was 5 microg/L (signal-to-noise > 10). PMID:16803669

  4. Acute isoniazid intoxication: case report

    Dilek Altun; Halil Cetingok; Gulay AsIk Eren; Zafer Cukurova; Oya Hergunsel

    2015-01-01

    Isoniazid is a bactericidal antituberculosis drug, used commonly for treatment and prophylaxis of tuberculosis. Acute isoniazid intoxication is characterized by a clinical triad consisting of metabolic acidosis with a high anion gap resistant to treatment with sodium bicarbonate, seizures which may be fatal and refractory to standard anticonvulsant therapy, and coma. Pyridoxine, in a dose equivalent to the amount of isoniasid ingested, is the only effective antidote. Here, we reported a 14 ye...

  5. Acute Hydrocephaly Following Methadone Intoxication in a Child

    Afshin FAYYAZI

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Infantile methadone intoxication has been on the rise since the usage of methadone in opioid detoxification programs. We report a 30-month-old child with encephalopathy and acute hydrocephaly following methadone intoxication.

  6. Quantification by HPLC-MS/MS of atropine in human serum and clinical presentation of six mild-to-moderate intoxicated atropine-adulterated-cocaine users

    Boermans, PAMM; Go, HS; Wessels, AMA; Uges, DRA

    2006-01-01

    An unexpectedly high number of initially suspected cocaine-intoxicated patients was presented to a general hospital in Lelystad, The Netherlands. Based on the unusual toxidram rate of not fitting cocaine intoxication, the suspicion of co-presence of an anticholinergic agent was raised. A newly devel

  7. Acute Alcohol Intoxication-Induced Microvascular Leakage

    Doggett, Travis M.; Breslin, Jerome W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Alcohol intoxication can increase inflammation and worsen injury, yet the mechanisms involved are not clear. We investigated whether acute alcohol intoxication elevates microvascular permeability, and investigated potential signaling mechanisms in endothelial cells that may be involved. Methods Conscious rats received a 2.5 g/kg alcohol bolus via gastric catheters to produce acute intoxication. Microvascular leakage of intravenously administered FITC-albumin from the mesenteric microcirculation was assessed by intravital microscopy. Endothelial-specific mechanisms were studied using cultured endothelial cell monolayers. Transendothelial electrical resistance (TER) served as an index of barrier function, before and after treatment with alcohol or its metabolite acetaldehyde. Pharmacologic agents were used to test the roles of alcohol metabolism, oxidative stress, p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, myosin light chain kinase (MLCK), rho kinase (ROCK), and exchange protein activated by cAMP (Epac). VE-cadherin localization was investigated to assess junctional integrity. Rac1 and RhoA activation were assessed by ELISA assays. Results Alcohol significantly increased FITC-albumin extravasation from the mesenteric microcirculation. Alcohol also significantly decreased TER and disrupted VE-cadherin organization at junctions. Acetaldehyde significantly decreased TER, but inhibition of ADH or application of a superoxide dismutase mimetic failed to prevent alcohol-induced decreases in TER. Inhibition of p38 MAP kinase, but not MLCK or ROCK, significantly attenuated the alcohol-induced barrier dysfunction. Alcohol rapidly decreased GTP-bound Rac1 but not RhoA during the drop in TER. Activation of Epac increased TER, but did not prevent alcohol from decreasing TER. However, activation of Epac after initiation of alcohol-induced barrier dysfunction quickly resolved TER to baseline levels. Conclusions Our results suggest that alcohol intoxication increases

  8. Acute water intoxication as another unusual manifestation of child abuse.

    Mortimer, J. G.

    1980-01-01

    A 4 1/2-year-old boy developed hyponatraemia with coma and convulsions as the result of acute water intoxication. Information subsequently obtained strongly suggested that the excessive water ingestion was enforced by a punitive foster father.

  9. Acute Isoniazid Intoxication: Convulsion, Rhabdomyolysis and Metabolic Acidosis

    OKUTUR, Sadi Kerem

    2006-01-01

    Isoniazid is one of the most commonly used antituberculous drugs. Acute intoxication is characterized by repetitious convulsions, high anion gap metabolic acidosis and coma. The basis of therapy consists of parenteral pyridoxine administration in a dose equivalent to that of isoniazid ingested. Here we present a case of acute isoniazid intoxication presenting with convulsions and metabolic acidosis with consequent rhabdomyolysis and discuss the clinical signs and pathophysiology of isoniazid ...

  10. Atropa Belladonna intoxication: a case report

    Berdai, Mohamed Adnane; Labib, Smael; Chetouani, Khadija; Harandou, Mustapha

    2012-01-01

    Atropa Belladonna is a poisonous plant also called deadly nightshade. Its roots, leaves and fruits contain alkaloids: atropine, hyocyamine and scopolamine. The risk of poisoning in children is important because of possible confusion with other berries. Atropa Belladonna acute intoxication is a severe condition, it's should be considered in the presence of anti-cholinergic toxidrome, the differential diagnosis include other plants or psychoactive drugs containing atropine. The treatment is mai...

  11. Acute interstitial nephritis with acetaminophen and alcohol intoxication

    Alexopoulou Iakovina; Fruchter Lauren L; Lau Keith K

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Drug-induced acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) represents a growing cause of renal failure in current medical practice. While antimicrobials and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are typically associated with drug-induced AIN, few reports have been made on the involvement of other analgesics. We report our experience in managing a 17-year-old female with AIN and subsequent renal injury following an acetaminophen overdose in conjunction with acute alcohol intoxication. It is well...

  12. Timing of early chelating therapy for acute uranium intoxication

    Rats were treated with DTPA and H-73-10 intraperitoneal injections 15 minutes to 4 days after acute uranium intoxication. The mortality and changes in body weight, kidney weight, renal histology and histochemistry were investigated. The results show that the renal damage could be diminished significantly by chelating therapy started 15 minutes and 6 hours after urnium poisoning. Single large dose injection (1 g/kg weight) of H-73-10 yielded the best result, and daily 0.5 g/kg of H-73-10 injection for 5 days is the next, both are better than single injection of DTPA (1 g/kg body weight). One day after intoxication there was still some protective effect. On the contrary, if the chelating therapy started 2-4 days after urnium poisoning it would increase the renal damage and the mortality. This is of great value to the correct selection of timing of chelating therapy for uranium intoxication

  13. Curative effects of Tiron on dogs with acute uranium intoxication

    It was reported that the tiron had good therapeutic effects on small animals with acute uranium intoxication. The tiron's therapeutic effects as a first aid on large animals (38 dogs) with acute uranium poisoning are reported in this paper. Indices reflecting its effect were as follows: excretion rate of uranium from the dogs, several appropriate biochemical tests, clinical manifestations, histo-pathological changes of kidney and liver, and also the mortality of dogs. The results showed that the tiron or a combination of tiron and NaHCO3 has a good therapeutic effect as a first aid on the dogs receiving lethal dose of uranyl nitrate

  14. Risk of Acute Kidney Injury and Long-Term Outcome in Patients With Acetaminophen Intoxication

    Chen, Yu-Guang; Lin, Cheng-Li; Dai, Ming-Shen; Chang, Ping-Ying; Chen, Jia-hong; Huang, Tzu-Chuan; WU, YI-YING; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Acetaminophen (APAP) intoxication is a common cause of hepatic toxicity and life-threatening hepatic failure. However, few studies have investigated the possible association between APAP intoxication and acute kidney injury (AKI). We constructed a retrospective cohort study to clarify the relationship between APAP intoxication and the risk of AKI. We identified patients with APAP intoxication and selected a comparison cohort that was 1:4 frequency matched according to age, sex, and y...

  15. [Cardioprotective effect of GABA derivatives in acute alcohol intoxication].

    Perfilova, V N; Tiurenkov, I N; Berestovitskaia, V M; Vasil'eva, O S

    2006-01-01

    Cardioprotective properties of GABA analogs under conditions of acute alcoholic intoxication have been studied using the following functional tests: volume loads, tests for adrenoreactivity, and maximum isometric load. The experiments showed that a 32% aqueous ethanol solution intraperitoneally injected in a dose of 8 g/kg produces a cardiotoxic action, which is manifested by a decrease in the inotropic reserve in load tests. Citrocard (50 mg/kg), phenibut (50 mg/kg), and piracetam (200 mg/kg) prevent the alcohol-induced myocardium injury, as shown by the heart contractility retained on a higher level in the test group than in the control group. PMID:16995433

  16. The mechanism of the antagonism by naloxone of acute alcohol intoxication.

    Badawy, A. A.; Evans, M

    1981-01-01

    Naloxone lowers blood-ethanol concentration and causes a simultaneous reversal of the disturbances in the redox states of the hepatic nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (phosphate) couples in acutely-ethanol-intoxicated rats. It is suggested that these effects of naloxone form the basis of its antagonism of acute alcohol intoxication.

  17. ApproachtoAcuteIronIntoxication: A Case Report

    Ülkü Özgül

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In adults, the main causes of iron poisoning are intake suicide attempts and an overdose of iron during pregnancy. The severity of intoxication depends on the amount of iron. When serum iron level exceeds the iron binding capacity of the body, free radicals occurs, leading to lipid peroxidation and cellular membrane damage. In iron poisoning, especially the liver, heart, kidney, lung, and hematologic systems are affected negatively. Acute iron poisoning can cause serious complications resulting in death. Clinical, laboratory observation and early treatment are important. In this case report, we examined to approach the acute iron poisoning with the occasion of high-dose iron intake for suicide attempt. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9: 107-9ntakeforsuicideattempt. (Journal of theTurkishSocietyIntensiveCare 2011; 9: 107-9

  18. Acute Hydrocephaly Following Methadone Intoxication in a Child

    Afshin FAYYAZI

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite this Article: Fayyazi A, Khajeh A, Bagheri M, Ahmadi S. Acute Hydrocephaly Following Methadone Intoxication in a Child. Iranian Journal of ChildNeurology 2012;6(1:35-38.Infantile methadone intoxication has been on the rise since the usage of methadone in opioid detoxification programs. We report a 30-month-old child with encephalopathy and acute hydrocephaly following methadone intoxication. References:1. Nazari H. Clinical approach to methadone toxication.Quarterly journal of Addiction 2007;2:18-20.2. Plummer JL, Gourlay GK, Cherry DA, Cousins MJ.Estimation of methadone clearance: application in themanagement of cancer pain. Pain 1988 Jun;33(3:313-22.3. Davies D, DeVlaming D, Haines C. Methadoneanalgesia for children with advanced cancer. PediatrBlood Cancer 2008 Sep;51(3:393-7.4. Riascos R, Kumfa P, Rojas R, Cuellar H, Descartes F.Fatal methadone intoxication in a child. Emerg Radiol2008 Jan;15(1:67-70.5. Binchy JM, Molyneux EM, Manning J. Accidental ingestion of methadone by children in Merseyside.BMJ 1994 May 21;308(6940:1335-6.6. Li L, Levine B, Smialek JE. Fatal methadone poisoningin children: Maryland 1992-1996. Subst Use Misuse2000 Aug;35(9:1141-8.7. Milroy CM, Forrest AR. Methadone deaths: atoxicological analysis. J Clin Pathol 2000 Apr;53(4:277-81.8. Afzali S, Jafari MR. One year study of chest X-raychanges in opiate-poisoned patients in Hamadan. JQom Uni Med Sci 2010; 4(2:3-7.9. Zamani N, Sanaei-Zadeh H, Mostafazadeh B. Hallmarksof opium poisoning in infants and toddlers. Trop Doct2010 Oct; 40(4:220-2.10. Besharat S, Besharat M, Akhavan Masouleh A, JabbariA, Yazdi HR. Opium intoxication in children under 5years old, Golestan- Iran (2006-07. J Gorgan Uni MedSci Spring 2010;12(1:85-9.11. Izadi Mood N, Gheshlaghi F, Sharafi SE. Fatalpoisoning cases admitted to the emergency departmentof poisoning, Noor Hospital, Isfahan. J Legal Med IslRep Iran 2003;9(31:122-26.12. Boushehri B, Yekta Z, Zareei-Kheirabad A, Kabiri SH

  19. Clinical report on 62 cases of acute dimethyl sulfate intoxication.

    Wang, Y; Xia, J; Wang, Q W

    1988-01-01

    Sixty-two cases of accidental acute intoxication from the inhalation of dimethyl sulfate (DMS) are reported. To facilitate clinical evaluation and treatment, as well as identification of capacity for physical labor, a grading system was established according to the history of exposure to DMS, symptoms and signs of respiratory mucosal irritation, findings on chest radiographs, and abnormalities of leukocyte count. Emergency treatment included prophylactic use of glucocorticoids, supplemental oxygen, sedatives, and antibiotics for prevention and treatment of laryngeal and pulmonary edema, pulmonary infections, and other complications. Follow-up studies for 2-12 years have found only mild to moderate impairment in ventilatory capacity in eight cases, with no abnormal findings in ECG, chest films, and routine blood tests. Nearly all patients have resumed their usual work. PMID:3364423

  20. Acute interstitial nephritis with acetaminophen and alcohol intoxication

    Alexopoulou Iakovina

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Drug-induced acute interstitial nephritis (AIN represents a growing cause of renal failure in current medical practice. While antimicrobials and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are typically associated with drug-induced AIN, few reports have been made on the involvement of other analgesics. We report our experience in managing a 17-year-old female with AIN and subsequent renal injury following an acetaminophen overdose in conjunction with acute alcohol intoxication. It is well established that acetaminophen metabolism, particularly at high doses, produces reactive metabolites that may induce renal and hepatic toxicity. It is also plausible however, that such reactive species could instead alter renal peptide immunogenicity, thereby inducing AIN. In the following report, we review a possible mechanism for the acetaminophen-induced AIN observed in our patient and also discuss the potential involvement of acute alcohol ingestion in disease onset. The objective of our report is to increase awareness of healthcare professionals to the potential involvement of these commonly used agents in AIN pathogenesis.

  1. Acute interstitial nephritis with acetaminophen and alcohol intoxication.

    Fruchter, Lauren L; Alexopoulou, Iakovina; Lau, Keith K

    2011-01-01

    Drug-induced acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) represents a growing cause of renal failure in current medical practice. While antimicrobials and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are typically associated with drug-induced AIN, few reports have been made on the involvement of other analgesics. We report our experience in managing a 17-year-old female with AIN and subsequent renal injury following an acetaminophen overdose in conjunction with acute alcohol intoxication. It is well established that acetaminophen metabolism, particularly at high doses, produces reactive metabolites that may induce renal and hepatic toxicity. It is also plausible however, that such reactive species could instead alter renal peptide immunogenicity, thereby inducing AIN. In the following report, we review a possible mechanism for the acetaminophen-induced AIN observed in our patient and also discuss the potential involvement of acute alcohol ingestion in disease onset. The objective of our report is to increase awareness of healthcare professionals to the potential involvement of these commonly used agents in AIN pathogenesis. PMID:21496243

  2. Experimental study on therapy of ultraviolet blood irradiation and oxygenation in acute soman intoxication in rabbits

    ZHANG Xian-qing; MU Shi-jie; ZHANG Xiao-di; CHEN Rui; XIA Ai-jun; LIANG Xin; HAI Chun-xu

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the therapy effect of ultraviolet blood irradiation and oxygenation(UBIO) on blood AChe activity and lung injury due to acute soman intoxication in rabbits. Methods :Forty rabbits were randomly divided into 4 groups: normal control group, intoxication group, routine therapy group and UBIO therapy group. Blood AChe activity and artery blood gas were analyzed 2 h after intoxication. ACP and AKP activities in BALF were determined respectively. Results:Blood AChe activity in intoxication group was lower than that in normal control group (P<0. 05). BALF ACP and AKP activities in intoxication group were higher than that in normal control group. Blood AChe activities in UBIO therapy group increased and were higher than that in intoxication and routine therapy groups. Compared with intoxication group, BALF ACP and AKP activities were decreased (P<0.05) in UBIO therapy group,while artery blood pH, PaO2 and SaO2 increased (P<0.05). Conclusion: UBIO therapy can elevate blood AChe activity and alleviate lung injury induced by soman intoxication. So it may be a new way to treat acute soman intoxication.

  3. Effectiveness of chelation therapy with time after acute uranium intoxication

    The effect of increasing the time interval between acute uranium exposure and chelation therapy was studied in male Swiss mice. Gallic acid, 4,5-dihydroxy-1,3- benzenedisulfonic acid (Tiron), diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), and 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-AS) were administered ip at 0, 0.25, 1, 4, and 24 hr after sc injection of 10 mg/kg of uranyl acetate dihydrate. Chelating agents were given at doses equal to one-fourth of their respective LD50 values. Daily elimination of uranium into urine and feces was determined for 4 days after which time the mice were killed, and the concentration of uranium was measured in kidney, spleen, and bone. The excretion of uranium was especially rapid in the first 24 hr. Treatment with Tiron or gallic acid at 0, 0.25, or 1 hr after uranium exposure significantly increased the total excretion of the metal. In kidney and bone, only administration of Tiron at 0, 0.25, or 1 hr after uranium injection, or gallic acid at 1 hr after uranium exposure significantly reduced tissue uranium concentrations. Treatment at later times (4 to 24 hr) did not increase the total excretion of the metal and did not decrease the tissue uranium concentrations 4 days after uranyl acetate administration. The results show that the length of time before initiating chelation therapy for acute uranium intoxication greatly influences the effectiveness of this therapy

  4. Risk of Acute Kidney Injury and Long-Term Outcome in Patients With Acetaminophen Intoxication

    Chen, Yu-Guang; Lin, Cheng-Li; Dai, Ming-Shen; Chang, Ping-Ying; Chen, Jia-Hong; Huang, Tzu-Chuan; Wu, Yi-Ying; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Acetaminophen (APAP) intoxication is a common cause of hepatic toxicity and life-threatening hepatic failure. However, few studies have investigated the possible association between APAP intoxication and acute kidney injury (AKI). We constructed a retrospective cohort study to clarify the relationship between APAP intoxication and the risk of AKI. We identified patients with APAP intoxication and selected a comparison cohort that was 1:4 frequency matched according to age, sex, and year of APAP intoxication diagnosis from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database from 1998 to 2010. We analyzed the risks of AKI for patients with APAP intoxication by using Cox proportional hazards regression models. In this study, 2914 patients with APAP intoxication and 11,656 controls were included. The overall risks of developing AKI were 2.41-fold in the patients with APAP intoxication compared with the comparison cohort. After we excluded APAP intoxication patients with coexisting AKI and hepatic failure/hepatitis, the overall risks of developing AKI were still 2.22-fold in the patients with APAP intoxication. There were 2 patients who had end-stage renal disease (ESRD) following APAP intoxication-related AKI. Limitations include retrospective review, selection bias, and absence of data on detail medications used, laboratory investigations and dosage of APAP intoxication. Our long-term cohort study results showed that AKI is a possible adverse effect among patients with APAP intoxication, regardless of whether patients have presented with hepatic toxicity. However, additional studies are necessary to clarify whether such patients can progress to ESRD. PMID:26579812

  5. Bath salt intoxication causing acute kidney injury requiring hemodialysis.

    Regunath, Hariharan; Ariyamuthu, Venkatesh Kumar; Dalal, Pranavkumar; Misra, Madhukar

    2012-10-01

    Traditional bath salts contain a combination of inorganic salts like Epsom salts, table salt, baking soda, sodium metaphosphate, and borax that have cleansing properties. Since 2010, there have been rising concerns about a new type of substance abuse in the name of "bath salts." They are beta-ketone amphetamine analogs and are derivates of cathinone, a naturally occurring amphetamine analog found in the "khat" plant (Catha edulis). Effects reported with intake included increased energy, empathy, openness, and increased libido. Serious adverse effects reported with intoxication included cardiac, psychiatric, and neurological signs and symptoms. Not much is known about the toxicology and metabolism of these compounds. They inhibit monoamine reuptake (dopamine, nor epinephrine, etc.) and act as central nervous system stimulants with high additive and abuse potential because of their clinical and biochemical similarities to effects from use of cocaine, amphetamine, and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine. Deaths associated with use of these compounds have also been reported. We report a case of acute kidney injury associated with the use of "bath salt" pills that improved with hemodialysis. PMID:23036036

  6. Intoxicación aguda en perro por toxinas de sapo (Bufo bufo - Acute intoxication in a dog by toxins of a toad (Bufo bufo

    Fernández-Palacios, O´Connor, Rocío

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLas intoxicaciones por toxinas de sapo no son frecuentes en España y su incidencia es mayor en primavera y verano. En este trabajo describimos un caso de intoxicación aguda de una perra de 4 años de edad tras la aprehensión de un sapo (Bufo bufo en la zona de Huelva. Los signos de una intoxicación comenzaron a los 15 minutos de entrar en contacto con el sapo muriendo a las 3 horas sin responder al tratamiento suministrado (corticoides, atropina, fluidoterapia y acepromazina. Aunque el diagnóstico fue precoz, a pesar del tratamiento se produjo la muerte en 3 horas.SummaryIntoxications by toad toxins are not frequent in Spain, and its incidence is greater in spring and summer. In this work it is described a case of an acute intoxication of a dog of 4 years old by toad toxins (Bufo bufo in the area of Huelva. The animal began to show signs of intoxication 15 minutes after the contact with the toad, dying 3 hours later without any response to the provided treatment (corticoids, atropine, fluidotherapy and acepromazine. Although the diagnosis was precocious and the treatment was administrated, after 3 hours the animal died.

  7. Lithium Intoxication

    Kesebir, Sermin; Üstündağ, Mehmet Fatih; Kavzoğlu, Semine Özdoğan

    2011-01-01

    Lithium has been commonly used for the treatment of several mood disorders particularly bipolar disorder in the last 60 years. Increased intake and decreased excretion of lithium are the main causes for the development of lithium intoxication. The influence of lithium intoxication on body is evaluated as two different groups; reversible or irreversible. Irreversible damage is usually related with the length of time passed as intoxicated. Acute lithium intoxication could occur when an overdose...

  8. Efficacy of chelating agents for treatment of acute uranium intoxication in rats

    Chelating agents (8102, 7601, 811, 7603, 8307, DTPA) were tested for treatment of acute uranium intoxication in rats. All phenolic chelating agents distinctively increased removal of uranium when they were injected immediately after intoxication of uranyl nitrate. 8102 was the best of them on removing uranium. After a single i.m. injection of 8102 at dose of 500 mg/kg, the excretion of uranium in the urine was 2.9 times higher than that for control, and the retention of uranium in kidneys was their 29%. When 8102 was administered 1 h before and up to 4 h after intoxication, it markedly increased the removal of uranium. When 8102 was administered to rats 1 h before intoxication, the histological lesion in kidneys was only a slight hydropic degeneration of the tubule epithelial cells. On the contrary, there wa a severe necrosis of the tubule epithelial cells in kidneys for controls

  9. 8102 and 7601 as antidotes for acute uranyl nitrate intoxication in rats

    The effect of phenolic chelating agents, 8102 and 7601, as antidotes for acute uranyl nitrate (100-500 mg/kg) intoxication was examined. The results show that after intraperitoneal injection of 50 mg of uranyl nitrate per kg, all the control rats died at 3rd and 4th days and exhibited acute renal tubular necrosis and protein casts. 8102 and 7601 could promote the animals survival and reduce the histologic lesion of kidneys in rats intoxicated with uranyl nitrate (100-350 mg/kg). 8102 is more effective than 7601

  10. [Acute intoxication in adults - what you should know].

    Zilker, Th

    2014-01-01

    Ingestion of household products and plants are the leading cause for calls to the poison control centres as far as children are involved. Severe intoxication in children has become infrequent due to childproofed package and blister packs for drugs. Chemical accidents in adults give rise to hospital admission in only 5 %. Suicidal selfpoisonings are still a challenge for paramedics, emergency and hospital doctors. Natural toxins as amatoxins, cholchicine and snakebites can lead to severe intoxication. Sedatives, antidepressants and analgesics are the drugs which are often used for suicidal intent due to their availability. Quetiapine and paracetamol are the drugs which are ingested for attempted suicide/ suicide mostly. The treatment of poisoning centers on the severity which can be judged by the poison severity score, the Reed classification or the GCS.Most intoxicated patients can be treated symptomatically or by intensive care measurements. Antidotal treatment however is needed for some specific poisonings.Exact sample drawing is essential for diagnostic and forensic purposes. There is no evidence based proof for the effectiveness of primary detoxification from the gastrointestinal tract like forced emesis, gastric lavage or the use of cathartics. Early after the ingestion of a harmful substance the administration of activated charcoal seems advisable. Hemodialysis can remove water soluble substances with a small volume of distribution. Multiple charcoal administration may exhibit some influence on secondary detoxification. Provision of evidence of the efficacy for newer antidotes like hydroxocobalamin in smoke inhalation, fomepizol for toxic alcohols and silibinin for amanita poisoning are emerging. Two recently recommended therapeutic principles have still to demonstrate their ability: Firstly the treatment of patients with calcium receptor antagonistic and beta-receptor antagonistic agents poisoning by high dose of insulin plus glucose, secondly the

  11. Another family with acute vitamin D intoxication: another cause of familial hypercalcaemia.

    Thomson, R B; Johnson, J K

    1986-01-01

    Acute vitamin D intoxication from an unknown source occurred in a family consisting of a grandmother, mother, father and four children aged 14, 11, 8 and 1 1/2 years old. The clinical presentation and response to treatment (which included a diphosphonate preparation and cholestyramine) are described.

  12. Motor performance during and following acute alcohol intoxication in healthy non-alcoholic subjects

    Poulsen, Mette Buch; Jakobsen, Johannes Klitgaard; Andersen, Henning;

    2007-01-01

    Chronic alcohol abuse has adverse effects on skeletal muscle, and reduced muscle strength is frequently seen in chronic alcoholics. In this study the acute effects of moderate alcohol intoxication on motor performance was evaluated in 19 non-alcoholic healthy subjects (10 women, 9 men). A...

  13. Lithium Intoxication

    Sermin Kesebir

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Lithium has been commonly used for the treatment of several mood disorders particularly bipolar disorder in the last 60 years. Increased intake and decreased excretion of lithium are the main causes for the development of lithium intoxication. The influence of lithium intoxication on body is evaluated as two different groups; reversible or irreversible. Irreversible damage is usually related with the length of time passed as intoxicated. Acute lithium intoxication could occur when an overdose of lithium is received mistakenly or for the purpose of suicide. Patients may sometimes take an overdose of lithium for self-medication resulting in acute intoxication during chronic, while others could develop chronic lithium intoxication during a steady dose treatment due to a problem in excretion of drug. In such situations, it is crucial to be aware of risk factors, to recognize early clinical symptoms and to conduct a proper medical monitoring. In order to justify or exclude the diagnosis, quantitative evaluation of lithium in blood and toxicologic screening is necessary. Following the monitoring schedules strictly and urgent intervention in case of intoxication would definitely reduce mortality and sequela related with lithium intoxication. In this article, the etiology, frequency, definition, clinical features and treatment approaches to the lithium intoxication have been briefly reviewed.

  14. ENFOQUE DEL PACIENTE CON INTOXICACIÓN AGUDA POR PLAGUICIDAS ORGANOS FOSFORADOS Organophosphorates: acute intoxication practical issues

    Carlos Mauricio Hurtado Clavijo

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Un gran número de insecticidas organofosforados se usan en todo el mundo a diario. Las intoxicaciones ocurren generalmente de forma accidental por exposición laboral, o intencional, con fines suicidas. Los organofosforados producen sus efectos tóxicos a través de la inhibición de la acetilcolinesterasa, la enzima responsable de la hidrólisis del neurotransmisor acetilcolina, produciendo ácido acético y colina, productos químicamente inertes. La unión entre los organofosforados y la acetilcolina es una unión irreversible espontáneamente, sin embargo, puede ser reversible con el uso de antídotos específico llamados oximas. La administración temprana de pralidoxima es crucial y muy útil si se inicia en las primeras seis horas luego de la intoxicación aguda. La atropina produce un beneficio clínico dramático para los síntomas muscarínicos del síndrome colinérgico. Pueden ocurrir complicaciones importantes en los pacientes por intoxicación con organofosforados, como hipotensión, arritmias cardíacas fatales, síndrome intermedio, distres respiratorio, neumonía y aún disfunción cerebral severa.Every day more organic phosphorus insecticides, are used in the entire world. Intoxications happen generally accidentally for exhibition work, or intentional as suicides. Organic phosphorus compounds, produces toxic effects, through the inhibition of the acetylcholinesterase, the enzyme responsible for the hydrolisys of the acetylcholine, neurotransmisor producing acetic acid and colina, chemically inert products. The binding between the organic phosphorus compounds and the acetylcholine is spontaneously and irreversible, however, it can be reversible with the use of an antidote specific called oximas. The early administration of pralidoxima is crucial, great benefits are obtained if it begins in the first six hours after the acute intoxication. Atropine produces a dramatic clinical benefit for the symptoms muscarinic of the syndrome

  15. Acute Alcohol Intoxication in Patients with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Characteristics, Recovery, and Outcome.

    Scheenen, Myrthe E; de Koning, Myrthe E; van der Horn, Harm J; Roks, Gerwin; Yilmaz, Tansel; van der Naalt, Joukje; Spikman, Jacoba M

    2016-02-15

    A substantial number of patients (30% to 50%) sustains a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) while they are under the influence of alcohol. An acute alcohol intoxication (AAI) at the time of injury has been subject of research in severe TBI, but little is known about the relation between AAI and mTBI. This study aimed to describe the characteristics of this intoxicated subgroup and evaluate recovery and outcome in comparison to sober mTBI patients. We included 528 mTBI patients (Glasgow Coma Scale [GCS] score 13-15) admitted to two Level 1 trauma centers as part of a prospective follow-up study. We compared clinical characteristics, demographics, and injury mechanism between groups. Post-concussive complaints, mood disorders, and post-traumatic stress-related complaints were assessed at 2 weeks post-injury, and outcome at 6 months with the Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOSE). Thirty-three percent of the mTBI patients were intoxicated. Results showed that the intoxicated group was younger (36 vs. 40 years; p = 0.001) and were more frequently of male gender (78% vs. 60%; p violence-related injuries. The intoxicated group was assessed with a lower GCS score and had a higher hospital admission rate. However, at 2 weeks post-injury, intoxicated patients reported less complaints than the non-alcohol group and showed a better recovery at 6 months (average GOSE scores 7 vs. 7.3; p = 0.030). We conclude that AAI in mTBI represents a characteristically different group, which has implications for prevention measures, as well as the course of recovery. PMID:26230219

  16. The Anion Gap is a Predictive Clinical Marker for Death in Patients with Acute Pesticide Intoxication.

    Lee, Sun-Hyo; Park, Samel; Lee, Jung-Won; Hwang, Il-Woong; Moon, Hyung-Jun; Kim, Ki-Hwan; Park, Su-Yeon; Gil, Hyo-Wook; Hong, Sae-Yong

    2016-07-01

    Pesticide formulation includes solvents (methanol and xylene) and antifreeze (ethylene glycol) whose metabolites are anions such as formic acid, hippuric acid, and oxalate. However, the effect of the anion gap on clinical outcome in acute pesticide intoxication requires clarification. In this prospective study, we compared the anion gap and other parameters between surviving versus deceased patients with acute pesticide intoxication. The following parameters were assessed in 1,058 patients with acute pesticide intoxication: blood chemistry (blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, glucose, lactic acid, liver enzymes, albumin, globulin, and urate), urinalysis (ketone bodies), arterial blood gas analysis, electrolytes (Na(+), K(+), Cl(-) HCO3 (-), Ca(++)), pesticide field of use, class, and ingestion amount, clinical outcome (death rate, length of hospital stay, length of intensive care unit stay, and seriousness of toxic symptoms), and the calculated anion gap. Among the 481 patients with a high anion gap, 52.2% had a blood pH in the physiologic range, 35.8% had metabolic acidosis, and 12.1% had acidemia. Age, anion gap, pesticide field of use, pesticide class, seriousness of symptoms (all P < 0.001), and time lag after ingestion (P = 0.048) were significant risk factors for death in univariate analyses. Among these, age, anion gap, and pesticide class were significant risk factors for death in a multiple logistic regression analysis (P < 0.001). In conclusions, high anion gap is a significant risk factor for death, regardless of the accompanying acid-base balance status in patients with acute pesticide intoxication. PMID:27366016

  17. Acute heroin intoxication in a baby chronically exposed to cocaine and heroin: a case report

    Pichini Simona; Vall Oriol; Palomeque Antonio; de la Torre Rafael; Civit Ester; Simó Marta; Fríguls Bibiana; Joya Xavier; Garcia-Algar Oscar

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Acute intoxication with drugs of abuse in children is often only the tip of the iceberg, actually hiding chronic exposure. Analysis using non-conventional matrices such as hair can provide long-term information about exposure to recreational drugs. Case presentation We report the case of a one-month-old Caucasian boy admitted to our pediatric emergency unit with respiratory distress and neurological abnormalities. A routine urine test was positive for opiates, suggesting...

  18. Spatiotemporal pattern of neuronal injury induced by DFP in rats: A model for delayed neuronal cell death following acute OP intoxication

    Organophosphate (OP) neurotoxins cause acute cholinergic toxicity and seizures resulting in delayed brain damage and persistent neurological symptoms. Testing novel strategies for protecting against delayed effects of acute OP intoxication has been hampered by the lack of appropriate animal models. In this study, we characterize the spatiotemporal pattern of cellular injury after acute intoxication with the OP diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP). Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats received pyridostigmine (0.1 mg/kg, im) and atropine methylnitrate (20 mg/kg, im) prior to DFP (9 mg/kg, ip) administration. All DFP-treated animals exhibited moderate to severe seizures within minutes after DFP injection but survived up to 72 h. AChE activity was significantly depressed in the cortex, hippocampus, subcortical brain tissue and cerebellum at 1 h post-DFP injection and this inhibition persisted for up to 72 h. Analysis of neuronal injury by Fluoro-Jade B (FJB) labeling revealed delayed neuronal cell death in the hippocampus, cortex, amygdala and thalamus, but not the cerebellum, starting at 4 h and persisting until 72 h after DFP treatment, although temporal profiles varied between brain regions. At 24 h post-DFP injection, the pattern of FJB labeling corresponded to TUNEL staining in most brain regions, and FJB-positive cells displayed reduced NeuN immunoreactivity but were not immunopositive for astrocytic (GFAP), oligodendroglial (O4) or macrophage/microglial (ED1) markers, demonstrating that DFP causes a region-specific delayed neuronal injury mediated in part by apoptosis. These findings indicate the feasibility of this model for testing neuroprotective strategies, and provide insight regarding therapeutic windows for effective pharmacological intervention following acute OP intoxication. - Research highlights: → DFP induced neuronal FJB labeling starting at 4-8 h after treatment → The pattern of DFP-induced FJB labeling closely corresponded to TUNEL staining → FJB

  19. [Pharmacological correction of toxic liver damage in patients with heavy forms of acute ethanol intoxication].

    Shikalova, I A; Shilov, V V; Vasil'ev, S A; Batotsyrenov, B V; Loladze, A T

    2012-01-01

    The efficiency of using remaxol and ademethionine in the therapy of patients with heavy acute alcohol intoxication on the background of toxic liver damage has been studied. The administration of remaxol led to improvement of the clinical treatment of alcohol intoxication, which is manifested by a decrease in the rate and duration of delirium tremens (from 33.9 to 10.8%), frequency of secondary lung disorders (from 18.5 to 3.1%), duration of stay in hospital (from 7.3 +/- 0.6 to 5.6 +/- 0.3 days), and total therapy duration (from 11.8 +/- 1.05 to 5.6 +/- 0.3 days). The results of biochemical investigations confirmed that remaxol and ademethionine provide effective treatment of the toxic liver damage. Remaxol decreases the degree of metabolic disorders to a greater extent than does ademethionine. PMID:22702109

  20. Polypharmacy May Be the Cause of Acute Lithium Intoxication at the Second Day of Treatment

    Tursun Irfan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Lithium is frequently used as a mood stabilizer in patients with mood disorders. Lithium has a narrow therapeutic index and high toxicity. Predisposing factors for intoxication are advanced age, diet disturbances, comorbid medical conditions affecting heart, kidneys or central nervous system and polypharmacy. CASE REPORT: Here we present a case of a 74-year-old woman with a history of Parkinson’s disease, hypertension and bipolar disorder. She was using quetiapine, valsartan with hydrochlorothiazide and levodopa with carbidopa. She presented with altered mental status and muscle rigidity. The patient was admitted with acute lithium intoxication after her second dose of treatment. Blood lithium level increased to 3.58 mEq/L. The woman was hospitalized in the Internal Medicine Intensive Care Unit. With hydration, her symptoms resolved and her lithium level returned to normal after 118 hours. CONCLUSIONS: Prescribing physicians and emergency room physicians should be aware of conditions which may cause a decreased threshold for intoxication.

  1. The emergency care of cocaine intoxications.

    Vroegop, M P; Franssen, E J; van der Voort, P H J; van den Berg, T N A; Langeweg, R J; Kramers, C

    2009-04-01

    Cocaine is frequently used, especially among adolescents and by men between the age of 25 and 44. Many of them are able to use cocaine in normal day-to-day life, without any problems. Reduced prices of cocaine and other recreational drugs such as MDMA (ecstasy) and gamma hydroxybutyrate (GHB) has led to an increased incidence of intoxications with these drugs. Since the production of cocaine is illegal, it may be impure and mixtures with other drugs such as atropine may occur. The treatment of patients with an acute cocaine intoxication can be complicated. Combination of cocaine with other drugs results in clinical pictures which are difficult to discriminate and that may have important consequences for treatment. PMID:19581655

  2. Does acute alcohol intoxication cause transaminase elevations in children and adolescents?

    Binder, Christoph; Knibbe, Karoline; Kreissl, Alexandra; Repa, Andreas; Thanhaeuser, Margarita; Greber-Platzer, Susanne; Berger, Angelika; Jilma, Bernd; Haiden, Nadja

    2016-03-01

    Several long-term effects of alcohol abuse in children and adolescents are well described. Alcohol abuse has severe effects on neurodevelopmental outcome, such as learning disabilities, memory deficits, and decreased cognitive performance. Additionally, chronic alcohol intake is associated with chronic liver disease. However, the effects of acute alcohol intoxication on liver function in children and adolescents are not well characterized. The aim of this study was to determine if a single event of acute alcohol intoxication has short-term effects on liver function and metabolism. All children and adolescents admitted to the Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine between 2004 and 2011 with the diagnosis "acute alcohol intoxication" were included in this retrospective analysis. Clinical records were evaluated for age, gender, alcohol consumption, blood alcohol concentration, symptoms, and therapy. Blood values of the liver parameters, CK, creatinine, LDH, AP, and the values of the blood gas analysis were analyzed. During the 8-year study period, 249 children and adolescents with the diagnosis "acute alcohol intoxication" were admitted, 132 (53%) girls and 117 (47%) boys. The mean age was 15.3 ± 1.2 years and the mean blood alcohol concentration was 0.201 ± 0.049%. Girls consumed significantly less alcohol than boys (64 g vs. 90 g), but reached the same blood alcohol concentration (girls: 0.199 ± 0.049%; boys: 0.204 ± 0.049%). The mean values of liver parameters were in normal ranges, but AST was increased in 9.1%, ALT in 3.9%, and γGT in 1.4%. In contrast, the mean value of AST/ALT ratio was increased and the ratio was elevated in 92.6% of all patients. Data of the present study showed significant differences in the AST/ALT ratio (p difference in alcohol metabolism and effects between girls and boys: girls need less alcohol than boys to achieve the same blood alcohol levels than boys, and are more prone to loss of consciousness. PMID:26992701

  3. Cerebral blood flow changes with acute cocaine intoxication: clinical correlations with SPECT, CT, and MRI.

    Mena, I; Giombetti, R J; Miller, B L; Garrett, K; Villanueva-Meyer, J; Mody, C; Goldberg, M A

    1994-01-01

    In summary, these data suggest that widespread primary or secondary cerebral vasoconstriction is common in patients with neurological complications from cocaine. In most patients, SPECT showed wide-spread hypoperfusion in regions that had no clear clinical significance (e.g., the periventricular area). In many, the SPECT was performed more than 24 hours after the onset of neurological symptomatology. These findings raise several questions. It has been assumed that these SPECT changes in patients with acute neurological symptoms are temporary, although it will be important to determine whether these areas of hypoperfusion persist after symptoms have abated. Recently, Holman and colleagues (1991) found multifocal and deep areas of hypoperfusion with SPECT in 16 of 18 patients with a history of chronic cocaine abuse. Although most of the subjects tested positive for cocaine, several had abstained from cocaine use for weeks prior to the study. All 18 subjects had neuropsychological deficits, 13 mild and 5 moderate. Similarly, Pascual-Leone and colleagues (1991) have shown that CT scan atrophy strongly correlates with the duration of cocaine abuse, suggesting that brain injury may occur with continued use of cocaine. It is the authors' concern that cocaine abuse might produce permanent changes in cerebral perfusion. In conclusion, brain SPECT was found to be a useful procedure in the evaluation of acute cocaine intoxication. Brain SPECT revealed focal cortical lesions not seen on head CT or MRI, which corresponded to clinical deficits. In addition, [99mTc]HMPAO brain SPECT had a characteristic scalloped appearance, and this may be a marker for acute intoxication with cocaine. This study further supports the contention that cocaine causes neurological disease by its vasoconstrictive action. PMID:7603541

  4. The reasonable application of atropine in the treatment of acute organic phosphorus poisoning%阿托品在治疗急性有机磷中毒中的合理应用

    彭育旋

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the reasonable application of atropine in the treatment of acute organic phosphorus poisoning. Methods:37 patients with acute organic phosphorus poisoning were selected.After emetic,gastric lavage and other routine therapy, they were given atropine treatment.We analyzed the recovery of the patients.Results:In 37 patients,the recovery of 36 cases(97.3%) was good after the use of atropine treatment.1 case(2.7%) died because of atropine poisoning.Conclusion:In the treatment process of patients with organic phosphorus poisoning,the reasonable application of atropine was the important factor for affecting the therapeutic effects.%目的:探讨阿托品在抢救急性有机磷农药中毒患者时的合理应用。方法:收治急性有机磷中毒患者37例,通过催吐、洗胃等常规治疗,再使用阿托品治疗,分析患者恢复情况。结果:37例患者中,使用阿托品治疗后恢复情况良好36例(97.3%),死于阿托品中毒1例(2.7%)。结论:在有机磷中毒患者救治过程中,合理应用阿托品是救治成功的重要因素。

  5. Assessment of Expression of Genes Coding GABAA Receptors during Chronic and Acute Intoxication of Laboratory Rats with Ethanol.

    Osechkina, N S; Ivanov, M B; Nazarov, G V; Batotsyrenova, E G; Lapina, N V; Babkin, A V; Berdinskikh, I S; Melekhova, A S; Voitsekhovich, K O; Lisitskii, D S; Kashina, T V

    2016-02-01

    Expression of genes encoding the individual subunits of ionotropic GABAA receptor was assessed after acute and chronic intoxication of rats with ethanol. The chronic 1-month-long exposure to ethanol signifi cantly decreased (by 38%) expression of Gabrb1 gene in the hippocampus. Acute exposure to ethanol elevated expression of genes Gabrb1 (by 1.7 times), Gabra1 (by 3.8 times), and Gabra4 (by 6.5 times), although it diminished expression of Gabra2 gene by 1.4 times. In preliminarily alcoholized rats, acute intoxication with ethanol enhanced expression of genes Gabrb1 and Gabra5 by 1.7 and 8.7 times, respectively. There was neither acute nor chronic effect of ethanol on expression of gene Gabra3. PMID:26902358

  6. Study on alkaline and acid phosphatase activity in acute uranium intoxication

    The protective potential of diethyl barbituric acid sodium salt is studied, in comparison with that of acetazolamide, on kidneys under acute uranium intoxication. Experiments involved rats given intraperitoneal injections with uranyl acetate on 12 successive days up to a total dose of 0.5, 2.0 or 7.0 mg/kg. The resulting effects are measured by chemical assays of serum and urine for alkaline and acid phosphatase and histochemical assays for phosphatase activities in kidneys, kinetics being followed over a 30-day period after total dose administration. Protection of kidneys from toxic uranium effects was found to be of about the same degree with sodium diethyl barbiturate as with acetazolamide. (A.B.)

  7. A Heart too Drunk to Drive; AV Block following Acute Alcohol Intoxication.

    van Stigt, Arthur H; Overduin, Ruben J; Staats, Liza C; Loen, Vera; van der Heyden, Marcel A G

    2016-02-29

    Acute excessive alcohol consumption is associated with heart rhythm disorders like atrial fibrillation but also premature ventricular contractions, collectively known as the "holiday heart syndrome". More rarely but clinically significant are reports of atrioventricular (AV) conduction disturbances in binge drinkers with no underlying heart disease or chronic alcohol consumption. To obtain better insights into common denominators and the potential underlying mechanisms we collected and compared individual case reports of AV block following acute alcohol intoxication in otherwise healthy people. By screening PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus and JSTOR, fifteen cases were found of which eight were sufficiently documented for full analysis. Blood alcohol levels ranged from 90 to 958 mg/dl (19 to 205 mM). Second and third degree AV block was observed most (6/8) albeit that in two of these patients a vagal stimulus led to deterioration from first into higher order AV block. In all cases, patients reverted to normal sinus rhythm upon becoming sober again. Mildly lowered body temperature (35.9 ± 0.5°C) was observed but can be excluded as a major cause of conduction blockade. We hypothesize that ethanol induced partial inhibition of calcium and potentially also sodium currents in conductive tissue structures may be one of the mechanisms of conduction slowing and block that may become exaggerated upon increased vagal tone. An impairment of gap junction function cannot be excluded as a contributing factor. In conclusion, cases of documented alcohol induced AV block are very rare but events can occur at relatively low serum alcohol levels which should prompt to awareness of this phenomenon in alcohol intoxicated patients. PMID:26875557

  8. 阿托品救治有机磷中毒不同给药途径的疗效比较%Study on Atropine Administration Methods in Rescuing Patients with Acute Organophosphorus Pesticide Poisoning

    黄新桥; 谭琪敏; 钟房友; 钟丽娴

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of different atropine medications in remedy of severely acute organophosphorus pesticide. Methods A retrospective study were performed.This study was carried out in 75 patients with acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning. The patients were divided into three groups according atropine medications: Group A(25 cases), were treated with intravenous injection of atropine and artificial; Group B(25 cases)directly with micro pump delivery, Group C(25 cases)achieved using micro-pump after atropine administration patients are atropine artificial intravenous injection, the patient achieved using micro-pump after atropine administration; Compared the efficacy and complications among the three groups. Results There is significant difference between minim continuous pump after atropine administration and interval injecting or minim continuous pump. As a result, the patients in Group C were more effective and fewer complications than that in Group A and C. Conclusion Using micro-pump after atropine administration artificial intravenous injection of atropine was the better effect, it has proved to be a fine medication.%目的:分析基层医院救治有机磷中毒患者时,阿托品不同给药方式的疗效差异,为探索其最佳给药方法提供依据。方法回顾分析75例急性有机磷农药中毒患者的临床资料,25例进行人工间歇静脉推注阿托品法(A 组),25例采用微量泵持续静脉输注阿托品法(B 组,25例先间歇静脉推注阿托品,达阿托品化后再用微量泵泵入阿托品(C 组),分析比较三组阿托品化时间、用量、住院时间、疗效以及不良反应和并发症。结果 C 组阿托品化时间、用量、住院时间、阿托品过量、不足中毒、用量、尿潴留和多器官功能损害等明显降低而治愈率显著提高(P <0.05)。结论采用阿托品人工静脉推注,待患者阿托品化再予以微量泵给药,不仅起效

  9. Marijuana intoxication

    Cannabis intoxication; Intoxication - marijuana (cannabis); Pot; Mary Jane; Weed; Grass; Cannabis ... The intoxicating effects of marijuana include relaxation, ... to fast and predictable signs and symptoms. Eating marijuana ...

  10. Acute heroin intoxication in a baby chronically exposed to cocaine and heroin: a case report

    Pichini Simona

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Acute intoxication with drugs of abuse in children is often only the tip of the iceberg, actually hiding chronic exposure. Analysis using non-conventional matrices such as hair can provide long-term information about exposure to recreational drugs. Case presentation We report the case of a one-month-old Caucasian boy admitted to our pediatric emergency unit with respiratory distress and neurological abnormalities. A routine urine test was positive for opiates, suggesting an acute opiate ingestion. No other drugs of misuse, such as cocaine, cannabis, amphetamines or derivatives, were detected in the baby's urine. Subsequently, hair samples from the baby and the parents were collected to evaluate the possibility of chronic exposure to drug misuse by segmental analysis. Opiates and cocaine metabolites were detected in hair samples from the baby boy and his parents. Conclusions In light of these and previous results, we recommend hair analysis in babies and children from risky environments to detect exposure to heroin and other drug misuse, which could provide the basis for specific social and health interventions.

  11. Risk of Acute Kidney Injury and Long-Term Outcome in Patients With Acetaminophen Intoxication: A Nationwide Population-Based Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Chen, Yu-Guang; Lin, Cheng-Li; Dai, Ming-Shen; Chang, Ping-Ying; Chen, Jia-Hong; Huang, Tzu-Chuan; Wu, Yi-Ying; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-11-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) intoxication is a common cause of hepatic toxicity and life-threatening hepatic failure. However, few studies have investigated the possible association between APAP intoxication and acute kidney injury (AKI). We constructed a retrospective cohort study to clarify the relationship between APAP intoxication and the risk of AKI.We identified patients with APAP intoxication and selected a comparison cohort that was 1:4 frequency matched according to age, sex, and year of APAP intoxication diagnosis from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database from 1998 to 2010. We analyzed the risks of AKI for patients with APAP intoxication by using Cox proportional hazards regression models.In this study, 2914 patients with APAP intoxication and 11,656 controls were included. The overall risks of developing AKI were 2.41-fold in the patients with APAP intoxication compared with the comparison cohort. After we excluded APAP intoxication patients with coexisting AKI and hepatic failure/hepatitis, the overall risks of developing AKI were still 2.22-fold in the patients with APAP intoxication. There were 2 patients who had end-stage renal disease (ESRD) following APAP intoxication-related AKI. Limitations include retrospective review, selection bias, and absence of data on detail medications used, laboratory investigations and dosage of APAP intoxication.Our long-term cohort study results showed that AKI is a possible adverse effect among patients with APAP intoxication, regardless of whether patients have presented with hepatic toxicity. However, additional studies are necessary to clarify whether such patients can progress to ESRD. PMID:26579812

  12. Management of exogenous intoxication by carbamates and organophosphates at an emergency unit

    Sydney Correia Leão

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Summary Objectives: to evaluate and indicate the procedure to be followed in the health unit, both for diagnosis and the treatment of acute exogenous intoxications by carbamates or organophosphates. Methods: a descriptive study based on retrospective analysis of the clinical history of patients diagnosed with intoxication by carbamates or organophosphates admitted at the emergency unit of the Hospital de Urgências de Sergipe Governador João Alves (HUSE between January and December of 2012. Some criteria were evaluated, such as: intoxicating agent; patient's age and gender; place of event, cause, circumstances and severity of the intoxication; as well as signs and symptoms of the muscarinic, nicotinic and neurological effects. Results: seventy patients (average age: 25±19.97 formed the study's population. It was observed that 77.14% of them suffered carbamate intoxication. However, organophosphate intoxications were more severe, with 68.75% of patients presenting moderate to severe forms. Suicide attempt was the leading cause of poisoning, with 62 cases (88.57% of total. Atropine administration was an effective therapeutic approach for treating signs and symptoms, which included sialorrhea (p=0.0006, nausea (p=0. 0029 and emesis (p lt0.0001. The use of activated charcoal was shown effective, both in combating the signs and symptoms presented by both patient groups (p <0.0001. Conclusion: it is concluded that the use of atropine and activated charcoal is highly effective to treat the signs and symptoms developed by patients presenting acute exogenous intoxication by carbamates or organophosphates.

  13. [Management of acute intoxication with paracetamol--Polish Medical Society, Section of Clinical Toxicology position statement].

    Waldman, Wojciech; Groszek, Barbara; Burda, Piotr; Wiśniewski, Marek; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2012-01-01

    Paper presents Polish Medical Society, Section of Clinical Toxicology position statement on the prehospital and hospital management in case of suspicion of intoxication with paracetamol. PMID:23243910

  14. Magnetic resonance analysis of the effects of acute ammonia intoxication on rat brain. Role of NMDA receptors.

    Cauli, Omar; López-Larrubia, Pilar; Rodrigues, Tiago B; Cerdán, Sebastián; Felipo, Vicente

    2007-11-01

    Acute ammonia intoxication leads to rapid death, which is prevented by blocking N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. The subsequent mechanisms leading to death remain unclear. Brain edema seems an important step. The aim of this work was to study the effects of acute ammonia intoxication on different cerebral parameters in vivo using magnetic resonance and to assess which effects are mediated by NMDA receptors activation. To assess edema induction, we injected rats with ammonium acetate and measured apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in 16 brain areas. We also analyzed the effects on T1, T2, and T2* maps and whether these effects are prevented by blocking NMDA receptors. The effects of acute ammonia intoxication are different in different brain areas. T1 relaxation time is reduced in eight areas. T2 relaxation time is reduced only in ventral thalamus and globus pallidus. ADC values increased in hippocampus, caudate-putamen, substantia nigra and cerebellar cortex, reflecting vasogenic edema. ADC decreased in hypothalamus, reflecting cytotoxic edema. Myo-inositol increased in cerebellum and substantia nigra, reflecting vasogenic edema. N-acetyl-aspartate decreased in cerebellum, reflecting neuronal damage. Changes in N-acetyl-aspartate, T1 and T2 are prevented by blocking NMDA receptors with MK-801 while changes in ADC or myo-inositol (induction of edema) are not. PMID:17727627

  15. Evaluation of paracetamol distribution and stability in case of acute intoxication in rats.

    Battal, D; Hilal, A; Daglioglu, K; Unal, I; Gulmen, Mk

    2013-01-01

    Effects of different storing conditions on paracetamol concentration in biological samples of acute intoxicated rats were investigated. The stability and distribution of paracetamol was observed in postmortem serum, liver, kidney and brain tissues. The serum samples were stored for 30 days and daily changes were evaluated for paracetamol. A significant difference (p = 0.05) was noticed on the 30th experimental day. Paracetamol serum levels changed as much as 66.30% and 33.78% for 4°C and -20°C, respectively. The stability of paracetamol in liver stored at -20°C was also evaluated for 30 days. The paracetamol concentration levels taken from liver samples dramatically decreased from 30.36% on the 1st day to 94.97% on the 30th day. The paracetamol distribution in organs was as 2.68 , 1.11 and 0.68 mg/g in liver, kidney and brain samples, respectively. Meaningful difference in paracetamol in serum and liver samples was in observed in 30th day values (p = 0.05). PMID:23111878

  16. Acute acetaminophen intoxication leads to hepatic iron loading by decreased hepcidin synthesis.

    van Swelm, Rachel P L; Laarakkers, Coby M M; Blous, Linda; Peters, Janny G P; Blaney Davidson, Esmeralda N; van der Kraan, Peter M; Swinkels, Dorine W; Masereeuw, Rosalinde; Russel, Frans G M

    2012-09-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP), a major cause of acute liver injury in the Western world, is mediated by metabolism and oxidative stress. Recent studies have suggested a role for iron in potentiating APAP-induced liver injury although its regulatory mechanism is not completely understood. The current study was designed to unravel the iron-regulating pathways in mice after APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. Mice with severe injury showed a significant increase in liver iron concentration and oxidative stress. Concurrently, the plasma concentration of hepcidin, the key regulator in iron metabolism, and hepatic hepcidin antimicrobial peptide (Hamp) mRNA expression levels were significantly reduced. We showed that hepcidin transcription was inhibited via several hepcidin-regulating factors, including the bone morphogenetic protein/small mother against decapentaplegic (BMP/SMAD) pathway, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα), and possibly also via erythropoietin (EPO). Downregulation of the BMP/SMAD signaling pathway was most likely caused by hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α), which was increased in mice with severe APAP-induced liver injury. HIF-1α stimulates cleaving of hemojuvelin, the cofactor of the BMP receptor, thereby blocking BMP-induced signaling. In addition, gene expression levels of C/ebpα were significantly reduced, and Epo mRNA expression levels were significantly increased after APAP intoxication. These factors are regulated through HIF-1α during oxidative stress and suggest that HIF-1α is a key modulator in reduced hepcidin transcription after APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. In conclusion, acute APAP-induced liver injury leads to activation of HIF-1α, which results in a downregulation in hepcidin expression through a BMP/SMAD signaling pathway and through C/EBPα inhibition. Eventually, this leads to hepatic iron loading associated with APAP cytotoxicity. PMID:22610607

  17. Rat liver mitochondrial damage under acute or chronic carbon tetrachloride-induced intoxication: Protection by melatonin and cranberry flavonoids

    In current societies, the risk of toxic liver damage has markedly increased. The aim of the present work was to carry out further research into the mechanism(s) of liver mitochondrial damage induced by acute (0.8 g/kg body weight, single injection) or chronic (1.6 g/ kg body weight, 30 days, biweekly injections) carbon tetrachloride – induced intoxication and to evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of the antioxidant, melatonin, as well as succinate and cranberry flavonoids in rats. Acute intoxication resulted in considerable impairment of mitochondrial respiratory parameters in the liver. The activity of mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase (complex II) decreased (by 25%, p 4 displayed obvious irreversible impairments. Long-term melatonin administration (10 mg/kg, 30 days, daily) to chronically intoxicated rats diminished the toxic effects of CCl4, reducing elevated plasma activities of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase and bilirubin concentration, prevented accumulation of membrane lipid peroxidation products in rat liver and resulted in apparent preservation of the mitochondrial ultrastructure. The treatment of the animals by the complex of melatonin (10 mg/kg) plus succinate (50 mg/kg) plus cranberry flavonoids (7 mg/kg) was even more effective in prevention of toxic liver injury and liver mitochondria damage. Highlights: ► After 30-day chronic CCl4 intoxication mitochondria displayed considerable changes. ► The functional parameters of mitochondria were similar to the control values. ► Melatonin + succinate + flavonoids prevented mitochondrial ultrastructure damage. ► The above complex enhanced regenerative processes in the liver.

  18. The impact of acute intoxications in a toxicological unit care in north east Italy.

    Majori, S; Ricci, G; Capretta, F; Loss, R; Baldovin, T; Cigolini, D; Tardivo, S; Zannoni, M

    2012-03-01

    Retrospective study in a toxicological unit care (TUC) performed to know the epidemiology of acute intoxication (AI) in Verona (Italy) during years 2008-2009. All data regarding patients with a diagnosis of certain/suspected AI were collected and evaluated: some demographic information, the characteristics of the agent involved, the pattern of exposure, the triage at the admission to TUC and the outcome. 244 cases were analyzed: 45.9% males and 54.9% females, mean age respectively 45.1 and 43.9 years. The monthly distribution of admitted patients resulted fairly constant, except from a light rising prevalence in autumn, with a majority of yellow (45.9%) and green (43.4%) triage code. The pattern of exposure resulted: ingestion (82.7% of cases; age peaks: 18-34 and 35-51 years old; mostly due to food (as mushrooms), drinks, detergents, soap, pharmaceutical, drugs of abuse, caustics substances), contact (10.2% of cases; age peak 18-51) and inhalation (6.9% of cases). In 17.2% of cases the poisoning exposure was intentional. In 63.5% the patients were sent to their general practitioners (45.5% of the yellow and 81.1% of the green coded patients) and in 22.1% of cases they were admitted to clinical rooms (44.6% of the yellow coded patients). In most cases the triage code assigned to the studied patients resulted yellow and green. Considering that the seriousness of the symptoms can appear after several hours from the exposure to toxic substances, a quick and specific intervention to obtain the best therapeutical effectiveness is suitable, in order to save lives or to avoid irremediable health damages. PMID:22803313

  19. Rat liver mitochondrial damage under acute or chronic carbon tetrachloride-induced intoxication: Protection by melatonin and cranberry flavonoids

    Cheshchevik, V.T. [Institute for Pharmacology and Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Len. Kom. Blvd. - 50, 230017 Grodno (Belarus); Department of Biochemistry, Yanka Kupala Grodno State University, Len. Kom. Blvd. - 50, 230017 Grodno (Belarus); Lapshina, E.A.; Dremza, I.K.; Zabrodskaya, S.V. [Institute for Pharmacology and Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Len. Kom. Blvd. - 50, 230017 Grodno (Belarus); Reiter, R.J. [Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, University of Texas Health Science Center, 7703 Floyd Curl Drive, San Antonio, TX 78229–3900 (United States); Prokopchik, N.I. [Grodno State Medical University, Gorkogo - 80, 230015 Grodno (Belarus); Zavodnik, I.B., E-mail: zavodnik_il@mail.ru [Institute for Pharmacology and Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Len. Kom. Blvd. - 50, 230017 Grodno (Belarus); Department of Biochemistry, Yanka Kupala Grodno State University, Len. Kom. Blvd. - 50, 230017 Grodno (Belarus)

    2012-06-15

    In current societies, the risk of toxic liver damage has markedly increased. The aim of the present work was to carry out further research into the mechanism(s) of liver mitochondrial damage induced by acute (0.8 g/kg body weight, single injection) or chronic (1.6 g/ kg body weight, 30 days, biweekly injections) carbon tetrachloride – induced intoxication and to evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of the antioxidant, melatonin, as well as succinate and cranberry flavonoids in rats. Acute intoxication resulted in considerable impairment of mitochondrial respiratory parameters in the liver. The activity of mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase (complex II) decreased (by 25%, p < 0.05). Short-term melatonin treatment (10 mg/kg, three times) of rats did not reduce the degree of toxic mitochondrial dysfunction but decreased the enhanced NO production. After 30-day chronic intoxication, no significant change in the respiratory activity of liver mitochondria was observed, despite marked changes in the redox-balance of mitochondria. The activities of the mitochondrial enzymes, succinate dehydrogenase and glutathione peroxidase, as well as that of cytoplasmic catalase in liver cells were inhibited significantly. Mitochondria isolated from the livers of the rats chronically treated with CCl{sub 4} displayed obvious irreversible impairments. Long-term melatonin administration (10 mg/kg, 30 days, daily) to chronically intoxicated rats diminished the toxic effects of CCl{sub 4}, reducing elevated plasma activities of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase and bilirubin concentration, prevented accumulation of membrane lipid peroxidation products in rat liver and resulted in apparent preservation of the mitochondrial ultrastructure. The treatment of the animals by the complex of melatonin (10 mg/kg) plus succinate (50 mg/kg) plus cranberry flavonoids (7 mg/kg) was even more effective in prevention of toxic liver injury and liver mitochondria damage

  20. Atropinic (Anticholinergic) Burden in Parkinson's Disease.

    De Germay, Sibylle; Montastruc, Jean-Louis; Rousseau, Vanessa; Chebane, Leila; Bondon-Guitton, Emmanuelle; Moulis, Florence; Durrieu, Genevieve; Bagheri, Haleh; Rascol, Olivier; Pariente, Antoine; Bégaud, Bernard; Montastruc, François

    2016-05-01

    Use of atropinic drugs remains controversial in Parkinson's disease (PD) because there is insufficient evidence about their efficacy and they can induce serious adverse drug reactions. Atropinic risk scales were developed to help to identify atropinic drugs in prescription forms and to evaluate their burden in clinical practice. In the present review, we discuss the few studies investigating atropinic burden in PD and present the results of our study indicating that atropinic drugs are still widely prescribed in PD (almost 3 of 5 prescriptions) with a clinically significant atropinic burden in around 1 of 6 PD patients. Drugs mainly responsible for high values of atropinic burden were those used for nonmotor symptoms. Clinically significant atropinic burdens were mainly induced by associations of several "low-risk" drugs. Physicians must be aware that in addition to classical atropinic antiparkinsonian drugs, many others (psychotropics) can contribute to increased atropinic burden in PD patients. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. PMID:27028036

  1. Acute cadmium intoxication induces alpha-class glutathione S-transferase protein synthesis and enzyme activity in rat liver

    Acute cadmium intoxication affects glutathione S-transferase (GST) in rat liver. It has been found that 24 h after i.p. cadmium administration to rats, at a dose of 2.5 mg CdCl2 kg-1 body weight, the activity of this enzyme in liver cytosol increased by 40%. A less stimulatory effect persisted till 48 h and thereafter the enzyme activity normalized. Since, GST isoenzymes belong to different classes in mammalian tissues, we used quantitative immunoassays to verify which family of GST isoenzymes is influenced by this intoxication. Only alpha-class glutathione S-transferase (α-GST) proteins were detected in rat liver cytosol and their level increased by about 25%, 24 h after cadmium treatment. No pi-GST isoforms were found in liver cytosol from either normal or cadmium-treated rats. Co-administration of actinomycin D with cadmium normalized both the protein level and the activity of α-GST, suggesting that some effect occurs on enzyme transcription of these isoenzymes by this metal. On the other hand, it seems unlikely that the stimulatory effect is due to the high level of peroxides caused by lipid peroxidation, since Vitamin E administration strongly reduced the TBARS level, but did not cause any GST activity decrease

  2. Acute Effects of Intoxication and Arousal on Approach/Avoidance Biases Toward Sexual Risk Stimuli in Heterosexual Men.

    Simons, Jeffrey S; Maisto, Stephen A; Wray, Tyler B; Emery, Noah N

    2016-01-01

    This study tested the effects of alcohol intoxication and physiological arousal on cognitive biases toward erotic stimuli and condoms. Ninety-seven heterosexual men were randomized to 1 of 6 independent conditions in a 2 (high arousal or control) × 3 (alcohol target BAC = 0.08, placebo, or juice control) design and then completed a variant of the Approach-Avoidance Task (AAT). The AAT assessed reaction times toward approaching and avoiding erotic stimuli and condoms with a joystick. Consistent with hypotheses, the alcohol condition exhibited an approach bias toward erotic stimuli, whereas the control and placebo groups exhibited an approach bias toward condom stimuli. Similarly, the participants in the high arousal condition exhibited an approach bias toward erotic stimuli and the low arousal control condition exhibited an approach bias toward condoms. The results suggest that acute changes in intoxication and physiological arousal independently foster biased responding toward sexual stimuli and these biases are associated with sexual risk intentions. PMID:25808719

  3. Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) measurement by GC-MS in blood, urine and gastric contents, following an acute intoxication in Belgium.

    Bodson, Q; Denooz, R; Serpe, P; Charlier, C

    2008-01-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB, sodium oxybate) is a compound related to neuromodulator gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), emerging as a recreational drug of abuse and as a rape drug. GHB-related emergencies have dramatically increased in the 1990s, but a decrease is observed since 2000. We describe the case of an acute GHB intoxication in a 28-year-old male who fell unconscious after ingestion of a mouthful of an unknown beverage, and required medical support for 2 days. A cocaine abuse was also detected by preliminary toxicological screening, but the clinical presentation was not typical of cocaine intoxication. A simple liquid-liquid extraction was used for quantitation of GHB, followed by disilyl-derivatization and analysis in selective ion monitoring (SIM) mode by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), using GHB-d6 as internal standard. High concentrations of GHB were detected in urine (3020 mg/L) and gastric contents (71487 mg/L) at admission. After a 6-hours delay, GHB was still present in urine at 2324 mg/L and in blood at 43 mg/L. The clinical symptoms of cocaine intoxication were diminished by GHB consumption, and the cerebral scan was modified. Attention must thus be paid to acute intoxications with surprising clinical symptoms, and GHB has probably to be added to the preliminary toxicological screening. Data available regarding GHB are briefly reviewed, and our results are compared with previously published reports of non-fatal GHB intoxication. PMID:18714853

  4. Patient with hepatocellular carcinoma related to prior acute arsenic intoxication and occult HBV: epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic results after 14 years of follow-up

    Casanovas-Taltavull, Teresa; Ribes, Josepa; Berrozpe, Ana; Jordan, Sara; Casanova, Aurora; Sancho, Concha; Valls, Carles; Bosch, F. Xavier

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about the long-term survivors of acute arsenic intoxication. We present here a clinical case report of a man with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection who developed hepatocellular carcinoma four years after acute arsenic poisoning. HBsAg was detected in serum in 1990 when he voluntarily donated blood. In 1991, the patient suffered from severe psychological depression that led him to attempt suicide by massive ingestion of an arsenic-containing rodenticide. He survived wit...

  5. The condition of hemato and liquor-encephalic barriers of the human brain in acute blood loss on the background of alcoholemia and drug intoxication

    Said Indiaminov

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available By means of the histological methods, scanning and transmission electronic microscopy the cerebral cortex of the brain (field 6, the walls of III and IV ventricles of the brain of dead people, who had died of acute anemia on the background of alcohol intoxication and drug intoxication, have been studied. Examination has found thinning of the basal membrane of capillaries, development of fissures in the places of contact of neighboring endothelial cells, also between basal membrane and endothelial cells, and swelling of pericytes. In the wall of brain ventricles, a marked polymorphism of the ependymal cells and disturbance of the continuity of the layer are noted. Accumulation of blood cells, thickening of detritus, crystal structures are seen on ependymal surface. Reported symptoms reflect the disturbance of permeability of hematoencephalic and liquor-encephalic barriers of the brain with a combination of traumatic blood loss with alcohol and drug intoxication.

  6. An Acute Case of Intoxication with Cyanobacteria and Cyanotoxins in Recreational Water in Salto Grande Dam, Argentina

    Leda Giannuzzi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacterial blooms and hepatotoxic microcystins (MCs usually occur in summer, constituting a sanitary and environmental problem in Salto Grande Dam, Argentina. Water sports and recreational activities take place in summer in this lake. We reported an acute case of cyanobacterial poisoning in Salto Grande dam, Argentina, which occurred in January 2007. Accidentally, a young man was immersed in an intense bloom of Microcystis spp. A level of 48.6 µg·L−1 of microcystin-LR was detected in water samples. Four hours after exposure, the patient showed nausea, abdominal pain and fever. Three days later, dyspnea and respiratory distress were reported. The patient was hospitalized in intensive care and diagnosed with an atypical pneumonia. Finally, a week after the exposure, the patient developed a hepatotoxicosis with a significant increase of hepatic damage biomarkers (ALT, AST and γGT. Complete recovery took place within 20 days. This is the first study to show an acute intoxication with microcystin-producing cyanobacteria blooms in recreational water.

  7. Clinical, laboratory and pathological findings in sub-acute monensin intoxication in goats.

    Deljou, Mahdi; Aslani, Mohammad Reza; Mohri, Mehrdad; Movassaghi, Ahmad Reza; Heidarpour, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Toxic effects of monensin, a polyether antibiotic mainly used as a coccidiostat, have been described in a wide range of animals. The present study was performed to investigate the toxic effects of monensin in goats. Seven adult goats were administered sodium monensin, 13.5 mg kg(-1), daily for five consecutive days via gastric gavage. Monensin toxicity was evaluated by clinical signs, serum biochemistry and pathology. Monensin exposure caused diarrhea, tachycardia and reduction in ruminal movements and body temperature. Significant increase of creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, total bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase were observed in monensin exposed goats. Reduction of erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase and elevation of serum malondialdehyde and troponin I were inconsistent. In necropsy, there were effusions in body cavities, vacuolar degeneration and coagulative necrosis in cardiac and skeletal muscles and renal tubular necrosis. These findings suggested that monensin intoxication in goats leads to cardiac, skeletal and renal damage and a wide range of biochemical abnormalities. Oxidative stress may be involved in the pathogenesis of monensin poisoning. PMID:25568713

  8. Influences of Situational Factors and Alcohol Expectancies on Sexual Desire and Arousal Among Heavy-Episodic Drinking Women: Acute Alcohol Intoxication and Condom Availability

    Gilmore, Amanda K.; George, William H.; Nguyen, Hong V.; Heiman, Julia R.; Davis, Kelly Cue; Norris, Jeanette

    2013-01-01

    Although studies suggest that alcohol increases women’s sexual desire, no studies to our knowledge have examined the effects of acute alcohol intoxication on women’s sexual desire. The majority of research examining alcohol’s effects on sexual arousal in women suggests that alcohol increases self-reported arousal. In an alcohol administration study in which women projected themselves into an eroticized scenario depicting a consensual sexual encounter with a new male partner, we examined the e...

  9. Post-exposure administration of diazepam combined with soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibition stops seizures and modulates neuroinflammation in a murine model of acute TETS intoxication

    Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine (TETS) is a potent convulsant poison for which there is currently no approved antidote. The convulsant action of TETS is thought to be mediated by inhibition of type A gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABAAR) function. We, therefore, investigated the effects of post-exposure administration of diazepam, a GABAAR positive allosteric modulator, on seizure activity, death and neuroinflammation in adult male Swiss mice injected with a lethal dose of TETS (0.15 mg/kg, ip). Administration of a high dose of diazepam (5 mg/kg, ip) immediately following the second clonic seizure (approximately 20 min post-TETS injection) effectively prevented progression to tonic seizures and death. However, this treatment did not prevent persistent reactive astrogliosis and microglial activation, as determined by GFAP and Iba-1 immunoreactivity and microglial cell morphology. Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) has been shown to exert potent anti-inflammatory effects and to increase survival in mice intoxicated with other GABAAR antagonists. The sEH inhibitor TUPS (1 mg/kg, ip) administered immediately after the second clonic seizure did not protect TETS-intoxicated animals from tonic seizures or death. Combined administration of diazepam (5 mg/kg, ip) and TUPS (1 mg/kg, ip, starting 1 h after diazepam and repeated every 24 h) prevented TETS-induced lethality and influenced signs of neuroinflammation in some brain regions. Significantly decreased microglial activation and enhanced reactive astrogliosis were observed in the hippocampus, with no changes in the cortex. Combining an agent that targets specific anti-inflammatory mechanisms with a traditional antiseizure drug may enhance treatment outcome in TETS intoxication. - Highlights: • Acute TETS intoxication causes delayed and persistent neuroinflammation. • Diazepam given post-TETS prevents lethal tonic seizures but not neuroinflammation. • A soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor alters TETS

  10. Central anticholinergic syndrome vs. idiosyncratic reaction triggered by a small IV dose of atropine.

    Cao, X; Cui, Y; White, P F; Tang, J; Ma, H

    2016-02-01

    A 58-year-old male was scheduled to undergo radical gastrectomy for cancer under general anesthesia. The patient developed agitation and irregular breathing after receiving a single dose of atropine (0.5 mg) to treat bradycardia immediately prior to induction of anesthesia. Within 5 min after the atropine injection, the patient became unresponsive with facial flushing and diaphoresis. When a drop in oxygen saturation was observed, a laryngeal mask airway was inserted after administering a small bolus dose of propofol (80 mg) and the patient was ventilated with 100% oxygen. Physostigmine was not administered because of the relatively low dose of atropine and the fact that his symptoms were not totally consistent with central anticholinergic syndrome (CAS). The differential diagnosis at the time also included an acute cardiovascular event and an idiosyncratic reaction to atropine. The patient fully recovered within 80 min from this highly unusual reaction to a single 0.5 mg IV dose of atropine. PMID:26471203

  11. Drinking to near death--acute water intoxication leading to neurogenic stunned myocardium.

    Losonczy, Lia I; Lovallo, Emily; Schnorr, C Daniel; Mantuani, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Neurogenic stunned myocardium is a rare disease entity that has been typically described as a consequence of subarachnoid hemorrhage and, less commonly, seizures. Here we describe a case of a healthy young woman who drank excessive free water causing acute hyponatremia complicated by cerebral edema and seizure, leading to cardiogenic shock from neurogenic stunned myocardium. Two days later, she had complete return of her normal cardiac function. PMID:26238098

  12. Acute Intoxication by Endosulfan: Any Role of N-Acetylcysteine Therapy?

    DEMİRCAN, Ahmet; ÇALIDAĞ, Elif; ÖZSARAÇ, Murat; Keleş, Ayfer; BİLDİK, Fikret

    2008-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species may play a role in the mediation of acetaminophen (APAP) hepatotoxicity. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is the standard therapy for treatment of the APAP overdose patient. The suspected mechanism of hepatic injury appears to be similar to that of APAP and the empiric use of NAC may be justified, especially in significant endosulfan poisoning. An 18-year-old male presented to the emergency department because of unconsciousness and seizure that developed after acute intentional...

  13. Hepatoprotective effects of polymethoxyflavones against acute and chronic carbon tetrachloride intoxication.

    Kim, Tae-Won; Lee, Dong-Ryung; Choi, Bong-Keun; Kang, Hwan-Kyu; Jung, Ju-Young; Lim, Seol-Wa; Yang, Seung Hwan; Suh, Joo-Won

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, we explore the protective effects of Citrus aurantium L. extract (CAE) against acute and chronic CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity. The quantitative analysis of CAE was performed using HPLC-UV to determine the nobiletin content was approximately 27%. For the acute model, the male ICR mice were orally treated with water, silymarin (positive control, 200 mg/kg) and CAE (50 and 200 mg/kg) for 3 days prior to CCl4 (1 mL/kg, 50% v/v in olive oil) IP injection. For the chronic model (n = 6/group), the mice were treated with each treatment for 28 consecutive days and CCl4 (1 mL/kg, 20%) was injected twice a week. In both the acute and chronic models, the CCl4 alone treated group showed histopathologic alterations with a significantly increase in serum hepatic enzyme levels together with a disrupted anti-oxidative status. In contrast, the CAE treatments restored pathologic alterations and recovered the oxidative status by enhancing antioxidant enzymes and reducing lipid peroxidation levels. Furthermore, CAE enhanced nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and its related cytoprotective signals, including NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1, UDP-glucuronosyltransferase, and γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase. Taken together, the present study demonstrates that CAE exerts a protective effect against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity with its anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic activity. PMID:26980244

  14. Sample research of hospitalized acute intoxication cases using an epidemiological form.

    Giunta, F; Capuzzo, M; Pizzirani, E; Polato, D; Giron, G P; Giusti, P; Cima, L; Marigo, M

    1981-10-01

    A form for recording acute toxicological cases has been preliminarily applied to a sample of 436 subjects admitted during 1978 into the hospitals of two districts of the Venetian Region. One was predominately manufacture and industry, and the other a mountain-agricultural area. The latter had medical facilities less uniformly distributed. Through epidemiological analysis, the acute poisoning cases from psychoactive drugs (benzodiazepines, barbiturates, antipsychotic agents, and tricyclic antidepressants) prevailed (37.9%). They were followed by acute cases from street heroin or other opiates in addicts (25.7%) that only occurred in the main town of the more industrialized district. The incidence of the other poisoning cases were in the following decreasing order: household poisons (9.8%), nonnarcotic analgesics (5.1%), agricultural poisons (4.1%), cardiovascular drugs (3.7%), miscellaneous drugs (1.4%), food and plants (1.4%), oral contraceptives (1.0%), viper envenomization (0.7%), and insect bites (0.7%). A rate of 8.5% was due to unidentified compounds. Mortality was 0.9% and death occurred after exposure to corrosives, carbon monoxide, or undetermined substances. Between the two districts there were no marked differences in emergency and general measures that mainly consisted in supportive treatment with forced diuresis (13.9%) and gastric lavage (only 21.4%). PMID:7341040

  15. Fatal colchicine intoxication

    Smael Labib

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Colchicine is an alkaloid extracted from autumnal Colchicum plant which is used primarily for its anti-inflammatory therapy effect. Acute intoxication with colchicine is uncommon but often severe and results in multiple visceral organ dysfunctions. The intoxication severity and mortality are directly depending on the ingested dose. The treatment is manly symptomatic. However, the development of specific anti-colchicine immunotherapy would offer a new therapeutic perspective. Authors report a case of a young patient that ingested 40 tablets colchicine, which caused a multiple organ failure and with fatal outcome.

  16. Bioconcentration and Acute Intoxication of Brazilian Freshwater Fishes by the Methyl Parathion Organophosphate Pesticide.

    de Salles, João Bosco; Lopes, Renato Matos; de Salles, Cristiane M C; Cassano, Vicente P F; de Oliveira, Manildo Marcião; Bastos, Vera L F Cunha; Bastos, Jayme Cunha

    2015-01-01

    Three species of freshwater Brazilian fishes (pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus; piavussu, Leporinus macrocephalus, and curimbatá, Prochilodus lineatus) were exposed to an acute dose of 5 ppm methyl parathion organophosphate pesticide. Three to five individuals per species were exposed, one at a time, to 40 liters tap water spiked with Folidol 600. Pesticide concentrations and cholinesterase (ChE) activities were evaluated in serum, liver, brain, heart, and muscle. The bioconcentration of methyl parathion was similar for all studied fishes. Brain tissue showed the highest pesticide concentration, reaching 80 ppm after exposure for 30 min to methyl parathion. Three to 5 hours of 5 ppm methyl parathion exposure provoked the death of all P. lineatus at 92% brain AChE inhibition, whereas fish from the other two species survived for up to 78 hours with less than 80% brain AChE inhibition. Our results indicate that acute toxic effects of methyl parathion to fish are correlated with brain AChE sensitivity to methyl paraoxon. PMID:26339593

  17. Mechanisms of Acute Alcohol Intoxication-Induced Modulation of Cyclic Mobilization of [Ca2+] in Rat Mesenteric Lymphatic Vessels

    Kerut, Edmund K.; Breslin, Jerome W.; Molina, Patricia E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: We have demonstrated that acute alcohol intoxication (AAI) increases the magnitude of Ca2+ transients in pumping lymphatic vessels. We tested the contribution of extracellular Ca2+ via L-type Ca2+ channels and intracellular Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) to the AAI-induced increase in Ca2+ transients. Methods and Results: AAI was produced by intragastric administration of 30% alcohol to conscious, unrestrained rats; isovolumic administration of water served as the control. Mesenteric lymphatic vessels were isolated, cannulated, and loaded with Fura-2 AM to measure changes in intracellular Ca2+. Measurements were made at intraluminal pressures of 2, 6, and 10 cm H2O. L-type Ca2+ channels were blocked with nifedipine; IP-3 receptors were inhibited with xestospongin C; and SR Ca2+ release and Ca2+ pool (Ca2+ free APSS) were achieved using caffeine. Nifedipine reduced lymphatic Ca2+ transient magnitude in both AAI and control groups at all pressures tested, but reduced lymphatic contraction frequency only in the control group. Xestospongin C did not significantly change any of the Ca2+ parameters in either group; however, fractional shortening increased in the controls at low transmural pressure. RyR (ryanodine receptor) activation with caffeine resulted in a single contraction with a greater Ca2+ transient in lymphatics from AAI than those from controls. SR Ca2+ pool was also greater in lymphatics isolated from AAI- than from control animals. Conclusions: These data suggest that 1) L-type Ca2+ channels contribute to the AAI-induced increase in lymphatic Ca2+ transient, 2) blockage of IP-3 receptors could increase calcium sensitivity, and 3) AAI increases Ca2+ storage in the SR in lymphatic vessels. PMID:26056854

  18. 急性乙醇中毒时猝死原因及防范%The Causes and Prevention Measures for the Sudden Death in Acute Alcoholic Intoxication

    许静; 孟庆义

    2011-01-01

    This paper discussed the causes and prevention measures for the sudden death in acute alcoholic intoxication. The main causes included the mis - aspiration, acute pancreatitis, cardiac emergencies, cerebral hemorrhage, disulfiram - like reaction, hypothermia, rhabdomyolysis, and hypotonic state after gastric lavage. That was instructive for the clinician to diagnosis and treatment for acute alcoholic intoxication and to avoid the medical malpractice in the clinical work.%本文对急性乙醇中毒时猝死的原因及防范措施进行了分析阐述,主要猝死原因有误吸、急性胰腺炎、心脏急症、脑出血、双硫仑样反应、低体温、横纹肌溶解和洗胃后低渗.希望能为临床医生正确地诊断与治疗急性乙醇中毒及避免医疗失误提供借鉴.

  19. Novel 14S,21-dihydroxy-docosahexaenoic acid Rescues Wound Healing and Associated Angiogenesis Impaired by Acute Ethanol Intoxication/Exposure

    Tian, Haibin; Lu, Yan; Shah, Shraddha P.; Hong, Song

    2010-01-01

    Acute ethanol intoxication and exposure (AE) has been known to impair wound healing and associated angiogenesis. Here we found that AE diminished the formation of novel reparative lipid mediator 14S,21-dihydroxy-docosa-4Z,7Z,10Z,12E,16Z,19Z-hexaenoic acid (14S,21-diHDHA) and its biosynthetic intermediate 14S-hydroxy-DHA (14S-HDHA) from docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in murine wounds. However, AE did not reduce the formation of DHA and the intermediate 21-HDHA. These results indicate that in the b...

  20. Post-exposure administration of diazepam combined with soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibition stops seizures and modulates neuroinflammation in a murine model of acute TETS intoxication

    Vito, Stephen T., E-mail: stvito@ucdavis.edu [Department of Entomology, College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Austin, Adam T., E-mail: aaustin@ucdavis.edu [Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of California-Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA 95817 (United States); Banks, Christopher N., E-mail: Christopher.Banks@oehha.ca.gov [Department of Molecular Biosciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Inceoglu, Bora, E-mail: abinceoglu@ucdavis.edu [Department of Entomology, College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Bruun, Donald A., E-mail: dabruun@ucdavis.edu [Department of Molecular Biosciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Zolkowska, Dorota, E-mail: dzolkowska@gmail.com [Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, University of California-Davis, Sacramento, CA 95817 (United States); Tancredi, Daniel J., E-mail: djtancredi@ucdavis.edu [Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of California-Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA 95817 (United States); Rogawski, Michael A., E-mail: rogawski@ucdavis.edu [Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, University of California-Davis, Sacramento, CA 95817 (United States); Hammock, Bruce D., E-mail: bdhammock@ucdavis.edu [Department of Entomology, College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Lein, Pamela J., E-mail: pjlein@ucdavis.edu [Department of Molecular Biosciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine (TETS) is a potent convulsant poison for which there is currently no approved antidote. The convulsant action of TETS is thought to be mediated by inhibition of type A gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABA{sub A}R) function. We, therefore, investigated the effects of post-exposure administration of diazepam, a GABA{sub A}R positive allosteric modulator, on seizure activity, death and neuroinflammation in adult male Swiss mice injected with a lethal dose of TETS (0.15 mg/kg, ip). Administration of a high dose of diazepam (5 mg/kg, ip) immediately following the second clonic seizure (approximately 20 min post-TETS injection) effectively prevented progression to tonic seizures and death. However, this treatment did not prevent persistent reactive astrogliosis and microglial activation, as determined by GFAP and Iba-1 immunoreactivity and microglial cell morphology. Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) has been shown to exert potent anti-inflammatory effects and to increase survival in mice intoxicated with other GABA{sub A}R antagonists. The sEH inhibitor TUPS (1 mg/kg, ip) administered immediately after the second clonic seizure did not protect TETS-intoxicated animals from tonic seizures or death. Combined administration of diazepam (5 mg/kg, ip) and TUPS (1 mg/kg, ip, starting 1 h after diazepam and repeated every 24 h) prevented TETS-induced lethality and influenced signs of neuroinflammation in some brain regions. Significantly decreased microglial activation and enhanced reactive astrogliosis were observed in the hippocampus, with no changes in the cortex. Combining an agent that targets specific anti-inflammatory mechanisms with a traditional antiseizure drug may enhance treatment outcome in TETS intoxication. - Highlights: • Acute TETS intoxication causes delayed and persistent neuroinflammation. • Diazepam given post-TETS prevents lethal tonic seizures but not neuroinflammation. • A soluble epoxide hydrolase

  1. Plant Intoxication Leading to Anticholinergic Syndrome

    Aslan N et al.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Datura stramonium is a widely abundant plant in Turkey. It is regarded as pipe plant, lough plant, sorcerer’s plant, or devil’s apple among the population. People may frequently use it against asthma, diarrhea, nocturia, hemorrhoids, acne, and regional pain symptoms. The plant contains L-hiyosiyamin and this molecule is responsible for the atropine and scopolamine intoxication findings. In this report, we present a case that was admitted to the emergency department with anticholinergic symptoms and diagnosed as Datura stramonium intoxication with history and physical examination findings. We aim to stress on the importance of recalling Datura stramonium intoxication especially in patients who present to the emergency departments with anticholinergic symptoms.

  2. Pesticide use, erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase level and self-reported acute intoxication symptoms among vegetable farmers in Nepal

    Neupane, Dinesh; Jors, E.; Brandt, L.

    2014-01-01

    majority of pesticides used were WHO class II, classified as moderately hazardous. The mean numbers of personal protective equipment used by farmers were 2.22 (95% CI: 1.89; 2.54). Out of five hygienic practices asked, farmers followed 3.63 (95% CI: 3.40; 3.86) hygienic practices on the average. Farmers...... of healthy individuals. A lower mean haemoglobin-adjusted AChE level was seen among farmers compared to the controls. The use of highly toxic pesticides, inadequate use of personal protective equipment and poor hygienic practices might explain the reason for symptoms of pesticide intoxication and a...... intoxication and Erythrocyte Acetylcholinesterase(AChE) levels among vegetable farmers with a control group of blood donors in Nepal. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 90 pesticide-exposed farmers and a control group of 90 blood donors. Participants were randomly selected and data were...

  3. Delayed Encephalopathy Associated with Carbon Monoxide Intoxication

    Huseyin Aydin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute carbon monoxide intoxication may cause coma and death. Patients usually recovier within days after prompt therapy. However, in a small number of patients, severe clinical deterioration may develop after a period with no apparent abnormality. This is called delayed type encephalopathy. We present MR imaging findings of a case of delayed encephalopathy due to carbon monoxide intoxication.

  4. Delayed Encephalopathy Associated with Carbon Monoxide Intoxication

    Hüseyin Aydın; Mürüvet Akın; Emel Boyraz; Murat Çolakkaya

    2011-01-01

    Acute carbon monoxide intoxication may cause coma and death. Patients usually recovier within days after prompt therapy. However, in a small number of patients, severe clinical deterioration may develop after a period with no apparent abnormality. This is called delayed type encephalopathy. We present MR imaging findings of a case of delayed encephalopathy due to carbon monoxide intoxication.

  5. A successful management of aluminum phosphide intoxication

    Moazezi, Zoleika; Abedi, Seyed Hassan

    2011-01-01

    Background: Aluminum Phosphide or rice tablet is one of the most common pesticides which leads to accidental or intentional acute intoxication and finally death. In this paper, we describe a successful management of intoxication with rice tablet in a young girl.

  6. 急性酒精中素对兔脑外伤后的影响%The influence of acute alcohol intoxication on rabbits with head injury

    徐永康; 张志强; 冯祖荫; 杨波; 孙红卫

    2001-01-01

    To study the influence of acute alcohol intoxication on rabbitswith head injury. Methods: 30 rabbits weredivided into three groups, ten in each one. Group A was nomal control group; group B was head injuried group;group C was alcoholintoxicated and head injuried group. Acute aleolhol intoxication of rabbits were made by gastric administration of ethanolnd headinjury by free drop hammer hitting skull. The changes of respiratory rate (RR), mean aterial blood pressure (MABP), intracranialpressure (ICP), middle cerebral artery flow velocity ( vmca)、 pulsafility index (PI) and cerebral vesscular diameter index( CVI ) weremearstured at different moments before and after head injury. SOD acfivifies、 LPO contents and water content in brain were detectedat 4 h after head injury. Restlts: The marked depression of respiratory, lower MABP, slower vmca,higher PI,less CVI, lower SOD,higher LPO and water content ( P > 0.01) were observed in alcohol intoxicated head injuried rabbits. Conclusion: Alcohol intoxication can result in signiticant respiratory depression, hypotension, cerebral vasospasm, and increase in resistance of cerebral bloodvessels, decrease in CBF, promoted free radical reactions and exacerbated brain edema following head injury.%目的:研究急性酒精中毒对兔脑外伤后的影响。方法:家兔30只,随机分为3组,每组10只。A组为正常对照组,B组为单纯脑外伤组,C组为酒精中毒加脑外伤组。乙醇灌胃法致使家兔急性酒精中毒,直接打击颅骨法制作急性颅脑损伤模型;于伤前、伤后一定时间测定呼吸频率、平均动脉压、颅内压、大脑中动脉血流速度(vmca)、脉搏指数(PI)、脑血管直径指数(CⅥ);伤后4h处死动物,测定脑组织超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活性、脂质过氧化物(LPO)含量及含水量。结果:C组伤后立即出现显著的呼吸抑制及低血压,vmca明显减慢,PI值显著升高,CVI明显减小,伤后4h

  7. Patient with hepatocellular carcinoma related to prior acute arsenic intoxication and occult HBV: Epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic results after 14 years of follow-up

    Casanovas-Taltavull, Teresa; Ribes, Josepa; Berrozpe, Ana; Jordan, Sara; Casanova, Aurora; Sancho, Concha; Valls, Carles; Bosch, F Xavier

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about the long-term survivors of acute arsenic intoxication. We present here a clinical case report of a man with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection who developed hepatocellular carcinoma four years after acute arsenic poisoning. HBsAg was detected in serum in 1990 when he voluntarily donated blood. In 1991, the patient suffered from severe psychological depression that led him to attempt suicide by massive ingestion of an arsenic-containing rodenticide. He survived with polyneuropathy and paralysis of the lower limbs, and has been wheelchair-bound since then. During participation in a follow-up study conducted among HBV carriers, abdominal ultrasound detected a two-centimeter liver mass consistent with hepatocellular carcinoma. The tumor was confirmed by computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance image (MRI). Because of his significant comorbidity, the patient received palliative treatment with transarterial lipiodol chemoembolization (TACE) on three occasions (1996, 1997 and 1999). At his most recent visit in May 2005, the patient was asymptomatic, liver enzymes were normal and the tumor was in remission on ultrasound. PMID:16610011

  8. Optimization of perfusion studies using Atropine

    The studies of myocardial perfusion require an adequate stress; exercise or pharmacological. Every day, more pharmacological studies are performed, specially in some group of patients (women, AMI, etc). There some drugs that are used for this purpose, as adenosine and dobutamine. However, their cost and the lack of availability and infrastructure in our country do not allow there routinely use. We performed dipyridamol as a pharmacological stress, however in some patients there is a doubt regarding if the pharmacological effect was adequate. Atropine is a drug that is frequently used for different purpose and it is well know its tachycardic response. We present and alternative technique, using dipyridamol-atropine as a protocol of stress perfusion study. Our goal was to correlate the standard dipyridamol -thallium perfusion study and the dipyridamol -atropine-perfusion in patients with chronic coronary disease. We evaluated 6 patients (5 males) with stable angina and chronic coronary disease. A standard dipyridamol-thallium study was performed in all of them. Dipyridamole was administered intravenously at a rate of 0.14 mg/kg/min over 6 min for a total of 0.84 mg/kg body weight. Blood pressure, heart rate, EKG and symptoms were monitored before, during and after the pharmacological infusion. Two minutes after the infusion was completed, the radiotracer was injected intravenously. In the next 6 months, without any modification of the clinical situation (symptoms and therapy) a new dipyridamol study was performed, using 1 mg of atropine after the administration of dipyridamol. There were no differences in the collateral effects and we observed and average increase of 30% in the heart rate in relation with the study using dipyridamol alone. The addition of atropine to the standard dipyridamol perfusion study is safe, cheaper and improved the detection of perfusion defects in patients with coronary artery disease

  9. The effect of acute alcohol intoxication on gut wall integrity in healthy male volunteers; a randomized controlled trial

    de Jong, Willem-Jan; Cleveringa, A. M.; Greijdanus, B.; Meyer, P.; Heineman, E.; Hulscher, J. B.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the effect of acute alcohol consumption on enterocytes. Chronic alcohol consumption has been known to induce a decrease in gut wall integrity in actively drinking alcoholics and patients with alcohol-induced liver disease. Data on the extent of the damage induced

  10. The effect of acute alcohol intoxication on gut wall integrity in healthy male volunteers; a randomized controlled trial.

    de Jong, W J; Cleveringa, A M; Greijdanus, B; Meyer, P; Heineman, E; Hulscher, J B

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the effect of acute alcohol consumption on enterocytes. Chronic alcohol consumption has been known to induce a decrease in gut wall integrity in actively drinking alcoholics and patients with alcohol-induced liver disease. Data on the extent of the damage induced by acute alcohol consumption in healthy human beings is scarce. Studies show that heavy incidental alcohol consumption is a growing problem in modern society. Data on this matter may provide insights into the consequences of this behavior for healthy individuals. In a randomized clinical trial in crossover design, 15 healthy volunteers consumed water one day and alcohol the other. One blood sample was collected pre-consumption, five every hour post-consumption, and one after 24 h. Intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) was used as a marker for enterocyte damage. Liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) were used as markers for hepatocyte damage. Lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) and soluble CD14 (sCD14) were used as a measure of translocation. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) was used to assess the acute inflammatory response to endotoxemia. Alcohol consumption caused a significant increase in serum I- and L-FABP levels, compared to water consumption. Levels increased directly post-consumption and decreased to normal levels within 4 h. LBP, sCD14, and IL-6 levels were not significantly higher in the alcohol group. Moderate acute alcohol consumption immediately damages the enterocyte but does not seem to cause endotoxemia. PMID:25559494

  11. Comparison of efficacy of atropine versus atropine with pralidoxime in organophosphorus poisoning

    Vikrama Raja

    2013-12-01

    Results: Total hospital stay was not significantly different between the treatment groups (95% CI of difference: -4.227, 0.784. Length of stay was also not significantly different between patients who received atropine plus PAM within 6 hours of consumption of poison and those who received 6 hours later (95% CI of difference: -4.154, 0.954; p value: 0.2. Conclusion: Our data supports the use of only atropine over atropine plus PAM in patients with OP poisoning on account of no significant difference /reduction of hospital/ICU stay and mortality in the latter group. However, a study with a larger sample needs to be conducted, to be able to draw a definitive conclusion. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(6.000: 810-813

  12. Development of a combined solution formulation of atropine sulfate and obidoxime chloride for autoinjector and evaluation of its stability.

    Ettehadi, Hossein Ali; Ghalandari, Rouhollah; Shafaati, Alireza; Foroutan, Seyed Mohsen

    2013-01-01

    Atropine (AT) and oximes, alone or in combination, have been proven greatly valuable therapeutics in the treatment of organophosphates intoxications. An injectable mixture of AT and obidoxime (OB) was formulated for the administration by automatic self-injector. The aqueous single dose solution contained 275 mg obidoxime chloride and 2.5 mg atropine sulfate per 1 mL (220 mg and 2 mg per 0.8 effective dose, respectively). The final solution was sterilized by filtration through a 0.22 μm pore size filter. This more concentrated solution allowed to use a smaller size and lighter weight cartridge. Quality control tests, including assay of the two major compounds were performed separately, using reversed-phase HPLC methods. Besides, the stability test was carried out according to ICH guideline for the accelerated test. The obtained results showed that the proposed formulation is stable over a period of 2 years after preparation. PMID:24250669

  13. [Research on whether atropine can be substituted by the powerful cycloplegic cyclopentolate].

    Xu, Jiang-tao

    2012-09-01

    For a long time, atropine eye ointment has been widely used as the cycloplegic for children's optometry in China, while internationally, cyclopentolate gutta is widely used as the first choice for cycloplegic. In recent years, 1% cyclopentolate hydrochloride ocular humor has been introduced to our country. This effective and powerful cycloplegic has already been paid close attention to by domestic pedo-ophthalmologists. According to a serious of studies both home and abroad on the therapeutic effects of the own control drugs, the cycloplegia effect of cyclopentolate is close to the atropine. Cyclopentolate can be widely used for the cycloplegia before optometry for the Chinese children. However, the effect of cyclopentolate is still not as good as atropine. So, for the children with farsightedness within 7 years old, all esotropia children, Am children, and children who suffer from decreased vision acuteness and needs to be excluded from accommodative myopia, atropine eye ointment should be routinely used for cycloplegia before optometry. In this article, we also discuss the medication dosage, medication method, possible drug adverse reactions of cyclopentolate humor ocular and the coping measures at the same time. PMID:23141569

  14. Bilateral vagotomy or atropine pre-treatment reduces experimental diesel-soot induced lung inflammation

    To investigate the role of the vagus nerve in acute inflammatory and cardiorespiratory responses to diesel particulate (DP) in the rat airway, we measured changes in respiration, blood pressure and neutrophils in lungs of urethane anesthetized Wistar rats 6-h post-instillation of DP (500 μg) and studied the effect of mid-cervical vagotomy or atropine (1 mg kg-1) pre-treatment. In conscious rats, we investigated DP, with and without atropine pre-treatment. DP increased neutrophil level in BAL (bronchoalveolar lavage) fluid from intact anesthetized rats to 2.5 ± 0.7 x 106 cells (n = 8), compared with saline instillation (0.3 ± 0.1 x 106, n = 7; P 6 cells (n = 8; P 6 (n = 4; P 6, n = 4, was reduced by pre-treatment with atropine to 2.2 ± 1.2 x 106 cells, n = 3. Hyperventilation occurred 6 h after DP in anesthetized rats with intact vagi, but not in bilaterally vagotomized or atropine pre-treated animals and was abolished by vagotomy (P < 0.05, paired test). There were no significant differences in the other variables (mean blood pressure, heart rate and heart rate variability) measured before and 360 min after DP. In conclusion, DP activates a pro-inflammatory vago-vagal reflex which is reduced by atropine. Muscarinic ACh receptors in the rat lung are involved in DP-induced neutrophilia, and hence muscarinic antagonists may reduce airway and/or cardiovascular inflammation evoked by inhaled atmospheric DP in susceptible individuals

  15. Ecstasy intoxication: the toxicological basis for treatment

    Ferigolo Maristela

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Youngsters are increasingly using 3,4 methylenedioxymethamphetamine, known as ecstasy, because it is wrongly believed that it does not induce harm. However, there are many reports of adverse effects, including acute intoxication, abuse potential, and possible neurotoxic effects. Therefore, health care providers need to promptly recognize the symptoms of systemic intoxication in order to initiate early treatment. The drug is used by the oral route for long hours during crowded dance parties. Acutely, ecstasy increases the release of serotonin and decreases its reuptake, leading to hypertension, hyperthermia, trismus, and vomiting. There is debate on whether recreational doses of ecstasy cause permanent damage to human serotonergic neurons. Ecstasy users showed a high risk of developing psychopathological disturbances. The prolonged use of ecstasy might induce dependence, characterized by tolerance and hangover. Acute ecstasy intoxication needs emergency-type treatment to avoid the dose-dependent increase in adverse reactions and in severity of complications. There are no specific antidotes to be used during acute intoxication. Supportive measures and medical treatment for each one of the complications should be implemented, keeping in mind that symptoms originate mainly from the central nervous system and the cardiovascular system.

  16. Effectiveness of a drinking-motive-tailored emergency-room intervention among adolescents admitted to hospital due to acute alcohol intoxication: A randomized controlled trial

    Wurdak, M.; Wolstein, J.; Kuntsche, E.N.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop and test the effectiveness of a drinking-motive-tailored intervention for adolescents hospitalized due to alcohol intoxication in eight cities in Germany between December 2011 and May 2012 against a similar, non-motive-tailored intervention. In a randomized contro

  17. [Metabolic therapy of postperitoneal intoxication].

    Vlasov, A P; Anaskin, S G; Vlasova, T I; Chivisov, S M; Shibitov, V A; Potyanova, I V; Selentsov, P V

    2012-01-01

    This clinico-laboratory study showed that antihypoxant remaxol promoted normalization of lipid metabolism in acute peritonitis and significantly reduced membrane-destabilizing events. This resulted in rapid elimination of the inflammatory process in the abdominal cavity and lowering of the intensity of endogenous intoxication. This beneficial effect decreased the severity of myocardial lesions and resulted in the normalization of erythrocyte function. It is concluded that the regulatory action of remaxol on lipid metabolism is due to its ability to control free radicals in lipid peroxidation and reduce phospholipase A2 activity. PMID:23285765

  18. Epidemiology Characteristics and Prognosis Risk Factors Analysis Research on Acute Pesticide Intoxication in One District%急性农药中毒流行特征及预后影响因素研究

    杜育刚; 李清雅; 陈建南

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the epidemiology characteristics of acute pesticide intoxication, then make clear the risk factors of acute pesticide intoxication prognosis, and explore its regularity of the poisoning and the feasibility of controlling measures. METHODS 306 cases of acute pesticide intoxication were collected from January 2007 to December 2011 with self-design questionnaire, and each data of them were collected. RESULTS In 306 cases, 173 cases (56.5%) were poisoned by orgnaophosphorus, 49 cases (16.0%) by pyrethroid and 81 cases (26.5%) by parquet. The risk factors affecting the prognosis of acute pesticide intoxication included sex (OR = 3.930), poisoning extent (OR = 10.166) , poisonous types (OR = 5.854) , oxygen inhale (OR =0.211), respiratory system abnormality (OR =6.180), fever (OR = 7.182), pulse (OR =4.063), renal functions (OR = 4.670) and electrocardiography (OR - 2.272). CONCLUSION We have made clear the epidemiology characteristics, and analyzed the risk factors of prognosis. We raise prevention and remedy strategies of acute pesticide intoxication.%目的 分析急性农药中毒病例的流行特征,摸清影响预后的危险因素,探讨其发病规律及可行的防治策略.方法 通过回顾性收集2007年1月~2011年12月期间的306例急性农药中毒病例;采用自行设计的调查表,收集各个病例的各种资料.结果 306例患者中,有机磷中毒173例(56.5%)、拟除虫菊酯中毒49例(16.0%)、百草枯中毒81例(26.5%)、其他中毒3例(1.0%);影响预后的因素包括性别(OR=3.930)、中毒程度(OR=10.166)、毒物种类(OR=5.854)、氧气吸入(OR=0.211)、呼吸系统异常(OR=6.180)、发热(OR=7.182)、脉搏(OR=4.063)、肾功能(OR=4.670)、心电图检查(OR=2.272)等指标.结论 摸清了急性农药中毒的流行特征,分析了影响预后的危险因素,并提出了急性农药中毒的预防和救治策略.

  19. The Nrf2 transcription factor contributes to the induction of alpha-class GST isoenzymes in liver of acute cadmium or manganese intoxicated rats: Comparison with the toxic effect on NAD(P)H:quinone reductase

    In rat liver, in addition to their intrinsic transferase activity, alpha-class GSTs have Se-independent glutathione peroxidase activity toward fatty acid hydroperoxides, cumene hydroperoxide and phospholipids hydroperoxides but not toward H2O2. We have previously shown that hepatic GST activity by these isoenzymes is significantly increased 24 h after cadmium or manganese administration (). Here it is reported that Se-independent glutathione peroxidase activity by alpha-class GSTs is also stimulated in the liver of intoxicated rats. The stimulation is associated with a higher level of alpha-class GST proteins, whose induction is blocked by actinomycin D co-administration. The observed Se-independent glutathione peroxidase activity is due to alpha-class GST isoenzymes, as indicated by the studies with diethyldithiocarbamate which, at any concentration, equally inhibits both GST and Se-independent glutathione peroxidase and is an uncompetitive inhibitor of both enzymes. As for liver Se-GSPx, it is not at all affected under these toxic conditions. For comparison, we have evaluated the status of another important antioxidant enzyme, NAD(P)H:quinone reductase, 24 h after cadmium or manganese administration. NQO1 too results strongly stimulated in the liver of the intoxicated rats. In these animals, a higher expression of Nrf2 protein is observed, actively translocated from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. The results with the transcription inhibitor, actinomycin D, and the effects on Nrf2 protein are the first clear indication that acute manganese intoxication, similarly to that of cadmium and other heavy metals, increases both the hepatic level of Nrf2 and its transfer from the cytoplasm to the nucleus where it actively regulates the induction of phase II enzymes

  20. Effectiveness of a drinking-motive-tailored emergency-room intervention among adolescents admitted to hospital due to acute alcohol intoxication — A randomized controlled trial

    Wurdak, M.; Wolstein, J; Kuntsche, E.N.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop and test the effectiveness of a drinking-motive-tailored intervention for adolescents hospitalized due to alcohol intoxication in eight cities in Germany between December 2011 and May 2012 against a similar, non-motive-tailored intervention. In a randomized controlled trial, 254 adolescents received a psychosocial intervention plus motive-tailored (intervention group; IG) or general exercises (control group; CG). Adolescents in the IG received exercises in ...

  1. Retarding Progression of Myopia with Seasonal Modification of Topical Atropine

    Paul CS Lu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate whether seasonal modification in the concentration of atropine drops is effective in retarding the progression of myopia. Methods: Two hundred and forty eyes of 120 healthy preschool- and school-age children in Chiayi region, Taiwan were recruited. The treatment group consisted of 126 eyes of 63 children who received atropine eye drops daily for one year and the control group included 114 eyes of 57 children who received nothing. The concentration of atropine eye drops was modified by seasonal variation as follows: 0.1% for summer, 0.25% for spring and fall, and 0.5% for winter. Refractive error, visual acuity, intraocular pressure (IOP, and axial length were evaluated before and after intervention. Results: Mean age was 9.1±2.8 years in the atropine group versus 9.3±2.8 years in controls (P=0.88. Mean spherical equivalent, refractive error and astigmatism were -1.90±1.66 diopters (D and -0.50±0.59 D in the atropine group; corresponding values in the control group were -2.09±1.67 D (P=0.97 and -0.55±0.60 D (P=0.85, respectively. After one year, mean progression of myopia was 0.28±0.75 D in the atropine group vs 1.23±0.44 D in controls (P<0.001. Myopic progression was significantly correlated with an increase in axial length in both atropine (r=0.297, P=0.001 and control (r=0.348, P<0.001 groups. No correlation was observed between myopic progression and IOP in either study group. Conclusion: Modifying the concentration of atropine drops based on seasonal variation, seems to be effective and tolerable for retarding myopic progression in preschool- to school-age children.

  2. Fatal cocaine intoxication in a body packer

    Brajković Gordana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. ‘Body packer’ syndrome with severe intoxication or sudden death may happen in persons who smuggle drugs in their body cavities. In case of lethal outcome when carrying cocaine, it is important, but sometimes difficult to determine whether death was due to intoxication or due to other causes. Therefore, it is necessary not only to quantify cocaine and its metabolites in biological material, but also based on their distribution in body fluids and tissues to conclude whether it is acute intoxication. We described a well-documented case of fatal poisoning in a body packer and post mortem distribution of the drug in biological samples. Case report. A 26-year-old man was brought to hospital with no vital signs. Resuscitation measures started at once, but with no success. Autopsy revealed 66 packets of cocaine in his digestive tract, one of which was ruptured. Hyperemia of the most of all internal organs and pulmonary and brain edema were found. High concentrations of cocaine, its metabolites benzoylecgonine and ecgonine methyl ester, as well as cocaine adulteration levamisole were proven in the post mortem blood and tissues by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MC method with selective-ion monitoring. Conclusion. The ratio of cocaine and its metabolites concentrations in the brain and blood obtained by LC-MS method can be used for forensic confirmation of acute intoxication with cocaine.

  3. Cattle acute intoxication by bracken fern ( Pteridium aquilinum, L. Kuhn) at north Paraná State-Brazil/
    Ocorrência de intoxicação aguda em bovinos pela samambaia ( Pteridium aquilinum, L. Kuhn) no norte do Paraná-Brasil

    Alexandre Amorim Monteiro; Reginaldo Pontes Fernandes; Marcelo Carlos Gargantini Marques; Ney Carlos Reichert Netto; Laurenil Gaste; Wilmar Sachetin Marçal

    2001-01-01

    The authors describe a case of acute intoxication by bracken fern ( Pteridium aquilinum) in a cattle herd raised in the city of Reserva, Parana State. A total of 25 animals died due to intoxication caused by the ingestion of large amounts of the toxic plant after the occurrence of a frost period in the winter month of July, 2000. Beside the herd clinical case, the authors present some considerations about the spreading of bracken fern in Parana, with particular interest in the environmental c...

  4. A case of bismuth intoxication with irreversible renal damage

    Erden A

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Abdulsamet Erden, Samet Karahan, Kadir Bulut, Mustafa Basak, Tuncay Aslan, Ali Cetinkaya, Hatice Karagoz, Deniz Avci Internal Medicine Department, Kayseri Training and Research Hospital, Kayseri, Turkey Abstract: Bismuth is a chemical element symbolized as Bi and is a trivalent poor metal, which chemically resembles arsenic and antimony. Colloidal bismuth subcitrate (CBS and bismuth subsalicylate are the bismuth salts widely used in the treatment of peptic ulcers, functional dyspepsia, and chronic gastritis. Intoxications with CBS are rare. In a few case reports, acute renal failure was described, but the literature review revealed no chronic renal failure related to CBS intoxication. In this case report we present a 21-year old female with chronic renal failure after a one year follow-up of CBS intoxication. Keywords: acute renal failure, bismuth, intoxication, chronic renal failure

  5. Cyanide intoxication with encephalitis clinic: a case report

    Dogan, Murat; Yilmaz, Cahide; Kaya, Avni; Caksen, Huseyin; Taskin, Gokmen

    2013-01-01

    Abstract.Cyanide intoxication is one of the most dangerous poisonings and may occur by oral, respiratuary and dermal routes. Central nervous system is the most susceptible region to acute cyanide intoxication. A 3.5-years-old-girl was brought to our pediatric emergency polyclinic with complaints of fever, dullness and convulsion. On physical examination, lethargy and agitation, increased deep tendon reflexes and bilateral extensor plantar response were determined. On brain magnetic resonance ...

  6. Effectiveness of a drinking-motive-tailored emergency-room intervention among adolescents admitted to hospital due to acute alcohol intoxication - A randomized controlled trial.

    Wurdak, Mara; Wolstein, Jörg; Kuntsche, Emmanuel

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to develop and test the effectiveness of a drinking-motive-tailored intervention for adolescents hospitalized due to alcohol intoxication in eight cities in Germany between December 2011 and May 2012 against a similar, non-motive-tailored intervention. In a randomized controlled trial, 254 adolescents received a psychosocial intervention plus motive-tailored (intervention group; IG) or general exercises (control group; CG). Adolescents in the IG received exercises in accordance with their drinking motives as indicated at baseline (e.g. alternative ways of spending leisure time or dealing with stress). Exercises for the CG contained alcohol-related information in general (e.g. legal issues). The data of 81 adolescents (age: M = 15.6, SD = 1.0; 42.0% female) who participated in both the baseline and the follow-up were compared using ANOVA with repeated measurements and effect sizes (available case analyses). Adolescents reported lower alcohol use at the four-week follow-up independently of the kind of intervention. Significant interaction effects between time and IG were found for girls in terms of drinking frequency (F = 7.770, p effect sizes of drinking frequency (d = - 1.18), binge drinking (d = - 1.61) and drunkenness (d = - 2.87) were much higher than the .8 threshold for large effects. Conducting psychosocial interventions in a motive-tailored way appears more effective for girls admitted to hospital due to alcohol intoxication than without motive-tailoring. Further research is required to address the specific needs of boys in such interventions. (German Clinical Trials Register, DRKS ID: DRKS00005588). PMID:26844193

  7. MERCURY INTOXICATION IN GRASS CARP (CTENOPHARYNGODON IDELLA)

    M. S. Khan, S. A. Khan, Z. I. Chaudhary, M. N. Khan,1 A. Aslam , K. Ashraf2, R. M. Ayyub and M. F. Rai.

    2004-01-01

    The present project was carried out to study the effects of acute and chronic mercury intoxication in Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). For acute phase experiment, 48 fish were divided into four equal groups (A, B, C and D). Groups B, C and D were given HgCl2 at sublethal dose as 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 mg/L, respectively, while group A acted as control. Skin, gills and kidneys were isolated from the fish after 48 and 96 hours for pathological studies. For chronic phase, 72 fish were divided int...

  8. 醒脑静注射液对急性酒精中毒大鼠抗氧化作用的干预研究%Intervention Study of Antioxidation Effect in Xingnaojing Injection on Acute Alcohol Intoxication

    张宇; 邸智勇; 胡慧静; 马晨光

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To research the intervention effect of Xingnaojing Injection on acute alcohol intoxication. Methods:After fasting for 12h,the acute alcohol intoxication model was made by 50% alcohol for 60 min. These rats were divided randomly into the treatment group with the Xingnaojing Injection and the control group with the normal saline. The alcohol tolerance time,the drunk shorten time,the SOD level and the alcohol concentration were detected after treatment. Results:In the treatment group,the alcohol tolerance lime was prolong and the drunk shorten time was shorten. Meanwhile,the oxidation degree in this group was reduced obviously. Conclu-siomThe Xingnaojing Injection has the protection and the antioxidation effect.%目的 观察醒脑静注射液对急性酒精中毒大鼠抗氧化作用的干预作用.方法 将80只月龄为8~10周的SD雄性大鼠,体质量240~260 g,禁食12h处理后分别灌胃醒脑静注射液和生理盐水,30 min后按照16 mL/kg用50%酒精灌胃.灌胃60 min后以翻正反射消失为指标判断大鼠急性酒精中毒模型.比较两组大鼠酒精耐受时间和醉酒时间;分别测定血浆氧自由基和超氧化物歧化酶的水平及血浆中乙醇的含量.结果 醒脑静注射液能够延长急性酒精中毒大鼠的酒精耐受时间、缩短醉酒时间;实验组氧化程度有明显降低.结论 醒脑静注射液对急性酒精中毒大鼠有保护和抗氧化作用.

  9. Resource utilization and outcomes of intoxicated drivers

    Camera Lindsay J

    2010-08-01

    to pay ≥ 90% of the charges. Further research using multivariable analysis is needed to determine if these apparent outcomes differences are driven by acute intoxication, and the tendency for endotracheal intubation and ICU admission, rather than injury severity.

  10. An analysis of dynamic CT curves of renal transplants with rejection and cyclosporin A intoxication

    The early differential diagnosis between transplant rejection and cyclosporin intoxication is often difficult, although it is important for treatment. We carried out dynamic CT on 48 occasions in patients with normal function, with acute tubular necrosis, rejection and cyclosporin A intoxication. Analysis of the timedensity of the cortex showed significantly slower enhancement with cyclosporin A intoxication than during rejection. The peak and the arterial curve were also delayed in cyclosporin A intoxication. This evidence of reduced cortical perfusion during cyclosporin A intoxication can be explained by the results of modern pathophysiological studies. In principle, it is possible to distinguish between cyclosporin A intoxication and rejection by means of dynamic CT, but for its routine use the nephrotoxicity of the contrast medium must be taken into account. (orig.)

  11. Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell-derived hepatocytes improve the mouse liver after acute acetaminophen intoxication by preventing progress of injury.

    Stock, Peggy; Brückner, Sandra; Winkler, Sandra; Dollinger, Matthias M; Christ, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells from human bone marrow (hMSC) have the potential to differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells in vitro and continue to maintain important hepatocyte functions in vivo after transplantation into host mouse livers. Here, hMSC were differentiated into hepatocyte-like cells in vitro (hMSC-HC) and transplanted into livers of immunodeficient Pfp/Rag2⁻/⁻ mice treated with a sublethal dose of acetaminophen (APAP) to induce acute liver injury. APAP induced a time- and dose-dependent damage of perivenous areas of the liver lobule. Serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) increased to similar levels irrespective of hMSC-HC transplantation. Yet, hMSC-HC resided in the damaged perivenous areas of the liver lobules short-term preventing apoptosis and thus progress of organ destruction. Disturbance of metabolic protein expression was lower in the livers receiving hMSC-HC. Seven weeks after APAP treatment, hepatic injury had completely recovered in groups both with and without hMSC-HC. Clusters of transplanted cells appeared predominantly in the periportal portion of the liver lobule and secreted human albumin featuring a prominent quality of differentiated hepatocytes. Thus, hMSC-HC attenuated the inflammatory response and supported liver regeneration after acute injury induced by acetaminophen. They hence may serve as a novel source of hepatocyte-like cells suitable for cell therapy of acute liver diseases. PMID:24758938

  12. Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Hepatocytes Improve the Mouse Liver after Acute Acetaminophen Intoxication by Preventing Progress of Injury

    Peggy Stock

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells from human bone marrow (hMSC have the potential to differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells in vitro and continue to maintain important hepatocyte functions in vivo after transplantation into host mouse livers. Here, hMSC were differentiated into hepatocyte-like cells in vitro (hMSC-HC and transplanted into livers of immunodeficient Pfp/Rag2−/− mice treated with a sublethal dose of acetaminophen (APAP to induce acute liver injury. APAP induced a time- and dose-dependent damage of perivenous areas of the liver lobule. Serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST increased to similar levels irrespective of hMSC-HC transplantation. Yet, hMSC-HC resided in the damaged perivenous areas of the liver lobules short-term preventing apoptosis and thus progress of organ destruction. Disturbance of metabolic protein expression was lower in the livers receiving hMSC-HC. Seven weeks after APAP treatment, hepatic injury had completely recovered in groups both with and without hMSC-HC. Clusters of transplanted cells appeared predominantly in the periportal portion of the liver lobule and secreted human albumin featuring a prominent quality of differentiated hepatocytes. Thus, hMSC-HC attenuated the inflammatory response and supported liver regeneration after acute injury induced by acetaminophen. They hence may serve as a novel source of hepatocyte-like cells suitable for cell therapy of acute liver diseases.

  13. Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Hepatocytes Improve the Mouse Liver after Acute Acetaminophen Intoxication by Preventing Progress of Injury

    Peggy Stock; Sandra Brückner; Sandra Winkler; Dollinger, Matthias M.; Bruno Christ

    2014-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells from human bone marrow (hMSC) have the potential to differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells in vitro and continue to maintain important hepatocyte functions in vivo after transplantation into host mouse livers. Here, hMSC were differentiated into hepatocyte-like cells in vitro (hMSC-HC) and transplanted into livers of immunodeficient Pfp/Rag2−/− mice treated with a sublethal dose of acetaminophen (APAP) to induce acute liver injury. APAP induced a time- and dose-depen...

  14. Unpacking intoxication, racialising disability.

    Chen, Mel Y

    2015-06-01

    This article examines concepts whose strictly medical applications have only partly informed their widespread use and suggests that demonstrably shared logics motivate our thinking across domains in the interest of a politically just engagement. It considers exchanges between the culturally complex concepts of 'toxicity' and 'intoxication', assessing the racialised conditions of their animation in several geopolitically--and quite radically--distinct scenarios. First, the article sets the framework through considering the racial implications of impairment and disability language of 'non-toxic' finance capital in the contemporary US financial crisis. Shifting material foci from 'illiquid financial bodies' to opiates while insisting that neither is 'more' metaphorically toxic than the other, the article turns to address the role of opium and temporality in the interanimations of race and disability in two sites of 19th-century British empire: Langdon Down's clinic for idiocy, and China's retort on opium to Queen Victoria. The article concludes with a provocation that suggests yet another crossing of borders, that between researcher and researched: 'intoxicated method' is a hypothetical mode of approach that refuses idealised research positions by 'critically disabling' the idealised cognitive and conceptual lens of analysis. PMID:26052116

  15. Optic atrophy and cerebral infarcts caused by methanol intoxication: MRI

    We present the MRI findings of cerebral and optic pathway damage in the acute and subacute stages of methanol intoxication. In the acute stage, CT and MRI showed bilateral haemorrhagic necrosis of the corpus striatum and infarcts in the anterior and middle cerebral arterial territories. MRI in the subacute stage demonstrated atrophy of the optic chiasm and prechiasmatic optic nerves in addition to the cerebral infarcts. The patient survived, with total blindness. (orig.)

  16. Immediate and Long-Term Outcome of Acute H2S Intoxication Induced Coma in Unanesthetized Rats: Effects of Methylene Blue.

    Takashi Sonobe

    Full Text Available Acute hydrogen sulfide (H2S poisoning produces a coma, the outcome of which ranges from full recovery to severe neurological deficits. The aim of our study was to 1--describe the immediate and long-term neurological effects following H2S-induced coma in un-anesthetized rats, and 2--determine the potential benefit of methylene blue (MB, a compound we previously found to counteract acute sulfide cardiac toxicity.NaHS was administered IP in un-sedated rats to produce a coma (n = 34. One minute into coma, the rats received MB (4 mg/kg i.v. or saline. The surviving rats were followed clinically and assigned to Morris water maze (MWM and open field testing then sacrificed at day 7.Sixty percent of the non-treated comatose rats died by pulseless electrical activity. Nine percent recovered with neurological deficits requiring euthanasia, their brain examination revealed major neuronal necrosis of the superficial and middle layers of the cerebral cortex and the posterior thalamus, with variable necrosis of the caudate putamen, but no lesions of the hippocampus or the cerebellum, in contrast to the typical distribution of post-ischemic lesions. The remaining animals displayed, on average, a significantly less effective search strategy than the control rats (n = 21 during MWM testing. Meanwhile, 75% of rats that received MB survived and could perform the MWM test (P<0.05 vs non-treated animals. The treated animals displayed a significantly higher occurrence of spatial search than the non-treated animals. However, a similar proportion of cortical necrosis was observed in both groups, with a milder clinical presentation following MB.In conclusion, in rats surviving H2S induced coma, spatial search patterns were used less frequently than in control animals. A small percentage of rats presented necrotic neuronal lesions, which distribution differed from post-ischemic lesions. MB dramatically improved the immediate survival and spatial search strategy in the

  17. Carbon monoxide intoxication

    Kales, S.N. (Cambridge Hospital, MA (United States))

    1993-11-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning usually results from inhalation of exhaust fumes from motor vehicles, smoke from fires or fumes from faulty heating systems. Carbon monoxide has a high affinity for hemoglobin, with which it forms carboxyhemoglobin. The resulting decrease in both oxygen-carrying capacity and oxygen release can lead to end-organ hypoxia. The clinical presentation is nonspecific. Headache, dizziness, fatigue and nausea are common in mild to moderate carbon monoxide poisoning. In more severe cases, tachycardia, tachypnea and central nervous system depression occur. When carbon monoxide intoxication is suspected, empiric treatment with 100 percent oxygen should be initiated immediately. The diagnosis is confirmed by documenting an elevated carboxyhemoglobin level. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is recommended in patients with neurologic dysfunction, cardiac dysfunction or a history of unconsciousness. 26 refs.

  18. Chelation in metal intoxication

    Aaseth, Jan; Skaug, Marit Aralt; Cao, yang;

    2015-01-01

    The present review provides an update of the general principles for the investigation and use of chelating agents in the treatment of intoxications by metals. The clinical use of the old chelators EDTA (ethylenediamine tetraacetate) and BAL (2,3-dimercaptopropanol) is now limited due to the...... inconvenience of parenteral administration, their own toxicity and tendency to increase the neurotoxicity of several metals. The hydrophilic dithiol chelators DMSA (meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid) and DMPS (2,3-dimercapto-propanesulphonate) are less toxic and more efficient than BAL in the clinical treatment...... of heavy metal poisoning, and available as capsules for oral use. In copper overload, DMSA appears to be a potent antidote, although d-penicillamine is still widely used. In the chelation of iron, the thiols are inefficient, since iron has higher affinity for ligands with nitrogen and oxygen, but the...

  19. Obstrucción aguda de la vía respiratoria superior y rabdomiolisis luego de intoxicación por tintura para el cabello Acute upper respiratory obstruction and rhabdomiolysis due to intoxication with a hair dye

    Claudia Arroyave

    2004-09-01

    the airway involvement the patient presented acute pulmonary edema and subsequently pneumonia that required antibioticotherapy. Additionally, she had severe rhabdomyolysis that was treated with adequate fluid administration to avoid alterations in renal function. She remained at hospital for ten days and was discharged in good condition. We review the possible pathophysiologic mechanisms, the clinical manifestations and the treatment of paraphenylenediamine intoxication because this compound was the most important cause of the clinical manifestations of our patient.

  20. Delayed Encephalopathy of Carbon Monoxide Intoxication and Treatment with Hyperbaric Oxygen: A Case Report

    Fatma Polat

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Delayed encephalopathy (DE is a neuropsychiatric syndrome that can arise generally within 20 days of acute carbon monoxide (CO intoxication after apparent recovery and involves variable degrees of cognitive deficits, personality changes, movement disorders and focal neurologic deficits. We report a 35-year-old female patient with delayed encephalopathy due to CO intoxication, presenting with cognitive impairment and mild parkinsonism despite receiving hyberbaric oxigen therapy (HBO. Magnetic resonance imaging showed abnormal signal intensity and decreased diffusivity at both caudate nuclei and globus pallidus. She continued to receive additional HBO therapy and complete recovery was reached within six months. The positive effect of early HBO therapy of selected patients in reversing the acute effects of CO intoxication is appearant. We here also review the beneficial effect of HBO in preventing or limitating the late neurocognitive deficits associated with severe CO intoxication.

  1. Vitamin D intoxication.

    Ozkan, Behzat; Hatun, Sükrü; Bereket, Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin D intoxication (VDI) may result from supplementation rarely, but it has been reported more frequently in recent years. This may be attributable to an increase in vitamin D supplement intake due to an understanding of the role of vitamin D (25OHD) in the pathogenesis of several diseases. The symptoms and findings associated with VDI are closely related to serum calcium concentration and duration of hypercalcemia. In patients with VDI, hypercalcemia, normal or high serum phosphorus levels, normal or low levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), high levels of serum 25OHD, low serum parathyroid hormone (PTH), and high urine calcium/creatinine are usually present. Serum 25OHD levels above 150 ng/ml are considered as VDI. The main goal of treatment for VDI is correction of the hypercalcemia. When the calcium concentration exceeds 14 mg/dl, emergency intervention is necessary because of the adverse effects of hypercalcemia on cardiac, central nervous system, renal, and gastrointestinal functions. However, since vitamin D is stored in fat tissues, effects of toxicity may last for months despite the removal of the exogenous source of vitamin D. Treatment for VDI includes: discontinuation of intake, a diet with low calcium and phosphorus content, intravenous hydration with saline, loop diuretics, glucocorticoids, calcitonin, and bisphosphonates. In conclusion, the diagnosis of vitamin D deficiency rickets (VDDR) without checking serum 25OHD level may cause redundant treatment that leads to VDI. All patients who are clinically suspected of VDDR should be checked for serum vitamin D status and questioned for previous vitamin D administration before starting vitamin D therapy. On the other hand, parents of all infants should be asked whether they are using dietary or oral supplements, and serial questioning may be required during supplementation to avoid excessive intake. PMID:22734293

  2. Effect of Intensive Atropine Doses (Rapid Incremental Loading and Titration for Management of Organophosphorus Pesticide Poisoning: a Case Series

    Abu Saleh Ahmed

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background:Acute poisoning with organophosphorus (OP pesticides is a common method of suicide and entails considerable mortality in Bangladesh. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects and outcomes of a protocol for treatment of OP poisoning that included titrated incremental atropine as loading dose and slow infusion for maintenance.  Methods:In this prospective descriptive case series, definitive OP poisoned patients were enrolled in an adult medicine unit of Dhaka Medical College Hospital from April 2006 to April 2007. Clinical examinations were done as soon as the patient entered the ward. Patient’s demographics, comorbid conditions and the occurrence of specific clinical outcomes including death, need for assisted ventilation and clinical complications were recorded. The patients were treated according to the protocol. Results: A total of 56 patients were enrolled over the study period. The median age of the study population was 22.5 years. Most patients were men (67.8%. The most common clinical presentation was miosis (58.9%. In total, 11 patients died (19.6%. Intermediate syndrome developed in 12 patients (21.4% and 6 of them died. Assisted ventilation was required in 16 cases (28.5. Patients with diastolic blood pressure ≤ 70 mmHg and/or GCS ≤ 10 were significantly less likely to survive (P = 0.02, 0.006, respectively. Moreover, early respiratory failure (P < 0.001 and the need for assisted ventilation (P < 0.001 were significantly higher among deceased cases. The mortality rate in this study was similar to previous studies. The frequency of atropine toxicity in the present study (1.8% was considerably lower than conventional regimen used in previous studies. Conclusion:Using the new protocol, lower rate of atropine toxicity developed in victims. Hence, the new protocol appears to be safer and its effectiveness should be further evaluated in case control studies in Bangladesh.    How to cite this article: Ahmed AS

  3. Simple Diagnostic Tests to Detect Toxic Alcohol Intoxications

    Shin, Jai Moo; Sachs, George; Kraut, Jeffrey A.

    2008-01-01

    Methanol, ethylene glycol, and diethylene glycol intoxications can produce visual disturbances, neurological disturbances, acute renal failure, pulmonary dysfunction, cardiac dysfunction, metabolic acidosis, and death. Metabolic acidosis and an increased serum osmolality are important clues to their diagnosis. The former reflects the organic acids produced by metabolism of the parent alcohol, while the latter is due to accumulation of the offending alcohol. However, neither the clinical nor t...

  4. : Intoxication au mercure

    Bensefa-Colas, Lynda; Andujar, Pascal; Descatha, Alexis

    2011-01-01

    Mercury is a widespread heavy metal with potential severe impacts on human health. Exposure conditions to mercury and profile of toxicity among humans depend on the chemical forms of the mercury: elemental or metallic mercury, inorganic or organic mercury compounds. This article aims to reviewing and synthesizing the main knowledge of the mercury toxicity and its organic compounds that clinicians should know. Acute inhalation of metallic or inorganic mercury vapours mainly induces pulmonary d...

  5. 25 CFR 140.18 - Intoxicating liquors.

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intoxicating liquors. 140.18 Section 140.18 Indians....18 Intoxicating liquors. No trader shall use or permit to be used his premises for any unlawful... manufacture, sale, gift, transportation, drinking or storage of intoxicating liquors or beverages in...

  6. Prevention and Cure of Acute Alcohol Intoxica-tion in Mice by Administration of Compound of Japanese Raisintree Fruit, Lobed Kudzuvine Flower Bud and Lightyellow Sophora Root%枳子、葛根花和苦参混合药物对小鼠急性酒精中毒的防治作用

    孔玲; 李杰; 张秀珍

    2014-01-01

    Objective We aimed to investigate the preventive and therapeutical effect of compound of traditional Chinese drugs (Japanese raisintree fruit, lobed kudzuvine flower bud and lightyel ow sophora root) on acute alcohol intoxication in mice. [Method] Acute alcohol intoxication was induced by administering alcohol to mice. Three different doses (low, middle and high) of compound of traditional Chinese drugs were administered to mice before and after administering alcohol respectively to investigate the preventive and therapeutical effect of drugs on acute alcohol intox-ication through doing statistical analysis about drunk mice and their sleeping time. The concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH) and triglyc-erides (TG) in liver was also determined to investigate the protective effect of drugs on liver. [Result] The efficacy of compound of traditional Chinese drugs on acute al-cohol intoxication was dose-dependent. High-dose administration decreased the number of drunk mice significantly compared with control group; middle- and high-dose administration reduced the sleeping time of drunk mice and the concentration of MDA and TG in liver tissue; three doses al increased the concentration of GSH. [Conclusion] The compound of Japanese raisintree fruit, lobed kudzuvine flower bud and lightyel ow sophora root had preventive and therapeutical effect on hangover, and it also had certain preventive and therapeutical effect on liver damage caused by alcohol.%[目的]探讨中药枳子、葛根花和苦参混合药物对小鼠急性酒精中毒的防治作用。[方法]采用酒精灌胃法建立小鼠急性酒精中毒模型,灌喂低、中、高3种剂量的药物,进行先药后酒的预防醉酒和先酒后药的治疗醉酒试验,统计醉酒小鼠数目和小鼠睡眠时间,并通过检测小鼠肝组织中的丙二醛( MDA)、还原型谷胱甘肽(GSH)及血清甘油三酯(TG)的含量,研究药物对小鼠肝的保护作用

  7. Changes of The Muscle Na and K Content, Kidney Functions and Cholinesterase in Rats Injected with Atropine and Serotonin Pre-Irradiation

    The present study aims to evaluate the effect of the double treatment with atropine and serotonin (5-HT) as a protective agent against gamma-radiation on Na and K content and Na/K ratio in both heart and diaphragm muscles and plasma levels of urea, creatinine and cholinesterase at 1,3 and 5 hr post-irradiation. Male albino rats were divided into four groups: control, whole body gamma-irradiated (6 Gy), injected i.p. with atropine ( 0.5 mg/100 g b. wt.) followed by immediate i.p.injection with serotonin (100 mug /100 g b. wt.) and 15 min. pre-irradiation injected with both drugs. The study suggests that: 1-Combined treatment with atropine and serotonin showed a restricted prophylactic role for restoring the induced radiation impairments of Na+ and K+ contents in both cardiac and skeletal muscles during the early period post-irradiation. 2- During the early period after irradiation, the changes in plasma levels of Ch E and urea were proportional with time. So, they can be used as adjunct tests for the study of hematological indices for the early diagnosis of pre-acute forms of irradiation sickness

  8. Comparison of the effects of atropine and glycopyrrolate on various end-organs1

    Mirakhur, R. K.; Dundee, J. W.

    1980-01-01

    Atropine and glycopyrrolate (glycopyrronium bromide), a quaternary ammonium drug, were evaluated in volunteers following intramuscular administration with respect to effects on various end-organs with cholinergic innervation. Glycopyrrolate appears to be five to six times more potent than atropine in its antisialogogue effect and also exhibits a selective, though prolonged, effect on salivary secretion and sweat gland activity. It has minimal cardiovascular, ocular and central nervous system ...

  9. Abnormal gait sequence in locomotion after atropine treatment of catecholamine-deficient akinetic rats.

    Pellis, S M; Pellis, V C; Chesire, R M; Rowland, N; Teitelbaum, P

    1987-01-01

    Excessive, abnormal locomotion occurs after a high dose (25-50 mg/kg) of atropine sulfate to rats already akinetic due to catecholamine deficiency from intraventricular administration of 6-hydroxydopamine. This abnormal locomotion involves an abnormal gait sequence [right (R) hindleg (H), left (L) foreleg (F), LH, RF] instead of the normal gait sequence (RH, RF, LH, LF). In such animals atropine progressively (i) decreases hindleg step size, (ii) decreases arching of the trunk, and (iii) incr...

  10. Determination of atropine using Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots as novel luminescent sensitizers

    A novel chemiluminescence (CL) method using water-soluble Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots (QDs) as sensitizers is proposed for the chemiluminometric determination of atropine in pharmaceutical formulation. Water-soluble Mn-doped ZnS QDs were synthesized by using L-cysteine as stabilizer in aqueous solutions. The nanoparticles were structurally and optically characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), dynamic light scattering (DLS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV–vis absorption spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) emission spectroscopy. It was found that ZnS quantum dots acted as enhancers of the weak CL emission produced upon oxidation of sulfite by Ce(IV) in acidic medium. Trace amounts of atropine improved the sensitize effect of ZnS quantum dots yielding a significant chemiluminescence enhancement of the Ce(IV)–SO32−–ZnS QD system. Therefore, a new CL analysis system was developed for the determination of atropine. Under the optimum conditions, there is a good linear relationship between the relative chemiluminescence intensity and the concentration of atropine in the range of 1×10−9–1×10−6 M of atropine with a correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.9992. The limit of detection of this system was found to be 2.54×10−10 M. This method is not only simple, sensitive and low cost, but also reliable for practical applications. -- Highlights: • Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots could enhance the chemiluminescence (CL) of cerium(IV)–sodium sulfite system. • ZnS quantum dots were used as the nanocatalyst. • Trace amounts of atropine improved the sensitize effect of ZnS quantum dots. • This work is introduced as a new method for the determination of atropine commercial drugs. • Detection limit of atropine was obtained 2.54×10−10 mol L−1

  11. The influence of ultraviolet blood irradiation and oxygenation on oxygen free radicals metabolism in rabbits with soman intoxication

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of ultraviolet blood irradiation and oxygenation (UBIO) on the metabolism of oxygen free radicals in rabbits with acute soman intoxication. Methods: One hundred rabbits were randomly divided into 5 groups: normal control group, intoxication group, routine therapy group, UBIO therapy group and combined therapy group. After 14 d, the concentration of malondiadehyde (MDA) and activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathionperoxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT)and total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC) in serum were determined respectively. Results: Compared with the normal control group, the concentration of MDA and activity of CAT in the intoxication group were significantly higher (P < 0. 05 ), but SOD, GSH-Px activity and T-AOC were significantly lower (P<0.05). After UBIO or combined therapy, serum MDA level was significantly lower in comparison with intoxication group (P<0.05), but the activity of SOD, GSH-Px, CAT and T AOC were higher than intoxication group(P<0.05). Conclusion: There is an obvious oxygen free radical injury in rabbits with acute soman intoxication. UBIO can improve the antioxidation ability of rabbits and may be applied to treat acute soman intoxication as adjunctive therapy.

  12. [Carbon monoxide intoxications in Portugal].

    Sá, Márcia Christel; Rodrigues, Rui Paulo; Moura, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of carbon monoxide intoxication in the World shows that this is a common situation. In Portugal, there are no concrete data available in literature and its incidence remains unknown. Currently, the use of hyperbaric oxygen is a valid therapeutic for carbon monoxide poisoning management. However, its effectiveness and its proper handling are still controversial. The first aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of carbon monoxide intoxication in Portugal and to analyze its demographic characteristics. The second objective of this work was to evaluate the possible change in the type of treatment applied in areas near de hyperbaric chamber of Unidade Local de Saúde de Matosinhos, since its opening in June 2006. To achieve these objectives, we conducted a survey on admissions data for carbon monoxide intoxication occured between January first, 2000 and December 31, 2007. These data was collected in seven hospitals and in the Administração Central do Sistema de Saúde, I.P. Nationally, 621 hospitalizations were recorded, which represents an incidence of 5,86/100000 in 8 years. In the seven hospitals, there were 93 hospitalizations due to carbon monoxide intoxication during the same period of time. There was a peak of incidence during winter, between November and March and there was a similar distribution in men (47,3%) and women (52,7%). Since June 2006, date of opening of the hyperbaric chamber, the Unidade Local de Saúde de Matosinhos, E.P.E. recorded a sharp increase in the number of hospitalization for carbon monoxide intoxication. The number of admissions in the 19 months after the chamber opening was double the number of all cases occurred in that institution in the 65 months prior. We concluded that, in Portugal, carbon monoxide intoxication is an uncommon situation but it´s still an important cause of hospitalization. The referral of cases to the Unidade Local de Saúde de Matosinhos, E.P.E. since the opening of hyperbaric chamber

  13. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy of encephalopathy tarda induced by CO intoxication%一氧化碳中毒迟发脑病的高压氧治疗

    杨金华; 王金春

    2003-01-01

    @@ INTRODUCTION Encephalopathy tarda of CO intoxication is the result of incomplete therapy or in- timely treatment of acut intermedium or severe CO intoxication leading to a series of nerve system injury.Due to long period of course,serious condition and unlcrear mechanism,therapy is difficult and poor effect.

  14. The Effect of Atropine on Post-ECT Bradycardia in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder

    Hassan Farashbandi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT is utilized for treatment of a range of psychiatric disorders including major depressive disorder (MDD. One of the major complications in using ECT is cardiovascular problems i.e., bradycardia. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of atropine on the pulse rate (PR of the patients under treatment with ECT. Materials and Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 30 patients with diagnosis of MDD who received atropine before ECT treatment (control group were compared with 30 patients with the same diagnosis without receiving atropine (experimental group under ECT treatment. Both groups received ECT under the same term and condition. The PR of the patients were recorded 7 times (twice before anesthesia and ECT and 5 fixed one min intervals immediately after receiving ECT; for 10 sessions of treatment with ECT (3 times a week. The results were analyzed using repeated measure analysis of variance. The PR under 50 was the cut off point for differentiating the patients suffering from bradycardia and those without it. Results: Slight increment in PRs for experimental group (patient who did not receive atropine in contrast to control group were observed, but it did not reach a statistically significant level. The gender (male/female did not have different PR. The age of the patients and initial PR (regarded as co-variances did not show significant effect on PR for total sample. Conclusion: There seems to be not necessary to use atropine treatment for depressed patients receiving ECT.

  15. Reduced survival after isoprenaline/dopamine in d,l-propranolol intoxicated rats.

    Toet, A E; te Biesebeek, J D; Vleeming, W; Wemer, J; Meulenbelt, J; de Wildt, D J

    1996-02-01

    1. Respiratory and cardiovascular failure are principle toxic effects of beta-blocker overdose. Respiratory arrest is the primary cause of death in beta-blocker intoxicated rats. 2. The effect of beta-adrenoceptor agonists on respiratory and cardiovascular failure in beta-blocker overdose was investigated in a model of acute d,l-propranolol (30 mg kg-1 h-1) intoxication in spontaneously breathing rats. 3. Neither the aselective, hydrophilic beta-agonist isoprenaline (10, 25, 50 micrograms kg-1 min-1), nor the beta 1-selective, lipophilic beta-agonist flerobuterol (1, 3, 10 microgram kg-1 min-1) and the beta 2-selective, lipophilic beta-agonist clenbuterol (10, 25, 50 micrograms kg-1 min-1) had any beneficial effect on cardiovascular and respiratory variables or survival time in d,l-propranolol intoxicated spontaneously breathing rats. 4. Isoprenaline (10 micrograms kg-1 min-1) had no favourable effect on haemodynamic and respiratory variables in artificially ventilated d,l-propranolol intoxicated rats either. 5. Addition of dopamine to isoprenaline resulted in a significant reduction of survival time, primarily caused by a decreased in mean arterial blood pressure, in artificially ventilated d,l-propranolol intoxicated rats. Addition of glucagon to isoprenaline did not affect survival time. 6. Artificial ventilation is the most important supportive measure in d,l-propranolol intoxication in the rat. PMID:8645502

  16. Effect of acid secretion blockade on acute gastric mucosal lesions induced by Tityus serrulatus scorpion toxin in anaesthetized rats.

    Melo, Júnio Rios; de Araújo, Gnana Keith Marques; da Luz, Magda Maria Profeta; da Conceição, Sérgio Alexandre; Lisboa, Felipe Assis; Moraes-Santos, Tasso; Cunha-Melo, José Renan

    2006-10-01

    Scorpion venom (TX) promotes gastric acid and pepsin secretion leading to acute gastric mucosal lesions (AGML), when injected in animals. The goal of the present study was to observe the effects of acid gastric secretion blockers over the incidence of TX-induced AGML in vivo. To verify this model, we used male albino rats, fasted 18-20 h (n=122) and anaesthetized with urethane (1.4 g/kg, i.p.). Their trachea and left femoral vein were both cannulated; the first to avoid airway obstructions during scorpion intoxication and the second for administration of saline, TX and acid blockers. Following the surgical procedure, the animals were divided in 10 groups of at least 10 animals each. Control groups were injected with NaCl 0.9% 1 ml/kg (n=10) or TX 375 microg/kg (n=32). Test groups (n=10, each) received atropine 5 mg/kg, cimetidine 10mg/kg, ranitidine 2.5mg/kg, ranitidine 5mg/kg, omeprazol 1 mg/kg, omeprazol 4 mg/kg, octreotide 80 and octreotide 100 microg/kg 10 min before the TX was injected. After 1h of intoxication, the stomach was resected for macroscopic study and the gastric secretion was collected for volume, pH and acid output assessment. We observed that all blockers were able to completely or partially prevent the TX-induced acid secretion as well as the AGML (p<0.05). Our data suggest the TX-induced AGML can be prevented by different class of acid blockers injected before the intoxication. PMID:16926041

  17. Split-dose atropine versus glycopyrrolate with neostigmine for reversal of gallamine-induced neuromuscular blockade

    Wetterslev, J; Jarnvig, I; Jørgensen, L N;

    1991-01-01

    The effects of a split-dose of atropine sulphate versus a single dose of glycopyrrolate given with neostigmine for the reversal of gallamine-induced neuromuscular blockade were studied in 55 patients undergoing gynaecological surgery. The patients were randomized to receive either a single dose of......, whereas none occurred in the glycopyrrolate group (P less than 0.05). It is concluded that a split-dose of atropine has similar chronotropic effects to a single dose of glycopyrrolate for the reversal of gallamine-induced neuromuscular blockade. However, the finding of a higher incidence of cardiac...... arrhythmias in the atropine group suggests that this reversal regime should be reserved for patients without cardiac disease....

  18. Effects of Alcohol Intoxication on Anger Experience and Expression among Partner Assaultive Men

    Eckhardt, Christopher I.

    2007-01-01

    The author investigated the acute effects of alcohol intoxication on anger experience and expression among 46 maritally violent (MV) and 56 maritally nonviolent (NV) men randomly assigned to receive alcohol, placebo, or no alcohol. Participants completed an anger-arousing articulated thoughts in simulated situations (ATSS) paradigm and imagined…

  19. Xanthine oxidase status in ethanol-intoxicated rat liver.

    Abbondanza, A; Battelli, M G; Soffritti, M; Cessi, C

    1989-12-01

    The status of xanthine oxidase in ethanol-induced liver injury has been investigated in the rat, by acute and chronic ethanol treatments. A 38% increase of the enzyme O-form was observed after repeated ethanol administration. Chronic intoxication caused a significant decrease of total xanthine oxidase activity after both prolonged ethanol feeding and life span ethanol ingestion. The intermediate D/O-form of xanthine oxidase (that can act either as an oxidase or as a dehydrogenase, being able to react with O2 as well as with NAD+ as electron acceptor) increased 5.5-fold after prolonged ethanol feeding. PMID:2690670

  20. Cattle acute intoxication by bracken fern ( Pteridium aquilinum, L. Kuhn at north Paraná State-Brazil/ Ocorrência de intoxicação aguda em bovinos pela samambaia ( Pteridium aquilinum, L. Kuhn no norte do Paraná-Brasil

    Alexandre Amorim Monteiro

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available The authors describe a case of acute intoxication by bracken fern ( Pteridium aquilinum in a cattle herd raised in the city of Reserva, Parana State. A total of 25 animals died due to intoxication caused by the ingestion of large amounts of the toxic plant after the occurrence of a frost period in the winter month of July, 2000. Beside the herd clinical case, the authors present some considerations about the spreading of bracken fern in Parana, with particular interest in the environmental conditions (including weather. We suspect that these conditions can facilitate the spread of the plant during the cold months of the year. More plant available means a favorable situation for the bracken fern animal consumption, then causing losses to the cattle industry.Os autores descrevem a ocorrência de um surto de intoxicação aguda pela samambaia ( Pteridium aquilinum, L. Kuhn, em bovinos, criados numa propriedade rural localizada no município de Reserva, estado do Paraná. Um total de 25 animais foram a óbito. A ocorrência da intoxicação teve, muito provavelmente, uma relação direta com as freqüentes e acentuadas geadas ocorridas no mês de julho de 2000. Além do relato clínico, os autores apresentam considerações a respeito da proliferação da samambaia no Paraná, destacando condições ambientais e climáticas favorecedoras dessa disseminação, bem como os prejuízos à pecuária e as conseqüências da presença desse vegetal tóxico nas pastagens paranaenses.

  1. The molal volumes of atropine and hyoscine in relation to their respective potencies.

    Cohen, S.; Haberman, F.

    1984-01-01

    The partial molal volumes, V2, at infinite dilution of atropine and hyoscine were determined in each of eight different solvents having cohesive energy densities in the range 64 to 144 cal cm-3. V2 for hyoscine in a given solvent was invariably and significantly smaller than that of atropine in the same solvent. The difference being 1.58 cm3 mol-1 in the least polar solvent (n-propylbenzene) and 4.29 cm3 mol-1 in the most polar one (acetonitrile) in the series studied. It is proposed that the...

  2. Comparative study of oral and intramuscular atropine sulphate as a premedicant in paediatric age group.

    Chaudhari L

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of atropine sulphate in the paediatric age group as a premedicant orally in a dosage of 0.02 mg/kg body weight 70 minutes prior to surgery was found to be as effective as atropine sulphate given intramuscularly 35 minutes prior to surgery in a dosage of 0.01 mg/kg body weight. This avoids the unpleasant memory of needle prick; The duration of effect as studied in the normal healthy children not subjected to surgery was found to be 2 1/2-3 hours.

  3. Determination of atropine using Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots as novel luminescent sensitizers

    Azizi, Seyed Naser [Analytical Division, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar 4741695447 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Chaichi, Mohammad Javad, E-mail: jchaichi@yahoo.com [Analytical Division, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar 4741695447 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shakeri, Parmis [Analytical Division, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar 4741695447 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bekhradnia, Ahmadreza [Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    A novel chemiluminescence (CL) method using water-soluble Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots (QDs) as sensitizers is proposed for the chemiluminometric determination of atropine in pharmaceutical formulation. Water-soluble Mn-doped ZnS QDs were synthesized by using L-cysteine as stabilizer in aqueous solutions. The nanoparticles were structurally and optically characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), dynamic light scattering (DLS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV–vis absorption spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) emission spectroscopy. It was found that ZnS quantum dots acted as enhancers of the weak CL emission produced upon oxidation of sulfite by Ce(IV) in acidic medium. Trace amounts of atropine improved the sensitize effect of ZnS quantum dots yielding a significant chemiluminescence enhancement of the Ce(IV)–SO{sub 3}{sup 2−}–ZnS QD system. Therefore, a new CL analysis system was developed for the determination of atropine. Under the optimum conditions, there is a good linear relationship between the relative chemiluminescence intensity and the concentration of atropine in the range of 1×10{sup −9}–1×10{sup −6} M of atropine with a correlation coefficient (R{sup 2}) of 0.9992. The limit of detection of this system was found to be 2.54×10{sup −10} M. This method is not only simple, sensitive and low cost, but also reliable for practical applications. -- Highlights: • Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots could enhance the chemiluminescence (CL) of cerium(IV)–sodium sulfite system. • ZnS quantum dots were used as the nanocatalyst. • Trace amounts of atropine improved the sensitize effect of ZnS quantum dots. • This work is introduced as a new method for the determination of atropine commercial drugs. • Detection limit of atropine was obtained 2.54×10{sup −10} mol L{sup −1}.

  4. Efficacy of atropine combined with paroxetine in vagus nerve excitatory panic disorder

    Du N

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Na Du, Xue-Li Sun Department of Psychiatry, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Panic disorder is often associated with the autonomic nervous system pattern – sympathetic activation and parasympathetic (vagal withdrawal. However, we present one special case here to show a totally reversed pathogenesis – vagal activation occupying the leading role, which requires atropine to cure the patient’s symptoms. Through this report, it is reasonably proven that panic disorder may be a heterogeneous condition, whose mechanism might be the imbalance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic tone. Keywords: panic disorder, vagal activation, bradycardia, atropine

  5. Accidental monensin sodium intoxication of feedlot cattle.

    Schweitzer, D; Kimberling, C; Spraker, T; Sterner, F E; McChesney, A E

    1984-05-15

    Of 1,994 yearling and 2-year-old cattle in a winter feeding program, 117 died within 42 days of being fed toxic amounts of monensin sodium in a liquid protein supplement. Death losses commenced on the third day after ingestion of a toxic amount in the feed. Clinical signs in cattle that died in less than 9 days included anorexia, pica, diarrhea, depression, mild hindlimb ataxia, and dyspnea. Gross necropsy findings in cattle dying in the acute phase of the illness included hydrothorax, ascites, and pulmonary edema, as well as petechial hemorrhages, edema, and yellow streaking in skeletal and cardiac muscle. Cattle dying after 9 days had gray streaks in heart and skeletal muscle, generalized ventral edema, enlarged, firm, bluish discolored liver, and enlarged heart. Microscopic changes in cattle dying in the acute phase (less than 9 days) consisted of pulmonary edema, congestion, and hemorrhage. Cardiac and skeletal muscle had localized areas of edema, hemorrhage, and coagulative necrosis. In cattle dying after 9 days of illness, the changes included lymphocytic infiltration, sarcolemmal nuclear proliferation, and fibrosis in skeletal and cardiac muscle. Lungs contained increased alveolar macrophages and a few neutrophils. Centrilobular necrosis and mild fibrosis were found in the liver. Changes varied somewhat according to the area of heart or skeletal muscle that was affected. Active muscles, eg, those in the heart ventricles and diaphragm, were altered most severely. Intoxication appeared to be a result of sedimentation of monensin in the molasses carrier to give remarkable concentrations of the substance at the bottom of the holding tank. PMID:6735846

  6. A Double-Blind Atropine Trial for Active Learning of Autonomic Function

    Fry, Jeffrey R.; Burr, Steven A.

    2011-01-01

    Here, we describe a human physiology laboratory class measuring changes in autonomic function over time in response to atropine. Students use themselves as subjects, generating ownership and self-interest in the learning as well as directly experiencing the active link between physiology and pharmacology in people. The class is designed to…

  7. Permanent alterations in muscarinic receptors and pupil size produced by chronic atropinization in kittens

    Chronic mydriasis was induced in six kittens (four monocular, two binocular) and two adult cats (both monocular) by the daily topical application of atropine. Both the kittens and the adult cats were atropinized for a 13-week period with the treatment regimen beginning at the time of eye opening for the kittens. Pupil size measurements, obtained 1 year after the atropinization were discontinued, revealed that, although the pupils of the adult cats were normal, the pupils of the kittens' treated eyes were consistently smaller than pupils in control eyes. The status of the muscarinic receptors in the kittens' irides was investigated using 3H-QNB binding assays. In comparison with iris muscle homogenates from the control eyes, those from the treated eyes demonstrated an eightfold increase in the number of receptor binding sites. The results indicate that pupil size can be altered permanently by chronic mydriasis initiated early in the life of a kitten and that the permanent change in pupil size may result, in part, from a type of permanent supersensitivity response in the muscle following chronic blockade of muscarinic transmission by atropine

  8. Clinical profile and outcome of children presenting with poisoning or intoxication: a hospital based study.

    Budhathoki, S; Poudel, P; Shah, D; Bhatta, N K; Dutta, A K; Shah, G S; Bhurtyal, K K; Agrawal, B; Shrivastava, M K; Singh, M K

    2009-09-01

    Poisoning is a common preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in children. Most of the poisoning in children less than 5 years of age is accidental. Objective of the study was to study the clinical profile and outcome of childhood poisoning and intoxication. This was a retrospective study done in patients who were admitted in pediatric wards and pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) of BP Koirala Institute of Health Sciences with history of ingestion of poison or intoxication or envenomation firom January 2005 to June 2008. The data collected were analyzed with SPSS 12.0 software. There were 122 children enrolled in study. Male: female ratio was 1.4:1. The mean age of presentation was 5.8 years. Among 122 patients, 43.4% received pre-referral treatment in the form of gastric lavage, atropine etc. Organophosphorus poisoning was the commonest poisoning seen in 55 (45.1%) patients followed by hydrocarbon 12 (9.8%), mushroom 10 (8.2%) and organochlorine 10 (8.2%) poisoning. During treatment, 50.0% received antidotes. 55.7% received antibiotics, gastric lavage and anticonvulsants were required in 43.4% and 13.9% respectively. Overall survival was 87.4%. The time interval between intoxication and presentation to hospital, mean Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and presence of coma (GCS cases. In conclusion, organophosphorus is the commonest agent involved in childhood poisoning. Overall, the outcome is good with 87.4% survival in our hospital. The time gap between the poisoning and presentation to hospital and presence of coma predict mortality. PMID:20334063

  9. Utility of atropine in patients under beta-blocker effect during exercise stress echocardiography

    The objective is to assess the usefulness of adding atropine 0.5 to 1.0 mg by intravenous injection during peak exercise in patients under beta-blocker effect that are subjected to exercise stress echocardiography. Population: exercise stress echocardiography was performed in 73 patients receiving beta-blocking agents with basal heart rate below 60 beats per minute (BPM). Two groups were established at random: group I (18 patients that did not receive atropine during maximal exercise) and group II (50 patients from whom 28 received 0.5 mg atropine IV 30 seconds to one minute before concluding the exercise and 22 patients who received 1.0 mg atropine IV 30 seconds to one minute before its conclusion). From a demographic point of view, there were no differences between the two groups. Mean age was 59 ± 10.8 years (57% male). Most of the patients received metoprolol (87%) and no significant statistical differences in relation with the doses were found in these two groups. At the end of the exercise, the patients had a mean heart rate of 84% from their maximal heart rate (MHR). The values post-exercise were 76% at 30 seconds, 68% at 60 sec., 62% at 90 sec., and 59% of the maximal heart rate at 120 sec. When comparing the percentage of the maximal heart rate achieved in maximal exercise and the one observed during the first 120 sec. after exercise, no statistically significant difference was observed between the two groups (p > 0.05). Conclusion: during the performance of stress exercise echocardiography, the administration of intravenous atropine was of no use for incrementing the peak heart rate post-exercise in patients with significant beta-blocker effect (basal heart rate < 60 BPM)

  10. EFFECTS OF ATROPINE ON ANTIGEN-INDUCED BRONCHOSPASM IN THE HORSE

    K.B. Mirbahar, R.B. Mirbahar, Nasreen Akhter, W.N. McDonell1 and P. Eyre2,

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of atropine to attenuate Ascaris suum induced bronchospasm was studied in 6 conscious standing horses. Animals were challenged with saline and a 10-2 dilution of A. suum aerosolized for 3 minutes. Pulmonary function tests (PFT were performed at 15, 30 and 60 minutes after antigen challenge. Pulmonary mechanics and ventilation values were measured using a differential pressure transducer and a Fleisch Pnemotachograph. One week later, animals were treated with atropine sulfate (6.0 mg administered IM and rechallenged with saline followed by same dose of A. suum. Clinical signs noted after the inhalation of A. suum alone included hyperpnea, dyspnea, sweating and salivation. The effect of antigen was rapid in onset starting during the inhalation and lasting for over 60 minutes. The PFT revealed significant (P<0.05 increases in Wb, max.  Ppl RL, V1, f, and VT whereas the Cdyn decreased (P<0.05. The changes were more severe in lower airways. Atropine abolished the clinical signs. Comparison of post atropine saline and A. suum challenge values revealed significant increase in Wb, max.  Ppl at 15 minutes post antigen challenge. Changes in RL, f and Cdyn were abolished. Comparison of responses to A. suum in the presence and absence of atropine revealed a significant (P<0.05 inhibition of changes in max. Ppl, Wb, inspiratory and expiratory RL, VI, f and flow. The study suggested that the A. suum induced bronchospasm in the horses is mediated, at least in part by vagal reflexes.

  11. Opposing effects of atropine and timolol on the color and luminance emmetropization mechanisms in chicks.

    Goldberg, Laura A; Rucker, Frances J

    2016-05-01

    This study analyzed the luminance and color emmetropization response in chicks treated with the nonselective parasympathetic antagonist atropine and the sympathetic β-receptor blocker timolol. Chicks were binocularly exposed (8h/day) for 4days to one of three illumination conditions: 2Hz sinusoidal luminance flicker, 2Hz sinusoidal blue/yellow color flicker, or steady light (mean 680lux). Atropine experiments involved monocular daily injections of either 20μl of atropine (18nmol) or 20μl of phosphate-buffered saline. Timolol experiments involved monocular daily applications of 2 drops of 0.5% timolol or 2 drops of distilled H2O. Changes in the experimental eye were compared with those in the fellow eye after correction for the effects of saline/water treatments. Atropine caused a reduction in axial length with both luminance flicker (-0.078±0.021mm) and color flicker (-0.054±0.017mm), and a reduction in vitreous chamber depth with luminance flicker (-0.095±0.023mm), evoking a hyperopic shift in refraction (3.40±1.77D). Timolol produced an increase in axial length with luminance flicker (0.045±0.030mm) and a myopic shift in refraction (-4.07±0.92D), while color flicker caused a significant decrease in axial length (-0.046±0.017mm) that was associated with choroidal thinning (-0.046±0.015mm). The opposing effects on growth and refraction seen with atropine and timolol suggest a balancing mechanism between the parasympathetic and β-receptor mediated sympathetic system through stimulation of the retina with luminance and color contrast. PMID:26971621

  12. Alcohol Intoxication in Newborn: A Case Report

    Özdemir, Özmert M.A.; Kazım Küçüktaşçı; Özlem Şahin; Alper Akpınar; Hacer Ergin

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol intoxication is extremely rare in the neonatal period. Clinical presentation may be occurred by lethargy, tremor, mild fever, hypoglycemia, hypotonia, respiratory depression and coma. Intoxication usually appears as giving the baby alcohol with neglect of family or accident. The basic principle of therapy is support therapy and provision of clinical stabilization of the baby the elimination of alcohol from the body until it does. When the drops of 70% ethyl alcohol that her mother tho...

  13. Preventing lithium intoxication. Guide for physicians.

    Delva, N. J.; Hawken, E. R.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To raise awareness of risk factors for, and symptoms of, lithium intoxication. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: The literature was searched via MEDLINE from January 1970 to December 1999 using the MeSH headings Lithium, Lithium Carbonate, Drug Toxicity, and Aging. Articles were selected based on clinical relevance and design. Most were case reports, case series, or reviews. MAIN MESSAGE: A case study illustrates both risk factors predisposing patients to lithium intoxication and the symptoms o...

  14. Molecular mechanisms of muscarinic receptors in mouse scleral fibroblasts: Prior to and after induction of experimental myopia with atropine treatment

    Barathi, V. A.; Roger W. Beuerman

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effect of atropine on the development of spectacle lens induced myopia in the mouse and to determine if the level of mRNAs for the muscarinic receptor subtypes (M1 - M5 ) is affected by atropine treatment. Methods Experimental myopia was developed in Balb/CJ (BJ) mice by placing −10 diopter spectacle lens on post-natal day 10 over the right eyes of 150 mice (n=10 in each group, 5 repetitions) for six weeks. After 2 weeks of lens wearing, the atropine group received ...

  15. Profound Hypoglycemia with Ecstasy Intoxication

    Perliveh Carrera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or ecstasy is a synthetic drug that is commonly abused for its stimulant and euphoric effects. Adverse MDMA effects include hyperthermia, psychomotor agitation, hemodynamic compromise, renal failure, hyponatremia, and coma. However, endogenous hyperinsulinemia with severe persistent hypoglycemia has not been reported with MDMA use. Case Report. We report the case of a 29-year-old woman who remained severely hypoglycemic requiring continuous intravenous infusion of high-dose dextrose solutions for more than 24 hours after MDMA intoxication. Serum insulin and C-peptide levels confirmed marked endogenous hyperinsulinemia as the cause of the severe hypoglycemia. Why Should an Emergency Physician Be Aware of This? Immediate and frequent monitoring of blood glucose should be instituted in patients presenting with MDMA ingestion particularly if found to be initially hypoglycemic. Early recognition can help prevent the deleterious effects of untreated hypoglycemia that can add to the morbidity from MDMA use. Clinicians need to be aware of this side effect of MDMA so they can carefully monitor and treat it, especially in patients presenting with altered mental status.

  16. Fatal Intoxication with Acetyl Fentanyl.

    Cunningham, Susan M; Haikal, Nabila A; Kraner, James C

    2016-01-01

    Among the new psychoactive substances encountered in forensic investigations is the opioid, acetyl fentanyl. The death of a 28-year-old man from recreational use of this compound is reported. The decedent was found in the bathroom of his residence with a tourniquet secured around his arm and a syringe nearby. Postmortem examination findings included marked pulmonary and cerebral edema and needle track marks. Toxicological analysis revealed acetyl fentanyl in subclavian blood, liver, vitreous fluid, and urine at concentrations of 235 ng/mL, 2400 ng/g, 131 ng/mL, and 234 ng/mL, respectively. Acetyl fentanyl was also detected in the accompanying syringe. Death was attributed to recreational acetyl fentanyl abuse, likely through intravenous administration. The blood acetyl fentanyl concentration is considerably higher than typically found in fatal fentanyl intoxications. Analysis of this case underscores the need for consideration of a wide range of compounds with potential opioid-agonist activity when investigating apparent recreational drug-related deaths. PMID:26389815

  17. Histamine, histamine intoxication and intolerance.

    Kovacova-Hanuskova, E; Buday, T; Gavliakova, S; Plevkova, J

    2015-01-01

    Excessive accumulation of histamine in the body leads to miscellaneous symptoms mediated by its bond to corresponding receptors (H1-H4). Increased concentration of histamine in blood can occur in healthy individuals after ingestion of foods with high contents of histamine, leading to histamine intoxication. In individuals with histamine intolerance (HIT) ingestion of food with normal contents of histamine causes histamine-mediated symptoms. HIT is a pathological process, in which the enzymatic activity of histamine-degrading enzymes is decreased or inhibited and they are insufficient to inactivate histamine from food and to prevent its passage to blood-stream. Diagnosis of HIT is difficult. Multi-faced, non-specific clinical symptoms provoked by certain kinds of foods, beverages and drugs are often attributed to different diseases, such as allergy and food intolerance, mastocytosis, psychosomatic diseases, anorexia nervosa or adverse drug reactions. Correct diagnosis of HIT followed by therapy based on histamine-free diet and supplementation of diamine oxidase can improve patient's quality of life. PMID:26242570

  18. Intramuscular atropine in elderly people: Pharmacokinetic studies using the radioreceptor assay and some pharmacodynamic responses

    The pharmacokinetics (radioreceptor assay, RRA) and som clinical effects of atropine were studied in 7 elderly gynaecological surgery patients. The RRA measures only the pharmacologically active isomer of atropine, 1-hyoscyamine. Following a single 0.01 mg/kg intramuscular (M. deltoideus) injection, a very fast rate of absorption was found with mean peak serum concentration occurring after only 13 min. The reason for this could be either a preferential tissue uptake of the 1-form or the injection site or both. The elimination half-life was 2.27 hr. Only 23.1% of the given drug was excreted in urine in 24 hr as a pharmacologically active form. The clinical effects (heart rate rise, subjective sedation and antisialogogue effect) were seen after only 30 min. This somewhat faster appearance of clinical effects than in previous studies can be due to the injection site. The sedative effect of the drug is clear and long lasting in elderly people. (author)

  19. Evaluation of Drug Intoxications Due To Suicides

    Teslime Ayaz1

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The intoxications occur via taking high doses of drugs or substances for the purpose of suicide or unconsciously. In this retrospective study, we aimed to explore the causes of intoxications and to evaluate the demographic and clinical features and the prognosis of patients who were followed and treated for intoxications in our intensive care unit or internal medicine clinic and secondly we aimed to add information for the data of intoxications in our country. Methods: All patients over 15 years old who admitted to Emergency Unit of Recep Tayyip Erdoğan University Teaching and Research Hospital for the intoxications because of suicide, between November 2008 and November 2013 included in this study. Results: 127 patients were enrolled in the current study and 75,6% (96 of the patients were female. Mean age of the patients was 25,04±9, 61 years and 37% of the patients were under 20 years old. The antidepressant agents were the most frequent pharmacologic agent (28,3% as the cause of intoxications. The number of drugs taken for the intoxication was 15-20 in 22% of the patients. 58,3% of the patients admitted to the hospital after 1-2 hours taking the drug. The patients were followed and treated for meanly 1.88 days in the hospital. When we evaluated the results of psychiatry consultation reports, we found that 50,4% of the patients were diagnosed with depression. Conclusion: The young and female patients are on the risk of drug abuse for the aim of suicide. Particularly, suicides are observed more frequently in the patients with depression. Admission to the hospital in a short time after taking the drugs reduces the time of stay in hospital and mortality.

  20. Two Fatal Intoxications with Cyanohydrins.

    Zheng, Shuiqing; Yuan, Xiaoliang; Wang, Wei; Liang, Chen; Cao, Fangqi; Zhang, Runsheng

    2016-06-01

    Cyanohydrins, also be called cyanoalcohols, are important industrial precursors to carboxylic acids and some amino acids. Acetone cyanohydrin (ACH) and formaldehyde cyanohydrin (glycolonitrile, FCH), which are the typical examples of cyanohydrins, are classified as extremely hazardous substances. As the cyanohydrins can readily decompose, and it is hard to find cyanohydrins in gastric contents and heart blood, the determination study in biological samples can be divided into two parts: the first is the determination of HCN by using a Prussian blue reaction and the HS-GC-MSD after derivatization by chloramine-T. The second is the determination of acetone or formaldehyde. In this part, headspace gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (HS-GC-FID) and solid phase microextraction (SPME)-gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detectors (GC-MSD) had been used. In this report, we reported two fatal intoxication cases of ACH and FCH; one person was killed by his wife by poisoning his food and the other was suicide by poison. Two real cases of ACH and FCH in human blood and gastric contents have been analyzed by using the above-mentioned method. The Prussian blue reaction was positive in the two cases. The peaks of acetone with retention times of 0.998 min appear in specimens of the deceased are consistent with the retention times of pure acetone. The peaks of formaldehyde with a retention time of 1.658 min appear in heart blood of the deceased, and the retention time of formaldehyde of the liquid is 1.674 min, which are consistent with the retention times of pure formaldehyde (1.673 min). PMID:27026650

  1. [Acute poisoning by pesticides in children].

    Leveau, P

    2016-07-01

    Acute pesticide poisoning in children is rare but potentially serious. Some clinical patterns (toxidromes) are suggestive of the drug class: cholinergic crisis for organophosphate or carbamate insecticides; neurological syndrome for rodenticides; digestive and respiratory syndrome for herbicides. Treatment is symptomatic and only a few patients are treated with an antidote: atropine and pralidoxime for organophosphate insecticides, vitamin K for anticoagulant rodenticides. PMID:27266642

  2. Evaluation of Suicide and Intoxication Cases Admitted to our Newly Opened Intensive Care Unit

    Nalan Muhammedoğlu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the suicide and intoxication cases between April 2011 and April 2013. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed hospital records of patients who were admitted to our intensive care unit due to suicide and intoxication. The age, sex, intoxication causes, laboratory analyses, treatment refusal rates, and the prognosis were evaluated. Results: A total of 308 patients (105 males, 203 females were admitted to the intensive care unit. The mean age of the patients was 27.45±10.26 years (males: 28.70±9.86 years, females: 26.80±10.43 years. There were only 4 patients over 65 years of age. 275 patients had drug intoxication (antidepressant drug, pain killer, antibiotic, etc. and 33 patients had other causes of intoxication. When analyzing the prognosis; a total of 234 patients were discharged after initial treatment and 57 patients were discharged due to treatment refusal. 15 patients were referred for inpatient psychiatric treatment, 1 patient to the Alcohol and Drug Addiction Treatment Center (AMATEM and 1 patient was referred to İstanbul University Medical Faculty due to acute hepatic failure. Conclusion: The patients admitted to our intensive care unit due to suicide and intoxications were mainly females (65.9% and individuals of young age (median age: 27.45 years. Female patients had used antidepressants for suicide attempts and males had used antiflu-acetaminophen combinations. No mortality was observed. (The Me­di­cal Bul­le­tin of Ha­se­ki 2014; 52:153-7

  3. Interaction of aconitine with bovine serum albumin and effect of atropine sulphate and glycyrrhizic acid on the binding

    The interaction of aconitine with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and effect of atropine sulphate and glycyrrhizic acid on binding constant, binding sites, and conformation were studied in an aqueous buffer solution (pH 7.40) by ultraviolet absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. The study results show that aconitine quenched the endogenous fluorescence of BSA via a dynamic quenching procedure. Predominant intermolecular forces between aconitine and BSA were hydrophobic interactions, which stabilized the complex of aconitine–BSA. The distance between the donor and acceptor was 2.62 nm. The conformation of BSA was investigated by synchronous fluorescence techniques, indicating that the microenvironment around tryptophan (Trp) residues was changed. Furthermore, with the addition of atropine sulphate or glycyrrhizic acid, binding constant and the number of binding sites of aconitine to BSA were decreased, and the conformation had no change, which provide an important theoretical support for aconitine detoxification by atropine sulphate and glycyrrhizic acid. - Highlights: ► Effect of atropine or glycyrrhizic acid on aconitine–BSA binding. ► UV–vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopic techniques used. ► Aconitine quenched BSA fluorescence via dynamic quenching with r=2.62 nm. ► Atropine sulphate and glycyrrhizic acid decreased KA and n of aconitine–BSA. ► Support for aconitine detoxification by atropine and glycyrrhizic acid.

  4. A comparative study of clonidine versus a combination of diazepam and atropine for premedication in orthopaedic patients.

    Chaurasia S

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Sixty patients in the age group of 18-60 years of A.S.A. Grade I/II risk, scheduled for elective orthopaedic surgeries under general anaesthesia were studied for pre-medication with either oral clonidine or with combination of effects of diazepam & atropine. Patients in Group A (clonidine group received tablet clonidine 100 mcg (1 tablet if less than 50 kg in weight and 200 mcg if weighing more than 50 kg two hours before surgery. Patients in Group B (Diazepam-atropine group received one tablet of Diazepam (10 mg orally two hours before surgery and injection atropine-sulphate 0.01 mg/kg half an hour preoperatively by intramuscular route. In our study, the sedative and anti-sialogogue effects of clonidine were comparable to those of diazepam-atropine combination, which are commonly used premedicants. The anti-anxiety effect of clonidine was found to be better than that of diazepam-atropine combination. Clonidine also proved to be a better agent for the attenuation of pressor response to laryngoscopy and intubation. Thus, oral clonidine is a better premedicant compared to atropine-diazepam combination. Also, it is a more acceptable agent because of its oral route of administration.

  5. Effects of experimental amitraz intoxication in cats

    S.F. Andrade

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This work studied the effects of experimental amitraz intoxication in cats. Sixteen cats were randomly divided equally into two groups: amitraz group - animals received 1.5% amitraz at 1mg/kg IV; and the control group - animals without amitraz. Physiological parameters from blood, cardiorespiratory system, and sedation indicators were quantified over time up to 360 minutes. Blood profile, urea, creatinine, alananine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were not affected by amitraz. Sedation, loss of reflexes, hypothermia, bradycardia, bradyarrhythmia, hypotension, bradypnea, mydriasis, besides transitory hyperglycemia, hypoinsulinemia and decrease of cortisol levels were observed in cats experimentally exposed to amitraz. The alpha2-adrenergic effects induced by amitraz intoxication in cats are very similar to the same effects reported in others species, contributing with more information about this type of intoxication to veterinary toxicology.

  6. Fatal alcohol intoxication in women: A forensic autopsy study from Slovakia

    Straka Lubomir

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plenty of information related to alcoholism can be found in the literature, however, the studies have mostly dealt with the predominance of male alcoholism and data related to addiction in women are desperately scarce and difficult to find. Basic demographic data focusing on the impact of acute alcohol intoxication on the circumstances of death and social behaviour in the alcohol addicted female population are needed especially in the prevention of alcohol related mortality. Methods A retrospective forensic autopsy study of all accidental deaths due to alcohol intoxication over a 12-year period was performed in order to evaluate the locations, circumstances, mechanisms and causes of death. Results A sample of 171 cases of intoxicated women who died due to blood alcohol concentration (BAC equal to or higher than 2 g/kg was selected. Among them 36.26% (62/171 of women died due to acute alcohol intoxication (AAI. We noted an increase in the number of deaths in women due to AAI from 2 in 1994 up to 5 in 2005 (an elevation of 150% between the years 1994-2005. The age structure of deaths in women due to BAC and AAI followed the Gaussian distribution with a dominant group of women aged 41-50 years (45.16% and 35.09% respectively. The most frequent place of death (98% among women intoxicated by alcohol was their own home. The study suggests a close connection between AAI and violence against women. Conclusions The increasing number of cases of death of women suffering from AAI has drawn attention to the serious problem of alcoholism in women in the Slovak Republic during the process of integration into "western" lifestyle and culture.

  7. Treatment of theophylline intoxication using continuous venovenous haemofiltration

    Koeijers, J.J.; Verhoeven, C.L.; Boersma, H.H.; van Mook, W.N.K.A

    2008-01-01

    Theophylline intoxication can cause serious complications such as seizures, cardiac arrhythmias and eventually cardiac arrest. Because of these potentially life-threatening clinical manifestations of theophylline intoxication, treatment methods that rapidly eliminate the drug are essential. These me

  8. Possible fatal acetaminophen intoxication with atypical clinical presentation.

    De-Giorgio, Fabio; Lodise, Maria; Chiarotti, Marcello; d'Aloja, Ernesto; Carbone, Arnaldo; Valerio, Luca

    2013-09-01

    Acetaminophen or paracetamol, a commonly used over-the-counter analgesic, is known to elicit severe adverse reactions when taken in overdose, chronically at therapeutic dosage or, sporadically, following single assumptions of a therapeutic dose. Damage patterns including liver damage and, rarely, acute tubular necrosis or a fixed drug exanthema. We present a case of fatal acetaminophen toxicity with postmortem blood concentration 78 μg/mL and unusual clinical features, including a visually striking and massive epidermolysis and rhabdomyolysis, disseminated intravascular coagulation and myocardial ischemia. This case is compared with the most similar previous reports in terms of organ damage, clinical presentation, and cause of death. We conclude that a number of severe patterns of adverse effects to acetaminophen are emerging that were previously greatly underestimated, thus questioning the adequacy of the clinical spectrum traditionally associated with acetaminophen intoxication and leading to the need to review this spectrum and the associated diagnostic criteria. PMID:23822653

  9. Chronic lead intoxication; Chronische Bleiintoxikation

    Wieseler, B.; Leng, G. [Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Hygiene; Lenz, S.; Schultz, C. [Klinikum Remscheid GmbH, Remscheid (Germany); Wilhelm, M. [Bochum Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Hygiene, Sozial- und Umweltmedizin

    1999-02-01

    The case of a female 68 years old patient is described. Here, a chronic lead intoxication was diagnosed after a two year old medical history with increasing attacks of colic-like abdominal pain often described as life-threatening. After repeated hospitalizations and intensive search for the cause of the symptoms, porphyria and anemia was found to be a sign of a chronic lead poisoning. The blood lead concentrations were always about a level of 600 {mu}g/L. The source of exposure could not be found by now. Neither home inspection nor environmental investigations have shown a recent source of lead intake by the patient. However, a possible occupational source of lead exposure at a blast furnace was established by anamnesis for 1952 to 1962. Thus, osteoporosis induced lead mobilisation was suspected. Noticeable are the results of the six abdominal survey radiographies taken during hospitalization within one year; three radiographies were taken following clinical admission and three before discharge of the patient. In comparison, the course shows a chronic relapsing alimentary supply from metallic particles of unknown genesis. The patient was treated with the sodium salt of 2,3-dimercapto-1-propansulfonic acid (DMPS, Dimaval{sup TM}). She was free of complain afterwards. Following therapy, the blood lead concentrations fell under a level of 400 {mu}m/L, but after several weeks the lead level raised up to the original level of 600 {mu}g/L. (orig.) [Deutsch] Es wird eine 68jaehrige Patientin vorgestellt, bei der nach fast zweijaehriger Krankengeschichte, die gekennzeichnet war durch rezidivierende, teils als lebensbedrohlich geschilderte Bauchkoliken, eine chronische Bleiintoxikation diagnostiziert wurde. Erst nach wiederholten stationaeren Krankenhausaufenthalten mit intensiver Suche nach der Krankheitsursache wurden das Krankheitsbild und die Laborwerte durch Zusatzuntersuchungen ergaenzt, so dass sich in der festgestellten Porphyrie und Anaemie die Diagnose der

  10. Atropine Ophthalmic

    ... following symptoms, call your doctor immediately: fever irritability fast pulse irregular heartbeat mental confusion difficulty urinating If you experience a serious side effect, you or your doctor may send a report to the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting ...

  11. Brain injury due to acute organophosphate poisoning Magnetic resonance imaging manifestation and pathological characteristics

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute organophosphate poisoning can cause injuries of multiple visceras; especially,central nervous system injury can increase risk factors of patients with severe acute organophosphate poisoning. An application of modem image may increase diagnostic rate of brain injury in an earlier period and provide evidences for clinical treatment.OBJECTIVE: To reveal imaging manifestations, pathological characteristics and multi-ways injured mechanism of brain injury due to acute organophosphate poisoning.DESIGN: Contrast observational study.SETTING: Department of Medical Image, the Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University.MATERIALS: The experiment was carried out in the Department of Nerve Molecule Imaging Medicine and Laboratory of Neurology, the Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University from August 2003 to February 2004. A total of 30 healthy cats weighing 2.8 - 3.5 g and of both genders were selected from Animal Experimental Center of Hebei Medical University.METHODS: Thirty healthy cats were randomly divided into control group (n =5) and intoxication group (n=25). Cats in the control group were subcutaneously injected with 0.3 mL/kg saline at four points; while, cats in the intoxication group were subcutaneously injected with 400 g/L 0.3 mL/kg O,O-dimethyl-S-(methoxycarbonylmethyl) thiophosphate at four points. Two minutes after intoxication, cats received muscular injection with 0.5 mg/kg atropine sulfate, and then, brain tissues were collected from parietal lobe, basal ganglia, hippocampus, cerebellum and brain stem were observed at 3, 6, 24 hours, 3 and 7 days after intoxication respectively under optic microscope and electron microscope and expressions of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP),glutamic acid (Glu) and γ-amino butyric acid after immunohistochemical staining.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Results of MRI examinations; histological changes under optic microscope and electron

  12. A patient with clove oil intoxication

    B.A. Dyrbye; L. Dubois; R. Vink; J. Horn

    2012-01-01

    The article discusses the case of a 67-year-old man who was brought to the emergency room because of inability to speak and confusion. His medical history revealed hypertension and alcohol abuse. His neurological symptoms and laboratory abnormalities are caused by intoxication with clove oil combine

  13. Water intoxication in cattle : continuing education

    E.M. Njoroge

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Water intoxication is a condition that is common in cattle, and has also been reported in other domestic animals and man. A comprehensive description of the condition is lacking. For a better understanding of the condition, this paper reviews work that has been reported previously by various authors.

  14. The QT interval and cycle length: the influence of atropine, hyoscine and exercise.

    Staniforth, D H

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-seven healthy male subjects of mean age 24.3 +/- 4.0 years and mean weight 74.9 +/- 9.1 kg took part in an investigation to assess the most suitable correction for the QT interval as a function of cardiac cycle length. 547 sets of data points were generated. Atropine 0.6, 1.2 and 1.8 mg, and hyoscine 0.4 and 0.8 mg, and exercise on a bicycle ergometer at power levels of 50-250 watts together with post-exercise values were employed to obtain a range of heart rates. Simultaneous measurem...

  15. Musculus gastrocnemius tetanus kinetics in alcohol-intoxicated rats with experimentally-induced hindlimb vascular ischemia under conditions of low-frequence muscle fatigue

    O. A. Melnychuk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol intoxication and ischemic injury of skeletal muscles often accompany each other. It is shown that patients hospitalized with chronic alcoholism develop muscle fatigue. Skeletal muscle dysfunction in alcohol-dependent patients is caused by ethanol-associated myofibrillar atrophy and metabolic disbalance, while compression-ischemic lesions result from unconsciousness of the patient, in case of taking the critical alcohol dose. Therefore, the aim of this study is to discover typical m. gastrocnemius (cap. med. tetanic kinetics changes in alcohol intoxicated rats with experimentally induced vascular ischemia of hindlimb muscles under conditions of low-frequency progressive muscle fatigue. Experiments were carried out on 10 young male Wistar rats (149.5 ± 5.8 g kept under standard vivarium conditions and diet. The investigation was conducted in two phases: chronic (30 days and acute (3 hours experiment. All surgical procedures were carried out aseptically under general anesthesia. Ishemic m. gastrocnemius (cap. med. tetanic kinetic changes and force productivity in alcohol intoxicated rats were investigated in the isometric mode, with direct electrical stimulation. The fatigue of m. gastrocnemius (cap. med. was evaluated by three characteristic criteria: the first sag effect, the secondary force rise, the second sag effect. There have been 10 similar experiments: 5 series in each study group with 10 tetanic runs in each series. The highest amplitude of the native m. gastrocnemius (cap. med. tetanus relative to isoline was taken as 100% force response. The same pattern of m. gastrocnemius (cap. med. low-frequency fatigue development was found in both rat groups under study. It is evidenced by the absence of substantial m. gastrocnemius (cap. med. tetanus kinetics differences in alcohol intoxicated rats, compared with non-alcohol intoxicated rats during fatigue test. However, the appreciable m. gastrocnemius (cap. med. tetanic force reduction

  16. Gluteal compartment syndrome due to prolonged immobilization after alcohol intoxication: a case report.

    Iizuka, Shinichi; Miura, Naoyuki; Fukushima, Tomokazu; Seki, Tomoko; Sugimoto, Katuhiko; Inokuchi, Sadaki

    2011-07-01

    Gluteal compartment syndrome is a relatively rare condition that mostly result from atraumatic causes such as prolonged immobilization due to drug abuse or alcoholic intoxication and incorrect positioning during surgical procedures rather than traumatic causes. Early diagnosis is difficult and sometimes delayed or overlooked because of poor physical signs resulting from altered mental status and inappropriate diagnosis by clinicians. It has been reported that more than half of the cases of gluteal compartment syndrome are associated with crush syndrome and sciatic nerve palsy. Early diagnosis and immediate fasciotomy are necessary to improve the functional prognosis. Here, we report the case of a patient with gluteal compartment syndrome caused by prolonged immobilization after acute alcoholic intoxication. After disease onset, the patient developed complications of crush syndrome and sciatic nerve palsy, but immediate fasciotomy improved his condition. PMID:21769768

  17. From Rickets Prevention to Vitamin D Intoxication

    Pavlovic, Momcilo; Berenji, Karolina

    2014-01-01

    Hypervitaminosis D occurs in infants due to increased intake of vitamin D and results in hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria. We present the case of a 4.5-month old infant with signs of vitamin D intoxication, which occurred due to supplementation for the purpose of rickets prevention and diet with vitamin D-fortified milk. The clinical manifestations were constipation, vomiting and failure to thrive. After excluding hormonal, tumoral and malformative (Williams syndrome) causes, treatment includ...

  18. Effects of experimental amitraz intoxication in cats

    S.F. Andrade; M. SAKATE; C.B. Laposy; S.F. Valente; V.M. Bettanim; L.T. Rodrigues; J. Marcicano

    2007-01-01

    This work studied the effects of experimental amitraz intoxication in cats. Sixteen cats were randomly divided equally into two groups: amitraz group - animals received 1.5% amitraz at 1mg/kg IV; and the control group - animals without amitraz. Physiological parameters from blood, cardiorespiratory system, and sedation indicators were quantified over time up to 360 minutes. Blood profile, urea, creatinine, alananine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were not affected by amitraz....

  19. Strange taste and mild lithium intoxication

    Terao, Takeshi; Watanabe, Shosuke; Hoaki, Nobuhiko; Hoaki, Takayuki

    2011-01-01

    So far, it has not been emphasised that lithium can lose or change taste in some patients. This report addresses such side effect of lithium. A 61-year-old bipolar patient experienced taste changes while increasing lithium levels up to 1.28 mEq/l and the taste changes returned to normal after lithium discontinuation. The present findings suggest that changes in tastes may be a symptom of mild lithium intoxication.

  20. Methanol intoxication with bilateral basal ganglia infarct

    Methanol is a toxic agent that affects the central nervous system, especially the optic nerves and basal ganglia. Symmetrical hypodense lesions in the basal ganglia, which can be demonstrated by CT or MRI, is accepted as the most characteristic radiological feature of the disease. A case of a patient with bilateral putaminal hypodense infarcts due tomethanol intoxication is presented. Copyright (2001) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  1. [Intoxications specific to the Aquitaine region].

    Bédry, R; Gromb, S

    2009-07-01

    Some intoxications are more specifically linked to the Aquitaine region than to other regions of France, due to environmental circumstances (fauna, flora, climate) or traditional activities (gastronomy). Three types of intoxications are particular in this area. Pine processionary caterpillar envenomations (Thaumetopoea pityocampa), a Southern Europe pinewood parasite, are frequently encountered in the Landes' forest. They are responsible of ocular and/or skin lesions with urticaria or contact dermatitis, seldom associated with immediate IgE hypersensitivity. According to the south Atlantic coastal region geology and the marine streams, venomous marine animals are mainly located in Charente-Maritime for jellyfish, in Gironde and in Landes for weeverfish and in Atlantic Pyrenees for sea anemone. Usually not dangerous, first-aid workers treat most cases of these envenomations. Some endemic mushrooms (Tricholoma auratum) which grow on the dunes of the Atlantic coastal region, are usually considered as very good comestibles, but were recently responsible for serious intoxications: T.auratum was responsible of several cases of rhabdomyolysis, without neurological involvement, nor renal or hepatic lesion. Three deaths were notified. Animal studies confirmed the responsibility of the mushrooms. PMID:19375827

  2. Carbofuran-Induced Acute Pancreatitis

    Rizos E

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Carbamate insecticides are widely used in commercial agriculture and home gardening. A serious side effect of organophosphate and carbamate intoxication is the development of acute pancreatitis. CASE REPORT: A 36-year-old Caucasian woman was admitted to our hospital with cholinergic crisis and pancreatitis soon after the ingestion of a carbamate insecticide (carbofuran. An abdominal CT scan disclosed pancreatic necrosis with intrapancreatic fluid collection, consistent with the development of a pancreatic pseudocyst in a subsequent CT scan. No predisposing factor for pancreatitis was evident. Pseudocholinesterase levels returned to normal 7 days later and the patient was discharged in good physical condition one month after admission. DISCUSSION: Although acute pancreatitis is not infrequent after organophosphate intoxication, it is quite rare after carbamate ingestion and has not been previously reported after carbofuran intoxication.

  3. Antimuscarinic-induced convulsions in fasted animals after food intake: evaluation of the effects of levetiracetam, topiramate and different doses of atropine.

    Büget, Bahar; Türkmen, Aslı Zengin; Allahverdiyev, Oruc; Enginar, Nurhan

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of different doses of atropine and new antiepileptics, levetiracetam and topiramate, on the development of convulsions triggered by food intake in antimuscarinic-treated fasted animals. Mice deprived of food for 24 h and treated i.p. with atropine at a dose of 2.4 or 24 mg/kg developed convulsions after being allowed to eat ad libitum. No convulsions were observed in fasted animals treated with 0.24 mg/kg atropine. There was no difference in the incidence of convulsions between the two atropine treatments, but latency to convulsions was longer in 24 mg/kg atropine treated animals. The lowest dose of atropine, 0.24 mg/kg, caused stage 1 and stage 2 activity, but did not provide the convulsive endpoint (stage 3, 4, 5 activity). Administration of levetiracetam (50 or 200 mg/kg) or topiramate (50 or 100 mg/kg) to another group of 24-h fasted mice was ineffective in reducing the incidence of convulsions developed in the animals after 2.4 mg/kg atropine treatment and food intake. However, the higher dose of levetiracetam prolonged the onset of convulsions. Present results demonstrated the efficacy of low and high doses of atropine on the development of convulsions in fasted animals and provided additional evidence for the ineffectiveness of antiepileptic treatment in these seizures. PMID:26453200

  4. Acute alcohol intoxication in a 15-day-old neonate.

    Zaitsu, Masafumi; Inada, Yukiko; Tashiro, Katsuya; Hayashi, Chiduru; Doi, Hirohito; Hamasaki, Yuhei; Matsuo, Muneaki

    2013-12-01

    We describe a 15-day-old newborn girl who was fed with formula milk that was accidentally diluted with sake (Japanese wine prepared from fermented rice). The clinical features were flushed skin, tachycardia and low blood pressure indicating circulatory failure, somnolence and metabolic acidosis without hypoglycemia. The serum ethanol concentration was 43.0 mg/dL at 3 h after intake. The patient recovered under intravenous fluid replacement without complications. Follow-up examinations at 1, 2, 3, 6 and 12 months confirmed normal psychomotor development. PMID:24330291

  5. Attention to advertising and memory for brands under alcohol intoxication

    Orquin, Jacob Lund; Jeppesen, Heine B.; Scholderer, Joachim;

    2014-01-01

    of alcohol while viewing the ad. This paper examines the effect of alcohol intoxication on attention to and memory for advertisements in two experiments. Study 1 used a forced exposure manipulation and revealed increased attention to logos under alcohol intoxication consistent with the psychopharmacological...... prediction that alcohol intoxication narrows attention to the more salient features in the visual environment. Study 2 used a voluntary exposure manipulation in which ads were embedded in a magazine. The experiment revealed that alcohol intoxication reduces voluntary attention to ads and leads...

  6. Intoxicated children at an intensive care unit: popular medicine risks, complications and costs.

    Consuelo de Rovetto

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Hospital Universitario del Valle (HUV at the Pediatrics Intensive Care Unit (PICU admits intoxicated patients, erroneously medicated by «teguas» or family members with serious aggravation of basic diseases or generating severe intoxications. Absent reports of these practices in Colombia motivated the publication of this case series Objective: To report a series of pediatric intoxication cases secondary to oral or dermatological application of varied substances by healers («teguas» or family members, leading to admission at the PICU, and to describe complications and hospital costs of these events. Methodology: Clinical charts of patients admitted to the PICU with diagnosis of exogenous intoxication during May 2001 to September 2004, were reviewed. Of 28 registered cases during that time, only 14 clinical charts were recovered. Variables evaluated included: age, gender, proceeding, administered substance, person responsible for the administration, complications, days of mechanical ventilation, total days at the intensive care unit and average costs. Of the 14 medical records with exogenous intoxications only 5 cases were involuntary and 9 were related to the administration of substances by quacks or family members; these are the ones reported in this series. Results: We report a total of 9 intoxicated patients, 5 girls and 4 boys, with an age range from 1 to 24 months, all from Cali. Topical administered substances: alcohol 6/9, vinegar 1/9; oral: aspirin 2/9, paico 1/9, and unidentified herbs 1/9. Administered substances by teguas: 6 patients; 3 by family members. All patients had metabolic acidosis with an increased anion gap: 27 in average (range from 21 to 32. All required mechanical ventilation (2 to 32 day range. Average hospital day costs were $6’657,800 pesos (around U$3,000.oo. Three patients died and 4 presented acute renal failure, 2 convulsions, 2 nosocomial infections, 1 subglotic stenosis. Conclusions and

  7. Intoxicated children at an intensive care unit: popular medicine risks, complications and costs

    Consuelo de Rovetto

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Hospital Universitario del Valle (HUV at the Pediatrics Intensive Care Unit (PICU admits intoxicated patients, erroneously medicated by «teguas» or family members with serious aggravation of basic diseases or generating severe intoxications. Absent reports of these practices in Colombia motivated the publication of this case seriesObjective: To report a series of pediatric intoxication cases secondary to oral or dermatological application of varied substances by healers («teguas» or family members, leading to admission at the PICU, and to describe complications and hospital costs of these events.Methodology: Clinical charts of patients admitted to the PICU with diagnosis of exogenous intoxication during May 2001 to September 2004, were reviewed. Of 28 registered cases during that time, only 14 clinical charts were recovered. Variables evaluated included: age, gender, proceeding, administered substance, person responsible for the administration, complications, days of mechanical ventilation, total days at the intensive care unit and average costs. Of the 14 medical records with exogenous intoxications only 5 cases were involuntary and 9 were related to the administration of substances by quacks or family members; these are the ones reported in this series.Results: We report a total of 9 intoxicated patients, 5 girls and 4 boys, with an age range from 1 to 24 months, all from Cali. Topical administered substances: alcohol 6/9, vinegar 1/9; oral: aspirin 2/9, paico 1/9, and unidentified herbs 1/9. Administered substances by teguas: 6 patients; 3 by family members. All patients had metabolic acidosis with an increased anion gap: 27 in average (range from 21 to 32. All required mechanical ventilation (2 to 32 day range. Average hospital day costs were $6’657,800 pesos (around U$3,000.oo. Three patients died and 4 presented acute renal failure, 2 convulsions, 2 nosocomial infections, 1 subglotic stenosis.Conclusions and

  8. [Accidental ethyl alcohol intoxication in a 30-day-old infant. Clinical findings and neurological follow-up].

    Palano, G M; Praticò, A D; Praticò, E R; D'Agata, A; Carpinato, C; Sottile, F; Distefano, G

    2007-06-01

    Fetus damages due to alcohol abuse in pregnancy, fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), are widely documented in the literature, whereas short and long term clinical signs of acute alcohol intoxication in newborn babies are poorly described. In our study we describe the case of a 30-day-old newborn baby erroneously fed with 70 mL of white wine in place of the water for milk dilution. The baby clinical features were torpor, tremors, slight fever without metabolic anomalies typical of classic acute alcohol intoxication such as hypoglycemia, hypothermia, metabolic acidosis and coma. Periodical follow-up a 2, 3, 6 and 12 months were performed in order to evaluate neuromotor development using Bayley Scales of Infant Development II, for children between 1 and 42 months old. The results showed normal psychomotor development in our patient. PMID:17519873

  9. Psychiatric and Medical Management of Marijuana Intoxication in the Emergency Department

    Bui, Quan M.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We use a case report to describe the acute psychiatric and medical management of marijuana intoxication in the emergency setting. A 34-year-old woman presented with erratic, disruptive behavior and psychotic symptoms after recreational ingestion of edible cannabis. She was also found to have mild hypokalemia and QT interval prolongation. Psychiatric management of cannabis psychosis involves symptomatic treatment and maintenance of safety during detoxification. Acute medical complications of marijuana use are primarily cardiovascular and respiratory in nature; electrolyte and electrocardiogram monitoring is indicated. This patient’s psychosis, hypokalemia and prolonged QTc interval resolved over two days with supportive treatment and minimal intervention in the emergency department. Patients with cannabis psychosis are at risk for further psychotic sequelae. Emergency providers may reduce this risk through appropriate diagnosis, acute treatment, and referral for outpatient care. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(3:414–417.

  10. Indices of the Oxidant andAntioxidant System and Endogenous Intoxication in the Convalescents After Community-Acquired Pneumonia

    Reshetar, D. V.

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to study the peculiarities of metabolic processes in the system of lipid peroxidation - antioxidant defense and the manifestations of endogenous intoxication in patients with community acquired pneumonia in the acute stage of the disease and after antibiotic therapy in their interrelation with bronchial obstruction.Materials and methods. 81 patients with non-severe community acquired pneumonia at the age of 21 to 65 years were examined on the 2nd day of the hospitalization a...

  11. Tetracycline in uranyl nitrate intoxication: Its action on renal damage and U retention in bone

    In acute intoxication, uranium (U) not only inhibits bone formation but its excretion in urine also causes renal damage. The former effect is ameliorated by tetracycline (TC), probably due to its chelation property, which might also prevent U deposition in bone. Chemical determination of U incorporated in bone and a histological study of the kidneys were performed on animals injected with U and then treated with TC. The results showed that TC was unable to prevent the binding of U to bone while it exacerbated U-induced renal damage

  12. Impaired respiratory function and heightened pulmonary inflammation in episodic binge ethanol intoxication and burn injury.

    Shults, Jill A; Curtis, Brenda J; Chen, Michael M; O'Halloran, Eileen B; Ramirez, Luis; Kovacs, Elizabeth J

    2015-11-01

    Clinical data indicate that cutaneous burn injuries covering greater than 10% of the total body surface area are associated with significant morbidity and mortality, in which pulmonary complications, including acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), contribute to nearly half of all patient deaths. Approximately 50% of burn patients are intoxicated at the time of hospital admission, which increases days on ventilators by 3-fold, and doubles the length of hospitalization, compared to non-intoxicated burn patients. The most common drinking pattern in the United States is binge drinking, where an individual rapidly consumes alcoholic beverages (4 for women, 5 for men) in 2 h. An estimated 38 million Americans binge drink, often several times per month. Experimental data demonstrate that a single binge-ethanol exposure, prior to scald injury, impairs innate and adaptive immune responses, thereby enhancing infection susceptibility and amplifying pulmonary inflammation, neutrophil infiltration, and edema, and is associated with increased mortality. Since these characteristics are similar to those observed in ARDS burn patients, our study objective was to determine whether ethanol intoxication and burn injury and the subsequent pulmonary congestion affect physiological parameters of lung function, using non-invasive and unrestrained plethysmography in a murine model system. Furthermore, to mirror young adult binge-drinking patterns, and to determine the effect of multiple ethanol exposures on pulmonary inflammation, we utilized an episodic binge-ethanol exposure regimen, where mice were exposed to ethanol for a total of 6 days (3 days ethanol, 4 days rest, 3 days ethanol) prior to burn injury. Our analyses demonstrate mice exposed to episodic binge ethanol and burn injury have higher mortality, increased pulmonary congestion and neutrophil infiltration, elevated neutrophil chemoattractants, and respiratory dysfunction, compared to burn or ethanol intoxication alone

  13. Addition of atropine to submaximal exercise stress testing in patients evaluated for suspected ischaemia with SPECT imaging: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial

    To evaluate the effects of the addition of atropine to exercise testing in patients who failed to achieve their target heart rate (HR) during stress myocardial perfusion imaging with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The study was a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled design. Patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease who failed to achieve a target HR (≥85% of maximal predicted HR) during exercise SPECT imaging were randomized to receive intravenous atropine (n = 100) or placebo (n = 101). The two groups of patients did not differ with respect to demographic or clinical characteristics. A higher proportion of patients in the atropine group achieved the target HR compared to the placebo group (60% versus 3%, p < 0.0001). SPECT imaging was abnormal in a higher proportion of patients in the atropine group as compared to the placebo group (57% versus 42%, p < 0.05). Stress-induced myocardial ischaemia was present in more patients in the atropine group as compared to placebo (47% versus 29%, p < 0.01). In both groups of patients, no major side effects occurred. The addition of atropine at the end of exercise testing is more effective than placebo in raising HR to adequate levels, without additional risks of complications. The use of atropine in patients who initially failed to achieve their maximal predicted HR is associated with a higher probability of achieving a diagnostic myocardial perfusion study. (orig.)

  14. Addition of atropine to submaximal exercise stress testing in patients evaluated for suspected ischaemia with SPECT imaging: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial

    Manganelli, Fiore; Sauro, Rosario; Di Lorenzo, Emilio; Rosato, Giuseppe [San Giuseppe Moscati Hospital, Department of Cardiology and Heart Surgery, Avellino (Italy); Spadafora, Marco; Varrella, Paola; Peluso, Giuseppina [San Giuseppe Moscati Hospital, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Avellino (Italy); Daniele, Stefania [Institute of Diagnostic and Nuclear Development (SDN), Naples (Italy); Cuocolo, Alberto [Institute of Diagnostic and Nuclear Development (SDN), Naples (Italy); University Federico II, Department of Biomorphological and Functional Sciences, Naples (Italy); National Council of Research, Institute of Biostructures and Bioimages, Naples (Italy)

    2011-02-15

    To evaluate the effects of the addition of atropine to exercise testing in patients who failed to achieve their target heart rate (HR) during stress myocardial perfusion imaging with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The study was a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled design. Patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease who failed to achieve a target HR ({>=}85% of maximal predicted HR) during exercise SPECT imaging were randomized to receive intravenous atropine (n = 100) or placebo (n = 101). The two groups of patients did not differ with respect to demographic or clinical characteristics. A higher proportion of patients in the atropine group achieved the target HR compared to the placebo group (60% versus 3%, p < 0.0001). SPECT imaging was abnormal in a higher proportion of patients in the atropine group as compared to the placebo group (57% versus 42%, p < 0.05). Stress-induced myocardial ischaemia was present in more patients in the atropine group as compared to placebo (47% versus 29%, p < 0.01). In both groups of patients, no major side effects occurred. The addition of atropine at the end of exercise testing is more effective than placebo in raising HR to adequate levels, without additional risks of complications. The use of atropine in patients who initially failed to achieve their maximal predicted HR is associated with a higher probability of achieving a diagnostic myocardial perfusion study. (orig.)

  15. Impairment of autophagy: From hereditary disorder to drug intoxication

    At first, the molecular mechanism of autophagy was unveiled in a unicellular organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae (budding yeast), followed by the discovery that the basic mechanism of autophagy is conserved in multicellular organisms including mammals. Although autophagy was considered to be a non-selective bulk protein degradation system to recycle amino acids during periods of nutrient starvation, it is also believed to be an essential mechanism for the selective elimination of proteins/organelles that are damaged under pathological conditions. Research advances made using autophagy-deficient animals have revealed that impairments of autophagy often underlie the pathogenesis of hereditary disorders such as Danon, Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, and Huntington's diseases, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. On the other hand, there are many reports that drugs and toxicants, including arsenic, cadmium, paraquat, methamphetamine, and ethanol, induce autophagy during the development of their toxicity on many organs including heart, brain, lung, kidney, and liver. Although the question as to whether autophagic machinery is involved in the execution of cell death or not remains controversial, the current view of the role of autophagy during cell/tissue injury is that it is an important, often essential, cytoprotective reaction; disturbances in cytoprotective autophagy aggravate cell/tissue injuries. The purpose of this review is to provide (1) a gross summarization of autophagy processes, which are becoming more important in the field of toxicology, and (2) examples of important studies reporting the involvement of perturbations in autophagy in cell/tissue injuries caused by acute as well as chronic intoxication

  16. Hyperammonemia,brain edema and blood-brain barrier alterations in prehepatic portal hypertensive rats and paravrtamol intoxication

    Camila Scorticati; Juan P. Prestifilippo; Francisco X. Eizayaga; José L. Castro; Salvador Romay; Maria A. Fernández; Abraham Lemberg; Juan C. Perazzo

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study the blood-brain barrier integrity, brain edema,animal behavior and ammonia plasma levels in prehepatic portal hypertensive rats with and without acute liver intoxication.METHODS: Adults male Wistar rats were divided into four groups. Group Ⅰ: sham operation; Ⅱ: Prehepatic portal hypertension, produced by partial portal vein ligation; Ⅲ:Acetaminophen intoxication and Ⅳ: Prehepatic portal hypertension plus acetaminophen. Acetaminophen was administered to produce acute hepatic injury. Portal pressure, liver serum enzymes and ammonia plasma levels were determined. Brain cortex water content was registered and trypan blue was utilized to study blood brain barrier integrity. Reflexes and behavioral tests were recorded.RESULTS: Portal hypertension was significantly elevated in groups Ⅱ and Ⅳ. Liver enzymes and ammonia plasma levels were increased in groups Ⅱ, Ⅳ and Ⅳ. Prehepatic portal hypertension (group Ⅱ), acetaminophen intoxication (group Ⅲ) and both (group Ⅳ) had changes in the blood brain-barrier integrity (trypan blue) and hyperammonemia. Cortical edema was present in rats with acute hepatic injury in groups Ⅲ and Ⅳ. Behavioral test (rota rod) was altered in group Ⅳ.CONCLUSION: These results suggest the possibility of another pathway for cortical edema production because blood brain barrier was altered (vasogenic) and hyperammonemia was registered (cytotoxic). Group Ⅳ, with behavioral altered test, can be considered as a model for study at an early stage of portal-systemic encephalopathy.

  17. Alcohol Intoxication in Newborn: A Case Report

    Özmert M.A. Özdemir

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol intoxication is extremely rare in the neonatal period. Clinical presentation may be occurred by lethargy, tremor, mild fever, hypoglycemia, hypotonia, respiratory depression and coma. Intoxication usually appears as giving the baby alcohol with neglect of family or accident. The basic principle of therapy is support therapy and provision of clinical stabilization of the baby the elimination of alcohol from the body until it does. When the drops of 70% ethyl alcohol that her mother thought the gas drops unintentional was dripped to baby’s mouth, lid of drug cover was opened and poured abundantly. Afterward, a 25 days old female case was presented to our hospital emergency service. Her physical examination was normal, serum ethyl alcohol level was 3.12 mg/dl (0.12 per mil. This case, that was provided clinical stabilization and applied only supportive therapy, was discharged four days later. In this report, we wanted to emphasize that family and/or caregivers should be well-trained drug administration in neonates. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2013; 11: 39-41

  18. Approach to the Treatment of Methanol Intoxication.

    Kraut, Jeffrey A

    2016-07-01

    Methanol intoxication is an uncommon but serious poisoning. Its adverse effects are due primarily to the impact of its major metabolite formic acid and lactic acid resulting from cellular hypoxia. Symptoms including abdominal pain and loss of vision can appear a few hours to a few days after exposure, reflecting the time necessary for accumulation of the toxic byproducts. In addition to a history of exposure, increases in serum osmolal and anion gaps can be clues to its presence. However, increments in both parameters can be absent depending on the nature of the toxic alcohol, time of exposure, and coingestion of ethanol. Definitive diagnosis requires measurement with gas or liquid chromatography, which are laborious and expensive procedures. Tests under study to detect methanol or its metabolite formate might facilitate the diagnosis of this poisoning. Treatment can include administration of ethanol or fomepizole, both inhibitors of the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase to prevent formation of its metabolites, and hemodialysis to remove methanol and formate. In this Acid-Base and Electrolyte Teaching Case, a patient with methanol intoxication due to ingestion of model airplane fuel is described, and the value and limitations of current and new diagnostic and treatment measures are discussed. PMID:27180631

  19. A fatal intoxication case involving ropinirole.

    Duband, Sébastien; Bidat, Carolyne; Gaillard, Yvan; Rochet, Max; Camdessanche, Jean-Philippe; Péoc'h, Michel

    2012-10-01

    Ropinirole, a specific non-ergoline dopamine D2-receptor agonist, belongs to the drugs applied in treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) and restless legs syndrome (RLS) and acts as a D2, D3, and D4 dopamine receptor agonist with highest affinity for D3. Therapeutic ropinirole plasma levels in adults are defined between 0.4 and 6 ng/mL. This case report documents a fatal intoxication involving ropinirole. Information about lethal ropinirole concentrations is hitherto lacking in the literature and the assessed ropinirole levels of this case may present a step towards defining potentially lethal concentrations. A 37-year-old man without medical history was found dead in a converted van used as place of residence and an autopsy was performed. The pathological findings did not reveal an apparent cause of death but the toxicological analysis revealed the presence of ropinirole, paracetamol, and alcohol in the peripheral blood sample. Quantitative analysis revealed that ropinirole was present at a peripheral blood concentration of 64 ng/mL. The ropinirole concentrations determined in vitreous humor, urine and bile were respectively, 11 ng/mL, 2670 ng/mL and 826 ng/mL. Paracetamol was detected at a blood level of intoxication with ropinirole in combination with alcohol. PMID:22920767

  20. Perfil clínico y demográfico de pacientes atendidos en los servicios de urgencias, por intoxicación aguda con sustancias psicoactivas. Bogotá D.C, julio 2010junio 2011 Clinical and demographic profile of patients nursed in urgency services due to acute intoxication with psychoactive substances in Bogotá

    Karla Mabel Cárdenas L

    2012-12-01

    general. It has been estimated that it contributes towards the rapid propagation of infectious diseases such as HIV and hepatitis. Society thus cannot afford to ignore such threat and must address such abuse. Objective. Determining the clinical and demographic profile of patients suffering acute psychoactive substance poisoning who were attended by emergency services in Bogotá, 20102011. Methods. This was a descriptive, retrospective study which emerged from reviewing 1,073 records kept by the Colombian Public Health Surveillance System (Sistema Nacional de Vigilancia en Salud Pública related to cases of people suffering from psychoactive substance poisoning who had been attended by emergency services in Bogotá, 20102011. The corresponding clinical histories were reviewed to establish the patients' clinical profile. Simple and stratified frequency were calculated, using 95% confidence intervals (95%CI, for sociodemographic variables, type of psychoactive substance and clinical manifestation. Results. Males aged 2534 years old consulted most (73%, intoxication for criminal purposes predominating (58% having been drugged to reduce resistance to assault. Benzodiazepines were implicated in 83% of the cases; 80% of clinical manifestations were neurological. Conclusion. Exposure with criminal intent predominated in this work's results; it would seem to be a phenomenon which has not been documented in the scientific literature reviewed here. Benzodiazepine exposure (the substance implicated in poisoning cases was similar to that obtained by Uribe et al., (2005 and that found in other substancerelated disorder studies.

  1. Use of atropine to predict the accommodative component in esotropia with hypermetropia

    Mihir Kothari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This cohort study included children with esotropia and hypermetropia of ≥ +2.0 diopters (D. The deviation was measured at presentation, under atropine cycloplegia and 3 months after full refractive correction. Of 44 children with a mean age of 5.2 ± 2.4 years, 25 were males. Eighteen (41% had fully refractive accommodative esotropia (RAE, 10 (23% had partial accommodative esotropia (PAE, and 5 (11% had nonaccommodative esotropia (NAE. Eleven (25% had convergence excess (CE. Under cycloplegia, all with RAE and RAE with CE had orthotropia. There was no significant change in the deviation in the patients with NAE. The deviation under cycloplegia and that with full refractive correction in PAE and PAE with CE (with +3.0 D addition were not different. The intraclass correlation coefficient for deviation under cycloplegia and after full refractive correction (+3.0 D addition for CE was 0.89. It was concluded that ocular deviation under cycloplegia can help to predict the accommodative component in esotropia with hypermetropia.

  2. Hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna Jacq.) extract exhibits atropine-sensitive activity in a cultured cardiomyocyte assay.

    Salehi, Satin; Long, Shannon R; Proteau, Philip J; Filtz, Theresa M

    2009-01-01

    Hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) plant extract is used as a herbal alternative medicine for the prevention and treatment of various cardiovascular diseases. Recently, it was shown that hawthorn extract preparations caused negative chronotropic effects in a cultured neonatal murine cardiomyocyte assay, independent of beta-adrenergic receptor blockade. The aim of this study was to further characterize the effect of hawthorn extract to decrease the contraction rate of cultured cardiomyocytes. To test the hypothesis that hawthorn is acting via muscarinic receptors, the effect of hawthorn extract on atrial versus ventricular cardiomyocytes in culture was evaluated. As would be expected for activation of muscarinic receptors, hawthorn extract had a greater effect in atrial cells. Atrial and/or ventricular cardiomyocytes were then treated with hawthorn extract in the presence of atropine or himbacine. Changes in the contraction rate of cultured cardiomyocytes revealed that both muscarinic antagonists significantly attenuated the negative chronotropic activity of hawthorn extract. Using quinuclidinyl benzilate, L-[benzylic-4,4'-(3)H] ([(3)H]-QNB) as a radioligand antagonist, the effect of a partially purified hawthorn extract fraction to inhibit muscarinic receptor binding was quantified. Hawthorn extract fraction 3 dose-dependently inhibited [(3)H]-QNB binding to mouse heart membranes. Taken together, these findings suggest that decreased contraction frequency by hawthorn extracts in neonatal murine cardiomyocytes may be mediated via muscarinic receptor activation. PMID:18696181

  3. A multidisciplinary overview of intoxicating snuff rituals in the western hemisphere.

    de Smet, P A

    1985-03-01

    Part one of the paper discusses ethnobotanical, chemical and general pharmacological aspects of intoxicating snuff rituals in the western hemisphere. Four categories of ritual snuff ingredients arise from this multidisciplinary approach: It is well established that the plant contains one or more psychoactive principles and the Indian use of the plant as a ritual snuff ingredient is confirmed or quite probable: Anadenanthera, Erythroxylum, Nicotiana, Virola; It is well established that the plant contains one or more psychoactive principles, but the Indian use of the plant as a ritual snuff ingredient is not well recorded or even unlikely: Banisteriopsis, Cannabis, Datura, Ilex guayusa; The Indian use of the plant as a ritual snuff ingredient is confirmed or quite probable, but it is not well established that the plant contains one or more psychoactive principles: Justicia pectoralis, Pagamea macrophylla, Tanaecium nocturnum; The Indian use of the plant as a ritual snuff ingredient is not well recorded, and it is not well established that the plant contains one or more psychoactive principles: Acorus calamus, Capsicum, Macquira sclerophylla, Piper interitum. Part two of the paper discusses the nasal pharmacokinetics and efficacy of possible ritual snuff constituents. The literature yields convincing clinical evidence that atropine, cocaine, nicotine and scopolamine are effective following nasal application, but experimental confirmation of the efficacy of nasal tryptamine alkaloids is still awaited. In self-experiments, 6.4 mg/kg of caffeine produced substantial plasma levels via the nasal route, but 0.5 mg/kg of harmine did not produce measurable plasma levels, when taken as a nasal powder. Without additional experiments, it is difficult to give a definite explanation for this negative result. PMID:3887041

  4. In Vivo Nanodetoxication for Acute Uranium Exposure

    Luis Guzmán

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Accidental exposure to uranium is a matter of concern, as U(VI is nephrotoxic in both human and animal models, and its toxicity is associated to chemical toxicity instead of radioactivity. We synthesized different PAMAM G4 and G5 derivatives in order to prove their interaction with uranium and their effect on the viability of red blood cells in vitro. Furthermore, we prove the effectiveness of the selected dendrimers in an animal model of acute uranium intoxication. The dendrimer PAMAM G4-Lys-Fmoc-Cbz demonstrated the ability to chelate the uranyl ion in vivo, improving the biochemical and histopathologic features caused by acute intoxication with uranium.

  5. Assessment of atropine-sufentanil-atracurium anaesthesia for endotracheal intubation: an observational study in very premature infants.

    Durrmeyer, Xavier; Dahan, Sonia; Delorme, Pierre; Blary, Sabine; Dassieu, Gilles; Caeymaex, Laurence; Carbajal, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Premedication before neonatal intubation is heterogeneous and contentious. The combination of a short acting, rapid onset opioid with a muscle relaxant is considered suitable by many experts. The purpose of this study was to describe the tolerance and conditions of intubation following anaesthesia with atropine, sufentanil and atracurium in very premature infants. METHODS: Monocentric, prospective observational study in premature infants born before 32 weeks of gestational age, ho...

  6. Effect of MDR1 gene polymorphisms on mortality in paraquat intoxicated patients

    Kim, Hak Jae; Kim, Hyung-Ki; Kwon, Jun-Tack; Lee, Sun-hyo; el Park, Sam; Gil, Hyo-Wook; Song, Ho-yeon; Hong, Sae-yong

    2016-01-01

    Paraquat is a fatal herbicide following acute exposure. Previous studies have suggested that multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1) might help remove paraquat from the lungs and the kidney. MDR1 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are involved in the pharmacokinetics of many drugs. The purpose of this study was to determine whether MDR1 SNPs were associated with the mortality in paraquat intoxicated patients. We recruited 109 patients admitted with acute paraquat poisoning. They were genotyped for C1236T, G2677T/A, and C3435T single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of MDR1 gene. Their effects on mortality of paraquat intoxicated patients were evaluated. Overall mortality rate was 66.1%. Regarding the C1236T of the MDR1 gene polymorphism, 21 (19.3%) had the wild type MDR1 while 88 (80.7%) had homozygous mutation. Regarding the C3435T MDR1 gene polymorphism, 37(33.9%) patients had the wild type, 23 (21.1%) had heterozygous mutation, and 49 (45.0%) had homozygous mutation. Regarding the G2677T/A MDR1 gene polymorphism, 38 (34.9%) patients had the wild type, 57 (52.3%) had heterozygous mutation, and 14 (12.8%) had homozygous mutation. None of the individual mutations or combination of mutations (two or three) of MDR1 SNP genotypes altered the morality rate. The mortality rate was not significantly different among SNP groups of patients with MDR1 SNPs have no effect on the mortality rate of paraquat intoxicated patients. PMID:27545861

  7. Methylbromide intoxication: a clinical case study.

    Breeman, Wim

    2009-01-01

    The port of Rotterdam, The Netherlands, is the world's largest container port. In 2006, one of these containers caused a chemical incident. Methylbromide is used in some countries as a pesticide for the fumigation of maritime containers. Because of an insufficiently performed detoxification, this insecticide intoxicated several employees and some of the ambulance crew and Mobile Medical Team (MMT). The victims displayed symptoms of sore throat, irritated eyes, and hypersalivation. One of the victims suffered from multiple epileptic seizures. Two victims were admitted to the intensive care unit for respiratory support. Three other employees showed milder symptoms and received supportive care but were not admitted to the hospital. This complicated case shows that the safety of the ambulance crew and MMT must be guaranteed. It also demonstrates that healthcare providers cannot always oversee the accident scene and that there are some pitfalls that are almost impossible to prevent. PMID:20118865

  8. Uptake of (14)C-atropine and/or its transformation products from soil by wheat (Triticum aestivum var Kronjet) and their translocation to shoots.

    Jandrić, Zora; Rathor, Mohammad N; Chhem-Kieth, Sorivan; Adu-Gyamfi, Joseph; Mayr, Leopold; Resch, Christian; Bado, Souleymane; Švarc-Gajić, Jaroslava; Cannavan, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Plant uptake of toxins and their translocation to edible plant parts are important processes in the transfer of contaminants into the food chain. Atropine, a highly toxic muscarine receptor antagonist produced by Solanacea species, is found in all plant tissues and can enter the soil and hence be available for uptake by crops. The absorption of atropine and/or its transformation products from soil by wheat (Triticum aestivum var Kronjet) and its distribution to shoots was investigated by growing wheat in soil spiked with unlabeled or (14)C-labeled atropine. Radioactivity attributable to (14)C-atropine and its transformation products was measurable in plants sampled at 15 d after sowing (DAS) and thereafter until the end of experiment. The highest accumulation of (14)C-atropine and/or its transformation products by plants was detected in leaves (between 73 and 90% of the total accumulated) with lower amounts in stems, roots, and seeds (approximately 14%, 9%, and 3%, respectively). (14)C-Atropine and/or its transformation products were detected in soil leachate at 30, 60, and 90 DAS and were strongly adsorbed to soil, with 60% of the applied dose adsorbed at 30 DAS, plateauing at 70% from 60 DAS. Unlabeled atropine was detected in shoots 30 DAS at a concentration of 3.9 ± 0.1 μg kg(-1) (mean ± SD). The observed bioconcentration factor was 2.3 ± 0.04. The results suggest a potential risk of atropine toxicity to consumers. PMID:24007480

  9. Cerebral proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy demonstrates reversibility of N-acetylaspartate/creatine in gray matter after delayed encephalopathy due to carbon monoxide intoxication

    Larsen, Vibeke Andree; Kondziella, Daniel; Larsen, Ole Hyldegaard; Danielsen, Else Rubæk; Jansen, Erik Christian; Hansen, Marco Bo

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Predictive markers for long-term outcome in carbon monoxide-intoxicated patients with late encephalopathy are desired. Here we present the first data demonstrating a full reversibility pattern of specific brain substances measured by cerebral proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in...... a carbon monoxide-intoxicated victim. This may provide clinicians with important information when estimating patient outcome. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of a 40-year-old Caucasian woman with severe carbon monoxide poisoning who was treated with five repetitive sessions of hyperbaric...... mid-occipital gray matter and partial reversal in white matter. CONCLUSIONS: The present case indicates that cerebral proton magnetic spectroscopy provides valuable information on brain metabolism in patients presenting with delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide intoxication. The full...

  10. Oral cadmium chloride intoxication in mice

    Andersen, O; Nielsen, J B; Svendsen, P

    1988-01-01

    Diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) is known to alleviate acute toxicity due to injection of cadmium salts. However, when cadmium chloride was administered by the oral route, DDC enhanced rather than alleviated the acute toxicity; both oral and intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of DDC had this effec...

  11. The muscarinic antagonists scopolamine and atropine are competitive antagonists at 5-HT3 receptors.

    Lochner, Martin; Thompson, Andrew J

    2016-09-01

    Scopolamine is a high affinity muscarinic antagonist that is used for the prevention of post-operative nausea and vomiting. 5-HT3 receptor antagonists are used for the same purpose and are structurally related to scopolamine. To examine whether 5-HT3 receptors are affected by scopolamine we examined the effects of this drug on the electrophysiological and ligand binding properties of 5-HT3A receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes and HEK293 cells, respectively. 5-HT3 receptor-responses were reversibly inhibited by scopolamine with an IC50 of 2.09 μM. Competitive antagonism was shown by Schild plot (pA2 = 5.02) and by competition with the 5-HT3 receptor antagonists [(3)H]granisetron (Ki = 6.76 μM) and G-FL (Ki = 4.90 μM). The related molecule, atropine, similarly inhibited 5-HT evoked responses in oocytes with an IC50 of 1.74 μM, and competed with G-FL with a Ki of 7.94 μM. The reverse experiment revealed that granisetron also competitively bound to muscarinic receptors (Ki = 6.5 μM). In behavioural studies scopolamine is used to block muscarinic receptors and induce a cognitive deficit, and centrally administered concentrations can exceed the IC50 values found here. It is therefore possible that 5-HT3 receptors are also inhibited. Studies that utilise higher concentrations of scopolamine should be mindful of these potential off-target effects. PMID:27108935

  12. [Cognitive disorders in patients with chronic mercury intoxication].

    Katamanova, E V; Shevchenko, O I; Lakhman, O L; Denisova, I A

    2014-01-01

    To assess severity of cognitive disorders in chronic mercury intoxication, the authors performed claster and discrimination analysis of neuropsychologic and neurophysiologic research data from workers exposed to mercury during long length of service, from patients with early and marked stages of chronic mercurial intoxication. Cognitive disorders in chronic mercurial intoxication have three severity degrees, in the light degree disorders patients demonstrate lower amplitude of cognitive evoked potentials, poor long-term memory and associative thinking. Moderate cognitive disorders are characterized by decreased visual, long-term memory, concentration of attention, poor optic and spatial gnosis. Marked cognitive disorders with chronic mercurial intoxication present with more decreased long-term, short-term, picturesque memory, poor intellect, optic and spatial gnosis and associative thinking. PMID:25051667

  13. Carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication: Computerized tomography and magnetic resonance. Intoxicacion aguda por monoxido de carbono: tomografia computerizada y resonancia magnetica

    Benitez Gomez, S.; Aguilera Navarro, J.M.; Gonzalez Garcia, A.; Gonzalez Marcos, J.R.; Fernandez Cruz, J. (Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocio. Sevilla (Spain))

    1993-01-01

    We present a case of acute carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication in a previously healthy 13-year-old girl, who was found in the bathroom, unconscious and with the gas-burning hot water thank operating. The neuroradiological study showed bilateral, symmetrical cortical and subcortical parietooccipital and temporal lesions as well as damage to the basal lymph nodes. These lesions were related to the anoxic situation induced by this type of intoxication. Clinicoradiological follow-up included CT and MR sequences over a period of 10 months. In this cases, we stress the greater sensitivity of MR in the early detection of the characteristic lesions in this situation and we analyze the evolution of the process. (Author)

  14. Drug intoxications and hospital costs – Original Article

    Akar, Taner; Derinöz, Okşan; Demirel, Birol

    2007-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the demographic characteristics the types of utilized drugs and the hospital costs of the drug intoxication cases who attended to the Gazi University Medical Faculty Pediatric Emergency Service to determine the burden on the national economy and to plan the prevention nbsp; Material and Method: The epichrises of the cases attended because of drug intoxication were evaluated using the hospital records and the hospital costs were evaluated using the Av...

  15. Minor heavy metal: A review on occupational and environmental intoxication

    Wiwanitkit Viroj

    2008-01-01

    Heavy metal is widely used in industries and presents as a problematic environmental pollution. Some heavy metals, especially lead and mercury, are well described for their occupational and environmental intoxication whereas the other minor heavy metals are less concerned. In this article, the author will present the details of occupational and environmental minor heavy metal intoxication. This review focuses mainly on aluminum, tin, copper, manganese, chromium, cadmium and nickel.

  16. Diphenyl Ditelluride Intoxication Triggers Histological Changes in Liver, Kidney, and Lung of Mice

    Sônia Cristina Almeida da Luz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tellurium compounds may be cytotoxic to different cells types. Thus, this work evaluated the effect of diphenyl ditelluride ((PhTe2, an organotellurium commonly used in organic synthesis, on the morphology of liver, kidney, and lung. Adult mice were acutely (a subcutaneous single dose: 250 μmol/kg or subchronically (one daily subcutaneous dose: 10 or 50 μmol/kg for 7 and 14 days exposed to (PhTe2. Afterwards, the histological analyses of liver, kidney, and lungs were performed. Liver histology revealed that the hepatocytes of mice subchronically exposed to (PhTe2 presented cytoplasmic vacuolization, hydropic degeneration, and hyperchromatic nuclei. Subchronic exposure to 50 μmol/kg (PhTe2 also caused hepatic necrosis. Microvesicular and macrovesicular steatosis were identified in liver of mice acutely exposed to (PhTe2. Acute and subchronic intoxication with (PhTe2 induced changes on epithelial cells of renal tubules, namely, loss of brush border and cytoplasmatic vacuolization. Atrophy and hypertrophy, cast proteinaceous formation, and acute tubular necrosis were also identified in renal tissue. Mice subchronically exposed to 50 μmol/kg (PhTe2 developed intra-alveolar edema and alveolar wall congestion in some areas of lungs. Acute exposure to (PhTe2 did not cause histological changes in lungs. Our data show that (PhTe2 may be considered a histotoxic agent for liver, kidney, and lung.

  17. Visual hallucinations on eye closure associated with atropine toxicity. A neurological analysis and comparison with other visual hallucinations.

    Fisher, C M

    1991-02-01

    Visual hallucinations of remarkable intensity began shortly after intravenous atropine and persisted for 11 days. They were present only when the eyes were closed and were associated with heightened dreaming and disturbed sleep. The patient remained lucid and described his experiences to his attendants. Our patient's hallucinations bore some resemblance to hypnagogic hallucinations and this became the basis for the hypothesis that the hallucinations originated in the sleep-dream system of the brain stem. It is speculated that a similar site--a metabolic locus minoris resistentiae may play a part in other types of visual hallucinations and in delirium. PMID:2036612

  18. Retrospective Evaluation of Intoxication Cases Presented to Sivas Numune Hospital

    Yadigar Yılmaz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the epidemiological and demographic features and prognosis of all patients admitted to the emergency department and followed in intensive care unit due to poisoning. Methods: We resrospectively evaluated the patients over 14 years of age, who attended to the emergency department and was followed in our intensive care unit due to poisoning, were evaluated according to their demographic characteristics, anamnesis and prognosis. Results: Of 1894 patients, who were admitted to the emergency department, 1034 were female (54.8%. The mean age was 32.76±14.88 years. 36.4% of these patients were suicide attempters. Three hundred twenty-eight patients (17.3% were admitted to the intensive care unit. Two hundred thirty-four (17.3% were females and the mean age was 27.98±13.87 years. Of those patients, 263 (80.2% were treated for drug intoxications, 33 (10.1% for carbonmonoxide (CO intoxications, 18 (5.5% for food intoxications, 4 (1.2% for insecticide poisoning, 4 (1.2% for bee sting, 3 (0.9% for rat poison intoxications, 1 (0,3% for alcohol intoxication, and 1 (0.3% was treated for snakebite. 80.5% of them were suicide attempters. The most frequently taken drugs were antidepressants (25.8%. Conclusion: Intoxication cases admitted to the emergency department and intensive care unit were mostly young women, and drug overdose was the most common attempted method of suicide. The most frequent used drugs were antidepressants. In this study, we determined the patient profile of intoxication in Sivas province. (The Medical Bulletin of Haseki 2013; 51: 178-82

  19. Intoxicación por alcoholes Alcohol intoxication

    J. Roldán

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available La intoxicación etílica es la primera toxicomanía en muchos países del mundo. Afecta a todos los tramos de edad, en los dos sexos y en casi todos los grupos sociales. La mortalidad asociada sólo a la intoxicación etílica aguda es excepcional, pero puede ser un importante factor si coexiste con ingesta de otras drogas de abuso. Es responsable directo de más de la mitad de los accidentes de tráfico. El diagnóstico es fácil por la anamnesis y la clínica y se puede confirmar determinando el nivel de etanol en sangre. El tratamiento es de sostén, intentando proteger al paciente de complicaciones secundarias. El metanol o alcohol de quemar se utiliza como disolvente, encontrándose también como adulterante de bebidas alcohólicas. La intoxicación vía oral es la más frecuente. Oxidado en el hígado a través de la enzima alcohol deshidrogenasa, la toxicidad se debe a sus metabolitos, formaldehído y ácido fórmico. La clínica consiste fundamentalmente en cefalea, náuseas, vómitos, hipotensión y depresión del SNC. El nervio óptico es especialmente sensible pudiendo producirse una ceguera total e irreversible. El etilenglicol se utiliza como disolvente y anticongelante; la toxicidad se debe a la acumulación de sus metabolitos. La clínica incluye síntomas comunes con la intoxicación metílica. Puede ocurrir fallo renal por necrosis tubular y depósito de cristales de oxalato.Alcohol intoxication is the principal drug addiction in many countries of the world. It affects all age groups, both sexes and almost all social groups. Mortality associated with acute alcohol poisoning on its own is exceptional, but it can be an important factor if it coexists with recreational drugs. It is directly responsible for more than half of traffic accidents. Diagnosis is easy by means of anamnesis and clinical examination, and can be confirmed by determining the level of ethanol in the bloodstream. Supportive care is the best therapy in order to

  20. [Psychosocial Characteristics of Adolescents Treated for Alcohol Intoxication in Emergency Departments].

    Wartberg, Lutz; Diestelkamp, Silke; Arnaud, Nicolas; Thomasius, Rainer

    2016-09-01

    Psychosocial Characteristics of Adolescents Treated for Alcohol Intoxication in Emergency Departments In Germany, every year a substantial number of adolescents is treated in emergency departments for acute alcohol intoxication. Until now, only few studies have been published investigating psychosocial aspects in this group of adolescents. In the present study 316 adolescents were surveyed in the emergency department regarding their problematic use of alcohol and illicit drugs, their patterns of alcohol consumption, their alcohol-related and mental problems. We reported results for the whole sample. Additionally, the sample was divided in two groups based on the result in an established screening instrument for problematic alcohol use (CRAFFT-d). To compare the two groups we conducted unpaired t tests, chi-square tests and logistic regression analyses. Compared to the other group the adolescents exceeding the cut-off value of the CRAFFT-d reported a statistically significant higher past 30-day binge drinking frequency and number of standard-drinks consumed on a typical drinking occasion, more alcohol-related problems, more frequently a problematic use of illicit drugs and more mental problems (regarding antisocial behavior, anger control problems and self-esteem). Antisocial behavior was the most important factor for the affiliation to one of the two groups. The application of the screening instrument for problematic alcohol use (CRAFFT-d) in the emergency department seems to be a promising approach to identify adolescents with a general higher psychosocial burden. PMID:27595810

  1. Attention to advertising and memory for brands under alcohol intoxication

    Jacob L. Orquin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to discover new possibilities for advertising in uncluttered environments marketers have recently begun using ambient advertising in, for instance, bars and pubs. However, advertising in such licensed premises have to deal with the fact that many consumers are under the influence of alcohol while viewing the ad. This paper examines the effect of alcohol intoxication on attention to and memory for advertisements in two experiments. Study 1 used a forced exposure manipulation and revealed increased attention to logos under alcohol intoxication consistent with the psychopharmacological prediction that alcohol intoxication narrows attention to the more salient features in the visual environment. Study 2 used a voluntary exposure manipulation in which ads were embedded in a magazine. The experiment revealed that alcohol intoxication reduces voluntary attention to ads and leads to a significant reduction in memory for the viewed ads. In popular terms consuming one or two beers reduces brand recall from 40 % to 36 % while being heavily intoxicated further reduces brand recall to 17 %.

  2. Attention to advertising and memory for brands under alcohol intoxication.

    Orquin, Jacob L; Jeppesen, Heine B; Scholderer, Joachim; Haugtvedt, Curtis

    2014-01-01

    In an attempt to discover new possibilities for advertising in uncluttered environments marketers have recently begun using ambient advertising in, for instance, bars and pubs. However, advertising in such licensed premises have to deal with the fact that many consumers are under the influence of alcohol while viewing the ad. This paper examines the effect of alcohol intoxication on attention to and memory for advertisements in two experiments. Study 1 used a forced exposure manipulation and revealed increased attention to logos under alcohol intoxication consistent with the psychopharmacological prediction that alcohol intoxication narrows attention to the more salient features in the visual environment. Study 2 used a voluntary exposure manipulation in which ads were embedded in a magazine. The experiment revealed that alcohol intoxication reduces voluntary attention to ads and leads to a significant reduction in memory for the viewed ads. In popular terms consuming one or two beers reduces brand recall from 40 to 36% while being heavily intoxicated further reduces brand recall to 17%. PMID:24723899

  3. Imaging study of brain damage from methanol intoxication of wine

    Objective: To investigate the imaging of CT and MRI in brain damage caused by methanol intoxication from false wine, and to study the relations between imaging manifestation and different degrees of the methanol intoxication. Method: Thirty nine cases with methanol intoxication from false wine were retrospectively reported, The latent period of these patients was 0-4 days, and the average latent period of these patients was 0.5 days, All cases were performed by serology examination, brain CT scan, and four cases performed by MRI scan after average 2.5 days (range, 1-6 days) the onset of methanol intoxication. Results: Six cases showed hyperintense signals in bilateral putamen, two cases also showed hyperintense signals in biolateral subcortex white substance regions. Four cases showed hyperintense signals in unilateral internal capsule. One case showed hyperintense changess in subcortex white substance regions. Our study showed the positive correlation between CT features and the amount of methanol and stage of clinic manifestation(χ2=4.232, P2=0.001, P>0.05). Conclusions: MRI was better than CT in finding early brain damage caused by methanol intoxication from false wine. The characteristic finding changes of the patients was showed mainly in in bilateral putamen, Prognosis for the patients combined with subcortex white substance lesion wasn't hopeful. (authors)

  4. Methyltin intoxication in six men; toxicologic and clinical aspects

    Rey, C.; Reinecke, H.J.; Besser, R.

    1984-04-01

    Neurologic and psychiatric symptoms such as headache, tinnitus, defective hearing, changing desorientation and aggressiveness are initial symptoms of methyltin chloride intoxication. Some patients also developed epileptic equivalents, such as dreamy attacks and central ventilation transaminases. Laboratory findings included low levels of serum potassium, leucocytosis and elevated transaminases. The excretion rate of tin in the urine correlated with the severity of the intoxication. There was no measurable effect of plasma separation or d-penicillamine therapy on tin excretion in the urine or on the clinical picture. The long-term prognosis of severely intoxicated persons is poor. To prevent such events workers need to be warned of the risk and dangers of working with organo-metallic compounds. The effectiveness of protective clothes and gas masks should be checked. In exposed workers regular testing is advised of tin concentrations in the urine.

  5. Do we really need to panic in all acute vision loss in ICU? Acute angle-closure glaucoma.

    Akal, Ali; Kucuk, Ahmet; Yalcin, Funda; Yalcin, Saban

    2014-08-01

    Acute angle closure glaucoma is a sight-threatening situation characterized by a sudden and marked rise in intraocular pressure (IOP) due to obstruction of aqueous humour outflow. Many local (ocular drops, nasal and nebulized agents) and systemic drugs (e.g. atropine, adrenaline, ephedrine, some psychoactive and antiepileptic drugs) that are widely used in intensive care units have the potential to precipitate such an acute attack. In this case report, we describe progressive visual loss due to acute angle-closure glaucoma (AACG) in a 59 year old female patient followed in the ICU due to a massive pulmonary embolism. PMID:25252529

  6. THE DIRECTIONS OF THE LEGAL PREVENTION OF FAMILY AND DOMESTIC CRIMES COMMITTED WHILE INTOXICATED

    Zelik V. A.; Yablochkin A. E.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to define the criminal law prevention of family offences committed while intoxicated. The qualitative and quantitative indicators of family offences committed while intoxicated were shown. We have proposed to amend existing legislation in order to increase the effectiveness of the criminal law prevention of family violence crimes committed while intoxicated. Criminal law prevention of family offences committed while intoxicated is methodologically built on the follo...

  7. Acute organophosphorus poisoning complicated by acute coronary syndrome.

    Pankaj, Madhu; Krishna, Kavita

    2014-07-01

    We report a case of 30 year old alcoholic male admitted with vomiting, drowsiness, limb weakness and fasciculations after alleged history of consumption of 30 ml of chlorpyriphos insecticide. He had low serum cholinesterase levels. With standard treatment for organophosphorus poisoning (OPP), he improved gradually until day 5, when he developed neck and limb weakness and respiratory distress. This intermediate syndrome was treated with oximes, atropine and artificial ventilation. During treatment, his ECG showed fresh changes of ST elevation. High CPK & CPK-MB levels, septal hypokinesia on 2D echo suggested acute coronary syndrome. Coronary angiography was postponed due to his bedridden and obtunded status. The patient finally recovered fully by day 15 and was discharged. Acute coronary syndrome is a rare occurrence in OP poisoning. The present case thus emphasises the need for careful electrocardiographic and enzymatic monitoring of all patients of organophosphorus poisoning to prevent potential cardiac complication which can prove fatal. PMID:25672037

  8. 强效睫状肌麻痹剂环戊通能否替代阿托品%Research on whether atropine can be substituted by the powerful cycloplegic cyclopentolate

    许江涛

    2012-01-01

    For a long time,atropine eye ointment has been widely used as the cycloplegic for children's optometry in China,while internationally,cyclopentolate gutta is widely used as the first choice for cycloplegic.In recent years,1% cyclopentolate hydrochloride ocular humor has been introduced to our country.This effective and powerful cycloplegic has already been paid close attention to by domestic pedoophthalmiaters.According to a serious of studies both home and abroad on the therapeutic effects of the own control drugs,the cycloplegia effect of cyclopentolate is close to the atropine. Cyclopentolate can be widely used for the cycloplegia before optometry for the Chinese children.However,the effect of cyclopentolate is still not as good as atropine. So,for the children with farsightedness within 7 years old,all esotropia children,Am children,and children who suffer from decreased vision acuteness and needs to be excluded from accommodative myopia, atropine eye ointment should be routinely used for cycloplegia before optometry.In this article,we also discuss the medication dosage,medication method,possible drug adverse reactions of cyclopentolate humor ocular and the coping measures at the same time.%阿托品眼膏长期以来都是中国儿童验光主流使用的睫状肌麻痹剂,而国际上则普遍使用环戊通滴眼液作为一线的睫状肌麻痹药物.近年来,国内引了进1%盐酸环戊通眼液,这种快速强效的睫状肌麻痹剂已被国内小儿眼科医师所关注.一系列国内外自身对照药物疗效研究证实,环戊通的睫状肌麻痹效果接近于阿托品,能广泛应用于中国儿童验光前的睫状肌麻痹.尽管如此,其药物疗效仍略逊于阿托品,故对于7岁以内的远视儿童、所有内斜视儿童、混合性散光儿童及短期内视力下降需要排除调节性近视的儿童,验光前仍应常规使用阿托品眼膏行睫状肌麻痹.本文同时对环戊通眼液的用药剂量、用药方法、可

  9. Chronic valproic acid intoxication: reversal by naloxone

    Thanacoody, H K R

    2009-01-01

    A 76-year-old woman being treated with sodium valproate for bipolar depression presented with a 4-day history of acute confusion and tremulousness. She had apnoeic episodes, a reduced conscious level and generalised myoclonic movements. Her plasma valproate concentration was 848 μmol/litre (normal range 300–600 μmol/litre). Administration of naloxone 0.8 mg led to rapid clinical improvement. Naloxone may be useful in reversing the features of chronic valproate toxicity.

  10. Cannabidiol Rescues Acute Hepatic Toxicity and Seizure Induced by Cocaine

    Luciano Rezende Vilela; Lindisley Ferreira Gomides; Bruna Araújo David; Maísa Mota Antunes; Ariane Barros Diniz; Fabrício de Araújo Moreira; Gustavo Batista Menezes

    2015-01-01

    Cocaine is a commonly abused illicit drug that causes significant morbidity and mortality. The most severe and common complications are seizures, ischemic strokes, myocardial infarction, and acute liver injury. Here, we demonstrated that acute cocaine intoxication promoted seizure along with acute liver damage in mice, with intense inflammatory infiltrate. Considering the protective role of the endocannabinoid system against cell toxicity, we hypothesized that treatment with an anandamide hyd...

  11. Summary of four scientific studies on Arsenicum album high dilution effect against Arsenic intoxication in mice

    Laurence Terzan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Groundwater arsenic affects millions of people in about 20 countries. In West Bengal (India and Bangladesh alone over 100 million people are exposed. The arsenic concentration in contaminated groundwater in Bangladesh was above the maximum permissible level of 0.05 mg/l as recommended by WHO for developing countries [1]. Drinking water is not the only source of poisoning. In arsenic contaminated areas, crops, vegetables, cereals, poultry, cattle, etc, also contain traces of arsenic. Chronic arsenic intoxication has been associated with several diseases such as melanosis, leuco-melanosis, hyperkeratosis, oedema, skin cancer… Cazin et al [2], have demonstrated the effect of high dilutions of arsenic compounds. They noted increased arsenic elimination from blood through urine and faeces in intoxicated rats. According to these research, the aim of Khuda Buksh studies [3-4-5] was to investigate whether high dilution Arsenicum album have any effect on arsenic accumulation in different tissues and to understand also how this high dilution could produce a protective effect on all the different organs. Methodology: Firstly, the effect of Arsenicum album 30 cH on the amount of arsenic accumulation was determined by spectrophotometric analysis in four tissues namely liver, kidney and testis in mice intoxicated by arsenic. The protective effect in chronic and acute arsenic intoxicated mice of Arsenicum Album 6cH, 30cH and 200cH has been evaluated using not only the activities of enzymatic and biomarker toxicity (aspartate amino transferase (AST, alanine amino transferase (ALT, acid phosphatase (AcP, alkaline phosphatase (AlkP, lipid peroxidation (LPO and reduced glutathione (GSH but also the cytogenetical parameters (chromosome aberrations (CA, mitotic index (MI, sperm head anomaly (SHA etc., . Because, it is well demonstrated that these enzymes biomarkers reflect the degree of hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress caused by

  12. Celebratory Drinking and Intoxication: A Contextual Influence on Alcohol Consumption

    Glindemann, Kent E.; Wiegand, Douglas M.; Geller, E. Scott

    2007-01-01

    Two field studies measured college students' actual intoxication levels using handheld breathalyzers on Halloween and St. Patrick's Day and compared these celebration days to typical nights surrounding these events. In addition, across all nights of Study 2, participants were asked if they were celebrating any occasion or event that night, and…

  13. Chronic Vitamin D Intoxication in Captive Iberian Lynx (Lynx pardinus)

    Muñoz, Luis; Raya, Ana; Lopez, Guillermo; Aguilera-Tejero, Escolástico

    2016-01-01

    To document the biochemical and pathologic features of vitamin D intoxication in lynx and to characterize mineral metabolism in healthy lynx, blood samples were obtained from 40 captive lynx that had been receiving excessive (approximately 30 times the recommended dose) vitamin D3 in the diet, and from 29 healthy free ranging lynx. Tissue samples (kidney, stomach, lung, heart and aorta) were collected from 13 captive lynx that died as a result of renal disease and from 3 controls. Vitamin D intoxication resulted in renal failure in most lynx (n = 28), and widespread extraskeletal calcification was most severe in the kidneys and less prominent in cardiovascular tissues. Blood minerals and calciotropic hormones in healthy lynx were similar to values reported in domestic cats except for calcitriol which was higher in healthy lynx. Changes in mineral metabolism after vitamin D intoxication included hypercalcemia (12.0 ± 0.3 mg/dL), hyperphosphatemia (6.3 ± 0.4 mg/dL), increased plasma calcidiol (381.5 ± 28.2 ng/mL) and decreased plasma parathyroid hormone (1.2 ± 0.7 pg/mL). Hypercalcemia and, particularly, hyperphosphatemia were of lower magnitude that what has been previously reported in the course of vitamin D intoxication in other species. However, extraskeletal calcifications were severe. The data suggest that lynx are sensitive to excessive vitamin D and extreme care should be taken when supplementing this vitamin in captive lynx diets. PMID:27243456

  14. Circumvention of Learning Increases Intoxication Efficacy of Nematicidal Engineered Bacteria.

    Bracho, Olena R; Manchery, Cyril; Haskell, Evan C; Blanar, Christopher A; Smith, Robert P

    2016-03-18

    Synthetic biology holds promise to engineer systems to treat diseases. One critical, yet underexplored, facet of designing such systems is the interplay between the system and the pathogen. Understanding this interplay may be critical to increasing efficacy and overcoming resistance against the system. Using the principles of synthetic biology, we engineer a strain of Escherichia coli to attract and intoxicate the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Our bacteria are engineered with a toxin module, which intoxicates the nematode upon ingestion, and an attraction module, which serves to attract and increase the feeding rate of the nematodes. When independently implemented, these modules successfully intoxicate and attract the worms, respectively. However, in combination, the efficacy of our bacteria is significantly reduced due to aversive associative learning in C. elegans. Guided by mathematical modeling, we dynamically regulate module induction to increase intoxication by circumventing learning. Our results detail the creation of a novel nematicidal bacterium that may have application against nematodes, unravel unique constraints on circuit dynamics that are governed by C. elegans physiology, and add to the growing list of design and implementation considerations associated with synthetic biology. PMID:26692340

  15. Chronic Vitamin D Intoxication in Captive Iberian Lynx (Lynx pardinus).

    Lopez, Ignacio; Pineda, Carmen; Muñoz, Luis; Raya, Ana; Lopez, Guillermo; Aguilera-Tejero, Escolástico

    2016-01-01

    To document the biochemical and pathologic features of vitamin D intoxication in lynx and to characterize mineral metabolism in healthy lynx, blood samples were obtained from 40 captive lynx that had been receiving excessive (approximately 30 times the recommended dose) vitamin D3 in the diet, and from 29 healthy free ranging lynx. Tissue samples (kidney, stomach, lung, heart and aorta) were collected from 13 captive lynx that died as a result of renal disease and from 3 controls. Vitamin D intoxication resulted in renal failure in most lynx (n = 28), and widespread extraskeletal calcification was most severe in the kidneys and less prominent in cardiovascular tissues. Blood minerals and calciotropic hormones in healthy lynx were similar to values reported in domestic cats except for calcitriol which was higher in healthy lynx. Changes in mineral metabolism after vitamin D intoxication included hypercalcemia (12.0 ± 0.3 mg/dL), hyperphosphatemia (6.3 ± 0.4 mg/dL), increased plasma calcidiol (381.5 ± 28.2 ng/mL) and decreased plasma parathyroid hormone (1.2 ± 0.7 pg/mL). Hypercalcemia and, particularly, hyperphosphatemia were of lower magnitude that what has been previously reported in the course of vitamin D intoxication in other species. However, extraskeletal calcifications were severe. The data suggest that lynx are sensitive to excessive vitamin D and extreme care should be taken when supplementing this vitamin in captive lynx diets. PMID:27243456

  16. Chronic Vitamin D Intoxication in Captive Iberian Lynx (Lynx pardinus.

    Ignacio Lopez

    Full Text Available To document the biochemical and pathologic features of vitamin D intoxication in lynx and to characterize mineral metabolism in healthy lynx, blood samples were obtained from 40 captive lynx that had been receiving excessive (approximately 30 times the recommended dose vitamin D3 in the diet, and from 29 healthy free ranging lynx. Tissue samples (kidney, stomach, lung, heart and aorta were collected from 13 captive lynx that died as a result of renal disease and from 3 controls. Vitamin D intoxication resulted in renal failure in most lynx (n = 28, and widespread extraskeletal calcification was most severe in the kidneys and less prominent in cardiovascular tissues. Blood minerals and calciotropic hormones in healthy lynx were similar to values reported in domestic cats except for calcitriol which was higher in healthy lynx. Changes in mineral metabolism after vitamin D intoxication included hypercalcemia (12.0 ± 0.3 mg/dL, hyperphosphatemia (6.3 ± 0.4 mg/dL, increased plasma calcidiol (381.5 ± 28.2 ng/mL and decreased plasma parathyroid hormone (1.2 ± 0.7 pg/mL. Hypercalcemia and, particularly, hyperphosphatemia were of lower magnitude that what has been previously reported in the course of vitamin D intoxication in other species. However, extraskeletal calcifications were severe. The data suggest that lynx are sensitive to excessive vitamin D and extreme care should be taken when supplementing this vitamin in captive lynx diets.

  17. Prolactin release during exercise in normal and adrenodemedullated untrained rats submitted to central cholinergic blockade with atropine.

    Lima, N R; Pereira, W; Reis, A M; Coimbra, C C; Marubayashi, U

    2001-12-01

    To study the role of the central cholinergic system in pituitary prolactin (PRL) release during exercise we injected atropine (5 x 10(-7) mol) into the lateral cerebral ventricle of intact or adrenodemedullated (ADM) untrained rats, at rest or submitted to exercise on a treadmill (18 m x min(-1), 5% grade) until exhaustion. The rats were implanted with chronic jugular catheters for blood sampling and with unilateral intracerebroventricular (icv) cannulas placed in the right lateral ventricle. Blood prolactin concentrations were measured before and every 10 min after the start of exercise for a period of 60 min. After the animals started running, plasma prolactin levels rose rapidly in both normal and ADM rats, reaching near maximum at 10 min. Close to exhaustion (19.8 +/- 2.9 min for intact rats and 23.5 +/- 4.1 min for ADM) they were still high, remained increased until 30 min, and returned to preexercise levels at 40 min. Icv injections of atropine decreased the time to exhaustion by 67% in intact rats and by 96.2% in ADM and also reduced the exercise-induced PRL release in both intact (50%) and ADM rats (90%). The results showed that prolactin release induced by exercise was dependent on the exercise workload and could be observed as early as after 10 min of running, remaining increased until 30 min. These data indicate that adrenodemedullation does not affect prolactin secretion induced by exercise, although adrenodemedullated rats proved to be more sensitive to the reducing effect of central cholinergic blockade on their maximal capacity for exercise. PMID:11716582

  18. Combinations of ketamine and atropine are neuroprotective and reduce neuroinflammation after a toxic status epilepticus in mice

    Epileptic seizures and status epilepticus (SE) induced by the poisoning with organophosphorus nerve agents (OP), like soman, are accompanied by neuroinflammation whose role in seizure-related brain damage (SRBD) is not clear. Antagonists of the NMDA glutamate ionotropic receptors are currently among the few compounds able to arrest seizures and provide neuroprotection even during refractory status epilepticus (RSE). Racemic ketamine (KET), in combination with atropine sulfate (AS), was previously shown to counteract seizures and SRBD in soman-poisoned guinea-pigs. In a mouse model of severe soman-induced SE, we assessed the potentials of KET/AS combinations as a treatment for SE/RSE-induced SRBD and neuroinflammation. When starting 30 min after soman challenge, a protocol involving six injections of a sub-anesthetic dose of KET (25 mg/kg) was evaluated on body weight loss, brain damage, and neuroinflammation whereas during RSE, anesthetic protocols were considered (KET 100 mg/kg). After confirming that during RSE, KET injection was to be repeated despite some iatrogenic deaths, we used these proof-of-concept protocols to study the changes in mRNA and related protein contents of some inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules in cortex and hippocampus 48 h post-challenge. In both cases, the KET/AS combinations showed important neuroprotective effects, suppressed neutrophil granulocyte infiltration and partially suppressed glial activation. KET/AS could also reduce the increase in mRNA and related pro-inflammatory proteins provoked by the poisoning. In conclusion, the present study confirms that KET/AS treatment has a strong potential for SE/RSE management following OP poisoning. The mechanisms involved in the reduction of central neuroinflammation remain to be studied. -- Highlights: ► During soman-induced status epilepticus, ketamine-atropine limit brain damage. ► Molecular neuroinflammatory response is strongly decreased. ► Glial activation is

  19. Combinations of ketamine and atropine are neuroprotective and reduce neuroinflammation after a toxic status epilepticus in mice

    Dhote, Franck, E-mail: franck.dhote@irba.fr [Département de Toxicologie et risques chimiques, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des armées – Centre de recherches du Service de santé des armées IRBA-CRSSA, 24 avenue des Maquis du Grésivaudan, B.P. 87, 38702 La Tronche cedex (France); Carpentier, Pierre; Barbier, Laure [Département de Toxicologie et risques chimiques, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des armées – Centre de recherches du Service de santé des armées IRBA-CRSSA, 24 avenue des Maquis du Grésivaudan, B.P. 87, 38702 La Tronche cedex (France); Peinnequin, André [Département Effets biologiques des rayonnements, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des armées – Centre de recherches du Service de santé des armées IRBA-CRSSA, 24 avenue des Maquis du Grésivaudan, B.P. 87, 38702 La Tronche cedex (France); Baille, Valérie; Pernot, Fabien; Testylier, Guy; Beaup, Claire; Foquin, Annie [Département de Toxicologie et risques chimiques, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des armées – Centre de recherches du Service de santé des armées IRBA-CRSSA, 24 avenue des Maquis du Grésivaudan, B.P. 87, 38702 La Tronche cedex (France); and others

    2012-03-01

    Epileptic seizures and status epilepticus (SE) induced by the poisoning with organophosphorus nerve agents (OP), like soman, are accompanied by neuroinflammation whose role in seizure-related brain damage (SRBD) is not clear. Antagonists of the NMDA glutamate ionotropic receptors are currently among the few compounds able to arrest seizures and provide neuroprotection even during refractory status epilepticus (RSE). Racemic ketamine (KET), in combination with atropine sulfate (AS), was previously shown to counteract seizures and SRBD in soman-poisoned guinea-pigs. In a mouse model of severe soman-induced SE, we assessed the potentials of KET/AS combinations as a treatment for SE/RSE-induced SRBD and neuroinflammation. When starting 30 min after soman challenge, a protocol involving six injections of a sub-anesthetic dose of KET (25 mg/kg) was evaluated on body weight loss, brain damage, and neuroinflammation whereas during RSE, anesthetic protocols were considered (KET 100 mg/kg). After confirming that during RSE, KET injection was to be repeated despite some iatrogenic deaths, we used these proof-of-concept protocols to study the changes in mRNA and related protein contents of some inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules in cortex and hippocampus 48 h post-challenge. In both cases, the KET/AS combinations showed important neuroprotective effects, suppressed neutrophil granulocyte infiltration and partially suppressed glial activation. KET/AS could also reduce the increase in mRNA and related pro-inflammatory proteins provoked by the poisoning. In conclusion, the present study confirms that KET/AS treatment has a strong potential for SE/RSE management following OP poisoning. The mechanisms involved in the reduction of central neuroinflammation remain to be studied. -- Highlights: ► During soman-induced status epilepticus, ketamine-atropine limit brain damage. ► Molecular neuroinflammatory response is strongly decreased. ► Glial activation is

  20. Cannabis and tolerance: acute drug impairment as a function of cannabis use history

    Ramaekers, J. G.; van Wel, J. H.; Spronk, D. B.; Toennes, S. W.; Kuypers, K. P. C.; Theunissen, E. L.; Verkes, R. J.

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis use history as predictor of neurocognitive response to cannabis intoxication remains subject to scientific and policy debates. The present study assessed the influence of cannabis on neurocognition in cannabis users whose cannabis use history ranged from infrequent to daily use. Drug users (N = 122) received acute doses of cannabis (300 μg/kg THC), cocaine HCl (300 mg) and placebo. Cocaine served as active control for demonstrating neurocognitive test sensitivity. Executive function, impulse control, attention, psychomotor function and subjective intoxication were significantly worse after cannabis administration relative to placebo. Cocaine improved psychomotor function and attention, impaired impulse control and increased feelings of intoxication. Acute effects of cannabis and cocaine on neurocognitive performance were similar across cannabis users irrespective of their cannabis use history. Absence of tolerance implies that that frequent cannabis use and intoxication can be expected to interfere with neurocognitive performance in many daily environments such as school, work or traffic. PMID:27225696

  1. Cannabis and tolerance: acute drug impairment as a function of cannabis use history.

    Ramaekers, J G; van Wel, J H; Spronk, D B; Toennes, S W; Kuypers, K P C; Theunissen, E L; Verkes, R J

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis use history as predictor of neurocognitive response to cannabis intoxication remains subject to scientific and policy debates. The present study assessed the influence of cannabis on neurocognition in cannabis users whose cannabis use history ranged from infrequent to daily use. Drug users (N = 122) received acute doses of cannabis (300 μg/kg THC), cocaine HCl (300 mg) and placebo. Cocaine served as active control for demonstrating neurocognitive test sensitivity. Executive function, impulse control, attention, psychomotor function and subjective intoxication were significantly worse after cannabis administration relative to placebo. Cocaine improved psychomotor function and attention, impaired impulse control and increased feelings of intoxication. Acute effects of cannabis and cocaine on neurocognitive performance were similar across cannabis users irrespective of their cannabis use history. Absence of tolerance implies that that frequent cannabis use and intoxication can be expected to interfere with neurocognitive performance in many daily environments such as school, work or traffic. PMID:27225696

  2. USE OF RESPIRATORY-CARDIOVASCULAR RESPONSES OF RAINBOW TROUT (SALMO GAIRDNERI) IN IDENTIFYING ACUTE TOXICITY SYNDROMES IN FISH: PART 3. POLAR NARCOTICS

    The physiological responses of rainbow trout to acutely lethal aqueous concentrations of the suspected polar narcotics phenol, 2,4,-dimethylphenol, aniline, 2-chloroaniline and 4-chloroaniline were examined. Visible signs of intoxication included tremors that progressed to whole-...

  3. Acute and chronic ethanol consumption differentially impact pathways limiting hepatic protein synthesis

    Karinch, Anne M.; Martin, Jonathan H.; Vary, Thomas C.

    2008-01-01

    This review identifies the various pathways responsible for modulating hepatic protein synthesis following acute and chronic alcohol intoxication and describes the mechanism(s) responsible for these changes. Alcohol intoxication induces a defect in global protein synthetic rates that is localized to impaired translation of mRNA at the level of peptide-chain initiation. Translation initiation is regulated at two steps: formation of the 43S preinitiation complex [controlled by eukaryotic initia...

  4. Technetium-99m pyrophosphate imaging in acute renal failure associated with nontraumatic rhabdomyolysis

    Patel, R.; Mishkin, F.S.

    1986-10-01

    Technetium-99m pyrophosphate (Tc-PYP) imaging was performed in five patients with acute renal failure associated with nontraumatic rhabdomyolysis. Four patients had phencyclidine intoxication and one had viral pneumonia. During the acute phase, marked uptake of pyrophosphate was seen in all patients in several muscle groups, but always in the thigh adductors. The results show that phencyclidine intoxication can result in diffuse muscle uptake of Tc-PYP without overt evidence of muscle injury. Tc-PYP imaging may provide a clue to the cause of acute renal failure in patients with suspected rhabdomyolysis in whom elevations of serum creatine phosphokinase concentrations are equivocal.

  5. Technetium-99m pyrophosphate imaging in acute renal failure associated with nontraumatic rhabdomyolysis

    Technetium-99m pyrophosphate (Tc-PYP) imaging was performed in five patients with acute renal failure associated with nontraumatic rhabdomyolysis. Four patients had phencyclidine intoxication and one had viral pneumonia. During the acute phase, marked uptake of pyrophosphate was seen in all patients in several muscle groups, but always in the thigh adductors. The results show that phencyclidine intoxication can result in diffuse muscle uptake of Tc-PYP without overt evidence of muscle injury. Tc-PYP imaging may provide a clue to the cause of acute renal failure in patients with suspected rhabdomyolysis in whom elevations of serum creatine phosphokinase concentrations are equivocal

  6. Evaluation of respiratory dysfunction in a pig model of severe acute dichlorvos poisoning

    HE Xin-hua; WU Jun-yuan; LI Chun-sheng; SU Zhi-yu; JI Xian-fei; HAN Yi; WANG Sheng-qi; ZHANG Jian

    2012-01-01

    Background Respiratory failure is the main cause of death in acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning.In this study,a pulse-induced contour cardiac output monitor was used to evaluate the respiratory status in a pig model of acute dichlorvos poisoning.Methods Twenty female pigs were randomly allocated to dichlorvos (n=7),atropine (n=7),and control (n=6) groups.In the dichlorvos group,pigs were administered 80% emulsifiable dichlorvos (100 mg/kg) via a gastric tube.In the atropine group,pigs were similarly administered dichlorvos,and 0.5 hours later,atropine was injected to attain and maintain atropinization.The control group was administered saline solution.Arterial blood gas was measured at 0,0.5,1,2,4,and 6 hours post-injection.The extravascular lung water index and pulmonary vascular permeability index were recorded by the pulse-induced contour cardiac output monitor.At termination of the study,the animals were euthanized,the lung wet-to-dry weight ratio was determined,and histopathology was observed.Results In the dichlorvos group,the extravascular lung water index and pulmonary vascular permeability index were substantially increased from 0.5 hours and were particularly high within 1 hour.In the atropine group,these indices increased initially,but decreased from the 1-hour mark.The control group exhibited no obvious changes.In both the dichlorvos and atropine groups,the extravascular lung water index was negatively correlated with partial pressure of oxygen/fraction of inspiration oxygen (PO2/FiO2) and positively correlated with the pulmonary vascular permeability index.Compared with the control group,the lung wet-to-dry weight ratio markedly increased and the histopathological findings obviously changed in the dichlorvos group,but only mildly increased and changed,respectively,in the atropine group.Conclusion The extravascular lung water index is an appropriate and valuable parameter for assessment of respiratory function in acute dichlorvos poisoning.

  7. [Risk of acute hepatic insufficiency in children due to chronic accidental overdose of paracetamol (acetaminophen)

    Hameleers-Snijders, P.; Hogeveen, M.; Smeitink, J.A.M.; Kramers, C.; Draaisma, J.M.T.

    2007-01-01

    Two girls aged 4 and 3 years, respectively, experienced acute liver failure due to accidental ingestion of supratherapeutic doses of paracetamol (90 mg/kg/day or more). Recognition of chronic paracetamol intoxication as a cause of acute hepatic failure is often delayed. It is important to consider t

  8. [Raw milk-associated Staphylococcus aureus intoxication in children].

    Giezendanner, N; Meyer, B; Gort, M; Müller, P; Zweifel, C

    2009-07-01

    Four hours after the consumption of raw goat milk, three Swiss children came down with emesis and diarrhea in July 2008. First investigations showed that the milk originated from a goat suffering from clinical mastitis (Staphylococcus aureus). In the milk sample from the untreated left udder, Staphylococcus aureus counts reached 5.0 x 10(7) CFU ml(-1). By PCR, the gene for the staphylococcal enterotoxin D was found in isolated strains. The consumption of raw milk is rarely associated with Staphylococcus aureus intoxications. Due to the flora naturally present in raw milk, Staphylococcus aureus normally cannot multiply sufficiently. However, in the present case, high Staphylococcus aureus counts were already present in the milk due to the mastitis of the goat. This amount sufficed to cause a Staphylococcus aureus intoxication in the children. PMID:19565455

  9. Hemorheological changes and hematometric erythrocyte characteristics in rats after sodium nitrite intoxication

    Ivanov, Ivan; Gluhcheva, Yordanka; Petrova, Emilia; Antonova, Nadia

    2014-05-01

    Sodium nitrite (NaNO2) is a precursor to a variety of organic compounds (pharmaceuticals, dyes and pesticides), but it is best known as a food additive. The aim of the study is to investigate the influence of acute (i.p.) treatment of Wistar rats with NaNO2 (at the dose of 50 mg/kg b.w.) on the blood rheological properties and erythrocyte hematometric indices (Hb, HCT, RBC, MCV, RDW, MCH, MCHC). The significant differences were not found in the whole blood viscosity (WBV) values of the control and NaNO2-treated groups. The changes in the erythrocyte hematometric indices were statistically significant for RDW, MCHC and MCH at the 1st hour, five- and ten days after NaNO2 administration. Interestingly, at the day 5th of the NaNO2 treatment we obtained statistically significant lower values for the RBC count, Hb, HCT, RDW, as well as elevated indices MCV (no statistically significant), MCH, MCHC. The results obtained indicate that hemorheological and hematometric parameters examined should be monitored in cases of acute exposure to nitrites — for the purposes of clinical toxicology. The quantitative values of hematometric indices reported in our experimental model could be suitable for predicting NaNO2 intoxication and methemoglobinemia in animals and humans.

  10. Hemodiafiltration: A Novel Approach for Treating Severe Amitriptyline Intoxication

    Ozayar, Esra; Degerli, Semih; Gulec, Handan

    2012-01-01

    Tricyclic antidepressant overdose is one of the most common cause of serious drug poisonings. Sometimes amitriptyline intoxication can be difficult to treat with standard treatments. At that case hemodiafiltration (HD) can be an eligible choice. We report a successful treatment of severe case using hemodiafiltration in addition to the supportive measures. Management with gastric lavage, activated charcoal, alkalinization and supportive care is the common approach and not enough for patients i...

  11. Portrayal of Alcohol Intoxication on YouTube

    Primack, Brian A.; Colditz, Jason B.; Pang, Kevin C.; Jackson, Kristina M.

    2015-01-01

    Background We aimed to characterize the content of leading YouTube videos related to alcohol intoxication and to examine factors associated with alcohol intoxication in videos that were assessed positively by viewers. Methods We systematically captured the 70 most relevant and popular videos on YouTube related to alcohol intoxication. We employed an iterative process to codebook development which resulted in 42 codes in 6 categories: video characteristics, character socio-demographics, alcohol depiction, degree of alcohol use, characteristics associated with alcohol, and consequences of alcohol. Results There were a total of 333,246,875 views for all videos combined. While 89% of videos involved males, only 49% involved females. The videos had a median of 1646 (IQR 300-22,969) “like” designations and 33 (IQR 14-1,261) “dislike” designations each. Liquor was most frequently represented, followed by beer and then wine/champagne. Nearly one-half (44%) of videos contained a brand reference. Humor was juxtaposed with alcohol use in 79% of videos, and motor vehicle use was present in 24%. There were significantly more likes per dislike, indicating more positive sentiment, when there was representation of liquor (29.1 vs. 11.4, p = .008), brand references (32.1 vs. 19.2, p = .04), and/or physical attractiveness (67.5 vs. 17.8, p brand-name reference. While these videos commonly juxtapose alcohol intoxication with characteristics such as humor and attractiveness, they infrequently depict negative clinical outcomes. The popularity of this site may provide an opportunity for public health intervention. PMID:25703135

  12. Unusual pattern of leukoencephalopathy after morphine sulphate intoxication

    We report a 14-year-old girl with an unusual pattern of leukoencephalopathy after intentional intoxication with morphine sulphate tablets. Toxicological analysis showed exceedingly high levels of morphine and its metabolites. MRI disclosed a leukoencephalopathy with high signal from the centrum semiovale, corpus callosum and cerebellar white matter on T2-weighted images. These findings could be only partially explained by a hypoxic-ischaemic event; neurotoxic effects must be considered in this atypical leukoencephalopathy. (orig.)

  13. Unusual pattern of leukoencephalopathy after morphine sulphate intoxication

    Nanan, R.; Stockhausen, H.B. von; Petersen, B. [Children' s Hospital, University of Wuerzburg (Germany); Solymosi, L.; Warmuth-Metz, M. [Department for Neuroradiology, University of Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2000-11-01

    We report a 14-year-old girl with an unusual pattern of leukoencephalopathy after intentional intoxication with morphine sulphate tablets. Toxicological analysis showed exceedingly high levels of morphine and its metabolites. MRI disclosed a leukoencephalopathy with high signal from the centrum semiovale, corpus callosum and cerebellar white matter on T2-weighted images. These findings could be only partially explained by a hypoxic-ischaemic event; neurotoxic effects must be considered in this atypical leukoencephalopathy. (orig.)

  14. Subjective Beliefs, Deterrence, and the Propensity to Drive While Intoxicated

    Yiqun Chen; Frank Sloan

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates causal effects of changes in subjective probabilities of being pulled over and involved in accidents if driving while intoxicated on individuals’ drinking and driving choices. We also examine how hypothetical changes in perceptions of sanction severity affect drunk driving by experiments randomizing the harshness of punishments. We find that higher perceived risks of being pulled over and involved in accidents deter drinking and driving. However, deterrence is limited ...

  15. Catatonic syndrome associated with lead intoxication: a case report

    Modabbernia, Mohammad Jafar; Mirsafa, Ali Reza; Modabbernia, Amirhossein; Pilehroodi, Farhad; Shirazi, Maryam

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Little is known about catatonia associated with lead intoxication. Case presentation A retired printing house worker man presented with one week history of refusal to eat and mutism. He was treated with possible diagnosis of catatonia with administration of Lorazepam 3 mg P.O. daily. Significant improvement occurred after 48 hours. In further examinations, there was no evidence of physical and mental disorders while impairment in neuropsychiatry test, identification of Dohle body...

  16. MR Imaging of brain changes from carbon-monoxide intoxication

    Five cases of carbon-monoxide intoxication were studied with MR imaging. The main MR findings were discussed and compared with CT results. MR imaging demonstrated SNC lesion sooner and better than CT-its images corresponding to the anatomic-pathological patterns described in literature.However, sever MR limitations-i.e. the very long execution time and the difficult monitoring of the patients-prevent this methodology from being more extensively employed in this kind of pathology

  17. Attention to advertising and memory for brands under alcohol intoxication

    Jacob L. Orquin; Jeppesen, Heine B.; Scholderer, Joachim; Haugtvedt, Curtis

    2014-01-01

    In an attempt to discover new possibilities for advertising in uncluttered environments marketers have recently begun using ambient advertising in, for instance, bars and pubs. However, advertising in such licensed premises have to deal with the fact that many consumers are under the influence of alcohol while viewing the ad. This paper examines the effect of alcohol intoxication on attention to and memory for advertisements in two experiments. Study 1 used a forced exposure manipulation and ...

  18. Progesterone intoxication inducing marked sedation in a cat.

    Dhumeaux, Marc P; Snead, Elisabeth C R; Hung, Germaine C; Taylor, Susan M

    2010-10-01

    A 3-year-old, male castrated domestic shorthair cat presented for sudden onset of severe lethargy and loss of balance a few hours after potentially ingesting capsules containing progesterone. Elevated serum progesterone was confirmed. Supportive care and time resulted in complete resolution of the clinical signs with no long-term complications or recurrence of clinical signs noticed after 1-month follow-up. This is the first description of progesterone intoxication inducing neurological signs in a cat. PMID:20817586

  19. Use of Intravenous N-Acetyl Systein in Paracetamol Intoxication

    Latif Duran; Bülent Şişman; Canan Doğruel; Türker Yardan; Ahmet Baydın; Yücel Yavuz

    2011-01-01

    Objective: In this study, we aimed to present our clinical experiences of intravenous (IV) N-Acetyl cystein administration in patients admitted to our emergency department with paracetamol intoxication.Material and Methods: This study was conducted between January 2007 and December 2009, in the Ondokuz Mayis University Medical Faculty Hospital, Emergency Service, and the hospital records of adult patients admitted with paracetamol poisoning were examined retrospectively. Fifty three patients ...

  20. Mass-media publicity campaign on driving while intoxicated.

    Wesemann, P.

    1986-01-01

    Mass media publicity campaigns against driving while intoxicated have been conducted in the netherlands for a number of years. A new, more aggressive approach was introduced in 1984 with the slogan "alcohol ..... all too easily a crime". Goals of this campaign were (1) internationalization of the legal norm (0.5 promille) (2) increased social control and (3) increased knowledge on sanctions and sobering remedies. An evaluation was conducted with the main objective to determine whether or not ...

  1. Vasoespasmo coronariano induzido pela ecocardiografia sob estresse pela dobutamina-atropina Coronary spasm induced by dobutamine-atropine stress echocardiography

    Fábio A. Bogaz

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Relatamos caso de mulher de 45 anos de idade, com antecedentes de hipertensão arterial sistêmica e tabagismo, submetida a ecocardiografia sob estresse pela dobutamina-atropina para investigação de doença arterial coronariana. No pico do estresse, a paciente apresentou dor precordial súbita e de forte intensidade. O eletrocardiograma de doze derivações revelou elevação do segmento ST nas derivações DII, DIII, aVF, V5 e V6 e depressão do segmento ST nas derivações DI, aVL, V2 e V3. Pela monitoração das imagens ecocardiográficas foi observado aparecimento de discinesia do septo inferior e acinesia da parede inferior do ventrículo esquerdo. O exame foi interrompido imediatamente, a paciente foi medicada e evoluiu com melhora da dor precordial e das alterações de motilidade segmentar. A angiografia coronariana revelou lesões coronarianas irregulares com menos de 50% de obstrução do diâmetro luminal. Trata-se de um caso de vasoespasmo coronariano induzido por estimulação alfa-adrenérgica durante a ecocardiografia sob estresse pela dobutamina-atropina.This is the report on a 45-year-old female, with a history of systemic arterial hypertension and cigarette smoking, submitted to dobutamine-atropine stress echocardiography for the investigation of coronary artery disease. At stress peak, the patient reported sudden, highly intense precordial pain. The 12-lead electrocardiogram showed ST segment elevation in DII, DIII, aVF, V5 and V6, and depression in DI, aVL, V2 and V3. Echocardiographic imaging monitoring showed dyskinesia of inferior septum and akinesia of inferior wall. The test was interrupted immediately. The patient was medicated and improved her precordial pain condition as well as wall motion abnormalities. Coronary angiography showed irregular coronary lesions with <50% luminal diameter obstruction. It is a case of coronary spasm induced by alpha-adrenergic stimulation during dobutamine-atropine stress

  2. Vitamin K antagonism of coumarin intoxication in the rat.

    Wallin, R; Patrick, S D; Ballard, J O

    1986-04-30

    An in vitro system which expresses all enzyme activities related to vitamin K-dependent carboxylation of blood clotting factors was prepared from livers of rats overdosed with warfarin, difenacoum and dicumarol respectively. In this system, the activities of the two pathways that are known to produce active reduced vitamin K1 cofactor for the carboxylation reaction were measured. Also the ability of high concentrations of vitamin K1 to overcome inhibition of clotting factor synthesis was studied. In the systems prepared from livers of warfarin and difenacoum intoxicated rats, pathway I was inactive. Vitamin K epoxide reductase was also inactive which strongly suggests that this enzyme catalyzes the activity of pathway I in vivo. Reduction of vitamin K1 by pathway II bypassed the inactive pathway I and resulted in carboxylation activity. This pathway therefore mediates the antidotic effect of vitamin K1 in the coumarin intoxicated liver. In the in vitro system prepared from dicumarol intoxicated livers the activity of pathway I was not significantly affected. Dicumarol however was a strong inhibitor when added to liver microsomes in vitro. PMID:2424118

  3. Peganum harmala L. Intoxication in a Pregnant Woman

    Mohamed Adnane Berdai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Peganum harmala L. is a plant widely distributed in the Mediterranean region. It is commonly used in traditional medicine in Morocco as sedative and abortifacient but exposes users to the risk of overdose and poisoning. The pharmacologically active compounds of this plant include a number of β-carboline and quinazoline alkaloids responsible of its pharmacological and toxicological effects. We report the case of a 24-year-old woman, 22 weeks pregnant, intoxicated with the seeds of Peganum harmala L. On admission, she had disturbance of consciousness, uterine contraction, and oliguria. Laboratory tests revealed renal failure and liver injury, and she benefited then from hemodialysis. During hospitalization, she was intubated after deterioration of consciousness and presented a spontaneous expulsion of the fetus. After extubation, she kept unusual sequelae: cerebellar ataxia and peripheral polyneuropathy. Physicians in regions using Peganum harmala L. as traditional medicine must be able to detect symptoms of its toxicity, in order to establish early gastrointestinal decontamination. The prognosis of this intoxication is variable; most cases can be managed successfully; but in high doses of intoxication, evolution can be fatal.

  4. A Rare Cause of Metabolic Acidosis: Fatal Transdermal Methanol Intoxication in an Infant.

    Sahbudak Bal, Zumrut; Can, Fulya Kamit; Anil, Ayse Berna; Bal, Alkan; Anil, Murat; Gokalp, Gamze; Yavascan, Onder; Aksu, Nejat

    2016-08-01

    Oral methanol intoxication is common, but dermal intoxication is rare. We report a previously healthy 19-month-old female infant admitted to the emergency department (ED) with vomiting and tonic-clonic seizure. On physical examination, she was comatose and presented signs of decompensated shock with Kussmaul breathing. Her left thigh was edematous, with purple coloration. Methanol intoxication was suspected due to high anion gap metabolic acidosis (pH, 6.89; HCO3, occipital lobe were detected by computed tomography of the brain. The patient died after 7 days.Although methanol intoxication occurs predominantly in adults, it must be considered in children with high-anion gap metabolic acidosis. This case report demonstrates that fatal transdermal methanol intoxication can occur in children, and it is the second report in the English literature of transdermal methanol intoxication in an infant. PMID:26196361

  5. Segurança e exeqüibilidade do ecocardiograma sob estresse com dobutamina e atropina em pacientes octogenários Safety and feasibility of dobutamine-atropine stress echocardiography in octogenarian patients

    José Sebastião de Abreu

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a exeqüibilidade e segurança do ecocardiograma sob estresse com dobutamina e atropina (EED em octogenários. MÉTODOS: Avaliaram-se 5.467 EED, distribuídos entre grupo dos octogenários (GI=203 e grupo controle (GII=5.264. A idade média no GI=83±3 (80-95 e no GII=59±11 (17-79 anos. Os parâmetros resultantes do EED, coletados prospectivamente, foram comparados e analisados. RESULTADOS: O percentual de pacientes que atingiram freqüência cardíaca máxima foi em GI=63,5% e GII=41% (GI vs. GII; pOBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility and safety of dobutamine-atropine stress echocardiography (DASE in octogenarians. METHODS: We evaluated 5,467 DASE which were distributed in two groups: group I (GI with 203 DASE performed in octogenarians, and group II (GII, the control group, with 5,264 DASE. The mean age of GI and GII was 83±3 (80-95 and 59±11 (17-79 years, respectively. DASE parameters that were prospectively collected, were compared and analyzed. RESULTS: The percentage of patients that achieved maximum heart rate was 63.5% in GI and 41% in GII (p<0.001, and GI patients required less atropine compared to GII (GI=47%, GII=78%, p<0.001.The presence of chest pain (GI=13%, GII=15.6%, p=0.429 and DASE positive for myocardial ischemia (GI=20.7%, GII=16.9%, p=0.296 were not statistically different between the two groups. However, concomitant positive DASE and absence of chest pain (GI=17%, GII=11%, p=0.029 was higher in GI. The incidence of premature beats in GI was higher than in GII (GI=47.8%, GII=27.6%, p<0.001, and there were more supraventricular tachyarrhythmias (ST in GI than in GII (GI=5.9%, GII=1.9%, p=0.001. Out of 11 ST that happened in GI, 9 reverted spontaneously. There weren't either deaths or acute myocardial infarction. Ventricular fibrillation only happened in GII (2 cases, 0.03%. CONCLUSION: In the present study, octogenarians achieved maximum heart rate more frequently despite the lesser amount of atropine

  6. Evaluation of Suicide and Intoxication Cases Admitted to our Newly Opened Intensive Care Unit

    Nalan Muhammedoğlu; Gökçen Başaranoğlu; Yaşar Gökhan Gül; Mehmet Toptaş; Sevim Baltalı; Bengü Özütürk

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the suicide and intoxication cases between April 2011 and April 2013. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed hospital records of patients who were admitted to our intensive care unit due to suicide and intoxication. The age, sex, intoxication causes, laboratory analyses, treatment refusal rates, and the prognosis were evaluated. Results: A total of 308 patients (105 males, 203 females) were admitted to the intensive care unit. The mean age of t...

  7. The Effect of Intramuscular Administration of Atropine and Hyoscine Combination on Labor Progress and Maternal and Neonatal Outcomes in Primigravid Women

    Mehri Jamilian; Maryam Karamali; Bahman Sadeghi; Maasoumeh Ghazi Mirsaeed

    2016-01-01

    Background: Previous studies reported that neonatal and maternal complications as well as duration of labor could be diminished through labor management. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the effect of intramuscular (IM) administration of atropine and hyoscine combination on labor progress and maternal and neonatal outcomes in primigravid women admitted to Taleghani Hospital of Arak, Iran. Methods: In this double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, 216 primigravid women were randomly a...

  8. "A cool little buzz": alcohol intoxication in the dance club scene.

    Hunt, Geoffrey; Moloney, Molly; Fazio, Adam

    2014-06-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing concern about youthful "binge" drinking and intoxication. Yet the meaning of intoxication remains under-theorized. This paper examines intoxication in a young adult nightlife scene, using data from a 2005-2008 National Institute on Drug Abuse-funded project on Asian American youth and nightlife. Analyzing in-depth qualitative interview data with 250 Asian American young adults in the San Francisco area, we examine their narratives about alcohol intoxication with respect to sociability, stress, and fun, and their navigation of the fine line between being "buzzed" and being "wasted." Finally, limitations of the study and directions for future research are noted. PMID:24779496

  9. Acute Respiratory Distress Due to Methane Inhalation

    Jo, Jun Yeon; Kwon, Yong Sik; Lee, Jin Wook; Park, Jae Seok; Rho, Byung Hak; Choi, Won-Il

    2013-01-01

    Inhalation of toxic gases can lead to pneumonitis. It has been known that methane gas intoxication causes loss of consciousness or asphyxia. There is, however, a paucity of information about acute pulmonary toxicity from methane gas inhalation. A 21-year-old man was presented with respiratory distress after an accidental exposure to methane gas for one minute. He came in with a drowsy mentality and hypoxemia. Mechanical ventilation was applied immediately. The patient's symptoms and chest rad...

  10. Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Mehmet İbrahim Turan; Atilla Çayır; Haşim Olgun

    2014-01-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is a major cause of death following attempted suicide and accidental exposures. Although clinical presentation depends on the duration and the intensity of exposure, the assessment of the severity of intoxication is difficult. A small percentage of patients who show complete initial recovery may develop delayed neurological deficits. Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning is a rare and poor prognosis neurologic disorders and there is no specific...

  11. Hippocampal rhythmical slow activity following ibotenic acid lesions of the septal region. I. Relations to behavior and effects of atropine and urethane.

    Stewart, D J; Vanderwolf, C H

    1987-10-13

    The effects of intraseptal injections of various concentrations of ibotenic acid on hippocampal electrical activity were studied in freely moving and urethane-anesthetized rats. Ibotenic acid selectively abolished the atropine-sensitive form of hippocampal rhythmical slow activity (RSA) normally seen during urethane anesthesia. Large amplitude irregular activity (LIA) and RSA in the waking state were somewhat depressed as well. Despite this, clear RSA persisted in the waking state in association with locomotion or struggling (Type 1 behavior). As in normal rats, such RSA was resistant to systemic administration of atropine. Analysis of brain sections stained with gallocyanin or for acetylcholinesterase showed that ibotenic acid produced cell loss in the dorsal lateral septal nucleus and the septohippocampal nucleus. Cells in the medial septal and diagonal band nuclei were resistant to ibotenic acid. The results suggest that intrinsic septal circuitry is critically involved in the generation of the atropine-sensitive (presumably cholinergic) form of RSA. The mechanisms by which LIA and the two forms of RSA are generated in the hippocampus is discussed. PMID:3676823

  12. Fatal manganese intoxication due to an error in the elaboration of Epsom salts for a liver cleansing diet.

    Sánchez, Baltasar; Casalots-Casado, Jaume; Quintana, Salvador; Arroyo, Amparo; Martín-Fumadó, Carles; Galtés, Ignasi

    2012-11-30

    We describe the case of a 50-year-old man with a fatal intoxication after accidental massive oral ingestion of manganese. The patient presented with lethargy, diffuse abdominal pain, vomiting, and profuse diarrhea after ingesting Epsom salts (magnesium sulfate heptahydrate) during a liver cleansing diet. Despite intensive care management with intubation, prone position ventilation, continuous venovenous hemofiltration, and multiple transfusions, he progressed to refractory shock with multiple organ dysfunction resulting in death within 72 h. Similar patients arrived at several hospitals with identical epidemiology (all had ingested the same salt obtained in the same place). Clinical and forensic investigations (X-ray diffraction) discovered that the supplier had mistakenly prepared the salts with hydrated manganese sulfate instead of magnesium sulfate heptahydrate. The results enabled the other patients to be successfully treated for hydrated manganese sulfate intoxication with life support in the intensive care unit and chelation therapy (EDTA). We describe the clinical presentation of acute manganese poisoning and alert professionals to the risk of an increasingly popular diet. This case demonstrates the importance of collaboration between clinicians, pathologists, and forensic scientists to resolve a difficult-to-diagnose case. PMID:22884574

  13. Anestesia endovenosa en perros mediante el uso de propofol en dosis única, premedicado con acepromazina-atropina y xilazina-atropina Intravenous anaesthesia in dogs using a single dose of propofol premedicated with atropine _ acepromazine or atropine _ xylazine

    J. THIBAUT

    2002-01-01

    anestesia; en el grupo 1 tremores musculares (3 casos y opistótono (1 caso, en el grupo 2 apnea transitoria (2 casos. Se concluye que propofol premedicado con atropina - xilacina reduce el período de latencia, aumenta el tiempo de anestesia y recuperación sin alterar significativamente las variables fisiológicasTwenty mongrel dogs, both sexes, of 1 to 6 years were divided into two groups of ten animals each. A dose of 1.5 mg/kg of acepromazine was administered to the first group (A.A.P of 16.2±1,63 kg body weight. The second group (X.A.P of 11.9±1.7.1 kg. body weight, received a 3 mg/kg i.m. dose of xylazine. Both groups received atropine 0.1 mg/kg s.c. ten minutes before the administration of propofol 5 mg/kg i.v. The effects of Propofol on latency period, surgical anesthesia duration, recovery period, respiratory rate, heart rate, arterial blood pressure, and body temperature were evaluated. Adverse reactions to propofol were registered. The results of the anesthesiological variable significantly differed between the two groups: induction of anesthesia was 0.45 + 0.03 min in the first and 0.26 + 0.03 in the second group. Surgical anesthesia period was 12.3 + 1.89 min in the first and 25.2 + 1.78 min in the second group, and recovery period was 4.5 + 0.63 min and 10.1 + 0.98 min in group 1 and 2, respectively. The physiological variables in both groups were maintained without significant modification during the surgical anesthesia period; respiratory rate had an initial average of 14.3 + 2.45 and 13.0 + 1.54 breaths/min in group 1 and 2 respectively. The heart rate was 175 + 11.81 beats/min in the first and 148.,4 + 9.04 beats/min in the second group; the average arterial blood pressure was 102.6 + 5.69 and 111.8 + 10.43 mm Hg for the first and second group, respectively. Body temperature in the first group was 38.5 + 0.17 and 38.7 + 0.2 ºC for the second group. Adverse reactions were muscle twitching (3 cases and opisthotonus (1 case in group 1; transitory apnea (2

  14. New Direction Treatment in Antidote Treatment of OPC Intoxications

    The toxic effect of organophosphorus compounds (OPC) is based on inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), enzyme which plays an important physiological role in the cholinergic nervous system. The drug therapy on intoxication with OPC included mainly combination of cholinesterase reactivators and cholinolytics. There is no single AChE reactivator having the ability to sufficiently reactivate inhibited enzyme due to the high variability of chemical structure of the inhibitors. The classic oximes have antidote effect against intoxication with sarin, Vx and tabun, but are not effective against soman. HI-6 (Bulgarian ampoule form Toxidin) has an effect against sarin, soman and Vx, and to a lesser degree against tabun. In order to improve the treatment of poisoning with highly toxic OPC, in ours laboratory we synthesized a variety of mono- and dioximes. We use different numbers of pyridinium or heterocyclic rings, different length and shape of the connecting chain between pyridinium or pyridinium-heterocyclic rings; different number and position of the oxime groups at the pyridinium rings and others. The investigations of some authors and our research showed that the compounds which present a combination between HI-6 and TMB-4 have a better antidote activity against tabun intoxications. The important finding of this study is that we synthesized complex compounds, reactivators of cholinesterase activity (including HI-6) with AMP / ATP and polycarboxilats, which have prolonged action in organism compared with original oximes. Pharmacokinetic studies showed that they are eliminated more slowly. The antidotal efficacy of these compounds after soman poisoning in rats was similar like that of the original oximes. The same tendency showed and the other pharmacological (blood pressure, EKG, breathing, neuromuscular transmission), and biochemical (ChE) investigations. (author)

  15. Radioimmunoassay of serum digoxin levels in digitalis intoxication

    For 101 hospitalized patients where clinical symptoms of a glucosidine intoxication as a consequence of oral digoxin treatment were noted, serum digoxin levels were determined using a RIA kit of the Boehringer company (I-125 tracer, solid phase tube separation technique) on a fasted stomach prior to oral drug administration. An ECG was performed simultaneously and in addition kidney function parameters and electrolyte levels were determined. An anamnesis and clinical examination of the patients were also conducted. Interferences in the RIA method and gastro-intestinal illness resulting in changes in resorption behaviour were excluded. The group of patients showed collectively an average serum digoxin level of 2.9 +- 0.9 ng/ml with a range from 1.8 to 6.8 ng/ml, which was statistically significantly higher than the average value for 101 patients receiving long-term oral medication but without symptoms of glycosidine intoxication. According to the manufacture's specifications for the RIA kit, values > 2.0 ng/ml are considered as toxic, with values between 1.6 and 2.0 ng/mg falling into a ''grey zone''. A correlation was found between toxic serum values with changes in ECG pattern and subjective clinical symptoms of intoxication. A limitation of kidney function was responsible for the high serum glycoside levels in 62% of the patients. It was shown that the differing response of patients towards digitalis medication, above all in the case of long-term therapy, warrants an RIA determination of serum glycoside values in order to adjust the digoxin dose to individual requirements. (orig./MG)

  16. Clinical and pathological studies on intoxication in horses from freshly cut Jimson weed (Datura stramonium-contaminated maize intended for ensiling : clinical communication

    R. Binev

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous intoxication in 34 horses after ingesting freshly harvested maize that was to be used for ensiling and heavily contaminated with young Datura stramonium plants, is described. The clinical status of all horses was monitored for 7 days, and included body (rectal temperature, respiratory and heart rates, colour and moistness of visible mucosae, changes in pupil size, appetite, thirst, general behaviour, locomotion, sensory perceptions, urination and defaecation. The intoxication was accompanied by altered clinical status, namely mild hyperthermia, tachycardia, polypnoea, dyspnoea and shallow breathing, mydriasis, dry oral, rectal, vaginal and nasal mucosae, acute gastric dilatation and severe intestinal gas accumulation, anorexia to complete refusal of feed, decreased or absent thirst, absence of defaecation and urination. As a result of the treatment, the clinical parameters normalised between days 2 and 5. Necropsies and pathological studies were performed on two horses that died, revealing toxic liver dystrophy, cardiac lesions and substantial dystrophic and necrotic processes in the kidneys. The observed clinical signs, the pathomorphological changes and the applied therapy could be used in the diagnosis, differential diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of Jimson weed intoxication.

  17. Acute and long-lasting cardiac changes following a single whole-body exposure to sarin vapor in rats.

    Allon, N; Rabinovitz, I; Manistersky, E; Weissman, B A; Grauer, E

    2005-10-01

    Epinephrine-induced arrhythmias (EPIA) are known to be associated with local cardiac cholinergic activation. The present study examined the development of QT prolongation and the effect on EPIA of whole-body exposure of animals to a potent acetylcholine esterase inhibitor. Freely moving rats were exposed to sarin vapor (34.2 +/- 0.8 microg/liter) for 10 min. The electrocardiograms (ECG) of exposed and control animals were monitored every 2 weeks for 6 months. One and six months post exposure, rats were challenged with epinephrine under anesthesia, and the threshold for arrhythmias was determined. Approximately 35% of the intoxicated rats died within 24 h of sarin exposure. Additional occasional deaths were recorded for up to 6 months (final mortality rate of 48%). Surviving rats showed, agitation, aggression, and weight loss compared to non-exposed rats, and about 20% of them experienced sporadic convulsions. Sarin-challenged rats with severe symptoms demonstrated QT segment prolongation during the first 2-3 weeks after exposure. The EPIA that appeared at a significantly lower blood pressure in the treated group in the first month after intoxication lasted for up to 6 months. This decrease in EPIA threshold was blocked by atropine and methyl-atropine. Three months post exposure no significant changes were detected in either k(D) or B(max) values of (3)H-N-methyl scopolamine binding to heart homogenates, or in the affinity of carbamylcholine to cardiac muscarinic receptors. The increase in the vulnerability to develop arrhythmias long after accidental or terror-related organophosphate (OP) intoxication, especially under challenging conditions such as stress or intensive physical exercise, may explain the delayed mortality observed following OP exposure. PMID:16033992

  18. Chelation therapy in intoxications with mercury, lead and copper

    Cao, yang; Skaug, Marit Aralt; Andersen, Ole;

    2015-01-01

    In the present review we provide an update of the appropriate use of chelating agents in the treatment of intoxications with compounds of mercury, lead and copper. The relatively new chelators meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) and 2,3-dimercapto-propanesulphonate (DMPS) can effectively...... mobilize deposits of mercury as well as of lead into the urine. These drugs can be administered orally and have relatively low toxicity compared to the classical antidote dimercaptopropanol (BAL). d-Penicillamine has been widely used in copper overload, although 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid or...

  19. Hepatopancreatic intoxication of lambda cyhalothrin insecticide on albino rats

    Elhalwagy, Manal EA; Abd-Alrahman, Sherif H; Nahas, AA; Ziada, Reem M; Mohamady, Aziza H

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the known adverse effects of lambda cyhalothrin insecticide, little is known about its hepatopancreatic intoxication effects. The present study was carried out to elucidate sub-chronic effect of Karat 2.5% EC formulation of lambda cyhalothrin on male albino rats. Methods: To explore the effects of exposure to lambda cyhalothrin on rats and its mechanism, low (1/40 of LD50, 5 mg/kg/day) and high dose (1/4 of LD50, 50 mg/kg/day) lambda cyhalothrin were applied to rats via dr...

  20. DO SOBER EYEWITNESSES OUTPERFORM ALCOHOL INTOXICATED EYEWITNESSES IN A LINEUP?

    Claudia Fahlke; Pär Anders Granhag; Angelica Hagsand; Emma Roos-af-Hjelmsäter; Anna Söderpalm-Gordh

    2013-01-01

    Although alcohol intoxicated eyewitnesses are common, there are only a few studies in the area. The aim of the current study is to investigate how different doses of alcohol affect eyewitness lineup identification performance. The participants (N = 123) were randomly assigned to a 3 [Beverage: control (0.0 g/kg ethanol) vs. lower (0.4 g/kg ethanol) vs. higher alcohol dose (0.7 g/kg ethanol)] X 2 (Lineup: target-present vs. target-absent) between-subject design. Participants consumed two glass...

  1. Regulatory Self-Efficacy as a Moderator of Peer Socialization Relating to Italian Adolescents' Alcohol Intoxication

    Rabaglietti, Emanuela; Burk, William J.; Giletta, Matteo

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated regulatory self-efficacy (RSE) as a predictor of friendship and adolescent alcohol intoxication and as a moderator of peer socialization processes related to alcohol intoxication. The longitudinal sample included 457 Italian adolescents (262 females and 195 males) ranging in age of 14 to 20 years (M = 16.1 years of…

  2. Haemodialysis followed by continuous veno-venous haemodiafiltration in lithium intoxication; a model and a case

    Meertens, John H J M; Jagernath, Danny R; Eleveld, Douglas J; Zijlstra, Jan G; Franssen, Casper F M

    2009-01-01

    For severe lithium intoxication haemodialysis is recommended to lower serum lithium levels rapidly. Frequently, serum lithium levels rebound after dialysis and repeated dialysis is needed. This is the first report of an adult patient with severe lithium intoxication who underwent haemodialysis (HD)

  3. Hepatic ultrasonographic findings in experimental carbon tetrachloride intoxication of the dog.

    Vörös, K; Albert, M; Vetési, F; Harmat, G y; Binder, K; Szaniszló, F

    1997-01-01

    An experimental study was undertaken in dogs with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) intoxication to describe and follow the changes in the ultrasound appearance of the liver. Characteristic ultrasound features (enlarged liver, increased echogenicity with fine, tightly-packed echoes, and loss of echogenicity of the portal vein walls) were seen from day 2 of the experiment, culminating between days 2 and 7. Subsequently the liver gradually and almost completely regained its normal ultrasound appearance. Ultrasonographic findings corresponded to the severity of the clinicopathological parameters, and changed parallel with the results of liver biopsies. Histology of the biopsy samples revealed acute centrolobular lipid accumulation with necrobiosis and necrosis in the hepatocytes in the first stage of the disease. In the second stage, a secondary reparatory-inflammatory process and reparation in the interstitial tissue were seen. In some dogs, ill-defined hyperechoic foci were observed within the liver during the regenerative phase. Hepatic ultrasonography seems to be a reliable and relatively sensitive method for monitoring liver dystrophy with necrobiosis and lipid accumulation and to follow the course of steatosis in clinical cases. Ultrasound-guided biopsy can further improve the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography in liver dystrophy. PMID:9270137

  4. Assessment of hepatoprotective role of Eucalyptus tereticornis leaf extract in Rattus norvegicus after vanadium intoxication

    The protective effect of Eucalyptus tereticornis leaf extract and its potency has been compared with Liv.52 following V2O5, induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats. LD50 estimated for V2O5, was 69.6 mg/kg b.wt. The administered doses of V2O5, were LD50/10th for acute and 1/7th, 1/14th and 1/21th of sublethal dose for subacute (7, 14 and 21 ds) respectively. Body weight, liver weight and hepatosomatic index were assessed. Hepatotoxicity was assessed in terms of hepatic total proteins, total lipids and total cholesterol. V2O5 intoxication significantly increased liver weight, hepatosomatic index, total lipids and total cholesterol, while significantly decreased body weight and total proteins. Pretreatment with dose of 100 mg/kg b.wt of Eucalyptus tereticornis leaf extract and 0.125 ml/kg b.wt. of Liv.52 syrup restored the increased liver weight, hepatosomatic index, total lipids and total cholesterol and decreased parameters like body weight and total proteins toward normalcy. The results reveal that Eucalyptus tereticornis leaf extract modulates V2O5 toxicity like well known hepatoprotectant, however the modulation is less than Liv.52. (author)

  5. Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Mehmet İbrahim Turan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide poisoning is a major cause of death following attempted suicide and accidental exposures. Although clinical presentation depends on the duration and the intensity of exposure, the assessment of the severity of intoxication is difficult. A small percentage of patients who show complete initial recovery may develop delayed neurological deficits. Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning is a rare and poor prognosis neurologic disorders and there is no specific treatment. We present a case with early onset of delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning with typical cranial imaging findings in a child with atypical history and clinical presentation.

  6. Fatal intoxication with synthetic cannabinoid MDMB-CHMICA.

    Adamowicz, Piotr

    2016-04-01

    MDMB-CHMICA is a synthetic cannabinoid that appeared on the European drug market in September 2014. This substance was found in Poland in the herbal mixture "Mocarz" ("Strongman"), which caused a large outbreak of intoxications at the beginning of July 2015. This paper describes the circumstances of death and toxicological findings in a fatal intoxication with MDMB-CHMICA (in combination with alcohol). Loss of consciousness and asystole occurred a few minutes after smoking the 'legal high'. The man died after 4 days of hospitalisation. The cause of death accepted by the medical examiner was multiple organ failure. MDMB-CHMICA was detected and quantified in blood (ante- and postmortem) and internal organs tissues. The samples were analysed using liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The concentration of MDMB-CHMICA in antemortem blood was 5.6ng/mL. Although the death occurred after 4 days from administration a relatively high concentration (2.6ng/g) was estimated in the brain. Traces of this compound were also found in other postmortem materials (blood, stomach, liver, bile, and kidney). The presented case shows the health risks associated with MDMB-CHMICA use. The administration of this substance can lead to the number of organ failures, cardiac arrest and consequently death. PMID:26934903

  7. DO SOBER EYEWITNESSES OUTPERFORM ALCOHOL INTOXICATED EYEWITNESSES IN A LINEUP?

    Claudia Fahlke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although alcohol intoxicated eyewitnesses are common, there are only a few studies in the area. The aim of the current study is to investigate how different doses of alcohol affect eyewitness lineup identification performance. The participants (N = 123 were randomly assigned to a 3 [Beverage: control (0.0 g/kg ethanol vs. lower (0.4 g/kg ethanol vs. higher alcohol dose (0.7 g/kg ethanol] X 2 (Lineup: target-present vs. target-absent between-subject design. Participants consumed two glasses of beverage at an even pace for 15 minutes. Five minutes after consumption the participants witnessed a film depicting a staged kidnapping. Seven days later, the participants returned to the laboratory and were asked to identify the culprit in a simultaneous lineup. The result showed that overall, the participants performed better than chance; however, their lineup performance was poor. There were no significant effects of alcohol intoxication with respect to performance, neither in target-present nor target-absent lineups. The study’s results suggest that eyewitnesses who have consumed a lower (0.4 g/kg ethanol or a higher (0.7 g/kg ethanol dose of alcohol perform at the same level as sober eyewitnesses in a lineup. The results are discussed in relation to the alcohol myopia theory and suggestions for future research are made.

  8. OCCURRENCE OF INTOXICATION BY TOXIC PLANTS IN BRAZIL

    Claudio Junior Getter

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The toxic plants are those that by means of contact or ingestion, provoke damage to human and animal health, same times causing death. This study has as purpose, to realize an analysis of the accidents occurs with toxicant plants in Brazil. Many control centers, are working to diminish the cases, that Just during the 1991 to 2000, registered a total of 14774 cases of intoxication and poisoning (I/P in the country. The result show that male is most committed, the age who most show the cases of poisoning is between 01-09 years old, this age prevailed on all country regions. The urban areas is where most occurs often. In the biggest part of the registers the intoxication was accidentally when children’s are playing game with the plants. On this period the number of death were of about 48 cases, a surprise was that the northeast region show almost 50% of the cases. Although wait of the control Center and the scientific community to realize a educative, looking for the sensibilization of the society.

  9. Effect of aqueous extract of Tinospora cordifolia on functions of peritoneal macrophages isolated from CCl4 intoxicated male albino mice

    Sharma Gauri D

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current practice of ingesting phytochemicals for supporting the immune system or fighting infections is based on centuries-old tradition. Macrophages are involved at all the stages of an immune response. The present study focuses on the immunostimulant properties of Tinospora cordifolia extract that are exerted on circulating macrophages isolated from CCl4 (0.5 ml/kg body weight intoxicated male albino mice. Methods Apart from damaging the liver system, carbon tetrachloride also inhibits macrophage functions thus, creating an immunocompromised state, as is evident from the present study. Such cell functions include cell morphology, adhesion property, phagocytosis, enzyme release (myeloperoxidase or MPO, nitric oxide (NO release, intracellular survival of ingested bacteria and DNA fragmentation in peritoneal macrophages isolated from these immunocompromised mice. T. cordifolia extract was tested for acute toxicity at the given dose (150 mg/kg body weight by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH assay. Results The number of morphologically altered macrophages was increased in mice exposed to CCl4. Administration of CCl4 (i.p. also reduced the phagocytosis, cell adhesion, MPO release, NO release properties of circulating macrophages of mice. The DNA fragmentation of peritoneal macrophages was observed to be higher in CCl4 intoxicated mice. The bacterial killing capacity of peritoneal macrophages was also adversely affected by CCl4. However oral administration of aqueous fraction of Tinospora cordifolia stem parts at a dose of 40 mg/kg body weight (in vivo in CCl4 exposed mice ameliorated the effect of CCl4, as the percentage of morphologically altered macrophages, phagocytosis activity, cell adhesion, MPO release, NO release, DNA fragmentation and intracellular killing capacity of CCl4 intoxicated peritoneal macrophages came closer to those of the control group. No acute toxicity was identified in oral administration of the aqueous

  10. Methomyl-Induced Severe Acute Pancreatitis: Possible Etiological Association

    Ioannides M

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: N-methyl carbamate insecticides are widely used in homes, gardens and agriculture. They share the capacity to inhibit cholinesterase enzymes with organophosphates and therefore share similar symptomatology during acute and chronic exposures. One of the serious effects of organophosphate and carbamate intoxication is the development of acute pancreatitis and subsequent intrapancreatic fluid formation. CASE REPORT: An 18-year old Caucasian man was admitted to our Intensive Care Unit with cholinergic crisis symptomatology, after the ingestion of an unknown amount of a carbamate insecticide (methomyl. Pseudocholinesterase levels were 2 kU/L on the day of admission (reference range: 5.4-13.2 kU/L. Two days after admission, an abdominal CT scan revealed blurring of the peripancreatic fat planes, inflammation and swelling of the pancreas, and a substantial amount of ascitic fluid in the left anterior pararenal space and pelvis. Paracentesis and analysis of the ascitic fluid demonstrated findings diagnostic of pancreatic ascites. There had been no other evident predisposing factors for acute pancreatitis, other than methomyl intoxication. Eleven days after admission, pseudocholinesterase levels returned to normal, while a new abdominal CT scan revealed the formation of intrapancreatic fluid collection. The patient was discharged in good physical condition two weeks after admission. A follow up abdominal CT scan performed one month later showed a significant reduction in the size of the intrapancreatic fluid. DISCUSSION: Acute pancreatitis is not uncommon after organophosphate intoxication and carbamates share the same risk as organophosphorus pesticides. The development of acute pancreatitis and subsequent intrapancreatic fluid collection after methomyl intoxication has not previously been reported. This is the first case reported of acute pancreatitis and pancreatic ascite formation after anticholinesterase insecticide ingestion.

  11. The X-ray analysis of pulmonary manifestations in acute aspiration of trichlorethane

    Objective: To discuss the X-ray pulmonary changes in patients with acute aspiration of trichlorethane. Methods: Among 48 cases with acute aspiration of trichlorethane, 7 were male and 41 female, with ages ranged from 5.5 to 50 years old, mean age was 13.5 years old. 4 patients were diagnosed as mild acute intoxication, 22 as aspirating reaction, and 22 as uncomfortable reaction. And chest radiography was performed in all the cases. Results Pneumonia and bronchopneumonia was found in 4 cases with acute intoxication, inflammation around bronchial branches in 22 cases with aspirating reaction. The other cases were negative findings. Conclusions: Acute aspiration of trichlorethane may cause pneumonia, bronchopneumonia and inflammation around bronchial branches, which can be detected by chest radiography. (authors)

  12. Plasma carnitine concentrations after chronic alcohol intoxication 

    Alina Kępka

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Carnitine transports fatty acids from the cytoplasm to the mitochondrial matrix, where the fatty acids are oxidized. Chronic alcohol consumption reduces the concentration of carnitine and interferes with oxidative processes occurring in the cell.Aim: The assessment of carnitine concentrations in plasma of chronically intoxicated alcohol dependent persons in a 49-day abstinence period.Material/Methods: The study included 31 patients (5 women and 27 men aged from 26 to 60 years (44.6± 8.9 and 32 healthy subjects (15 women and 17 men aged 22-60 years (39.8± 9.4. The patients’ alcohol dependence ranged from 2 to 30 years (13.6± 7.5. Examined subjects consumed 75-700 g of ethanol/day (226.9± 151.5. Plasma concentrations of free and total carnitine were measured three times: at the first (T0, 30th (T30 and 49th (T49 day of hospital detoxification. Free (FC and total (TC carnitine were determined by the spectrophotometric method. Plasma acylcarnitine (AC concentration was calculated from the difference between TC and FC; then the AC/FC ratio was calculated. To determine statistically significant differences for related variables, Student’s t-test was used.Results: At T0, alcoholics had significantly lower concentration of FC and TC (p < 0.05 in plasma, as compared to the control group. In comparison to controls, at T30, plasma TC and FC (p < 0.01 as well as AC (p < 0.001 were reduced. The lowest concentration of TC, FC and AC (p < 0.001was found at T49. The ratio of AC/FC at T0 had a tendency to be higher in alcoholics than in the control group (p = 0.05, whereas at T49 it was significantly lower in alcoholics as compared to the control subjects (p < 0.05.Conclusions: Chronic alcohol intoxication causes a plasma deficiency of carnitine. Forty-nine days of abstinence showed a significant decrease in the concentration of TC, FC and AC. Further research is necessary to clarify whether a low level of plasma carnitine

  13. REM sleep pathways and anticholinesterase intoxication: A mechanism for nerve agent-induced, central respiratory failure.

    A. Kok

    1993-01-01

    The mechanism of death following exposure to anticholinesterases, such as the highly toxic nerve agents soman and VX, and other organophosphate anticholinesterases such as the insecticide parathion, remains unclear, although evidence from nerve agent research suggests that death occurs by an atropin

  14. Infections and Intoxications from the Ocean: Risks of the Shore.

    Clemence, Mark A; Guerrant, Richard L

    2015-12-01

    Marine and coastal regions provide a diverse range of foods and serve as recreation and leisure areas for large numbers of people in many parts of the world. However, they also serve as environments associated with numerous hazards. The number of cases of fish- and shellfish-related food poisonings in the United States has increased in recent years, accounting for over 600,000 illnesses, with 3,000 hospitalizations and 94 deaths annually. Human diseases due to pathogenic Vibrio species can result from both ingestion of contaminated shellfish and exposure of open wounds to contaminated seawater. A variety of infections may result from human interactions with marine life, including sharks, barracudas, and moray eels. This chapter covers some of the risks of the shore, including fish and shellfish intoxications, infections related to Vibrio species, and infections resulting from marine trauma. PMID:27337286

  15. Intoxication and criminal responsibility in Dutch criminal Law.

    van Kalmthout, A

    1998-09-01

    This article deals with the question in how far an offence committed in the Netherlands under the influence of alcohol or other drugs can be imputed to the offender. Unlike many other countries the Dutch Penal Code does not contain specific provisions with respect to the criminal liability of addicted or intoxicated offenders. In principle, they are held responsible for their offences, even when the dolus or culpa is absent at the moment they commit their offence. Doctrine and jurisprudence found this liability on the principle of 'culpa/dolus in causa', by accepting an anterior dolus or culpa, which is situated at the moment the offender takes alcohol or other drugs. As is shown in this article, the - nondogmatic - interpretation of this culpa in causa doctrine leaves hardly any space for a claim to impunity. PMID:9742271

  16. Adverse effects and intoxications related to medicinal/harmful plants

    Mateja VONČINA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Many wild plants around us have beneficial effects on our body and can be used as food. People are more and more interested in the medicinal plants. Many of them began gathering and preparing plants for the relief of symptoms of diseases or as a food dietary. Due to the lack of knowledge of plants, mistaking plants that contain toxins for medical plants may happen and cause adverse effects or even poisoning. The Poison Control Centre in Ljubljana keeps records of patients who have been admitted to the department because of adverse effects from the ingestion of certain plants. We analysed 64 cases, which were registered by the Poison Control Centre between January 2000 and December 2013. The aim of the present study was to determine which plants cause the most intoxications in Slovenia.

  17. Refractory cardiopulmonary failure after glyphosate surfactant intoxication: a case report

    Chang Chia-Chu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glyphosate is an herbicide considered to be of low toxicity to humans because its effects are specific to plants. However, fatal reactions to glyphosate have been reported after the ingestion of large amounts. Pulmonary edema, shock, and arrhythmia were the reported causes of mortality. Case presentation We present the case of a 57-year-old woman who was admitted to the emergency department unconsciousness after ingestion of glyphosate surfactant in a suicide attempt. Metabolic acidosis, refractory respiratory failure, and shock developed during hospitalization. Despite aggressive supportive care, the patient died in the hospital. Conclusion The toxicokinetics of glyphosate surfactant is complicated. Respiratory failure, metabolic acidosis, tachycardia, elevated creatinine, and hyperkalemia are poor prognostic factors if presented. Physicians should consider using hemodialysis early to improve the outcome of patients with glyphosate surfactant intoxication.

  18. Suicidal chemistry: combined intoxication with carbon monoxide and formic acid.

    Bakovic, Marija; Nestic, Marina; Mayer, Davor

    2016-05-01

    Herein, we present a rare case of suicidal intoxication with carbon monoxide produced via reaction of formic and sulphuric acid with additional toxic effect of formic acid. The deceased was a 22-year-old men found dead in the bathroom locked from the inside. A bucket filled with liquid was found next to him, together with an almost empty canister labeled "formic acid" and another empty unlabeled canister. The postmortem examination revealed corrosive burns of the face, neck and chest, cherry-pink livor mortis, corrosive injury to the oropharyngeal area and trachea, subpleural petechiae, 100 mL of blood in stomach and superficial erosions of stomach mucosa. Toxicology analysis revealed 30% of carboxyhemoglobin in the femoral blood and the presence of the formic acid in various samples. Quantitative analysis of formic acid was performed by measuring methyl ester derivative of formic acid by using headspace gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. The highest concentration of formic acid was measured in the lungs (0.55 g/kg), gastric content (0.39 g/L), and blood (0.28 g/L). In addition, it was established that content of the unlabeled canister had a pH value of 0.79 and contained sulphuric ions. Morphological and toxicology findings suggested that the main route of exposure to formic acid was inhalation of vapors with a possible ingestion of only small amount of liquid acid. The cause of death was determined to be combined intoxication with carbon monoxide and formic acid. PMID:26041513

  19. Peripheral markers of oxidative stress in chronic mercuric chloride intoxication

    Gutierrez L.L.P.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the time course changes in peripheral markers of oxidative stress in a chronic HgCl2 intoxication model. Twenty male adult Wistar rats were treated subcutaneously daily for 30 days and divided into two groups of 10 animals each: Hg, which received HgCl2 (0.16 mg kg-1 day-1, and control, receiving the same volume of saline solution. Blood was collected at the first, second and fourth weeks of Hg administration to evaluate lipid peroxidation (LPO, total radical trapping antioxidant potential (TRAP, and superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione-S-transferase (GST, and catalase (CAT. HgCl2 administration induced a rise (by 26% in LPO compared to control (143 ± 10 cps/mg hemoglobin in the second week and no difference was found at the end of the treatment. At that time, GST and GPx were higher (14 and 24%, respectively in the Hg group, and Cu,Zn-SOD was lower (54% compared to control. At the end of the treatment, Cu,Zn-SOD and CAT were higher (43 and 10%, respectively in the Hg group compared to control (4.6 ± 0.3 U/mg protein; 37 ± 0.9 pmol/mg protein, respectively. TRAP was lower (69% in the first week compared to control (43.8 ± 1.9 mM Trolox. These data provide evidence that HgCl2 administration is accompanied by systemic oxidative damage in the initial phase of the process, which leads to adaptive changes in the antioxidant reserve, thus decreasing the oxidative injury at the end of 30 days of HgCl2 administration. These results suggest that a preventive treatment with antioxidants would help to avoid oxidative damage in subjects with chronic intoxication.

  20. A way of handling Taxus baccata intoxications in forensic laboratories

    Marek Dziadosz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the possibility of handling Taxus baccata intoxications by the use of an LC–MS/MS method for the direct confirmation of taxine B. A simple and fast preparation procedure of a methanol yew leaves’ extract was applied. This extract made the LC–MS/MS taxine B/isotaxine B optimization possible by the use of its continuous infusion. The analyses were performed with an Agilent 1100 Series HPLC-API 2000™ LC–MS/MS system. The following mass-transitions were monitored in the positive MRM mode: 584.4/194.1 and 584.4/107.2. A Zorbax SB-C18, 4.6 × 50 mm, 5 micron column maintained at 45 ± 1 °C was used for the separation. 20 μL of a prepared sample was injected into the HPLC and eluted with a mobile phase consisting of A: CH3OH and B: 50 mL 0.1 M CH3COONH4 + 50 mL CH3CN + 900 mL H2O + 1 mL CH3COOH (A:B = 7:3, v/v. The flow rate was 0.3 mL/min and a single LC–MS/MS run was completed in 20 min. The biological material was extracted with Extrelut® NT 3 extraction tubes. In fatalities, where a T. baccata intoxication was indicated by the presence of 3,5-dimethoxyphenol in biological material, taxine B/isotaxine B was also identified in the appropriate post-mortem specimens.

  1. Charcoal Hemoperfusion vs. High Efficiency Hemodialysis in Carbamazepine Intoxication: A Case Report

    Arzu KAHVECİ

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Carbamazapine is a commonly used antiepileptic agent. Neurological abnormalities which can progress to coma, arrhythmias, respiratory depression and eye abnormalities such as nystagmus are seen in an intoxication setting. There is no specific antidote for the treatment of carbamazepine intoxication and supportive therapy is generally recommended. Carbamazepine is not removed through conventional hemodialysis as it highly bound to proteins. Charcoal hemoperfusion has been reported as the standard effective treatment method. Herein we report a 23-year-old woman with high dose carbamazepine overdose treated with high efficiency hemodialysis and charcoal hemoperfusion. We also discuss a comparison of the methods used for carbamazepine intoxication.

  2. Occupational pesticide intoxications among farmers in Bolivia: a cross-sectional study

    Jørs, Erik; Morant, Rafael Cervantes; Aguilar, Guido Condarco; Huici, Omar; Lander, Flemming; Baelum, Jesper; Konradsen, Flemming

    2006-01-01

    documented a frequent use of the most toxic pesticides among farmers who have had almost no instructions in how to use pesticides and protect themselves against the dangers of intoxication, reflected in the hazardous practices used when handling pesticides. Symptoms of intoxications were common in connection...... with spraying operations. The risk of experiencing symptoms and the serum cholinesterase activity were influenced by whether or not organophosphates were used and the number of times sprayed. The experience of symptoms was moreover influenced by the hygienic and personal protective measures taken......, and a coordinated action by authorities, society and international bodies is needed to limit the number of intoxications and the environmental pollution....

  3. EFFECTS OF THE LITHIUM – CONTAINING SORBENT ON TERMS OF BEHAVIORAL REACTIONS UNDER CHRONIC ALCOHOL INTOXICATION MODEL

    A. A. Kotlyarova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Lithium preparations are widely used for stabilize mood in case of bipolar affective disorder. Currently neuroprotective and neuroregenerative effects of lithium are of interest as in case of acute brain injury, also in chronic neurodegenerative diseases such as dementia, alcoholism, Alzheimer disease, etc. [1–5]. In clinical practice use of lithium preparations is limited due to difficult adjustment of drug dosage, necessity of monitoring its concentration in blood, side effects development as a result of accumulation of lithium in a body. For the purpose of improvement of pharmacologic properties lithium is combined with other agents (for example modifying sorbent thus it can produce longer-term and more harmless (less side reactions effect in the long view. Lithium immobilization on sorption basis will allow to use sorbent as detoxicant and carrying agent of drugs to body. The purpose of the work is studying the effect of the lithium – containing sorbent on terms of behavioral reactions under chronic alcohol intoxication model.Materials and methods. During the work we used nonlinear mice – males, which weight 25–30 g (180 animals. Chronic alcohol intoxication was precipitated via 40% proof spirit injections (oral supplementation in quantity of 3 g/kg during 2 weeks, additionally mice drunk 5% proof spirit from drinking bowl. Each experimental group consisted of 10 animals. Study drugs were inserted inside while ethanol injecting. Control animals were inserted 0,9% salin solution. Emotional state of animals was assessed through forced swim test, short – term memory assessment was performed through conditioned passive avoidance reflex. Effect of chronic alcohol intoxication on the parameters of conditioned reflex activity was measured every 7 days.Results. It was found that the investigated lithium-containing sorbent increases: the number of mice are trained passive avoidance reflex, remembering percent of electric shock

  4. Acute vergiftigingen bij mens en dier - Jaaroverzicht 2004 - Nationaal Vergiftigingen Informatie Centrum

    Gorcum TF van; Velzen AG van; Riel AJHP van; Meulenbelt J; Vries I de; NVIC

    2005-01-01

    The National Poisons Information Centre (NVIC) of the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) was consulted in 2004 more frequently about acute intoxications than in 2003, representing an increase of about 6%. In 2004, over 35,000 enquiries were received about more than 47,00

  5. Acute Alcohol Effects on Repetition Priming and Word Recognition Memory with Equivalent Memory Cues

    Ray, Suchismita; Bates, Marsha E.

    2006-01-01

    Acute alcohol intoxication effects on memory were examined using a recollection-based word recognition memory task and a repetition priming task of memory for the same information without explicit reference to the study context. Memory cues were equivalent across tasks; encoding was manipulated by varying the frequency of occurrence (FOC) of words…

  6. Confronting death from drug self-intoxication (DDSI): prevention through a better definition.

    Rockett, Ian R H; Smith, Gordon S; Caine, Eric D; Kapusta, Nestor D; Hanzlick, Randy L; Larkin, G Luke; Naylor, Charles P E; Nolte, Kurt B; Miller, Ted R; Putnam, Sandra L; De Leo, Diego; Kleinig, John; Stack, Steven; Todd, Knox H; Fraser, David W

    2014-12-01

    Suicide and other self-directed violence deaths are likely grossly underestimated, reflecting inappropriate classification of many drug intoxication deaths as accidents or unintentional and heterogeneous ascertainment and coding practices across states. As the tide of prescription and illicit drug-poisoning deaths is rising, public health and research needs would be better satisfied by considering most of these deaths a result of self-intoxication. Epidemiologists and prevention scientists could design better intervention strategies by focusing on premorbid behavior. We propose incorporating deaths from drug self-intoxication and investigations of all poisoning deaths into the National Violent Death Reporting System, which contains misclassified homicides and undetermined intent deaths, to facilitate efforts to comprehend and reverse the surging rate of drug intoxication fatalities. PMID:25320874

  7. Is montelukast as effective as N-acetylcysteine in hepatic injury due to acetaminophen intoxication in rats?

    İçer, Mustafa; Zengin, Yilmaz; Gunduz, Ercan; Dursun, Recep; Durgun, Hasan Mansur; Turkcu, Gul; Yuksel, Hatice; Üstündağ, Mehmet; Guloglu, Cahfer

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the acute protective effect of montelukast sodium in hepatic injury secondary to acetaminophen (APAP) intoxication. This study used 60 rats. The rats were grouped into 6 groups. The control group was administered oral distilled water 10 ml/kg, the APAP group oral APAP 1 g/kg, the montelukast sodium (MK) group oral MK 30 mg/kg, the acetaminophen+N-acetylcysteine (APAP+NAC) group oral APAP 1 g/kg, followed by a single dose of intraperitoneal NAC 1.5 g/kg three hours later, the acetaminophen+montelukast sodium (APAP+MK) group oral APAP 1 g/kg, followed by oral MK 30 mg/kg 3 h later, the acetaminophen+N-acetylcysteine+montelukast sodium (APAP+NAC+MK) group oral APAP 1 g/kg, followed by a single intraperitoneal NAC 1.5 g/kg plus oral MK 30 mg/kg 3 h later. Blood and liver tissue samples were taken 24h after drug administration. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and total bilirubin were studied from the blood samples. Liver tissue samples were used for histopathological examination. Compared with the control group, serum AST and ALT activities were higher in the APAP and APAP+NAC groups. APAP+NAC, APAP+MK, and APAP+NAC+MK groups had reduced serum ALT and AST activities than the group administered APAP alone. APAP+MK and APAP+NAC+MK groups had a lower serum ALP activity than the control group. Histopathologically, there was a difference between the group administered APAP alone and the APAP+MK and APAP+NAC+MK groups. MK is as protective as NAC in liver tissue in APAP intoxication in rats. PMID:26462568

  8. Charcoal Hemoperfusion vs. High Efficiency Hemodialysis in Carbamazepine Intoxication: A Case Report

    Arzu KAHVECİ; Zeynep KUBİLAY; Ebru AŞICIOĞLU; Hakkı ARIKAN; KOÇ, Mehmet; Serhan TUĞLULAR; Çetin ÖZENER

    2011-01-01

    Carbamazapine is a commonly used antiepileptic agent. Neurological abnormalities which can progress to coma, arrhythmias, respiratory depression and eye abnormalities such as nystagmus are seen in an intoxication setting. There is no specific antidote for the treatment of carbamazepine intoxication and supportive therapy is generally recommended. Carbamazepine is not removed through conventional hemodialysis as it highly bound to proteins. Charcoal hemoperfusion has been reported as the stand...

  9. Protective Effect of Blackcurrant on Liver Cell Membrane of Rats Intoxicated with Ethanol

    Szachowicz-Petelska, Barbara; Dobrzyńska, Izabela; Skrzydlewska, Elżbieta; Figaszewski, Zbigniew

    2012-01-01

    Chronic ethanol intoxication oxidative stress participates in the development of many diseases. Nutrition and the interaction of food nutrients with ethanol metabolism may modulate alcohol toxicity. One such compound is blackcurrant, which also has antioxidant abilities. We investigated the effect of blackcurrant as an antioxidant on the composition and electrical charge of liver cell membranes in ethanol-intoxicated rats. Qualitative and quantitative phospholipid composition and the presence...

  10. A Retrospective Analysis of Pediatric Patients Admitted to the Pediatric Emergency Service for Carbon Monoxide Intoxication

    Uysalol, Metin; Uysalol, Ezgi Paslı; SARAÇOĞLU, GAMZE VAROL; Kayaoğlu, Semra

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study is to analyze the general aspects of cases with carbon monoxide intoxication in order to improve the approach to future patients. Material and Methods: The hospital records of 84 children (mean age 4.71±2.64 years; 48 male, 36 female) who had been admitted to Paediatric Emergency Department for carbon monoxide intoxication between October 2007 and February 2009, were retrospectively evaluated in a descriptive analysis. Results...

  11. Paneth cells: histochemical and morphometric study in control and Solanum glaucophyllum intoxicated rabbits

    CN Zanuzzi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal epithelium has a critical roll in host defence. One specialised cell type involved in this function is the Paneth cell, which secretes many substances with antimicrobial properties in response to different stimuli. Under pathological conditions, changes in the Paneth cell number, morphology and location as well as in granule number, morphology and composition have been reported. In the normal animal, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 participates in the maintenance of mineral homeostasis, immunomodulation and cell proliferation and differentiation. Solanum glaucophyllum, a calcinogenic plant containing high levels of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, is responsible for a condition known as enzootic calcinosis in ruminants, characterised by loss of body condition and mineralization of soft tissues. Using and established rabbit model, this study analyses the changes that rabbit Paneth cells undergo during intoxication with S. glaucophyllum. Male New Zealand white rabbits were experimentally intoxicated with S. glaucophyllum for 15 or 30 days. Lectin, immunohistochemical and morphometric studies were carried out on Paneth cells from samples of jejunum. SBA, DBA and WGA lectins bound to Paneth cellsgranules in both normal and intoxicated rabbits, with more heterogenity in the labelling of granules from intoxicated rabbits. Paneth cells in both groups were immunonegative for lysosyme. A time and dose-dependent increase in the size and number of Paneth cells was found in both intoxicated groups.We suggest that the changes described in these cells may be directly or indirectly induced by S. glaucophyllum intoxication.

  12. Comparison between patient characteristics and cranial MR findings in chronic thinner intoxication

    Uchino, Akira; Kato, Akira; Yoshikai, Tomonori; Kudo, Sho [Department of Radiology, Saga Medical School, Nabeshima (Japan); Yuzuriha, Takefumi; Hiejima, Shigeto; Murakami, Masaru; Endoh, Koichi [Department of Psychiatry, Hizen National Hospital, Saga (Japan); Takashima, Yuki [Department of Neurology, Hizen National Hospital, Saga (Japan)

    2002-06-01

    Chronic thinner intoxication is one of the most serious social problems among teenagers and young adults in Japan. The purpose of this study was to evaluate clinical characteristics of patients with thinner intoxication who had positive MR findings. During the past 4 years, cranial MR imaging of 85 patients (51 males and 34 females) with chronic thinner intoxication was done at a national psychiatric hospital. The MR imaging was performed on a 1.0-T scanner with use of standard pulse sequences including fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR). The established characteristic MR findings of chronic thinner intoxication were observed in 8 of the 85 patients: 4 males and 4 females. The female patients tended toward emaciation and were approximately 5 years younger than the male patients. Six of the 8 patients had severe neurological symptoms such as cerebellar ataxia and decreased visual acuity. In contrast, only 3 of 77 (4%) patients with normal MR findings had mild neurological abnormalities such as tremor. If patients with chronic thinner intoxication have significant neurological symptoms, MR imaging should be performed for evaluation of brain abnormalities. Emaciated female patients may be particularly vulnerable to neurological damage caused by thinner intoxication. (orig.)

  13. [Acute liver failure after ingestion of death cap mushrooms].

    Zuliani, Anna-Maria; Kabar, Iyad; Mitchell, Todd; Heinzow, Hauke Sebastian

    2016-07-01

    Amatoxins, which are mainly found in Amanita phalloides, Amanita virosa, and Galerina autumnalis, are responsible for the majority of fatal intoxication with green death cap. The intoxication is associated with acute liver failure, which explains the poor prognosis. Acute liver injury is generally preceeded by a gastrointestinal phase with nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. In the course, pre-renal kidney failure due to the associated fluid deficit and fulminant liver failure may occur. General guidelines for the treatment of amatoxin poisoning are yet not available. We report on three patients who suffered from amatoxin mushroom poisoning after ingestion of green death cap mushrooms. Based on the pathophysiology of amatoxin poisoning, we discuss a potential therapeutic approach. PMID:27359312

  14. Intoxication due to Papaver rhoeas (Corn Poppy: Five Case Reports

    Yahya Kemal Günaydın

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In this paper, we aimed to present five Papaver rhoeas intoxication cases, which is very rare in the literature. Case 1. A 35-year-old female patient was admitted to our emergency room with the complaints of nausea, restlessness, and dyspnea developing 3 hours after eating Papaver rhoeas. On physical examination, her general condition was moderate; she was conscious and the vital findings were normal. The pupils were myotic. She was transferred to the toxicology intensive care unit as she experienced a generalized tonic clonic seizure lasting for three minutes. Case 2. A 41-year-old female patient was brought to our emergency room by 112 ambulance as she had contractions in her arms and legs, unconsciousness, and foam coming from her mouth two hours after Papaver rhoeas ingestion. On physical examination, she was confused, the pupils were myotic, and she was tachycardic. Arterial blood gases analysis revealed lactic acidosis. Case 3. A 38-year-old female patient was admitted to our emergency room with complaints of nausea and vomiting two hours after ingestion of Papaver rhoeas. Her physical examination and tests were normal. Case 4. A 34-year-old male patient was admitted to our emergency room with complaints of numbness and loss of power in his arms and legs one hour after Papaver rhoeas ingestion. He was hospitalized at the toxicology intensive care unit for follow-up and treatment. Dyspnea and bradycardia developed on the follow-up. The oxygen saturation without oxygen support was 90%. ECG revealed sinus bradycardia. The cardiac enzymes did not increase. Case 5. A 42-year-old female patient was brought to our emergency room by 112 ambulance with contractions in her arms and legs and unconsciousness two hours after Papaver rhoeas ingestion. On her physical examination, she was confused and the pupils were myotic. Arterial blood gases analysis revealed lactic acidosis. Conclusion. All patients were followed up for a few days and

  15. A rat model of nerve agent exposure applicable to the pediatric population: The anticonvulsant efficacies of atropine and GluK1 antagonists

    Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) after nerve agent exposure induces status epilepticus (SE), which causes brain damage or death. The development of countermeasures appropriate for the pediatric population requires testing of anticonvulsant treatments in immature animals. In the present study, exposure of 21-day-old (P21) rats to different doses of soman, followed by probit analysis, produced an LD50 of 62 μg/kg. The onset of behaviorally-observed SE was accompanied by a dramatic decrease in brain AChE activity; rats who did not develop SE had significantly less reduction of AChE activity in the basolateral amygdala than rats who developed SE. Atropine sulfate (ATS) at 2 mg/kg, administered 20 min after soman exposure (1.2 × LD50), terminated seizures. ATS at 0.5 mg/kg, given along with an oxime within 1 min after exposure, allowed testing of anticonvulsants at delayed time-points. The AMPA/GluK1 receptor antagonist LY293558, or the specific GluK1 antagonist UBP302, administered 1 h post-exposure, terminated SE. There were no degenerating neurons in soman-exposed P21 rats, but both the amygdala and the hippocampus were smaller than in control rats at 30 and 90 days post-exposure; this pathology was not present in rats treated with LY293558. Behavioral deficits present at 30 days post-exposure, were also prevented by LY293558 treatment. Thus, in immature animals, a single injection of atropine is sufficient to halt nerve agent-induced seizures, if administered timely. Testing anticonvulsants at delayed time-points requires early administration of ATS at a low dose, sufficient to counteract only peripheral toxicity. LY293558 administered 1 h post-exposure, prevents brain pathology and behavioral deficits. - Highlights: • The LD50 of soman was determined in postnatal-day-21 rats. • Rats with no seizures after 1.2XLD50 soman had less reduction of AChE in the amygdala. • Atropine sulfate (ATS) at 2 mg/kg, given at 20 min after soman, blocked seizures.

  16. A rat model of nerve agent exposure applicable to the pediatric population: The anticonvulsant efficacies of atropine and GluK1 antagonists

    Miller, Steven L., E-mail: stevenmiller17@gmail.com [Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Genetics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Program in Neuroscience, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Aroniadou-Anderjaska, Vassiliki, E-mail: vanderjaska@usuhs.edu [Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Genetics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Department of Psychiatry, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Program in Neuroscience, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Figueiredo, Taiza H., E-mail: taiza.figueiredo.ctr@usuhs.edu [Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Genetics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Prager, Eric M., E-mail: eric.prager683@gmail.com [Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Genetics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Program in Neuroscience, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Almeida-Suhett, Camila P., E-mail: camilapalmeida@gmail.com [Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Genetics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Program in Neuroscience, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Apland, James P., E-mail: james.p.apland.civ@mail.mil [Neurotoxicology Branch, U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010 (United States); and others

    2015-04-15

    Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) after nerve agent exposure induces status epilepticus (SE), which causes brain damage or death. The development of countermeasures appropriate for the pediatric population requires testing of anticonvulsant treatments in immature animals. In the present study, exposure of 21-day-old (P21) rats to different doses of soman, followed by probit analysis, produced an LD{sub 50} of 62 μg/kg. The onset of behaviorally-observed SE was accompanied by a dramatic decrease in brain AChE activity; rats who did not develop SE had significantly less reduction of AChE activity in the basolateral amygdala than rats who developed SE. Atropine sulfate (ATS) at 2 mg/kg, administered 20 min after soman exposure (1.2 × LD{sub 50}), terminated seizures. ATS at 0.5 mg/kg, given along with an oxime within 1 min after exposure, allowed testing of anticonvulsants at delayed time-points. The AMPA/GluK1 receptor antagonist LY293558, or the specific GluK1 antagonist UBP302, administered 1 h post-exposure, terminated SE. There were no degenerating neurons in soman-exposed P21 rats, but both the amygdala and the hippocampus were smaller than in control rats at 30 and 90 days post-exposure; this pathology was not present in rats treated with LY293558. Behavioral deficits present at 30 days post-exposure, were also prevented by LY293558 treatment. Thus, in immature animals, a single injection of atropine is sufficient to halt nerve agent-induced seizures, if administered timely. Testing anticonvulsants at delayed time-points requires early administration of ATS at a low dose, sufficient to counteract only peripheral toxicity. LY293558 administered 1 h post-exposure, prevents brain pathology and behavioral deficits. - Highlights: • The LD{sub 50} of soman was determined in postnatal-day-21 rats. • Rats with no seizures after 1.2XLD{sub 50} soman had less reduction of AChE in the amygdala. • Atropine sulfate (ATS) at 2 mg/kg, given at 20 min after

  17. Tissue damage after acute intoxication by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in cockroaches Blattella germanica

    Lambiase, S; Zhang, Y.; P. Morbini; M. Fasola

    2009-01-01

    It is common knowledge that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) represent a serious threat to the health of both vertebrates and invertebrates. As far as the former are concerned, especially as regards human beings, a broad literature describes the direct and indirect effects induced by the PCBs on their systems and organs. Among invertebrates, the information available is mostly related to arthropods and is, however, very scarce. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of polychlorinat...

  18. Tissue damage after acute intoxication by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs in cockroaches Blattella germanica

    S Lambiase

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available It is common knowledge that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs represent a serious threat to the health of both vertebrates and invertebrates. As far as the former are concerned, especially as regards human beings, a broad literature describes the direct and indirect effects induced by the PCBs on their systems and organs. Among invertebrates, the information available is mostly related to arthropods and is, however, very scarce. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs on tissues and organs of individuals belonging to a species of Blattaria (Blattella germanica treated with various doses of this toxic material. The pathologies found became more serious as the dosage increased and were present throughout the entire digestive system, in the fat body and in the male gonads: in these areas cell and tissue breakdown and severely damaged spermiogenesis were observed. In particular, the testicles, Malpighian tubules and fat body accumulated an amorphous basophilic PAS-positive substance. Furthermore, the NOS-dependent NADPH diaphorase activity pattern in the retina and optic lobes was more evident in the treated than in the control insects.

  19. Clinical, laboratory and pathological findings in sub-acute monensin intoxication in goats

    Deljou, Mahdi; Aslani, Mohammad Reza; Mohri, Mehrdad; Movassaghi, Ahmad Reza; Heidarpour, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Toxic effects of monensin, a polyether antibiotic mainly used as a coccidiostat, have been described in a wide range of animals. The present study was performed to investigate the toxic effects of monensin in goats. Seven adult goats were administered sodium monensin, 13.5 mg kg-1, daily for five consecutive days via gastric gavage. Monensin toxicity was evaluated by clinical signs, serum biochemistry and pathology. Monensin exposure caused diarrhea, tachycardia and reduction in ruminal movem...

  20. Rat liver glutathione S-transferase activity stimulation following acute cadmium or manganese intoxication

    The effect of cadmium or manganese administration on rat liver glutathione S-transferase (GST) has been investigated. The activity of this enzyme in liver cytosol, where almost all the cellular activity is present, had increased by more than 36% 24 h after a single i.p. injection of CdCl2 (2.5 mg kg-1 b.w.) or MnCl2 (2.0 mg kg-1 b.w.). After shorter and longer time intervals, a lower enzyme activity stimulation was observed in both cases. When liver cytosol was incubated for 10 min with 75 μM CdCl2 or 40 μM MnCl2, no effect was observed on enzyme activity. The increase in GST following cadmium or manganese administration was blocked by prior administration of actinomycin D, indicative of a possible transcription-dependent response. The liver soluble GST from both control and metal-treated rats was not at all affected by Vitamin E, in the range of 20-300 μM. By contrast, hematin was seen to be a competitive inhibitor of this liver enzyme from both types of rats by using CDNB as substrate and the Ki value was equal to 0.22 μM. The possibility that under the conditions used class alpha GST isoenzymes are affected by cadmium or manganese is discussed

  1. Acute Alcohol Intoxication and Long-Term Outcome in Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury

    Raj, Rahul; Skrifvars, Markus B.; Kivisaari, Riku; Hernesniemi, Juha; Lappalainen, Jaakko; Siironen, Jari

    2015-01-01

    The effect of blood alcohol concentration (BAC) on outcome after traumatic brain injury (TBI) is controversial. We sought to assess the independent effect of positive BAC on long-term outcome in patients with TBI treated in the intensive care unit (ICU). We performed a retrospective analysis of 405 patients with TBI, admitted to the ICU of a large urban Level 1 trauma center between January 2009 and December 2012. Outcome was six-month mortality and unfavorable neurological outcome (defined a...

  2. Respiratory Complications from Acute Corrosive Poisonings in Adults

    Chibishev, Andon; Simonovska, Natasa; Bozinovska, Cvetanka; Pereska, Zanina; Smokovski, Ivica; Glasnovic, Marija

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Acute corrosive poisonings are caused by ingestion of corrosive chemicals which are most commonly used as household agents. Intoxications with these kind of agents produce numerous and severe post-corrosive complications of the upper gastrointestinal tract. On the other hand, our experience showed that corrosive agents may also cause injuries of the respiratory system, which makes the treatment very hard and additionally complicates the severe clinical condition of the patient. ...

  3. Brain reward deficits accompany withdrawal (hangover) from acute ethanol in rats

    Schulteis, Gery; Liu, Jian

    2006-01-01

    Withdrawal from an acute bolus injection of ethanol produces affective or emotional signs that include anxiogenic-like behavior (Gauvin et al., 1992) and conditioned place aversion (Morse et al., 2000). The current study assessed whether brain reward deficits that accompany withdrawal from chronic ethanol dependence (Schulteis et al., 1995) are also observed upon withdrawal from acute intoxication. Rats were implanted with stimulating electrodes aimed at the medial forebrain bundle in the lat...

  4. Protective mechanisms of garlic and wolfberry derivatives on acute and chronic liver injury animal models

    Xiao, Jia; 肖佳

    2012-01-01

    Liver is one of the most important organs in the body that maintains the homeostasis of metabolism, immunity, detoxification and hematopoiesis. A large number of acute and chronic intoxications and diseases can influence the normal functions of the liver, leading to irreversible liver damage and even cancer. Currently, applying herbs or herbal derivatives in the prevention and therapy of acute and chronic liver injury receive numerous attentions since they hold great potentials as food supple...

  5. Chelation therapy for metal intoxication: comments from a thermodynamic viewpoint.

    Nurchi, Valeria Marina; Alonso, Miriam Crespo; Toso, Leonardo; Lachowicz, Joanna Izabela; Crisponi, Guido

    2013-10-01

    Chelation therapy plays a prominent role in the clinical treatment of metal intoxication. In this paper the principal causes of metal toxicity are exposed, and the chemical and biomedical requisites of a chelating agent are sketched. The chelating agents currently in use for scavenging toxic metal ions from humans belong to few categories: those characterized by coordinating mercapto groups, by oxygen groups, poliaminocarboxylic acids, and dithiocarbamates. Considering that the complex formation equilibria have been studied for less than 50% of chelators in use, some reflections on the utility of stability constants are presented, together with an evaluation of ligands under the stability profile. The competition between endogenous and toxic target metal ions for the same chelating agent is furthermore examined. A thorough examination of stability constant databases has allowed to select, for each toxic metal, the ligands distinguished by the best pMe values. Even though this selection does not consider the biomedical requisites of a chelating agent, it gives a clear picture both of the pMe values that can be attained, and of the most appropriate chelators for each metal ion. PMID:23895193

  6. Oxycodone intoxication in an infant: accidental or intentional exposure?

    Levine, Barry; Moore, Karla A; Aronica-Pollak, Patricia; Fowler, David F

    2004-11-01

    A case is presented of a 10 month old male who went into cardiac arrest at a local store. The infant subsequently expired and was autopsied at the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner, State of Maryland. The only remarkable finding was the detection of oxycodone in the postmortem specimens; the blood and liver oxycodone concentrations were 0.6 mg/L and 1.6 mg/kg, respectively. Oxycodone was identified and quantitated by gas chromatography-nitrogen-phosphorus detection and confirmed by full scan electron ionization gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The medical examiner ruled that the cause of death was oxycodone intoxication, and the manner of death was homicide. The key toxicologic question in this case was whether or not it was reasonable for the infant to be exposed to oxycodone exclusively through breast milk or through an alternate source. It was concluded that, at best, there were serious concerns about the likelihood of drug exposure through consumption of breast milk. PMID:15568714

  7. Variable Classification of Drug-Intoxication Suicides across US States: A Partial Artifact of Forensics?

    Ian R H Rockett

    Full Text Available The 21st-century epidemic of pharmaceutical and other drug-intoxication deaths in the United States (US has likely precipitated an increase in misclassified, undercounted suicides. Drug-intoxication suicides are highly prone to be misclassified as accident or undetermined. Misclassification adversely impacts suicide and other injury mortality surveillance, etiologic understanding, prevention, and hence clinical and public health policy formation and practice.To evaluate whether observed variation in the relative magnitude of drug-intoxication suicides across US states is a partial artifact of the scope and quality of toxicological testing and type of medicolegal death investigation system.This was a national, state-based, ecological study of 111,583 drug-intoxication fatalities, whose manner of death was suicide, accident, or undetermined. The proportion of (nonhomicide drug-intoxication deaths classified by medical examiners and coroners as suicide was analyzed relative to the proportion of death certificates citing one or more specific drugs and two types of state death investigation systems. Our model incorporated five sociodemographic covariates. Data covered the period 2008-2010, and derived from NCHS's Multiple Cause-of-Death public use files.Across states, the proportion of drug-intoxication suicides ranged from 0.058 in Louisiana to 0.286 in South Dakota and the rate from 1 per 100,000 population in North Dakota to 4 in New Mexico. There was a low correlation between combined accident and undetermined drug-intoxication death rates and corresponding suicide rates (Spearman's rho = 0.38; p<0.01. Citation of 1 or more specific drugs on the death certificate was positively associated with the relative odds of a state classifying a nonhomicide drug-intoxication death as suicide rather than accident or undetermined, adjusting for region and type of state death investigation system (odds ratio, 1.062; 95% CI,1.016-1.110. Region, too, was a

  8. Event-Level Associations between Objective and Subjective Alcohol Intoxication and Driving after Drinking across the College Years

    Quinn, Patrick D.; Fromme, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Heavy episodic drinking is strongly associated with driving after drinking, yet there has been mixed evidence regarding whether the disinhibiting effects of alcohol intoxication contribute to the decision to drive after drinking. This investigation tested whether greater alcohol intoxication increased the probability of driving after drinking particularly during drinking episodes in which students experienced reduced subjective feelings of intoxication. A sample of 1,350 college students comp...

  9. Non-neuronal, but atropine-sensitive ileal contractile responses to short-chain fatty acids: age-dependent desensitization and restoration under inflammatory conditions in mice.

    Yajima, Masako; Kimura, Shunsuke; Karaki, Shinichiro; Nio-Kobayashi, Junko; Tsuruta, Takeshi; Kuwahara, Atsukazu; Yajima, Takaji; Iwanaga, Toshihiko

    2016-04-01

    Intestinal epithelial cells sense short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) to secrete non-neuronal acetylcholine (ACh). However, the roles of luminalSCFAs and epithelialACh under normal and pathological conditions remain unknown. We examined ileal contractile responses toSCFAs at different ages and their mucosal cholinergic alterations under inflammatory conditions. Ileal contractile responses toSCFAs in 1-day-old pups to 7-week-old mice were compared using an isotonic transducer, and responses to an intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were analyzed in 7-week-old mice. ThemRNAexpression levels of aSCFAactivate free fatty acid receptor, acetylcholinesterase (AChE), choline acetyltransferase (Chat), and choline transporter-like protein 4 (CTL4) were measured using real-time quantitativeRT-PCRAChE was analyzed by histochemical and optical enzymatic assays. Atropine-sensitive ileal contractile responses toSCFAs occurred in all 1-day-old pups, but were frequently desensitized after the weaning period. These contractile responses were not inhibited by tetrodotoxin and did not appear when the mucosal layer had been scraped off. Contractile desensitization in 7-week-old mice was abolished in the presence of theAChE inhibitor, eserine, which was consistent with increasedAChE activity after weaning. Ileal contractions toSCFAs in adult mice were restored byLPS, which significantly increased the epithelialmRNAexpression of Chat andCTL4. Atropine-sensitive ileal contractile responses toSCFAs constitutively occur in the newborn period, and are desensitized during developmental stages following the up-regulated expression ofAChE in the villous mucosa, but are restored under inflammatory conditions possibly via the release of epithelialACh. PMID:27053293

  10. Complex plastic changes in the neuropeptide Y system during ethanol intoxication and withdrawal in the rat brain

    Olling, J D; Ulrichsen, J; Christensen, D Z;

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies show that chronic ethanol treatment induces prominent changes in brain neuropeptide Y (NPY). The purpose of the present study was to explore ethanol effects at a deeper NPY-system level, measuring expression of NPY and its receptors (Y1, Y2, Y5) as well as NPY receptor binding and...... intoxication and in functional binding in the DG and NeoCx during intoxication and at 16 hr and in PirCx during intoxication and at 1 week. Thus this study shows that ethanol intoxication and withdrawal induce complex plastic changes in the NPY system, with decreased/increased gene expression or binding...

  11. Effect of acute and delayed hyperbaric oxygen therapy on cyanide whole blood levels during acute cyanide intoxication

    Lawson-Smith, P; Jansen, E C; Hilsted, Linda Maria;

    2011-01-01

    causing depletion of adenosine triphosphate. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) is recommended for treating carbon monoxide poisoning. The therapeutic effect is due to a high oxygen pressure removing carbon monoxide from the cells. We hypothesise that HBO2 induces changes in whole-blood-cyanide by a competitive...

  12. Death by 'ice': fatal methamphetamine intoxication of a body packer case detected by postmortem computed tomography (PMCT) and validated by autopsy.

    Bin Abdul Rashid, Saiful Nizam; Rahim, Amir Saad Abdul; Thali, Michael J; Flach, Patricia M

    2013-03-01

    Fatal acute methamphetamine (MA) poisoning in cases of internal drug trafficking is rarely described in the literature. This case study reports an MA 'body packer' who died from fatal methamphetamine intoxication due to leaking drug packages in the alimentary tract. The deceased was examined by postmortem computed tomography (PMCT), and the results were correlated to subsequent autopsy and toxicological findings. The deceased was arrested by the police when he was found disoriented in the city of Kuala Lumpur. He was transferred to the emergency department on suspicion of drug abuse. The initial drug screening was reactive for amphetamines. Shortly after admission to the hospital, he died despite rigorous resuscitation attempts. The postmortem plain chest and abdominal radiographs revealed multiple suspicious opacities in the gastrointestinal tract attributable to body packages. An unenhanced whole body PMCT revealed twenty-five drug packages, twenty-four in the stomach and one in the transverse colon. At least two were disintegrating, and therefore leaking. The autopsy findings were consistent with the PMCT results. Toxicology confirmed the diagnosis of fatal methamphetamine intoxication. PMID:23404531

  13. Acute Bronchitis

    ... of bronchitis: acute and chronic. Most cases of acute bronchitis get better within several days. But your cough ... that cause colds and the flu often cause acute bronchitis. These viruses spread through the air when people ...

  14. Is pornography consumption associated with condom use and intoxication during hookups?

    Braithwaite, Scott R; Givens, Anneli; Brown, Jacob; Fincham, Frank

    2015-01-01

    In order to examine whether pornography consumption is associated with risky sexual behaviour among emerging adults, we examined two large samples of those who reported hooking up in the past 12 months (combined n =  1216). Pornography use was associated with a higher likelihood of having a penetrative hookup; a higher incidence of intoxication during hookups for men (but a lower incidence of intoxication during hookups for women); increasing levels of intoxication during hookups for men but decreasing levels of intoxication for women; and a higher likelihood of being in the riskiest category of having a penetrative hookup, without a condom, while intoxicated. For each of these outcomes, our point estimates for Study 2 fell within the 95% confidence intervals from Study 1. Controlling for trait self-control, binge drinking frequency, broader problematic patterns of alcohol use, openness to experience, and attitudes toward casual sex did not change the pattern of results. Implications for interventions to reduce sexual risk are discussed. PMID:26043841

  15. A Retrospective Analysis of Pediatric Patients Admitted to the Pediatric Emergency Service for Carbon Monoxide Intoxication

    Metin Uysalol

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study is to analyze the general aspects of cases with carbon monoxide intoxication in order to improve the approach to future patients. Material and Methods: The hospital records of 84 children (mean age 4.71±2.64 years; 48 male, 36 female who had been admitted to Paediatric Emergency Department for carbon monoxide intoxication between October 2007 and February 2009, were retrospectively evaluated in a descriptive analysis.Results: The source of carbon monoxide intoxication was heaters, waterheaters and fi re in 82.1%, 7.1% and 6% of cases, respectively. There was a statistically signifi cant difference between the carboxyhemoglobin levels of the patients according to the clinical classifi cation (p<0.05. The intoxication caused by heaters was observed signifi cantly in November, December and January (p<0.001, between 16:00-24:00 hours (p<0.001 and among more than one member of a family (p<0.001. A medium level correlation was detected between the treatment approach and clinical classifi cation (r=0.50, p<0.001. Conclusion: Carbon monoxide intoxication, in the presented series, was found to develop accidentally; mostly in the Winter season; during night hours when the family members gathered together. The carboxyhemoglobin levels were appropriate with the developing clinical findings. Carboxyhemoglobin level solely was not enough for achieving the diagnosis and planning the treatment.

  16. Intoxication by Intraperitoneal Injection or Oral Gavage Equally Potentiates Postburn Organ Damage and Inflammation

    Michael M. Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing prevalence of binge drinking and its association with trauma necessitate accurate animal models to examine the impact of intoxication on the response and outcome to injuries such as burn. While much research has focused on the effect of alcohol dose and duration on the subsequent inflammatory parameters following burn, little evidence exists on the effect of the route of alcohol administration. We examined the degree to which intoxication before burn injury causes systemic inflammation when ethanol is given by intraperitoneal (i.p. injection or oral gavage. We found that intoxication potentiates postburn damage in the ileum, liver, and lungs of mice to an equivalent extent when either ethanol administration route is used. We also found a similar hematologic response and levels of circulating interleukin-6 (IL-6 when either ethanol paradigm achieved intoxication before burn. Furthermore, both i.p. and gavage resulted in similar blood alcohol concentrations at all time points tested. Overall, our data show an equal inflammatory response to burn injury when intoxication is achieved by either i.p. injection or oral gavage, suggesting that findings from studies using either ethanol paradigm are directly comparable.

  17. Acute Renal Failure due to Rhabdomyolysis Caused by Hypokalemia

    Ghacha Reda

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhabdomyolysis is not an uncommon cause of acute renal failure (ARF. It is usually caused by severe traumatic crush injury, severe exercise, septicemia, drug abuse, alcoholic intoxication, heat stroke and myopathy. In this case, we present a patient who developed rhabdomyolysis after severe hypokalemia (serum potassium 1.9mmol/L. This is an unusual cause of rhabdomyolysis even though hypokalemia is a common medical problem. This patient developed acute oliguric renal failure that required daily hemodialysis for 12 days, before start of recovery. This case demonstrates that hypokalemia is a preventable cause of rhabdomyolysis and ARF.

  18. Life-threatening intoxication with methylene bis(thiocyanate: clinical picture and pitfalls. A case report

    Schnuelle Peter

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methylene bis(thiocyanate (MBT is a microbiocidal agent mainly used in industrial water cooling systems and paper mills as an inhibitor of algae, fungi, and bacteria. Case presentation We describe the first case of severe intoxication following inhalation of powder in an industrial worker. Profound cyanosis and respiratory failure caused by severe methemoglobinemia developed within several minutes. Despite immediate admission to the intensive care unit, where mechanical ventilation and hemodialysis for toxin elimination were initiated, multi-organ failure involving liver, kidneys, and lungs developed. While liver failure was leading, the patient was successfully treated with the MARS (molecular adsorbent recirculating system procedure. Conclusion Intoxication with MBT is a potentially life-threatening intoxication causing severe methemoglobinemia and multi-organ failure. Extracorporeal liver albumin dialysis (MARS appears to be an effective treatment to allow recovery of hepatic function.

  19. The benzodiazepine/GABA receptor complex during severe ethanol intoxication and withdrawal in the rat

    The benzodiazepine/GABA (gammaaminobutyric acid) receptor complex was investigated during severe ethanol intoxication and withdrawal in the rat. The intragastric intubation technique was used to establish physical ethanol dependence in the animals. Cerebral cortex from male Wistar rats was studied 1) after 31/2 days of severe ethanol intoxication, 2) during the ethanol withdrawal reaction and 3) in a control group. The effect of GABA-ergic activation by muscimol and THIP (4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazole(5,4-c)pyridin-3-01) on 3H-diazepam binding was unchanged during ethanol intoxication and withdrawal, as was the affinity constant (Ksub(D)) and the maximal number of binding sites (Bsub(max)) for 3H-flunitrazepam. In conclusion, the benzodiazepine/GABA receptor complex is unlikely to play any causual part in physical ethanol dependence. (author)

  20. STUDY ON 52 PATIENTS WITH ACUTE SEVERE ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDE POISONING%急性重度有机磷中毒52例临床研究

    孟瑞; 卢敏

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical application of hemoperfusion combined with hemodialysis and continuous micropump infusion of atropine in the treatment of acute severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning( ASOPP ). Methods A total of 104 patients with ASOPP were retrospectively analysed, all patients were treated with gastric lavage and so on, the treated group adopted hemoperfusion combined with hemodialysis and continuous micropump infusion of atropine in addition to basic therapy. The clinical data was compared. Results The treated group was superior to the control group in time from coma to consciousness, total amount of atropine and recovery time of cholinesterase etc. The recovery rate was 84.6%. Conclusion It is effective to apply hemoperfusion combined with hemodialysis and continuous micropump iffusion of atropine in rescuing the acute severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning.%目的 评价血液灌流联合血液透析、阿托品微量泵持续泵入治疗急性重度有机磷中毒(acute severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning,ASOPP)的临床应用价值.方法 对104例ASOPP患者进行回顾性分析,所有患者均给予洗胃等治疗,治疗组在对照组基础上加用血液灌流联合血液透析、阿托品微量泵治疗,比较2组各项临床资料.结果 治疗组昏迷至清醒时间、阿托品总量、胆碱酯酶恢复时间等明显优于对照组,治愈率为84.6%.结论 应用血液灌流联合血液透析、阿托品微量泵治疗ASOPP效果较好.

  1. Neurology of acute organophosphate poisoning

    Singh Gagandeep

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute organophosphate (OP poisoning is one of the most common poisonings in emergency medicine and toxicological practice in some of the less-developed nations in South Asia. Traditionally, OP poisoning comes under the domain of emergency physicians, internists, intensivists, and toxicologists. However, some of the complications following OP poisoning are neurological and involve neurologists. The pathophysiological basis for the clinical manifestations of OP poisoning is inactivation of the enzyme, acetylcholinesterase at the peripheral nicotinic and muscarinic and central nervous system (CNS nerve terminals and junctions. Nicotinic manifestations occur in severe cases and late in the course; these comprise of fasciculations and neuromuscular paralysis. There is a good correlation between the electrophysiological abnormalities and the severity of the clinical manifestations. Neurophysiological abnormalities characteristic of nicotinic junctions (mainly neuromuscular junction dysfunction include: (1 single, supramaximal electrical-stimulus-induced repetitive response/s, (2 decrement-increment response to high frequency (30 Hz repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS, and (3 decremental response to high frequency (30 Hz RNS. Atropine ameliorates muscarinic manifestations. Therapeutic agents that can ameliorate nicotinic manifestations, mainly neuromuscular, are oximes. However, the evidence for this effect is inconclusive. This may be due to the fact that there are several factors that determine the therapeutic effect of oximes. These factors include: The OP compound responsible for poisoning, duration of poisoning, severity of poisoning, and route of exposure. There is also a need to study the effect of oximes on the neurophysiological abnormalities.

  2. N-acetylcysteine in Acute Organophosphorus Pesticide Poisoning: A Randomized, Clinical Trial.

    El-Ebiary, Ahmad A; Elsharkawy, Rasha E; Soliman, Nema A; Soliman, Mohammed A; Hashem, Ahmed A

    2016-08-01

    Organophosphorus poisoning is a major global health problem with hundreds of thousands of deaths each year. Research interest in N-acetylcysteine has grown among increasing evidence of the role of oxidative stress in organophosphorus poisoning. We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of N-acetylcysteine as an adjuvant treatment in patients with acute organophosphorus poisoning. This was a randomized, controlled, parallel-group trial on 30 patients suffering from acute organophosphorus poisoning, who were admitted to the Poison Control Center of Tanta University Emergency Hospital, Tanta, Egypt, between April and September 2014. Interventions included oral N-acetylcysteine (600 mg three times daily for 3 days) as an added treatment to the conventional measures versus only the conventional treatment. Outcome measures included mortality, total dose of atropine administered, duration of hospitalization and the need for ICU admission and/or mechanical ventilation. A total of 46 patients were screened and 30 were randomized. No significant difference was found between both groups regarding demographic characteristics and the nature or severity of baseline clinical manifestations. No major adverse effects to N-acetylcysteine therapy were reported. Malondialdehyde significantly decreased and reduced glutathione significantly increased only in the NAC-treated patients. The patients on NAC therapy required less atropine doses than those who received only the conventional treatment; however, the length of hospital stay showed no significant difference between both groups. The study concluded that the use of N-acetylcysteine as an added treatment was apparently safe, and it reduced atropine requirements in patients with acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning. PMID:26786042

  3. Can Urtica dioica supplementation attenuate mercury intoxication in Wistar rats?

    Wafa Siouda

    2015-12-01

    supplemented rats. Conclusion: Nettle leaves have not only played a clear protective role during Hg intoxication, but it also enhanced hepatic, renal and testicular GSH level of Wistar rats.

  4. Cannabidiol Rescues Acute Hepatic Toxicity and Seizure Induced by Cocaine

    Luciano Rezende Vilela

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cocaine is a commonly abused illicit drug that causes significant morbidity and mortality. The most severe and common complications are seizures, ischemic strokes, myocardial infarction, and acute liver injury. Here, we demonstrated that acute cocaine intoxication promoted seizure along with acute liver damage in mice, with intense inflammatory infiltrate. Considering the protective role of the endocannabinoid system against cell toxicity, we hypothesized that treatment with an anandamide hydrolysis inhibitor, URB597, or with a phytocannabinoid, cannabidiol (CBD, protects against cocaine toxicity. URB597 (1.0 mg/kg abolished cocaine-induced seizure, yet it did not protect against acute liver injury. Using confocal liver intravital microscopy, we observed that CBD (30 mg/kg reduced acute liver inflammation and damage induced by cocaine and prevented associated seizure. Additionally, we showed that previous liver damage induced by another hepatotoxic drug (acetaminophen increased seizure and lethality induced by cocaine intoxication, linking hepatotoxicity to seizure dynamics. These findings suggest that activation of cannabinoid system may have protective actions on both liver and brain induced by cocaine, minimizing inflammatory injury promoted by cocaine, supporting its further clinical application in the treatment of cocaine abuse.

  5. Cannabidiol rescues acute hepatic toxicity and seizure induced by cocaine.

    Vilela, Luciano Rezende; Gomides, Lindisley Ferreira; David, Bruna Araújo; Antunes, Maísa Mota; Diniz, Ariane Barros; Moreira, Fabrício de Araújo; Menezes, Gustavo Batista

    2015-01-01

    Cocaine is a commonly abused illicit drug that causes significant morbidity and mortality. The most severe and common complications are seizures, ischemic strokes, myocardial infarction, and acute liver injury. Here, we demonstrated that acute cocaine intoxication promoted seizure along with acute liver damage in mice, with intense inflammatory infiltrate. Considering the protective role of the endocannabinoid system against cell toxicity, we hypothesized that treatment with an anandamide hydrolysis inhibitor, URB597, or with a phytocannabinoid, cannabidiol (CBD), protects against cocaine toxicity. URB597 (1.0 mg/kg) abolished cocaine-induced seizure, yet it did not protect against acute liver injury. Using confocal liver intravital microscopy, we observed that CBD (30 mg/kg) reduced acute liver inflammation and damage induced by cocaine and prevented associated seizure. Additionally, we showed that previous liver damage induced by another hepatotoxic drug (acetaminophen) increased seizure and lethality induced by cocaine intoxication, linking hepatotoxicity to seizure dynamics. These findings suggest that activation of cannabinoid system may have protective actions on both liver and brain induced by cocaine, minimizing inflammatory injury promoted by cocaine, supporting its further clinical application in the treatment of cocaine abuse. PMID:25999668

  6. The Trouble with Drink:Intoxication, (In)Capacity and the Evaporation of Consent to Sex

    Cowan, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Feminists have analysed the problematic way in which rape law has evolved in the shadow of the mind/body dualism. This paper will extend this analysis to the problems arising when consent to sex is “intoxicated consent”. One central question is the whether consent is a state of mind or a set of actions or behaviours, performed in certain way, to signify consent. Whether one believes consent to be a state of mind or an action, adding intoxication to the mix renders the problem yet more intract...

  7. Is gender a risk factor for pesticide intoxications among farmers in Bolivia?

    Jørs, Erik; Hay-Younes, Jasmin; Condarco, Madelaine A;

    2013-01-01

    seen. Being a female and having a low educational level were risk factors for "poor knowledge on pesticides" and a "risky behavior when handling pesticides." Females reported more symptoms of intoxication. The gender differences on knowledge and handling practices might explain why females report more......This study compares gender differences regarding knowledge, practice, and symptoms of intoxication when handling pesticides in farming. Data were gathered in La Paz County, Bolivia, in 2008 and 2009. Poor knowledge on safe handling, hazardous working practices, and use of very toxic pesticides were...

  8. Defunct brain stem cardiovascular regulation underlies cardiovascular collapse associated with methamphetamine intoxication

    Li Faith CH

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intoxication from the psychostimulant methamphetamine (METH because of cardiovascular collapse is a common cause of death within the abuse population. For obvious reasons, the heart has been taken as the primary target for this METH-induced toxicity. The demonstration that failure of brain stem cardiovascular regulation, rather than the heart, holds the key to cardiovascular collapse induced by the pesticide mevinphos implicates another potential underlying mechanism. The present study evaluated the hypothesis that METH effects acute cardiovascular depression by dampening the functional integrity of baroreflex via an action on brain stem nuclei that are associated with this homeostatic mechanism. Methods The distribution of METH in brain and heart on intravenous administration in male Sprague-Dawley rats, and the resultant changes in arterial pressure (AP, heart rate (HR and indices for baroreflex-mediated sympathetic vasomotor tone and cardiac responses were evaluated, alongside survival rate and time. Results Intravenous administration of METH (12 or 24 mg/kg resulted in a time-dependent and dose-dependent distribution of the psychostimulant in brain and heart. The distribution of METH to neural substrates associated with brain stem cardiovascular regulation was significantly larger than brain targets for its neurological and psychological effects; the concentration of METH in cardiac tissues was the lowest among all tissues studied. In animals that succumbed to METH, the baroreflex-mediated sympathetic vasomotor tone and cardiac response were defunct, concomitant with cessation of AP and HR. On the other hand, although depressed, those two indices in animals that survived were maintained, alongside sustainable AP and HR. Linear regression analysis further revealed that the degree of dampening of brain stem cardiovascular regulation was positively and significantly correlated with the concentration of METH in key neural

  9. Baby bottle and the risk of water intoxication

    DOLEZEL, Zdenek; KOPECNA, Lenka DOSTALOVA; STASTNA, Jana

    2010-01-01

    Acute hyponatremia is a state of emergency with high morbidity and mortality. Severe hyponatremia is accompanied by a particular brain edema. As a child, with hyponatremia normally encountered while dehydrated during heavier gastroenteritis. Hyponatremia may also be caused due to oral intake more free water or hypotonic fluids. The authors present two cases of infants (aged 15 months and 12, respectively), which was accompanied by severe hyponatremia (118.2 mmol/L and 120.2, respectively) imp...

  10. Implication of Powdered Milk in Staphylococcal Intoxication: A Case Study

    Nicolae Mocuţa; Gheorghe Şteţca; Vasile Chindriş; Adriana Morea

    2015-01-01

    Foodborne diseases are diseases and acute evolution occurs mostly with digestive signs to more consumers of food contaminated with specific pathogens. Staph food poisoning due to consumption of contaminated food is staph enterotoxins enterotoxogeni producing certain temperature conditions. Enterotoxins are 7 types, depending on the type of contaminant stafiloc strain, so enterotoxin detection and diagnosis of the disease is relatively difficult. In the study examined the evolution of an episo...

  11. Severe systemic intoxication following triclopyr-TEA ingestion.

    Kyong, Yeon Y; Lee, Kyoung U; Choi, Kyoung H

    2010-11-01

    We report a case of triclopyr ingestion, a herbicide that acts via the auxin system in plants. It is classified as low-toxicity herbicide. The patient ingested this product and developed metabolic acidosis and coma with cardiovascular impairment. Echocardiography and elevated Troponin T and CK MB with prolongation of QTc suggested direct myocardial toxicity. The patient was extubated 57 h after ingestion, and he recovered completely. This case illustrates the potential acute toxicity of this agent in humans. PMID:21171852

  12. Acute diarrhea in children

    Radlović Nedeljko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute diarrhea (AD is the most frequent gastroenterological disorder, and the main cause of dehydration in childhood. It is manifested by a sudden occurrence of three or more watery or loose stools per day lasting for seven to 10 days, 14 days at most. It mainly occurs in children until five years of age and particularly in neonates in the second half-year and children until the age of three years. Its primary causes are gastrointestinal infections, viral and bacterial, and more rarely alimentary intoxications and other factors. As dehydration and negative nutritive balance are the main complications of AD, it is clear that the compensation of lost body fluids and adequate diet form the basis of the child’s treatment. Other therapeutic measures, except antipyretics in high febrility, antiparasitic drugs for intestinal lambliasis, anti-amebiasis and probiotics are rarely necessary. This primarily regards uncritical use of antibiotics and intestinal antiseptics in the therapy of bacterial diarrhea. The use of antiemetics, antidiarrhetics and spasmolytics is unnecessary and potentially risky, so that it is not recommended for children with AD.

  13. Acute Pancreatitis Caused By Mushroom Poisoning

    Karahan, Samet; Erden, Abdulsamet; Cetinkaya, Ali; Avci, Deniz; Ortakoyluoglu, Adile Irfan; Karagoz, Hatice; Bulut, Kadir; Basak, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Of the more than 5000 species of mushrooms known, 100 types are toxic and approximately 10% of these toxic types can cause fatal toxicity. A type of mushroom called Amanita phalloides is responsible for 95% of toxic mushroom poisonings. In this article, we report 2 cases of mushroom poisonings caused by Lactarius volemus, known as Tirmit by the local people. The patient and his wife were admitted to the emergency room with abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting 20 hours after consuming Lactarius volemus, an edible type of mushroom. The patients reported that they had been collecting this mushroom from the mountains and eating them for several years but had never developed any clinicopathology to date. Further examination of the patients revealed a very rare case of acute pancreatitis due to mushroom intoxication. The male patient was admitted to the intensive care unit while his wife was followed in the internal medicine service, because of her relative mild clinical symptoms. Both patients recovered without sequelae and were discharged. In this article, we aimed to emphasize that gastrointestinal symptoms are often observed in mushroom intoxications and can be confused with acute pancreatitis, thus leading to misdiagnosis of patients. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment can improve patients’ prognosis and prevent the development of complications. PMID:26835473

  14. Stimulation of brain muscarinic acetylcholine receptors acutely reverses radiogenic hypodipsia

    A sufficiently large dose of ionizing radiation produces changes in water consumption. However, the direction, durations, and physiological substrates of these alterations remain in question. Here we report a 5-d hypodipsia in rats exposed to 600 rads 60Co but a more transient, albeit larger, reduction in drinking after 1000 60Co. Brain cholinergic neurons have been implicated as mediators of thirst. Therefore, we explored the role of hypothalamic muscarinic receptors in the production of radiation-induced hypodipsia. This was accomplished through the intrahypothalamic injection of carbachol (a muscarinic agonist) or atropine (a muscarinic antagonist) in irradiated rats. Intracranial carbachol produced acute reversal of radiogenic hypodipsia while atropine potentiated the hypodipsia. These post-irradiation drug-induced behaviors were similar to those observed after the same drug treatments before irradiation. Since cholinergic neuronal functions persist and are labile (can be pharmacologically stimulated and blocked) after irradiation, this suggests that other neuronal systems and/or neurochemicals may be more prominently involved in radiogenic hypodipsia

  15. [Acute accidental poisoning in children at the pediatrics service of the Gabriel Touré hospital].

    Sylla, M; Coulibaly, Y; Dicko, F T; Kourouma, N; Togo, B; Keita, M M

    2006-01-01

    The accidental intoxications constitute more and more a serious problem among young children in the developing countries because of their frequency and difficulties for taking care of those victims. The objective of our work was to study acute intoxications among children in order to determine the frequency, to identify the products in question and to determine the impact of those accidents in the future life of the victims. The study was carried out in the Paediatric Service of the CHU Gabriel Touré from January 2001 to June 2002. We enrolled 89 children from 0 to 15 years of age. Information on our patients was recorded on investigational questionnaire and completed with data from their entry and hospitalization records. Among 8237 children hospitalized during the study period, 89 of them had acute intoxication i.e. 1.08%. Children less than five years of age were more frequent with 85.4% with a male prevalence of 61.8%. Antimalarial drugs and petroleum were the most accused products. Administration of milk and provoked vomiting were the attitudes and practices of the entourage of the victims when intoxication occurs. The evolution was favourable in 67.2% of the cases with a hospital lethality of 13.7%. PMID:19617084

  16. A Cost Analysis of Web-Enhanced Training to Reduce Alcohol Sales to Intoxicated Bar Patrons

    Page, Timothy F.; Nederhoff, Dawn M.; Ecklund, Alexandra M.; Horvath, Keith J.; Nelson, Toben F.; Erickson, Darin J.; Toomey, Traci L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to document the development and testing costs of the Enhanced Alcohol Risk Management (eARM) intervention, a web enhanced training program to prevent alcohol sales to intoxicated bar patrons and to estimate its implementation costs in a "real world", non-research setting. Methods: Data for this…

  17. Brain MR finding of {beta}-fluoroethyl acetate rodenticide intoxication: a case report

    Kim, Ji Young; Jung, Cheol Kyu; Lee, Seung Ro; Park, Dong Woo [College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    {beta}-fluoroethyl acetate rodenticide intoxication can manifest as several different clinical abnormalities such as respiratory, neurologic, cardiologic and fluid-electrolyte problems. We report here on the MR findings of a case that showed symmetric cytotoxic edema in the while matter of the cerebral hemispheres after the ingestion of {beta} - fluoroethyl acetate rodenticide by a woman who was attempting suicide.

  18. Brain MR finding of β-fluoroethyl acetate rodenticide intoxication: a case report

    β-fluoroethyl acetate rodenticide intoxication can manifest as several different clinical abnormalities such as respiratory, neurologic, cardiologic and fluid-electrolyte problems. We report here on the MR findings of a case that showed symmetric cytotoxic edema in the while matter of the cerebral hemispheres after the ingestion of β - fluoroethyl acetate rodenticide by a woman who was attempting suicide

  19. Ricinus communis Intoxications in Human and Veterinary Medicine—A Summary of Real Cases

    Martin Schaer

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Accidental and intended Ricinus communis intoxications in humans and animals have been known for centuries but the causative agent remained elusive until 1888 when Stillmark attributed the toxicity to the lectin ricin. Ricinus communis is grown worldwide on an industrial scale for the production of castor oil. As by-product in castor oil production ricin is mass produced above 1 million tons per year. On the basis of its availability, toxicity, ease of preparation and the current lack of medical countermeasures, ricin has gained attention as potential biological warfare agent. The seeds also contain the less toxic, but highly homologous Ricinus communis agglutinin and the alkaloid ricinine, and especially the latter can be used to track intoxications. After oil extraction and detoxification, the defatted press cake is used as organic fertilizer and as low-value feed. In this context there have been sporadic reports from different countries describing animal intoxications after uptake of obviously insufficiently detoxified fertilizer. Observations in Germany over several years, however, have led us to speculate that the detoxification process is not always performed thoroughly and controlled, calling for international regulations which clearly state a ricin threshold in fertilizer. In this review we summarize knowledge on intended and unintended poisoning with ricin or castor seeds both in humans and animals, with a particular emphasis on intoxications due to improperly detoxified castor bean meal and forensic analysis.

  20. Implication of Powdered Milk in Staphylococcal Intoxication: A Case Study

    Nicolae Mocuţa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Foodborne diseases are diseases and acute evolution occurs mostly with digestive signs to more consumers of food contaminated with specific pathogens. Staph food poisoning due to consumption of contaminated food is staph enterotoxins enterotoxogeni producing certain temperature conditions. Enterotoxins are 7 types, depending on the type of contaminant stafiloc strain, so enterotoxin detection and diagnosis of the disease is relatively difficult. In the study examined the evolution of an episode of Foodborne staphylococcus in a school unit where 35 children fell ill between 252 consumers of milk reconstituted from milk powder. Duration of evolution was 4-10 hours.

  1. Estudio comparativo del efecto de las asociaciones anestésicas atropina-tiletamina/zolazepam y atropina-ketamina/diazepam en emúes (Dromaius novaehollandiae adultos Effects of the anaesthetic associations atropine-tiletamine/zolazepam and atropine-ketamine/diazepam on adult emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae

    R Pulgar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente estudio se determinó el efecto de las asociaciones anestésicas atropina IM (0,05 mg/kg-tiletamina/zolazepam EV (4 mg/kg total y atropina IM (0,05 mg/kg-ketamina EV (5 mg/kg total/diazepam (0,5 mg/kg sobre la respuesta fisiológica, anestésica y bioquímica de emúes adultos. Los ejemplares (n = 7 por grupo fueron asignados al azar a dos tratamientos anestésicos. La frecuencia cardiaca y la temperatura corporal de los emúes mostraron un incremento al inicio del tratamiento experimental (entre 5-10 min, P = 0,001. Sin embargo, la frecuencia respiratoria y pulso disminuyeron (entre 5-15 min, P = 0,003. Estos patrones fueron detectados para ambas asociaciones anestésicas. Por otra parte, la inducción anestésica y el tiempo de recuperación anestésica no fueron afectados por los tratamientos (P = 0,12 y P = 0,13 respectivamente. Los emúes tratados con tiletamina mostraron un mayor tiempo de anestesia quirúrgica, comparados con los emúes tratados con ketamina (P = 0,012. En el caso de A.S.T. y glucosa, ambas variables presentaron un incremento a las 24 h de la aplicación del tratamiento anestésico, resultando los niveles de glucosa más altos en emúes tratados con ketamina (P = 0,006 y P = 0,008 respectivamente. Finalmente, la hemoglobina, proteínas totales y ácido úrico no presentaron diferencias significativas entre tratamientos (P = 0,99, P = 0,97 y P = 0,81 respectivamente. En conclusión, los dos protocolos anestésicos resultaron seguros y eficientes para la manipulación de los animales; sin embargo, el mayor tiempo de anestesia observado en animales tratados con tiletamina podría determinar la preferencia por esta asociación anestésica.In this study, the effects of the anaesthetic associations atropine IM (0.05 mg/kg-tiletamine/zolazepam IV (4 mg/kg total and atropine IM (0.05 mg/kg-ketamine IV (5 mg/kg total/diazepam (0.5 mg/kg on physiological, anaesthetic and biochemical responses were determined on adult

  2. The ultra-structural survey of Aloe Vera extract on photoreceptor layer after methanol intoxication

    M Bahramian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: The photoreceptor layer is a main part of the retina. The Aloe Vera has antioxidant, antibacterial and antidiabetic effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the ultra-structure of the photoreceptor layer of male rats under the effect of methanol intoxication and protective effects of Aloe Vera extract against the methanol toxicity. Methods: The present experimental study was conducted on 30 adult male wistar rats in three groups of ten: as control, methanol intoxication, methanol intoxication receiving 400 mg/kg Aloe Vera extract for 30 days. Methanol intoxication was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 4gr/kg of methanol for 30 days. At the end of experiment, the eyes were removed and retina was separated near the optic disc and immersed in gluteraldehyde 4%. The retinal tissue was rinsed with buffer and fixed in osmium tetroxide 1% and dehydrated through a graded alcohol series. Then, the tissues were placed in a mixture of propylene oxide and resin and embedded in pure resin. Semi thin and ultrathin sections prepared and studied by transmission electron and light microscopes. Using One Way ANOVA and Tukey test data were analyzed. Result: Results showed that revealed decrement of the pathological sign in Aloe Vera-methanol group in comparison to methanol intoxication group. The outer segment loss, highly vacuolization in inner segment and condense and pyknotic nuclei were seen in methanol intoxication group. But the moderate outer segment loss, lightly vacuolization in inner segment and condense nuclei were observed in Aloe Vera-methanol group. Morphometric observations showed that the thickness of photoreceptor layer decreased in methanol intoxication group and little reduction in Aloe Vera-methanol group. The decrement of thickness in this group has significant difference with control group. But the decrement of thickness of photoreceptor layer in Aloe Vera-methanol group has no significant difference with

  3. The protective role of Melatonin on small intestine after Thioacetamide Intoxication in rats

    The present study deals with the effect of melatonin (MT), a very potent and efficient endogenous free radical scavenger, against the toxic effect induced by thioacetamide (TAA) on structures of small intestine in rats. Melatonin acts as primary nonenzymatic antioxidant and protects the tissue from oxidative damage. Thioacetamide, which was originally used as a fungicide, is proposed hepatotoxin commonly used to induce liver cirrhosis in rats and other species. However, very little attention has been dealt with the effects of TAA on the intestinal cells and there functions. It was therefore of interest to study the aging variation in the sequenced response responses of injury caused by TAA and regeneration capacity of recovery after using melatonin. For this purpose male Wistar rats aging 1, 3 and 12 months are arranged in three main groups (15 rats for each group). Each main group then divided into: (1) control group, (2) intoxicated group (a single high dose 300 mg/kg/body weight of TAA) and (3) treated group, administered the same dose of thioacetamide with melatonin (5mg/kg/body weight) daily injected orally for four weeks. Histological investigation of TAA intoxication revealed a highest grade of pathological alterations manifested by changes of width and length of most villi in ileum of all intoxicated groups. The epithelial cells lining the top of the villi were denuded in ileum sections of newly weaned and young intoxicated animals, while they appeared degenerated with exposed lamina propria in ileum sections of adult group. There was also an increase in the number of goblet cells in most villi and in crypts of Lieberkuhn of intestinal cells. Mitotic figures were observed obviously in the crypts of onset ileum cells of intoxicated animals. Lymphocytic infiltration in lamina propria and submucosa were more obvious in the intestinal cell of young intoxicated groups. However, congestion and dilatation of blood vessels were more pronounced in ileum sections of

  4. 阿托品联合血液灌流在有机磷中毒中的效果研究%The study on the effect of atropine combined with hemoperfusion in the patients with organophosphorus poisoning

    刘莹

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨阿托品联合血液灌流在有机磷中毒中的效果.方法:60例有机磷中毒患者随机均分为两组,每组各30例,A组采用阿托品联合血液灌流进行治疗,B组单纯采用阿托品进行治疗,后将两组患者的综合治疗效果进行比较.结果:A组的各项治疗效果评价项目均优于B组,P<0.05,差异均有统计学意义.结论:阿托品联合血液灌流在有机磷中毒中的效果较佳,值得临床推广应用.%Objective: To study the effect of atropine combined with hemoperfusion in the patients with organophosphorus poisoning. Methods: 60 patients with organophosphorus poisoning were randomly divided into two groups with 30 patients in each group, and the group A were treated with atropine combined with hemoperfusion, the group B were treated with atropine, then the comprehensive effect of the two groups were compared. Results: The various evaluation items of group A were all better than those of group B, all ρ<0.05, there were significant differences. Conclusion: The effect of atropine combined with hemoperfusion in the patients with organophosphorus poisoning is better, and it is worthy of popularization and application.

  5. Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy

    ... Acute Pancreatitis > Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy test Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy Timothy Gardner, MD Acute pancreatitis is ... of acute pancreatitis in pregnancy. Reasons for Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy While acute pancreatitis is responsible for ...

  6. Morphine protects against methylmercury intoxication: a role for opioid receptors in oxidative stress?

    Allan Costa-Malaquias

    Full Text Available Mercury is an extremely dangerous environmental contaminant responsible for episodes of human intoxication throughout the world. Methylmercury, the most toxic compound of this metal, mainly targets the central nervous system, accumulating preferentially in cells of glial origin and causing oxidative stress. Despite studies demonstrating the current exposure of human populations, the consequences of mercury intoxication and concomitant use of drugs targeting the central nervous system (especially drugs used in long-term treatments, such as analgesics are completely unknown. Morphine is a major option for pain management; its global consumption more than quadrupled in the last decade. Controversially, morphine has been proposed to function in oxidative stress independent of the activation of the opioid receptors. In this work, a therapeutic concentration of morphine partially protected the cellular viability of cells from a C6 glioma cell line exposed to methylmercury. Morphine treatment also reduced lipid peroxidation and totally prevented increases in nitrite levels in those cells. A mechanistic study revealed no alteration in sulfhydryl groups or direct scavenging at this opioid concentration. Interestingly, the opioid antagonist naloxone completely eliminated the protective effect of morphine against methylmercury intoxication, pointing to opioid receptors as the major contributor to this action. Taken together, the experiments in the current study provide the first demonstration that a therapeutic concentration of morphine is able to reduce methylmercury-induced oxidative damage and cell death by activating the opioid receptors. Thus, these receptors may be a promising pharmacological target for modulating the deleterious effects of mercury intoxication. Although additional studies are necessary, our results support the clinical safety of using this opioid in methylmercury-intoxicated patients, suggesting that normal analgesic doses could

  7. Acute effects of a sarin-like organophosphorus agent, bis(isopropyl methyl)phosphonate, on cardiovascular parameters in anaesthetized, artificially ventilated rats

    The organophosphorus compound sarin irreversibly inhibits acetylcholinesterase. We examined the acute cardiovascular effects of a sarin-like organophosphorus agent, bis(isopropyl methyl)phosphonate (BIMP), in anaesthetized, artificially ventilated rats. Intravenous administration of BIMP (0.8 mg/kg; the LD50 value) induced a long-lasting increase in blood pressure and tended to increase heart rate. In rats pretreated with the non-selective muscarinic-receptor antagonist atropine, BIMP significantly increased both heart rate and blood pressure. In atropine-treated rats, hexamethonium (antagonist of ganglionic nicotinic receptors) greatly attenuated the BIMP-induced increase in blood pressure without changing the BIMP-induced increase in heart rate. In rats treated with atropine plus hexamethonium, intravenous phentolamine (non-selective α-adrenergic receptor antagonist) plus propranolol (non-selective β-adrenergic receptor antagonist) completely blocked the BIMP-induced increases in blood pressure and heart rate. In atropine-treated rats, the reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor neostigmine (1 mg/kg) induced a transient increase in blood pressure, but had no effect on heart rate. These results suggest that in anaesthetized rats, BIMP induces powerful stimulation of sympathetic as well as parasympathetic nerves and thereby modulates heart rate and blood pressure. They may also indicate that an action independent of acetylcholinesterase inhibition contributes to the acute cardiovascular responses induced by BIMP. - Highlights: • A sarin-like agent BIMP markedly increased blood pressure in anaesthetized rats. • Muscarinic receptor blockade enhanced the BIMP-induced increase in blood pressure. • Ganglionic nicotinic receptor blockade attenuated the BIMP-induced response. • Blockade of α- as well as β-receptors attenuated the BIMP-induced response

  8. Acute effects of a sarin-like organophosphorus agent, bis(isopropyl methyl)phosphonate, on cardiovascular parameters in anaesthetized, artificially ventilated rats

    Watanabe, Yoshimasa [Department of Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan); Itoh, Takeo, E-mail: titoh@med.nagoya-cu.ac.jp [Department of Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan); Shiraishi, Hiroaki [Department of Forensic Medicine, Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Maeno, Yoshitaka [Department of Forensic Medical Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan); Arima, Yosuke; Torikoshi, Aiko; Namera, Akira [Department of Forensic Medicine, Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Makita, Ryosuke [Department of Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences, Hiroshima Cosmopolitan University, Hiroshima (Japan); Yoshizumi, Masao [Department of Cardiovascular Physiology and Medicine, Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Nagao, Masataka [Department of Forensic Medicine, Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2013-10-01

    The organophosphorus compound sarin irreversibly inhibits acetylcholinesterase. We examined the acute cardiovascular effects of a sarin-like organophosphorus agent, bis(isopropyl methyl)phosphonate (BIMP), in anaesthetized, artificially ventilated rats. Intravenous administration of BIMP (0.8 mg/kg; the LD50 value) induced a long-lasting increase in blood pressure and tended to increase heart rate. In rats pretreated with the non-selective muscarinic-receptor antagonist atropine, BIMP significantly increased both heart rate and blood pressure. In atropine-treated rats, hexamethonium (antagonist of ganglionic nicotinic receptors) greatly attenuated the BIMP-induced increase in blood pressure without changing the BIMP-induced increase in heart rate. In rats treated with atropine plus hexamethonium, intravenous phentolamine (non-selective α-adrenergic receptor antagonist) plus propranolol (non-selective β-adrenergic receptor antagonist) completely blocked the BIMP-induced increases in blood pressure and heart rate. In atropine-treated rats, the reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor neostigmine (1 mg/kg) induced a transient increase in blood pressure, but had no effect on heart rate. These results suggest that in anaesthetized rats, BIMP induces powerful stimulation of sympathetic as well as parasympathetic nerves and thereby modulates heart rate and blood pressure. They may also indicate that an action independent of acetylcholinesterase inhibition contributes to the acute cardiovascular responses induced by BIMP. - Highlights: • A sarin-like agent BIMP markedly increased blood pressure in anaesthetized rats. • Muscarinic receptor blockade enhanced the BIMP-induced increase in blood pressure. • Ganglionic nicotinic receptor blockade attenuated the BIMP-induced response. • Blockade of α- as well as β-receptors attenuated the BIMP-induced response.

  9. Bronchitis - acute

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Acute bronchitis is swelling and inflammation in the main passages ... present only for a short time. Causes When acute bronchitis occurs, it almost always comes after having a ...

  10. Bronchitis - acute

    Acute bronchitis is swelling and inflammation in the main passages that carry air to the lungs. The swelling narrows ... makes it harder to breathe. Another symptom of bronchitis is a cough. Acute means the symptoms have ...

  11. Acute Bronchitis

    Bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchial tubes, the airways that carry air to your lungs. It ... chest tightness. There are two main types of bronchitis: acute and chronic. Most cases of acute bronchitis ...

  12. Acute pancreatitis

    Bo-Guang Fan; Åke Andrén-Sandberg

    2010-01-01

    Background : Acute pancreatitis continues to be a serious illness, and the patients with acute pancreatitis are at risk to develop different complications from ongoing pancreatic inflammation. Aims : The present review is to highlight the classification, treatment and prognosis of acute pancreatitis. Material & Methods : We reviewed the English-language literature (Medline) addressing pancreatitis. Results : Acute pancreatitis is frequently caused by gallstone disease or excess alcohol ingest...

  13. Acute pancreatitis

    Bo-Guang Fan; Åke Andrén-Sandberg

    2010-01-01

    Background: Acute pancreatitis continues to be a serious illness, and the patients with acute pancreatitis are at risk to develop different complications from ongoing pancreatic inflammation. Aims: The present review is to highlight the classification, treatment and prognosis of acute pancreatitis. Material & Methods: We reviewed the English-language literature (Medline) addressing pancreatitis. Results: Acute pancreatitis is frequently caused by gallstone disease or excess alcohol ingestion....

  14. Prolonged survival after experimental paraquat intoxication: role of alternative antioxidants.

    Lugo-Vallín, Nelly del Valle; Pascuzzo-Lima, Carmine; Maradei-Irastorza, Idania; Ramírez-Sánchez, Manuel; Sosa-Sequera, Miriam; Aguero-Penã, Rafael; Granado-Duque, Angel

    2002-02-01

    Since paraquat poisoning causes multiorgan damage through the generation of several redox products, the usual therapy includes antioxidative drugs, such as N-acetylcysteine. We investigated whether selected antioxidative drugs can improve survival from acute paraquat toxicity. Forty-eight male 2-3-mo-old Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups receiving paraquat dichloride in a single injection (11 mg/kg bw ip) I h before the administration of normal saline (control ip), S-carboxymethylcysteine (600 mg/kg bw po), propofol (100 mg/kg bw ip) or trimetazidine (10 mg/kg bw po). Animals were observed for 7 d. The median survival time in the control group was 3 d whereas it was 4 (p = 0.15), 4.5 (p trimetazidine, S-carboxymethylcysteine or propofol-treated groups, respectively. PMID:11824777

  15. Application of critical thinking in atropine dynamic observation and nursing intervention%评判性思维在阿托品化动态观察与护理干预中的应用

    刘玉峰

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨评判性思维在阿托品化动态观察与护理干预中的应用效果。方法:将我院2013年1~12月期间收治的重度有机磷中毒患者60例作为观察组,将我院2012年1~12月期间收治的重度有机磷中毒患者60例作为对照组。对照组采用常规方式进行业务培训,对阿托品化进行常规观察与护理,观察组应用评判性思维模式进行业务培训,对阿托品化进行动态观察与干预。观察对比两组患者阿托品化误判率、并发中间综合征例数及平均住院时间。结果:观察组患者阿托品化误判率、并发中间综合征、平均住院时间均少于对照组,差异均有统计学意义(P ﹤0.05)。结论:在阿托品化观察过程中,护士应用评判性思维模式,对阿托品化进行动态观察与干预,可降低阿托品化误判率,减少并发症的发生,并可缩短患者住院时间。%Objective:To investigate the application of critical thinking in atropine dynamic observation and nursing intervention. Methods:From January to December 2013 in our hospital severe organophosphate poisoning patients admitted as the observation group 60 cases,and the severe organophosphate poison-ing patients admitted to our hospital from January to December 2012 period 60 cases as the control group. Control group with conventional ways for project training,atropine routine observation and care,while the observation group of critical thinking for project training,atropine dynamic observation and interven-tion. Compared the two groups with observed atropine false positive rate,the number of cases and average length of stay in the middle of concurrent syn-drome. Results:The atropine false positive rate,concurrent intermediate syndrome,average hospital stay of observation group were less than the control group,and the difference was statistically significant(P ﹤ 0. 05). Conclusion:In atropine observation process,the nurse applied critical

  16. Acute methanol toxicity in minipigs

    Dorman, D.C.; Dye, J.A.; Nassise, M.P.; Ekuta, J.; Bolon, B.

    1993-01-01

    The pig has been proposed as a potential animal model for methanol-induced neuro-ocular toxicosis in humans because of its low liver tetrahydrofolate levels and slower rate of formate metabolism compared to those of humans. To examine the validity of this animal model, 12 4-month-old female minipigs (minipig YU) were given a single oral dose of water or methanol at 1.0, 2.5, or 5.0 g/kg body wt by gavage (n = 3 pigs/dose). Dose-dependent signs of acute methanol intoxication, which included mild CNS depression, tremors, ataxia, and recumbency, developed within 0.5 to 2.0 hr, and resolved by 52 hr. Methanol- and formate-dosed pigs did not develop optic nerve lesions, toxicologically significant formate accumulation, or metabolic acidosis. Based on results following a single dose, female minipigs do not appear to be overtly sensitive to methanol and thus may not be a suitable animal model for acute methanol-induced neuroocular toxicosis.

  17. Acute pancreatitis

    Bo-Guang Fan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute pancreatitis continues to be a serious illness, and the patients with acute pancreatitis are at risk to develop different complications from ongoing pancreatic inflammation. Aims: The present review is to highlight the classification, treatment and prognosis of acute pancreatitis. Material & Methods: We reviewed the English-language literature (Medline addressing pancreatitis. Results: Acute pancreatitis is frequently caused by gallstone disease or excess alcohol ingestion. There are a number of important issues regarding clinical highlights in the classification, treatment and prognosis of acute pancreatitis, and treatment options for complications of acute pancreatitis including pancreatic pseudocysts. Conclusions: Multidisciplinary approach should be used for the management of the patient with acute pancreatitis.

  18. Acute pancreatitis

    Bo-Guang Fan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Acute pancreatitis continues to be a serious illness, and the patients with acute pancreatitis are at risk to develop different complications from ongoing pancreatic inflammation. Aims : The present review is to highlight the classification, treatment and prognosis of acute pancreatitis. Material & Methods : We reviewed the English-language literature (Medline addressing pancreatitis. Results : Acute pancreatitis is frequently caused by gallstone disease or excess alcohol ingestion. There are a number of important issues regarding clinical highlights in the classification, treatment and prognosis of acute pancreatitis, and treatment options for complications of acute pancreatitis including pancreatic pseudocysts. Conclusions : Multidisciplinary approach should be used for the management of the patient with acute pancreatitis.

  19. The effects of acute alcohol administration on the human brain: Insights from neuroimaging

    Bjork, James M.; Gilman, Jodi M

    2013-01-01

    Over the last quarter century, researchers have peered into the living human brain to develop and refine mechanistic accounts of alcohol-induced behavior, as well as neurobiological mechanisms for development and maintenance of addiction. These in vivo neuroimaging studies generally show that acute alcohol administration affects brain structures implicated in motivation and behavior control, and that chronic intoxication is correlated with structural and functional abnormalities in these same...

  20. Hepatoprotective Evaluation of Ganoderma lucidum Pharmacopuncture: In vivo Studies of Ethanol-induced Acute Liver Injury

    Sun-Hee Jang; Sung-woo Cho; Hyun-Min Yoon; Kyung-Jeon Jang; Chun-Ho Song; Cheol-Hong Kim

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Alcohol abuse is a public issue and one of the major causes of liver disease worldwide. This study was aimed at investigating the protective effect of Ganoderma lucidum pharmacopuncture (GLP) against hepatotoxicity induced by acute ethanol (EtOH) intoxication in rats. Methods: Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into 4 groups of 8 animals each: normal, control, normal saline pharmacopuncture (NP) and GLP groups. The control, NP and GLP groups received ethanol orally. The NP a...

  1. Acute vergiftigingen bij mens en dier - Jaaroverzicht 2003 - Nationaal Vergiftigingen Informatie Centrum

    van Velzen AG; Gorcum TF van; van Riel AJHP; Meulenbelt J; de Vries I; NVIC

    2004-01-01

    The National Poisons Information Centre (NVIC) of the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) provides information by telephone, 24 hours a day, on possible effects and treatment of health-threatening complaints caused by exposure to chemical substances. The NVIC functions in the Netherlands as the central point of contact for (potentially) acute intoxications; it is consulted frequently by physicians and other relief workers such as the police and the fire brigade. Th...

  2. Leukemoid reaction in a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia following the

    Osman Yokuş

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of persistent neutrophilic leukocytosisabove 50,000 cells/μL for reasons other thanleukemia is defined as leukemoid reaction. Chronicmyelogenous leukemia (CML and chronic neutrophilicleukemia (CNL should be excluded, and underlyingdiseases or causes should be examined,in differential diagnosis. The most commonly observedcauses of leukemoid reactions are severeinfections, intoxications, malignancies, severe hemorrhage,or acute hemolysis [1]. J Clin Exp Invest2013; 4 (2: 258-259

  3. Cannabis and tolerance: acute drug impairment as a function of cannabis use history

    Ramaekers, J. G.; van Wel, J. H.; Spronk, D B; S. W. Toennes; Kuypers, K.P.C.; Theunissen, E L; Verkes, R. J.

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis use history as predictor of neurocognitive response to cannabis intoxication remains subject to scientific and policy debates. The present study assessed the influence of cannabis on neurocognition in cannabis users whose cannabis use history ranged from infrequent to daily use. Drug users (N = 122) received acute doses of cannabis (300 μg/kg THC), cocaine HCl (300 mg) and placebo. Cocaine served as active control for demonstrating neurocognitive test sensitivity. Executive function,...

  4. Hair analysis of an unusual case of Chloroquine intoxication.

    Imran, Muhammad; Ashiq, Muhammad Zar; Shafi, Humera; Usman, Hafiz Faisal; Wattoo, Sardar Ali; Sarwar, Muhammad; Tahir, Muhammad Ashraf

    2016-03-01

    A dead body of middle aged man was exhumed from 6.5 month earth-grave. Autopsy findings were non-specific as the body was completely putrefied. Deceased's scalp hair and kidney was sent for toxicological analysis. Hair sample (50mg) was incubated with 1M NaOH (2 ml). Chloroquine was detected in hair and kidney during basic drug screen performed on GC/MS. For confirmation and quantitation, chloroquine was extracted using Hypersep verify CX SPE cartridges while mass detector was operated in SIM mode using the ions of m/z 245.0, 290.1, 319.0 for chloroquine while ions of m/z 260 and 455 were monitored for nalorphine (internal standard). Chloroquine was present in high concentration in hair (211 ng/mg) as well as in kidney (37.3mg/kg). Moreover, chloroquine was not detected in the wash solvents, suggesting ingestion of the drug rather than an external contamination of hair. These findings strongly suggested the acute exposure of higher doses of chloroquine to the deceased before death. PMID:26980246

  5. Microglia is activated by astrocytes in trimethyltin intoxication

    Microglia participates in most acute and chronic neuropathologies and its activation appears to involve interactions with neurons and other glial cells. Trimethyltin (TMT)-induced brain damage is a well-characterized model of neurodegeneration, in which microglial activation occurs before neuronal degeneration. The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the role of astroglia in TMT-induced microgliosis by using nitric oxide (NO), inducible NO synthase (iNOS), and morphological changes as parameters for microglial activation. Our investigation discusses (a) whether microglial cells can be activated directly by TMT; (b) if astroglial cells are capable of triggering or modulating microglial activation; (c) how the morphology and survival of microglia and astrocytes are affected by TMT treatment; and (d) whether microglial-astroglial interactions depend on direct cell contact or on soluble factors. Our results show that microglia are more vulnerable to TMT than astrocytes are and cannot be activated directly by TMT with regard to the examined parameters. In bilayer coculture with viable astroglial cells, microglia produce NO in significant amounts at subcytotoxic concentrations of TMT (20 μmol/l). At these TMT concentrations, microglial cells in coculture convert into small round cells without cell processes, whereas flat, fibroblast-like astrocytes convert into thin process bearing stellate cells with a dense and compact cell body. We conclude that astrocytes trigger microglial activation after treatment with TMT, although the mechanisms of this interaction remain unknown

  6. From ultrasocial to antisocial: a role for oxytocin in the acute reinforcing effects and long-term adverse consequences of drug use?

    McGregor, I S; Callaghan, P D; Hunt, G. E.

    2008-01-01

    Addictive drugs can profoundly affect social behaviour both acutely and in the long-term. Effects range from the artificial sociability imbued by various intoxicating agents to the depressed and socially withdrawn state frequently observed in chronic drug users. Understanding such effects is of great potential significance in addiction neurobiology. In this review we focus on the ‘social neuropeptide' oxytocin and its possible role in acute and long-term effects of commonly used drugs. Oxytoc...

  7. Psychogenic Polydipsia: The Result, or Cause of, Deteriorating Psychotic Symptoms? A Case Report of the Consequences of Water Intoxication

    Melissa Gill; MacDara McCauley

    2015-01-01

    Water intoxication is a rare condition characterised by overconsumption of water. It can occur in athletes engaging in endurance sports, users of MDMA (ecstasy), and patients receiving total parenteral nutrition. This case outlines water intoxication in a patient with psychogenic polydipsia. When the kidney's capacity to compensate for exaggerated water intake is exceeded, hypotonic hyperhydration results. Consequences can involve headaches, behavioural changes, muscular weakness, twitching, ...

  8. Biomimetic enzyme nanocomplexes and their use as antidotes and preventive measures for alcohol intoxication

    Liu, Yang; Du, Juanjuan; Yan, Ming; Lau, Mo Yin; Hu, Jay; Han, Hui; Yang, Otto O.; Liang, Sheng; Wei, Wei; Wang, Hui; Li, Jianmin; Zhu, Xinyuan; Shi, Linqi; Chen, Wei; Ji, Cheng; Lu, Yunfeng

    2013-03-01

    Organisms have sophisticated subcellular compartments containing enzymes that function in tandem. These confined compartments ensure effective chemical transformation and transport of molecules, and the elimination of toxic metabolic wastes. Creating functional enzyme complexes that are confined in a similar way remains challenging. Here we show that two or more enzymes with complementary functions can be assembled and encapsulated within a thin polymer shell to form enzyme nanocomplexes. These nanocomplexes exhibit improved catalytic efficiency and enhanced stability when compared with free enzymes. Furthermore, the co-localized enzymes display complementary functions, whereby toxic intermediates generated by one enzyme can be promptly eliminated by another enzyme. We show that nanocomplexes containing alcohol oxidase and catalase could reduce blood alcohol levels in intoxicated mice, offering an alternative antidote and prophylactic for alcohol intoxication.

  9. Phenytoin intoxication with no symptoms correlated with serum drug level: a case study

    Avcil, Mucahit; Duman, Ali; Turkdogan, Kenan Ahmet; Kapci, Mucahit; Akoz, Ayhan; Canakci, Selcuk Eren; Ozluer, Yunus Emre

    2015-01-01

    In high-dose intake of phenytoin, which is used frequently to treatepilepsy, nystagmus, diplopia, nausea-vomiting, lethargy, confusion, seizure, and coma can be observed. In recent studies on phenytoin intoxication, in which seizure and coma were observed in drug levels greater than 50 ug/mL. The serum phenytoin level of apatient, who consumed approximately 100 pcs of 100 mg phenytoin tablets in an effort to commit suicide, and who had no pathological finding in her neurologic examination, was 124 ug/mL. High drug level and the absence of toxic effect (or the absence of toxic effect correlated with the drug level) indicates that cytochrome P450 is functioning, but there can be a mutation in the MDR1 gene. In our case study, we report on phenytoin intoxication in a patient having a high level of phenytoin but no symptoms correlated with serum drug level, as supported by the findings in the literature. PMID:26966493

  10. Intravenous lipid emulsion and dexmedetomidine for treatment of feline permethrin intoxication: a report from 4 cases

    G. Ceccherini

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Four cases of feline permethrin intoxication are described. The cause of intoxication is the application of canine permethrin spot-on product (Advantix®, Bayer by the owners. Principal clinical guidelines recommends the use of anticonvulsant drugs to treat seizures or neurological symptoms after initial stabilization and dermal decontamination. The use of lipid emulsion had an increasing interest in the last decade for treatment of toxicosis caused by lipophilic drugs as reported in human and in veterinary medical practices. All cats presented in this study, were treated with intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE at variable dosages, and dexmedetomidine was also administered by intravenous way. No adverse reaction such as thrombophlebitis, overload circulation or others was noticed during and after administration of ILE. Dexmedetomidine was proved to be helpful in tranquillizing the cats. All cats were discharged in good condition faster than other cases treated without their use.

  11. Profile of users intoxicated by drugs of abuse and association with death

    Lúcia Margarete dos Reis

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to characterize the profile of users intoxicated by drugs of abuse reported to a center of information and toxicological assistance and related this to the occurrence of deaths. Methods: study of case series reported in the 2010-2011 biennium after active case finding. Data were obtained from epidemiological records filed in the center and submitted to univariate analysis, with chi-squared test and Fischer test. Results: three hundred and thirty nine cases were found, most were men (87.3%, with basic education (61.0% and elderly (37.2%. Alcohol use (83.8% and chronic intoxications (89.9% were predominant. Clinical complications were present in most medical diagnoses (63.4%. However, mortality was higher in the event deferral by cold and fire weapons. Conclusion: the consumption of drugs of abuse influences morbidity and mortality, particularly in men aged at 60 years or above and with low level of education.

  12. The ultra-structural survey of Aloe Vera extract on photoreceptor layer after methanol intoxication

    M Bahramian; A. Amiri; A zarenezhad; M mard khoshnood; E zarenezhad; Esfandiari, A

    2015-01-01

    Background & aim: The photoreceptor layer is a main part of the retina. The Aloe Vera has antioxidant, antibacterial and antidiabetic effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the ultra-structure of the photoreceptor layer of male rats under the effect of methanol intoxication and protective effects of Aloe Vera extract against the methanol toxicity. Methods: The present experimental study was conducted on 30 adult male wistar rats in three groups of ten: as control, methanol intoxica...

  13. Chronic motor neuron disease possibly related to intoxication with organochlorine insecticides.

    Fonseca, R G; Resende, L A; Silva, M D; Camargo, A

    1993-07-01

    We report on two patients with a history of chronic exposure to organochlorine insecticides who developed clinical and electromyographic signs and symptoms of chronic motor neuron disease. Measurements of aldrin, lindane and heptachlor confirmed the intoxication. We emphasize the importance of searching for toxic and environmental factors in cases of motor neuron disease especially in Third World countries, where workers usually wear no adequate protective equipment. PMID:7690513

  14. Behavioral and Neurological Foundations for the Moral and Legal Implications of Intoxication, Addictive Behaviors and Disinhibition

    Leeman, Robert F.; Grant, Jon E.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2009-01-01

    Disinhibition and addictive behaviors are related and carry moral implications. Both typically involve diminished consideration of negative consequences, which may result in harm to oneself or others. Disinhibition may occur on state and trait levels, and addictive substances may elicit disinhibitory states, particularly when intoxication is reached. Data suggest that trait disinhibition and addictions may be conceptualized as involving misdirected motivation with underlying biological bases ...

  15. Molecular mechanisms of in vivo metal chelation: implications for clinical treatment of metal intoxications.

    Andersen, Ole; Aaseth, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Successful in vivo chelation treatment of metal intoxication requires that a significant fraction of the administered chelator in fact chelate the toxic metal. This depends on metal, chelator, and organism-related factors (e.g., ionic diameter, ring size and deformability, hardness/softness of electron donors and acceptors, route of administration, bioavailability, metabolism, organ and intra/extracellular compartmentalization, and excretion). In vivo chelation is not necessarily an equilibri...

  16. A Real Time Embedded System Application for Driver Drowsiness and Alcoholic Intoxication Detection

    Dwipjoy Sarkar; Atanu Chowdhury

    2014-01-01

    This paper outlines a novel approach for the real time detection of car driver drowsiness and alcoholic intoxication. There are large numbers of road accidents which takes place due to fatigue or alcohol drinking of driver. Computer vision and alcohol gas sensor application is combined to an embedded system to achieve this goal. The proposed system is realized with an open source 5 megapixel digital camera supported embedded system board Raspberry-pi loaded with Raspbian-OS, and Python-IDLE w...

  17. An Event-Level Examination of Sex Differences and Subjective Intoxication in Alcohol-Related Aggression

    Quinn, Patrick D.; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A.; Fromme, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory-based experimental research has demonstrated that the pharmacological effects of alcohol can increase aggressive responding. Given mixed findings and concerns regarding task validity, however, it remains uncertain whether this effect holds constant across men and women and whether variability in subjective alcohol intoxication contributes to alcohol-related aggression. In the present investigation, we used four years of event-level data in a sample of 1,775 college students (140,61...

  18. Surfactant therapy restores gas exchange in lung injury due to paraquat intoxication in rats

    So, K. L.; Buijzer, E.; Gommers, Diederik; Kaisers, U; Genderen, Perry; Lachmann, Burkhard

    1998-01-01

    textabstractParaquat is a weed killer which causes often fatal lung damage in humans and other animals. There is evidence that the pulmonary surfactant system is involved in the pathophysiology of respiratory failure after paraquat intoxication and, therefore, the possible therapeutic effect of intratracheal surfactant administration on gas exchange in rats with progressive lung injury induced by paraquat poisoning was studied. In one group of rats, the time course of the development of lung ...

  19. Street-level alcohol policy: Assessing intoxication at drinking venues in Oslo

    Buvik, Kristin; Baklien, Bergljot

    2014-01-01

    This article examines liquor inspectors' assessment of intoxication at drinking establishments in Norway. It draws upon Lipsky's theory of street-level bureaucrats (1980) to study a situation where laws and informal norms seem to pull in opposite directions. We conducted 26 ethnographic observations of liquor inspectors' visits to drinking venues in Oslo, as well as qualitative interviews and field conversations with liquor inspectors. The study reveals that inspectors interpret the N...

  20. A Yeast Related Ethanol Intoxication Syndrome in Experimental Calves: Prevention with Nystatin

    Wijayasinghe, M. S.; Miranda, M; Smith, N. E.; Baldwin, R L; Wijayasinghe, C.; Har, S. A.

    1984-01-01

    In a calf nutrition-metabolism study in which a high glucose (60% glucose and 3% lard) versus a high fat (23% glucose and 30% lard) milk replacer were compared, a syndrome characterized by anorexia, an unstable gait, depression, a distended abdomen and an odor of alcohol on the breath was observed in some calves. These signs were associated with intoxicating levels of plasma ethanol and the predominance of the yeast species Torulopsis glabrata in gastrointestinal contents of afflicted calves....

  1. Morphine intoxication in renal failure; the role of morphine-6-glucuronide.

    Osborne, R; Joel, S; Slevin, M.

    1986-01-01

    Patients with impaired renal function may experience severe and prolonged respiratory depression when treated with morphine. This has been attributed to accumulation of the drug during renal failure. Three patients are described who had classical signs of intoxication with morphine in the absence of measurable quantities of morphine in the plasma. The observed clinical effect is attributed to accumulation of the pharmacologically active metabolite morphine-6-glucuronide, which is usually rena...

  2. Drunk and Disorganised: Relationships between Bar Characteristics and Customer Intoxication in European Drinking Environments

    Goossens, Ferry X.; Mariangels Duch; Montse Juan; Lotte Voorham; Matej Kosir; Amador Calafat; Ninette van Hasselt; Zara Quigg; Bellis, Mark A; Karen Hughes

    2012-01-01

    Preventing alcohol-related harm in drinking environments is a growing international priority. Factors relating to the physical, social and staffing environments in bars can contribute to increased alcohol consumption and harm. Understanding the relationships between such factors and intoxication in European drinking environments is critical to developing appropriate interventions. We undertook a quantitative observational study in 60 bars in four European cities, in The Netherlands, Slovenia,...

  3. “Herbal seizures” – atypical symptoms after ibogaine intoxication: a case report

    Breuer, Lorenz; Kasper, Burkhard S.; Schwarze, Bernd; Gschossmann, Juergen M.; Kornhuber, Johannes; Müller, Helge H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Misuse of various new psychotropic substances such as ibogaine is increasing rapidly. Knowledge of their negative side effects is sparse. Case presentation We present a case of intoxication with the herbal substance ibogaine in a 22-year-old white man. After taking a cumulative dose of 38 g (taken in two doses), he developed visual memories, nausea and vomiting. He developed a generalized tonic–clonic seizure with additional grand mal seizures. He was treated with midazolam and l...

  4. Fatal intoxication caused by the application of the multiple transdermals patchs of fentanyl

    Serghini, Issam; Qamouss, Youssef; Zoubir, Mohamed; Lalaoui, Jaafar Salim; Boughalem, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Fentanyl (N-phenyl-N-(1-2-phenylethyl-4-piperidyl)propanamide) is a potent synthetic narcotic analgesic. He has an analgesic effect 100 times greater than that of morphine. The use of transdermal fentanyl delivrery systems has increased over recent years especially in patients with chronic pain who are already treated with high doses of morphine or it is derivate. However, many cases of fentanyl intoxication through a variety of transderrmal systems have been reported. This paper reports a fa...

  5. Hematobiochemical and pathological alterations due to chronic chlorpyrifos intoxication in indigenous chicken

    Shameem Ara Begum

    2015-01-01

    Results: A significant (P < 0.01 increase of Hb, TEC, TLC, and heterophil percent and decrease of lymphocyte percent was observed. Serum ALP, AST, ALT, and uric acid increased significantly and CHE values decreased significantly in CPF treated birds. The protein level remained similar. Uric acid level was found to be increased significantly in the treated group. The results indicate that chronic CPF intoxication produces hematological, biochemical, and pathological changes in treated birds.

  6. Involvement of oxygen metabolism during radiation or intoxication by a radiomimetic drug

    Firstly, we present a review of former works, dealing with the beneficial effects of hypoxia on the radiosensitivity of tissues and whole animals, as well as on the biochemical basis of the oxygen-derived free radical effect. Then, we describe our recent method aiming at hematopoietic restauration by a short-term treatment after chlormethine intoxication, and also present the principle of on-going in vitro experiments using some oxidases

  7. Early environmental influences contribute to covariation between internalizing symptoms and alcohol intoxication frequency across adolescence

    Edwards, Alexis C.; Larsson, Henrik; Lichtenstein, Paul; Kendler, Kenneth S.

    2010-01-01

    The association between alcohol use and internalizing symptoms during adolescence varies across studies, and the causes underlying this association remain unclear. The current study examines the relationship between symptoms of anxiety and depression and intoxication frequency in a sample of Swedish twins assessed longitudinally from ages 13–14 to 19–20. The objectives of the study were to assess the stability of genetic and environmental influences on each trait across adolescence; to invest...

  8. Sexual Abuse History, Alcohol Intoxication, and Women’s Sexual Risk Behavior

    Schacht, Rebecca L.; George, William H.; Davis, Kelly Cue; Heiman, Julia R.; Norris, Jeanette; Stoner, Susan A.; Kajumulo, Kelly F.

    2009-01-01

    We examined potential differences in women’s likelihood of sexual risk taking in a laboratory setting based on alcohol intoxication and sexual abuse history. Participants (n = 64) were classified as sexually non-abused (NSA) or as having experienced sexual abuse in childhood only (CSA) or adulthood only (ASA) and randomly assigned to consume alcoholic (.06%, .08%, or .10% target blood alcohol content) or non-alcoholic drinks, after which participants read and responded to a risky sex vignette...

  9. Failure of Brand Intoxication with the Mediating Effect of Ad Skepticism

    Khuhro, Rafique Ahmed; Bhutto, Niaz Ahmed; Sarki, Irshad Hussain

    2015-01-01

    Brands still have not intoxicated the all segments of customers, yet there are people who have motivations to escape from brand. This study explores the mediating role of ad skepticism between self-image congruency, product knowledge and brand escapism motivation. The other purpose is to see the direct relation of product knowledge and self-image congruency on brand escapism motivation. A Study of 267mobile phone users is conducted, who use iconic and less iconic mobile phone brands. Proposed...

  10. Radiology of Fractures in Intoxicated Emergency Department Patients: Locations, Mechanisms, Presentation, and Initial Interpretation Accuracy

    MORITA, Yuka; Nozaki, Taiki; Starkey, Jay; Okajima, Yuka; Ohde, Sachiko; Matsusako, Masaki; Yoshioka, Hiroshi; Saida, Yukihisa; Kurihara, Yasuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of alcohol intoxication to time-to-presentation following injury, fracture type, mechanism of injury leading to fracture, and initial diagnostic radiology interpretation performance of emergency physicians versus diagnostic radiologists in patients who present to the emergency department (ED) and are subsequently diagnosed with fracture. Medical records of 1286 patients who presented to the ED and were diagnosed with fract...

  11. Retrospective analysis of the intoxication cases followed in an intensive care unit

    Taş, Nilay; Yağan, Özgür; YANCAR DEMİR, Esra; MUTLU, Tuğçe; ENGİNYURT, Özgür

    2015-01-01

    Intoxications occur accidentally or due to suicide attempts and some cases are evaluated in Intensive Care Unit (ICU). In this study, we aimed to evaluate the patients older than 18 years old who were admitted to our second level intensive care unit from emergency department between 2010-2013. All the patients with prediagnosis of poisoning who were admitted to ICU were evaluated with respect to their demographic properties, etiology of poisoning, substance that exposured, Glasgow Coma Scale ...

  12. Hepatoprotective potential of three sargassum species from Karachi coast against carbon tetrachloride and acetaminophen intoxication

    Khan Hira; Viqar Sultana; Jehan Ara; Syed Ehteshamul-Haque; Mohammad Athar

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the hepatoprotective effect of ethanol extracts of Sargassum variegatum (S. variegatum), Sargassum tenerrimum (S. tenerrimum) and Sargassum binderi occurring at Karachi coast against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and acetaminophen intoxication in rats. Methods: Sargassum species were collected at low tide from Buleji beach at Karachi coast. Effect of ethanol extracts of Sargassum spp., on lipid parameter, serum glucose and kidney function was examined. Liver ...

  13. [The subclinical course of a paracetamol intoxication: pitfall for patient and clinician].

    van Leeuwen, W A; Schellens, J H M; Becker, H E; de Haan, L; van Westrhenen, R

    2012-01-01

    A 24-year-old man took 20 grams of paracetamol during a hospital stay in the department of psychiatry. It was not until 60 hours later that therapy with acetylcysteine was initiated. Paracetamol intoxication has a long latency period. If there is no intervention, severe hepatic damage can develop within three days. Even after a few days have passed it is still advisable to start treating the patient with acetylcysteine. PMID:22753188

  14. Evaluation of Patients with Paracetamol Intoxication Who Admitted to Emergency Service

    Kıvanç Karaman; Mücahit Avcil; Sibelnur Avcil

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of demographic and clinical features on follow-up period and laboratory parameters in patients with paracetamol intoxication who were admitted to our emergency department. Materials and Methods: One hundred sixty-four patients, who were admitted to the emergency department at Adnan Menderes University Faculty of Medicine between April 2013 and April 2015, were retrospectively evaluated and a total of 44 patients who have ingested paracetamol were...

  15. Suicide Attempts with Drug Intoxication in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women

    Uzkeser, Mustafa; Saritemur, Murat; Ayhan AKÖZ; Bayramoğlu, Atıf; EMET, Mücahit

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Insufficient data are available comparing medical costs, hospitalization or admission rate, and drugs used for the treatment of pregnant and non-pregnant women admited to the emergency department (ED) due to suicide attempts following drug intoxication. We sought to evaluate these differences in our ED. Methods: This is a prospective, cross-sectional study; hence we attempted to follow all pregnant and non-pregnant women who were admitted in our ED at Ataturk University, Erzurum-T...

  16. Water intoxication presenting as maternal and neonatal seizures: a case report

    Chapman Timothy H; Hamilton Mark

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Introduction We present an unusual case of fitting in the mother and newborn child, and the challenges faced in the management of their hyponatraemia due to water intoxication. Case presentation A previously well 37-year-old, primigravid Caucasian woman presented with features mimicking eclampsia during labour. These included confusion, reduced consciousness and seizures but without a significant history of hypertension, proteinuria or other features of pre-eclampsia. Her serum sodiu...

  17. Profile of users intoxicated by drugs of abuse and association with death

    Lúcia Margarete dos Reis; Aroldo Gavioli; Flavia Antunes; Michele Cristina Santos Silvino; Natalina Maria da Rosa; Magda Lúcia Félix de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Objective: to characterize the profile of users intoxicated by drugs of abuse reported to a center of information and toxicological assistance and related this to the occurrence of deaths. Methods: study of case series reported in the 2010-2011 biennium after active case finding. Data were obtained from epidemiological records filed in the center and submitted to univariate analysis, with chi-squared test and Fischer test. Results: three hundred and thirty nine cases were found, most were me...

  18. The Profile of Acute Poisonings in South East of Turkey

    Davut Akın

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this prospective study was to analyze the rate characteristics of acute poisonning adults admitted to Departments emergency and hospitalized in Department of internal medicineAll cases of acute poisoning admitted to Dicle University Hospital, between, 2005 and 2006, were included in study. Clinical, laboratory, and demographic characteristics, type of poison and patient’s outcomes were recorded.Eighty poisoning cases included in the study. The mean age was 23±8 years and the majority of the patients (75% were in 15-25 years of ages. 85% of acute poisonings were self-inflicted. Medical drugs overdose were the major cause (62.5% of intoxication followed by agricultural chemicals (35%. The most frequently involved medicinal drugs were psychiatric drugs (20% and paracetamol (17.5%. There was a high rate of suicides attemp in groups of young singles, females, crowded families, patients with low education status, and patient living in cities.

  19. Both water intoxication and osmotic BBB disruption increase brain water content in rats.

    Kozler, P; Riljak, V; Pokorný, J

    2013-01-01

    Our previous experiments revealed that water intoxication and osmotic BBB disruption in the rat allow penetration of high-molecular substances into the brain and that resulting changes in the internal environment of the CNS lead to pathological development, such as the loss of integrity of myelin. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the previously described phenomena are associated with increased water content in the brain. To answer the question following methods were used: a) water intoxication: intraperitoneal administration of distilled water, b) osmotic BBB disruption: application of mannitol (20 %) selectively into the internal carotid artery, c) brain wet weight was measured after decapitation, and subsequently (after six days in thermostat set at 86 °C) the dry weight were estimated d) in animals with 20 % and 30 % hyperhydration the degree of myelin deterioration was estimated e) animal locomotor activity was tested by continuous behavior tracking and analysis. Brain water content after water intoxication and following the administration of mannitol was higher than in the control group. Different degrees of hyperhydration led to different levels of brain water content and to different degrees of myelin impairment. Hyperhydration corresponding to 20 % of the body weight brought about lower locomotor activity. Increased water content in the brain after the BBB osmotic disruption is surprising because this method is frequently used in the clinical practice. PMID:24329706

  20. Somatomedin activity before and after chelation therapy in lead-intoxicated children

    Somatomedin activity was measured in 21 lead-intoxicated children to determine whether plumbism interferes with the processes of statural (bone) growth. Somatomedin activity was measured both by the rabbit coastal cartilage bioassay and by radioimmunoassay of somatomedin-C. Compared to values in normal children, both the bioassay and radioimmunoassay somatomedin activity was increased. The degree of body lead burden was so extensive that the 21 study children required chelation therapy. Following EDTA or BAL + EDTA chelation therapy, the overall somatomedin activity of these children with plumbism further increased significantly. In contrast, measures of body lead burden--including blood lead levels--decreased after treatment in all lead-intoxicated youngsters. We conclude that plumbism is associated with increased somatomedin activity. Hence the increased somatomedin activity may explain why clinical experience fails to find any long-term deleterious effect of saturnism on statural (bone) growth. Possible mechanisms underlying the increased somatomedin activity in the lead-intoxicated children remain to be defined

  1. Surfactant therapy restores gas exchange in lung injury due to paraquat intoxication in rats.

    So, K L; de Buijzer, E; Gommers, D; Kaisers, U; van Genderen, P J; Lachmann, B

    1998-08-01

    Paraquat is a weed killer which causes often fatal lung damage in humans and other animals. There is evidence that the pulmonary surfactant system is involved in the pathophysiology of respiratory failure after paraquat intoxication and, therefore, the possible therapeutic effect of intratracheal surfactant administration on gas exchange in rats with progressive lung injury induced by paraquat poisoning was studied. In one group of rats, the time course of the development of lung injury due to paraquat intoxication was characterized. In a second group of rats, 72 h after paraquat intoxication, the animals underwent mechanical ventilation and only those animals in which the arterial oxygen tension/inspiratory oxygen fraction (Pa,O2/FI,O2) decreased to below 20 kPa (150 mmHg) received exogenous surfactant (200 mg x kg(-1) body weight). Within 3 days the rats in group 1 developed progressive respiratory failure, demonstrated not only by impaired gas exchange and lung mechanics but also by increased minimal surface tension and increased protein concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. In group 2, intratracheal surfactant administration increased Pa,O2/FI,O2 significantly within 5 min (14.4+/-2.4 kPa (108+/-18 mmHg)) to (55.2+/-53 kPa (414+/-40 mmHg)) and sustained this level for at least 2 h. It is concluded that intratracheal surfactant administration is a promising approach in the treatment of severe respiratory failure caused by paraquat poisoning. PMID:9727775

  2. Intoxication of a Young Girl Reveals the Pitfalls of GHB Rapid Screening.

    Franken, Linda G; Andrews, Louise M; Slooff, Valerie D; de Wildt, Saskia N; Koch, Birgit C P

    2016-02-01

    The authors discuss the case of a 14-year-old girl who was transferred to the ICU of our hospital with ethanol intoxication (3.3 g/L), loss of consciousness (E5M3V1), and severe amnesia on recovery that was suspected of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) intoxication. STAT toxicology screening may be necessary, when sexual assault under GHB intoxication is suspected. Therefore, the initial analysis of a urine sample was performed with a new enzymatic assay analysis for GHB. The enzymatic assay reported a GHB concentration of 26 mg/L, which is above the cut-off value of 10 mg/L. This cut-off value is to differentiate endogenous and exogenous levels because low levels of GHB occur naturally in the body. However, confirmation of these results by gas chromatography, which is common practice to confirm a positive GHB, gave a negative result. This discrepancy is probably contributed to interference of ethanol with the assay. This is a substantial downside of the GHB rapid screening, since the combination of GHB and ethanol is common. It is therefore advised to confirm that the positive GHB results are lower than 50 mg/L by gas chromatography, when using the rapid screening. This way the false-positive results and consequent inappropriate social and legal actions may be avoided. PMID:26327308

  3. Nerve agent intoxication: Recent neuropathophysiological findings and subsequent impact on medical management prospects

    This manuscript provides a survey of research findings catered to the development of effective countermeasures against nerve agent poisoning over the past decade. New neuropathophysiological distinctive features as regards organophosphate (OP) intoxication are presented. Such leading neuropathophysiological features include recent data on nerve agent-induced neuropathology, related peripheral or central nervous system inflammation and subsequent angiogenesis process. Hence, leading countermeasures against OP exposure are down-listed in terms of pre-treatment, protection or decontamination and emergency treatments. The final chapter focuses on the description of the self-repair attempt encountered in lesioned rodent brains, up to 3 months after soman poisoning. Indeed, an increased proliferation of neuronal progenitors was recently observed in injured brains of mice subjected to soman exposure. Subsequently, the latter experienced a neuronal regeneration in damaged brain regions such as the hippocampus and amygdala. The positive effect of a cytokine treatment on the neuronal regeneration and subsequent cognitive behavioral recovery are also discussed in this review. For the first time, brain cell therapy and neuronal regeneration are considered as a valuable contribution towards delayed treatment against OP intoxication. To date, efficient delayed treatment was lacking in the therapeutic resources administered to patients contaminated by nerve agents. - Highlights: This review focuses on neuropathophysiology following nerve agent poisoning in mice. → Extensive data on long-term neuropathology and related inflammation are provided here. → Delayed self-repair attempts encountered in lesioned rodent brains are also described. → Cell therapy is considered as a valuable treatment against nerve agent intoxication.

  4. A fatal intoxication related to MDPV and pentedrone combined with antipsychotic and antidepressant substances in Cyprus.

    Liveri, Katerina; Constantinou, Maria A; Afxentiou, Maria; Kanari, Popi

    2016-08-01

    This is a case report of a fatal intoxication in Cyprus related to 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) and 2-(methylamino)-1-phenylpentan-1-one (pentedrone) intake combined with antipsychotic and antidepressant substances. A 42- year old man with a history of serious psychiatric illness was found unresponsive in his bed. Seized materials were also found close to his body. The forensic autopsy reported myocardial infarction due to multidrug intoxication. Toxicology screening in blood and urine was applied. Biological specimens were analysed by enzyme immunoassay procedure and GC/MS. MDPV, pentedrone and etizolam detected and quantitated in blood and urine. Other drugs quantitated in blood were also olanzapine, mirtazapine, and ephedrine. This was the first fatal case reported in Cyprus associated with new psychoactive substances. Additionally, this was the first case reported to Early Warning System of the European Monitoring Center of Drugs and Drug Abuse (EMCDDA), related to multidrug intoxication, attributed to the consumption of cathinones, designer benzodiazepines, and other drugs. PMID:26930452

  5. Struggling to survive: the experiences of women sexually assaulted while intoxicated.

    Kalmakis, Karen A

    2011-06-01

    Approximately half of all sexual assault cases involve substance abuse or misuse, yet no studies have focused specifically on women who were under the influence of a substance when assaulted. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of women who were sexually assault while under the influence of a substance. A phenomenological approach was used to gather data using individual, in-depth interviews with women following a sexual assault while intoxicated. Interviews were conducted using open-ended and probing questions to explore participants' life experiences from childhood to the present. The study uncovered a continuous struggle to survive among the participants. Five themes including previous victimization, substance misuse, struggling with feelings, finding support, and struggling to break the cycle were found. This research revealed lives complicated by substance misuse and histories of victimization. Intoxication raises vulnerability and risk for sexual assault. Effective nursing interventions designed to address the women's history of victimization and substance misuse may benefit women sexually assaulted while intoxicated. PMID:21635677

  6. [Yellow oat grass intoxication in horses: Pitfalls by producing hay from extensive landscapes? A case report].

    Bockisch, F; Aboling, S; Coenen, M; Vervuert, I

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin-D intoxication by yellow oat grass is often reported under the syndrome of enzootic calcinosis in ruminants in the upper regions of the Alps. The intake of Trisetum flavescens in ruminants and horses induces calcification of soft tissue, including vessels, tendons and ligaments, lung, heart and kidneys. Clinical symptoms, including a reluctance to move, inappetence, body-weight loss and impaired organ function, are frequently observed. To date, there are only a very few case reports about yellow-oat-grass intoxication in horses. The present case report describes Vitamin-D intoxication by yellow oat grass in a riding stable in Thuringia, Germany. The horses, which were fed hay with a 50% contamination of Trisetum flavescens, displayed symptoms, including inappetence, body-weight loss, colic, polydipsia and polyuria. The hay, contaminated with Trisetum flavescens, was harvested from an extensively cultivated landscape according to the European Fauna-Flora-Habitat (FFH)-directive. The present case report demonstrates the pitfalls in producing hay from extensively used landscapes and indicates some peculiarities of Vitamin-D metabolism in horses. PMID:26346225

  7. Somatomedin activity before and after chelation therapy in lead-intoxicated children

    Rohn, R.D.; Hill, J.R.; Shelton, J.E.

    1982-11-01

    Somatomedin activity was measured in 21 lead-intoxicated children to determine whether plumbism interferes with the processes of statural (bone) growth. Somatomedin activity was measured both by the rabbit coastal cartilage bioassay and by radioimmunoassay of somatomedin-C. Compared to values in normal children, both the bioassay and radioimmunoassay somatomedin activity was increased. The degree of body lead burden was so extensive that the 21 study children required chelation therapy. Following EDTA or BAL + EDTA chelation therapy, the overall somatomedin activity of these children with plumbism further increased significantly. In contrast, measures of body lead burden--including blood lead levels--decreased after treatment in all lead-intoxicated youngsters. We conclude that plumbism is associated with increased somatomedin activity. Hence the increased somatomedin activity may explain why clinical experience fails to find any long-term deleterious effect of saturnism on statural (bone) growth. Possible mechanisms underlying the increased somatomedin activity in the lead-intoxicated children remain to be defined.

  8. A Family Clustered Nitrite Intoxication Investigation in Gaoxin District, Suzhou, China, 2013.

    Ruiping Wang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In April, 2013, a Suzhou Hospital reported a nitrite intoxication patient in coma as well as 2 family members with the similar symptom 5 days ahead. We investigated the event to identify the cause, source and possible pollution ways of the contamination.We defined case as any person living in YSHY community who has cyanosis and with at least one of the following symptoms: dizziness, headache, fatigue, tachycardia, drowsiness, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain or diar-rhea during April 15 to April 25, 2013. We searched for case by interviewing community residents and reviewing clinics' medical records; information was then retrospectively collected on the patient's food history, cooking procedures and food sources.We identified 3 nitrite intoxication cases, 1 male and 2 female from a family. The interval time between dinner and onset was < 1 hour. Retrospective survey showed 'sugar stir and mix asparagus' on April 17 and 'scrambled asparagus' on April 21 were suspected foods. Both suspected dishes had 'sugar' added, sourced from a clean-up of a neighboring rental house. Nitrite was detected in a vomitus sample, the 'sugar' and two leftover food samples.This family clustered nitrite intoxication was induced by using unidentified nitrite as sugar to cook dishes. We recommend sodium nitrite should be dyed with bright colors to avoid mistaking it for plain salt or sugar, health departments strengthen food hygiene propaganda to improve people's recognition of food safety, and to alert them the dangerous of eating unidentified or unknown source food.

  9. Effects of phytate on thyroid gland of rats intoxicated with cadmium.

    Mohamed, Tarek Mostafa; Salama, Afrah F; El Nimr, Tarek M; El Gamal, Doaa M

    2015-12-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most dangerous occupational and environmental toxins. The objective of the present study is to examine the potential prophylactic effects of phytic acid (PA) on thyroid hormones of male rats intoxicated with Cd. The male albino rats were divided into five groups: group I (control) was fed with the basal diet, group II was intoxicated with Cd in drinking water, groups III, IV, and V were intoxicated with Cd in drinking water and fed with the diet containing 3.5, 7, and 10 g of PA/kg, respectively. The results indicated that the serum calcium, iron (Fe), and total Fe binding capacity levels and serum T3 and T4 in Cd-treated rats of group II were decreased when compared with the control group, while PA-administered groups with Cd showed a significant improvement when compared with the Cd-treated rats only. Serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level was significantly increased in Cd-treated rats compared with the control group, while the addition of PA in diet decreased the high levels of TSH. These results indicated a prophylactic effect of PA against Cd-induced toxicity in rats. PMID:23796758

  10. Radiological strategy in acute stroke in children

    Paonessa, Amalia [Dept. of Neuroradiology, University Hospital ' S. Salvatore' , L' Aquila (Italy)], E-mail: apaonessa7@hotmail.com; Limbucci, Nicola [Dept. of Neuroradiology, University Hospital ' S. Salvatore' , L' Aquila (Italy); Tozzi, Elisabetta [Dept. of Pediatrics, University Hospital ' S. Salvatore' , L' Aquila (Italy); Splendiani, Alessandra; Gallucci, Massimo [Dept. of Neuroradiology, University Hospital ' S. Salvatore' , L' Aquila (Italy)

    2010-04-15

    The aim of the study was to estimate the preponderance of patterns of pediatric stroke, ischemic or hemorrhagic, their etiologies and the correct diagnostic protocol for acute management. Forty-one consecutive pediatric patients (age range 5-16 years) with an acute stroke observed in acute phase during a 10-year period, were retrospectively evaluated. Twenty-three patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 3 cases were studied by computed tomography (CT) without MRI, and 15 underwent both CT and MRI studies. In 9 cases, intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography (IADSA) was performed after non-invasive preliminary assessment. Seventeen hemorrhagic (41%) and 24 ischemic (59%) strokes were found. Among hemorrhagic forms, 5 cases were due to arteriovenous malformation (AVM), 7 to cavernoma, and 2 to aneurysm. Among ischemic forms, 2 were due to sickle-cell disease, 1 to hyperomocysteinemia, 1 to moyamoya syndrome, 1 to pseudoxantoma elasticum, 3 to prothrombotic state, 1 to Fabry's disease, 1 concomitant with CO intoxication, 5 to venous sinus thrombosis, and 4 to cardio-embolic state. Etiology remains unknown in 8 cases (20.5%). This study shows a moderate prevalence of ischemic over hemorrhagic strokes. Moreover, personal experience suggests that MRI is always more informative than CT and in selected cases should be the first-choice examination in the acute phase.

  11. Radiological strategy in acute stroke in children.

    Paonessa, Amalia; Limbucci, Nicola; Tozzi, Elisabetta; Splendiani, Alessandra; Gallucci, Massimo

    2010-04-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate the preponderance of patterns of pediatric stroke, ischemic or hemorrhagic, their etiologies and the correct diagnostic protocol for acute management. Forty-one consecutive pediatric patients (age range 5-16 years) with an acute stroke observed in acute phase during a 10-year period, were retrospectively evaluated. Twenty-three patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 3 cases were studied by computed tomography (CT) without MRI, and 15 underwent both CT and MRI studies. In 9 cases, intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography (IADSA) was performed after non-invasive preliminary assessment. Seventeen hemorrhagic (41%) and 24 ischemic (59%) strokes were found. Among hemorrhagic forms, 5 cases were due to arteriovenous malformation (AVM), 7 to cavernoma, and 2 to aneurysm. Among ischemic forms, 2 were due to sickle-cell disease, 1 to hyperomocysteinemia, 1 to moyamoya syndrome, 1 to pseudoxantoma elasticum, 3 to prothrombotic state, 1 to Fabry's disease, 1 concomitant with CO intoxication, 5 to venous sinus thrombosis, and 4 to cardio-embolic state. Etiology remains unknown in 8 cases (20.5%). This study shows a moderate prevalence of ischemic over hemorrhagic strokes. Moreover, personal experience suggests that MRI is always more informative than CT and in selected cases should be the first-choice examination in the acute phase. PMID:19216043

  12. Radiological strategy in acute stroke in children

    The aim of the study was to estimate the preponderance of patterns of pediatric stroke, ischemic or hemorrhagic, their etiologies and the correct diagnostic protocol for acute management. Forty-one consecutive pediatric patients (age range 5-16 years) with an acute stroke observed in acute phase during a 10-year period, were retrospectively evaluated. Twenty-three patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 3 cases were studied by computed tomography (CT) without MRI, and 15 underwent both CT and MRI studies. In 9 cases, intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography (IADSA) was performed after non-invasive preliminary assessment. Seventeen hemorrhagic (41%) and 24 ischemic (59%) strokes were found. Among hemorrhagic forms, 5 cases were due to arteriovenous malformation (AVM), 7 to cavernoma, and 2 to aneurysm. Among ischemic forms, 2 were due to sickle-cell disease, 1 to hyperomocysteinemia, 1 to moyamoya syndrome, 1 to pseudoxantoma elasticum, 3 to prothrombotic state, 1 to Fabry's disease, 1 concomitant with CO intoxication, 5 to venous sinus thrombosis, and 4 to cardio-embolic state. Etiology remains unknown in 8 cases (20.5%). This study shows a moderate prevalence of ischemic over hemorrhagic strokes. Moreover, personal experience suggests that MRI is always more informative than CT and in selected cases should be the first-choice examination in the acute phase.

  13. Toxicokinetics of paraquat in Korean patients with acute poisoning

    Kim, Hak-Jae; Kim, Hyung-Ki; Lee, HwaYoung; Bae, Jun-Seok; Kown, Jun-Tack; Gil, Hyo-Wook; Hong, Sae-Yong

    2015-01-01

    To conduct a kinetic study of paraquat (PQ), we investigated 9 patients with acute PQ intoxication. All of them ingested more than 20 ml of undiluted PQ herbicide to commit suicide and arrived at our hospital early, not later than 7 h after PQ ingestion. The urine dithionite test for PQ in all of the nine patients was strongly positive at emergency room. Blood samples were obtained every 30 min for the first 2~3 h and then every 1 or 2 h, as long as the clinical progression was stable among t...

  14. Les intoxications majeures du chat d'après les données du C.N.I.T.V de Lyon 2008-2009

    Mailland, Vanessa

    2011-01-01

    Les intoxications du chat représentent 21,2% des appels traités par le C.N.I.T.V en 2008 et 2009. Plus des deux tiers des intoxications certaines du chat sont d'origine domestique. Ces données mettent en évidence le groupe des polluants comme principale source d'intoxication (32,2% des intoxications certaines). Les hydrocarbures (12,6%) sont les principaux représentants de ce groupe avec notamment le white-spirit, produit domestique le plus en cause (4,3%). Notre étude montre que les plantes ...

  15. Acute paresthesia in a patient with migraine.

    Tseng, Chih-Wei; Wu, Chih-Cheng; Tsai, Kuei-Chin; Chen, Wen-Jone

    2010-11-01

    Ergot-containing medications are widely used to treat migraine patients in some countries but nowadays intoxication is only reported rarely. We report a 35-year-old woman who presented with acute paresthesia of the extremities. An angiogram revealed diffuse vasospasm of the femoral arteries bilaterally and the right brachial artery. History taking disclosed a possible interaction between ergotamine and macrolide antibiotics. The patient's symptoms improved rapidly after discontinuation of the offending medication and administration of vasodilators. This report aims to remind physicians that catastrophic adverse effects can develop through unrecognized drug interactions, even with widely prescribed medications given in safe dosages. The importance of a detailed drug history and knowledge of drug interactions cannot be overemphasized in the diagnosis of ergotism. PMID:20692167

  16. Diagnostic post-mortem des intoxications chez les carnivores domestiques‎ : intérêts et limites de l’autopsie. Etude de 23 cas d’intoxication

    Goube, Anaïs

    2015-01-01

    diagnostic des intoxications chez les carnivores domestiques repose sur la confrontation d’éléments épidémiologiques, cliniques, nécropsiques et analytiques après exclusion d’autres étiologies. Une autopsie rigoureuse et méthodique suivie d’une description lésionnelle est essentielle et à portée de tout praticien qui choisit alors les prélèvements pertinents pour l’analyse toxicologique. Basée sur des données épidémiologiques et l’étude de 23 cas recueillis auprès des ENV, cette thèse présent...

  17. Profile of acute mixed organophosphorus poisoning.

    Thunga, Girish; Sam, Kishore Gnana; Khera, Kanav; Xavier, Vidya; Verma, Murlidhar

    2009-06-01

    Organophosphorus (OP) pesticide self-poisoning is a major clinical and public health problem across much of rural Asia and responsible for two thirds of suicidal deaths. However, clinical reports or evidence for the management of mixed poisoning are lacking. Patients are often treated based on the type of symptoms they exhibit, and there are no specific guidelines available to treat mixed poisoning. In this case series, we report 3 acute OP poisoning cases with mixed poisons such as organochlorine, fungicide, copper sulfate, and kerosene. All 3 patients were treated successfully, with a greater focus on OP poisoning with pralidoxime and atropine infusion along with standard decontamination procedures. Because patients developed complications due to the concomitant poisons ingested, they were later treated symptomatically, and in one case, D-penicillamine was administered as antidote for copper poisoning. Mixed poisoning especially with OP compounds makes the diagnosis difficult because the clinical symptoms of OP predominate, whereas damage produced by other pesticides is late to develop and often neglected. Common treatment procedures are focused mainly on the OP poisoning ignoring the complications of other concomitant pesticides ingested. Treating physicians should be prepared and consider the possibility of mixed poisoning prevalent in that region before initiating therapy. PMID:19497478

  18. An alteration of the gut-liver axis drives pulmonary inflammation after intoxication and burn injury in mice.

    Chen, Michael M; Zahs, Anita; Brown, Mary M; Ramirez, Luis; Turner, Jerrold R; Choudhry, Mashkoor A; Kovacs, Elizabeth J

    2014-10-01

    Approximately half of all adult burn patients are intoxicated at the time of their injury and have worse clinical outcomes than those without prior alcohol exposure. This study tested the hypothesis that intoxication alters the gut-liver axis, leading to increased pulmonary inflammation mediated by burn-induced IL-6 in the liver. C57BL/6 mice were given 1.2 g/kg ethanol 30 min prior to a 15% total body surface area burn. To restore gut barrier function, the specific myosin light chain kinase inhibitor membrane-permeant inhibitor of kinase (PIK), which we have demonstrated to reduce bacterial translocation from the gut, was administered 30 min after injury. Limiting bacterial translocation with PIK attenuated hepatic damage as measured by a 47% reduction in serum alanine aminotransferase (P intoxicated and burn-injured mice without PIK. This mitigation of hepatic damage was associated with a 49% decline in pulmonary neutrophil infiltration (P antibiotics before intoxication and burn injury. Overall, these data suggest that the gut-liver axis is deranged when intoxication precedes burn injury and that limiting bacterial translocation in this setting attenuates hepatic damage and pulmonary inflammation. PMID:25104501

  19. Morphology of embryonic liver under the influence of silver and gold citrates on a background of lead intoxication

    Harets V.I.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Morphological state of embryonic liver under the influence of silver and gold citrates on a background of lead intoxication was studied. We found that values of the hepatofetal index in the groups Pb+Ag and Pb+Au had significant differences as compared to the group exposed to lead intoxication, but did not differ significantly from the control group and made up 0,086±0,001 and 0,083±0,001, respectively. Value of the relative area of blood vessels in groups Pb+Ag and Pb+Au was 13.08±0.53% and 16.83±0.53%, respectively, which had no significant difference as compared to control group, but differed from the value of lead intoxication group. Under the influence of silver citrate on a background of lead intoxication the relative area of hematopoietic cells was 52,5±0,95%; this indicates to modification action of silver on haematopoiesis. Thus, injection of silver and gold citrates prevents negative effect of lead on morphometric parameters of embryonic liver, relative area of blood vessels and hematopoietic cells. Experiment results showed protective effect of silver and gold citrates on a background of lead intoxication during hepatogenesis.

  20. Acute effects of aflatoxins on guinea pig isolated ileum.

    Luzi, A; Cometa, M F; Palmery, M

    2002-10-01

    Previous studies on the aflatoxins have focused mainly on their chronic toxic effects. In this study we investigated the acute gastrointestinal effects of four common aflatoxins on isolated guinea pig ileum. AFB(1) (EC(50) 4.6+/-0.4 microM) and AFB(2) (EC(50)17+/-4.4 microM) contracted isolated guinea pig ileum in a dose-dependent manner, whereas AFG(1) and AFG(2) evoked no contractions. Atropine (5.9 nM 11.8 and 23.6 nM) antagonized AFB(1)-induced contractions in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with the nicotinic ganglionic blocker, hexamethonium (up to 55 microM), left AFB(1)-induced contractions unchanged. In contrast, tetrodotoxin (0.3 microM), blocked AFB(1) contractile activity. The two inhibitors of ACh release, morphine (0.3 microM) and clonidine (0.4 microM), antagonized EC(50) AFB(1)-induced contractions, and apamin, a drug that increases neuronal excitability, facilitated the EC(50) AFB(1)-induced contractile effect. The choline uptake blocker, hemicholinium (17.4 microM) markedly reduced AFB(1)-induced contractions. These results suggest that aflatoxins induce their contractile effect indirectly through the cholinergic system by stimulating acetylcholine release from the postganglionic parasympathetic nerve endings. The acute actions of aflatoxins on isolated guinea pig ileum could explain their acute gastrointestinal effects in humans and animals. PMID:12206819

  1. Acute and Chronic Effects of Cannabinoids on Human Cognition-A Systematic Review.

    Broyd, Samantha J; van Hell, Hendrika H; Beale, Camilla; Yücel, Murat; Solowij, Nadia

    2016-04-01

    Cannabis use has been associated with impaired cognition during acute intoxication as well as in the unintoxicated state in long-term users. However, the evidence has been mixed and contested, and no systematic reviews of the literature on neuropsychological task-based measures of cognition have been conducted in an attempt to synthesize the findings. We systematically review the empirical research published in the past decade (from January 2004 to February 2015) on acute and chronic effects of cannabis and cannabinoids and on persistence or recovery after abstinence. We summarize the findings into the major categories of the cognitive domains investigated, considering sample characteristics and associations with various cannabis use parameters. Verbal learning and memory and attention are most consistently impaired by acute and chronic exposure to cannabis. Psychomotor function is most affected during acute intoxication, with some evidence for persistence in chronic users and after cessation of use. Impaired verbal memory, attention, and some executive functions may persist after prolonged abstinence, but persistence or recovery across all cognitive domains remains underresearched. Associations between poorer performance and a range of cannabis use parameters, including a younger age of onset, are frequently reported. Little further evidence has emerged for the development of tolerance to the acutely impairing effects of cannabis. Evidence for potential protection from harmful effects by cannabidiol continues to increase but is not definitive. In light of increasing trends toward legalization of cannabis, the knowledge gained from this body of research needs to be incorporated into strategies to minimize harm. PMID:26858214

  2. Accelerated neuronal cell recovery from Botulinum neurotoxin intoxication by targeted ubiquitination.

    Chueh-Ling Kuo

    Full Text Available Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT, a Category A biodefense agent, delivers a protease to motor neuron cytosol that cleaves one or more soluble NSF attachment protein receptors (SNARE proteins involved in neurotransmission to cause a flaccid paralysis. No antidotes exist to reverse symptoms of BoNT intoxication so severely affected patients require artificial respiration with prolonged intensive care. Time to recovery depends on toxin serotype because the intraneuronal persistence of the seven known BoNT serotypes varies widely from days to many months. Our therapeutic antidote strategy is to develop 'targeted F-box' (TFB agents that target the different intraneuronal BoNT proteases for accelerated degradation by the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS, thus promoting rapid recovery from all serotypes. These agents consist of a camelid heavy chain-only V(H (VHH domain specific for a BoNT protease fused to an F-box domain recognized by an intraneuronal E3-ligase. A fusion protein containing the 14 kDa anti-BoNT/A protease VHH, ALcB8, joined to a 15 kDa F-box domain region of TrCP (D5 was sufficient to cause increased ubiquitination and accelerate turnover of the targeted BoNT/A protease within neurons. Neuronal cells expressing this TFB, called D5-B8, were also substantially resistant to BoNT/A intoxication and recovered from intoxication at least 2.5 fold quicker than control neurons. Fusion of D5 to a VHH specific for BoNT/B protease (BLcB10 led to accelerated turnover of the targeted protease within neurons, thus demonstrating the modular nature of these therapeutic agents and suggesting that development of similar therapeutic agents specific to all botulinum serotypes should be readily achievable.

  3. Accelerated neuronal cell recovery from Botulinum neurotoxin intoxication by targeted ubiquitination.

    Kuo, Chueh-Ling; Oyler, George A; Shoemaker, Charles B

    2011-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT), a Category A biodefense agent, delivers a protease to motor neuron cytosol that cleaves one or more soluble NSF attachment protein receptors (SNARE) proteins involved in neurotransmission to cause a flaccid paralysis. No antidotes exist to reverse symptoms of BoNT intoxication so severely affected patients require artificial respiration with prolonged intensive care. Time to recovery depends on toxin serotype because the intraneuronal persistence of the seven known BoNT serotypes varies widely from days to many months. Our therapeutic antidote strategy is to develop 'targeted F-box' (TFB) agents that target the different intraneuronal BoNT proteases for accelerated degradation by the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS), thus promoting rapid recovery from all serotypes. These agents consist of a camelid heavy chain-only V(H) (VHH) domain specific for a BoNT protease fused to an F-box domain recognized by an intraneuronal E3-ligase. A fusion protein containing the 14 kDa anti-BoNT/A protease VHH, ALcB8, joined to a 15 kDa F-box domain region of TrCP (D5) was sufficient to cause increased ubiquitination and accelerate turnover of the targeted BoNT/A protease within neurons. Neuronal cells expressing this TFB, called D5-B8, were also substantially resistant to BoNT/A intoxication and recovered from intoxication at least 2.5 fold quicker than control neurons. Fusion of D5 to a VHH specific for BoNT/B protease (BLcB10) led to accelerated turnover of the targeted protease within neurons, thus demonstrating the modular nature of these therapeutic agents and suggesting that development of similar therapeutic agents specific to all botulinum serotypes should be readily achievable. PMID:21629663

  4. Injuries of the floating crew of the Northern water pool in a state of alcoholic intoxication.

    Shapovalov, Konstantin A

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of injuries of floating crew of the Northern water pool in a state of alcoholic intoxication havebeen based on the 180 accidents on board of ships with temporary loss of ability to work, and 1686 casehistories with alcoholic injuries, which demanded treatment in a surgical department. Among persons,the received injuries on the ship in the state of alcoholic intoxication were 8.1% of the victims: in thestrength of the transport fleet - 8.9%; fishing - 8.9% and river ones - 4.1%. Masters of fish production,skippers, rulers of the radio stations and masters of fish processing were most frequently injured afterthe consumption of the alcoholic beverages. Alcoholic injuries have been recorded at the time of walkingon the catwalk and the decks (54.2%), mooring operations (15.1%), maintenance and repairing the deckmachinery, water preparation (6.6%), as well as boat and loading-unloading works (4.3%). Falls from heightconstituted 36.6% of the injuries. Alcohol in 3.2 times increases the weight of the combined injuries. Thedeaths from the alcohol related injuries in marine conditions (43.4%) significantly exceed the indicators inthe group of non-alcoholic injuries (7.0%). Alcoholic intoxication has been noted in 35.0% of the cases ofthe floating crew injuries, hospitalised in the surgical department. Victims with alcoholic injuries receivedduring performing ship's works were hospitalised 10 times less, than those with non-productive types ofinjuries. In the structure of non-industrial injuries, household injuries prevail (78.2%) over those receiveddue to falls on the street, in pedestrian flows (10.3%), transport and traffic accidents (6.7%), intentionalinjuries (4.1%) or those connected with sports games and competitions (0.7%). Fishermen are a professionalgroup of seamen, subject to the high social vulnerability to the alcoholic beverages consumptionand related injuries. PMID:23788165

  5. Gender, intoxication and the developing brain: Problematisations of drinking among young adults in Australian alcohol policy.

    Manton, Elizabeth; Moore, David

    2016-05-01

    In this article, we draw on recent scholarly work in the poststructuralist analysis of policy to consider how policy itself functions as a key site in the constitution of alcohol 'problems', and the political implications of these problematisations. We do this by examining Australian alcohol policy as it relates to young adults (18-24 years old). Our critical analysis focuses on three national alcohol policies (1990, 2001 and 2006) and two Victorian state alcohol policies (2008 and 2013), which together span a 25-year period. We argue that Australian alcohol policies have conspicuously ignored young adult men, despite their ongoing over-representation in the statistical 'evidence base' on alcohol-related harm, while increasingly problematising alcohol consumption amongst other population subgroups. We also identify the development of a new problem representation in Australian alcohol policy, that of 'intoxication' as the leading cause of alcohol-related harm and rising hospital admissions, and argue that changes in the classification and diagnosis of intoxication may have contributed to its prioritisation and problematisation in alcohol policy at the expense of other forms of harm. Finally, we draw attention to how preliminary and inconclusive research on the purported association between binge drinking and brain development in those under 25 years old has been mobilised prematurely to support calls to increase the legal purchasing age from 18 to 21 years. Our critical analysis of the treatment of these three issues - gender, intoxication, and brain development - is intended to highlight the ways in which policy functions as a key site in the constitution of alcohol 'problems'. PMID:26644026

  6. Role of galectin-3 in classical and alternative macrophage activation in the liver following acetaminophen intoxication.

    Dragomir, Ana-Cristina Docan; Sun, Richard; Choi, Hyejeong; Laskin, Jeffrey D; Laskin, Debra L

    2012-12-15

    Inflammatory macrophages have been implicated in hepatotoxicity induced by the analgesic acetaminophen (APAP). In these studies, we characterized the phenotype of macrophages accumulating in the liver following APAP intoxication and evaluated the role of galectin-3 (Gal-3) in macrophage activation. Administration of APAP (300 mg/kg, i.p.) to wild-type mice resulted in the appearance of two distinct subpopulations of CD11b(+) cells in the liver, which expressed high or low levels of the monocyte/macrophage activation marker Ly6C. Whereas CD11b(+)/Ly6C(hi) macrophages exhibited a classically activated proinflammatory phenotype characterized by increased expression of TNF-α, inducible NO synthase, and CCR2, CD11b(+)/Ly6C(lo) macrophages were alternatively activated, expressing high levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. APAP intoxication was also associated with an accumulation of Gal-3(+) macrophages in the liver; the majority of these cells were Ly6C(hi). APAP-induced increases in CD11b(+)/Ly6C(hi) macrophages were significantly reduced in Gal-3(-/-) mice. This reduction was evident 72 h post APAP and was correlated with decreased expression of the classical macrophage activation markers, inducible NO synthase, IL-12, and TNF-α, as well as the proinflammatory chemokines CCL2 and CCL3, and chemokine receptors CCR1 and CCR2. Conversely, numbers of CD11b(+)/Ly6C(lo) macrophages increased in livers of APAP-treated Gal-3(-/-) mice; this was associated with increased expression of the alternative macrophage activation markers Ym1 and Fizz1, increased liver repair, and reduced hepatotoxicity. These data demonstrate that both classically and alternatively activated macrophages accumulate in the liver following APAP intoxication; moreover, Gal-3 plays a role in promoting a persistent proinflammatory macrophage phenotype. PMID:23175698

  7. The value of brain CT findings in acute methanol toxicity

    Taheri, Morteza Sanei [Department of Radiology, Shohada Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Poison Control Center, Loghman-Hakim Poison Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: saneim@yahoo.com; Moghaddam, Hossein Hassanian [Poison Control Center, Loghman-Hakim Poison Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moharamzad, Yashar; Dadgari, Shahrzad [Department of Radiology, Shohada Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nahvi, Vahideh [Poison Control Center, Loghman-Hakim Poison Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    Objective: Due to depressant effects of methanol on the central nervous system, brain computed tomography (CT) scan has been introduced as a diagnostic device in methanol intoxication. The authors aimed to present brain CT findings in patients with acute methanol intoxication and to determine signs associated with death. Materials and methods: This cohort study involved 42 consecutive patients with acute methanol intoxication. Inclusion criteria were consisted of characteristic clinical presentation of methanol poisoning, and metabolic acidosis with increased anion and osmolar gaps. Brain CT scans without contrast medium were obtained. To determine the association between the CT findings and death, the chi-square test or the Fisher's exact test, odds ratio (OR) and its 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated. Results: Twenty-eight patients (66.6%) had a total of 55 abnormal findings on brain CT, in which bilateral putaminal hypodense lesions was the most common manifestation (27 cases, 96.4%). Putaminal hemorrhage with varying degrees was observed in 7 patients (25%). Six patients (21.4%) had low attenuation lesions in the subcortical white matter of the insula. A significant association was observed between putaminal hemorrhage (OR = 8, 95% CI = 1.187-53.93, P = 0.018) and subcortical necrosis of the insula (OR = 11, 95% CI = 1.504-80.426, P = 0.007) with death. Conclusion: In addition to clinical and laboratory findings, presence of putaminal hemorrhage and insular subcortex white matter necrosis are associated with a poor clinical outcome in patients with methanol poisoning.

  8. A safe strategy to decrease fetal lead exposure in a woman with chronic intoxication.

    Leiba, Adi; Hu, Howard; Zheng, Amin; Kales, Stefanos N

    2010-08-01

    During pregnancy skeletal lead is mobilized by maternal bone turnover and can threaten fetal development. The exact strategy suggested to women of childbearing age, who were chronically exposed to lead, and, thus, have high bone lead burden, is not well established. We describe 4 years of follow-up of a 29-year-old woman with chronic lead intoxication. We (a) advised her to delay conception until 'toxicological clearance', (b) treated her with multiple courses of lead chelator, DMSA, and (c) prescribed oral calcium. Patient had low blood lead and protoporphyrin level during pregnancy until delivery. Delaying conception, lead chelation, and calcium supplementation can decrease fetal exposure. PMID:20459344

  9. Therapeutic Efficacy of Saline and Glucose Saline against Dermally applied Sulphur Mustard Intoxication in Mice

    K. Sugendran

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available A single dose of saline or glucose-saline (5 mg glucose/kg offered similar protection to mice against sulphur mustard intoxication, the extent of survival being 83 per cent as against 33 per cent without treatment. All the animals were protected when the treatment was extended by another two consecutive days in the glucose-saline treated group. Both saline and glucose-saline treatments could ameliorate the haemoconcentration as well as normalise pO/sub 2/ and % oxygen saturation. The protection conferred is attributed to the probable replenishment of fluid loss.

  10. Sexual Victimization, Alcohol Intoxication, Sexual-Emotional Responding, and Sexual Risk in Heavy Episodic Drinking Women

    George, William H.; Davis, Kelly Cue; Masters, N. Tatiana; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J.; Heiman, Julia R.; Norris, Jeanette; Gilmore, Amanda K.; Nguyen, Hong V.; Kajumulo, Kelly F.; Otto, Jacqueline M.; Andrasik, Michele P.

    2013-01-01

    This study used an experimental paradigm to investigate the roles of sexual victimization history and alcohol intoxication in young women’s sexual-emotional responding and sexual risk taking. A nonclinical community sample of 436 young women, with both an instance of heavy episodic drinking and some HIV/STI risk exposure in the past year, completed childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adolescent/adult sexual assault (ASA) measures. A majority of them reported CSA and/or ASA, including rape and at...

  11. Comparative Hepatoprotective Activity of Ethanolic Extracts of Cuscuta australis against Acetaminophen Intoxication in Wistar Rats

    Folarin, Rachael O.; Omirinde, Jamiu O.; Bejide, Ronald; Isola, Tajudeen O.; Usende, Levi I.; Basiru, Afisu

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the comparative hepatoprotective activity of crude ethanol extracts of Cuscuta australis against acetaminophen (APAP) intoxication. Thirty-six rats were randomly divided into six groups of 6 replicates: Group 1 which served as control received water. Group 2 was orally administered 835 mg/kg body wt. of paracetamol on day 8. Groups 3 and 4 were orally administered ethanolic extracts of the seed of Cuscuta australis in doses of 125 mg/kg and 250 mg/kg, respectively, for...

  12. Acute pancreatitis

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000287.htm Acute pancreatitis To use the sharing features on this page, ... fatty foods after the attack has improved. Outlook (Prognosis) Most cases go away in a week. However, ...

  13. Acute Pericarditis

    ... Sugar Control Helps Fight Diabetic Eye Disease Are 'Workaholics' Prone to OCD, Anxiety? ALL NEWS > Resources First ... cancer, or heart surgery, the fluid is blood. Causes Acute pericarditis usually results from infection or other ...

  14. Acute effects of trichloroethylene on blood concentrations and performance decrements in rats and their relevance to humans.

    Kishi, R; Harabuchi, I; Ikeda, T; Katakura, Y; Miyake, H.

    1993-01-01

    This study was designed to clarify the nature of effects of trichloroethylene (TCE) on the central nervous system, and to determine the critical concentrations in blood associated with specific behavioural changes. This was achieved by a follow up of the whole time course of TCE intoxication during and after exposure. The effects of a single four hour exposure to TCE on signalled bar press shock avoidance in rats were tested by methods previously applied to investigate the acute neurobehaviou...

  15.  Early initiation of MARS® dialysis in Amanita phalloides-induced acute liver injury prevents liver transplantation.

    Pillukat, Mike Hendrik; Schomacher, Tina; Baier, Peter; Gabriëls, Gert; Pavenstädt, Hermann; Schmidt, Hartmut H J

    2016-01-01

     Amanita phalloides is the most relevant mushroom intoxication leading to acute liver failure. The two principal groups of toxins, the amatoxins and the phallotoxins, are small oligopeptides highly resistant to chemical and physical influences. The amatoxins inhibit eukaryotic RNA polymerase II causing transcription arrest affecting mainly metabolically highly active cells like hepatocytes and renal cells. The clinically most characteristic symptom is a 6-40 h lag phase before onset of gastrointestinal symptoms and the rapid progression of acute liver failure leading to multi-organ failure and death within a week if left untreated. Extracorporeal albumin dialysis (ECAD) was reported to improve patient's outcome or facilitate bridging to transplantation. In our tertiary center, out of nine intoxicated individuals from five non-related families six patients presented with acute liver injury; all of them were treated with ECAD using the MARS® system. Four of them were listed on admission for high urgency liver transplantation. In addition to standard medical treatment for Amanita intoxication we initiated ECAD once patients were admitted to our center. Overall 16 dialysis sessions were performed. All patients survived with full native liver recovery without the need for transplantation. ECAD was well tolerated; no severe adverse events were reported during treatment. Coagulopathy resolved within days in all patients, and acute kidney injury in all but one individual. In conclusion, ECAD is highly effective in treating intoxication with Amanita phalloides. Based on these experiences we suggest early initiation and repeated sessions depending on response to ECAD with the chance of avoiding liver transplantation. PMID:27493118

  16. Acute dyspnea

    Radiodiagnosis is applied to determine the causes of acute dyspnea. Acute dyspnea is shown to aggravate the course of pulmonary diseases (bronchial asthma, obstructive bronchitis, pulmonary edema, throboembolism of pulmonary arteries etc) and cardiovascular diseases (desiseas of myocardium). The main tasks of radiodiagnosis are to determine volume and state of the lungs, localization and type of pulmonary injuries, to verify heart disease and to reveal concomitant complications

  17. Bronchitis (acute)

    Wark, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Acute bronchitis, with transient inflammation of the trachea and major bronchi, affects over 40/1000 adults a year in the UK. The causes are usually considered to be infective, but only around half of people have identifiable pathogens.The role of smoking or environmental tobacco smoke inhalation in predisposing to acute bronchitis is unclear.A third of people may have longer-term symptoms or recurrence.

  18. Memory Impairment following Acute Tricyclic Antidepressants Overdose

    Nastaran Eizadi-Mood

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Psychiatric consultation is necessary for all patients with intentional poisoning and its reliability depends on the proper function of patients’ memory performance. This study aimed to determine the possible memory impairment following acute TCAs’ poisoning. Materials and Methods. In this cross-sectional study, patients with acute TCAs poisoning were allocated to two groups of severe poisoning (with coma, seizures, cardiac arrhythmias, hypotension, and a wide QRS complex and mild-to-moderate poisoning according to their clinical presentation at the time of hospital admission. All patients underwent memory performance test both immediately and 24 hours after their initial consciousness after admission, using Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS-IV. Results. During the study period, 67 TCA-poisoned patients (aged, 20–64 years were evaluated, of which 67.2% were female. The mean memory scores of patients immediately and 24 hours after the initial consciousness were 31.43±9.02 and 50.62±9.12, respectively (P<0.001. Twenty-four hours after the initial consciousness, memory score was statistically correlated with the amount of ingested drug and the intoxication severity. Conclusion. Following the recovery from somatic symptoms of acute TCA poisoning, patients may still suffer from memory impairment and it seems that this time is not suitable for performing a reliable psychiatric consultation.

  19. Incorporation of 14C glucose into glycogen and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in rat brain following carbon monoxide intoxication

    Incorporation of 14C glucose into glycogen and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in rat brain following carbon monoxide intoxication was studied. In brains of rats tested on the 20, 30 and 60th minute of exposure to CO and immediately after removal from the chamber the enzyme activity showed no essential deviation from the control level. In the group of rats tested 1 hour after taking them out from the chamber increase of the enzyme activity was noticed, amounting to about 33% of the control value. The brains tested 24 hours after exposure showed the largest increase of the enzyme activity by about 94%. In the next time periods, 48 and 72 hours after intoxication, the enzyme activity was decreasing. The glycogen content in brains of control animals increased 3 hours after CO intoxication by about 69%. The increase of glycogen synthesis was expressed by increase of the total radioactivity, which amounted to 160% of the control value. (Z.M.)

  20. Acute poisoning with clenbuterol--a case report.

    Chodorowski, Z; Sein Anand, J

    1997-01-01

    In the paper we have described a case of acute, unintentional intoxication with clenbuterol, a selective beta 2-agonist. A 21-year-old bodybuilder to improve his physical fitness and to increase his muscle bulk was using clenbuterol in a dose of two tablets (20 mg) daily for a week before poisoning. On a day of acute intoxication he drank orange juice containing 48 tablets (4.8 g) of clenbuterol, which had been placed there by his friends. The patient was admitted to our clinic with tachycardia at rate 160 bpm, headache, dizziness, tremor, sweats, muscle weakness, agitation. Serum potassium concentration was 2.6 mmol/L, blood glucose level 18.7 mmol/L. All the symptoms and biochemical abnormalities disappeared after intravenous treatment with propranolol (1.0 mg) and potassium chloride (60 mmol) within five hour period. This case indicates that more attention should be paid to clenbuterol widely used as a stimulant by athletes, especially by bodybuilders. PMID:9478104

  1. Effects of cadmium and monensin on renal and cardiac functions of mice subjected to subacute cadmium intoxication

    Ivanova Juliana

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd is a well-known nephrotoxic agent. Cd-induced renal dysfunction has been considered as one of the causes leading to the development of hypertension. The correlation between Cd concentration in blood and urine and cardiovascular diseases has been discussed in many epidemiological studies. A therapy with chelating agents is utilized for the treatment of toxic metal intoxication. Herein we present novel information indicating that monensin (applied as tetraethylammonium salt is a promising chelating agent for the treatment of Cd-induced renal and cardiac dysfunction. The study was performed using the ICR mouse model. Adult ICR male mice were divided into three groups with six animals in each group: control (received distilled water and food ad libitum for 28 days; Cd-intoxicated (treated orally with 20 mg/kg b.w. Cd(II acetate from day 1 to day 14 of the experimental protocol, and monensin treated group (intoxicated with Cd(II acetate as described for the Cd-intoxicated group followed by oral treatment with 16 mg/kg b.w. tetraethylammonium salt of monensic acid for 2 weeks. Cd intoxication of the animals resulted in an increase of the organ weight/body weight indexes. Cd elevated significantly creatinine and glucose level in serum. Monensin treatment improved the organ weight/body weight ratios. The therapy of the Cd-intoxicated animals with monensin ameliorated the creatinine and glucose level in serum and decreased the concentration of the toxic metal ions in the heart and kidneys by 54 % and 64 %, respectively

  2. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy or hydroxycobalamin attenuates surges in brain interstitial lactate and glucose; and hyperbaric oxygen improves respiratory status in cyanide-intoxicated rats

    Lawson-Smith, P; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal; Hyldegaard, Ole

    2011-01-01

    Cyanide (CN) intoxication inhibits cellular oxidative metabolism and may result in brain damage. Hydroxycobalamin (OHCob) is one among other antidotes that may be used following intoxication with CN. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) is recommended when supportive measures or antidotes fail. However, the...

  3. Accidental intoxication of the infant-juvenile population in households: profiles of emergency care

    Jackeline Gonçalves Brito

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE Analyzing profiles of intoxication and accidental poisoning of infant-juvenile population (0-24 years in the household, treated at a reference facility for Emergency and Primary Care, during the year 2013. METHOD A descriptive, cross-sectional study. Data were analyzed using Epi-Info, by way of simple and bivariate analyzes. The project was approved by the Research Ethics Committee (protocol 405.578. RESULTS There were 45 intoxications, with a prevalence of males (60.0%, aged 1-4 years (71.1%. Among children under one, there was a higher frequency of pesticide poisoning (66.6%, between the ages of 1-4 by cleaning products (34.4%, and between 5-9 years of age by pharmacological substances (66.6%. The primary assistance was provided only at health institutions, with hospital admissions in 24.4% of the cases. CONCLUSION The importance of prevention through legislation is evident, in order to ensure greater safety in packaging of various products, and community awareness to eliminate risks in the household environment.

  4. Human intoxication with paralytic shellfish toxins: clinical parameters and toxin analysis in plasma and urine.

    García, Carlos; Lagos, Marcelo; Truan, Dominique; Lattes, Karinna; Véjar, Omar; Chamorro, Beatriz; Iglesias, Verónica; Andrinolo, Darío; Lagos, Néstor

    2005-01-01

    This study reports the data recorded from four patients intoxicated with shellfish during the summer 2002, after consuming ribbed mussels (Aulacomya ater) with paralytic shellfish toxin contents of 8,066 +/- 61.37 microg/100 gr of tissue. Data associated with clinical variables and paralytic shellfish toxins analysis in plasma and urine of the intoxicated patients are shown. For this purpose, the evolution of respiratory frequency, arterial blood pressure and heart rate of the poisoned patients were followed and recorded. The clinical treatment to reach a clinically stable condition and return to normal physiological parameters was a combination of hydration with saline solution supplemented with Dobutamine (vasoactive drug), Furosemide (diuretic) and Ranitidine (inhibitor of acid secretion). The physiological condition of patients began to improve after four hours of clinical treatment, and a stable condition was reached between 12 to 24 hours. The HPLC-FLD analysis showed only the GTX3/GTX2 epimers in the blood and urine samples. Also, these epimers were the only paralytic shellfish toxins found in the shellfish extract sample. PMID:16238098

  5. Severe water intoxication and secondary depressive syndrome in relation to delusional infestation.

    Lai, Jianbo; Lu, Qiaoqiao; Xu, Yi; Hu, Shaohua

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a case of severe water intoxication in a female patient with delusional infestation. Self-induced excessive water ingestion is a rare medical condition, which has not been reported in patients with delusional infestation yet. The patient in this case study was a 60-year-old Chinese woman, who was admitted to our hospital because of a feeling of skin infestation. She suffered from loss of consciousness and generalized tonic-clonic seizure after drinking 12 L of water during bowel cleansing before colonoscopy. Sufficient laboratory and imaging examinations were performed to exclude other possible causes of severe hyponatremia, such as hypothyroidism, diabetes insipidus, and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone. Besides, the cystic lesion in the posterior pituitary revealed by cranial magnetic resonance imaging was not accountable for her delusional symptoms as well as excessive drinking behavior. Her delusional symptoms were in complete remission with a combination of risperidone and aripiprazole. However, nearly 3 months after discharge, this patient suffered from depressed mood and was diagnosed with depressive syndrome, and even attempted suicide. This case highlights the possibility of self-induced water intoxication in patients with delusional infestation, inevitably adding to the complexity of the disease, and indicates the necessity of precautions for secondary psychotic or mood problems after symptomatological remission. PMID:27013878

  6. [Intoxication by powdered seeds of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) used nasally as snuff - a case report].

    Zając, Maciej; Wiśniewski, Marek; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    There are only few reports in the medical literature about side effects and toxicity of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum). We report a 15-year-old woman who was admitted to the hospital because of symptoms including: vomiting, dyspnea, burning in the nose and throat, and syncope, after intranasal snuff of powdered horse chestnut seeds. Laboratory tests showed no abnormalities. After 2 days of hospitalization the female was discharged home with subjective and objective improvement. Preparation and use of snuff is related to the tradition of the kashubian region. The powder formed from horse chestnuts, which is white in color, effects after about 5-10 minutes, and causes severe irritation of the nasal mucous membranes, which results in sneezing. Responsible for side effects is mainly aescin. The most frequently observed aescin intoxication symptoms were gastrointestinal irritation and allergic reactions. Intoxication by powdered seeds of horse chestnut used nasally as snuff may lead, as it was in our case, to sudden and self-limiting clinical symptoms. Supportive therapy and a short hospital observation seems to be sufficient in such cases. PMID:25632792

  7. Hepatoprotective potential of three sargassum species from Karachi coast against carbon tetrachloride and acetaminophen intoxication

    Khan Hira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the hepatoprotective effect of ethanol extracts of Sargassum variegatum (S. variegatum, Sargassum tenerrimum (S. tenerrimum and Sargassum binderi occurring at Karachi coast against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 and acetaminophen intoxication in rats. Methods: Sargassum species were collected at low tide from Buleji beach at Karachi coast. Effect of ethanol extracts of Sargassum spp., on lipid parameter, serum glucose and kidney function was examined. Liver damage in rats was induced by CCl4 or acetaminophen. Rats were administered with ethanol extracts of S. tenerrimum, S. variegatum and Sargassum binderi at 200 mg/kg body weight daily for 14 days separately. Hepatotoxicity was determined in terms of cardiac and liver enzymes and other biochemical parameters. Results: S. variegatum showed highest activity by reducing the elevated level of hepatic enzymes, bilirubin, serum glucose, triglyceride with restoration of cholesterol. Urea and creatinine concentrations were also significantly (P < 0.05 reduced as compared to acetaminophen intoxicated rats. S. tenerrimum and S. variegatum showed moderate activity against CCl4 hepatic toxicity. Conclusions: The protective role of S. variegatum against acetaminophen liver damage and its positive impact on disturbed lipid, glucose metabolism, kidney dysfunction and S. tenerrimum against CCl4 liver toxicity suggest that Sargassum species offer a non-chemical means for the treatment of toxicity mediated liver damage.

  8. The interactive effects of emotion regulation and alcohol intoxication on lab-based intimate partner aggression.

    Watkins, Laura E; DiLillo, David; Maldonado, Rosalita C

    2015-09-01

    This study draws on Finkel and Eckhardt's (2013) I³ framework to examine the interactive effects of 2 emotion regulation strategies-anger rumination (an impellance factor) and reappraisal (an inhibition factor), and alcohol intoxication (a disinhibition factor)-on intimate partner aggression (IPA) perpetration as measured with an analogue aggression task. Participants were 69 couples recruited from a large Midwestern university (total N = 138). Participants' trait rumination and reappraisal were measured by self-report. Participants were randomized individually to an alcohol or placebo condition, then recalled an anger event while using 1 of 3 randomly assigned emotion regulation conditions (rumination, reappraisal, or uninstructed). Following this, participants completed an analogue aggression task involving ostensibly assigning white noise blasts to their partner. Participants in the alcohol condition displayed greater IPA than participants in the placebo condition for provoked IPA, but not unprovoked IPA. Results also revealed interactions such that for those in the alcohol and rumination group, higher trait reappraisal was related to lower unprovoked IPA. For provoked IPA, higher trait rumination was related to greater IPA among those in the alcohol and rumination condition and those in the placebo and uninstructed condition. In general, results were consistent with I³ theory, suggesting that alcohol disinhibits, rumination impels, and trait reappraisal inhibits IPA. The theoretical and clinical implications of these findings are discussed in the context of current knowledge about the influence of alcohol intoxication and emotion regulation strategies on IPA perpetration. PMID:25844831

  9. Tetrodotoxin--distribution and accumulation in aquatic organisms, and cases of human intoxication.

    Noguchi, Tamao; Arakawa, Osamu

    2008-01-01

    Many pufferfish of the family Tetraodontidae possess a potent neurotoxin, tetrodotoxin (TTX). In marine pufferfish species, toxicity is generally high in the liver and ovary, whereas in brackish water and freshwater species, toxicity is higher in the skin. In 1964, the toxin of the California newt was identified as TTX as well, and since then TTX has been detected in a variety of other organisms. TTX is produced primarily by marine bacteria, and pufferfish accumulate TTX via the food chain that begins with these bacteria. Consequently, pufferfish become non-toxic when they are fed TTX-free diets in an environment in which the invasion of TTX-bearing organisms is completely shut off. Although some researchers claim that the TTX of amphibians is endogenous, we believe that it also has an exogenous origin, i.e., from organisms consumed as food. TTX-bearing animals are equipped with a high tolerance to TTX, and thus retain or accumulate TTX possibly as a biologic defense substance. There have been many cases of human intoxication due to the ingestion of TTX-bearing pufferfish, mainly in Japan, China, and Taiwan, and several victims have died. Several cases of TTX intoxication due to the ingestion of small gastropods, including some lethal cases, were recently reported in China and Taiwan, revealing a serious public health issue. PMID:18728726

  10. An Unusual Cause of Supraventricular Tachycardia: Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Suat Zengin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available      Carbon monoxide (CO is a toxic gas produced by the incomplete combustion of carbon-containing compounds. Exposure to high concentrations of CO can be letha and is the most common cause of death from poisoning worldwide. Cardiac manifestations after exposure to CO, including myocardial ischemia, heart failure, and arrhythmias, have been reported. A 28-year-old a patient was admitted to our emergency department with altered consciousness as a consequence of acute domestic exposure to CO from a stove. His carboxyhemoglobin level was 39%. The oxygen treatment was started promptly, and therapeutic red cell exchange was performed. An electrocardiogram revealed supraventricular tachycardia (SVT, and an echocardiographic examination demonstrated normal cardiac functions. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the second to report a case of SVT attack due to acute CO intoxication. This paper discusses the management of this complication in patients poisoned with CO.

  11. ENFOQUE DEL PACIENTE CON INTOXICACIÓN AGUDA POR PLAGUICIDAS ORGANOS FOSFORADOS Organophosphorates: acute intoxication practical issues

    Carlos Mauricio Hurtado Clavijo; Myriam Gutiérrez de Salazar

    2005-01-01

    Un gran número de insecticidas organofosforados se usan en todo el mundo a diario. Las intoxicaciones ocurren generalmente de forma accidental por exposición laboral, o intencional, con fines suicidas. Los organofosforados producen sus efectos tóxicos a través de la inhibición de la acetilcolinesterasa, la enzima responsable de la hidrólisis del neurotransmisor acetilcolina, produciendo ácido acético y colina, productos químicamente inertes. La unión entre los organofosforados y la acetilcoli...

  12. Acute 5-(2-aminopropyl)benzofuran (5-APB) intoxication and fatality: a case report with postmortem concentrations.

    McIntyre, Iain M; Gary, Ray D; Trochta, Amber; Stolberg, Susan; Stabley, Robert

    2015-03-01

    A 20-year-old man, a college student, became unresponsive in front of his girlfriend. He was known to consume alcohol and take an unknown drug at some point while in attendance at a local music festival earlier in the day/evening. Upon arrival of emergency personnel, he was noted to be asystolic and apneic. Despite aggressive medical intervention by emergency personnel and at a local hospital emergency room, he was pronounced deceased within 1.25 h of initial medical attention. Postmortem blood initially screened positive for methamphetamine by ELISA. An alkaline drug screen detected 5-(2-aminopropyl)benzofuran (5-APB) which was subsequently confirmed and quantified by a specific GC-MS SIM analysis following solid-phase extraction. Concentrations were determined in the peripheral blood (2.5 mg/L), central blood (2.9 mg/L), liver (16 mg/kg), vitreous (1.3 mg/L), urine (23 mg/L) and gastric contents (6 mg). No other common amphetamine-like compound was detected, although 5-(2-aminopropyl)-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran (5-APDB) was presumptively identified in both peripheral blood and urine. Alcohol, the only other drug identified, was confirmed at a concentration of 0.02% (w/v). PMID:25429871

  13. Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) - children

    Acute myelogenous leukemia - children; AML; Acute myeloid leukemia - children; Acute granulocytic leukemia - children; Acute myeloblastic leukemia - children; Acute non-lymphocytic leukemia (ANLL) - children

  14. Curative effect observation on combined using of nefopam and atropine to treat renal colic%平痛新联合阿托品用于肾绞痛镇痛的效果观察

    姜霖; 韩凤东; 赵英男

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察平痛新联合阿托品对肾绞痛镇痛的效果.方法 对临床确诊的257例由泌尿系结石所引起急性肾绞痛患者随机分组,131例为观察组,应用平痛新联合阿托品肌注;126例为对照组,应用哌替啶联合阿托品肌注.对比观察两组止痛效果及副作用.结果 观察组总有效率为90.9%,对照组总有效率为92.9%,两组比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).而观察组复发率低,副作用小.结论 平痛新联合阿托品对泌尿系结石所致肾绞痛镇痛效果与哌替啶联合阿托品的镇痛效果无明显差别,且复发率低,副作用少,无成瘾性.%Objective To observe the analgesic effect of combined using of nefopam and atropine on renal colic. Methods 257 confirmed patients who suffered renal colic caused by urinary stone were divided into two groups; 131 for observation group who were jointly used nefopam and atropine and 126 for control group who were jointly used pethidine and atropine. The effect of relieving pain and side effect were observed and compared between the two groups. Results The total effective rate of the observation group is 90. 9% and the control group is 92. 9% . The difference between two groups showed no statistical significance( P > 0. 05 ) . However the recurrence rate and side effete of the observation group are lower than the control group. Conclusion It is no significant difference between the observation group and the control group to treat renal colic caused by urinary stone and it is worthy of using for clinic patients because of its lower recurrence rate and addiction.

  15. Clinical and Laboratory Findings in Patients with Tramadol Intoxication Referred to Razi Hospital During 2005-06

    Morteza Rahbar Taromsari

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Frequency of Tramadol intoxication is increasing as a result of its useas a drug for suppression of withdrawal symptoms by opioids abusers and its wideaccessibility of this drug. Tramadol intoxication can lead to death and, therefore, earlyidentification of its clinical manifestations is crucial since early detection of theintoxication and its treatment could improve patients' survival This study investigatedthe frequency of clinical and laboratory findings in Tramadol intoxication.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, patients with Tramadol intoxication whoreferred to Razi Hospital in Rasht, Iran, during 2005-06 were examined. Theirmedical records were surveyed for demographic data, past medical history,neurological examination, and routine laboratory tests. All data were statisticallyanalyzed by SPSS software version 14.Result: The majority of the 306 patients (83.3% male were in the age range of 20-40 years and 68.6% of them had been educated up to high school. The mean dose ofingested Tramadol was 746± 453mg (mean± SD. Agitation (25.2% and seizure(20.3% were the most frequent reported symptoms. Among laboratory abnormalities,the most common findings were prolonged PT (18.3% and increased ALT (5.6%.Conclusion: The most common clinical presentation was agitation and the mostcommon laboratory finding was prolonged PT. Of all the patients, 3 cases wereadmitted to ICU. Although Tramadol poisoning might lead to death, there was onlyone death after Tramadol poisoning in the current study.

  16. Mercury Bioaccumulation in Eggs of Hens Experimentally Intoxicated with Methylmercury Chloride and Detoxified with a Humic-Aluminosilicate Preparation

    R Barej

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of preventive-detox preparation (P-dP based on humic and aluminosilicate substances in the diet of laying hens (3% daily dose previously intoxicated with methylmercury chloride (CH3ClHg, 5 mg Hg/kg feed mixture for six weeks. Mercury content in the whole eggs of the group intoxicated with CH3ClHg increased compared to the control group: 488-fold after 1 wk, 622-fold after 2 wks, and 853-fold after 6 wks of intoxication. The use of P-dP in the group previously intoxicated with CH3ClHg reduced he mercury content of whole eggs by 18.4%, on average, whereas the average was 29.9% two weeks after the discontinuation of CH3ClHg and P-dP supply. Maximum Hg content in the whole egg was observed in group III (299.7 g, whereas the highest mercury level was obtained in the egg albumen.

  17. Three dimensional morphometric analyses of axon terminals early changes induced by methylmercury intoxication in the adult cat striate cortex.

    de Oliveira, Ricardo Bezerra; Gomes Leal, Wallace; Picanço-Diniz, Domingos Luis Wanderley; Torres Neto, João Bento; Lins, Nara; Malm, Olaf; Picanço-Diniz, Cristovam W

    2008-12-01

    The aim of the present report is to investigate in detail morphometric changes of axon terminals of area 17 of adult cat induced by methylmercury intoxication. Six adult male cats (Felix catus), with 12 h day-light cycle and ad libitum water and food regimen, received a single dose of MeHgCl (6.4 mg/kg) dissolved in milk, whereas control subjects (n=6) received only milk. After 30 days, biocytin iontophoretic injections were done into the area 17, (Horsley-Clark coordinates between AP 3.0-6.0) on the crown of the lateral gyrus, near the border with area 18. MeHg and inorganic Hg (Hgi) concentrations were measured in the brain parenchyma of intoxicated cats and corresponded on average to 1.39+/-0.3 and 6.79+/-0.6 ppm (mean+/-s.e.m.) respectively. Twenty four hours after iontophoresis, aldehyde fixed brain sections (200 microm thick), were processed to reveal biocytin labeled terminals. Axonal microscopic 3D reconstructions using Neurolucida software (Microbright Systems Inc.) allowed estimations of boutons, branching points and segment densities for each terminal. Cluster analysis of morphometric axonal features from control and intoxicated group revealed, two distinct axon families (Type I and II) as described elsewhere. Total density values of boutons, branching points and segment densities of intoxicated group, decreased 81, 59 and 91% respectively, as compared to the control group (ANOVA two-way, Bonferroni a priori test pintoxication in the visual cortex. PMID:18835550

  18. Methylphenidate intoxications in children and adults : Exposure circumstances and evidence-based dose threshold for pre-hospital triage

    Hondebrink, Laura; Rietjens, Saskia J.; Hunault, Claudine C.; Pereira, Rob R.; Kelleci, Nuriye; Yasar, Gulhan; Ghebreslasie, Ariam; Lo-A-Foe, Cindy; De Vries, Irma; Meulenbelt, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Context. Methylphenidate intoxications mostly have a relatively mild course, although serious complications can occur. Objective. We aimed to characterize methylphenidate exposures and reassess our current dose threshold for hospital referral (2 mg/kg). Methods. In a prospective follow-up study, we

  19. Effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on whole blood cyanide concentrations in carbon monoxide intoxicated patients from fire accidents

    Lawson-Smith, Pia; Jansen, Erik C; Hilsted, Linda;

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and carbon monoxide (CO) may be important components of smoke from fire accidents. Accordingly, patients admitted to hospital from fire accidents may have been exposed to both HCN and CO. Cyanide (CN) intoxication results in cytotoxic hypoxia leading to organ dysfunction and...

  20. Ameliorative effect of Morus alba leaves extract against developmental retinopathy in pups of diabetic and aluminum intoxicated pregnant albino rats

    Hassan; El-Sayyed; Gamal; Badawy; Sobhy; Hassab; Elnabi; Ibrahim; El-Elaimy; Eman; Al; Shehari

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the possible ameliorative effect of crude water extract of Morus alba(M. alba) leaves on retinopathy of rat pups maternally subjected to diabetes and/or Al intoxication.Methods: Both control and experimental groups were subjected to certain integrated approaches, namely, biochemical assessments, light microscopic investigation, transmission electron microscopic investigation, single cell gel electrophoresis(comet assay) and determination of DNA fragmentation.Results: The retina of pups of diabetic and/or Al-intoxicated mothers exhibited abnormal alterations in retinal cell layers including retinal pigmented epithelium, photoreceptor inner segment and ganglion cells. Increased incidence of DNA fragmentation and apoptosis were evident in pups of diabetic and/or Al-intoxicated mothers. However, retina of pups maternally received M. alba extract plus diabetes or Al-intoxicated alone or in combination showed marked amelioration. Less degree of ameliorations was seen in retina of pups maternally subjected to combined treatment. Furthermore, application of crude water extract of M.alba resulted in amelioration of the alterations of maternal serum glucose as well as Al concentration.Conclusions: Based on the results of the present study, M. alba extract is effective against experimentally diabetic and Al-induced developmental retinopathy.

  1. The volume of Purkinje cells decreases in the cerebellum of acrylamide-intoxicated rats, but no cells are lost

    Larsen, Jytte Overgaard; Tandrup, T; Braendgaard, H

    1994-01-01

    The effects of acrylamide intoxication on the numbers of granule and Purkinje cells and the volume of Purkinje cell perikarya have been evaluated with stereological methods. The analysis was carried out in the cerebella of rats that had received a dose of 33.3 mg/kg acrylamide, twice a week, for 7...

  2. Evaluation of intoxicated patients hospitalized in a newly-opened level two pediatric intensive care unit

    Güngörer, Vildan; Yisldırım, Nurdan Kökten

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The study aimed to retrospectively examine the demographic and etiological characteristics, prognosis and length of stay in intensive care unit of intoxicated patients hospitalized in Level two Pediatric Intensive Care Unit in Maternity and Child Health Hospital of Samsun. Material and Methods: The study retrospectively examined the records of patients hospitalized between 14th March 2014 and 14th March 2015 in Level two Pediatric Intensive Care Unit in Maternity and Child Health Hospital of Samsun with respect to age, gender, cause of poisoning, time of emergency department admission, length of hospitalization and prognosis. Results: Of 82 patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit, 29 (35.3%) were male and 53 (64.6%) were female. The mean age of the male and female patients was 7.89±6.3 years and 11.2±5.7 years, respectively and the mean age of the study group was 10.04±6.1. Twenthy one (39,6%) of the female patients were at the age group of 0–14 years and 32 (60.4%) were at the age group of 14–18 years. Twenthy (68.9%) of the male patients were at the age group of 0–14 years and nine (31.1%) were at the age group of 14–18 years. The cause of poisoning was drug intoxication (antidepressants, antibiotics, painkillers and other drugs) in 64 patients (78%) and the remaining 18 patients (22%) were admitted to hospital for other causes (rat poison, mushroom, carbonmonoxide, scorpion stings, bonzai and pesticides). Thirthy eight (46.3%) of all the patients used such substances for suicidal purpose. Thirthy three (62.2%) of these were female and 32 were at the age group of 14–18 years. Fourty (48.7%) of the patients who ingested medication ingested one drug, while 24 (29.2%) ingested multiple drugs. Antidepressants were found to be the most commonly used drugs (31.2%). The mean hospital admission time was 3.41±2 hours and the mean time of intensive care unit stay was 2.89±1.04 days. No mortality was recorded. Thirthy patients (36.5%) were referred

  3. 弱激光联合阿托品疗法对屈光不正性弱视的疗效%Efficacy of low level laser combined with atropine in treatment of ametropic amblyopia

    刘真; 陈玮; 刘玉岭; 赵梅

    2010-01-01

    Objective To observe the therapeutic effect of low level laser combined with atropine in treatment of ametropic amblyopia. Methods One hundred and twenty children (240 eyes with ametropic amblyopia) were grouped randomly, and the improvement of visual acuity and visual function between the two methods were compared. Results The differences in binocularvision improvement and stereopsis visual acuity of the two methods were significant(t=2.24,P<0.05).Conclusions Low level laser combined with atropine therapy seems to be superio to traditional treatment in binocularvision improvement and recovery.%目的 观察弱激光联合阿托品疗法对屈光不正性弱视的疗效.方法 120例(240只弱视眼)患儿随机分为治疗组(弱激光联合阿托品疗法)和对照组(传统治疗),比较两种方法对视力的提升效果及双眼视功能的改善情况.结果 弱激光联合阿托品疗法使弱视眼视力进步有效率及立体视锐度与对照组比较差异有统计学意义(t=2.24,P<0.05).结论 弱激光联合阿托品疗法更有利于患儿视力提升、双眼视力恢复.

  4. Neurofunctional endpoints assessed in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells for estimation of acute systemic toxicity

    The objective of the EU-funded integrated project ACuteTox is to develop a strategy in which general cytotoxicity, together with organ-specific toxicity and biokinetic features, are used for the estimation of human acute systemic toxicity. Our role in the project is to characterise the effect of reference chemicals with regard to neurotoxicity. We studied cell membrane potential (CMP), noradrenalin (NA) uptake, acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activity, acetylcholine receptor (AChR) signalling and voltage-operated calcium channel (VOCC) function in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells after exposure to 23 pharmaceuticals, pesticides or industrial chemicals. Neurotoxic alert chemicals were identified by comparing the obtained data with cytotoxicity data from the neutral red uptake assay in 3T3 mouse fibroblasts. Furthermore, neurotoxic concentrations were correlated with estimated human lethal blood concentrations (LC50). The CMP assay was the most sensitive assay, identifying eight chemicals as neurotoxic alerts and improving the LC50 correlation for nicotine, lindane, atropine and methadone. The NA uptake assay identified five neurotoxic alert chemicals and improved the LC50 correlation for atropine, diazepam, verapamil and methadone. The AChE, AChR and VOCC assays showed limited potential for detection of acute toxicity. The CMP assay was further evaluated by testing 36 additional reference chemicals. Five neurotoxic alert chemicals were generated and orphendrine and amitriptyline showed improved LC50 correlation. Due to the high sensitivity and the simplicity of the test protocol, the CMP assay constitutes a good candidate assay to be included in an in vitro test strategy for prediction of acute systemic toxicity.

  5. AMLODIPINE INTOXICATION: A DIFFERENT PRESENTATION OF OVERDOSE OF A COMMONLY PRESCRIBED ANTI - HYPERTENSIVE

    Shivakumar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT : Calcium channel blockers (CCBs are one of the most commonly prescribed anti - hypertensive medications in India due to good efficacy and cost - effectiveness. Overdose of this wonderful dihydropyridine though common in the western world has been scarcely reported in the Indian literature. We report the case o f intoxication with Amlodipine , in a young female software technician. The patient came with a very different presentation of loose stools with severe hypotension , bradycardia , altered sensorium , hyperglycemia , respiratory distress and metabolic acidosis. With the patient on assisted mechanical ventilation and without any correlating history , there was a diagnostic dilemma. But with detailed history taking and from repeated conversations with the relatives , empty strips of Amlodipine tablets were found at t he patient’s bedside. The patient was treated with stomach wash , fluid resucsitation , calcium gluconate , Dopamine , hyperinsulinemia euglycemia therapy. The patient made a complete recovery and was discharged after a psychiatric consultation

  6. Radiological absorption characteristics of sedatives, hypnotic drugs and psychopharmaceuticals with respect to drug intoxications in suicides

    When in cases of patients with severe intoxication aspiration is suspected clinically, an X-ray image of the thorax is made in order to prevent that atelectases or inflammatory pulmonary infiltrations remain undetected, in addition, an X-ray image of the abdomen should be made in each in which the swallowed preparation has not been identified, because our investigations have proved that any drugs of any kind with an absorption coefficient above 0.23 are radiologically detectable, when the resorption process is not finished yet. In shadow-producing pharmaceuticals these abdominal X-ray images allow not only the examination and supervision of the toxic resorption of an enterally taken preparation, but also the possible identification of the type the drug belongs to. Moreover, information about quantity, resorption, and localisation of the tablets being somewhere in the gastrointestinal tract can be obtained. (orig.)

  7. Antihepatotoxic effect of golden berry (Physalis peruviana Linn.) in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) intoxicated rats.

    Taj, Darakhshan; Khan, Hira; Sultana, Viqar; Ara, Jehan; Ehteshamul-Haque, Syed

    2014-05-01

    Liver is the main site in the body for intense metabolism and excretion. A number of chemicals and drugs which are used routinely cause liver damage. The present study investigates the antihepatotoxic effect of Physalis peruviana whole ripe fruit, water and ethanol extracts of fruit in normal as well as in carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) intoxicated rats. The CCl(4) treated rats showed marked elevation in liver enzymes: alanine transaminse, aspratate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase and other biochemical parameters: bilirubin, creatinine and urea, thus indicating liver injury. Whereas animal treated/fed with various preparations of Physalis peruviana showed significant lowering effect (pPhysalis peruviana showed highest activity in both rat models while ripe fruit and ethanol extract showed moderate activity compared to standard drug. PMID:24811807

  8. Effect of uranyl intoxication on renal corticomedullary gradient of orthoiodohippurate in laboratory rat

    The assessment is attempted of the intrarenal distribution (by means of the cortico-medullary gradient and the cortico-pelvic gradient) of a model diagnostic substance (o-125I-hippurate) for the analysis of mechanisms causing damage to the renal function during intoxication induced by uranyl ions (uranyl nitrate). The findings were correlated with other indicators of the renal lesion (creatinine and urea plasma levels). Relative shifts of different gradients, i.e. mutual shifts and shifts in relation to hippurate blood levels, make it possible to describe the stepwise character of functional changes in the damaged kidney. The method used is suitable for investigating the dynamics of substances transport during functional renal changes in particular when combined with the determination the intensity of the uptake of model substances by renal tissue slices. (author)

  9. Lead biomonitoring in different organs of lead intoxicated rats employing GF AAS and different sample preparations.

    de Sousa, Rafael Arromba; Sabarense, Céphora Maria; Prado, Gustavo L P; Metze, Konradin; Cadore, Solange

    2013-01-30

    An analytical procedure was developed for the determination of lead in different tissues from Wistar Hanover rats, previously intoxicated with lead acetate during a toxicological study. About 25 mg of dried sample (bone, liver, kidney, heart, lung and spleen) were mixed with 8.0 mL of 7.00 mol L(-1) nitric acid and digested using microwave radiation in closed vessel. Except for the bone samples, the other tissues could also be analyzed after alkaline solubilization with TMAH. All the digested or solubilized samples were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Good accuracy and precision were attained when analyzing reference standard materials (for bone, liver and kidney) and also from addition to recovery experiments (for heart, lung and spleen tissues). The method was applied to samples from nine animals and the results suggested that there is a profile for lead bioaccumulation in these animals, which seemed to adapt themselves to continuous lead exposure. PMID:23597893

  10. Ethyl pyruvate for the treatment of acetaminophen intoxication: alternative to N-acetylcysteine?

    Wagner, Florian; Asfar, Pierre; Georgieff, Michael; Radermacher, Peter; Wagner, Katja

    2012-01-01

    N-acetylcysteine is the classical antidote for acetaminophen overdose-induced hepatotoxicity, but its efficacy is limited by the need for early and only temporary treatment. Therefore, Yang and colleagues tested the hypothesis of whether ethyl pyruvate--another anti-inflammatory and antioxidant compound, which they had previously shown to protect against liver injury of various other etiologies--may allow circumventing these limitations. While ethyl pyruvate improved liver regeneration when administered early and during a limited period only, the opposite response was present both after delayed as well as prolonged treatment. The authors concluded that prolonged anti-inflammatory treatment is detrimental after acetaminophen intoxication-induced liver damage. On the one hand, this research paper confirms the need for biomarkers to monitor organ recovery after acetaminophen. On the other hand, this paper adds to the ongoing discussion on the usefulness of ethyl pyruvate as a resuscitation fluid in the critically ill. PMID:22348679

  11. Clinical toxicology and management of intoxications with synthetic cathinones ("bath salts").

    Mas-Morey, P; Visser, M H M; Winkelmolen, L; Touw, D J

    2013-08-01

    Synthetic cathinones are synthetic derivatives of the natural cathinone, one of the psychoactive compounds present in Catha edulis (khat). There are at least 12 different types of synthetic cathinones, with mephedrone and 3,4-methylendioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) being the most commonly used by the purchasers. The legal control of these substances is especially difficult because when a specific compound is banned, a new slightly modified chemical variant is introduced into the market. It has been described that patients after taking synthetic cathinones may show signs and symptoms of the sympathicomimetic toxidrome, including agitation, psychosis, tachycardia, hypertension, and seizures. Furthermore, some cases of deaths related to their consumption have also been reported. Nowadays, there is no established treatment protocol for the clinical management of these intoxications. Because of this, we have developed some recommendations that may be useful to determine the treatment of these patients. PMID:23178412

  12. Morphofunctional changes in the brain blood loss on the background of alcohol intoxication

    Said Indiaminov

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The application of histological and morphometric methods allowed to determine significant changes of brain structures in people who died from traumatic hemorrhage in the condition of alcohol intoxication of mild and moderate degree. A marked spasm of large pial arteries has been revealed. Dystonia with a predominance of spasms is typical for intracerebral arteries, and dilatation for the veins. Spasm of the arteries leads to a significant increase in perivascular spaces. The density of glial component in the gray substance of the brain is sharply reduced, and in the white substance it does not change significantly. The total area of the microcirculatory bloodstream vessels reduces significantly. Marked changes in the structure of neurons suggest that these disorders are caused not only by anemia, dissociation of vessels with neuroglia, but by direct influence of ethanol on nerve cells as well.

  13. Consequences of manganese intoxication on the circadian rest-activity rhythms in the rat.

    Bouabid, Safa; Fifel, Karim; Benazzouz, Abdelhamid; Lakhdar-Ghazal, Nouria

    2016-09-01

    Manganese (Mn) intoxication is associated with neurological dysfunctions collectively known as Parkinsonism or Manganism. Like in Parkinson's disease, Manganism is associated with motor disturbances, together with non-motor symptoms including cognitive and neuropsychiatric deficits. Although sleep dysfunctions are commonly reported among workers exposed to Mn, their underlying pathophysiology remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the rest-activity rhythms in rats treated daily with MnCl2 (10mg/kg, i.p) for 5weeks. Locomotor activity was assessed under a light-dark (LD) cycle, constant darkness (DD) and during adjustment to 6h shifts of the LD cycle. In LD conditions, Mn-treated rats exhibited a more fragmented and less stable rest-activity rhythm in addition to a reduction in the total 24-h amount of locomotor activity as well as in the activity confined to the active dark phase of the LD. Consequently, a significant decrease in the amplitude of the rest-activity rhythm was observed. These disturbances were displayed during and after Mn treatment. Furthermore, after the 6-h phase advance of the LD cycle, Mn-treated rats failed to re-adjust accurately their behavioral activity to the new shifted LD cycle. Upon release from LD into DD, Mn-treated rats expressed a normal and stable free-running period of their rest-activity rhythm (23.92±0.07h in Mn group vs. 24.01±0.04h in control rats). However, their rest-activity rhythm remained highly fragmented and less stable. Our results provide the first evidence that chronic Mn intoxication leads to impairment of rest-activity rhythms in addition to the motor and non-motor disturbances reported in Manganism. PMID:27316552

  14. Human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cell transplantation for delayed encephalopathy after carbon monoxide intoxication

    Gong D

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Dianrong Gong,1 Haiyan Yu,1 Weihua Wang,2 Haixin Yang,1 Fabin Han1,21Department of Neurology, 2Centre for Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine, Liaocheng People's Hospital, The Affiliated Liaocheng Hospital, Taishan Medical University, Shandong, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: Stem cell transplantation is one of the potential treatments for neurological disorders. Since human umbilical cord stem cells have been shown to provide neuroprotection and promote neural regeneration, we have attempted to transplant the human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells (hUCB-MNCs to treat patients with delayed encephalopathy after carbon monoxide intoxication (DEACOI. The hUCB-MNCs were isolated from fresh umbilical cord blood and were given to patients subarachnoidally. Physical examinations, mini-mental state examination scores, and computed tomography scans were used to evaluate the improvement of symptoms, signs, and pathological changes of the patient's brain before and after hUCB-MNC transplantation. A total of 12 patients with DEACOI were treated with hUCB-MNCs in this study. We found that most of the patients have shown significant improvements in movement, behavior, and cognitive function, and improved brain images in 1–4 months from the first transplantation of hUCB-MNCs. None of these patients have been observed to have any severe adverse effects. Our study suggests that the hUCB-MNC transplantation may be a safe and effective treatment for DEACOI. Further studies and clinical trials with more cases, using more systematic scoring methods, are needed to evaluate brain structural and functional improvements in patients with DEACOI after hUCB-MNC therapy.Keywords: human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells, transplantation, delayed encephalopathy after carbon monoxide intoxication, MMSE

  15. Selection of micronutrients used along with DMSA in the treatment of moderately lead intoxicated mice

    Liao, Yingjun [China Medical University, Department of Physiology, School of Basic Medicine, Shenyang, Liaoning (China); Yu, Fei; Zhi, Xuping; An, Li; Yang, Jun [China Medical University, Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Shenyang, Liaoning (China); Jin, Yaping; Lu, Chunwei; Li, Gexin [China Medical University, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Shenyang, Liaoning (China)

    2008-01-15

    The objective of this study was to explore the optimum combination of micronutrients used with 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) in the treatment of moderately lead-intoxicated mice. Experiment was carried out based on the orthogonal design L{sub 8}(2{sup 7}) setting six factors with two different levels of each, and eight groups of mice were needed. Mice were exposed to lead by drinking water contaminated with 0.1% lead acetate for four consecutive weeks, and then supplemented by gavage with different combinations of micronutrients with and without DMSA as designed in the orthogonal table. Lead levels in blood, liver, kidney, brain and bone and activities of blood {delta}-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) were analyzed after cessation of supplementation. The results suggested that DMSA was the only factor which could decrease significantly lead levels in blood, liver, kidney and bone; calcium and ascorbic acid were the notable factors decreasing lead levels in blood, liver, kidney, bone and brain; zinc and calcium were the notable factors reversing the lead-inhibited activities of blood ALAD; taurine was the notable factor decreasing lead levels in kidney and brain; and thiamine was the notable factor decreasing lead levels in brain. The lowest lead level in blood, liver, kidney and bone was shown in the mice supplemented with combination of calcium and ascorbic acid along with DMSA. In conclusion, the optimum combination of micronutrients used with DMSA suggested in present study was calcium and ascorbic acid, which seemed to potentiate the chelating efficacy of DMSA in the treatment of moderately lead intoxicated mice. (orig.)

  16. Acute maduramicin toxicosis in pregnant gilts.

    Shimshoni, Jakob Avi; Britzi, Malka; Pozzi, Paolo S; Edery, Nir; Berkowitz, Asaf; Bouznach, Arieli; Cuneah, Olga; Soback, Stefan; Bellaiche, Michel; Younis, Ahmad; Blech, Einat; Oren, Pnina; Galon, Nadav; Shlosberg, Alan; Perl, Samuel

    2014-06-01

    Ionophores are used as feed additives for the control of coccidiosis and growth promotion in farm animals. Reports of maduramicin toxicosis in farm animals are scarce. The present work describes an acute maduramicin toxicosis affecting 22 pregnant gilts, 2 pregnant sows and 2 boars, resulting in a total mortality of 65% within 2days. The clinical and histopathological findings observed shared similar characteristics to acute ionophore toxicosis in pigs, being characterized by severe myodegeneration in skeletal muscle and degenerative changes in the myocardium. Important clinical pathology indices found were elevated levels of CPK and ALT. In contrast to the pregnant gilts, the two pregnant sows completely recovered after 1month and farrowed 2months after the intoxication event healthy piglets. The lack of effect of maduramicin on the fetuses might be indicative of poor placental penetration of maduramicin. Moreover, the present work reports for the first time maduramicin levels in livers (0.5mg/kg) of gilts exposed to lethal concentrations of maduramicin (18.5mg/kg) in the feed. As the average feed intake of the gilts was estimated to be 3.5kg feed/day, the mean maduramicin intake leading to the observed high mortality rate was 0.4mg/kg body weight/day. PMID:24705019

  17. A Case of Chronic Ethylene Glycol Intoxication Presenting without Classic Metabolic Derangements

    Stephanie M. Toth-Manikowski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute ethylene glycol ingestion classically presents with high anion gap acidosis, elevated osmolar gap, altered mental status, and acute renal failure. However, chronic ingestion of ethylene glycol is a challenging diagnosis that can present as acute kidney injury with subtle physical findings and without the classic metabolic derangements. We present a case of chronic ethylene glycol ingestion in a patient who presented with acute kidney injury and repeated denials of an exposure history. Kidney biopsy was critical to the elucidation of the cause of his worsening renal function.

  18. A simplified acute physiology score in the prediction of acute aluminum phosphide poisoning outcome

    Shahin Shadnia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Aluminum phosphide (AlP is used as a fumigant. It produces phosphine gas, which is a mitochondrial poison. Unfortunately, there is no known antidote for AlP intoxication, and also, there are few data about its prognostic factors. AIMS: The aim of this study was to determine the impact of the Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (SAPS II in the prediction of outcome in patients with acute AlP poisoning requiring admission to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU. Materials and Methods : This was a prospective study in patients with acute AlP poisoning, admitted to the ICU over a period of 12 months. The demographic data were collected and SAPSII was recorded. The patients were divided into survival and non-survival groups due to outcome. Statistical Analysis : The data were expressed as mean ± SD for continuous or discrete variables and as frequency and percentage for categorical variables. The results were compared between the two groups using SPSS software. Results : During the study period, 39 subjects were admitted to the ICU with acute AlP poisoning. All 39 patients required endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation in addition to gastric decontamination with sodium bicarbonate, permanganate potassium, and activated charcoal, therapy with MgSO 4 and calcium gluconate and adequate hydration. Among these patients, 26 (66.7% died. SAPSII was significantly higher in the non-survival group than in the survival group (11.88 ± 4.22 vs. 4.31 ± 2.06, respectively (P < 0.001. Conclusion : SAPSII calculated within the first 24 hours was recognized as a good prognostic indicator among patients with acute AlP poisoning requiring ICU admission.

  19. Acute pancreatitis

    Al Mofleh Ibrahim

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The past few years have witnessed a tremendous progress in our knowledge regarding the pathogenesis, diagnosis, prognostic evaluation and classification of acute pancreatitis. The role of ischemia, lysosomal enzymes, oxygen free radicals, polymorphnuclear cells-byproducts and inflammatory mediators in the pathogenesis of pancreatic necrosis and multiple organ failure has been emphasized. Furthermore, the recent knowledge about agents infecting pancreatic necrosis, routes of infection, bacteriological examination of fine needle aspirate and appropriate antibiotics have changed the concept of acute pancreatitis. New diagnostic tests such as rapid urinary trypsinogen-2 test and inflammatory mediators including polymorphnuclear elastase, C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 contribute to early diagnosis, prognostic evaluation and initiation of an appropriate therapy.

  20. Damage to pancreatic acinar cells and preservation of islets of Langerhans in a rat model of acute pancreatitis induced by Karwinskia humboldtiana (buckthorn).

    Carcano-Diaz, Katya; Garcia-Garcia, Aracely; Segoviano-Ramirez, Juan Carlos; Rodriguez-Rocha, Humberto; Loera-Arias, Maria de Jesus; Garcia-Juarez, Jaime

    2016-09-01

    Karwinskia humboldtiana (Kh) is a poisonous plant that grows in some regions of the American continent. Consuming large amounts of Kh fruit results in acute intoxication leading to respiratory failure, culminating in death within days. There is evidence of histological damage to the lungs, liver, and kidneys following accidental and experimental Kh intoxication. To date, the microscopic effect of Kh consumption on the pancreas has not been described. We examined the early effects of Kh fruit on pancreatic tissue at different stages of acute intoxication in the Wistar rat. We found progressive damage confined to the exocrine pancreas, starting with a reduction in the number of zymogen granules, loss of acinar architecture, the presence of autophagy-like vesicles, apoptosis and inflammatory infiltrate. The pancreatic pathology culminated in damaged acini characterized by necrosis and edema, with a complete loss of lobular architecture. Interestingly, the morphology of the islets of Langerhans was conserved throughout our evaluations. Taken together, our results indicate the damage induced by a high dose of Kh fruit in the Wistar rat is consistent with an early acute necrotizing pancreatitis that exclusively affects the exocrine pancreas. Therefore, this system might be useful as an animal model to study the treatment of pancreatic diseases. More importantly, as the islets of Langerhans were preserved, the active compounds of Kh fruit could be utilized for the treatment of acinar pancreatic cancer. Further studies might provide insight into the severity of acute Kh intoxication in humans and influence the design of treatments for pancreatic diseases and acinar pancreatic cancer. PMID:26877198