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Sample records for actual waste sample

  1. CHARACTERIZATION AND ACTUAL WASTE TEST WITH TANK 5F SAMPLES

    Hay, M. S.; Crapse, K. P.; Fink, S. D.; Pareizs, J. M.

    2007-08-30

    The initial phase of bulk waste removal operations was recently completed in Tank 5F. Video inspection of the tank indicates several mounds of sludge still remain in the tank. Additionally, a mound of white solids was observed under Riser 5. In support of chemical cleaning and heel removal programs, samples of the sludge and the mound of white solids were obtained from the tank for characterization and testing. A core sample of the sludge and Super Snapper sample of the white solids were characterized. A supernate dip sample from Tank 7F was also characterized. A portion of the sludge was used in two tank cleaning tests using oxalic acid at 50 C and 75 C. The filtered oxalic acid from the tank cleaning tests was subsequently neutralized by addition to a simulated Tank 7F supernate. Solids and liquid samples from the tank cleaning test and neutralization test were characterized. A separate report documents the results of the gas generation from the tank cleaning test using oxalic acid and Tank 5F sludge. The characterization results for the Tank 5F sludge sample (FTF-05-06-55) appear quite good with respect to the tight precision of the sample replicates, good results for the glass standards, and minimal contamination found in the blanks and glass standards. The aqua regia and sodium peroxide fusion data also show good agreement between the two dissolution methods. Iron dominates the sludge composition with other major contributors being uranium, manganese, nickel, sodium, aluminum, and silicon. The low sodium value for the sludge reflects the absence of supernate present in the sample due to the core sampler employed for obtaining the sample. The XRD and CSEM results for the Super Snapper salt sample (i.e., white solids) from Tank 5F (FTF-05-07-1) indicate the material contains hydrated sodium carbonate and bicarbonate salts along with some aluminum hydroxide. These compounds likely precipitated from the supernate in the tank. A solubility test showed the material

  2. CHARACTERIZATION AND ACTUAL WASTE TEST WITH TANK 5F SAMPLES

    The initial phase of bulk waste removal operations was recently completed in Tank 5F. Video inspection of the tank indicates several mounds of sludge still remain in the tank. Additionally, a mound of white solids was observed under Riser 5. In support of chemical cleaning and heel removal programs, samples of the sludge and the mound of white solids were obtained from the tank for characterization and testing. A core sample of the sludge and Super Snapper sample of the white solids were characterized. A supernate dip sample from Tank 7F was also characterized. A portion of the sludge was used in two tank cleaning tests using oxalic acid at 50 C and 75 C. The filtered oxalic acid from the tank cleaning tests was subsequently neutralized by addition to a simulated Tank 7F supernate. Solids and liquid samples from the tank cleaning test and neutralization test were characterized. A separate report documents the results of the gas generation from the tank cleaning test using oxalic acid and Tank 5F sludge. The characterization results for the Tank 5F sludge sample (FTF-05-06-55) appear quite good with respect to the tight precision of the sample replicates, good results for the glass standards, and minimal contamination found in the blanks and glass standards. The aqua regia and sodium peroxide fusion data also show good agreement between the two dissolution methods. Iron dominates the sludge composition with other major contributors being uranium, manganese, nickel, sodium, aluminum, and silicon. The low sodium value for the sludge reflects the absence of supernate present in the sample due to the core sampler employed for obtaining the sample. The XRD and CSEM results for the Super Snapper salt sample (i.e., white solids) from Tank 5F (FTF-05-07-1) indicate the material contains hydrated sodium carbonate and bicarbonate salts along with some aluminum hydroxide. These compounds likely precipitated from the supernate in the tank. A solubility test showed the material

  3. Characterization, Leaching, and Filtration Testing for Tributyl Phosphate (TBP, Group 7) Actual Waste Sample Composites

    Edwards, Matthew K.; Billing, Justin M.; Blanchard, David L.; Buck, Edgar C.; Casella, Amanda J.; Casella, Andrew M.; Crum, J. V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Snow, Lanee A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

    2009-03-09

    .A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. The actual waste-testing program included homogenizing the samples by group, characterizing the solids and aqueous phases, and performing parametric leaching tests. The tributyl phosphate sludge (TBP, Group 7) is the subject of this report. The Group 7 waste was anticipated to be high in phosphorus as well as aluminum in the form of gibbsite. Both are believed to exist in sufficient quantities in the Group 7 waste to address leaching behavior. Thus, the focus of the Group 7 testing was on the removal of both P and Al. The waste-type definition, archived sample conditions, homogenization activities, characterization (physical, chemical, radioisotope, and crystal habit), and caustic leaching behavior as functions of time, temperature, and hydroxide concentration are discussed in this report. Testing was conducted according to TP-RPP-WTP-467.

  4. Filtration and Leach Testing for REDOX Sludge and S-Saltcake Actual Waste Sample Composites

    Shimskey, Rick W.; Billing, Justin M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Geeting, John GH; Hallen, Richard T.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Snow, Lanee A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

    2009-02-20

    A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.( ) The test program was subdivided into logical increments. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Under test plan TP-RPP-WTP-467, eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. Under this test plan, a waste-testing program was implemented that included: • Homogenizing the archive samples by group as defined in the test plan • Characterizing the homogenized sample groups • Performing parametric leaching testing on each group for compounds of interest • Performing bench-top filtration/leaching tests in the hot cell for each group to simulate filtration and leaching activities if they occurred in the UFP2 vessel of the WTP Pretreatment Facility. This report focuses on filtration/leaching tests performed on two of the eight waste composite samples and follow-on parametric tests to support aluminum leaching results from those tests.

  5. Filtration and Leach Testing for PUREX Cladding Sludge and REDOX Cladding Sludge Actual Waste Sample Composites

    Shimskey, Rick W.; Billing, Justin M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Casella, Amanda J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Hallen, Richard T.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

    2009-03-02

    A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan (Barnes and Voke 2006). The test program was subdivided into logical increments. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Under test plan TP RPP WTP 467 (Fiskum et al. 2007), eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. Under this test plan, a waste testing program was implemented that included: • Homogenizing the archive samples by group as defined in the test plan. • Characterizing the homogenized sample groups. • Performing parametric leaching testing on each group for compounds of interest. • Performing bench-top filtration/leaching tests in the hot cell for each group to simulate filtration and leaching activities if they occurred in the UFP2 vessel of the WTP Pretreatment Facility. This report focuses on a filtration/leaching test performed using two of the eight waste composite samples. The sample groups examined in this report were the plutonium-uranium extraction (PUREX) cladding waste sludge (Group 3, or CWP) and reduction-oxidation (REDOX) cladding waste sludge (Group 4, or CWR). Both the Group 3 and 4 waste composites were anticipated to be high in gibbsite, thus requiring caustic leaching. WTP RPT 167 (Snow et al. 2008) describes the homogenization, characterization, and parametric leaching activities before benchtop filtration/leaching testing of these two waste groups. Characterization and initial parametric data in that report were used to plan a single filtration/leaching test using a blend of both wastes. The test focused on filtration testing of the waste and caustic leaching for aluminum, in the form

  6. TESTING OF THE SPINTEK ROTARY MICROFILTER USING ACTUAL HANFORD WASTE SAMPLES

    HUBER HJ

    2010-04-13

    The SpinTek rotary microfilter was tested on actual Hanford tank waste. The samples were a composite of archived Tank 241-AN-105 material and a sample representing single-shell tanks (SST). Simulants of the two samples have been used in non-rad test runs at the 222-S laboratory and at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The results of these studies are compared in this report. Two different nominal pore sizes for the sintered steel rotating disk filter were chosen: 0.5 and 0.1 {micro}m. The results suggest that the 0.5-{micro}m disk is preferable for Hanford tank waste for the following reasons: (1) The filtrate clarity is within the same range (<<4 ntu for both disks); (2) The filtrate flux is in general higher for the 0.5-{micro}m disk; and (3) The 0.1-{micro}m disk showed a higher likelihood of fouling. The filtrate flux of the actual tank samples is generally in the range of 20-30% compared to the equivalent non-rad tests. The AN-105 slurries performed at about twice the filtrate flux of the SST slurries. The reason for this difference has not been identified. Particle size distributions in both cases are very similar; comparison of the chemical composition is not conclusive. The sole hint towards what material was stuck in the filter pore holes came from the analysis of the dried flakes from the surface of the fouled 0.1-{micro}m disk. A cleaning approach developed by SRNL personnel to deal with fouled disks has been found adaptable when using actual Hanford samples. The use of 1 M nitric acid improved the filtrate flux by approximately two times; using the same simulants as in the non-rad test runs showed that the filtrate flux was restored to 1/2 of its original amount.

  7. Modeling of Boehmite Leaching from Actual Hanford High-Level Waste Samples

    The Department of Energy plans to vitrify approximately 60,000 metric tons of high level waste sludge from underground storage tanks at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation. To reduce the volume of high level waste requiring treatment, a goal has been set to remove about 90 percent of the aluminum, which comprises nearly 70 percent of the sludge. Aluminum in the form of gibbsite and sodium aluminate can be easily dissolved by washing the waste stream with caustic, but boehmite, which comprises nearly half of the total aluminum, is more resistant to caustic dissolution and requires higher treatment temperatures and hydroxide concentrations. In this work, the dissolution kinetics of aluminum species during caustic leaching of actual Hanford high level waste samples is examined. The experimental results are used to develop a shrinking core model that provides a basis for prediction of dissolution dynamics from known process temperature and hydroxide concentration. This model is further developed to include the effects of particle size polydispersity, which is found to strongly influence the rate of dissolution

  8. Characterization and Leach Testing for PUREX Cladding Waste Sludge (Group 3) and REDOX Cladding Waste Sludge (Group 4) Actual Waste Sample Composites

    Snow, Lanee A.; Buck, Edgar C.; Casella, Amanda J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

    2009-02-13

    A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.(a) The testing program was subdivided into logical increments. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. The actual wastetesting program included homogenizing the samples by group, characterizing the solids and aqueous phases, and performing parametric leaching tests. Two of the eight defined groups—plutonium-uranium extraction (PUREX) cladding waste sludge (Group 3, or CWP) and reduction-oxidation (REDOX) cladding waste sludge (Group 4, or CWR)—are the subjects of this report. Both the Group 3 and 4 waste composites were anticipated to be high in gibbsite, requiring caustic leaching. Characterization of the composite Group 3 and Group 4 waste samples confirmed them to be high in gibbsite. The focus of the Group 3 and 4 testing was on determining the behavior of gibbsite during caustic leaching. The waste-type definition, archived sample conditions, homogenization activities, characterization (physical, chemical, radioisotope, and crystal habit), and caustic leaching behavior as functions of time, temperature, and hydroxide concentration are discussed in this report. Testing was conducted according to TP-RPP-WTP-467.

  9. Modeling of Boehmite Leaching from Actual Hanford High-Level Waste Samples

    The U.S. Department of Energy plans to vitrify approximately 60,000 metric tons of high-level waste (HLW) sludge from underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site in Southwest Washington State. To reduce the volume of HLW requiring treatment, a goal has been set to remove a significant quantity of the aluminum, which comprises nearly 70 percent of the sludge. Aluminum is found in the form of gibbsite and sodium aluminate, which can be easily dissolved by washing the waste stream with caustic, and boehmite, which comprises nearly half of the total aluminum, but is more resistant to caustic dissolution and requires higher treatment temperatures and hydroxide concentrations. Chromium, which makes up a much smaller amount (∼3%) of the sludge, must also be removed because there is a low tolerance for chromium in the HLW immobilization process. In this work, the coupled dissolution kinetics of aluminum and chromium species during caustic leaching of actual Hanford HLW samples is examined. The experimental results are used to develop a model that provides a basis for predicting dissolution dynamics from known process temperature and hydroxide concentration. (authors)

  10. Permanganate Reduction of Savannah River Site Actual Waste Samples for Strontium and Actinides Removal

    The authors investigated the performance of permanganate treatment for the removal of strontium and actinides from actual high-level waste. Researchers also conducted comparison tests with monosodium titanate (MST) as a means of evaluating the permanganate performance. Tests utilized a Tank 37H/44F composite waste solution. Personnel significantly increased the concentration of alpha emitting actinides in the waste by the addition of acidic americium/curium solution (F-Canyon Tank 17.1 solution), which contained a significant quantity of plutonium, and neptunium-237 stock solution. Tests examined three permanganate treatment options

  11. Strontium and Actinides Removal from Savannah River Site Actual Waste Samples by Freshly Precipitated Manganese Oxide

    The authors investigated the performance of freshly precipitated manganese oxide and monosodium titanate (MST) for the removal of strontium (Sr) and actinides from actual high-level waste. Manganese oxide precipitation occurs upon addition of a reductant such as formate (HCO2-) or peroxide (H2O2) to a waste solution containing permanganate (MnO4-). An addition of non-radioactive strontium typically precedes the MnO4- and reductant addition, which serves primarily to isotopically dilute the strontium-90 (90Sr) present in the waste. Tests utilized a Tank 37H/44F composite waste solution. Personnel significantly increased the concentration of actinides in the waste by the addition of acidic americium/curium solution (F-Canyon Tank 17.1 solution), which contained a significant quantity of plutonium (Pu), and neptunium-237 (237Np) stock solution. Initial tests examined three manganese oxide treatment options

  12. Characterization and Leach Testing for REDOX Sludge and S-Saltcake Actual Waste Sample Composites

    Fiskum, Sandra K.; Buck, Edgar C.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Hubler, Timothy L.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; McNamara, Bruce K.; Peterson, Reid A.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Snow, Lanee A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

    2008-07-10

    This report describes processing and analysis results of boehmite waste type (Group 5) and insoluble high Cr waste type (Group 6). The sample selection, compositing, subdivision, physical and chemical characterization are described. Extensive batch leach testing was conducted to define kinetics and leach factors of selected analytes as functions of NaOH concentration and temperature. Testing supports issue M-12 resolution for the Waste Treatment Plant.

  13. Characterization, Leaching, and Filtration Testing for Bismuth Phosphate Sludge (Group 1) and Bismuth Phosphate Saltcake (Group 2) Actual Waste Sample Composites

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Buck, Edgar C.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn; Edwards, Matthew K.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Hallen, Richard T.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Snow, Lanee A.

    2009-02-19

    A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.() The test program was subdivided into logical increments. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. The actual waste-testing program included homogenizing the samples by group, characterizing the solids and aqueous phases, and performing parametric leaching tests. Two of the eight defined groups—bismuth phosphate sludge (Group 1) and bismuth phosphate saltcake (Group 2)—are the subjects of this report. The Group 1 waste was anticipated to be high in phosphorus and was implicitly assumed to be present as BiPO4 (however, results presented here indicate that the phosphate in Group 1 is actually present as amorphous iron(III) phosphate). The Group 2 waste was also anticipated to be high in phosphorus, but because of the relatively low bismuth content and higher aluminum content, it was anticipated that the Group 2 waste would contain a mixture of gibbsite, sodium phosphate, and aluminum phosphate. Thus, the focus of the Group 1 testing was on determining the behavior of P removal during caustic leaching, and the focus of the Group 2 testing was on the removal of both P and Al. The waste-type definition, archived sample conditions, homogenization activities, characterization (physical, chemical, radioisotope, and crystal habit), and caustic leaching behavior as functions of time, temperature, and hydroxide concentration are discussed in this report. Testing was conducted according to TP-RPP-WTP-467.

  14. Comparison of simulants to actual neutralized current acid waste: Process and product testing of three NCAW core samples from Tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ

    A vitrification plant is planned to process the high-level waste (HLW) solids from Hanford Site tanks into canistered glass logs for disposal in a national repository. Programs have been established within the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) Project to test and model simulated waste to support design, feed processability, operations, permitting, safety, and waste-form qualification. Parallel testing with actual radioactive waste is being performed on a laboratory-scale to confirm the validity of using simulants and glass property models developed from simulants. Laboratory-scale testing has been completed on three radioactive core samples from tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ containing neutralized current acid waste (NCAW), which is one of the first waste types to be processed in the high-level waste vitrification plant under a privatization scenario. Properties of the radioactive waste measured during process and product testing were compared to simulant properties and model predictions to confirm the validity of simulant and glass property models work. This report includes results from the three NCAW core samples, comparable results from slurry and glass simulants, and comparisons to glass property model predictions

  15. Comparison of simulants to actual neutralized current acid waste: process and product testing of three NCAW core samples from Tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ

    A vitrification plant is planned to process the high-level waste (HLW) solids from Hanford Site tanks into canistered glass logs for disposal in a national repository. Programs were established within the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) Project to test and model simulated waste to support design, feed processability, operations, permitting, safety, and waste-form qualification. Parallel testing with actual radioactive waste was performed on a laboratory-scale to confirm the validity of using simulants and glass property models developed from simulants. Laboratory-scale testing has been completed on three radioactive core samples from tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ containing neutralized current acid waste (NCAW), which is one of the first waste types to be processed in the high-level waste vitrification plant under a privatization scenario. Properties of the radioactive waste measured during process and product testing were compared to simulant properties and model predictions to confirm the validity of simulant and glass property ,models work. This report includes results from the three NCAW core samples, comparable results from slurry and glass simulants, and comparisons to glass property model predictions

  16. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION FLOWSHEET TESTS WITH ACTUAL TANK WASTE

    HERTING, D.L.

    2006-10-18

    Laboratory-scale flowsheet tests of the fractional crystallization process were conducted with actual tank waste samples in a hot cell at the 222-S Laboratory. The process is designed to separate medium-curie liquid waste into a low-curie stream for feeding to supplemental treatment and a high-curie stream for double-shell tank storage. Separations criteria (for Cs-137 sulfate, and sodium) were exceeded in all three of the flowsheet tests that were performed.

  17. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION FLOWSHEET TESTS WITH ACTUAL TANK WASTE

    Laboratory-scale flowsheet tests of the fractional crystallization process were conducted with actual tank waste samples in a hot cell at the 2224 Laboratory. The process is designed to separate medium-curie liquid waste into a low-curie stream for feeding to supplemental treatment and a high-curie stream for double-shell tank storage. Separations criteria (for Cesium-137 sulfate and sodium) were exceeded in all three of the flowsheet tests that were performed

  18. Actual problems of municipal cleaners waste waters

    Konko¾ová Patrícia

    2000-01-01

    In paper are evaluated social and economical changes in water economy with emphasis on complex evaluation of municipal cleaners waste waters with respect of legislative, position of ownerskip relationskips and financial security of public experiences of water economy.

  19. Actual situation of radioactive waste management in Guatemala

    This paper focuses on the actual radioactive waste management situation in Guatemala, as well as on the sources and facilities that have obtained the license, and the way to disposal them, when they are considered as radioactive waste. The Direccion General de Energia Nuclear is the entity responsible for the proper and normal performance of the regulatory activity in the country. (author). 3 refs

  20. Biological denitrification of high sodium nitrate bearing actual reprocessing waste

    High nitrate bearing alkaline waste solution of reprocessing plant origin was decontaminated by adopting an ion exchange followed by a chemical treatment based process. The resulting effluent was then subjected to nitrate removal by biodenitrification. A flow through bioreactor provided with stainless steel modules as support for biomass growth was setup and the biomass in reactor was acclimatized to a NaNO3 solution of concentration level comparable to actual effluents. The bioreactor was used for denitrification of the actual effluent in continuous mode and complete denitrification of the actual reprocessing waste solution containing 17,500 ppm of nitrate has been successfully demonstrated. (author)

  1. Cesium ion exchange using actual waste: Column size considerations

    It is presently planned to remove cesium from Hanford tank waste supernates and sludge wash solutions using ion exchange. To support the development of a cesium ion exchange process, laboratory experiments produced column breakthrough curves using wastes simulants in 200 mL columns. To verify the validity of the simulant tests, column runs with actual supernatants are being planned. The purpose of these actual waste tests is two-fold. First, the tests will verify that use of the simulant accurately reflects the equilibrium and rate behavior of the resin compared to actual wastes. Batch tests and column tests will be used to compare equilibrium behaviors and rate behaviors, respectively. Second, the tests will assist in clarifying the negative interactions between the actual waste and the ion exchange resin, which cannot be effectively tested with simulant. Such interactions include organic fouling of the resin and salt precipitation in the column. These effects may affect the shape of the column breakthrough curve. The reduction in column size also may change the shape of the curve, making the individual effects even more difficult to sort out. To simplify the evaluation, the changes due to column size must be either understood or eliminated. This report describes the determination of the column size for actual waste testing that best minimizes the effect of scale-down. This evaluation will provide a theoretical basis for the dimensions of the column. Experimental testing is still required before the final decision can be made. This evaluation will be confined to the study of CS-100 and R-F resins with NCAW simulant and to a limited extent DSSF waste simulant. Only the cesium loading phase has been considered

  2. Laboratory stabilization/solidification of surrogate and actual mixed-waste sludge in glass and grout

    Grouting and vitrification are currently the most likely stabilization/solidification technologies for mixed wastes. Grouting has been used to stabilize and solidify hazardous and low-level waste for decades. Vitrification has long been developed as a high-level-waste alternative and has been under development recently as an alternative treatment technology for low-level mixed waste. Laboratory testing has been performed to develop grout and vitrification formulas for mixed-waste sludges currently stored in underground tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and to compare these waste forms. Envelopes, or operating windows, for both grout and soda-lime-silica glass formulations for a surrogate sludge were developed. One formulation within each envelope was selected for testing the sensitivity of performance to variations (±10 wt%) in the waste form composition and variations in the surrogate sludge composition over the range previously characterized in the sludges. In addition, one sludge sample of an actual mixed-waste tank was obtained, a surrogate was developed for this sludge sample, and grout and glass samples were prepared and tested in the laboratory using both surrogate and the actual sludge. The sensitivity testing of a surrogate tank sludge in selected glass and grout formulations is discussed in this paper, along with the hot-cell testing of an actual tank sludge sample

  3. Vitrification treatability studies of actual waste water treatment sludges

    Treatability studies have been conducted at the laboratory-scale to evaluate vitrification of waste water sludges at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). These studies are being conducted jointly by Westinghouse Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These studies include testing with surrogate waste formulations at both the laboratory-scale and pilot-scale, and testing with actual waste at the laboratory-scale, pilot-scale, and field-scale. ORR was chosen as the host site for the field-scale demonstration. The Y12 West End Treatment Facility (WETF) waste water treatment sludges, which are RCRA F-listed wastes, were chosen as the candidate waste stream for the first field-scale demonstration. The laboratory-scale ''proof-of-principle'' demonstrations reported in this study and the pilot-scale studies planned for FY95 on the WETF sludge will provide needed operating parameters for the planned field-scale demonstration. These laboratory-scale ''proof-of-principle'' and pilot-scale studies also provide needed data for the evaluation of the feasibility of vitrification as a stabilization option for a variety of wastes which do not currently meet RCRA/LDR (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act/Land Disposal Restrictions) requirements for storage/disposal and/or those for which treatment capacity does not presently exist

  4. STEAM REFORMING TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION FOR THE DESTRUCTION OF ORGANICS ON ACTUAL DOE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE TANK 48H WASTE 9138

    Burket, P

    2009-02-24

    This paper describes the design of the Bench-scale Steam Reformer (BSR); a processing unit for demonstrating steam reforming technology on actual radioactive waste [1]. It describes the operating conditions of the unit used for processing a sample of Savannah River Site (SRS) Tank 48H waste. Finally, it compares the results from processing the actual waste in the BSR to processing simulant waste in the BSR to processing simulant waste in a large pilot scale unit, the Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer (FBSR), operated at Hazen Research Inc. in Golden, CO. The purpose of this work was to prove that the actual waste reacted in the same manner as the simulant waste in order to validate the work performed in the pilot scale unit which could only use simulant waste.

  5. Reaction chemistry of nitrogen species in hydrothermal systems: Simple reactions, waste simulants, and actual wastes

    Results are presented from hydrothermal reaction systems containing organic components, nitrogen components, and an oxidant. Reaction chemistry observed in simple systems and in simple waste simulants is used to develop a model which presents global nitrogen chemistry in these reactive systems. The global reaction path suggested is then compared with results obtained for the treatment of an actual waste stream containing only C-N-0-H species

  6. Pu speciation in actual and simulated aged wastes

    Lezama-pacheco, Juan S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Conradson, Steven D [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy (XAFS) at the Pu L{sub II/III} edge was used to determine the speciation of this element in (1) Hanford Z-9 Pu crib samples, (2) deteriorated waste resins from a chloride process ion-exchange purification line, and (3) the sediments from two Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Liter Scale simulant brine systems. The Pu speciation in all of these samples except one is within the range previously displayed by PuO{sub 2+x-2y}(OH){sub y}{center_dot}zH{sub 2}O compounds, which is expected based on the putative thermodynamic stability of this system for Pu equilibrated with excess H{sub 2}O and O{sub 2} under environmental conditions. The primary exception was a near neutral brine experiment that displayed evidence for partial substitution of the normal O-based ligands with Cl{sup -} and a concomitant expansion of the Pu-Pu distance relative to the much more highly ordered Pu near neighbor shell in PuO{sub 2}. However, although the Pu speciation was not necessarily unusual, the Pu chemistry identified via the history of these samples did exhibit unexpected patterns, the most significant of which may be that the presence of the Pu(V)-oxo species may decrease rather than increase the overall solubility of these compounds. Several additional aspects of the Pu speciation have also not been previously observed in laboratory-based samples. The molecular environmental chemistry of Pu is therefore likely to be more complicated than would be predicted based solely on the behavior of PuO{sub 2} under laboratory conditions.

  7. Final Report. LAW Glass Formulation to Support AP-101 Actual Waste Testing, VSL-03R3470-2, Rev. 0

    Muller, I. S. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Pegg, I. L. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Rielley, Elizabeth [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Carranza, Isidro [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Hight, Kenneth [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Lai, Shan-Tao T. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Mooers, Cavin [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Bazemore, Gina [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Cecil, Richard [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Kruger, Albert A. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-06-22

    The main objective of the work was to develop and select a glass formulation for vitrification testing of the actual waste sample of LAW AP-101 at Battelle - Pacific Northwest Division (PNWD). Other objectives of the work included preparation and characterization of glasses to demonstrate compliance with contract and processing requirements, evaluation of the ability to achieve waste loading requirements, testing to demonstrate compatibility of the glass melts with melter materials of construction, comparison of the properties of simulant and actual waste glasses, and identification of glass formulation issues with respect to contract specifications and processing requirements.

  8. TRU waste-sampling program

    As part of a TRU waste-sampling program, Los Alamos National Laboratory retrieved and examined 44 drums of 238Pu- and 239Pu-contaminated waste. The drums ranged in age from 8 months to 9 years. The majority of drums were tested for pressure, and gas samples withdrawn from the drums were analyzed by a mass spectrometer. Real-time radiography and visual examination were used to determine both void volumes and waste content. Drum walls were measured for deterioration, and selected drum contents were reassayed for comparison with original assays and WIPP criteria. Each drum tested at atmospheric pressure. Mass spectrometry revealed no problem with 239Pu-contaminated waste, but three 8-month-old drums of 238Pu-contaminated waste contained a potentially hazardous gas mixture. Void volumes fell within the 81 to 97% range. Measurements of drum walls showed no significant corrosion or deterioration. All reassayed contents were within WIPP waste acceptance criteria. Five of the drums opened and examined (15%) could not be certified as packaged. Three contained free liquids, one had corrosive materials, and one had too much unstabilized particulate. Eleven drums had the wrong (or not the most appropriate) waste code. In many cases, disposal volumes had been inefficiently used. 2 refs., 23 figs., 7 tabs

  9. Strontium and Actinide Separations from High Level Nuclear Waste Solutions using Monosodium Titanate - Actual Waste Testing

    Peters, T.B.; Barnes, M.J.; Hobbs,D.T.; Walker, D.D.; Fondeur, F.F.; Norato, M.A.; Pulmano, R.L.; Fink, S.D.

    2005-11-01

    Pretreatment processes at the Savannah River Site will separate {sup 90}Sr, alpha-emitting and radionuclides (i.e., actinides) and {sup 137}Cs prior to disposal of the high-level nuclear waste. Separation of {sup 90}Sr and alpha-emitting radionuclides occurs by ion exchange/adsorption using an inorganic material, monosodium titanate (MST). Previously reported testing with simulants indicates that the MST exhibits high selectivity for strontium and actinides in high ionic strength and strongly alkaline salt solutions. This paper provides a summary of data acquired to measure the performance of MST to remove strontium and actinides from actual waste solutions. These tests evaluated the effects of ionic strength, mixing, elevated alpha activities, and multiple contacts of the waste with MST. Tests also provided confirmation that MST performs well at much larger laboratory scales (300-700 times larger) and exhibits little affinity for desorption of strontium and plutonium during washing.

  10. Laboratory stabilization/solidification of surrogate and actual mixed-waste sludge in glass and grout

    Grout and glass formulations were developed for the stabilization of highly radioactive tank sludges. These formulations were tested in the laboratory with a surrogate and with a sample of an actual mixed waste tank sludge. The grout formulation was tested at wet-sludge loadings of 50--60 wt%, giving a volume increase of about 40--50 vol%. Dried sludge was vitrified into glass at waste oxide loadings of 40--50 wt%, giving a volume decrease of about 50--60 vol%. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals included in surrogate testing were Ag, Ba, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Se, Tl and Hg. Since vitrification would volatilize, not stabilize mercury, it was not included in the surrogates vitrified. The actual sludge sample was only characteristically hazardous for mercury by the toxic characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) but exceeded the Universal Treatment Standard (UTS) limit for chromium. The grout and glass formulations stabilized these RCRA metals within UTS limits. In addition, a group leachability index of about 9--10 was measured for both 85Sr and 137Cs, meeting the recommended requirement of >6. The glass leachability index was estimated to be > 18 for cold cesium and strontium

  11. 1330-N Waste Handling Facility waste designation sampling requirements

    This sampling and analysis requirements document details the protocols and responsibilities required to perform sampling and field screening for waste designation purposes. This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) covers sample collection, field screening, sample analysis, sample shipping, and final report preparation for the characterization and designation of waste at the 1330-N Waste Handling Facility. At the direction of Field Support Waste Management (FSWM), this SAP may be used for sampling/field screening efforts at locations other than the 1330-N Waste Handling Facility

  12. TRU Waste Sampling Program: Volume I. Waste characterization

    Volume I of the TRU Waste Sampling Program report presents the waste characterization information obtained from sampling and characterizing various aged transuranic waste retrieved from storage at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The data contained in this report include the results of gas sampling and gas generation, radiographic examinations, waste visual examination results, and waste compliance with the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant-Waste Acceptance Criteria (WIPP-WAC). A separate report, Volume II, contains data from the gas generation studies

  13. Characterization, Leaching, and Filtrations Testing of Ferrocyanide Tank sludge (Group 8) Actual Waste Composite

    Fiskum, Sandra K.; Billing, Justin M.; Crum, J. V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Peterson, Reid A.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Buck, Edgar C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Kozelisky, Anne E.

    2009-02-28

    This is the final report in a series of eight reports defining characterization, leach, and filtration testing of a wide variety of Hanford tank waste sludges. The information generated from this series is intended to supplement the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) project understanding of actual waste behaviors associated with tank waste sludge processing through the pretreatment portion of the WTP. The work described in this report presents information on a high-iron waste form, specifically the ferrocyanide tank waste sludge. Iron hydroxide has been shown to pose technical challenges during filtration processing; the ferrocyanide tank waste sludge represented a good source of the high-iron matrix to test the filtration processing.

  14. Electrochemical destruction of organics and nitrates in simulated and actual radioactive Hanford tank waste

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has conducted an evaluation of electrochemical processing for use in radioactive tank waste cleanup activities. An electrochemical organic destruction (ECOD) process was evaluated, with the main focus being the destruction of organic compounds (especially organic complexants of radionuclides) in simulated and actual radioactive Hanford tank wastes. A primary reason for destroying the organic species in the complexant concentrate tank waste is to decomplex/defunctionalize species that chelate radionuclides. the separations processes required to remove the radionuclides are much less efficient when chelators are present. A second objective, the destruction of nitrates and nitrites in the wastes, was also assessed. Organic compounds, nitrates, and nitrites may affect waste management and safety considerations, not only at Hanford but at other US Department of Energy sites that maintain high- level waste storage tanks

  15. BENCH-SCALE STEAM REFORMING OF ACTUAL TANK 48H WASTE

    Burket, P; Gene Daniel, G; Charles Nash, C; Carol Jantzen, C; Michael Williams, M

    2008-09-25

    Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) has been demonstrated to be a viable technology to remove >99% of the organics from Tank 48H simulant, to remove >99% of the nitrate/nitrite from Tank 48H simulant, and to form a solid product that is primarily carbonate based. The technology was demonstrated in October of 2006 in the Engineering Scale Test Demonstration Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer1 (ESTD FBSR) at the Hazen Research Inc. (HRI) facility in Golden, CO. The purpose of the Bench-scale Steam Reformer (BSR) testing was to demonstrate that the same reactions occur and the same product is formed when steam reforming actual radioactive Tank 48H waste. The approach used in the current study was to test the BSR with the same Tank 48H simulant and same Erwin coal as was used at the ESTD FBSR under the same operating conditions. This comparison would allow verification that the same chemical reactions occur in both the BSR and ESTD FBSR. Then, actual radioactive Tank 48H material would be steam reformed in the BSR to verify that the actual tank 48H sample reacts the same way chemically as the simulant Tank 48H material. The conclusions from the BSR study and comparison to the ESTD FBSR are the following: (1) A Bench-scale Steam Reforming (BSR) unit was successfully designed and built that: (a) Emulated the chemistry of the ESTD FBSR Denitration Mineralization Reformer (DMR) and Carbon Reduction Reformer (CRR) known collectively as the dual reformer flowsheet. (b) Measured and controlled the off-gas stream. (c) Processed real (radioactive) Tank 48H waste. (d) Met the standards and specifications for radiological testing in the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Shielded Cells Facility (SCF). (2) Three runs with radioactive Tank 48H material were performed. (3) The Tetraphenylborate (TPB) was destroyed to > 99% for all radioactive Bench-scale tests. (4) The feed nitrate/nitrite was destroyed to >99% for all radioactive BSR tests the same as the ESTD FBSR. (5) The

  16. Quantitative measurement of cyanide complexes in simulated and actual Hanford ferrocyanide wastes

    Cyanide-containing radioactive waste from radiocesium scavenging processes conducted during the 1950's at Hanford is currently stored in 24 single shell tanks. As part of ongoing tank characterization efforts, the quantity and chemical form of cyanide in these tanks need to be determined. This report summarizes the results of studies conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under contract to Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to develop methods for the quantification of total cyanide and identification of major cyanide-containing species in Ferrocyanide Tank Waste. Results from the application of FTIR, IC, and microdistillation procedures to simulated and actual Hanford waste are presented and compared where applicable

  17. Continuous extraction of uranium from actual uranium-containing liquid wastes using an 'emulsion flow' extractor

    A newly developed liquid waste treatment system using an 'emulsion flow' extractor has been applied to actual uranium-containing liquid wastes that originated from the decontamination of used gas centrifuges at Ningyo-toge Environmental Engineering Center of Japan Atomic Energy Agency. The emulsion flow extractor performs efficient liquid-liquid extraction by supplying solutions without additional stirring or shaking. The solvent used in this system is an isooctane solution containing TnOA and 1-octanol, which is effective in the selective extraction of uranium, without the formation of the third phase, from dilute sulfuric acid solutions containing a large amount of Fe. With the use of this system, 90% or more of uranium is extracted from actual and simulated decontamination liquid wastes under such mild emulsion flow conditions that fine drops of organic phases do not leak outside the apparatus. (author)

  18. Accumulated Waste Sampling and Analysis Plan

    This Accumulated Waste Sampling and Analysis Management Plan (AWSAMP) has been prepared in response to the AWP and the Accumulated Waste Characterization Work Plan (SAIC 1992). The scope of the AWSAMP includes: A review and compilation of existing waste characterization information for each container or grouping of containers as appropriate, The development of sampling and analysis plans, The development of sampling and analysis procedures, The assessment of analytical requirements, and Cost estimates for the accumulated waste characterization program. The AWSAMP addresses eight basic waste categories that have been identified in the waste inventory: industrial/sanitary, RAD, RCRA, TSCA, TSCA/RAD, RCRA/RAD, RCRA/TSCA, and RCRA/TSCA/RAD wastes. Requirements of RCRA, TSCA, and DOE Orders are the primary source of characterization criteria. Other standards and guidelines [e.g., Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations, DOE disposal facilities waste acceptance criteria, and national technical associations standards] are reviewed for completeness. This AWSAMP provides a detailed waste sampling and analysis plan. This includes general history (Sect. 2), regulatory setting (Sect. 3), compilation of existing data (Sect. 4), technical approach (Sect. 5), field sampling methodology and procedures (Sect. 6), health and safety plan (Sect. 7), and quality assurance requirements (Sect. 8)

  19. Flammable Gas Safety Program: actual waste organic analysis FY 1996 progress report; Flammable Gas Safety Program: actual waste organic analysis FY 1996 progress report

    Clauss, S.A.; Grant, K.E.; Hoopes, V.; Mong, G.M.; Rau, J.; Steele, R.; Wahl, K.H.

    1996-09-01

    This report describes the status of optimizing analytical methods to account for the organic components in Hanford waste tanks, with emphasis on tanks assigned to the Flammable Gas Watch List. The methods developed are illustrated by their application to samples from Tanks 241-SY-103 and 241-S-102. Capability to account for organic carbon in Tank SY-101 was improved significantly by improving techniques for isolating organic constituents relatively free from radioactive contamination and by improving derivatization methodology. The methodology was extended to samples from Tank SY-103 and results documented in this report. Results from analyzing heated and irradiated SY-103 samples (Gas Generation Task) and evaluating methods for analyzing tank waste directly for chelators and chelator fragments are also discussed.

  20. DEMONSTRATION OF THE GLYCOLIC-FORMIC FLOWSHEET IN THE SRNL SHIELDED CELLS USING ACTUAL WASTE

    Lambert, D.; Pareizs, J.; Click, D.

    2011-11-07

    Glycolic acid was effective at dissolving many metals, including iron, during processing with simulants. Criticality constraints take credit for the insolubility of iron during processing to prevent criticality of fissile materials. Testing with actual waste was needed to determine the extent of iron and fissile isotope dissolution during Chemical Process Cell (CPC) processing. The Alternate Reductant Project was initiated by the Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Company to explore options for the replacement of the nitric-formic flowsheet used for the CPC at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The goals of the Alternate Reductant Project are to reduce CPC cycle time, increase mass throughput of the facility, and reduce operational hazards. In order to achieve these goals, several different reductants were considered during initial evaluations conducted by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). After review of the reductants by SRR, SRNL, and Energy Solutions (ES) Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL), two flowsheets were further developed in parallel. The two flowsheet options included a nitric-formic-glycolic flowsheet, and a nitric-formic-sugar flowsheet. As of July 2011, SRNL and ES/VSL have completed the initial flowsheet development work for the nitric-formic-glycolic flowsheet and nitric-formic-sugar flowsheet, respectively. On July 12th and July 13th, SRR conducted a Systems Engineering Evaluation (SEE) to down select the alternate reductant flowsheet. The SEE team selected the Formic-Glycolic Flowsheet for further development. Two risks were identified in SEE for expedited research. The first risk is related to iron and plutonium solubility during the CPC process with respect to criticality. Currently, DWPF credits iron as a poison for the fissile components of the sludge. Due to the high iron solubility observed during the flowsheet demonstrations with simulants, it was necessary to determine if the plutonium in the radioactive sludge slurry

  1. Demonstration Of The Glycolic-Formic Flowsheet In The SRNL Shielded Cells Using Actual Waste

    Glycolic acid was effective at dissolving many metals, including iron, during processing with simulants. Criticality constraints take credit for the insolubility of iron during processing to prevent criticality of fissile materials. Testing with actual waste was needed to determine the extent of iron and fissile isotope dissolution during Chemical Process Cell (CPC) processing. The Alternate Reductant Project was initiated by the Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Company to explore options for the replacement of the nitric-formic flowsheet used for the CPC at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The goals of the Alternate Reductant Project are to reduce CPC cycle time, increase mass throughput of the facility, and reduce operational hazards. In order to achieve these goals, several different reductants were considered during initial evaluations conducted by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). After review of the reductants by SRR, SRNL, and Energy Solutions (ES) Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL), two flowsheets were further developed in parallel. The two flowsheet options included a nitric-formic-glycolic flowsheet, and a nitric-formic-sugar flowsheet. As of July 2011, SRNL and ES/VSL have completed the initial flowsheet development work for the nitric-formic-glycolic flowsheet and nitric-formic-sugar flowsheet, respectively. On July 12th and July 13th, SRR conducted a Systems Engineering Evaluation (SEE) to down select the alternate reductant flowsheet. The SEE team selected the Formic-Glycolic Flowsheet for further development. Two risks were identified in SEE for expedited research. The first risk is related to iron and plutonium solubility during the CPC process with respect to criticality. Currently, DWPF credits iron as a poison for the fissile components of the sludge. Due to the high iron solubility observed during the flowsheet demonstrations with simulants, it was necessary to determine if the plutonium in the radioactive sludge slurry

  2. B-cell waste classification sampling plan

    HOBART, R.L.

    1999-11-20

    This report documents the methods used to collect samples and analyze data necessary to verify and/or determine the radionuclide content of the 324 Facility B-Cell decontamination and decommissioning waste stream.

  3. B-cell waste classification sampling plan

    This report documents the methods used to collect samples and analyze data necessary to verify and/or determine the radionuclide content of the 324 Facility B-Cell decontamination and decommissioning waste stream

  4. AMP-PAN column tests for the removal of 137Cs from actual and simulated INEEL high-activity wastes

    The cesium composite inorganic-organic ion exchange material AMP-PAN (ammonium molybdophosphate in polyacrylonitrile binding matrix) was recently tested at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Small-scale tests using a column having a bed volume of 1.5 ml were performed with actual high-activity waste. Tests were also performed with an identical column using simulated waste spiked with 137Cs. Over 1500 mils of actual waste were processed through the 1.5 ml column using upward flow at a rate of 40 ml/hour. The percent 137Cs breakthrough was plotted as a function of bed volumes (BV). Only 0.13 % 137Cs breakthrough was achieved after 1030 BV. Cesium was eluted from the column with 5 M NH4NO3 in 0.1 M HNO3 at a flowrate of about 8 ml/hour and using reverse or downward flow. Over 83 % of the 137Cs was eluted in 44.4 ml. The column effluent sample fractions were re-combined after column elution and mixed with unused waste, and ran through the column again after the column was washed with 10-15 ml of 0.1 M KNO3 in 0.1 M HNO3. A flowrate of 40 ml/hour was again used. The breakthrough of 137Cs as a function on BV was plotted. Cesium breakthrough of 0.5 % was observed after 1270 ml of waste was re-processed. Two loading and elution cycles were performed with simulated waste spiked with 137Cs. A 137Cs breakthrough of 1 % was observed at 922 BV for the first loading cycle, which is approximately one order of magnitude larger than that observed with actual waste. Approximately 4800 ml of simulant was processed before 50 % breakthrough was observed. Over 70 % of the loaded Cs was eluted in 85 ml. Only 4050 ml of simulant was processed before 50 % breakthrough during the 2nd loading cycle and 50 % of this cesium was eluted in 117 ml. These results show AMP-PAN to be very effective in removing 137Cs from acidic waste

  5. Radwaste cost savings ampersand mixed waste volume reduction achieved with CO2 decontamination - actual utility history

    Non-Destructive Cleaning Mobile CO2 Decontamination Facilities have more than 100 months of operational time conducting decontamination at Nuclear Power Stations. During this time we have compiled an extensive database on what has been decontaminated and the cost savings realized. This paper will discuss the following: (1) how the CO2 decontamination process works; (2) what kinds of items have been decontaminated, ranging from tools to underwater TV cameras, and from electric motors to lead shielding; (3) liquid radwaste volume reduction; (4) mixed waste volume reduction; and (5) ALARA dose reduction achievements. In all of these areas, the paper will discuss the actual volumes of materials decontaminated, the DF's achieved, the amounts and types of things free released, and the actual cost savings in all of these areas. All of the data presented will be actual utility data and not the vendor's data. All the experiences presented will be actual power plant experiences. This paper will bring the audience current with the developments and achievements realized with this state-of-the-art decontamination technique. Furthermore, it will give the audience real utility data on cost savings, worker dose reduction, radwaste volume reduction, and mixed waste volume reduction

  6. Transuranic waste characterization sampling and analysis plan

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (the Laboratory) is located approximately 25 miles northwest of Santa Fe, New Mexico, situated on the Pajarito Plateau. Technical Area 54 (TA-54), one of the Laboratory's many technical areas, is a radioactive and hazardous waste management and disposal area located within the Laboratory's boundaries. The purpose of this transuranic waste characterization, sampling, and analysis plan (CSAP) is to provide a methodology for identifying, characterizing, and sampling approximately 25,000 containers of transuranic waste stored at Pads 1, 2, and 4, Dome 48, and the Fiberglass Reinforced Plywood Box Dome at TA-54, Area G, of the Laboratory. Transuranic waste currently stored at Area G was generated primarily from research and development activities, processing and recovery operations, and decontamination and decommissioning projects. This document was created to facilitate compliance with several regulatory requirements and program drivers that are relevant to waste management at the Laboratory, including concerns of the New Mexico Environment Department

  7. Transuranic waste characterization sampling and analysis plan

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (the Laboratory) is located approximately 25 miles northwest of Santa Fe, New Mexico, situated on the Pajarito Plateau. Technical Area 54 (TA-54), one of the Laboratory`s many technical areas, is a radioactive and hazardous waste management and disposal area located within the Laboratory`s boundaries. The purpose of this transuranic waste characterization, sampling, and analysis plan (CSAP) is to provide a methodology for identifying, characterizing, and sampling approximately 25,000 containers of transuranic waste stored at Pads 1, 2, and 4, Dome 48, and the Fiberglass Reinforced Plywood Box Dome at TA-54, Area G, of the Laboratory. Transuranic waste currently stored at Area G was generated primarily from research and development activities, processing and recovery operations, and decontamination and decommissioning projects. This document was created to facilitate compliance with several regulatory requirements and program drivers that are relevant to waste management at the Laboratory, including concerns of the New Mexico Environment Department.

  8. Laboratory Demonstration of the Pretreatment Process with Caustic and Oxidative Leaching Using Actual Hanford Tank Waste

    This report describes the bench-scale pretreatment processing of actual tank waste materials through the entire baseline WTP pretreatment flowsheet in an effort to demonstrate the efficacy of the defined leaching processes on actual Hanford tank waste sludge and the potential impacts on downstream pretreatment processing. The test material was a combination of reduction oxidation (REDOX) tank waste composited materials containing aluminum primarily in the form of boehmite and dissolved S saltcake containing Cr(III)-rich entrained solids. The pretreatment processing steps tested included: caustic leaching for Al removal; solids crossflow filtration through the cell unit filter (CUF); stepwise solids washing using decreasing concentrations of sodium hydroxide with filtration through the CUF; oxidative leaching using sodium permanganate for removing Cr; solids filtration with the CUF; follow-on solids washing and filtration through the CUF; ion exchange processing for Cs removal; evaporation processing of waste stream recycle for volume reduction; and combination of the evaporated product with dissolved saltcake. The effectiveness of each process step was evaluated by following the mass balance of key components (such as Al, B, Cd, Cr, Pu, Ni, Mn, and Fe), demonstrating component (Al, Cr, Cs) removal, demonstrating filterability by evaluating filter flux rates under various processing conditions (transmembrane pressure, crossflow velocities, wt% undissolved solids, and PSD) and filter fouling, and identifying potential issues for WTP. The filterability was reported separately (Shimskey et al. 2008) and is not repeated herein

  9. Laboratory Demonstration of the Pretreatment Process with Caustic and Oxidative Leaching Using Actual Hanford Tank Waste

    Fiskum, Sandra K.; Billing, Justin M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Snow, Lanee A.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the bench-scale pretreatment processing of actual tank waste materials through the entire baseline WTP pretreatment flowsheet in an effort to demonstrate the efficacy of the defined leaching processes on actual Hanford tank waste sludge and the potential impacts on downstream pretreatment processing. The test material was a combination of reduction oxidation (REDOX) tank waste composited materials containing aluminum primarily in the form of boehmite and dissolved S saltcake containing Cr(III)-rich entrained solids. The pretreatment processing steps tested included • caustic leaching for Al removal • solids crossflow filtration through the cell unit filter (CUF) • stepwise solids washing using decreasing concentrations of sodium hydroxide with filtration through the CUF • oxidative leaching using sodium permanganate for removing Cr • solids filtration with the CUF • follow-on solids washing and filtration through the CUF • ion exchange processing for Cs removal • evaporation processing of waste stream recycle for volume reduction • combination of the evaporated product with dissolved saltcake. The effectiveness of each process step was evaluated by following the mass balance of key components (such as Al, B, Cd, Cr, Pu, Ni, Mn, and Fe), demonstrating component (Al, Cr, Cs) removal, demonstrating filterability by evaluating filter flux rates under various processing conditions (transmembrane pressure, crossflow velocities, wt% undissolved solids, and PSD) and filter fouling, and identifying potential issues for WTP. The filterability was reported separately (Shimskey et al. 2008) and is not repeated herein.

  10. Performance testing of the next-generation CSSX solvent with actual SRS tank waste

    Efforts are underway to qualify the Next-Generation Solvent for the Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process. Researchers at multiple national laboratories have been involved in this effort. As part of the effort to qualify the solvent extraction system at the Savannah River Site (SRS), SRNL performed a number of tests at various scales. First, SRNL completed a series of batch equilibrium, or Extraction-Scrub-Strip (ESS), tests. These tests used ∼30 mL of Next-Generation Solvent and either actual SRS tank waste, or waste simulant solutions. The results from these cesium mass transfer tests were used to predict solvent behavior under a number of conditions. At a larger scale, SRNL assembled 12 stages of 2-cm (diameter) centrifugal contactors. This rack of contactors is structurally similar to one tested in 2001 during the demonstration of the baseline CSSX process. Assembly and mechanical testing found no issues. SRNL performed a nonradiological test using 35 L of cesium-spiked caustic waste simulant and 39 L of actual tank waste. Test results are discussed; particularly those related to the effectiveness of extraction.

  11. Measurements of Flammable Gas Generation from Saltstone Containing Actual Tank 48H Waste (Interim Report)

    Cozzi, A. D.; Crowley, D. A.; Duffey, J. M.; Eibling, R. E.; Jones, T. M.; Marinik, A. R.; Marra, J. C.; Zamecnik, J. R

    2005-06-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory was tasked with determining the benzene release rates in saltstone prepared with tetraphenylborate (TPB) concentrations ranging from 30 mg/L to 3000 mg/L in the salt fraction and with test temperatures ranging from ambient to 95 C. Defense Waste Processing Facility Engineering (DWPF-E) provided a rate of benzene evolution from saltstone of 2.5 {micro}g/L/h saltstone (0.9 {micro}g/kg saltstone/h [1.5 {micro}g/kg saltstone/h x 60%]) to use as a Target Rate of Concern (TRC). The evolution of benzene, toluene, and xylenes from saltstone containing actual Tank 48H salt solution has been measured as a function of time at several temperatures and concentrations of TPB. The Tank 48H salt solution was aggregated with a DWPF recycle simulant to obtain the desired TPB concentrations in the saltstone slurry. The purpose of this interim report is to provide DWPF-E with an indication of the trends of benzene evolution. The data presented are preliminary; more data are being collected and may alter the preliminary results. A more complete description of the methods and materials will be included in the final report. The benzene evolution rates approximately follow an increasing trend with both increasing temperature and TPB concentration. The benzene release rates from 1000 mg/L TPB at 95 C and 3000 mg/L TPB at 75 C and 95 C exceeded the recovery-adjusted 0.9 mg/kg saltstone/h TRC (2.5 {micro}g/L saltstone/h), while all other conditions resulted in benzene release rates below this TRC. The toluene evolution rates for several samples exceeded the TRC initially, but all dropped below the TRC within 2-5 days. The toluene emissions appear to be mainly dependent on the fly ash and are independent of the TPB level, indicating that toluene is not generated from TPB.

  12. Standard guide for sampling radioactive tank waste

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This guide addresses techniques used to obtain grab samples from tanks containing high-level radioactive waste created during the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels. Guidance on selecting appropriate sampling devices for waste covered by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) is also provided by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (1). Vapor sampling of the head-space is not included in this guide because it does not significantly affect slurry retrieval, pipeline transport, plugging, or mixing. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  13. Waste sampling and characterization facility (WSCF)

    The Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility (WSCF) complex consists of the main structure (WSCF) and four support structures located in the 600 Area of the Hanford site east of the 200 West area and south of the Hanford Meterology Station. WSCF is to be used for low level sample analysis, less than 2 mRem. The Laboratory features state-of-the-art analytical and low level radiological counting equipment for gaseous, soil, and liquid sample analysis. In particular, this facility is to be used to perform Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976 and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980 sample analysis in accordance with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Protocols, room air and stack monitoring sample analysis, waste water treatment process support, and contractor laboratory quality assurance checks. The samples to be analyzed contain very low concentrations of radioisotopes. The main reason that WSCF is considered a Nuclear Facility is due to the storage of samples at the facility. This maintenance Implementation Plan has been developed for maintenace functions associate with the WSCF

  14. The decontamination of actual radioactive metal wastes using supercritical CO2

    In the present study, we applied aqueous HNO3 in CO2 microemulsion for decontamination of radioactive wastes considered to be important in nuclear industry. Nonionic surfactants was used to measure the formation regions of HNO3 in CO2 microemulsion as concentration of nitric acid. HNO3 in CO2 microemulsion formatted at higher pressure over 50bar to 100bar than that of H2O. When we did experiment using stirrer and ultrasonic for microemulsion formation, ultrasonic was excellently better than stirrer. Based on this result we performed decontamination experiments with actual radioactive metal wastes(bolt, nut). In the case of 6M(efficiency : 95%) nitric acid, efficiency is better than that of 1M(efficiency : 75%). but, some of the specimen surface was damaged. Comparing decontamination efficiency as the difference of mixing method, decontamination by ultrasonic is two times superior to stirrer. Continuing the present study will greatly attribute to improve decontamination process of nuclear industry as well as other industry

  15. Physical Property and Rheological Testing of Actual Transuranic Waste from Hanford Single-Shell Tanks

    Composites of sludge from Hanford tanks 241-B-203 (B-203), 241-T-203 (T-203), 241-T-204 (T-204), and 241-T-110 (T-110) were prepared at the Hanford 222-S Laboratory and transferred to the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for measurement of the composites' physical properties. These tank composites were prepared from core samples retrieved from these tanks. These core samples may not be representative of the entire contents of the tank but provide some indication of the properties of the waste in these underground storage tanks. Dilutions in water were prepared from the composite samples. The measurements included paint filter tests, viscosity, shear strength, settling and centrifuging behavior, a qualitative test of stickiness, total solids concentration, and extrusion tests to estimate shear strength.

  16. Physical Property and Rheological Testing of Actual Transuranic Waste from Hanford Single-Shell Tanks

    Tingey, Joel M.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Gao, Johnway (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Delegard, Calvin H.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Bagaasen, Larry M.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Wells, Beric E.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

    2003-08-25

    Composites of sludge from Hanford tanks 241-B-203 (B-203), 241-T-203 (T-203), 241-T-204 (T-204), and 241-T-110 (T-110) were prepared at the Hanford 222-S Laboratory and transferred to the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for measurement of the composites' physical properties. These tank composites were prepared from core samples retieved from these tanks. These core samples may not be representative of the entire contents of the tank but provide some indication of the properties of the waste in these underground storage tanks. Dilutions in water were prepared from the composite samples. The measurements included paint filter tests, viscosity, shear strength, settling and centrifuging behavior, a qualitative test of stickiness, total solids concentration, and extrusion tests to estimate shear strength.

  17. Leach tests on grouts made with actual and trace metal-spiked synthetic phosphate/sulfate waste

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted experiments to produce empirical leach rate data for phosphate-sulfate waste (PSW) grout. Effective diffusivities were measured for various radionuclides (90Sr, 99Tc, 14C, 129I, 137Cs, 60Co, 54Mn, and U), stable major components (NO3-, SO42-, H3BO3, K and Na) and the trace constituents Ag, As, Cd, Hg, Pb, and Se. Two types of leach tests were used on samples of actual PSW grout and synthetic PSW grout: the American Nuclear Society (ANS) 16.1 intermittent replacement leach test and a static leach test. Grout produced from both synthetic and real PSW showed low leach rates for the trace metal constituents and most of the waste radionuclides. Many of the spiked trace metals and radionuclides were not detected in any leachates. None of the effluents contained measurable quantities of 137Cs, 60Co, 54Mn, 109Cd, 51Cr, 210Pb, 203Hg, or As. For those trace species with detectable leach rates, 125I appeared to have the greatest leach rate, followed by 99Tc, 75Se, and finally U, 14C, and 110mAg. Leach rates for nitrate are between those for I and Tc, but there is much scatter in the nitrate data because of the very low nitrate inventory. 32 refs., 6 figs., 15 tabs

  18. ACTUAL-WASTE TESTING OF ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT TO AUGMENT THE ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING OF SRS SLUDGE

    Martino, C.; King, W.; Ketusky, E.

    2012-07-10

    In support of Savannah River Site (SRS) tank closure efforts, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) conducted Real Waste Testing (RWT) to evaluate Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC), an alternative to the baseline 8 wt% oxalic acid (OA) chemical cleaning technology for tank sludge heel removal. ECC utilizes a more dilute OA solution (2 wt%) and an oxalate destruction technology using ozonolysis with or without the application of ultraviolet (UV) light. SRNL conducted tests of the ECC process using actual SRS waste material from Tanks 5F and 12H. The previous phase of testing involved testing of all phases of the ECC process (sludge dissolution, OA decomposition, product evaporation, and deposition tank storage) but did not involve the use of UV light in OA decomposition. The new phase of testing documented in this report focused on the use of UV light to assist OA decomposition, but involved only the OA decomposition and deposition tank portions of the process. Compared with the previous testing at analogous conditions without UV light, OA decomposition with the use of UV light generally reduced time required to reach the target of <100 mg/L oxalate. This effect was the most pronounced during the initial part of the decomposition batches, when pH was <4. For the later stages of each OA decomposition batch, the increase in OA decomposition rate with use of the UV light appeared to be minimal. Testing of the deposition tank storage of the ECC product resulted in analogous soluble concentrations regardless of the use or non-use of UV light in the ECC reactor.

  19. Actual-Waste Testing Of Ultraviolet Light To Augment The Enhanced Chemical Cleaning Of SRS Sludge

    In support of Savannah River Site (SRS) tank closure efforts, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) conducted Real Waste Testing (RWT) to evaluate Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC), an alternative to the baseline 8 wt% oxalic acid (OA) chemical cleaning technology for tank sludge heel removal. ECC utilizes a more dilute OA solution (2 wt%) and an oxalate destruction technology using ozonolysis with or without the application of ultraviolet (UV) light. SRNL conducted tests of the ECC process using actual SRS waste material from Tanks 5F and 12H. The previous phase of testing involved testing of all phases of the ECC process (sludge dissolution, OA decomposition, product evaporation, and deposition tank storage) but did not involve the use of UV light in OA decomposition. The new phase of testing documented in this report focused on the use of UV light to assist OA decomposition, but involved only the OA decomposition and deposition tank portions of the process. Compared with the previous testing at analogous conditions without UV light, OA decomposition with the use of UV light generally reduced time required to reach the target of <100 mg/L oxalate. This effect was the most pronounced during the initial part of the decomposition batches, when pH was <4. For the later stages of each OA decomposition batch, the increase in OA decomposition rate with use of the UV light appeared to be minimal. Testing of the deposition tank storage of the ECC product resulted in analogous soluble concentrations regardless of the use or non-use of UV light in the ECC reactor.

  20. Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility (WSCF)

    This Maintenance Implementation Plan has been developed for maintenance functions associated with the Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility (WSCF). This plan is developed from the guidelines presented by Department of Energy (DOE) Order 4330.4A, Maintenance Management Program (DOE 1990), Chapter II. The objective of this plan is to provide baseline information for establishing and identifying WHC conformance programs and policies applicable to implementation of DOE order 4330.4A guidelines. In addition, this maintenance plan identifies the actions necessary to develop a cost-effective and efficient maintenance program at WSCF

  1. 40 CFR 761.269 - Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste..., AND USE PROHIBITIONS Cleanup Site Characterization Sampling for PCB Remediation Waste in Accordance with § 761.61(a)(2) § 761.269 Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste. (a) If the liquid is single...

  2. The Short Index of Self-Actualization: A factor analysis study in an Italian sample

    Palmira Faraci

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The concept of self-actualization has been the subject of much theoretical speculation over the years. The essential meaning entails the discovery of the real self and its expression and development. As for the instruments available to measure the construct, there are currently several scales considered to be suitable to this end. However, many of these have been considered too long or presented problems with inadequate validation. This is the reason why a short index of self-actualization has been developed (Jones & Crandall, 1986. This index, best known as the Short Index of Self-Actualization or the SelfActualization Scale (SAS, is now a widely used short form to measure self-actualization. The present study provides a psychometric analysis of the SAS, in order to highlight its strengths and weaknesses and to offer a starting point to a further and broader investigation.

  3. WRAP Module 1 sampling strategy and waste characterization alternatives study

    Bergeson, C.L.

    1994-09-30

    The Waste Receiving and Processing Module 1 Facility is designed to examine, process, certify, and ship drums and boxes of solid wastes that have a surface dose equivalent of less than 200 mrem/h. These wastes will include low-level and transuranic wastes that are retrievably stored in the 200 Area burial grounds and facilities in addition to newly generated wastes. Certification of retrievably stored wastes processing in WRAP 1 is required to meet the waste acceptance criteria for onsite treatment and disposal of low-level waste and mixed low-level waste and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Waste Acceptance Criteria for the disposal of TRU waste. In addition, these wastes will need to be certified for packaging in TRUPACT-II shipping containers. Characterization of the retrievably stored waste is needed to support the certification process. Characterization data will be obtained from historical records, process knowledge, nondestructive examination nondestructive assay, visual inspection of the waste, head-gas sampling, and analysis of samples taken from the waste containers. Sample characterization refers to the method or methods that are used to test waste samples for specific analytes. The focus of this study is the sample characterization needed to accurately identify the hazardous and radioactive constituents present in the retrieved wastes that will be processed in WRAP 1. In addition, some sampling and characterization will be required to support NDA calculations and to provide an over-check for the characterization of newly generated wastes. This study results in the baseline definition of WRAP 1 sampling and analysis requirements and identifies alternative methods to meet these requirements in an efficient and economical manner.

  4. WRAP Module 1 sampling strategy and waste characterization alternatives study

    The Waste Receiving and Processing Module 1 Facility is designed to examine, process, certify, and ship drums and boxes of solid wastes that have a surface dose equivalent of less than 200 mrem/h. These wastes will include low-level and transuranic wastes that are retrievably stored in the 200 Area burial grounds and facilities in addition to newly generated wastes. Certification of retrievably stored wastes processing in WRAP 1 is required to meet the waste acceptance criteria for onsite treatment and disposal of low-level waste and mixed low-level waste and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Waste Acceptance Criteria for the disposal of TRU waste. In addition, these wastes will need to be certified for packaging in TRUPACT-II shipping containers. Characterization of the retrievably stored waste is needed to support the certification process. Characterization data will be obtained from historical records, process knowledge, nondestructive examination nondestructive assay, visual inspection of the waste, head-gas sampling, and analysis of samples taken from the waste containers. Sample characterization refers to the method or methods that are used to test waste samples for specific analytes. The focus of this study is the sample characterization needed to accurately identify the hazardous and radioactive constituents present in the retrieved wastes that will be processed in WRAP 1. In addition, some sampling and characterization will be required to support NDA calculations and to provide an over-check for the characterization of newly generated wastes. This study results in the baseline definition of WRAP 1 sampling and analysis requirements and identifies alternative methods to meet these requirements in an efficient and economical manner

  5. Ferrocyanide Safety Project: Comparison of actual and simulated ferrocyanide waste properties

    In the 1950s, additional high-level radioactive waste storage capacity was needed to accommodate the wastes that would result from the production of recovery of additional nuclear defense materials. To provide this additional waste storage capacity, the Hanford Site operating contractor developed a process to decontaminate aqueous wastes by precipitating radiocesium as an alkali nickel ferrocyanide; this process allowed disposal of the aqueous waste. The radiocesium scavenging process as developed was used to decontaminate (1) first-cycle bismuth phosphate (BiPO4) wastes, (2) acidic wastes resulting from uranium recovery operations, and (3) the supernate from neutralized uranium recovery wastes. The radiocesium scavenging process was often coupled with other scavenging processes to remove radiostrontium and radiocobalt. Because all defense materials recovery processes used nitric acid solutions, all of the wastes contained nitrate, which is a strong oxidizer. The variety of wastes treated, and the occasional coupling of radiostrontium and radiocobalt scavenging processes with the radiocesium scavenging process, resulted in ferrocyanide-bearing wastes having many different compositions. In this report, we compare selected physical, chemical, and radiochemical properties measured for Tanks C-109 and C-112 wastes and selected physical and chemical properties of simulated ferrocyanide wastes to assess the representativeness of stimulants prepared by WHC

  6. Double Shell Tank (DST) Process Waste Sampling Subsystem Specification

    RASMUSSEN, J.H.

    2000-05-03

    This specification establishes the performance requirements and provides references to the requisite codes and standards to be applied to the Double-Shell Tank (DST) Process Waste Sampling Subsystem which supports the first phase of Waste Feed Delivery.

  7. Double-Shell Tank (DST) Process Waste Sampling Subsystem Specification

    This specification establishes the performance requirements and provides references to the requisite codes and standards to be applied to the Double-Shell Tank (DST) Process Waste Sampling Subsystem which supports the first phase of Waste Feed Delivery

  8. Bulk separation of actinides and lanthanides from actual high level liquid waste of PUREX origin using tetra-(2-ethylhexyl) diglycolamide

    Partitioning and transmutation of minor actinides is emerging as one of the preferred options for the management of high level liquid waste (HLLW) generated during the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. Various processes viz., DIAMEX process, TRUEX process etc. have been developed and are being tested for their use in actual application. Of late, a new class of extractant, diglycolamides, with good radiation and chemical stability and complete incinerability has emerged as the front runner for partitioning. This paper deals with the testing of indigenous and bulk synthesized N,N,N',N' tetra-(2-ethylhexyl) diglycolamide (TEHDGA) for the bulk separation of actinides and lanthanides (An and Ln) from actual HLLW

  9. Equipment and techniques for remote sampling of stored radioactive waste

    Several tools have been developed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to remotely sample stored radioactive waste. These sampling tools have been developed to determine the chemical characteristics of the waste prior to processing. The processing of waste material varies according to the chemical characteristics of the waste, which change due to additions, settling, mixing, and chemical reactions during storage. Once the waste has been sampled to identify its characteristics, the chemical composition of the waste can then be altered if needed to prepare for processing. Various types of waste material in several types of containment must be sampled at SRS. Stored waste materials consist of liquids, floating organics, sludge, salt and solids. Waste is stored in four basic types of tanks with different means of access and interior obstructions. The waste tanks can only be accessed by small openings: access ports, risers and downcomers. Requirements for sampling depend on the type of tank being accessed, the waste within the tank, and the particular location in the tank desired for taking the sample. Sampling devices have been developed to sample all of the waste material forms found in the SRS tank farms. The fluid type samplers are capable of sampling surface liquid, subsurface liquid at varying depth, surface sludge, subsurface sludge, and floating organics. The solid type samplers are capable of sampling salt, sampling a solid layer on the bottom of the tank, and capturing a small solid mass on the tank bottom. The sampling devices are all designed to access the tanks through small access ports. The samplers are reusable and are designed to allow quick transfer of the samples to shielded packaging for transport, reducing the amount of radiation exposure to sampling personnel. The samplers weigh less than 100 lb. and are designed in sections to allow easy disassembly for storage and transport by personnel. (Abstract Truncated)

  10. DOE methods for evaluating environmental and waste management samples

    This publication provides applicable methods in use by the US Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories for the analysis of constituents of waste and environmental samples. This document contains chapters and methods that are proposed for use in evaluating components of DOE environmental and waste management samples. It is a resource intended to support sampling and analytical activities that will determine whether environmental restoration or waste management actions are needed, as defined by the DOE, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), or others

  11. The evaluation of the nuclides migration from Maishiagala radioactive waste repository taking into consideration the actual tritium release

    The evaluation of the nuclides migration from Maishiagala repository was performed taking into consideration the actual tritium release. The waste activity includes the activity of nuclides from the sealed containers. It was shown that the most dangerous nuclides are 3H, 36Cl and 239Pu which concentrations in the groundwater 35 m from the repository (at fence) and annual effective dose to population can exceed acceptable limits. (author)

  12. The European atomic politics under the treaty of Lisboa and actual questions of the export of nuclear waste

    In the context of the actual discussion considerably influenced by safety questions activated by the reactor accident in Tschernobyl in 1986, the EAG gains increasing significance. However, a substantial safety risk proceeds not only with nuclear power stations as a possible goal for attacks of terror, but also from the uncontrolled spreading with nuclear material. The latter equally affects the question on handling radioactive waste materials being straightly discussed in Germany as well as in the European Union as proven by the European Union commissioner Oettinger. This is to be considered in connection with the problem how extensively the competences of the Euratom for the nuclear safety may be interpreted. The actual changes of the legal situation by means of the Lisboa contract for the EAG altogether turned out marginally and let its demand for a reform based on the actual conditions appear more urgent.

  13. Actual-Waste Tests of Enhanced Chemical Cleaning for Retrieval of SRS HLW Sludge Tank Heels and Decomposition of Oxalic Acid - 12256

    Savannah River National Laboratory conducted a series of tests on the Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process using actual Savannah River Site waste material from Tanks 5F and 12H. Testing involved sludge dissolution with 2 wt% oxalic acid, the decomposition of the oxalates by ozonolysis (with and without the aid of ultraviolet light), the evaporation of water from the product, and tracking the concentrations of key components throughout the process. During ECC actual waste testing, the process was successful in decomposing oxalate to below the target levels without causing substantial physical or chemical changes in the product sludge. During ECC actual waste testing, the introduction of ozone was successful in decomposing oxalate to below the target levels. This testing did not identify physical or chemical changes in the ECC product sludge that would impact downstream processing. The results from these tests confirm observations made by AREVA NP during larger scale testing with waste simulants. This testing, however, had a decreased utilization of ozone, requiring approximately 5 moles of ozone per mole of oxalate decomposed. Decomposition of oxalates in sludge dissolved in 2 wt% OA to levels near 100 ppm oxalate using ECC process conditions required 8 to 12.5 hours without the aid of UV light and 4.5 to 8 hours with the aid of UV light. The pH and ORP were tracked during decomposition testing. Sludge components were tracked during OA decomposition, showing that most components have the highest soluble levels in the initial dissolved sludge and early decomposition samples and exhibit lower soluble levels as OA decomposition progresses. The Deposition Tank storage conditions that included pH adjustment to approximately 1 M free hydroxide tended to bring the soluble concentrations in the ECC product to nearly the same level for each test regardless of storage time, storage temperature, and contact with other tank sludge material. (authors)

  14. Modeling water retention of sludge simulants and actual saltcake tank wastes

    The Ferrocyanide Tanks Safety Program managed by Westinghouse hanford Company has been concerned with the potential combustion hazard of dry tank wastes containing ferrocyanide chemical in combination with nitrate salts. Pervious studies have shown that tank waste containing greater than 20 percent of weight as water could not be accidentally ignited. Moreover, a sustained combustion could not be propagated in such a wet waste even if it contained enough ferrocyanide to burn. Because moisture content is a key critical factor determining the safety of ferrocyanide-containing tank wastes, physical modeling was performed by Pacific Northwest National laboratory to evaluate the moisture-retaining behavior of typical tank wastes. The physical modeling reported here has quantified the mechanisms by which two main types of tank waste, sludge and saltcake, retain moisture in a tank profile under static conditions. Static conditions usually prevail after a tank profile has been stabilized by pumping out any excess interstitial liquid, which is not naturally retained by the waste as a result of physical forces such as capillarity

  15. Transuranic waste characterization sampling and analysis methods manual

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    The Transuranic Waste Characterization Sampling and Analysis Methods Manual (Methods Manual) provides a unified source of information on the sampling and analytical techniques that enable Department of Energy (DOE) facilities to comply with the requirements established in the current revision of the Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Transuranic (TRU) Waste Characterization Program (the Program). This Methods Manual includes all of the testing, sampling, and analytical methodologies accepted by DOE for use in implementing the Program requirements specified in the QAPP.

  16. Transuranic waste characterization sampling and analysis methods manual

    The Transuranic Waste Characterization Sampling and Analysis Methods Manual (Methods Manual) provides a unified source of information on the sampling and analytical techniques that enable Department of Energy (DOE) facilities to comply with the requirements established in the current revision of the Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Transuranic (TRU) Waste Characterization Program (the Program). This Methods Manual includes all of the testing, sampling, and analytical methodologies accepted by DOE for use in implementing the Program requirements specified in the QAPP

  17. DESTRUCTION OF TETRAPHENYLBORATE IN TANK 48H USING WET AIR OXIDATION BATCH BENCH SCALE AUTOCLAVE TESTING WITH ACTUAL RADIOACTIVE TANK 48H WASTE

    Adu-Wusu, K; Paul Burket, P

    2009-03-31

    Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) is one of the two technologies being considered for the destruction of Tetraphenylborate (TPB) in Tank 48H. Batch bench-scale autoclave testing with radioactive (actual) Tank 48H waste is among the tests required in the WAO Technology Maturation Plan. The goal of the autoclave testing is to validate that the simulant being used for extensive WAO vendor testing adequately represents the Tank 48H waste. The test objective was to demonstrate comparable test results when running simulated waste and real waste under similar test conditions. Specifically: (1) Confirm the TPB destruction efficiency and rate (same reaction times) obtained from comparable simulant tests, (2) Determine the destruction efficiency of other organics including biphenyl, (3) Identify and quantify the reaction byproducts, and (4) Determine off-gas composition. Batch bench-scale stirred autoclave tests were conducted with simulated and actual Tank 48H wastes at SRNL. Experimental conditions were chosen based on continuous-flow pilot-scale simulant testing performed at Siemens Water Technologies Corporation (SWT) in Rothschild, Wisconsin. The following items were demonstrated as a result of this testing. (1) Tetraphenylborate was destroyed to below detection limits during the 1-hour reaction time at 280 C. Destruction efficiency of TPB was > 99.997%. (2) Other organics (TPB associated compounds), except biphenyl, were destroyed to below their respective detection limits. Biphenyl was partially destroyed in the process, mainly due to its propensity to reside in the vapor phase during the WAO reaction. Biphenyl is expected to be removed in the gas phase during the actual process, which is a continuous-flow system. (3) Reaction byproducts, remnants of MST, and the PUREX sludge, were characterized in this work. Radioactive species, such as Pu, Sr-90 and Cs-137 were quantified in the filtrate and slurry samples. Notably, Cs-137, boron and potassium were shown as soluble as a

  18. Double Shell Tank (DST) Process Waste Sampling Subsystem Definition Report

    This report defines the Double-Shell Tank (DST) Process Waste Sampling Subsystem (PWSS). This subsystem definition report fully describes and identifies the system boundaries of the PWSS. This definition provides a basis for developing functional, performance, and test requirements (i.e., subsystem specification), as necessary, for the PWSS. The resultant PWSS specification will include the sampling requirements to support the transfer of waste from the DSTs to the Privatization Contractor during Phase 1 of Waste Feed Delivery

  19. Energy recovery from municipal solid wastes in Italy: Actual study and perspective for future

    Materials and energy recovery from municipal solid wastes (MSW) and assimilable waste, and their re-use is one of strong points of current regulations and tendencies, both at the national and at community level in Europe. In Italy, the interest in energy recovery from renewable sources has been encouraged by energy-savings law which included financial incentives for thermal plant building if low grade fuels such as MSW were employed. New electric power prices imposed by Italian Electric Power Authority, ENEL, encourage energy recovery from waste burners. This paper aims to point out the present state of energy recovery from wastes in Italy, trends and prospects to satisfy, with new plants, the need for waste thermal destruction and part of the demand for energy in the different Italian regions: only about 10% of MSW are burned and just a small percentage of the estimated amount of recoverable energy (2 MTOE/y) is recuperated. Different technological cycles are discussed: incineration of untreated wastes and energy recovery; incineration (or gasification) of RDF (refuse derived fuels) and heat-electricity co-generation; burning of RDF in industrial plants, in addition to other fuels

  20. Automatic drawing and CAD actualization in processing data of radiant sampling in physics prospect

    In this paper discussed a method of processing radiant sampling data with computer. By this method can get expain the curve of radiant sampling data, and we can combine mineral masses and analyse and calculate them, then record the result on Notebook. There are many merites of this method: easy to learn, simple to use, high efficient. It adapts to all sorts of mines. (authors)

  1. A method for sampling waste corn

    Frederick, R.B.; Klaas, E.E.; Baldassarre, G.A.; Reinecke, K.J.

    1984-01-01

    Corn had become one of the most important wildlife food in the United States. It is eaten by a wide variety of animals, including white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus ), raccoon (Procyon lotor ), ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus , wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo ), and many species of aquatic birds. Damage to unharvested crops had been documented, but many birds and mammals eat waste grain after harvest and do not conflict with agriculture. A good method for measuring waste-corn availability can be essential to studies concerning food density and food and feeding habits of field-feeding wildlife. Previous methods were developed primarily for approximating losses due to harvest machinery. In this paper, a method is described for estimating the amount of waste corn potentially available to wildlife. Detection of temporal changes in food availability and differences caused by agricultural operations (e.g., recently harvested stubble fields vs. plowed fields) are discussed.

  2. Basis for a Waste Management Public Communication Policy: Actual Situation Analysis and Implementation of Corrective Actions

    Argentina will require new sites for the location of radioactive waste final disposal systems. It is currently mandatory to have social and political consensus to obtain the corresponding agreements. The experience obtained with the cancellation of the project ''Feasibility Study and Engineering Project--Repository for High Level Radioactive Waste'', reinforces even more the necessity to count with the acceptance of the public to carry out projects of this kind. The first phase of the former was developed in the 80's: geological, geophysical and hydrogeological studies were performed in a compact granitic rock located in Sierra del Medio, Chubut province. This project had to be called off in the early 90's due to strong social rejection. This decision was closely related to the poor attention given to social communication issues. The governmental decision-makers in charge underwent a lot of pressure from social groups claiming for the cancellation of the project due to the lack of information and the fear it triggered. Thus, the lesson learnt: ''social communication activities must be carefully undertaken in order to achieve the appropriate management of the radioactive waste produced in our country.'' The same as in other countries, the specific National Law demands the formulation of a Strategic Plan which will not only include the research into radioactive waste, but the design of a Social Communication Programme as well. The latter will be in charge of informing the population clearly and objectively about the latest scientific and technological advances in the issue. A tentative perception-attitude pattern of the Argentine society about the overall nuclear issue is outlined in this paper. It is meant to contribute to the understanding of the public's adverse reaction to this kind of project. A communication programme is also presented. Its objective is to install the waste management topic in the public's opinion with a positive real outlook

  3. FIELD EXPERIENCE IN SAMPLING HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATORS

    This paper is for presentation at the 77th annual meeting of the Air Pollution Control Association, June 24-29, 1984. The paper contains much useful, pragmatic information gained through numerous hazardous waste incinerator trial burn-type investigations performed for EPA by the ...

  4. DOE methods for evaluating environmental and waste management samples

    DOE Methods for Evaluating Environmental and Waste Management Samples (DOE Methods) provides applicable methods in use by. the US Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories for sampling and analyzing constituents of waste and environmental samples. The development of DOE Methods is supported by the Laboratory Management Division (LMD) of the DOE. This document contains chapters and methods that are proposed for use in evaluating components of DOE environmental and waste management samples. DOE Methods is a resource intended to support sampling and analytical activities that will aid in defining the type and breadth of contamination and thus determine the extent of environmental restoration or waste management actions needed, as defined by the DOE, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), or others

  5. DOE methods for evaluating environmental and waste management samples.

    Goheen, S C; McCulloch, M; Thomas, B L; Riley, R G; Sklarew, D S; Mong, G M; Fadeff, S K [eds.; Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-04-01

    DOE Methods for Evaluating Environmental and Waste Management Samples (DOE Methods) provides applicable methods in use by. the US Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories for sampling and analyzing constituents of waste and environmental samples. The development of DOE Methods is supported by the Laboratory Management Division (LMD) of the DOE. This document contains chapters and methods that are proposed for use in evaluating components of DOE environmental and waste management samples. DOE Methods is a resource intended to support sampling and analytical activities that will aid in defining the type and breadth of contamination and thus determine the extent of environmental restoration or waste management actions needed, as defined by the DOE, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), or others.

  6. Basis for a Waste Management Public Communication Policy: Actual Situation Analysis and Implementation of Corrective Actions

    Jolivet, L. A.; Maset, E. R.

    2002-02-28

    Argentina will require new sites for the location of radioactive waste final disposal systems. It is currently mandatory to have social and political consensus to obtain the corresponding agreements. The experience obtained with the cancellation of the project ''Feasibility Study and Engineering Project--Repository for High Level Radioactive Waste'', reinforces even more the necessity to count with the acceptance of the public to carry out projects of this kind. The first phase of the former was developed in the 80's: geological, geophysical and hydrogeological studies were performed in a compact granitic rock located in Sierra del Medio, Chubut province. This project had to be called off in the early 90's due to strong social rejection. This decision was closely related to the poor attention given to social communication issues. The governmental decision-makers in charge underwent a lot of pressure from social groups claiming for the cancellation of the project due to the lack of information and the fear it triggered. Thus, the lesson learnt: ''social communication activities must be carefully undertaken in order to achieve the appropriate management of the radioactive waste produced in our country.'' The same as in other countries, the specific National Law demands the formulation of a Strategic Plan which will not only include the research into radioactive waste, but the design of a Social Communication Programme as well. The latter will be in charge of informing the population clearly and objectively about the latest scientific and technological advances in the issue. A tentative perception-attitude pattern of the Argentine society about the overall nuclear issue is outlined in this paper. It is meant to contribute to the understanding of the public's adverse reaction to this kind of project. A communication programme is also presented. Its objective is to install the waste management topic in the public

  7. Solid waste sampling and distribution project. Final technical report

    1993-10-29

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) established a Waste Management Program within the Office of Fossil Energy. A key goal of this program is to ensure that waste management issues do not become obstacles to the commercialization of advanced coal utilization technologies. In achieving this goal, the Waste Management Program identifies various emerging coal utilization technologies and performs comprehensive characterizations of the waste streams and products. The characterizations include engineering assessments to define waste streams of interest/potential concern, field studies to collect samples of the waste, and complete chemical analysis of the collected samples. Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER) was selected to perform the site selection and the sampling aspects of five (5) of these facilities. The current EER contract consists of two interrelated efforts: site selection and waste sampling. Detailed sample analysis is being conducted under another DOE contract. The primary objectives of the site selection and sampling effort are listed: (1) Survey sites at which advanced fossil energy combustion technologies are being operated, and identify five sites for sampling. Priority should be given to DOE Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program Sites. (2) Identify candidate solid waste streams in advanced coal utilization processes likely to present disposal problems and prioritized them for sampling at selected sites. (3) Contact site personnel for site access, sample the streams representatively and document them according to established methodology and known process conditions; and (4) Distribute the samples to DOE`s Morgantown Energy Technology Center or their representatives for analysis and report on the site visit.

  8. B-Cell waste classification sampling and analysis plan

    This report documents the methods used to collect and analyze samples to obtain data necessary to verify and/or determine the radionuclide content of the 324 Facility B-Cell decontamination and decommissioning waste stream

  9. B-Cell waste classification sampling and analysis plan

    HOBART, R.L.

    1999-09-22

    This report documents the methods used to collect and analyze samples to obtain data necessary to verify and/or determine the radionuclide content of the 324 Facility B-Cell decontamination and decommissioning waste stream.

  10. Method for fractional solid-waste sampling and chemical analysis

    Riber, Christian; Rodushkin, I.; Spliid, Henrik;

    2007-01-01

    Chemical characterization of solid waste is a demanding task due to the heterogeneity of the waste. This article describes how 45 material fractions hand-sorted from Danish household waste were subsampled and prepared for chemical analysis of 61 substances. All material fractions were subject to...... repeated particle-size reduction, mixing, and mass reduction until a sufficiently small but representative sample was obtained for digestion prior to chemical analysis. The waste-fraction samples were digested according to their properties for maximum recognition of all the studied substances. By combining...... four subsampling methods and five digestion methods, paying attention to the heterogeneity and the material characteristics of the waste fractions, it was possible to determine 61 substances with low detection limits, reasonable variance, and high accuracy. For most of the substances of environmental...

  11. Analysis of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Samples: Integrated Summary Report

    Britt, Phillip F [ORNL

    2015-03-01

    Analysis of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Samples: Integrated Summary Report. Summaries of conclusions, analytical processes, and analytical results. Analysis of samples taken from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico in support of the WIPP Technical Assessment Team (TAT) activities to determine to the extent feasible the mechanisms and chemical reactions that may have resulted in the breach of at least one waste drum and release of waste material in WIPP Panel 7 Room 7 on February 14, 2014. This report integrates and summarizes the results contained in three separate reports, described below, and draws conclusions based on those results. Chemical and Radiochemical Analyses of WIPP Samples R-15 C5 SWB and R16 C-4 Lip; PNNL-24003, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, December 2014 Analysis of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Underground and MgO Samples by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL); SRNL-STI-2014-00617; Savannah River National Laboratory, December 2014 Report for WIPP UG Sample #3, R15C5 (9/3/14); LLNL-TR-667015; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, January 2015 This report is also contained in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Technical Assessment Team Report; SRNL-RP-2015-01198; Savannah River National Laboratory, March 17, 2015, as Appendix C: Analysis Integrated Summary Report.

  12. Solid waste sampling and distribution project: Sampling report {number_sign}4

    1993-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has established a Waste Management Program within the Office of Fossil Energy. A key goal of this program is to ensure that waste management issues do not become obstacles to the commercialization of advanced coal utilization technologies. In achieving this goal, the Waste Management Program identifies various emerging coal utilization technologies and performs comprehensive characterizations of the waste streams and products. The characterizations include engineering assessments to define waste streams of interest/potential concern, field studies to collect samples of the waste, and complete chemical analysis of the collected samples. The primary objectives of the site selection and sampling effort are as follows. Survey sites at which advanced fossil energy combustion technologies are being operated, and identify five sites for sampling, giving priority to DOE Clean Coal Technology Program Sites. Identify candidate solid waste streams likely to present disposal problems and prioritize them for sampling at selected sites. Contact site personnel for site access, sample the streams representatively and document them according to established methodology and known process conditions. Distribute the samples to DOE`s Morgantown Energy Technology Center or their representatives for analysis and report on the site visit. Several technologies have been tentatively selected for comprehensive waste characterization. One of those technologies is the SO{sub x}-NO{sub x}-RO{sub x} Box (SNRB) Flue Gas Cleanup process. On December 16, 1992 samples were collected to characterize solid waste streams. This document provides background information on the site and describes sampling activities performed at this facility.

  13. Household hazardous waste data for the UK by direct sampling.

    Slack, Rebecca J; Bonin, Michael; Gronow, Jan R; Van Santen, Anton; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

    2007-04-01

    The amount of household hazardous waste (HHW) disposed of in the United Kingdom (UK) requires assessment. This paper describes a direct analysis study carried out in three areas in southeast England involving over 500 households. Each participating householder was provided with a special bin in which to place items corresponding to a list of HHW. The amount of waste collected was split into nine broad categories: batteries, home maintenance (DIY), vehicle upkeep, pesticides, pet care, pharmaceuticals, photographic chemicals, household cleaners, and printer cartridges. Over 1 T of waste was collected from the sample households over a 32-week period, which would correspond to an estimated 51,000 T if extrapolated to the UK population for the same period or over 7,000 T per month. Details of likely disposal routes adopted by householders were also sought, demonstrating the different pathways selected for different waste categories. Co-disposal with residual household waste dominated for waste batteries and veterinary medicines, hence avoiding classification as hazardous waste under new UK waste regulations. The information can be used to set a baseline for the management of HHW and provides information for an environmental risk assessment of the disposal of such wastes to landfill. PMID:17438817

  14. Waste Sampling & Characterization Facility (WSCF) Complex Safety Analysis

    MELOY, R.T.

    2002-04-01

    This document was prepared to analyze the Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility for safety consequences by: Determining radionuclide and highly hazardous chemical inventories; Comparing these inventories to the appropriate regulatory limits; Documenting the compliance status with respect to these limits; and Identifying the administrative controls necessary to maintain this status. The primary purpose of the Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility (WSCF) is to perform low-level radiological and chemical analyses on various types of samples taken from the Hanford Site. These analyses will support the fulfillment of federal, Washington State, and Department of Energy requirements.

  15. Demonstrating Reliable High Level Waste Slurry Sampling Techniques to Support Hanford Waste Processing

    The Hanford Tank Operations Contractor (TOC) and the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) contractor are both engaged in demonstrating mixing, sampling, and transfer system capability using simulated Hanford High-Level Waste (HL W) formulations. This work represents one of the remaining technical issues with the high-level waste treatment mission at Hanford. The TOC must demonstrate the ability to adequately mix and sample high-level waste feed to meet the WTP Waste Acceptance Criteria and Data Quality Objectives. The sampling method employed must support both TOC and WTP requirements. To facilitate information transfer between the two facilities the mixing and sampling demonstrations are led by the One System Integrated Project Team. The One System team, Waste Feed Delivery Mixing and Sampling Program, has developed a full scale sampling loop to demonstrate sampler capability. This paper discusses the full scale sampling loops ability to meet precision and accuracy requirements, including lessons learned during testing. Results of the testing showed that the Isolok(R) sampler chosen for implementation provides precise, repeatable results. The Isolok(R) sampler accuracy as tested did not meet test success criteria. Review of test data and the test platform following testing by a sampling expert identified several issues regarding the sampler used to provide reference material used to judge the Isolok's accuracy. Recommendations were made to obtain new data to evaluate the sampler's accuracy utilizing a reference sampler that follows good sampling protocol

  16. Demonstrating Reliable High Level Waste Slurry Sampling Techniques to Support Hanford Waste Processing

    Kelly, Steven E.

    2013-11-11

    The Hanford Tank Operations Contractor (TOC) and the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) contractor are both engaged in demonstrating mixing, sampling, and transfer system capability using simulated Hanford High-Level Waste (HL W) formulations. This work represents one of the remaining technical issues with the high-level waste treatment mission at Hanford. The TOC must demonstrate the ability to adequately mix and sample high-level waste feed to meet the WTP Waste Acceptance Criteria and Data Quality Objectives. The sampling method employed must support both TOC and WTP requirements. To facilitate information transfer between the two facilities the mixing and sampling demonstrations are led by the One System Integrated Project Team. The One System team, Waste Feed Delivery Mixing and Sampling Program, has developed a full scale sampling loop to demonstrate sampler capability. This paper discusses the full scale sampling loops ability to meet precision and accuracy requirements, including lessons learned during testing. Results of the testing showed that the Isolok(R) sampler chosen for implementation provides precise, repeatable results. The Isolok(R) sampler accuracy as tested did not meet test success criteria. Review of test data and the test platform following testing by a sampling expert identified several issues regarding the sampler used to provide reference material used to judge the Isolok's accuracy. Recommendations were made to obtain new data to evaluate the sampler's accuracy utilizing a reference sampler that follows good sampling protocol.

  17. Transuranic waste characterization sampling and analysis methods manual. Revision 1

    Suermann, J.F.

    1996-04-01

    This Methods Manual provides a unified source of information on the sampling and analytical techniques that enable Department of Energy (DOE) facilities to comply with the requirements established in the current revision of the Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Transuranic (TRU) Waste Characterization Program (the Program) and the WIPP Waste Analysis Plan. This Methods Manual includes all of the testing, sampling, and analytical methodologies accepted by DOE for use in implementing the Program requirements specified in the QAPP and the WIPP Waste Analysis Plan. The procedures in this Methods Manual are comprehensive and detailed and are designed to provide the necessary guidance for the preparation of site-specific procedures. With some analytical methods, such as Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry, the Methods Manual procedures may be used directly. With other methods, such as nondestructive characterization, the Methods Manual provides guidance rather than a step-by-step procedure. Sites must meet all of the specified quality control requirements of the applicable procedure. Each DOE site must document the details of the procedures it will use and demonstrate the efficacy of such procedures to the Manager, National TRU Program Waste Characterization, during Waste Characterization and Certification audits.

  18. Transuranic waste characterization sampling and analysis methods manual. Revision 1

    This Methods Manual provides a unified source of information on the sampling and analytical techniques that enable Department of Energy (DOE) facilities to comply with the requirements established in the current revision of the Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Transuranic (TRU) Waste Characterization Program (the Program) and the WIPP Waste Analysis Plan. This Methods Manual includes all of the testing, sampling, and analytical methodologies accepted by DOE for use in implementing the Program requirements specified in the QAPP and the WIPP Waste Analysis Plan. The procedures in this Methods Manual are comprehensive and detailed and are designed to provide the necessary guidance for the preparation of site-specific procedures. With some analytical methods, such as Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry, the Methods Manual procedures may be used directly. With other methods, such as nondestructive characterization, the Methods Manual provides guidance rather than a step-by-step procedure. Sites must meet all of the specified quality control requirements of the applicable procedure. Each DOE site must document the details of the procedures it will use and demonstrate the efficacy of such procedures to the Manager, National TRU Program Waste Characterization, during Waste Characterization and Certification audits

  19. Testing Of Enhanced Chemical Cleaning Of SRS Actual Waste Tank 5F And Tank 12H Sludges

    Forty three of the High Level Waste (HLW) tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS) have internal structures that hinder removal of the last approximately five thousand gallons of waste sludge solely by mechanical means. Chemical cleaning can be utilized to dissolve the sludge heel with oxalic acid (OA) and pump the material to a separate waste tank in preparation for final disposition. This dissolved sludge material is pH adjusted downstream of the dissolution process, precipitating the sludge components along with sodium oxalate solids. The large quantities of sodium oxalate and other metal oxalates formed impact downstream processes by requiring additional washing during sludge batch preparation and increase the amount of material that must be processed in the tank farm evaporator systems and the Saltstone Processing Facility. Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) was identified as a potential method for greatly reducing the impact of oxalate additions to the SRS Tank Farms without adding additional components to the waste that would extend processing or increase waste form volumes. In support of Savannah River Site (SRS) tank closure efforts, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) conducted Real Waste Testing (RWT) to evaluate an alternative to the baseline 8 wt. % OA chemical cleaning technology for tank sludge heel removal. The baseline OA technology results in the addition of significant volumes of oxalate salts to the SRS tank farm and there is insufficient space to accommodate the neutralized streams resulting from the treatment of the multiple remaining waste tanks requiring closure. ECC is a promising alternative to bulk OA cleaning, which utilizes a more dilute OA (nominally 2 wt. % at a pH of around 2) and an oxalate destruction technology. The technology is being adapted by AREVA from their decontamination technology for Nuclear Power Plant secondary side scale removal. This report contains results from the SRNL small scale testing of the ECC process

  20. TESTING OF ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING OF SRS ACTUAL WASTE TANK 5F AND TANK 12H SLUDGES

    Martino, C.; King, W.

    2011-08-22

    Forty three of the High Level Waste (HLW) tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS) have internal structures that hinder removal of the last approximately five thousand gallons of waste sludge solely by mechanical means. Chemical cleaning can be utilized to dissolve the sludge heel with oxalic acid (OA) and pump the material to a separate waste tank in preparation for final disposition. This dissolved sludge material is pH adjusted downstream of the dissolution process, precipitating the sludge components along with sodium oxalate solids. The large quantities of sodium oxalate and other metal oxalates formed impact downstream processes by requiring additional washing during sludge batch preparation and increase the amount of material that must be processed in the tank farm evaporator systems and the Saltstone Processing Facility. Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) was identified as a potential method for greatly reducing the impact of oxalate additions to the SRS Tank Farms without adding additional components to the waste that would extend processing or increase waste form volumes. In support of Savannah River Site (SRS) tank closure efforts, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) conducted Real Waste Testing (RWT) to evaluate an alternative to the baseline 8 wt. % OA chemical cleaning technology for tank sludge heel removal. The baseline OA technology results in the addition of significant volumes of oxalate salts to the SRS tank farm and there is insufficient space to accommodate the neutralized streams resulting from the treatment of the multiple remaining waste tanks requiring closure. ECC is a promising alternative to bulk OA cleaning, which utilizes a more dilute OA (nominally 2 wt. % at a pH of around 2) and an oxalate destruction technology. The technology is being adapted by AREVA from their decontamination technology for Nuclear Power Plant secondary side scale removal. This report contains results from the SRNL small scale testing of the ECC process

  1. WIPP waste characterization program sampling and analysis guidance manual

    1991-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Characterization Program Sampling and Analysis Guidance Manual (Guidance Manual) provides a unified source of information on the sampling and analytical techniques that enable Department of Energy (DOE) facilities to comply with the requirements established in the current revision of the Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) for the WIPP Experimental-Waste Characterization Program (the Program). This Guidance Manual includes all of the sampling and testing methodologies accepted by the WIPP Project Office (DOE/WPO) for use in implementing the Program requirements specified in the QAPP. This includes methods for characterizing representative samples of transuranic (TRU) wastes at DOE generator sites with respect to the gas generation controlling variables defined in the WIPP bin-scale and alcove test plans, as well as waste container headspace gas sampling and analytical procedures to support waste characterization requirements under the WIPP test program and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The procedures in this Guidance Manual are comprehensive and detailed and are designed to provide the necessary guidance for the preparation of site specific procedures. The use of these procedures is intended to provide the necessary sensitivity, specificity, precision, and comparability of analyses and test results. The solutions to achieving specific program objectives will depend upon facility constraints, compliance with DOE Orders and DOE facilities' operating contractor requirements, and the knowledge and experience of the TRU waste handlers and analysts. With some analytical methods, such as gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, the Guidance Manual procedures may be used directly. With other methods, such as nondestructive/destructive characterization, the Guidance Manual provides guidance rather than a step-by-step procedure.

  2. WIPP waste characterization program sampling and analysis guidance manual

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Characterization Program Sampling and Analysis Guidance Manual (Guidance Manual) provides a unified source of information on the sampling and analytical techniques that enable Department of Energy (DOE) facilities to comply with the requirements established in the current revision of the Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) for the WIPP Experimental-Waste Characterization Program (the Program). This Guidance Manual includes all of the sampling and testing methodologies accepted by the WIPP Project Office (DOE/WPO) for use in implementing the Program requirements specified in the QAPP. This includes methods for characterizing representative samples of transuranic (TRU) wastes at DOE generator sites with respect to the gas generation controlling variables defined in the WIPP bin-scale and alcove test plans, as well as waste container headspace gas sampling and analytical procedures to support waste characterization requirements under the WIPP test program and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The procedures in this Guidance Manual are comprehensive and detailed and are designed to provide the necessary guidance for the preparation of site specific procedures. The use of these procedures is intended to provide the necessary sensitivity, specificity, precision, and comparability of analyses and test results. The solutions to achieving specific program objectives will depend upon facility constraints, compliance with DOE Orders and DOE facilities' operating contractor requirements, and the knowledge and experience of the TRU waste handlers and analysts. With some analytical methods, such as gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, the Guidance Manual procedures may be used directly. With other methods, such as nondestructive/destructive characterization, the Guidance Manual provides guidance rather than a step-by-step procedure

  3. Solid waste sampling and distribution project: Sampling report {number_sign}5

    1993-10-01

    The US DOE has established a key goal of the Waste Management Program (WMP) to be to ensure that waste management issues do not become obstacles to the commercialization of advanced coal utilization technologies. To achieve this goal, the WMP identifies various emerging coal utilization technologies and performs comprehensive characterizations of the waste streams and products. DOE is now extending their characterization program to include a number of new facilities, particularly larger pilot- and commercial-scale units. Several advanced coal utilization technologies have been tentatively selected for comprehensive waste characterization. One of these technologies is the LOW NO{sub x} process being demonstrated by Southern Company Services, Inc. at Site F. On July 29, 1993 samples were collected to characterize solid waste streams. This document provides background information on the site and describes the sampling activities performed at this facility.

  4. Vapor sampling of the headspace of radioactive waste storage tanks

    Reynolds, D.A., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-22

    This paper recants the history of vapor sampling in the headspaces of radioactive waste storage tanks at Hanford. The first two tanks to receive extensive vapor pressure sampling were Tanks 241-SY-101 and 241-C-103. At various times, a gas chromatography, on-line mass spectrometer, solid state hydrogen monitor, FTIR, and radio acoustic ammonia monitor have been installed. The head space gas sampling activities will continue for the next few years. The current goal is to sample the headspace for all the tanks. Some tank headspaces will be sampled several times to see the data vary with time. Other tanks will have continuous monitors installed to provide additional data.

  5. Design compliance matrix waste sample container filling system for nested, fixed-depth sampling system

    This design compliance matrix document provides specific design related functional characteristics, constraints, and requirements for the container filling system that is part of the nested, fixed-depth sampling system. This document addresses performance, external interfaces, ALARA, Authorization Basis, environmental and design code requirements for the container filling system. The container filling system will interface with the waste stream from the fluidic pumping channels of the nested, fixed-depth sampling system and will fill containers with waste that meet the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) criteria for waste that contains volatile and semi-volatile organic materials. The specifications for the nested, fixed-depth sampling system are described in a Level 2 Specification document (HNF-3483, Rev. 1). The basis for this design compliance matrix document is the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) desk instructions for design Compliance matrix documents (PI-CP-008-00, Rev. 0)

  6. Method of characterizing VOC concentration in vented waste drums with multiple layers of confinement using limited sampling data

    Characterization of transuranic waste destined for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant currently requires detailed characterization of the volatile organic compound (VOC) concentration in the void volume headspaces (drum headspace, the large polymer bag headspace, and the innermost layers of confinement headspace) of the waste drums. A test program is underway at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to determine if the drum headspace VOC concentration is representative of the concentration in the entire drum void space and demonstrate that the VOC concentration in the innermost layer of confinement can be estimated using a model incorporating diffusion and permeation transport principles and limited waste drum sampling data. A comparison of model predictions of VOC concentration in the innermost layer of confinement with actual measurement from transuranic waste drums demonstrate that this method may be useful in characterizing VOC concentration in a vented waste drum

  7. Actual and undiagnosed HIV prevalence in a community sample of men who have sex with men in Auckland, New Zealand

    Saxton Peter JW

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of HIV infection and how this varies between subgroups is a fundamental indicator of epidemic control. While there has been a rise in the number of HIV diagnoses among men who have sex with men (MSM in New Zealand over the last decade, the actual prevalence of HIV and the proportion undiagnosed is not known. We measured these outcomes in a community sample of MSM in Auckland, New Zealand. Methods The study was embedded in an established behavioural surveillance programme. MSM attending a gay community fair day, gay bars and sex-on-site venues during 1 week in February 2011 who agreed to complete a questionnaire were invited to provide an anonymous oral fluid specimen for analysis of HIV antibodies. From the 1304 eligible respondents (acceptance rate 48.5%, 1049 provided a matched specimen (provision rate 80.4%. Results HIV prevalence was 6.5% (95% CI: 5.1-8.1. After adjusting for age, ethnicity and recruitment site, HIV positivity was significantly elevated among respondents who were aged 30-44 or 45 and over, were resident outside New Zealand, had 6-20 or more than 20 recent sexual partners, had engaged in unprotected anal intercourse with a casual partner, had had sex with a man met online, or had injected drugs in the 6 months prior to survey. One fifth (20.9% of HIV infected men were undiagnosed; 1.3% of the total sample. Although HIV prevalence did not differ by ethnicity, HIV infected non-European respondents were more likely to be undiagnosed. Most of the small number of undiagnosed respondents had tested for HIV previously, and the majority believed themselves to be either "definitely" or "probably" uninfected. There was evidence of continuing risk practices among some of those with known HIV infection. Conclusions This is the first estimate of actual and undiagnosed HIV infection among a community sample of gay men in New Zealand. While relatively low compared to other countries with mature epidemics

  8. Waste sampling and characterization facility complex safety analysis

    Meloy, R.T., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-04

    The Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility is a `Non-Nuclear, Radiological Facility. This document demonstrates, by analysis, that WSCF can meet the chemical and radiological inventory limits for a radiological facility. It establishes control that ensures those inventories are maintained below threshold values to preserve the `Non- Nuclear, Radiological` classification.

  9. Waste minimization in analytical chemistry through innovative sample preparation techniques

    Because toxic solvents and other hazardous materials are commonly used in analytical methods, characterization procedures result in significant and costly amount of waste. We are developing alternative analytical methods in the radiological and organic areas to reduce the volume or form of the hazardous waste produced during sample analysis. For the radiological area, we have examined high-pressure, closed-vessel microwave digestion as a way to minimize waste from sample preparation operations. Heated solutions of strong mineral acids can be avoided for sample digestion by using the microwave approach. Because reactivity increases with pressure, we examined the use of less hazardous solvents to leach selected contaminants from soil for subsequent analysis. We demonstrated the feasibility of this approach by extracting plutonium from a NET reference material using citric and tartaric acids with microwave digestion. Analytical results were comparable to traditional digestion methods, while hazardous waste was reduced by a factor often. We also evaluated the suitability of other natural acids, determined the extraction performance on a wider variety of soil types, and examined the extraction efficiency of other contaminants. For the organic area, we examined ways to minimize the wastes associated with the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in environmental samples. Conventional methods for analyzing semivolatile organic compounds are labor intensive and require copious amounts of hazardous solvents. For soil and sediment samples, we have a method to analyze PCBs that is based on microscale extraction using benign solvents (e.g., water or hexane). The extraction is performed at elevated temperatures in stainless steel cells containing the sample and solvent. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used to quantitate the analytes in the isolated extract. More recently, we developed a method utilizing solid-phase microextraction (SPME) for natural

  10. DOE methods for evaluating environmental and waste management samples

    DOE Methods for Evaluating Environmental and Waste Management Samples (DOE Methods) is a resource intended to support sampling and analytical activities for the evaluation of environmental and waste management samples from U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites. DOE Methods is the result of extensive cooperation from all DOE analytical laboratories. All of these laboratories have contributed key information and provided technical reviews as well as significant moral support leading to the success of this document. DOE Methods is designed to encompass methods for collecting representative samples and for determining the radioisotope activity and organic and inorganic composition of a sample. These determinations will aid in defining the type and breadth of contamination and thus determine the extent of environmental restoration or waste management actions needed, as defined by the DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, or others. The development of DOE Methods is supported by the Laboratory Management Division of the DOE. Methods are prepared for entry into DOE Methods as chapter editors, together with DOE and other participants in this program, identify analytical and sampling method needs. Unique methods or methods consolidated from similar procedures in the DOE Procedures Database are selected for potential inclusion in this document. Initial selection is based largely on DOE needs and procedure applicability and completeness. Methods appearing in this document are one of two types. open-quotes Draftclose quotes or open-quotes Verified.close quotes. open-quotes Draftclose quotes methods that have been reviewed internally and show potential for eventual verification are included in this document, but they have not been reviewed externally, and their precision and bias may not be known. open-quotes Verifiedclose quotes methods in DOE Methods have been reviewed by volunteers from various DOE sites and private corporations

  11. DOE methods for evaluating environmental and waste management samples

    Goheen, S.C.; McCulloch, M.; Thomas, B.L.; Riley, R.G.; Sklarew, D.S.; Mong, G.M.; Fadeff, S.K. [eds.

    1994-10-01

    DOE Methods for Evaluating Environmental and Waste Management Samples (DOE Methods) is a resource intended to support sampling and analytical activities for the evaluation of environmental and waste management samples from U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites. DOE Methods is the result of extensive cooperation from all DOE analytical laboratories. All of these laboratories have contributed key information and provided technical reviews as well as significant moral support leading to the success of this document. DOE Methods is designed to encompass methods for collecting representative samples and for determining the radioisotope activity and organic and inorganic composition of a sample. These determinations will aid in defining the type and breadth of contamination and thus determine the extent of environmental restoration or waste management actions needed, as defined by the DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, or others. The development of DOE Methods is supported by the Analytical Services Division of DOE. Unique methods or methods consolidated from similar procedures in the DOE Procedures Database are selected for potential inclusion in this document. Initial selection is based largely on DOE needs and procedure applicability and completeness. Methods appearing in this document are one of two types, {open_quotes}Draft{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}Verified{close_quotes}. {open_quotes}Draft{close_quotes} methods that have been reviewed internally and show potential for eventual verification are included in this document, but they have not been reviewed externally, and their precision and bias may not be known. {open_quotes}Verified{close_quotes} methods in DOE Methods have been reviewed by volunteers from various DOE sites and private corporations. These methods have delineated measures of precision and accuracy.

  12. DOE methods for evaluating environmental and waste management samples

    DOE Methods for Evaluating Environmental and Waste Management Samples (DOE Methods) is a resource intended to support sampling and analytical activities for the evaluation of environmental and waste management samples from U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites. DOE Methods is the result of extensive cooperation from all DOE analytical laboratories. All of these laboratories have contributed key information and provided technical reviews as well as significant moral support leading to the success of this document. DOE Methods is designed to encompass methods for collecting representative samples and for determining the radioisotope activity and organic and inorganic composition of a sample. These determinations will aid in defining the type and breadth of contamination and thus determine the extent of environmental restoration or waste management actions needed, as defined by the DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, or others. The development of DOE Methods is supported by the Analytical Services Division of DOE. Unique methods or methods consolidated from similar procedures in the DOE Procedures Database are selected for potential inclusion in this document. Initial selection is based largely on DOE needs and procedure applicability and completeness. Methods appearing in this document are one of two types, open-quotes Draftclose quotes or open-quotes Verifiedclose quotes. open-quotes Draftclose quotes methods that have been reviewed internally and show potential for eventual verification are included in this document, but they have not been reviewed externally, and their precision and bias may not be known. open-quotes Verifiedclose quotes methods in DOE Methods have been reviewed by volunteers from various DOE sites and private corporations. These methods have delineated measures of precision and accuracy

  13. Statistical sampling plan for the TRU waste assay facility

    Due to limited space, there is a need to dispose appropriately of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory transuranic waste which is presently stored below ground in 55-gal (208-l) drums within weather-resistant structures. Waste containing less than 100 nCi/g transuranics can be removed from the present storage and be buried, while waste containing greater than 100 nCi/g transuranics must continue to be retrievably stored. To make the necessary measurements needed to determine the drums that can be buried, a transuranic Neutron Interrogation Assay System (NIAS) has been developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory and can make the needed measurements much faster than previous techniques which involved γ-ray spectroscopy. The previous techniques are reliable but time consuming. Therefore, a validation study has been planned to determine the ability of the NIAS to make adequate measurements. The validation of the NIAS will be based on a paired comparison of a sample of measurements made by the previous techniques and the NIAS. The purpose of this report is to describe the proposed sampling plan and the statistical analyses needed to validate the NIAS. 5 references, 4 figures, 5 tables

  14. Tank waste remediation system (TWRS) privatization contractor samples waste envelope D material 241-C-106

    Esch, R.A.

    1997-04-14

    This report represents the Final Analytical Report on Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Privatization Contractor Samples for Waste Envelope D. All work was conducted in accordance with ''Addendum 1 of the Letter of Instruction (LOI) for TWRS Privatization Contractor Samples Addressing Waste Envelope D Materials - Revision 0, Revision 1, and Revision 2.'' (Jones 1996, Wiemers 1996a, Wiemers 1996b) Tank 241-C-1 06 (C-106) was selected by TWRS Privatization for the Part 1A Envelope D high-level waste demonstration. Twenty bottles of Tank C-106 material were collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company using a grab sampling technique and transferred to the 325 building for processing by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). At the 325 building, the contents of the twenty bottles were combined into a single Initial Composite Material. This composite was subsampled for the laboratory-scale screening test and characterization testing, and the remainder was transferred to the 324 building for bench-scale preparation of the Privatization Contractor samples.

  15. Production of a High-Level Waste Glass from Hanford Waste Samples

    The HLW glass was produced from a HLW sludge slurry (Envelope D Waste), eluate waste streams containing high levels of Cs-137 and Tc-99, solids containing both Sr-90 and transuranics (TRU), and glass-forming chemicals. The eluates and Sr-90/TRU solids were obtained from ion-exchange and precipitation pretreatments, respectively, of other Hanford supernate samples (Envelopes A, B and C Waste). The glass was vitrified by mixing the different waste streams with glass-forming chemicals in platinum/gold crucibles and heating the mixture to 1150 degree C. Resulting glass analyses indicated that the HLW glass waste form composition was close to the target composition. The targeted waste loading of Envelope D sludge solids in the HLW glass was 30.7 wt percent, exclusive of Na and Si oxides. Condensate samples from the off-gas condenser and off-gas dry-ice trap indicated that very little of the radionuclides were volatilized during vitrification. Microstructure analysis of the HLW glass using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis (EDAX) showed what appeared to be iron spinel in the HLW glass. Further X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the presence of nickel spinel trevorite (NiFe2O4). These crystals did not degrade the leaching characteristics of the glass. The HLW glass waste form passed leach tests that included a standard 90 degree C Product Consistency Test (PCT) and a modified version of the United States Environmental Protection Agency Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP)

  16. Sampling and analysis plan for ORNL filter press cake waste from the Liquid and Gaseous Waste Operations Department

    This document defines the sampling and analytical procedures needed for the initial characterization of the filter press cake waste from the Process Waste Treatment Plant (PWTP) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). It is anticipated that revisions to this document will occur as operating experience and sample results suggest appropriate changes be made. Application of this document will be controlled through the ORNL Waste Management and Remedial Action Division. The sampling strategy is designed to ensure that the samples collected present an accurate representation of the waste process stream. Using process knowledge and preliminary radiological activity screens, the filter press cake waste is known to contain radionuclides. Chemical characterization under the premise of this sampling and analysis plan will provide information regarding possible treatments and ultimately, disposal of filter press cake waste at an offsite location. The sampling strategy and analyses requested are based on the K-25 waste acceptance criteria and the Nevada Test Site Defense Waste Acceptance Criteria, Certification, and Transfer Requirements [2, NVO-325, Rev. 1]. The sampling strategy will demonstrate that for the filter press cake waste there is (1) an absence of RCRA and PCBs wastes, (2) an absence of transuranic (TRU) wastes, and (3) a quantifiable amount of radionuclide activity

  17. Waste sampling and characterization facility safety equipment list

    This document identifies equipment related to facility safety as required by WHC-CM-1-3, MRP 5.45. This document identifies the Safety Equipment for the Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility complex in accordance with MRP 5.46. The WSCF Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR), WHC-SD-W011H-SAR-001, establishes the WSCF as a open-quotes Low Hazard Nuclear Facility.close quotes There are no Safety Class items as identified in DOE order 6430.1a. The maximum Safety Class established by the FSAR is Safety Class 3

  18. Wipe sampling for characterization of noncompactable radioactive waste

    Wipe sampling is a method of monitoring radioactive surface contamination on working area and on radioactive, non-compactable wastes, constituted of large pieces of replaced parts of equipment in nuclear and radioactive installations. In this method, sampling is executed by rubbing a disc of filter paper on the contaminated surface in such a way as to collect entirely or partially the deposited material. The target radioisotopes are subsequently measured directly on the wipe or extracted by appropriate radio analytical methods and then qualitatively and quantitatively determined. The collection factor, or the efficiency with which the material is removed from the surface and deposited on the smear, is the main source of error in quantitative measurements. The determination of the collection efficiency is the object of this communication. (author)

  19. [Investigation of waste classification and collection actual effect and the study of long acting management in the community of Beijing].

    Deng, Jun; Xu, Wan-Ying; Zhou, Chuan-Bin

    2013-01-01

    The current position of waste separation and collection are investigated in 600 separation pilot communities of Beijing. According to survey date, it was revealing that correct classification rate and correct putting rate is not high in the pilot communities. It is an important factor that different awareness levels affect correct separation and putting rate, and according to the different breadth of knowledge, awareness divided into two ranges which is 75.6% and 15.5% respectively. However, majority about 60.1% of the population's waste classification knowledge still stay on preliminary stage in the community, and about 24.4% population don't aware of the waste classification. The correct rate of classification operations and putting is relatively low at 4.5% and 31.2% respectively. At the same time, the attention and breadth of publicity and education is not enough, and the management system has not formed. The waste classification recommendations of residents in the community: The publicity of classified knowledge should be strengthen, about 36.84%; then the supervision of waste classification correct putting should also be strengthen, about 35.39%. As a whole, most residents, more than 90%, think that soft power construction should be improved. Therefore, in order to induct residents operating classification practices, it is recommended that promoting the involvement and depth of classification publicity to make use of various Medias and foster ways. The evaluation index system of community's waste classification, combining the hardware facility and the publicity and education, should be build. At the same time, the supervision system which has the better operability should be established, that means the residents will gain long-term sustainability supervision using incentive and punishment ways. In addition, waste classification effect should be become the assessment indexes about city community governance, and improving the public administration level. PMID

  20. [DOE method for evaluating environmental and waste management samples: Revision 1, Addendum 1

    The US Dapartment of Energy's (DOE's) environmental and waste management (EM) sampling and analysis activities require that large numbers of samples be analyzed for materials characterization, environmental surveillance, and site-remediation programs. The present document, DOE Methods for Evaluating Environmental and Waste Management Samples (DOE Methods), is a supplemental resource for analyzing many of these samples

  1. [DOE method for evaluating environmental and waste management samples: Revision 1, Addendum 1

    Goheen, S.C.

    1995-04-01

    The US Dapartment of Energy`s (DOE`s) environmental and waste management (EM) sampling and analysis activities require that large numbers of samples be analyzed for materials characterization, environmental surveillance, and site-remediation programs. The present document, DOE Methods for Evaluating Environmental and Waste Management Samples (DOE Methods), is a supplemental resource for analyzing many of these samples.

  2. Organic Tank Safety Project: development of a method to measure the equilibrium water content of Hanford organic tank wastes and demonstration of method on actual waste

    Some of Hanford's underground waste storage tanks contain Organic- bearing high level wastes that are high priority safety issues because of potentially hazardous chemical reactions of organics with inorganic oxidants in these wastes such as nitrates and nitrites. To ensure continued safe storage of these wastes, Westinghouse Hanford Company has placed affected tanks on the Organic Watch List and manages them under special rules. Because water content has been identified as the most efficient agent for preventing a propagating reaction and is an integral part of the criteria developed to ensure continued safe storage of Hanford's organic-bearing radioactive tank wastes, as part of the Organic Tank Safety Program the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory developed and demonstrated a simple and easily implemented procedure to determine the equilibrium water content of these potentially reactive wastes exposed to the range of water vapor pressures that might be experienced during the wastes' future storage. This work focused on the equilibrium water content and did not investigate the various factors such as at sign ventilation, tank surface area, and waste porosity that control the rate that the waste would come into equilibrium, with either the average Hanford water partial pressure 5.5 torr or other possible water partial pressures

  3. ICDF Complex Waste Profile and Verification Sample Guidance

    W. M. Heileson

    2006-10-01

    This guidance document will assist waste generators who characterize waste streams destined for disposal at the Idaho Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Disposal Facility (ICDF) Complex. The purpose of this document is to develop a conservative but appropriate way to (1) characterize waste for entry into the ICDF; (2) ensure compliance with the waste acceptance criteria; and (3) facilitate disposal at the ICDF landfill or evaporation pond. In addition, this document will establish the waste verification process used by ICDF personnel to ensure that untreated waste meets applicable ICDF acceptance limits

  4. Thermal modeling of core sampling in flammable gas waste tanks. Part 2: Rotary-mode sampling

    The radioactive waste stored in underground storage tanks at Hanford site includes mixtures of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite with organic compounds. The waste can produce undesired violent exothermic reactions when heated locally during the rotary-mode sampling. Experiments are performed varying the downward force at a maximum rotational speed of 55 rpm and minimum nitrogen purge flow of 30 scfm. The rotary drill bit teeth-face temperatures are measured. The waste is simulated with a low thermal conductivity hard material, pumice blocks. A torque meter is used to determine the energy provided to the drill string. The exhaust air-chip temperature as well as drill string and drill bit temperatures and other key operating parameters were recorded. A two-dimensional thermal model is developed. The safe operating conditions were determined for normal operating conditions. A downward force of 750 at 55 rpm and 30 scfm nitrogen purge flow was found to yield acceptable substrate temperatures. The model predicted experimental results reasonably well. Therefore, it could be used to simulate abnormal conditions to develop procedures for safe operations

  5. Geostatistical sampling optimization and waste characterization of contaminated premises

    At the end of process equipment dismantling, the complete decontamination of nuclear facilities requires a radiological assessment of the building structure residual activity. From this point of view, the set up of an appropriate evaluation methodology is of crucial importance. The radiological characterization of contaminated premises can be divided into three steps. First, the most exhaustive facility analysis provides historical and qualitative information. Then, a systematic (exhaustive) control of the emergent signal is commonly performed using in situ measurement methods such as surface controls combined with in situ gamma spectrometry. Finally, in order to assess the contamination depth, samples are collected at several locations within the premises and analyzed. Combined with historical information and emergent signal maps, such data allow the definition of a preliminary waste zoning. The exhaustive control of the emergent signal with surface measurements usually leads to inaccurate estimates, because of several factors: varying position of the measuring device, subtraction of an estimate of the background signal, etc. In order to provide reliable estimates while avoiding supplementary investigation costs, there is therefore a crucial need for sampling optimization methods together with appropriate data processing techniques. The initial activity usually presents a spatial continuity within the premises, with preferential contamination of specific areas or existence of activity gradients. Taking into account this spatial continuity is essential to avoid bias while setting up the sampling plan. In such a case, Geostatistics provides methods that integrate the contamination spatial structure. After the characterization of this spatial structure, most probable estimates of the surface activity at un-sampled locations can be derived using kriging techniques. Variants of these techniques also give access to estimates of the uncertainty associated to the spatial

  6. Comparison of organic and inorganic ion exchangers for removal of cesium and strontium from simulated and actual Hanford 241-AW-101 DSSF tank waste

    A number of organic and inorganic exchangers are being developed and evaluated for cesium removal from Hanford tank wastes. The exchangers of interest that are investigated in this work include powdered (IONSIV reg-sign IE-910; referred to as IE-910) and engineered (IONSIV reg-sign IE-911; referred to as IE-911) forms of the crystalline silico-titanate (CST) inorganic sorbent developed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL)/Texas A and M and prepared by UOP; a phenol-formaldehyde (CS-100) resin developed by Rohm and Haas; a resorcinol-formaldehyde (R-F) polymer developed at the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) and produced by Boulder Scientific; an inorganic zeolite exchanger produced by UOP (IONSIV reg-sign TIE-96; referred to as TIE-96); an inorganic sodium titanate produced by Allied Signal/Texas A and M (NaTi); and a macrocyclic organic resin developed and produced by IBC Advanced Technologies (SuperLig reg-sign 644; referred to as SL-644). Several of these materials are still under development and may not be in the optimal form. The work described in this report involves the direct comparison of the ion exchange materials for the pretreatment of actual and simulated Hanford tank waste. Data on the performance of all of the exchangers with simulated and actual double shell slurry feed (DSSF) is included. The DSSF waste is a mixture of the supernate from tanks 101-AW (70%), 106-AP (20%) and 102-AP (10%). The comparative parameters include radionuclide removal efficiency under a variety of conditions and material properties (e.g., bed density and percent removable water). Cesium and strontium distribution (Kd), lambda (λ = Kd x ρb), and decontamination factors (DF) are compared as a function of exchanger contact duration, solution composition (Na and Cs concentration), exchanger/waste phase ratio, and multiple sequential contacts

  7. Evaluation of the Validity of three Criteria for Sampling and Analyzing DST Wastes in Support of Waste Feed Delivery

    This document summarizes the analysis of 3 basic criteria for the sampling systems that will provide waste validation samples of tank waste feeds prior to delivery to the waste treatment and immobilization plant where the wastes will be converted to glass forms. The assessed criteria includes sampling through a 4-inch riser, sampling while a mixer pump is operating, and the deployment of an at-tank analysis system. The assessment, based on the Phase I, 3S6 waste feed scenario, indicated that for high level waste, sampling through a 4-inch riser is not required but sampling while mixer pumps are operating will be required. For low activity waste, sampling through a 4-inch riser will be required but sampling while mixer pumps are operating is not required. The assessment indicated that an at-tank analysis system to provide tank mixing/settling (homogeneity) status is not needed since the number of tanks providing LAW feed was expanded and the payment basis in the original privatization contract has been modified

  8. Evaluation of the Validity of 3 Criteria for Sampling and Analyzing DST Wastes in Support of Waste Feed Delivery

    BOGER, R.M.

    2000-10-16

    This document summarizes the analysis of 3 basic criteria for the sampling systems that will provide waste validation samples of tank waste feeds prior to delivery to the waste treatment and immobilization plant where the wastes will be converted to glass forms. The assessed criteria includes sampling through a 4-inch riser, sampling while a mixer pump is operating, and the deployment of an at-tank analysis system. The assessment, based on the Phase I, 3S6 waste feed scenario, indicated that for high level waste, sampling through a 4-inch riser is not required but sampling while mixer pumps are operating will be required. For low activity waste, sampling through a 4-inch riser will be required but sampling while mixer pumps are operating is not required. The assessment indicated that an at-tank analysis system to provide tank mixing/settling (homogeneity) status is not needed since the number of tanks providing LAW feed was expanded and the payment basis in the original privatization contract has been modified.

  9. Determination of technetium-99 in environmental and radioactive waste samples

    Technetium is known for its high mobility in a soil-water system in non-reducing aerobic condition and also high bio-availability for plants, because the most stable form of technetium in natural surface environment is pertechnetate which is highly soluble. The chemical form of technetium changes with environmental conditions. Concentration of technetium in the environment is very low, therefore many separation steps are needed for technetium determination. It has been developed a method for the routine determination of technetium-99 from environmental matrices and radioactive wastes using technetium-99m as an internal yield monitor. Technetium-99 is extracted from the soil samples with nitric acid. Many contaminants are co-precipitated with ferric hydroxide and technetium in the supernatant is pre-concentrated and further purified using anion exchange chromatography. Final separation of technetium was achieved by extraction with tetraphenylarsonium chloride in chloroform from sulphuric acid or pure water. The chemical yield is determined through the measurement of technetium-99m by scintillation counting system and the technetium-99 activity is measured using proportional counter after decay of the technetium-99m activity. Typical recoveries for this method are in the order 50-60 % (authors)

  10. Validation of the generic TRUEX model using data from TRUEX demonstrations with actual high-level waste

    The main objective of the Generic TRUEX Model (GTM) is to calculate TRUEX solvent extraction flowsheets based on input of a specific feed and a specific set of process goals and constraints. The output will be (1) the composition of all effluent streams, (2) the compositions of both phases (organic and aqueous) in each stage of the contacting equipment at steady state, and (3) estimates of the space and cost requirements for installing the flowsheet in a plant situation. Other options are available to calculate aqueous-phase speciation and thermodynamic activities, distribution ratios of extractable species, and solvent radiolytic and hydrolytic degradation. Calculation of these options is based on initial aqueous- and organic-phase compositions and other important variables supplied by the user. Three demonstrations of the TRUEX process have been run by Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp. (PNC) researchers at the Tokai Works using actual PUREX raffinates. A 19-stage mixer settler was used for the extraction and scrub sections, and a 16-to-19-stage unit for stripping. Stagewise data were collected on the behavior of nitric acid and several fission-product and actinide radioisotopes during these runs; Run 2 was the best documented and the one with which most comparison were made. These data are important tools for validating predictions made by the GTM and understanding the intricacies of the TRUEX process. In this paper, results of the GTM calculations will be compared to the actual data published by PNC researchers. Differences between model predictions and experimental data were analyzed in terms of the process chemistry and demonstration conditions

  11. Strategy for sampling Hanford Site tank wastes for development of disposal technology

    This document explains the tank waste sampling strategy needed to obtain the information required to identify and develop pretreatment and waste immobilization processes. The key tenet of the strategy is that process testing with real waste material from the Hanford Site underground tanks is necessary to design processes and measure their effectiveness. This document provides the criteria for selection of the limited number of tanks to be sampled. A phased, iterative approach is used for the single-shell tank (SST) waste sampling. In the first sampling phase, samples are taken from 25 tanks which provide a good representation of the waste types of interest. Results from process testing of these samples will be considered in final selection of a limited number of additional SSTs to sample (currently expected to be an additional 14 tanks)

  12. Determination of selenium in bread-wheat samples grown under a Se-supplementation regime in actual field conditions

    Selenium is an essential micronutrient for humans and animals, yet it is deficient in at least one billion people worldwide. Plants and plant-derived products transfer the soil-uptaken selenium to humans; therefore, the cultivation of plants enriched in selenium can be an effective way to improve the selenium status on humankind. This paper focuses on determining the ability of bread wheat to accumulate selenium after supplementation. One of the methods for supplementing this element in plants is foliar application with selenium solutions. These supplemented crop of wheat samples - bread wheat; Triticum aestivum L. - were used to determine if there is an increase of selenium content in cereal grains by comparing them with cereals cultivated in 2009 and harvested in 2010 with no supplementation. The experiments were done using sodium selenate and sodium selenite at three different selenium concentrations: 4, 20 and 100 g per hectare. Total Se is assessed by cyclic neutron activation analysis (CNAA), through short irradiations on the fast pneumatic system (SIPRA) of the Portuguese Research Reactor (RPI-ITN). The short-lived nuclide 77mSe, that features a half-lifetime of 17.5 s, was used to determine the Se content in SIPRA. The experiment was successful, since the selenium concentration increased in the cropped grains and reached values up to 35 times the non-supplemented ones. (author)

  13. Site-specific waste management instruction for the field sampling organization

    The Site-Specific Waste Management Instruction (SSWMI) provides guidance for the management of waste generated from field-sampling activities performed by the Environment Restoration Contractor (ERC) Sampling Organization that are not managed as part of a project SSWMI. Generally, the waste is unused preserved groundwater trip blanks, used and expired calibration solutions, and other similar waste that cannot be returned to an ERC project for disposal. The specific waste streams addressed by this SSWMI are identified in Section 2.0. This SSWMI was prepared in accordance with BHI-EE-02, Environmental Requirements. Waste generated from field sample collection activities should be returned to the project and managed in accordance with the applicable project-specific SSWMI whenever possible. However, returning all field sample collection and associated waste to a project for disposal may not always be practical or cost effective. Therefore, the ERC field sampling organization must manage and arrange to dispose of the waste using the (Bechtel Hanford, Inc. [BHI]) Field Support Waste Management (FSWM) services. This SSWMI addresses those waste streams that are the responsibility of the field sampling organization to manage and make arrangements for disposal

  14. Municipal solid waste composition: Sampling methodology, statistical analyses, and case study evaluation

    Highlights: • Tiered approach to waste sorting ensures flexibility and facilitates comparison of solid waste composition data. • Food and miscellaneous wastes are the main fractions contributing to the residual household waste. • Separation of food packaging from food leftovers during sorting is not critical for determination of the solid waste composition. - Abstract: Sound waste management and optimisation of resource recovery require reliable data on solid waste generation and composition. In the absence of standardised and commonly accepted waste characterisation methodologies, various approaches have been reported in literature. This limits both comparability and applicability of the results. In this study, a waste sampling and sorting methodology for efficient and statistically robust characterisation of solid waste was introduced. The methodology was applied to residual waste collected from 1442 households distributed among 10 individual sub-areas in three Danish municipalities (both single and multi-family house areas). In total 17 tonnes of waste were sorted into 10–50 waste fractions, organised according to a three-level (tiered approach) facilitating comparison of the waste data between individual sub-areas with different fractionation (waste from one municipality was sorted at “Level III”, e.g. detailed, while the two others were sorted only at “Level I”). The results showed that residual household waste mainly contained food waste (42 ± 5%, mass per wet basis) and miscellaneous combustibles (18 ± 3%, mass per wet basis). The residual household waste generation rate in the study areas was 3–4 kg per person per week. Statistical analyses revealed that the waste composition was independent of variations in the waste generation rate. Both, waste composition and waste generation rates were statistically similar for each of the three municipalities. While the waste generation rates were similar for each of the two housing types (single

  15. Copy number variants in a sample of patients with psychotic disorders: is standard screening relevant for actual clinical practice?

    Van de Kerkhof NW

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Noortje WA Van de Kerkhof,1 Ilse Feenstra,2 Jos IM Egger,1,3,4 Nicole de Leeuw,2 Rolph Pfundt,2 Gerald Stöber,5 Frank MMA van der Heijden,1 Willem MA Verhoeven1,61Vincent van Gogh Institute for Psychiatry, Centre of Excellence for Neuropsychiatry, Venray, The Netherlands; 2Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Department of Human Genetics, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; 3Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, 4Behavioural Science Institute, Radboud University, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; 5University of Würzburg, Department of Psychiatry, Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy, Würzburg, Germany; 6Erasmus University Medical Centre, Department of Psychiatry, Rotterdam, The NetherlandsAbstract: With the introduction of new genetic techniques such as genome-wide array comparative genomic hybridization, studies on the putative genetic etiology of schizophrenia have focused on the detection of copy number variants (CNVs, ie, microdeletions and/or microduplications, that are estimated to be present in up to 3% of patients with schizophrenia. In this study, out of a sample of 100 patients with psychotic disorders, 80 were investigated by array for the presence of CNVs. The assessment of the severity of psychiatric symptoms was performed using standardized instruments and ICD-10 was applied for diagnostic classification. In three patients, a submicroscopic CNV was demonstrated, one with a loss in 1q21.1 and two with a gain in 1p13.3 and 7q11.2, respectively. The association between these or other CNVs and schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like psychoses and their clinical implications still remain equivocal. While the CNV affected genes may enhance the vulnerability for psychiatric disorders via effects on neuronal architecture, these insights have not resulted in major changes in clinical practice as yet. Therefore, genome-wide array analysis should presently be restricted to those patients in whom psychotic symptoms are paired with other

  16. Sampling and analysis plan for sampling of liquid waste streams generated by 222-S Laboratory Complex operations

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) establishes the requirements and guidelines to be used by the Waste Management Federal Services of Hanford, Inc. personnel in characterizing liquid waste generated at the 222-S Laboratory Complex. The characterization process to verify the accuracy of process knowledge used for designation and subsequent management of wastes consists of three steps: to prepare the technical rationale and the appendix in accordance with the steps outlined in this SAP; to implement the SAP by sampling and analyzing the requested waste streams; and to compile the report and evaluate the findings to the objectives of this SAP. This SAP applies to portions of the 222-S Laboratory Complex defined as Generator under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Any portion of the 222-S Laboratory Complex that is defined or permitted under RCRA as a treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) facility is excluded from this document. This SAP applies to the liquid waste generated in the 222-S Laboratory Complex. Because the analytical data obtained will be used to manage waste properly, including waste compatibility and waste designation, this SAP will provide directions for obtaining and maintaining the information as required by WAC173-303

  17. Methods of sampling airborne fungi in working environments of waste treatment facilities

    Kristýna Černá; Zdeňka Wittlingerová; Magdaléna Zimová; Zdeněk Janovský

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of the present study was to evaluate and compare the efficiency of a filter based sampling method and a high volume sampling method for sampling airborne culturable fungi present in waste sorting facilities. Material and Methods: Membrane filters method was compared with surface air system method. The selected sampling methods were modified and tested in 2 plastic waste sorting facilities. Results: The total number of colony-forming units (CFU)/m3 of airborne fungi w...

  18. Preparation of radioactive ''mixed'' waste samples for measurement of RCRA [Resource Conservation and Recovery Act] organic compounds

    A radioactive ''mixed'' waste typically contains alpha-, beta-, or gamma-emitting radionuclides and varying quantities of semivolatile or volatile organic species, some or all of which may be named specifically by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Because there are no acceptable means available currently for disposing of these mixed wastes, they are presently stored above-ground in sealed drums. For this reason, analytical procedures which can determine RCRA organics in radioactive waste are necessary for deciding the proper approach for disposal. An important goal of this work is the development of methods for preparing mixed waste samples in a manner which allows the RCRA organics to be measured in conventional organic analysis laboratories without special precautions. Analytical procedures developed for handling mixed waste samples must satisfy not only the usual constraints present in any trace-level organic chemical determination, but also those needed to insure the protection of the operator from radioactive contamination. Consequently, procedures should be designed to use the least amount of radioactive sample commensurate with achieving acceptable sensitivity with the RCRA analytical methods. Furthermore, the unusual laboratory glassware which would normally be used should be replaced with disposable materials wherever possible, in order to reduce the ''clean-up'' time required, and thereby reduce the operator's exposure to radioactivity. Actual sample handling should be reduced to the absolute minimum. Finally, the final isolate must exhibit a sufficiently low level of alpha, beta, or gamma activity to permit detailed characterization in a conventional organic analysis laboratory. 4 refs., 5 tabs

  19. Selective separation of Cs(I) extraction from actual high level waste using a solvent containing Calix (4)-bis 2,3-naphtho-crown-6

    Solvent extraction studies were carried out on the selective separation of radio-cesium from actual high level waste (HLW) using Calix (4)-bis-2,3-naphtho-crown-6 (CNC) in nitrobenzene - toluene mixture. Quantitative separation of radio-cesium (monitored by 137Cs gamma peak at 661 keV) was observed with almost no contamination from any of the other fission products present. Four stages of extraction and two stages of stripping using distilled water gave > 99% recovery. Reusability of the solvent was also carried out and though there was no loss in selectivity, slight decrease in the extraction efficiency was observed after the reagent was allowed to be in contact with the HLW for 10 days. (author)

  20. Separation of 99TcO4- ions from actual reprocessing waste solution by poly (4-vinylpyridine-DVB) based anion exchangers

    Batch uptake of 99TcO4- ions from actual reprocessing waste solution was studied using three strong-base anion exchange resins prepared by quaternization of poly(4-vinylpyridine-DVB) with different alkyl (-CH3, -C2H5, and -n-C4H9) halides and two commercially available strong base anion exchange resins. Batch results showed that the resin with n-butyl group on the pyridine nitrogen has higher affinity for 99TcO4- ions. Excellent column performance of the resin for separation of 99TcO4- ions from such solution is established. Elution of 99TcO4- ions was carried out using 6 M HNO3 solution. (author)

  1. Municipal solid waste composition: Sampling methodology, statistical analyses, and case study evaluation

    Edjabou, Vincent Maklawe Essonanawe; Jensen, Morten Bang; Götze, Ramona;

    2015-01-01

    Sound waste management and optimisation of resource recovery require reliable data on solid waste generation and composition. In the absence of standardised and commonly accepted waste characterisation methodologies, various approaches have been reported in literature. This limits both...... comparability and applicability of the results. In this study, a waste sampling and sorting methodology for efficient and statistically robust characterisation of solid waste was introduced. The methodology was applied to residual waste collected from 1442 households distributed among 10 individual sub-areas in...... municipalities. While the waste generation rates were similar for each of the two housing types (single-family and multi-family house areas), the individual percentage composition of food waste, paper, and glass was significantly different between the housing types. This indicates that housing type is a critical...

  2. Critique of Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant off-gas sampling requirements

    Off-gas sampling and monitoring activities needed to support operations safety, process control, waste form qualification, and environmental protection requirements of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) have been evaluated. The locations of necessary sampling sites have been identified on the basis of plant requirements, and the applicability of Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) reference sampling equipment to these HWVP requirements has been assessed for all sampling sites. Equipment deficiencies, if present, have been described and the bases for modifications and/or alternative approaches have been developed

  3. Radiochemical separation of actinides for their determination in environmental samples and waste products

    Gleisberg, B. [Nuclear Engineering and Analytics Rossendorf, Inc. (VKTA), Dresden (Germany)

    1997-03-01

    The determination of low level activities of actinides in environmental samples and waste products makes high demands on radiochemical separation methods. Artificial and natural actinides were analyzed in samples form the surrounding areas of NPP and of uranium mines, incorporation samples, solutions containing radioactive fuel, solutions and solids resutling from the process, and in wastes. The activities are measured by {alpha}-spectrometry and {gamma}-spectrometry. (DG)

  4. A DOE manual: DOE Methods for Evaluating Environmental and Waste Management Samples

    Goheen, S.C.; McCulloch, M.; Riley, R.G. [and others

    1994-03-01

    Waste Management inherently requires knowledge of the waste`s chemical composition. The waste can often be analyzed by established methods; however, if the samples are radioactive, or are plagued by other complications, established methods may not be feasible. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has been faced with managing some waste types that are not amenable to standard or available methods, so new or modified sampling and analysis methods are required. These methods are incorporated into DOE Methods for Evaluating Environmental and Waste Management Samples (DOE Methods), which is a guidance/methods document for sampling and analysis activities in support of DOE sites. It is a document generated by consensus of the DOE laboratory staff and is intended to fill the gap within existing guidance documents (e. g., the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste, SW-846), which apply to low-level or non-radioactive samples. DOE Methods fills the gap by including methods that take into account the complexities of DOE site matrices. The most recent update, distributed in October 1993, contained quality assurance (QA), quality control (QC), safety, sampling, organic analysis, inorganic analysis, and radioanalytical guidance as well as 29 methods. The next update, which will be distributed in April 1994, will contain 40 methods and will therefore have greater applicability. All new methods are either peer reviewed or labeled ``draft`` methods. Draft methods were added to speed the release of methods to field personnel.

  5. Chemical pollution and toxicity of water samples from stream receiving leachate from controlled municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill.

    Melnyk, A; Kuklińska, K; Wolska, L; Namieśnik, J

    2014-11-01

    The present study was aimed to determine the impact of municipal waste landfill on the pollution level of surface waters, and to investigate whether the choice and number of physical and chemical parameters monitored are sufficient for determining the actual risk related to bioavailability and mobility of contaminants. In 2007-2012, water samples were collected from the stream flowing through the site at two sampling locations, i.e. before the stream׳s entry to the landfill, and at the stream outlet from the landfill. The impact of leachate on the quality of stream water was observed in all samples. In 2007-2010, high values of TOC and conductivity in samples collected down the stream from the landfill were observed; the toxicity of these samples was much greater than that of samples collected up the stream from the landfill. In 2010-2012, a significant decrease of conductivity and TOC was observed, which may be related to the modernization of the landfill. Three tests were used to evaluate the toxicity of sampled water. As a novelty the application of Phytotoxkit F™ for determining water toxicity should be considered. Microtox(®) showed the lowest sensitivity of evaluating the toxicity of water samples, while Phytotoxkit F™ showed the highest. High mortality rates of Thamnocephalus platyurus in Thamnotoxkit F™ test can be caused by high conductivity, high concentration of TOC or the presence of compounds which are not accounted for in the water quality monitoring program. PMID:25462673

  6. Sample application of sensitivity/uncertainty analysis techniques to a groundwater transport problem. National Low-Level Waste Management Program

    The primary objective of this document is to provide sample applications of selected sensitivity and uncertainty analysis techniques within the context of the radiological performance assessment process. These applications were drawn from the companion document Guidelines for Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analyses of Low-Level Radioactive Waste Performance Assessment Computer Codes (S. Maheras and M. Kotecki, DOE/LLW-100, 1990). Three techniques are illustrated in this document: one-factor-at-a-time (OFAT) analysis, fractional factorial design, and Latin hypercube sampling. The report also illustrates the differences in sensitivity and uncertainty analysis at the early and latter stages of the performance assessment process, and potential pitfalls that can be encountered when applying the techniques. The emphasis is on application of the techniques as opposed to the actual results, since the results are hypothetical and are not based on site-specific conditions

  7. Waste compatibility safety issues and final results for tank 241-SY-102 grab samples

    Three grab samples (2SY-96-1, 2SY-96-2, and 2SY-96-3) were taken from Riser 1A of Tank 241-SY 102 on January 14, 1997, and received by 222-S Laboratory on January 14, 1997. These samples were analyzed in accordance with Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) and Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farm Waste Compatibility Program (DQO) in support of the Waste Compatibility Program. No notifications were required based on sample results. Acetone analysis was not performed in accordance with Cancellation of Acetone Analysis for Tank 241-SY-102 Grab Samples

  8. Off-Gas Analysis During the Vitrification of Hanford Radioactive Waste Samples

    This paper describes the off-gas analysis of samples collected during the radioactive vitrification experiments. Production and characterization of the Hanford waste-containing LAW and HAW glasses are presented in related reports from this conference

  9. Chronic wasting disease FY14 report, Ouray National Wildlife Refuge sampling efforts

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Documents the CWD concern for Ouray NWR and the hunt/winter season sampling totals. Chronic wasting disease (CWD) was first discovered in Utah in 2002. To date 60...

  10. Strategy for Monitoring Organic Pollutants in Waste Water with Focus on Improved Sample Preparation

    Bergström, Staffan

    2006-01-01

    Strategy and methodology is presented for the analysis of organic pollutants, with the purpose of evaluating treatment procedures for landfill leachate. Today, many investigations of treatment procedures are focusing on the measurement of water quality parameters such as chemical and biochemical oxygen demand, (COD and BOD), and total organic carbon, (TOC) when assessing the organic compounds in waste waters. These parameters give an unclear picture of the actual organic constituents. A devel...

  11. 384 Power plant waste water sampling and analysis plan

    This document presents the 384 Power House Sampling and Analysis Plan. The Plan describes sampling methods, locations, frequency, analytes, and stream descriptions. The effluent streams from 384, were characterized in 1989, in support of the Stream Specific Report (WHC-EP-0342, Addendum 1)

  12. A DOE manual: DOE Methods for Evaluating Environmental and Waste Management Samples

    Waste Management inherently requires knowledge of the waste's chemical composition. The waste can often be analyzed by established methods; however, if the samples are radioactive, or are plagued by other complications, established methods may not be feasible. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has been faced with managing some waste types that are not amenable to standard or available methods, so new or modified sampling and analysis methods are required. These methods are incorporated into DOE Methods for Evaluating Environmental and Waste Management Samples (DOE Methods), which is a guidance/methods document for sampling and analysis activities in support of DOE sites. It is a document generated by consensus of the DOE laboratory staff and is intended to fill the gap within existing guidance documents (e. g., the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste, SW-846), which apply to low-level or non-radioactive samples. DOE Methods fills the gap by including methods that take into account the complexities of DOE site matrices. The most recent update, distributed in October 1993, contained quality assurance (QA), quality control (QC), safety, sampling, organic analysis, inorganic analysis, and radioanalytical guidance as well as 29 methods. The next update, which will be distributed in April 1994, will contain 40 methods and will therefore have greater applicability. All new methods are either peer reviewed or labeled ''draft'' methods. Draft methods were added to speed the release of methods to field personnel

  13. Evidence That Certain Waste Tank Headspace Vapor Samples Were Contaminated by Semivolatile Polymer Additives

    Huckaby, James L.

    2006-02-09

    Vapor samples collected from the headspaces of the Hanford Site high-level radioactive waste tanks in 1994 and 1995 using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS) were reported to contain trace levels of phthalates, antioxidants, and certain other industrial chemicals that did not have a logical origin in the waste. This report examines the evidence these chemicals were sampling artifacts (contamination) and identifies the chemicals reported as headspace constituents that may instead have been contaminants. Specific recommendations are given regarding the marking of certain chemicals as suspect on the basis they were sampling manifold contaminants.

  14. 60-Day waste compatibility safety issues and final results for AY-102 grab samples

    Nuzum, J.L.

    1997-01-31

    Four grab samples (2AY-96-15, 2AY-96-16, 2AY-96-17, and 2AY-96-18) were taken from Riser 15D of Tank 241-AY-102 on October 8, 1996, and received by 222-S Laboratory on October 8, 1996. These samples were analyzed in accordance with Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) and Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program (DQO) in support of the Waste Compatibility Program. No notifications were required based on sample results.

  15. Sampling the contents of High-Level Waste tanks

    Samples were recently retrieved from a HLW storage tank at the DOE Savannah River Site using simple tools developed for this task. The tools are inexpensive and manually operated, require brief tank open times, and minimize radiation doses

  16. Solid waste transuranic storage and assay facility indoor air sampling

    Pingel, L.A., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-20

    The purpose of the study is to collect and analyze samples of the indoor air at the Transuranic Storage and Assay Facility (TRUSAF), Westinghouse Hanford. A modified US EPA TO-14 methodology, using gas chromatography/mass spectrography, may be used for the collection and analysis of the samples. The information obtained will be used to estimate the total release of volatile organic compounds from TRUSAF to determine the need for air emmission permits.

  17. Waste compatibility safety issues and final results for Tank 241-AP-103 grab samples

    Three grab samples (3AP-97-2, 3AP-97-3, and 3AP-97-4) were taken from Riser 1 of Tank 241-AP-103 on August 21, 1997, and received by 222-S Laboratory on August 22, 1997. These samples were analyzed in accordance with Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan for Fiscal Year 1997 (TSAP) (Field, 1997) and Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste and Compatibility Program (Mulkey et. al., 1995) (DQO) in support of the Waste Compatibility Program. No notifications were required based on sample results. Appearance and Sample Breakdown Attachment 1 illustrates subsamples generated in the laboratory for analyses and identifies their sources. Furthermore, this reference relates tank farm identification numbers to their corresponding 222-S Laboratory Information Management System sample numbers. Table 1 summarizes appearance information and over-the-top (OTR) dose readings performed on each sample. For each sample, two 20 ml subsamples were created for inorganic and radiochemical analyses

  18. Evaluation of Wet Chemical ICP-AES Elemental Analysis Methods using Simulated Hanford Waste Samples-Phase I Interim Report

    The wet chemistry digestion method development for providing process control elemental analyses of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Melter Feed Preparation Vessel (MFPV) samples is divided into two phases: Phase I consists of: (1) optimizing digestion methods as a precursor to elemental analyses by ICP-AES techniques; (2) selecting methods with the desired analytical reliability and speed to support the nine-hour or less turnaround time requirement of the WTP; and (3) providing baseline comparison to the laser ablation (LA) sample introduction technique for ICP-AES elemental analyses that is being developed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). Phase II consists of: (1) Time-and-Motion study of the selected methods from Phase I with actual Hanford waste or waste simulants in shielded cell facilities to ensure that the methods can be performed remotely and maintain the desired characteristics; and (2) digestion of glass samples prepared from actual Hanford Waste tank sludge for providing comparative results to the LA Phase II study. Based on the Phase I testing discussed in this report, a tandem digestion approach consisting of sodium peroxide fusion digestions carried out in nickel crucibles and warm mixed-acid digestions carried out in plastic bottles has been selected for Time-and-Motion study in Phase II. SRNL experience with performing this analytical approach in laboratory hoods indicates that well-trained cell operator teams will be able to perform the tandem digestions in five hours or less. The selected approach will produce two sets of solutions for analysis by ICP-AES techniques. Four hours would then be allocated for performing the ICP-AES analyses and reporting results to meet the nine-hour or less turnaround time requirement. The tandem digestion approach will need to be performed in two separate shielded analytical cells by two separate cell operator teams in order to achieve the nine-hour or less turnaround

  19. Waste sampling and characterization facility (WSCF) maintenance implementation plan

    Heinemann, J.L.

    1997-08-13

    This Maintenance Implementation Plan (MIP) is written to satisfy the requirements of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 4330.4B, Maintenance Management Program that specifies the general policy and objectives for the establishment of the DOE controlled maintenance programs. These programs provide for the management and performance of cost effective maintenance and repair of the DOE property, which includes facilities. This document outlines maintenance activities associated with the facilities operated by Waste Management Hanford, Inc. (WMH). The objective of this MIP is to provide baseline information for the control and execution of WMH Facility Maintenance activities relative to the requirements of Order 4330.4B, assessment of the WMH maintenance programs, and actions necessary to maintain compliance with the Order. Section 2.0 summarizes the history, mission and description of the WMH facilities. Section 3.0 describes maintenance scope and requirements, and outlines the overall strategy for implementing the maintenance program. Specific elements of DOE Order 4330.4B are addressed in Section 4.0, listing the objective of each element, a discussion of the WMH compliance methodology, and current implementation requirements with references to WMH and HNF policies and procedures. Section 5.0 addresses deviations from policy requirements, and Section 6.0 is a schedule for specific improvements in support of this MIP.

  20. Development of a Sampling Method for a Radionuclide Assessment of a Spent HEPA Filter Waste

    Ji, Young-Yong; Hong, Dae-Seok; Kang, Il-Sig; Kim, Tae-Kuk; Lee, Young-Hee; Shon, Jong-Sik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    Spent filter wastes of about 2,160 units have been stored in the waste storage facility of the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute since its operation. These spent filters have generally consisted of a HEPA filter after its filtering of all the contaminants in the gas stream generated during the operation of the HANARO research reactor and the nuclear fuel cycle facilities. At the moment, to secure a storage space, it is necessary to make a volume reduction of the stored radioactive wastes through a compression treatment or a regulatory clearance. These methods are considered in view of a reduction of a management cost and disposal cost and the security of a free space for a waste storage facility approaching saturation. In order to dispose of the spent filters, it is first necessary to conduct a radionuclide assessment of them. To do that, a sampling procedure should be prepared for obtaining the representative sample in the spent filter. As for conducting a nuclide analysis for this representative sample, a corresponding spent filter can be sorted as either a regulatory clearance waste or a radioactive waste. In this study, the spent filter wastes were classified according to their generating facilities, their generation date and their surface dose rate. After selecting several HEPA filters, they were dismantled into a frame part and a filter medium part. And then, a quantitative analysis of the nuclide existing in the filter medium was conducted. From the analysis results, it was possible to divide the filter medium into three specific regions in respect of the nuclide distribution. As a result, these three regions could be a sampling guide to take a representative sample of a spent HEPA filter waste for treating it.

  1. Development of a Sampling Method for a Radionuclide Assessment of a Spent HEPA Filter Waste

    Spent filter wastes of about 2,160 units have been stored in the waste storage facility of the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute since its operation. These spent filters have generally consisted of a HEPA filter after its filtering of all the contaminants in the gas stream generated during the operation of the HANARO research reactor and the nuclear fuel cycle facilities. At the moment, to secure a storage space, it is necessary to make a volume reduction of the stored radioactive wastes through a compression treatment or a regulatory clearance. These methods are considered in view of a reduction of a management cost and disposal cost and the security of a free space for a waste storage facility approaching saturation. In order to dispose of the spent filters, it is first necessary to conduct a radionuclide assessment of them. To do that, a sampling procedure should be prepared for obtaining the representative sample in the spent filter. As for conducting a nuclide analysis for this representative sample, a corresponding spent filter can be sorted as either a regulatory clearance waste or a radioactive waste. In this study, the spent filter wastes were classified according to their generating facilities, their generation date and their surface dose rate. After selecting several HEPA filters, they were dismantled into a frame part and a filter medium part. And then, a quantitative analysis of the nuclide existing in the filter medium was conducted. From the analysis results, it was possible to divide the filter medium into three specific regions in respect of the nuclide distribution. As a result, these three regions could be a sampling guide to take a representative sample of a spent HEPA filter waste for treating it

  2. Development and validation of a method for removal of normal paraffin hydrocarbon in radioactive waste samples prior to analysis of semi volatile components

    A method has been developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to remove normal paraffin hydrocarbon (NPH) from radioactive waste samples prior to gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of semi volatile components. The effectiveness of the cleanup procedure was demonstrated for all the EPA semi volatile target list compounds. Blanks and spiked actual waste samples were utilized in the development and validation study. Approximately 95% of the NPH was removed from the single-shell tank samples. The recoveries were good for most of the target compounds. Results were compared with those obtained by utilizing EPA method 3630. The recoveries were much better for the PNL-developed method. (author). 4 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs

  3. Initial Investigation of Waste Feed Delivery Tank Mixing and Sampling Issues

    The Hanford tank farms contractor will deliver waste to the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) from a staging double-shell tank. The WTP broadly classifies waste it receives in terms of 'Envelopes,' each with different limiting properties and composition ranges. Envelope A, B, and C wastes are liquids that can include up to 4% entrained solids that can be pumped directly from the staging DST without mixing. Envelope D waste contains insoluble solids and must be mixed before transfer. The mixing and sampling issues lie within Envelope D solid-liquid slurries. The question is how effectively these slurries are mixed and how representative the grab samples are that are taken immediately after mixing. This report summarizes the current state of knowledge concerning jet mixing of wastes in underground storage tanks. Waste feed sampling requirements are listed, and their apparent assumption of uniformity by lack of a requirement for sample representativeness is cited as a significant issue. The case is made that there is not an adequate technical basis to provide such a sampling regimen because not enough is known about what can be achieved in mixing and distribution of solids by use of the baseline submersible mixing pump system. A combined mixing-sampling test program is recommended to fill this gap. Historical Pacific Northwest National Laboratory project and tank farms contractor documents are used to make this case. A substantial investment and progress are being made to understand mixing issues at the WTP. A summary of the key WTP activities relevant to this project is presented in this report. The relevant aspects of the WTP mixing work, together with a previously developed scaled test strategy for determining solids suspension with submerged mixer pumps (discussed in Section 3) provide a solid foundation for developing a path forward

  4. Initial Investigation of Waste Feed Delivery Tank Mixing and Sampling Issues

    Fort, James A.; Bamberger, Judith A.; Meyer, Perry A.; Stewart, Charles W.

    2007-10-01

    The Hanford tank farms contractor will deliver waste to the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) from a staging double-shell tank. The WTP broadly classifies waste it receives in terms of “Envelopes,” each with different limiting properties and composition ranges. Envelope A, B, and C wastes are liquids that can include up to 4% entrained solids that can be pumped directly from the staging DST without mixing. Envelope D waste contains insoluble solids and must be mixed before transfer. The mixing and sampling issues lie within Envelope D solid-liquid slurries. The question is how effectively these slurries are mixed and how representative the grab samples are that are taken immediately after mixing. This report summarizes the current state of knowledge concerning jet mixing of wastes in underground storage tanks. Waste feed sampling requirements are listed, and their apparent assumption of uniformity by lack of a requirement for sample representativeness is cited as a significant issue. The case is made that there is not an adequate technical basis to provide such a sampling regimen because not enough is known about what can be achieved in mixing and distribution of solids by use of the baseline submersible mixing pump system. A combined mixing-sampling test program is recommended to fill this gap. Historical Pacific Northwest National Laboratory project and tank farms contractor documents are used to make this case. A substantial investment and progress are being made to understand mixing issues at the WTP. A summary of the key WTP activities relevant to this project is presented in this report. The relevant aspects of the WTP mixing work, together with a previously developed scaled test strategy for determining solids suspension with submerged mixer pumps (discussed in Section 3) provide a solid foundation for developing a path forward.

  5. Sample vial inserts: A better approach for sampling heterogeneous slurry samples in the SRS Defense Waste Processing Facility

    A convenient and effective new approach for analyzing DWPF samples involves the use of inserts with volumes of 1.5--3 ml placed in the neck of 14 ml sample vials. The inserts have rims that conform to the rim of the vials so that they sit straight and stable in the vial. The DWPF tank sampling system fills the pre-weighed insert rather than the entire vial, so the vial functions only as the insert holder. The shielded cell operator then removes the vial cap and decants the insert containing the sample into a plastic bottle, crucible, etc., for analysis. Inert materials such as Teflon, plastic, and zirconium are used for the insert so it is unnecessary to separate the insert from the sample for most analyses. The key technique advantage of using inserts to take DWPF samples versus filling sample vials is that it provides a convenient and almost foolproof way of obtaining and handling small volumes of slurry samples in a shielded cell without corrupting the sample. Since the insert allows the entire sample to be analyzed, this approach eliminates the errors inherent with subsampling heterogeneous slurries that comprise DWPF samples. Slurry samples can then be analyzed with confidence. Analysis times are dramatically reduced by eliminating the drying and vitrification steps normally used to produce a homogeneous solid sample. Direct dissolution and elemental analysis of slurry samples are achieved in 8 hours or less compared with 40 hours for analysis of vitrified slurry samples. Comparison of samples taken in inserts versus full vials indicate that the insert does not significantly affect sample composition

  6. Multiple Ion Exchange Column Runs for Cesium and Technetium Removal from AW-101 Waste Sample

    The River Protection Project -Waste Treatment Plant (RPP--WTP) will be performing cesium removal from Hanford tank waste supernatants using SuperLig 644 resin. These elutable resins will be used multiple times to process large volumes of radioactive waste samples and will be subjected to chemical and radiation degradation during use at the waste treatment plant (WTP). The RPP--WTP process design assumes that resin batches can be used a minimum of 10 cycles before the resin must be replaced due to degradation. The effects of radiation and chemical degradation on SuperLig 644 and 639 resins were separately studied in the past under static conditions, i.e., in contact with air, water, and simulated waste solutions. To determine the chemical degradation effects under dynamic or column conditions, Battelle, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and IBC Advanced Technologies conducted multiple load/elute/regenerate cycles with simulated Hanford waste samples. Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) was contracted to demonstrate the performance of SuperLig 644 and 639 resins to treat repetitively radioactive waste solutions. Six cycles of loading, elution, and regeneration were performed to remove cesium from a Hanford waste sample. Five load/elute/regenerate cycles were carried out to remove technetium from cesium-depleted effluent solutions. The multiple load/elute/regenerate cycles demonstrated that cesium and technetium can be effectively removed from a sample using SuperLig 644 and 639 resins. The percent cesium removal was greater than 99.99 per cent for each of the six cycles

  7. HEAVY METAL ANALYSIS IN WASTE WATER SAMPLES FROM VALEA ŞESEI TAILING POND

    I. L. MELENTI; E. MAGYAR; T. RUSU

    2011-01-01

    Heavy metal analysis in waste water samples from Valea Şesei tailing pond. The mining of ore deposits and the processing and smelting of copper at Roşia Poieni have resulted in an increase of the toxic elements concentration within all components of the environment in the area. Valea Şesei tailing pond is a waste deposit for the Roşia Poieni open-pit and is the biggest tailing pond in Romania. In October 2009, we determined 8 heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni and Zn) in 10 waste water ...

  8. State of work for services provided by the Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility for effluent monitoring

    This document defines the services the Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility (WSCF) shall provide Effluent Monitoring (EM) throughout the calendar year for analysis. The internal memo contained in Appendix A identifies the samples Em plans to submit for analysis in CY-1995. Analysis of effluent (liquid and air discharges) and environmental (air, liquid, animal, and vegetative) samples is required using standard laboratory procedures, in accordance with regulatory and control requirements. This report describes regulatory reporting requirements and WSCF services and data quality objectives

  9. Data Quality Objectives for Regulatory Requirements for Dangerous Waste Sampling and Analysis

    This document describes sampling and analytical requirements needed to meet state and federal regulations for dangerous waste (DW). The River Protection Project (RPP) is assigned to the task of storage and interim treatment of hazardous waste. Any final treatment or disposal operations, as well as requirements under the land disposal restrictions (LDRs), fall in the jurisdiction of another Hanford organization and are not part of this scope. The requirements for this Data Quality Objective (DQO) Process were developed using the RPP Data Quality Objective Procedure (Banning 1996), which is based on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Guidance for the Data Quality Objectives Process (EPA 1994). Hereafter, this document is referred to as the DW DQO. Federal and state laws and regulations pertaining to waste contain requirements that are dependent upon the composition of the waste stream. These regulatory drivers require that pertinent information be obtained. For many requirements, documented process knowledge of a waste composition can be used instead of analytical data to characterize or designate a waste. When process knowledge alone is used to characterize a waste, it is a best management practice to validate the information with analytical measurements

  10. Methods of sampling airborne fungi in working environments of waste treatment facilities

    Kristýna Černá

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of the present study was to evaluate and compare the efficiency of a filter based sampling method and a high volume sampling method for sampling airborne culturable fungi present in waste sorting facilities. Material and Methods: Membrane filters method was compared with surface air system method. The selected sampling methods were modified and tested in 2 plastic waste sorting facilities. Results: The total number of colony-forming units (CFU/m3 of airborne fungi was dependent on the type of sampling device, on the time of sampling, which was carried out every hour from the beginning of the work shift, and on the type of cultivation medium (p < 0.001. Detected concentrations of airborne fungi ranged 2×102–1.7×106 CFU/m3 when using the membrane filters (MF method, and 3×102–6.4×104 CFU/m3 when using the surface air system (SAS method. Conclusions: Both methods showed comparable sensitivity to the fluctuations of the concentrations of airborne fungi during the work shifts. The SAS method is adequate for a fast indicative determination of concentration of airborne fungi. The MF method is suitable for thorough assessment of working environment contamination by airborne fungi. Therefore we recommend the MF method for the implementation of a uniform standard methodology of airborne fungi sampling in working environments of waste treatment facilities.

  11. Determination of Different Metals in Steel Waste Samples Using laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    A. H. Bakry

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Elemental analysis of waste samples collected from steel products manufacturing plant (SPS located at industrial city of Jeddah, Saudi-Arabia has been carried out using Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS. The 1064 nm laser radiations from a Nd:YAG laser at an irradiance of 7.6  1010 W cm –2 were used. Atomic emission spectra of the elements present in the waste samples were recorded in the 200 – 620 nm region. Elements such as Fe, W, Ti, Al, Mg, Ca, S, Mn, and Na were detected in these samples. Quantitative determination of the elemental concentration was obtained for these metals against certified standard samples. Parametric dependences of LIBS signal intensity on incident laser energy and time delay between the laser pulse and data acquisition system were also carried out.

  12. Sampling methods and non-destructive examination techniques for large radioactive waste packages

    Progress is reported on work undertaken to evaluate quality checking methods for radioactive wastes. A sampling rig was designed, fabricated and used to develop techniques for the destructive sampling of cemented simulant waste using remotely operated equipment. An engineered system for the containment of cooling water was designed and manufactured and successfully demonstrated with the drum and coring equipment mounted in both vertical and horizontal orientations. The preferred in-cell orientation was found to be with the drum and coring machinery mounted in a horizontal position. Small powdered samples can be taken from cemented homogeneous waste cores using a hollow drill/vacuum section technique with the preferred subsampling technique being to discard the outer 10 mm layer to obtain a representative sample of the cement core. Cement blends can be dissolved using fusion techniques and the resulting solutions are stable to gelling for periods in excess of one year. Although hydrochloric acid and nitric acid are promising solvents for dissolution of cement blends, the resultant solutions tend to form silicic acid gels. An estimate of the beta-emitter content of cemented waste packages can be obtained by a combination of non-destructive and destructive techniques. The errors will probably be in excess of +/-60 % at the 95 % confidence level. Real-time X-ray video-imaging techniques have been used to analyse drums of uncompressed, hand-compressed, in-drum compacted and high-force compacted (i.e. supercompacted) simulant waste. The results have confirmed the applicability of this technique for NDT of low-level waste. 8 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs

  13. Waste Tank Organic Safety Project: Analysis of liquid samples from Hanford waste tank 241-C-103

    A suite of physical and chemical analyses has been performed in support of activities directed toward the resolution of an Unreviewed Safety Question concerning the potential for a floating organic layer in Hanford waste tank 241-C-103 to sustain a pool fire. The analysis program was the result of a Data Quality Objectives exercise conducted jointly with staff from Westinghouse Hanford Company and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The organic layer has been analyzed for flash point, organic composition including volatile organics, inorganic anions and cations, radionuclides, and other physical and chemical parameters needed for a safety assessment leading to the resolution of the Unreviewed Safety Question. The aqueous layer underlying the floating organic material was also analyzed for inorganic, organic, and radionuclide composition, as well as other physical and chemical properties. This work was conducted to PNL Quality Assurance impact level III standards (Good Laboratory Practices)

  14. Waste Tank Organic Safety Project: Analysis of liquid samples from Hanford waste tank 241-C-103

    Pool, K.H.; Bean, R.M.

    1994-03-01

    A suite of physical and chemical analyses has been performed in support of activities directed toward the resolution of an Unreviewed Safety Question concerning the potential for a floating organic layer in Hanford waste tank 241-C-103 to sustain a pool fire. The analysis program was the result of a Data Quality Objectives exercise conducted jointly with staff from Westinghouse Hanford Company and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The organic layer has been analyzed for flash point, organic composition including volatile organics, inorganic anions and cations, radionuclides, and other physical and chemical parameters needed for a safety assessment leading to the resolution of the Unreviewed Safety Question. The aqueous layer underlying the floating organic material was also analyzed for inorganic, organic, and radionuclide composition, as well as other physical and chemical properties. This work was conducted to PNL Quality Assurance impact level III standards (Good Laboratory Practices).

  15. Genotoxicity and Mutagenicity of Suspended Particulate Matter of River Water and Waste Water Samples

    Georg Reifferscheid; Oepen, Britta v.

    2002-01-01

    Suspended particulate matter of samples of river water and waste water treatment plants was tested for genotoxicity and mutagenicity using the standardized umu assay and two versions of the Ames microsuspension assay. The study tries to determine the entire DNA-damaging potential of the water samples and the distribution of DNA-damaging substances among the liquid phase and solid phase. Responsiveness and sensitivity of the bioassays are compared.

  16. Genotoxicity and Mutagenicity of Suspended Particulate Matter of River Water and Waste Water Samples

    Georg Reifferscheid

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Suspended particulate matter of samples of river water and waste water treatment plants was tested for genotoxicity and mutagenicity using the standardized umu assay and two versions of the Ames microsuspension assay. The study tries to determine the entire DNA-damaging potential of the water samples and the distribution of DNA-damaging substances among the liquid phase and solid phase. Responsiveness and sensitivity of the bioassays are compared.

  17. Analytical characterization of high-level mixed wastes using multiple sample preparation treatments

    The Analytical Chemistry Laboratory at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory in Richland, Washington, is actively involved in performing analytical characterization of high-level mixed waste from Hanford's single shell and double shell tank characterization programs. A full suite of analyses is typically performed on homogenized tank core samples. These analytical techniques include inductively-coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy, total organic carbon methods and radiochemistry methods, as well as many others, all requiring some type of remote sample-preparation treatment to solubilize the tank sludge material for analysis. Most of these analytical methods typically use a single sample-preparation treatment, inherently providing elemental information only. To better understand and interpret tank chemistry and assist in identifying chemical compounds, selected analytical methods are performed using multiple sample-preparation treatments. The sample preparation treatments used at Pacific Northwest Laboratory for this work with high-level mixed waste include caustic fusion, acid digestion, and water leach. The type of information available by comparing results from different sample-prep treatments includes evidence for the presence of refractory compounds, acid-soluble compounds, or water-soluble compounds. Problems unique to the analysis of Hanford tank wastes are discussed. Selected results from the Hanford single shell ferrocyanide tank, 241-C-109, are presented, and the resulting conclusions are discussed

  18. Hazardous wastes in Brasil: State of the art and future tendencies; Los residuos peligrosos en Brasil: Situacion actual y tendencias futuras

    Eyer do Valle, C.

    2000-07-01

    Hazardous waste in Brazil is a matter of concern to the local authorities and environmental agencies. This is due to the ever-increasing amount of waste being generated and because of the geographical distribution of the sites where it is produced most of them along densely populated areas. (Author)

  19. The effects of aging on compressive strength of low-level radioactive waste form samples

    The Field Lysimeter Investigations: Low-Level Waste Data Base Development Program, funded by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), is (a) studying the degradation effects in organic ion-exchange resins caused by radiation, (b) examining the adequacy of test procedures recommended in the Branch Technical Position on Waste Form to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 61 using solidified ion-exchange resins, (c) obtaining performance information on solidified ion-exchange resins in a disposal environment, and (d) determining the condition of liners used to dispose ion-exchange resins. Compressive tests were performed periodically over a 12-year period as part of the Technical Position testing. Results of that compressive testing are presented and discussed. During the study, both portland type I-II cement and Dow vinyl ester-styrene waste form samples were tested. This testing was designed to examine the effects of aging caused by self-irradiation on the compressive strength of the waste forms. Also presented is a brief summary of the results of waste form characterization, which has been conducted in 1986, using tests recommended in the Technical Position on Waste Form. The aging test results are compared to the results of those earlier tests. 14 refs., 52 figs., 5 tabs

  20. 101-SY waste sample speed of sound/rheology testing for sonic probe program

    One problem faced in the clean-up operation at Hanford is that a number of radioactive waste storage tanks are experiencing a periodic buildup and release of potentially explosive gases. The best known example is Tank 241-SY-101 (commonly referred to as 101-SY) in which hydrogen gas periodically built up within the waste to the point that increased buoyancy caused a roll-over event, in which the gas was suddenly released in potentially explosive concentrations (if an ignition source were present). The sonic probe concept is to generate acoustic vibrations in the 101-SY tank waste at nominally 100 Hz, with sufficient amplitude to cause the controlled release of hydrogen bubbles trapped in the waste. The sonic probe may provide a potentially cost-effective alternative to large mixer pumps now used for hydrogen mitigation purposes. Two important parameters needed to determine sonic probe effectiveness and design are the speed of sound and yield stress of the tank waste. Tests to determine these parameters in a 240 ml sample of 101-SY waste (obtained near the tank bottom) were performed, and the results are reported

  1. Identification of Cellulose Breaking Bacteria in Landfill Samples for Organic Waste Management

    Chan, P. M.; Leung, F. C.

    2015-12-01

    According to the Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department, the citizens of Hong Kong disposes 13,500 tonnes of waste to the landfill everyday. Out of the 13,500 tonnes, 3600 tonnes consist of organic waste. Furthermore, due to the limited supply of land for landfills in Hong Kong, it is estimated that landfills will be full by about 2020. Currently, organic wastes at landfills undergo anaerobic respiration, where methane gas, one of the most harmful green house gases, will be released. The management of such waste is a pressing issue, as possible solutions must be presented in this crucial period of time. The Independent Schools Foundation Academy introduced their very own method to manage the waste produced by the students. With an approximate of 1500 students on campus, the school produces 27 metric tonnes of food waste each academic year. The installation of the rocket food composter provides an alternate method of disposable of organic waste the school produces, for the aerobic environment allows for different by-products to be produced, namely compost that can be used for organic farming by the primary school students and subsequently carbon dioxide, a less harmful greenhouse gas. This research is an extension on the current work, as another natural factor is considered. It evaluates the microorganism community present in leachate samples collected from the North East New Territories Landfill, for the bacteria in the area exhibits special characteristics in the process of decomposition. Through the sequencing and analysis of the genome of the bacteria, the identification of the bacteria might lead to a break through on the current issue. Some bacteria demonstrate the ability to degrade lignin cellulose, or assist in the production of methane gas in aerobic respirations. These characteristics can hopefully be utilized in the future in waste managements across the globe.

  2. Vitrification and testing of a Hanford high-level waste sample. Part 2: Phase identification and waste form leachability

    Hrma, P.; Crum, J. V.; Bredt, P. R.; Greenwood, L. R.; Arey, B. W.; Smith, H. D.

    2005-10-01

    A sample of Hanford high-level radioactive waste from Tank AZ-101 was vitrified into borosilicate glass and tested to demonstrate its compliance with regulatory requirements. Compositional aspects of this study were reported in Part 1 of this paper. This second and last part presents results of crystallinity and leachability testing. Crystallinity was quantified in a glass sample heat treated according to the calculated cooling curve of glass at the centerline of a Hanford Waste Treatment Plant canister. By quantitative X-ray diffraction analysis and image analysis applied to scanning electron microscopy micrographs, the sample contained 7 mass% of spinel, a solid solution of franklinite, trevorite, and other minor spinels. Glass leachability was measured with the product consistency test and the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure. Measured data and model estimates were in reasonable agreement. Leachability results were close to those obtained for the non-radioactive simulant. Models were used to elucidate the effects of glass composition of spinel formation and to estimate effects of spinel formation on glass leachability.

  3. Progress toward maturity of DOE methods for evaluating environmental and waste management samples

    Cosby, W.C. [ed.; Goheen, S.C.; McCulloch, M. [and others

    1994-07-01

    The document DOE Methods for Evaluating Environmental and Waste Management Samples (DOE Methods) has been in circulation since October 1992. DOE Methods is a living document, being updated twice each year. It contains both sampling and analytical methods in support of US Department of Energy/environmental restoration and waste management (DOE/EM) activities. Guidance on how to carry out sampling and analysis activities, focusing of EM needs, is also included in DOE Methods. This guidance applies to all aspects of sampling and analysis for EM. Methods from traditional standard methods documents often cannot provide needed characterization data because of radioactivity or complexity of the matrix. The intent of DOE Methods is to provide an alternative source of methods to meet this need. Efforts are underway to expand the use of DOE Methods throughout all DOE/EM programs. Copies of DOE Methods are available free of charge. The April 1994 update of the document includes 42 methods, of which 13 are new. In October 1994, Revision 2 of DOE Methods will be distributed. It will include additional guidance on how to plan sampling and analysis activities and will also include several new methods. DOE Methods is supported by the Laboratory Management Division of DOE. It is a vehicle for transgressing new technology for characterization capability within the environmental restoration (ER) and/or waste management (WM) community. As DOE Methods continues to evolve, its use and application will continue to grow.

  4. Progress toward maturity of DOE methods for evaluating environmental and waste management samples

    The document DOE Methods for Evaluating Environmental and Waste Management Samples (DOE Methods) has been in circulation since October 1992. DOE Methods is a living document, being updated twice each year. It contains both sampling and analytical methods in support of US Department of Energy/environmental restoration and waste management (DOE/EM) activities. Guidance on how to carry out sampling and analysis activities, focusing of EM needs, is also included in DOE Methods. This guidance applies to all aspects of sampling and analysis for EM. Methods from traditional standard methods documents often cannot provide needed characterization data because of radioactivity or complexity of the matrix. The intent of DOE Methods is to provide an alternative source of methods to meet this need. Efforts are underway to expand the use of DOE Methods throughout all DOE/EM programs. Copies of DOE Methods are available free of charge. The April 1994 update of the document includes 42 methods, of which 13 are new. In October 1994, Revision 2 of DOE Methods will be distributed. It will include additional guidance on how to plan sampling and analysis activities and will also include several new methods. DOE Methods is supported by the Laboratory Management Division of DOE. It is a vehicle for transgressing new technology for characterization capability within the environmental restoration (ER) and/or waste management (WM) community. As DOE Methods continues to evolve, its use and application will continue to grow

  5. Sampling Procedure for a Radionuclide Assessment of a Spent HEPA Filter Waste

    According to the operation of nuclear facilities and a continuous construction of them, a great amount of used high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters which are widely used in a ventilation system in the nuclear industry has been generated as spent filter waste. All these HEPA filter wastes generated at KAERI have been stored in accordance with the original form without any treatment of them. However, to secure space in a waste storage facility approaching saturation, it is desirable to treat them by a compaction in view of a radioactive waste treatment and storage, and finally, to repack the compacted spent filters into a 200 liter drum for sending them to a disposal site. In order to dispose of the HEPA filters, it is first necessary to conduct a radionuclide assessment of them before compacting them. However, it is difficult to directly measure a radioactive concentration level of the nuclides captured in a HEPA filter because of its great bulk and specific shape. Therefore, after taking a representative sample from a HEPA filter, the analysis results for it are regarded as a representative value for the corresponding HEPA filter. To use this method, it is essential to confirm the validity of the sampling procedure and representative value. In this study, the depth distribution of the captured nuclides in a HEPA filter waste was first investigated. From the results, it was possible to obtain a representative sample from the intake part and the outlet part of a HEPA filter without a dismantlement. And then, a punch device with a diameter of 2 inch was developed for taking a representative sample which has a regular size

  6. Sampling Procedure for a Radionuclide Assessment of a Spent HEPA Filter Waste

    Ji, Young-Yong; Hong, Dae-Seok; Kang, Il-Sik; Kim, Tae-Kuk; Lee, Young-Hee; Shon, Jong-Sik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-10-15

    According to the operation of nuclear facilities and a continuous construction of them, a great amount of used high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters which are widely used in a ventilation system in the nuclear industry has been generated as spent filter waste. All these HEPA filter wastes generated at KAERI have been stored in accordance with the original form without any treatment of them. However, to secure space in a waste storage facility approaching saturation, it is desirable to treat them by a compaction in view of a radioactive waste treatment and storage, and finally, to repack the compacted spent filters into a 200 liter drum for sending them to a disposal site. In order to dispose of the HEPA filters, it is first necessary to conduct a radionuclide assessment of them before compacting them. However, it is difficult to directly measure a radioactive concentration level of the nuclides captured in a HEPA filter because of its great bulk and specific shape. Therefore, after taking a representative sample from a HEPA filter, the analysis results for it are regarded as a representative value for the corresponding HEPA filter. To use this method, it is essential to confirm the validity of the sampling procedure and representative value. In this study, the depth distribution of the captured nuclides in a HEPA filter waste was first investigated. From the results, it was possible to obtain a representative sample from the intake part and the outlet part of a HEPA filter without a dismantlement. And then, a punch device with a diameter of 2 inch was developed for taking a representative sample which has a regular size.

  7. Direct determination of uranium in Purex process waste condensate samples by ICP-AES

    The paper describes an inductively coupled argon plasma-atomic emission spectrometric (ICP-AES) method for the determination of trace concentrations of uranium (0.05-1ppm) in waste condensate sample of the Purex process. The method involves the direct measurement of uranium line intensity at 385.958 nm. The method enables the determination of uranium at 0.05 ppm level in the presence of corrosion product elements with a precision of 5% R.S.D. (author)

  8. Hexachlorocyclohexane derivatives in industrial waste and samples from a contaminated riverine system.

    Berger, M; Löffler, D; Ternes, T; Heininger, P; Ricking, M; Schwarzbauer, J

    2016-05-01

    Side and initial degradation products of the persistent organic pollutant hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) were largely neglected in environmental analysis so far. However, these compounds can be indicative for biodegradation or emission sources. Thus, several samples from a contaminated riverine system in vicinity to a former HCH production site in Central Germany were analyzed. This area adjacent to the industrial megasite Bitterfeld-Wolfen is known for elevated concentrations of various organic industrial pollutants as legacy of decades of industrial activity and subsequent deposition of chemical waste and emission of waste effluents. In environmental compartments of this riverine system, several isomers of HCH related compounds were detected comprising the two lower chlorinated species tetrachlorocyclohexene (TeCCH) and pentachlorocyclohexene (PeCCH) and the higher chlorinated species heptachlorocyclohexane (HpCCH). Except for the uppermost soil of an analyzed riparian wetland, concentrations of these compounds were low. Detected isomers in sediment, water, and soil samples correlated and dominant isomers of PeCCH and HpCCH were observed in the alluvial deposits. Comparisons with industrial HCH waste revealed isomeric patterns similar to patterns found in soil samples. Therefore, the application of HpCCH as an indicator of industrial HCH pollution is suggested. PMID:26901479

  9. Radiochemical analysis of 3H, 14C, 55Fe, 63Ni in waste samples

    Full text: In the nuclear waste from decommissioning of a nuclear facility, most of the beta activity is contributed from 14C, 3H, 55Fe, and 63Ni, especially in the first 10 years after the close of reactor. The determination of these radionuclides in radioactive waste is important for decommissioning and disposal of the waste. 14C, 3H, and 63Ni I are pure beta emitter; and 55Fe decay by electron capture. It is therefore necessary to decompose sample and separate individual radionuclide from matrix element and other interfering nuclides before measurement of their radioactivity. In our laboratory, analytical methods have been developed for the determination of these radionuclides in various nuclear wastes for the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. An oxidizing combustion method has been developed to decompose graphite, concrete, metals, and other solid samples. 14C and 3H released from the sample are separated trapped and measured by liquid scintillation counter (LSC). By this method the sample preparation time can be shortened to only 2-3 minutes. The detection limit of this method for 14C and tritium are 0.96 and 0.58 Bq/g graphite and 0.11 and 0.06 Bq/g concrete respectively. The interference of other radionuclides in samples is insignificant. A radiochemical separation procedure based on precipitation, ion exchange and extraction chromatography have been developed for the determination of 55Fe and 63Ni. The decontamination factors of the developed method are higher than 104 for the interfering radionuclides. The chemical recoveries for both Fe and Ni are higher than 80%. The detection limits of this method are 0.018 Bq for 55Fe and 0.014 Bq for 63Ni. The developed method has been successfully applied for the analysis of heavy concrete, graphite, steel, aluminium, and lead from nuclear reactor and the estimation of inventories of these radionuclides in nuclear waste have been carried out. In addition, the methods were also applied for the analysis of

  10. Sample preparation of waste water to determine metallic contaminants by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy

    Trace X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy analysis in liquid samples is preceded by sample preparation, which usually consists in the precipitation of the metallic ions and concentration over a thin cellulose filter. The samples preparation of waste water by this method is not efficient, due to the great amount of organic and insoluble matter that they contain. The purpose of this work was to determine the optimal value of pH in order to adsorbe all the insoluble matter contained in a waste water sample in the activated charcoal, so that the metallic ions could be precipitated and concentrated on a thin filter and determinated by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. A survey about the adsorption of some ions in activated charcoal in function of the pH was made for the following: Cr3+, Fe3+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Se2+, Hg2+, and Pb2+. It was observed that at pH 0, the ions are not adsorbed, but Cu2+ and Zn2+ are adsorbed in small amount; at pH 14, the ions are adsorbed, excluding Se, which is not adsorbed at any value of pH. If a waste water sample is treated at pH 0 with activated charcoal to adsorbe the organic and insoluble matter, most of the metallic ions are not adsorbed by the activated charcoal and could be precipitated with APDC (ammonium 1-pirrolidine dithio carbamate salt) and concentrated on a thin filter. The analysis of the metallic ions contained on the filter and those adsorbed in the activated charcoal by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, gave the total amount of the ions in the sample. (author)

  11. Summary of Laboratory Capabilities Fact Sheets Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility and 222-S Laboratory Complex

    This summary of laboratory capabilities is provided to assist prospective responders to the CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. (CHG) Requests for Proposal (RFP) issued or to be issued. The RFPs solicit development of treatment technologies as categorized in the CHG Requests for Information (RFI): Solid-Liquid Separations Technology - SOL: Reference-Number-CHG01; Cesium and Technetium Separations Technology - SOL: Reference-Number-CHG02; Sulfate Removal Technology - SOL: Reference-Number-CHG03; Containerized Grout Technology - SOL: Reference-Number-CHG04; Bulk Vitrification Technology - SOL: Reference-Number-CHG05; and TRU Tank Waste Solidification for Disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - SOL: Reference-Number-CHG06 Hanford Analytical Services, Technology Project Management (TPM), has the capability and directly related experience to provide breakthrough innovations and solutions to the challenges presented in the requests. The 222-S Complex includes the 70,000 sq ft 222-S Laboratory, plus several support buildings. The laboratory has 11 hot cells for handling and analyzing highly radioactive samples, including tank farm waste. Inorganic, organic, and radiochemical analyses are performed on a wide variety of air, liquid, soil, sludge, and biota samples. Capabilities also include development of process technology and analytical methods, and preparation of analytical standards. The TPM staff includes many scientists with advanced degrees in chemistry (or closely related fields), over half of which are PhDs. These scientists have an average 20 years of Hanford experience working with Hanford waste in a hot cell environment. They have hundreds of publications related to Hanford tank waste characterization and process support. These would include, but are not limited to, solid-liquid separations engineering, physical chemistry, particle size analysis, and inorganic chemistry. TPM has had revenues in excess of $1 million per year for the past decade in above

  12. Tank vapor sampling and analysis data package for tank 241-C-106 waste retrieval sluicing system process test phase III, sampled March 28, 1999

    This data package presents sampling data and analytical results from the March 28, 1999, vapor sampling of Hanford Site single-shell tank 241-C-106 during active sluicing. Samples were obtained from the 296-C-006 ventilation system stack and ambient air at several locations. Characterization Project Operations (CPO) was responsible for the collection of all SUMMATM canister samples. The Special Analytical Support (SAS) vapor team was responsible for the collection of all triple sorbent trap (TST), sorbent tube train (STT), polyurethane foam (PUF), and particulate filter samples collected at the 296-C-006 stack. The SAS vapor team used the non-electrical vapor sampling (NEVS) system to collect samples of the air, gases, and vapors from the 296-C-006 stack. The SAS vapor team collected and analyzed these samples for Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation (LMHC) and Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) in accordance with the sampling and analytical requirements specified in the Waste Retrieval Sluicing System Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) for Evaluation of Organic Emissions, Process Test Phase III, HNF-4212, Rev. 0-A, (LMHC, 1999). All samples were stored in a secured Radioactive Materials Area (RMA) until the samples were radiologically released and received by SAS for analysis. The Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility (WSCF) performed the radiological analyses. The samples were received on April 5, 1999

  13. Determination of rhodamine B in soft drink, waste water and lipstick samples after solid phase extraction.

    Soylak, Mustafa; Unsal, Yunus Emre; Yilmaz, Erkan; Tuzen, Mustafa

    2011-08-01

    A new solid phase extraction method is described for sensitive and selective determination of trace levels of rhodamine B in soft drink, food and industrial waste water samples. The method is based on the adsorption of rhodamine B on the Sepabeads SP 70 resin and its elution with 5 mL of acetonitrile in a mini chromatographic column. Rhodamine B was determined by using UV visible spectrophotometry at 556 nm. The effects of different parameters such as pH, amount of rhodamine B, flow rates of sample and eluent solutions, resin amount, and sample volume were investigated. The influences of some alkali, alkali earth and transition metals on the recoveries of rhodamine B were investigated. The preconcentration factor was found 40. The detection limit based on three times the standard deviation of the reagent blank for rhodamine B was 3.14 μg L⁻¹. The relative standard deviations of the procedure were found as 5% in 1×10⁻⁵ mol L⁻¹ rhodamine B. The presented procedure was successfully applied to real samples including soft drink, food and industrial waste water and lipstick samples. PMID:21570440

  14. A study on the representative sampling survey for the inspection of the clearance level for the radioisotope waste

    Utilization facilities for radioisotope (RI) are increasing annually in South Korea, and the total number was 2,723, as of December 31, 2005. The inspection of a clearance level is a very important problem in order to ensure a social reliance for releasing radioactive materials to the environment. Korean regulations for such a clearance are described in Notice No. 2001-30 of the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) and Notice No. 2002-67 of the Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Energy (MOCIE). Most unsealed sources in RI waste drums at a storage facility are low-level beta-emitters with short half-lives, so it is impossible to measure their inventories by a nondestructive analysis. Furthermore, RI wastes generated from hospital, educational and research institutes and industry have a heterogeneous, multiple, irregular, and a small quantity of a waste stream. This study addresses a representative (master) sampling survey and analysis plan for RI wastes because a complete enumeration of waste drums is impossible and not desirable in terms of a cost and efficiency. The existing approaches to a representative sampling include a judgmental, simple random, stratified random, systematic grid, systematic random, composite, and adaptive sampling. A representative sampling plan may combine two or more of the above sampling approaches depending on the type and distribution of a waste stream. Stratified random sampling (constrained randomization) is proven to be adequate for a sampling design of a RI waste regarding a half-life, surface dose, undertaking time to a storage facility, and type of waste. The developed sampling protocol includes estimating the number of drums within a waste stream, estimating the number of samples, and a confirmation of the required number of samples. The statistical process control for a quality assurance plan includes control charts and an upper control limit (UCL) of 95% to determine whether a clearance level is met or not. (authors)

  15. Size-resolved culturable airborne bacteria sampled in rice field, sanitary landfill, and waste incineration sites.

    Heo, Yongju; Park, Jiyeon; Lim, Sung-Il; Hur, Hor-Gil; Kim, Daesung; Park, Kihong

    2010-08-01

    Size-resolved bacterial concentrations in atmospheric aerosols sampled by using a six stage viable impactor at rice field, sanitary landfill, and waste incinerator sites were determined. Culture-based and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) methods were used to identify the airborne bacteria. The culturable bacteria concentration in total suspended particles (TSP) was found to be the highest (848 Colony Forming Unit (CFU)/m(3)) at the sanitary landfill sampling site, while the rice field sampling site has the lowest (125 CFU/m(3)). The closed landfill would be the main source of the observed bacteria concentration at the sanitary landfill. The rice field sampling site was fully covered by rice grain with wetted conditions before harvest and had no significant contribution to the airborne bacteria concentration. This might occur because the dry conditions favor suspension of soil particles and this area had limited personnel and vehicle flow. The respirable fraction calculated by particles less than 3.3 mum was highest (26%) at the sanitary landfill sampling site followed by waste incinerator (19%) and rice field (10%), which showed a lower level of respiratory fraction compared to previous literature values. We identified 58 species in 23 genera of culturable bacteria, and the Microbacterium, Staphylococcus, and Micrococcus were the most abundant genera at the sanitary landfill, waste incinerator, and rice field sites, respectively. An antibiotic resistant test for the above bacteria (Micrococcus sp., Microbacterium sp., and Staphylococcus sp.) showed that the Staphylococcus sp. had the strongest resistance to both antibiotics (25.0% resistance for 32 microg ml(-1) of Chloramphenicol and 62.5% resistance for 4 microg ml(-1) of Gentamicin). PMID:20623053

  16. WIPP Sampling and Analysis Plan for Solid Waste Management Units and Areas of Concern

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) has been prepared to fulfill requirements of Module VII, Section VII.M.2 and Table VII.1, requirement 4 of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Hazardous Waste Permit, NM4890139088-TSDF (the Permit); (NMED [New Mexico Environment Department], 1999a). This SAP describes the approach for investigation of the Solid Waste Management Units (SWMU) and Areas of Concern (AOC) specified in the Permit. This SAP addresses the current Permit requirements for a RCRA Facility Investigation(RFI) investigation of SWMUs and AOCs. It uses the results of previous investigations performed at WIPP and expands the investigations as required by the Permit. As an alternative to the RFI specified in Module VII of the Permit, current NMED guidance identifies an Accelerated Corrective Action Approach (ACAA) that may be used for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998). This accelerated approach is used to replace the standard RFI work plan and report sequence with a more flexible decision-making approach. The ACAA process allows a facility to exit the schedule of compliance contained in the facility's Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) permit module and proceed on an accelerated time frame. Thus, the ACAA process can beentered either before or after a RFI work plan. According to NMED's guidance, a facility can prepare a RFI work plan or SAP for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998).

  17. Method of estimating maximum VOC concentration in void volume of vented waste drums using limited sampling data: Application in transuranic waste drums

    A test program has been conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to demonstrate that the concentration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) within the innermost layer of confinement in a vented waste drum can be estimated using a model incorporating diffusion and permeation transport principles as well as limited waste drum sampling data. The model consists of a series of material balance equations describing steady-state VOC transport from each distinct void volume in the drum. The primary model input is the measured drum headspace VOC concentration. Model parameters are determined or estimated based on available process knowledge. The model effectiveness in estimating VOC concentration in the headspace of the innermost layer of confinement was examined for vented waste drums containing different waste types and configurations. This paper summarizes the experimental measurements and model predictions in vented transuranic waste drums containing solidified sludges and solid waste

  18. HEAVY METAL ANALYSIS IN WASTE WATER SAMPLES FROM VALEA ŞESEI TAILING POND

    I. L. MELENTI

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metal analysis in waste water samples from Valea Şesei tailing pond. The mining of ore deposits and the processing and smelting of copper at Roşia Poieni have resulted in an increase of the toxic elements concentration within all components of the environment in the area. Valea Şesei tailing pond is a waste deposit for the Roşia Poieni open-pit and is the biggest tailing pond in Romania. In October 2009, we determined 8 heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni and Zn in 10 waste water samples. This water flows under the tailing dam, through the Valea Şesei stream, into the Arieş River, the water’s pH varies between 3 and 4. The heavy metals concentration exceeds with orders of magnitude. In the stream the concentrations are much lower, but still exceed the admitted levels. The results show that the tailing pond is a pollution hot spot in the area affecting the environment.

  19. METHODS FOR DETERMINING AGITATOR MIXING REQUIREMENTS FOR A MIXING & SAMPLING FACILITY TO FEED WTP (WASTE TREATMENT PLANT)

    GRIFFIN PW

    2009-08-27

    The following report is a summary of work conducted to evaluate the ability of existing correlative techniques and alternative methods to accurately estimate impeller speed and power requirements for mechanical mixers proposed for use in a mixing and sampling facility (MSF). The proposed facility would accept high level waste sludges from Hanford double-shell tanks and feed uniformly mixed high level waste to the Waste Treatment Plant. Numerous methods are evaluated and discussed, and resulting recommendations provided.

  20. Radiotoxic element on soil sample from waste ponds around U processing Lemajung West Kalimantan

    The aim of the measurement is to know the spread of U and Th from waste vat to environment. The soil sample were taken at waste vat environment Lemajung West Kalimantan with distance of 1, 2, and 3 meters from vat side, and depth of 30 cm from soil surface. Uranium and thorium test had been done with spectrometry method at Tono Geoscience Centre. Before analyze, uranium and thorium separated from impurities element by extraction process using Tri Butyl Phosphat (TBP) and ion exchange resins (Ion Exchange AG1X8). The result of analyze shown that the biggest U concentration at T1 Location is 233 ppm and 14.3 ppm of Th

  1. Low-level waste vitrification phase 1 vendor test sample analysis data

    A multi-phase program was initiated in 1994 to test commercially available melter technologies for the vitrification of the low-level waste (LLW) stream from defense wastes stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Phase 1 of the melter demonstration tests was performed in vendor test facilities using simulated LLW and was completed during FY-1995. Test samples taken during Phase 1 testing were analyzed by independent laboratories who reported the analyses results to Westinghouse Hanford Company for integration and evaluation. The reported analytical results were integrated into an electronic data base using Microsoft Excel*5.0. This report documents this data base as of the end of FY-1995, and is supplemental to the Phase 1 LLW melter testing summary report, WHC-SD-WM-ER-498, revision 0

  2. CRUCIBLE TESTING OF TANK 48 RADIOACTIVE WASTE SAMPLE USING FBSR TECHNOLOGY FOR ORGANIC DESTRUCTION

    Hammond, C; William Pepper, W

    2008-09-19

    The purpose of crucible scale testing with actual radioactive Tank 48H material was to duplicate the test results that had been previously performed on simulant Tank 48H material. The earlier crucible scale testing using simulants was successful in demonstrating that bench scale crucible tests produce results that are indicative of actual Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) pilot scale tests. Thus, comparison of the results using radioactive Tank 48H feed to those reported earlier with simulants would then provide proof that the radioactive tank waste behaves in a similar manner to the simulant. Demonstration of similar behavior for the actual radioactive Tank 48H slurry to the simulant is important as a preliminary or preparation step for the more complex bench-scale steam reformer unit that is planned for radioactive application in the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Shielded Cells Facility (SCF) later in 2008. The goals of this crucible-scale testing were to show 99% destruction of tetraphenylborate and to demonstrate that the final solid product produced is sodium carbonate. Testing protocol was repeated using the specifications of earlier simulant crucible scale testing, that is sealed high purity alumina crucibles containing a pre-carbonated and evaporated Tank 48H material. Sealing of the crucibles was accomplished by using an inorganic 'nepheline' sealant. The sealed crucibles were heat-treated at 650 C under constant argon flow to inert the system. Final product REDOX measurements were performed to establish the REDuction/OXidation (REDOX) state of known amounts of added iron species in the final product. These REDOX measurements confirm the processing conditions (pyrolysis occurring at low oxygen fugacity) of the sealed crucible environment which is the environment actually achieved in the fluidized bed steam reformer process. Solid product dissolution in water was used to measure soluble cations and anions, and to investigate

  3. Sampling technique and analysis of the sediments of low level wastes (LLW) of nuclear plant

    Delay and decay is one of the techniques adopted by the nuclear plants for low level waste (LLW) before treating the effluents for final disposal. During this process the solution is kept in alkaline condition and is left open to the atmosphere which leads to the formation of algae which along with sand forms the sediment. The sediment is buried in shallow landfill sites. To reduce its volume, it is often compacted or incinerated (in a closed container) before disposal. It is important to know the composition and activity of the sediment before disposal to make it environmentally safe. The sediment analysis results are shown and the need for proper sampling technique is emphasized in this paper. It is evident from the table that the activity of the sediment is not consistent throughout the tank necessitating proper sampling before carrying out the analysis. The sampling are drawn from three different locations from a point near to the inlet of the effluents and mixed thoroughly to form a uniform sample. Similarly sampling is done from three different locations is done from the point farthest from the inlet of effluents. These are mixed to make a second sample. The average of the analysis results of these two samples are taken as the final value. Known volume of the sediment in the form of slurry is taken. centrifuged and the settled residue is analysed. The residue is dissolved in sulphuric acid and estimated by radiometry. (author)

  4. INVESTIGATION OF THE TOTAL ORGANIC HALOGEN ANALYTICAL METHOD AT THE WASTE SAMPLING CHARACTERIZATION FACILITY (WSCF)

    Total organic halogen (TOX) is used as a parameter to screen groundwater samples at the Hanford Site. Trending is done for each groundwater well, and changes in TOX and other screening parameters can lead to costly changes in the monitoring protocol. The Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility (WSCF) analyzes groundwater samples for TOX using the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) SW-846 method 9020B (EPA 1996a). Samples from the Soil and Groundwater Remediation Project (S and GRP) are submitted to the WSCF for analysis without information regarding the source of the sample; each sample is in essence a 'blind' sample to the laboratory. Feedback from the S and GRP indicated that some of the WSCF-generated TOX data from groundwater wells had a number of outlier values based on the historical trends (Anastos 2008a). Additionally, analysts at WSCF observed inconsistent TOX results among field sample replicates. Therefore, the WSCF lab performed an investigation of the TOX analysis to determine the cause of the outlier data points. Two causes were found that contributed to generating out-of-trend TOX data: (1) The presence of inorganic chloride in the groundwater samples: at inorganic chloride concentrations greater than about 10 parts per million (ppm), apparent TOX values increase with increasing chloride concentration. A parallel observation is the increase in apparent breakthrough of TOX from the first to the second activated-carbon adsorption tubes with increasing inorganic chloride concentration. (2) During the sample preparation step, excessive purging of the adsorption tubes with oxygen pressurization gas after sample loading may cause channeling in the activated-carbon bed. This channeling leads to poor removal of inorganic chloride during the subsequent wash step with aqueous potassium nitrate. The presence of this residual inorganic chloride then produces erroneously high TOX values. Changes in sample preparation were studied to more

  5. INVESTIGATION OF THE TOTAL ORGANIC HALOGEN ANALYTICAL METHOD AT THE WASTE SAMPLING CHARACTERIZATION FACILITY (WSCF)

    DOUGLAS JG; MEZNARICH HD, PHD; OLSEN JR; ROSS GA; STAUFFER M

    2008-09-30

    Total organic halogen (TOX) is used as a parameter to screen groundwater samples at the Hanford Site. Trending is done for each groundwater well, and changes in TOX and other screening parameters can lead to costly changes in the monitoring protocol. The Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility (WSCF) analyzes groundwater samples for TOX using the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) SW-846 method 9020B (EPA 1996a). Samples from the Soil and Groundwater Remediation Project (S&GRP) are submitted to the WSCF for analysis without information regarding the source of the sample; each sample is in essence a 'blind' sample to the laboratory. Feedback from the S&GRP indicated that some of the WSCF-generated TOX data from groundwater wells had a number of outlier values based on the historical trends (Anastos 2008a). Additionally, analysts at WSCF observed inconsistent TOX results among field sample replicates. Therefore, the WSCF lab performed an investigation of the TOX analysis to determine the cause of the outlier data points. Two causes were found that contributed to generating out-of-trend TOX data: (1) The presence of inorganic chloride in the groundwater samples: at inorganic chloride concentrations greater than about 10 parts per million (ppm), apparent TOX values increase with increasing chloride concentration. A parallel observation is the increase in apparent breakthrough of TOX from the first to the second activated-carbon adsorption tubes with increasing inorganic chloride concentration. (2) During the sample preparation step, excessive purging of the adsorption tubes with oxygen pressurization gas after sample loading may cause channeling in the activated-carbon bed. This channeling leads to poor removal of inorganic chloride during the subsequent wash step with aqueous potassium nitrate. The presence of this residual inorganic chloride then produces erroneously high TOX values. Changes in sample preparation were studied to more

  6. Comparison of organic and inorganic ion exchangers for removal of cesium and strontium from simulated and actual Hanford 241-AW-101 DSSF tank waste

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (Northwest National Laboratory) conducted this study as a joint effort between the ''Develop and Test Sorbents'' task for the Efficient Separations and Processing Cross-Cutting Program (ESP) and the ''Batch Testing of Crystalline Silico-Titanates (CSTs)'' subtask, which is part of the Northwest National Laboratory Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Pretreatment Technology Development Project. The objective of the study is to investigate radionuclide uptake of the newly produced CST materials under a variety of solution conditions and to compare the results obtained for this material with those obtained for other commercial and experimental exchangers

  7. Comparison of organic and inorganic ion exchangers for removal of cesium and strontium from simulated and actual Hanford 241-AW-101 DSSF tank waste

    Brown, G.N.; Bray, L.A.; Carlson, C.D. [and others

    1996-01-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (Northwest National Laboratory) conducted this study as a joint effort between the ``Develop and Test Sorbents`` task for the Efficient Separations and Processing Cross-Cutting Program (ESP) and the ``Batch Testing of Crystalline Silico-Titanates (CSTs)`` subtask, which is part of the Northwest National Laboratory Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Pretreatment Technology Development Project. The objective of the study is to investigate radionuclide uptake of the newly produced CST materials under a variety of solution conditions and to compare the results obtained for this material with those obtained for other commercial and experimental exchangers.

  8. Radiochemistry methods in DOE Methods for Evaluating Environmental and Waste Management Samples: Addressing new challenges

    Radiochemistry methods in Department of Energy Methods for Evaluating Environmental and Waste Management Samples (DOE Methods) add to the repertoire of other standard methods in support of U.S. Department of Energy environmental restoration and waste management (DOE/EM) radiochemical characterization activities. Current standard sources of radiochemistry methods are not always applicable for evaluating DOE/EM samples. Examples of current sources include those provided by the US Environmental Protection Agency, the American Society for Testing and Materials, Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, and Environmental Measurements Laboratory Procedures Manual (HASL-300). The applicability of these methods is generally limited to specific matrices (usually water), low-level radioactive samples, and a limited number of analytes. DOE Methods complements these current standard methods by addressing the complexities of EM characterization needs. The process for determining DOE/EM radiochemistry characterization needs is discussed. In this context of DOE/EM needs, the applicability of other sources of standard radiochemistry methods is defined, and gaps in methodology are identified. Current methods in DOE Methods and the EM characterization needs they address are discussed. Sources of new methods and the methods incorporation process are discussed. The means for individuals to participate in (1) identification of DOE/EM needs, (2) the methods incorporation process, and (3) submission of new methods are identified

  9. Sampling and analysis validates acceptable knowledge on LANL transuranic, heterogeneous, debris waste, or ''Cutting the Gordian knot that binds WIPP''

    Through sampling and toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) analyses, LANL and the DOE validated that a LANL transuranic (TRU) waste (TA-55-43, Lot No. 01) was not a Resource Recovery and Conservation Act (RCRA) hazardous waste. This paper describes the sampling and analysis project as well as the statistical assessment of the analytical results. The analyses were conducted according to the requirements and procedures in the sampling and analysis plan approved by the New Mexico Environmental Department. The plan used a statistical approach that was consistent with the stratified, random sampling requirements of SW-846. LANL adhered to the plan during sampling and chemical analysis of randomly selected items of the five major types of materials in this heterogeneous, radioactive, debris waste. To generate portions of the plan, LANL analyzed a number of non-radioactive items that were representative of the mix of items present in the waste stream. Data from these cold surrogates were used to generate means and variances needed to optimize the design. Based on statistical arguments alone, only two samples from the entire waste stream were deemed necessary, however a decision was made to analyze at least two samples of each of the five major waste types. To obtain these samples, nine TRU waste drums were opened. Sixty-six radioactively contaminated and four non-radioactive grab samples were collected. Portions of the samples were composited for chemical analyses. In addition, a radioactively contaminated sample of rust-colored powder of interest to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) was collected and qualitatively identified as rust

  10. Sampling and analysis plan for the preoperational environmental survey for the immobilized low activity waste (ILAW) project W-465

    This document provides a detailed description of the Sampling and Analysis Plan for the Preoperational Survey to be conducted at the Immobilized Low Activity Waste (ILAW) Project Site in the 200 East Area

  11. Petrologic and geochemical characterization of the Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush Tuff: outcrop samples used in waste package experiments

    This report summarizes characterization studies conducted with outcrop samples of Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush Tuff (Tpt). In support of the Waste Package Task within the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation (NNWSI), Tpt is being studied both as a primary object and as a constituent used to condition water that will be reacted with waste form, canister, or packing material. These studies directly or indirectly support NNWSI subtasks concerned with waste package design and geochemical modeling. To interpret the results of subtask experiments, it is necessary to know the exact nature of the starting material in terms of the intial bulk composition, mineralogy, and individual phase geochemistry. 31 figures, 5 tables

  12. Petrologic and geochemical characterization of the Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush Tuff: outcrop samples used in waste package experiments

    Knauss, K.G.

    1984-06-01

    This report summarizes characterization studies conducted with outcrop samples of Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush Tuff (Tpt). In support of the Waste Package Task within the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation (NNWSI), Tpt is being studied both as a primary object and as a constituent used to condition water that will be reacted with waste form, canister, or packing material. These studies directly or indirectly support NNWSI subtasks concerned with waste package design and geochemical modeling. To interpret the results of subtask experiments, it is necessary to know the exact nature of the starting material in terms of the intial bulk composition, mineralogy, and individual phase geochemistry. 31 figures, 5 tables.

  13. Genotoxicity studies in semiconductor industry. 1. In vitro mutagenicity and genotoxicity studies of waste samples resulting from plasma etching

    Braun, R.; Huettner, E.M.; Merten, H.; Raabe, F. (Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research, Gatersleben (Germany))

    1993-07-01

    Solid waste samples taken from the etching reactor, the turbo pump, and the waste air system of a plasma etching technology line in semiconductor production were studied as to their genotoxic properties in a bacterial repair test, in the Ames/Salmonella microsome assay, in the SOS chromotest, in primary mouse hepatocytes, and in Chinese hamster V79 cell cultures. All three waste samples were found to be active by inducing of unscheduled DNA-synthesis in mouse hepatocytes in vitro. In the bacterial rec-type repair test with Proteus mirabilis, waste samples taken from the turbo pump and the vacuum pipe system were not genotoxic. The waste sample taken from the chlorine-mediated plasma reactor was clearly positive in the bacterial repair assay and in the SOS chromotest with Escherichia coli. Mutagenic activity was demonstrated for all samples in the presence and absence of S9 mix made from mouse liver homogenate. Again, highest mutagenic activity was recorded for the waste sample taken from the plasma reactor, while samples collected from the turbo pump and from the waste air system before dilution and liberation of the air were less mutagenic. For all samples chromosomal damage in V79 cells was not detected, indicating absence of clastogenic activity in vitro. Altogether, these results indicate generation of genotoxic and mutagenic products as a consequence of chlorine-mediated plasma etching in the microelectronics industry and the presence of genotoxins even in places distant from the plasma reactor. Occupational exposure can be expected both from the precipitated wastes and from chemicals reaching the environment with the air stream.

  14. INVESTIGATION OF THE TOTAL ORGANIC HALOGEN ANALYTICAL METHOD AT THE WASTE SAMPLING AND CHARACTERIZATION FACILITY

    Total organic halogen (TOX) is used as a parameter to screen groundwater samples at the Hanford Site. Trending is done for each groundwater well, and changes in TOX and other screening parameters can lead to costly changes in the monitoring protocol. The Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility (WSCF) analyzes groundwater samples for TOX using the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) SW-S46 method 9020B (EPA 1996a). Samples from the Soil and Groundwater Remediation Project (SGRP) are submitted to the WSCF for analysis without information regarding the source of the sample; each sample is in essence a ''blind'' sample to the laboratory. Feedback from the SGRP indicated that some of the WSCF-generated TOX data from groundwater wells had a number of outlier values based on the historical trends (Anastos 200Sa). Additionally, analysts at WSCF observed inconsistent TOX results among field sample replicates. Therefore, the WSCF lab performed an investigation of the TOX analysis to determine the cause of the outlier data points. Two causes were found that contributed to generating out-of-trend TOX data: (1) The presence of inorganic chloride in the groundwater samples: at inorganic chloride concentrations greater than about 10 parts per million (ppm), apparent TOX values increase with increasing chloride concentration. A parallel observation is the increase in apparent breakthrough of TOX from the first to the second activated-carbon adsorption tubes with increasing inorganic chloride concentration. (2) During the sample preparation step, excessive purging of the adsorption tubes with oxygen pressurization gas after sample loading may cause channeling in the activated carbon bed. This channeling leads to poor removal of inorganic chloride during the subsequent wash step with aqueous potassium nitrate. The presence of this residual inorganic chloride then produces erroneously high TOX values. Changes in sample preparation were studied to more effectively

  15. Characterization of the first core sample of neutralized current acid waste from double-shell tank 101-AZ

    Peterson, M E; Scheele, R D; Tingey, J M

    1989-09-01

    In FY 1989, Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) successfully obtained four core samples (totaling seven segments) of neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) from double-shell tanks (DSTs) 101-AZ and 102-AZ. A segment was a 19-in.-long and 1-in.-diameter cylindrical sample of waste. A core sample consisted of enough 19-in.-long segments to obtain the waste of interest. Three core samples were obtained from DST 101-AZ and one core sample from DST 102-AZ. Two DST 101-AZ core samples consisted of two segments per core, and the third core sample consisted of only one segment. The third core consisted of the solids from the bottom of the tank and was used to determine the relative abrasiveness of this NCAW. The DST 102-AZ core sample consisted of two segments. The core samples were transported to the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), where the waste was extruded from its sampler and extensively characterized. A characterization plan was followed that simulated the processing of the NCAW samples through retrieval, pretreatment and vitrification process steps. Physical, rheological, chemical and radiochemical properties were measured throughout the process steps. The characterization of the first core sample from DST 101-AZ was completed, and the results are provided in this report. The results for the other core characterizations will be reported in future reports. 3 refs., 13 figs., 10 tabs.

  16. Sampling and verification methods for the uncertainty analysis of NDA and NDE waste characterization systems

    Use of nondestructive assay (NDA) and evaluation (NDE) systems in critical waste characterization requires a realistic assessment of the uncertainty in the measurements. The stated uncertainty must include potential effects of a variety of complicating external factors on the expected bias and precision. These factors include material heterogeneity (matrix effects), fluctuating background levels, and other variable operating conditions. Uncertainty figures from application of error propagation methods to data from controlled laboratory experiments using standard test materials can grossly underestimate the expected error. This paper reviews the standard error propagation method of uncertainty analysis, discusses some of its limitations, and presents an alternative approach based on sampling and verification. Examples of application of sampling and verification methods to measurement systems at INEL are described

  17. Tank vapor sampling and analysis data package for tank 241-C-106 waste retrieval sluicing system process test phase III

    LOCKREM, L.L.

    1999-08-13

    This data package presents sampling data and analytical results from the March 28, 1999, vapor sampling of Hanford Site single-shell tank 241-C-106 during active sluicing. Samples were obtained from the 296-C-006 ventilation system stack and ambient air at several locations. Characterization Project Operations (CPO) was responsible for the collection of all SUMMATM canister samples. The Special Analytical Support (SAS) vapor team was responsible for the collection of all triple sorbent trap (TST), sorbent tube train (STT), polyurethane foam (PUF), and particulate filter samples collected at the 296-C-006 stack. The SAS vapor team used the non-electrical vapor sampling (NEVS) system to collect samples of the air, gases, and vapors from the 296-C-006 stack. The SAS vapor team collected and analyzed these samples for Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation (LMHC) and Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) in accordance with the sampling and analytical requirements specified in the Waste Retrieval Sluicing System Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) for Evaluation of Organic Emissions, Process Test Phase III, HNF-4212, Rev. 0-A, (LMHC, 1999). All samples were stored in a secured Radioactive Materials Area (RMA) until the samples were radiologically released and received by SAS for analysis. The Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility (WSCF) performed the radiological analyses. The samples were received on April 5, 1999.

  18. Radiochemistry methods in DOE methods for evaluating environmental and waste management samples

    Current standard sources of radiochemistry methods are often inappropriate for use in evaluating US Department of Energy environmental and waste management (DOE/EW) samples. Examples of current sources include EPA, ASTM, Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater and HASL-300. Applicability of these methods is limited to specific matrices (usually water), radiation levels (usually environmental levels), and analytes (limited number). Radiochemistry methods in DOE Methods for Evaluating Environmental and Waste Management Samples (DOE Methods) attempt to fill the applicability gap that exists between standard methods and those needed for DOE/EM activities. The Radiochemistry chapter in DOE Methods includes an ''analysis and reporting'' guidance section as well as radiochemistry methods. A basis for identifying the DOE/EM radiochemistry needs is discussed. Within this needs framework, the applicability of standard methods and targeted new methods is identified. Sources of new methods (consolidated methods from DOE laboratories and submissions from individuals) and the methods review process will be discussed. The processes involved in generating consolidated methods add editing individually submitted methods will be compared. DOE Methods is a living document and continues to expand by adding various kinds of methods. Radiochemistry methods are highlighted in this paper. DOE Methods is intended to be a resource for methods applicable to DOE/EM problems. Although it is intended to support DOE, the guidance and methods are not necessarily exclusive to DOE. The document is available at no cost through the Laboratory Management Division of DOE, Office of Technology Development

  19. Diversity of 4-Chloro-2-nitrophenol-Degrading Bacteria in a Waste Water Sample

    Pankaj Kumar Arora

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen bacterial strains, isolated from a waste water sample collected from a chemically contaminated site, Patancheru (17°32′N 78°16′E/17.53°N 78.27°E, India, were able to decolorize 4-chloro-2-nitrophenol (4C2NP in the presence of an additional carbon source. These eighteen 4C2NP-decolorizing strains have been identified as members of four different genera, including Bacillus, Paenibacillus, Pseudomonas, and Leuconostoc based on the 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Most of the bacteria (10 belonged to the genus Bacillus and contributed 56% of the total 4C2NP-degrading bacteria, whereas the members of genera Paenibacillus and Pseudomonas represented 22% and 17%, respectively, of total 4C2NP-degrading isolates. There was only one species of Leuconostoc capable of degrading 4C2NP. This is the first report of the diversity of 4C2NP-decolorizing bacteria in a waste water sample. Furthermore, one bacterium, Bacillus aryabhattai strain PC-7, was able to decolorize 4C2NP up to a concentration of 2.0 mM. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis identified 5-chloro-2-methylbenzoxazole as the final product of 4C2NP decolorization in strain PC-7.

  20. Sampling and analysis plan for remediation of Operable Unit 100-IU-3 waste site 600-104. Revision 1

    This sampling and analysis plan presents the rationale and strategy for the sampling and analysis activities to support remediation of 100-IU-3 Operable Unit waste site 600-104. The purpose of the proposed sampling and analysis activities is to demonstrate that time-critical remediation of the waste site for soil containing 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid salts and esters (2,4-D) and dioxin/furan isomers at concentrations that exceed cleanup levels has been effective. This shall be accomplished by sampling various locations of the waste site before and after remediation, analyzing the samples, and comparing the results to action levels set by the Washington State Department of Ecology

  1. REMOTE IN-CELL SAMPLING IMPROVEMENTS PROGRAM AT THESAVANNAH RIVER SITE (SRS) DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY (DWPF)

    Marzolf, A

    2007-11-26

    Remote Systems Engineering (RSE) of the Savannah River National Lab (SRNL) in combination with the Defense Waste Processing Facility(DWPF) Engineering and Operations has evaluated the existing equipment and processes used in the facility sample cells for 'pulling' samples from the radioactive waste stream and performing equipment in-cell repairs/replacements. RSE has designed and tested equipment for improving remote in-cell sampling evolutions and reducing the time required for in-cell maintenance of existing equipment. The equipment within the present process tank sampling system has been in constant use since the facility start-up over 17 years ago. At present, the method for taking samples within the sample cells produces excessive maintenance and downtime due to frequent failures relative to the sampling station equipment and manipulator. Location and orientation of many sampling stations within the sample cells is not conducive to manipulator operation. The overextension of manipulators required to perform many in-cell operations is a major cause of manipulator failures. To improve sampling operations and reduce downtime due to equipment maintenance, a Portable Sampling Station (PSS), wireless in-cell cameras, and new commercially available sampling technology has been designed, developed and/or adapted and tested. The uniqueness of the design(s), the results of the scoping tests, and the benefits relative to in-cell operation and reduction of waste are presented.

  2. REMOTE IN-CELL SAMPLING IMPROVEMENTS PROGRAM AT THESAVANNAH RIVER SITE (SRS) DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY (DWPF)

    Remote Systems Engineering (RSE) of the Savannah River National Lab (SRNL) in combination with the Defense Waste Processing Facility(DWPF) Engineering and Operations has evaluated the existing equipment and processes used in the facility sample cells for 'pulling' samples from the radioactive waste stream and performing equipment in-cell repairs/replacements. RSE has designed and tested equipment for improving remote in-cell sampling evolutions and reducing the time required for in-cell maintenance of existing equipment. The equipment within the present process tank sampling system has been in constant use since the facility start-up over 17 years ago. At present, the method for taking samples within the sample cells produces excessive maintenance and downtime due to frequent failures relative to the sampling station equipment and manipulator. Location and orientation of many sampling stations within the sample cells is not conducive to manipulator operation. The overextension of manipulators required to perform many in-cell operations is a major cause of manipulator failures. To improve sampling operations and reduce downtime due to equipment maintenance, a Portable Sampling Station (PSS), wireless in-cell cameras, and new commercially available sampling technology has been designed, developed and/or adapted and tested. The uniqueness of the design(s), the results of the scoping tests, and the benefits relative to in-cell operation and reduction of waste are presented

  3. Characterization of high level nuclear waste glass samples following extended melter idling

    Fox, K.

    2015-06-16

    The Savannah River Site Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter was recently idled with glass remaining in the melt pool and riser for approximately three months. This situation presented a unique opportunity to collect and analyze glass samples since outages of this duration are uncommon. The objective of this study was to obtain insight into the potential for crystal formation in the glass resulting from an extended idling period. The results will be used to support development of a crystal-tolerant approach for operation of the high level waste melter at the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Two glass pour stream samples were collected from DWPF when the melter was restarted after idling for three months. The samples did not contain crystallization that was detectible by X-ray diffraction. Electron microscopy identified occasional spinel and noble metal crystals of no practical significance. Occasional platinum particles were observed by microscopy as an artifact of the sample collection method. Reduction/oxidation measurements showed that the pour stream glasses were fully oxidized, which was expected after the extended idling period. Chemical analysis of the pour stream glasses revealed slight differences in the concentrations of some oxides relative to analyses of the melter feed composition prior to the idling period. While these differences may be within the analytical error of the laboratories, the trends indicate that there may have been some amount of volatility associated with some of the glass components, and that there may have been interaction of the glass with the refractory components of the melter. These changes in composition, although small, can be attributed to the idling of the melter for an extended period. The changes in glass composition resulted in a 70-100 °C increase in the predicted spinel liquidus temperature (TL) for the pour stream glass samples relative to the analysis of the melter feed prior to

  4. Actual Situation and Further Development of Interim Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) and Highly Active Waste (HAW) from the View of the Competent Authority in the Field of section 6

    According to the German atomic law the storage of nuclear material has to be licensed following section 6 by the competent authority in this field, which is the Federal Office for Radiation Protection. Interim storage in its actual form started in 2002 in the interim storage facility next to the NPP Lingen. Since this time each NPP erected its own storage facilities and three central storage facilities have been built. The spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and the vitrified high level waste (HAW) will be stored there until final disposal. The time span from now on to the point of opening of a final disposal facility shall be presented from a regulators point of view, divided into different phase which could spread from years to decades. Special attention shall be drawn on the different aspects influencing the licensing process and its duration at the moment and in future including the capabilities of the competent authority. (authors)

  5. Adaptive sampling strategy support for the unlined chromic acid pit, chemical waste landfill, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    Johnson, R.L.

    1993-11-01

    Adaptive sampling programs offer substantial savings in time and money when assessing hazardous waste sites. Key to some of these savings is the ability to adapt a sampling program to the real-time data generated by an adaptive sampling program. This paper presents a two-prong approach to supporting adaptive sampling programs: a specialized object-oriented database/geographical information system (SitePlanner{trademark} ) for data fusion, management, and display and combined Bayesian/geostatistical methods (PLUME) for contamination-extent estimation and sample location selection. This approach is applied in a retrospective study of a subsurface chromium plume at Sandia National Laboratories` chemical waste landfill. Retrospective analyses suggest the potential for characterization cost savings on the order of 60% through a reduction in the number of sampling programs, total number of soil boreholes, and number of samples analyzed from each borehole.

  6. Determination of 63Ni and 55Fe in nuclear waste samples using radiochemical separation and liquid scintillation counting

    Hou, Xiaolin; Frøsig Østergaard, L.; Nielsen, S.P.

    2005-01-01

    An analytical method for the determination of Ni-63 and Fe-55 in nuclear waste samples such as graphite, heavy concrete, aluminium and lead was developed. Different decomposition methods (i.e. ashing, acid digestion and alkali fusion) were investigated for the decomposition of the samples...

  7. Rapid separation of nickel for 59Ni and 63Ni activity measurement in radioactive waste samples

    A separation procedure of Ni has been described for the quantification of 59Ni and 63Ni in radioactive wastes discharged from nuclear power plants and various research activities related to the nuclear fuel cycle. For a rapid separation of the Ni-nuclides in sixteen sample solutions in 0.2 M NH4-oxalate, a separation system composed of a peristaltic pump with sixteen channels and the same number of Ni-Resin columns was constructed. After sorption of the Ni-nuclides by sequentially passing 100 mL of the sample solution in 0.2 M NH4-oxalate, 130 mL of 0.1 M NH4-oxalate solution and 10 mL of deionized water as a wash into the columns, these were purely recovered by passing 10 mL of 9 M HCl into the Ni-Resin columns stacked in series on the anion exchange resin columns. The separation of the Ni-nuclides in sixteen sample solutions can be achieved within 7 h. The chemical yield of the proposed procedure is 92.3 ± 0.8 % (n = 5) and the gravimetric recovery in the preparation stage of the Ni-nuclide sources is also acceptable, 88.5 ± 1.3 % (n = 5). (author)

  8. Radiochemical methodologies applied to determination of zirconium isotopes in low-level waste samples from nuclear power plants

    The 93Zr determination in low-level radioactive wastes generated at nuclear power plants is an important issue for waste disposal purpose. This paper describes an analytical methodology developed for 93Zr determination based on selective separation using extractive resins associated with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and liquid scintillation counting (LSC) measurements. The 93Zr results obtained for waste samples were in a good agreement for both techniques and the detection limits of 0.045 μg L-1 and 0.05 Bq L-1 were obtained for ICP-MS and LSC techniques respectively. (author)

  9. INVESTIGATION OF THE TOTAL ORGANIC HALOGEN ANALYTICAL METHOD AT THE WASTE SAMPLING AND CHARACTERIZATION FACILITY

    JG DOUGLAS; HK MEZNARICH, PHD; JR OLSEN; GA ROSS PHD; M STAUFFER

    2009-02-13

    Total organic halogen (TOX) is used as a parameter to screen groundwater samples at the Hanford Site. Trending is done for each groundwater well, and changes in TOX and other screening parameters can lead to costly changes in the monitoring protocol. The Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility (WSCF) analyzes groundwater samples for TOX using the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) SW-S46 method 9020B (EPA 1996a). Samples from the Soil and Groundwater Remediation Project (SGRP) are submitted to the WSCF for analysis without information regarding the source of the sample; each sample is in essence a ''blind'' sample to the laboratory. Feedback from the SGRP indicated that some of the WSCF-generated TOX data from groundwater wells had a number of outlier values based on the historical trends (Anastos 200Sa). Additionally, analysts at WSCF observed inconsistent TOX results among field sample replicates. Therefore, the WSCF lab performed an investigation of the TOX analysis to determine the cause of the outlier data points. Two causes were found that contributed to generating out-of-trend TOX data: (1) The presence of inorganic chloride in the groundwater samples: at inorganic chloride concentrations greater than about 10 parts per million (ppm), apparent TOX values increase with increasing chloride concentration. A parallel observation is the increase in apparent breakthrough of TOX from the first to the second activated-carbon adsorption tubes with increasing inorganic chloride concentration. (2) During the sample preparation step, excessive purging of the adsorption tubes with oxygen pressurization gas after sample loading may cause channeling in the activated carbon bed. This channeling leads to poor removal of inorganic chloride during the subsequent wash step with aqueous potassium nitrate. The presence of this residual inorganic chloride then produces erroneously high TOX values. Changes in sample preparation were studied

  10. Radionuclide release from simulated waste material after biogeochemical leaching of uraniferous mineral samples

    Biogeochemical mineral dissolution is a promising method for the released of metals in low-grade host mineralization that contain sulphidic minerals. The application of biogeochemical mineral dissolution to engineered leach heap piles in the Elliot Lake region may be considered as a promising passive technology for the economic recovery of low grade Uranium-bearing ores. In the current investigation, the decrease of radiological activity of uraniferous mineral material after biogeochemical mineral dissolution is quantified by gamma spectroscopy and compared to the results from digestion/ICP-MS analysis of the ore materials to determine if gamma spectroscopy is a simple, viable alternative quantification method for heavy nuclides. The potential release of Uranium (U) and Radium-226 (226Ra) to the aqueous environment from samples that have been treated to represent various stages of leaching and passive closure processes are assessed. Dissolution of U from the solid phase has occurred during biogeochemical mineral dissolution in the presence of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, with gamma spectroscopy indicating an 84% decrease in Uranium-235 (235U) content, a value in accordance with the data obtained by dissolution chemistry. Gamma spectroscopy data indicate that only 30% of the 226Ra was removed during the biogeochemical mineral dissolution. Chemical inhibition and passivation treatments of waste materials following the biogeochemical mineral dissolution offer greater protection against residual U and 226Ra leaching. Pacified samples resist the release of 226Ra contained in the mineral phase and may offer more protection to the aqueous environment for the long term, compared to untreated or inhibited residues, and should be taken into account for future decommissioning. - Highlights: • Gamma counting showed an 84% decrease in 235U after biogeochemical mineral leaching. • Chemical digestion/ICP-MS analysis also showed an 84% decrease in total U. • Over 70% of

  11. Sampling and analyses of colloids at the Drigg low level radioactive waste disposal site.

    Warwick, P; Allinson, S; Beckett, K; Eilbeck, A; Fairhurst, A; Russel-Flint, K; Verrall, K

    2002-04-01

    Water samples have been extracted from inside (from standpipes) and from outside (from boreholes) of the trenches at the low level radioactive waste disposal site at Drigg in Cumbria, UK. The samples were taken anaerobically from between 8.5 and 10.0 m below the surface using a submersible pump at low flow rates to ensure that the waters in the standpipes and boreholes were maintained at constant levels. To ensure representative samples, the Eh, pH. conductivity, temperature, iron and dissolved oxygen concentrations of the waters were taken during initial purging and during sampling. The gross tritium, gross non-tritium beta, gross alpha and gamma activities of each sample were determined using suitable sample preparation and counting techniques. Samples were then anaerobically, sequentially filtered through 12 microm, 1 microm, 30 kDa and 500 Da filter membranes. The filtrates were analysed for gross alpha, gross non-tritium beta and gamma activities. SEM and STEM analyses were used to determine the colloid population. An energy dispersive analyser on the SEM was used to determine the major elements present in the colloids. UV-visible spectrophotometry, fluorescence spectrophotometry and high performance size exclusion liquid chromatography were used to analyse the waters before and after treatment with ion exchange materials to determine whether natural organic matter was present in the waters. Results showed that two major types of colloids (iron containing colloids and silicon containing colloids) were present in the waters. There were also a small number of other colloids that contain, as major elements, aluminium, calcium and chromium. Organic colloids were also present. The majority of the radioactivity in the waters was due to tritium. Waters taken from outside the trenches contained low levels of non-tritium beta activities and alpha activities which were lower than the minimum detectable amount. Waters taken from the trenches contained non-tritium beta

  12. Vapor space characterization of waste Tank 241-BY-108: Results from in situ sample collected on March 24, 1994. Waste Tank Vapor Project

    This document presents the details of the organic analysis that was performed on samples from the headspace of Hanford waste tank 241-BY-108. The results described were obtained to support the safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for the organic analytes is included, as well as, a detailed description of the results which appears in the text

  13. Sampling of drinking, ground and waste waters as well as of sewage sludge, residual materials and waste

    The quality of measuring results and the correctness of estimations based on them are essentially determined by the quality of sampling. Therefore it must be assured by careful sampling performed by well trained personnel that representative and comparable samples are taken at the different sampling places. Important influential factors for sampling points and samples themselves have to be determined and documented during sampling. Attention has to be paid above all to a clear description of the sampling place and sampled material and to an unmistakable labelling of the sample. (orig./DG)

  14. Passive and active soil gas sampling at the Mixed Waste Landfill, Technical Area III, Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico

    The Environmental Restoration Project at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico is tasked with assessing and remediating the Mixed Waste Landfill in Technical Area III. The Mixed Waste Landfill is a 2.6 acre, inactive radioactive and mixed waste disposal site. In 1993 and 1994, an extensive passive and active soil gas sampling program was undertaken to identify and quantify volatile organic compounds in the subsurface at the landfill. Passive soil gas surveys identified levels of PCE, TCE, 1,1, 1-TCA, toluene, 1,1,2-trichlorotrifluoroethane, dichloroethyne, and acetone above background. Verification by active soil gas sampling confirmed concentrations of PCE, TCE, 1,1,1-TCA, and 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane at depths of 10 and 30 feet below ground surface. In addition, dichlorodifluoroethane and trichlorofluoromethane were detected during active soil gas sampling. All of the volatile organic compounds detected during the active soil gas survey were present in the low ppb range

  15. Arsenic pollution and fractionation in sediments and mine waste samples from different mine sites

    A characterization of arsenic pollution and its associations with solid mineral phases in sediments and spoil heap samples from four different abandoned mines in Spain is performed. Three of them were mercury mines located in the same mining district, in the province of Asturias, and the other one, devoted to arsenic mining, is in the province of León. A sequential extraction procedure, especially developed for arsenic, was applied for the study of arsenic partitioning. Very high total arsenic concentrations ranging 300–67,000 mg·kg−1 were found. Arsenic fractionation in each mine is broadly in accordance with the mineralogy of the area and the extent of the mine workings. In almost all the studied samples, arsenic appeared predominantly associated with iron oxyhydroxides, especially in the amorphous form. Sediments from cinnabar roasted piles showed a higher arsenic mobility as a consequence of an intense ore treatment, posing an evident risk of arsenic spread to the surroundings. Samples belonging to waste piles where the mining activity was less intense presented a higher proportion of arsenic associated with structural minerals. Nevertheless, it represents a long-term source of arsenic to the environment. - Highlights: ► Arsenic fractionation in sediments from different mining areas is evaluated. ► A sequential extraction scheme especially designed for arsenic partitioning is applied. ► As associations with mineral pools is in accordance to the mineralogy of each area. ► As distribution and mobility in each area depends on the extent of mining activity. ► As occurs mainly associated with amorphous iron oxyhydroxides in all samples.

  16. Arsenic pollution and fractionation in sediments and mine waste samples from different mine sites

    Larios, Raquel; Fernandez-Martinez, Rodolfo [Unidad de Espectroscopia, Division de Quimica, Departamento de Tecnologia, CIEMAT. Av. Complutense, 40, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Alvarez, Rodrigo [Dpto. de Explotacion y Prospeccion de Minas, Universidad de Oviedo, ETS de Ingenieros de Minas, C/Independencia, 13, E-33004 Oviedo (Spain); Rucandio, Isabel, E-mail: isabel.rucandio@ciemat.es [Unidad de Espectroscopia, Division de Quimica, Departamento de Tecnologia, CIEMAT. Av. Complutense, 40, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-08-01

    A characterization of arsenic pollution and its associations with solid mineral phases in sediments and spoil heap samples from four different abandoned mines in Spain is performed. Three of them were mercury mines located in the same mining district, in the province of Asturias, and the other one, devoted to arsenic mining, is in the province of Leon. A sequential extraction procedure, especially developed for arsenic, was applied for the study of arsenic partitioning. Very high total arsenic concentrations ranging 300-67,000 mg{center_dot}kg{sup -1} were found. Arsenic fractionation in each mine is broadly in accordance with the mineralogy of the area and the extent of the mine workings. In almost all the studied samples, arsenic appeared predominantly associated with iron oxyhydroxides, especially in the amorphous form. Sediments from cinnabar roasted piles showed a higher arsenic mobility as a consequence of an intense ore treatment, posing an evident risk of arsenic spread to the surroundings. Samples belonging to waste piles where the mining activity was less intense presented a higher proportion of arsenic associated with structural minerals. Nevertheless, it represents a long-term source of arsenic to the environment. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Arsenic fractionation in sediments from different mining areas is evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A sequential extraction scheme especially designed for arsenic partitioning is applied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer As associations with mineral pools is in accordance to the mineralogy of each area. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer As distribution and mobility in each area depends on the extent of mining activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer As occurs mainly associated with amorphous iron oxyhydroxides in all samples.

  17. Sampling and analysis of radioactive liquid wastes and sludges in the Melton Valley and evaporator facility storage tanks at ORNL

    Sears, M.B.; Botts, J.L.; Ceo, R.N.; Ferrada, J.J.; Griest, W.H.; Keller, J.M.; Schenley, R.L.

    1990-09-01

    The sampling and analysis of the radioactive liquid wastes and sludges in the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVSTs), as well as two of the evaporator service facility storage tanks at ORNL, are described. Aqueous samples of the supernatant liquid and composite samples of the sludges were analyzed for major constituents, radionuclides, total organic carbon, and metals listed as hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Liquid samples from five tanks and sludge samples from three tanks were analyzed for organic compounds on the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Target Compound List. Estimates were made of the inventory of liquid and sludge phases in the tanks. Descriptions of the sampling and analytical activities and tabulations of the results are included. The report provides data in support of the design of the proposed Waste Handling and Packaging Plant, the Liquid Low-Level Waste Solidification Project, and research and development activities (R D) activities in developing waste management alternatives. 7 refs., 8 figs., 16 tabs.

  18. Determining the number of samples required for decisions concerning remedial actions at hazardous waste sites

    The processing of collecting, analyzing, and assessing the data needed to make to make decisions concerning the cleanup of hazardous waste sites is quite complex and often very expensive. This is due to the many elements that must be considered during remedial investigations. The decision maker must have sufficient data to determine the potential risks to human health and the environment and to verify compliance with regulatory requirements, given the availability of resources allocated for a site, and time constraints specified for the completion of the decision making process. It is desirable to simplify the remedial investigation procedure as much as possible to conserve both time and resources while, simultaneously, minimizing the probability of error associated with each decision to be made. With this in mind, it is necessary to have a practical and statistically valid technique for estimating the number of on-site samples required to ''guarantee'' that the correct decisions are made with a specified precision and confidence level. Here, we will examine existing methodologies and then develop our own approach for determining a statistically defensible sample size based on specific guidelines that have been established for the risk assessment process

  19. The cytotoxic and genetoxic effects of dust and soil samples from E-waste recycling area on L02 cells.

    Wang, Liulin; Hou, Meiling; An, Jing; Zhong, Yufang; Wang, Xuetong; Wang, Yangjun; Wu, Minghong; Bi, Xinhui; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo

    2011-10-01

    Electrical and electronic waste (E-waste) has now become the fastest growing solid waste around the world. Primitive recycling operations for E-waste have resulted in severe contamination of toxic metals and organic chemicals in the related areas. In this study, six dust and soil samples collected from E-waste recycling workshops and open-burning sites in Longtang were analyzed to investigate their cytotoxicity and genotoxicity on L02 cells. These six samples were: dust No. 1 collected at the gate of the workshop; dust No. 2 collected from air conditioning compressor dismantling site; dust No. 3 collected from where some motors, wires, and aluminium products since the 1980s were dismantled; soil No. 1 collected at the circuit board acid washing site; soil No. 2 collected from a wire open-burning site; soil No. 3 collected near a fiber open-burning site. At the same time, two control soil samples were collected from farmlands approximately 8 km away from the dismantling workshops. The results showed that all of these samples could inhibit cell proliferation and cause cell membrane lesion, among which dust No. 3 and soil No. 2 had the strongest toxicity. Moreover, the comet assay showed that the dust No. 3 had the most significant capability to cause DNA single-strand beaks (SSB), while the road dust (dust No. 1) collected at the gate of the workshop, a relatively farer site, showed the slightest capability to induce DNA SSB. The intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) detection showed that ROS level was elevated with the increase of dust and soil samples concentration. Dust No. 3 and soil No. 2 had the highest ROS level, followed by dust No. 2 and 1, soil No. 3 and 1. All of the above results indicated that polluted soil and dust from the E-waste area had cytotoxicity and genotoxicity on L02 cells, the mechanism might involve the increased ROS level and consequent DNA SSB. PMID:21421680

  20. DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY ANALYTICAL METHOD VERIFICATION FOR THE SLUDGE BATCH 5 QUALIFICATION SAMPLE

    Click, D; Tommy Edwards, T; Henry Ajo, H

    2008-07-25

    For each sludge batch that is processed in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performs confirmation of the applicability of the digestion method to be used by the DWPF lab for elemental analysis of Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) receipt samples and SRAT product process control samples. DWPF SRAT samples are typically dissolved using a room temperature HF-HNO3 acid dissolution (i.e., DWPF Cold Chem Method, see Procedure SW4-15.201) and then analyzed by inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). This report contains the results and comparison of data generated from performing the Aqua Regia (AR), Sodium Peroxide/Hydroxide Fusion (PF) and DWPF Cold Chem (CC) method digestion of Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) SRAT Receipt and SB5 SRAT Product samples. The SB5 SRAT Receipt and SB5 SRAT Product samples were prepared in the SRNL Shielded Cells, and the SRAT Receipt material is representative of the sludge that constitutes the SB5 Batch composition. This is the sludge in Tank 51 that is to be transferred into Tank 40, which will contain the heel of Sludge Batch 4 (SB4), to form the SB5 Blend composition. The results for any one particular element should not be used in any way to identify the form or speciation of a particular element in the sludge or used to estimate ratios of compounds in the sludge. A statistical comparison of the data validates the use of the DWPF CC method for SB5 Batch composition. However, the difficulty that was encountered in using the CC method for SB4 brings into question the adequacy of CC for the SB5 Blend. Also, it should be noted that visible solids remained in the final diluted solutions of all samples digested by this method at SRNL (8 samples total), which is typical for the DWPF CC method but not seen in the other methods. Recommendations to the DWPF for application to SB5 based on studies to date: (1) A dissolution study should be performed on the WAPS

  1. Polyphenolic Content In Olive Oil Waste Waters And Related Olive Samples.

    Mulinacci, N; Romani, A; C. Galardi; P. Pinelli; C. GIACCHERINI; F. F. VINCIERI

    2001-01-01

    The production of olive oil yields a considerable amount of waste water, which is a powerful pollutant and is currently discarded. Polyphenols and other natural antioxidants, extracted from olives during oil extraction process, partially end up in the waste waters. Experimental and commercial olive oil waste waters from four Mediterranean countries were analyzed for a possible recovering of these biologically interesting constituents. Identification and quantitation of the main po...

  2. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-U-112: Results from samples collected on 7/09/96

    Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Thomas, B.L.; Olsen, K.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Silvers, K.L.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-U-112 at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company.

  3. Radioactive and Chemical Waste Characterization, Segregation, and Remedial Action at the Fusrap Middlesex Sampling Plant Site

    The challenge of the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) designated Middlesex Sampling Plant (MSP) site is to economically meet the clean up criteria for both radiological and chemical hazards present. The goal is to ensure the site is remediated in accordance with the Record of Decision (ROD), while at the same time minimizing waste generation and maintaining the lowest disposal costs possible. This paper describes the results achieved to date during remediation activities. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) contracted ECC as the prime contractor to perform the remediation. The project is being performed under a Performance Based task order utilizing design-build processes. ECC has utilized multiple screening processes to first segregate and minimize the amount of material that needs to be handled as radioactive material, and secondly to segregate and minimize the amount of material that needs to be handled as hazardous. This process is allowing ECC to meet the cleanup criteria while minimizing cost. (authors)

  4. Radionuclide release from simulated waste material after biogeochemical leaching of uraniferous mineral samples.

    Williamson, Aimee Lynn; Caron, François; Spiers, Graeme

    2014-12-01

    Biogeochemical mineral dissolution is a promising method for the released of metals in low-grade host mineralization that contain sulphidic minerals. The application of biogeochemical mineral dissolution to engineered leach heap piles in the Elliot Lake region may be considered as a promising passive technology for the economic recovery of low grade Uranium-bearing ores. In the current investigation, the decrease of radiological activity of uraniferous mineral material after biogeochemical mineral dissolution is quantified by gamma spectroscopy and compared to the results from digestion/ICP-MS analysis of the ore materials to determine if gamma spectroscopy is a simple, viable alternative quantification method for heavy nuclides. The potential release of Uranium (U) and Radium-226 ((226)Ra) to the aqueous environment from samples that have been treated to represent various stages of leaching and passive closure processes are assessed. Dissolution of U from the solid phase has occurred during biogeochemical mineral dissolution in the presence of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, with gamma spectroscopy indicating an 84% decrease in Uranium-235 ((235)U) content, a value in accordance with the data obtained by dissolution chemistry. Gamma spectroscopy data indicate that only 30% of the (226)Ra was removed during the biogeochemical mineral dissolution. Chemical inhibition and passivation treatments of waste materials following the biogeochemical mineral dissolution offer greater protection against residual U and (226)Ra leaching. Pacified samples resist the release of (226)Ra contained in the mineral phase and may offer more protection to the aqueous environment for the long term, compared to untreated or inhibited residues, and should be taken into account for future decommissioning. PMID:24726552

  5. Application of ICP-MS radionuclide analysis to 'Real World' samples of Department of Energy radioactive waste

    Disposal of Department of Energy (DOE) radioactive waste into repositories such as the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and the Nevada Test Site (NTS) requires characterization to ensure regulatory and transportation requirements are met and to collect information regarding chemistry of the waste for processing concerns. Recent addition of an inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometer in a radioactive contaminated laboratory at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has allowed the evaluation of advantages of using ICP-MS over traditional techniques for some of these characterization needs. The measurement of long-lived beta nuclides (i.e. 99Tc) by ICP-MS has resulted in improved detection limits and accuracy than the traditional counting techniques as well as reducing the need for separation/purification techniques which increase personnel exposure to radiation. Using ICP-MS for the measurement of U isotopes versus the traditional Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometer (TIMS) technique has reduced cost and time by more than half while still maintaining the needed accuracy to determine risk assessment of the waste tanks. In addition, the application of ICP-MS to ORNL waste tank characterization has provided the opportunity to estimate non-routine radionuclides (i.e. 135Cs and 151Sm) and non-routine metals (i.e. Li, Ti, rare earths, etc.) using a rapid low cost screening method. These application methodologies and proficiencies on ORNL waste samples are summarized throughout the paper. (author)

  6. A One System Integrated Approach to Simulant Selection for Hanford High Level Waste Mixing and Sampling Tests

    Thien, Mike G. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, Richland, WA (United States); Barnes, Steve M. [URS, Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-01-17

    The Hanford Tank Operations Contractor (TOC) and the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) contractor are both engaged in demonstrating mixing, sampling, and transfer system capabilities using simulated Hanford High-Level Waste (HLW) formulations. This represents one of the largest remaining technical issues with the high-level waste treatment mission at Hanford. Previous testing has focused on very specific TOC or WTP test objectives and consequently the simulants were narrowly focused on those test needs. A key attribute in the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 2010-2 is to ensure testing is performed with a simulant that represents the broad spectrum of Hanford waste. The One System Integrated Project Team is a new joint TOC and WTP organization intended to ensure technical integration of specific TOC and WTP systems and testing. A new approach to simulant definition has been mutually developed that will meet both TOC and WTP test objectives for the delivery and receipt of HLW. The process used to identify critical simulant characteristics, incorporate lessons learned from previous testing, and identify specific simulant targets that ensure TOC and WTP testing addresses the broad spectrum of Hanford waste characteristics that are important to mixing, sampling, and transfer performance are described.

  7. A One System Integrated Approach to Simulant Selection for Hanford High Level Waste Mixing and Sampling Tests

    The Hanford Tank Operations Contractor (TOC) and the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) contractor are both engaged in demonstrating mixing, sampling, and transfer system capabilities using simulated Hanford High-Level Waste (HLW) formulations. This represents one of the largest remaining technical issues with the high-level waste treatment mission at Hanford. Previous testing has focused on very specific TOC or WTP test objectives and consequently the simulants were narrowly focused on those test needs. A key attribute in the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 2010-2 is to ensure testing is performed with a simulant that represents the broad spectrum of Hanford waste. The One System Integrated Project Team is a new joint TOC and WTP organization intended to ensure technical integration of specific TOC and WTP systems and testing. A new approach to simulant definition has been mutually developed that will meet both TOC and WTP test objectives for the delivery and receipt of HLW. The process used to identify critical simulant characteristics, incorporate lessons learned from previous testing, and identify specific simulant targets that ensure TOC and WTP testing addresses the broad spectrum of Hanford waste characteristics that are important to mixing, sampling, and transfer performance are described

  8. Vapor space characterization of waste tank 241-TY-101 (in situ): Results from samples collected on August 5, 1994. Waste Tank Vapor Program

    This document presents the details of the inorganic and organic analysis that was performed on samples from the headspace of Hanford waste tank 241-TY-101. The results described were obtained to support the safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for the inorganic and organic analytes is included, as well as, a detailed description of the results which appears in the text

  9. Waste Tank Vapor Program: Vapor space characterization of waste tank 241; C-102: Results from samples collected on August 23, 1994

    This document presents the details of the inorganic and organic analysis that was performed on samples from the headspace of Hanford waste tank 241-C-102. The results described were obtained to support the safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for the inorganic and organic analytes is included, as well as, a detailed description of the results which appears in the text

  10. Sample preparation of drinking, ground and waste water as well as of sewage sludge, residual materials and wastes

    The primary objective of the preparation of water and sewage sludge samples consists in reducing the volume of the sample aimed at increasing their activity concentration or specific activity, that means the radionuclide(s) to be determined are to be enriched in the sample in order to reduce the detection limit. As a rule, a simplified preparation procedure may be used, such as evaporation of water samples, drying of sludge samples, because the determination of nuclides by means of gamma spectroscopy is performed parallely and undisturbedly. It is also usual to combine different preparation procedures, e.g. to evaporate a water sample converting it into a measuring preparation in filter geometry for gamma spectroscopy, and further converting it into an yttrium-90 measuring preparation in order to determine strontium-90 via the daughter nuclide. (orig./DG)