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Sample records for acuminata cultivars contrasting

  1. Characterization of Resistance Gene Analogs in Musa acuminata Cultivars Contrasting in Resistance to Biotic Stresses

    The majority of commercial banana cultivars (Musa sp.) have evolved via asexual vegetative propagation, with diversity dependent upon somatic mutation. Restricted variation has resulted in a crops with little resistance to pests and disease, and conventional breeding efforts are limited due to limited viable seed production. Numerous disease resistance genes (R-genes / R-proteins) have been characterized in plants, recognizing and conferring resistance to bacteria, virus, fungi and nematodes. The identification and cloning of R-genes in Musa would contribute to germplasm improvement. To date, five main R-gene classes have been identified, based upon protein domains, with the most abundant coding for nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) proteins. Primers designed from conserved protein motifs have enabled amplification of NBS homologues across diverse plant species. In Musa, our group has identified over 50 distinct NBS-LRR type resistance gene analogs (RGAs) in the resistant wild diploid M. acuminata Calcutta 4. The aim of this work was to characterize RGAs in M. acuminata cultivars contrasting in resistance to Black leaf Streak Disease. PCR amplification was conducted using DNA from M. acuminata cultivars Calcutta 4 (resistant) and Pisang Berlin (susceptible). Degenerate primers targeted sequences homologous to the NBS-LRR R-gene family. Following sequencing and processing of cloned PCR products, 63 out of a total of 136 high quality sequences showed homology to R-genes or RGAs. Phylogenetic analysis was conducted on deduced amino-acid sequences. Degenerate primers were also developed targeting an R-gene family of cytoplasmic serine-threonine (Ser/Thr) receptor-like kinases (RLKs) with extracellular LRRs, for application across cultivars. Studies are also planned for selection and full length sequencing of clones from M. acuminata and M. balbisiana BAC libraries containing novel RGAs characterized in this study, as an approach for complete R

  2. Characterization of resistance gene analogs in Musa acuminata cultivars contrasting in resistance to biotic stresses

    The majority of commercial banana cultivars (Musa sp.) have evolved via asexual vegetative propagation, with diversity dependent upon somatic mutation. Restricted variation has resulted in a crop with little resistance to pests and disease, and conventional breeding efforts are limited due to limited viable seed production. Numerous disease resistance genes (R-genes / R-proteins) have been characterized in plants, recognizing and conferring resistance to bacteria, virus, fungi and nematodes. The identification and cloning of R-genes in Musa would contribute to germplasm improvement. To date, five main R-gene classes have been identified, based upon protein domains, with the most abundant coding for nucleotidebinding site-leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) proteins. Primers designed from conserved protein motifs have enabled amplification of NBS homologues across diverse plant species. In the case of Musa, our group has identified over 50 distinct NBS-LRR type resistance gene analogs (RGAs) in the resistant wild diploid M. acuminata Calcutta 4. The objective of this work was to characterize RGAs in M. acuminata cultivars contrasting in resistance to Black leaf Streak Disease. PCR amplification was conducted using DNA from M. acuminata cultivars Calcutta 4 (resistant) and Pisang Berlin (susceptible). Degenerate primers targeted sequences homologous to the NBS-LRR R-gene family. Following sequencing and processing of cloned PCR products, 63 out of a total of 136 high quality sequences showed homology to R-genes or RGAs. Phylogenetic analysis was conducted on deduced amino-acid sequences. Degenerate primers were also developed targeting an R-gene family of cytoplasmic serine-threonine (Ser/Thr) receptor-like kinases (RLKs) with extracellular LRRs, for application across cultivars. Studies are also planned for selection and full length sequencing of clones from M. acuminata and M. balbisiana BAC libraries containing novel RGAs characterized in this study, as an approach for

  3. Isolation of MA-ACS Gene Family and Expression Study of MA-ACS1 Gene in Musa acuminata Cultivar Pisang Ambon Lumut

    LISTYA UTAMI KARMAWAN

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Musa acuminata cultivar pisang ambon lumut is a native climacteric fruit from Indonesia. Climacteric fruit ripening process is triggered by the gaseous plant hormone ethylene. The rate limiting enzyme involved in ethylene biosynthesis is ACC synthase (ACS which is encoded by ACS gene family. The objective of this study is to identify MA-ACS gene family in M. acuminata cultivar pisang ambon lumut and to study the MA-ACS1 gene expression. The result showed that there were nine M. acuminata ACS gene family members called MA-ACS1–9. Two of them (MA-ACS1 and MA-ACS2 were assessed using reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR for gene expression study and it was only MA-ACS1 correlated with fruit ripening. The MA-ACS1 gene fragment has been successfully isolated and characterized and it has three introns, four exons, and one stop codon. It also shows highest homology with MACS1 gene from M. acuminata cultivar Hsian Jien Chiao (GenBank accession number AF056164. Expression analysis of MA-ACS1 using quantitative PCR (qPCR showed that MA-ACS1 gene expression increased significantly in the third day, reached maximum at the fifth day, and then decreased in the seventh day after harvesting. The qPCR expression analysis result correlated with the result of physical analysis during fruit ripening.

  4. Direct Effects Of Chronic Gamma Radiation On Musa Acuminata Var. Berangan, A Local Malaysia Banana Cultivar

    Musa acuminata var. Berangan, is a popular variety of our local banana known as Pisang Berangan. The variety is a triploid banana, use mainly for dessert and has a great value for commodity fruit crops. However, production of PisangBerangan has been threatened by diseases such as Fusarium wilt, black sigatoka, Fusarium wilt, burrowing nematodes and viral diseases like Banana streak virus, Banana bunch top virus and Banana bract mosaic virus. The scenario becoming worst as Musa has a narrow genetic background for breeding and/or selection program. The banana breeding program of edible bananas is hampered by high sterility, and very limited amounts of seeds. Mutation induction via chronic gamma radiation is an alternative ways in creating more variants for selections towards a better quality and disease tolerance. A total number of 75 samples at nursery stage (1 month) were exposed to chronic gamma radiation in Gamma Greenhouse at Malaysian Nuclear Agency for 28 weeks. The samples were accordingly arranged with distance ranging from 1 m to 15 m from gamma source (Cesium-137). Plant height and new buds were used as measurement parameters in evaluating the direct effects of the chronic gamma radiation. Results showed effective dose of chronic gamma radiation in Pisang Berangan was 20 Gy. Number of new emerging sucker was ranging from 1-3 pieces with the highest at ring-4 and ring-5. Plant height was observed ranging from 22.1 to 110.5 cm. Effects of chronic radiation were observed after 3-4 months in the GGH. The samples revealed as striking leaves, short inter node and new emergence of suckers. The objective of this work is to get a dose response for chronic gamma radiation in Pisang Berangan. As for selection of potential mutant variants, new emerging suckers were tissue cultured in segregating chimeras and to get required numbers of samples for further field evaluation. (author)

  5. De novo transcriptome assembly of two contrasting pumpkin cultivars.

    Xanthopoulou, Aliki; Psomopoulos, Fotis; Ganopoulos, Ioannis; Manioudaki, Maria; Tsaftaris, Athanasios; Nianiou-Obeidat, Irini; Madesis, Panagiotis

    2016-03-01

    Cucurbita pepo (squash, pumpkin, gourd), a worldwide-cultivated vegetable of American origin, is extremely variable in fruit characteristics. However, the information associated with genes and genetic markers for pumpkin is very limited. In order to identify new genes and to develop genetic markers, we performed a transcriptome analysis (RNA-Seq) of two contrasting pumpkin cultivars. Leaves and female flowers of cultivars, 'Big Moose' with large round fruits and 'Munchkin' with small round fruits, were harvested for total RNA extraction. We obtained a total of 6 GB (Big Moose; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Traces/sra/?run=SRR3056882) and 5 GB (Munchkin; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Traces/sra/?run=SRR3056883) sequence data (NCBI SRA database SRX1502732 and SRX1502735, respectively), which correspond to 18,055,786 and 14,824,292 150-base reads. After quality assessment, the clean sequences where 17,995,932 and 14,774,486 respectively. The numbers of total transcripts for 'Big Moose' and 'Munchkin' were 84,727 and 68,051, respectively. TransDecoder identified possible coding regions in assembled transcripts. This study provides transcriptome data for two contrasting pumpkin cultivars, which might be useful for genetic marker development and comparative transcriptome analyses. PMID:26981408

  6. De novo transcriptome assembly of two contrasting pumpkin cultivars

    Aliki Xanthopoulou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cucurbita pepo (squash, pumpkin, gourd, a worldwide-cultivated vegetable of American origin, is extremely variable in fruit characteristics. However, the information associated with genes and genetic markers for pumpkin is very limited. In order to identify new genes and to develop genetic markers, we performed a transcriptome analysis (RNA-Seq of two contrasting pumpkin cultivars. Leaves and female flowers of cultivars, ‘Big Moose’ with large round fruits and ‘Munchkin’ with small round fruits, were harvested for total RNA extraction. We obtained a total of 6 GB (Big Moose; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Traces/sra/?run=SRR3056882 and 5 GB (Munchkin; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Traces/sra/?run=SRR3056883 sequence data (NCBI SRA database SRX1502732 and SRX1502735, respectively, which correspond to 18,055,786 and 14,824,292 150-base reads. After quality assessment, the clean sequences where 17,995,932 and 14,774,486 respectively. The numbers of total transcripts for ‘Big Moose’ and ‘Munchkin’ were 84,727 and 68,051, respectively. TransDecoder identified possible coding regions in assembled transcripts. This study provides transcriptome data for two contrasting pumpkin cultivars, which might be useful for genetic marker development and comparative transcriptome analyses.

  7. EFEITO DO PERÍODO DE ARMAZENAMENTO SOBRE A BROTAÇÃO DE MUDAS DE BANANEIRA DO CULTIVAR NANICÃO (Musa acuminata AAA EFFECT OF STORAGE TIME IN THE BUDDING OF BANANA ROOTSTOCK CULTIVAR NANICÃO (Musa acuminata AAA

    Ronaldo Veloso Naves

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    A grande procura atual de mudas de bananeiras do cultivar Nanicão (Musa acuminata AAA em Goiás, principalmente na região do Mato Grosso Goiano, tem forçado o transporte de mudas a grandes distâncias. A maioria destas mudas são transportadas sob a forma de pedaços de rizoma com aproximadamente 1 Kg. Tem-se observado uma falha acima do previsto quando se utiliza este tipo de muda. O presente trabalho foi realizado para determinar o efeito do período de armazenamento sobre a brotação deste cultivar. Com base nos resultados concluiu-se que no período de armazenamento estudado (45 dias praticamente não houve diferença na brotação das mudas. Somente aquelas armazenadas por 5 (cinco semanas apresentaram inexplicavelmente um índice baixo de pegamento.

    Because of the tremendous current demand for Nanicão (Musa acuminata AAA banana shoots in the state of Goiás, notably in the “Mato Grosso Goiano” area, shoots have had to be imported from far away. The greater part of these shoots are transported in rootstalk form. Each rootstalk weighs approximately 1 Kg. A larger portion of these shoots than been anticipated, are defective. The present study was made to determine the effect of storage time on the budding of this particular banana rootstalk. The results of the experiment show that during the period of storage, forty-two (42 days, that was studied, there was almost no difference in budding among the rootstalks. Only those which were stored for five (5 weeks showed, unexplainably, a low budding index.

  8. The contrasting responses of soil microorganisms in two rice cultivars to elevated ground-level ozone

    Although elevated ground-level O3 has a species–specific impact on plant growth, the differences in soil biota responses to O3 pollution among rice cultivars are rarely reported. Using O3 Free-Air Concentration Enrichment, the responses of the rhizospheric bacterial communities in the O3-tolerant (YD6) and the O3-sensitive (IIY084) rice cultivars to O3 pollution and their differences were assessed by pyrosequencing at rice tillering and anthesis stages. Elevated ground-level O3 negatively influenced the bacterial community in cultivar YD6 at both rice growth stages by decreasing the bacterial phylogenetic diversities and response ratios. In contrast, in cultivar IIY084, the bacterial community responded positively at the rice tillering stage under O3 pollution. However, several keystone bacterial guilds were consistently negatively affected by O3 pollution in two rice cultivars. These findings indicate that continuously O3 pollution would negatively influence rice agroecosystem and the crop cultivar is important in determining the soil biota responses to elevated O3. - Highlights: • We investigated the soil biota in two rice cultivars in presence of elevated O3. • The contrasting responses of soil biota were found between two rice cultivars. • Some keystone bacterial guilds were consistently negatively affected by O3 pollution. • The crop cultivar is important in determining soil biota responses to elevated O3. - The crop cultivar is important in determining the soil biota responses to elevated O3

  9. Temperature Impact on the Forage Quality of Two Wheat Cultivars with Contrasting Capacity to Accumulate Sugars

    Máximo Lorenzo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Wheat is increasingly used as a dual-purpose crop (for forage and grain production worldwide. Plants encounter low temperatures in winter, which commonly results in sugar accumulation. High sugar levels might have a positive impact on forage digestibility, but may also lead to an increased risk of bloat. We hypothesized that cultivars with a lower capacity to accumulate sugars when grown under cold conditions may have a lower bloat risk than higher sugar-accumulating genotypes, without showing significantly lower forage digestibility. This possibility was studied using two wheat cultivars with contrasting sugar accumulation at low temperature. A series of experiments with contrasting temperatures were performed in controlled-temperature field enclosures (three experiments and growth chambers (two experiments. Plants were grown at either cool (8.1 °C–9.3 °C or warm (15.7 °C–16.5 °C conditions in field enclosures, and at either 5 °C or 25 °C in growth chambers. An additional treatment consisted of transferring plants from cool to warm conditions in the field enclosures and from 5 °C to 25 °C in the growth chambers. The plants in the field enclosure experiments were exposed to higher irradiances (i.e., 30%–100% than those in the growth chambers. Our results show that (i low temperatures led to an increased hemicellulose content, in parallel with sugar accumulation; (ii low temperatures produced negligible changes in in vitro dry matter digestibility while leading to a higher in vitro rumen gas production, especially in the higher sugar-accumulating cultivar; (iii transferring plants from cool to warm conditions led to a sharp decrease in in vitro rumen gas production in both cultivars; and (iv light intensity (in contrast to temperature appeared to have a lower impact on forage quality.

  10. Comparative analysis of proteomic changes in contrasting flax cultivars upon cadmium exposure.

    Hradilová, Jana; Rehulka, Pavel; Rehulková, Helena; Vrbová, Miroslava; Griga, Miroslav; Brzobohatý, Bretislav

    2010-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is classified as a serious pollutant due to its high toxicity, high carcinogenicity, and widespread presence in the environment. Phytoremediation represents an effective low-cost approach for removing pollutants from contaminated soils, and a crop with significant phytoremediation potential is flax. However, significant differences in Cd accumulation and tolerance were previously found among commercial flax cultivars. Notably, cv. Jitka showed substantially higher tolerance to elevated Cd levels in soil and plant tissues than cv. Tábor. Here, significant changes in the expression of 14 proteins (related to disease/defense, metabolism, protein destination and storage, signal transduction, energy and cell structure) were detected by image and mass spectrometric analysis of two-dimensionally separated proteins extracted from Cd-treated cell suspension cultures derived from these contrasting cultivars. Further, two proteins, ferritin and glutamine synthetase (a key enzyme in glutathione biosynthesis), were only up-regulated by Cd in cv. Jitka, indicating that Cd tolerance mechanisms in this cultivar may include maintenance of low Cd levels at sensitive sites by ferritin and low-molecular weight thiol peptides binding Cd. The identified changes could facilitate marker-assisted breeding for Cd tolerance and the development of transgenic flax lines with enhanced Cd tolerance and accumulation capacities for phytoremediating Cd-contaminated soils. PMID:20084635

  11. Effects of external potassium (k supply on drought tolerances of two contrasting winter wheat cultivars.

    Jiguang Wei

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Drought is a common stress limiting crops growth and productivities worldwide. Water deficit may increase cellular membrane permeability, resulting in K outflow. Internal K starvation may disorder plant metabolism and limit plant growth. However, it is seldom reported about the effects of external K on drought tolerance of contrasting wheat cultivars. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A hydroponics experiment was carried out in a non-controlled greenhouse. Seedlings of drought-tolerant SN16 and intolerant JM22 were simultaneously treated by five levels of K2CO3 (0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10 mM and two levels of PEG6000 (0, 20% for 7 days. External K2CO3 significantly increased shoot K(+ content, water potential, chlorophyll content as well as gas exchange, but decreased electrolyte leakage (EL and MDA content in both cultivars under PEG6000 stress. Antioxidant enzymes activities were up-regulated by PEG6000 while external K2CO3 reduced those changes. Molecular basis was explained by measuring the expression levels of antioxidant enzymes related genes. Shoot and root biomass were also increased by K2CO3 supply under drought stress. Although adequate K2CO3 application enhanced plant growth for both cultivars under drought stress, SN16 was better than JM22 due to its high drought tolerance. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Adequate external K may effectively protect winter wheat from drought injuries. We conclude that drought-tolerant wheat combined with adequate external K supply may be a promising strategy for better growth in arid and semi-arid regions.

  12. Molecular Characterization of Somatic Mutation in Musa acuminata 'Red'

    Musa acuminata 'Red' (AAA) is a South Indian dessert banana cultivar (2n = 3x = 33) with a characteristic red color in the pseudostem, petiole and fruit peel. Red banana undergoes the process of somaclonal variation, producing the 'off types' Musa acuminata 'Green' cultivars. The frequency of the production of this 'green variant' is high during in vitro multiplication. In plants, anthocyanin pigments are assembled from phenyl alanine and acetyl CoA by the enzyme chalcone synthase (CHS). To understand the molecular mechanism for the somaclonal variation in Red banana, the chalcone synthase gene sequences were amplified using PCR products and sequences were compared with those of 'Green variants (AAA)', 'Dwarf Cavendish (AAA)' and diploid 'Pisang lilin' (AA). Sequence variations were observed only in amplified product from Red cultivar. Predicted amino acid sequences of the longest ORF indicated changes in seven amino acids such as arginine, glutamine, alanine, aspartic acid, isoleucine, phenylalanine and asparagine to serine, leucine, proline, alanine, valine, tyrosine and serine respectively. Musa acuminata cv. Red with anthocyanin content might have originated as a natural mutant, selected and maintained by vegetative propagation through generations. (author)

  13. Down-regulation of photosynthesis following girdling, but contrasting effects on fruit set and retention, in two sweet cherry cultivars.

    Quentin, A G; Close, D C; Hennen, L M H P; Pinkard, E A

    2013-12-01

    Sweet cherry (Prunus avium) trees were manipulated to analyse the contribution of soluble sugars to sink feedback down-regulation of leaf net CO2 assimilation rate (Anet) and fruit set and quality attributes. Total soluble sugar concentration and Anet were measured in the morning on fully expanded leaves of girdled branches in two sweet cherry cultivars, 'Kordia' and 'Sylvia' characterised typically by low and high crop load, respectively. Leaves on girdled trees had higher soluble sugar concentrations and reduced Anet than leaves on non-girdled trees. Moreover, RuBP carboxylation capacity of Rubisco (Vcmax) and triose-phosphate utilisation (TPU) were repressed in the girdled treatments, despite Jmax remaining unchanged; suggesting an impairment of photosynthetic capacity in response to the girdling treatment. Leaf Anet was negatively correlated to soluble sugars, suggesting a sink feedback regulatory control of photosynthesis. Although there were significantly less fruit set and retained in 'Kordia' than 'Sylvia'; girdling had contrasting effects in each cultivar. Girdling significantly increased fruit set and fruitlet retention in 'Sylvia' cultivar, but had no effect in 'Kordia' cultivar. We propose that low inherent sink demand for photoassimilates of 'Kordia' fruit could have contributed to the low fruit retention rate, since both non-girdled and girdled trees exhibited similar retention rate and that increases in foliar carbohydrates was observed above the girdle. In 'Sylvia' cultivar, the carbohydrate status may be a limiting factor for 'Sylvia' fruit, since girdling improved both fruit set and retention, and leaf soluble solids accumulation. PMID:24189522

  14. Constraints to hydraulic acclimation under reduced light in two contrasting Phaseolus vulgaris cultivars.

    Matzner, Steven L; Rettedal, David D; Harmon, Derek A; Beukelman, MacKenzie R

    2014-08-01

    Two cultivars of Phaseolus vulgaris L. were grown under three light levels to determine if hydraulic acclimation to light occurs in herbaceous annuals and whether intraspecific trade-offs constrain hydraulic traits. Acclimation occurred in response to reduced light and included decreased stomatal density (SD) and increased specific leaf area (SLA). Reduced light resulted in lower wood density (WD); decreased cavitation resistance, measured as the xylem pressure causing a 50 % reduction in stem conductivity (P50); and increased hydraulic capacity, measured as average leaf mass specific transpiration (E(LM)). Significant or marginally significant trade-offs between P50 and WD, WD and E(LM), and E(LM) and P50 reflected variation due to both genotype and environmental effects. A trade-off between WD and P50 within one cultivar indicated that morphological adjustment was constrained. Coordinated changes in WD, P50, and E(LM) within each cultivar in response to light were consistent with trade-offs constraining plasticity. A water-use efficiency (WUE, measured as δ(13)C) versus hydraulic capacity (E(LM)) trade-off was observed within each cultivar, further indicating that hydraulic trade-offs can constrain acclimation. Larger plants had lower hydraulic capacity (E(LM)) but greater cavitation resistance, WD, and WUE. Distinct hydraulic strategies were observed with the cultivar adapted to irrigated conditions having higher stomatal conductance and stem flow rates. The cultivar adapted to rain-fed conditions had higher leaf area and greater cavitation resistance. Hydraulic trade-offs were observed within the herbaceous P. vulgaris resulting from both genotype and environmental effects. Trade-offs within a cultivar reflected constraints to hydraulic acclimation in response to changing light. PMID:24863433

  15. Physiological and proteome studies of responses to heat stress during grain filling in contrasting wheat cultivars

    Wang, Xiao; Dinler, Burcu Seckin; Vignjevic, Marija;

    2015-01-01

    stress as compared to the control. Collectively, the results indicate that primarily changes in both the amount and activities of enzymes involved in photosynthesis and antioxidant activities in leaves contributed to higher heat tolerance in the cv. '810' compared to the heat sensitive cv. '1039'. (C......Experiments to explore physiological and biochemical differences of the effects of heat stress in ten wheat (Triticum aestivum L) cultivars have been performed. Based on the response of photosynthesis rates, cell membrane lipid peroxide concentrations and grain yield to heat, six cultivars were...... compared to sensitive cultivars under heat stress. The tolerant cv. '810' and the sensitive cv. '1039' were selected for further proteome analysis of leaves. Proteins related to photosynthesis, glycolysis, stress defence, heat shock and ATP production were differently expressed in leaves of the tolerant...

  16. Identification and Expression Analyses of miRNAs from Two Contrasting Flower Color Cultivars of Canna by Deep Sequencing.

    Roy, Sribash; Tripathi, Abhinandan Mani; Yadav, Amrita; Mishra, Parneeta; Nautiyal, Chandra Shekhar

    2016-01-01

    miRNAs are endogenous small RNA (sRNA) that play critical roles in plant development processes. Canna is an ornamental plant belonging to family Cannaceae. Here, we report for the first time the identification and differential expression of miRNAs in two contrasting flower color cultivars of Canna, Tropical sunrise and Red president. A total of 313 known miRNAs belonging to 78 miRNA families were identified from both the cultivars. Thirty one miRNAs (17 miRNA families) were specific to Tropical sunrise and 43 miRNAs (10 miRNA families) were specific to Red president. Thirty two and 18 putative new miRNAs were identified from Tropical sunrise and Red president, respectively. One hundred and nine miRNAs were differentially expressed in the two cultivars targeting 1343 genes. Among these, 16 miRNAs families targeting 60 genes were involved in flower development related traits and five miRNA families targeting five genes were involved in phenyl propanoid and pigment metabolic processes. We further validated the expression analysis of a few miRNA and their target genes by qRT-PCR. Transcription factors were the major miRNA targets identified. Target validation of a few randomly selected miRNAs by RLM-RACE was performed but was successful with only miR162. These findings will help in understanding flower development processes, particularly the color development in Canna. PMID:26799570

  17. Human Papillomavirus, Condylomata Acuminata, and Anal Neoplasia

    Chang, George J.; Welton, Mark L.

    2004-01-01

    Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is an increasingly common sexually transmitted disease. This virus causes condylomata acuminata and is associated with anal neoplasia. Management options are discussed.

  18. Analysis of non-TIR NBS-LRR resistance gene analogs in Musa acuminata Colla: Isolation, RFLP marker development, and physical mapping

    Souza Manoel T

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many commercial banana varieties lack sources of resistance to pests and diseases, as a consequence of sterility and narrow genetic background. Fertile wild relatives, by contrast, possess greater variability and represent potential sources of disease resistance genes (R-genes. The largest known family of plant R-genes encode proteins with nucleotide-binding site (NBS and C-terminal leucine-rich repeat (LRR domains. Conserved motifs in such genes in diverse plant species offer a means for isolation of candidate genes in banana which may be involved in plant defence. Results A computational strategy was developed for unbiased conserved motif discovery in NBS and LRR domains in R-genes and homologues in monocotyledonous plant species. Degenerate PCR primers targeting conserved motifs were tested on the wild cultivar Musa acuminata subsp. burmannicoides, var. Calcutta 4, which is resistant to a number of fungal pathogens and nematodes. One hundred and seventy four resistance gene analogs (RGAs were amplified and assembled into 52 contiguous sequences. Motifs present were typical of the non-TIR NBS-LRR RGA subfamily. A phylogenetic analysis of deduced amino-acid sequences for 33 RGAs with contiguous open reading frames (ORFs, together with RGAs from Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa, grouped most Musa RGAs within monocotyledon-specific clades. RFLP-RGA markers were developed, with 12 displaying distinct polymorphisms in parentals and F1 progeny of a diploid M. acuminata mapping population. Eighty eight BAC clones were identified in M. acuminata Calcutta 4, M. acuminata Grande Naine, and M. balbisiana Pisang Klutuk Wulung BAC libraries when hybridized to two RGA probes. Multiple copy RGAs were common within BAC clones, potentially representing variation reservoirs for evolution of new R-gene specificities. Conclusion This is the first large scale analysis of NBS-LRR RGAs in M. acuminata Calcutta 4. Contig sequences were

  19. Analysis of the leaf transcriptome of Musa acuminata during interaction with Mycosphaerella musicola: gene assembly, annotation and marker development

    Passos, Marco A. N.; de Cruz, Viviane Oliveira; Emediato, Flavia L; de Teixeira, Cristiane Camargo; Azevedo, Vânia C Rennó; Brasileiro, Ana C. M.; Amorim, Edson P; Ferreira, Claudia F; Martins, Natalia F; Togawa, Roberto C; Pappas, Georgios J; da Silva, Orzenil Bonfim; Miller, Robert NG

    2013-01-01

    Background Although banana (Musa sp.) is an important edible crop, contributing towards poverty alleviation and food security, limited transcriptome datasets are available for use in accelerated molecular-based breeding in this genus. 454 GS-FLX Titanium technology was employed to determine the sequence of gene transcripts in genotypes of Musa acuminata ssp. burmannicoides Calcutta 4 and M. acuminata subgroup Cavendish cv. Grande Naine, contrasting in resistance to the fungal pathogen Mycosph...

  20. Molecular characterization of somatic mutation in Musa acuminata 'Red'

    Musa acuminata 'Red' (AAA) is a South Indian dessert banana cultivar (2n = 3x = 33) with a characteristic red colour in the pseudostem, petiole and fruit peel. It is a popular edible variety grown extensively in India, Thailand, Sri Lanka, East Africa, West Indies, Myanmar and Continental America. Red banana undergoes the process of somaclonal variation, producing the 'off types' M. acuminata 'Green' cultivars. The frequency of the production of this 'green variant' is high during in vitro multiplication. In plants, anthocyanin pigments are assembled like all other flavanoids from two different streams of chemical raw materials in the cell. One stream involved the shikimate pathway to produce the amino acid phenyl alanine and the other stream produced 3 molecules of malonyl Co-A, a C3 unit from a C2 unit (acetyl Co A). These streams meet and are coupled together by the enzyme chalcone synthase (CHS), which forms an intermediate chalcone via a polyketide folding mechanism that is commonly found in plants. The chalcone is subsequently isomerized by the enzyme chalcone isomerase (CHI) to the prototype pigment naringenin - the precursor for flavanoids. More than five enzymes are required to synthesize anthocyanin pigments, each working in concert. Any even minor disruption in any of the mechanism of these enzymes by either genetic or environmental factors would halt anthocyanin production. To understand the molecular mechanism for the somaclonal variation in Red banana, the chalcone synthase gene sequences were amplified using PCR products cloned and sequences were compared with those of 'Green variants (AAA)', 'Dwarf Cavendish (AAA)' and diploid 'Pisang lilin' (AA). Sequence variations were observed only in amplified product from Red cultivar. Predicted amino acid sequences of the longest ORF indicated changes in seven amino acids such as arginine, glutamine, alanine, aspartic acid, isoleucine, phenylalanine and asparagine to serine, leucine, proline, alanine, valine

  1. A saturated SSR/DArT linkage map of Musa acuminata addressing genome rearrangements among bananas

    Matsumoto Takashi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genus Musa is a large species complex which includes cultivars at diploid and triploid levels. These sterile and vegetatively propagated cultivars are based on the A genome from Musa acuminata, exclusively for sweet bananas such as Cavendish, or associated with the B genome (Musa balbisiana in cooking bananas such as Plantain varieties. In M. acuminata cultivars, structural heterozygosity is thought to be one of the main causes of sterility, which is essential for obtaining seedless fruits but hampers breeding. Only partial genetic maps are presently available due to chromosomal rearrangements within the parents of the mapping populations. This causes large segregation distortions inducing pseudo-linkages and difficulties in ordering markers in the linkage groups. The present study aims at producing a saturated linkage map of M. acuminata, taking into account hypotheses on the structural heterozygosity of the parents. Results An F1 progeny of 180 individuals was obtained from a cross between two genetically distant accessions of M. acuminata, 'Borneo' and 'Pisang Lilin' (P. Lilin. Based on the gametic recombination of each parent, two parental maps composed of SSR and DArT markers were established. A significant proportion of the markers (21.7% deviated (p Conclusions We propose a synthetic map with 11 linkage groups containing 489 markers (167 SSRs and 322 DArTs covering 1197 cM. This first saturated map is proposed as a "reference Musa map" for further analyses. We also propose two complete parental maps with interpretations of structural rearrangements localized on the linkage groups. The structural heterozygosity in P. Lilin is hypothesized to result from a duplication likely accompanied by an inversion on another chromosome. This paper also illustrates a methodological approach, transferable to other species, to investigate the mapping of structural rearrangements and determine their consequences on marker

  2. Influence of transplant size on the above- and below-ground performance of four contrasting field-grown lettuce cultivars

    Kerbiriou, P.J.; Stomph, T.J.; Lammerts van Bueren, E.T.; Struik, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims: Modern lettuce cultivars underperform under conditions of variable temporal and spatial resource availability, common in organic or low-input production systems. Information is scarce on the impact of below-ground traits on such resource acquisition and performance of field-grown lettuce; exploring genetic variation in such traits might contribute to strategies to select for robust cultivars, i.e., cultivars that perform well in the field, even under stress. Methods: To i...

  3. Management of a giant perineal condylomata acuminata.

    Hemper, Evelyn; Wittau, Mathias; Lemke, Johannes; Kornmann, Marko; Henne-Bruns, Doris

    2016-01-01

    A condylomata acuminata infection is caused by human papillomaviridae (HPV). This sexually transmitted condition most often affects the perineal region. Importantly, infections with types 16 and 18 are associated with an increased risk for anal and cervix cancer. In most cases topical therapy is sufficient for successfully treating condylomata acuminata. Here, we report the case of a 51-year old patient who suffered from a giant perianal located condylomata acuminata which had developed over a period of more than 10 years. Imaging by MRI revealed a possible infiltration of the musculus sphincter ani externus. Because a topical treatment or a radiotherapy was considered unfeasible, a surgical treatment was the only therapeutic option in this unusual case. First, a colostomy was performed and subsequently a resection of the tumor in toto with circular resection of the external portion of the musculus sphincter ani externus was performed. The large skin defect was closed by two gluteus flaps. The rectum wall was reinserted in the remnant of the musculus sphincter ani externus. Postoperatively, parts of the flaps developed necrosis. Therefore, a vacuum sealing therapy was initiated. Subsequently, the remaining skin defects were closed by autologous skin transplantation. Six months later the colostomy could be reversed. To date, one year after first surgery, the patient has still a normal sphincter function and no recurrence of the condylomata acuminata. This case report demonstrates how giant condylomata acuminata can be successfully treated by extended surgical procedures including colostomy and plastic reconstruction of resulting defects upon resection. PMID:26814336

  4. Management of a giant perineal condylomata acuminata

    Hemper, Evelyn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A condylomata acuminata infection is caused by human papillomaviridae (HPV. This sexually transmitted condition most often affects the perineal region. Importantly, infections with types 16 and 18 are associated with an increased risk for anal and cervix cancer. In most cases topical therapy is sufficient for successfully treating condylomata acuminata. Here, we report the case of a 51-year old patient who suffered from a giant perianal located condylomata acuminata which had developed over a period of more than 10 years. Imaging by MRI revealed a possible infiltration of the musculus sphincter ani externus. Because a topical treatment or a radiotherapy was considered unfeasible, a surgical treatment was the only therapeutic option in this unusual case. First, a colostomy was performed and subsequently a resection of the tumor with circular resection of the external portion of the musculus sphincter ani externus was performed. The large skin defect was closed by two gluteus flaps. The rectum wall was reinserted in the remnant of the musculus sphincter ani externus. Postoperatively, parts of the flaps developed necrosis. Therefore, a vacuum sealing therapy was initiated. Subsequently, the remaining skin defects were closed by autologous skin transplantation. Six months later the colostomy could be reversed. To date, one year after first surgery, the patient has still a normal sphincter function and no recurrence of the condylomata acuminata. This case report demonstrates how giant condylomata acuminata can be successfully treated by extended surgical procedures including colostomy and plastic reconstruction of resulting defects upon resection.

  5. Atividade antiviral de Musa acuminata Colla, Musaceae Antiviral activity of Musa acuminata Colla, Musaceae

    Fernanda Otaviano Martins

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho avalia a atividade antiviral de extratos e frações de Musa acuminata Colla, Musaceae, coletada em duas regiões do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (Petrópolis e Santo Antônio de Pádua. As inflorescências de M. acuminata apresentaram excelente atividade para os dois vírus avaliados: herpesvírus simples humano tipo 1 e herpesvírus simples humano tipo 2, ambos resistentes ao Aciclovir. Os resultados indicam que os extratos de M. acuminata testados podem constituir alvo potencial para uso em terapias antivirais.This study evaluates the antiviral activity of extracts and fractions of Musa acuminata Colla collected in two regions of Rio de Janeiro State (Petrópolis and Santo Antônio de Pádua. The inflorescences of M. acuminata showed excellent activity for the two virus evaluated: simple human herpesvirus type 1 and simple human herpesvirus type 2, both resistant to Acyclovir. The results indicate that the tested extracts of M. acuminata can be potential target for use in antiviral therapy.

  6. Contrasting response of biomass and grain yield to severe drought in Cappelle Desprez and Plainsman V wheat cultivars

    Paul, Kenny; Pauk, János; Deák, Zsuzsanna; Sass, László; Vass, Imre

    2016-01-01

    We report a case study of natural variations and correlations of some photosynthetic parameters, green biomass and grain yield in Cappelle Desprez and Plainsman V winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars, which are classified as being drought sensitive and tolerant, respectively. We monitored biomass accumulation from secondary leaves in the vegetative phase and grain yield from flag leaves in the grain filling period. Interestingly, we observed higher biomass production, but lower grain...

  7. Contrasting response of biomass and grain yield to severe drought in Cappelle Desprez and Plainsman V wheat cultivars.

    Paul, Kenny; Pauk, János; Deák, Zsuzsanna; Sass, László; Vass, Imre

    2016-01-01

    We report a case study of natural variations and correlations of some photosynthetic parameters, green biomass and grain yield in Cappelle Desprez and Plainsman V winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars, which are classified as being drought sensitive and tolerant, respectively. We monitored biomass accumulation from secondary leaves in the vegetative phase and grain yield from flag leaves in the grain filling period. Interestingly, we observed higher biomass production, but lower grain yield stability in the sensitive Cappelle cultivar, as compared to the tolerant Plainsman cv. Higher biomass production in the sensitive variety was correlated with enhanced water-use efficiency. Increased cyclic electron flow around PSI was also observed in the Cappelle cv. under drought stress as shown by light intensity dependence of the ratio of maximal quantum yields of Photosystem I and Photosystem II, as well by the plot of the Photosystem I electron transport rate as a function of Photosystem II electron transport rate. Higher CO2 uptake rate in flag leaves of the drought-stressed Plainsman cv. during grain filling period correlates well with its higher grain yield and prolonged transpiration rate through spikes. The increase in drought factor (DFI) and performance (PI) indices calculated from variable chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of secondary leaves also showed correlation with higher biomass in the Cappelle cultivar during the biomass accumulation period. However, during the grain filling period, DFI and PI parameters of the flag leaves were higher in the tolerant Plainsman V cultivar and showed correlation with grain yield stability. Our results suggest that overall biomass and grain yield may respond differentially to drought stress in different wheat cultivars and therefore phenotyping for green biomass cannot be used as a general approach to predict grain yield. We also conclude that photosynthetic efficiency of flag and secondary leaves is correlated with

  8. Transcriptional analysis of cell wall and cuticle related genes during fruit development of two sweet cherry cultivars with contrasting levels of cracking tolerance

    Cristián Balbontín

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Rain-induced cracking before harvest is the major cause of crop loss in sweet cherry (Prunus avium [L.] L. In order to better understand the relationship between cherry fruit cracking and gene expression, the transcriptional patterns of six genes related to cell wall modification and cuticular wax biosynthesis were analyzed during fruit setting (FS, fruit color change (FC and fruit ripening (FR, employing two contrasting cultivars: the cracking resistant 'Kordia' and the cracking susceptible 'Bing'. The transcription levels of AP2/EREBP-type transcription factor (PaWINB, wax synthase (WS, ß-ketoacyl-CoA synthase (PaKCS6, and ß-galactosidase (ß-Gal showed higher levels in 'Kordia' than in 'Bing' during the FS stage, while similar values were observed in both cultivars at FR stage. In contrast to that pattern, transcription levels of expansin (PaEXPl were higher at FR stage in 'Kordia' than in 'Bing'. Transcript profile of lipid transport protein gene (PaLTPGl decreased during fruit development, with higher levels in 'Bing' than in 'Kordia' at FC and FR stages suggesting no relation with cracking tolerance. The expression profiles of PaWINB, WS, PaKCS6, and ß-Gal suggest that they are genes involved in conferring cracking tolerance, likely due to their function in cuticle deposition during early stages of fruit development. In addition, a greater expression level of expansin gene would allow for a faster growth rate in 'Kordia' at FR stage.

  9. CONTRAST

    Kristensen, Thomas Krogsgaard

    2007-01-01

    Dette er en afrapportering fra den årlige CONTRAST workshop, der i 2007 blev afholdt i Yaoundé, Cameroon.......Dette er en afrapportering fra den årlige CONTRAST workshop, der i 2007 blev afholdt i Yaoundé, Cameroon....

  10. Antiinflammatory evaluation of leaves of Plumeria acuminata

    Gomathi P

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backround Plumeria acuminata belonging to the family Apocynaceae is commonly known as 'perungalli' in Tamil and is widely distributed throughout the Southern parts of India. In traditional medicinal system different parts of the plant have been mentioned to be useful in a variety of diseases. The plant material is widely used as a purgative, remedy for diarrhoea and cure for itch. The milky juice is employed for the treatment of inflammation and rheumatism. The bark has been reported to be useful in hard tumors, diarrhoea and gonorrhoea. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the antiinflammatory activity of methanol extract of leaves of Plumeria acuminata on carrageenan, dextran, histamine and serotonin-induced inflammation in rat hind paw oedema models. Methods Acute and chronic inflammation models were used to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of the extract. Wistar albino rats of either sex weighing 180–200 g were used. In acute model carrageenan, dextran, histamine and serotonin models were used to induce inflammation in rat hind paw and cotton pellet-induced granuloma method was used for chronic inflammation model. In each model four groups of six animals were used. In all the models Group I served as control (0.9% normal saline, 5 mlkg-1 b.w and group IV as standard (Indomethacin 10 mgkg-1 b.w. Group II and III received extract at the doses of 250 and 500 mgkg-1 b.w respectively. Results The methanol extract of Plumeria acuminata exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity on the tested experimental animal models. The extract (500 mgkg-1 b.w exhibited maximum antiinflammatory effect i.e., 30.51, 47.06, 34.48 and 32.50% (P -1 b.w and indomethacin (10 mgkg-1 b.w significantly reduced the formation of granuloma tissue induced by cotton pellet method at a rate of 45.06 and 51.57% respectively. The effect produced by the extract was comparable to that of indomethacin a prototype of a nonsteroidal

  11. Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of Camptotheca acuminata

    WANG Hui-mei; ZU Yuan-gang

    2007-01-01

    UGPase gene related with wood cellulose synthesis was transferred into C. Acuminata using the method of Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation, and an efficient transformation system was developed for C. Acuminata on the basis of evaluations of several factors affecting Agrobacterium-mediated DNA transfer rate. The highest transformation rate was achieved when pre-cultured leaf explants were infected with an Agrobacterium culture corresponding to OD600 (0.5) for 10 min, and cultured on explant regeneration medium for three days. The results of Southern hybridization showed that genomic DNA of the kanamycin-resistant shoots to an UGPase gene probe substantiated the integration of the transgene. Transformation efficiency (6%) was achieved under the optimized transformation procedure. This system should facilitate the introduction of important useful genes into C. Acuminata.

  12. Distinctive Features of Foreskin Condylomata Acuminata Associated with Diabetes Mellitus

    Wang, Xiu L.; Wang, Hong W.; Hillemanns, Peter; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that particular clinical features of foreskin condylomata acuminata in Chinese male patients are associated with diabetes. A prospective study enrolled 126 men presenting with foreskin condylomata acuminata from 2001 to 2006. Mean age was 46 years (age range 25–74 years) and mean duration of disease was 4.8 months (range 1–18 months). Patients were divided into two groups according to clinical features. In group 1, 42 men had distinctive signs ...

  13. Antinociceptive effect of critoniella acuminata, physalis peruviana and salvia rubescens

    Munóz, Carol; Vergel, Nadezdha E.; Aragón, Diana Marcela; Ospina, Luis Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Se evaluó el efecto antinociceptivo de extractos, fracciones y compuestos de Critoniella acuminata, Physalis peruviana y Salvia rubescens mediante los métodos de placa caliente, contorsiones abdominales inducidas por ácido acético y ensayo de la formalina. La fracción de Critoniella acuminata en dosis de 100 mg/kg p.o. presentó actividad antinociceptiva al aumentar el tiempo de reacción del animal ante la aplicación de un estímulo térmico (método de la placa caliente), mient...

  14. Switchgrass cultivar

    Wu, Yanqi; Taliaferro, Charles M.

    2012-10-02

    A new cultivar of switchgrass `Cimarron` (SL93 2001-1) having increased biomass yield is provided. The switchgrass comprises all the morphological and physiological properties of the cultivar grown from a seed deposited under American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) No. PTA-10116. The invention also provides seeds, progeny, parts and methods of use of Cimarron, such as for the production of biofuels.

  15. External potassium (K(+)) application improves salinity tolerance by promoting Na(+)-exclusion, K(+)-accumulation and osmotic adjustment in contrasting peanut cultivars.

    Chakraborty, Koushik; Bhaduri, Debarati; Meena, Har Narayan; Kalariya, Kuldeepsingh

    2016-06-01

    Achieving salt-tolerance is highly desirable in today's agricultural context. Apart from developing salt-tolerant cultivars, possibility lies with management options, which can improve crop yield and have significant impact on crop physiology as well. Thus present study was aimed to evaluate the ameliorative role of potassium (K(+)) in salinity tolerance of peanut. A field experiment was conducted using two differentially salt-responsive cultivars and three levels of salinity treatment (control, 2.0 dS m(-1), 4.0 dS m(-1)) along with two levels (with and without) of potassium fertilizer (0 and 30 kg K2O ha(-1)). Salinity treatment incurred significant changes in overall physiology in two peanut cultivars, though the responses varied between the tolerant and the susceptible one. External K(+) application resulted in improved salinity tolerance in terms of plant water status, biomass produced under stress, osmotic adjustment and better ionic balance. Tolerant cv. GG 2 showed better salt tolerance by excluding Na(+) from uptake and lesser accumulation in leaf tissue and relied more on organic osmolyte for osmotic adjustment. On the contrary, susceptible cv. TG 37A allowed more Na(+) to accumulate in the leaf tissue and relied more on inorganic solute for osmotic adjustment under saline condition, hence showed more susceptibility to salinity stress. Application of K(+) resulted in nullifying the negative effect of salinity stress with slightly better response in the susceptible cultivar (TG 37A). The present study identified Na(+)-exclusion as a key strategy for salt-tolerance in tolerant cv. GG 2 and also showed the ameliorating role of K(+) in salt-tolerance with varying degree of response amongst tolerant and susceptible cultivars. PMID:26994338

  16. Condylomata acuminata within perianal fistulae tracts: report of two cases.

    Panidis, Stavros; Paramythiotis, Daniel; Papadopoulos, Vasileios N; Michalopoulos, Antonios

    2015-04-01

    The commonest sights of appearance of condylomata acuminata are in the genital and anal regions. Herein we present two cases of condylomata within perianal fistulae tracts, resulting in recurrence in one case and a malignant-like tumour in the second. To our knowledge, these are the first cases reported in the literature. PMID:24872374

  17. Comparative analysis of root transcriptomes from two contrasting drought-responsive Williams 82 and DT2008 soybean cultivars under normal and dehydration conditions

    Ha, Chien Van; Watanabe, Yasuko; Tran, Uyen Thi; Le, Dung Tien; Tanaka, Maho; Nguyen, Kien Huu; Seki, Motoaki; Nguyen, Dong Van; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2015-01-01

    The economically important DT2008 and the model Williams 82 (W82) soybean cultivars were reported to have differential drought-tolerant degree to dehydration and drought, which was associated with root trait. Here, we used 66K Affymetrix Soybean Array GeneChip to compare the root transcriptomes of DT2008 and W82 seedlings under normal, as well as mild (2 h treatment) and severe (10 h treatment) dehydration conditions. Out of the 38172 soybean genes annotated with high confidence, 822 (2.15%) ...

  18. Photoperiodic effects on short-pulse 14C assimilation and overall carbon and nitrogen allocation patterns in contrasting quinoa cultivars

    Bendevis, Mira Arpe; Sun, Yujie; Rosenqvist, Eva;

    2014-01-01

    photoperiod neutral cv. 'Titicaca' were studied under short (10h) and long (17.5h) days, with respect to C and N distribution as well as partitioning of newly assimilated C to plant organs. An extended photoperiod resulted in 14C decreasingly being allocated to stem growth and lower leaves in 'Titicaca', but...... an immediate increase in carbon allocation to upper leaves, and over time to the reproductive structures, resulting in a more than 50% increase in final yield. Collectively the results indicate that even though the photoperiod sensitive cultivar flowered under long photoperiod it did not develop...

  19. MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF MALAYSIAN WILD BANANA MUSA ACUMINATA

    MUHAMMAD ASIF JAVED

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Fourteen populations of Musa acuminata ranging from populations in the lowlands of northern (ssp. siamea to central Malaysian region (ssp. malaccensis and highland banana (ssp. truncata were characterized based on chromosome number and 46 morphological characters. A large amount of variation was observed within the populations. However, only highland bananas appeared morphologically distinct. Lowland populations both from northern and central Malaysia were found to be overlapping and no distinguishing pattern was observed. The morphological characters found variable within these populations were related to developmental changes and mutations. The results ob tained in this study were not revolutionary. However, the survey of a large number of characters treated with multivariate techniques further sharpened the existing groupings of the Musa acuminata subspecies.

  20. Role of food uptake for photosynthesis, growth and survival of the mixotrophic dinoflagellate Dinophysis acuminata

    Riisgaard, Karen; Hansen, Per Juel

    2009-01-01

    Dinophysis acuminata is a mixotrophic dinoflagellate frequently causing diarrhetic shellfish poisoning. D. acuminata was isolated from Danish coastal waters and cultivated using the mixotrophic ciliate Mesodinium rubrum as prey. The roles of food uptake and photosynthesis for the growth and...

  1. Human papillomaviruses and DNA ploidy in anal condylomata acuminata

    Rihet, S.; Bellaich, P.; Lorenzato, M; Bouttens, D.; Bernard, P.; Birembaut, P.; Clavel, C.

    2000-01-01

    Previous studies have emphasized the usefulness of DNA ploidy measurement and Human Papillomavirus (HPV) detection as pronostic markers in low grade cervical lesions. We addressed the eventual relationship between HPV type, DNA profile, and p53 tumor suppressor protein expression in anal condylomata acuminata to eventually determine parameters which may be considered as predictive risk factors for the development of cancer. DNA ploidy was assessed by image ...

  2. Allometric models for estimating biomass and carbon in Alnus acuminata

    William Fonseca; Laura Ruíz; Marylin Rojas; Federico Allice

    2013-01-01

    In order to quantify the climate change mitigation potential of forest plantations, information on total biomass and its growth rate is required. Depending on the method used, the study of the biomass behavior can be a complex and expensive activity. The main objective of this research was to develop allometric models to estimate biomass for different tree components (leaves, branches, stem and root) and total tree biomass in Alnus acuminata (Kunth) in Costa Rica. Additionally, models were de...

  3. MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF MALAYSIAN WILD BANANA MUSA ACUMINATA

    MUHAMMAD ASIF JAVED; MAK CHAI; ROFINA YASMIN OTHMAN

    2002-01-01

    Fourteen populations of Musa acuminata ranging from populations in the lowlands of northern (ssp. siamea) to central Malaysian region (ssp. malaccensis) and highland banana (ssp. truncata) were characterized based on chromosome number and 46 morphological characters. A large amount of variation was observed within the populations. However, only highland bananas appeared morphologically distinct. Lowland populations both from northern and central Malaysia were found to be overlapping a...

  4. Phenylphenalenones Accumulate in Plant Tissues of Two Banana Cultivars in Response to Herbivory by the Banana Weevil and Banana Stem Weevil.

    Hölscher, Dirk; Buerkert, Andreas; Schneider, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Phenylphenalenone-type compounds accumulated in the tissues of two banana cultivars-Musa acuminata cv. "Grande Naine" (AAA) and Musa acuminata × balbisiana Colla cv. "Bluggoe" (ABB)-when these were fed on by the banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus (Germ.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)) and the banana stem weevil (Odoiporus longicollis (Oliver) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)). The chemical constituents of the banana material were separated by means of chromatographic techniques and identified by NMR spectroscopy. One new compound, 2-methoxy-4-phenylphenalen-1-one, was found exclusively in the corm material of "Bluggoe" that had been fed on by the weevils. PMID:27571112

  5. Rendimento de grãos e margem bruta de cultivares de milho com variabilidade genética contrastante em diferentes sistemas de manejo Grain yield and gross income of maize cultivars with contrasting genetic variability at different management systems

    Luís Sangoi

    2006-06-01

    investir em práticas culturais que otimizem a performance agronômica e o potencial produtivo da cultivar.The optimization of maize production systems in southern Brazil depends on the adequate combination between genotype traits and the type of management system. This work was carried out aiming at evaluating the grain yield and gross income of maize cultivars with contrasting genetic variability at different management levels. The experiment was conducted in Lages, SC, using randomized block design with split-plots. Four production systems, equivalent to low (S1, medium (S2, high (S3 and very high (S4 management levels were tested in the main plots. The single-cross hybrid Pioneer 32R21, the double cross hybrid Traktor, and the open-pollinated variety BRS Planalto were assessed in the split-plots. The management systems differed in relation to the quantity and timing of fertilizer application, plant density, row spacing, and water irrigation. The trials were sown in 11/20/2002 and 10/22/2003, under the no-till soil tillage system. Regardless cultivar, maize grain yield and gross income increased with the enhancement in management level, ranging from 1,781 (S1 to 13,848 (S4kg ha-1 and from 206,00 (S1 to 2,937,00 (S4R$ ha-1, depending on the cultivar and growing season. The larger genetic variability of the cultivar BRS Planalto did not improve its grain yield when compared to the hybrids in S1. The hybrids were more productive and profitable than the open pollinated variety in S2. The use of a single-cross hybrid promoted the greatest grain yield and gross income in S3 and S4, showing that it is possible to match maximum technical and economic efficiency with a high yield plateau, as long as there is financial condition to invest in cultural practices that optimize maize agronomic performance and genetic potential to explore them.

  6. Micorrizas arbusculares en plantines de Alnus acuminata (Betulaceae inoculados con Glomus intraradices (Glomaceae Arbuscular mycorrhizas in Alnus acuminata (Betulaceae seedlings inoculated with Glomus intraradices (Glomaceae

    Alejandra Becerra

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se cita y describe por primera vez la asociación de Alnus acuminata Kunth «aliso del cerro» con el hongo formador de micorrizas arbusculares (MA Glomus intraradices Schenk & Smith. En un bioensayo en invernadero, se inocularon plantines de A. acuminata con fragmentos radicales de Medicago sativa L. colonizados por G. intraradices . Se describe la colonización MA y el tipo anatómico Arum . Se establece la funcionalidad de la simbiosis por la presencia de arbúsculos en las células corticales de la raíz.This work described for the first time the arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM development in A. acuminata Kunth «andean alder» with G. intraradices Schenk & Smith. Seedlings of A. acuminata were inoculated with root fragments of Medicago sativa L. colonized by G. intraradices in a greenhouse. The Arum -type and AM colonization are described in A. acuminata seedlings. The presence of arbuscules in A. acuminata cortical cells define a functional symbiosis.

  7. Antimicrobial Activity of the Masticatory Cola acuminata Nut (Gooro

    Shama I.Y. Adam

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the possible inhibitory activity of Cola acuminata seed (Petroleum ether, methanolic and aqueous extracts against two standard Gram positive (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, three Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumonae bacteria and one fungus (Candida albicans. Petroleum ether, methanolic and aqueous extracts of Cola acuminata nuts at concentrations of 10, 12.5, 25 and 50% were screened for antimicrobial activity against two standard Gram positive (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, three Gram negative (E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoneae bacteria and one fungus (Candida albicans. No inhibitory activity was detected using all concentrations of petroleum ether extract for all tested microorganisms. Wide range of activity was exhibited by both aqueous and methanol extract. However, the former highest activity was detected against Staphylococcus aureus at the two concentration 25 and 50% (20 and 24 mm while the latter was found against Candida albicans at the concentration of 25% (20 mm.

  8. Efficacy of topical imiquimod in HIV-positive patients with recurrent anal condylomata acuminata

    Sidney Roberto Nadal; Carmen Ruth Manzione; Fernanda Bellotti Formiga; Sérgio Henrique Couto Horta; Victor Edmond Seid

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Imiquimod is a topical chemotherapic and immunostimulant agent with antitumoral and antiviral activities, used for anal condylomata acuminata treatment, mainly in recurrences. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the imiquimod efficiency in chronic and recurrent anal condylomata acuminata in HIV-infected persons. METHOD: A prospective study that analyzed 61 patients with recurrent anal condylomata treated with topic 5% imiquimod, for at least 8 weeks. These patients had already been submitted to...

  9. The Complete Chloroplast Genome of Banana (Musa acuminata, Zingiberales): Insight into Plastid Monocotyledon Evolution

    Guillaume Martin; Franc-Christophe Baurens; Céline Cardi; Jean-Marc Aury; Angélique D'Hont

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Banana (genus Musa) is a crop of major economic importance worldwide. It is a monocotyledonous member of the Zingiberales, a sister group of the widely studied Poales. Most cultivated bananas are natural Musa inter-(sub-)specific triploid hybrids. A Musa acuminata reference nuclear genome sequence was recently produced based on sequencing of genomic DNA enriched in nucleus. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The Musa acuminata chloroplast genome was assembled with chloroplast reads e...

  10. Switchgrass cultivar EG1101

    Bouton, Joseph H; Wood, Donald T

    2012-11-27

    A switchgrass cultivar designated EG1101 is disclosed. Also disclosed are seeds of switchgrass cultivar EG1101, plants of switchgrass EG1101, plant parts of switchgrass cultivar EG1101 and methods for producing a switchgrass plant produced by crossing switchgrass cultivar EG1101 with itself or with another switchgrass variety. Methods are also described for producing a switchgrass plant containing in its genetic material one or more transgenes and to the transgenic switchgrass plants and plant parts produced by those methods. Switchgrass cultivars or breeding cultivars and plant parts derived from switchgrass variety EG1101, methods for producing other switchgrass cultivars, lines or plant parts derived from switchgrass cultivar EG1101 and the switchgrass plants, varieties, and their parts derived from use of those methods are described herein. Hybrid switchgrass seeds, plants and plant parts produced by crossing the cultivar EG1101 with another switchgrass cultivar are also described.

  11. Switchgrass cultivar EG1102

    Bouton, Joseph H; Wood, Donald T

    2012-11-20

    A switchgrass cultivar designated EG1102 is disclosed. The invention relates to the seeds of switchgrass cultivar EG1102, to the plants of switchgrass EG1102, to plant parts of switchgrass cultivar EG1102 and to methods for producing a switchgrass plant produced by crossing switchgrass cultivar EG1102 with itself or with another switchgrass variety. The invention also relates to methods for producing a switchgrass plant containing in its genetic material one or more transgenes and to the transgenic switchgrass plants and plant parts produced by those methods. This invention also relates to switchgrass cultivars or breeding cultivars and plant parts derived from switchgrass variety EG1102, to methods for producing other switchgrass cultivars, lines or plant parts derived from switchgrass cultivar EG1102 and to the switchgrass plants, varieties, and their parts derived from use of those methods. The invention further relates to hybrid switchgrass seeds, plants and plant parts produced by crossing the cultivar EG1102 with another switchgrass cultivar.

  12. Structural and Function Prediction of Musa acuminata subsp. Malaccensis Protein

    Anum Munir

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Hypothetical proteins (HPs are the proteins whose presence has been anticipated, yet in vivo function has not been built up. Illustrating the structural and functional privileged insights of these HPs might likewise prompt a superior comprehension of the protein-protein associations or networks in diverse types of life. Bananas (Musa acuminata spp., including sweet and cooking types, are giant perennial monocotyledonous herbs of the order Zingiberales, a sister grouped to the all-around considered Poales, which incorporate oats. Bananas are crucial for nourishment security in numerous tropical and subtropical nations and the most prominent organic product in industrialized nations. In the present study, the hypothetical protein of M. acuminata (Banana was chosen for analysis and modeling by distinctive bioinformatics apparatuses and databases. As indicated by primary and secondary structure analysis, XP_009393594.1 is a stable hydrophobic protein containing a noteworthy extent of α-helices; Homology modeling was done utilizing SWISS-MODEL server where the templates identity with XP_009393594.1 protein was less which demonstrated novelty of our protein. Ab initio strategy was conducted to produce its 3D structure. A few evaluations of quality assessment and validation parameters determined the generated protein model as stable with genuinely great quality. Functional analysis was completed by ProtFun 2.2, and KEGG (KAAS, recommended that the hypothetical protein is a transcription factor with cytoplasmic domain as zinc finger. The protein was observed to be vital for translation process, involved in metabolism, signaling and cellular processes, genetic information processing and Zinc ion binding. It is suggested that further test approval would help to anticipate the structures and functions of other uncharacterized proteins of different plants and living being.

  13. Production of Haploid Tissues and SNP Analysis of the Genome in Musa acuminata cv.'Matti'(AA)

    Haploid and doubled haploid plants are of considerable value in genetic studies, genomics and plant breeding, allowing characterization and exploitation of genes where only one allele is present. Inbred banana lines have not been developed and with very few haploids or homozygotes reported, we aimed to develop new materials for genetic and genomic studies and to see if protocols could be improved using a range of genetic material not previously investigated. Anther culture was carried out using four Musa acuminata (AA) cultivars grown in homestead cultivation in Kerala, southern India. Protocols based on using modified MS medium supplemented with 2,4-D and BA (0.1 mg 1-1 each) were used. Embryogenic callus was regenerated from 4% of anthers of cv. Matti. The callus produced somatic embryosthat developed small leaves but haploid plant regeneration was not achieved. Regenerated leaf tissues had a haploid set of chromosome complements. The haploid tissuesprovided a source of DNA which may be suitable for whole genome shotgun approaches to re-sequencing, where the high levels of heterozygosity in Musa would impair assembly. (author)

  14. Parâmetros cinéticos e morfológicos da absorção de nutrientes em cultivares de milho com variabilidade genética contrastante Nutrient uptake kinetics and morphological traits of roots of maize cultivars with contrasting genetic variability

    Delson Horn

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Genótipos de milho com variabilidade genética contrastante apresentam potenciais produtivos diferentes. Isso pode ser causado, pelo menos em parte, por diferenças morfológicas no sistema radicular e nos parâmetros cinéticos de absorção de nutrientes. Este trabalho objetivou quantificar esses parâmetros em três cultivares de milho. Foram comparados um híbrido simples (HS, um híbrido duplo (HD e uma variedade de polinização aberta (VPA. Determinaram-se os parâmetros de absorção (influxo máximo, Imax, constante de Michalies-Menten, Km, e concentração na solução onde a absorção cessa, Cmin para N, P, K, Ca e Mg, além de atributos morfológicos radiculares, em experimentos efetuados em câmara de crescimento, com solução nutritiva. A morfologia das raízes variou pouco entre os genótipos, provavelmente por causa do cultivo das plantas em meio líquido. As diferenças entre genótipos quanto aos parâmetros cinéticos de absorção dependeram do nutriente. O Imax diferiu entre os cultivares para P; o Km, para N e P, e o Cmin, para N e K. A VPA, por apresentar maior variabilidade genética, deveria apresentar menores valores para Km e Cmin do que os híbridos. Contudo, isso só aconteceu para P em relação ao Km. O HS, por apresentar maior potencial produtivo, deveria expressar os maiores valores para Imax, mas isso não ocorreu com nenhum dos macronutrientes avaliados. Portanto, a absorção de nutrientes não parece ser um fator determinante nas diferenças de rendimento de grãos entre genótipos de milho com bases genéticas contrastantes.Maize genotypes with contrasting genetic variability have different yield potential. This distinct yield potential may be partially caused by differences in the root system morphology or in the nutrient uptake kinetics parameters. This study aimed to assess such morphological and physiological plant attributes of three maize genotypes with different genetic bases. A single-cross hybrid

  15. Repetitive part of the banana (Musa acuminata genome investigated by low-depth 454 sequencing

    Hřibová Eva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bananas and plantains (Musa spp. are grown in more than a hundred tropical and subtropical countries and provide staple food for hundreds of millions of people. They are seed-sterile crops propagated clonally and this makes them vulnerable to a rapid spread of devastating diseases and at the same time hampers breeding improved cultivars. Although the socio-economic importance of bananas and plantains cannot be overestimated, they remain outside the focus of major research programs. This slows down the study of nuclear genome and the development of molecular tools to facilitate banana improvement. Results In this work, we report on the first thorough characterization of the repeat component of the banana (M. acuminata cv. 'Calcutta 4' genome. Analysis of almost 100 Mb of sequence data (0.15× genome coverage permitted partial sequence reconstruction and characterization of repetitive DNA, making up about 30% of the genome. The results showed that the banana repeats are predominantly made of various types of Ty1/copia and Ty3/gypsy retroelements representing 16 and 7% of the genome respectively. On the other hand, DNA transposons were found to be rare. In addition to new families of transposable elements, two new satellite repeats were discovered and found useful as cytogenetic markers. To help in banana sequence annotation, a specific Musa repeat database was created, and its utility was demonstrated by analyzing the repeat composition of 62 genomic BAC clones. Conclusion A low-depth 454 sequencing of banana nuclear genome provided the largest amount of DNA sequence data available until now for Musa and permitted reconstruction of most of the major types of DNA repeats. The information obtained in this study improves the knowledge of the long-range organization of banana chromosomes, and provides sequence resources needed for repeat masking and annotation during the Musa genome sequencing project. It also provides sequence

  16. Allometric models for estimating biomass and carbon in Alnus acuminata

    William Fonseca

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to quantify the climate change mitigation potential of forest plantations, information on total biomass and its growth rate is required. Depending on the method used, the study of the biomass behavior can be a complex and expensive activity. The main objective of this research was to develop allometric models to estimate biomass for different tree components (leaves, branches, stem and root and total tree biomass in Alnus acuminata (Kunth in Costa Rica. Additionally, models were developed to estimate biomass and carbon in trees per hectare and for total plant biomass per hectare (trees + herbaceous vegetation + necromass. To construct the tree models, 41 sampling plots were evaluated in seven sites from which 47 trees with a diametric from 4.5 to 44.5 cm were selected to be harvested. In the selected models for the stem, root and total tree biomass, a r 2 >93.87 % was accomplished, while the r 2aj for leaves and branches was 88 %. For the biomass and carbon models for total trees and total plant biomass per hectare the r2 was >99 %. Average biomass expansion factor was 1.22 for aboveground and 1.43 for total biomass (when the root was included. The carbon fraction in plant biomass varied between 32.9 and 46.7 % and the percentage of soil carbon was 3 %.

  17. Radiation dose assessment of musa acuminata - triploid (AAA)

    Bananas are radioactive due to the presence of the radioisotope-40K. This imposes a possible health risk to the general public. This study intended to assess the annual equivalent dosages and the annual effective dosage committed by the body. This seeks to benefit the general public, students and researchers, and entrepreneurs. Using atomic absorption spectrophotometry, lakatan banana (Musa acuminata-triploid (AAA), the most purchased variety cultivated in Barangay Adlawon, Cebu City, Philippines, was found to contain 0.53 g of total potassium for every 100 g of its fresh fruit wherein 6.2 x 10-5 g of which is potassium-40. Based on its 40K content banana was calculated to have a radioactivity of 16 Bq/100 g. it was found out that the body is exposed to radiation dosages ranging from 2.8 x 10-3 rem annually by eating 100 g of lakatan bananas everyday. Conversely, it is equivalent to the annual effective dosage of 0.0043 rem; the amount at which the body of an individual is uniformly exposed. However, no or extremely minute health risk was determined by just eating bananas. In fact, to exceed the radiation dose limits set by the International Commission on Radiation Protection, an individual may eat 116 kg of lakatan bananas everyday for a year. Fertilizers may be the major source of the radioisotope - 40K and assimilated by the plants. (author)

  18. Photodynamic therapy of condyloma acuminata in pregnant women

    YANG Yu-guang; ZOU Xian-biao; ZHAO Hua; ZHANG Yun-jie; LI Heng-jin

    2012-01-01

    Background Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is an emerging technique for the treatment of genital human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced benign and premalignant lesions.We report here in a case series of condyloma acuminata (CA) in pregnancy successfully treated with ALA-PDT.Methods Five pregnant patients with CA received three to four times treatment respectively.Patients were followed up for 6-23 months after treatment.Results The clearance rate of genital warts was 100%.No recurrence was found during the follow-up period.Major adverse events reported were mild erosion,pain,and local edema.All pregnancies resulted in healthy live births without delivery complications.Conclusions PDT with topical ALA seems to be safe and effective in the treatment of CA in pregnancy.It demonstrated high clearance rate of warts,was well-tolerated by patients,and showed no adverse effects on mothers or fetuses.ALA-PDT may be an ideal strategy of treatment for pregnant women with CA.

  19. Kola nut (cola acuminata extract as a substitute to histological tissue stain eosin

    Mamman L sonfada

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The application of natural dyes for staining of various biological tissues from an alternative source will decrease the expense for purchasing the synthetic dye and reduce their effects on human and environment. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the extraction of natural dye from Cola nut (Cola acuminata using various solvents and its staining property on the rat tissues. The cola nut was pulvized using pestle and mortar, 5gram was used to make 5% of aqueous extract. The rat tissues were processed for paraffin embedding technique and sectioned at 5 μm thicknesses. The sections were stained with haematoxylin and the extracts as secondary stain. The results showed that the natural extract from Cola acuminata stained the cytoplasm of various tissues with yellowish-brown colouration. This finding suggests that Cola acuminata can be used as an alternative dye for histological staining.

  20. Homogenate extraction technology of camptothecine and hydroxycamptothecin from Camptotheca acuminata leaves

    SHI Wei-guo; ZU Yuan-gang; ZHAO Chun-jian; YANG Lei

    2009-01-01

    Camptothecine (CPT) and hydroxycamptothecin (HCPT), two kinds of anti-cancer alkaloids, were extracted from Camptotheca acuminata leaves using homogenate extraction technology under different conditions such as the ratio of material to liquid, ethanol concentration, and homogenate time. The optimum technology parameters for homogenate extraction of CPT and HCPT from C. acuminata leaves were determined as homogenate time at 8 min, ethanol concentration at 55% and the ratio of material to liquid at 1:15 (g:mL). By using the optimized parameters, we obtained 0.639‰ extraction rate for CPT and 0.437‰ for HCPT. The extraction yields of CPT and HCPT extracted by homogenating technology were higher than those by other extractive methods, such as ultrasonic, reflux, shaking in water bath. It is concluded that the homogenate extraction technology was an efficient method for extracting CPT and HCPT from C. acuminata leaves, with characteristics of less extraction time and high yield.

  1. The ectomycorrhizas of Lactarius cuspidoaurantiacus and Lactarius herrerae associated with Alnus acuminata in Central Mexico.

    Montoya, Leticia; Bandala, Victor M; Garay-Serrano, Edith

    2015-08-01

    Two pure Alnus acuminata stands established in a montane forest in central Mexico (Puebla State) were monitored between 2010 and 2013 to confirm and recognize the ectomycorrhizal (EcM) systems of A. acuminata with Lactarius cuspidoaurantiacus and Lactarius herrerae, two recently described species. Through comparison of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences from basidiomes and ectomycorrhizas sampled in the forest stands, we confirmed their ectomycorrhizal association. The phytobiont was corroborated by comparing ITS sequences obtained from EcM root tips and leaves collected in the study site and from other sequences of A. acuminata available in Genbank. Detailed morphological and anatomical descriptions of the ectomycorrhizal systems are presented and complemented with photographs. PMID:25619188

  2. Characterization of 10 microsatellite markers for the understorey Amazonian herb Heliconia acuminata.

    Côrtes, M C; Gowda, V; Kress, W J; Bruna, E M; Uriarte, M

    2009-07-01

    We characterized 10 microsatellite loci for the plant Heliconia acuminata from the Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project (Manaus, Brazil). Markers were screened in 61 individuals from one population and were found to be polymorphic with an average of eight alleles per locus. We found moderate to high levels of polymorphic information content, and observed and expected heterozygosities. All 10 markers are suitable for spatial genetic structure and parentage analyses and will be used for understanding H. acuminata dynamics across a fragmented landscape. PMID:21564896

  3. Pyrosequencing of the Camptotheca acuminata transcriptome reveals putative genes involved in camptothecin biosynthesis and transport

    Sun Yongzhen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Camptotheca acuminata is a Nyssaceae plant, often called the "happy tree", which is indigenous in Southern China. C. acuminata produces the terpenoid indole alkaloid, camptothecin (CPT, which exhibits clinical effects in various cancer treatments. Despite its importance, little is known about the transcriptome of C. acuminata and the mechanism of CPT biosynthesis, as only few nucleotide sequences are included in the GenBank database. Results From a constructed cDNA library of young C. acuminata leaves, a total of 30,358 unigenes, with an average length of 403 bp, were obtained after assembly of 74,858 high quality reads using GS De Novo assembler software. Through functional annotation, a total of 21,213 unigenes were annotated at least once against the NCBI nucleotide (Nt, non-redundant protein (Nr, Uniprot/SwissProt, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG, and Arabidopsis thaliana proteome (TAIR databases. Further analysis identified 521 ESTs representing 20 enzyme genes that are involved in the backbone of the CPT biosynthetic pathway in the library. Three putative genes in the upstream pathway, including genes for geraniol-10-hydroxylase (CaPG10H, secologanin synthase (CaPSCS, and strictosidine synthase (CaPSTR were cloned and analyzed. The expression level of the three genes was also detected using qRT-PCR in C. acuminata. With respect to the branch pathway of CPT synthesis, six cytochrome P450s transcripts were selected as candidate transcripts by detection of transcript expression in different tissues using qRT-PCR. In addition, one glucosidase gene was identified that might participate in CPT biosynthesis. For CPT transport, three of 21 transcripts for multidrug resistance protein (MDR transporters were also screened from the dataset by their annotation result and gene expression analysis. Conclusion This study produced a large amount of transcriptome data from C. acuminata by 454 pyrosequencing. According to

  4. Heliconia acuminata reproductive success is independent of local floral density O sucesso reprodutivo de Heliconia acuminata é independente da densidade floral local

    Emilio M Bruna; W John Kress; Francisco Marques; Osmaildo Ferreira da Silva

    2004-01-01

    Reproductive plants in tropical forests are patchily distributed, with some in large aggregations of reproductive consepecifics while others are relatively isolated. This variation in floral density is hypothesized to have a major effect on plant reproductive success, since individuals in higher density neighborhoods can attract more or higher quality pollinators. We experimentally tested this hypothesis with populations of the understory herb Heliconia acuminata in central Amazonia. We creat...

  5. Condylomata acuminata in the neovagina after male-to-female reassignment treated with CO2 laser and imiquimod.

    Matsuki, Shingo; Kusatake, Kenji; Hein, Kyaw Zaw; Anraku, Kuniaki; Morita, Eishin

    2015-06-01

    Condylomata acuminata are frequently occurring genital warts, but little is known about clinical features of the genital warts in transsexuals and their incidence. We report a case of condylomata acuminata arising on the neourethral meatus and the transplanted skin of the neovagina in a male-to-female transsexual, which was successfully treated with CO2 laser irradiation followed by topical application of imiquimod cream on the residual warts. This is a first report of using imiquimod cream for condylomata acuminata arising on the neovagina in a male-to-female transsexual. PMID:24970474

  6. DIFFERENTIATION OF PSEUDOCONDYLOMA OF VULVA AND CONDYLOMA ACUMINATA BY DOT BLOT HYBRIDIZATION AND POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION

    刘跃华; 王家璧; 司静懿

    1996-01-01

    This study differentiated pseudocondyloma of vulva from condyloma acunainata using dot blot hybridization and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total of 27 cases o{ pseudocondyloma of vulva and 65 cases of condyloma acuminata were selected for the sttldy. The genital lesions were examined clinically and were biopsled. Each biopsy v-as subjected to histological examination and HPV DNA analysis by dot blot hybridization and PCR. Dot blot analysis detected HPV DNA in 19(82.6%) out of 23 cases of condyloma acuminata and 2(25%) out of 8 cases pseudocondyloma of vulvae(P<0. 05). PCR detected HPV DNA in 51(92.7%) our of 55 cases of eondyloma acuminata, compared with none in 23 cases of pseudocondylorna(P<0. 001). HPV DNA was present in the majority of condyloma acuminata specimens, HPV 6 and 11 were the predominant types. Peudocondyloma is probably not associated with HPV. PCR was the most sensitive and useful techntque for HPV DNA detection.

  7. Effect of planting density on plant growth and camptothecin content of Camptotheca acuminata seedlings

    WEIHuan-yong; WANGYang; WANGZhen-yue; YANXiu-feng

    2005-01-01

    C. acuminata seedlings cultivated in greenhouse were transplanted into the fields with 5 designed planting densities (11, 16, 25,44 and 100 plants·m-2) in May of 2004 and were harvested in the middle of September of 2004. The seedling growth indexes including plant height and crown width, biomass allocation, camptothecin (CPT) content and CPT yield of different organs (young leaf, old leaf, stem,and root) were studied. For the 5 selected planting densities, the plant biomass, height, crown width, and total leaf area of C. acuminata seedlings all showed highest values at the planting density of 25 plants ·m-2. CPT content in young leaves was higher than that in other organs of seedlings and presented an obvious change with the variation of planting densities and with the highest value at density of 100plants·m-2, while for other organs no significant variation in CPT content was found with change of planting density. The accumulation of CPT was enhanced significantly at the planting density of 25 plants·m-2. It is concluded that for the purpose to get raw materials with more CPT from C. acuminata, the optimal planting density of C. acuminata seedlings should be designed as 25 plants·m-2.

  8. Anticholinesterase and Antioxidative Properties of Aqueous Extract of Cola acuminata Seed In Vitro

    Ganiyu Oboh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cola acuminata seed, a commonly used stimulant in Nigeria, has been reportedly used for the management of neurodegenerative diseases in folklore without scientific basis. This study sought to investigate the anticholinesterase and antioxidant properties of aqueous extracts from C. acuminata seed in vitro. Methodology. The aqueous extract of C. acuminata seed was prepared (w/v and its effect on acetylcholinesterase (AChE and butyrylcholinesterase activities, as well as some prooxidant (FeSO4, sodium nitroprusside (SNP, and quinolinic acid (QA induced lipid peroxidation in rat brain in vitro, was investigated. Results. The results revealed that C. acuminata seed extract inhibited AChE (IC50 = 14.6 μg/mL and BChE (IC50 = 96.2 μg/mL activities in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, incubation of rat’s brain homogenates with some prooxidants caused a significant increase P<0.05 in the brain malondialdehyde (MDA content and inhibited MDA production dose-dependently and also exhibited further antioxidant properties as typified by their high radicals scavenging and Fe2+ chelating abilities. Conclusion. Inhibition of AChE and BChE activities has been the primary treatment method for mild Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Therefore, one possible mechanism through which the seed exerts its neuroprotective properties is by inhibiting cholinesterase activities as well as preventing oxidative-stress-induced neurodegeneration. However, this is a preliminary study with possible physiological implications.

  9. Ectomycorrhizal and arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization of Alnus acuminata from Calilegua National Park (Argentina).

    Becerra, Alejandra; Zak, Marcelo R; Horton, Thomas R; Micolini, Jorge

    2005-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine patterns of ectomycorrhizas (ECM) and arbuscular mycorrhizas (AM) colonization associated with Alnus acuminata (Andean alder), in relation to soil parameters (electrical conductivity, field H(2)O holding capacity, pH, available P, organic matter, and total N) at two different seasons (autumn and spring). The study was conducted in natural forests of A. acuminata situated in Calilegua National Park (Jujuy, Argentina). Nine ECM morphotypes were found on A. acuminata roots. The ECM colonization was affected by seasonality and associated positively with field H(2)O holding capacity, pH, and total N and negatively associated with organic matter. Two morphotypes (Russula alnijorullensis and Tomentella sp. 3) showed significant differences between seasons. Positive and negative correlations were found between five morphotypes (Alnirhiza silkacea, Lactarius omphaliformis, Tomentella sp. 1, Tomentella sp. 3, and Lactarius sp.) and soil parameters (total N, pH, and P). A significant negative correlation was found between field H(2)O holding capacity and organic matter with AM colonization. Results of this study provide evidence that ECM and AM colonization of A. acuminata can be affected by some soil chemical edaphic parameters and indicate that some ECM morphotypes are sensitive to changes in seasonality and soil parameters. PMID:16034621

  10. Progression of Intravesical Condyloma Acuminata to Locally Advanced Poorly Differentiated Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    A. Khambati

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Condyloma acuminata (CA is a common sexually transmitted disease caused by Human Papilloma Virus (HPV infection. CA of the bladder, however, is an exceedingly rare lesion. We present a rare case of poorly differentiated locally invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC arising from recurrent CA of the bladder in an immunocompetent patient and discuss pathophysiology and management of this unusual condition.

  11. Synergistic effect of Croton caudatus (fruits) and Tiliacora acuminata (flowers) extracts against filarial vector Culex quinquefasciatus

    Someshwar Singha; Siddharthasankar Banerjee; Goutam Chandra

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the synergistic effect of crude and solvent extract of Croton caudatus (C. caudatus ) (fruits) and Tiliacora acuminata (T. acuminata) (flowers) against the larval form of Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus). Methods: Crude and solvent [chloroform:methanol (1:1 v/v), benzene and ethyl acetate] extracts of two plants, C. caudatus (fruits) and T. acuminata (flowers) were examined separately against filarial vector Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae with gradually increasing concentration i.e. from 0.1%to 0.5%of crude extract and 25 ppm to 75 ppm of solvent extracts. To observe the synergistic effect, if any, extracts of these two plant parts were mixed at different concentrations and treated against mosquito larvae. Phytochemical analyses of extracts of both the plant parts were carried out. Results: In a 72-h bioassay experiment with plant extracts, highest mortalities were recorded at 0.5% (crude) and 75 ppm (solvent) concentration for fruits of C. caudatus and flowers of T. acuminata individually. For synergistic effect, only 0.2%of the mixture of these two crude extracts and 75 ppm concentration of chloroform:methanol (1:1 v/v) and ethyl acetate extracts showed 100%mortality after 24 h and 48 h of exposure respectively. Conclusions:In the field of mosquito control, insecticides of plant origin may serve as suitable alternative to the toxic chemicals. Some secondary metabolites in combination may be responsible for better larvicidal activity.

  12. Altered Cultivar Resistance of Kimchi Cabbage Seedlings Mediated by Salicylic Acid, Jasmonic Acid and Ethylene

    Young Hee Lee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Two cultivars Buram-3-ho (susceptible and CR-Hagwang (moderate resistant of kimchi cabbage seedlings showed differential defense responses to anthracnose (Colletotrichum higginsianum, black spot (Alternaria brassicicola and black rot (Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, Xcc diseases in our previous study. Defense-related hormones salicylic acid (SA, jasmonic acid (JA and ethylene led to different transcriptional regulation of pathogenesis-related (PR gene expression in both cultivars. In this study, exogenous application of SA suppressed basal defenses to C. higginsianum in the 1st leaves of the susceptible cultivar and cultivar resistance of the 2nd leaves of the resistant cultivar. SA also enhanced susceptibility of the susceptible cultivar to A. brassicicola. By contrast, SA elevated disease resistance to Xcc in the resistant cultivar, but not in the susceptible cultivar. Methyl jasmonate (MJ treatment did not affect the disease resistance to C. higginsianum and Xcc in either cultivar, but it compromised the disease resistance to A. brassicicola in the resistant cultivar. Treatment with 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC ethylene precursor did not change resistance of the either cultivar to C. higginsianum and Xcc. Effect of ACC pretreatment on the resistance to A. brassicicola was not distinguished between susceptible and resistant cultivars, because cultivar resistance of the resistant cultivar was lost by prolonged moist dark conditions. Taken together, exogenously applied SA, JA and ethylene altered defense signaling crosstalk to three diseases of anthracnose, black spot and black rot in a cultivar-dependent manner.

  13. Improvement of the banana "Musa acuminata" reference sequence using NGS data and semi-automated bioinformatics methods

    Martin, G.; Baurens, F.C.; Droc, G.; Rouard, M.; Cenci, A.; Kilian, A.; Hastie, A.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Aury, J. M.; Alberti, A.; Carreel, F.; D'Hont, A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 17, MAR 16 (2016), s. 243. ISSN 1471-2164 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Musa acuminata * Genome assembly * Bioinformatics tool Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.986, year: 2014

  14. Amino acid composition of two masticatory nuts (Cola acuminata and Garcinia kola) and a snack nut (Anacardium occidentale).

    Adeyeye, E I; Asaolu, S S; Aluko, A O

    2007-06-01

    The amino acid compositions of Cola acuminata, Garcinia kola and Anacardium occidentale were evaluated by ion-exchange chromatography. Glutamic acid was the most concentrated acid in the samples. In all the amino acids determined, A. occidentale had the most concentrated acid on a pairwise basis. The total amino acids were 356.24 mg/g protein, 112.90 mg/g protein and 659.17 mg/g protein for C. acuminata, G. kola and A. occidentale, respectively. The percentage total essential amino acids were 38.39% (C. acuminata), 47.05% (G. kola) and 51.04% (A. occidentale). Also the percentage total acidic amino acids were 38.16% (C. acuminata), 30.61% (G. kola) and 30.35% (A. occidentale). The calculated isoelectric points were 2.0 (C. acuminata), 0.7 (G. kola) and 3.9 (A. occidentale), showing they can all be precipitated at acidic pH. While threonine was the limiting amino acid in A. occidentale, it was valine in both C. acuminata and G. kola. The percentage cystine (Cys) levels in the total sulphur amino acid were 44.27% (C. acuminata), 37.75% (G. kola) and 50.51% (A. occidentale). The aim of this work was to compare the amino acid profile of the samples. It is recommended that C. acuminata and G. kola consumption be avoided by ulcer patients because of their high levels of acidic amino acids. A. occidentale amino acid scores ranged from 42% to 127%, suggesting that it could be used to enhance the protein quality of cereals through food complementation. PMID:17566886

  15. Enzyme inhibition by molluscicidal agents of Bauhinia variegata and Mimusops elengi in the nervous tissue of Lymnaea acuminata

    Kanchan Lata Singh; D K Singh; Vinay Kumar Singh

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of enzymatic activity in the nervous tissue of snail Lymnaea acuminata (L. acuminata) by Bauhinia variegata (B. variegata) and Mimusops elengi (M. elengi) and their active molluscicidal components quercetin and saponin. Methods: Treatment of sublethal concentration (40% and 80% of 96-h LC50) in vivo of column-purified fraction of B. variegata leaf and M. elengi bark and their molluscicidal agents quercetin and saponin inhibit the acetylcholines...

  16. CULTIVAR RELEASE - BRS Saturno – triticale cultivar

    Alfredo do Nascimento Junior

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The triticale cultivar BRS Saturno was developed by Embrapa (Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation inpartnership with the Fundação Pró-Sementes de Apoio à Pesquisa. It is the result of a cross between the genotypes PFT 512 and CEP28 – Guará, adapted to the environmental conditions of cultivation in southern Brazil.

  17. Behavioural responses of the snail Lymnaea acuminata to carbohydrates in snail-attractant pellets

    Tiwari, Farindra; Singh, D. K.

    Snail control is one of the most important tools in the campaign to reduce the incidence of fascioliasis. In order to attain this objective, the method of bait formulation in order to contain an attractant and a molluscicide is an expedient approach to lure the target snail population to the molluscicide. This study identifies certain carbohydrates, namely sucrose, maltose, glucose, fructose and starch, for preparing such baits. These were tested on Lymnaea acuminata, an intermediate host of the digenean trematodes Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. The behavioural responses of snails to these carbohydrates were examined. Significant variations in behavioural responses were observed in the snail even when the five carbohydrates were used in low concentrations in snail-attractant pellets. Starch emerged as the strongest attractant for Lymnaea acuminata, followed by maltose.

  18. Two new species of Lactarius associated with Alnus acuminata subsp. arguta in Mexico.

    Montoya, Leticia; Bandala, Victor M; Garay, Edith

    2014-01-01

    In pure stands of Alnus acuminata subsp. arguta trees from Sierra Norte de Puebla (central Mexico) two undescribed ectomycorrhizal species of Lactarius were discovered. Distinction of the two new species is based on morphological characters and supported with phylogenetic analyses of the nuclear ribosomal DNA ITS region and part of the gene that encodes for the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (rpb2). The phylogenies inferred recovered the two species in different clades strongly supported by posterior probabilities and bootstrap values. The new Lactarius species are recognized as part of the assemblage of ectomycorrhizal fungi associated with Alnus acuminata. Information about these taxa includes the morphological variation achieved along 16 monitories 2010-2013. Descriptions are provided. They are accompanied by photos including SEM photomicrographs of basidiospores and information on differences between them and other related taxa from Europe and the United States. PMID:24895428

  19. Ectomycorrhizas of Cortinarius helodes and Gyrodon monticola with Alnus acuminata from Argentina.

    Becerra, Alejandra; Nouhra, Eduardo; Daniele, Graciela; Domínguez, Laura; McKay, Donaraye

    2005-01-01

    Field ectomycorrhizas of Cortinarius helodes Moser, Matheny & Daniele (sp. nov) and Gyrodon monticola Sing. on Alnus acuminata Kunth (Andean alder, aliso del cerro) are described based on morphological and anatomical features. Ectomycorrhizal roots were sampled beneath fruitbodies of C. helodes and G. monticola from two homogeneous A. acuminata forest sites located in Tucuman and Catamarca Provinces in Argentina. C. helodes ectomycorrhizas showed a thick white to beige mantle exuding a milky juice when injured, were bluish toward the apex, and had hyphal strands in the mantle. G. monticola ectomycorrhizas showed some conspicuous features like highly differentiated rhizomorphs, inflated brown cells on the mantle surface, and hyaline and brown emanating hyphae with dolipores. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer provided a distinctive profile for each of the collections of fruitbodies and the mycorrhizal morphotypes. PMID:14648309

  20. Kola nut (cola acuminata) extract as a substitute to histological tissue stain eosin

    Mamman L sonfada; Sunday Akau Hena; Ibrahim M Wiam; Abubakar A Umar; Abubakar Danmaigoro; Sani A Shehu

    2012-01-01

    The application of natural dyes for staining of various biological tissues from an alternative source will decrease the expense for purchasing the synthetic dye and reduce their effects on human and environment. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the extraction of natural dye from Cola nut (Cola acuminata) using various solvents and its staining property on the rat tissues. The cola nut was pulvized using pestle and mortar, 5gram was used to make 5% of aqueous extract. ...

  1. Serological test results of sexually transmitted diseases in patients with condyloma acuminata

    Ünal, Emine; Gönül, Müzeyyen; Çakmak, Seray; Yalçınkaya Iyidal, Ayşegül; Kılıç, Arzu; Gül, Ülker; Doner, Pinar

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common causes of sexually transmitted diseases (STD). The incidence of condyloma acuminata (CA) has increased in recent years. Aim To determine demographical features and serological test results of STD in patients with CA. Material and methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 94 patients presenting to a dermatology clinic in Ankara, Middle Anatolia, Turkey. Dermatological examinations were made and the patients completed a q...

  2. Optimatization of transient transformation methods to study gene expression in Musa acuminata (AAA group) cultivar Ambon Lumut

    Prayuni, Kinasih; Dwivany, Fenny M.

    2015-09-01

    Banana is classified as a climateric fruit, whose ripening is regulated by ethylene. Ethylene is synthesized from ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid) by ACC oxidase enzyme which is encoded by ACO gene. Controling an important gene expression in ethylene biosynthesis pathway has became a target to delay the ripening process. Therefore in the previous study we have designed a MaACO-RNAi construct to control MaACO gene expression. In this research, we study the effectiveness of different transient transformation methods to deliver the construct. Direct injection, with or no vaccum infiltration methods were used to deliver MaACO-RNAi construct. All of the methods succesfully deliver the construct into banana fruits based on RT-PCR result.

  3. Pro-sexual effects of aqueous extracts of Massularia acuminata root in male Wistar rats.

    Yakubu, M T; Awotunde, O S; Ajiboye, T O; Oladiji, A T; Akanji, M A

    2011-10-01

    Aqueous extract of Massularia acuminata root at the doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg kg(-1) body weight was investigated for its effect on sexual behaviour in male Wistar rats. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, anthraquinones, saponins, phenolics, flavonoids and tannins in the extract. The increased (P 0.05) with the reference drug, sildenafil citrate (Viagra). The extract also decreased the mount latency. The intromission latency at all the doses of the extract compared favourably with the distilled water-treated animals. The concentrations of serum testosterone, luteinising and follicle stimulating hormones increased at all the doses. All these are indications of prosexual effects of the extract, mediated by changes in the hormonal levels, brought about possibly by alkaloids, saponins and/or flavonoids. Overall, the present study supported the acclaimed use of M. acuminata root as an aphrodisiac in Yorubic medicine of Nigeria. Therefore, the aqueous extract of M. acuminata roots at 50 and 100 mg kg(-1) body weight may be explored in the management of disorders of desire, premature ejaculation and erectile dysfunction in males. PMID:21951198

  4. Climate Variability and Oceanographic Settings Associated with Interannual Variability in the Initiation of Dinophysis acuminata Blooms

    Henrick Berger

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In 2012, there were exceptional blooms of D. acuminata in early spring in what appeared to be a mesoscale event affecting Western Iberia and the Bay of Biscay. The objective of this work was to identify common climatic patterns to explain the observed anomalies in two important aquaculture sites, the Galician Rías Baixas (NW Spain and Arcachon Bay (SW France. Here, we examine climate variability through physical-biological couplings, Sea Surface Temperature (SST anomalies and time of initiation of the upwelling season and its intensity over several decades. In 2012, the mesoscale features common to the two sites were positive anomalies in SST and unusual wind patterns. These led to an atypical predominance of upwelling in winter in the Galician Rías, and increased haline stratification associated with a southward advection of the Gironde plume in Arcachon Bay. Both scenarios promoted an early phytoplankton growth season and increased stability that enhanced D. acuminata growth. Therefore, a common climate anomaly caused exceptional blooms of D. acuminata in two distant regions through different triggering mechanisms. These results increase our capability to predict intense diarrhetic shellfish poisoning outbreaks in the early spring from observations in the preceding winter.

  5. Nitrate reductase activity and its diurnal variation rhythm for Camptotheca acuminata seedlings

    SUNShi-qin; YANXiu-feng

    2004-01-01

    Nitrate reductase activity (NRA) in different plant organs and leaves in different positions of Camptotheca acuminata seedlings was determined by an In vivo assay, the diurnal variation rhythm of NRA in leaves of different positions was observed,and the correlations between leaf NRA, leaf area and lamina mass per unit area (LMA) were also examined. The results showed that NRA in the leaf was significantly highest, compared with that in other organs such as roots, stems and leaves. In this experiment, the 10 leaves were selected from the apex to the base of the seedlings in order. The different NRA occurred obviously in leaves of different positions of C. acuminata seedlings from the apex to the base, and NRA was higher in the 4th-6th leaves.The diurnal change rhythm of leaf NRA showed a one peak curve, and maximum NRA value appeared at about midday (at 12:30 or so). No obvious correlations between NRA and leaf area or lamina mass per unit area were observed. This study offered scientific foundation for the further research on nitrogen metabolism of C. acuminata.

  6. Physiological response to drought stress in Camptotheca acuminata seedlings from two provenances

    Yeqing eYing

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress is a key environmental factor limiting the growth and productivity of plants. The purpose of this study was to investigate the physiological responses of Camptotheca acuminata (C. acuminata to different drought stresses and compare the drought tolerance between the provenances Kunming (KM and Nanchang (NC, which are naturally distributed in different rainfall zones with annual rainfalls of 1000-1100 mm and 1600-1700 mm, respectively. We determined relative water content (RWC, chlorophyll content (Chl(a+b, net photosynthesis (Pn, gas exchange parameters, relative leakage conductivity (REC, malondialdehyde (MDA content and superoxide dismutase (SOD and peroxidase (POD activities of C. acuminata seedlings under both moderate (50% of maximum field capacity and severe drought stress (30% of maximum field capacity. As the degree of water stress increased, RWC, Chl(a+b content, Pn, stomatal conductance (Gs, transpiration rate (Tr and intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci values decreased, but water use efficiency (WUE, REC, MDA content and SOD and POD activities increased in provenances KM and NC. Under moderate and severe drought stress, provenance KM had higher RWC, Chl(a+b, Pn, WUE, SOD and POD and lower Gs, Tr, Ci and REC in leaves than provenance NC. The results indicated that provenance KM may maintain stronger drought tolerance via improvements in water-retention capacity, antioxidant enzyme activity and membrane integrity.

  7. Enzyme inhibition by molluscicidal agents of Bauhinia variegata and Mimusops elengi in the nervous tissue of Lymnaea acuminata

    Kanchan Lata Singh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effect of enzymatic activity in the nervous tissue of snail Lymnaea acuminata (L. acuminata by Bauhinia variegata (B. variegata and Mimusops elengi (M. elengi and their active molluscicidal components quercetin and saponin. Methods: Treatment of sublethal concentration (40% and 80% of 96-h LC50 in vivo of column-purified fraction of B. variegata leaf and M. elengi bark and their molluscicidal agents quercetin and saponin inhibit the acetylcholinesterase (AChE, acid and alkaline phosphatase (ACP and ALP activities in the nervous tissue of L. acuminata. Results: AChE activity was more inhibited than ACP and ALP in snail exposed to columnpurified fraction of M. elengi bark and saponin. Among all the treatments the highest inhibition in AChE activity (27.77% was noted in snail L. acuminata exposed to 80% of 96-h LC50 of saponin at 96-h exposure period. Conclusions: It can be concluded from the present study that inhibition of AChE, ACP and ALP by B. variegata leaf (quercetin and M. elengi bark (saponin in snail L. acuminata could be the cause of snail mortality.

  8. Genetic structure and differention of Suaeda acuminata population in oasis-desert transitional zone in Fukang, Xinjiang, China

    Wang, Xumai; Xu, Li; Zhang, Linjing; Yue, Ming; Zhao, Guifang; Gu, Fengxue; Pan, Xiaoling

    2003-07-01

    RAPD technique was applied to study intraspecific genetic polymorphism and differentiation of Suaeda acuminata populations in oasis-desert transitional zone in Fukang, Xinjiang. By analysis of RAPD data, higher genetic variability was found in the populations of S. acuminata, with a percentage of polymorphic loci of 98.9%. Both estimations by Shannon diversity index and by Nei's gene diversity index from RAPD data, it was found identically that about 72% of molecular variation existed within the subpopulations, while about 28% of which existed among subpopulations. Analysis of genetic identity, genetic distance and cluster analysis showed that genetic differentiation has taken place in the populations of Suaeda acuminata in oasis-desert transitional zone in Fukang, Xinjiang, China. The correlation analytical result between the soil factures and the genetic diversity indicted that there was a significant positive relation between genetic diversity and concentrations of Mg++, conductivity (CO) and absorbed water(W) in soil, while there was no significant relation between genetic distance among subpopulations and geographical distance. Analysis of genetic identity, genetic distance and cluster analysis between the five subpopulations showed that genetic differentiation has taken place in the population of Suaeda acuminata in oasis-desert transitional zone in Fukang, Xinjiang. No correlation existed between genetic distance among subpopulations and their locations in oasis-desert transitional zone. Adaptation to its habitats and restricted gene flow among subpopulations may be a cause of genetic differentiation of Suaeda acuminata population in oasis-desert transitional zone in Fukang, Xinjiang.

  9. Impact of Taraxerol in combination with extract of Euphorbia tirucalli plant on biological parameters of Lymnaea acuminata

    Saroj Chauhan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The present work was carried out to evaluate the molluscicidal activity of active ingredient Taraxerol with the acetone extract of Euphorbia tirucalli against Lymnaea acuminata snail. The (fecundity, hatchability and survivability of snail L. acuminata exposed to this extract was studied. The effects of the tested extracts on life-history traits of harmful snail L. acuminata have also been evaluated, and this study also expounds the inhibitory effects of these extracts singly as well as in binary combination (1:1 ratio. It concluded that these herbal products act as a potential source of molluscicides, and that they would also have the advantage of easy availability, low cost, biodegradability and greater acceptance amongst users than synthetic pesticide.

  10. Genetic variability among 18 cultivars of cooking bananas and plantains by RAPD and ISSR markers

    YUYU SURYASARI POERBA

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Poerba YS, Ahmad F (2010 Genetic variability among 18 cultivars of cooking bananas and plantains by RAPD and ISSR markers. Biodiversitas 11: 118-123. This study was done to assess the molecular diversity of 36 accessions (18 cultivars of the plantain and cooking bananas (Musa acuminata x M. balbisiana, AAB, ABB subgroups based on Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD and and Inter Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSR markers and to determine genetic relationships in the bananas. RAPD and ISSR fingerprinting of these banana varieties was carried out by five primers of RAPDs and two primers of ISSRs. RAPD primers produced 63 amplified fragments varying from 250 to 2500 bp in size. 96.82% of the amplification bands were polymorphic. ISSR primers produced 26 amplified fragments varying from 350 bp to 2000 bp in size. The results showed that 92.86% of the amplification bands were polymorphic. The range of genetic distance of 18 cultivars was from 0.06-0.67.

  11. Amplifying the benefits of agroecology by using the right cultivars.

    Noguera, D; Laossi, K-R; Lavelle, P; De Carvalho, M H Cruz; Asakawa, N; Botero, C; Barot, S

    2011-10-01

    Tropical soils are particularly vulnerable to fertility losses due to their low capacity to retain organic matter and mineral nutrients. This urges the development of new agricultural practices to manage mineral nutrients and organic matter in a more sustainable way while relying less on fertilizer inputs. Two methods pertaining to ecological engineering and agroecology have been tested with some success: (1) the addition of biochar to the soil, and (2) the maintenance of higher earthworm densities. However, modern crop varieties have been selected to be adapted to agricultural practices and to the soil conditions they lead to and common cultivars might not be adapted to new practices. Using rice as a model plant, we compared the responsiveness to biochar and earthworms of five rice cultivars with contrasted selection histories. These cultivars had contrasted responsivenesses to earthworms, biochar, and the combination of both. The mean relative increase in grain biomass, among all treatments and cultivars, was 94% and 32%, respectively, with and without fertilization. Choosing the best combination of cultivar and treatment led to a more than fourfold increase in this mean benefit (a 437% and a 353% relative increase in grain biomass, respectively, with and without fertilization). Besides, the more rustic cultivar, a local landrace adapted to diverse and difficult conditions, responded the best to earthworms in terms of total biomass, while a modern common cultivar responded the best in term of grain biomass. This suggests that cultivars could be selected to amplify the benefit of biochar- and earthworm-based practices. Overall, selecting new cultivars interacting more closely with soil organisms and soil heterogeneity could increase agriculture sustainability, fostering the positive feedback loop between soils and plants that has evolved in natural ecosystems. PMID:22073627

  12. Heliconia acuminata reproductive success is independent of local floral density O sucesso reprodutivo de Heliconia acuminata é independente da densidade floral local

    Emilio M. Bruna

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive plants in tropical forests are patchily distributed, with some in large aggregations of reproductive consepecifics while others are relatively isolated. This variation in floral density is hypothesized to have a major effect on plant reproductive success, since individuals in higher density neighborhoods can attract more or higher quality pollinators. We experimentally tested this hypothesis with populations of the understory herb Heliconia acuminata in central Amazonia. We created replicated plots in which reproductive plant density spanned the range of naturally occurring floral neighborhood size, then measured three surrogates of plant fitness in focal plants in each array. There was no significant difference between any of the three floral neighborhood treatments in total seed production, fruit set, or the number of seeds produced per fruit. Pollinator visitation rates to plants in all treatments were extremely low, with many plants not visited at all during the observation period. This could be because H. acuminata's hummingbird pollinators are unable to find the widely scattered reproductive plants, however this hypothesis appears unlikely. Instead, natural flowering plant densities may simply be below the threshold value at which neighborhood effects become important, even in "high-density" aggregations. Nutrient limitation, selective fruit abortion, and reproduction via male rather than female function may also be playing a role. We argue the absence of neighborhood effects may be a general phenomenon in central Amazonian forests, though additional experiments with other plant-pollinator systems are needed to determine the extent to which this hypothesis is supported.Plantas reprodutivas em florestas tropicas são distribuidas em manchas, com algumas em grandes agregações coespecíficas e outras relativamente isoladas. A hipótese é que esta variação na densidade de flores em um local tem um grande efeito no sucesso

  13. The complete chloroplast genome of banana (Musa acuminata, Zingiberales: insight into plastid monocotyledon evolution.

    Guillaume Martin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Banana (genus Musa is a crop of major economic importance worldwide. It is a monocotyledonous member of the Zingiberales, a sister group of the widely studied Poales. Most cultivated bananas are natural Musa inter-(sub-specific triploid hybrids. A Musa acuminata reference nuclear genome sequence was recently produced based on sequencing of genomic DNA enriched in nucleus. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The Musa acuminata chloroplast genome was assembled with chloroplast reads extracted from whole-genome-shotgun sequence data. The Musa chloroplast genome is a circular molecule of 169,972 bp with a quadripartite structure containing two single copy regions, a Large Single Copy region (LSC, 88,338 bp and a Small Single Copy region (SSC, 10,768 bp separated by Inverted Repeat regions (IRs, 35,433 bp. Two forms of the chloroplast genome relative to the orientation of SSC versus LSC were found. The Musa chloroplast genome shows an extreme IR expansion at the IR/SSC boundary relative to the most common structures found in angiosperms. This expansion consists of the integration of three additional complete genes (rps15, ndhH and ycf1 and part of the ndhA gene. No such expansion has been observed in monocots so far. Simple Sequence Repeats were identified in the Musa chloroplast genome and a new set of Musa chloroplastic markers was designed. CONCLUSION: The complete sequence of M. acuminata ssp malaccensis chloroplast we reported here is the first one for the Zingiberales order. As such it provides new insight in the evolution of the chloroplast of monocotyledons. In particular, it reinforces that IR/SSC expansion has occurred independently several times within monocotyledons. The discovery of new polymorphic markers within Musa chloroplast opens new perspectives to better understand the origin of cultivated triploid bananas.

  14. Seasonal variation in abiotic factors and toxicity of thymol against the snail Lymnaea acuminata

    Shefali Srivastava; Pradeep Kumar; Singh, V. K.; Dinesh Kumar Singh

    2013-01-01

    Toxicity of thymol against Lymnaea acuminata was conducted in each month of the year 2010-2011. The 24, 48, 72 and 96 h LC50 values of a molluscicide thymol were determined, with the concomitant estimation of levels of temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, carbon dioxide and electrical conductivity, both in control and test water. On the basis of a 24h toxicity assay, it was observed that 24h LC50 value of 6.41 mg/l in month of May, was most effective in killing the snails, while the thymol was ...

  15. Unusual presentation of giant condylomata acuminata of the vulva: A case report and review of literature

    Ibrahim A Yakasai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The lesion of Condylomata Acuminata popularly known as venereal warts are lesions which are generally diagnosed based on their warty appearance. The mode of treatment range from application of podophyllin to surgical excision by cauterization. A case of unusual presentation of giant Condylomata in a 26 year old, single, nulliparous, retroviral disease positive woman is presented and the literature reviewed. She presented with 18 months history of rapidly progressive vulval swelling and associated itching, contact bleeding, malodorous vaginal discharge and difficulty in walking. She had previously been treated with podophyllin without success. The growth measured 40×30 cm and was successfully excised with no evidence of malignancy.

  16. Maternal inheritance of chloroplast genome and paternal inheritance of mitochondrial genome in bananas (Musa acuminata).

    Fauré, S; Noyer, J L; Carreel, F; Horry, J P; Bakry, F; Lanaud, C

    1994-03-01

    Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) were used as markers to determine the transmission of cytoplasmic DNA in diploid banana crosses. Progenies from two controlled crosses were studied with heterologous cytoplasmic probes. This analysis provided evidence for a strong bias towards maternal transmission of chloroplast DNA and paternal transmission of mitochondrial DNA in Musa acuminata. These results suggest the existence of two separate mechanisms of organelle transmission and selection, but no model to explain this can be proposed at the present time. Knowledge of the organelle mode of inheritance constitutes an important point for phylogeny analyses in bananas and may offer a powerful tool to confirm hybrid origins. PMID:7923414

  17. Actividad antiinflamatoria de d-amirona y 4, 7-dimetoxiapigenina aislados de alnus acuminata

    Salama, Ahmed; Avendaño, Inés Yamile

    2009-01-01

    El presente trabajo determinó el efecto antiinflamatorio de d-amirona (olean-13(18)-en-3-ona) y 4',7-dimetoxiapigenina (5-hidroxi-4¢,7-dimetoxiflavona), aislados de Alnus acuminata (Betulaceae), por el método del edema plantar en ratas hembra, en dosis de 30, 60 y 100 mg/kg y de 30, 60 y 80 mg/kg respectivamente. Ambas sustancias mostraron una actividad antiinflamatoria significativa. El efecto más alto de d-amirona se presentó a la primera hora en las tres dosis ensayadas comparable con el e...

  18. Effect of Aqueous Extract of Massularia acuminata Stem on Sexual Behaviour of Male Wistar Rats

    M. T. Yakubu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ancient literature alluded to the use of a number of plants/preparations as sex enhancer. One of such botanicals is Massularia acuminata in which the stem has been acclaimed to be used as an aphrodisiac. Documented experiments or clinical data are, however, lacking. Therefore, this study was undertaken to evaluate the acclaimed aphrodisiac activity of M. acuminata stem. Sixty male rats were completely randomized into 4 groups (A–D of 15 each. Rats in group A (control were administered with 1 mL of distilled water (the vehicle while those in groups B, C, and D were given same volume containing 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg body weight of the extract, respectively. Sexual behaviour parameters were monitored in the male rats for day 1 (after a single dose, day 3 (after three doses, once daily, and day 5 (after five doses, once daily by pairing with a receptive female (1 : 1. The male serum testosterone concentration was also determined. Cage side observation on the animals revealed proceptive behaviour (ear wiggling, darting, hopping, and lordosis by the receptive female rats and precopulatory behaviour (chasing, anogenital sniffing and mounting by the extract-treated male rats. The extract at 500, and 1000 mg/kg body weight significantly (P<.05 increased the frequencies of mount and intromission. In addition, the ejaculation latency was significantly prolonged (P<.05. The latencies of mount and intromission were reduced significantly whereas ejaculation frequency increased. The extract also reduced the postejaculatory interval of the animals. Computed percentages of index of libido, mounted, intromitted, ejaculated and copulatory efficiency were higher in the extract treated animals compared to the distilled water-administered control whereas the intercopulatory interval decreased significantly. The extract also significantly (P<.05 increased the serum testosterone content of the animals except in those administered with 250 mg/kg body

  19. COMPARISON BETWEEN IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE AND PCR IN DETECTING HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRUS IN CONDYLOMA ACUMINATA

    2006-01-01

    Objective To compare the effectiveness of immunofluorescence and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in detecting human papilloma virus (HPV) in condyloma acuminata (CA).Methods HPVs in CA tissues from 60 patients were detected by immunofluorescence and PCR, respectively. Different subtypes of HPVs were also identified with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP).Results The positive detective rates of immunofluorescence and PCR were 56. 67 % (34/60) and 96.67 % (58/60), respectively (P<0.01). RFLP results showed HPV6 and HPVl1 were the main subtypes in the detected virus,which accounted for 98. 28 %.Conclusion The sensibility of PCR is superior to that of immunofluorescence.

  20. Correlation between differential drought tolerability of two contrasting drought-responsive chickpea cultivars and differential expression of a subset of CaNAC genes under normal and dehydration conditions

    Nguyen, Kien Huu; Van Ha, Chien; Watanabe, Yasuko; Tran, Uyen Thi; Nasr Esfahani, Maryam; Nguyen, Dong; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2015-01-01

    Drought causes detrimental effect to growth and productivity of many plants, including crops. NAC transcription factors have been reported to play important role in drought tolerance. In this study, we assessed the expression profiles of 19 dehydration-responsive CaNAC genes in roots and leaves of two contrasting drought-responsive chickpea varieties treated with water (control) and dehydration to examine the correlation between the differential expression levels of the CaNAC genes and the di...

  1. Behavioural responses of Lymnaea acuminata against apigenin, morusin and quercetin in bait pellets

    Farheen Hanif

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Snail control plays an important role in control of fasciolosis. In order to achieve this objective the method of bait formulation containing an attractant and a molluscicide is an appropriate approach to ensure good levels of contact between the molluscicide and the target snail populations. In the present study bait pellets were prepared by addition of attractants that also act as molluscicide i.e. apigenin, morusin and quercetin (10 mM, derived from Morus nigra bark, leaf and fruit in 2% agar solution. These were used against Lymnaea acuminata, an intermediate host of the digenean trematode Fasciola gigantica. The behavioural response of snails to these attractants (apigenin, morusin and quercetin was examined. The fraction of snails that were in contact with the bait pellet in zone-3 was used as a measure of attraction process. Apigenin emerged as the strongest attractant (89.1% after 2h against L. acuminata in comparison to morusin (80.2% after 2h and quercetin (72.5% after 2h at 5% concentration in bait. The molluscicidal activity of quercetin (96h LC50- 0.59% in bait was more pronounced than that of morusin (96h LC50- 1.01% in bait and apigenin (96h LC50- 1.32% in bait.

  2. Attraction to amino acids by Lymnaea acuminata, the snail host of Fasciola species

    Tiwari F.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult Lymnaea acuminata (average length 20-22 mm were collected locally from lakes and low-lying submerged fields from Gorakhpur. The chemoattraction studies were made in round glass aquaria measuring 30 cm in diameter and filled to a depth of 10 mm with 500 ml dechlorinated tap water. Each aquarium was divided into four concentric zones. At the starting time of the assay 10 snails were placed on the circumference of outermost zone 0. Snail attractant pellets (SAP were added simultaneously in the center of central zone 3. SAP of different amino acids were prepared at concentrations of 10, 20, 50, 80 and 100 mM/2% agar solution and, subsequently, spread to a uniform thickness of 5 mm. After cooling, SAP were cut in small pieces of 5 mm in diameter. Lymnaea acuminata's attraction to amino acids was studied using different amino acid concentrations in SAP. Pellets containing amino acids with non-polar R groups (proline and tryptophan, a charged polar group (arginine and uncharged polar R groups (serine, citrulline and asparagine were tested. The snails were more attracted to the uncharged polar R group amino acid serine than to other groups of amino acids. The preferred amino acid concentration was 80 mM. The attraction of snails to different amino acids was concentration dependent. Snails could discriminate amongst the different amino acids at > or = 50 mM.

  3. Treatment of urogenital and anal condylomata acuminata with Neodym: YAG laser

    Dann, Thomas; Knipper, Ansgar; Thomas, Stephen; Jocham, Dieter

    1994-02-01

    Condylomata acuminata of the urogenital and anal region are sexually transmitted warts caused by infection of human papilloma virus. In the literature different treatment modalities are reported. We report the treatment of 323 patients (315 male, 8 female) with a mean age of 27.9 years using the Nd:YAG laser. In 65% the lesions were located in the fossa navicularis, in 37% at the glans, in 30% at the foreskin. Thirty-five percent of all patients required endoscopic treatment of the distal urethra. Two-hundred-seventy-nine patients had recurrence after unsuccessful pretreatment with surgical and chemical therapy. After a mean follow-up of 15.5 months (2 - 43 months) of 95 evaluable patients 15 showed recurrences all within the first 6 months. The advantages of Nd:YAG laser treatment of condylomata acuminata, which might be done in local anaesthesia, are a low rate of recurrences and complications, the option of endoscopic treatment and the excellent cosmetic results.

  4. Genetic Diversity in Musa acuminata Colla and Musa balbisiana Colla and some of their natural hybrids using AFLP Markers.

    Ude, G.; Pillay, M.; Nwakanma, D.; Tenkouano, A.

    2002-06-01

    Genetic diversity and relationships were assessed in 28 accessions of Musa acuminata (AA) Colla and Musa balbisiana (BB) Colla, and some of their natural hybrids, using the amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) technique. Fifteen AFLP +3 primer pairs produced 527 polymorphic bands among the accessions. Neighbor-joining and principal co-ordinate (PCO) analyses using Jaccard's similarity coefficient produced four major clusters that closely corresponded with the genome composition of the accessions (AA, BB, AAB and ABB). The AFLP data distinguished between the wild diploid accessions and suggested new subspecies relationships in the M. acuminata complex that are different from those based on morphological data. The data suggested that there are three subspecies within the M. acuminata complex (ssp. burmannica Simmonds, malaccensis Simmonds, and microcarpa Simmonds). 'Tjau Lagada' (ssp. microcarpa), 'Truncata' [ssp truncata (Ridl.) Shepherd] and 'SF247' [ssp. banksii (F.Muell) Simmonds] clustered very closely with 'Gros Michel' and 'Km 5', indicating that more than one M. acuminata subspecies may be involved in the origin of triploid AAA bananas. 'Calcutta 4' (ssp. burmannicoides De Langhe & Devreux) and 'Long Tavoy' (ssp. burmannica) were closely related and could be together in the same subspecies. This study also showed that there is much more genetic diversity within M. balbisiana that was split into two groups: (1) 'I-63' and 'HND' and (2) 'Los Banos', 'MPL' (Montpellier), '10852', 'Singapuri', 'Etikehel', and 'Butohan 1' as the other. PMID:12582577

  5. Bait formulations of molluscicides and their effects on biochemical changes in the ovotestis of snail Lymnaea acuminata (Mollusca; Gastropoda:Lymnaeidae)

    Pradeep Kumar; Vinay Kumar Singh; D K Singh

    2011-01-01

    The effect of sub-lethal feeding of bait formulations containing molluscicidal component of Ferula asafoetida (ferulic acid, umbelliferone), Syzygium aromaticum (eugenol) and Carum carvi (limonene) on biochemical changes in the ovotestis of snail Lymnaea acuminata were studied. Bait formulations feeding to L. acuminata were studied in clear glass aquaria having diameter of 30 cm. Baits were prepared from different binary combinations of attractant amino acid (valine, aspartic acid, lysine and...

  6. EVALUATION FOR SALT STRESS TOLERANCE IN TWO STRAWBERRY CULTIVARS

    W. Al-Shorafa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Salt stress conditions have been found to destroy the vital physiological process in plant where slower cell division and cell enlargement or both and limit mineral nutrient uptake with clearly nutritional imbalance. A greenhouse pot experiment was carried out at Agricultural Research Station, Mu’tah University, Jordan to evaluate growth responses and mineral composition of two strawberry cultivars to salt stress by different NaCl levels. Six NaCl levels (0, 25, 50, 75, 100 and 150 mM and two strawberry cultivars, Camarosa and Albino, were used. Nutrient elements were added at the 0.5-strength Hoagland nutrient concentration. Distilled water supplemented with half strength Hoagland solution was used as control. Number of leaves and runners of both strawberry cultivars were significantly reduced by increasing NaCl level. Growth parameters (shoot, root and total dry weights and root: Shoot ratios were significantly reduced with each increase in salinity level. Camarosa had higher value for all these parameters compared with Albino. Leaf chlorophyll content of both strawberry cultivars was significantly decreased when 25 mM NaCl or higher was applied. Regardless of NaCl level, Camarosa cultivar had significantly higher chlorophyll content compared with Albino. Elevated salinity level significantly increased leaf proline content of both cultivars. Albino leaves accumulated higher proline compared with Camarosa at salinized and non-salinized treatments. Both strawberry cultivars had significantly higher leaf and root Na and Cl contents under salinized conditions compared with non-salinized conditions. Each increase in NaCl level resulted in an increase in leaf and root Na and Cl contents of both cultivars. On contrast, leaf K content was decreased with salinity, root content of this mineral was significantly increased with salinity. It could be recommended to avoid growing ‘Camarosa’ and ‘Albino’ strawberry using irrigation water of 25 m

  7. Constituyentes antifungicos en nódulos radicales de alnus acuminata h.b.k.

    Gonzalez, Jaime; Suarez, Margot; Garcés de Granada, Emira; Orozco de Amezquita, Martha

    2011-01-01

    Alnus acuminata. H.B.K. es una especie nativa de importancia económica que se caracteriza por tener nódulos radicalesfijadores de nitrógeno. La composición química de los nódulos no se ha establecido; sin embargo, se ha observado que actúa sobre la microflora del suelo. Con el fin de establecer la composición química de las fracciones obtenidas, se.realizaron extracciones a partir de nódulos de Aliso. Los compuestosaislados 'fueron: xilosa y ribosa; además se caracterizaron un ácido carboxíli...

  8. Local control of human papillomavirus infection after anal condylomata acuminata eradication

    Thiago da Silveira Manzione

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To verify whether the eradication of anal condylomata acuminata was effective for local control of HPV infection using anal colposcopy and anal brush cytology.METHODS: We evaluated 147 patients treated for anal margin and/or anal canal condyloma, with 108 HIV-positive and 39 HIV-negative individuals. The average age for males was 40 years for HIV-positive and 27.5 for HIV-negative. In females, the mean age was 37.5 years for HIV-positive and 31.5 for HIV-negative.RESULTS: Twenty-four patients (16.3% had normal cytology and anal colposcopy, 16 (10.9% normal cytology and altered anal colposcopy, 52 (35.4% normal anal colposcopy and altered cytology, and 55 (37.4% had altered cytology and anal colposcopy.CONCLUSION: the eradication of clinical lesions failed to locally control HPV infection.

  9. Antifungal activity of camptothecin, trifolin, and hyperoside isolated from Camptotheca acuminata.

    Li, Shiyou; Zhang, Zhizhen; Cain, Abigail; Wang, Bo; Long, Melissa; Taylor, Josephine

    2005-01-12

    Leaf spots and root rots are major fungal diseases in Camptotheca acuminata that limit cultivation of the plant for camptothecin (CPT), a promising anticancer and antiviral alkaloid. Bioassays showed that pure CPT and flavonoids (trifolin and hyperoside) isolated from Camptotheca effectively control fungal pathogens in vitro, including Alternaria alternata, Epicoccum nigrum, Pestalotia guepinii, Drechslera sp., and Fusarium avenaceum, although antifungal activity of these compounds in the plant is limited. CPT inhibited mycelial growth by approximately 50% (EC50) at 10-30 microg/mL and fully inhibited growth at 75-125 microg/mL. The flavonoids were less effective than CPT at 50 microg/mL, particularly within 20 days after treatment, but more effective at 100 or 150 microg/mL. CPT, trifolin, and hyperoside may serve as leads for the development of fungicides. PMID:15631505

  10. Assessment of factors affecting in vitro shoot regeneration from axillary bud explant of Camptotheca acuminata

    WANG Hui-Mei; ZU Yuan-Gang; DONG Feng-Li; ZHAO Xiao-Ju

    2005-01-01

    Axillary buds from 3-yr.-old seedlings of Camptotheca acuminata in the greenhouse were cultured on the different basal media with different concentrations of growth regulators for shoot regeneration for studying the effects of different basal media, different concentrations of growth regulators (BA or TDZ), sucrose, agar and pH value on shoot regeneration from axillary bud. The results showed that B5 and WPM media were the optimal basal media and the optimal phyotohormone was BA of 1.0 mg/L or TDZ of 0.1mg/L; The concentrations of sucrose of 30g/L and agar of 6g/L were most suitable for the shoot regeneration; pH value from 5.8 to 6.6 were broadly effective, but the best at pH 5.8.

  11. Ectomycorrhizal colonization of Alnus acuminata Kunth in northwestern Argentina in relation to season and soil parameters

    Becerra, Alejandra; Pritsch, Karin; Arrigo, Nilda; Palma, Martha; Bartoloni, Norberto

    2005-01-01

    Colonisation ectomycorrhizienne d'Alnus acuminata Kunth au nord-ouest de l'Argentine en relation avec la saison et quelques paramètres du sol. Le but de cette étude était de déterminer, au cours de deux différentes saisons (août et printemps), les modèles de colonisation de l'aulne andin dans deux forêts naturelles en relation avec quelques paramètres de sol. Les paramètres de sol étudiés étaient la capacité au champ, le pH, la conductivité électrique, le P disponible, le N total et la matièr...

  12. Description and identification of Alnus acuminata ectomycorrhizae from Argentinean alder stands.

    Pritsch, Karin; Becerra, Alejandra; Põlme, Sergei; Tedersoo, Leho; Schloter, Michael; Agerer, Reinhard

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the morphological and anatomical features of five unidentified ectomycorrhizal types of Alnus acuminata and to complement their identification based on ITS-rDNA sequence analysis. The combined approach of morphotyping and sequence analysis based on ITS sequence comparison with sequences contained in GenBank and the UNITE database let us assign three of the five field-collected ectomycorrhiza morphotypes to the tomentella-thelephora lineage that closely matched European and North American species. The sequencing results within Tomentella point toward alder specific clades within T. sublilacina, T. ellisii and T. stuposa sensu lato. The two other EcM morphotypes matched Lactarius omphaliiformis and a Russula sp. Better focused, concomitant fruit body surveys are needed for accurate identification of South American ectomycorrhizal fungi because of the evidence of cryptic speciation in both agaricoid and resupinate mycobionts. PMID:20943556

  13. Controlled green synthesis of silver nanoparticles by Allium cepa and Musa acuminata with strong antimicrobial activity

    Sahni, Geetika; Panwar, Amit; Kaur, Balpreet

    2015-02-01

    A controlled "green synthesis" approach to synthesize silver nanoparticles by Allium cepa and Musa acuminata plant extract has been reported. The effect of different process parameters, such as pH, temperature and time, on synthesis of Ag nanoparticles from plant extracts has been highlighted. The work reports an easy approach to control the kinetics of interaction of metal ions with reducing agents, stabilized by ammonia to achieve sub-10 nm particles with narrow size distribution. The nanoparticles have been characterized by UV-Visible spectra and TEM analysis. Excellent antimicrobial activity at extremely low concentration of the nanoparticles was observed against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis and Fusarium oxysporum which may allow their exploitation as a new generation nanoproduct in biomedical and agricultural applications.

  14. Conditioned water affects pair formation behaviour in the marine polychaete Neanthes (Nereis) acuminata.

    Storey, Ellen J; Reish, Don J; Hardege, Jörg D

    2013-01-01

    Assessing cues from conspecifics is paramount during mate choice decisions. Neanthes acuminata is a marine polychaete with a unique life cycle: pair formation, female death following reproduction, male parental care and male ability to mate again after egg care. Males completing such egg care are 'experienced'. Females have been shown to prefer experienced males over all others, including aggressively dominant males. As the female dies following reproduction, the reproductive success of her offspring depends upon successful parental care by the male. It is therefore vital that the female makes a good mate choice decision. This paper shows that the use of conditioned water from males caring for eggs and newly experienced males caused the female to alter her choice to a previously undesired male. However, conditioned water from males, which had reproduced but were isolated for 2 weeks, did not have the same effect on pairing behaviour. This indicates that the smell of experience is short lived. PMID:22941305

  15. Molluscicidal activity of Morus nigra against the freshwater snail Lymnaea acuminata

    Farheen Hanif

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The molluscicidal activity of Morus nigra fruit, bark and leaf powder against the snail Lymnaea acuminata was time and concentration dependent. Toxicity of fruit powder (96h LC50: 166.92 mg/L was more pronounced in comparison to bark powder (96h LC50: 173.17 mg/L and leaf powder (96h LC50: 173.69 mg/L. Ethanolic extracts of M. nigra fruit, bark and leaf was more toxic than their other organic solvent extracts. The molluscicidal activity of ethanolic extract of M. nigra fruit powder (24h LC50: 116.23 mg/L was more effective than the ethanolic extract of bark powder (24h LC50: 154.41 mg/L and leaf powder (24h LC50: 139.80 mg/L. The 96h LC50 of column-purified fraction of M. nigra fruit powder was, 10.03 mg/L whereas that of bark and leaf powder was 8.69 mg/L and 4.97 mg/L, respectively. Column and thin layer chromatography analysis demonstrates that the active molluscicidal component in M. nigra is quercetin (96h LC50: 1.11 mg/L, apigenin (96h LC50: 1.92 mg/L and morusin (96h LC50: 2.12 mg/L, respectively. Co-migration of quercetin (Rf 0.49, apigenin (Rf 0.51 and morusin (Rf 0.52 with column-purified fruit, bark and leaf of M. nigra on thin layer chromatography demonstrates same Rf value. The present study indicates that M. nigra may be used as potent source of molluscicides against the snail Lymnaea acuminata.

  16. Seasonal variation in abiotic factors and toxicity of thymol against the snail Lymnaea acuminata

    Shefali Srivastava

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxicity of thymol against Lymnaea acuminata was conducted in each month of the year 2010-2011. The 24, 48, 72 and 96 h LC50 values of a molluscicide thymol were determined, with the concomitant estimation of levels of temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, carbon dioxide and electrical conductivity, both in control and test water. On the basis of a 24h toxicity assay, it was observed that 24h LC50 value of 6.41 mg/l in month of May, was most effective in killing the snails, while the thymol was least effective in month of April, when its 24h LC50 was 15.25 mg/l. There was a significant positive correlation between LC50 of thymol and levels of carbon dioxide/ pH of water in corresponding months. On the contrary, a negative correlation was noted between LC50 of thymol and dissolved oxygen/ temperature of test water in the same months. In order to confirm that relationship between toxicity and abiotic factors is not coincidental, activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE, acid phosphatase (ACP and alkaline phosphatase (ALP in the nervous tissue of control as well as sublethal thymol (60% of 24hLC50 treated snail, were assayed during each of the 12 months of the same year. A significant positive rank correlation was noted between AChE/ACP/ALP activity and corresponding sublethal treatment of thymol. Maximum inhibition of AChE, ACP and ALP activity was observed in the month of May. This study shows conclusively that the best time to control the L. acuminata population with thymol is during the month of May to July.

  17. Low plant density enhances gene dispersal in the Amazonian understory herb Heliconia acuminata.

    Côrtes, Marina C; Uriarte, María; Lemes, Maristerra R; Gribel, Rogério; Kress, W John; Smouse, Peter E; Bruna, Emilio M

    2013-11-01

    In theory, conservation genetics predicts that forest fragmentation will reduce gene dispersal, but in practice, genetic and ecological processes are also dependent on other population characteristics. We used Bayesian genetic analyses to characterize parentage and propagule dispersal in Heliconia acuminata L. C. Richard (Heliconiaceae), a common Amazonian understory plant that is pollinated and dispersed by birds. We studied these processes in two continuous forest sites and three 1-ha fragments in Brazil's Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project. These sites showed variation in the density of H. acuminata. Ten microsatellite markers were used to genotype flowering adults and seedling recruits and to quantify realized pollen and seed dispersal distances, immigration of propagules from outside populations, and reproductive dominance among parents. We tested whether gene dispersal is more dependent on fragmentation or density of reproductive plants. Low plant densities were associated with elevated immigration rates and greater propagule dispersal distances. Reproductive dominance among inside-plot parents was higher for low-density than for high-density populations. Elevated local flower and fruit availability is probably leading to spatially more proximal bird foraging and propagule dispersal in areas with high density of reproductive plants. Nevertheless, genetic diversity, inbreeding coefficients and fine-scale spatial genetic structure were similar across populations, despite differences in gene dispersal. This result may indicate that the opposing processes of longer dispersal events in low-density populations vs. higher diversity of contributing parents in high-density populations balance the resulting genetic outcomes and prevent genetic erosion in small populations and fragments. PMID:24730040

  18. Dendrocronología de Alnus acuminata en el bosque reservado de San Pedro de Saño, Huancayo

    Edilson Requena Rojas

    2015-01-01

    En este trabajo evaluamos el potencial de Alnus acuminata para su uso posterior en estudios dendroclimatológicos. Se analizó una cronología de ancho de anillos para un bosque de A. acuminata en San Pedro de Saño y se relacionó el crecimiento de los árboles con los registros instrumentales de temperatura media, máxima y mínima, precipitación y horas sol de las estaciones meteorológicas de Huayao (12° 02´ 18.1¨ S - 75° 19´22.2¨ O) y Santa Ana (12° 00´ 15¨ S - 75° 13´ 15¨ O). La cronología de an...

  19. Ectomycorrhizae between Alnus acuminata H.B.K. and Naucoria escharoides (Fr.:Fr.) Kummer from Argentina.

    Becerra, Alejandra; Daniele, Graciela; Domínguez, Laura; Nouhra, Eduardo; Horton, Tom

    2002-04-01

    Field ectomycorrhizae of Naucoria escharoides on Alnus acuminata ("andean alder", "aliso del cerro") are described in detail for the first time. Naturally occurring ectomycorrhizal roots were sampled beneath sporocarps of N. escharoides. The samples were taken from four natural forest plots at two homogeneous A. acuminata sites (Tucumán and Catamarca Provinces, Argentina). The ectomycorrhizae were characterized morphologically and compared by means of PCR/RFLP analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region of the nuclear rDNA. The most important morphological features of the ectomycorrhizae are a white to pale yellow mantle, simple to monopodial branches, hyaline emanating hyphae, abundant hyphal bundles emerging more or less perpendicularly from a plectenchymatous mantle, and an acute or rounded apex with or without a mantle. N. escharoides fruitbodies have white basal mycelium with emanating hyphae similar to those of andean alder ectomycorrhizae. The RFLP profiles of sporocarps and mycorrhizae were the same. PMID:12035728

  20. Bait Formulations of Chlorophyllin against Infected/Uninfected Lymnaea acuminata in Red and Sunlight

    Navneet Kumar; Vinay Kumar Singh

    2015-01-01

    Control of snail population is an important tool in fasciolosis control programme. In order to achive this objective the method of bait formulation containing an attractant and a molluscicide is an appropriate approach to ensure the death of host snail. Chlorophyllin bait pellets were prepared by addition of attractants starch (10 mM)/serine (20 mM) and Chlorophyllin 2% agar solution. These baits were used against host snail Lymnaea acuminata. The behavioral response of snail against attracta...

  1. Development of expressed sequence tag and expressed sequence tag–simple sequence repeat marker resources for Musa acuminata

    Passos, Marco A. N.; de Oliveira Cruz, Viviane; Emediato, Flavia L; de Camargo Teixeira, Cristiane; Souza, Manoel T; Matsumoto, Takashi; Rennó Azevedo, Vânia C.; Ferreira, Claudia F; Amorim, Edson P; de Alencar Figueiredo, Lucio Flavio; Martins, Natalia F; de Jesus Barbosa Cavalcante, Maria; Baurens, Franc-Christophe; da Silva, Orzenil Bonfim; Pappas, Georgios J

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Banana (Musa acuminata) is a crop contributing to global food security. Many varieties lack resistance to biotic stresses, due to sterility and narrow genetic background. The objective of this study was to develop an expressed sequence tag (EST) database of transcripts expressed during compatible and incompatible banana–Mycosphaerella fijiensis (Mf) interactions. Black leaf streak disease (BLSD), caused by Mf, is a destructive disease of banana. Microsatellite markers were...

  2. Pessegueiro: cultivar BRS kampai Peach cultivar BRS kampai

    Maria do Carmo Bassols Raseira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O programa de Melhoramento Genético de Pessegueiros da Embrapa Clima Temperado tem, entre seus objetivos, a obtenção de cultivares produtoras de frutas para consumo in natura, com características que satisfaçam às exigências dos consumidores. Alguns dos grandes centros consumidores, como é o caso de São Paulo e Curitiba, preferem pêssegos de polpa branca e sabor doce. A cultivar BRS Kampai, obtida de um cruzamento entre 'Chimarrita' e 'Flordaprince', alia a baixa necessidade em frio, o que é uma vantagem em regiões subtropicais, à boa aparência, com sabor superior a qualquer um dos parentais. A colheita dos frutos desta cultivar inicia-se geralmente, em meados de novembro, em Pelotas-RS (em Atibaia, São Paulo, inicia-se na segunda quinzena de outubro, poucos dias antes das cultivares Rubimel (polpa amarela e Premier (polpa branca, sendo ótima substituta para esta última.The peach breeding program of Embrapa Clima Temperado has, among the objectives the development of fresh market cultivars that fulfill the consumer's preference. Some of the largest consumer centers, such as São Paulo and Curitiba, prefer white flesh peaches with sweet flavor. Cultivar BRS Kampai originated from a cross between 'Chimarrita' and 'Flordaprince', adds the low chilling requirement, advantageous for subtropical areas, to the good appearance and flavor superior to any of the parents. The harvest period of this cultivar begins mid November, in Pelotas, RS, a few days before Rubimel (yellow flesh and Premier (white flesh cultivars (and in the second half of October, in Atibaia, SP being a good substitute for the later.

  3. Physiological and biochemical parameters for evaluation and clustering of rice cultivars differing in salt tolerance at seedling stage

    Sumitahnun Chunthaburee; Anoma Dongsansuk; Jirawat Sanitchon; Wattana Pattanagul; Piyada Theerakulpisut

    2016-01-01

    Salinity tolerance levels and physiological changes were evaluated for twelve rice cultivars, including four white rice and eight black glutinous rice cultivars, during their seedling stage in response to salinity stress at 100 mM NaCl. All the rice cultivars evaluated showed an apparent decrease in growth characteristics and chlorophyll accumulation under salinity stress. By contrast an increase in proline, hydrogen peroxide, peroxidase (POX) activity and anthocyanins were observed for all c...

  4. BRS Progresso – Rye cultivar

    Alfredo do Nascimento Junior

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The rye cultivar BRS Progresso, developed by the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa, is the result of a synthetic cross of 18 open-pollinated, self-incompatible lines, resistant to stem rust.

  5. Methods to classify maize cultivars in use efficiency and response to nitrogen

    Cleiton Lacerda Godoy

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available n plant breeding programs that aim to obtain cultivars with nitrogen (N use efficiency, the focus is on methods of selection and experimental procedures that present low cost, fast response, high repeatability, and can be applied to a large number of cultivars. Thus, the objectives of this study were to classify maize cultivars regarding their use efficiency and response to N in a breeding program, and to validate the methodology with contrasting doses of the nutrient. The experimental design was a randomized block with the treatments arranged in a split-plot scheme with three replicates and five N doses (0, 30, 60, 120 and 200 kg ha-1 in the plots, and six cultivars in subplots. We compared a method examining the efficiency and response (ER with two contrasting doses of N. After that, the analysis of variance, mean comparison and regression analysis were performed. In conclusion, the method of the use efficiency and response based on two N levels classifies the cultivars in the same way as the regression analysis, and it is appropriate in plant breeding routine. Thus, it is necessary to identify the levels of N required to discriminate maize cultivars in conditions of low and high N availability in plant breeding programs that aim to obtain efficient and responsive cultivars. Moreover, the analysis of the interaction genotype x environment at experiments with contrasting doses is always required, even when the interaction is not significant.

  6. Efficacy of topical imiquimod in HIV-positive patients with recurrent anal condylomata acuminata

    Sidney Roberto Nadal

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Imiquimod is a topical chemotherapic and immunostimulant agent with antitumoral and antiviral activities, used for anal condylomata acuminata treatment, mainly in recurrences. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the imiquimod efficiency in chronic and recurrent anal condylomata acuminata in HIV-infected persons. METHOD: A prospective study that analyzed 61 patients with recurrent anal condylomata treated with topic 5% imiquimod, for at least 8 weeks. These patients had already been submitted to other topical and surgical treatments for anal warts. We evaluated the efficiency of this agent, through wart remission, with clinical examination and high-resolution anoscopy, CD4+ T lymphocyte count and side effects. The patients were 55 males and 6 females, from 22 to 63 years old. RESULTS: Remission was seen in 90%, being 46% complete remission and 44% partial remission. Other 10% did not respond to the treatment with imiquimod within the 16th week. Recurrences were observed in 11% of patients in 24-week follow-up. Statistics showed no differences in CD4+ T cell scores when groups with and without complete remission were compared. Adverse effects were reported by 45% of patients. They were mild to moderate burning (25%, intense burning (7%, ulcerative dermatitis (8% and systemic symptoms (5%. CONCLUSION: Imiquimod was effective in controlling recurrent anal condylomata acuminata in HIV-positive patients, regardless of CD4+ T cell count.INTRODUÇÃO: O imiquimode é agente tópico quimioterápico e imunoestimulante, com atividades antitumoral e antiviral, usado para tratamento dos condilomas acuminados perianais, principalmente os recidivantes. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a eficácia do imiquimode nos condilomas acuminados perianais crônicos e multirrecidivantes dos doentes soropositivos para o vírus da imunodeficiência adquirida (HIV. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODO: Estudo clínico prospectivo por 12 meses em que observamos o uso tópico de imiquimode creme 5%, por no

  7. Contrast Materials

    ... adverse reaction, you should tell your doctor about: allergies to contrast materials, food, drugs, dyes, preservatives, or animals medications ... These include: previous adverse reactions to iodine-based contrast materials history of ... disease dehydration sickle cell anemia , polycythemia and ...

  8. Bait Formulations of Chlorophyllin against Infected/Uninfected Lymnaea acuminata in Red and Sunlight

    Navneet Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Control of snail population is an important tool in fasciolosis control programme. In order to achive this objective the method of bait formulation containing an attractant and a molluscicide is an appropriate approach to ensure the death of host snail. Chlorophyllin bait pellets were prepared by addition of attractants starch (10 mM/serine (20 mM and Chlorophyllin 2% agar solution. These baits were used against host snail Lymnaea acuminata. The behavioral response of snail against attractant (starch/serine and chlorophyllin was examined in red and sunlight. The fraction of snail that was in contact with chlorophyllin bait in zone-3 was used as measure of attraction process. Infected snails were more attracted with red light+starch (57.7%. Uninfected snails were more attracted by red light+serine (58.0%. The molluscicidal activity of chlorophyllin against infected snails in red light (96h LC50-1.88% chlorophyllin in bait and sunlight (96h LC50-2.40% chlorophyllin in bait was more pronounced than uninfected snail in red light (96h LC50-1.76% Chlorophyllin in bait and sunlight (96h LC50-3.62% chlorophyllin in bait.

  9. CHRONIC TOXICITY STUDIES OF PLUMERIA ACUMINATA AND GALEGA PURPUREA IN EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS

    Periyasamy Gomathi*, Malaya Gupta and Upal Kanti Mazumder

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of medicinal plants and preparations derived from them as dietary supplements, nutraceuticals, functional foods and herbal medicinal products has become more widely accepted in developing countries. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the adverse effects of these plants and their preparations. The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety of the methanol extracts Plumeria acuminata (MEPA and Galega purpurea (MEGP by single the long-term oral administration in mice. The study of chronic toxicity was determined by oral feeding male mice daily with the MEPA and MEGP at the dose of 300, 600 and 1,200 mg/kg body weight continuously for 270 days. The results of chronic toxicity showed no abnormalities in the test groups as compared to the controls. Hematological and blood chemical values in treated groups were normal in comparison with the control group. Non-toxicity effect of MEPA and MEGP were present as no changes in body weight, internal organ weight, and general behaviors. Macroscopic or microscopic of internal organs or tissues in treated rats showed no changes. Therefore, the methanol extract of MEPA and MEGP given orally to male mice did not produce both acute and chronic toxicities.

  10. SOURCES OF MYCORRHIZAL INFECTION OF SHOREA ACUMINATA SEEDLINGS UNDER LABORATORY CONDITIONS

    LEE Su SEE

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Uninoculated dipterocarp seedlings raised in normal field soil in nurseries were always found to have mycorrhizas after a few months. This study set out to determine whether dipterocarp seedlings could continue to grow and develop in the absence of mycorrhizas and also to determine possible sources of mycorrhizal infection of dipterocarp seedlings raised under laboratory conditions using Shorea acuminata as a typical example. Seedlings were planted in capped or uncapped perspex boxes containing sterile or non-sterile field soil and watered daily with sterile water or tap water. Seedling growth and development of mycorrhizas were monitored at monthly intervals for up to seven months. Seedlings grown in sterile soil remained uninfected after seven months while infection was found in some of the seedlings grown in normal soil regardless of whether they had been watered with tap water or sterile water. This showed that field soil (i.e. under grass far from the forest contained suitable inoculum for forest tree seedlings. Tap water and the air were not important sources of infection. However, mycorrhizal infection was very uneven indicating that the inoculum was probably very unevenly distributed in the soil or that the inoculum density was rather low. Seedlings grown in sterile soil showed better growth than those grown in normal soil and infection of roots by parasitic fungi in the latter was also observed.

  11. Post harvest changes of banana prata (Musa acuminata x Musa balbisiana group AAB) γ-irradiated

    Pre-climateric bananas (Musa acuminata x Musa balbisiana [AAB group] cv. Prata) were stored without treatment (no radiation) or were exposed at 0.25 and 0.50 kGy of γ -irradiation, with a dose rate of 1 kGy.h -1 before storage. The fruits were analysed for CO2 and ethylene production during maturation and pulp-to-peel ratio, starch, total soluble sugars, pectins, pectin methyl esterase and poly galacturonase activities on 6 colour score of peel. The radiation dose/peel-colour interaction affected the pulp-to-peel ratio significantly, while the fruits subjected at 0.25 Gy had the highest increase on the colour scores 5, 6, and 7. A predictable increase in the conversion of starch to sugar took place during maturation and a delaying on the soluble sugar accumulation was noted on the fruits submitted to 0.50 kGy, in the 6 and 7 colour scores only. A decrease on the total pectin content and a trend of a higher solubilization of pectins was observed in the fruits γ-irradiated at 0.50 kGy. Higher pectin methyl esterase activities were exhibited by irradiated fruits, although the γ-irradiation has suppressed the poly galacturonase activity throughout the maturation period. (author). 110 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs

  12. Immunohistochemical aspects of apoptosis in gingival mucosa with papilloma and condyloma acuminata.

    Scrieciu, Monica; Mercuţ, Veronica; Mercuţ, Răzvan; Amărăscu, Marina Olimpia; Popescu, Sanda Mihaela; Predescu, Anca Mihaela; Baniţă, Ileana Monica

    2015-01-01

    The oral mucosa is a component of the oral ecosystem, which can be aggressed by corrosion products released from the dental alloys used in prosthetic dentistry therapy. The purpose of this study was to compare the in vivo effect of nickel and copper compounds on the oral mucosa cells, including their ability to induce cell death, by analyzing the cytochrome c (cyt. c) immunohistochemical expression. Gingival mucosa fragments obtained from the subjects with dentures manufactured by nickel or copper casting alloys were processed through the histological technique of paraffin inclusion. The sections obtained were stained by usually histological methods in order to highlight the histopathological lesions and also analyzed using the immunohistochemical technique in order to study the cyt. c expression. The papillomatosis lesions were observed in the gingival mucosa fragments obtained from the subjects with nickel-based alloy dentures and the condyloma acuminata lesions were observed in those obtained from the subjects with copper-based alloy dentures. The cyt. c immunohistochemical expression was different in the epithelial layer of two types of mucosal fragments but it was the same in their lamina propria connective tissue. We can conclude that the two types of metal alloys have different effects on the adjacent gingival mucosa. PMID:26193209

  13. Molecular Characterisation of Endophytic Fungi from Roots of Wild Banana (Musa acuminata).

    Zakaria, Latiffah; Jamil, Muhamad Izham Muhamad; Anuar, Intan Sakinah Mohd

    2016-02-01

    Endophytic fungi inhabit apparently healthy plant tissues and are prevalent in terrestrial plants, especially root tissues, which harbour a wide assemblage of fungal endophytes. Therefore, this study focused on the isolation and characterisation of endophytic fungi from the roots of wild banana (Musa acuminata). A total of 31 isolates of endophytic fungi were isolated from 80 root fragments. The endophytic fungi were initially sorted according to morphological characteristics and identified using the sequences of the translation elongation factor-1α (TEF-1α) gene of Fusarium spp. and the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) regions of other fungi. The most common fungal isolates were species of the genus Fusarium, which were identified as F. proliferatum, Fusarium sp., F. solani species complex, and F. oxysporum. Other isolated endophytic fungi included Curvularia lunata, Trichoderma atroviride, Calonectria gracilis, Rhizoctonia solani, Bionectria ochroleuca, and Stromatoneurospora phoenix (Xylariceae). Several of the fungal genera, such as Fusarium, Trichoderma, Rhizoctonia, and Xylariceae, are among the common fungal endophytes reported in plants. This study showed that the roots of wild banana harbour a diverse group of endophytic fungi. PMID:27019688

  14. Formulation and evaluation of semisolid jelly produced by Musa acuminata Colla (AAA Group) peels

    Noor Azwani Mohd Rasidek; Mariam Firdhaus Mad Nordin; Kamyar Shameli

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To study the jelly formulation produced by Musa acuminata Colla (AAA Group) peels and evaluate its antioxidant properties which are related to the product quality. Methods: The formulations of peel jelly were established under two-level full factorial designs within two blocks and one center point. Regarding response optimizer, the amount of sugar and citric acid was obtained; hence, the peel jellies were produced. The evaluation of antioxidant properties was conducted by using total phenolic content (TPC) assay and 1,1 diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical assay. Results: The TPC of peel powder varied from 91.8 to 602.26 mg gallic acid equivalents/100 g dry weight, and 5%–7% peel jellies had phenolic content ranging from 29.38 to 48.31 mg gallic acid equivalents/100 g dry weight. The results of DPPH test indicated that at 10 mg/mL, the peel powder showed 89% DPPH inhibition, while 7% peel jelly prominently exhibited 84% DPPH inhibition. The correlation between DPPH IC50 value and TPC of peel powder as well as peel jelly was quite reasonably high with correlation coefficient ranging from 0.843 7 to 0.995. Conclusions: TPC can be used as an indicator in assessing the antioxidant activity of fruits and vegetables. The present investigation reveals that TPC is mainly responsible for DPPH free radical scavenging capacity.

  15. Ripening of fruits of 'Dwarf Prata' banana (Musa acuminata x Musa balbisiana, AAB group)irradiated and treated with calcium carbide

    Martineli, Maristella [Instituto de Quimica. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Coneglian, Regina C.C.; Vasconcellos, Marco A.S.; Silva, Eduardo, E-mail: rccconeg@ufrrj.br, E-mail: masv@ufrrj.br [Departamento de Fitotecnia. Instituto de Agronomia. Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil); Vital, Helio C., E-mail: vital@ctex.eb.br [Secao de Defesa Nuclear. Divisao de Defesa Quimica, Biologica e Nuclear. Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (CTEx), Guaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The competing effects resulting from the exposure of fruits of 'warf prata' banana (Musa acuminata x Musa balbisiana, AAB group) to gamma radiation and to calcium carbide have been investigated in this work. The fruits were harvested in a pre-climateric stage (green colored though physiologically developed) in the city of Jaiba, state of Minas Gerais, and gamma irradiated with doses of 0.25 or 0.50 kGy in a research irradiating facility at the Brazilian Army Technology Center (CTEx) in the city of Rio de Janeiro. Some samples were also exposed to calcium carbide for 32 hours in order to accelerate ripening. Quantitative estimates of peel color, disease index and fresh mass loss were performed for 9 days while the fruits were kept at an average temperature of 23 deg C. The analyses were performed in the Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, located in the city of Seropedica. The following treatments or combination of processes have been tested: untreated (control); treated only with irradiation with doses of 0.25 kGy or 0.50 kGy; treated with irradiation with doses of 0.25 kGy or 0.50 kGy and then exposed to calcium carbide. The fruits treated solely with irradiation with 0.25 kGy exhibited a better response during the first days of storage, although their initial green coloration vanished with time. In addition, the fungi Colletotrichum musae and Lasidioplodia theobroma were detected in samples submitted to the combination of both processes. In contrast, such fungi were not observed in fruits that had only been exposed to 0.25 kGy and exhibited low disease indices. Also, 1-2 cm lesions were detected on fruits.(author)

  16. Characterization of the molluscicidal activity of Bauhinia variegata and Mimusops elengi plant extracts against the fasciola vector lymnaea acuminata

    Kanchan Lata Singh; D K Singh; Vinay Kumar Singh

    2012-01-01

    The molluscicidal activity of Bauhinia variegata leaf and Mimusops elengi bark was studied against vector snail Lymnaea acuminata. The toxicity of both plants was time and concentration-dependent. Among organic extracts, ethanol extracts of both plants were more toxic. Toxicity of B. variegata leaf ethanolic extract (96h LC50- 14.4 mg/L) was more pronounced than M. elengi bark ethanolic extract (96h LC50-15.0 mg/L). The 24h LC50 of column purified fraction of B. variegata and M. elengi bark w...

  17. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Nd: YAG Laser under Urethroscope in the Treatment of Intraurethral Condyloma Acuminata (CA) in Males

    赵冬; 曾伟宏; 翟胜

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the therapeutic effect of Nd:YAG laser under urethroscope for the treatment of intraurethral Candyloma Acuminata (CA) in males.Method: Nd:YAG laser under urethroscope was employed to remove the warts.Result: Seventeen patients out of eighteen cases with CA were cured after the first procedure. The ure rate was 94.4%.For second treatment, the cure rate was 100% and no relapse occurred after observation for 12 - 4 months.Conclusion: Nd:YAG laser by urethroscope is a very good method for the treatment of intraurethral CA.

  18. Analysis of expressed sequence tags from Musa acuminata ssp. burmannicoides, var. Calcutta 4 (AA) leaves submitted to temperature stresses

    Santos, C R; Martins, N.F.; Horberg, H.M.; Almeida, E.R.P.; Coelho, M.C.F.; Togawa, R.; F. R. Silva; Caetano, A.R.; Miller, R.N.G.; de Souza, M T

    2005-01-01

    In order to discover genes expressed in leaves of Musa acuminata ssp. burmannicoides var. Calcutta 4 (AA), from plants submitted to temperature stress, we produced and characterized two full-length enriched cDNA libraries. Total RNA from plants subjected to temperatures ranging from 5°C to 25°C and from 25°C to 45°C was used to produce a COLD and a HOT cDNA library, respectively. We sequenced 1,440 clones from each library. Following quality analysis and vector trimming, we assembled 2,286 se...

  19. Phenotyping of wheat cultivars for heat tolerance using chlorophyll a fluorescence

    Sharma, Dew Kumari; Andersen, Svend Bode; Ottosen, Carl-Otto; Rosenqvist, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. In view of the global climate change, heat stress is an increasing constraint for the productivity of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Our aim was to identify contrasting cultivars in terms of heat tolerance by mass screening of 1274 wheat cultivars of diverse origin, based on a...... a milder heat stress of 38Cin 300 mmolm–2 s–1 for 2 h with preheating at 33–35Cfor 19 h in 7–14 mmolm–2 s–1 light showed a genetic determination of 8.52.7%.Aheat treatment of 40Cin 300 mmolm–2 s–1 for 72 h in the second screening with 138 selected cultivars resulted in larger differentiation of...... cultivars with an increased genetic component (15.43.6%), which was further increased to 27.96.8% in the third screening with 41 contrasting cultivars. This contrasting set of cultivars was then used to compare the ability of chlorophyll fluorescence parameters to detect genetic difference in heat tolerance...

  20. Micropropagation of Malaxis acuminata D. Don: A Rare Orchid of High Therapeutic Value

    Saranjeet Kaur

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Regeneration potential of pseudobulb segments of Malaxis acuminata, procured from in vitro grown cultures, was analysed in Mitra et al., 1976 medium and its combinations with growth adjuncts. Juvenility of the tissues and chemical stimulus emerged as important factors in eliciting response in the explants. The explants from relatively older pseudobulbs (greater than 0.5cm in length remained recalcitrant to regeneration whereas those representing younger ones (less than 0.5cm in length responded positively. The response frequency, pathway of regeneration, and time taken for their development into complete plantlets was directly related to the growth stimulus in the nutrient regime. Shoot buds were induced in an individual treatment with growth regulators (BAP/NAA; 1mg L-1 each whereas their combination [BAP (1.0 mg L-1 + NAA (1.0 mg L-1] promoted protocorm-like body formation in the explants. Additional activated charcoal invariably proved beneficial in accelerating the morphogenetic processes leading to plantlet development. NAA (1 mg L-1 impaired the response frequency and delayed subsequent morphogenetic processes leading to plantlet development. BAP+NAA (1.0 mg L-leach+AC (2 g L-1 was used best for early initiation, highest regeneration frequency, proliferation of protocorm-like bodies (PLB, and plantlet development. Plantlets were transferred to clay pots containing potting mixture (sand, soil, leaf compost in the ratio of 1:1:1. Nearly 70-80% of plantlets survival was recorded. Histological investigation confirmed that neoformations were dermal and multicellular in origin.

  1. IPR 118 - Bread wheat cultivar

    Carlos Roberto Riede

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat cultivar IPR 118 developed by IAPAR has a good yield potential and is widely adapted. It is earlymaturing and moderately tolerant to shattering and soil aluminum, moderately resistant to leaf rust and presents high glutenstrength for bread-making. The overall yield exceeded controls by 13%.

  2. 栽培密度对喜树(Camptotheca acuminata Descne)幼苗生物量及喜树碱含量的影响%Effect of planting density on plant growth and camptothecin content of Camptotheca acuminata seedlings

    魏焕勇; 王洋; 王振月; 阎秀峰

    2005-01-01

    C. acuminata seedlings cultivated in greenhouse were transplanted into the fields with 5 designed planting densities (11, 16, 25, 44 and 100 plants·m-2) in May of 2004 and were harvested in the middle of September of 2004. The seedling growth indexes including plant height and crown width, biomass allocation, camptothecin (CPT) content and CPT yield of different organs (young leaf, old leaf, stem, and root) were studied. For the 5 selected planting densities, the plant biomass, height, crown width, and total leaf area of C. acuminata seedlings all showed highest values at the planting density of 25 plants·m-2. CPT content in young leaves was higher than that in other organs of seedlings and presented an obvious change with the variation of planting densities and with the highest value at density of 100 plants·m-2, while for other organs no significant variation in CPT content was found with change of planting density. The accumulation of CPT was enhanced significantly at the planting density of 25 plants·m-2. It is concluded that for the purpose to get raw materials with more CPT from C. acuminata, the optimal planting density of C. acuminata seedlings should be designed as 25 plants·m-2.%栽培密度是植物生长的重要影响因子,能够显著影响植物的生长.2004年5月,将温室培养的喜树(Camptotheca acuminata Descne)幼苗按照5种栽培密度(11、16、25、44、100株·m-2)移栽到田间,并于2004年9月中旬采收.我们对喜树幼苗的生长(包括株高和冠幅)、生物量分配、喜树碱含量和产量进行了研究.就5种栽培密度而言,喜树幼苗生物量、株高、冠幅及总叶面积均在密度为25株·m-2时最大.嫩叶喜树碱含量高于喜树幼苗其它各器官的喜树碱含量并且随栽培密度的改变有明显变化,在100株·m-2时达到最大,但其它器官喜树碱含量随栽培密度的变化不显著.栽培密度为25株·m-2时,喜树碱积累显著增强.结果显示,为得到较高喜

  3. Analysis of expressed sequence tags from Musa acuminata ssp. burmannicoides, var. Calcutta 4 (AA) leaves submitted to temperature stresses.

    Santos, C M R; Martins, N F; Hörberg, H M; de Almeida, E R P; Coelho, M C F; Togawa, R C; da Silva, F R; Caetano, A R; Miller, R N G; Souza, M T

    2005-05-01

    In order to discover genes expressed in leaves of Musa acuminata ssp. burmannicoides var. Calcutta 4 (AA), from plants submitted to temperature stress, we produced and characterized two full-length enriched cDNA libraries. Total RNA from plants subjected to temperatures ranging from 5 degrees C to 25 degrees C and from 25 degrees C to 45 degrees C was used to produce a COLD and a HOT cDNA library, respectively. We sequenced 1,440 clones from each library. Following quality analysis and vector trimming, we assembled 2,286 sequences from both libraries into 1,019 putative transcripts, consisting of 217 clusters and 802 singletons, which we denoted Musa acuminata assembled expressed sequence tagged (EST) sequences (MaAES). Of these MaAES, 22.87% showed no matches with existing sequences in public databases. A global analysis of the MaAES data set indicated that 10% of the sequenced cDNAs are present in both cDNA libraries, while 42% and 48% are present only in the COLD or in the HOT libraries, respectively. Annotation of the MaAES data set categorized them into 22 functional classes. Of the 2,286 high-quality sequences, 715 (31.28%) originated from full-length cDNA clones and resulted in a set of 149 genes. PMID:15841358

  4. Relation between the concentration of Dinophysis acuminata and diarrheic shellfish poisoning toxins in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) during a toxic episode in the Limfjord (Denmark), 2006

    Jørgensen, Kevin; Andersen, Per

    2008-01-01

    For the first time since 1990 the Limfjord, which is the main Danish production area for mussels, was partly closed for a period of 14 wk during autumn 2006 because of presence of DSP toxins in blue mussels. The causative organism was Dinophysis acuminata. Only the okadaic acid (OA) and OA esters...

  5. Repetitive part of the banana (Musa acuminata) genome investigated by low-depth 454 sequencing

    Hřibová Eva; Neumann Pavel; Matsumoto Takashi; Roux Nicolas; Macas Jiří; Doležel Jaroslav

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Bananas and plantains (Musa spp.) are grown in more than a hundred tropical and subtropical countries and provide staple food for hundreds of millions of people. They are seed-sterile crops propagated clonally and this makes them vulnerable to a rapid spread of devastating diseases and at the same time hampers breeding improved cultivars. Although the socio-economic importance of bananas and plantains cannot be overestimated, they remain outside the focus of major research...

  6. Genetic divergence of common bean cultivars.

    Veloso, J S; Silva, W; Pinheiro, L R; Dos Santos, J B; Fonseca, N S; Euzebio, M P

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate genetic divergence in the 'Carioca' (beige with brown stripes) common bean cultivar used by different institutions and in 16 other common bean cultivars used in the Rede Cooperativa de Pesquisa de Feijão (Cooperative Network of Common Bean Research), by using simple sequence repeats associated with agronomic traits that are highly distributed in the common bean genome. We evaluated 22 polymorphic loci using bulks containing DNA from 30 plants. There was genetic divergence among the Carioca cultivar provided by the institutions. Nevertheless, there was lower divergence among them than among the other cultivars. The cultivar used by Instituto Agronômico do Paraná was the most divergent in relation to the Carioca samples. The least divergence was observed among the samples used by Universidade Federal de Lavras and by Embrapa Arroz e Feijão. Of all the cultivars, 'CNFP 10104' and 'BRSMG Realce' showed the greatest dissimilarity. The cultivars were separated in two groups of greatest similarity using the Structure software. Genetic variation among cultivars was greater than the variation within or between the groups formed. This fact, together with the high estimate of heterozygosity observed and the genetic divergence of the samples of the Carioca cultivar in relation to the original provided by Instituto Agronômico de Campinas, indicates a mixture of cultivars. The high divergence among cultivars provides potential for the utilization of this genetic variability in plant breeding. PMID:26400359

  7. Genetic base of Brazilian irrigated rice cultivars

    Hudson de Oliveira Rabelo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the genetic base of Brazilian irrigated rice cultivars released in the period from 1965 to 2012. The genealogies of the cultivars were obtained based on information from marketing folders, websites, crossings records, and scientific articles. The following factors were calculated: relative genetic contribution (RGC, accumulated genetic contribution (AGC, frequency (in percentage of each ancestor in the genealogy (FAG, number of ancestors that constitute each cultivar (NAC,number of ancestors responsible for 60%, 70%, 80% and 90% of the genetic base (NAGB, and average number of ancestor per cultivar (ANAC. The cultivars were also grouped based on the period of release (1965-1980, 1981-1990, 1991-2000 and 2001-2012. For each grouping, the previously described factors were also estimated. A total of 110 cultivars were studied and it was concluded that the genetic base of Brazilian irrigated rice cultivars is narrow.

  8. Analysis of the distribution and structure of integrated Banana streak virus DNA in a range of Musa cultivars.

    Geering, A D; Olszewski, N E; Dahal, G; Thomas, J E; Lockhart, B E

    2001-07-01

    Summary Banana streak virus strain OL (BSV-OL) commonly infects new Musa hybrids, and this infection is thought to arise de novo from integrated virus sequences present in the nuclear genome of the plant. Integrated DNA (Musa6+8 sequence) containing the whole genome of the virus has previously been cloned from cv. Obino l'Ewai (Musa AAB group), a parent of many of the hybrids. Using a Southern blot hybridization assay, we have examined the distribution and structure of integrated BSV-OL sequences in a range of Musa cultivars. For cv. Obino l'Ewai, almost every restriction fragment hybridizing to BSV-OL was predicted from the Musa6+8 sequence, suggesting that this is the predominant type of BSV-OL integrant in the genome. Furthermore, since only two junction fragments of Musa/BSV sequence were detected, and the Musa6+8 sequence is believed to be integrated as multiple copies in a tandem array, then the internal Musa spacer sequences must be highly conserved. Similarly sized restriction fragments were detected in four BB group cultivars, but not in six AA or AAA group cultivars, suggesting that the BSV-OL sequences are linked to the B-genome of Musa. We also provide evidence that cv. Williams (Musa AAA group) contains a distinct badnavirus integrant that is closely related to the 'dead' virus integrant previously characterized from Calcutta 4 (Musa acuminata ssp. burmannicoides). Our results suggest that the virus integrant from cv. Williams is linked to the A-genome, and the complexity of the hybridization patterns suggest multiple sites of integration and/or variation in sequence and structure of the integrants. PMID:20573008

  9. Micropropagation of blackberry thornless cultivars

    Alexandru Fira; Doina Clapa; Catita Plopa

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents aspects regarding the in vitro propagation of the thornless blackberry cultivar ‘Thornless Evergreen’. For culture initiation, modified MS (Murashige & Skoog 1962) basal medium was used and, as growth regulator, 6-benzilaminopurine- 0,7mg/l (BAP). In order to establish the optimal variant of media regarding multiplication rate as well as the economic aspect, 3 variants of media were experimented, consisting of Murashige & Skoog 1962 (MS) salts, Myo inositol - 100 mg/l, Vita...

  10. Microsporogenesis of Apricot Cultivars in Hungary

    Veronika HAJNAL

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Like all phenological processes, microsporogenesis is mainly determined genetically, but its phenotypical expression is greatly influenced by environmental factors, particularly the temperature. During the 3-year experimental period, the process of microsporogenesis was examined in eight apricot cultivars originated in North America and in Romania. The Hungarian cultivar ‘Gönci magyar kajszi’ was used as the control. Based on the results it was possible to rank the cultivars in terms of their microsporogenesis schedule. The same order was found in all three years. This order also indicates the yield reliability of the cultivars. Endodormancy ended between January 10th and 25th in the buds of the earliest cultivar ‘Pinkcot’, but not until February 5-10th in the latest cultivar ‘Harlayne’. Three of the cultivars had faster flower bud development than the control, in the order ‘Pinkcot’, ‘Orange Red’ and ‘Harcot’. Growing these cultivars thus involves greater risk than for ‘Gönci magyar kajszi’ in Hungary, due to their rapid winter flower bud development. Some cultivars found to have slower flower bud development than ‘Gönci magyar kajszi’; ‘Litoral’, ‘Harogem’, ‘Comandor’, ‘Sirena’ and ‘Harlayne’ – thus these cultivars can be grown more reliably.

  11. Microenxertia em cultivares de manga Micrografting in mango cultivars

    Ronaldo Posella Zaccaro

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Com a finalidade de se testar a viabilidade do método de microenxertia para produzir mudas de mangueira livres do fungo Fusarium subglutinans, agente causal da malformação, foram realizados experimentos utilizando-se do ápice meristemático da cultivar Tommy Atkins. Retirou-se o ápice meristemático do porta-enxerto e colocou-se o ápice meristemático da cultivar-copa, denominando-se essa metodologia de "microenxertia por substituição de ápice meristemático", na qual foram utilizadas as cultivares Coquinho, Espada, Ouro e Ubá como porta-enxertos. O material de propagação utilizado foi retirado de uma planta-matriz da cultivar Tommy Atkins sem sintomas de malformação. Primeiramente, a parte apical dos ramos foi cortada com aproximadamente 3 cm de comprimento. Os meristemas foram colocados em uma solução antioxidante composta de ácido ascórbico, ácido cítrico e L-cisteína, para evitar a oxidação dos compostos fenólicos existentes na manga. Os meristemas apicais foram cortados com comprimento de 2 mm. Em seguida, efetuou-se o corte do meristema apical e de folhas do porta-enxerto, colocando-se o meristema apical sobre o corte do porta-enxerto, recobrindo-se com Parafilm®. Demonstrou-se com a técnica de microenxertia a possibilidade de formação de plantas-matrizes, para implantação de jardim clonal em condições de viveiro protegido.This research was carried out with the purpose to produce mangoes trees free of fungus Fusarium subglutinans, causal agent of mango malformation by using the apex meristem to substitute it for the meristem of the commercial cultivar Tommy Atkins. This micrografting methodology was denominated "meristem substitution" through which the cultivars Coquinho, Espada, Ouro and Ubá were used as rootstocks. The micrografts were collected from 'Tommy Atkins' mother plant without malformation symptoms. Firstly, branch apexes were cut off having length of 3 cm. Each apex meristem was placed in an

  12. Reproduction of Meloidogyne chitwoodi on Popcorn Cultivars

    Cardwell, D. M.; Ingham, R. E.

    1997-01-01

    Popcorn cultivars were evaluated in field and greenhouse tests for resistance to the Columbia root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne chitwoodi, as potential resistant crops in potato rotations. A nematode reproductive factor (Rf) was calculated for each cultivar. Reproductive factor values also were compared on a relative basis as percentages of the Rf on a susceptible field corn standard, Pioneer 3578. Popcorn cultivars W206 and Robust 33-77 consistently supported low population densities of M. chi...

  13. Microsporogenesis of Apricot Cultivars in Hungary

    Hajnal, Veronika; Zarif OMID; Márta LADÁNYI; Magdolna TÓTH; Szalay, László

    2013-01-01

    Like all phenological processes, microsporogenesis is mainly determined genetically, but its phenotypical expression is greatly influenced by environmental factors, particularly the temperature. During the 3-year experimental period, the process of microsporogenesis was examined in eight apricot cultivars originated in North America and in Romania. The Hungarian cultivar ‘Gönci magyar kajszi’ was used as the control. Based on the results it was possible to rank the cultivars in terms of their...

  14. 'Suvetar' and 'Valotar' - new strawberry cultivars

    Hietaranta, Tarja; Parikka, Päivi

    2008-01-01

    The strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) cultivars ‘Suvetar’ and ‘Valotar’ have been released from the breeding programme of MTT Agrifood Research Finland. Both new cultivars overwintered as well as the control cultivars ‘Jonsok’ and ‘Polka’. ‘Suvetar’ overwintered even better than ‘Polka’. ‘Suvetar’ was produced from the cross ‘Polka’ × ‘Emily’. It scored better than the control cultivars for sensory assessed skin resistance. Measured fruit firmness of ‘Suvetar’ was not significantly different f...

  15. Identification of plum cultivars using RAPDs

    Deciduous fruit cultivars are traditionally distinguished by means of their phenotypic traits. Since the fruit characteristics are assessed, confirmation of the authenticity of the cultivars can be delayed for as long as 3-4 years. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers generated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) have been successfully used to differentiate cultivars in other crops. Therefore, use of RAPD markers was investigated as a means of providing the South African fruit industry with a technique that can rapidly and reliably identify cultivar. 4 refs, 2 figs

  16. Contrast lipocryolysis

    Pinto, Hernán; Melamed, Graciela

    2014-01-01

    Alternative crystal structures are possible for all lipids and each different crystal structure is called a polymorphic form. Inter-conversion between polymorphisms would imply the possibility of leaning crystal formation toward the most effective polymorphism for adipocyte destruction. Food industry has been tempering lipids for decades. Tempering technology applied to lipocryolysis gave birth to “contrast lipocryolysis”, which involves pre- and post-lipocryolysis fat layer heating as part o...

  17. Binary Combination of Carica papaya, Areca catechu and Myristica fragrans with Piperonyl Butoxide / MGK-264 against Freshwater Snail Lymnaea acuminata

    Hanif, Farhat; Singh, Dinesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Piperonyl butoxide (PB) and MGK-264 were used to enhance the toxicity of the active components papain, arecoline and myristicin from the plants Carica papaya, Areca catechu and Myristica fragrans, respectively, against the vector snail Lymnaea acuminata. A time- and dose-dependent relationship was observed for the toxicity of these combinations. The toxic effects of these plant-derived molluscicides in combination with the synergists PB and MGK-264 were several times higher than the effect of the individual treatments. The highest degree of synergism was observed when MGK-264 was used in combination with C. papaya latex (10.47-fold increase) and PB was used with papain (8.35-fold increase). PMID:24575245

  18. Caracterización de harina y almidón de frutos de banano gros michel (musa acuminata aaa)

    Jairo Montoya-López; Víctor Dumar Quintero-Castaño; Juan Carlos Lucas-Aguirre

    2014-01-01

    En el estudio se determinaron las características fisicoquímicas, térmicas y reológicas de la harina y el almidón de frutos de banano Gros Michel (Musa acuminata) cosechado en fincas del departamento del Quindío, Colombia. En el análisis proximal, la harina presentó un contenido de fibra de 18.82% y el almidón presentó contenidos de proteína de 1.92%, grasa de 5.3% y fibra de 2.76%. La harina presentó la temperatura más alta de absorción de calor (68.88 °C) y su entalpia de gelatinización f...

  19. Anatomical and molecular characterization of Lactarius aff. omphaliformis, Russula alnijorullensis and Cortinarius tucumanensis ectomycorrhizae on Alnus acuminata.

    Becerra, Alejandra; Beenken, Ludwig; Pritsch, Karin; Daniele, Graciela; Schloter, Michael; Agerer, Reinhard

    2005-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizae (ECM) of Lactarius aff. omphaliformis Romagn., Russula alnijorullensis (Sing.) Sing. and Cortinarius tucumanensis Mos. on Andean alder (Alnus acuminata Kunth) were characterized and identified. The identification of the fungal symbionts was achieved by morpho-anatomical observations of mycorrhizae and by comparison of ITS-RFLP patterns obtained from ECM and fruitbodies. L. aff omphaliformis ECM differed in some morphological details such as ramification and mantle type from ECM of the same species on A. glutinosa. L. aff omphaliformis ECM show an orange to ochre mantle containing latex cells, which stain with sulpho-vanillin, emanating hyphae without clamps. R. alnijorullensis ECM represent a typical Russula-type-ECM, light yellow to pinkish, the outer mantle being composed of triangular latex-filled cells staining with sulpho-vanillin, emanating hyphae without clamps. C. tucumanensis ECM exhibit a white (silvery) to yellowish brown mantle covered with soil particles, emanating hyphae with clamps. PMID:16596956

  20. Agrobiologocal and Technological Characteristics of Table Grape Cultivar Danlas White

    Melita Fazinić; Bernard Kozina

    1999-01-01

    Viticulture has always been primarity directed towards growing wine cultivars white table grape cultivar growing was limited to very few highly valued cultivars which found their position in the big market.\

  1. A rapid and enhanced DNA detection method for crop cultivar discrimination.

    Monden, Yuki; Takasaki, Kazuto; Futo, Satoshi; Niwa, Kousuke; Kawase, Mitsuo; Akitake, Hiroto; Tahara, Makoto

    2014-09-20

    In many crops species, the development of a rapid and precise cultivar discrimination system has been required for plant breeding and patent protection of plant cultivars and agricultural products. Here, we successfully evaluated strawberry cultivars via a novel method, namely, the single tag hybridization (STH) chromatographic printed array strip (PAS) using the PCR products of eight genomic regions. In a previous study, we showed that genotyping of eight genomic regions derived from FaRE1 retrotransposon insertion site enabled to discriminate 32 strawberry cultivars precisely, however, this method required agarose/acrylamide gel electrophoresis, thus has the difficulty for practical application. In contrast, novel DNA detection method in this study has some great advantages over standard DNA detection methods, including agarose/acrylamide gel electrophoresis, because it produces signals for DNA detection with dramatically higher sensitivity in a shorter time without any preparation or staining of a gel. Moreover, this method enables the visualization of multiplex signals simultaneously in a single reaction using several independent amplification products. We expect that this novel method will become a rapid and convenient cultivar screening assay for practical purposes, and will be widely applied to various situations, including laboratory research, and on-site inspection of plant cultivars and agricultural products. PMID:24954682

  2. UENF 14: a new popcorn cultivar

    Antonio Teixeira do Amaral Júnior; Leandro Simões Azeredo Gonçalves; Silvério de Paiva Freitas Júnior; Liliam Silvia Candido; Cassio Vittorazzi; Guilherme Ferreira Pena; Rodrigo Moreira Ribeiro; Thiago Rodrigues da Conceição Silva; Messias Gonzaga Pereira; Carlos Alberto Scapim; Alexandre Pio Viana; Geraldo Francisco de Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work is to present the features of the popcorn cultivar UENF 14, developed from five cycles of recurrentselection of the population UNB-2U, to the scientific community. The cultivar produces yields of 3047.58 kg ha-1 and has poppingexpansion of 35.69 mL g-1.

  3. Effects of Soybean Cultivars on Soymilk Quality

    Aziadekey, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Soymilk was prepared from twelve soybean cultivars grown under the same environmental conditions to evaluate their effects on soymilk characteristics. Significant correlations were observed between the Chemical composition of the seeds and the resultant soymilk. Soymilk solids were significantly affected by seed size and seed phosphorus contents. Cultivars with dark hilum produced soymilk with less attractive colour.

  4. UENF 14: a new popcorn cultivar

    Antonio Teixeira do Amaral Júnior

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to present the features of the popcorn cultivar UENF 14, developed from five cycles of recurrentselection of the population UNB-2U, to the scientific community. The cultivar produces yields of 3047.58 kg ha-1 and has poppingexpansion of 35.69 mL g-1.

  5. Everbearing strawberry cultivars - susceptibility to crown rot

    Parikka, Päivi; Karhu, Saila; Hietaranta, Tarja

    2009-01-01

    Studies on the production of everbearing strawberry cultivars were started at MTT Plant Production Research in 2007. MTT Horticulture makes trials in tunnel and open fields to study the growth, yield and overwintering of cultivars in northern conditions. Resistance to crown rot is also being tested.

  6. Pérdida de peso seco en hojarasca de Alnus acuminata en la provincia de Tucumán (Argentina)

    Pablo G. Aceñolaza; Gallardo, Juan F.

    1993-01-01

    Se estudió la dinámica de descomposición de hojas de Alnus acuminata H.B.K. spp acuminata en tres bosques de esta especie de distintas edades (5-10, 20-25 y 40-45 años) situados en el cerro de San Javier (Tucumán, Rep. Argentina), durante el período abril/'91 a abril/'93, siguiendo la metodología de las "litter bags". Se realizó una regresión entre los valores de porcentaje de materia seca remanente y el tiempo, ajustándose la curva de descom posición a un modelo expon...

  7. Competitividade de cultivares de arroz irrigado com cultivar simuladora de arroz-vermelho Competitiveness of flooded rice cultivars with a red rice simulating cultivar

    Alvadi Antonio Balbinot Junior

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Características morfológicas e fisiológicas de plantas cultivadas podem afetar sua habilidade competitiva com plantas daninhas. Este trabalho objetivou investigar a competitividade de cultivares de arroz irrigado (Oryza sativa L. com cultivar simuladora de arroz-vermelho. Investigou-se na safra 2000/2001 o comportamento de oito genótipos de arroz, cultivados na presença ou ausência da cultivar de arroz EEA 406, que simulou infestação de arroz-vermelho. Aos 45 e aos 60 dias após a semeadura, avaliou-se a resposta da simuladora em relação às cultivares de arroz. Na colheita, foram determinados estatura de planta, componentes do rendimento e produtividade das plantas. A cultivar tardia IR 841 suprimiu o crescimento da simuladora, apresentando com a cultivar superprecoce Ligeirinho as menores reduções de produtividade quando em competição. Por sua vez, as cultivares IAS 12-9 Formosa e Bluebelle permitiram maior crescimento e produção de sementes pela concorrente, também sofrendo as maiores reduções de produtividade de grãos na condição de competição.Morphologic and physiologic characteristics of crop plants can affect their competitive ability with weeds. This research aimed to investigate competitiveness of flooded rice (Oryza sativa L. cultivars with a red rice simulating genotype. It was investigated, during the 2000/2001 warm season, the behavior of eight rice genotypes, grown in presence or absence of the rice cultivar EEA 406, simulating a red rice infestation. At 45 and 60 days after rice seeding, it was evaluated the response of red rice mimicker genotype in relation to rice cultivars. At harvest, it was determined plant height, yield components, and grain yield of the cultivars. The late season genotype IR 841 suppressed growth of the simulative cultivar, presenting, together with the veryearly cultivar Ligeirinho, the lowest reductions in grain yield under competition. In opposite, IAS 12-9 Formosa and Bluebelle

  8. Carotenoid content of 50 watermelon cultivars.

    Perkins-Veazie, Penelope; Collins, Julie K; Davis, Angela R; Roberts, Warren

    2006-04-01

    The lycopene content of 50 commercial cultivars of seeded and seedless red-fleshed watermelons was determined. Scanning colorimetric and spectrophotometric assays of total lycopene were used to separate watermelon cultivars into low (90 mg/kg fw). Cultivars varied greatly in lycopene content, ranging from 33 to 100 mg/kg. Most of the seeded hybrid cultivars had average lycopene contents. Sixteen of the 33 seedless types had lycopene contents in the high and very high ranges. All-trans-lycopene was the predominant carotenoid (84-97%) in all watermelon cultivars measured by high-performance liquid chromatography, but the germplasm differed in the relative amounts of cis-lycopene, beta-carotene, and phytofluene. Red-fleshed watermelon genotypes vary extensively in carotenoid content and offer opportunities for developing watermelons with specifically enhanced carotenoids. PMID:16569049

  9. OA02.02. Phytochemical constituents and antioxidative property of Musa acuminata flower as green corrosion inhibitor of mild steel in acid media

    N. Gunavathy; ,

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Corrosion is a major problem that must be confronted for safety, environmental and economic reasons. Organic compounds used as corrosion inhibitors are expensive, toxic and non biodegradable. The present investigation deals with the aim of finding eco friendly and cost effective natural inhibitor. The adsorption characteristic of phytochemical of Musa acuminata ‘nendran’ flower [MAN (F)] was studied to assess the mechanism of corrosion inhibition. Method: The inhibitive effect MAN (F...

  10. CHARACTERIZATION OF MOLLUSCICIDAL COMPONENT OF Moringa oleifera LEAF AND Momordica charantia FRUITS AND THEIR MODES OF ACTION IN SNAIL Lymnaea acuminata

    Aparna Upadhyay; Singh, Vinay K; Singh, Dinesh K.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The molluscicidal activity of the leaf powder of Moringa oleifera and lyophilized fruit powder of Momordica charantia against the snail Lymnaea acuminata was time and concentration dependent. M. oleifera leaf powder (96 h LC50: 197.59 ppm) was more toxic than M. charantia lyophilized fruit powder (96 h LC50: 318.29 ppm). The ethanolic extracts of M. oleifera leaf powder and Momordica charantia lyophilized fruit powder were more toxic than other organic solvent extracts. The 96 h ...

  11. Bait formulations of molluscicides and their effects on biochemical changes in the ovotestis of snail Lymnaea acuminata (Mollusca; Gastropoda:Lymnaeidae

    Pradeep Kumar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of sub-lethal feeding of bait formulations containing molluscicidal component of Ferula asafoetida (ferulic acid, umbelliferone, Syzygium aromaticum (eugenol and Carum carvi (limonene on biochemical changes in the ovotestis of snail Lymnaea acuminata were studied. Bait formulations feeding to L. acuminata were studied in clear glass aquaria having diameter of 30 cm. Baits were prepared from different binary combinations of attractant amino acid (valine, aspartic acid, lysine and alanine 10 mM in 100 mL of 2% agar solution + sub-lethal (20% and 60% of 24h LC50 doses of different molluscicides (ferulic acid, umbelliferone, eugenol and limonene. These baits caused maximum significant reduction in free amino acid, protein, DNA, RNA levels i.e. 41.37, 23.56, 48.36 and 14.29% of control in the ovotestis of the snail, respectively. Discontinuation of feeding after treatment of 60% of 96h LC50 of molluscicide containing bait for next 72h caused a significant recovery in free amino acid, protein, DNA and RNA levels in the ovotestis of L. acuminata.

  12. �Saruman� Apple Cultivar

    Radu SESTRAS

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The apple cultivar �Saruman� was obtained at Fruit Research Station Cluj, Romania (FRS Cluj, and homologated in 2007. �Saruman� was released by hybridization between �Cluj III-VI-5-26� selection (�Parmain d�Or�, open pollinated and �NJ 46�. The trees are vigorous, spreading shape, and with medium crop yield. The fruits have large size, conic shape and mostly red (purple coloration; they have white flesh with a sweet, crisp, aromatic flavour and low acidity. Fruits become ripe in the last decade of August, first decade of September and the fruits are proper for dessert and well suited for cooking, applesauce, cider, pies.

  13. �Sauron� Apple Cultivar

    Radu SESTRAS

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The new apple cultivar �Sauron� was obtained at Fruit Research Station Cluj, Romania (FRS Cluj, and homologated in 2007. �Sauron� was identified in open pollinated population of �Cluj 3/83� selection [�Cluj III-VI-5-26� selection (�Parmain d�Or�, open pollinated x �NJ 46�]. The trees have moderate vigour, upright then spread, with moderate productivity. Fruits are medium to large, usually red, with a portion being greenish or yellow-green and purple red vertically striped. The fruit has good quality, being soft eating apple due to their lack of crispness. Quality indices include firmness, crispness and excellent flavour. Fruits become ripe between 15 August and 5 September and the fruits are good quality, being proper for dessert and industrialization (juice, applesauce, pies, and cider.

  14. EFEITO DO PESO DE MUDA TIPO PEDAÇO DE RIZOMA NO ENRAIZAMENTO INICIAL DA BANANEIRA DO CULTIVAR NANICÃO (Musa acuminata AAA EFFECT OF THE WEIGHT OF RHIZOME TYPE SEEDLING IN THE INITIAL ROOTING OF BANANA CULTIVAR NANICÃO (Musa acuminata AAA

    Lincoln F. Zica

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O uso de mudas do tipo pedaço de rizoma, vem, a cada dia, sendo procurado intensivamente como material de propagação de bananeiras. Porém, ao se trabalhar com esse tipo de mudas há necessidades de se conhecer o efeito do peso do rizoma em relação ao seu enraizamento inicial, pois quanto maior o peso das raízes, melhores serão as mudas. De acordo com a análise estatística concluiu-se que há um maior enraizamento em pedaços de rizomas de maior peso.

    Pieces of rootstalk are being used more and more intensively as a means of reproducing banana plants. However, in order to work effectively with this means of reproduction, it is necessary to know the effect of the rootstalk’s weight when it is first planted, because the greater the weight of the rootstalk, the better the shoots will be. On the basis of statistical analysis, it was concluded that the heavier pieces of rootstalk root better.

  15. Exploring the genetic variability in water use efficiency: Evaluation of inter and intra cultivar genetic diversity in grapevines.

    Tortosa, Ignacio; Escalona, José Mariano; Bota, Josefina; Tomás, Magdalena; Hernández, Esther; Escudero, Enrique García; Medrano, Hipólito

    2016-10-01

    Genetic improvement of crop Water Use Efficiency (WUE) is a general goal because the increasing water scarcity and the trend to a more sustainable agriculture. For grapevines, this subject is relevant and need an urgent response because their wide distribution in semi-arid areas. New cultivars are difficult to introduce in viticulture due to the narrow dependency of consumer appreciation often linked to a certain particular wine taste. Clones of reputed cultivars would presumably be more accepted but little is known on the intra-cultivar genetic variability of the WUE. The present work compares, on the basis of two field assays, the variability of intrinsic water use efficiency (WUEi) in a large collection of cultivars in contrast with a collection of clones of Tempranillo cultivar. The results show that clonal variability of WUEi was around 80% of the inter-cultivar, thus providing a first assessment on the opportunity for clonal selection by WUE. Plotting the WUEi data against stem water potential or stomatal conductance it was possible to identify cultivars and clones out of the confidence intervals of this linear regression thus with significantly higher and lower WUEi values. The present results contribute to open the expectative for a genetic improvement of grapevine WUE. PMID:27593461

  16. Physiological and biochemical parameters for evaluation and clustering of rice cultivars differing in salt tolerance at seedling stage

    Sumitahnun Chunthaburee

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Salinity tolerance levels and physiological changes were evaluated for twelve rice cultivars, including four white rice and eight black glutinous rice cultivars, during their seedling stage in response to salinity stress at 100 mM NaCl. All the rice cultivars evaluated showed an apparent decrease in growth characteristics and chlorophyll accumulation under salinity stress. By contrast an increase in proline, hydrogen peroxide, peroxidase (POX activity and anthocyanins were observed for all cultivars. The K+/Na+ ratios evaluated for all rice cultivars were noted to be highly correlated with the salinity scores thus indicating that the K+/Na+ ratio serves as a reliable indicator of salt stress tolerance in rice. Principal component analysis (PCA based on physiological salt tolerance indexes could clearly distinguish rice cultivars into 4 salt tolerance clusters. Noteworthy, in comparison to the salt-sensitive ones, rice cultivars that possessed higher degrees of salt tolerance displayed more enhanced activity of catalase (CAT, a smaller increase in anthocyanin, hydrogen peroxide and proline content but a smaller drop in the K+/Na+ ratio and chlorophyll accumulation.

  17. Physiological and biochemical parameters for evaluation and clustering of rice cultivars differing in salt tolerance at seedling stage.

    Chunthaburee, Sumitahnun; Dongsansuk, Anoma; Sanitchon, Jirawat; Pattanagul, Wattana; Theerakulpisut, Piyada

    2016-07-01

    Salinity tolerance levels and physiological changes were evaluated for twelve rice cultivars, including four white rice and eight black glutinous rice cultivars, during their seedling stage in response to salinity stress at 100 mM NaCl. All the rice cultivars evaluated showed an apparent decrease in growth characteristics and chlorophyll accumulation under salinity stress. By contrast an increase in proline, hydrogen peroxide, peroxidase (POX) activity and anthocyanins were observed for all cultivars. The K(+)/Na(+) ratios evaluated for all rice cultivars were noted to be highly correlated with the salinity scores thus indicating that the K(+)/Na(+) ratio serves as a reliable indicator of salt stress tolerance in rice. Principal component analysis (PCA) based on physiological salt tolerance indexes could clearly distinguish rice cultivars into 4 salt tolerance clusters. Noteworthy, in comparison to the salt-sensitive ones, rice cultivars that possessed higher degrees of salt tolerance displayed more enhanced activity of catalase (CAT), a smaller increase in anthocyanin, hydrogen peroxide and proline content but a smaller drop in the K(+)/Na(+) ratio and chlorophyll accumulation. PMID:27298579

  18. Dendrocronología de Alnus acuminata en el bosque reservado de San Pedro de Saño, Huancayo

    Edilson Requena Rojas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo evaluamos el potencial de Alnus acuminata para su uso posterior en estudios dendroclimatológicos. Se analizó una cronología de ancho de anillos para un bosque de A. acuminata en San Pedro de Saño y se relacionó el crecimiento de los árboles con los registros instrumentales de temperatura media, máxima y mínima, precipitación y horas sol de las estaciones meteorológicas de Huayao (12° 02´ 18.1¨ S - 75° 19´22.2¨ O y Santa Ana (12° 00´ 15¨ S - 75° 13´ 15¨ O. La cronología de ancho de anillos está compuesta por 33 series de 22 árboles y cubre el período 1968-2013. El crecimiento de los árboles estuvo relacionado negativamente con la temperatura mínima mensual del mes de abril del año corriente. Se observó una relación positiva y significativa entre la cronología de crecimiento y la precipitación de la estación de Santa Ana para los meses de marzo del año previo y diciembre del año actual de crecimiento. Las horas sol mensuales de abril del año corriente tienen una correlación significativa con el crecimiento radial. Existe influencia de las precipitaciones del verano previo y primavera del año corriente favoreciendo el crecimiento del árbol. El árbol entra en dormancia, posiblemente por las bajas temperaturas de otoño. El amplio rango de distribución y la utilización histórica de su madera en construcciones en el pasado, abre la posibilidad de extender temporalmente los registros dendrocronológicos, en los Andes centrales de Perú.

  19. Phenotypic profiles of Armenian grape cultivars

    Aroutiounian Rouben

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The conservation and sustainable use of grapevine biodiversity in Armenia is particularly important due to the large number of traditional local varieties. Being partially different from European grapevine gene pool, the material of Armenian local cultivars significantly contributes to the understanding of the genetic variation and is valuable source for target selection. During last years many Armenian grapevine cultivars have been already described and their genotypes determined, but some local varieties and wild accessions remain unidentified and their phenotypic characteristics overlooked. The comprehensive analysis of phenotypes is essential for research, including genetic association studies, cultivar evaluation and selection. The goal of our research was the phenotyping on the base of reproductive, carpological and analytical characteristics of 80 Armenian aboriginal and new grape cultivars. Description of phenotypic profiles is important step towards identification and conservation of genetic resources of Armenian grapes. In future, these data can be applied for breeding of improved grape varieties targeted to fresh consumption and wine production.

  20. Seed Development and Quality in Maize Cultivars

    Kazem GHASSEMI-GOLEZANI

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate seed development and quality of maize (Zea mays cultivars (DC-370, SC-500, OSSK-602 and SC-604, a split plot experiment (using R.C.B. design with three replicates was conducted in 2009 at the Research Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Iran. Seeds were harvested at five day intervals in eight stages. Subsequently, the quality of seed samples was determined in the laboratory. Germination percentage and seedling dry weight were enhanced, but electrical conductivity of seed leachates was reduced with increasing seed weight on mother plant. Maximum seed quality of maize cultivars was attained at the end of seed filling phase. Seed quality at earlier harvests was low, because of immaturity. Differences in maximum seedling dry weight of maize cultivars were attributed to variation in genetic constitution. It was concluded that in maize cultivars, maximum seed quality could be achieved at physiological maturity.

  1. Mutation breeding of autotetraploid Achimenes cultivars

    Colchicine-induced autotetraploids of three Achimenes cultivars were irradiated with X-rays or fast neutrons. The results were compared, in one cultivar, with those of the irradiated diploid form. The mutation frequency after irradiation of the autotetraploid was a 20-40 fold higher as compared to the corresponding diploid. These results may open new possibilities for mutation breeding, though they are hard to explain. Several promising mutants were selected. (author)

  2. Leaf stripe resistance of spring barley cultivars

    Pinnschmidt, Hans O; Nielsen, Bent J.

    2006-01-01

    Results of six years of screening trials clearly indicate that effective resistance against barley leaf stripe is available, also in modern cultivars. Among the spring barley cultivars that are currently most widely grown in Denmark, Cabaret, Troon, Sebastian, Justina and Brazil appear most resistant, but only Brazil combines a favourable resistance performance (= low mean and standard deviation of environment-adjusted leaf stripe incidence) with a high number of observations (= years of test...

  3. Epistatic Association Mapping in Homozygous Crop Cultivars

    Lü, Hai-Yan; Liu, Xiao-Fen; Wei, Shi-Ping; Zhang, Yuan-Ming

    2011-01-01

    The genetic dissection of complex traits plays a crucial role in crop breeding. However, genetic analysis and crop breeding have heretofore been performed separately. In this study, we designed a new approach that integrates epistatic association analysis in crop cultivars with breeding by design. First, we proposed an epistatic association mapping (EAM) approach in homozygous crop cultivars. The phenotypic values of complex traits, along with molecular marker information, were used to perfor...

  4. Evaluation of growth and flowering potential of rosa hybrida cultivars under Faisalabad climatic conditions

    Exotic cultivars of hybrid roses respond uncertainly to new habitat. It is necessary to explore the potential of the introduced cultivars to judge the suitability in a new habitat. In the present study, nine Rosa hybrida cultivars including Autumn Sunset, Ice Berg, Paradise, Angel Face, Louise Odier, Casino, Grand Margina, Handel and Gruss-an-Teplitz were evaluated for growth and yield attributed under the climatic conditions of Faisalabad. Results indicated that there was decreasing trend in the growth and flowering of the bushes as the temperature increased above 32 degree C and humidity decreased to 29 %. Number of flowers per bush and diameter of flower decreased as the temperature increased and humidity decreased in contrast to increment in height of the plant and num ber of primary branches per plant in succeeding months. Interaction between yield traits and months was also significant. Overall, significant variations were observed in each cultivar for length and number of petals per flower, number of prickles, fragrance, flower persistence life and color, bush shape and overall performance with respect to climatic conditions of Faisalabad. It is concluded that the cultivars 'Autumn Sunset' and Gruss-an-Teplitz performed better in climatic conditions of Faisalabad. (author)

  5. Relative Infestation Level and Sensitivity of Grapevine Cultivars to the Leafhopper Empoasca vitis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae).

    Fornasiero, D; Pavan, F; Pozzebon, A; Picotti, P; Duso, C

    2016-02-01

    The leafhopper Empoasca vitis (Göthe) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) feeds on veins of grapevine leaves, mainly on the phloem, causing physiological injury, color change and drying of leaf margins, yield and sugar content reduction. The relative infestation level (i.e., the probability that a plant is attacked by herbivores) of E. vitis on different grapevine cultivars and their sensitivity (i.e., the incidence of symptoms expression in response to herbivore feeding or other stimuli) to this pest were studied over four years in two vineyards located in northeastern Italy. Some cultivars (e.g., Carménère and Sauvignon Blanc) were usually more infested than others (e.g., Cabernet Sauvignon and Pinot Gris), although some differences were observed among years and sites. The sensitivity varied among cultivars, i.e., some of them showed more symptoms than expected on the basis of infestation levels (e.g., Carménère and Merlot), in contrast with others (e.g., Rhine Riesling and Chardonnay). Information obtained can be used within the framework of integrated pest management in vineyards. Action thresholds should differ on the basis of sensitivity. Sampling must first be carried out on the most susceptible cultivar and, if the action threshold is exceeded, it should be extended to the remaining cultivars based on their decreasing relative infestation level. PMID:26503344

  6. Parental Selection in Rice Cultivar Improvement

    Stanley Omar P B.SAMONTE; Rodante E.TABIEN; Lloyd T.WILSON

    2013-01-01

    The evaluation of rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars assists breeders in identifying useful trait relationships and in selecting parents as donors of specific traits.This study was conducted to compare long-grain rice cultivars using genotype x trait (GT) biplot analysis and determine potential donors of traits related to grain yield and quality.Seventeen cultivars in the 2005 and 2006 Uniform Regional Rice Nursery in Beaumont,Texas,USA were analyzed for 20 traits using GT biplot analysis.The GT biplots showed the diversity among cultivars with regards to yield-related traits.Cultivars recommended as donor parents were:Trenasse,Spring,Presidio,and Cocodrie for high grain yield and head rice rate;Trenasse and Presidio for semi-dwarfness; Banks for tall plant height; Wells for high flag leaf area,panicle weight,and number and mass of filled grains per panicle; Hidalgo for high tiller density; Francis for high number of spikelets per panicle; Spring and Trenasse for short flowering duration; Cheniere for more days to heading and maturity and Spring for less days; and Spring and Hidalgo for high grain weight.Breeders can use these cultivars with specific traits to increase grain yield and quality.

  7. New cultivars of jujube induced by mutation

    Full text: Mutation breeding of jujube (Ziziphus mauritiana Lin.) received attention by the Food Crops Research Institute since 1978. Mutations can be directly released as new cultivars or indirectly as bud grafting source. N-methyl-N-nitroso urea (MNH) was used at a concentration of 0.02-0.04% for 12 h treatment of pre-germinated seeds of different jujube cultivars. Some useful mutants were selected and directly released as new cultivars to farmers. Of the selected mutants two cultivars, ''Ma hong'' and ''Dao tien'', are the most preferable and popularly grown in the country. ''Ma hong'' is a mutant of ''Gia Loc'', a very popular cultivar. Main useful traits of ''Gia Loc'' such as early maturing, two crops of fruits per year are maintained (harvest in December and August). ''Ma hong'' has round-formed, pink rose coloured, sweeter fruits and stable fruit yield in off-season (Aug.) as compared with oval-formed, yellow-coloured and sour fruit of ''Gia Loc''. ''Dao tien'' is a mutant of the local variety ''Thien Phien'' with quite different traits. The original cultivar is late maturing (harvested in Feb.) with one crop of fruit per year and has small fruits (mean wt. of fruit at harvest 20 g). ''Dao tien'' is one month earlier in maturing allowing two crops of fruit per year (harvested in Jan. and Nov.). Fruits are round-formed, bigger (mean wt. of fruit: 25 g) and more tasteful (peach-flavored and brittle). (author)

  8. Three hydroxylated lupeol-based triterpenoid esters isolated from the Eastern Nigeria mistletoe parasitic on Kola acuminata.

    Omeje, Edwin Ogechukwu; Osadebe, Patience Ogoamaka; Esimone, Charles Okechukwu; Nworu, Chukwuemeka Sylvester; Kawamura, Akira; Proksch, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Column fractionation and purification of an n-hexane fraction led to the isolation of three lupeol-based triterpenoid esters from the leaves of the Eastern Nigeria mistletoe, Loranthus micranthus Linn parasitic on a local kola nut tree, Kola acuminata. These three compounds were adequately characterised using a combination of UV/visible, IR, NMR (¹³C-NMR and ¹H-NMR), DEPT, MS and two-dimensional correlation (H-H COSY, Hetero-nuclear Single Quantum Correlation (HSQC), HMBC, NOE and NOESY) studies as 7β,15α-dihydroxyl-lup-20(29)-ene-3β-esters of palmitic (I), stearic (II) and eicosanoic acids (III). The characterisation of other isolated compounds is ongoing. Remarkably, this is the first report of the existence of fatty acid esters of an unusual 7β,15α-dihydroxylated lupeol in the Eastern Nigeria mistletoe. These isolated compounds might contribute in part to the numerous established bio-activities of the Eastern Nigeria mistletoes. PMID:22007932

  9. Characterization of the molluscicidal activity of Bauhinia variegata and Mimusops elengi plant extracts against the fasciola vector lymnaea acuminata

    Kanchan Lata Singh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The molluscicidal activity of Bauhinia variegata leaf and Mimusops elengi bark was studied against vector snail Lymnaea acuminata. The toxicity of both plants was time and concentration-dependent. Among organic extracts, ethanol extracts of both plants were more toxic. Toxicity of B. variegata leaf ethanolic extract (96h LC50- 14.4 mg/L was more pronounced than M. elengi bark ethanolic extract (96h LC50-15.0 mg/L. The 24h LC50 of column purified fraction of B. variegata and M. elengi bark were 20.3 mg/L and 18.3 mg/L, respectively. Saponin and quercetin were characterized and identified as active molluscicidal component. Co-migration of saponin (Rf 0.48 and quercetin (Rf 0.52 with column purified bark of M. elengi and leaf of B. variegata on thin layer chromatography demonstrate same Rf value i.e. 0.48 and 0.52, respectively. The present study clearly indicates the possibility of using M. elengi and/or B. variegata as potent molluscicide.

  10. Acuminatol and Other Antioxidative Resveratrol Oligomers from the Stem Bark of Shorea acuminata

    Norhayati Muhammad

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A new resveratrol dimer, acuminatol (1, was isolated along with five known compounds from the acetone extract of the stem bark of Shorea acuminata. Their structures and stereochemistry were determined by spectroscopic methods, which included the extensive use of 2D NMR techniques. All isolated compounds were evaluated for their antioxidant activity using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity (RSA and the β-carotene-linoleic acid (BCLA assays, and compared with those of the standards of ascorbic acid (AscA and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT. All compounds tested exhibited good to moderate antioxidant activity in the DPPH assay (IC50s 0.84 to 10.06 mM and displayed strong inhibition of β-carotene oxidation (IC50s 0.10 to 0.22 mM. The isolated compounds were evaluated on the Vero cell line and were found to be non-cytotoxic with LC50 values between 161 to 830 µM.

  11. A model for μ-biomimetic thermal infrared sensors based on the infrared receptors of Melanophila acuminata

    Beetles of the genus Melanophila acuminata detect forest fires from distances as far as 130 km with infrared-sensing organs. Inspired by this extremely sensitive biological device, we are developing an IR sensor that operates at ambient temperature using MEMS technology. The sensor consists of two liquid-filled chambers that are connected by a micro-fluidic system. Absorption of IR radiation by one of these chambers leads to heating and expansion of a liquid. The increasing pressure deflects a membrane covered by one electrode of a plate capacitor. The micro-fluidic system and the second chamber represent a fluidic low-pass filter, preventing slow, but large pressure changes. However, the strong frequency dependence of the filter demands a precise characterization of its properties. Here, we present a theoretical model that describes the frequency-dependent response of the sensor based on material properties and geometrical dimensions. Our model is divided into four distinct parts that address different aspects of the sensor. The model describes the frequency-dependent behaviour of the fluidic filter and a thermal low-pass filter as well as saturation effects at low frequencies. This model allows the calculation of optimal design parameters, and thereby provides the foundation for the development of such a sensor. (paper)

  12. CO2, H2O exchange and stomatal regulation of regenerated Camptotheca acuminata plantlets during ex vitro acclimatization

    WANG Hui-mei; LI Yan-hua; GAO Yin-xiang; ZU Yuan-gang

    2006-01-01

    For finding the changes in CO2, H2O exchange and their stomatal regulation during ex vitro acclimatization of regenerated Camptotheca acuminata plantlets, the net photosynthesis rate (Pn), respiration rate (Rd), light compensation point (Lc) and light saturation point (Ls), transpiration rate (Tr), stomatal conductance (gs) and water use efficiency(WUE) were measured during 37 days of ex vitro acclimatization. The results showed that Pn sharply increased until 29 days, then slightly decreased. A substantial decrease in Lc and a substantial increase of Ls in the former two weeks were observed, indicating the light regime enlargement for effective leaf photosynthesis. Tr and gs abruptly decreased during the first week then linearly increased until 29days ex vitro acclimatization, reflecting the strong regulation effect of stomata on water changes of ex vitro acclimating plantlets. Stomatal regulation effect on CO2 exchange was different from that on water exchange, i.e. Pn was almost independent of gs during the first week, while Pn was significantly correlated with gs thereafter (i.e. dual patterns). Different from dual patterns of gs-Pn relation, the Tr monotonously linearly increased with gs. Furthermore, WUE was almost independent on gs during the first week, while a marked decreasing tendency with gs was found thereafter. At the beginning of the acclimatization, WUE was mainly determined by photosynthetic capacity, while transpiration becomes a main determinant factor for WUE from 7 to 37 days' acclimatization.

  13. Evaluation of physico-chemical and antioxidant properties in different varieties of banana (musa acuminata), indigenous to pakistan

    The antioxidant capacity, phenolic and flavonoid contents, and physico-chemical analysis on the pulp of three different varieties of Musa acuminata, were studied namely Cavendish basrai, Grand naine and Plantain, collected from Gharo, Adam Khas Kheli Road near Karachi (Pakistan). DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging, reducing power (RPA) and phosphomolybdenum assays were used for determination of their antioxidant capacity. Cavendish basrai characterized the highest antioxidant capacity among three varieties, DPPH (82.46 % inhibition at 0.1 mM conc.), RPA (43.59 mg/100 g) and phosphomolybdenum (38.90 mg/100 g) in methanolic extract and DPPH (67.27 % inhibition at 0.1 mM conc.), RPA (27.03 mg/100 g) and phosphomolybdenum (24.27 mg/100 g) in water extract. The phenolic (83.04 mg/100 g, 19.50 mg/100 g) and flavonoid contents (11.66 mg/100 g, 4.77 mg/100 g) were also high in Cavendish basrai in methanolic and water extracts, respectively showed the direct relation of antioxidant capacity to the phenolic and flavonoid contents, and the DPPH assay revealed more power full assay for determination of antioxidant capacity among these assays. In correlation with antioxidant capacity, Plantain showed comparatively high physico-chemical characteristics revealed high nutritional contents such as total dry matter, total sugar contents, TSS, titratable acidity and % NaCl. (author)

  14. Molecular Characterization of Banana streak virus Isolate from Musa Acuminata in China

    Jun Zhuang; Jian-hua Wang; Xin Zhang; Zhi-xinLiu

    2011-01-01

    Banana streak virus (BSV),a member of genus Badnavirus,is a causal agent of banana streak disease throughout the world.The genetic diversity of BSVs from different regions of banana plantations has previously been investigated,but there are relatively few reports of the genetic characteristic of episomal (non-integrated)BSV genomes isolated from China.Here,the complete genome,a total of 7722bp (GenBank accession number DQ092436),of an isolate of Banana streak virus (BSV) on cultivar Cavendish (BSAcYNV) in Yunnan,China was determined.The genome organises in the typical manner of badnaviruses.The intergenic region of genomic DNA contains a large stem-loop,which may contribute to the ribosome shift into the following open reading frames (ORFs).The coding region of BSAcYNV consists of three overlapping ORFs,ORF 1 with a non-AUG start eodon and ORF2 encoding two small proteins are individually involved in viral movement and ORF3 encodes a polyprotein.Besides the complete genome,a defective genome lacking the whole RNA leader region and a majority of ORF1 and which encompasses 6525bp was also isolated and sequenced from this BSV DNA reservoir in infected banana plants.Sequence analyses showed that BSAcYNV has closest similarity in terms of genome organization and the coding assignments with an BSV isolate from Vientam (BSAcVNV).The corresponding coding regions shared identities of 88% and ~95% at nucleotide and amino acid levels,respectively.Phylogenetic analysis also indicated BSAcYNV shared the closest geographical evolutionary relationship to BSAcVNV among sequenced banana streak badnaviruses.

  15. Resposta de cultivares de feijoeiro ao enxofre

    FURTINI NETO ANTONIO EDUARDO

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, no Departamento de Ciência do Solo da Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA, Lavras, MG, utilizando-se um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo, textura média, fase cerrado, proveniente do município de Itumirim, MG. Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da aplicação de doses de S, no crescimento de três cultivares de feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L., e a determinação dos níveis críticos do nutriente na parte aérea das cultivares. Utilizou-se um fatorial 4 x 3 (0, 30, 60 e 120 mg de S/kg de solo e as cultivares Carioca, Ouro e H-4, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições. As cultivares de feijoeiro apresentaram respostas significativas em produção de matéria seca da parte aérea (MSPA quando se aplicou S, porém, com incrementos distintos em cada cultivar. À exceção da cultivar H-4, o fornecimento de S também estimulou a produção de matéria seca de raízes pelas plantas de feijoeiro, mas em menor intensidade que para a MSPA. Os níveis críticos internos de S na parte aérea, equivalentes a 90% da produção máxima de MSPA, variaram entre as cultivares. As relações N/S foram de 20,97, 20,81 e 18,68, enquanto a relação P/S foi de 2,24, 1,33 e 0,87 nas cultivares Carioca, Ouro e H-4, respectivamente. Os níveis críticos de S na MSPA das cultivares Carioca, Ouro e H-4 corresponderam, respectivamente, a 1,89, 2,21 e 2,16 g de S/kg. A eficiência de utilização de S, correspondente a 90% da produção máxima de MSPA, variou de acordo com as cultivares de feijoeiro, o que indica ser possível a seleção e melhoramento de material genético adaptado a condições distintas de disponibilidade desse nutriente no solo.

  16. Arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization of Alnus acuminata Kunth in northwestern Argentina in relation to season and soil parameters Colonización micorrícico arbuscular de Alnus acuminata Kunth en el noroeste argentino en relación a la estacionalidad y a los parámetros edáficos

    Alejandra Gabriela Becerra; Nilda Marta Arrigo; Norberto Bartoloni; Laura Susana Domínguez; María Noelia Cofré

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine patterns of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonization of Alnus acuminata Kunth at two natural forests in relation to soil parameters at two different seasons (autumn and spring). The soil parameters studied were field capacity, pH, electrical conductivity, available P, total N and organic matter. The percentage of AM colonization was estimated and correlated to soil properties and to two different seasons. The results indicate that the percentage of...

  17. Don't camp beside the river: structure and dynamics of Andean alder (Alnus acuminata) forests affected by river floods, northwestern Argentina No acampe junto al río: estructura y dinámica de bosques de aliso (Alnus acuminata) del noroeste argentino afectados por crecientes de río

    Tomás A Easdale; SEBASTIÁN SABATÉ; ALFREDO GRAU

    2005-01-01

    Alnus acuminata (Betulaceae) is a pioneer tree that dominates mountain riparian forests throughout the eastern Andes. Early studies associated these forests with particular microclimatic conditions along river beds, but they were later linked to the periodical disturbance regime of mountain rivers. To understand the dynamics of these forests, we analysed tree age and spatial arrangement in two plots along Potrero river and another plot along La Horqueta river, Tucumán Province, north west Arg...

  18. Histology of Callogenesis in Diploid Bananas (Musa acuminata, AA Group) �Kluai Sa� and �Kluai Leb Mu Nang�

    Kamnoon KANCHANAPOOM; Korn KORAPATCHAIKUL

    2012-01-01

    Yellow compact calluses were induced from in vitro-grown shoot tips of diploid bananas (Musa acuminata, AA group) �Kluai Sa� and �Kluai Leb Mu Nang� on a modified Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 100 mg/L malt extract, 50 mg/L proline, 50 mg/L cysteine, 100 mg/L glutamine, 1 mg/L biotin, 7 mg/L Dicamba and 2 mg/L TDZ. Green shoot buds were induced after transfer of the yellow compact calluses to the same MS medium but supplemented with 1 mg/L NAA and 3 mg/L BA and plant regeneration...

  19. RAPD discrimination of Agaricus bisporus mushroom cultivars.

    Moore, A J; Challen, M P; Warner, P J; Elliott, T J

    2001-06-01

    Cultivars of the white button mushroom Agaricus bisporus are difficult to differentiate, which has made strain protection problematic for this crop species. We have used RAPDs to discriminate between 26 strains of A. bisporus, 24 of which were commercial cultivars, and to characterise the genetic relatedness of these strains. Using 20 primers, 211 RAPD markers were identified and used in hierarchical cluster, patristic distance and parsimony analyses. All strains could be differentiated using the aggregated primer data. Although no one primer could differentiate all 26 strains, several individual primers yielded unique fingerprints for a variety of strains. The greatest differences (up to 28% variation) were observed in comparisons with or between two wild collections of A. bisporus. Quondam cultivars, commercial brown and off-white varieties proved more variable than the widely grown 'hybrid' types. Of the 15 hybrid varieties analysed, only one differed substantially (20% or more variable). The patristic and parsimony analyses both demonstrated the gross similarity of the hybrids, many of which appear to be essentially derived varieties from two original hybrid cultivars. RAPD analyses can assist mushroom strain identification and could play a role in the protection of novel cultivars. PMID:11525623

  20. POTENCIAL PRODUTIVO DE CULTIVARES DE MORANGUEIRO

    AMANDA GONÇALVES GUIMARÃES

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O objetivo foi avaliar o potencial produtivo de cultivares de morangueiro em região representativa do Alto Jequitinhonha. O experimento foi conduzido na fazenda Mape Frutas Ltda., localizada no município de Datas-MG, em delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com oito cultivares de morangueiro em quatro repetições, para verificar a produção de mudas e de frutos. A contagem da produção de estolões e de mudas foi realizada aos 180 dias após o plantio. A avaliação das variáveis relacionadas à produção de frutos foi feita duas vezes por semana, no período de maio a outubro de 2012. Das cultivares de dias curtos (Festival, Campinas, Toyonoka, Dover, Oso Grande e Camarosa e dias neutros (Diamante e Aromas, apenas Toyonoka foi a que apresentou menor desempenho para as variáveis. A significativa superioridade das cultivares Camarosa e Festival, para praticamente todas as variáveis avaliadas, permite recomendá-las para regiões com características edafoclimáticas semelhantes às da região onde o experimento foi conduzido. Dentre as cultivares avaliadas, as mais precoces tenderam a apresentar maior desempenho para variáveis relacionadas à produção de frutos.

  1. Soil Carbon and Nitrogen Stocks of Different Hawaiian Sugarcane Cultivars

    Rebecca Tirado-Corbalá

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane has been widely used as a biofuel crop due to its high biological productivity, ease of conversion to ethanol, and its relatively high potential for greenhouse gas reduction and lower environmental impacts relative to other derived biofuels from traditional agronomic crops. In this investigation, we studied four sugarcane cultivars (H-65-7052, H-78-3567, H-86-3792 and H-87-4319 grown on a Hawaiian commercial sugarcane plantation to determine their ability to store and accumulate soil carbon (C and nitrogen (N across a 24-month growth cycle on contrasting soil types. The main study objective establish baseline parameters for biofuel production life cycle analyses; sub-objectives included (1 determining which of four main sugarcane cultivars sequestered the most soil C and (2 assessing how soil C sequestration varies among two common Hawaiian soil series (Pulehu-sandy clay loam and Molokai-clay. Soil samples were collected at 20 cm increments to depths of up to 120 cm using hand augers at the three main growth stages (tillering, grand growth, and maturity from two experimental plots at to observe total carbon (TC, total nitrogen (TN, dissolved organic carbon (DOC and nitrates (NO−3 using laboratory flash combustion for TC and TN and solution filtering and analysis for DOC and NO−3. Aboveground plant biomass was collected and subsampled to determine lignin and C and N content. This study determined that there was an increase of TC with the advancement of growing stages in the studied four sugarcane cultivars at both soil types (increase in TC of 15–35 kg·m2. Nitrogen accumulation was more variable, and NO−3 (<5 ppm were insignificant. The C and N accumulation varies in the whole profile based on the ability of the sugarcane cultivar’s roots to explore and grow in the different soil types. For the purpose of storing C in the soil, cultivar H-65-7052 (TC accumulation of ~30 kg·m−2 and H-86-3792 (25 kg·m−2 rather H-78

  2. Evaluation of growth and gas exchange rates of two local saudi wheat cultivars grown under heat stress conditions

    The present study investigated the effects of three temperature regimes, low (20 degree C), moderate (25 degree C) and high (30 degree C), on growth and physiological parameters of two local Saudi wheat (Triticum durum) cultivars, Hab-Ahmar and Algaimi. Plants were grown under controlled environment in growth chambers. After four weeks plants were harvested and the following growth parameters were measured; plant height, number of tillers, leaf area, root length, fresh and dry weight. Physiological traits include chlorophyll content, photosynthesis rates, stomatal conductance, dark respiration and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters; Fo, Fm and Fv/Fm. In cultivar Hab-Ahmar, moderate and high temperatures caused significant decrease in most growth and physiological parameters such as plant height, number of tillers, leaf area, fresh and dry weight, chlorophyll content, photosynthesis rates, stomatal conductance, dark respiration and the maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv/Fm). In contrast, cv. Algaimi was shown to be more thermotolerant to moderate and high temperatures, with the exception of some growth parameters that were decreased. Unlike cultivar Hab-Ahmar, cultivar Algaimi had an increased rate of dark respiration when temperature was high (30 degree C). Stomatal behavior is shown to be positively correlated with the rates of photosynthesis in both cultivars; however, in cultivar Hab-Ahmar such correlation decreased as temperature increased. (author)

  3. Biochemical and In-silico Studies on Pectin Methylesterase from G9 Variety of Musa acuminata for Delayed Ripening.

    Verma, Charu; R K, Singh; Singh, Ram B; Mishra, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Ripening of fruit is a very important process but in some fruits early ripening leads to a great damage during long distance transportation. There are various biochemical changes taking place during the phase of ripening of fruit such as changes in respiration, aroma, flavor, ethylene production and activity of cell wall degrading enzymes. Some important cell wall degrading enzymes are Polygalacturonase (PG), Pectin methylesterase (PME), Pectin lyase, RGase. PME is known to act as a cell wall hydrolyzing enzyme, responsible for demethyl esterification of cell wall polygalacturonan. The present study includes the biochemical and molecular characterization of PME from Grand naine variety of Musa acuminata (banana). This study also deals with the in-silico study reflecting inhibition of PME activity in context to delayed ripening in banana. It mainly deals with the identification of a PME1 gene from Grand naine variety of banana. The expression of this gene is related with the process of ripening. The expression of PME1 gene was observed to be peaked on 3(rd) day in ethylene treated samples of banana but the activity in untreated samples called control was rather slow and then there was a sudden decrease in their activity in both treated as well as untreated samples. With the help of in-silico study, we observed that banana has maximum homology with carrot by using cross species analysis.The designed model has been reported to be of good quality on the basis of its verification and validation. The designed model was observed to be appropriate for docking. The information of binding sites of ligand provides new insights into the predictable functioning of relevant protein. PMID:25926894

  4. Cloning of an ADP-ribosylation factor gene from banana (Musa acuminata) and its expression patterns in postharvest ripening fruit.

    Wang, Yuan; Wu, Jing; Xu, Bi-Yu; Liu, Ju-Hua; Zhang, Jian-Bin; Jia, Cai-Hong; Jin, Zhi-Qiang

    2010-08-15

    A full-length cDNA encoding an ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) from banana (Musa acuminata) fruit was cloned and named MaArf. It contains an open reading frame encoding a 181-amino-acid polypeptide. Sequence analysis showed that MaArf shared high similarity with ARF of other plant species. The genomic sequence of MaArf was also obtained using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Sequence analysis showed that MaArf was a split gene containing five exons and four introns in genomic DNA. Reverse-transcriptase PCR was used to analyze the spatial expression of MaArf. The results showed that MaArf was expressed in all the organs examined: root, rhizome, leaf, flower and fruit. Real-time quantitative PCR was used to explore expression patterns of MaArf in postharvest banana. There was differential expression of MaArf associated with ethylene biosynthesis. In naturally ripened banana, expression of MaArf was in accordance with ethylene biosynthesis. However, in 1-methylcyclopropene-treated banana, the expression of MaArf was inhibited and changed little. When treated with ethylene, MaArf expression in banana fruit significantly increased in accordance with ethylene biosynthesis; the peak of MaArf was 3 d after harvest, 11 d earlier than for naturally ripened banana fruits. These results suggest that MaArf is induced by ethylene in regulating postharvest banana ripening. Finally, subcellular localization assays showed the MaArf protein in the cytoplasm. PMID:20435371

  5. Effects of gamma irradiation followed by climatization on the quality of 'Prata' banana (Musa acuminata x Musa balbisiana, AAB)

    Banana is a highly perishable climacteric fruit. In order to ensure fast and homogeneous ripening that will make its processing and commercialization easier, it is usually treated by climatization. On the other hand, irradiation is an interesting physical process capable of delaying ripening and extending the shelf life of fruits. This work investigated the competing effects of irradiation followed by climatization on the quality of 'Prata' banana (Musa acuminata x Musa balbisiana, AAB). All fruits were harvested in the preclimacteric stage, rinsed and stored at 27 deg C after being submitted to five different treatments. After hygienization, four out of five samples were exposed to gamma-ray at doses of 0.25 and 0.50 kGy. The unirradiated fruits were left for control and half of the irradiated samples were then climatized by exposure to CaC2. Measurements of fresh mass loss, total soluble solids, peel coloration and disease index were performed on five different dates for up to nine days in order to monitor quality and the degree of ripening. It was found that high temperatures prevailing during climatization and storage accelerated maturation in all fruits in spite of the use of irradiation, with the control becoming ripe in 3 days only. In addition, based on the consistent results from the experiments performed, it can be concluded that irradiation at the doses tested was unable to overcome the maturation effects produced by climatization. However, the sole use of irradiation with 0.25 kGy yielded the lowest figures for fresh mass loss and disease index in the samples, thus becoming the most attractive among the treatments tested. (author)

  6. Improvement of sexual destination in Atropa acuminata Royle (Solanaceae)--a critically endangered medicinal plant of Northwestern Himalaya.

    Wani, Parvaiz A; Nawchoo, Irshad A; Wafai, B A

    2007-03-01

    Good seed set is no guarantee of absolute sexual destination in plants. Seed viability and seed vigour are crucial phases in the life cycle of every sexually reproducing plant. The present study was an attempt to improve the sexual destination-the germination and seedling survival of Atropa acuminata Royle (Solanaceae), an endemic and extremely restricted sub-alpine medicinal plant of North West Himalayas under ex situ conditions at (1580 m) with an aim to develop a successful germination protocol and agrotechnique in order to revegetate disturbed areas. Among various treatments given to the seeds, GA3, Scarification, warm water treatment and chilling at 4 degrees C for 90 days were found to be most effective with percentage germination of 73.3 +/- 18.80, 79.95 +/- 9.40, 66.6 +/- 6.6, 45 +/- 7.07 (X +/- SE), respectively. The results reveal that the seeds do not germinate unless specific environmental signals or events occur which trigger the genetic and hormonal response of the seeds thereby facilitating their germination. The diversity and the extent of the dormancy mechanisms encountered here suggest that under harsh conditions, natural selection may favour seeds with a genetic system for dormancy and delayed germination. A relation was observed between seed size/weight, % age germination and subsequent seedling survival. Seedling survival is also effected by specific habitat requirement and stiff intra and inter-specific competition particularly the whimsical behaviour of Sambucus wigthiana (an alien species which grows in the vicinity of Atropa) is beyond the ken of Atropa, adding fuel to the already burning candle apart from habitat fragmentation and herbivory. PMID:19069863

  7. Characteristics of the microbial community in rhizosphere of Camptotheca acuminata cultured with exotic invasive plant Eupatorium adenophorum

    ZU YuanGang; GAO ChongYang; WANG WenJie; YANG FengJian; LIU Ying; WANG Min; ZHAO YangGuo

    2007-01-01

    The traditional culture-dependent plate counting and culture-independent small-subunit-ribosomal RNA gene-targeted molecular techniques, Single-Strand Conformation Polymorphism (SSCP) and terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (tRFLP) combined with 16S rDNA clone library were adopted to investigate the impacts of secretion from Camptotheca acuminata (abbreviated to Ca) roots on the quantities and structure of eukaryotic microbes and bacteria in the rhizosphere, and the possibility that Ca controls exotic invasive plant Eupatorium adenophorum (Ea). The counting results indicated that the number of bacteria increased in turn in rhizospheres of Ea, Ca-Ea mixed culture and Ca, while that of eukaryotic microbes decreased. PCR-SSCP profiles showed eukaryotic microbial bands (corresponding to biodiversity) in rhizosphere of Ea were more complex than those of Ca and CE. Meristolohmannia sp., Termitomyces sp. And Rhodophyllus sp. Were the dominant populations in the rhizosphere of Ca. Bacterial terminal restriction fragments (TRFs) profiles showed no difference among three kinds of rhizospheres, and the sequences of the 16S rDNA clone library from Ca rhizospheres were distributed in 10 known phyla, in which phylum Proteobacteria were the absolute dominant group and accounted for 24.71% of the cloned sequences (δ-Proteobacteria accounted for up to 17.65%), and phyla Acidobacteria and Bacteroidetes accounted for 16.47% and 10.59% of the cloned sequences, respectively. In addition, high performance liquid chromatography detected a trace amount of camptothecin and hydroxycamptothecin in the rhizospheric soil of Ca and CE, but examined neither camptothecin nor hydroxycamptothecin in rhizospheric soil of Ea. Therefore, invasion and diffusion of Ea evidently depended on distinguishing the eukaryotic community structure, but not on that of the bacterial pattern. Ca was able to alter the eukaryotic community structure of invasive Ea by secreting camptothecin and

  8. Cadmium accumulation in different pakchoi cultivars and screening for pollution-safe cultivars

    Ying CHEN; Ting-qiang LI; Xuan HAN; Zhe-li DING; Xiao-e YANG; Ye-fei JIN

    2012-01-01

    The selection and breeding of pollution-safe cultivars (PSCs) is a practicable and cost-effective approach to minimize the influx of heavy metal to the human food chain.In this study,both pot-culture and field experiments were conducted to identify and screen out cadmium pollution-safe cultivars (Cd-PSCs) from 50 pakchoi (Brassica rapa L.ssp.chinensis) cultivars for food safety.When treated with 1.0 or 2.5 mg/kg Cd,most of the pakchoi cultlvars (>70%)showed greater or similar shoot biomass when compared with the control.This result indicates that pakchoi has a considerable tolerance to soil Cd stress.Cd concentrations in the shoot varied significantly (P<0.05) between cultivars:in two Cd treatments (1.0 and 2.5 mg/kg),the average values were 0.074 and 0.175 mg/kg fresh weight (FW),respectively.Cd concentrations in the shoots of 14 pakchoi cultivars were lower than 0.05 mg/kg FW.In pot-culture experiments,both enrichment factors (EFs) and translocation factors (TFs) of six pakchoi cultivars were lower than 1.0.The field studies further confirmed that the Hangzhouyoudonger,Aijiaoheiye 333,and Zaoshenghuajing cultivars are Cd-PSCs,and are therefore suitable for growth in low Cd-contaminated soils (≤1.2 mg/kg) without any risk to food safety.

  9. Introgression Between Cultivars and Wild Populations of Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae) in Taiwan

    Yu-Chung Chiang; Pei-Chun Liao; Chang-Hung Chou; Chi-Chu Tsai

    2012-01-01

    The landrace strains of Momordica charantia are widely cultivated vegetables throughout the tropics and subtropics, but not in Taiwan, a continental island in Southeast Asia, until a few hundred years ago. In contrast, the related wild populations with smaller fruit sizes are native to Taiwan. Because of the introduction of cultivars for agricultural purposes, these two accessions currently exhibit a sympatric or parapatric distribution in Taiwan. In this study, the culti...

  10. Analytical and sensory quality characteristics of twelve blueberry cultivars

    The analytical and sensory quality characteristics of twelve blueberry cultivars were evaluated to determine what fruit quality characteristics consumers consider important and to evaluate if sensory quality characteristics were correlated to any analytical quality characteristics. Cultivars evaluat...

  11. SWEET CORN CULTIVAR INFLUENCES BIOLOGICALLY EFFECTIVE HERBICIDE DOSE [ABSTRACT

    Competitive crop cultivars are considered a component of integrated weed management systems; however specific knowledge of interactions among crop cultivars and other management tactics, such as biologically effective herbicide dose, is limited. Observed variation in crop tolerance and weed supp...

  12. Rational regional distribution of sugarcane cultivars in China

    Jun Luo; Yong-Bao Pan; Liping Xu; Michael Paul Grisham; Hua Zhang; Youxiong Que

    2015-01-01

    Knowing yield potential and yield stability of sugarcane cultivars is of significance in guiding sugarcane breeding and rationalising regional distribution of sugarcane cultivars. In the present study, a heritability-adjusted genotype main effect plus genotype × environment (HA-GGE) biplot program was used to analyze the cane and sucrose yields of 44 newly released sugarcane cultivars at eight pilot test sites. The cane and sucrose yields of nine cultivars were higher than those of the contro...

  13. Pollen limitation and Allee effect related to population size and sex ratio in the endangered Ottelia acuminata (Hydrocharitaceae): implications for conservation and reintroduction.

    Xia, J; Lu, J; Wang, Z X; Hao, B B; Wang, H B; Liu, G H

    2013-03-01

    Small populations may suffer more severe pollen limitation and result in Allee effects. Sex ratio may also affect pollination and reproduction success in dioecious species, which is always overlooked when performing conservation and reintroduction tasks. In this study, we investigated whether and how population size and sex ratio affected pollen limitation and reproduction in the endangered Ottelia acuminata, a dioecious submerged species. We established experimental plots with increasing population size and male sex ratio. We observed insect visitation, estimated pollen limitation by hand-pollinations and counted fruit set and seed production per fruit. Fruit set and seed production decreased significantly in small populations due to pollinator scarcity and thus suffered more severe pollen limitation. Although frequently visited, female-biased larger populations also suffered severe pollen limitation due to few effective visits and insufficient pollen availability. Rising male ratio enhanced pollination service and hence reproduction. Unexpectedly, pollinator preferences did not cause reduced reproduction in male-biased populations because of high pollen availability. However, reproductive outputs showed more variability in severe male-biased populations. Our results revealed two component Allee effects in fruit set and seed production, mediated by pollen limitation in O. acuminata. Moreover, reproduction decreased significantly in larger female-biased populations, increasing the risk of an Allee effect. PMID:22963276

  14. Register of New Fruit and Nut Cultivars List 46. Rambutan.

    The Register of New Fruit and Nut Varieties 46 is a compilation of descriptions of new fruit and nut cultivars from around the world. In this edition, 8 newly released rambutan cultivars are described in terms of their origins, important fruit traits and yield. Of the eight described cultivars, one ...

  15. Response of broccoli and cabbage hybrid cultivars to clomazone

    Clomazone herbicide (Command 3ME) is registered for cabbage in the U.S., but not for other cultivar groups within Brassica oleracea. Cabbage cultivars vary in clomazone tolerance, and recommended use rates can cause severe foliar chlorosis and yield reduction to susceptible cultivars. The objectiv...

  16. Register of new fruit and nut cultivars list 48- Blackberry

    The Register of New Fruit and Nut Cultivars is a listing of cultivars that have been released from around the world. List 48 reports on the releases for 24 crops from. The blackberry section gives a description of the origin, and the fruit and plant characteristics for the following cultivars: Amar...

  17. Discriminating Nonpareil marketing group almond cultivars through multivariate analyses

    The California almond industry produces over 80% of the world’s almonds with nearly 2 billion pounds harvested in 2011. Several dozen cultivars are grown, but the Nonpareil cultivar is dominant in both acreage and tonnage. Almond cultivars are categorized into defined marketing groups based on ker...

  18. Iron Biofortification of Modern Wheat Cultivar

    Shirvanehdeh, Behrooz Darbani; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Tauris, Birgitte;

    2011-01-01

    an iron storage complex. Primary evaluation of Bobwhite cv. has approved that endosperm expression of wheat’s own ferritin, works as a sink for iron and accumulates two to three folds more iron in the endosperm. To bring the bioavailable iron on the people's tables, modern cultivars were applied for...

  19. Prijsbepalende kenmerken bij rozen : cultivar 'Motrea'

    Oprel, L.

    1983-01-01

    Voor de roos (cultivar 'Motrea') is met behulp van faktor-analyse en multiple regressie nagegaan welke produktkenmerken de prijs bepalen. Daarnaast is ook enige aandacht geschonken aan het vaasleven van rozen en de daarop van invloed zijnde produktkenmerken. Uit het onderzoek is gebleken dat de prij

  20. Micropropagation of peach rootstocks and cultivars.

    Balla, Ildikó; Mansvelt, Lucienne

    2013-01-01

    Peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) is one of the most popular stone fruits, commercially produced largely in Mediterranean and, to a lesser extent, in continental climatic conditions. Several breeding programs with different aims release annually large numbers of new cultivars. Micropropagation offers a suitable method to provide the growers of sufficient quantities of rootstocks, as well as of pathogen-free planting material of old and new cultivars.An effective four-step micropropagation procedure for cultivar and rootstock production is described here, based on the use of modified MS and WPM media. The health status of the initial shoot tips is very important, also because the growth and proliferation rate of shoot cultures from virus-infected clones are generally very poor. Proliferation and elongation phases depend on the major macro-elements, as well as the content and ratio of plant growth regulators. It is important to grow the cultures at 22°C, as hyperhydricity may develop at higher temperatures. Although sucrose is the most common carbon source used during proliferation and rooting, for some peach cultivars and rootstocks the replacement of sucrose (10 g/L) with glucose (20 g/L) in the rooting medium improves the rooting and survival rates of plants in the acclimatization phase. The rooting rate of the rootstock "Cadaman" is improved with the chelated form of iron FeEDDHA at 150 mg/L. Rooted plants are acclimatized in greenhouse under high humidity conditions. PMID:23179695

  1. Growth and development in Achimenes cultivars.

    Vlahos, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    Achimenes is a herbaceous perennial of the Gesneriaceae family. Its origin is Central and South America. It has been cultivated as a pot plant since the Victorian era. Extensive hybridization has produced many attractive cultivars which have been Introduced in commercial floriculture both In the Uni

  2. Anatomía de la lámina de hoja en ocho cultivares de aguacate Leaf lamina anatomy of eight avocado cultivars

    Víctor Manuel González-Calderón

    2011-10-01

    increased CO2 assimilation rate and persea mite resistance. These features can be directly related to the leaf anatomy. It is important to know these features in current and new cultivars: 'Hass', 'Reed', 'Gwen', 'GEM', 'Lamb Hass', 'Harvest', BL667 ('Nobel' and BL516 ('Marvel'. During 2007 in Chapingo, Mexico, transverse sections of leaf blades were performed, evaluating anatomical features. There were found variables with no differences between cultivars, which may be because all genotypes used in this study except 'Reed', come from a common ancestor 'Hass'. The cultivars groupings are possible according to the anatomical characteristics of its leaf blade, where, there is a variation that can be interpreted from the physiological aspect and its likenesses by their ancestry. 'Gwen', 'Hass', 'Marvel' and 'GEM' had a wider cuticle and less wide palisade parenchyma cells, while 'Reed', 'Nobel' and 'Lamb Hass', had contrasting features, 'Harvest' had intermediate values. The 'Lamb Hass' cultivar presented a leaf blade anatomy with features that allow it to carry out photosynthesis more efficiently, due to the higher values of its palisade parenchyma I.

  3. Variations in cadmium accumulation among Chinese cabbage cultivars and screening for Cd-safe cultivars

    Variations in cadmium accumulation and translocation among 40 Chinese cabbage cultivars were studied to identify and screen out Cd-safe cultivars (CSCs), i.e. cultivars with low enough accumulation of Cd in their edible parts even when grown in contaminated soils. It was observed in the pot-culture experiment that there was a significant difference (p < 0.05) in shoot Cd concentrations under three Cd treatments (1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 mg/kg), with corresponding average values 0.88, 4.45 and 7.76 mg/kg, respectively. Shoot Cd concentrations in 16 cabbage cultivars were lower than 0.50 mg/kg. The translocation factors (TFs) and the extraction factors (EFs) in five cabbage cultivars were lower than 1.0 in the pot-culture experiment. The field-culture experiment further validated that New Beijing 3 and Fengyuanxin 3 could be considered as CSCs. In particular, the two cultivars can be cultivated in low to moderate Cd-contaminated soils (Cd concentration <1.25 mg/kg) to minimize the Cd accumulation in the food.

  4. Characteristics of the microbial community in rhizosphere of Camptotheca acuminata cultured with exotic invasive plant Eupatorium adenophorum

    2007-01-01

    The traditional culture-dependent plate counting and culture-independent small-subunit-ribosomal RNA gene-targeted molecular techniques, Single-Strand Conformation Polymorphism (SSCP) and ter-minal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (tRFLP) combined with 16S rDNA clone library were adopted to investigate the impacts of secretion from Camptotheca acuminata (abbreviated to Ca) roots on the quantities and structure of eukaryotic microbes and bacteria in the rhizosphere, and the possi-bility that Ca controls exotic invasive plant Eupatorium adenophorum (Ea). The counting results indi-cated that the number of bacteria increased in turn in rhizospheres of Ea, Ca-Ea mixed culture and Ca, while that of eukaryotic microbes decreased. PCR-SSCP profiles showed eukaryotic microbial bands (corresponding to biodiversity) in rhizosphere of Ea were more complex than those of Ca and CE. Meristolohmannia sp., Termitomyces sp. and Rhodophyllus sp. were the dominant populations in the rhizosphere of Ca. Bacterial terminal restriction fragments (TRFs) profiles showed no difference among three kinds of rhizospheres, and the sequences of the 16S rDNA clone library from Ca rhizospheres were distributed in 10 known phyla, in which phylum Proteobacteria were the absolute dominant group and accounted for 24.71% of the cloned sequences (δ-Proteobacteria accounted for up to 17.65%), and phyla Acidobacteria and Bacteroidetes accounted for 16.47% and 10.59% of the cloned sequences, respectively. In addition, high performance liquid chromatography detected a trace amount of camp-tothecin and hydroxycamptothecin in the rhizospheric soil of Ca and CE, but examined neither camp-tothecin nor hydroxycamptothecin in rhizospheric soil of Ea. Therefore, invasion and diffusion of Ea evidently depended on distinguishing the eukaryotic community structure, but not on that of the bac-terial pattern. Ca was able to alter the eukaryotic community structure of invasive Ea by secreting camptothecin and

  5. Caracterización de harina y almidón de frutos de banano Gros Michel (Musa acuminata AAA

    Jairo Montoya-López

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En el estudio se determinaron las características fisicoquímicas, térmicas y reológicas de la harina y el almidón de frutos de banano Gros Michel (Musa acuminata cosechado en fincas del departamento del Quindío, Colombia. En el análisis proximal, la harina presentó un contenido de fibra de 18.82% y el almidón presentó contenidos de proteína de 1.92%, grasa de 5.3% y fibra de 2.76%. La harina presentó la temperatura más alta de absorción de calor (68.88 °C y su entalpía de gelatinización fue de 2.17 J/g; mientras que para el almidón estos valores fueron de 48.36 °C y 44.62 J/g, respectivamente. El análisis termogravimétrico (TGA de la harina o temperaturas en las cuales se registra la descomposición de carbohidratos (componentes de bajo peso molecular y polisacáridos (componentes de alto peso molecular fueron, respectivamente, de 284.51 °C y 470.42 °C; y para el almidón fueron de 307.51 °C y 500.46 °C. Los gránulos de almidón de banano tienen forma elipsoidal con un tamaño longitudinal promedio de 39.39 µm y tamaño transversal promedio de 29.47 µm. Los difractogramas de rayos X mostraron patrones de difracción tipo B. Los viscoamilogramas mostraron que para la harina la temperatura de inicio de gelatinización (Tg es de 76.3 °C, la viscosidad máxima de 1120 cP, y para el almidón la Tg fue de 70.75 °C y la viscosidad máxima de 2087 cP.

  6. Corrective Contrast in Russian, in Contrast

    Katja Jasinskaja

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In many languages markers of contrast, such as the English 'but', are also used to express correction: John didn't go to Paris, but to Berlin. The present paper tries to explain this cross-linguistic pattern and represents correction as a special case of contrast. It focuses on the Russian contrastive conjunction 'a' and argues that its corrective uses in combination with negation 'ne ... a' / 'a ne', which are traditionally viewed as a fixed collocation, are in fact co-occurrences of a general contrastive 'a' with constituent negation.

  7. Arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization of Alnus acuminata Kunth in northwestern Argentina in relation to season and soil parameters Colonización micorrícico arbuscular de Alnus acuminata Kunth en el noroeste argentino en relación a la estacionalidad y a los parámetros edáficos

    Alejandra Gabriela Becerra

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine patterns of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM colonization of Alnus acuminata Kunth at two natural forests in relation to soil parameters at two different seasons (autumn and spring. The soil parameters studied were field capacity, pH, electrical conductivity, available P, total N and organic matter. The percentage of AM colonization was estimated and correlated to soil properties and to two different seasons. The results indicate that the percentage of AM colonization varied among soil types and was higher in spring than autumn. A significant positive correlation was found between AM colonization and electrical conductivity, organic matter and total Nitrogen. Results of this study provide evidence that AM colonization of A. acuminata can be affected by some soil parameters and seasonality.El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el patrón de colonización micorrícico arbuscular (MA de Alnus acuminata Kunth en dos bosques del Noroeste Argentino, en relación a los parámetros edáficos y en dos estaciones del año (otoño y primavera. Los parámetros edáficos estudiados fueron: capacidad de campo, pH, conductividad eléctrica, fósforo disponible, N total y materia orgánica. Se cuantificó el porcentaje de colonización MA y se lo correlacionó con las variables estudiadas (parámetros edáficos y estaciones. Los resultados indican que el porcentaje de colonización MA varió entre los dos tipos de suelo y las estaciones, siendo mayor en primavera. Se observó correlación positiva significativa entre el porcentaje de colonización MA y la conductividad eléctrica, materia orgánica y N total. Los resultados de este estudio indican que la colonización MA de A. acuminata puede ser afectada por algunos parámetros edáficos y la estacionalidad.

  8. Response of oilseed Brassica cultivars to ozone

    Hucl, P.; Beversdorf, W.D

    1993-10-01

    Research was conducted to determine the sensitivity of four Brassica oilseed crops to ozone under controlled environmental conditions. Cultivars of four Brassica oilseed species were exposed to acute levels of ozone (0.31 or 0.47 [mu]l/l) at the seedling stage. Brassica hirta BHL-926 was the most sensitive to ozone, followed by B. juncea (Newton) and B. rapa (Torch). Injury symptoms ranged from a slight stippling in insensitive species to large bifacial necrotic patches in the most sensitive species. Brassica napus (canola) seedlings exhibited very little foliar injury (0-4% after 24 h exposure to 0.31 [mu]l/l ozone). In Ontario, where a vast majority of canola acreage is seeded to B. napus cultivars, it is unlikely that canola yields are being affected by exposure to ozone. 6 refs., 1 tab.

  9. Analysis of combining ability in soybean cultivars

    Dilermando Perecin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Eight soybean cultivars (Doko, Bossier, Ocepar-4, BR-15, FT-Cometa, Savana, Paraná and Cristalina werecrossed in a diallel design. Plants of the F1 generation and their parents were evaluated under short-day conditions for thedetermination of the general (GCA and specific (SCA combining ability. The estimated GCA and SCA values were significantfor the evaluated traits except for the “total cycle”. Highest GCA effects for the traits “days to flowering”, “plant height”,“insertion height”, “number of branches” and “total cycle” were estimated for the cultivars Doko, Cristalina and Savana.The variability observed in the trait “days to flowering” can, for the most part, be explained by additive effects.

  10. Resposta de cultivares de feijoeiro ao enxofre

    FURTINI NETO ANTONIO EDUARDO; FERNANDES LUIZ ARNALDO; FAQUIN VALDEMAR; SILVA IVO RIBEIRO DA; ACCIOLY ADRIANA MARIA DE AGUIAR

    2000-01-01

    O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, no Departamento de Ciência do Solo da Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA), Lavras, MG, utilizando-se um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo, textura média, fase cerrado, proveniente do município de Itumirim, MG. Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da aplicação de doses de S, no crescimento de três cultivares de feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), e a determinação dos níveis críticos do nutriente na parte aérea das cultivares. Utilizou-se um fatorial 4 x 3 (...

  11. Eating quality and health-promoting properties of two sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars stored in passive modified atmosphere.

    Lara, Isabel; Camats, Josep A; Comabella, Eva; Ortiz, Abel

    2015-03-01

    Two sweet cherry cultivars ('New Star' and 'Sweet Heart') were chosen to explore the impact of passive modified atmosphere packaging on the eating quality and health-promoting properties of fruit. Packaged and unpackaged fruits were stored at 0 ℃ for 15 or 30 days, followed by zero or three days at 20 ℃, after which the analyses were undertaken. In most cases, modified atmosphere packaging helped preserving higher firmness values and reducing the incidence of alterations and decay in both cultivars, but the effects on other physicochemical attributes were different for each cultivar. Partial least squares regression procedures were used to reveal relationships among the different variables assessed. Generally, fruits displaying higher antioxidant capacity were also characterised by higher values for firmness and titratable acidity, in turn related to better acceptability scores in both cultivars. However, the attributes contributing most to acceptability were different in each case. In 'New Star' fruit, acceptability was closely related to the perception of cherry flavour. In this cultivar, acetaldehyde content was related to the perception of off-flavours, while ethanol content was found to associate to soluble solids and to the perception of sweetness. In contrast, acceptability of 'Sweet Heart' fruit was related mainly to the perception of firmness and, to a lower extent, of sweetness. PMID:24474188

  12. DELIGNIFICATION OF SWITCHGRASS CULTIVARS FOR BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION

    Jiele Xu; Ye Chen; Cheng, Jay J.; Ratna Sharma-Shivappa; Joseph Burns

    2011-01-01

    Three switchgrass cultivars (‘Performer’, ‘BoMaster’, and ‘Colony’ switchgrass) were delignified using NaOH at varying concentrations and residence times at 121 oC for improved sugar production in enzymatic hydrolysis. Because of its greater carbohydrate/lignin ratio and the more substantial lignin reduction upon alkaline attack, ‘Performer’ switchgrass gave greater sugar productions under all the pretreatment conditions investigated. Maximum sugar production from ‘Performer’ was 425 mg/g raw...

  13. Seed Development and Quality in Maize Cultivars

    Kazem GHASSEMI-GOLEZANI; Zahra TAJBAKHSH; Yaeghoob RAEY

    2011-01-01

    In order to evaluate seed development and quality of maize (Zea mays) cultivars (DC-370, SC-500, OSSK-602 and SC-604), a split plot experiment (using R.C.B. design) with three replicates was conducted in 2009 at the Research Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Iran. Seeds were harvested at five day intervals in eight stages. Subsequently, the quality of seed samples was determined in the laboratory. Germination percentage and seedling dry weight were enhanced, but...

  14. Variations among rice cultivars on root oxidation and Cd uptake

    LIU Jian-guo; WANG De-ke; XU Jia-kuan; ZHU Qing-sen; WONG Ming-hung

    2006-01-01

    In order to understand the mechanisms on the variation between rice cultivars in Cd uptake and accumulation, two pot soil experiments were conducted with typical rice cultivars that varied greatly in soil Cd uptake. The experiments with six rice cultivars showed that the root oxidation abilities of rice differed with rice cultivars and also with types of the cultivars, the cultivars with indica consanguinity were significantly higher than the cultivars with japonica consanguinity. Root oxidation abilities of the rice cultivars correlated positively and significantly (P<0.01) with their Cd concentrations and Cd quantity accumulations in rice plants. The experiments with two rice cultivars showed that significant differences also existed between the two cultivars in pot soil redox potentials, which of Shan you 63 (higher soil Cd accumulator) were significantly higher than that of Wu yun jing 7 (lower soil Cd accumulator) under different soil Cd levels, but the degrees of the differences varied with soil Cd levels. The differences were larger under soil Cd treatments than the control. The results indicate that root oxidation ability, especially in Cd contaminated soil, is one of the main mechanisms which dominate Cd uptake and accumulation by rice plant.

  15. Effects of single, binary and tertiary combinations with Jatropha gossypifolia and other plant-derived molluscicides on reproduction and survival of the snail Lymnaea acuminata.

    Yadav, Ram P; Singh, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    The effect of sub-lethal doses (40% and 80% of LC(50)/24h) of plant derived molluscicides of singly, binary (1:1) and tertiary (1:1:1) combinations of the Rutin, Ellagic acid, Betulin and taraxerol with J. gossypifolia latex, leaf and stem bark powder extracts and their active component on the reproduction of freshwater snail Lymnaea acuminata have been studied. It was observed that the J. gossypifolia latex, stem bark, individual leaf and their combinations with other plant derived active molluscicidal components caused a significant reduction in fecundity, hatchability and survival of young snails. It is believed that sub-lethal exposure of these molluscicides on snail reproduction is a complex process involving more than one factor in reducing the reproductive capacity. PMID:25229223

  16. Histology of Callogenesis in Diploid Bananas (Musa acuminata, AA Group �Kluai Sa� and �Kluai Leb Mu Nang�

    Kamnoon KANCHANAPOOM

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Yellow compact calluses were induced from in vitro-grown shoot tips of diploid bananas (Musa acuminata, AA group �Kluai Sa� and �Kluai Leb Mu Nang� on a modified Murashige and Skoog (MS medium containing 100 mg/L malt extract, 50 mg/L proline, 50 mg/L cysteine, 100 mg/L glutamine, 1 mg/L biotin, 7 mg/L Dicamba and 2 mg/L TDZ. Green shoot buds were induced after transfer of the yellow compact calluses to the same MS medium but supplemented with 1 mg/L NAA and 3 mg/L BA and plant regeneration was achieved through organogenesis in callus cultures. Regenerated shoots were rooted on MS medium containing 0.2% activated charcoal but without plant growth regulators. Histological analysis revealed that calluses originated from small dense cells with well stained cytoplasm and nucleus typical of meristematic cells.

  17. Comparative Study of Various Immune Parameters in Three Bivalve Species during a Natural Bloom of Dinophysis acuminata in Santa Catarina Island, Brazil

    Danielle Ferraz Mello

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to verify if Dinophysis acuminata natural blooms affected the immune system of three bivalves: the oyster, Crassostrea gigas, the mussel, Perna perna, and the clam, Anomalocardia brasiliana. Animals were obtained from a renowned mariculture farm in the southern bay of Santa Catarina Island during, and 30 days after (controls, an algal bloom. Various immunological parameters were assessed in the hemolymph of the animals: total and differential hemocyte counts, percentage of apoptotic hemocytes, protein concentration, hemagglutinating titer and phenoloxidase activity. The results showed that the mussel was the most affected species, with several altered immune parameters, whereas the immunological profile of clams and oysters was partially and completely unaffected, respectively.

  18. Cell-specific expression of tryptophan decarboxylase and 10-hydroxygeraniol oxidoreductase, key genes involved in camptothecin biosynthesis in Camptotheca acuminata Decne (Nyssaceae

    Santamaria Anna

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Camptotheca acuminata is a major natural source of the terpenoid indole alkaloid camptothecin (CPT. At present, little is known about the cellular distribution of the biosynthesis of CPT, which would be useful knowledge for developing new strategies and technologies for improving alkaloid production. Results The pattern of CPT accumulation was compared with the expression pattern of some genes involved in CPT biosynthesis in C. acuminata [i.e., Ca-TDC1 and Ca-TDC2 (encoding for tryptophan decarboxylase and Ca-HGO (encoding for 10-hydroxygeraniol oxidoreductase]. Both CPT accumulation and gene expression were investigated in plants at different degrees of development and in plantlets subjected to drought-stress. In all organs, CPT accumulation was detected in epidermal idioblasts, in some glandular trichomes, and in groups of idioblast cells localized in parenchyma tissues. Drought-stress caused an increase in CPT accumulation and in the number of glandular trichomes containing CPT, whereas no increase in epidermal or parenchymatous idioblasts was observed. In the leaf, Ca-TDC1 expression was detected in some epidermal cells and in groups of mesophyll cells but not in glandular trichomes; in the stem, it was observed in parenchyma cells of the vascular tissue; in the root, no expression was detected. Ca-TDC2 expression was observed exclusively in leaves of plantlets subjected to drought-stress, in the same sites described for Ca-TDC1. In the leaf, Ca-HGO was detected in all chlorenchyma cells; in the stem, it was observed in the same sites described for Ca-TDC1; in the root, no expression was detected. Conclusions The finding that the sites of CPT accumulation are not consistently the same as those in which the studied genes are expressed demonstrates an organ-to-organ and cell-to-cell translocation of CPT or its precursors.

  19. Acuminata Seedling Planting Density Test Different Transplant%喜树播种苗不同移植密度试验

    张海龙

    2014-01-01

    对喜树播种苗采用6种移植密度(株行距分别为10 cm ×10 cm、10 cm ×15 cm、15 cm ×15 cm、15 cm ×20 cm、20 cm ×20 cm、20 cm ×25 cm)进行幼苗生长对比试验,结果表明:喜树播种苗移植密度以株行距15 cm ×15 cm最适宜,1年生幼苗平均地径达1.14 cm,平均苗高达109.5 cm,主根平均长度达30.1 cm,>5 cm Ⅰ级侧根平均条数达28.7条,合格苗率达33.4%,合格苗产量8.91万株・ hm-2。%The use of six kinds acuminata seedling transplanting density ( spacing respectively 10 cm ×10 cm, 10 cm ×15 cm, 15 cm ×15 cm, 15 cm ×20 cm, 20 cm ×20 cm, 20 cm ×25 cm) were seedling growth comparative test results showed that:acuminata seedling transplanting density optimum spacing 15 cm ×15 cm, 1 year old seedlings average diameter up 1.14 cm, average seedlings up to 109.5 cm, the average length of 30.1 cm taproot,>5 cmⅠ the average number of lateral roots level up to 28.7, qualified rate was 33.4%, the qualified seedling production is 89100 plants・ hm-2 .

  20. Condiloma acuminado anal com ovos de Schistosoma mansoni em paciente HIV-positivo Condilomata acuminata with Schistosoma eggs in HIV-positive patient

    Fabiana Pirani Carneiro

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Condiloma acuminado e ovos de Schistosoma são freqüentemente encontrados na região anal, mas não há nenhum caso descrito de associação dessas doenças nessa região. No colo uterino a associação de infecção por HPV (vírus do papiloma humano e ovos de Schistosoma em paciente HIV (vírus da imunodeficiência humana-positivo já foi relatada e há evidências de que essa associação possa alterar a história natural dessas doenças. Assim como no colo uterino, é possível que essa interação também ocorra na região anal. Nosso objetivo, portanto, é relatar um caso de condiloma anal em paciente HIV-positivo, que foi submetido a ressecção cirúrgica e que apresentou no exame histopatológico numerosos ovos de Schistosoma mansoni.Condilomata acuminata and Schistosoma eggs are frequently found in the anal region, but there is no report about the association of these diseases in this region. The association of HPV infection and Schistosoma eggs in an HIV-positive patient was found in uterine cervix and there is evidence suggesting that this association can alters the natural history of these diseases. Like in the cervix, it is possible that this interaction also occurs in the anal region. So, we report a case of anal Condilomata acuminata, in an HIV-positive patient, that was ressected and contained on histopathologic examination, multiple Schistosoma eggs.

  1. Cultivar and row distance interactions in perennial ryegrass

    Deleuran, Lise C; Gislum, René; Boelt, Birte

    2009-01-01

    was not affected in the first-year seed production in three perennial ryegrass cultivars. Regardless of row distance the seed rate was 6 kg ha-1 and hence in-row plant density in autumn and spring was higher at 48 compared with 12 cm; however, in all three cultivars the highest number of reproductive...... tillers was recorded at 12-cm row distance. Row distance affected seed yields of only the diploid amenity cultivar 'Allegro', where a row distance of 48 cm reduced the seed yield compared with 12- and 24-cm row distance. When data from the three cultivars were merged there was a positive correlation...... between the seed yield and seed weight (r=0.72***), whereas the correlation between seed yield and the number of reproductive tillers was negatively correlated (r= - 0.49***). This may reflect choice of cultivars in the experiment with the tetraploid forage cultivar 'Tivoli' having the lowest number of...

  2. Contribución al conocimiento de la biología y taxonomía de un hongo del género Phytium aislado del "aliso", Alnus acuminata HBK Contribución al conocimiento de la biología y taxonomía de un hongo del género Phytium aislado del "aliso", Alnus acuminata HBK

    Cabrera Orlando

    1990-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Se estudio la biología de un hongo aislado de la parte externa de nódulos de raíces de aliso (Alnus acumi"ata HB K, el cual presento un alto poder de germinación a bajas temperaturas (entre QOC y 4QC, condición que le confiere gran agresividad para colonizar el suelo, de tal forma que se constituye en un factor importante en la ecofisiología de las poblaciones de aliso que crecen en los bosques secundarios del sub-paramo. A partir de cultivos puros se hicieron estudios para su identificación.

    Some biological aspects of an isolated fungus of Alnus acuminata roots were studied. It bas been found Tbat between OOC and 4°C tbe fungi grows fast. This condition can result in a important factor in the ecophysiology of 'Aliso' populations, that grows in secondary forests at sub-paramo, After a review of the taxonomic literature, we placed it in the Phytium genus, but not in a particular described species. We assume that it is a new species. We modificated the microculture technique that was simpler and safer and them we made direct observations about tbe fungus growtb and development. As for now it is nominated as Phytiun near Mammillatum Meurs. Palabras Claves: Phytium, bongos, A/nus acuminata HBK., "Aliso".

  3. Qualidade de cultivares de alface produzidos em hidroponia Quality of lettuce cultivars grown in hydroponic solution

    Silvana Ohse; Durval Dourado-Neto; Paulo Augusto Manfron; Osmar Souza dos Santos

    2001-01-01

    O objetivo do presente trabalho foi determinar a composição centesimal de seis cultivares de alface (Aurora, Brisa, Lívia, Mimosa, Regina e Verônica) utilizando quatro soluções nutritivas em Santa Maria, RS. Foi utilizado o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado com parcelas subdivididas. O experimento constou de oito bancadas, duas para cada solução nutritiva, sendo que cada bancada continha seis canais, um para cada cultivar. O espaçamento utilizado foi 0,18 m entre canais e 0,2...

  4. UEL 7: nova cultivar de Dendrobium UEL 7: a new Dendrobium cultivar

    Ricardo Tadeu de Faria; Lúcia SA Takahashi; Alessandro B Lone; Cristiane M Barbosa; Alexandre Takahashi; Geraldo L da Silva

    2011-01-01

    UEL 7 é uma cultivar de Dendrobium nobile desenvolvida no Departamento de Agronomia da Universidade Estadual de Londrina resultante do cruzamento das plantas matrizes D3 x D8 e selecionada pela coloração das flores amarelas e com largura e comprimento semelhantes (7,0 cm), formando praticamente um círculo. As plantas foram polinizadas artificialmente, e as sementes semeadas em meio de cultura in vitro. A cultivar apresenta flores de coloração amarela, labelo com o centro marrom escuro e o pse...

  5. Photosynthetic Diurnal Variation of Soybean Cultivars with High Photosynthetic Efficiency

    MAN Wei-qun; DU Wei-guang; ZHANG Gui-ru; LUAN Xiao-yan; GE Qiao-ying; HAO Nai-bin; CHEN Yi

    2002-01-01

    The photosynthetic characters were investigated among soybean cultivars with high photosynthetic efficiency and high yield. The results indicated that: 1) There were significant differences in photosynthetic rate (Ph) and dark respiration rate (DR) under saturation light intensity and appropriate temperature.2) There were a little difference in light compensation point among them. Photo flux density (PFD) were mong the cultivars. Diurnal variation of Pn was shown a curve with two peaks. 4) The cultivars with high photosynthetic efficiency were subjected less to photoinhibition than that with high yield. Critical temperatures of photoinhibition in high photosynthetic efficiency cultivars were higher than that of high yield.

  6. Bioactivity of sour cherry cultivars grown in Denmark

    Khoo, Gaik Ming; Clausen, Morten Rahr; Pedersen, Bjarne Hjelmsted;

    2012-01-01

    proliferation inhibitory activity of sour cherries were closely correlated but not PGE2 production. The cultivars ‘BirgitteBöttermö’, ‘Fanal’ and ‘Tiki’ were the three cultivars with the highest ORAC values (180, 147 and 133mmol TE/g, respectively) and inhibition against Caco-2 cancer cell proliferation (74......%, 79% and 73%, respectively). ‘Stevnsbaer Birgitte’ (22%) and ‘Stevnsbaer Viki’ (22%) inhibited PGE2 production with a similar potency as the positive controls indomethacin and NS-398. Significant differences between cultivars in all bioactivity experiments indicated that selection of cultivars is...

  7. Soybean Cultivars Resistant and Susceptible to Heterodera glycines

    Riggs, R. D.; Rakes, L.; Elkins, R.

    1991-01-01

    Additional tests of 178 cultivars and lines of soybean against soybean cyst nematode are reported. Cultivars are available with some level of resistance to races 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, and 14, but in some cases the resistance level is moderate. No cultivar or line (except possibly PI 437654) has resistance to all of the races tested. Thirteen cultivars and lines, however, were resistant or moderately resistant to race 1, 14 to race 2, 87 to race 3, 2 to race 4, 3 to race 5, 42 to race 6, 18 to ...

  8. Genital Warts (Condyloma Acuminata)

    ... sexually active. HPV is spread through skin-to-skin contact and does not require actual intercourse to be passed from one person to another. A person can be infected without any visible signs of infection and, therefore, can pass the infection on without knowing it. Condoms can ...

  9. Transcripts and MicroRNAs Responding to Salt Stress in Musa acuminata Colla (AAA Group cv. Berangan Roots.

    Wan Sin Lee

    Full Text Available Physiological responses to stress are controlled by expression of a large number of genes, many of which are regulated by microRNAs. Since most banana cultivars are salt-sensitive, improved understanding of genetic regulation of salt induced stress responses in banana can support future crop management and improvement in the face of increasing soil salinity related to irrigation and climate change. In this study we focused on determining miRNA and their targets that respond to NaCl exposure and used transcriptome sequencing of RNA and small RNA from control and NaCl-treated banana roots to assemble a cultivar-specific reference transcriptome and identify orthologous and Musa-specific miRNA responding to salinity. We observed that, banana roots responded to salinity stress with changes in expression for a large number of genes (9.5% of 31,390 expressed unigenes and reduction in levels of many miRNA, including several novel miRNA and banana-specific miRNA-target pairs. Banana roots expressed a unique set of orthologous and Musa-specific miRNAs of which 59 respond to salt stress in a dose-dependent manner. Gene expression patterns of miRNA compared with those of their predicted mRNA targets indicated that a majority of the differentially expressed miRNAs were down-regulated in response to increased salinity, allowing increased expression of targets involved in diverse biological processes including stress signaling, stress defence, transport, cellular homeostasis, metabolism and other stress-related functions. This study may contribute to the understanding of gene regulation and abiotic stress response of roots and the high-throughput sequencing data sets generated may serve as important resources related to salt tolerance traits for functional genomic studies and genetic improvement in banana.

  10. Micronucleus technology of microspore mother cells of Ottelia acuminata for monitoring water pollution of Dianchi Lake%海菜花花粉母细胞微核技术监测滇池水质污染状况

    翟书华; 樊传章; 侯思名; 郭丽红; 王全坤

    2011-01-01

    以海菜花生长环境水(路南长湖水)处理作阴性对照,以滇池5个样点的水样处理作阳性对照,利用海菜花花粉母细胞微核技术监测评价滇池水质污染物致突变的情况,测定各采样点水样的海菜花花粉母细胞微核千分率及污染指数.结果表明:滇池5个样点的水样均使海菜花花粉母细胞微核千分率急剧增加,用海莱花水生植物建立的水体环境污染检验系统,可避免用陆生植物监测水体时因改变生长环境而造成的误差.%The micronucleus techniques of microspore mother cells of Ottelia acuminata was used to monitor the water pollution of Dianchi Lake when Ottelia acuminata was grown in the water samples of five sampling sites in the Dianchi lake. The micronucleus permillage and pollution index of the microspore mother cells of Ottelia acuminata in the water samples were determined. The results show that the water samples of the five sampling sites in the Dianchi Lake cause a sharp increase in the micronucleus of microspore mother cells of 0ttelia acuminate. The monitoring system of water environmental pollution established by Ottelia acuminata can avoid the error caused by the change of growth environment of land plants.

  11. LC-MS and GC-MS metabolite profiling of nickel(II) complexes in the latex of the nickel-hyperaccumulating tree Sebertia acuminata and identification of methylated aldaric acid as a new nickel(II) ligand

    Callahan, D. L.; Roessner, U.; Dumontet, V.; Perrier, Nicolas; Wedd, A. G.; O'HAIR, R A J; Baker, A. J. M.; Kolev, S. D.

    2008-01-01

    Targeted liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) technology using size exclusion chromatography and metabolite profiling based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used to study the nickel-rich latex of the hyperaccumulating tree Sebertia acuminata. More than 120 compounds were detected, 57 of these were subsequently identified. A methylated aldaric acid (2,4,5-trihydroxy-3-methoxy-1,6-hexan-dioic acid) was identified for the first time in biological extracts and its s...

  12. CULTIVAR RELEASE-BRS 217 Flora: Early-maturing soybean cultivar

    Plínio Itamar de Mello de Souza

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. cultivar BRS 217 Flora was developed by Embrapa and released forproduction in the states of Goiás, Minas Gerais, Bahia, Mato Grosso and the Distrito Federal, Brazil. It is resistant to stemcanker, frog-eye leaf spot, bacterial pustule, and partially resistant to powdery mildew.

  13. CULTIVAR RELEASE - FAEM Carlasul: new white oat cultivar with high grain yield

    Antônio Costa de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The white oat cultivar FAEM Carlasul was developed at the Plant Genomics and Breeding Center, Faculty of Agronomy Eliseu Maciel, Federal University of Pelotas, as a result of the cross between UFRGS 10 and 90SAT-28 (Coronado2/Cortez3/Pendek/ME 1563. It is characterized by high yield and grain quality.

  14. Adaptabilidade e estabilidade de cultivares de milho no Nordeste brasileiro Adaptability and stability of maize cultivars in Brazilian Northeast

    Hélio Wilson Lemos de Carvalho; Mílton José Cardoso; Maria de Lourdes da Silva Leal; Manoel Xavier dos Santos; José Nildo Tabosa; Evanildes Menezes de Souza

    2005-01-01

    Foram avaliadas quarenta e seis cultivares de milho em dois anos, em 11 locais do Nordeste brasileiro, no biênio 2001-2002, em blocos ao acaso, com três repetições, com o objetivo de avaliar a adaptabilidade e a estabilidade desses materiais, para fins de recomendação na região. As cultivares mostraram comportamento diferenciado entre si, na média dos ambientes. A magnitude da variância da interação cultivares x locais foi mais expressiva que a magnitude da variância da interação cultivares x...

  15. [Contrast sensitivity in glaucoma].

    Bartos, D

    1989-05-01

    Author reports on results of the contrast sensitivity examinations using the Cambridge low-contrast lattice test supplied by Clement Clarke International LTD, in patients with open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension. In glaucoma patients there was observed statistically significant decrease of the contrast sensitivity. In patients with ocular hypertension decrease of the contrast sensitivity was in patients affected by corresponding changes of the visual field and of the optical disc. The main advantages of the Cambridge low-contrast lattice test were simplicity, rapidity and precision of its performance. PMID:2743444

  16. Analysis of combining ability in soybean cultivars

    Dilermando Perecin; Antonio Orlando Di Mauro; Eduardo Antonio Gavioli

    2006-01-01

    Eight soybean cultivars (Doko, Bossier, Ocepar-4, BR-15, FT-Cometa, Savana, Paraná and Cristalina) werecrossed in a diallel design. Plants of the F1 generation and their parents were evaluated under short-day conditions for thedetermination of the general (GCA) and specific (SCA) combining ability. The estimated GCA and SCA values were significantfor the evaluated traits except for the “total cycle”. Highest GCA effects for the traits “days to flowering”, “plant height”,“insertion height”, “n...

  17. Yield and quality of strawberry cultivars Produtividade e qualidade de cultivares de morangueiro

    Luis Eduardo C Antunes

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The strawberry cultivation is an important economic activity in the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, however the number of offered cultivars to the growers is reduced. The yield and quality of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch. cultivars Camarosa, Galexia, Earlibrite, Festival, Plarionfre and Sabrosa was evaluated under the climatic conditions of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State. We determined the number, mass, total soluble solids (TSS ºBrix, total titratable acidity (TTA, antocianin level and fresh fruits produced in an experimental unit. We also determined the production of fruits per hectare and per plant. The statistical design used in the experiment was of completely randomized blocks with 6 treatments (cultivars and 4 replicates where the experimental unit was composed of 8 plants. The harvest began in the first half of August, extending to the second half of December, totalling 20 weeks. Plarionfre, Earlibrite and Festival cultivars showed higher production from the first half of October until the end of the first half of November. Camarosa reached higher productivity, mass of plants and fruit weight. There were no differences between the evaluated cultivars in the levels of TSS, antocianin, ATT and pH during the period of evaluation.No estado do Rio Grande do Sul o cultivo do morangueiro é uma atividade econômica importante, entretanto o número de cultivares disponíveis no mercado é bastante reduzido. Assim buscou-se com este trabalho avaliar a produtividade e a qualidade dos frutos de cultivares de morangueiro (Fragaria x ananassa Duch., Camarosa, Galexia, Earlibrite, Festival, Plarionfre e Sabrosa, cultivados nas condições climáticas e de solo do município de Pelotas, RS. Determinaram-se, o número, massa fresca e teor de sólidos solúveis totais (SST (expresso em ºBrix, acidez total titulável (ATT (expresso em % de ácido cítrico e teor de antocianinas, dos frutos produzidos por unidade experimental. Determinou

  18. Contrast induced nephropathy

    Stacul, Fulvio; van der Molen, Aart J; Reimer, Peter;

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: The Contrast Media Safety Committee (CMSC) of the European Society of Urogenital Radiology (ESUR) has updated its 1999 guidelines on contrast medium-induced nephropathy (CIN). AREAS COVERED: Topics reviewed include the definition of CIN, the choice of contrast medium, the prophylactic...... measures used to reduce the incidence of CIN, and the management of patients receiving metformin. Key Points • Definition, risk factors and prevention of contrast medium induced nephropathy are reviewed. • CIN risk is lower with intravenous than intra-arterial iodinated contrast medium. • eGFR of 45 ml....../min/1.73 m (2) is CIN risk threshold for intravenous contrast medium. • Hydration with either saline or sodium bicarbonate reduces CIN incidence. • Patients with eGFR ≥ 60 ml/min/1.73 m (2) receiving contrast medium can continue metformin normally....

  19. Contrast induced nephropathy

    Stacul, Fulvio; van der Molen, Aart J; Reimer, Peter;

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: The Contrast Media Safety Committee (CMSC) of the European Society of Urogenital Radiology (ESUR) has updated its 1999 guidelines on contrast medium-induced nephropathy (CIN). AREAS COVERED: Topics reviewed include the definition of CIN, the choice of contrast medium, the prophylactic...... measures used to reduce the incidence of CIN, and the management of patients receiving metformin. Key Points • Definition, risk factors and prevention of contrast medium induced nephropathy are reviewed. • CIN risk is lower with intravenous than intra-arterial iodinated contrast medium. • eGFR of 45 ml....../min/1.73 m (2) is CIN risk threshold for intravenous contrast medium. • Hydration with either saline or sodium bicarbonate reduces CIN incidence. • Patients with eGFR = 60 ml/min/1.73 m (2) receiving contrast medium can continue metformin normally....

  20. Differentially Expressed Genes between Two Barley Cultivars Contrasting in Drought Tolerance

    P.G. Guo; M. Baum; R.H. Li; S. Grando; R.K. Varshney; J. Valkoun; S. Ceccarelli; A. Grane

    2007-01-01

    @@ Drought tolerance is a key trait for increasing and stabilizing barley productivity in dry areas. A number of genes have been described that respond to drought at the transcriptional level (Seki et al., 2002; Cheong et al.,2003).

  1. Don't camp beside the river: structure and dynamics of Andean alder (Alnus acuminata forests affected by river floods, northwestern Argentina No acampe junto al río: estructura y dinámica de bosques de aliso (Alnus acuminata del noroeste argentino afectados por crecientes de río

    TOMÁS A EASDALE

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Alnus acuminata (Betulaceae is a pioneer tree that dominates mountain riparian forests throughout the eastern Andes. Early studies associated these forests with particular microclimatic conditions along river beds, but they were later linked to the periodical disturbance regime of mountain rivers. To understand the dynamics of these forests, we analysed tree age and spatial arrangement in two plots along Potrero river and another plot along La Horqueta river, Tucumán Province, north west Argentina. Through intensive tree coring and age reconstruction we identified similar-aged tree cohorts with maximum age ranges of eight years. Tree mapping and Moran's I spatial autocorrelation analysis showed that tree cohorts were spatially clumped, and provided further evidence that coetaneous patches of A. acuminata arise from massive regeneration following catastrophic flooding events. We tested the association between cohort initiation dates and regional maximum river discharge records by means of a randomization procedure and found weak evidence that establishment occurs after devastating floods, which eliminate previous vegetation and create bare sites suitable for A. acuminata regeneration. Dates of tree floodscars sampled along Potrero river precede by one year the most recent cohort initiation date and provide further support of this association. Although previous studies found a positive correlation between El Niño events and mean annual precipitation in northwestern Argentina, we did not detect an association between El Niño and annual maximum stream flow for rivers in Tucumán Province. Therefore, factors driving devastating floods and A. acuminata stand initiation require further studyEl aliso (Alnus acuminata, Betulaceae es un árbol pionero que domina bosques riparios de montaña en los Andes orientales. Estudios iniciales atribuyeron la presencia de estos bosques a las típicas condiciones microclimáticas de cauces de ríos, pero luego

  2. Mutant cultivars of legumes in Poland

    Mutation breeding has played an important role in the improvement of legume cultivars. It is assumed that artificial induction of variability will also be indispensable in the future - for realizing desired ideotypes. This should be true for the pea (one species and three types of usage; discontinuous variation), as well as for the lupin (several species adapted to different soil requirements, a domestication that is not well advanced and about 35-45% protein in the dry seeds). Twelve pea and four broad bean varieties have so far been registered in Poland. Most of the pea varieties have the mutant gene afila, which plays a role in improving one of the most important characters, resistance to lodging. A number of other improved pea varieties resulted from the recombination of mutant genes in crosses with another cultivar. At present, the advanced breeding material of three lupin species and of Phaseolus coccineus are based on mutagen induced variability. The introduction of mutant characters such as self-completing, earliness or a short/stiff stem can easily increase the range of cultivation of these species, both areawise and with regard to marketing. (author). 7 refs, 3 tabs

  3. Yield and combining ability of maize cultivars under different ecogeographic conditions

    Adilson Deitos; Emmanuel Arnhold; Freddy Mora; Glauco Vieira Miranda

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the yield and combining ability of maize cultivars (AG4051, AL30,AL25, D270, D170, and AG1051) in contrasting environments. The trials were conducted in the growing season 2002/2003,in Viçosa, Capinópolis and Florestal, state of Minas Gerais. The effects of hybrids were significant by the F test, as well astreatments x environments, hybrid combinations x environments, and controls x environments. This indicates the possibilityof increasing the yield...

  4. Effect of cultivar and year on phyllochron in winter barley

    Pržulj Novo M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Development and growth of leaves in cereals significantly affects grain yield since dry matter accumulation depends on the leaf area that intercepts light. Phyllochron (PHY is defined as time interval between the emergences of successive leaves on the main stem. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of year and cultivar on phyllochron in winter barley. Twelve cultivars of winter barley differing in origin and time of anthesis were tested during six growing seasons (GS, from 2002/03 to 2007/08. The highest PHY across GSs was determined in the two-rowed cultivar Cordoba (81.6°Cd and the lowest in the two-rowed cultivar Novosadski 581 (71.0°Cd. The early cultivars had fast leaf development, the medium cultivars medium and the late cultivars slow development, 72.5°Cd, 75.6°Cd and 78.9°Cd, respectively. The tested cultivars showed significant variability in the PHY, which can be used for selecting most adaptable genotypes for specific growing conditions.

  5. New Kiwifruit Cultivar Carves a Firm Niche in European Market

    2004-01-01

    @@ While enhancing the world kiwifruit production by developing new cultivars,CAS researchers are gaining a firm foothold in international kiwifruit market as they prolong their control over the propagation rights of a recently developed novel yellowfleshed cultivar, Jin Tao, in European countries.

  6. Distinguishing nonpareil marketing group almond cultivars through multivariate analyses

    More than 80% of the world’s almonds are grown in California with several dozen almond cultivars available commercially. To facilitate promotion and sale, almond cultivars are categorized into marketing groups based on kernel shape and appearance. Several marketing groups are recognized, with the ...

  7. Heterotic effects in topcrosses of modern and obsolete cotton cultivars

    Historically, re-selection, pedigree, and mass selection breeding methods have been used to develop open-pollinated cultivars of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). As a result, modern cotton cultivars should have accumulated additive genetic effects over time, while also possessing fewer non-additive g...

  8. Does boron affect hormone levels of barley cultivars?

    Muavviz Ayvaz

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: When mineral nutrients are present in excess or in inadequate amounts, their effects can be severe in plants and can be considered as abiotic stress. In this study, we report how hormonal levels in barley cultivars respond to the toxic effect of boron, an essential plant micronutrient. Material and methods: Two different barley (Hordeum vulgare cultivars (Vamik Hoca and Efes 98 were used as a study material. Boron was applied in three different concentrations (0, 10, 20 ppm to plants that had grown from seeds for four weeks. Plants were harvested, stem-root length and stem-root dry-fresh weight content were determined. For further analysis, chlorophyll, total protein, endogenic IAA and ABA content analyses were carried out. Results: According to the data obtained, plant growth and development decreased with increasing boron concentrations. With increasing boron concentrations, soluble total protein increased in both cultivars. Boron application led to increased endogenic IAA content in both cultivars. 10 and 20 ppm boron application led to increased endogenic ABA content in Vamik Hoca cultivar whereas endogenic ABA content decreased in Efes 98. Absence of boron application led to increased endogenic IAA and ABA content in both cultivars. Conclusion: As a result, the response to boron is different in the two cultivars and Efes 98 may be more resistant to the toxicity than Vamik Hoca cultivar.

  9. Introgression Between Cultivars and Wild Populations of Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae in Taiwan

    Yu-Chung Chiang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The landrace strains of Momordica charantia are widely cultivated vegetables throughout the tropics and subtropics, but not in Taiwan, a continental island in Southeast Asia, until a few hundred years ago. In contrast, the related wild populations with smaller fruit sizes are native to Taiwan. Because of the introduction of cultivars for agricultural purposes, these two accessions currently exhibit a sympatric or parapatric distribution in Taiwan. In this study, the cultivars and wild samples from Taiwan, India, and Korea were collected for testing of their hybridization and evolutionary patterns. The cpDNA marker showed a clear distinction between accessions of cultivars and wild populations of Taiwan and a long divergence time. In contrast, an analysis of eight selectively neutral nuclear microsatellite loci did not reveal a difference between the genetic structures of these two accessions. A relatively short divergence time and frequent but asymmetric gene flows were estimated based on the isolation-with-migration model. Historical and current introgression from cultivars to wild populations of Taiwan was also inferred using MIGRATE-n and BayesAss analyses. Our results showed that these two accessions shared abundant common ancestral polymorphisms, and the timing of the divergence and colonization of the Taiwanese wild populations is consistent with the geohistory of the Taiwan Strait land bridge of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM. Long-term and recurrent introgression between accessions indicated the asymmetric capacity to receive foreign genes from other accessions. The modern introduction of cultivars of M. charantia during the colonization of Taiwan by the Han Chinese ethnic group enhanced the rate of gene replacement in the native populations and resulted in the loss of native genes.

  10. Compositional changes in cell wall polysaccharides from five sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars during on-tree ripening.

    Basanta, María F; Ponce, Nora M A; Salum, María L; Raffo, María D; Vicente, Ariel R; Erra-Balsells, Rosa; Stortz, Carlos A

    2014-12-24

    Excessive softening is a major cause of postharvest deterioration during transportation and storage of fresh cherries. In continuing our studies to identify the factors determining the textural differences between sweet cherry fruit genotypes, we evaluated the solubilization, depolymerization, and monosaccharide composition of pectin and hemicelluloses from five sweet cherry cultivars ('Chelan', 'Sumele', 'Brooks', 'Sunburst', and 'Regina') with contrasting firmness and cracking susceptibility at two developmental stages (immature and ripe). In contrast to what is usually shown in most fruits, cherry softening could occur is some cultivars without marked increases in water-soluble pectin. Although polyuronide and hemicellulose depolymerization was observed in the water-soluble and dilute-alkali-soluble fractions, only moderate association occurs between initial polymer size and cultivar firmness. In all the genotypes the Na2CO3-soluble polysaccharides (NSF) represented the most abundant and dynamic wall fraction during ripening. Firm cultivars showed upon ripening a lower neutral sugars/uronic acid ratio in the NSF, suggesting that they have a lower proportion of highly branched polyuronides. The similar molar ratios of arabinose plus galactose to rhamnose [(Ara+Gal)/Rha] suggest that the cultivars differed in their relative proportion of homogalacturonan (HG) and rhamnogalacturonan I (RG-I) rather than in the size of the RG side chains; with greater proportions of HG in firmer cherries. Ultraviolet matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry was useful to identify the depolymerization patterns of weakly bound pectins, but gave less accurate results on ionically bound pectins, and was unable to find any pattern on covalently bound pectins. PMID:25434844

  11. Esterase polymorphism marking cultivars of Manihot esculenta, Crantz

    Adriana Gazoli Resende

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Esterase isozymes were used to detected substrate-preference polymorphism in twenty cultivars of Manihot esculenta, and to show cultivar-specific variation of this species. A relatively complex extraction solution of proteins from leaves was needed to show a larger number of esterase isozymes. Similarity between cultivars from six groups ranged from 51 to 96%. The cultivars identified by the same name seemed to be biochemically different regarding esterase isozymes. Esterase isozyme electrophoretic patterns could, therefore, be used to discriminate the cultivars identified by the same name, and to monitor the vegetative propagation of cultivars maintained in the germplasm collection. In breeding strategies, isoesterase analysis could be used to avoid intercrossing between the similar genotypes.Isoenzimas esterases foram usadas no presente estudo, para detectar polimorfismos específicos para diferentes substratos em vinte cultivares de Manihot esculenta, e para mostrar variações específicas de cultivares nesta espécie. Os diferentes cultivares de M. esculenta tem sido mantidos na coleção de germoplasma do Departamento de Agronomia da Universidade Estadual de Maringá (Maringá, PR, e foram provenientes de cultivares tradicionais coletados nas regiões sudoeste e noroeste do Estado. Foi necessário a utilização de uma solução de extração de proteínas relativamente mais complexa, para evidenciar um maior número de isoenzimas esterases. A similaridade entre os cultivares variou de 51 a 96%. Cultivares identificados pelo mesmo nome parecem ser bioquimicamente diferentes para as isoenzimas esterases. Os padrões eletroforéticos das isoesterases podem, portanto, serem usados para discriminar os cultivares que são identificados pelo mesmo nome, e para monitorar a propagação vegetativa dos cultivares mantidos na coleção de germoplasma. A análise das isoesterases pode também ser usada para evitar cruzamentos entre genótipos mais

  12. Variation of bioactive compounds content of 14 oriental strawberry cultivars.

    Kim, Sung Kyeom; Kim, Dong Sub; Kim, Dae Young; Chun, Changhoo

    2015-10-01

    Variation in bioactive compounds content was assessed in antioxidant rich June-bearing strawberry cultivars. Ascorbic acid, anthocyanin, and ellagic acid content were analyzed in ripe fruits of 14 cultivars. The bioactive content in strawberry fruit was found to vary significantly among cultivars and from year to year. The highest ascorbic acid content was found in 'Sugyeong'. The 'Red Pearl' and 'Sachinoka' had three to fourfold higher amounts of pelargonidin 3-glucoside than other cultivars. For cyanidin 3-glucoide and pelargonidin 3-rutinoside, two other characterized anthocyanins, 'Dahong' and 'Keumhyang' had the highest contents among all the tested cultivars. The ellagic acid content of 'Dahong' was generally all within the upper ranges. These results can be used for the validation of fruit antioxidant capacity and in addition, provide useful information for breeding programs looking to enhance the antioxidant capacity in strawberry fruit. PMID:25872444

  13. Capsaicin Content and Pungency of Different Capsicum spp. Cultivars

    K. SANATOMBI

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Six chilli cultivars belonging to three species of Capsicum: Capsicum annuum L. (cvs 'Meiteimorok' and 'Haomorok', Capsicum frutescens L. (cvs 'Uchithi' and 'Mashingkha' and Capsicum chinense Jacq. (cvs 'Umorok' and 'Chiengpi' are economically important food crops. The capsaicin content and pungency in scoville heat unit (SHU of these six chilli cultivars were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The capsaicin content and pungency of the chillies varied depending upon the genotype. Among the six chilli cultivars studied, the cultivar 'Umorok' had the highest capsaicin content (2.06%, and was also the most pungent of with 329.100 SHU while the cultivar 'Haomorok' had the least capsaicin content (0.17% with a corresponding pungency of 26.000 SHU.

  14. Comparison between four blackberry (Rubus sp.) cultivars to light variation

    Abstract: This paper compares four Colombian blackberry cultivars- (Rubus sp.) light compensation points, leaf area, chlorophyll concentration and photosynthetic capacity. Time can be saved and efficiency improved by adapting different cultivars to differing luminosity once these parameters have been determined and established. The four cultivars involved were -Guarne-, -San Antonio-, -Sara 3- and -Pacho 2- forming part of Corpoica-s blackberry collection at the Sena farm in Manizales. The results revealed that all four cultivars had different light compensation points. They also showed that net photosynthesis varied amongst cultivars, even when grown in the same environmental conditions and that total chlorophyll and leaf area may be used as indicators of response to the conditions being evaluated. Key words: Photosynthesis, leaf area, radiation, compensation point, photons flow density (PFD), chlorophyll

  15. Phase contrast image synthesis

    Glückstad, J.

    1996-01-01

    A new method is presented for synthesizing arbitrary intensity patterns based on phase contrast imaging. The concept is grounded on an extension of the Zernike phase contrast method into the domain of full range [0; 2 pi] phase modulation. By controlling the average value of the input phase...... function and by choosing appropriate phase retardation at the phase contrast filter, a pure phase to intensity imaging is accomplished. The method presented is also directly applicable in dark field image synthesis....

  16. Compressive Phase Contrast Tomography

    Maia, Filipe

    2010-01-01

    When x-rays penetrate soft matter, their phase changes more rapidly than their amplitude. Interference effects visible with high brightness sources creates higher contrast, edge enhanced images. When the object is piecewise smooth (made of big blocks of a few components), such higher contrast datasets have a sparse solution. We apply basis pursuit solvers to improve SNR, remove ring artifacts, reduce the number of views and radiation dose from phase contrast datasets collected at the Hard X-R...

  17. Phase contrast image synthesis

    Glückstad, J.

    A new method is presented for synthesizing arbitrary intensity patterns based on phase contrast imaging. The concept is grounded on an extension of the Zernike phase contrast method into the domain of full range [0; 2 pi] phase modulation. By controlling the average value of the input phase funct...... function and by choosing appropriate phase retardation at the phase contrast filter, a pure phase to intensity imaging is accomplished. The method presented is also directly applicable in dark field image synthesis....

  18. Dialysis and contrast media

    In a previous survey we revealed uncertainty among responders about (a) whether or not to perform hemodialysis in patients with severely reduced renal function who had received contrast medium; and (b) when to perform hemodialysis in patients on regular treatment with hemodialysis or continuous ambulatory dialysis who received contrast medium. Therefore, the Contrast Media Safety Committee of The European Society of Urogenital Radiology decided to review the literature and to issue guidelines. The committee performed a Medline search. Based on this, a report and guidelines were prepared. The report was discussed at the Ninth European Symposium on Urogenital Radiology in Genoa, Italy. Hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis safely remove both iodinated and gadolinium-based contrast media. The effectiveness of hemodialysis depends on many factors including blood and dialysate flow rate, permeability of dialysis membrane, duration of hemodialysis and molecular size, protein binding, hydrophilicity, and electrical charge of the contrast medium. Generally, several hemodialysis sessions are needed to removal all contrast medium, whereas it takes 3 weeks for continuous ambulatory dialysis to remove the agent completely. There is no need to schedule the dialysis in relation to the injection of iodinated or MR contrast media or the injection of contrast agent in relation to the dialysis program. Hemodialysis does not protect poorly functioning kidneys against contrast-medium-induced nephrotoxicity. Simple guidelines are given. (orig.)

  19. Dialysis and contrast media

    Morcos, Sameh K. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Northern General Hospital, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Sheffield S5 7AU (United Kingdom); Thomsen, Henrik S. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology 54E2, Copenhagen University Hospital at Herlev, Herlev Ringvej 75, 2730 Herlev (Denmark); Webb, Judith A.W. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, St Bartholomew' s Hospital, London EC1A 7BE (United Kingdom)

    2002-12-01

    In a previous survey we revealed uncertainty among responders about (a) whether or not to perform hemodialysis in patients with severely reduced renal function who had received contrast medium; and (b) when to perform hemodialysis in patients on regular treatment with hemodialysis or continuous ambulatory dialysis who received contrast medium. Therefore, the Contrast Media Safety Committee of The European Society of Urogenital Radiology decided to review the literature and to issue guidelines. The committee performed a Medline search. Based on this, a report and guidelines were prepared. The report was discussed at the Ninth European Symposium on Urogenital Radiology in Genoa, Italy. Hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis safely remove both iodinated and gadolinium-based contrast media. The effectiveness of hemodialysis depends on many factors including blood and dialysate flow rate, permeability of dialysis membrane, duration of hemodialysis and molecular size, protein binding, hydrophilicity, and electrical charge of the contrast medium. Generally, several hemodialysis sessions are needed to removal all contrast medium, whereas it takes 3 weeks for continuous ambulatory dialysis to remove the agent completely. There is no need to schedule the dialysis in relation to the injection of iodinated or MR contrast media or the injection of contrast agent in relation to the dialysis program. Hemodialysis does not protect poorly functioning kidneys against contrast-medium-induced nephrotoxicity. Simple guidelines are given. (orig.)

  20. Sensory profile of eleven peach cultivars Perfil sensorial de onze cultivares de pêssegos

    Francine Lorena Cuquel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to evaluate the sensory profile of eleven peach cultivars grown in an experimental orchard located in the city of Lapa (PR, Brazil in two seasons. The peach cultivars analyzed were Aurora I, Chimarrita, Chiripá, Coral, Eldorado, Granada, Leonense, Maciel, Marli, Premier, and Vanguarda. The sensory analysis was performed by previously trained panelists; 20 of them in the first season and 10 in the second season. The sensory evaluation was performed using Quantitative Descriptive Analysis, in which the following attributes were measured: appearance, aroma, flesh color, flesh firmness, flavor, and juiciness. The results showed preference for sweet, soft, and juicy fruits. Chimarrita, Chiripá, and Coral fruits showed better sensorial performance than the other peach cultivars. It was also verified that the analysis of the attributes aroma, flesh firmness, and flavor is enough for performing the sensory profile of peach fruits for in natura consumption.Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o perfil sensorial de onze cultivares de pêssego produzidos em duas safras em um pomar experimental implantado na Lapa (PR, Brasil. Os cultivares analisados foram Aurora I, Chimarrita, Chiripá, Coral, Eldorado, Granada, Leonense, Maciel, Marli, Premier e Vanguarda. As análises sensoriais foram realizadas por julgadores previamente treinados, sendo 20 julgadores na primeira safra e 10 na segunda. O método de avaliação empregado foi a Análise Descritiva Quantitativa na qual foram mensurados os atributos aparência, aroma, cor de polpa, firmeza de polpa, sabor e suculência dos frutos. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram a preferência por frutos de sabor adocicado, com polpa macia e suculenta. Os cultivares Chimarrita, Chiripá e Coral obtiveram o melhor desempenho nas análises sensoriais. Foi verificado ainda que os atributos aroma, firmeza de polpa e sabor são considerados suficientes para a avaliação do perfil sensorial de

  1. Performance of different tomato cultivars under organic and inorganic regimes

    To study the performance of different tomato cultivars under organic and inorganic regimes an experiment was conducted at New Developmental Farm, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar, Pakistan during the summer 2013-14. The experiment was laid out in RCBD with split plot arrangement having four replications. Organic regimes (FYM, poultry manure and mushroom compost) and inorganic (NPK) regimes were allotted to main plot, while cultivars (Roma VF, Roma, Super Classic, Bambino and Rio Grande) were subjected to sub plots. Organic and Inorganic regimes significantly (P ≤ 0.01) influenced all the studied attributes of tomato cultivars. Among different cultivars, Roma gave maximum plant survival (93.8 percentage), number of leaves plant (84.1), number of flower inflorescence (5.4), number of fruits inflorescence (4.3), number of fruit plant (25.4), fruit size (63.9 cm) fruit weight plant (9.1 kg) and total yield (22.9 t ha). However, it was closely followed by cultivar Rio Grande for number of leaves plant (79.6), number of flower inflorescence (5.1), number of fruits inflorescence (4.0) and number of fruits plant (24.9). Cultivar Super Classic produced minimum number of leaves plant (67.7), flower inflorescence (4.8), fruit size (60.6 cm), fruit weight plant (8.6 kg) and total yield (21.7 t ha). Similarly, highest plant survival (90.0 percentage), number of flower inflorescence (5.1), number of fruits inflorescence (4.0), number of fruit plant (25.4), fruit size (62.4 ml), fruit weight plant (8.90 kg) and total yield (22.9 t ha) were recorded in plants provided with organic conditions Roma cultivar performed better than other cultivars under the agro climatic condition of Peshawar followed by cultivar Rio Grande. Therefore, organic tomato production, and these two cultivars are recommended to be grown in Peshawar area. (author)

  2. ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIMUTAGENIC ACTIVITIES OF TAIF GRAPE (VITIS VINIFERA CULTIVARS

    Abdelmegid Ibrahim Fahmi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Extract of grape Vitis vinifera has been reported to exhibit antioxidant and antimutagenic activities and the phenolic compounds play a vital role in determining these activities. Therefore; the objective of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-mutagenic activities as well as the phenolic composition of different grape cultivar extracts collected from Taif region. The grape cultivars namely; Italian, American, Lebanese, Taifyb and Taifye were collected at maturity stage to represent Taif region cultivars. The total concentrations of phenoles were determined for the five cultivar extracts and results indicated that the concentrations ranged from 115-960 mg L-1 Gallic Acid Equivalent (GAE. Also, HPLC analysis included was carried out of nine important phenolic compounds namely; Cyanidine chloride, Myricetin, Chrysin, Quercetin, Delphinidine chloride, Malvidine chloride, Naringenin, Galangin and Caffeic acid. Significant differences among cultivars were obtained for each compound. However, the highest cultivar for each compound differed from compound to another. At the same time, DPPH was used to estimate antioxidant activity and the data showed that different grape cultivar extracts were able to quench 47-60% of DPPH radical solution and to exhibited potent radical scavenging activity. Also, antimutagenic activity was measured as a decrease of chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells of mice treated with the mutagen Endoxan. Results showed that treatment of mice with grape cultivar extracts resulted in a significant decrease in all types of chromosomal aberrations induced by Endoxan. Also, the anticlastogenic effect was measured using micronulei test and results indicated that all grape cultivar extracts reduced significantly the effect of Endoxan on micronulei test. Finally, treatment of mice with grape cultivar extracts enhanced mitotic index of mice bone marrow cells reduced by Endoxan treatment. The relationship

  3. Toward Critical Contrastive Rhetoric

    Kubota, Ryuko; Lehner, Al

    2004-01-01

    A traditional approach to contrastive rhetoric has emphasized cultural difference in rhetorical patterns among various languages. Despite its laudable pedagogical intentions to raise teachers' and students' cultural and rhetorical awareness in second language writing, traditional contrastive rhetoric has perpetuated static binaries between English…

  4. Effects of solar UVB radiation on growth, flowering and yield of central and southern European maize cultivars (Zea mays L.)

    Different cultivars of maize (Zea mays L.) originating from Central and South Europe were grown from June to September 1994 for 16 weeks in two greenhouses covered with different UVB-absorbing (280-320 nm) plastic foils. Using the ambient UVB radiation level of a southern location (Portugal, 38.7oN) in one of the greenhouses as an enhanced radiation compared to the reduced radiation in the second greenhouse, an increase of about 12% of UVB was simulated. Six of the eight cultivars examined showed significant reductions in height of up to 18.9% at all developmental stages under increased UVB. In contrast to this, the fresh and dry weight as well as the leaf area was reduced under UVB only at early developmental stages, but with ongoing development the UVB stressed plants caught up. The total content of absorbing compounds of the maize cultivars was completely unaffected by UVB. A flowering delay up to a maximum of 5 days was observed under higher UVB in several cultivars. Probably due to this delay in the cob development the yield decreased to 27.7% under higher UVB at the first harvest after 12 and 14 weeks, whereas at the second harvest after 14 and 16 weeks yield reduction levelled off. (Author)

  5. Initial growth and yield structure of selected cultivars of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait. cultivated on mineral soils

    Szwonek Eugeniusz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to evaluate the possibility of cranberry cultivation on mineral soils and to assess the influence of vegetative biomass development, generative growth and yield components on the yielding of three cranberry cultivars originating in the USA (Stevens, Pilgrim and Ben Lear at two locations in Poland. The key biometrical traits involved in yield formation were taken into account, and the soil and plant chemical conditions were evaluated. All of the measured biometrical characteristics were strongly influenced by the location and the year of cultivation, and varietal differences were also noted. The most important determinants that explained yield variation were: the number of uprights per square meter, floral induction and berry set. However, the participation of each component in yield variation was strongly affected by the location, age of plantation and to a minor extent by the cultivar. The study confirmed the possibility of cranberry cultivation on mineral soils with a low pH. The biggest average yield of the three years was collected from cv. Stevens as cultivated on sandy soil in contrast to the same cultivar grown on sandy loam soil. In the case of sandy loam soil after acidification, cv. Pilgrim appeared to be a relatively better yielding cultivar.

  6. Translocation analysis and safety assessment in two water spinach cultivars with distinctive shoot Cd and Pb concentrations.

    Huang, Baifei; Xin, Junliang; Dai, Hongwen; Liu, Aiqun; Zhou, Wenjing; Liao, Kebing

    2014-10-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the translocation of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) and assess the safety of edible parts in two cultivars of water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.) contrasting in shoot Cd and Pb concentrations. A low-Cd-Pb cultivar (QLQ) and a high-Cd-Pb cultivar (T308) were grown in five soils with different concentrations of Cd and Pb. The results showed that QLQ had lower Cd and Pb concentrations in stems and leaves and higher root Cd concentration than T308 did. Root Pb concentration of T308 dramatically increased with increasing soil Pb concentration and was higher than that of QLQ in the highest Pb treatment. The root-to-stem Cd translocation ability in T308 was 2.3-3.0-fold higher than that in QLQ. Nevertheless, there was no significant difference in root-to-stem Pb translocation between QLQ and T308. The bioconcentration factors (BCFs) for Cd and Pb in the two cultivars remained stable in different Cd or Pb treatments, which were attributable to the homeostatic control mechanisms of Cd and Pb in water spinach. PMID:25028323

  7. Compatibilidade de enxertia de cultivares de marmeleiros com pereiras Compatibility of pear cultivars on quinces rootstocks

    Zeni Fonseca Pinto Tomaz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A insuficiência de estudos sobre compatibilidade de porta-enxertos é um dos fatores limitantes ao desenvolvimento da cultura da pereira (Pyrus sp. no Brasil. A utilização do marmeleiro (Cydonia oblonga como porta-enxerto para a cultura da pereira apresenta inúmeras vantagens, entre as quais a redução do vigor e a rápida entrada em produção; todavia, sua combinação com algumas cultivares copa apresenta problemas de incompatibilidade de enxertia, podendo ocasionar a ruptura do caule das plantas no pomar. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar a compatibilidade de enxertia de algumas cultivares de marmeleiros ('Quince C' e 'Adams' com pereiras ('Packham's Triumph' e 'Kieffer'. As variáveis analisadas foram: diâmetro da secção do tronco no ponto de enxertia, 5 cm abaixo e 5 cm acima do ponto de enxertia, diferença do diâmetro entre porta-enxerto e copa, altura das plantas, volume e massa seca da copa e raízes. Além disso, efetuou-se a observação da conexão vascular no ponto de enxertia através da imersão da base das plantas (abaixo do ponto de enxertia, em solução corante de Ácido Fuccínico 0,08%. Concluiu-se que a cultivar 'Packham's Triumph'apresenta compatibilidade de enxertia com o marmeleiro cultivares 'Adams'e 'Quince C', enquanto o híbrido 'Kieffer' apresentou sintomas morfológicos de incompatibilidade de enxertia com o marmeleiro cultivares 'Quince C' e 'Adams'.The lack of studies on compatibility of pear cultivars and rootstocks is one of the limiting factors on the development of the pear crop in Brazil. The use of quinces as rootstocks for pear cultivars has several advantages, among them the reduction in vigor and earlier bearing trees, however, its combination with some scions cultivars results in problems of incompatibility , such as lost of trees of the orchard due to break of the graft union. The objective of this study was to determine the compatibility between pears cvs. Packham's Triumph and Kieffer

  8. Adaptability and stability of sweet sorghum cultivars

    Vander Fillipe de Souza

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the phenotypic stability and adaptability of 25 sweet sorghum cultivars of EmbrapaMaize and Sorghum. The experiments were conducted in five Brazilian environments, three in the state of Minas Gerais, and theothers in Sinop, Mato Grosso and Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul. Fresh biomass yield (FBY, and total soluble solids (TSS of the juicewere evaluated in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Analysis of variance showed significant genotype byenvironment interaction for both traits. According to the Annicchiarico methodology analysis, genotypes CMSXS634, BRS506, andCMSXS646 were the most stable and adapted for FBY and TSS concomitantly; CMSXS634 being more adapted to favorable environmentsand CMSXS646 being more adapted to unfavorable environments.

  9. DELIGNIFICATION OF SWITCHGRASS CULTIVARS FOR BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION

    Jiele Xu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Three switchgrass cultivars (‘Performer’, ‘BoMaster’, and ‘Colony’ switchgrass were delignified using NaOH at varying concentrations and residence times at 121 oC for improved sugar production in enzymatic hydrolysis. Because of its greater carbohydrate/lignin ratio and the more substantial lignin reduction upon alkaline attack, ‘Performer’ switchgrass gave greater sugar productions under all the pretreatment conditions investigated. Maximum sugar production from ‘Performer’ was 425 mg/g raw biomass, which was achieved at 1% NaOH and 0.5 h. Sugar production increased with the improvement of delignification until the lignin reduction reached 30%. The more severe pretreatment conditions, which led to greater lignin reductions, did not favor the increase of sugar production because of greater solid losses. Linear models were proven effective in correlating a modified severity parameter log(Mo to lignin reduction and sugar production of ‘Performer’ switchgrass.

  10. Banana cultivars, cultivation practices, and physicochemical properties.

    Arvanitoyannis, I S; Mavromatis, A

    2009-02-01

    The physicochemical (pH, texture, Vitamin C, ash, fat, minerals) and sensory properties of banana were correlated with the genotype and growing conditions. Minerals in particular were shown to discriminate banana cultivars of different geographical origin quite accurately. Another issue relates to the beneficial properties of bananas both in terms of the high dietary fiber and antioxidant compounds, the latter being abundant in the peel. Therefore, banana can be further exploited for extracting several important components such as starch, and antioxidant compounds which can find industrial and pharmaceutical applications. Finally, the various storage methodologies were presented with an emphasis on Modified Atmosphere Packaging which appears to be one of the most promising of technologies. PMID:18989831

  11. Generalized phase contrast:

    Glückstad, Jesper; Palima, Darwin

    (GPC) method including an overview of the range of current and potential applications of GPC in wavefront sensing and phase imaging, structured laser illumination and image projection, optical trapping and manipulation, and optical encryption and decryption. The GPC method goes further than the......Generalized Phase Contrast elevates the phase contrast technique not only to improve phase imaging but also to cross over and interface with diverse and seemingly disparate fields of contemporary optics and photonics. This book presents a comprehensive introduction to the Generalized Phase Contrast...

  12. Compressive Phase Contrast Tomography

    Maia, Filipe; MacDowell, Alastair; Marchesini, Stefano; Padmore, Howard A.; Parkinson, Dula Y.; Pien, Jack; Schirotzek, Andre; Yang, Chao

    2010-09-01

    When x-rays penetrate soft matter, their phase changes more rapidly than their amplitude. Interference effects visible with high brightness sources creates higher contrast, edge enhanced images. When the object is piecewise smooth (made of big blocks of a few components), such higher contrast datasets have a sparse solution. We apply basis pursuit solvers to improve SNR, remove ring artifacts, reduce the number of views and radiation dose from phase contrast datasets collected at the Hard X-Ray Micro Tomography Beamline at the Advanced Light Source. We report a GPU code for the most computationally intensive task, the gridding and inverse gridding algorithm (non uniform sampled Fourier transform).

  13. Expansion of banana (Musa acuminata) gene families involved in ethylene biosynthesis and signalling after lineage-specific whole-genome duplications.

    Jourda, Cyril; Cardi, Céline; Mbéguié-A-Mbéguié, Didier; Bocs, Stéphanie; Garsmeur, Olivier; D'Hont, Angélique; Yahiaoui, Nabila

    2014-05-01

    Whole-genome duplications (WGDs) are widespread in plants, and three lineage-specific WGDs occurred in the banana (Musa acuminata) genome. Here, we analysed the impact of WGDs on the evolution of banana gene families involved in ethylene biosynthesis and signalling, a key pathway for banana fruit ripening. Banana ethylene pathway genes were identified using comparative genomics approaches and their duplication modes and expression profiles were analysed. Seven out of 10 banana ethylene gene families evolved through WGD and four of them (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (ACS), ethylene-insensitive 3-like (EIL), ethylene-insensitive 3-binding F-box (EBF) and ethylene response factor (ERF)) were preferentially retained. Banana orthologues of AtEIN3 and AtEIL1, two major genes for ethylene signalling in Arabidopsis, were particularly expanded. This expansion was paralleled by that of EBF genes which are responsible for control of EIL protein levels. Gene expression profiles in banana fruits suggested functional redundancy for several MaEBF and MaEIL genes derived from WGD and subfunctionalization for some of them. We propose that EIL and EBF genes were co-retained after WGD in banana to maintain balanced control of EIL protein levels and thus avoid detrimental effects of constitutive ethylene signalling. In the course of evolution, subfunctionalization was favoured to promote finer control of ethylene signalling. PMID:24716518

  14. Relation between the concentration of Dinophysis acuminata and diarrheic shellfish poisoning toxins in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) during a toxic episode in the Limfjord (Denmark), 2006

    Jørgensen, Kevin; Andersen, Per

    2008-01-01

    OA equivalents in the raw blue mussels was 706 mu g/kg. Single cell toxicity measurements showed a mean content of 31 pg OA cell(-1) (min 19; max 72 pg OA cell(-1)). The impact of the concentration procedure was investigated using a range of volumes filtered from 0,21-101 filter(-1). Toxins were lost...... filtered per filter (1). The OA content per cell measured when concentrating only 0.2 L per filter was a good measure of the theoretical content of toxins calculated in a "no handling" case. The influence of heat-treatment on the concentration of DSP toxins in mussels was investigated. Results of OA......For the first time since 1990 the Limfjord, which is the main Danish production area for mussels, was partly closed for a period of 14 wk during autumn 2006 because of presence of DSP toxins in blue mussels. The causative organism was Dinophysis acuminata. Only the okadaic acid (OA) and OA esters...

  15. Qualities of native apple cultivar juices characteristic of central Europe

    Rop, Otakar; Martin POSOLDA; Mlcek, Jiri; Vojtech REZNICEK; Sochor, Jiri; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene; Sumczynski, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    During the last century due to the changes in landscape management, in country people’s lives and with intensive fruit-growing the native cultivars of apple fruit trees have been gradually disappearing. The aim of the study was to compare the juices made of native apple cider cultivars. The cultivars-‘Boikovo’, ‘Jadernicka moravska’, ‘Kardinal zihany’, ‘Panenske ceske’, ‘Parmena zlata zimni’, ‘Strymka’ growing in the locality of the Litencicke Hills in the eastern part of the Czech Republic w...

  16. Potencialidade de processamento industrial de cultivares de batatas

    Émerson Loli Garcia; Ezequiel Lopes do Carmo; Joaquim Gonçalves de Pádua; Magali Leonel

    2015-01-01

    A industrialização da batata tem sido limitada no Brasil, devido à falta de matéria-prima adequada, sendo a demanda suprida pelas importações de produtos processados. Oito cultivares de batata, adaptadas às condições da região serrana de Minas Gerais, safra 2011, foram avaliadas quanto a sua composição centesimal, cor e conteúdo de amilose. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que as cultivares 'Marcy' e 'Colorado' apresentam características importantes para o cozimento. As cultivares 'Marlen' e '...

  17. Breeders’ work after cultivar development - the stage of recommendation

    Luiz Carlos Federizzi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of new cultivars is the ultimate goal of breeding programs and is the result of many years of hard work and dedication of breeders and their teams. An important part of the process, often neglected by geneticists, is the stage from recommendation to the production of breeder seed (post-breeding. This paper discusses the role of the breeder in the recommendation, registration, protection and marketing of new cultivars. The breeder’s active participation in all phases of post-breeding is fundamental to ensure that the cultivar reaches farmers quickly and can provide the benefits expected by society

  18. The use of cultivars of Raphanus sativus for cytokinin bioassay

    Dorota Kubowicz; Ewa Grodzka

    2013-01-01

    Six cultivars of radish (Raphanus sativus) were tested for their usefulness in radish cytokinin bioassay by the method of Letham (1971). The best cultivar was found to be 'Sopel Lodu' which responds well to both zeatin and 2iP over a wide range of concentrations. The fresh weight of cotyledons increased at most by 71.5% (if treated with zeatin) or 101.0% (if treated with 2iP) compared to untreated cotyledons. This cultivar is also sensitive to the partially purified cytokinin-like fraction is...

  19. Generalized Phase Contrast

    Glückstad, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    Generalized Phase Contrast elevates the phase contrast technique not only to improve phase imaging but also to cross over and interface with diverse and seemingly disparate fields of contemporary optics and photonics. This book presents a comprehensive introduction to the Generalized Phase Contrast (GPC) method including an overview of the range of current and potential applications of GPC in wavefront sensing and phase imaging, structured laser illumination and image projection, optical trapping and manipulation, and optical encryption and decryption. The GPC method goes further than the restrictive assumptions of conventional Zernike phase contrast analysis and achieves an expanded range of validity beyond weak phase perturbations. The generalized analysis yields design criteria for tuning experimental parameters to achieve optimal performance in terms of accuracy, fidelity and light efficiency. Optimization can address practical issues, such as finding an optimal spatial filter for the chosen application, ...

  20. Growth of Three Lettuce Cultivars in NASA's HDU PEM During the 2010 DRATS Test

    Stutte, Gary W.; Newsham, Gerard; Wheeler, Raymond

    2011-01-01

    NASA's 2010 Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS) of the VEGGIE Food Production System in the Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU) Pressurized Excursion Module (PEM) was the first operational evaluation of salad crop production technology in a NASA analog test. Rooting media and slow release fertilizers were evaluated for three lettuce cultivars that had shown promise as candidates for a surface based food production system. These tests involved comparing growth, color and quality of the lettuce cultivars grown under VEGGIE LED array (Orbitec, Madison, WI) or Biomass Production System for Education ((BSEe), Orbitec, Madison, WI) compact fluorescent lamps using a gravity feed water delivery system. Mission relevant conditions of CO2, temperature and RH were maintained using controlled environment chambers (EGC, Chagrin Falls, OH). Growth data was obtained for the two red leaf lettuce cultivars, Outredgeous and Firecracker, and the green Bibb lettuce cultivar, Flandria. Growth and quality was evaluated using different concentrations (7.5 g/L and 15 g/L) of commercial slow release fertilizer (Osmocote Plus 15-9-12, Scotts, Maryville, OH) and Nutricote 18-6-8 (Florikan, Sarasota, FL) in either a peat/vermiculite media (sunshine LP5 MiX, Sungro, Bellview, WA) or calcined montmorillonite clay [(arcillite,)Turface Proleague, Profile LLC, Buffalo Grove, IL]. The commercial peat/vermiculite mix generally resulted in larger plants than those grown in arcillite. Increasing the concentration of Osmocote from 7.5 to 15 g/L increased the height, dry mass, and leaf area of lettuce cultivars. In contrast, there was a decrease in growth parameters when concentration of Nutricote was increased from 7.5 to 15 g/L. The best growth was obtained with the 7.5 g/L Nutricote using a commercial peat/vermiculite mixture. This media was used for field testing VEGGIE plant system in the 2010 DRAT test. The VEGGIE nutrient delivery system worked well, was able to be maintained by multiple

  1. Compressive Phase Contrast Tomography

    Maia, F. R. N. C.; MacDowell, A.; Marchesini, S.; Padmore, H. A.; Parkinson, D. Y.; PIEN., J.; Schirotzek, A.; Yang, C

    2010-01-01

    When x-rays penetrate soft matter, their phase changes more rapidly than their amplitude. In- terference effects visible with high brightness sources creates higher contrast, edge enhanced images. When the object is piecewise smooth (made of big blocks of a few components), such higher con- trast datasets have a sparse solution. We apply basis pursuit solvers to improve SNR, remove ring artifacts, reduce the number of views and radiation dose from phase contrast datasets collected at the Hard...

  2. Severidade do sintoma da bactéria Xylella fastidiosa em cultivares de cafeeiro Severity symptoms of Xylella fastidiosa on coffee cultivars

    Rachel Benetti Queiroz-Voltan

    2004-12-01

    main objective of this work was to study the severity of the X. fastidiosa infection on grafted or not grafted coffee plants, evaluating external symptoms in several cultivars, grown under field conditions in two contrasting environments. The symptoms were evaluated in a notation scale of 1 to 4, being 4 given to the most severe symptoms. Under moisture stress in both Mococa and Garça, there were no differences among cultivars, however, during the rainy period, symptoms were more intense in 'Catuai' and 'Mundo Novo' not grafted cultivars during the 2000 growth season, as compared to the grafted ones. Not grafted 'Catuaí' was more severely attacked in Mococa than in Garça. The 2002 drought period in Garça was much longer and more severe than that of 2000 and 1998 in Mococa. However, there was less severe symptoms in Garça in 2002 demonstrating that moisture deficit is not the sole factor determining external bacterial symptoms, other physiological and environmental stresses and its interaction might probably play an important role in the coffee plant response to this bacteria infection.

  3. Induced short culm mutations in local quality rice cultivar

    Mushqa Budji a local quality rice cultivar (land race) adapted to cool and temperate agro-climatic conditions of Kashmir valley possesses fairly good degree of tolerance to low temperatures during seedling and grain filling stages of growth (stages when day/night temperatures are usually very low). The cultivar is grown in some localized areas of valley under transplanted-irrigated rice production ecosystem. The cultivar is low yielding but it has aromatic bold grains and good cooking qualities. This variety has a good potential for export to South East Asian countries and domestic markets. The present investigations were, therefore, undertaken to induce genetic variability in the cultivar using gamma rays and ethyl methane sulphonate as mutagens. In the present paper morphology and initial performance of the two induced dwarf mutants is presented

  4. Potencialidade de processamento industrial de cultivares de batatas

    Émerson Loli Garcia

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A industrialização da batata tem sido limitada no Brasil, devido à falta de matéria-prima adequada, sendo a demanda suprida pelas importações de produtos processados. Oito cultivares de batata, adaptadas às condições da região serrana de Minas Gerais, safra 2011, foram avaliadas quanto a sua composição centesimal, cor e conteúdo de amilose. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que as cultivares 'Marcy' e 'Colorado' apresentam características importantes para o cozimento. As cultivares 'Marlen' e 'Pirassu' apresentam atributos requeridos para o processamento na forma de chips e/ou palha e a cultivar 'BRS Ana' para a forma de palitos pré-fritos.

  5. The use of cultivars of Raphanus sativus for cytokinin bioassay

    Dorota Kubowicz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Six cultivars of radish (Raphanus sativus were tested for their usefulness in radish cytokinin bioassay by the method of Letham (1971. The best cultivar was found to be 'Sopel Lodu' which responds well to both zeatin and 2iP over a wide range of concentrations. The fresh weight of cotyledons increased at most by 71.5% (if treated with zeatin or 101.0% (if treated with 2iP compared to untreated cotyledons. This cultivar is also sensitive to the partially purified cytokinin-like fraction isolated from the pine (Pinus silvestris cambial region. The cultivar 'Sopel Lodu' is therefore proposed to be a suitable plant for cytokinin bioassays.

  6. Strawberry cultivar identification based on hypervariable SSR markers

    Honjo, Masanori; Nunome, Tsukasa; Kataoka, Sono; Yano, Takayoshi; Yamazaki, Hiromichi; Hamano, Megumi; Yui, Susumu; Morishita, Masami

    2011-01-01

    We genotyped strawberry cultivars by two newly selected and two previously reported SSR markers. All four markers produced interpretable electropherograms from 75 accessions consisting of 72 Fragaria × ananassa cultivars or lines and three octoploid Fragaria species accessions. These SSR markers were highly polymorphic; in particular, one of the newly developed markers, FxaHGA02P13, was capable of distinguishing all of the accessions except for a mutant strain that was derived from another ac...

  7. An overview of almond cultivars and rootstocks: Challenges and perspectives

    Socias i Company, Rafel; Rubio Cabetas, María José; Alonso Segura, José Manuel; Kodad, Ossama; Gómez Aparisi, Joaquín

    2011-01-01

    Almond growing in the Mediterranean area has been enduring sharp changes in the last decades. Whereas in some countries production has substantially decreased, in others a renewal of the concept of almond growing is taking place. In such a situation, new cultivars and rootstock are essential tools to achieve a success. Whereas in California 'Nonpareil' has been, and continues to be, the essential cultivar, and the new releases only represent a small percentage of the new plantings, the Medite...

  8. Fruit and Oil Characteristics of Olive Candidate Cultivars from Turkey

    Yasin OZDEMIR

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This is the first study in Turkey that evaluated olive fruit and oil characteristics of 23 cultivar candidates selected among 393 olive genotypes, on the bases of agronomical characteristics; the candidate cultivars were obtained by cross breeding between standard cultivars (‘Gemlik’, ‘Edinciksu’, ‘Uslu’, ‘Tavşan Yüreği’, ‘Karamürselsu’ and foreign cultivars (‘Lucques’, ‘Belle d’Espagne’ and ‘Manzanilla’. Fruit traits such as fruit weight, flesh to seed ratio, fruit and seed size, as well as oil characteristics such as moisture, oil content, specific absorption at ultraviolet light, free acid content, peroxide value, chlorophyll and fatty acid composition were determined. Fruits and oils of intensely cultivated ‘Gemlik’ and ‘Ayvalık’ olive cultivars were also analyzed to compare them with the new candidate cultivars. According to the oil content, ‘GE067’ (23.30%, ‘GE181’ (23.97%, ‘GE366’ (22.52%, ‘GE417’ (22.16%, ‘GT009’ (24.14%, ‘GT014’ (21.02%, ‘GU247’ (22.48%, ‘GU320’ (27.15% and ‘GU434’ (21.89% gave better results, thus having good potential for registration as new cultivars for oil production. ‘GE366’ and ‘GU434’ were determined as the best cultivar candidates for producing dual purpose olives (table olives and oil. ‘GE363’ had the best fatty acid composition, which is an important feature in terms of oxidative stability and disease prevention.

  9. Analysis of coconut cultivars and hybrids using isozyme polymorphism

    Parthasarathy, V.; Geethalakshmi, P.; Niral, V.

    2004-01-01

    The coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is one of the major oilseeds of India. In the present study, an attempt has been made to analyse coconut diversity using isozyme banding data. Cluster analysis was performed using the banding patterns obtained from polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for 11 isozyme systems in 40 different coconut cultivars and six hybrids and their parents. The cultivars grouped mainly into six clusters. In case of hybrids and their parents, the hybrids clustered intermediate be...

  10. Does boron affect hormone levels of barley cultivars?

    Muavviz Ayvaz; Mesut Koyuncu; Avni Guven; FAGERSTEDT, KURT V.

    2012-01-01

    Background: When mineral nutrients are present in excess or in inadequate amounts, their effects can be severe in plants and can be considered as abiotic stress. In this study, we report how hormonal levels in barley cultivars respond to the toxic effect of boron, an essential plant micronutrient. Material and methods: Two different barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivars (Vamik Hoca and Efes 98) were used as a study material. Boron was applied in three different concentrations (0, 10, 20 ppm) ...

  11. Sensory evaluation of juice from different organic blackcurrant cultivars

    Kidmose, Ulla; Christensen, Lars P.; Lindhard Pedersen, Hanne; Thybo, Anette K.

    2006-01-01

    To ensure a high, stable production of blackcurrant juice in Denmark, it is necessary with high-yielding blackcurrant cultivars, which are resistant against pest and diseases, and that have a high sensory quality and high health value. In this experiment, blackcurrant juice processed from berries of 12 organic cultivars was screened. A trained sensory panel using descriptive sensory profiling evaluated the sensory quality of the juice samples. In addition, the aroma profile and the content of...

  12. New hop (Humulus lupulus L. cultivars from Romania

    Alexandru SALONTAI

    1985-08-01

    Full Text Available The research staff of the Agronomy Institute of Cluj-Napoca breeded the first Romanian hop cultivars officially approved in 1984 by the State Commission for the Testing and Approval of Plant Varieties. The new Humulus lupulus varieties are cv. "Napoca'l", cv. "Aroma" and cv. "Transilvania". The selection method, origin, biological characteristics, productivity and some technological qualities of the new cultivars are discussed in the paper.

  13. Production Charachteristics of Some Introduced Grape Cultivars (Vitis vinifera L.)

    Jasminka Karoglan Kontić; Edi Maletić; Nikola Mirošević; Bernard Kozina; Jasmina Marić

    2000-01-01

    In order to expand the number of red grape cultivars suitable for Northern Dalmatia subregion experimental vineyard has been planted on the farm 'Bastica' PK Zadar. The large number of red grape cultivar has been introducted. Seven of them are spread in central and southern Italy (Montepulciano, Sangiovese, Malvasia nera di Lecce, Ciliegiolo, Aglianico, Cabernet sauvignon, Moscato rosa), which have similar ecological conditions as the area of Ravni Kotari. During the five years period agrobio...

  14. Assessment of capsiconinoid composition, nonpungent capsaicinoid analogues, in capsicum cultivars.

    Tanaka, Yoshiyuki; Hosokawa, Munetaka; Otsu, Keigo; Watanabe, Tatsuo; Yazawa, Susumu

    2009-06-24

    Capsiconinoid is a group of nonpungent capsaicinoid analogues produced in Capsicum fruits, which we recently identified. Capsiconinoids have agonist activity for transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1), which is reported to be a receptor for capsaicin. It is, therefore, important to screen cultivars containing high levels of capsiconinoid for their use as a vegetable or dietary supplement. This study describes the quantitative analysis of capsiconinoid content in fruits of 35 Capsicum cultivars: 18 cultivars of C. annuum, 7 of C. baccatum, 5 of C. chinense, 4 of C. frutescens, and 1 of C. pubescens. Using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), we found that 10 cultivars contained capsiconinoids. Capsiconinoid Baccatum (CCB) (C. baccatum var. praetermissum) showed the highest capsiconinoid content (3314 microg/g DW) and Charapita (C. chinense) had the second highest content. The other 8 cultivars had much lower capsiconinoid content than these two cultivars (<300 microg/g DW). Time-course analysis during fruit development clarified that capsiconinoid content in CCB fruits increased until 30 days after flowering (DAF) and then decreased rapidly until 40 DAF. PMID:19489540

  15. De novo transcriptome assembly of a sour cherry cultivar, Schattenmorelle

    Yeonhwa Jo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus in the genus Prunus in the family Rosaceae is one of the most popular stone fruit trees worldwide. Of known sour cherry cultivars, the Schattenmorelle is a famous old sour cherry with a high amount of fruit production. The Schattenmorelle was selected before 1650 and described in the 1800s. This cultivar was named after gardens of the Chateau de Moreille in which the cultivar was initially found. In order to identify new genes and to develop genetic markers for sour cherry, we performed a transcriptome analysis of a sour cherry. We selected the cultivar Schattenmorelle, which is among commercially important cultivars in Europe and North America. We obtained 2.05 GB raw data from the Schattenmorelle (NCBI accession number: SRX1187170. De novo transcriptome assembly using Trinity identified 61,053 transcripts in which N50 was 611 bp. Next, we identified 25,585 protein coding sequences using TransDecoder. The identified proteins were blasted against NCBI's non-redundant database for annotation. Based on blast search, we taxonomically classified the obtained sequences. As a result, we provide the transcriptome of sour cherry cultivar Schattenmorelle using next generation sequencing.

  16. Characterization of Anatolian traditional quince cultivars, based on microsatellite markers.

    Yüksel, C; Mutaf, F; Demirtaş, İ; Öztürk, G; Pektaş, M; Ergül, A

    2013-01-01

    We conducted simple sequence repeat (SSR) analyses of 15 traditional quince (Cydonia oblonga) cultivars from Anatolian gene sources for molecular characterization and investigation of genetic relationships. Three pear and two apple cultivars were used as references for SSR locus data analysis and to determine allele profiles between species. Eight SSR loci that were developed from apple and pear were used, and a total of 44 alleles were found among quince cultivars. The CH01F02 locus was found to have the highest identification probability, while the CH04E03 locus had the lowest identification probability. Analysis of similarity ratios between quince cultivars showed that the lowest similarity ratio was 18% (Eşme-Bardacık ± k), while the highest similarity ratio was 87% (Bursa-Osmancık ± k and Osmancık ± k-Viranyadevi). In the phylogenetic dendrogram, Eşme quince showed separate branching from other quince cultivars, and no synonymous accessions were found. These results suggest that SSR markers from pear and apple could be used to determine genetic variation among quince cultivars. These findings can be used to guide future quince breeding and management studies. PMID:24301958

  17. Growth Responses of Wheat Cultivars to Rock Phosphate in Hydroponics

    M.ASHRAF; RAHMATULLAH; M.A.MAQSOOD; S.KANWAL; M.A.TAHIR; L.ALI

    2009-01-01

    Screening cultivars to grow under conditions of low phosphorus (P) availability and utilize P efficiently from compounds of low solubility in soils may be beneficial to overcome poor plant growth in P-deficient soils.The growth behavior and P utilization efficiency of seven wheat cultivars grown in hydroponics were studied,using rock phosphate as P source.The wheat cultivars grown for 30 days were significantly different in biomass accumulation,P uptake and P utilization efficiency.The dry matter production of all the cultivars was significantly correlated with P uptake,which in turn correlated to the drop in the root medium pH.The ranking of wheat cultivars on the basis of dry matter yield,P uptake and P utilization efficiency was Zamindar 80 > Yccora > C 271 > WL 711 > Barani 83 > PARI 73 > Rohtas.The cultivar Zamindar 80 appeared to possess the best growth potential in P-deficient soils.

  18. Compatibilidade de enxertia de cultivares de marmeleiros com pereiras Compatibility of pear cultivars on quinces rootstocks

    Zeni Fonseca Pinto Tomaz; Alexandre Couto Rodrigues; Valtair Veríssimo; Anderson Carlos Marafon; Flávio Gilberto Herter; Andrea De Rossi Rufato

    2009-01-01

    A insuficiência de estudos sobre compatibilidade de porta-enxertos é um dos fatores limitantes ao desenvolvimento da cultura da pereira (Pyrus sp.) no Brasil. A utilização do marmeleiro (Cydonia oblonga) como porta-enxerto para a cultura da pereira apresenta inúmeras vantagens, entre as quais a redução do vigor e a rápida entrada em produção; todavia, sua combinação com algumas cultivares copa apresenta problemas de incompatibilidade de enxertia, podendo ocasionar a ruptura do caule das plant...

  19. Induced mutation studies in some mungbean cultivars

    The induced mutation through different gamma irradiation frequencies viz. 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 Gy in some agronomic traits of five mungbean cultivars was studied at Research Area of Faculty of Agriculture, Gomal University, D. I Khan for consecutive three years. The results of analysis show that a wide range of variability exists in all the characters except plant height. The genotypic effect on days to flowering, days to maturity, plant height. Number of branches, Number of pods and Number of clusters ranged from 43.82 to 44.96 days, 87.60 to 91.75 days, 42.16 to 51.61 cm, 1.83 to 2.07. 16.97 to 21.46 and 4.44 to 5.56, respectively. Similarly, mutagenic effects on days to 50% flowering days for maturity, plant height, number of branches, number of pods and number of ranged from 44.05 to 45.62 days, 88.62 to 91.83 days, 47.07 to 43.43 cm. 1.62 to 2.00, 17 to 22.30 and 4.53 to 5.50 respectively. The genotype X dose interaction was highly significant for days to 50% flowering, maturity, number of branches and clusters and non-significant for plant height and number of pods

  20. Contribución al conocimiento de la biología y taxonomía de un hongo del género phytium aislado del "aliso", alnus acuminata hbk

    Correa de Restrepo, Marina; Cabrera, Orlando; Rodríguez, Esperanza

    2011-01-01

    Some biological aspects of an isolated fungus of Alnus acuminata roots were studied. It bas been found Tbat between OOC and 4°C tbe fungi grows fast. This condition can result in a important factor in the ecophysiology of 'Aliso' populations, that grows in secondary forests at sub-paramo, After a review of the taxonomic literature, we placed it in the Phytium genus, but not in a particular described species. We assume that it is a new species. We modificated the microculture technique that wa...

  1. Phase Contrast Imaging

    1996-01-01

    The invention relates to a method and a system for synthesizing a prescribed intensity pattern based on phase contrast imaging that is not based on the assumption of prior art methods that the pahase shift phi is less than 1 radian. An improved method based on a simple imaging operation with a si......The invention relates to a method and a system for synthesizing a prescribed intensity pattern based on phase contrast imaging that is not based on the assumption of prior art methods that the pahase shift phi is less than 1 radian. An improved method based on a simple imaging operation...

  2. Compressive Phase Contrast Tomography

    Maia, F R N C; Marchesini, S; Padmore, H A; Parkinson, D Y; Pien, J; Schirotzek, A; Yang, C; 10.1117/12.861946

    2010-01-01

    When x-rays penetrate soft matter, their phase changes more rapidly than their amplitude. In- terference effects visible with high brightness sources creates higher contrast, edge enhanced images. When the object is piecewise smooth (made of big blocks of a few components), such higher con- trast datasets have a sparse solution. We apply basis pursuit solvers to improve SNR, remove ring artifacts, reduce the number of views and radiation dose from phase contrast datasets collected at the Hard X-Ray Micro Tomography Beamline at the Advanced Light Source. We report a GPU code for the most computationally intensive task, the gridding and inverse gridding algorithm (non uniform sampled Fourier transform).

  3. Desempenho de cultivares de alface na região de Manaus Performance of lettuce cultivars in Manaus region

    Isac N Rodrigues

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Na avaliação de cultivares de hortaliças, os rendimentos médios mais elevados nos ensaios de competição, associados a fatores de qualidade, são utilizados como critérios de recomendação para plantio. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar as cultivares de alface Frisella, Deisy, Tender Green, Lollo Bionda, Itapuã 401, Marisa, Verônica, Banchu New Red Fire e Hortência nas condições climáticas da região de Manaus, sob cultivo protegido e a campo. Foram avaliadas as características: massa fresca total, massa fresca comercial, diâmetro da cabeça e altura. As cultivares de alface Marisa, Itapuã 401 e Hortência são opções mais adequadas para o cultivo protegido e a campo na região, incluindo-se para o cultivo a campo a cultivar Verônica, a qual apresentou a melhor produção na avaliação realizada neste ambiente.In the evaluation of vegetable cultivars, the high average yield in the competition assays associated to quality factors are utilized as criteria to recommend cultivars. In the present work we evaluated the lettuce cultivars Frisella, Deisy, Tender Green, Lollo Bionda, Itapuã 401, Marisa, Verônica, Banchu New Red Fire and Hortência under the climatic conditions of the region of Manaus, under protected and conventional cultivation. The evaluated characteristics were: total and commercial weight, plant diameter and height. The lettuce cultivars Marisa, Itapuã 401 and Hortência presented higher production in both environments adding Verônica with best production under conventional cultivation.

  4. Contrast media: future aspects

    Weinmann, H.J.; Platzek, J.; Schirmer, H.; Pietsch, H. [Research Labs., Schering AG, Berlin (Germany); Carretero, J.; Harto, J.; Medina, J.; Riefke, B.; Martin, J. [Justesa Imagen SA, Madrid (Spain)

    2005-11-15

    In spite of the dramatic development in CT, there was no major breakthrough in the iodinated contrast media development. New agents based on hybrid between MRI and CT compounds may be a new innovative alternative. This new approach may also open new indications such as radiotherapy. (orig.)

  5. Phonation in Tonal Contrasts

    Kuang, Jianjing

    2013-01-01

    Phonation is used in many tonal languages, but how it should be incorporated into tonal systems is not well understood. The purpose of this dissertation thus is to examine the role of phonation in tonal contrasts, and to investigate how phonation and pitch interact in the tonal space. This dissertation presents close studies of tonal contrasts…

  6. Contrast agents for MRI

    Contrast agents are divided into two categories. The first one is paramagnetic compounds, including lanthanides like gadolinium, which mainly reduce the longitudinal (T1) relaxation property and result in a brighter signal. The second class consists of super-paramagnetic magnetic nanoparticles (SPMNPs) such as iron oxides, which have a strong effect on the transversal (T2) relaxation properties. SPMNPs have the potential to be utilized as excellent probes for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). For instance, clinically benign iron oxide and engineered ferrite nanoparticles provide a good MRI probing capability for clinical applications. Furthermore, the limited magnetic property and inability to escape from the reticuloendothelial system (RES) of the used nanoparticles impede their further advancement. Therefore, it is necessary to develop the engineered magnetic nanoparticle probes for the next-generation molecular MRI. Considering the importance of MRI in diagnosing diseases, this paper presents an overview of recent scientific achievements in the development of new synthetic SPMNP probes whereby the sensitive and target-specific observation of biological events at the molecular and cellular levels is feasible. - Highlights: • This paper studies the contrast agents for MRI. • Fe―Co alloys and Mn-ferrites exhibit suitable contrast enhancement. • Nonhydrolytic thermal-decomposition synthetic method is suitable to produce MNPs. • This method allows controlling the size, magnetic dopants, magneto-crystalline anisotropy. • The increase in the superparamagnetic size leads to the contrast-enhancement

  7. Nonionic radiographic contrast media

    The invention deals with nonionic radiographic contrast media. The new media, which are water soluble and have desirable low osmolality properties, are derivates of the 5-amino-2,4,6-triiodine-1,3-benzenecarboxylic acid-unity where the 5-aminonitrogen atom is a part of a 4-, 5- or 6-membered heterocyclic ring

  8. Microrganismos associados a frutos de diferentes cultivares de noz Pecan Microorganisms associated with fruits of different cultivars of Pecan nut

    Nádia Izumi Terabe

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento do comportamento natural da nogueira Pecan às principais doenças é de suma importância para o estabelecimento do planejamento da implantação da cultura. O controle fitossanitário e tratos culturais devem ser realizados de modo a não comprometerem a qualidade do produto final, as amêndoas. Foram avaliadas nozes produzidas na safra de 2005 e oriundas de Uraí-PR, pelas cultivares Burkett, Frotscher e Moneymaker, para identificar e quantificar os microrganismos associados à amêndoas e cascas dos frutos, bem como observar diferenças entre organismos colonizadores das cultivares. Os frutos foram avaliados na pós-colheita, aos trinta dias de armazenamento em ambiente, através da metodologia do papel de filtro, sendo submetidos ou não à assepsia superficial. O fungo Cladosporium caryigenum, promotor da rancificação das amêndoas foi observado, em amêndoas e cascas, nas cultivares Burkett, Frotscher e Moneymaker; Fusarium sp., foi encontrado em porcentuais elevados, tanto em amêndoas quanto em cascas das três cultivares estudadas; Cephalothecium roseum, causador do mofo róseo em amêndoas, na cultivar Frotscher. Aspergillus sp. e Penicillium sp., causadores de emboloramento e produtores de aflotoxinas foram observados em porcentuais representativos, em amêndoas da cultivar Frotscher e em amêndoas e cascas das cultivares Frotscher, Burkett e Moneymaker, respectivamente. Os maiores porcentuais de perda do rendimento foram observados na cultivar Burkett, por causa da incidência de Colletotrichum sp., causador da antracnose em amêndoas, que acarreta escurecimento e deterioração do produto final, levando-o ao descarte.The knowledgement of the natural behavior of the main diseases of Pecan nut is of utmost importance for the stablishment of an implantation plan for that culture. The phytosanitary control and cultural treatments should be performed in order not to change the quality of the final product. Nuts harvest

  9. Iodinated contrast media nephrotoxicity

    In the late seventies, iodinated contrast agents (ICA) were considered to be a major cause of acute iatrogenic renal failure. Over the last decade new contrast agents have been synthesized, nonionic and less hyperosmolar. The incidence of acute renal failure due to ICAs, varies from 3.7 to 70% of cases according to the series, with an average figure of 10.2%. The pathophysiology of ICA nephrotoxicity was mainly studied in laboratory animal models. Three main factors are involved in an inducing ICA-mediated decrease in glomerular filtration rate: reduction of the renal plasma flow, a direct cytotoxic effect on renal tubular cells and erythrocyte alteration leading to intra-renal sludge. Excluding dysglobulinemias with urinary excretion of immunoglobulin light chains, which represent a special case of maximum nephrotoxicity, 4 main risk factors of renal toxicity have been identified in nondiabetic subjects: previous renal failure with serum creatinine levels greater than 140 μmol per liter, extracellular dehydration, age over 60 and use of high doses of ICA and/or repeated ICA injections before serum creatinine levels return to baseline. Preventive measures for avoiding ICA nephrotoxicity are threefold: maintain or restore adequate hydration with saline infusion, stop NSAID treatment several days before ICA administration, and allow a 5 day interval before repeating contrast media injections. New, nonionic and moderately hyperosmolar contrast agents appear to be much less nephrotoxic than conventional ICAs in laboratory animals and in high-risk patients. It is advisable to select such contrast media for investigating high-risk patients. This approach was recently substantiated in well designed, randomized clinical studies which included more than 2 000 patients. (author)

  10. Relationships between phenotypic variation in osmotic adjustment, water-use efficiency, and drought tolerance of seven cultivars of Lotus corniculatus L.

    Luis Inostroza

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Lotus corniculatus L. is a perennial forage legume species highly-adapted to growth under drought conditions. However, the genetic and physiological mechanisms involved in its adaptive capacity have not been elucidated. The role of osmotic adjustment (OA and water-use efficiency (WUE on the drought tolerance of L. corniculatus was studied in a greenhouse experiment. Seven cultivars of different origin were subjected to two contrasting treatments of available soil water: No water stress (NWS and with water stress (WWS. Xylem water potential (Ψx, osmotic potential (Ψπ, pressure potential (Ψp, relative water content (RWC, stomatal conductance (g s, shoot DM production, water transpiration (T, and WUE (shoot DM/T were measured. Water treatments significantly (P < 0.05 affected plant water status, which was reflected in reduced Ψx, RWC, g s, and transpiration rate in the WWS treatment compared with the NWS treatment. All cultivars showed a high capacity for OA under WWS treatment because Ψπ decreased by approximately 60% and Ψp increased by approximately 30%, compared with the NWS treatment. Cultivars with a higher solute accumulation (low Ψπ value had the lowest DM production under WWS treatment. In contrast, WUE varied greatly among cultivars and was positively associated (R² = 0.88; P < 0.01 with DM production under drought conditions.

  11. Identification and expression analysis of four 14-3-3 genes during fruit ripening in banana (Musa acuminata L. AAA group, cv. Brazilian).

    Li, Mei-Ying; Xu, Bi-Yu; Liu, Ju-Hua; Yang, Xiao-Liang; Zhang, Jian-Bin; Jia, Cai-Hong; Ren, Li-Cheng; Jin, Zhi-Qiang

    2012-02-01

    To investigate the regulation of 14-3-3 proteins in banana (Musa acuminata L. AAA group, cv. Brazilian) fruit postharvest ripening, four cDNAs encoding 14-3-3 proteins were isolated from banana and designated as Ma-14-3-3a, Ma-14-3-3c, Ma-14-3-3e, and Ma-14-3-3i, respectively. Amino acid sequence alignment showed that the four 14-3-3 proteins shared a highly conserved core structure and variable C-terminal as well as N-terminal regions with 14-3-3 proteins from other plant species. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the four 14-3-3 genes belong to the non-ε groups. They were differentially and specifically expressed in various tissues. Real-time RT-PCR analysis indicated that these four genes function differentially during banana fruit postharvest ripening. Three genes, Ma-14-3-3a, Ma-14-3-3c, and Ma-14-3-3e, were significantly induced by exogenous ethylene treatment. However, gene function differed in naturally ripened fruits. Ethylene could induce Ma-14-3-3c expression during postharvest ripening, but expression patterns of Ma-14-3-3a and Ma-14-3-3e suggest that these two genes appear to be involved in regulating ethylene biosynthesis during fruit ripening. No obvious relationship emerged between Ma-14-3-3i expression in naturally ripened and 1-MCP (1-methylcyclopropene)-treated fruit groups during fruit ripening. These results indicate that the 14-3-3 proteins might be involved in various regulatory processes of banana fruit ripening. Further studies will mainly focus on revealing the detailed biological mechanisms of these four 14-3-3 genes in regulating banana fruit postharvest ripening. PMID:22009053

  12. A Ser/Thr protein kinase phosphorylates MA-ACS1 (Musa acuminata 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase 1) during banana fruit ripening.

    Choudhury, Swarup Roy; Roy, Sujit; Sengupta, Dibyendu N

    2012-08-01

    1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase (ACS) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in ethylene biosynthesis during ripening. ACS isozymes are regulated both transcriptionally and post-translationally. However, in banana, an important climacteric fruit, little is known about post-translational regulation of ACS. Here, we report the post-translational modification of MA-ACS1 (Musa acuminata ACS1), a ripening inducible isozyme in the ACS family, which plays a key role in ethylene biosynthesis during banana fruit ripening. Immunoprecipitation analyses of phospholabeled protein extracts from banana fruit using affinity-purified anti-MA-ACS1 antibody have revealed phosphorylation of MA-ACS1, particularly in ripe fruit tissue. We have identified the induction of a 41-kDa protein kinase activity in pulp at the onset of ripening. The 41-kDa protein kinase has been identified as a putative protein kinase by MALDI-TOF/MS analysis. Biochemical analyses using partially purified protein kinase fraction from banana fruit have identified the protein kinase as a Ser/Thr family of protein kinase and its possible involvement in MA-ACS1 phosphorylation during ripening. In vitro phosphorylation analyses using synthetic peptides and site-directed mutagenized recombinant MA-ACS1 have revealed that serine 476 and 479 residues at the C-terminal region of MA-ACS1 are phosphorylated. Overall, this study provides important novel evidence for in vivo phosphorylation of MA-ACS1 at the molecular level as a possible mechanism of post-translational regulation of this key regulatory protein in ethylene signaling pathway in banana fruit during ripening. PMID:22419220

  13. Effects of gamma irradiation followed by climatization on the quality of 'Prata' banana (Musa acuminata x Musa balbisiana, AAB)

    Martineli, Maristella; Coneglian, Regina C.C.; Vasconcellos, Marco A.S.; Silva, Eduardo; Rocha, Janielio G.; Melo, Maruzanete P. [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ. Inst. de Agronomia (Brazil)], e-mail: maristellamartineli@yahoo.com.br; Vital, Helio C. [Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (CTEx), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Secao de Defesa Nuclear], e-mail: vital@ctex.eb.br

    2009-07-01

    Banana is a highly perishable climacteric fruit. In order to ensure fast and homogeneous ripening that will make its processing and commercialization easier, it is usually treated by climatization. On the other hand, irradiation is an interesting physical process capable of delaying ripening and extending the shelf life of fruits. This work investigated the competing effects of irradiation followed by climatization on the quality of 'Prata' banana (Musa acuminata x Musa balbisiana, AAB). All fruits were harvested in the preclimacteric stage, rinsed and stored at 27 deg C after being submitted to five different treatments. After hygienization, four out of five samples were exposed to gamma-ray at doses of 0.25 and 0.50 kGy. The unirradiated fruits were left for control and half of the irradiated samples were then climatized by exposure to CaC{sub 2}. Measurements of fresh mass loss, total soluble solids, peel coloration and disease index were performed on five different dates for up to nine days in order to monitor quality and the degree of ripening. It was found that high temperatures prevailing during climatization and storage accelerated maturation in all fruits in spite of the use of irradiation, with the control becoming ripe in 3 days only. In addition, based on the consistent results from the experiments performed, it can be concluded that irradiation at the doses tested was unable to overcome the maturation effects produced by climatization. However, the sole use of irradiation with 0.25 kGy yielded the lowest figures for fresh mass loss and disease index in the samples, thus becoming the most attractive among the treatments tested. (author)

  14. Contrast normalization in colour vision: the effect of luminance contrast on colour contrast detection

    Mullen, Kathy T.; Kim, Yeon Jin; Gheiratmand, Mina

    2014-01-01

    While contrast normalization is well known to occur in luminance vision between overlaid achromatic contrasts, and in colour vision between overlaid colour contrasts, it is unknown whether it transfers between colour and luminance contrast. Here we investigate whether contrast detection in colour vision can be normalized by achromatic contrast, or whether this is a selective process driven only by colour contrast. We use a method of cross-orientation masking, in which colour detection is mask...

  15. Interferência de Raphanus sativus na produtividade de cultivares de soja Interference of Raphanus sativus in soybean cultivars' yield

    M.A Bianchi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A forte dependência de herbicidas para o controle de plantas daninhas em soja tem como consequência a seleção de espécies daninhas tolerantes e resistentes. O manejo integrado considera, além do uso de herbicidas, técnicas como a habilidade competitiva do cultivar para controlar plantas daninhas. Com os objetivos de avaliar a resposta de cultivares à competição com nabo (Raphanus sativus e identificar aqueles portadores de habilidade competitiva superior, foi conduzido experimento em campo, em Cruz Alta-RS, na safra 2000/01. Testaram-se duas condições de competição (ausência ou presença de nabo forrageiro durante a fase de desenvolvimento vegetativo da soja, combinadas com 11 cultivares da cultura. O efeito da competição com nabo é variável entre os cultivares, caracterizando variabilidade genética que permite selecionar genótipos portadores de habilidade competitiva superior. A competição com nabo reduz a estatura de planta, o comprimento médio dos ramos e a produtividade de grãos de soja. Entre os genótipos de soja utilizados, o cultivar MSoy 6101 destaca-se quanto à habilidade competitiva pela maior produtividade potencial de grãos na ausência de competição e pela capacidade de mantê-la diante da competição com nabo.The strong dependence on herbicides for weed control in soybean has led to the selection of tolerant and/or resistant weed plants. Besides the use of herbicides, integrated management includes techniques such as cultivar competitive ability to control weed plants. This work aimed to evaluate cultivar response to competition with forage turnip (Raphanus sativus and to identify carriers of superior competitive ability. The experiment was carried out under field conditions in Cruz Alta-RS, during the 2000/01 season. Two competition conditions (absence and presence of forage turnip during the soybean vegetative growth stage were tested in combination with 11 soybean cultivars. The effect of forage

  16. Growth stage-based modulation in physiological and biochemical attributes of two genetically diverse wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars grown in salinized hydroponic culture.

    Ashraf, Muhammad Arslan; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2016-04-01

    Hydroponic experiment was conducted to appraise variation in the salt tolerance potential of two wheat cultivars (salt tolerant, S-24, and moderately salt sensitive, MH-97) at different growth stages. These two wheat cultivars are not genetically related as evident from randomized polymorphic DNA analysis (random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)) which revealed 28% genetic diversity. Salinity stress caused a marked reduction in grain yield of both wheat cultivars. However, cv. S-24 was superior to cv. MH-97 in maintaining grain yield under saline stress. Furthermore, salinity caused a significant variation in different physiological attributes measured at different growth stages. Salt stress caused considerable reduction in different water relation attributes of wheat plants. A significant reduction in leaf water, osmotic, and turgor potentials was recorded in both wheat cultivars at different growth stages. Maximal reduction in leaf water potential was recorded at the reproductive stage in both wheat cultivars. In contrast, maximal turgor potential was observed at the boot stage. Salt-induced adverse effects of salinity on different water relation attributes were more prominent in cv. MH-97 as compared to those in cv. S-24. Salt stress caused a substantial decrease in glycine betaine and alpha tocopherols. These biochemical attributes exhibited significant salt-induced variation at different growth stages in both wheat cultivars. For example, maximal accumulation of glycine betaine was evident at the early growth stages (vegetative and boot). However, cv. S-24 showed higher accumulation of this organic osmolyte, and this could be the reason for maintenance of higher turgor than that of cv. MH-97 under stress conditions. Salt stress significantly increased the endogenous levels of toxic ions (Na(+) and Cl(-)) and decreased essential cations (K(+) and Ca(2+)) in both wheat cultivars at different growth stages. Furthermore, K(+)/Na(+) and Ca(2+)/Na(+) ratios

  17. CONTRAST SENSITIVITY IN AMBLYOPIA

    1991-01-01

    Contrast sensitivity function(CSF) for sinusoid gratings of varying spatial frequencies was determined for each eye of 21 cases with unilateral amblyopia. The CSF of all amblyopic eyes, except one, showed reduced sensitivity when compared with the non-amblyopic eye of the same person. The curve showed reduction more significantly at middle and high spatial frequencies. The cut-off frequency was shifted toward lower spatial frequencies. The relationship between CSF and various degree of amblyopia was als...

  18. Biological and productive characteristics of apple cultivars resistant or tolerant to scab [Venturia inaequalis (Cooke) Wint.

    Đorđević Boban S.; Vulić Todor B.; Đurović Dejan B.; Milatović Dragan P.; Zec Gordan N.; Radović Aleksandar R.

    2013-01-01

    Biological and productive characteristics of 11 scab-resistant apple cultivars were studied in the period 2011-2012 on the estate of the monastery Žiča in Central Serbia. Control cultivar for comparison was ‘Idared’, as the most spread apple cultivar in Serbia. The earliest blooming was found in cultivar ‘Topaz’, and the latest in cultivar ‘Rewena’. Based on the time of fruit maturation, three cultivars belong to the summer and autumn group, and five cultiv...

  19. Preliminary Results of Fruit Quality of Eight Croatian Local Apple Cultivars

    Tomislav Jemrić

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The quality of the eight local apple cultivars (‘Alvanija’, ‘Kardinal’, ‘Križara’, ‘Majdofija’, ‘Muškatnica’, ‘Slastica’, ‘Slatka srčika’ and ‘Punika’ was studied. Cultivar ‘Kardinal’ had the highest fruit mass, and the cultivar ‘Slastica’ had the lowest. There was no significant difference in fruit mass between the cultivars ‘Kardinal’ and ‘Majdofi ja’. Cultivar ‘Alvanija’ had the highest fruit height and cultivar ‘Križara’ had the smallest. Cultivar ‘Kardinal’ had the widest fruits, and cultivar ‘Križara’ had the narrowest. Cultivar ‘Alvanija’ had the highest shape index, and cultivars ‘Križara’ and ‘Majdofija’ had the lowest. The highest firmness had cultivars ‘Majdofija’ and ‘Slastica’, between which there was no statistically significant difference. Cultivars ‘Kardinal’, ‘Križara’ and ‘Punika’ had significantly lower fruit firmness but still significantly higher than cultivar ‘Muškatnica’. Cultivar ‘Slastica’ had the highest soluble solids content, and cultivar ‘Križara’ had the lowest. Cultivar ‘Križara’ received significantly lower panelist score for crispness, texture and juiciness than cultivar ‘Majdofija’.Cultivars ‘Kardinal’ and ‘Majdofi ja’ received better scores for taste attributes than other cultivars. Panelist scores for fruit shape and general impression were the highest for the cultivars ‘Kardinal’ and ‘Madofija’. There was no significant difference in panelist scores for fruit size between these cultivars and cultivars ‘Alvanija’ and ‘Križara’. It was concluded that the most promising cultivars are ‘Majdofija’ and ‘Kardinal’.However, to fully evaluate their potential, comparison with other cultivars in the standard growing conditions during long-term research is needed.

  20. Polychromatic diffraction contrast tomography

    King, A., E-mail: king@synchrotron-soleil.fr [Synchrotron SOLEIL, Gif-sur-Yvette 91192 (France); Reischig, P. [Xnovo Technology ApS, 4600 Køge (Denmark); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Delft 2628 CD (Netherlands); Adrien, J. [MATEIS, INSA de Lyon, Villeurbanne 69621 (France); Peetermans, S. [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Ludwig, W. [MATEIS, INSA de Lyon, Villeurbanne 69621 (France); European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble 38043 (France)

    2014-11-15

    This tutorial review introduces the use of polychromatic radiation for 3D grain mapping using X-ray diffraction contrast tomography. The objective is to produce a 3D map of the grain shapes and orientations within a bulk, millimeter-sized polycrystalline sample. The use of polychromatic radiation enables the standard synchrotron X-ray technique to be applied in a wider range of contexts: 1) Using laboratory X-ray sources allows a much wider application of the diffraction contrast tomography technique. 2) Neutron sources allow large samples, or samples containing high Z elements to be studied. 3) Applied to synchrotron sources, smaller samples may be treated, or faster measurements may be possible. Challenges and particularities in the data acquisition and processing, and the limitations of the different variants, are discussed. - Highlights: • We present a tutorial review of polychromatic diffraction contrast tomography techniques. • The use of polychromatic radiation allows the standard synchrotron DCT technique to be extended to a range of other sources. • The characteristics and limitations of all variants of the techniques are derived, discussed and compared. • Examples using laboratory X-ray and cold neutron radiation are presented. • Suggestions for the future development of these techniques are presented.

  1. Polychromatic diffraction contrast tomography

    This tutorial review introduces the use of polychromatic radiation for 3D grain mapping using X-ray diffraction contrast tomography. The objective is to produce a 3D map of the grain shapes and orientations within a bulk, millimeter-sized polycrystalline sample. The use of polychromatic radiation enables the standard synchrotron X-ray technique to be applied in a wider range of contexts: 1) Using laboratory X-ray sources allows a much wider application of the diffraction contrast tomography technique. 2) Neutron sources allow large samples, or samples containing high Z elements to be studied. 3) Applied to synchrotron sources, smaller samples may be treated, or faster measurements may be possible. Challenges and particularities in the data acquisition and processing, and the limitations of the different variants, are discussed. - Highlights: • We present a tutorial review of polychromatic diffraction contrast tomography techniques. • The use of polychromatic radiation allows the standard synchrotron DCT technique to be extended to a range of other sources. • The characteristics and limitations of all variants of the techniques are derived, discussed and compared. • Examples using laboratory X-ray and cold neutron radiation are presented. • Suggestions for the future development of these techniques are presented

  2. Contrastive topics decomposed

    Michael Wagner

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of contrastive topics introduced in Büring 1997b and further developed in Büring 2003 relies on distinguishing two types of constituents that introduce alternatives: the sentence focus, which is marked by a FOC feature, and the contrastive topic, which is marked by a CT feature. A non-compositional rule of interpretation that refers to these features is used to derive a topic semantic value, a nested set of sets of propositions. This paper presents evidence for a correlation between the restrictive syntax of nested focus operators and the syntax of contrastive topics, a correlation which is unexpected under this analysis. A compositional analysis is proposed that only makes use of the flatter focus semantic values introduced by focus operators. The analysis aims at integrating insights from the original analysis while at the same time capturing the observed syntactic restrictions. http://dx.doi.org/10.3765/sp.5.8 BibTeX info

  3. Diferenciação molecular de cultivares elites de bananeira Molecular differentiation of elite banana cultivars

    Onildo Nunes de Jesus

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar molecularmente genótipos elite, e recomendados, de bananeira, por meio de marcadores RAPD e microssatélites. Foram utilizados 47 primers de RAPD e 34 primers de microssatélites. Foi também conduzido um ensaio de contaminação, utilizando-se o primer AGMI 24-25, cuja variedade Tropical foi considerada a amostra-padrão, e as cultivares Caipira e Prata Graúda como contaminantes. Os marcadores permitiram separar as cultivares de acordo com a origem e a constituição genômica e definiram padrões moleculares para algumas cultivares avaliadas. As cultivares Garantida, Preciosa e Pacovan Ken apresentaram alta similaridade genética com ambos marcadores. O primer AGMI 24-25 demonstrou alta capacidade discriminatória de genótipos em ensaios de contaminação.The objective of this work was to characaterize elite banana genotypes, and those recommended, using RAPD and microsatellites. Forty-seven RAPD primers and 34 microsatellites primers were used. A contamination essay using the AGMI 24-25 primer was also carried out. Tropical variety was considered the standard sample and the Caipira and Prata Graúda, contaminants. Markers were able to separate the cultivars according to their origin and genomic constitution as well as defined molecular profiles for some of the cultivars evaluated. Garantida, Preciosa and Pacovan Ken cultivars presented genetic similarity with both markers. The AGMI 24-25 primer demonstrated high capacity to discriminate the genotypes in the contamination essay.

  4. Yield and combining ability of maize cultivars under different ecogeographic conditions

    Adilson Deitos

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the yield and combining ability of maize cultivars (AG4051, AL30,AL25, D270, D170, and AG1051 in contrasting environments. The trials were conducted in the growing season 2002/2003,in Viçosa, Capinópolis and Florestal, state of Minas Gerais. The effects of hybrids were significant by the F test, as well astreatments x environments, hybrid combinations x environments, and controls x environments. This indicates the possibilityof increasing the yield in these regions by capitalizing on the genotype x environment interaction, by selecting and recombiningcultivars for each site. Among the cultivars and their hybrid combinations, AG1051 and AG4051 x AL30, respectively,performed best in the mean of the three locations. The most indicated combinations for each site were: AG4051 X AL30 andAL30 X D270 in Viçosa, AG4051 X AL25 and AL30 X D170 in Florestal and, D170 x AG4051 and AL25 x D270 inCapinópolis.

  5. Bioecological aspects of Hypocala andremona (Cramer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae on persimmon cultivars = Aspectos bioecológicos de Hypocala andremona (Cramer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae em cultivares de caquizeiro

    Celso Luiz Hohmann

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The biology of Hypocala andremona (Cramer on persimmon (Diospyrus kaki L. leaves of the cultivars Atago and Giombo was studied in laboratory (27 ± 1ºC, 65 ± 10% RH, 14 hours photo period and egg distribution on plants of the cultivar Giombo in a commercial orchard, during the 2001/2002 crop season, in Londrina, Paraná state. The developmental period of larvae fed on ‘Giombo’ was longer (17.8 . 0.17 days in comparison to that of larvae fed on ‘Atago’ (15.8 . 0.27 days. In contrast, the duration of the pupal stage of insects raised on ‘Giombo’ was lower (12.0 . 0.29 days than that of insects reared on ‘Atago’ (13.3 . 0.17 days. The viabilities of larvae were 60.8 and 38.8% for insects reared on ‘Giombo’ and on ‘Atago’, respectively. Pupal viability was similar (ca. 93% between treatments. The duration of the preoviposition and incubation periods of larvae fed on ‘Atago’ were 4.0 days and 2.1 days, respectively, the fecundity 524.7 eggs, egg viability 77% and adult longevity 12.9 days. No eggs were obtained when H. andremona larvae were reared on ‘Giombo’ in laboratory. Adults preferred to lay their eggs on leaveslocated at the top of the persimmon tree canopy.A biologia de Hypocala andremona (Cramer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae foi estudada em folhas das cultivares de caquizeiro (Diospyrus kakiL. Atago e Giombo em laboratório (27 ± 1ºC, 65 ± 10% UR, 14h fotofase e a distribuição de ovos em plantas da cultivar Giombo em pomar comercial, durante o período de 2001/2002, em Londrina, Estado do Paraná. O período de desenvolvimento das lagartas alimentadas com ‘Giombo’ foi maior (17,8 . 0,17 dias em relação às alimentadas com‘Atago’ (15,8 . 0,27 dias. Entretanto, a duração do estágio de pupa de insetos criados em ‘Giombo’ foi menor (12,0 . 0,29 dias do que as criadas em ‘Atago’ (13,3 . 0,17 dias. As viabilidades das lagartas foram 60,8 e 38,8% para insetos alimentados em ‘Giombo’ e

  6. Shoot biomass of turfgrass cultivars grown on composted waste

    Roberts, Bruce R.; Kohorst, Sanford D.; Decker, Henry F.; Yaussy, Daniel

    1995-09-01

    Various cultivars of four cool-season grass types (tall fescue, fine fescue, perennial ryegrass, and Kentucky bluegrass) were seeded in 0.34-liter plastic pots containing either composted sewage sludge [Com-Til2 (CT), Soil Magic2 (SM)] or composted yard mulch (YM). Plants were grown in the greenhouse for four weeks prior to measuring shoot biomass. White most tall fescue cultivars showed more shoot growth on YM, perennial ryegrass cultivars generally grew better on SM. Cultivars of fine fescue and bluegrass grew about the same on YM or SM, and slightly less on CT. With very few exceptions, shoot biomass of individual cultivars was greater on either YM or SM than it was on CT. Within individual grass types, Pennlawn (fine fescue), Pennant (perennial ryegrass), and Victa (Kentucky bluegrass) averaged consistently better growth on all three composted media. For tall fescue, Aquara, Rebel II, and Monarch performed best on YM, SM, and CT, respectively. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals did not occur in selective samples of shoot tissues collected from the grass types used.

  7. PRELIMINARY CHARACTERIZATION OF ROMANIAN APPLE CULTIVARS AFTER COLD STORAGE

    Butac Mădălina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Eight Romanian apple (Malus domestica Borkh. cultivars (Rebra, Rustic, Bistriţean, Auriu de Bistriţa, Goldprim, Ciprian, Irisem, Redix have been studied for their post-harvest behavior and consumer acceptance in 2008. The main objectives of this study have been the characterization of some physical-chemical parameters (weight, size, firmness, and total soluble solids that influence fruit quality, before and after cold storage. Apples were submitted to normal air storage during 3 months, at 20C and 80% relative air humidity. Fruit weight varied between 182.5 g (Auriu de Bistriţa cv. and 122 g (Rustic cv.. Maximum diameter has been registered on the Auriu de Bistriţa and Rebra cultivars (85 and 80 mm, respectively, while Rustic fruit were the thinnest (65 mm. The highest level of refractometric index (18.2º Brix has been recorded in Redix fruit, moderate (16.4º Brix in Ciprian fruit and the lowest soluble solids (13.4º Brix has been acquired in apples from Rustic cultivar. Pulp firmness has been higher (5.9 kgf/cm2 in Redix fruit than in all the other cultivars under study. Ciprian cultivar seems to be of the high quality showing an attractive external appearance and promising storage behavior.

  8. Simulation of in situ Root Decomposition of Two Barley Cultivars

    Xu Jing-gang; Duan Xue-jiao; Nooralla Juma

    2014-01-01

    Root C and root-released C are closely related to soil organic matter content and mechanistic simulation modeling has proven to be useful for studying root and soil organic C dynamics in plant-soil ecosystems. A computer model was designed in this study to simulate the dynamics of root C and root released C decomposition in situ and the dynamics of different forms of C in soil under two barley cultivars (Abee and Samson). The results showed that on the 15th day, about 48%of the total 14C fixed in roots was respired for Abee and 42%for Samson. This indicated that the turnover rate of root 14C of Abee was higher than that of Samson. The percentage of water-soluble organic 14C, active microbial 14C and stable 14C over the total fixed 14C were not different between two barley cultivars. From the analysis of the model for two barley cultivars, the total 14C transformed into different soil pools (excluding CO2-C and root C pools) for the two barley cultivars was similar (26%for Abee and 25%for Samson), but the difference of 14C remaining in soil between the two barley cultivars was mainly because of the difference of 14C remaining in roots which have not been yet decomposed. Some of the information which could not be measured in the laboratory conditions was obtained in this study.

  9. Physiological quality of soybean seed cultivars by osmoconditioning

    Camilla Atsumi Zanuncio Sediyama

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Soybean cultivars present seeds of different physiological quality and they lose vigor and germinativepotential during their permanence in the field after maturity. Therefore, this study was settled toevaluate the response ability to osmotic conditioning of seeds of six soybean cultivars – Confiança,UFV-16, Splendor, Garantia, UFVS 2005 and UFV-18 – harvested at the R8 stage and 15 and 30 dayslater. The cultivars were multiplied in the field, in a randomized complete-block design, with fourreplications. The osmotic conditioning of the seeds were carried out with a polyethylene glycolsolution (PEG 6000, at -0,8 MPa, with 0.2% of Captan fungicide, at 20 °C, during 96 hours. Nonconditioned seeds were used as control. The following characteristics were evaluated: first andfinal counting on germination test; seedling emergence rate and emergence speed index in thefield; and electric conductivity. Harvest delay decreases seed germination and vigor, with differentintensity, depending on the cultivar. The osmoconditioning reduces the leaching of solutes by theseed and positively affects the seed germination and vigor of all cultivar studied, more pronouncedlywhen seeds are much more weathered.

  10. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Capacity of Three Plum Cultivars

    Sandra Voća

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition and antioxidants capacity of three plum cultivars, namely ‘Top’, ‘Elena’ and ‘Bistrica’. Fruits were harvested and following parameters were determined: dry matter, total acids (TA, total soluble solids (TSS, pH, vitamin C, total phenols, nonflavonoids and antioxidant capacity. Differences between cultivars for most of the chemical parameters were observed. The cultivar ‘Bistrica’ showed higher values of dry matter, TSS, vitamin C and pH value, while ‘Top’ had higher total acids value and lowest TSS, dry matter, vitamin C and pH. Total phenolics content varied from 157.70 mg in ‘Elena’ to 344.10 mg in ‘Bistrica’, expressed as gallic acid equivalents (GAE, on fresh weight basis. ‘Top’ contains the highest amount of non-flavonoids among cultivars studied. Therefore, ‘Bistrica’ and ‘Top’ show the highest antioxidant capacity, as well. There were significant differences between total phenolics and non-flavonoids content between ‘Elena’ and other two cultivars, while antioxidant capacity showed no significant difference (p ≤ 0.05. Total antioxidant capacity of fruits ranged from 3.10 mmol/kg in ‘Elena’ to 3.17 mmol/kg in ‘Top’ and ‘Bistrica’.

  11. Influence of Subtropical Region Strawberry Cultivars on Jelly Characteristics.

    Curi, Paula Nogueira; de Sousa Tavares, Bruna; de Almeida, Aline Botelho; Pio, Rafael; Peche, Pedro Maranha; de Souza, Vanessa Rios

    2016-06-01

    At the end of the production period of strawberries grown in subtropical regions, postharvest durability is severely diminished due to rising temperatures which compromises the commercialization of fresh fruit. An ideal option would be to process strawberries in the form of preserves, jams, and jellies. Along this line it becomes extremely important to conduct a survey of which cultivars grown in subtropical regions are more suitable for processing in the form of jelly, as well as to understand what the consumer profile is for this product. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of different strawberry cultivars grown in subtropical regions of Brazil (Camarosa, Festival, San Andreas, Oso Grande, Camino Real, and Albion) on the physicochemical characteristics, rheological properties and sensory acceptance of the resulting jelly in order to identify cultivars with the greatest potential for industrial use. The strawberry cultivars presented different physicochemical characteristics which resulted in jellies with different physicochemical and rheological characteristics. In this study, however, we verified that all cultivars have potential to be processed in the form of jelly due to good acceptance of all formulations prepared. In general consumers prefer a lighter-colored strawberry jelly, with a less intense red color, more acidic, and less consistent/firm. PMID:27115540

  12. Qualidade de cultivares de alface produzidos em hidroponia Quality of lettuce cultivars grown in hydroponic solution

    Silvana Ohse

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi determinar a composição centesimal de seis cultivares de alface (Aurora, Brisa, Lívia, Mimosa, Regina e Verônica utilizando quatro soluções nutritivas em Santa Maria, RS. Foi utilizado o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado com parcelas subdivididas. O experimento constou de oito bancadas, duas para cada solução nutritiva, sendo que cada bancada continha seis canais, um para cada cultivar. O espaçamento utilizado foi 0,18 m entre canais e 0,25 m entre plantas no canal. A solução Ueda, por ter concentração de nutrientes inicial baixa e por essa não ter sido mantida, apresentou maior produção de massa de matéria seca, valor calórico, teores de extrato etéreo e de fibras, depreciando a qualidade do produto final. A alface sob hidroponia (soluções Castellane-Araújo, Furlani e Bernardes é um alimento altamente saudável por manter ou melhorar sua composição centesimal (teores de proteína, extrato etéreo, fibra e resíduo mineral quando comparada com a cultivada no solo, e por ser um produto de baixo valor calórico.The purpose of this research was to define the centesimal composition of six lettuce cultivars (Aurora, Brisa, Lívia, Mimosa, Regina and Verônica using four nutrient solutions. The experimental design was carried out in Santa Maria, RS, Brazil, consisting of entirely randomized subdivided parcels. The used spacing was 0.18 m between array and 0.25 m among plants. It was observed that the Ueda solution should not be used for the lettuce production in NFT system, due to the high dry mass production and, consequently, high caloric value, content of lipids and fibers, depreciating the quality of the final product, in spite of its low nitrate content. The lettuce production in the NFT system using the Castellane-Araújo, Furlani and Bernardes solutions maintained the nutricional quality (protein, ethereal extract and fiber, mineral residue contents equivalent to the

  13. Desempenho agronômico de quatro cultivares de almeirão Agronomic performance of four chicory cultivars

    Franciele dos Santos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Na literatura são escassas as informações sobre as principais cultivares de almeirão (Cichorium intybus cultivadas no Brasil. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho agronômico de cultivares de almeirão na região de Campinas-SP. As cultivares avaliadas foram Catalonha, Folha Amarela, Folha Larga e Pão-de-Açúcar, em experimento realizado em canteiros no Centro Experimental Central do Instituto Agronômico, de dezembro de 2009 a janeiro de 2010 com mudas transplantadas. O delineamento experimental no campo foi inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Aos 50 dias após o transplante foram avaliadas cinco plantas de cada parcela quanto à altura, número de folhas, massa fresca e seca, e em duas dessas plantas avaliou-se a área foliar. Foi avaliado, também, o sabor, com e sem tempero, por seis provadores. As cultivares apresentaram diferenças significativas em relação à altura das plantas, área foliar e sabor. 'Pão-de-Açúcar' apresentou em magnitude maior rendimento agronômico (516,0 g planta-1, seguida pela 'Folha Amarela' (432,7 g planta-1. Esta constitui-se em uma alternativa para o mercado, uma vez que apresenta desempenho semelhante ao das principais cultivares de almeirão comercializadas no Estado de São Paulo.In the literature there is little information about the main chicory cultivars (Cichorium intybus grown in Brazil. The present paper aims to evaluate the agronomic performance of the chicory cultivars in the region of Campinas, São Paulo state, Brazil. Catalonha, Folha Amarela, Folha Larga and Pão-de-Açúcar cultivars were evaluated, in an experiment carried out in field conditions in the Experimental Center of the Instituto Agronômico, from December 2009 to January 2010. The experimental design was completely randomized, with 4 replications. At 50 days after transplanting five plants of each plot were evaluated for the height, leaf number, fresh and dry weight and two of these plants

  14. Resposta de cultivares de arroz-de-sequeiro à calagem Upland rice cultivars response to liming

    AILDSON PEREIRA DUARTE; RACHEL BENETTI QUEIROZ-VOLTAN; PEDRO ROBERTO FURLANI; RICARDO AUGUSTO DIAS KANTHACK

    1999-01-01

    Desenvolveu-se um experimento de campo, em Assis (SP), em areia quartzosa com capacidade de troca de cátions igual a 35 mmol c.dm-3 e 9% de saturação por bases. Estudou-se a resposta dos cultivares de arroz-de-sequeiro (Oryza sativa L.) IAC 25, IAC 47, IAC 165 e Araguaia às doses 0, 2, 4 e 6 t.ha-1 de calcário dolomítico e 2 t.ha-1 de calcítico. O calcário foi aplicado em outubro de 1991 e as avaliações, realizadas no ano agrícola 1992/93. Aos 20 dias da emergência das plantas, amostrou-se a ...

  15. Apple tree production in Italy: rootstocks, cultivars, fertilization, and irrigation

    Giovambattista Sorrenti

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Italy is one of the main apple producers in Europe, primarily intended for fresh consumption, both in the domestic and foreign markets. Fruit yield and quality depends on the cultivar, rootstock, and management practices, such as the fertilization and irrigation adopted in the orchard. This review aims at reporting the main apple cultivars and rootstocks, the management of fertilization and irrigation, as well as their adaptation to apple tree orchards in Italy. The programs for genetic improvement carried out in this country involved the selection of apple tree cultivars and rootstocks which enable a high fruit yield and quality, in order to meet the requirements from the consumer market. In the fertilization and irrigation management, nutrients and water are supplied in amounts next to the actual need of the plants, providing an adequate nutrition, a satisfactory yield, and high quality fruits, besides preventing, whenever possible, nutrients and water losses in the environment.

  16. Irradiation sensitivity of 6 cultivars in euphorbia pulcherrima

    The cuttings seedlings of 6 Euphorbia pulcherrima cultivars were irradiated by 60Co γ-rays, and the effects on the survival rate and plant growth were investigated, the regression models were used to analyze relationship between the characters change and doses. The results showed that the growth of Euphorbia pulcherrima decreased after irradiation and the effect became stronger with the increase of irradiation dose. The indexes of survival rate, plant height, leaf length, leaf width and leaf area all had significant negative correlation with the irradiation doses. The medial lethal doses (LD50) of 6 Euphorbia pulcherrima cultivars were from 21.94 Gy to 28.71 Gy, and the radiosensitivity was different among cultivars. (authors)

  17. Six cultivars of Solanum macrocarpon (Solanaceae in Ghana

    Z. R. Bukenya

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available The  Solanum macrocarpon complex (the cultivated egg plant has been studied in Ghana using morphological and experimental methods. Six cultivars belonging to the S.  macrocarpon complex have been recognized and described. The cultivars are  S. macrocarpon ‘Gboma’,  S. macrocarpon ‘Mankessim’,  S. macrocarpon ‘Akwaseho’,  S. macrocarpon ‘Kade’,  S. macrocarpon ‘Sarpeiman’ and  S. macrocarpon ‘Bui’. The very spiny, hairy plant traditionally called S. dasyphyllum is regarded as the wild ancestor from which the cultivars have been derived through a process of crop evolution. The variation within S. macrocarpon complex is attributable to genotypic differences and environmental factors.

  18. Evaluation of fruit leather made from two cultivars of papaya

    ZUHAIR RADHI ADDAI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Two papaya cultivars were used to manufacture fruit leather. The objective of this study was to formulate papaya leather from locally grown papaya using natural ingredients like pectin, honey and citric acid. The fresh fruits were pureed and mix with natural ingredients, and dried in an oven at 60°C for 12 hours. The physicochemical properties and antioxidant activity were determined.The results showed that fruit leather made from Hongkong cultivar is significantly (P<0.05 higher in sensory parameters as well as physicochemical properties and antioxidant activity. The phenolics content and antioxidant activity increased by process of drying the fruit leather compared to fresh fruits in both papaya cultivars. Therefore, the consumer requirements for healthy and safe food products were respected.

  19. Comportamento de cultivares de cafeeiros C. Arabica L. enxertados sobre cultivar 'Apoatã IAC 2258' (Coffea canephora Performance of C. Arabica L. Coffee cultivars grafted on 'Apoatã IAC 2258' cultivar (Coffea canephora

    Renato Fonseca de Paiva

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se no trabalho avaliar a influência da enxertia e do porta-enxerto 'Apoatã IAC 2258' no comportamento agronômico de sete cultivares de cafeeiro da espécie Coffea arabica cultivadas em solo isento de fitonematoides. O ensaio foi conduzido em delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados em esquema fatorial (7 x 3 com quatro repetições, sendo sete cultivares de Coffea arabica ('Obatã IAC 1669-20', 'Acauã', 'Oeiras MG 6851', 'Catucaí Amarelo 2SL', 'Topázio MG 1190', 'IBC Palma II' e 'Paraíso MG H 419-1' e três tipos de enxertia (muda enxertada, auto enxertada e pé franco. Foi avaliada a produtividade média de quatro anos, uniformidade de maturação, percentagem de frutos chochos e classificação do grão por tipo de peneira. As cultivares enxertadas estudadas apresentaram comportamento agronômico satisfatório em todas as características avaliadas e semelhante ao pé-franco. Em áreas isentas de fitonematoides, à exceção das cultivares 'IBC Palma II' e 'Paraíso MG H 419-1', as demais cultivares estudadas são adequadas opções de escolha para uso como copas. A técnica da enxertia com o uso do porta-enxerto 'Apoatã IAC 2258' em área isenta de fitonematoides não se justifica para incremento de produtividade.This research had the objective to evaluate the effect of grafting and 'Apoatã IAC 2258' cv. as rootstock on agronomic performance of seven Coffea arabica cvs. planted in area nematodes free. The experimental design was randomized blocks using a 7x3 factorial scheme with four repetitions. The treatments were 'Obatã IAC 1669-20', 'Acauã', 'Oeiras MG 6851', 'Catucaí Amarelo 2SL', 'Topázio MG 1190', 'IBC Palma II' and 'Paraíso MG H 419-1' coffee cultivars grafted on 'Apoatã IAC 2258', self grafted (meaning a cultivar was grafted on a rootstock of the same cultivar and no grafting. The characteristic evaluated was the average yield of beans between the first and the fourth year, the fruit maturation stage

  20. Karyomorphological Studies on Chinese Pot Chrysanthemum Cultivars with Large Inflorescences

    LI Chang; CHEN Su-mei; CHEN Fa-di; LI Zhen; FANG Wei-min

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we reported the karyotypes of 30 Chinese large flowered pot chrysanthemum cultivars, differing with respect to flower type, petal type, and flower colour. The interphase nuclei and prophase chromosomes of all the cultivars are, respectively, of the complex chromocentre and the interstitial type. Somatic chromosome number varies from 49 to 62, mostly falling in the range 51-56 or 58. Most of the cultivars are chromosomal mosaics, with three showing 2n=6x=54, and two 2n+1=6x+1=55. At mitotic metaphase, most of the chromosomes are of the metacentric or submetacentric type, with a small number of acrocentrics and telocentrics. B chromosome (s) are present in about 22% of the entireties. The asymmetry index of the chromosomes ranges between 61 and 66%. The karyotypes can be categorized as reversely symmetrical types "2A" or "2B".

  1. Identification of zygotic and nucellar seedlings in polyembryonic mango cultivars

    Elisa del Carmen Martínez Ochoa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the occurrence of polyembryony in the mango cultivars Manila and Ataulfo, and to determine whether seedlings cultured in vitro are zygotic or nucelar. Percentage of polyembryony was calculated and the number of embryos in 100 seeds of each cultivar was recorded. 'Manila' exhibited 97% polyembryony with 3.4 embryos per seed, while 'Ataulfo' had 95% polyembryony with 3.2 embryos per seed. Later, 20 seeds of each cultivar were established in vitro, and it was analyzed those in which all embryos germinated (12 seeds from 'Manila' and 7 from 'Ataulfo'. DNA was extracted from seedling leaf tissue, and its origin was identified with 14 RAPD primers. The polymorphic markers recognized the seedlings of sexual origin in seven of nine 'Manila' polyembryonic seeds, and in four of seven 'Ataulfo' ones. Also, in polyembryonic seeds not all zygotic seedlings were produced by small embryos located at the micropyle.

  2. Bagasse production potential from late sugar cane cultivars; Potencial produtivo de bagaco por cultivares tardios de cana-de-acucar

    Silva, Tulibio F. da; Silva Neto, Helio F. da; Tasso Junior, Luiz C.; Marques, Diogo; Marques, Marcos O. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCAV/UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias], E-mail: tulibio_fernandes@yahoo.com.br

    2010-07-01

    In order to diversify energy sources, the residue of sugarcane gathers attributes that qualify its use. Therefore, this study was to evaluate the potential of bagasse production in late cultivars of sugarcane. The experimental design was a randomized block design with 6 treatments (cultivars) and 3 replications. The experiment was carried out at FCAV/UNESP Jaboticabal. To calculate the productivity, it was counted the number of stems in a row linear meter, it was obtained the weight of stems. The percentage of fiber for each cultivar was determined by a calculation of estimated production and productivity of mulch. Using these values to estimate the number of people who would benefit from the energy generated from the combustion of bagasse in a process of cogeneration power. The results were submitted to analysis of variance by F test and averages compared by Tukey test at 5% probability. Cultivars RB867515, RB72454 and CTC6 showed the best performance, indicating its greater potential for power cogeneration. Cultivars CTC IAC94-2 and 2101 were lower when considering the results obtained. (author)

  3. Identificação de cultivares de trigo pelo teste de fenol Cultivars identification of wheat by phenol test

    Nilson Lemos de Menezes

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available O teste de fenol é recomendado para a identificação de cultivares de trigo em laboratório e se baseia na reação de compostos presentes no pericarpo das sementes. Devido à reação constante para cada cultivar, o teste serve para caracterização rápida e fácil de materiais com reações diferentes. No presente trabalho, com o objetivo de facilitar a identificação varietal em trigo, determinou-se a reação ao fenol de 42 cultivares, que estiveram ou estão em recomendação no Brasil.The phenol test is recommended for wheat cultivar identification and is based on the reaction of compounds present in the seeds pericarp. Due to the constant reaction for each cultivar, the test may be used for a rapid and easy characterization of different reactions materiais. In this essay, the phenol reaction was determined in 42 brazilian wheat varieties aiming to facilitate its identification.

  4. A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor DvIVS determines flower color intensity in cyanic dahlia cultivars.

    Ohno, Sho; Deguchi, Ayumi; Hosokawa, Munetaka; Tatsuzawa, Fumi; Doi, Motoaki

    2013-01-01

    The study was aimed to identify the factors that regulate the intensity of flower color in cyanic dahlia (Dahlia variabilis), using fifteen cultivars with different color intensities in their petals. The cultivars were classified into three groups based on their flavonoid composition: ivory white cultivars with flavones; purple and pink cultivars with flavones and anthocyanins; and red cultivars with flavones, anthocyanins, and chalcones. Among the purple, pink, and ivory white cultivars, an ...

  5. Double-contrast enema

    A solid state digital system (FCR 101) was employed in our comparative evaluation of the image quality of conventional versus digital techniques in the study of colon by means of double-contrast enema. Sixty patients were examined with a single AP view, using digital radiography with 100% radiation dose and progressive 50% and 75% reductions; the radiographs thus obtained were then compared with the corresponding conventional ones. The examined parameters were organ profile and mucosal pattern. Each digital and conventional radiographs was evaluated by 2 independent radiologists and a value is given to each parameter i.e., 1=good, 2=sufficient, 3=insufficient. Upon comparison of the average values obtained for digital and conventional radiographs in optimal conditions and with a dose reduced by 50%, the digital technique was seen to give a more detailed and accurate representation of both low-contrast mucosal pattern and of organ profile. With the dose reduced by 75%, a slight increase was observed in background noise which caused a slight loss in image definition, but this did not reduce image readability with respect to conventional radiographs. To conclude, the digital method with a 50% exposure reduction is to be preferred in the examination of the colon, especially in pediatric radiology; furthermore, since this technique allows better detailing at lower contrast, it is ot be preferred in the study of the pathologic conditions affecting mainly/only the mucosal pattern-e.g., cancer, ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, and so on. An exposure dose reduced by 75% may be used for following lesions previously diagnosed and when a less detailed depiction of the mucosal pattern is enough

  6. Contrast media in intussusception

    Pediatric radiologists in 40 children's hospitals in North America were interviewed to determine their choice of contrast media in the diagnosis and treatment of intussusception. The respondents indicated that barium was utilized in the vast majority of instances. Almost all indicated that they would proceed with barium enema even if there is unequivocal evidence of small bowel obstruction on the plain film examination. In over 14,000 cases of intussusception, there were 55 perforations, an incidence of approximately 1 in 250. The perforations in general were well tolerated, although there was one death. (orig.)

  7. Contrastive discourse studies

    Clyne, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Le discours est un aspect essentiel du langage. Mais cet aspect est lié plus étroitement aux valeurs culturelles. Cet article présente les études contrastives du discours, comment elles ont été menées et les difficultés possibles dans les techniques de collection de données. Une typologie comparative des discours peut se développer au-delà de la typologie grammaticale. Parmi les applications du discours contrastif sont la formation interculturelle et l’enseignement des langues étrangères. ...

  8. Biological studies of Oligonychus punicae (Acari: Tetranychidae) on grapevine cultivars.

    Vásquez, Carlos; Aponte, Orlando; Morales, José; Sanabria, María E; García, Grisaly

    2008-06-01

    Life cycle, fecundity and longevity of the avocado brown mite, Oligonychus punicae (Hirst), were studied on six grapevine cultivars (Tucupita, Villanueva, Red Globe, Sirah, Sauvignon and Chenin Blanc), under laboratory conditions at 27 +/- 2 degrees C, 80 +/- 10% RH, and L12:D12 photoperiod. Mite-infested leaves were collected from vineyards, placed in paper bags and taken to the laboratory. A laboratory mite culture was established using the grape cultivar Criolla Negra as host plant. To elucidate potential effects on avocado brown mite parameters, we assessed levels of secondary metabolites, such as alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins and polyphenols, of leaves of the six grape cultivars, as well as the thickness of the adaxial cuticle-epidermis. The life cycle of O. punicae differed among cultivars with average values ranging between 8.2 days on Tucupita leaves and 9.1 days on Sirah. Relatively high fecundity was found on Tucupita leaves (2.8 eggs/female/day) during 11.4 oviposition days, while low fecundity values occurred on Sirah and Villanueva leaves, with 0.9 and 1.8 eggs/female/day during 7.9 and 6.7 days, respectively. Average longevity of O. punicae females ranged from 8.1 to 17.5 days on Sirah and Sauvignon leaves, respectively. Intrinsic rate of increase (r (m)) was highest on Sauvignon (0.292) and Tucupita (0.261), and lowest on Sirah (0.146) and Villanueva (0.135). Although significant differences in cuticle-epidermis thickness were detected among the six cultivars, it seemed not to affect mite parameters. Secondary metabolite content also varied between the cultivars. Generally, increasing flavonoid content coincided with decreasing reproductive parameters. The natural plant resistance observed in this study could be useful in the development of an integrated pest management program for mite pests in grape production. PMID:18483791

  9. Common bean cultivars and lines interactions with environments

    Carbonell Sérgio Augusto Morais

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of bean lines brought forth in breeding programs or of cultivars in use can be affected by environmental variability. The adaptability and stability of grain yield of 18 common bean cultivars and lines in 23 environments (combinations of seasons, years and locations were evaluated in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. 'IAC-Carioca' and 'IAC-Carioca Eté' were used as standard cultivars for the carioca grain type, while 'FT-Nobre' and 'IAC-Una' represented the standard for black grains. The experiment was set up in a randomized complete block design with four replications and plots consisting of two, two central five meters rows flanked by border rows. Stability parameters were estimated by the methods Maximum Yield Deviations (MYD and by the Additive Main Effects and Multiplicative Interaction Analysis (AMMI. For the identification of the most stable cultivars, the two methods led to consistent results, although by MYD the highest stability was always associated to the highest yield. 'MAC-733327' and 'LP 9637' were the most suitable cultivars and lines for the joint seasons, while 'LP 9637' and 'FT-Nobre' were the most suitable for the dry season. The MYD method combined a simple procedure, easiness of result interpretation, uniqueness of parameters, and association between stability and yield. On the other hand, the AMMI method simplified the identification of stable cultivars by visual inspection, also providing information on the environments. However, the complex nature which combines uni-and multivariate techniques hampers its widespread use in breeding programs.

  10. Analysis of karyotype diversity of 40 Chinese chrysanthemum cultivars

    Yuan ZHANG; Ming-Li ZHU; Si-Lan DAI

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the genetic differences in Chinese large-flowered chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum×morifolium Ramat.) cultivars,we selected 40 typical and stable cultivars on which to carry out cytological studies using karyotype analysis.The results showed that 67.5% of these cultivars were hexaploid-based aneuploid and that the proportion of hexaploid decreased with passing time.Moreover,35% of the cultivars had 1-4 satellite chromosome(s).The probability of satellite chromosomes rose with increasing chromosome number.Most of the karyotypes were 2A and 2B.The probability of types 2A and 2C also increased with increasing ploidy of the cultivars.The mean of long-/short-arm ratio and the variation of long-/short-ann ratio were positively correlated (r2 =0.72).There was no obvious difference in the asymmetry coefficient of karyotypes,but the discrepancy in the variance of karyotype asymmetry index and relative length of chromosomes was quite distinct.In terms ofkaryotype parameters,the petal types of chrysanthemums were classified to five groups as flat,tubular,spoon,abnormal,and anemone.We did not observe any obvious orderliness among flower head types.Considering the relationship between karyotype parameters and phenotypic characters,variation of long-/short-arm ratio and asymmetry coefficient ofkaryotypes had the greatest relevance toward most phenotypic characters.The above results indicate that karyotype parameters possess great values for cultivar identification,classification,and genetic analysis in chrysanthemums.

  11. Root tip chromosome karyotype analysis of hyacinth cultivars.

    Hu, F R; Liu, H H; Wang, F; Bao, R L; Liu, G X

    2015-01-01

    Karyotype analysis in plants helps to reveal the affinity relationships of species and their genetic evolution. The current study aimed to observe chromosome karyotypes and structures of Hyacinthus orientalis. Twenty hyacinth cultivars were introduced from Holland, and their water-cultivated root tips were used as experimental samples. A solution of colchicine (0.02%) and 8-hydroxyquinoline (0.02 M) was used as a 20-h pre-treatment. Subsequently, Carnot I was used for fixation and 45% acetic acid was used for dissociation. The squash method was selected to prepare chromosome spreads for microscopic observation. The basic chromosome number of the hyacinth cultivar was 8, and the number of chromosomes in the diploid, triploid, tetraploid, and aneuploid cultivars was 16, 23, 24, 31, and 32, respectively. The L-type chromosome was predominant in the chromosomal composition. The hyacinth satellite was located on the short arm in numbers equivalent to the ploidy. This satellite is located on the middle-sized chromosome in the fourth group of chromosomes, demonstrating that Hyacinthus has a more primitive evolution than Lilium and Polygonatum. Among 20 hyacinth cultivars, 'Fondant' had the highest level of evolution and a maximum asymmetric coefficient of 61.69%. Moreover, the ratio between the shortest and longest chromosomes in this cultivar was 4.40, and its karyotype was type 2C. This study may elucidate long-term homonym and synonym phenomena. It may also provide a method of cytological identification as well as direct proof of the high outcross compatibility between hyacinth cultivars. PMID:26400314

  12. Genetic diversity assessed by microsatellite markers in sweet corn cultivars

    Ana Daniela Lopes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Information on genetic diversity is essential to the characterization and utilization of germplasm. The genetic diversity of twenty-two sweet corn cultivars (seventeen open-pollinated varieties, OPV, and five hybrids, H was investigated by applying simple sequence repeat markers. A total of 257 primers were tested, of which 160 were found to be usable in terms of high reproducibility for all the samples tested; 45 were polymorphic loci, of which 30 were used to assess the genetic diversity of sweet corn cultivars. We detected a total of 86 alleles using 30 microsatellite primers. The mean polymorphism was 82 %. The highest heterozygosity values (Ho = 0.20 were found in the PR030-Doce Flor da Serra and BR427 III OPVs, whereas the lowest values (0.14 were recorded in the MG161-Branco Doce and Doce Cubano OPVs. The polymorphism information content ranged from 0.19 (Umc2319 to 0.71 (Umc2205. The analysis of molecular variance revealed that most of the genetic variability was concentrated within the cultivars of sweet corn (75 %, with less variability between them (25 %. The consensus tree derived from the neighbor-joining (NJ algorithm using 1,000 bootstrapping replicates revealed seven genetically different groups. Nei’s diversity values varied between 0.103 (Doce do Hawai × CNPH-1 cultivars and 0.645 (Amarelo Doce × Lili cultivars, indicating a narrow genetic basis. The Lili hybrid was the most distant cultivar, as revealed by Principal Coordinates Analysis and the NJ tree. This study on genetic diversity will be useful for planning future studies on sweet corn genetic resources and can complement the breeding programs for this crop.

  13. The Stomata Density of Pistachio Cultivars on Different Pistacia Rootstocks

    ÇAĞLAR, Semih

    1998-01-01

    In this study, the stomata density of some pistachio cultivars such as Uzun, Kırmızı, Halebi, Siirt and Ohadi on P. vera, P. atlantica and P. khinjuk rootstocks were determined. Stomata density of leaves from the north side were higher than those of the south sides of trees. The stomata numbers per unit area on the abaxial side of leaves ranged from 114 to 151, and on the adaxial side of leaves from 171 to 221. The stomata densities of both side of leaves were affected by cultivars and rootst...

  14. Nutritive value evaluated on rats of new cultivars of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) released in Chile.

    Yañez, E; Zacarias, I; Aguayo, M; Vasquez, M; Guzman, E

    1995-06-01

    Five new cultivars of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) recently released were analyzed for their proximate chemical composition and protein biological quality. The crude protein content in these cultivars ranged from 21.9 percent in cultivar Arroz 3 to 26.9 percent in cultivar Tórtola Diana (dry matter basis). Rats fed cultivar Tórtola INIA gained more weight, had a higher protein intake and registered higher PER and NPR than Tórtola corriente. On the other hand, rats consuming cultivars Arroz 3 and Fleetwood had lower weight gain, lower protein intake and lower PER and NPR than cultivar Coscorrón corriente. However, all these cultivars have a relatively good protein value as compared to other plant protein sources. PMID:8577647

  15. Comparison of foliar anatomy of ten bread wheat (triticum, poaceae) and ten barley (hordeum, poaceae) cultivars

    The aim of this study is to determine anatomical differences and classification of leaf and leaf cell characteristics (cuticle thickness, upper epidermis thickness, lower epidermis thickness, mesophyll thickness, parenchyma thickness and leaf thickness) between 10 bread wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) and 10 barley cultivars (Hordeum vulgare L.). Classification of leaf characteristics in bread wheat and barley cultivars and relationship between leaf characteristics are made by principal component and correlation analyses. Highest thickness belongs to W8 Mufitbey cultivar in mesophyll and lower epidermis and W1 Sonmez 01 cultivar have the lowest thickness of upper epidermis in bread wheat. In Barley, B1 Ince cultivar has highest leaf thickness mesophyll and parenchyma; lowest thickness of cuticle is included B7 Cumhuriyet 50 cultivar. All other cultivars have homogenous contents of leaf characteristics. (author)

  16. Biochemical and Physiological Changes of Three Watermelon Cultivars Infested with Fusarium oxysporum f. Sp.niveum

    WANG Jian-ming; HAO Chi; GUO Chun-rong; ZHANG Zuo-gang; HE Yun-chun

    2002-01-01

    The dynamic changes in membrane permeability, activities of disease-related enzymes, and contents of pathogenesis-relevant chemical compounds and photosynthetic pigments in root cells of three watermelon cultivars were studied after inoculation with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum at seedling stage. The results showed that the capacity of self-regulating and returning to normal status of cultivar Kelunsheng (resistant) was greater than that of a susceptible cultivar, Zaohua, in terms of malonaldehyde (MDA) content, relative conductivity, and activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). The resistant cultivar maintained a higher activity of dehydrogenase, higher content of vitamin C(Vc), and relatively lower content of soluble sugar than the susceptible cultivar. The content of soluble protein was higher in the resistant cultivar than that in the susceptible one at day 1 after inoculation. The capacities of the resistant cultivar to inhibit chlorophyll deterioration and maintain a higher carotenoid content were significantly stronger than those of the susceptible cultivar.

  17. Synonyms and homonyms of Malvasia cultivars (Vitis vinifera L.) existing in Spain

    Rodriguez Torres, I.; Ibanez, J.; Andres, M. T. de; Rubio, C.; Borrego, J.; Cabello, F.; Zerolo, J.; Munoz Organero, G.

    2009-07-01

    Malvasia is a common name for different grape cultivars that have long been grown in Spain. In many cases, these cultivars are noted as being aromatic, sweet, and similar to Muscat in flavour. However, not all grapes that share this name exhibit these characteristics. This study compares the Malvasia cultivars in the Spanish Denominations of Origin with those grape cultivars grown in the grapevine collection of El Encin (Alcala de Henares, Spain) using morphological, iso enzymatic, and micro satellite analysis as well as a large bibliographic search of the studied cultivars. Despite their Malvasia denomination, some cultivars have been identified as synonyms of Macabeo, Alarije, Dona Blanca, Chasselas, or Planta Nova, all included on the official Spanish list of commercial grape cultivars. Malvasia de Sitges and Malvasia de Lanzarote have the characteristic flavour of Malvasia grapes and no synonyms were found among the cultivars grown in Spain, whereas Malvasia Rosada resulted from a colour mutation in Malvasia de Sitges. (Author) 26 refs.

  18. Contributions of cultivar shift, management practice and climate change to maize yield in North China Plain in 1981-2009

    Xiao, Dengpan; Tao, Fulu

    2016-07-01

    The impact of climate change on crop yield is compounded by cultivar shifts and agronomic management practices. To determine the relative contributions of climate change, cultivar shift, and management practice to changes in maize ( Zea mays L.) yield in the past three decades, detailed field data for 1981-2009 from four representative experimental stations in North China Plain (NCP) were analyzed via model simulation. The four representative experimental stations are geographically and climatologically different, represent the typical cropping system in the study area, and have more complete weather/crop records for the period of 1981-2009. The results showed that while the shift from traditional to modern cultivar increased yield by 23.9-40.3 %, new fertilizer management increased yield by 3.3-8.6 %. However, the trends in climate variables for 1981-2009 reduced maize yield by 15-30 % in the study area. Among the main climate variables, solar radiation had the largest effect on maize yield, followed by temperature and then precipitation. While a significant decline in solar radiation in 1981-2009 (maybe due to air pollution) reduced yield by 12-24 %, a significant increase in temperature reduced yield by 3-9 %. In contrast, a non-significant increase in precipitation during the maize growth period increased yield by 0.9-3 % at three of the four investigated stations. However, a decline in precipitation reduced yield by 3 % in the remaining station. The study revealed that although the shift from traditional to modern cultivars and agronomic management practices contributed most to the increase in maize yield, the negative impact of climate change was large enough to offset 46-67 % of the trend in the observed yields in the past three decades in NCP. The reduction in solar radiation, especially in the most critical period of maize growth, limited the process of photosynthesis and thereby further reduced maize yield.

  19. Histology and Ultrastructure of Incompatible Combination Between Puccinia striiformis and Wheat Cultivars with Low Reaction Type Resistance

    KANG Zhen-sheng; WANG Yao; HUANG Li-li; WEI Guo-rong; ZHAO Jie

    2003-01-01

    The incompatible combinations between races of Puccinia striiformis and wheat cuitivars withlow reaction type resistance were examined by means of fluorescent microscopy, differential interference con-trast microscopy and electron microscopy. The incompatible combinations consisted of wheat cultivar Niuzhuteplus CY28, Hybrid46 plus CY29 and Tianxuan882 plus CY29, while the compatible combination was wheatcultivar Huixianhong plus CY28. The observation revealed a striking difference in the fungal development andthe host responses between susceptible and resistant wheat cuitivars following infection by the pathogen. Themain histological manifestation of the pathogen development in the resistant wheat cultivars include inhibitionof hyphal growth, delay of hyphal branching and colony formation, decrease of formation of haustorial mothercells and haustoria, and occurrence of host cell necrosis. The observation by electron microscopy demonstratedthat a series of abnormal changes occurred in intercellular hyphae, haustorial mother cells and haustoria dur-ing pathogen development in the resistant wheat cultivars. The cytoplasm became more electron-dense and vac-uoles in the cytoplasm increased in number and size. The cell walls of hyphae, haustorial mother cells werethickened irregularly. The organeiles were disorderly distributed in the cytoplasm and the haustorial mothercells and haustoria lost their physiological function. In the final stage of the pathogen development, the inter-cellular hyphae, haustorial mother cells and haustoria became necrotic and collapsed. The structural defensereactions such as formation of cell wall apposition, collar and encasement of haustorium were essentially morepronounced in the infected wheat leaves of the resistant cultivars than in the susceptible one. In addition, therelationship between the host resistance expression and the histological and cytological features occurred in theincompatible combination was discussed in this paper.

  20. Allelic variations in Glu-1 and Glu-3 loci of historical and modern Iranian bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars

    Ali Izadi-Darbandi; Bahman Yazdi-Samadi; Ali-Akbar Su-Boushehri; Mohsen Mohammadi

    2010-08-01

    Proline and glutamine-rich wheat seed endosperm proteins are collectively referred to as prolamins. They are comprised of HMW-GSs, LMW-GSs and gliadins. HMW-GSs are major determinants of gluten elasticity and LMW-GSs considerably affect dough extensibility and maximum dough resistance. The inheritance of glutenin subunits follows Mendelian genetics with multiple alleles in each locus. Identification of the banding patterns of glutenin subunits could be used as an estimate for screening high quality wheat germplasm. Here, by means of a two-step 1D-SDS-PAGE procedure, we identified the allelic variations in high and low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits in 65 hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars representing a historical trend in the cultivars introduced or released in Iran from the years 1940 to 1990. Distinct alleles 17 and 19 were detected for Glu-1 and Glu-3 loci, respectively. The allelic frequencies at the Glu-1 loci demonstrated unimodal distributions. At Glu-A1, Glu-B1 and Glu-D1, we found that the most frequent alleles were the null, 7 + 8, 2 + 12 alleles, respectively, in Iranian wheat cultivars. In contrast, Glu-3 loci showed bimodal or trimodal distributions. At Glu-A3, the most frequent alleles were c and e. At Glu-B3 the most frequent alleles were a, b and c. At Glu-D3 locus, the alleles b and a, were the most and the second most frequent alleles in Iranian wheat cultivars. This led to a significantly higher Nei coefficient of genetic variations in Glu-3 loci (0.756) as compared to Glu-1 loci (0.547). At Glu-3 loci, we observed relatively high quality alleles in Glu-A3 and Glu-D3 loci and low quality alleles at Glu-B3 locus.

  1. Contributions of cultivar shift, management practice and climate change to maize yield in North China Plain in 1981-2009

    Xiao, Dengpan; Tao, Fulu

    2015-11-01

    The impact of climate change on crop yield is compounded by cultivar shifts and agronomic management practices. To determine the relative contributions of climate change, cultivar shift, and management practice to changes in maize (Zea mays L.) yield in the past three decades, detailed field data for 1981-2009 from four representative experimental stations in North China Plain (NCP) were analyzed via model simulation. The four representative experimental stations are geographically and climatologically different, represent the typical cropping system in the study area, and have more complete weather/crop records for the period of 1981-2009. The results showed that while the shift from traditional to modern cultivar increased yield by 23.9-40.3 %, new fertilizer management increased yield by 3.3-8.6 %. However, the trends in climate variables for 1981-2009 reduced maize yield by 15-30 % in the study area. Among the main climate variables, solar radiation had the largest effect on maize yield, followed by temperature and then precipitation. While a significant decline in solar radiation in 1981-2009 (maybe due to air pollution) reduced yield by 12-24 %, a significant increase in temperature reduced yield by 3-9 %. In contrast, a non-significant increase in precipitation during the maize growth period increased yield by 0.9-3 % at three of the four investigated stations. However, a decline in precipitation reduced yield by 3 % in the remaining station. The study revealed that although the shift from traditional to modern cultivars and agronomic management practices contributed most to the increase in maize yield, the negative impact of climate change was large enough to offset 46-67 % of the trend in the observed yields in the past three decades in NCP. The reduction in solar radiation, especially in the most critical period of maize growth, limited the process of photosynthesis and thereby further reduced maize yield.

  2. Intestinal contrasting in abdominal CT

    In 56 patients undergoing abdominal CT the gastro-intestinal tract was defined by negative contrast instead of the conventional positive contrast from an iodine containing contrast medium. The contrast material was a 2 1/2% mannitol solution and was used for filling the rectum. Filling of the gastro-intestinal tract was of similar quality to that obtained with positve contrast media. The number of artifacts due to high contrast boundaries was slightly greater with the negative contrast than if would have been with positive contrast. Differentiation of the gastro-intestinal tract from other abdominal organs was equally good for both methods. The negative contrast method was poor in diagnosing cystic tumours but proved much better than positive contrast for evaluating the wall of the gastro-intestinal tract. (orig.)

  3. Traditional versus modern apple cultivars – a comparison of juice composition

    Dobrowolska-Iwanek Justyna; Gąstoł Maciej; Adamska Agnieszka; Krośniak Mirosław; Zagrodzki Paweł

    2015-01-01

    Apples are rich in components that are important for human health, such as polyphenols, organic acids and microelements, but their chemical composition varies with different apple cultivars. We aimed to find out if there is any superiority in traditionally grown apple cultivars in terms of their fruits’ bioactive components content. Juice from two traditionally grown apple cultivars, ‘Mutsu’ and ‘Reinette Simirenko’, was compared to eight popular apple cultivars, ‘Jonagold’, ‘Jonagold Decosta...

  4. Synonyms and homonyms of 'Malvasía' cultivars (Vitis vinifera L.) existing in Spain

    Rodríguez-Torres, I.; Ibáñez Marcos, Javier; de Andrés, M. Teresa; C. Rubio; Borrego, J.; Cabello, Félix; Zerolo, J.; Muñoz-Organero, G.

    2009-01-01

    [EN] >Malvasia> is a common name for different grape cultivars that have long been grown in Spain. In many cases, these cultivars are noted as being aromatic, sweet, and similar to Muscat in flavour. However, not all grapes that share this name exhibit these characteristics. This study compares the Malvasia cultivars in the Spanish Denominations of Origin with those grape cultivars grown in the grapevine collection of El Encin (Alcala de Henares, Spain) using morphological, isoenzymatic, and ...

  5. Tumor promoters in commercial indoor-plant cultivars of the Euphorbiaceae.

    Vogg, G; Mattes, E; Polack, A; Sandermann, H

    1999-01-01

    Certain decorative indoor-plant cultivars are derived from toxic wild plant species. Native members of the Euphorbiaceae (spurge) contain highly irritating and tumor-promoting diterpene esters. Plant breeders and gardeners are constantly searching for less toxic cultivars of the popular Euphorbiaceae indoor plants. In this investigation, 22 commercial cultivars of Euphorbiaceae indoor plants were examined for tumor promoter contents by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Cultivars ...

  6. Adaptabilidade e estabilidade de cultivares de alfafa avaliadas em minas gerais Adaptability and stability of alfalfa cultivars in Minas Gerais

    Milton de Andrade Botrel; Antônio Ricardo Evangelista; Maria Celuta Machado Viana; Antônio Vander Pereira; Fausto de Souza Sobrinho; JACKSON SILVA E OLIVEIRA; Deise Ferreira Xavier; Alexandre Bryan Heinemann

    2005-01-01

    Objetivou-se com este trabalho foi avaliar a adaptabilidade e estabilidade de cultivares de alfafa cultivadas em diferentes regiões do Estado de Minas Gerais (Zona da Mata, Zona Metalúrgica e Sul de Minas), quanto à produção de matéria seca de forragem. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, com três repetições. Foi avaliada a produção de matéria seca de 27 cultivares de alfafa no período de 1995 a 1998. O estudo da adaptabilidade e estabilidade foi realizado por ...

  7. Diferenciação molecular de cultivares elites de bananeira Molecular differentiation of elite banana cultivars

    Onildo Nunes de Jesus; Terezinha Rangel Câmara; Cláudia Fortes Ferreira; Sebastião de Oliveira e Silva; Kátia Nogueira Pestana; Taliane Leila Soares

    2006-01-01

    Este trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar molecularmente genótipos elite, e recomendados, de bananeira, por meio de marcadores RAPD e microssatélites. Foram utilizados 47 primers de RAPD e 34 primers de microssatélites. Foi também conduzido um ensaio de contaminação, utilizando-se o primer AGMI 24-25, cuja variedade Tropical foi considerada a amostra-padrão, e as cultivares Caipira e Prata Graúda como contaminantes. Os marcadores permitiram separar as cultivares de acordo com a origem e a...

  8. Interferência de Raphanus sativus na produtividade de cultivares de soja Interference of Raphanus sativus in soybean cultivars' yield

    M.A. Bianchi; N.G. Fleck; D. Agostinetto; M.A. Rizzardi

    2011-01-01

    A forte dependência de herbicidas para o controle de plantas daninhas em soja tem como consequência a seleção de espécies daninhas tolerantes e resistentes. O manejo integrado considera, além do uso de herbicidas, técnicas como a habilidade competitiva do cultivar para controlar plantas daninhas. Com os objetivos de avaliar a resposta de cultivares à competição com nabo (Raphanus sativus) e identificar aqueles portadores de habilidade competitiva superior, foi conduzido experimento em campo, ...

  9. Características produtivas e qualitativas de cultivares de alho Productive and qualitative characteristics of garlic cultivars

    Geraldo M. de Resende

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Cultivares de alho foram avaliadas quanto à produtividade e características industriais em ensaio na EPAMIG, de maio a outubro/95. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições e sete tratamentos, constituídos das cultivares Dourado de Castro, Chinesão, Gigante de Curitibanos, Gigante de Lavínia, Amarante, Cará e Gigante Roxo com parcelas de 3,68 m² de área útil. A produtividade de bulbos comerciais variou de 7,37 a 14,72 t/ha, destacando-se as cultivares Gigante Curitibanos (14,72 t/ha e Dourado de Castro (14,29 t/ha que não mostraram diferenças significativas entre si, seguidas das demais cultivares com produtividades superiores a 7,00 t/ha. Observaram-se variações de 18,00 (Amarante a 59,25 g/bulbo (Gigante Roxo e 8,20 (Chinesão a 33,78 bulbilhos/bulbo (Dourado de Castro. Não se observaram diferenças significativas entre as diversas cultivares avaliadas para sólidos totais e solúveis, com valores superiores a 36,95 e 36,00%, tendo todas apresentado boas características para a industrialização.Field trials were conducted at EPAMIG, Lavras, Brazil, from May to October/95, to indicate productive garlic cultivars with industrialization characteristics. The experimental design was of randomized complete blocks with four repetitions and seven treatments: Dourado de Castro, Chinesão, Gigante de Curitibanos, Gigante de Lavínia, Amarante, Cará and Gigante Roxo. The commercial bulb yield varied from 7.37 to 14.72 t/ha, the most productive ones being the Gigante Curitibanos (14.72 t/ha and Dourado de Castro (14.29 t/ha, with no significant difference, followed by cultivars presenting yield over 7.00 t/ha. A variation occurred from 18.00 (Amarante to 59.25 g/bulb (Gigante Roxo and from 8.20 (Chinesão to 33.78 cloves/bulb (Dourado de Castro. Cultivars presented no significant differences for total and soluble solids, with values over 36.95 and 36.00%, respectively, besides presenting good

  10. FLAVONOIDS OF ZOYSIAGRASS (ZOYSIA SPP) CULTIVARS VARYING IN FALL ARMYWORM (SPODOPTERA FRUGIPERDA)RESISTANCE

    Numerous cultivars of zoysiagrass (Zoysia spp) have been developed for the turf industry in the United States. These cultivars have varying degrees of biotic and abiotic stress tolerances. One pest of importance to zoysiagrass is the fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith). Cultivars suc...

  11. The physiological basis of differences in nitrogen utilization efficiency among rice cultivars

    ZHANGYunqiao; WuRongsheng; JIANGNing; LIUGuihua

    1992-01-01

    It was proved that the nitrogen utilization efficiency(NUE) of rice (O. sativa L. )-is of difference among cultivars. In our study, the local rice cultivars Nantong Ludao, Huakegu, and Kugu were used as high NUE type, and modern cultivars Wuxiangqi 25, Zijingeng, and Wuxiangxian as low NUE one,

  12. Cultivar and Rhizobium Strain Effects on the Symbiotic Performance of Pea (Pisum sativum)

    Skøt, Leif

    1983-01-01

    The symbiotic performance of four pea (Pisum sativum L.) cultivars in combination with each of four strains of Rhizobium leguminosarum was studied in growth chamber experiments in order to estimate the effects of cultivars, strains and cultivar × strain interaction on the variation in dry weight, N...

  13. Resposta de cultivares de algodoeiro a subdoses de glyphosate Response of cotton cultivars to reduced rates of glyphosate

    O.M. Yamashita

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a resposta de nove cultivares de algodoeiro, de importância econômica no Estado do Mato Grosso, quanto à intoxicação causada por subdoses de glyphosate. Os cultivares de algodoeiro utilizados foram Fabrika, Makina, ITA-90, FM 986, FM 966, Delta Opal, BRS Facual, Antares e Coodetec 407. As plantas foram cultivadas em tubetes preenchidos com substrato de solo e mantidas em casa telada, tendo recebido a aplicação do glyphosate aos 20 dias após a emergência, época em que apresentavam quatro folhas verdadeiras. As subdoses de glyphosate, simulando deriva, foram de 270 e 540 g ha-1. Também foi utilizada testemunha, sem aplicação do herbicida, para efeito de comparação. Foram realizadas avaliações semanais até 42 dias após a aplicação dos tratamentos (DAA, período em que também foi tomada a altura das plantas. Os sintomas visuais de intoxicação iniciaram-se aos 3 DAA, caracterizados pelo amarelecimento das pontas das folhas mais novas, seguido de murchamento do ápice das plantas. Na dose de 270 g ha-1 esses sintomas foram de baixa intensidade, mas a 540 g ha-1 causaram, na maioria dos casos, toxidez "preocupante" a "muito alta". Os cultivares BRS Facual e FM 986 mostraram-se os mais suscetíveis. A altura das plantas foi mais afetada quando se aplicou a menor dose de glyphosate. Houve recuperação de todos os cultivares tratados com 270 g ha-1 de glyphosate até os 42 DAA. Quando tratados com 540 g ha-1 de glyphosate, os cultivares Fabrika, Coodetec 407, BRS-Facual e ITA-90 foram mais sensíveis, apresentando redução de altura entre 84 e 90% aos 42 DAA. Os cultivares menos sensíveis na dose de 270 g ha-1 de glyphosate não foram os mesmos para a dose de 540 g ha-1.The response of nine cotton cultivars economically important in the state of Mato Grosso was evaluated in relation to the toxicity caused by reduced rates of glyphosate. The cotton cultivars used were Fabrika, Makina, ITA-90, FM 986, FM 966, Delta Opal

  14. Resistance of squash cultivars to Aphis gossypii Resistência de cultivares de abobrinha italiana a Aphis gossypii

    Edson LL Baldin

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The Cucurbitaceae plants are damaged by attack of a wide spectrum of insects and microorganisms. Among the sucker insects causing damages on squash Cucurbita pepo (L., the aphid Aphis gossypii (Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae is pointed as one of the most important, once their nymphs and adults suck the sap of the leaves continuously, besides being potential vector of virus. The present research evaluated different cultivars, aiming to identify the resistance against this aphid. The cultivars Novita, Sandy, Caserta Cac Melhorada, Novita Plus, Samira, AF-2858 and Caserta TS were used in laboratory assays (T= 25±2ºC; RH= 70±10% and fotophase= 12 h. In the immature phase the duration of nymphal instars was evaluated, the total duration and their viability, confining individuals on leaf disks from cultivars. In the adult phase the duration of reproductive period, the fecundity and the biological cycle were observed. The cultivar 'Sandy' expressed high level of antibiosis and feeding non-preference against A. gossypii, increasing the nymphal stage and causing mortality near to 70%. Besides, this cultivar reduced the production of nymphs and the longevity of the insects. The 'Novita Plus' cultivar also induced significant nymphal mortality, however in lower levels than those verified in 'Sandy', indicating a moderate resistance.As plantas da família Cucurbitaceae são prejudicadas pelo ataque de um amplo espectro de insetos e microrganismos. Dentre os insetos sugadores que atacam a abobrinha Cucurbita pepo (L., o pulgão Aphis gossypii (Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae merece destaque, uma vez que suas ninfas e adultos sugam a seiva das folhas constantemente, além de ser potencial vetor de vírus. A presente pesquisa foi realizada com o objetivo de avaliar diferetes cultivares de abobrinha italiana quanto à resistência a esse pulgão. Utilizaram-se as cultivares Novita, Sandy, Caserta Cac Melhorada, Novita Plus, Samira, AF-2858 e Caserta TS em ensaios

  15. No Spray' Rose Cultivars for the Mid South

    Sixty cultivars of roses, most having disease resistance claims associated with their descriptions in rose catalogs were planted in Tennessee. Plants were evaluated every two weeks from planting until frost for susceptibility to black spot and Cercospora leaf spot using the following scale: 0 = no ...

  16. WHEAT CULTIVARS: RESPONSE TO IRRIGATION AND SOWING DATES

    Klar A.E.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in an Alfisol-Oxisol transition sandy-clay texture, using six wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum, L.: two tall and tolerant to soil aluminium toxicity (BH-1146, and IAC-18, and four semi-dwarf cultivars - Anahuac, IAC-162, IAC-24, and IAC-60 - of which only the first two are sensitive to soil aluminium toxicity. Two minimum soil water potentials (ys levels were used: 1. watered, when Ys reached about -0.05 MPa; 2. dry, when the water potential reached around -1.5 MPa. Two sowing dates, 05/22/92 and 06/11/92, were used. The results showed that Anahuac and IAC-60 are the most indicated cultivars for the studied region; when irrigated all cultivars presented similar yield level under no irrigation conditions; the irrigation was not sufficient to avoid yield differences between the two growing seasons; differences in rainfall were important for the crop in the dry treatment for both seasons.

  17. Nutritive value response of forage chicory cultivars to phosphorus fertility

    Forage chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) is a productive plant that appears particularly well suited to improving summer yield of pastures in the USA. Poor palatability of some chicory cultivars in locations with low soil phosphorus fertility has been linked to high levels of sesquiterpene lactones, b...

  18. Forage characteristics affecting meat goat preferences for forage chicory cultivars

    Concentration of bitter sesquiterpene lactones (SL), lactucin, lactucopicrin, and 8-deoxylactucin, has been associated with low soil phosphorus fertility and reduced livestock preference for forage chicory (Cichorium intybus L.). We evaluated the effect of cultivar and available soil P (ASP) on mea...

  19. Characterization of stem rust resistance in wheat cultivar 'Gage'

    Wheat (Triticum spp.) stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici Eriks. & E. Henn. (Pgt), re-emerged as a devastating disease of wheat because of virulent race Ug99 (TTKSK). Many bread wheat (T. aestivum L.) cultivars grown in North America are susceptible to Ug99 or its derivative races ...

  20. RB962962, a sugarcane cultivar for late harvest

    Luiz José Oliveira Tavares de Melo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the Northeast of Brazil, sugarcane cultivar RB962962 is harvested at the end of the cycle, between December and February, with a high sugar yield per area. Recommended for sandy soils of medium texture and fertility, it is resistant to the major diseases and fast-growing in plant and ratoon crops.

  1. Leaf gas exchange and yield of three upland rice cultivars

    Rita de Cássia Félix Alvarez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies of physiological parameters associated with crop performance and growth in different groups of upland rice (Oryza sativa L. may support plant breeding programs. We evaluated the role of gas exchange rates and dry matter accumulation (DMA as traits responsible for yields in a traditional (cv. ‘Caiapó’, intermediate (cv. ‘Primavera’ and modern (cv. ‘Maravilha’ upland rice cultivars. Leaf gas exchange rates, DMA, leaf area index (LAI, harvest indexes (HI and yield components were measured on these genotypes in the field, under sprinkler irrigation. Panicles per m2 and DMA at flowering (FL and heading, as well as CO2 assimilation rates (A were similar across these cultivars. The highest yield was found in ‘Primavera’, which may be explained by (i a two-fold higher HI compared to the other cultivars, (ii greater rates of DMA during spikelet formation and grain-filling, as well as (iii a slow natural decrease of A in this cultivar, at the end of the season (between FL and maturation.

  2. Predicting Development of an Epidemics on Cultivar Mixtures

    Østergård, Hanne

    1983-01-01

    A mathematical model for the development of an epidemic on a plant cultivar mixture illustrates the influence of the infection efficiency, spore production rate, proportion of deposited spores, frequency of autodeposition, and composition of the mixture on the genetic composition of the pathogen...

  3. Characterization of SNPs in strawberry cultivars in China.

    Ge, A J; Han, J; Li, X D; Zhao, M Z; Liu, H; Dong, Q H; Fang, J G

    2013-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) occur at high frequencies in both plant and animal genomes and can provide broad genome coverage and reliable estimates of genetic relationships. The availability of expressed sequence tag (EST) data has made it feasible to discover SNPs. DNA analysis is crucial in genetic studies not only for strawberry breeding programs but also for characterization of hybrids and species. We cloned 96 EST sequences, and 116 SNPs were discovered by comparing 16 strawberry cultivars grown in the region of Nanjing, China. Sequence alignment of 6 group sequences derived from 16 sample cultivars yielded 116 SNPs, within a total genomic sequence length of 1755 bp. The SNPs were discovered with a mean frequency of one SNP per 15 bp. These SNPs were comprised of 57% transitions, 32.7% transversions, 8.6% InDels, and 1.7% others, based on which a phylogenetic tree was constructed. Among the 116 SNPs, 75% were located within the open reading frame (ORF), while 25% were located outside the ORF. All 16 cultivars scattered well in dendrogram derived from the SNP data, demonstrating that SNPs can be a powerful tool for cultivar identification and genetic diversity analysis in strawberries. PMID:23546945

  4. Cultivar affects browning susceptibility of freshly cut star fruit slices

    Teixeira Gustavo Henrique de Almeida

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of freshly-cut horticultural products has increased in the last few years. The principal restraint to using freshly-cut carambola is its susceptibility to tissue-browning, due to polyphenol oxidase-mediated oxidation of phenolic compounds present in the tissue. The current study investigated the susceptibility to browning of star fruit slices (Averrhoa carambola L. of seven genotypes (Hart, Golden Star, Taen-ma, Nota-10, Malásia, Arkin, and Fwang Tung. Cultivar susceptibility to browning as measured by luminosity (L* varied significantly among genotypes. Without catechol 0.05 M, little changes occurred on cut surface of any cultivars during 6 hour at 25degreesC, 67% RH. Addition of catechol led to rapid browning, which was more intense in cvs. Taen-ma, Fwang Tung, and Golden Star, with reduction in L* value of 28.60%, 27.68%, and 23.29%, respectively. Browning was more intense in the center of the slices, particularly when treated with catechol, indicating highest polyphenol oxidase (PPO concentration. Epidermal browning, even in absence of catechol, is a limitation to visual acceptability and indicates a necessity for its control during carambola processing. Care must be given to appropriate selection of cultivars for fresh-cut processing, since cultivar varied in browning susceptibility in the presence of catechol.

  5. Cultivar Preference of Lambs Grazing Forage Chicory in Ohio

    This project compared grazing preferences of lambs between seven cultivars of forage chicory (Cichorium intybus L.). This on-farm trial was conducted in central Ohio (40.53 degrees N, 82.46 degrees W, 1089 ft above sea level). The chicory was established by using conventional tillage in Bogart Silt...

  6. Fatty Acids and Bioactive Lipids of Potato Cultivars: An Overview.

    Ramadan, Mohamed Fawzy; Oraby, Hesahm Farouk

    2016-01-01

    Potato tuber is a highly nutritious, wherein genotype and environmental differences are known to exist in the shape, size and nutritional value of potatoes. Owing to its high consumption, potato could be an ideal carrier of health-promoting phytochemicals. Potato cultivars contain many bioactive lipidic compounds such as fatty acids, glycolipids, phospholipids, sterols, tocols and carotenoids, which are highly desirable in diet because of their health-promoting effects. In the scientific literature, information on the content and profile of bioactive lipidic compounds in potato cultivars are few. The concentration and stability of bioactive lipids are affected by many factors such as genotype, agronomic factors, postharvest storage, cooking and processing conditions. In this review levels and composition of bioactive lipids in terms of lipid classes, fatty acids, phytosterols, tocopherols, and caroteinoids distribution in different potato cultivars including genetically modified potato (GMP) were highlighted and discussed. In addition, factors affecting bioactive lipids levels, stability and health benefits are reviewed. In consideration of potential nutritional value, detailed knowledge on lipids of potato cultivars is of major importance. PMID:27250559

  7. Agronomic performance of five banana cultivars under protected cultivation

    Banana has been grown both in open-field and protected cultivation in Turkey. So far protected cultivation is very popular due to the high yield and quality. The objective of the study was to evaluate agronomic performance of five new banana cultivars under plastic greenhouse. ‘MA 13’, ‘Williams’, ‘...

  8. The Role of Nitrogen-Efficient Cultivars in Sustainable Agriculture

    Franz Weisler

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available To improve nitrogen (N efficiency in agriculture, integrated N management strategies that take into consideration improved fertilizer, soil, and crop management practices are necessary. This paper reports results of field experiments in which maize (Zea mays L. and oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. cultivars were compared with respect to their agronomic N efficiency (yield at a given N supply, N uptake efficiency (N accumulation at a given N supply, and N utilization efficiency (dry matter yield per unit N taken up by the plant. Under conditions of high N supply, significant differences among maize cultivars were found in shoot N uptake, soil nitrate depletion during the growing season, and the related losses of nitrate through leaching after the growing season. Experiments under conditions of reduced N supply indicated a considerable genotypic variation in reproductive yield formation of both maize and oilseed rape. High agronomic efficiency was achieved by a combination of high uptake and utilization efficiency (maize, or exclusively by high uptake efficiency (rape. N-efficient cultivars of both crops were characterized by maintenance of a relatively high N-uptake activity during the reproductive growth phase. In rape this trait was linked with leaf area and photosynthetic activity of leaves. We conclude that growing of N-efficient cultivars may serve as an important element of integrated nutrient management strategies in both low- and high-input agriculture.

  9. Selection and breeding of plant cultivars to minimize cadmium accumulation

    Natural variation occurs in the uptake and distribution of essential and nonessential trace elements among crop species and among cultivars within species. Such variation can be responsible for trace element deficiencies and toxicities, which in turn can affect the quality of food. Plant breeding can be an important tool to both increase the concentration of desirable trace elements and reduce that of potentially harmful trace elements such as cadmium (Cd). Selection programs for a low-Cd content of various crops, including durum wheat, sunflower, rice and soybean have been established and low-Cd durum wheat cultivars and sunflower hybrids have been developed. In durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var durum), low-Cd concentration is controlled by a single dominant gene. The trait is highly heritable, and incorporation of the low-Cd allele can help to reduce the average grain Cd to levels below proposed international limits. The allele for low-Cd concentration does not appear to affect major economic traits and should not cause problems when incorporated into durum cultivars. The cost of Cd selection in a breeding program is initially large both in terms of Cd determination and reduced progress towards development of other economic traits, but declines as more breeding lines in the program carry the low-Cd trait and are utilized in new crosses. Production of low-Cd crop cultivars can be used as a tool to reduce the risk of movement of Cd into the human diet

  10. 'Ramata': a new dwarf and variegated Hedychium J. Koenig cultivar

    A new dwarf (~71 cm) variegated Hedychium cultivar, ‘Ramata’, was developed at the USDA-ARS Thad Cochran Southern Horticultural Laboratory (TCSHL), Poplarville. A potted ‘Ramata’ plant produces multiple pseudostems, originating from the rhizome, giving it a compact appearance. ‘Ramata’ originated fr...

  11. Lipid and sugar profiles of various barley cultivars (Hordeum vulgare

    Pastor Kristian A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The lipid components and soluble sugars in flour samples of different cultivars of barley (Hordeum vulgare, involving winter malting barley, winter forage barley, spring barley, and hulless barley, were identified. Fatty acids were extracted from flour samples with n-hexane, and derivatized into volatile methyl esters, using TMSH (trimethylsulfonium hydroxide in methanol. Soluble sugars were extracted from defatted and dried samples of barley flour with 96% ethanol, and further derivatized into the corresponding trimethylsilyl (TMS oximes, using hydroxylamine hydrochloride solution and BSTFA (N,O-bis-(trimethylsilyl-trifluoroacetamide. The hexane and alcoholic extracts of barley cultivars were analyzed by GC-MS system. Lipid and sugar compositions were very similar in all barley cultivars. Therefore, multivariate analysis was applied to numerical values of automatically integrated areas of the identified fatty acid methyl esters and TMS oximes of soluble sugars. The application of hierarchical cluster analysis showed a great similarity between the investigated flour samples of barley cultivars, according to their fatty acid content (0.96. Also, significant, but somewhat less similarity was observed regarding the content of soluble sugars (0.70. These preliminary results indicate the possibility of distinguishing flour made of barley, regardless of the variety, from flours made of other cereal species, just by the analysis of the contents of fatty acids and soluble sugars.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31066

  12. Evaluation of maize and hemp cultivars as bioenergy crop

    Santanen, Arja; Kenedy, Epie; Mäkelä, Pirjo; Stoddard, Frederick

    2010-01-01

    We are cultivating annual and perennial crops as monoculture and as mixed culture to investigate plant biomass use for production of renewable energy sources in northern latitudes. We have grown different hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) and bioenergy maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars in 2007-2009 at Viikki Experimental Farm, University of Helsinki.

  13. Sensory Profiles and Seasonal Variation of Black Walnut Cultivars.

    Lynch, Catherine; Koppel, Kadri; Reid, William

    2016-03-01

    Black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) is a North American hardwood tree valued for producing nuts and wood. Black walnut cultivars were evaluated by a trained panel over 2 growing seasons to determine the seasonal variation in the sensory profile. Results showed that cultivars were significantly different on 3 appearance (skin color, nutmeat color, and kernel roughness), 1 aroma (black walnut ID), 5 flavor (black walnut ID, banana-like, piny, rancid, and overall nutty), and 2 texture attributes (surface roughness and hardness). These profiles were compared to results collected in 2011 to determine differences between growing seasons. Results showed 4 flavor attributes (black walnut ID, overall nutty, fruity-dark and rancid) had an interaction effect of year and cultivar, while 6 attributes (brown, caramelized, floral/fruity, piny, musty/dusty, and oily) showed a main effect of year. In general, flavor attributes had higher intensities in 2011 than in 2013. These results suggest that seasonal variation may influence flavor profile more than cultivar. Thus, using samples from only 1 growing season when testing agricultural products may not provide adequate information for the long term. PMID:26849318

  14. Salt-induced variation in some potential physiochemical attributes of two genetically diverse spring wheat (triticum aestivum L.) cultivars: photosynthesis and photosystem II efficiency

    Variation in salt tolerance potential of two contrasting wheat cultivars (salt tolerant S-24 and moderately salt sensitive MH-97) at different growth stages was observed when these wheat cultivars were exposed to salinity stress in hydroponic culture. Salinity caused a marked reduction in photosynthetic pigments, transpiration and photos synthetic rates, and stomatal conductance at early growth stages in both wheat cultivars, being more prominent in cv. MH-97. In addition, a marked salt-induced alteration was observed in different attributes of chlorophyll fluorescence. On the basis of physiological characterization of these two wheat cultivars at different growth stages, it was inferred that cv. S-24 exhibited higher salinity tolerance at all growth stages in terms of less salinity-induced degradation of photosynthetic pigments, higher photosynthetic rates, maintenance of photosystem II under salinity stress as compared to that in cv. MH-97. In view of the results presented here, it is evident that wheat plants were prone to adverse effects of salinity at early growth stages as compared to later growth stages. (author)

  15. Influence of soil type, cultivar and Verticillium dahliae on the structure of the root and rhizosphere soil fungal microbiome of strawberry.

    Srivathsa Nallanchakravarthula

    Full Text Available Sustainable management of crop productivity and health necessitates improved understanding of the ways in which rhizosphere microbial populations interact with each other, with plant roots and their abiotic environment. In this study we examined the effects of different soils and cultivars, and the presence of a soil-borne fungal pathogen, Verticillium dahliae, on the fungal microbiome of the rhizosphere soil and roots of strawberry plants, using high-throughput pyrosequencing. Fungal communities of the roots of two cultivars, Honeoye and Florence, were statistically distinct from those in the rhizosphere soil of the same plants, with little overlap. Roots of plants growing in two contrasting field soils had high relative abundance of Leptodontidium sp. C2 BESC 319 g whereas rhizosphere soil was characterised by high relative abundance of Trichosporon dulcitum or Cryptococcus terreus, depending upon the soil type. Differences between different cultivars were not as clear. Inoculation with the pathogen V. dahliae had a significant influence on community structure, generally decreasing the number of rhizosphere soil- and root-inhabiting fungi. Leptodontidium sp. C2 BESC 319 g was the dominant fungus responding positively to inoculation with V. dahliae. The results suggest that 1 plant roots select microorganisms from the wider rhizosphere pool, 2 that both rhizosphere soil and root inhabiting fungal communities are influenced by V. dahliae and 3 that soil type has a stronger influence on both of these communities than cultivar.

  16. Influence of soil type, cultivar and Verticillium dahliae on the structure of the root and rhizosphere soil fungal microbiome of strawberry.

    Nallanchakravarthula, Srivathsa; Mahmood, Shahid; Alström, Sadhna; Finlay, Roger D

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable management of crop productivity and health necessitates improved understanding of the ways in which rhizosphere microbial populations interact with each other, with plant roots and their abiotic environment. In this study we examined the effects of different soils and cultivars, and the presence of a soil-borne fungal pathogen, Verticillium dahliae, on the fungal microbiome of the rhizosphere soil and roots of strawberry plants, using high-throughput pyrosequencing. Fungal communities of the roots of two cultivars, Honeoye and Florence, were statistically distinct from those in the rhizosphere soil of the same plants, with little overlap. Roots of plants growing in two contrasting field soils had high relative abundance of Leptodontidium sp. C2 BESC 319 g whereas rhizosphere soil was characterised by high relative abundance of Trichosporon dulcitum or Cryptococcus terreus, depending upon the soil type. Differences between different cultivars were not as clear. Inoculation with the pathogen V. dahliae had a significant influence on community structure, generally decreasing the number of rhizosphere soil- and root-inhabiting fungi. Leptodontidium sp. C2 BESC 319 g was the dominant fungus responding positively to inoculation with V. dahliae. The results suggest that 1) plant roots select microorganisms from the wider rhizosphere pool, 2) that both rhizosphere soil and root inhabiting fungal communities are influenced by V. dahliae and 3) that soil type has a stronger influence on both of these communities than cultivar. PMID:25347069

  17. 波叶海菜花种子储存条件与萌发初步研究%Preliminary Studies on Characteristics of Seed Germination and Storage Condition of Ottelia acuminata var.crispa

    王斌

    2011-01-01

    研究了储藏条件和萌发温度对波叶海菜花种子萌发的影响.将波叶海菜花新鲜和风干种子分别在0、4、10℃及15℃下贮藏120 d,在25℃下进行萌发试验.结果表明,风干的种子全部不萌发.新鲜种子在10℃及4℃储藏,种子萌发率高,没有显著差异;而在0℃下储藏的种子萌发率显著降低.并在15、20、25、30℃下对波叶海菜花进行萌发试验,发现种子在所有温度条件下均有较高的萌发率(>90%);温度越高萌发时滞越短,萌发持续时间越短.基质对种子萌发没有显著影响.%The effects of storage condition and germination temperature of Ottelia acuminata var. Crispaseeds were studied in order to find suitable store ways and germination condition. The author examined the germination after 120 days of dry and miost storage under 0 ℃,4 ℃, 10 ℃ and 15 ℃ respectively. The result showed that germination of O. Acuminata var. Crispa was affected by storage conditions remarkably and the optimal range was 10 ℃ to 4℃ , while the germination percentage of seeds was lower under 0 ℃. The seeds did not germinate when the duration of storage was dry. At the same time,the author tested the germination of seeds of Otteliaacuminata under 15 ℃ ,20 ℃ ,25 ℃ and 30℃. The germination could germinate in an abroad range of temperature. Seeds of O. Acuminata var. Crispa showed higher germination under 15 ℃ to 30 ℃ regions. The germination speed increased gradually with rising of temperature. Substance had no significant effect on percentage germination.

  18. Optimization of soybean (glycine max L.) regeneration for korean cultivars

    Tissue culture could provide key insights into the development of transgenic plants, production of good cultivars and secondary metabolites, conservation of endangered plants, and safeguarding of germplasms. In this study, the effects of shoot induction media, explants, cultivars, and phytohormone concentrations on the regeneration efficiency of Korean soybean cultivars were evaluated. Restricted dormancy and poor germination may affect regeneration, depending on the type of germination medium or initiation of phytohormone treatment. Therefore, we analyzed the effects of different germination media containing plant growth regulators, i.e. 6-benzyladenine (BAP), gibberellic acid 3 (GA /sub 3/), and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), prior to investigating the influences of explant types, media with or without vitamins, cultivars, and different phytohormones (BAP and GA3). A high frequency of germination was observed in Murashige and Skooge (MS) medium with vitamins supplemented with 1 mg L /sup -1/ BAP and 0.25 mg L /sup -1/ GA /sub 3/. Cotyledonary node explants and Gamborg B5 with vitamins supplemented with 1 mg L /sup -1/ BAP and 0.17 mg L /sup -1/ GA /sub 3/ in callus induction medium (CIM) and 1 mg L /sup -1/ BAP in shoot induction medium (SIM) were found to be the most efficient conditions for induction of soybean regeneration, both in callus development and shoot regeneration. Two Korean soybean cultivars, cv. Daepung and Nampung, showed similar development of shoot regeneration efficiency, but significantly different shoot induction times. Therefore, the protocol reported here may be used for further development of regeneration efficiency and can be employed for efficient transformation in soybeans. (author)

  19. The Processing of Turning Colour Olives of Oblica Cultivar

    Tea Kulišić

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research the observation of the preservation process of turning colour olives of Oblica cultivar (an autochthonous Croatian cultivar processed according to the Californian type of processing has been carried out. Although the oblica cultivar is the most frequent cultivar in Croatian orchards, it is absolutely unexplored concerning the concentration of polyphenolic compounds (oleuropein and its derivatives as well as concerning the composition of natural microflora in the fruit. It has been very important to determine to what extent the choice of preserving technology is optimal for the cultivar’s particularities. The changes of fundamental physical and chemical features of brine (total acidity, pH value, the concentration of sodium chloride, the concentration of sugar, and brine temperature have been screened during the process of preservation. The appearance of the lactobacilli population has also been observed. The Lactobacillus plantarum species has been isolated and identified in this population on the seventh day after the fruit has been put in brine. The Lactobacillus plantarum species has been isolated and identified by means of the API 50 CHL (“bioMérieux”, France biochemical test and the APILAB PLUS (“bioMérieux”, France software. During further phases of the process, no appearance of the lactobacilli has been identified. On the basis of our physical and chemical examinations, we have concluded that the type of processing of turning colour olives of Oblica cultivar (which was applied without a complete knowledge of the Oblica’s particularities did not give optimal and expected values (low brine temperature, exceptionally high acidity of the medium. We have also concluded that it is necessary for further research to include the examinations of the portion of polyphenolic compounds in the fruit, as well as the examinations of the composition of naturally present microflora. Both examinations represent the

  20. Composição mineral de frutos de quatro cultivares de quiabeiro Mineral composition of four cultivars of okra fruits

    Wagner Ferreira da Mota

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento foi realizado na Universidade Federal de Viçosa e teve como objetivo avaliar a composição mineral dos frutos de quatro cultivares de quiabo. O delineamento utilizado foi em blocos casualizados, sendo os tratamentos constituídos pelas cultivares Amarelinho, Red Velvet, Star of David e Mammoth Spinless, com cinco blocos. Os maiores teores de cálcio, fósforo, enxofre e magnésio foram encontrado na Cultivar Red Velvet. Os maiores teores de nitrogênio total, amônio e manganês e menor teor de fósforo foram encontrados na cultivar Mammoth Spinless, enquanto nas cultivares Red Velvet e Star of David foram observados os menores teores de nitrogênio total, amônio e manganês. Menores teores de cálcio, enxofre e magnésio foram verificados em conjunto nas cultivares Amarelinho, Star of David e Mammoth Spinless.This experiment was carried out at Universidade Federal de Viçosa and had the objective to evaluate the mineral composition of four cultivars of okra fruits. The experimental design was in randomized blocks, where the treatments were composed by the cultivars Amarelinho, Red Velvet, Star of David and Mammoth Spinless, with five blocks. The cultivar Red Velvet had the highest content of calcium, phosphorus, sulfur and magnesium. The cultivar Mammoth Spinless had the highest content of total nitrogen, ammonium and manganese and the lowest content of phosphorus. The cultivars Red Velvet and Star of David had the lowest contents of total nitrogen, ammonium, and manganese. Lower contents of calcium, sulfur and magnesium were present in the cultivars Amarelinho, Star of David and Mammoth Spinless.

  1. Content of carotenoids in roots of seventeen cultivars of Daucus carota L.

    Mech-Nowak, Aleksandra; Swiderski, Adam; Kruczek, Michał; Luczak, Irena; Kostecka-Gugała, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the content of carotenoids in seventeen cultivars of carrots grown in Poland. Conventional orange cultivars with rarely grown were compared: white, yellow and purple with yellow core cultivars. To determine the content of carotenoids, extracts from lyophilized carrot roots were prepared and analyzed by spectrophotometric as well as HPLC methods with DAD detector. The highest content of carotenoids was found in cultivars: 'Korund F(1)' (48 mg/100g of fresh weight) and 'Salsa F(1)' (36 mg/100g of fresh weight). The antioxidant properties of selected cultivars were compared using the DPPH method. PMID:22428130

  2. Biology and reproductive capacity of Spodoptera eridania (Cramer) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) in different soybean cultivars

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the development, survival and reproductive capacity of Spodoptera eridania in four soybean cultivars. The experiment was conducted in the laboratory, in a climatic chamber at 25 °C ± 1 °C, 70 ± 10% relative humidity and 12 h photophase. The cultivars used were: FMT Tabarana, BRS/MT Pintado, FMT Tucunaré and Monsoy 8757, all conventional cultivars with medium cycles. All cultivars tested allowed the development of S. eridania. However, Monsoy 8757 was the cultivar ...

  3. Desempenho de cultivares de alface no Estado do Acre Performance of lettuce cultivars in the State of Acre, Brazil

    Francisco J. da S. Lédo

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available Devido às condições ambientais verificadas no estado do Acre, caracterizado pela ocorrência de temperaturas elevadas e alta precipitação, as cultivares tradicionalmente utilizadas pelos produtores apresentam baixo rendimento e qualidade. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o comportamento das novas cultivares de alface disponíveis no mercado, em termos de características agronômicas e rendimento, nas condições edafoclimáticas de Rio Branco, Acre. Para isso foram realizados dois ensaios no campo experimental da Embrapa Acre, em um solo do tipo Argissolo Vermelho-Escuro, textura argilosa. O primeiro de maio a julho de 1996 (período seco e o segundo de dezembro de 1996 a fevereiro de 1997 (período chuvoso. Foram avaliadas as cultivares Babá de Verão, Brisa, Carolina AG-576, Elisa, Lucy Brown, Marisa AG-216, Piracicaba 65, Regina 71, Tainá, Simpson, Vanessa e Verônica, sendo que 'Regina 71' e 'Elisa' foram incluídas apenas no ensaio do período seco. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, com três repetições. No período seco, as cultivares Simpson, Lucy Brown e Regina 71 apresentaram os maiores pesos médios (373; 362 e 341 g, respectivamente e produções comerciais de 49,8; 48,3 e 45,5 t/ha, respectivamente. Em geral, as cultivares dos tipos lisa sem cabeça e lisa com cabeça apresentaram maior índice de ataque de nematóide (Meloidogyne javanica quando comparadas às do tipo crespa. No ensaio realizado no período chuvoso, as cultivares Marisa AG-216, Verônica, Lucy Brown, Brisa, Tainá e Piracicaba-65 apresentaram os maiores pesos médios e produções comerciais. Entretanto, as médias obtidas foram bem inferiores às verificadas no ensaio do período seco, variando de 164 a 198 g para o peso médio, e 21,9 a 25,9 t/ha para produção comercial. Dentre as cultivares avaliadas no período seco, Regina 71 (lisa, sem cabeça e Carolina AG-576 (lisa, com cabeça destacaram-se entre as do tipo

  4. Karu-INIA, nuevo cultivar de papa para Chile Karu-INIA, new potato cultivar for Chile

    Julio Kalazich B.

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Karu-INIA es un nuevo cultivar de papa (Solanum tuberosum L. creado a partir del cruzamiento Yagana-INIA x Fanfare, por el Programa de Mejoramiento Genético de la Papa del Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA, en el Centro Regional de Investigación Remehue, Osorno, el año 1989. Es una planta semi erecta, de buen vigor, con tubérculos de tamaño medio a grande, uniformes, de forma oval alargada, piel roja y pulpa amarilla clara. Posee altos rendimientos y se adapta bien a la mayoría de las zonas y épocas de cultivo de la papa en Chile. Su uso preferente es para consumo fresco, aunque produce una fritura de calidad altamente aceptable, similar a Yagana-INIA.Karu-INIA is a new potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cultivar, created from a cross between the cultivars Yagana-INIA x Fanfare by the Potato Breeding Program of the National Agricultural Research Institue (INIA, at the Remehue Regional Research Center, Osorno, Chile, in 1989. It is a semi-erect plant, with vigorous growth, a medium to large size, long oval-shaped tuber, red skin and clear yellow flesh. It is a high yielding cultivar and adapts well to the majority of the potato production areas and crop seasons in Chile. It is preferred for fresh consumption, although it has fairly good frying quality, similar to Yagana-INIA.

  5. Resistance and susceptibility of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) cultivars to the aphid Therioaphis maculata (Homoptera:Aphididae): insect biology and cultivar evaluation

    ALEXANDRE DE ALMEIDA E SILVA; ELENICE MOURO VARANDA; JOS(E) RICARDO BAROSELA

    2006-01-01

    Biology of the aphid Therioaphis maculata was studied on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), including four resistant (Mesa-Sirsa, CUF101, Baker and Lahontan) and two susceptible (ARC and Caliverde) alfalfa cultivars, and one of the most cropped Brazilian cultivars, Crioula. Under controlled conditions, antibiosis (i.e., reduced longevity, fecundity and increased mortality of the aphid) was observed mainly on the resistant alfalfa cultivars,except on Lahontan. Crioula seemed to be tolerant to aphids. Present data support geographic limitation usage of cultivars, and we suggest Baker and Mesa-Sirsa as sources of antibiosis,and provide biological information of a tropical T. maculata biotype on alfalfa.

  6. Pedagogical Implications of Contrastive Studies

    Marton, Waldemar

    1972-01-01

    Pessimism regarding pedagogical applications of contrastive studies, and reasons therefore, are described. Several misunderstandings believed to contribute to this pessimism, and several areas of controversy concerning uses of contrastive studies, are discussed. See FL 508 197 for availability. (RM)

  7. LEAF MINERAL CONCENTRATION OF FIVE OLIVE CULTIVARS GROWN ON CALCAREOUS SOIL

    Igor Pasković

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There are limited numbers of scientific publication regarding genotypic differences which exist among olive cultivars concerning nutrient uptake and translocation. For that purpose, the object of our study was to determine possible differences between leaf mineral content of five selected olive cultivars since leaf nutrient analysis is consider being the best method for diagnosing olive tree nutritional status. Plant material was obtained from an olive collection, grown on calcareous soil maintained at Institute of Adriatic Crops and Karst Reclamation, Split, Croatia. The study was conducted with two Croatian autochthonous olive cultivars (“Istarska bjelica”, “Lastovka”, two Italian cultivars (“Pendolino”, “Leccino” and one Spanish cultivar (“Hojiblanca”. Completely randomized design was applied. This study has shown questionably low Mg concentration in all olive cultivars with exception for “Hojiblanca” cultivar. Also, only Croatian cultivars “Istarska bjelica” and “Lastovka” as well as Spanish cultivar “Hojiblanca” recorded sufficient levels of iron leaf mineral content. Regarding other elements studied (P, K, Ca, Zn, Mn, Cu all cultivars were above literature cited thresholds for possible deficiencies. Selected olive cultivars in our experiment demonstrated different nutrient leaf concentration, which is of particular importance for fertilization requirements and fertilization practice in Croatian orchards grown on calcareous soil.

  8. Characterization of zinc uptake, binding, and translocation in intact seedlings of bread and durum wheat cultivars

    Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var durum) cultivars exhibit lower Zn efficiency than comparable bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars. To understand the physiological mechanism(s) that confers Zn efficiency, this study used 65Zn to investigate ionic Zn2+ root uptake, binding, and translocation to shoots in seedlings of bread and durum wheat cultivars. Time-dependent Zn2+ accumulation during 90 min was greater in roots of the bread wheat cultivar. Zn2+ cell wall binding was not different in the two cultivars. In each cultivar, concentration-dependent Zn2+ influx was characterized by a smooth, saturating curve, suggesting a carrier-mediated uptake system. At very low solution Zn2+ activities, Zn2+ uptake rates were higher in the bread wheat cultivar. As a result, the Michaelis constant for Zn2+ uptake was lower in the bread wheat cultivar (2.3 micromolar) than in the durum wheat cultivar (3.9 micromolar). Low temperature decreased the rate of Zn2+ influx, suggesting that metabolism plays a role in Zn2+ uptake. Ca inhibited Zn2+ uptake equally in both cultivars. Translocation of Zn to shoots was greater in the bread wheat cultivar, reflecting the higher root uptake rates. The study suggests that lower root Zn2+ uptake rates may contribute to reduced Zn efficiency in durum wheat varieties under Zn-limiting conditions

  9. Assessment of inter- and intra-cultivar variations in olive using SSR markers

    Ahmet Ipek

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Olive (Olea europaea L. production in the world has been made by using many cultivars, and the genetic uniformity of commercial cultivars is important for standard olive oil and table olive production. The genetic variation among and within commonly cultivated olive cultivars in Turkey was analyzed using SSR markers. A total of 135 leaf samples were collected from 11 commonly cultivated olive cultivars from 11 provinces in four geographical regions of Turkey. Seven SSR primer pairs generated 46 SSR markers, and the number of SSR markers per primer pair ranged from 4 (UDO-14 to 9 (GAPU-89 with an average of 6.57. This high level of SSR polymorphism suggests that olive production in Turkey has been made using genetically diverse olive cultivars and this high level of genetic variation is probably due to the location of Turkey in the center of the origin of olive. The UPGMA dendrogram, developed to visualize the estimated genetic relationships among the 135 samples, demonstrated that the clustering of olive cultivars was not based on geographical regions of cultivation. Presence of genetic variation was detected within a nationwide grown Turkish olive cultivar, called 'Gemlik'. Olive growers successfully discriminated olive cultivars with distinct morphological and pomological characters. However, there was some confusion about the identification of cultivars with similar phenotypic traits. To prevent misidentification of olive cultivars and to minimize intra-cultivar variation, certified propagation materials which were characterized using DNA based molecular markers should be used during the establishment of new olive orchards.

  10. Determination of the Seedling Reactions of Some Turkish Barley Cultivars to the Net Blotch

    A. Karakaya

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Seedling reactions of 15 Turkish barley cultivars to 4 net blotch isolates were determined with assays under controlled conditions. Isolates were collected from Ankara province. There were clear differences among the reactions of the cultivars to the isolates of the fungus ranging from very susceptible to resistant. The reactions of the cultivars Bülbül 89, Karatay 94, Tokak 157/37, Yesevi 93, Orza 96, Kalayci 97 and Hamidiye 85 ranged between susceptible and moderately susceptible-susceptible. The response of the cultivars Avci 2002 and Vamikhoca 98 was between resistant and moderately resistant. The response of the cultivars Çetin 2000 and Sahin 91 ranged between resistant-moderately resistant to moderately resistant. The response of the cultivars Akhisar 98, Tarm 92, Çumra 2001 and Aydanhanim was between moderately resistant and moderately resistant-moderately susceptible. There were small differences among the cultivars in response to isolates. Golbasi isolate was the most virulent.

  11. Analysis of the Resistance Gene Analogue for Rice Cultivars in Yunnan Province

    SUN Yan; WANG Yun-yue; HE Yue-qiu; FAN Jing-hua; CHEN Jian-bin; ZHU You-yong

    2002-01-01

    Genetic diversity of commercial and local rice cultivars in Yunnan Province was studied using the resistance gene analogue (RGA) based on resistance gene conserved sequences. The RGA analysis of 137cultivars was conducted by PCR amplification using three primers, i.e. S1/AS3, XLRR for/XLRR rev, and Pto-kin1/Pto-kin2, respectively. The results showed that both Indica and Japonica cultivars were genetically highly diverse. All cultivars were divided into 3 lineages according to the DNA band data at 96% dissimilarity,and into 20 lineages at 60% dissimilarity. The lineages were related to their genetic background and blast disease resistance with only a few exceptions. The RGA data can be useful in rice production by mixed-planting of different cultivars in the field and breeding of resistance cultivars by selecting different parental cultivars with great genetic diversity.

  12. Feasibility of applying Ottelia acuminata (Gagnep.) Dandy to purify slightly-polluted water through constructed wetlands in Erhai lake%洱海低污染水处理湿地中应用海菜花的可行性

    陈书琴; 胡社荣; 储昭升

    2014-01-01

    According to its low construction and operation costs , high purification efficiency and wide applicability , constructed wet-lands was one of the feasible way to protect Erhai lake from the threat of declining water quality .Ottelia acuminata ( Gagnep.) Dandy as the dominant species of wetland plants had multiple theoretical and practical significance .The paper proved the feasibility of using native plants to constuct the wetland in Erhai lake .The result showed that the application of Ottelia acuminata ( Gagnep.) Dandy in constructed wetlands was environmental feasibility because of the appropriate climate for constructed wetlands in Erhai lake .Ottelia acuminata (Gagnep.) Dandy was a native dominant macrophyte in Erhai lake in history , and it was listed in "Red List of Endangered Species in China".The recovery of Ottelia acuminata (Gagnep.) Dandy was very important for increasing the value of ecological land-scape of Erhai lake .Based on this project , the treatment of water in Erhal lake could be sustainable in the future .%人工湿地因其成本低、效率高、地区适宜性强等特点,成为洱海低污染水处理的优先考虑手段之一。人工湿地的建设及运行不仅仅是技术问题,而是要充分考虑当地的实际,挖掘其资源(植物产品)价值。从技术、环境、生态以及经济角度论证了将乡土经济植物海菜花应用于湿地系统中的可行性,结果表明:1)海菜花人工种植技术较为成熟,能为洱海低污染水处理湿地中海菜花的存活和丰产提供保障;2)洱海气候适宜应用湿地系统,低污染水营养足以保证海菜花生长。而海菜花四季生长旺盛,具有一定的净水能力。就环境可行性来讲,海菜花完全可以应用到洱海低污染水湿地净水系统中去;3)将海菜花应用到洱海低污染水湿地净水系统中,有助于增加洱海的生态景观效益,不仅可以规避外来物种入侵风险,而

  13. High resolution mass spectrometry imaging reveals the occurrence of phenylphenalenone-type compounds in red paracytic stomata and red epidermis tissue of Musa acuminata ssp. zebrina cv. 'Rowe Red'.

    Hölscher, Dirk; Fuchser, Jens; Knop, Katrin; Menezes, Riya C; Buerkert, Andreas; Svatoš, Aleš; Schubert, Ulrich S; Schneider, Bernd

    2015-08-01

    The banana epidermis and in particular their stomata are conducive sites for the penetration of pathogenic fungi which can severely limit global banana production. The red pseudostem of the ornamental banana Musa acuminata ssp. zebrina cv. 'Rowe Red' was used to study the chemical constituents of the epidermal cell layer using matrix-free laser desorption/ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometric imaging (LDI-FT-ICR-MSI). The high resolution of this technique allowed phenylphenalenone-type compounds to be located in single plant cells. Some of these secondary metabolites were identified as constitutive compounds and found in specialized epidermal cells in banana pseudostem tissue. Especially the red paracytic stomata revealed higher signal intensities of certain phenylphenalenones than normal epidermis cells. The ease of detection of polycyclic aromatic compounds on the cellular level is discussed with regard to future investigations of plant-pathogen interactions. PMID:26004822

  14. Evaluation of genetic diversity and pedigree within crapemyrtle (Lagerstroemia spp.) cultivars using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers

    Genetic diversity was estimated for 93 crapemyrtle (Lagerstroemia spp.) cultivars (51 L. indica cultivars, 5 L. fauriei cultivars, and 37 interspecific hybrids) using 78 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. SSR loci were highly variable among the cultivars, detecting an average of 6.6 alleles per l...

  15. BRS Ana: cultivar de batata de duplo propósito BRS ANA: A dual purpose potato cultivar

    Arione da S Pereira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O genótipo BRS Ana é uma nova cultivar de batata adequada para fritura à francesa, com potencial de processamento na forma de palitos pré-fritos congelados e de flocos, liberada em 2007. Foi desenvolvida pelo Programa de Melhoramento de Batata da Embrapa (Clima Temperado, Pelotas-RS, Transferência de Tecnologia - Escritório de Canoinhas-SC e Hortaliças, Brasília-DF, com base na aparência e rendimento de tubérculos, peso específico e qualidade de fritura. Os tubérculos têm película vermelha, levemente áspera, polpa branca, formato oval e olhos rasos. O potencial produtivo é alto. No ecossistema subtropical, apresentou maior produtividade (31,2 t ha-1 que as cultivares mais plantadas no país, quando cultivada no outono, e não diferiu na primavera. Em ecossistema tropical, plantio da seca, a cultivar BRS Ana foi tão produtiva (33,8 t ha-1 quanto as demais cultivares avaliadas. Produziu maior percentagem de tubérculos graúdos (55,6% e peso médio dos tubérculos (108,4 g que as testemunhas no outono do ecossistema subtropical. Em ambos os ecossistemas, a cultivar BRS Ana apresentou elevados valores de peso específico (1,086 e conteúdo de matéria seca (19,7%. Nos testes sensoriais mostrou-se adequada à fritura na forma de palitos, tanto no preparo doméstico, quanto na industrialização. É moderadamente suscetível à requeima (Phytophthora infestans e tem boa resistência à pinta-preta (Alternaria solani. A reação à podridão-mole (Pectobacterium sp. é similar à das cultivares mais plantadas. Apresenta baixa degenerescência de sementes por viroses, conferida pela resistência moderadamente alta ao PVY e baixa incidência do PLRV. Suscetibilidade a distúrbios de origem fisiológica nos tubérculos não tem sido observada. No ecossistema subtropical a tuberização é mais tardia na primavera, devendo portanto ser plantada mais cedo.The genotype BRS Ana is a new potato cultivar adequate for French fries, with

  16. 超声、DMSO和CMC-Na处理对喜树细胞悬浮培养的影响%Influences of ultrasonic wave,DMSO and CMC-Na on cell suspension cul-tures of Camptotheca acuminata

    康大力; 夏黎; 张洪利

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究超声及添加细胞分泌促进剂、培养液增稠剂对喜树细胞悬浮培养的影响。方法采用不同超声时间、不同浓度的 DMSO 和CMC-Na作用于悬浮生长的喜树细胞,观察喜树细胞的生长情况。结果10s 超声波作用及0.5% DMSO 可显著增加细胞生物量,添加1%CMC-Na培养的喜树细胞几乎呈单细胞状态。结论施加适当的超声、DMSO和CMC-Na处理可显著影响悬浮培养喜树细胞生物量和生长状态。%OBJECTIVE To study the infulences of ultrasonic wave ,permeabilization and viscous additive-sup-plemented medium on cell cultures of Camptotheca acuminata.METHODS The cell cultures were treated with dif-ferent durations of ultrasonic wave and different concentrations of DMSO and CMC-Na and the growth rates of cells were investigated.RESULTS Ten seconds of ultrasonic wave and 0.5%DMSO could significantly improve the cell biomass and the cells grew seperately when the medium was added with 1%CMC-Na.CONCLUSION Appropriate ultrasonic wave ,DMSO and CMC-Na can significantly affect the biomass and cell status of Camptotheca acuminata.

  17. 女性巨大尖锐湿疣的特殊手术方法及护理%Specific surgical and care methods for huge female condyloma acuminata

    车小新; 钱革

    2012-01-01

    目的 应用了手术方式治疗女性巨大尖锐湿疣.方法 为保护女性外阴的外形,手术从外向内进行,使用单极电凝贴于止血钳钳夹处的金属,利用电凝产生的高热,使蒂周围3 mm的皮肤组织产生高热凝固,以皮肤变黄为度,松开止血钳,确认没有出血,然后再次使用单极电凝对断端进行修整.结果 手术顺利,效果良好.结论 对于女性巨大尖锐湿疣的治疗,可以灵活的使用手术、电灼和光动力等方法,使患者能够最大程度保持外阴的形状和功能,使之达到康复.%Objective To treat huge female condyloma acuminata with surgery. Methods Monopolar electrocoagulation was adopted in the surgery, which was performed from outside to inside to protect female genital appearance. In the surgery, monopolar coagulation was sticked to the clamping metal of the hemostat clamp and the skin tissue 3 mm around the pedicle were hardened by the heat produced by the use of coagulation till the skin turned yellow. And the clamp was then released and after making sure that no bleeding occurred monopolar coagulation was used again to trim the stump. Results Surgeries were successful, the effect was good. Conclusion Huge female condyloma acuminata can be flexibly treated with surgery, electrocautery, photodynamic and other methods to maximumly maintain the shape and function of the vulva after recovery.

  18. Resposta de cultivares de arroz irrigado ao nitrogênio

    Freitas José Guilherme de

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Genótipos de arroz irrigado por inundação (Oryza sativa L. podem apresentar variabilidade de resposta ao nitrogênio. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resposta de três cultivares de arroz ao nitrogênio. Os experimentos foram realizados em Mococa, SP, em 1997/98 e 1998/99, em Cambissolo Háplico Tb Eutrófico gleico. O delineamento estatístico foi em blocos ao acaso, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas, com quatro repetições. Nas parcelas foram aplicadas doses de N (0, 50, 100 e 150 kg ha-1 e nas subparcelas foram transplantadas mudas dos cultivares de arroz (IAC 101, IAC 102 e IAC 104. O nitrogênio foi aplicado parceladamente sendo 1/3 da dose no transplantio das mudas, 1/3 aos 20 dias e 1/3 aos 40 dias, após o transplantio. Os cultivares responderam significativamente à aplicação de N e a média de produtividade de grãos dos três cultivares na maior dose de N foi superior a 8 t ha-1. Os cultivares IAC 104 e IAC 101 apresentaram maiores rendimentos de grãos (4863 e 5015 kg ha-1, na ausência da aplicação de N do que o IAC 102, com resposta quadrática para os dois primeiros e linear para o último. As doses adequadas de N foram 140 kg ha-1 para o 'IAC 101' e 150 kg ha-1 para 'IAC 102' e 'IAC 104'. O cultivar IAC 104 apresentou maior rendimento de grãos inteiros e, embora não tenha sido o mais produtivo nos dois anos do estudo, gerou maior produção de grãos inteiros por unidade de área. O comprimento da panícula foi o componente que melhor se correlacionou com o rendimento de grãos.

  19. Improved regeneration and transformation protocols for three strawberry cultivars.

    Zakaria, Hossam; Hussein, Gihan M; Abdel-Hadi, Abdel-Hadi A; Abdallah, Naglaa A

    2014-01-01

    Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) is an economically important soft fruit crop with polyploid genome which makes the breeding of new cultivars difficult. Simple and efficient method for transformation and regeneration is required for cultivars improvement in strawberry. In the present study, adventitious shoot regeneration has been investigated in three cultivated strawberry plants, i.e., Festival, Sweet Charly and Florida via direct organogenesis using the in vitro juvenile leaves as explants. Explants were collected after sub-culturing on a propagation medium composed of MS supplemented with 0.5 mg/l BA; 0.1 mg/l GA3 and 0.1 mg/l IBA. To select the suitable organogenesis, the explants of the three cultivars were cultured on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of TDZ (1, 2, 3, and 4 mg/l), then incubated at a temperature of 22 °C ± 2. Medium containing 2 mg/l TDZ revealed the best regeneration efficiency with the three cultivars (72% for Festival, and 73% for Sweet Charly and Florida). After 4 weeks, the produced shoots were cultured on MS medium with different concentrations of BA and Kin to enhance shoot elongation. Results showed that the medium containing 1.5 mg/l BA and 0.5 mg/l Kin revealed highest elongation efficiency (88% and 94%) for Festival and Sweet Charly, respectively. On the other hand, medium containing 1.5 mg/l BA and 0.1 mg/l Kin showed highest elongation efficiency (90%) in Florida. Elongated shoots were successfully rooted on MS medium containing 1.5 mg/l NAA. Furthermore, transformation of the two cultivars, Festival and Sweet Charly, has been established via Agrobacterium strain LBA44404 containing the plasmid pISV2678 with gus-intron and bar genes. Three days post co-cultivation, GUS activity was screening using the histochemical assay. The results showed 16% and 18% of the tested plant materials has changed into blue color for Festival and Sweet Charly, respectively. Out of 120 explants only 13 shoots were developed on

  20. The Value of Contrast Echocardiography

    Shannon C. Treiber

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: There is much evidence-based research proving the effectiveness of contrast echocardiography, but there are still questions and concerns about its specific uses. This study tested the effectiveness of contrast echocardiography in defining the left ventricular endocardial border. Methods: From 30 patients, a total of 60 echocardiograms –– 30 with and 30 without use of contrast –– were retrospectively reviewed by four blinded cardiologists with advanced training in echocardiography. No single cardiologist reviewed contrast and noncontrast images of the same patient. Each set of 30 echocardiograms was then studied for wall-motion scoring. Visualization of left ventricular wall segments and a global visualization confidence level of interpretation were recorded. Results: Of all wall segments (N = 510, 91% were visualized in echocardiograms with use of contrast, whereas 75% of the walls were visualized in echocardiograms without contrast (P < 0.001. Of 30 examinations, 17 contrast echocardiograms were read with high confidence compared to 6 without contrast use (P = 0.004. The number of walls visualized with contrast was increased in 18 patients (60%, whereas noncontrast echocardiograms yielded more visualized walls in 6 patients (20%, P = 0.002. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that contrast is valuable to echocardiographic imaging. Its use should be supported throughout echocardiography clinics and encouraged in certain patients for whom resting and stress echocardiography results without contrast often prove uninterpretable.

  1. Determination of Genetic Polymorphism Among Soybean (Glycine max. L. Merrill Cultivars Developed in Recent Years through RAPD Markers

    Mine PAKYÜREK

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Genotype or cultivar identification is the first step to ensure plant breeder’s rights. If registered cultivars or germplasms were not distinguished by any mechanism, then seed production or novel varieties could not be controlled. The RAPD markers are chosen to distinguish seven soybean ( Glycine max. L. Merrill cultivars from each other  and to assign the polymorphisms among of them in this study. Eight primers were used and DNA fingerprinting of all cultivars were determined with that primers. According to that fingerprinting all cultivars were distingusihed from each other in DNA banding pattern. Using these markers results, similarity index in between soybean cultivars were calculated. Dwight and Maverick were the most similar cultivars ( These two cultivars were similar at 0,70 point to each other. In addition that Maverick and Defiance cultivars have shown the highest polymorphism rate ( These two cultivars were similar at 0,39 point each other. .

  2. Dissecting the Genetic Basis of Extremely Large Grain Shape in Rice Cultivar ‘JZ1560'

    Jie-Zheng Ying; Ji-Ping Gao; Jun-Xiang Shan; Mei-Zhen Zhu; Min Shi; Hong-Xuan Lin

    2012-01-01

    Rice grain shape,grain length (GL),width (GW),thickness (GT) and length-to-width ratio (LWR),are usually controlled by multiple quantitative trait locus (QTL).To elucidate the genetic basis of extremely large grain shape,QTL analysis was performed using an F2 population derived from a cross between a japonica cultivar ‘JZ1560' (extremely large grain) and a contrasting indica cultivar ‘FAZ1' (small grain).A total number of 24 QTLs were detected on seven different chromosomes.QTLs for GL,GW,GT and LWR explained 11.6%,95.62%,91.5% and 89.9% of total phenotypic variation,respectively.Many QTLs pleiotropically controlled different grain traits,contributing complex traits correlation.GW2 and qSW5/GW5,which have been cloned previously to control GW,showed similar chromosomal locations with qGW2-1/qGT2-1/qLWR2-2 and qGW5-2/qLWR5-1 and should be the right candidate genes.Plants pyramiding GW2 and qSW5/GW5 showed a significant increase in GW compared with those carrying one of the two major QTLs.Furthermore,no significant QTL interaction was observed between GW2 and qSW5/GW5.These results suggested that GW2 and qSW5/GW5 might work in independent pathways to regulate grain traits.‘JZ1560' alleles underlying all QTLs contributed an increase in GW and GT and the accumulation of additive effects generates the extremely large grain shape in ‘JZ1560'.

  3. Effects of computed tomography contrast medium factors on contrast enhancement

    The various nonionic iodinated contrast media used in contrast computed tomography (CT) studies differ in terms of their composition, characteristics, and iodine concentration (mgI/ml), as well as the volume injected (ml). Compared with ionic iodinated contrast media, nonionic iodinated contrast media are low-osmolar agents, with different agents having different osmotic pressures. Using a custom-made phantom incorporating a semipermeable membrane, the osmotic flow rate (hounsfield unit (HU)/s) could easily be measured based on the observed increase in CT numbers, and the relationship between the osmotic pressure and the osmotic flow rate could be obtained (r2=0.84). In addition, taking the effects of patient size into consideration, the levels of contrast enhancement in the abdominal aorta (AA) and inferior vena cava (IVC) were compared among four types of CT contrast medium. The results showed differences in contrast enhancement in the IVC during the equilibrium phase depending on the type of contrast medium used. It was found that the factors responsible for the differences observed in enhancement in the IVC were the osmotic flow rate and the volume of the blood flow pathways in the circulatory system. It is therefore considered that the reproducibility of contrast enhancement is likely to be reduced in the examination of parenchymal organs, in which scanning must be performed during the equilibrium phase, even if the amount of iodine injected per unit body weight (mgI/kg) is maintained at a specified level. (author)

  4. Intergenic spacer length variants in Old Portuguese bread wheat cultivars

    Ana Carvalho; Henrique Guedes-Pinto; José Lima-Brito

    2011-08-01

    The intergenic spacer of the ribosomal DNA is highly variable, but is location specific in the nucleolar organizer region of the chromosomes. This study provides an event of high level of polymorphism / size variation and occurrence of 14 unique phenotypes in 48 landraces of Portuguese bread wheat cultivars for IGS-amplified products obtained by PCR-RFLP technique performed with TaqI. The attendant IGS polymorphism has been used to deduce affinities between landraces. Some of the high molecular weight IGS allelic variants were also probed for their chromosomal localization by sequential silver nitrate staining and fluorescence in situ hybridization. However, only the intergenic spacer allelic variant of 3.1 kb could be successfully hybridized, and was observed to be physically located on the chromosome pair 1B in the NOR loci of the cultivar ‘Magueija’.

  5. Strawberry cultivar identification based on hypervariable SSR markers.

    Honjo, Masanori; Nunome, Tsukasa; Kataoka, Sono; Yano, Takayoshi; Yamazaki, Hiromichi; Hamano, Megumi; Yui, Susumu; Morishita, Masami

    2011-12-01

    We genotyped strawberry cultivars by two newly selected and two previously reported SSR markers. All four markers produced interpretable electropherograms from 75 accessions consisting of 72 Fragaria × ananassa cultivars or lines and three octoploid Fragaria species accessions. These SSR markers were highly polymorphic; in particular, one of the newly developed markers, FxaHGA02P13, was capable of distinguishing all of the accessions except for a mutant strain that was derived from another accession in the set. When two markers were combined, all 48 full-sib individuals could be distinguished. Fingerprinting patterns were reproducible between multiple samples, including the leaves, sepals, and fruit flesh of the same accession. Principal-coordinate analysis of the 75 accessions detected several groups, which reflect taxon and breeding site. Together with other available markers, these SSR markers will contribute to the management of strawberry genetic resources and the protection of breeders' rights. PMID:23136480

  6. Reação de cultivares de algodoeiro a Ramularia areola Cotton cultivars resistance to Ramularia areola

    Lonjoré Leocádio de Lima

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Dentre as doenças causadoras de manchas foliares em algodoeiro, a mancha de ramulária (Ramularia areola Atk tem se tornado importante em virtude das condições climáticas favoráveis para o desenvolvimento do patógeno, aliadas ao uso de cultivares suscetíveis, plantio consecutivo e extenso. Neste trabalho avaliaram-se os cultivares Delta Opal, Acala 90, Makina, Delta Penta e Sure Grow 821 quanto à resistência a R. areola, em condições de campo na FCAV-UNESP, no ano de 2006. A severidade da doença, que ocorreu por infecção natural das plantas pelo fungo, foi avaliada semanalmente em trinta plantas devidamente marcadas, utilizando-se uma escala descritiva de notas: 1 = 0%, 2 = até 5%, 3 = de 5,1 a 25%, 4 = de 25,1 a 50% e 5 = acima de 50% de área foliar com sintomas. Foram elaboradas curvas de progresso da doença para os cinco cultivares e o modelo monomolecular foi o que melhor se ajustou aos dados, em comparação com o logístico, o exponencial e o modelo de Gompertz. A análise dos dados indicou que houve diferença significativa entre os genótipos, sendo que Delta Opal, Makina e Sure Grow 821 mostraram-se mais suscetíveis e Delta Penta e Acala 90 mais resistentes ao fungo.Among the disease causing leaf spot in cotton, the gray mildew (Ramularia areola Atk. has become important due to environmental conditions favorable for development of the disease susceptible cultivars, consecutive and intensive and extensive cultivation. This work evaluated the resistance of the cultivars Delta Opal, Acala 90, Makina, Delta Penta and Sure Grow 821 to resistance the R. areola, in field conditions in FCAV-UNESP. The disease occurred under natural infection and, its severity was evoluated weekly, in thirty previously marked plants using the following rating scale: 1 = 0%, 2 = up to 5%, 3 = 5,1 to 25%, 4 = 25,1 to 50% and 5 = over of 50% of foliar area with symptoms. The monomolecular model was better adjusted to the data in comparison with

  7. Sensory quality of scab-resistant apple cultivars

    Kühn, Senior Scientist Birka Falk; Thybo, Senior Scientist Anette

    2001-01-01

    Twenty-two scab-resistant apple cultivars were harvested in autumn 1999 and evaluated for sensory quality the following October, November and December. Multivariate analysis was effective in describing the comblex relationships and variabillity among the numerous attributes used to characterise apple quality. Crispness, mealiness, skin toughness, apple flavour, sweetness, unripe flavour and overripe flavour were informative attributes describing the variation in the sensory quality. Texture a...

  8. Characterization of Brazilian wheat cultivars for specific technological applications

    Patrícia Matos Scheuer; Alicia de Francisco; Martha Zavariz de Miranda; Paulo José Ogliari; Gisele Torres; Valéria Limberger; Flávio Martins Montenegro; Cristiane Rodrigues Ruffi; Sílvia Biondi

    2011-01-01

    Functional and technological properties of wheat depend on its chemical composition, which together with structural and microscopic characteristics, define flour quality. The aim of the present study was to characterize four Brazilian wheat cultivars (BRS Louro, BRS Timbauva, BRS Guamirim and BRS Pardela) and their respective flours in order to indicate specific technological applications. Kernels were analyzed for test weight, thousand kernel weight, hardness, moisture, and water activity. F...

  9. A COMPARATIVE STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF RICE CULTIVARS DATA

    Mugemangango Cyprien; Vinod Kumar

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, rice cultivars data have been analysed by three different statisticaltechniques viz. Split-plot analysis in RBD, two-factor factorial analysis in RBD and analysis oftwo-way classified data with several observations per cell. The powers of the tests under differentmethods of analysis have been calculated. The method of two-way classified data with severalobservations per cell is found better followed by two-factor factorial technique in RBD and splitplot analysis for analyzing t...

  10. A Good Seedless Ponkan Cultivar-Qianyang Seedless Ponkan

    2002-01-01

    Qianyang Seedless Ponkan selected from common ponkan is a sport deviation cultivar without any seeds in its fruit. Matures in mid November, it has bigger avg.124.5g fruit, and the yield is 30 t ha-1 after 5 years' growing. There are no obvious in-year or off-year phenomena. Its fruits can store well without any treatments at room temperature for three or four months.

  11. The Impact of Switchgrass Cultivar Diversity on Nitrogen Use Efficiency

    Johns, A. C.; Jastrow, J. D.; SIX, J. W. U. A.; Morris, G.; De Graaff, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    The search for new sources of sustainable energy has cast attention on switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) as a potential biofuel crop. However, growing switchgrass in a high-input, low-diversity cropping system can have negative environmental consequences, such as enhanced nitrate (NO3) leaching and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. Increasing plant diversity has been shown to promote plant production by increasing nitrogen (N) use efficiency (NUE), which may lower fertilizer requirements in cropping systems. With this study we asked how increasing cultivar diversity of switchgrass impacts NUE. The study took place at Fermilab National Environmental Research Park in Batavia, IL. In 2013, we applied a 15N tracer label to switchgrass planted in monocultures and mixtures of 2-types, 4-types, and 6-types of cultivars. We harvested the aboveground biomass and collected soil cores after one growing season. Preliminary data showed that cultivars differed significantly in yield and in the total 15N content in aboveground biomass, but there are no differences in tissue 15N concentration. In addition, there appears to be no effect of diversity level on 15N contents or concentrations. We intend to use this aboveground and soil 15N data to calculate NUE. These results could suggest that choosing the cultivar that most efficiently takes up N and produces the most yield may be more important than increasing diversity to promote the efficacy of biofuel feedstock production. However, increasing diversity can have other positive ecological consequences and does not appear to have negative impacts on yield or the N cycle.

  12. Effect van watergiftmethode en cultivar op biologische tripsbestrijding in alstroemeria

    Staaij, van der, M.; Grosman, A.H.

    2012-01-01

    Het effect van watergift en cultivar op het verpoppingsgedrag van trips werd onderzocht op praktijkbedrijven en in een kasproef bij Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw in Bleiswijk. Daarnaast werd het effect van aaltjes, een bodemroofmijt en een insectenpathogene schimmel na een grondbehandeling op trips nagegaan. Op geen van de vier praktijkbedrijven werden poppen op het gewas aangetroffen. Ook in de kasproef werd vastgesteld dat trips niet op het gewas verpopt, maar in de grond. De methode van water...

  13. Evaluation of allicin stability in processed garlic of different cultivars

    Patricia Prati; Celina Maria Henrique; Aparecida Sônia de Souza; Vera Sônia Nunes da Silva; Maria Teresa Bertoldo Pacheco

    2014-01-01

    This research aimed at evaluating the suitability of five different garlic cultivars for the processing of unsalted garlic paste, chopped fried garlic, and fried sliced garlic. The concentration of allicin in the products was evaluated immediately after processing and at 45-day intervals during 180 days of storage. Allicin concentrations in raw garlic of the varieties under study differed (20.73 a 24.31mg of allicin g- 1 garlic). Stability exhibited a similar between the varieties according t...

  14. Genetic diversity assessed by microsatellite markers in sweet corn cultivars

    Ana Daniela Lopes; Carlos Alberto Scapim; Maria de Fátima Pires da Silva Machado; Claudete Aparecida Mangolin; Tereza Aparecida Silva; Liriana Belizário Cantagali; Flávia França Teixeira; Freddy Mora

    2015-01-01

    Information on genetic diversity is essential to the characterization and utilization of germplasm. The genetic diversity of twenty-two sweet corn cultivars (seventeen open-pollinated varieties, OPV, and five hybrids, H) was investigated by applying simple sequence repeat markers. A total of 257 primers were tested, of which 160 were found to be usable in terms of high reproducibility for all the samples tested; 45 were polymorphic loci, of which 30 were used to assess the genetic diversity o...

  15. Microstructural Differences Among Adzuki Bean (Vigna Angularis) Cultivars

    Engquist, Anup; Swanson, Barry G.

    1992-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to study microstructural differences among five adzuki bean cultivars: Erimo, Express, Hatsune, Takara and VBSC. Seed coat surfaces showed different patterns of cracks, pits and deposits . Cross-sections of the seed coats revealed well organized layers of elongated palisade cells followed by many layers of amorphous parenchyma cells. Typical sub-epidermal layers of organized columnar, hour-glass cells were characteristica11y absent in the five culti...

  16. Lily Cultivars Have Allelopathic Potential in Controlling Orobanche aegyptiaca Persoon

    Chai, Min; Zhu, Xiaopei; Cui, Hongxia; Jiang, Chuangdao; Zhang, Jinzheng; Shi, Lei

    2015-01-01

    As a devastating holoparasitic weed, Orobanche aegyptiaca Persoon. (Egyptian broomrape) causes serious damage to agricultural production and threatens economic development, which has raised widespread concern. The present study was conducted to determine whether lilies have the potential to be used as ‘trap crops’ for controlling O. aegyptiaca Persoon. In the experiments, the ability of three popular lily cultivars (Lilium Oriental hybrids ‘Sorbonne’, Lilium LA (Longiflorum hybrids x Asiatic ...

  17. IN VITRO SHOOT TIP CULTURE OF BANANA CULTIVAR MEITEI HEI

    ROBERT LALRINSANGA; H. VANLALDIKI; W. I. MEITEI

    2013-01-01

    Micropopagation is preferred over the conventional method of propagation in banana owing to its fastermultiplication rate, uniformity in planting materials, production of disease-free planting materials, higherbunch weight, more fingers and hands and less variability in fruit size and shape. The apical meristem orshoot-tip culture is very efficient for rapid clonal micropopagation. Though abundant information on themicropropagation of banana is available for cultivars in India and abroad, the...

  18. Third-Year Banana Cultivar Trial in South Georgia

    Fonsah, Esendugue Greg; Krewer, Gerard; Rieger, Mark; Wallace, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Although the State of Georgia produces many fruits such as, apples, blueberries, strawberries, blackberries, grapes and peaches, bananas have never been considered an economic crop. This is probably because of marginal weather condition for bananas and massive imports from Central and South America. This study, which is in its third year, continually evaluates 32 banana cultivars and determines their suitability for production, marketing, and distribution in Georgia.

  19. Chromosome doubling in Paspalum notatum var. saure (cultivar Pensacola)

    Luis Weiler; Karine Cristina Krycki; Divanilde Guerra; Carine Simioni; Miguel Dall’Agnol

    2015-01-01

    Paspalum notatum is one of the most important native grassland species of southern Brazil, and the main forage source for livestock. The native ecotypes are tetraploid and have apomictic reproduction, which prevents the registration and protection of plant varieties. However, the cultivated variety Paspalum notatum var. saurae (cultivar Pensacola) is diploid and sexual. The objective of this study was to artificially produce polyploid cv. Pensacola plants, to be used as female parent...

  20. Influence of Cultivar on the Postharvest Hardening of Trifoliate Yam (Dioscorea dumetorum Tubers

    Christian Siadjeu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of cultivar on the postharvest hardening of Dioscorea dumetorum tubers was assessed. 32 cultivars of D. dumetorum tubers were planted in April 2014, harvested at physiological maturity, and stored under prevailing tropical ambient conditions (19–28°C, 60–85% RH for 0, 5, 14, 21, and 28 days. Samples were evaluated for cooked hardness. Results showed that one cultivar, Ibo sweet 3, was not affected by the hardening phenomenon. The remaining 31 were all subject to the hardening phenomenon at different degree. Cooked hardness increased more rapidly in cultivars with many roots on the tuber surface compared to cultivars with few roots on the tuber surface. When both the characteristics flesh colour and number of roots on tuber surface were associated, cooked hardness in cultivars with yellow flesh and many roots increased more rapidly than in cultivars with white flesh and many roots, whereas cooked hardness in cultivars with yellow flesh and few roots increased more slowly than in cultivars with white flesh and few roots. Accessions collected in high altitude increased more rapidly compared to accessions collected in low altitude. The cultivar Ibo sweet 3 identified in this study could provide important information for breeding program of D. dumetorum against postharvest hardening phenomenon.

  1. Digestive Physiology and Nutritional Responses of Autographa gamma (L.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Different Sugar Beet Cultivars

    Naseri, Bahram; Golikhajeh, Neshat; Rahimi Namin, Foroogh

    2016-01-01

    Digestive enzymatic activity and nutritional responses of Autographa gamma (L.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), an important insect pest of sugar beet, on nine sugar beet cultivars (Peritra, Karolina, Paolita, Lenzier, Tiller, Ardabili, Persia, Rozier, and Dorothea) were studied. The highest proteolytic activity of fourth and fifth instar of A. gamma was in larvae fed on cultivar Persia. The highest amylolytic activity of fourth and fifth instar was observed in larvae fed on cultivars Rozier and Dorothea, respectively. The lowest proteolytic and amylolytic activities in fourth instar were observed on cultivar Tiller; whereas the lowest activities in fifth instar were detected on cultivars Karolina and Tiller, respectively. Larval weight in both larval instars (fourth and fifth) was the heaviest on cultivar Persia and the lightest on cultivar Karolina. Furthermore, weight gain of larvae was the highest on cultivar Persia and the lowest on cultivar Karolina. The results of this study suggest that cultivar Tiller was the most unsuitable host plant for feeding of A. gamma. PMID:27324581

  2. Cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimer accumulation in relation to UV-B sensitivity in mung bean cultivars

    The purpose of the experiment is to reveal the relationship between cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) accumulation and UV-B sensitivity in mung bean cultivars. Two mung bean cultivars (Phaseolus raditus L. cv. Qindou-20 and Zhonglü-1) were grown in greenhouse with treatment or without treatment of UV-B radiation (0.4 W * m-2) for four days. The UV-B-induced CPDs in mung bean DNA were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with specific monoclonal antibody and the relationship between CPDs accumulation and the UV-B sensitivity of mung bean seedlings were discussed. The UV-B-induced inhibition of the biomass and net photosynthetic rate of the primary leaves of cultivar Zhonglü-1 were respectively lower than that of cultivar Qindou-20, so that the cultivar Zhonglü-1 was more tolerant to UV-B than the cultivar Qindou-20. Meanwhile, the cultivar Zhonglü-1 had lower CPD accumulation and susceptibility to CPD induction, higher photorepair capacity and same dark repair capacity as compared with the cultivar Qindou-20. Different UV-B sensitivities between two mung bean cultivars may be mainly caused by the differences in CPD accumulation, which are caused by the different susceptibility to CPD induction and the different photorepair capacities. In addition, the different susceptibility to CPD induction between two mung bean cultivars is related to the different levels of UV-absorbing compounds

  3. Descriptive analysis of flavor characteristics for black walnut cultivars.

    Miller, Ashley E; Chambers, Delores H

    2013-06-01

    Seven black walnut cultivars, Brown Nugget, Davidson, Emma K, Football, Sparks 127, Sparrow, and Tomboy, were evaluated by descriptive sensory analysis. Seven trained panelists developed a lexicon for the black walnuts and scored the intensities of the samples for 22 flavor attributes. Results showed that the 7 samples differed significantly (P ≤ 0.05) on 13 of the attributes. For the majority of the attributes, only Emma K differed from the rest of the cultivars by being characterized with lower scores for black walnut ID, overall nutty, nutty-grain-like, nutty-buttery, floral/fruity, oily, and overall sweet. That sample also was higher in acrid, burnt, fruity-dark, musty/earthy, rancid, and bitter attributes. The remaining 6 cultivars showed few differences in individual attribute ratings, but did show some differences when mapped using multivariate techniques. Future studies should include descriptive analysis of other black walnut varieties, both wild and commercial, that could be grown and harvested for production. PMID:23627833

  4. Susceptibility of different parsley cultivars to infestation by pathogenic fungi

    Jacek Nawrocki

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiments were carried out in the years 2002 and 2003 on parsley seeds of 6 cultivars: Alba, Berlińska, Cukrowa, Kinga, Lenka, and Vistula. Mycological analysis of parsley seeds showed that the most common inhabitans were fungi from genus Alternaria (mainly A. alternata and A. radicina and Fusarium, especially F. avenaceum and F. oxysporum. During the glasshouse investigations fungi Alternaria radicina, A. alternata and Fusarium avenaceum were the main reason for parsley damping-off. The highest number of infected seedlings was observed for Berlińska and Kinga, because in both years of experiments these cultivars had the lowest number of healthy seedlings. The highest number of healthy seedlings had cultivars Alba and Lenka, especially in the second year of experiments. In the field experiments not only fungi from genus Alternaria and Fusarium were the most often isolated from diseased parsley seedlings. Fusarium oxysporum was more often isolated from diseased field seedlings than from glasshouse parsley seedlings. Other fungies isolated often from parsley seedlings cultivated in the field were: Pythium spp., Rhizoctonia solani, Cylindrocarpon destructans and Stemphylium botryosum.

  5. Resistant starch in Micronesian banana cultivars offers health benefits.

    Thakorlal, J; Perera, C O; Smith, B; Englberger, L; Lorens, A

    2010-04-01

    Resistant Starch (RS) is a type of starch that is resistant to starch hydrolyzing enzymes in the stomach and thus behaves more like dietary fibre. RS has been shown to have beneficial effects in disease prevention including modulation of glycaemic index diabetes, cholesterol lowering capability and weight management, which are critically important for many people in the Federated States of Micronesia. Green bananas are known to contain substantial concentrations of RS and are a common part of the Micronesian diet. Therefore the aim of this study was to determine the RS content in banana cultivars from Pohnpei, Micronesia: Daiwang, Inahsio, Karat, Utin Kerenis and Utin Ruk, for which no such information was available. Utin Kerenis, Inahsio and Utin Ruk were found to contain the highest amounts of RS. The fate of RS after incorporation into a food product (i.e., pancakes) was also studied and a significant reduction in the RS content was found for each cultivar after cooking. Microscopy of the banana samples indicated that the overall morphology of the cultivars was similar. In conclusion, green banana, including these varieties, should be promoted in Micronesia and other places for their rich RS content and related health benefits including diabetes control. Further research is needed to more clearly determine the effects of cooking and food processing on RS. PMID:20968236

  6. Polyphenol and glycoalkaloid contents in potato cultivars grown in Luxembourg.

    Deusser, Hannah; Guignard, Cédric; Hoffmann, Lucien; Evers, Danièle

    2012-12-15

    The polyphenol (phenolic acids, flavanols and flavonols) and glycoalkaloid (α-chaconine and α-solanine) contents of potato tubers grown in Luxembourg were analyzed by UPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS/MS separately in peel (approx. 2mm), outer (approx. 1cm) and inner flesh. Polyphenol contents decreased from the peel via the outer to the inner flesh and differed among the cultivars. The cultivars Vitelotte and Luminella had the highest polyphenol contents (5202 and 572 μg/g dry weight (DW) in the outer flesh), whereas Charlotte and Bintje had the lowest contents (19.5 and 48.0 μg/g DW). Chlorogenic acid and its isomers (neo- and cryptochlorogenic acid) were the major polyphenols. Glycoalkaloid contents were highest in the peel and lowest in the inner flesh, values in the flesh were below guideline limits in all cultivars. In conclusion, potatoes contribute to the daily intake of polyphenols and their consumption, thereby, may have positive effects on health. PMID:22980877

  7. Screening Rice Cultivars for Resistance to Bacterial Leaf Blight.

    Fred, Agaba Kayihura; Kiswara, Gilang; Yi, Gihwan; Kim, Kyung-Min

    2016-05-28

    Bacterial leaf blight (BLB) caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is one of the most serious threats to rice production. In this study, screening of rice for resistance to BLB was carried out at two different times and locations; that is, in a greenhouse during winter and in an open field during summer. The pathogenicity of Xoo race K1 was tested on 32 Korean rice cultivars. Inoculation was conducted at the maximum tillering stage, and the lesion length was measured after 14 days of inoculation. Five cultivars, Hanareum, Namcheon, Samgdeok, Samgang, and Yangjo, were found to be resistant in both the greenhouse and open-field screenings. Expression of the plant defense-related genes JAmyb, OsNPR1, OsPR1a, OsWRKY45, and OsPR10b was observed in resistant and susceptible cultivars by qRT-PCR. Among the five genes tested, only OsPR10b showed coherent expression with the phenotypes. Screening of resistance to Xoo in rice was more accurate when conducted in open fields in the summer cultivation period than in greenhouses in winter. The expression of plant defenserelated genes after bacterial inoculation could give another perspective in elucidating defense mechanisms by using both resistant and susceptible individuals. PMID:26869604

  8. Screening of Amaranth Cultivars (Amaranthus mangostanus L.) for Cadmium Hyperaccumulation

    FAN Hong-li; ZHOU Wei

    2009-01-01

    The potential harm of soil cadmium pollution to ecological environment and human health has been increasingly widely concerned. Phytoremediation, as a kind of new and effective technology, has become an important method for cleaning up cadmium in contaminated sites. The amaranth (Amaranthus mangostanus L.) is widely distributed and has abundant varieties in China, its rapid growth and large biomass can be served as candidate for cadmium hyperaccumulators for phytoremediation. To obtain cadmium hyper-accumulator, Cd uptake in 23 amaranth euitivars from different ecological region was investigated under hydroponic culture condition. Meanwhile, pot experiment was established to probe phytoremediation potentiality of Cd contaminated soil by amaranth. Three treatment (Cd 5, 10, and 25 mg kg-1) were imposed to red soil, yellow brown soil, and vegetable soil. The results showed that under hydroponic culture with Cd 3 mg L-1, the cadmium concentration in the shoots of the cultivar Tianxingmi reached 260 mg kg-1, and its total cadmium uptake was the highest among various cultivars. In the treatment Cd 25 mg kg-1, the cadmium concentration in the shoots of the cultivar Tianxingmi reached 212 mg kg-1, while bioaccumulation factor and shoot purification rate reached 8.50 and 3.8%, respectively. Further, the total biomass and shoot biomass were not decreased significantly under Cd exposure.These results suggested that eultivar Tianxingmi is a typical Cd hyperaccumulator, and can be expected to be used in phytoremediation of Cd contaminated soil.

  9. Kinetic parameters of silicon uptake by rice cultivars

    Priscila Oliveira Martins

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Silicon is considered an important chemical element for rice, because it can improve tolerance to biotic and abiotic stress. However, in many situations no positive effect of silicon was observed, probably due to genetic factors. The objective of this research was to monitor Si uptake kinetics and identify responses of rice cultivars in terms of Si uptake capacity and use. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse of the São Paulo State University (UNESP, Brazil. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized, factorial design with three replications. that consisted of two rice cultivars and two Si levels. Kinetic parameters (Vmax, Km, and Cmin, root morphology variables, dry matter yield, Si accumulation and levels in shoots and roots, uptake efficiency, utilization efficiency, and root/shoot ratio were evaluated. Higher Si concentrations in the nutrient solution did not increase rice dry matter. The development of the low-affinity silicon uptake system of the rice cultivar 'Caiapó' was better than of 'Maravilha'.

  10. Phosphorus Uptake from Rhizosphere Soilby Two Wheat Cultivars

    MAJIAN; T.S.GAHOONIA; 等

    1998-01-01

    Inorganic soil phosphorus extractable with sodium bicarbonate(NaHCO3-Pi),soil pH and root hairs length and density in the rhizosphere of two winter wheat cultivars (Tritium aestivum L.cv.Shichum,Sleipner)grown on a high pH Chinese silt loam(52.7 mg NaHCO3-Pikg-1) and a Danish sandy loam(43.4mg NaHCO3-Pi kg-1)wer studied to assess how these wheat cultivars differed in phosphorus uptake.The rhizosphere soil pH of two wheat cultivars grown on the two soils were fairly unchanged with increasing distrance from the roo surface.However the root hairs of Shichun were 2.1 times longer than those of Sleipner,Root surface area(RSA) of Shichun increased by 192% due to root hairs whereas root hairs of Sleipner increased RSA by 68% only.Hence the root system of Shichun was in contact with more soil than that of Sleipner,even though Sleipner had a longer root,Grown at the lower pH and level of NaHCO3-Pi in the Danish soil Shichun absorbed more inorganic phosphorus than Sleipner whereas at the higher pH and level of NaHCO3-Pi in the Chinese soil there was no phosphorus uptake difference between the two wheat culivars.

  11. Evaluation of nutritional compounds in new amaranth and quinoa cultivars

    Sylvio Vicentin Palombini

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the fatty acid quantification, proximate and amino acid compositions, antioxidant activity, total phenolic compounds, vitamin E, and mineral contents of new amaranth (BRS Alegria and quinoa (BRS Piabiru cultivars which were produced in order to adapt these pseudocereals to the climatic conditions of central-western Brazil. They showed superior levels of protein and total lipids in comparison to their native counterparts. The lipid profile of the amaranth BRS Alegria was revealed to be better than those of other native cultivars. Quinoa BRS Piabiru presented a higher antioxidant capacity and phenolic content than the studied amaranth cultivar, but lower contents of tocopherols. All of the obtained results confirm that these new grains possess an overall amount of nutritional compounds that is better than those reported for many native counterparts of the studied samples. The employed analytical methods in this work contributed to a better understanding of the quinoa BRS Piabiru and amaranth BRS Alegria chemical compositions. Therefore, the diversity and quantity of all of the studied compounds in the samples denote the considerable importance of these grains for food science research area.

  12. Caracterização molecular de cultivares de cana-de-açúcar utilizando marcadores ISSR Molecular characterization of the sugarcane cultivars obtained by issr markers

    Clébia Maria Alves de Almeida

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A diversidade genética de catorze cultivares de cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum oficinarum foi acessada por meio de marcadores moleculares ISSR. Objetivou-se caracterizar molecularmente as cultivares estudadas. Foram utilizados trinta e sete primers de ISSR, dos quais, oito foram eficientes na amplificação do DNA das amostras analisadas, sendo sete primers suficientes para distinguir todas as cultivares de cana-de-açúcar envolvidas nas análises. A faixa de amplicons variou de 300 a 2000 pb. As cultivares RB 92579 e RB 863129 apresentaram maiores coeficientes de similaridade (77% enquanto as cultivares RB 961 e RB 931611 formaram o grupo com menor similaridade (22%. Os resultados indicam que os marcadores ISSR foram úteis na análise da diversidade genética e geração de padrões genéticos (fingerprint, em germoplasma de cana-de-açúcar. Marcadores ISSR cultivar-específico foram obtidos com o primer UBC 817 para as 14 cultivares testadas. Num próximo trabalho, mais primers ISSR serão utilizados para buscar mais polimorfismos dessas e de outras cultivares de cana-de-açúcar.Genetic diversity of fourteen sugarcane cultivars was accessed by ISSR molecular markers. With the aim to characterizing and validating the efficiency of these markers in the fingerprint of studied cultivars, thirty seven ISSR primers were used, from which, eight were efficient for the DNA amplification. Seven primers were efficient to discriminate the fourteen studied sugarcane cultivars. The amplicons varied from 300 to 2000 bp. The cultivars RB 92579 and RB 863129 presented higher similarity coefficient (77% while the cultivars RB 961 and RB 93611 formed the group with lower similarity (22%. The results suggested that ISSR markers were useful in the analysis of the genetic diversity and in the fingerprint in sugarcane germosplasm. In the next step more ISSR primers will be used in order to obtain more polymorphism from these varieties and to analyze more sugarcane

  13. Performance of lettuce cultivars to protect environmental and soil cover effects Desempenho de cultivares de alface em condições de ambiente protegido e cobertura do solo

    Júlio César DoVale

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective this study was to evaluate protected environment and soil cover effects on the performance of lettuce cultivars in the conditions of semi-arid northeastern Brazil. We used a randomized blocks experimental design with three factors (2 x 2 x 2 with four repetitions, totaling eight treatment combinations of two lettuce cultivars (Babá de verão and Primavera de verão, with two conditions of protected environment (with and without agro-textile and two conditions of soil cover (with and without carnauba straw. The Maravilha de verão cultivar produced three more leaves than the Babá de verão cultivar. In the presence of agro-textile the production cultivars did not differ with or without carnauba straw. However, without agro-textile the cultivars showed differences in production when grown without carnauba straw. This indicates that only one control condition (with agro-textile or with carnauba straw is sufficient to control weeds and maintain the productive potential of lettuce cultivars.O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar os efeitos do ambiente protegido e da cobertura do solo no desempenho de cultivares de alface em condições do semi-árido nordestino do Brasil. Para isso, foi usado o delineamento em blocos casualizados no esquema fatorial triplo 2 x 2 x 2 com quatro repetições, totalizando 8 tratamentos combinados entre os dois cultivares de alface (Babá de verão e primavera de verão duas condições de ambiente protegido (com e sem agrotêxtil e duas condições de cobertura do solo (com e sem palha de carnaúba. O cultivar Maravilha de verão produziu três folhas a mais que o cultivar Babá de verão. Na presença de agrotêxtil, a produção dos cultivares não diferiu com ou sem palha de carnaúba. No entanto, sem agrotêxtil, os cultivares apresentaram diferença na produção quando cultivadas sem o estrato da carnaúba. Isso indica que somente uma condição de controle (com agrotêxtil ou com palha de carnaúba

  14. Characterization of wheat cultivars for pre-harvest sprouting Caracterización de cultivares de trigo por brotado en precosecha

    C. Bainotti

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Sprouting or germination in wheat takes place as a result of the rupture of the dormancy in grain, expressed in physiological terms as the increase of α-amylases and proteases activity, which has been associated with low values of falling number. Grain sprouting has been related with high moisture and temperature at harvest and it is a serious problem in the north of Argentina. The objectives of this study were to characterize introduced and local wheat cultivars for sprouting response through falling number and, tentatively, to identify adapted materials with good behavior for this trait. A set of thirty introduced and local late and early heading wheat varieties was tested through falling number in two experiments conducted at Marcos Juárez, Argentina in 2005 and 2006. Significant differences in falling number between tested cultivars were detected with a strong interaction with environment. Late heading cultivars introductions showed significantly higher falling number values than local cultivars, and early heading cultivars introductions and local cultivars showed similar values. In the early heading cultivars group, the highest falling number value was observed in Klein Proteo, a local cultivar.En trigo el término brotado se refiere a la ruptura de la dormición en el grano, lo que expresado en términos fisiológicos es el incremento de las actividades proteásica y α-amilásica, que se asocia con valores bajos del test falling number. El brotado de grano se ha relacionado con elevada temperatura y humedad a cosecha. En este estudio se propuso caracterizar la respuesta a brotado de cultivares de trigo, locales e introducidos, a través de falling number y tentativamente, identificar materiales adaptados con buen comportamiento a brotado de grano en precosecha. Treinta variedades de trigo locales e introducidas con espigazón precoz y tardía fueron evaluadas a través del falling number en dos experimentos conducidos en Marcos Ju

  15. Agronomic performance of watermelon cultivars in the Cerrado region of Boa Vista, Roraima = Desempenho agronômico de cultivares de melancia no cerrado de Boa Vista, Roraima

    Ignácio Lund Gabriel da Silva Carmo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Production of the watermelon is important in all regions of Brazil. However, productive and qualitative information for fruit of different cultivars grown in the same environment is still scarce, especially in the State of Roraima, a fact that makes it necessary to carry out studies in order to meet this need. As a result, this study aimed to evaluate the agronomic performance of watermelon cultivars produced in the Cerrado at Boa Vista, Roraima. The experiment was conducted at the Agua Boa Experimental Farm of Embrapa Roraima, from December 2013 to February 2014. The experimental design was of randomised blocks (DBC, with six replications. The treatments comprised six watermelon cultivars: Verena, Explore, Elisa, Juliane, Crimson Sweet and Crimson Sweet Super, for which the productive, physical, chemical and physicochemical characteristics of the fruit were evaluated. There was no difference between cultivars in yield, number of fruit ha-1 or the number of fruit with a weight of between 6 and 9 kg. The cultivars differed as to physical characteristics (weight, size and number of seeds per fruit. There were differences between cultivars for all the chemical and physicochemical characteristics of the fruit. The cultivar Elisa displayed the highest levels for total soluble solids (12.58 °Brix. Fruits of the cultivars Explore and Crimson Sweet Super showed the greatest ratio between total soluble solids and titratable acidity. The fruits of the cultivars Explore and Elisa had the highest pH. The conditions of soil and climate in the Cerrado at Boa Vista favour the productive and qualitative characteristics of the cultivars being analysed. = A produção de melancia é consolidada em todas as regiões do Brasil. Porém, as informações sobre produtividade e qualidade dos frutos, de diferentes cultivares no mesmo ambiente, ainda são tímidas, sobretudo em Roraima, tornando necessária a realização de estudos para suprir essa carência. Objetivou

  16. [Allergy to radiographic contrast media].

    Vionnet, Julien; Petitpierre, Stéphanie; Fumeaux, Alexandre; Meuli, Reto; Spertini, Francois; Comte, Denis

    2013-04-17

    Allergy to radiographic contrast media Hypersensitivity reactions to radio-contrast media are common in the daily practice. These products are responsible for immediate ( 1 hour after administration) hypersensitivity reactions. A diagnostic work-up by an allergologist with skin tests and in some cases provocation tests is of value in reducing the risk of recurrent hypersensitivity reactions to iodinated contrast media. A careful selection of the patients is required because the incidence of breakthrough reactions is still concerning, even with proper premedication. Practical recommendations are presented in this article. For gadolinium-based contrast agents, data in the literature is not sufficient for suggesting guidelines. PMID:23667970

  17. Caracterização botânica de cultivares de morangueiro Botanical characterization of strawberry cultivars

    Rachel Benetti Queiroz Voltan

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo de caracterização botânica em seis cultivares de morangueiro (Fragaria X ananassa Duch. quatro desenvolvidos no Brasil - 'Campinas (IAC-2712', 'Guarani (IAC-5074', 'AGF 080' e 'IAC Princesa Isabel' - e dois introduzidos - 'Reiko', do Japão, e 'Sequóia', dos Estados Unidos - visando sua distinção taxonômica. Os experimentos foram desenvolvidos na Estação Experimental de Monte Alegre do Sul (SP durante os anos agrícolas de 1992/93. Os caracteres morfológicos que se mostraram úteis na diferenciação dos seis cultivares foram os seguintes: tipo de planta; número de folíolos; coloração da folha; razão entre o comprimento e a largura dos folíolos medianos; ângulo da base do limbo do folíolo mediano; comprimento das estipulas; posição das flores primárias em relação à folhagem; número de pétalas das flores primárias; razão entre o comprimento e a largura das pétalas; receptáculo do ovário; forma das infrutescências e da base da infrutescência; posição do cálice e calículo; espaços vazios no interior da infrutescência e comprimento e largura da infrutescência. Para a identificação dos cultivares, foi elaborada uma chave analítica. Os cultivares AGF 080 e Campinas não foram distinguidos com base nos caracteres analisados.Six strawberry cultivars (Fragaria X ananassa Duch., four developed in Brazil (AGF 080, Campinas, Guarani and IAC Princesa Isabel and two introduced (Reiko from Japan and Sequoia from USA were botanically evaluated in order to screening morphological vegetativa and reproductive characters to get the taxonomical distinction of them. Two experiments were carried out in 1992 and 1993 at the Experimental Station of Monte Alegre do Sul, Instituto Agronômico (IAC, State of São Paulo, Brazil. The following morphological characters were screened to distinguish the cultivars studied: growing habit; leaflet number; leaf colour; middle leaflet length and width ratio; middle

  18. Comportamento de cultivares de cafeeiro em diferentes densidades de plantio The behavior of coffee cultivars under different plant densities

    Edison Martins Paulo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se em Adamantina, na Região da Alta Paulista, em São Paulo, entre maio de 1995 e junho de 2000, o crescimento e quatro produções de cafeeiros das cultivares de porte baixo Catuaí Amarelo IAC 47 e Obatã IAC 1669-20 de Coffea arabica L., submetidas às densidades de plantio de 2.500, 5.000, 7.519 e 10.000 plantas ha-1, com uma planta por cova. Estudou-se também a população de 2.500 plantas.ha-1 em covas com duas plantas com 2,0 m de distância na linha de plantio. Adotou-se o delineamento estatístico de blocos ao acaso com três repetições, com parcelas subdivididas, onde as parcelas foram as populações e as subparcelas, as cultivares. Os resultados permitiram inferir que, no período estudado, o aumento da densidade influenciou positivamente a altura e negativamente o diâmetro do caule e da base da copa dos cafeeiros, mas não a altura da inserção do primeiro ramo plagiotrópico a partir do nível do solo. O aumento da população de cafeeiros acarretou menor produção de café beneficiado por planta, mas concorreu para o aumento da produtividade no período de 1997 a 2000. O plantio de duas mudas de café por cova acarretou também diminuição do diâmetro do caule e da produção individual dos cafeeiros. Observou-se na cultivar Catuaí Amarelo IAC 47 maior diâmetro da base da copa e maior crescimento em altura, enquanto a cv. Obatã IAC 1669-20 evidenciou seu maior diâmetro do caule. As cultivares Catuaí Amarelo IAC 47 e Obatã IAC 1669-20 não diferiram entre si quanto à produção individual e à produtividade de café beneficiado no quadriênio (1997-2000.This experiment was developed at Adamantina, west region of the State of São Paulo, Brazil, during May of 1995 to June of 2000. The plant growth and productivity of two coffee cultivars Catuaí Amarelo IAC 47 and Obatã IAC 1669-20, were evaluated considering to plant densities of 2.500, 5.000, 7.519 and 10.000 plants ha-1. The density of 2500 also was

  19. Late pest control in determinate tomato cultivars Controle de pragas tardias em cultivares de tomateiro de crescimento determinado

    Arlindo Leal Boiça Júnior; Marcos Aurélio Anequini Macedo; Adalci Leite Torres; Marina Robles Angelini

    2007-01-01

    The usage of insecticidal plants and others insect resistant varieties can be strong allies to the Integrated Pest Management (IPM), being able to reduce the number of insecticides applications and to minimize its effect to the man and the environment.The following control techniques were compared in field conditions, investigating the late pest control of two determinate tomato cultivars: a) Conventional - sprayings of metamidophos, buprofezin, acephate, cipermetrin, abamectin, permetrin, te...

  20. Quantification of trash in early sugarcane cultivars; Quantificacao do palhico em cultivares precoces de cana-de-acucar

    Pauli, Fernando A. de; Silva, Helio F. da; Tasso Junior, Luiz Carlos; Marques, Diogo; Marques, Marcos O. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCAV/UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias], E-mail: fernando_abackerli@hotmail

    2010-07-01

    The energy generated from biomass of sugarcane is on the spotlight on the world stage. The straw remaining in the soil after harvest of sugarcane, brings several attributes that qualify as plant material to be used for power cogeneration. Thus, this study aimed to quantify the straw in early cultivars of sugarcane. The experimental design was randomized blocks with 6 treatments (cultivars) and three replications. At harvest, we counted the number of stems on the meter and the weight of stems was estimated agricultural productivity. After harvesting the cane was used a rectangle of 4.5 m2, which was placed randomly within each plot and all trash contained therein was weighed. From these results was estimated the number of people benefiting the energy from this trash. The SP80-1842 had the best performance, the highest amounts of trash (31.00 t ha-1), the largest index value of straw (28.33%) and more people benefit from the energy generated from the same (26.66x10-1) showing its greater suitability for cogeneration. Cultivars CTC9 and SP91-1049 presented the results less satisfactory. (author)

  1. Caracterização e diversidade genética de cultivares de morangueiro Characterization and genetic diversity of strawberry cultivars

    Elizete Beatriz Radmann

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar a diversidade genético-molecular, por marcadores RAPD, das dez principais cultivares de morangueiro utilizadas no País: Aromas, Bürkley, Camarosa, Campinas, Dover, Milsei-Tudla, Oso Grande, Santa Clara, Sweet Charlie e Vila Nova. O DNA foi extraído de folhas maduras, as análises RAPD foram realizadas com 26 primers e os produtos de amplificação separados por eletroforese. O coeficiente de Dice foi utilizado para estimar a similaridade genética entre as cultivares e o método UPGMA para gerar o fenograma por meio do NTSYS. Houve amplificação de fragmentos consistentes com 19 primers, tendo sido encontrado polimorfismo em 14. Dos 116 fragmentos gerados, 84 foram polimórficos. As cultivares foram classificadas em dois grupos principais quanto à similaridade genética: cultivares destinadas à industrialização (Bürkley, Santa Clara e Vila Nova e cultivares destinadas ao mercado in natura (demais cultivares. A similaridade foi menor no grupo das cultivares para consumo in natura (44-74%, o que ocorreu em função dos parentais serem diferentes. A maior similaridade genética ocorreu entre as cultivares de indústria Santa Clara e Vila Nova (98%, ambas obtidas pelo programa de melhoramento da Embrapa Clima Temperado, e provenientes dos mesmos parentais ('Konvoy-Cascata' e 'Lassen'. Padrões RAPD foram estabelecidos para a caracterização genética das dez cultivares de morangueiro estudadas.In this work we characterized the genetic-molecular diversity by RAPD markers of the main ten strawberry cultivars cultivated in Brazil: Aromas, Bürkley, Camarosa, Campinas, Dover, Milsei-Tudla, Oso Grande, Santa Clara, Sweet Charlie and Vila Nova. The DNA was extracted from mature leaves, the RAPD analysis were carried out with 26 primers and the amplification products were separated by electrophoreses. The coefficient of Dice was used to estimate the genetic similarity among the cultivars and the UPGMA

  2. Plant development and leaf area production in contrasting cultivars of maize grown in a cool temperate environment in the field

    Birch, C.J.; Vos, J.; Putten, van der P.E.L.

    2003-01-01

    Crop models need accurate simulation of the interdependent processes of crop development and leaf area production. Crop development proceeds according to genotype characteristics and environmental influences, specifically temperature and photoperiod. It can be partly described by thermal requirement

  3. Alterations in Kernel Proteome after Infection with Fusarium culmorum in Two Triticale Cultivars with Contrasting Resistance to Fusarium Head Blight

    Perlikowski, Dawid; Wiśniewska, Halina; Kaczmarek, Joanna; Góral, Tomasz; Ochodzki, Piotr; Kwiatek, Michał; Majka, Maciej; Augustyniak, Adam; Kosmala, Arkadiusz

    2016-01-01

    Highlight: The level of pathogen alpha-amylase and plant beta-amylase activities could be components of plant-pathogen interaction associated with the resistance of triticale to Fusarium head blight. Triticale was used here as a model to recognize new components of molecular mechanism of resistance to Fusarium head blight (FHB) in cereals. Fusarium-damaged kernels (FDK) of two lines distinct in levels of resistance to FHB were applied into a proteome profiling using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) to create protein maps and mass spectrometry (MS) to identify the proteins differentially accumulated between the analyzed lines. This proteomic research was supported by a measurement of alpha- and beta-amylase activities, mycotoxin content, and fungal biomass in the analyzed kernels. The 2-DE analysis indicated a total of 23 spots with clear differences in a protein content between the more resistant and more susceptible triticale lines after infection with Fusarium culmorum. A majority of the proteins were involved in a cell carbohydrate metabolism, stressing the importance of this protein group in a plant response to Fusarium infection. The increased accumulation levels of different isoforms of plant beta-amylase were observed for a more susceptible triticale line after inoculation but these were not supported by a total level of beta-amylase activity, showing the highest value in the control conditions. The more resistant line was characterized by a higher abundance of alpha-amylase inhibitor CM2 subunit and simultaneously a lower activity of alpha-amylase after inoculation. We suggest that the level of pathogen alpha-amylase and plant beta-amylase activities could be components of plant-pathogen interaction associated with the resistance of triticale to FHB. PMID:27582751

  4. Alterations in Kernel Proteome after Infection with Fusarium culmorum in Two Triticale Cultivars with Contrasting Resistance to Fusarium Head Blight.

    Perlikowski, Dawid; Wiśniewska, Halina; Kaczmarek, Joanna; Góral, Tomasz; Ochodzki, Piotr; Kwiatek, Michał; Majka, Maciej; Augustyniak, Adam; Kosmala, Arkadiusz

    2016-01-01

    Highlight: The level of pathogen alpha-amylase and plant beta-amylase activities could be components of plant-pathogen interaction associated with the resistance of triticale to Fusarium head blight. Triticale was used here as a model to recognize new components of molecular mechanism of resistance to Fusarium head blight (FHB) in cereals. Fusarium-damaged kernels (FDK) of two lines distinct in levels of resistance to FHB were applied into a proteome profiling using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) to create protein maps and mass spectrometry (MS) to identify the proteins differentially accumulated between the analyzed lines. This proteomic research was supported by a measurement of alpha- and beta-amylase activities, mycotoxin content, and fungal biomass in the analyzed kernels. The 2-DE analysis indicated a total of 23 spots with clear differences in a protein content between the more resistant and more susceptible triticale lines after infection with Fusarium culmorum. A majority of the proteins were involved in a cell carbohydrate metabolism, stressing the importance of this protein group in a plant response to Fusarium infection. The increased accumulation levels of different isoforms of plant beta-amylase were observed for a more susceptible triticale line after inoculation but these were not supported by a total level of beta-amylase activity, showing the highest value in the control conditions. The more resistant line was characterized by a higher abundance of alpha-amylase inhibitor CM2 subunit and simultaneously a lower activity of alpha-amylase after inoculation. We suggest that the level of pathogen alpha-amylase and plant beta-amylase activities could be components of plant-pathogen interaction associated with the resistance of triticale to FHB. PMID:27582751

  5. Variations in Disease Resistance of Chestnut Cultivars against Chestnut Blight Fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica

    LEE Sanghyun; KIM Kyunghee; PIAO Chungen; MOON Byungju

    2006-01-01

    Chestnut blight caused by Cryphonectria parasitica is one of the major chestnut diseases occurred on stems and branches. Oriental chestnut has more resistance than American one. Twenty-five cultivars of chestnut tree including various cultivars such as Tsukuba, Okkwang, Rihei, Ginyose, Eunsan, etc. Were tested with a rapid, simple and reliable method. The cultivar Banseki is one of the most resistant cultivars tested and has the necrotic area of 0.40 cm2. However, the necrotic areas of the cultivars of American chestnut, Eunsan, Kwangjujoyul and Eaton, ranges from 3.35 to 2.61 cm2 and these cultivars are relatively susceptible to this pathogen. Many pycnidia of this pathogen were observed on the inner and outer bark tissues after incubating for 3 weeks.

  6. Discrimination of sugarcane according to cultivar by 1H NMR and chemometric analyses

    Alves Filho, Elenilson G.; Silva, Lorena M.A.; Choze, Rafael; Liao, Luciano M. [Laboratorio de Ressonancia Magnetica Nuclear, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiania, GO (Brazil); Honda, Neli K.; Alcantara, Glaucia B. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Several technologies for the development of new sugarcane cultivars have mainly focused on the increase in productivity and greater disease resistance. Sugarcane cultivars are usually identified by the organography of the leaves and stems, the analysis of peroxidase and esterase isoenzyme activities and the total soluble protein as well as soluble solid content. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) associated with chemometric analysis has proven to be a valuable tool for cultivar assessment. Thus, this article describes the potential of chemometric analysis applied to 1H high resolution magic angle spinning (HRMAS) and NMR in solution for the investigation of sugarcane cultivars. For this purpose, leaves from eight different cultivars of sugarcane were investigated by {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy in combination with chemometric analysis. The approach shows to be a useful tool for the distinction and classification of different sugarcane cultivars as well as to access the differences on its chemical composition. (author)

  7. Variation among Rice Cultivars in Root Acidification and Its Relation to Cadmium Uptake

    LIU Jian-guo; XU Hai; CAI Guo-liang; QIAN Min; WANG De-ke; ZHU Qing-sen

    2006-01-01

    To understand the mechanisms of Cd uptake and accumulation in rice, soil acidification by root activities was investigated in six rice cultivars differing in Cd accumulation. The results showed a significant difference among the cultivars in pH of pot water and root exudate. Soil acidification abilities varied with rice cultivars. Both pH of pot water and root exudate were lower in indica cultivars than in japonica ones. The difference in root acidification was larger in Cd treated cultivars than the control. Under Cd stress, the pH of pot water and root exudate correlated negatively and significantly with Cd concentrations in rice plants. It was suggested that the soil acidification by root exudates, especially in Cd contaminated soils, may be one of the mechanisms responsible for Cd uptake in rice cultivars.

  8. Internal browning disorder of eight pear cultivars affected by bioactive constituents and enzyme activity.

    Koushesh Saba, Mahmoud; Moradi, Samira

    2016-08-15

    Internal browning (IB) is a disorder in pears that is frequently observed in some cultivars. The present research was carried out to study biochemical changes and IB disorder of pear fruit during storage and ripening. Eight pear cultivars harvested and stored at 1°C up to 90days. IB incidence, some bioactive compounds, polyphenol oxidase (PPO), peroxidase (POX), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes activities were measured during storage. IB increased during storage time but the susceptibility of cultivars was different. The ascorbic acid (AA), antioxidant capacity (AC) and SOD activity decreased while POX activity increased during storage but the rate of changes were different in studied cultivars. Total phenol (TP) and total flavonoid (TF) average content varied among pear cultivars and the highest TP and TF were observed in 'Bakhi' cultivars during storage. Fruit IB had positive correlation with the PPO activity, but negative correlation with TP, AC and AA. PMID:27006238

  9. Phenolic Profile of the Kernel of Selected Persian Walnut (Juglans regia L. Cultivars

    Géza BUJDOSÓ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Persian walnut (Juglans regia L. also known as English, Carpathian or common walnut is an important fruit species for Central and Eastern Europe, as its productivity increases annually due to its good market situation. Phenolic compounds of fifteen Persian walnut cultivars and two selected genotypes were examined by HPLC in this research paper. If we rank the phenolic compounds of the examined cultivars based on their quantity into increasing relative order, the quantity of Vanillic acid was the highest compound followed by Cathechin, Pyrocathechin, Epicathechin, Rutin, Syringic acid, Gallic acid, Juglone and Cinnamic acid. As results it can be considered that the Hungarian bred walnut cultivars had higher phenolic content compared to foreign cultivars. Among foreign bred cultivars evaluated in this paper the Serbian cultivars ‘Srem’ and ‘Sampion’ had the best results.

  10. Comparison of phenolic profiles and antioxidant properties of European Fagopyrum esculentum cultivars.

    Kiprovski, Biljana; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Slatnar, Ana; Veberic, Robert; Stampar, Franci; Malencic, Djordje; Latkovic, Dragana

    2015-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate composition and content of phenolic compounds in seeds of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) cultivars from Western, Central and Southeastern Europe grown in the Balkan area, and to compare them with cultivars from the Balkan. Mostly detected hydroxycinnamic acids in seeds of the investigated cultivars were caffeic and chlorogenic acid derivatives. More than ten different flavanols were detected in the investigated seeds, based on which all tested buckwheat cultivars were divided into two groups: those with high propelargonidins (epiafzelechin-epicatechin) and those with high procyanidins contents. 'Novosadska' had the highest level of phenolic acids, proanthocyanidins, flavones and most of the flavonols. However, 'Bosna 1' and 'Bosna 2' were highlighted with the greatest rutin content (up to 46 times higher than in other cultivars). All buckwheat cultivars had quite high antioxidant capacity (more than 80% of neutralized radicals), yet, 'Novosadska', 'Godijevo', 'Spacinska 1' and 'Bamby' excelled. PMID:25952839

  11. Ozone phytotoxicity in relation to stress ethylene evolution and stomatal resistance in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) cultivars

    Adepipe, N.O.; Tingey, D.T.

    1979-01-01

    In greenhouse experiments, the ozone sensitivities of three cowpea cultivars differing in growth habits and some physiological traits were determined and related to stress ethylene production and leaf diffusive resistance. The cultivars were more sensitive at the 3-leaf than at the 2-leaf stages of growth. There was no consistent leaf injury at less than 0.50 ..mu..l/l of ozone for 2 hr. At an ozone concentration of 1.0 ..mu..l/l for 2 hr. the cultivar Adzuki exhibited marked leaf injury, amounting to over 80% symptom coverage of the leaf surface while New Era and Ife Brown sustained leaf injury maxima of 58 and 35% respectively. Stress ethylene production did not differ among the cultivars. While ozone increased stomatal diffusive resistance in all cultivars, there were not significant differences among the cultivars.

  12. Determination of Apomictic Fruit Set Ratio in Several Romanian Walnut (Juglans regia L. Cultivars

    Sina Niculina COSMULESCU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available carried out to determine the ability of apomictic fruit setting in twelve Romanian walnut cultivars. ‘Sibisel 44’, ‘Geoagiu 65’, ‘Germisara’, ‘Muscelean’, ‘Sarmis’, ‘Valcor’, ‘Valmit’, ‘Valrex’, ‘Jupanesti’, ‘Velnita’, ‘Orastie’ and ‘Argesean’ cultivars were used in the experiment. Female flowers were isolated with pergament paper bags and the apomictic fruit set was determined 8 weeks after anthesis. The apomixis degree was determined as the number of fruit calculated in relation to the number of isolated flowers. The percentage of apomictic fruit set without pollination in cultivars analyzed is low, ranging from 7.86% (‘Orastie’ cultivar up to 12.46% (‘Jupanesti’ cultivar. The results indicated that apomictic fruit set is insufficient for economical seed and crop production in these Romanian walnut cultivars.

  13. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of seven cultivars of guava (Psidium guajava) fruits.

    Flores, Gema; Wu, Shi-Biao; Negrin, Adam; Kennelly, Edward J

    2015-03-01

    The antioxidant activity and identification of phenolic compounds of seven edible guava (Psidium guajava) cultivars that varied in colour from white to pink were examined. In the DPPH assay all four pink-pulp guavas (Barbie Pink, Homestead, Sardina 1, Sardina 2) included in the study showed higher activity than the white pulp cultivars (Yen 2 and Sayla) and less than the red pulp guava cultivar (Thai Maroon). In the ABTS(+) assay this trend was the same up to 20 min, but from 20 to 40 min Barbie Pink showed lower activity than the white guavas. Twenty-one compounds were characterised in the cultivars, and ten of them are reported for the first time in this fruit. Principle component analysis was performed to identify differences in chemistry among these cultivars. Our results suggest that the antioxidant activity and phytochemical composition of P. guajava vary significantly according to the cultivar and pulp colour. PMID:25306353

  14. Contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasonography

    Reddy, Nischita K; Ioncică, Ana Maria; Săftoiu, Adrian;

    2011-01-01

    sonography to depict tumor neovascularization can be increased by contrast agents. Contrast-enhanced harmonic imaging is a useful aid in identifying the tumor vasculature and studying pancreatic microperfusion. In the future, these techniques could potentially be used to quantify tumor perfusion, to assess......Contrast agents are increasingly being used to characterize the vasculature in an organ of interest, to better delineate benign from malignant pathology and to aid in staging and directing therapeutic procedures. We review the mechanisms of action of first, second and third generation contrast...... agents and their use in various endoscopic procedures in the gastrointestinal tract. Various applications of contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasonography include differentiating benign from malignant mediastinal lymphadenopathy, assessment of depth of invasion of esophageal, gastric and gall bladder...

  15. Scope and problems of cultivar group formation as exemplified in Brassica rapa L.

    Oost, E.H.; Toxopeus, H.

    1986-01-01

    A brief historical review is given of the taxonomic treatment of infraspecific classification of cultivated plants. The inadequacy of hierarchical classification for polymorphous cultivated plant species is outlined. The rapid change in the range of cultivars as a result of breeding to adapt to changing cultivation practices, and the creation of new cultivars and crops, complicates such classification. Attention is focused on the use of cultivar groups for infraspecific classification. The sc...

  16. DOWNY MILDEW CONTROL IN GRAPEVINE BY COMBINING CULTIVARS, FUNGICIDES, AND TREATMENT TYPES

    Ismail Cacaj; Thanas Ruci; Fadil Musa; Bedri Dragusha; Lush Susaj; Bakir Kelmendi; Burim Rexhaj

    2010-01-01

    This study aims at controlling downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola) infestation in Istog area, Kosovo. Two grape cultivars were tested in combination with fungicide types and treatment methods. The obtained results showed statistically significant differences among grapevine cultivars with regard to susceptibility to Plasmopara viticola, the efficiency of different fungicides as well as their combination to control this pathogen. The most susceptible cultivar proved to be Frankovka (15.38%), wh...

  17. Phenolic Compound Profiles in Berry Skins from Nine Red Wine Grape Cultivars in Northwest China

    Xiang-Yun Cui; Chang-Qing Duan; Jian-Jun He; He-Qiong Bi; Zan-Min Jin

    2009-01-01

    Phenolic compound profiles were investigated by HPLC-MS in two consecutive years to assess genotypic variation in berry skins of nine red Vitis vinifera cultivars. The results showed that the types and levels of phenolic compounds greatly varied with cultivar. Common wine grape cultivars such as Syrah, Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Gernischt and Merlot contained more types of anthocyanins, flavonols, flavan-3-ols, stilbenes and phenolic acids than Gamay, Yan73, Pinot Noir, Zinfandel and Мускат...

  18. Development and Validation of National Cotton Cultivar Registration lndex Model in Yangtze River Valley

    Naiyin XU; Jian Ll

    2014-01-01

    Based on the cotton variety high yielding potential, fiber quality traits, disease resistance, and early maturity characters, a cultivar registration index model was developed to simplify the tedious calculation process in national cotton registration procedure, and thus to enhance the practical application of cultivar regis-tration index in cotton breeding and cotton recommending. [Method] By means of correlation analysis, partial correlation analysis and path analysis methods, the cor-relation of cotton main properties and their effects on cultivar registration index were explored using the dataset of national cotton regional trials in Yangtze River Val ey during 1996-2013. The cultivar registration index model was constructed with step-wise regression statistical technique to ascertain the quantitative relationship of main characters with cultivar registration index, and the regional cotton trial dataset in 2013 was used to validate the model. [Result] Several characters with larger deter-minants to cultivar registration index were screened out, i.e. lint yield increase ratio, pro-frost yield ratio, verticil ium wilt index, fiber strength, fusarium wilt index and mi-cronaire value. The cultivar registration index model defined the functional relation-ship of cultivar registration index with the selected main characters, among which lint yield increase ratio, fiber strength and micronaire value contributed most to culti-var registration index. The model validation with regional cotton trials in 2013 indi-cated the root mean square error, RMSE was only 2.77, and the variation coeffi-cient was 6.77%, which confirmed the model prediction effect was quite perfect. [Conclusion] The developed cultivar registration index model was reliable enough to simulate the complicated scoring system in cultivar registration procedure, also sim-plified cotton registration process, and enhanced the practicability of the cultivar reg-istration index.

  19. Chemical and Sensory Characteristics of Three Apple Cultivars (Malus x domestica Borkh.)

    Martina Skendrović Babojelić; Krešimir Ivančić; Jasmina Družić; Ana Kovač; Sandra Voća

    2007-01-01

    Chemical and sensory characteristics of three apple cultivars ‘Idared’, ‘Granny Smith’ and ‘Pink Lady’ were investigated. Cultivar Idared is predominant in cultivation and on the market in Republic of Croatia, while ‘Pink Lady’ is only present in certain regions of Croatia because of specific growing requirements; however in the world market it achieves very good results. Fruit of analyzed cultivars was grown in Neretva Valley, and harvested in optimal maturity time. Differences in fruit firm...

  20. BRS Esteio - Common bean cultivar with black grain, high yield potential and moderate resistance to anthracnose

    Helton Santos Pereira; Leonardo Cunha Melo; Luís Cláudio de Faria; Adriane Wendland; Maria José Del Peloso; Joaquim Geraldo Cáprio da Costa; Adriano Stephan Nascente; José Luis Cabrera Díaz; Hélio Wilson Lemos de Carvalho; Válter Martins de Almeida; Carlos Lásaro Pereira de Melo; Antônio Félix da Costa; Sheila Cristina Prucoli Posse; Mariana Cruzick de Souza Magaldi; Ângela de Fátima Barbosa Abreu

    2013-01-01

    BRS Esteio is a common bean cultivar with black grains of excellent cooking quality, suited for cultivation in 21 BrazilianStates. In 77 trials of Value for Cultivation and Use, the cultivar had a normal cycle (90 days), an average yield of 2,529 kg ha-1,which is 8.1% higher than that of the control cultivars, a high yield potential (4,702 kg ha-1), upright growth, tolerance to lodging,and moderate resistance to anthracnose.