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Sample records for activity trial adapt

  1. Adaptive trial designs.

    Lai, Tze Leung; Lavori, Philip William; Shih, Mei-Chiung

    2012-01-01

    We review adaptive designs for clinical trials, giving special attention to the control of the Type I error in late-phase confirmatory trials, when the trial planner wishes to adjust the final sample size of the study in response to an unblinded analysis of interim estimates of treatment effects. We point out that there is considerable inefficiency in using the adaptive designs that employ conditional power calculations to reestimate the sample size and that maintain the Type I error by using certain weighted test statistics. Although these adaptive designs have little advantage over familiar group-sequential designs, our review also describes recent developments in adaptive designs that are both flexible and efficient. We also discuss the use of Bayesian designs, when the context of use demands control over operating characteristics (Type I and II errors) and correction of the bias of estimated treatment effects. PMID:21838549

  2. An adaptive physical activity intervention for overweight adults: a randomized controlled trial.

    Marc A Adams

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA interventions typically include components or doses that are static across participants. Adaptive interventions are dynamic; components or doses change in response to short-term variations in participant's performance. Emerging theory and technologies make adaptive goal setting and feedback interventions feasible. OBJECTIVE: To test an adaptive intervention for PA based on Operant and Behavior Economic principles and a percentile-based algorithm. The adaptive intervention was hypothesized to result in greater increases in steps per day than the static intervention. METHODS: Participants (N = 20 were randomized to one of two 6-month treatments: 1 static intervention (SI or 2 adaptive intervention (AI. Inactive overweight adults (85% women, M = 36.9 ± 9.2 years, 35% non-white in both groups received a pedometer, email and text message communication, brief health information, and biweekly motivational prompts. The AI group received daily step goals that adjusted up and down based on the percentile-rank algorithm and micro-incentives for goal attainment. This algorithm adjusted goals based on a moving window; an approach that responded to each individual's performance and ensured goals were always challenging but within participants' abilities. The SI group received a static 10,000 steps/day goal with incentives linked to uploading the pedometer's data. RESULTS: A random-effects repeated-measures model accounted for 180 repeated measures and autocorrelation. After adjusting for covariates, the treatment phase showed greater steps/day relative to the baseline phase (p<.001 and a group by study phase interaction was observed (p  .017. The SI group increased by 1,598 steps/day on average between baseline and treatment while the AI group increased by 2,728 steps/day on average between baseline and treatment; a significant between-group difference of 1,130 steps/day (Cohen's d = .74. CONCLUSIONS: The adaptive

  3. Alberta Diabetes and Physical Activity Trial (ADAPT: A randomized theory-based efficacy trial for adults with type 2 diabetes - rationale, design, recruitment, evaluation, and dissemination

    Birkett Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The primary aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of three physical activity (PA behavioural intervention strategies in a sample of adults with type 2 diabetes. Method/Design Participants (N = 287 were randomly assigned to one of three groups consisting of the following intervention strategies: (1 standard printed PA educational materials provided by the Canadian Diabetes Association [i.e., Group 1/control group]; (2 standard printed PA educational materials as in Group 1, pedometers, a log book and printed PA information matched to individuals' PA stage of readiness provided every 3 months (i.e., Group 2; and (3 PA telephone counseling protocol matched to PA stage of readiness and tailored to personal characteristics, in addition to the materials provided in Groups 1 and 2 (i.e., Group 3. PA behaviour measured by the Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire and related social-cognitive measures were assessed at baseline, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 18-months (i.e., 6-month follow-up. Clinical (biomarkers and health-related quality of life assessments were conducted at baseline, 12-months, and 18-months. Linear Mixed Model (LMM analyses will be used to examine time-dependent changes from baseline across study time points for Groups 2 and 3 relative to Group 1. Discussion ADAPT will determine whether tailored but low-cost interventions can lead to sustainable increases in PA behaviours. The results may have implications for practitioners in designing and implementing theory-based physical activity promotion programs for this population. Clinical Trials Registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00221234

  4. Physical performance and self-report outcomes associated with use of passive, adaptive, and active prosthetic knees in persons with unilateral, transfemoral amputation: Randomized crossover trial

    Brian J. Hafner, PhD

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Prosthetic knees are a vital component in an artificial limb. Contemporary knees include passive (mechanical, adaptive (computerized, or active (motorized control systems and have the potential to mitigate amputation-related functional impairments and activity limitations. A 14 mo randomized crossover trial was conducted. Participants (n = 12, mean age = 58 yr were tested under three conditions: passive control (existing knee, adaptive control (Ossur Rheo Knee II, and active control (Ossur Power Knee II. Training and acclimation time were provided to participants in the adaptive and active knees. Outcome measures included indoor tests (Timed Up and Go test [TUG], stairs, and ramp, outdoor tests (walking course and perceived exertion, step activity monitor, self-report surveys (mobility, balance confidence, physical function, fatigue, and general health, and fall incidence. Mixed-effects linear regression modeling was used to evaluate data. Compared with passive control, adaptive control significantly improved comfortable TUG time (difference = 0.91 s, p = 0.001 and reported physical function (difference = 1.26 [T-score], p = 0.03. Active control significantly increased comfortable TUG, fast TUG, and ramp times (difference = 3.02, 2.66, and 0.96 s, respectively, all p < 0.03 and increased balance confidence (difference = 3.77, p = 0.003 compared with passive control. Findings suggest that adaptive knee control may enhance function compared with passive control but that active control can restrict mobility in middle-age or older users with transfemoral amputation.

  5. Practical considerations for adaptive trial design and implementation

    Pinheiro, José; Kuznetsova, Olga

    2014-01-01

    This edited volume is a definitive text on adaptive clinical trial designs from creation and customization to utilization. As this book covers the full spectrum of topics involved in the adaptive designs arena, it will serve as a valuable reference for researchers working in industry, government and academia. The target audience is anyone involved in the planning and execution of clinical trials, in particular, statisticians, clinicians, pharmacometricians, clinical operation specialists, drug supply managers, and infrastructure providers.  In spite of the increased efficiency of adaptive trials in saving costs and time, ultimately getting drugs to patients sooner, their adoption in clinical development is still relatively low.  One of the chief reasons is the higher complexity of adaptive design trials as compared to traditional trials. Barriers to the use of clinical trials with adaptive features include the concerns about the integrity of study design and conduct, the risk of regulatory non-acceptance, t...

  6. Two-stage adaptive designs in early phase clinical trials

    Xu, Jiajing; 徐佳静

    2013-01-01

    The primary goal of clinical trials is to collect enough scientific evidence for a new intervention. Despite the widespread use of equal randomization in clinical trials, response-adaptive randomization has attracted considerable interest in terms of ethical concerns. In this thesis, delayed response problems and innovative designs for cytostatic agents in oncology clinical trials are studied. There is typically a prerun of equal randomization before the implementation of response-adaptiv...

  7. The role of visual awareness for conflict adaptation in the masked priming task: Comparing block-wise adaptation with trial-by-trial adaptation

    Kunihiro eHasegawa

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the role of participants’ visual awareness in the block-wise and the trial-by-trial adaptations. We employed a subliminal response compatibility task in which a prime arrow was briefly presented before the target arrow, and the participants were requested to indicate the direction of the target arrow. The direction of the prime and direction of the target were either the same (compatible trial or different (incompatible trial. To examine block-wise adaptation, two blocks were conducted, i.e., the Neutral block (50% compatible and 50% incompatible trials and the Incompatible block (10% compatible and 90% incompatible trials. The results showed the existence of the block-wise adaptation without participants’ visual awareness. The compatibility effect on both response time and error rate was smaller in the Incompatible block than in the Neutral block. Moreover, a separate data analysis based on the preceding trial type revealed that the trial-by-trial adaptation of cognitive control was observed only in the error rate. These results suggest the different role of visual awareness in the block-wise and trial-by-trial adaptations.

  8. Interdisciplinarity in Adapted Physical Activity

    Bouffard, Marcel; Spencer-Cavaliere, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    It is commonly accepted that inquiry in adapted physical activity involves the use of different disciplines to address questions. It is often advanced today that complex problems of the kind frequently encountered in adapted physical activity require a combination of disciplines for their solution. At the present time, individual research…

  9. Group sequential and confirmatory adaptive designs in clinical trials

    Wassmer, Gernot

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an up-to-date review of the general principles of and techniques for confirmatory adaptive designs. Confirmatory adaptive designs are a generalization of group sequential designs. With these designs, interim analyses are performed in order to stop the trial prematurely under control of the Type I error rate. In adaptive designs, it is also permissible to perform a data-driven change of relevant aspects of the study design at interim stages. This includes, for example, a sample-size reassessment, a treatment-arm selection or a selection of a pre-specified sub-population. Essentially, this adaptive methodology was introduced in the 1990s. Since then, it has become popular and the object of intense discussion and still represents a rapidly growing field of statistical research. This book describes adaptive design methodology at an elementary level, while also considering designing and planning issues as well as methods for analyzing an adaptively planned trial. This includes estimation methods...

  10. Sequential monitoring of response-adaptive randomized clinical trials

    Zhu, Hongjian; 10.1214/10-AOS796

    2010-01-01

    Clinical trials are complex and usually involve multiple objectives such as controlling type I error rate, increasing power to detect treatment difference, assigning more patients to better treatment, and more. In literature, both response-adaptive randomization (RAR) procedures (by changing randomization procedure sequentially) and sequential monitoring (by changing analysis procedure sequentially) have been proposed to achieve these objectives to some degree. In this paper, we propose to sequentially monitor response-adaptive randomized clinical trial and study it's properties. We prove that the sequential test statistics of the new procedure converge to a Brownian motion in distribution. Further, we show that the sequential test statistics asymptotically satisfy the canonical joint distribution defined in Jennison and Turnbull (\\citeyearJT00). Therefore, type I error and other objectives can be achieved theoretically by selecting appropriate boundaries. These results open a door to sequentially monitor res...

  11. Trial-by-Trial Adaptation of Movements during Mental Practice under Force Field

    Muhammad Nabeel Anwar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Human nervous system tries to minimize the effect of any external perturbing force by bringing modifications in the internal model. These modifications affect the subsequent motor commands generated by the nervous system. Adaptive compensation along with the appropriate modifications of internal model helps in reducing human movement errors. In the current study, we studied how motor imagery influences trial-to-trial learning in a robot-based adaptation task. Two groups of subjects performed reaching movements with or without motor imagery in a velocity-dependent force field. The results show that reaching movements performed with motor imagery have relatively a more focused generalization pattern and a higher learning rate in training direction.

  12. Adaptive feedback active noise control

    Kuo, Sen M.; Vijayan, Dipa

    Feedforward active noise control (ANC) systems use a reference sensor that senses a reference input to the controller. This signal is assumed to be unaffected by the secondary source and is a good measure of the undesired noise to be cancelled by the system. The reference sensor may be acoustic (e.g., microphone) or non-acoustic (e.g., tachometer, optical transducer). An obvious problem when using acoustic sensors is that the reference signal may be corrupted by the canceling signal generated by the secondary source. This problem is known as acoustic feedback. One way of avoiding this is by using a feedback active noise control (FANC) system which dispenses with the reference sensor. The FANC technique originally proposed by Olson and May employs a high gain negative feedback amplifier. This system suffered from the drawback that the error microphone had to be placed very close to the loudspeaker. The operation of the system was restricted to low frequency range and suffered from instability due to the possibility of positive feedback. Feedback systems employing adaptive filtering techniques for active noise control were developed. This paper presents the FANC system modeled as an adaptive prediction scheme.

  13. Optimal adaptive two-stage designs for early phase II clinical trials.

    Shan, Guogen; Wilding, Gregory E; Hutson, Alan D; Gerstenberger, Shawn

    2016-04-15

    Simon's optimal two-stage design has been widely used in early phase clinical trials for Oncology and AIDS studies with binary endpoints. With this approach, the second-stage sample size is fixed when the trial passes the first stage with sufficient activity. Adaptive designs, such as those due to Banerjee and Tsiatis (2006) and Englert and Kieser (2013), are flexible in the sense that the second-stage sample size depends on the response from the first stage, and these designs are often seen to reduce the expected sample size under the null hypothesis as compared with Simon's approach. An unappealing trait of the existing designs is that they are not associated with a second-stage sample size, which is a non-increasing function of the first-stage response rate. In this paper, an efficient intelligent process, the branch-and-bound algorithm, is used in extensively searching for the optimal adaptive design with the smallest expected sample size under the null, while the type I and II error rates are maintained and the aforementioned monotonicity characteristic is respected. The proposed optimal design is observed to have smaller expected sample sizes compared to Simon's optimal design, and the maximum total sample size of the proposed adaptive design is very close to that from Simon's method. The proposed optimal adaptive two-stage design is recommended for use in practice to improve the flexibility and efficiency of early phase therapeutic development. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26526165

  14. Rationale and design of the Adapted Physical Activity in advanced Pancreatic Cancer patients (APACaP) GERCOR (Groupe Coopérateur Multidisciplinaire en Oncologie) trial: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Neuzillet, Cindy; Vergnault, Mathieu; Bonnetain, Franck; Hammel, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Background Exercise during chemotherapy is a promising strategy to reduce fatigue and improve health-related quality of life (HRQoL). It has been shown to be feasible and efficient in various cancers, including advanced-stage cancers. Effects of physical activity have never been explored in advanced pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). We aim to evaluate the effects of an exercise intervention in this setting. Methods This randomized, national, multicenter, interventional study will exami...

  15. Biomarker-Guided Adaptive Trial Designs in Phase II and Phase III: A Methodological Review.

    Miranta Antoniou

    Full Text Available Personalized medicine is a growing area of research which aims to tailor the treatment given to a patient according to one or more personal characteristics. These characteristics can be demographic such as age or gender, or biological such as a genetic or other biomarker. Prior to utilizing a patient's biomarker information in clinical practice, robust testing in terms of analytical validity, clinical validity and clinical utility is necessary. A number of clinical trial designs have been proposed for testing a biomarker's clinical utility, including Phase II and Phase III clinical trials which aim to test the effectiveness of a biomarker-guided approach to treatment; these designs can be broadly classified into adaptive and non-adaptive. While adaptive designs allow planned modifications based on accumulating information during a trial, non-adaptive designs are typically simpler but less flexible.We have undertaken a comprehensive review of biomarker-guided adaptive trial designs proposed in the past decade. We have identified eight distinct biomarker-guided adaptive designs and nine variations from 107 studies. Substantial variability has been observed in terms of how trial designs are described and particularly in the terminology used by different authors. We have graphically displayed the current biomarker-guided adaptive trial designs and summarised the characteristics of each design.Our in-depth overview provides future researchers with clarity in definition, methodology and terminology for biomarker-guided adaptive trial designs.

  16. Interdisciplinary Best Practices for Adapted Physical Activity

    Szostak, Rick

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to the literature on interdisciplinary research. It then draws lessons from that literature for the field of adapted physical activity. It is argued that adapted physical activity should be a self-consciously interdisciplinary field. It should insist that research be performed according to recognized…

  17. Catch trials in force field learning influence adaptation and consolidation of human motor memory

    Christian eStockinger

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Force field studies are a common tool to investigate motor adaptation and consolidation. Thereby, subjects usually adapt their reaching movements to force field perturbations induced by a robotic device. In this context, so-called catch trials, in which the disturbing forces are randomly turned off, are commonly used to detect after-effects of motor adaptation. However, catch trials also produce sudden large motor errors that might influence the motor adaptation and the consolidation process. Yet, the detailed influence is far from clear. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the influence of catch trials on motor adaptation and consolidation in force field experiments. Therefore, 105 subjects adapted their reaching movements to robot-generated force fields. The test groups adapted their reaching movements to a force field A followed by learning a second interfering force field B before retest of A (ABA. The control groups were not exposed to force field B (AA. To examine the influence of diverse catch trial ratios, subjects received catch trials during force field adaptation with a probability of either 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, or 40%, depending on the group. First, the results on motor adaptation revealed significant differences between the diverse catch trial ratio groups. With increasing amount of catch trials, the subjects’ motor performance decreased and subjects’ ability to accurately predict the force field – and therefore internal model formation – was impaired. Second, our results revealed that adapting with catch trials can influence the following consolidation process as indicated by a partial reduction to interference. Here, the optimal catch trial ratio was 30%. However, detection of consolidation seems to be biased by the applied measure of performance.

  18. Adaptation to sudden unexpected loading of the low back - the effects of repeated trials

    Skotte, J.H.; Fallentin, N.; Pedersen, Mogens Theisen;

    2004-01-01

    spinae muscles and trunk movement data were recorded during 10 trials for 19 subjects. The analysis included EMG reaction time, mean rectified EMG amplitude during the period 50-250 ms after the sudden loading, and time elapsed until stopping of the forward movement of the trunk (stopping time). Reaction...... time means ranged from 66 to 97 ms (79+/-9 ms), and no difference was found between the trials. Conversely, the mean stopping time for the first trial (468 ms) was significantly higher than for trials 3-10 (359- 371 ms), and the average EMG amplitude during the period 50-250 ms after the sudden loading...... was lower for the first trial. This study showed that some subjects adapted to sudden unexpected loadings of the low back through a reduction in stopping time and a progression in EMG response during the first few trials. This possible adaptation to repeated trials have been overlooked in previous...

  19. Adapted Behavior Therapy for Persistently Depressed Primary Care Patients: An Open Trial

    Uebelacker, Lisa A.; Weisberg, Risa B.; Haggarty, Ryan; Miller, Ivan W.

    2009-01-01

    Major depressive disorder is commonly treated in primary care settings. Psychotherapy occurring in primary care should take advantage of the unique aspects of the setting and must adapt to the problems and limitations of the setting. In this open trial, the authors used a treatment development model to adapt behavior therapy for primary care…

  20. A response adaptive randomization platform trial for efficient evaluation of Ebola virus treatments: A model for pandemic response.

    Berry, Scott M; Petzold, Elizabeth A; Dull, Peter; Thielman, Nathan M; Cunningham, Coleen K; Corey, G Ralph; McClain, Micah T; Hoover, David L; Russell, James; Griffiss, J McLeod; Woods, Christopher W

    2016-02-01

    The outbreak of Ebola virus disease in West Africa is the largest ever recorded. Numerous treatment alternatives for Ebola have been considered, including widely available repurposed drugs, but initiation of enrollment into clinical trials has been limited. The proposed trial is an adaptive platform design. Multiple agents and combinations will be investigated simultaneously. Additionally, new agents may enter the trial as they become available, and failing agents may be removed. In order to accommodate the many possible agents and combinations, a critical feature of this design is the use of response adaptive randomization to assign treatment regimens. As the trial progresses, the randomization ratio evolves to favor the arms that are performing better, making the design also suitable for all-cause pandemic preparedness planning. The study was approved by US and Sierra Leone ethics committees, and reviewed by the US Food and Drug Administration. Additionally, data management, drug supply lines, and local sites were prepared. However, in response to the declining epidemic seen in February 2015, the trial was not initiated. Sierra Leone remains ready to rapidly activate the protocol as an emergency response trial in the event of a resurgence of Ebola. (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02380625.) In summary, we have designed a single controlled trial capable of efficiently identifying highly effective or failing regimens among a rapidly evolving list of proposed therapeutic alternatives for Ebola virus disease and to treat the patients within the trial effectively based on accruing data. Provision of these regimens, if found safe and effective, would have a major impact on future epidemics by providing effective treatment options. PMID:26768569

  1. Adaptive trial designs: a review of barriers and opportunities

    Kairalla John A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Adaptive designs allow planned modifications based on data accumulating within a study. The promise of greater flexibility and efficiency stimulates increasing interest in adaptive designs from clinical, academic, and regulatory parties. When adaptive designs are used properly, efficiencies can include a smaller sample size, a more efficient treatment development process, and an increased chance of correctly answering the clinical question of interest. However, improper adaptations can lead to biased studies. A broad definition of adaptive designs allows for countless variations, which creates confusion as to the statistical validity and practical feasibility of many designs. Determining properties of a particular adaptive design requires careful consideration of the scientific context and statistical assumptions. We first review several adaptive designs that garner the most current interest. We focus on the design principles and research issues that lead to particular designs being appealing or unappealing in particular applications. We separately discuss exploratory and confirmatory stage designs in order to account for the differences in regulatory concerns. We include adaptive seamless designs, which combine stages in a unified approach. We also highlight a number of applied areas, such as comparative effectiveness research, that would benefit from the use of adaptive designs. Finally, we describe a number of current barriers and provide initial suggestions for overcoming them in order to promote wider use of appropriate adaptive designs. Given the breadth of the coverage all mathematical and most implementation details are omitted for the sake of brevity. However, the interested reader will find that we provide current references to focused reviews and original theoretical sources which lead to details of the current state of the art in theory and practice.

  2. Adapting Active Learning in Ethiopia

    Casale, Carolyn Frances

    2010-01-01

    Ethiopia is a developing country that has invested extensively in expanding its educational opportunities. In this expansion, there has been a drastic restructuring of its system of preparing teachers and teacher educators. Often, improving teacher quality is dependent on professional development that diversifies pedagogy (active learning). This…

  3. Adaptive control of active filter using DSP

    In order to reduce output-voltage ripple of power supply, an active filter is necessary. In this paper, the active filter with DSP is proposed. The waveform from active filter can be flexibly improved by DSP programming. The output-voltage ripple can be enough reduced by mixing frequency components of the input-voltage ripple. The result of adaptive control using LMS algorism is presented. The improvement by using filtered-X method is discussed. (author)

  4. Thyroid activity in heat adaptation

    The effect of acute and chronic (22 day round-the-clock) exposure to microenvironmental heat stress (37 deg C DBT) on thyroid activity was studied in Hariana x Holstein Frisian, Hariana x Brown Swiss and Hariana x Jersey non-cycling F1 crossbred heifers. Vis-a-vis their no-heat norms, the percentage uptake of tri-iodothyronine-125I by resin registered a steep fall (about 45 to 60 percent) on acute heat exposures reaching a minimum value in about 2 hrs. The levels started recouping by the 2nd day, plateuing out on the 5th day onwards at slightly subnormal level with up and down fluctuations throughout the three week duration of exposure to heat. There were no significant differences in the pattern or magnitude of response amongst breeds, though in case of Holstein Frisian and Brown Swiss cross-breds the levels of T3 tended, at times, to overshoot the no-stress norm. (author)

  5. Adaptive Piezoelectric Absorber for Active Vibration Control

    Sven Herold

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Passive vibration control solutions are often limited to working reliably at one design point. Especially applied to lightweight structures, which tend to have unwanted vibration, active vibration control approaches can outperform passive solutions. To generate dynamic forces in a narrow frequency band, passive single-degree-of-freedom oscillators are frequently used as vibration absorbers and neutralizers. In order to respond to changes in system properties and/or the frequency of excitation forces, in this work, adaptive vibration compensation by a tunable piezoelectric vibration absorber is investigated. A special design containing piezoelectric stack actuators is used to cover a large tuning range for the natural frequency of the adaptive vibration absorber, while also the utilization as an active dynamic inertial mass actuator for active control concepts is possible, which can help to implement a broadband vibration control system. An analytical model is set up to derive general design rules for the system. An absorber prototype is set up and validated experimentally for both use cases of an adaptive vibration absorber and inertial mass actuator. Finally, the adaptive vibration control system is installed and tested with a basic truss structure in the laboratory, using both the possibility to adjust the properties of the absorber and active control.

  6. Introduction of online adaptive radiotherapy for bladder cancer through a multicentre clinical trial (Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group 10.01: Lessons learned

    Daniel Pham

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Online adaptive radiotherapy for bladder cancer is a novel radiotherapy technique that was found feasible in a pilot study at a single academic institution. In September 2010 this technique was opened as a multicenter study through the Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group (TROG 10.01 bladder online adaptive radiotherapy treatment. Twelve centers across Australia and New-Zealand registered interest into the trial. A multidisciplinary team of radiation oncologists, radiation therapists and medical physicists represented the trial credentialing and technical support team. To provide timely activation and proper implementation of the adaptive technique the following key areas were addressed at each site: Staff education/training; Practical image guided radiotherapy assessment; provision of help desk and feedback. The trial credentialing process involved face-to-face training and technical problem solving via full day site visits. A dedicated "help-desk" team was developed to provide support for the clinical trial. 26% of the workload occurred at the credentialing period while the remaining 74% came post-center activation. The workload was made up of the following key areas; protocol clarification (36%, technical problems (46% while staff training was less than 10%. Clinical trial credentialing is important to minimizing trial deviations. It should not only focus on site activation quality assurance but also provide ongoing education and technical support.

  7. Introduction of online adaptive radiotherapy for bladder cancer through a multicentre clinical trial (Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group 10.01): lessons learned

    Online adaptive radiotherapy for bladder cancer is a novel radiotherapy technique that was found feasible in a pilot study at a single academic institution. In September 2010 this technique was opened as a multicenter study through the Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group (TROG 10.01 bladder online adaptive radiotherapy treatment). Twelve centers across Australia and New-Zealand registered interest into the trial. A multidisciplinary team of radiation oncologists, radiation therapists and medical physicists represented the trial credentialing and technical support team. To provide timely activation and proper implementation of the adaptive technique the following key areas were addressed at each site: Staff education/training; Practical image guided radiotherapy assessment; provision of help desk and feedback. The trial credentialing process involved face-to-face training and technical problem solving via full day site visits. A dedicated 'help-desk' team was developed to provide support for the clinical trial. 26% of the workload occurred at the credentialing period while the remaining 74% came post-center activation. The workload was made up of the following key areas; protocol clarification (36%), technical problems (46%) while staff training was less than 10%. Clinical trial credentialing is important to minimizing trial deviations. It should not only focus on site activation quality assurance but also provide ongoing education and technical support. (author)

  8. Between-Trial Forgetting Due to Interference and Time in Motor Adaptation.

    Sungshin Kim

    Full Text Available Learning a motor task with temporally spaced presentations or with other tasks intermixed between presentations reduces performance during training, but can enhance retention post training. These two effects are known as the spacing and contextual interference effect, respectively. Here, we aimed at testing a unifying hypothesis of the spacing and contextual interference effects in visuomotor adaptation, according to which forgetting between trials due to either spaced presentations or interference by another task will promote between-trial forgetting, which will depress performance during acquisition, but will promote retention. We first performed an experiment with three visuomotor adaptation conditions: a short inter-trial-interval (ITI condition (SHORT-ITI; a long ITI condition (LONG-ITI; and an alternating condition with two alternated opposite tasks (ALT, with the same single-task ITI as in LONG-ITI. In the SHORT-ITI condition, there was fastest increase in performance during training and largest immediate forgetting in the retention tests. In contrast, in the ALT condition, there was slowest increase in performance during training and little immediate forgetting in the retention tests. Compared to these two conditions, in the LONG-ITI, we found intermediate increase in performance during training and intermediate immediate forgetting. To account for these results, we fitted to the data six possible adaptation models with one or two time scales, and with interference in the fast, or in the slow, or in both time scales. Model comparison confirmed that two time scales and some degree of interferences in either time scale are needed to account for our experimental results. In summary, our results suggest that retention following adaptation is modulated by the degree of between-trial forgetting, which is due to time-based decay in single adaptation task and interferences in multiple adaptation tasks.

  9. Between-Trial Forgetting Due to Interference and Time in Motor Adaptation.

    Kim, Sungshin; Oh, Youngmin; Schweighofer, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Learning a motor task with temporally spaced presentations or with other tasks intermixed between presentations reduces performance during training, but can enhance retention post training. These two effects are known as the spacing and contextual interference effect, respectively. Here, we aimed at testing a unifying hypothesis of the spacing and contextual interference effects in visuomotor adaptation, according to which forgetting between trials due to either spaced presentations or interference by another task will promote between-trial forgetting, which will depress performance during acquisition, but will promote retention. We first performed an experiment with three visuomotor adaptation conditions: a short inter-trial-interval (ITI) condition (SHORT-ITI); a long ITI condition (LONG-ITI); and an alternating condition with two alternated opposite tasks (ALT), with the same single-task ITI as in LONG-ITI. In the SHORT-ITI condition, there was fastest increase in performance during training and largest immediate forgetting in the retention tests. In contrast, in the ALT condition, there was slowest increase in performance during training and little immediate forgetting in the retention tests. Compared to these two conditions, in the LONG-ITI, we found intermediate increase in performance during training and intermediate immediate forgetting. To account for these results, we fitted to the data six possible adaptation models with one or two time scales, and with interference in the fast, or in the slow, or in both time scales. Model comparison confirmed that two time scales and some degree of interferences in either time scale are needed to account for our experimental results. In summary, our results suggest that retention following adaptation is modulated by the degree of between-trial forgetting, which is due to time-based decay in single adaptation task and interferences in multiple adaptation tasks. PMID:26599075

  10. The Adaptive Optics Summer School Laboratory Activities

    Ammons, S Mark; Armstrong, J D; Crossfield, Ian; Do, Tuan; Fitzgerald, Mike; Harrington, David; Hickenbotham, Adam; Hunter, Jennifer; Johnson, Jess; Johnson, Luke; Li, Kaccie; Lu, Jessica; Maness, Holly; Morzinski, Katie; Norton, Andrew; Putnam, Nicole; Roorda, Austin; Rossi, Ethan; Yelda, Sylvana

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive Optics (AO) is a new and rapidly expanding field of instrumentation, yet astronomers, vision scientists, and general AO practitioners are largely unfamiliar with the root technologies crucial to AO systems. The AO Summer School (AOSS), sponsored by the Center for Adaptive Optics, is a week-long course for training graduate students and postdoctoral researchers in the underlying theory, design, and use of AO systems. AOSS participants include astronomers who expect to utilize AO data, vision scientists who will use AO instruments to conduct research, opticians and engineers who design AO systems, and users of high-bandwidth laser communication systems. In this article we describe new AOSS laboratory sessions implemented in 2006-2009 for nearly 250 students. The activity goals include boosting familiarity with AO technologies, reinforcing knowledge of optical alignment techniques and the design of optical systems, and encouraging inquiry into critical scientific questions in vision science using AO sys...

  11. Cytopathology whole slide images and adaptive tutorials for postgraduate pathology trainees: a randomized crossover trial.

    Van Es, Simone L; Kumar, Rakesh K; Pryor, Wendy M; Salisbury, Elizabeth L; Velan, Gary M

    2015-09-01

    To determine whether cytopathology whole slide images and virtual microscopy adaptive tutorials aid learning by postgraduate trainees, we designed a randomized crossover trial to evaluate the quantitative and qualitative impact of whole slide images and virtual microscopy adaptive tutorials compared with traditional glass slide and textbook methods of learning cytopathology. Forty-three anatomical pathology registrars were recruited from Australia, New Zealand, and Malaysia. Online assessments were used to determine efficacy, whereas user experience and perceptions of efficiency were evaluated using online Likert scales and open-ended questions. Outcomes of online assessments indicated that, with respect to performance, learning with whole slide images and virtual microscopy adaptive tutorials was equivalent to using traditional methods. High-impact learning, efficiency, and equity of learning from virtual microscopy adaptive tutorials were strong themes identified in open-ended responses. Participants raised concern about the lack of z-axis capability in the cytopathology whole slide images, suggesting that delivery of z-stacked whole slide images online may be important for future educational development. In this trial, learning cytopathology with whole slide images and virtual microscopy adaptive tutorials was found to be as effective as and perceived as more efficient than learning from glass slides and textbooks. The use of whole slide images and virtual microscopy adaptive tutorials has the potential to provide equitable access to effective learning from teaching material of consistently high quality. It also has broader implications for continuing professional development and maintenance of competence and quality assurance in specialist practice. PMID:26093936

  12. RARtool : A MATLAB Software Package for Designing Response-Adaptive Randomized Clinical Trials with Time-to-Event Outcomes

    Yevgen Ryeznik; Oleksandr Sverdlov; Weng Kee Wong

    2015-01-01

    Response-adaptive randomization designs are becoming increasingly popular in clinical trial practice. In this paper, we present RARtool, a user interface software developed in MATLAB for designing response-adaptive randomized comparative clinical trials with censored time-to-event outcomes. The RARtool software can compute different types of optimal treatment allocation designs, and it can simulate response-adaptive randomization procedures targeting selected optimal allocations. Through simu...

  13. An adaptive strategy for active debris removal

    White, Adam E.; Lewis, Hugh G.

    2014-04-01

    Many parameters influence the evolution of the near-Earth debris population, including launch, solar, explosion and mitigation activities, as well as other future uncertainties such as advances in space technology or changes in social and economic drivers that effect the utilisation of space activities. These factors lead to uncertainty in the long-term debris population. This uncertainty makes it difficult to identify potential remediation strategies, involving active debris removal (ADR), that will perform effectively in all possible future cases. Strategies that cannot perform effectively, because of this uncertainty, risk either not achieving their intended purpose, or becoming a hindrance to the efforts of spacecraft manufactures and operators to address the challenges posed by space debris. One method to tackle this uncertainty is to create a strategy that can adapt and respond to the space debris population. This work explores the concept of an adaptive strategy, in terms of the number of objects required to be removed by ADR, to prevent the low Earth orbit (LEO) debris population from growing in size. This was demonstrated by utilising the University of Southampton’s Debris Analysis and Monitoring Architecture to the Geosynchronous Environment (DAMAGE) tool to investigate ADR rates (number of removals per year) that change over time in response to the current space environment, with the requirement of achieving zero growth of the LEO population. DAMAGE was used to generate multiple Monte Carlo projections of the future LEO debris environment. Within each future projection, the debris removal rate was derived at five-year intervals, by a new statistical debris evolutionary model called the Computational Adaptive Strategy to Control Accurately the Debris Environment (CASCADE) model. CASCADE predicted the long-term evolution of the current DAMAGE population with a variety of different ADR rates in order to identify a removal rate that produced a zero net

  14. Cognitive Adaptation Training combined with assertive community treatment: A Randomised Longitudinal Trial

    Hounsgaard, Lise; Hansen, J. P.; Østergaard, B.;

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cognitive adaptation training (CAT) targets the adaptive behaviour of patients with schizophrenia and has shown promising results regarding the social aspects of psychosocial treatment. As yet, no reports have appeared on the use of CAT in combination with assertive community treatment...... (ACT). Our purpose was to evaluate the effect of CAT in comparison with ACT, focusing on social functions (primary outcome), symptoms, relapse, re-hospitalisation, and quality of life of outpatients with schizophrenia. METHODS: The trial was a parallel, randomised, multicentre trial conducted in three...... centres treating patients with a first episode of schizophrenia disorder. A total of 62 outpatients diagnosed as having schizophrenia were randomly assigned to CAT+ACT or ACT alone. The CAT was conducted in the patient's home and included instruction in prompting for specific actions. The treatment lasted...

  15. An open trial assessment of "The Number Race", an adaptive computer game for remediation of dyscalculia.

    Wilson, Anna,; Revkin, Susannah,; Cohen, David; Cohen, Laurent D.; Dehaene, Stanislas

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In a companion article 1, we described the development and evaluation of software designed to remediate dyscalculia. This software is based on the hypothesis that dyscalculia is due to a "core deficit" in number sense or in its access via symbolic information. Here we review the evidence for this hypothesis, and present results from an initial open-trial test of the software in a sample of nine 7-9 year old children with mathematical difficulties. METHODS: Children completed adapt...

  16. Adaptive radiotherapy for head and neck cancer—Dosimetric results from a prospective clinical trial

    Purpose: To conduct a clinical trial evaluating adaptive head and neck radiotherapy (ART). Methods: Patients with locally advanced oropharyngeal cancer were prospectively enrolled. Daily CT-guided setup and deformable image registration permitted mapping of dose to avoidance structures and CTVs. We compared four planning scenarios: (1) original IMRT plan aligned daily to marked isocenter (BB); (2) original plan aligned daily to bone (IGRT); (3) IGRT with one adaptive replan (ART1); and (4) actual treatment received by each study patient (IGRT with one or two adaptive replans, ART2). Results: All 22 study patients underwent one replan (ART1); eight patients had two replans (ART2). ART1 reduced mean dose to contralateral parotid by 0.6 Gy or 2.8% (paired t-test; p = 0.003) and ipsilateral parotid by 1.3 Gy (3.9%) (p = 0.002) over the IGRT alone. ART2 further reduced the mean contralateral parotid dose by 0.8 Gy or 3.8% (p = 0.026) and ipsilateral parotid by 4.1 Gy or 9% (p = 0.001). ART significantly reduced integral body dose. Conclusions: This pilot trial suggests that head and neck ART dosimetrically outperforms IMRT. IGRT that leverages conventional PTV margins does not improve dosimetry. One properly timed replan delivers the majority of achievable dosimetric improvement. The clinical impact of ART must be confirmed by future trials

  17. The ADAPTABLE Trial and Aspirin Dosing in Secondary Prevention for Patients with Coronary Artery Disease.

    Johnston, Abigail; Jones, W Schuyler; Hernandez, Adrian F

    2016-08-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the underlying cause of death in one out of seven deaths in the USA. Aspirin therapy has been proven to decrease mortality and major adverse cardiovascular events in patients with CAD. Despite a plethora of studies showing the benefit of aspirin in secondary prevention of cardiovascular events, debate remains regarding the optimal dose due to relatively small studies that had disparate results when comparing patients taking different aspirin dosages. More recently, aspirin dosing has been thoroughly studied in the CAD population with concomitant therapy (such as P2Y12 inhibitors); however, patients in these studies were not randomized to aspirin dose. No randomized controlled trial has directly measured aspirin dosages in a population of patients with established coronary artery disease. In 2015, the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) developed a network, called PCORnet, that includes patient-powered research networks (PPRN) and clinical data research networks (CDRN). The main objective of PCORnet is to conduct widely generalizable observational studies and clinical trials (including large, pragmatic clinical trials) at a low cost. The first clinical trial, called Aspirin Dosing: A Patient-centric Trial Assessing Benefits and Long-term Effectiveness (ADAPTABLE), will randomly assign 20,000 subjects with established coronary heart disease to either low dose (81 mg) or high dose (325 mg) and should be able to finally answer which dosage of aspirin is best for patients with established cardiovascular disease. PMID:27423939

  18. The influence of catch trials on the consolidation of motor memory in force field adaptation tasks

    Anne eFocke

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In computational neuroscience it is generally accepted that human motor memory contains neural representations of the physics of the musculoskeletal system and the objects in the environment. These representations are called internal models. Force field studies, in which subjects have to adapt to dynamic perturbations induced by a robotic manipulandum, are an established tool to analyze the characteristics of such internal models. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether catch trials during force field learning could influence the consolidation of motor memory in more complex tasks. Thereby, the force field was more than double the force field of previous studies (35 Ns/m. Moreover, the arm of the subjects was not supported. A total of forty-six subjects participated in this study and performed center-out movements at a robotic manipulandum in two different force fields. Two control groups learned force field A on day 1 and were retested in the same force field on day 3 (AA. Two test groups additionally learned an interfering force field B (=-A on day 2 (ABA. The difference between the two test and control groups, respectively, was the absence (0% or presence (19% of catch trials, in which the force field was turned off suddenly. The results showed consolidation of force field A on day 3 for both control groups. Test groups showed no consolidation of force field A (19% catch trials and even poorer performance on day 3 (0% catch trials. In conclusion, it can be stated that catch trials seem to have a positive effect on the performance on day 3 but do not trigger a consolidation process as shown in previous studies that used a lower force field viscosity with supported arm. These findings indicate that the results of previous studies in which less complex tasks were analyzed, cannot be fully transferred to more complex tasks. Moreover, the effects of catch trials in these situations are insufficiently understood and further research

  19. Adaptive Single-Trial Error/Erasure Decoding of Reed-Solomon Codes

    Senger, Christian; Schober, Steffen; Bossert, Martin; Zyablov, Victor V

    2011-01-01

    Algebraic decoding algorithms are commonly applied for the decoding of Reed-Solomon codes. Their main advantages are low computational complexity and predictable decoding capabilities. Many algorithms can be extended for correction of both errors and erasures. This enables the decoder to exploit binary quantized reliability information obtained from the transmission channel: Received symbols with high reliability are forwarded to the decoding algorithm while symbols with low reliability are erased. In this paper we investigate adaptive single-trial error/erasure decoding of Reed-Solomon codes, i.e. we derive an adaptive erasing strategy which minimizes the residual codeword error probability after decoding. Our result is applicable to any error/erasure decoding algorithm as long as its decoding capabilities can be expressed by a decoder capability function. Examples are Bounded Minimum Distance decoding with the Berlekamp-Massey- or the Sugiyama algorithms and the Guruswami-Sudan list decoder.

  20. Active materials for adaptive architectural envelopes based on plant adaptation principles

    Marlen Lopez; Ramon Rubio; Santiago Martın; Ben Croxford; Richard Jackson

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the authors present research into adaptive architectural envelopes that adapt to environmental changes using active materials, as a result of application of biomimetic principles from plants to architecture. Buildings use large amounts of energy in order to maintain their internal comfort, because conventional buildings are designed to provide a static design solution. Most of the current solutions for facades are not designed for optimum adaptation to contextual issues and nee...

  1. Passive and active adaptive management: Approaches and an example

    Williams, B.K.

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive management is a framework for resource conservation that promotes iterative learning-based decision making. Yet there remains considerable confusion about what adaptive management entails, and how to actually make resource decisions adaptively. A key but somewhat ambiguous distinction in adaptive management is between active and passive forms of adaptive decision making. The objective of this paper is to illustrate some approaches to active and passive adaptive management with a simple example involving the drawdown of water impoundments on a wildlife refuge. The approaches are illustrated for the drawdown example, and contrasted in terms of objectives, costs, and potential learning rates. Some key challenges to the actual practice of AM are discussed, and tradeoffs between implementation costs and long-term benefits are highlighted. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  2. An adaptive active control for the modified Chua's circuit

    In this Letter, it is shown that a couple of the modified Chua's systems with different parameters and initial conditions can be synchronized using active control when the values of parameters both in drive system and response system are known aforehand. Furthermore, an adaptive active control approach is proposed based on Lyapunov stability theory to make the states of two identical Chua's systems with unknown constant parameters be asymptotically synchronized. In addition, the proposed adaptive active control method guarantees that the designed controller is independent to those uncertain parameters. Simulation results by using both active control and adaptive active control are provided, and the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed adaptive active control are demonstrated

  3. Active materials for adaptive architectural envelopes based on plant adaptation principles

    Marlen Lopez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors present research into adaptive architectural envelopes that adapt to environmental changes using active materials, as a result of application of biomimetic principles from plants to architecture. Buildings use large amounts of energy in order to maintain their internal comfort, because conventional buildings are designed to provide a static design solution. Most of the current solutions for facades are not designed for optimum adaptation to contextual issues and needs, while biological solutions to adaptation are often complex, multi-functional and highly responsive. We focus on plant adaptations to the environment, as, due to their immobility, they have developed special means of protection against weather changing conditions. Furthermore, recent developments in new technologies are allowing the possibility to transfer these plant adaptation strategies to technical implementation. These technologies include: multi-material 3D printing, advances in materials science and new capabilities in simulation software. Unlike traditional mechanical activation used for dynamic systems in kinetic facades, adaptive architectural envelopes require no complex electronics, sensors, or actuators. The paper proposes a research of the relationship that can be developed between active materials and environmental issues in order to propose innovative and low-tech design strategies to achieve living envelopes according to plant adaptation principles.  

  4. On optimal allocation in binary response trials; is adaptive design really necessary?

    Azriel, David; Rinott, Yosef

    2011-01-01

    We consider the classical problem of selecting the best of two treatments in clinical trials with binary response. The target is to find the design that maximizes the power of the relevant test. Many papers use a normal approximation to the power function and claim that \\textit{Neyman allocation} that assigns subjects to treatment groups according to the ratio of the responses' standard deviations, should be used. As the standard deviations are unknown, an adaptive design is often recommended. The asymptotic justification of this approach is arguable, since it uses the normal approximation in tails where the error in the approximation is larger than the estimated quantity. We consider two different approaches for optimality of designs that are related to Pitman and Bahadur definitions of relative efficiency of tests. We prove that the optimal allocation according to the Pitman criterion is the balanced allocation and that the optimal allocation according to the Bahadur approach depends on the unknown paramete...

  5. A nonlinear neural fir filter with an adaptive activation function

    Lee Su Goh

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available An adaptive amplitude normalized nonlinear gradient descent (AANNGD algorithm for the class of nonlinear finite impulse response (FIR adaptive filters (dynamical perception is introduced. This is achieved by making the amplitude of the nonlinear activation function gradient adaptive. The proposed learning algorithm is suitable for processing of nonlinear and nonstationary signals with a large dynamical range, and removes the unwanted effect of saturation nonlinearities. For rigor, sensitivity analysis is performed and the improved performance of the AANNGD algorithm over the standard LMS, NGD, NNGD, the fully adaptive NNGD (FANNGD and the sign algorithm is verified by simulations on nonlinear and nonstationary inputs with large dynamics.

  6. Adaptive Radiotherapy for Head-and-Neck Cancer: Initial Clinical Outcomes From a Prospective Trial

    Purpose: To present pilot toxicity and survival outcomes for a prospective trial investigating adaptive radiotherapy (ART) for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Methods and Materials: A total of 24 patients were enrolled in an institutional review board–approved clinical trial; data for 22 of these patients were analyzed. Daily CT-guided setup and deformable image registration permitted serial mapping of clinical target volumes and avoidance structures for ART planning. Primary site was base of tongue in 15 patients, tonsil in 6 patient, and glossopharyngeal sulcus in 1 patient. Twenty patients (91%) had American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) Stage IV disease. T stage distribution was 2 T1, 12 T2, 3 T3, 5 T4. N stage distribution was 1 N0, 2 N1, 5 N2a, 12 N2b, and 2 N2c. Of the patients, 21 (95%) received systemic therapy. Results: With a 31-month median follow-up (range, 13–45 months), there has been no primary site failure and 1 nodal relapse, yielding 100% local and 95% regional disease control at 2 years. Baseline tumor size correlated with absolute volumetric treatment response (p = 0.018). Parotid volumetric change correlated with duration of feeding tube placement (p = 0.025). Acute toxicity was comparable to that observed with conventional intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Chronic toxicity and functional outcomes beyond 1 year were tabulated. Conclusion: This is the first prospective evaluation of morbidity and survival outcomes in patients with locally advanced head-and-neck cancer treated with automated adaptive replanning. ART can provide dosimetric benefit with only one or two mid-treatment replanning events. Our preliminary clinical outcomes document functional recovery and preservation of disease control at 1-year follow-up and beyond.

  7. Adaptive Radiotherapy for Head-and-Neck Cancer: Initial Clinical Outcomes From a Prospective Trial

    Schwartz, David L., E-mail: dschwartz3@nshs.edu [Department of Radiation Medicine, Hofstra North Shore-Long Island Jewish School of Medicine, New Hyde Park, NY (United States); Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, Manhasset, NY (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Garden, Adam S.; Thomas, Jimmy [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Chen Yipei; Zhang Yongbin [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Lewin, Jan; Chambers, Mark S. [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Dong, Lei [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: To present pilot toxicity and survival outcomes for a prospective trial investigating adaptive radiotherapy (ART) for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Methods and Materials: A total of 24 patients were enrolled in an institutional review board-approved clinical trial; data for 22 of these patients were analyzed. Daily CT-guided setup and deformable image registration permitted serial mapping of clinical target volumes and avoidance structures for ART planning. Primary site was base of tongue in 15 patients, tonsil in 6 patient, and glossopharyngeal sulcus in 1 patient. Twenty patients (91%) had American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) Stage IV disease. T stage distribution was 2 T1, 12 T2, 3 T3, 5 T4. N stage distribution was 1 N0, 2 N1, 5 N2a, 12 N2b, and 2 N2c. Of the patients, 21 (95%) received systemic therapy. Results: With a 31-month median follow-up (range, 13-45 months), there has been no primary site failure and 1 nodal relapse, yielding 100% local and 95% regional disease control at 2 years. Baseline tumor size correlated with absolute volumetric treatment response (p = 0.018). Parotid volumetric change correlated with duration of feeding tube placement (p = 0.025). Acute toxicity was comparable to that observed with conventional intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Chronic toxicity and functional outcomes beyond 1 year were tabulated. Conclusion: This is the first prospective evaluation of morbidity and survival outcomes in patients with locally advanced head-and-neck cancer treated with automated adaptive replanning. ART can provide dosimetric benefit with only one or two mid-treatment replanning events. Our preliminary clinical outcomes document functional recovery and preservation of disease control at 1-year follow-up and beyond.

  8. Seeking mathematics success for college students: a randomized field trial of an adapted approach

    Gula, Taras; Hoessler, Carolyn; Maciejewski, Wes

    2015-11-01

    Many students enter the Canadian college system with insufficient mathematical ability and leave the system with little improvement. Those students who enter with poor mathematics ability typically take a developmental mathematics course as their first and possibly only mathematics course. The educational experiences that comprise a developmental mathematics course vary widely and are, too often, ineffective at improving students' ability. This trend is concerning, since low mathematics ability is known to be related to lower rates of success in subsequent courses. To date, little attention has been paid to the selection of an instructional approach to consistently apply across developmental mathematics courses. Prior research suggests that an appropriate instructional method would involve explicit instruction and practising mathematical procedures linked to a mathematical concept. This study reports on a randomized field trial of a developmental mathematics approach at a college in Ontario, Canada. The new approach is an adaptation of the JUMP Math program, an explicit instruction method designed for primary and secondary school curriculae, to the college learning environment. In this study, a subset of courses was assigned to JUMP Math and the remainder was taught in the same style as in the previous years. We found consistent, modest improvement in the JUMP Math sections compared to the non-JUMP sections, after accounting for potential covariates. The findings from this randomized field trial, along with prior research on effective education for developmental mathematics students, suggest that JUMP Math is a promising way to improve college student outcomes.

  9. An open trial assessment of "The Number Race", an adaptive computer game for remediation of dyscalculia

    Cohen Laurent

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a companion article 1, we described the development and evaluation of software designed to remediate dyscalculia. This software is based on the hypothesis that dyscalculia is due to a "core deficit" in number sense or in its access via symbolic information. Here we review the evidence for this hypothesis, and present results from an initial open-trial test of the software in a sample of nine 7–9 year old children with mathematical difficulties. Methods Children completed adaptive training on numerical comparison for half an hour a day, four days a week over a period of five-weeks. They were tested before and after intervention on their performance in core numerical tasks: counting, transcoding, base-10 comprehension, enumeration, addition, subtraction, and symbolic and non-symbolic numerical comparison. Results Children showed specific increases in performance on core number sense tasks. Speed of subitizing and numerical comparison increased by several hundred msec. Subtraction accuracy increased by an average of 23%. Performance on addition and base-10 comprehension tasks did not improve over the period of the study. Conclusion Initial open-trial testing showed promising results, and suggested that the software was successful in increasing number sense over the short period of the study. However these results need to be followed up with larger, controlled studies. The issues of transfer to higher-level tasks, and of the best developmental time window for intervention also need to be addressed.

  10. Edge Adapted Wavelets, Solar Magnetic Activity, and Climate Change

    Johnson, Robert W

    2009-01-01

    The continuous wavelet transform is adapted to account for signal truncation through renormalization and by modifying the shape of the analyzing window. Comparison is made of the instant and integrated wavelet power with previous algorithms. The edge adapted and renormalized admissible wavelet transforms are used to estimate the level of solar magnetic activity from the sunspot record. The solar activity is compared to Oerlemans' temperature reconstruction and to the Central England Temperatu...

  11. An adaptive strategy for active debris removal

    White, Adam E.; Lewis, Hugh

    2014-01-01

    Many parameters influence the evolution of the near-Earth debris population, including launch, solar, explosion and mitigation activities, as well as other future uncertainties such as advances in space technology or changes in social and economic drivers that effect the utilisation of space activities. These factors lead to uncertainty in the long-term debris population. This uncertainty makes it difficult to identify potential remediation strategies, involving active debris removal (ADR), t...

  12. 75 FR 8968 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Adaptive Design Clinical Trials for Drugs and Biologics; Availability

    2010-02-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Adaptive Design Clinical Trials for Drugs and Biologics; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a draft...

  13. Adaptation of a Cancer Clinical Trials Education Program for African American and Latina/o Community Members

    Pelto, Debra J.; Sadler, Georgia Robins; Njoku, Ogo; Rodriguez, Maria Carina; Villagra, Cristina; Malcarne, Vanessa L.; Riley, Natasha E.; Behar, Alma I.; Jandorf, Lina

    2016-01-01

    The pilot study reported in this article culturally and linguistically adapted an educational intervention to promote cancer clinical trials (CCTs) participation among Latinas/os and African Americans. The single-session slide presentation with embedded videos, originally developed through a campus-community partnership in Southern California, was…

  14. Adaptive active vibration isolation – A control perspective

    Landau Ioan Doré

    2015-01-01

    The paper will review a number of recent developments for adaptive feedback compensation of multiple unknown and time-varying narrow band disturbances and for adaptive feedforward compensation of broad band disturbances in the presence of the inherent internal positive feedback caused by the coupling between the compensator system and the measurement of the image of the disturbance. Some experimental results obtained on a relevant active vibration control system will illustrate the performance of the various algorithms presented.

  15. The Walking Interventions Through Texting (WalkIT) Trial: Rationale, Design, and Protocol for a Factorial Randomized Controlled Trial of Adaptive Interventions for Overweight and Obese, Inactive Adults

    Hurley, Jane C; Hollingshead, Kevin E; Todd, Michael; Jarrett, Catherine L; Tucker, Wesley J; Angadi, Siddhartha S; Adams, Marc A

    2015-01-01

    Background Walking is a widely accepted and frequently targeted health promotion approach to increase physical activity (PA). Interventions to increase PA have produced only small improvements. Stronger and more potent behavioral intervention components are needed to increase time spent in PA, improve cardiometabolic risk markers, and optimize health. Objective Our aim is to present the rationale and methods from the WalkIT Trial, a 4-month factorial randomized controlled trial (RCT) in inact...

  16. Adaptive memory: Stereotype activation is not enough

    Otgaar, H.; Smeets, T; Merckelbach, H.; Jelicic, M.; Verschuere, B.; Galliot, A.M.; Riel, van, A.C.M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Studies have shown that survival processing leads to superior memorability. The aim of the present study was to examine whether this survival recall advantage might result from stereotype activation. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a pilot study and two experiments in which participants were primed with stereotypes (Experiment 1, professor and elderly person; Experiment 2, survival-stereotype). In Experiment 1, 120 undergraduates were randomly assigned to a survival, professor stereotyp...

  17. Adapt

    Bargatze, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Active Data Archive Product Tracking (ADAPT) is a collection of software routines that permits one to generate XML metadata files to describe and register data products in support of the NASA Heliophysics Virtual Observatory VxO effort. ADAPT is also a philosophy. The ADAPT concept is to use any and all available metadata associated with scientific data to produce XML metadata descriptions in a consistent, uniform, and organized fashion to provide blanket access to the full complement of data stored on a targeted data server. In this poster, we present an application of ADAPT to describe all of the data products that are stored by using the Common Data File (CDF) format served out by the CDAWEB and SPDF data servers hosted at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These data servers are the primary repositories for NASA Heliophysics data. For this purpose, the ADAPT routines have been used to generate data resource descriptions by using an XML schema named Space Physics Archive, Search, and Extract (SPASE). SPASE is the designated standard for documenting Heliophysics data products, as adopted by the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium. The set of SPASE XML resource descriptions produced by ADAPT includes high-level descriptions of numerical data products, display data products, or catalogs and also includes low-level "Granule" descriptions. A SPASE Granule is effectively a universal access metadata resource; a Granule associates an individual data file (e.g. a CDF file) with a "parent" high-level data resource description, assigns a resource identifier to the file, and lists the corresponding assess URL(s). The CDAWEB and SPDF file systems were queried to provide the input required by the ADAPT software to create an initial set of SPASE metadata resource descriptions. Then, the CDAWEB and SPDF data repositories were queried subsequently on a nightly basis and the CDF file lists were checked for any changes such as the occurrence of new, modified, or deleted

  18. Adapted motivational interviewing for women with binge eating disorder: a randomized controlled trial.

    Cassin, Stephanie E; von Ranson, Kristin M; Heng, Kenneth; Brar, Joti; Wojtowicz, Amy E

    2008-09-01

    In this randomized controlled trial, 108 women with binge-eating disorder (BED) recruited from the community were assigned to either an adapted motivational interviewing (AMI) group (1 individual AMI session + self-help handbook) or control group (handbook only). They were phoned 4, 8, and 16 weeks following the initial session to assess binge eating and associated symptoms (depression, self-esteem, quality of life). Postintervention, the AMI group participants were more confident than those in the control group in their ability to change binge eating. Although both groups reported improved binge eating, mood, self-esteem, and general quality of life 16 weeks following the intervention, the AMI group improved to a greater extent. A greater proportion of women in the AMI group abstained from binge eating (27.8% vs. 11.1%) and no longer met the binge frequency criterion of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) for BED (87.0% vs. 57.4%). AMI may constitute a brief, effective intervention for BED and associated symptoms. PMID:18778135

  19. Adaptive intelligent power systems: Active distribution networks

    Electricity networks are extensive and well established. They form a key part of the infrastructure that supports industrialised society. These networks are moving from a period of stability to a time of potentially major transition, driven by a need for old equipment to be replaced, by government policy commitments to cleaner and renewable sources of electricity generation, and by change in the power industry. This paper looks at moves towards active distribution networks. The novel transmission and distribution systems of the future will challenge today's system designs. They will cope with variable voltages and frequencies, and will offer more flexible, sustainable options. Intelligent power networks will need innovation in several key areas of information technology. Active control of flexible, large-scale electrical power systems is required. Protection and control systems will have to react to faults and unusual transient behaviour and ensure recovery after such events. Real-time network simulation and performance analysis will be needed to provide decision support for system operators, and the inputs to energy and distribution management systems. Advanced sensors and measurement will be used to achieve higher degrees of network automation and better system control, while pervasive communications will allow networks to be reconfigured by intelligent systems

  20. Framing Cross-Cultural Ethical Practice in Adapt[ive] Physical Activity

    Goodwin, Donna; Howe, P. David

    2016-01-01

    Academics and practitioners are often at a loss when it comes to understanding the ethical socio-political and cultural contexts that invade the world of adapted physical activity. Ethical practice is situated in the local and the specific. In this article we highlight the reality that both academics and practitioners need to be ever mindful that…

  1. Edge Adapted Wavelets, Solar Magnetic Activity, and Climate Change

    Johnson, Robert W

    2009-01-01

    The continuous wavelet transform is adapted to account for signal truncation through renormalization and by modifying the shape of the analyzing window. Comparison is made of the instant and integrated wavelet power with previous algorithms. The edge adapted and renormalized admissible wavelet transforms are used to estimate the level of solar magnetic activity from the sunspot record. The solar activity is compared to Oerlemans' temperature reconstruction and to the Central England Temperature record. A correlation is seen for years between 1610 and 1990, followed by a strong deviation as the recently observed temperature increases.

  2. Credentialing of radiotherapy centres for a clinical trial of adaptive radiotherapy for bladder cancer (TROG 10.01)

    Background: Daily variations in bladder filling make conformal treatment of bladder cancer challenging. On-line adaptive radiotherapy with a choice of plans has been demonstrated to reduce small bowel irradiation in single institution trials. In order to support a multicentre feasibility clinical trial on adaptive radiotherapy for bladder cancer (TROG 10.01) a credentialing programme was developed for centres wishing to participate. Methods: The credentialing programme entails three components: a facility questionnaire; a planning exercise which tests the ability of centres to create three adaptive plans based on a planning and five cone beam CTs; and a site visit during which image quality, imaging dose and image guidance procedures are assessed. Image quality and decision making were tested using customised inserts for a Perspex phantom (Modus QUASAR) that mimic different bladder sizes. Dose was assessed in the same phantom using thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD). Results: All 12 centres participating in the full credentialing programme were able to generate appropriate target volumes in the planning exercise and identify the correct target volume and position the bladder phantom in the phantom within 3 mm accuracy. None of the imaging doses exceeded the limit of 5 cGy with a CT on rails system having the lowest overall dose. Conclusion: A phantom mimicking the decision making process for adaptive radiotherapy was found to be well suited during site visits for credentialing of centres participating in a clinical trial of adaptive radiotherapy for bladder cancer. Combined with a planning exercise the site visit allowed testing the ability of centres to create adaptive treatment plans and make appropriate decisions based on the volumetric images acquired at treatment.

  3. Adaptation and Dissemination of an Evidence-Based Obesity Prevention Intervention: Design of a Comparative Effectiveness Trial

    Buscemi, Joanna; Odoms-Young, Angela; Stolley, Melinda L.; Blumstein, Lara; Schiffer, Linda; Berbaum, Michael L.; McCaffrey, Jennifer; Montoya, Anastasia McGee; Braunschweig, Carol; Fitzgibbon, Marian L.

    2014-01-01

    Low-income youth are at increased risk for excess weight gain. Although evidence-based prevention programs exist, successful adaptation to provide wide dissemination presents a challenge. Hip-Hop to Health (HH) is a school-based obesity prevention intervention that targets primarily preschool children of low-income families. In a large randomized controlled trial, HH was found to be efficacious for prevention of excessive weight gain. The Expanded Food and Nutrition Educatio...

  4. Preparatory EMG activity reveals a rapid adaptation pattern in humans performing landing movements in blindfolded condition.

    Magalhães, Fernando Henrique; Goroso, Daniel Gustavo

    2009-10-01

    The main questions addressed in this work were whether and how adaptation to suppression of visual information occurs in a free-fall paradigm, and the extent to which vision availability influences the control of landing movements. The prelanding modulation of EMG timing and amplitude of four lower-limb muscles was investigated. Participants performed six consecutive drop-landings from four different heights in two experimental conditions: with and without vision. Experimental design precluded participants from estimating the height of the drop. Since cues provided by proprioceptive and vestibular information acquired during the first trials were processed, the nervous system rapidly adapted to the lack of visual information, and hence produced a motor output (i.e., prelanding EMG modulation) similar to that observed when performing the activity with vision available. PMID:20038004

  5. Familiar Sports and Activities Adapted for Multiply Impaired Persons.

    Schilling, Mary Lou, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Means of adapting some familiar and popular physical activities for multiply impaired persons are described. Games reviewed are dice baseball, one base baseball, in-house bowling, wheelchair bowling, ramp bowling, swing-ball bowling, table tennis, shuffleboard, beanbag bingo and tic-tac-toe, balloon basketball, circle football, and wheelchair…

  6. Adaptive Compensation of Reactive Power With Shunt Active Power Filters

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Asiminoaei, Lucian; Hansen, Steffan;

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes an adaptive method for compensating the reactive power with an active power filter (APF), which is initially rated for mitigation of only the harmonic currents given by a nonlinear industrial load. It is proven that, if the harmonic currents do not load the APF at the rated...

  7. Application of adaptive design and decision making to a phase II trial of a phosphodiesterase inhibitor for the treatment of intermittent claudication

    Teerlink John R

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Claudication secondary to peripheral artery disease (PAD is associated with substantial functional impairment. Phosphodiesterase (PDE inhibitors have been shown to increase walking performance in these patients. K-134 is a selective PDE 3 inhibitor being developed as a potential treatment for claudication. The use of K-134, as with other PDE 3 inhibitors, in patients with PAD raises important safety and tolerability concerns, including the induction of cardiac ischemia, tachycardia, and hypotension. We describe the design, oversight, and implementation of an adaptive, phase II, dose-finding trial evaluating K-134 for the treatment of stable, intermittent claudication. Methods The study design was a double-blind, multi-dose (25 mg, 50 mg, and 100 mg of K-134, randomized trial with both placebo and active comparator arms conducted in the United States and Russia. The primary objective of the study was to compare the highest tolerable dose of K-134 versus placebo using peak walking time after 26 weeks of therapy as the primary outcome. Study visits with intensive safety assessments were included early in the study period to provide data for adaptive decision making. The trial used an adaptive, dose-finding strategy to efficiently identify the highest dose(s most likely to be safe and well tolerated, based on the side effect profiles observed within the trial, so that less promising doses could be abandoned. Protocol specified criteria for safety and tolerability endpoints were used and modeled prior to the adaptive decision making. The maximum target sample size was 85 subjects in each of the retained treatment arms. Results When 199 subjects had been randomized and 28-day data were available from 143, the Data Monitoring Committee (DMC recommended termination of the lowest dose (25 mg treatment arm. Safety evaluations performed during 14- and 28-day visits which included in-clinic dosing and assessments at peak drug

  8. Adaptive significance of right hemisphere activation in aphasic language comprehension

    Meltzer, Jed A.; Wagage, Suraji; Ryder, Jennifer; Solomon, Beth; Braun, Allen R.

    2013-01-01

    Aphasic patients often exhibit increased right hemisphere activity during language tasks. This may represent takeover of function by regions homologous to the left-hemisphere language networks, maladaptive interference, or adaptation of alternate compensatory strategies. To distinguish between these accounts, we tested language comprehension in 25 aphasic patients using an online sentence-picture matching paradigm while measuring brain activation with MEG. Linguistic conditions included seman...

  9. Active Inference, homeostatic regulation and adaptive behavioural control

    Pezzulo, G; Rigoli, F.; Friston, K.

    2015-01-01

    We review a theory of homeostatic regulation and adaptive behavioural control within the Active Inference framework. Our aim is to connect two research streams that are usually considered independently; namely, Active Inference and associative learning theories of animal behaviour. The former uses a probabilistic (Bayesian) formulation of perception and action, while the latter calls on multiple (Pavlovian, habitual, goal-directed) processes for homeostatic and behavioural control. We offer a...

  10. An intelligent man-machine interface - multi-robot control adapted for task engagement based on single-trial detectability of P300

    Elsa Andrea Kirchner

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Advanced man-machine interfaces (MMIs are being developed for teleoperating robots atremote and hardly accessible places. Such MMIs make use of a virtual environment and cantherefore make the operator immerse him-/herself into the environment of the robot. In thispaper, we present our developed MMI for multi-robot control. Our MMI can adapt to changes intask load and task engagement online. Applying our approach of embedded Brain Reading weimprove user support and efficiency of interaction. The level of task engagement was inferredfrom the single-trial detectability of P300-related brain activity that was naturally evoked duringinteraction. With our approach no secondary task is needed to measure task load. It is based onresearch results on the single-stimulus paradigm, distribution of brain resources and its effecton the P300 event-related component. It further considers effects of the modulation caused bya delayed reaction time on the P300 component evoked by complex responses to task-relevantmessages. We prove our concept using single-trial based machine learning analysis, analysisof averaged event-related potentials and behavioral analysis. As main results we show (1 asignificant improvement of runtime needed to perform the interaction tasks compared to a settingin which all subjects could easily perform the tasks. We show that (2 the single-trial detectabilityof the event-related potential P300 can be used to measure the changes in task load and taskengagement during complex interaction while also being sensitive to the level of experienceof the operator and (3 can be used to adapt the MMI individually to the different needs ofusers without increasing total workload. Our online adaptation of the proposed MMI is basedon a continuous supervision of the operator’s cognitive resources by means of embedded BrainReading. Operators with different qualifications or capabilities receive only as many tasks asthey can perform to avoid mental

  11. Climate Change Adaptation Science Activities at NASA Johnson Space Center

    Stefanov, William L.; Lulla, Kamlesh

    2012-01-01

    The Johnson Space Center (JSC), located in the southeast metropolitan region of Houston, TX is the prime NASA center for human spaceflight operations and astronaut training, but it also houses the unique collection of returned extraterrestrial samples, including lunar samples from the Apollo missions. The Center's location adjacent to Clear Lake and the Clear Creek watershed, an estuary of Galveston Bay, puts it at direct annual risk from hurricanes, but also from a number of other climate-related hazards including drought, floods, sea level rise, heat waves, and high wind events all assigned Threat Levels of 2 or 3 in the most recent NASA Center Disaster/Risk Matrix produced by the Climate Adaptation Science Investigator Working Group. Based on prior CASI workshops at other NASA centers, it is recognized that JSC is highly vulnerable to climate-change related hazards and has a need for adaptation strategies. We will present an overview of prior CASI-related work at JSC, including publication of a climate change and adaptation informational data brochure, and a Resilience and Adaptation to Climate Risks Workshop that was held at JSC in early March 2012. Major outcomes of that workshop that form a basis for work going forward are 1) a realization that JSC is embedded in a regional environmental and social context, and that potential climate change effects and adaptation strategies will not, and should not, be constrained by the Center fence line; 2) a desire to coordinate data collection and adaptation planning activities with interested stakeholders to form a regional climate change adaptation center that could facilitate interaction with CASI; 3) recognition that there is a wide array of basic data (remotely sensed, in situ, GIS/mapping, and historical) available through JSC and other stakeholders, but this data is not yet centrally accessible for planning purposes.

  12. Sensor Activation and Radius Adaptation (SARA) in Heterogeneous Sensor Networks

    Bartolini, Novella; la Porta, Thomas; Petrioli, Chiara; Silvestri, Simone

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we address the problem of prolonging the lifetime of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) deployed to monitor an area of interest. In this scenario, a helpful approach is to reduce coverage redundancy and therefore the energy expenditure due to coverage. We introduce the first algorithm which reduces coverage redundancy by means of Sensor Activation and sensing Radius Adaptation (SARA)in a general applicative scenario with two classes of devices: sensors that can adapt their sensing range (adjustable sensors) and sensors that cannot (fixed sensors). In particular, SARA activates only a subset of all the available sensors and reduces the sensing range of the adjustable sensors that have been activated. In doing so, SARA also takes possible heterogeneous coverage capabilities of sensors belonging to the same class into account. It specifically addresses device heterogeneity by modeling the coverage problem in the Laguerre geometry through Voronoi-Laguerre diagrams. SARA executes quickly and is guarante...

  13. Applications of active adaptive noise control to jet engines

    Shoureshi, Rahmat; Brackney, Larry

    1993-01-01

    During phase 2 research on the application of active noise control to jet engines, the development of multiple-input/multiple-output (MIMO) active adaptive noise control algorithms and acoustic/controls models for turbofan engines were considered. Specific goals for this research phase included: (1) implementation of a MIMO adaptive minimum variance active noise controller; and (2) turbofan engine model development. A minimum variance control law for adaptive active noise control has been developed, simulated, and implemented for single-input/single-output (SISO) systems. Since acoustic systems tend to be distributed, multiple sensors, and actuators are more appropriate. As such, the SISO minimum variance controller was extended to the MIMO case. Simulation and experimental results are presented. A state-space model of a simplified gas turbine engine is developed using the bond graph technique. The model retains important system behavior, yet is of low enough order to be useful for controller design. Expansion of the model to include multiple stages and spools is also discussed.

  14. Glucose pathways adaptation supports acquisition of activated microglia phenotype

    Gimeno-Bayon, Javier; López-López, A.; Rodríguez Allué, Manuel José; Mahy Gehenne, Josette Nicole

    2014-01-01

    With its capacity to survey the environment and phagocyte debris, microglia assume a diversity of phenotypes to respond specifically through neurotrophic and toxic effects. Although these roles are well accepted, the underlying energetic mechanisms associated with microglial activation remain largely unclear. This study investigates microglia metabolic adaptation to ATP, NADPH, H(+) , and reactive oxygen species production. To this end, in vitro studies were performed with BV-2 cells before a...

  15. Adapted physical activity in the prevention and therapy of osteoporosis

    Bošković Ksenija

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Osteoporosis, a disease characterized by the progressive loss of bone tissue, is one of the most common complications of aging. Epidemiology. According to some calculations, there were 25% of women and 4% of men older than 50 years with osteoporosis in the world in 2010. It is assumed that the number of patients with osteoporosis will increase by 30% in every 10 years in the 21st century. There are many reasons for that: the world’s population is growing older, diet is getting poorer in vitamins and minerals and physical activity is decreasing. The Quality and Quantity of Bone Tissue. Developing bones are much more responsive to mechanical loading and physical activity than mature bones. This suggests that training in early childhood may be an important factor in the prevention of osteoporosis in later life. It is important to note that the quality of bone achieved by training at younger age cannot be maintained permanently if it is not supported by physical activity later in life. Adapted physical activity represents physical activity individually tailored according to the psychosomatic capabilities of a person and the goal to be achieved. It can be applied at any age in order to maintain strong bones and reduce the risk of fracture. Adapted physical activity is different for men and women, for different age, as well as for the individuals. Aerobic exercises, which lead to an acceleration of breathing, increased heart rate and mild perspiration, as well as resistance exercises and exercises against resistance done by stretching elastic bands, for hands, legs and torso have been proven to increase bone density and improve bone strength. Coordination and balance exercises are important in an individual workout program. An explanation of the action of adapted physical activity is the basis for the theory of control and modulation of bone loss, muscle strength, coordination and balance. Physical activity is very effective in

  16. Using Assistive Technology Adaptations To Include Students with Learning Disabilities in Cooperative Learning Activities.

    Bryant, Diane Pedrotty; Bryant, Brian R.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses a process for integrating technology adaptations for students with learning disabilities into cooperative-learning activities in terms of three components: (1) selecting adaptations; (2) monitoring use of adaptations during cooperative-learning activities; and (3) evaluating the adaptations' effectiveness. Barriers to and support systems…

  17. Adaptive disclosure: an open trial of a novel exposure-based intervention for service members with combat-related psychological stress injuries.

    Gray, Matt J; Schorr, Yonit; Nash, William; Lebowitz, Leslie; Amidon, Amy; Lansing, Amy; Maglione, Melissa; Lang, Ariel J; Litz, Brett T

    2012-06-01

    We evaluated the preliminary effectiveness of a novel intervention that was developed to address combat stress injuries in active-duty military personnel. Adaptive disclosure (AD) is relatively brief to accommodate the busy schedules of active-duty service members while training for future deployments. Further, AD takes into account unique aspects of the phenomenology of military service in war in order to address difficulties such as moral injury and traumatic loss that may not receive adequate and explicit attention by conventional treatments that primarily address fear-inducing life-threatening experiences and sequelae. In this program development and evaluation open trial, 44 marines received AD while in garrison. It was well tolerated and, despite the brief treatment duration, promoted significant reductions in PTSD, depression, negative posttraumatic appraisals, and was also associated with increases in posttraumatic growth. PMID:22440075

  18. Adapted physical activity in rehabilitating work activity for adults with intellectual disability : case Monituote

    Heinola, Jenni

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to describe adapted physical activities (APA) offered for adults with intellectual disability in rehabilitating work activity and to spread information concerning the topic to colleagues in Finland as well as to those working abroad. The thesis is a part of research and development project of Satakunta University of Applied Sciences. The University works as an associate partner in EUSAPA-project which is a European level attempt to explore and develop adapted ph...

  19. A 12-month controlled trial of methadone medical maintenance integrated into an adaptive treatment model.

    King, Van L; Kidorf, Michael S; Stoller, Kenneth B; Schwartz, Robert; Kolodner, Kenneth; Brooner, Robert K

    2006-12-01

    Methadone medical maintenance (MMM) reduces the reporting schedule for stable and well-functioning methadone maintenance patients to once a month, with counseling provided by medical staff. We report on the 12-month outcomes of 92 highly stable methadone maintenance patients randomly assigned to one of three study conditions: routine care, MMM at the methadone maintenance program, and MMM at a physician's office. Methadone medical maintenance patients received a 28-day supply of methadone, whereas routine care patients received five or six take-home methadone doses each week. All patients performed a medication recall once a month and submitted two urine samples each month. An adaptive stepped-care system of treatment intensification was used for patients who failed recall or who had drug-positive urine specimens. Seventy-seven patients completed the 12-month study period. Dropout was caused primarily by problems with handling methadone and disliking the recall frequency. There were low rates of drug use or failed medication recall. Treatment satisfaction was high in all groups, but the MMM patients initiated more new employment or family/social activities than did routine care patients over the study period. The stepped-care approach was well tolerated and matched patients to an appropriate step of service within a continuum of treatment intensity. PMID:17084792

  20. New evidence-based adaptive clinical trial methods for optimally integrating predictive biomarkers into oncology clinical development programs

    Robert A.Beckman; Cong Chen

    2013-01-01

    Predictive biomarkers are important to the future of oncology; they can be used to identify patient populations who will benefit from therapy,increase the value of cancer medicines,and decrease the size and cost of clinical trials while increasing their chance of success.But predictive biomarkers do not always work.When unsuccessful,they add cost,complexity,and time to drug development.This perspective describes phases 2 and 3 development methods that efficiently and adaptively check the ability of a biomarker to predict clinical outcomes.In the end,the biomarker is emphasized to the extent that it can actually predict.

  1. Active Inference, homeostatic regulation and adaptive behavioural control.

    Pezzulo, Giovanni; Rigoli, Francesco; Friston, Karl

    2015-11-01

    We review a theory of homeostatic regulation and adaptive behavioural control within the Active Inference framework. Our aim is to connect two research streams that are usually considered independently; namely, Active Inference and associative learning theories of animal behaviour. The former uses a probabilistic (Bayesian) formulation of perception and action, while the latter calls on multiple (Pavlovian, habitual, goal-directed) processes for homeostatic and behavioural control. We offer a synthesis these classical processes and cast them as successive hierarchical contextualisations of sensorimotor constructs, using the generative models that underpin Active Inference. This dissolves any apparent mechanistic distinction between the optimization processes that mediate classical control or learning. Furthermore, we generalize the scope of Active Inference by emphasizing interoceptive inference and homeostatic regulation. The ensuing homeostatic (or allostatic) perspective provides an intuitive explanation for how priors act as drives or goals to enslave action, and emphasises the embodied nature of inference. PMID:26365173

  2. Ethnic differences in thermoregulatory responses during resting, passive and active heating: application of Werner's adaptation model.

    Lee, Joo-Young; Wakabayashi, Hitoshi; Wijayanto, Titis; Hashiguchi, Nobuko; Saat, Mohamed; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2011-12-01

    For the coherent understanding of heat acclimatization in tropical natives, we compared ethnic differences between tropical and temperate natives during resting, passive and active heating conditions. Experimental protocols included: (1) a resting condition (an air temperature of 28°C with 50% RH), (2) a passive heating condition (28°C with 50% RH; leg immersion in a hot tub at a water temperature of 42°C), and (3) an active heating condition (32°C with 70% RH; a bicycle exercise). Morphologically and physically matched tropical natives (ten Malaysian males, MY) and temperate natives (ten Japanese males, JP) participated in all three trials. The results saw that: tropical natives had a higher resting rectal temperature and lower hand and foot temperatures at rest, smaller rise of rectal temperature and greater temperature rise in bodily extremities, and a lower sensation of thirst during passive and active heating than the matched temperate natives. It is suggested that tropical natives' homeostasis during heating is effectively controlled with the improved stability in internal body temperature and the increased capability of vascular circulation in extremities, with a lower thirst sensation. The enhanced stability of internal body temperature and the extended thermoregulatory capability of vascular circulation in the extremities of tropical natives can be interpreted as an interactive change to accomplish a thermal dynamic equilibrium in hot environments. These heat adaptive traits were explained by Wilder's law of initial value and Werner's process and controller adaptation model. PMID:21437607

  3. Adaptive top-down suppression of hippocampal activity and the purging of intrusive memories from consciousness.

    Benoit, Roland G; Hulbert, Justin C; Huddleston, Ean; Anderson, Michael C

    2015-01-01

    When reminded of unwanted memories, people often attempt to suppress these experiences from awareness. Prior work indicates that control processes mediated by the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) modulate hippocampal activity during such retrieval suppression. It remains unknown whether this modulation plays a role in purging an intrusive memory from consciousness. Here, we combined fMRI and effective connectivity analyses with phenomenological reports to scrutinize a role for adaptive top-down suppression of hippocampal retrieval processes in terminating mnemonic awareness of intrusive memories. Participants either suppressed or recalled memories of pictures depicting faces or places. After each trial, they reported their success at regulating awareness of the memory. DLPFC activation was greatest when unwanted memories intruded into consciousness and needed to be purged, and this increased engagement predicted superior control of intrusive memories over time. However, hippocampal activity was decreased during the suppression of place memories only. Importantly, the inhibitory influence of the DLPFC on the hippocampus was linked to the ensuing reduction in intrusions of the suppressed memories. Individuals who exhibited negative top-down coupling during early suppression attempts experienced fewer involuntary memory intrusions later on. Over repeated suppressions, the DLPFC-hippocampus connectivity grew less negative with the degree that they no longer had to purge unwanted memories from awareness. These findings support a role of DLPFC in countermanding the unfolding recollection of an unwanted memory via the suppression of hippocampal processing, a mechanism that may contribute to adaptation in the aftermath of traumatic experiences. PMID:25100219

  4. A Generic Adaptive Method for Corruption Mitigation in Trial Monitoring System with Restful Authorization

    Suryanaraayan.B1 , Subramanian.M2 , Saikrishna.K.K3 , Sujitha.G4

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of a Trial Monitoring System is to provide a comprehensive suite where cases are created. Trial proceedings are monitored progressively to make informed decisions that include assignment of investigating entities and requesting advisors for opinions to take over the prosecution of the case. It provides a platform for applying counter petitions against an allegation's disposal and integrate proceedings in different levels of scrutiny and across tribunal entities. The outcome is the aggregation of such a data, to classify cases for statistical information and relaying the information in presentable format.

  5. Adaptive self-regulation in cycle time trials: goal pursuit, goal disengagement and the affective experience

    Clare Louise Rhoden; Julia West; Andrew Renfree; Mark Corbett; Alan St Clair Gibson

    2015-01-01

    Self-regulation research analyses behaviour and emotion through goal progress (Carver and Scheier 2013). Goal disengagement is advocated as an adaptive self-regulatory strategy for unattainable goals to reduce distress (Wrosch et al. 2003a; 2003b). In an attempt to further understand ongoing goal pursuit and emotions on endurance athletes, this paper applies adaptive self-regulation theory to interpret and explain the experiences of three cyclists in case studies which display variations in s...

  6. Cognitive adaptation training combined with assertive community treatment:- A randomised longitudinal trial

    Hansen, Jens Peter; Østergaard, Birte; Nordentoft, Merete; Hounsgaard, Lise

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive adaptation training (CAT) targets the adaptive behaviour of patients with schizophrenia and has shown promising results regarding the social aspects of psychosocial treatment. As yet, no reports have appeared on the use of CAT in combination with assertive community treatment (ACT). Our purpose was to evaluate the effect of CAT in comparison with ACT, focusing on social functions (primary outcome), symptoms, relapse, re-hospitalisation, and quality of life of outpatients with schizo...

  7. Are adaptive randomised trials or non-randomised studies the best way to address the Ebola outbreak in west Africa?

    Lanini, Simone; Zumla, Alimuddin; Ioannidis, John P A; Di Caro, Antonino; Krishna, Sanjeev; Gostin, Lawrence; Girardi, Enrico; Pletschette, Michel; Strada, Gino; Baritussio, Aldo; Portella, Gina; Apolone, Giovanni; Cavuto, Silvio; Satolli, Roberto; Kremsner, Peter; Vairo, Francesco; Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2015-06-01

    The Ebola outbreak that has devastated parts of west Africa represents an unprecedented challenge for research and ethics. Estimates from the past three decades emphasise that the present effort to contain the epidemic in the three most affected countries (Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone) has been insufficient, with more than 24,900 cases and about 10,300 deaths, as of March 25, 2015. Faced with such an exceptional event and the urgent response it demands, the use of randomised controlled trials (RCT) for Ebola-related research might be both unethical and infeasible and that potential interventions should be assessed in non-randomised studies on the basis of compassionate use. However, non-randomised studies might not yield valid conclusions, leading to large residual uncertainty about how to interpret the results, and can also waste scarce intervention-related resources, making them profoundly unethical. Scientifically sound and rigorous study designs, such as adaptive RCTs, could provide the best way to reduce the time needed to develop new interventions and to obtain valid results on their efficacy and safety while preserving the application of ethical precepts. We present an overview of clinical studies registered at present at the four main international trial registries and provide a simulation on how adaptive RCTs can behave in this context, when mortality varies simultaneously in either the control or the experimental group. PMID:25881871

  8. Adaptive significance of right hemisphere activation in aphasic language comprehension.

    Meltzer, Jed A; Wagage, Suraji; Ryder, Jennifer; Solomon, Beth; Braun, Allen R

    2013-06-01

    Aphasic patients often exhibit increased right hemisphere activity during language tasks. This may represent takeover of function by regions homologous to the left-hemisphere language networks, maladaptive interference, or adaptation of alternate compensatory strategies. To distinguish between these accounts, we tested language comprehension in 25 aphasic patients using an online sentence-picture matching paradigm while measuring brain activation with MEG. Linguistic conditions included semantically irreversible ("The boy is eating the apple") and reversible ("The boy is pushing the girl") sentences at three levels of syntactic complexity. As expected, patients performed well above chance on irreversible sentences, and at chance on reversible sentences of high complexity. Comprehension of reversible non-complex sentences ranged from nearly perfect to chance, and was highly correlated with offline measures of language comprehension. Lesion analysis revealed that comprehension deficits for reversible sentences were predicted by damage to the left temporal lobe. Although aphasic patients activated homologous areas in the right temporal lobe, such activation was not correlated with comprehension performance. Rather, patients with better comprehension exhibited increased activity in dorsal fronto-parietal regions. Correlations between performance and dorsal network activity occurred bilaterally during perception of sentences, and in the right hemisphere during a post-sentence memory delay. These results suggest that effortful reprocessing of perceived sentences in short-term memory can support improved comprehension in aphasia, and that strategic recruitment of alternative networks, rather than homologous takeover, may account for some findings of right hemisphere language activation in aphasia. PMID:23566891

  9. Active Inference, epistemic value, and vicarious trial and error.

    Pezzulo, Giovanni; Cartoni, Emilio; Rigoli, Francesco; Pio-Lopez, Léo; Friston, Karl

    2016-07-01

    Balancing habitual and deliberate forms of choice entails a comparison of their respective merits-the former being faster but inflexible, and the latter slower but more versatile. Here, we show that arbitration between these two forms of control can be derived from first principles within an Active Inference scheme. We illustrate our arguments with simulations that reproduce rodent spatial decisions in T-mazes. In this context, deliberation has been associated with vicarious trial and error (VTE) behavior (i.e., the fact that rodents sometimes stop at decision points as if deliberating between choice alternatives), whose neurophysiological correlates are "forward sweeps" of hippocampal place cells in the arms of the maze under consideration. Crucially, forward sweeps arise early in learning and disappear shortly after, marking a transition from deliberative to habitual choice. Our simulations show that this transition emerges as the optimal solution to the trade-off between policies that maximize reward or extrinsic value (habitual policies) and those that also consider the epistemic value of exploratory behavior (deliberative or epistemic policies)-the latter requiring VTE and the retrieval of episodic information via forward sweeps. We thus offer a novel perspective on the optimality principles that engender forward sweeps and VTE, and on their role on deliberate choice. PMID:27317193

  10. Activation of the reward system boosts innate and adaptive immunity.

    Ben-Shaanan, Tamar L; Azulay-Debby, Hilla; Dubovik, Tania; Starosvetsky, Elina; Korin, Ben; Schiller, Maya; Green, Nathaniel L; Admon, Yasmin; Hakim, Fahed; Shen-Orr, Shai S; Rolls, Asya

    2016-08-01

    Positive expectations contribute to the clinical benefits of the placebo effect. Such positive expectations are mediated by the brain's reward system; however, it remains unknown whether and how reward system activation affects the body's physiology and, specifically, immunity. Here we show that activation of the ventral tegmental area (VTA), a key component of the reward system, strengthens immunological host defense. We used 'designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs' (DREADDs) to directly activate dopaminergic neurons in the mouse VTA and characterized the subsequent immune response after exposure to bacteria (Escherichia coli), using time-of-flight mass cytometry (CyTOF) and functional assays. We found an increase in innate and adaptive immune responses that were manifested by enhanced antibacterial activity of monocytes and macrophages, reduced in vivo bacterial load and a heightened T cell response in the mouse model of delayed-type hypersensitivity. By chemically ablating the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), we showed that the reward system's effects on immunity are, at least partly, mediated by the SNS. Thus, our findings establish a causal relationship between the activity of the VTA and the immune response to bacterial infection. PMID:27376577

  11. Changes in CVD risk factors in the activity counseling trial

    Meghan Baruth

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Meghan Baruth1, Sara Wilcox1, James F Sallis3, Abby C King4,5, Bess H Marcus6, Steven N Blair1,21Department of Exercise Science, 2Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Public Health Research Center, Columbia, SC, USA; 3Department of Psychology, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA, USA; 4Department of Health Research and Policy, 5Stanford Prevention Research Center, Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA; 6Behavioral and Social Sciences Section, Brown University Program in Public Health, Providence, RI, USAAbstract: Primary care facilities may be a natural setting for delivering interventions that focus on behaviors that improve cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors. The purpose of this study was to examine the 24-month effects of the Activity Counseling Trial (ACT on CVD risk factors, to examine whether changes in CVD risk factors differed according to baseline risk factor status, and to examine whether changes in fitness were associated with changes in CVD risk factors. ACT was a 24-month multicenter randomized controlled trial to increase physical activity. Participants were 874 inactive men and women aged 35–74 years. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three arms that varied by level of counseling, intensity, and resource requirements. Because there were no significant differences in change over time between arms on any of the CVD risk factors examined, all arms were combined, and the effects of time, independent of arm, were examined separately for men and women. Time × Baseline risk factor status interactions examined whether changes in CVD risk factors differed according to baseline risk factor status. Significant improvements in total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, the ratio of total cholesterol to HDL-C, and triglycerides were seen in

  12. An open trial assessment of "The Number Race", an adaptive computer game for remediation of dyscalculia.

    Cohen Laurent; Cohen David; Revkin Susannah K; Wilson Anna J; Dehaene Stanislas

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background In a companion article 1, we described the development and evaluation of software designed to remediate dyscalculia. This software is based on the hypothesis that dyscalculia is due to a "core deficit" in number sense or in its access via symbolic information. Here we review the evidence for this hypothesis, and present results from an initial open-trial test of the software in a sample of nine 7–9 year old children with mathematical difficulties. Methods Children complete...

  13. An Intelligent Man-Machine Interface-Multi-Robot Control Adapted for Task Engagement Based on Single-Trial Detectability of P300.

    Kirchner, Elsa A; Kim, Su K; Tabie, Marc; Wöhrle, Hendrik; Maurus, Michael; Kirchner, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Advanced man-machine interfaces (MMIs) are being developed for teleoperating robots at remote and hardly accessible places. Such MMIs make use of a virtual environment and can therefore make the operator immerse him-/herself into the environment of the robot. In this paper, we present our developed MMI for multi-robot control. Our MMI can adapt to changes in task load and task engagement online. Applying our approach of embedded Brain Reading we improve user support and efficiency of interaction. The level of task engagement was inferred from the single-trial detectability of P300-related brain activity that was naturally evoked during interaction. With our approach no secondary task is needed to measure task load. It is based on research results on the single-stimulus paradigm, distribution of brain resources and its effect on the P300 event-related component. It further considers effects of the modulation caused by a delayed reaction time on the P300 component evoked by complex responses to task-relevant messages. We prove our concept using single-trial based machine learning analysis, analysis of averaged event-related potentials and behavioral analysis. As main results we show (1) a significant improvement of runtime needed to perform the interaction tasks compared to a setting in which all subjects could easily perform the tasks. We show that (2) the single-trial detectability of the event-related potential P300 can be used to measure the changes in task load and task engagement during complex interaction while also being sensitive to the level of experience of the operator and (3) can be used to adapt the MMI individually to the different needs of users without increasing total workload. Our online adaptation of the proposed MMI is based on a continuous supervision of the operator's cognitive resources by means of embedded Brain Reading. Operators with different qualifications or capabilities receive only as many tasks as they can perform to avoid mental

  14. An Intelligent Man-Machine Interface—Multi-Robot Control Adapted for Task Engagement Based on Single-Trial Detectability of P300

    Kirchner, Elsa A.; Kim, Su K.; Tabie, Marc; Wöhrle, Hendrik; Maurus, Michael; Kirchner, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Advanced man-machine interfaces (MMIs) are being developed for teleoperating robots at remote and hardly accessible places. Such MMIs make use of a virtual environment and can therefore make the operator immerse him-/herself into the environment of the robot. In this paper, we present our developed MMI for multi-robot control. Our MMI can adapt to changes in task load and task engagement online. Applying our approach of embedded Brain Reading we improve user support and efficiency of interaction. The level of task engagement was inferred from the single-trial detectability of P300-related brain activity that was naturally evoked during interaction. With our approach no secondary task is needed to measure task load. It is based on research results on the single-stimulus paradigm, distribution of brain resources and its effect on the P300 event-related component. It further considers effects of the modulation caused by a delayed reaction time on the P300 component evoked by complex responses to task-relevant messages. We prove our concept using single-trial based machine learning analysis, analysis of averaged event-related potentials and behavioral analysis. As main results we show (1) a significant improvement of runtime needed to perform the interaction tasks compared to a setting in which all subjects could easily perform the tasks. We show that (2) the single-trial detectability of the event-related potential P300 can be used to measure the changes in task load and task engagement during complex interaction while also being sensitive to the level of experience of the operator and (3) can be used to adapt the MMI individually to the different needs of users without increasing total workload. Our online adaptation of the proposed MMI is based on a continuous supervision of the operator's cognitive resources by means of embedded Brain Reading. Operators with different qualifications or capabilities receive only as many tasks as they can perform to avoid mental

  15. An Adaptive Security Model for Multi-agent Systems and Application to a Clinical Trials Environment

    Xiao, Liang; Peet, Andrew; Lewis, Paul; Dashmapatra, Srinandan; Sáez, Carlos; Croitoru, Madalina; de Vicente, Javier; Gonzalez-Velez, Horacio; Lluch i Ariet, Magí

    2007-01-01

    We present in this paper an adaptive security model for Multi-agent systems. A security meta-model has been developed in which the traditional role concept has been extended. The new concept incorporates the need of both security management as used by role-based access control (RBAC) and agent functional behaviour in agent-oriented Software Engineering (AOSE). Our approach avoids weaknesses of traditional RBAC approaches and provides a practically usable security model for Multi-agent Systems...

  16. Physical activity as an aid to smoking cessation during pregnancy (LEAP trial: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Ussher Michael

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many women try to stop smoking in pregnancy but fail. One difficulty is that there is insufficient evidence that medications for smoking cessation are effective and safe in pregnancy and thus many women prefer to avoid these. Physical activity (PA interventions may assist cessation; however, trials examining these interventions have been too small to detect or exclude plausible beneficial effects. The London Exercise And Pregnant smokers (LEAP trial is investigating whether a PA intervention is effective and cost-effective when used for smoking cessation by pregnant women, and will be the largest study of its kind to date. Methods/design The LEAP study is a pragmatic, multi-center, two-arm, randomized, controlled trial that will target pregnant women who smoke at least one cigarette a day (and at least five cigarettes a day before pregnancy, and are between 10 and 24 weeks pregnant. Eligible patients are individually randomized to either usual care (that is, behavioral support for smoking cessation or usual care plus a intervention (entailing supervised exercise on a treadmill plus PA consultations. The primary outcome of the trial is self-reported and biochemically validated continuous abstinence from smoking between a specified quit date and the end of pregnancy. The secondary outcomes, measured at 1 and 4 weeks after the quit date, and at the end of pregnancy and 6 months after childbirth, are PA levels, depression, self-confidence, and cigarette withdrawal symptoms. Smoking status will also be self-reported at 6 months after childbirth. In addition, perinatal measures will be collected, including antenatal complications, duration of labor, mode of delivery, and birth and placental weight. Outcomes will be analyzed on an intention-to-treat basis, and logistic regression models used to compare treatment effects on the primary outcome. Discussion This trial will assess whether a PA intervention is effective when used for

  17. Fostering Engagement Activities To Advance Adaptation And Resiliency

    Dissen, J.; Owen, T.; Brewer, M.; Hollingshead, A.; Mecray, E. L.; Werner, K.

    2015-12-01

    As the understanding of climate risks grows for public and private companies, the dissemination of meaningful climate and environmental information becomes important for improved risk management practices and innovation. In a broader effort to build capacity for adaptation and demonstrate the value of investment in resiliency, NCEI and its partners have made several shifts to showcase an improved understanding of uses and applications of climate and environmental data and information. The NOAA NCEI engagement initiative includes actively exploring ways to: 1) identify opportunities in data use and applications and 2) characterize needs and requirements from customers to help inform investment in the relevant science. This presentation will highlight: 1) NCEI's engagement initiative strategy, 2) our regional and national partnerships as agents of engagement in the region, 3) a few examples of uses of climate information with select stakeholders and 4) justification of customer engagement and requirements as a critical component in informing the science agenda.

  18. Adaptive control of an active seat for occupant vibration reduction

    Gan, Zengkang; Hillis, Andrew J.; Darling, Jocelyn

    2015-08-01

    The harmful effects on human performance and health caused by unwanted vibration from vehicle seats are of increasing concern. This paper presents an active seat system to reduce the vibration level transmitted to the seat pan and the occupants' body under low frequency periodic excitation. Firstly, the detail of the mechanical structure is given and the active seat dynamics without external load are characterized by vibration transmissibility and frequency responses under different excitation forces. Owing the nonlinear and time-varying behaviour of the proposed system, a Filtered-x least-mean-square (FXLMS) adaptive control algorithm with on-line Fast-block LMS (FBLMS) identification process is employed to manage the system operation for high vibration cancellation performance. The effectiveness of the active seat system is assessed through real-time experimental tests using different excitation profiles. The system identification results show that an accurate estimation of the secondary path is achieved by using the FBLMS on-line technique. Substantial reduction is found for cancelling periodic vibration containing single and multiple frequencies. Additionally, the robustness and stability of the control system are validated through transient switching frequency tests.

  19. Cardiac rehabilitation adapted to transient ischaemic attack and stroke (CRAFTS: a randomised controlled trial

    Blake Catherine

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coronary Heart Disease and Cerebrovascular Disease share many predisposing, modifiable risk factors (hypertension, abnormal blood lipids and lipoproteins, cigarette smoking, physical inactivity, obesity and diabetes mellitus. Lifestyle interventions and pharmacological therapy are recognised as the cornerstones of secondary prevention. Cochrane review has proven the benefits of programmes incorporating exercise and lifestyle counselling in the cardiac disease population. A Cochrane review highlighted as priority, the need to establish feasibility and efficacy of exercise based interventions for Cerebrovascular Disease. Methods A single blind randomised controlled trial is proposed to examine a primary care cardiac rehabilitation programme for adults post transient ischemic attack (TIA and stroke in effecting a positive change in the primary outcome measures of cardiac risk scores derived from Blood Pressure, lipid profile, smoking and diabetic status and lifestyle factors of habitual smoking, exercise and healthy eating participation. Secondary outcomes of interest include health related quality of life as measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Stroke Specific Quality of Life scale and WONCA COOP Functional Health Status charts and cardiovascular fitness as measured by a sub-maximal fitness test. A total of 144 patients, over 18 years of age with confirmed diagnosis of ischaemic stroke or TIA, will be recruited from Dublin community stroke services and two tertiary T.I.A clinics. Exclusion criteria will include oxygen dependence, unstable cardiac conditions, uncontrolled diabetes, major medical conditions, claudication, febrile illness, pregnancy or cognitive impairment. Participants will be block-statified, randomly allocated to one of two groups using a pre-prepared computer generated randomisation schedule. Both groups will receive a two hour education class on risk reduction post stroke. The

  20. A pilot randomized trial of technology-assisted goal setting to improve physical activity among primary care patients with prediabetes.

    Mann, Devin M; Palmisano, Joseph; Lin, Jenny J

    2016-12-01

    Lifestyle behavior changes can prevent progression of prediabetes to diabetes but providers often are not able to effectively counsel about preventive lifestyle changes. We developed and pilot tested the Avoiding Diabetes Thru Action Plan Targeting (ADAPT) program to enhance primary care providers' counseling about behavior change for patients with prediabetes. Primary care providers in two urban academic practices and their patients with prediabetes were recruited to participate in the ADAPT study, an unblinded randomized pragmatic trial to test the effectiveness of the ADAPT program, including a streamlined electronic medical record-based goal setting tool. Providers were randomized to intervention or control arms; eligible patients whose providers were in the intervention arm received the ADAPT program. Physical activity (the primary outcome) was measured using pedometers, and data were gathered about patients' diet, weight and glycemic control. A total of 54 patients were randomized and analyzed as part of the 6-month ADAPT study (2010-2012, New York, NY). Those in the intervention group showed an increase total daily steps compared to those in the control group (+ 1418 vs - 598, p = 0.007) at 6 months. There was also a trend towards weight loss in the intervention compared to the control group (- 1.0 lbs. vs. 3.0 lbs., p = 0.11), although no change in glycemic control. The ADAPT study is among the first to use standard electronic medical record tools to embed goal setting into realistic primary care workflows and to demonstrate a significant improvement in prediabetes patients' physical activity. PMID:27413670

  1. Adaptation of a Cancer Clinical Trials Education Program for African American and Latina/o Community Members.

    Pelto, Debra J; Sadler, Georgia Robins; Njoku, Ogo; Rodriguez, Maria Carina; Villagra, Cristina; Malcarne, Vanessa L; Riley, Natasha E; Behar, Alma I; Jandorf, Lina

    2016-08-01

    The pilot study reported in this article culturally and linguistically adapted an educational intervention to promote cancer clinical trials (CCTs) participation among Latinas/os and African Americans. The single-session slide presentation with embedded videos, originally developed through a campus-community partnership in Southern California, was chosen for adaptation because it was perceived to fit the CORRECT model of innovation (credible, observable, relevant, relatively advantageous, easy to understand, compatible, and testable) and because of the potential to customize any components not identified as core, allowing them to be revised for cultural and linguistic alignment in New York City. Most of the 143 community participants (76.2%) were female; most (54.6%) were older than 59 years. More than half (78.3%) preferred to speak English or were bilingual in English and Spanish. A large proportion (41.3%) had not completed high school. Knowledge and perceived benefits and barriers regarding CCT showed small, though statistically significant, increases. There were no statistically significant group differences for changes in mean knowledge, perceived benefits, or perceived barriers when examined by ethnicity, education level, language, or other included sociodemographic variables. However, a small, but statistically significant difference in perceived barriers was observed when examined by country of origin, with the foreign born score worsening 0.08 points (SD = 0.47, p = .007) on the 5-point Likert-type scale administered posteducation compared to preeducation. Participants' open-ended comments demonstrated the acceptability of the topic and intervention. This adaptation resulted in an intervention with the potential to educate African American and Latina/o general community members in a new geographic region about the purpose, methods, and benefits of CCTs. PMID:26493870

  2. The Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial (INFANT an early intervention to prevent childhood obesity: Cluster-randomised controlled trial

    Campbell Karen

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple factors combine to support a compelling case for interventions that target the development of obesity-promoting behaviours (poor diet, low physical activity and high sedentary behaviour from their inception. These factors include the rapidly increasing prevalence of fatness throughout childhood, the instigation of obesity-promoting behaviours in infancy, and the tracking of these behaviours from childhood through to adolescence and adulthood. The Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial (INFANT aims to determine the effectiveness of an early childhood obesity prevention intervention delivered to first-time parents. The intervention, conducted with parents over the infant's first 18 months of life, will use existing social networks (first-time parent's groups and an anticipatory guidance framework focusing on parenting skills which support the development of positive diet and physical activity behaviours, and reduced sedentary behaviours in infancy. Methods/Design This cluster-randomised controlled trial, with first-time parent groups as the unit of randomisation, will be conducted with a sample of 600 first-time parents and their newborn children who attend the first-time parents' group at Maternal and Child Health Centres. Using a two-stage sampling process, local government areas in Victoria, Australia will be randomly selected at the first stage. At the second stage, a proportional sample of first-time parent groups within selected local government areas will be randomly selected and invited to participate. Informed consent will be obtained and groups will then be randomly allocated to the intervention or control group. Discussion The early years hold promise as a time in which obesity prevention may be most effective. To our knowledge this will be the first randomised trial internationally to demonstrate whether an early health promotion program delivered to first-time parents in their existing social groups

  3. An adaptive coded aperture imager: building, testing and trialing a super-resolving terrestrial demonstrator

    Slinger, Christopher W.; Bennett, Charlotte R.; Dyer, Gavin; Gilholm, Kevin; Gordon, Neil; Huckridge, David; McNie, Mark; Penney, Richard W.; Proudler, Ian K.; Rice, Kevin; Ridley, Kevin D.; Russell, Lee; de Villiers, Geoffrey D.; Watson, Philip J.

    2011-09-01

    There is an increasingly important requirement for day and night, wide field of view imaging and tracking for both imaging and sensing applications. Applications include military, security and remote sensing. We describe the development of a proof of concept demonstrator of an adaptive coded-aperture imager operating in the mid-wave infrared to address these requirements. This consists of a coded-aperture mask, a set of optics and a 4k x 4k focal plane array (FPA). This system can produce images with a resolution better than that achieved by the detector pixel itself (i.e. superresolution) by combining multiple frames of data recorded with different coded-aperture mask patterns. This superresolution capability has been demonstrated both in the laboratory and in imaging of real-world scenes, the highest resolution achieved being ½ the FPA pixel pitch. The resolution for this configuration is currently limited by vibration and theoretically ¼ pixel pitch should be possible. Comparisons have been made between conventional and ACAI solutions to these requirements and show significant advantages in size, weight and cost for the ACAI approach.

  4. A new approach to physical activity maintenance: Rationale, design, and baseline data from the Keep Active Minnesota trial

    Crain A Lauren

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since many individuals who initiate physical activity programs are highly likely to return to a sedentary lifestyle, innovative strategies to efforts to increase the number of physically active older adults who successfully maintain beneficial levels of PA for a substantial length of time are needed. Methods/Design The Keep Active Minnesota Trial is a randomized controlled trial of an interactive phone- and mail-based intervention to help 50–70 year old adults who have recently increased their physical activity level, maintain that activity level over a 24-month period in comparison to usual care. Baseline, 6, 12, and 24 month measurement occurred via phone surveys with kilocalories expended per week in total and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (CHAMPS Questionnaire as the primary outcome measures. Secondary outcomes include hypothesized mediators of physical activity change (e.g., physical activity enjoyment, self-efficacy, physical activity self-concept, body mass index, and depression. Seven day accelerometry data were collected on a sub-sample of participants at baseline and 24-month follow-up. Discussion The Keep Active Minnesota study offers an innovative approach to the perennial problem of physical activity relapse; by focusing explicitly on physical activity maintenance, the intervention holds considerable promise for modifying the typical relapse curve. Moreover, if shown to be efficacious, the use of phone- and mail-based intervention delivery offers potential for widespread dissemination. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00283452.

  5. Activity monitor intervention to promote physical activity of physicians-in-training: randomized controlled trial.

    Anne N Thorndike

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Physicians are expected to serve as role models for healthy lifestyles, but long work hours reduce time for healthy behaviors. A hospital-based physical activity intervention could improve physician health and increase counseling about exercise. METHODS: We conducted a two-phase intervention among 104 medical residents at a large hospital in Boston, Massachusetts. Phase 1 was a 6-week randomized controlled trial comparing daily steps of residents assigned to an activity monitor displaying feedback about steps and energy consumed (intervention or to a blinded monitor (control. Phase 2 immediately followed and was a 6-week non-randomized team steps competition in which all participants wore monitors with feedback. Phase 1 outcomes were: 1 median steps/day and 2 proportion of days activity monitor worn. The Phase 2 outcome was mean steps/day on days monitor worn (≥500 steps/day. Physiologic measurements were collected at baseline and study end. Median steps/day were compared using Wilcoxon rank-sum tests. Mean steps were compared using repeated measures regression analyses. RESULTS: In Phase 1, intervention and control groups had similar activity (6369 vs. 6063 steps/day, p = 0.16 and compliance with wearing the monitor (77% vs. 77% of days, p = 0.73. In Phase 2 (team competition, residents recorded more steps/day than during Phase 1 (CONTROL: 7,971 vs. 7,567, p = 0.002; INTERVENTION: 7,832 vs. 7,739, p = 0.13. Mean compliance with wearing the activity monitor decreased for both groups during Phase 2 compared to Phase 1 (60% vs. 77%, p<0.001. Mean systolic blood pressure decreased (p = 0.004 and HDL cholesterol increased (p<0.001 among all participants at end of study compared to baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Although the activity monitor intervention did not have a major impact on activity or health, the high participation rates of busy residents and modest changes in steps, blood pressure, and HDL suggest that more

  6. Feedback about more accurate versus less accurate trials: differential effects on self-confidence and activation.

    Badami, Rokhsareh; VaezMousavi, Mohammad; Wulf, Gabriele; Namazizadeh, Mahdi

    2012-06-01

    One purpose of the present study was to examine whether self-confidence or anxiety would be differentially affected byfeedback from more accurate rather than less accurate trials. The second purpose was to determine whether arousal variations (activation) would predict performance. On day 1, participants performed a golf putting task under one of two conditions: one group received feedback on the most accurate trials, whereas another group received feedback on the least accurate trials. On day 2, participants completed an anxiety questionnaire and performed a retention test. Shin conductance level, as a measure of arousal, was determined. The results indicated that feedback about more accurate trials resulted in more effective learning as well as increased self-confidence. Also, activation was a predictor of performance. PMID:22808705

  7. Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting adapted to Autism (VIPP-AUTI): A randomized controlled trial.

    Poslawsky, Irina E; Naber, Fabiënne Ba; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van Daalen, Emma; van Engeland, Herman; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H

    2015-07-01

    In a randomized controlled trial, we evaluated the early intervention program Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting adapted to Autism (VIPP-AUTI) with 78 primary caregivers and their child (16-61 months) with Autism Spectrum Disorder. VIPP-AUTI is a brief attachment-based intervention program, focusing on improving parent-child interaction and reducing the child's individual Autism Spectrum Disorder-related symptomatology in five home visits. VIPP-AUTI, as compared with usual care, demonstrated efficacy in reducing parental intrusiveness. Moreover, parents who received VIPP-AUTI showed increased feelings of self-efficacy in child rearing. No significant group differences were found on other aspects of parent-child interaction or on child play behavior. At 3-months follow-up, intervention effects were found on child-initiated joint attention skills, not mediated by intervention effects on parenting. Implementation of VIPP-AUTI in clinical practice is facilitated by the use of a detailed manual and a relatively brief training of interveners. PMID:24919961

  8. Perspectives on the Contribution of Social Science to Adapted Physical Activity: Looking Forward, Looking Back

    Causgrove Dunn, Janice; Cairney, John; Zimmer, Chantelle

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we reflect on the contributions of the social sciences to the field of adapted physical activity by examining the theories and methods that have been adopted from the social science disciplines. To broaden our perspective on adapted physical activity and provide new avenues for theoretical and empirical exploration, we discuss and…

  9. Adapting Learning Activities: a Case Study of IMS LD based Script and Tooling

    Miao, Yongwu

    2009-01-01

    Miao, Y. (2009). Adapting Learning Activities: a Case Study of IMS LD based Script and Tooling. Presentation at workshop "Adapting Activities Modeled by CSCL Scripts" of the 8th International Conference “Computer Supported Collaborative Learning” (CSCL’09). June, 8-13, 2009, Rhodes, Greece.

  10. Adapting Learning Activities: a Case Study of IMS LD based Script and Tooling

    Miao, Yongwu

    2009-01-01

    Miao, Y. (2009). Adapting Learning Activities: a Case Study of IMS LD based Script and Tooling. Paper presented at workshop "Adapting Activities Modeled by CSCL Scripts" of the 8th International Conference “Computer Supported Collaborative Learning” (CSCL’09). June, 8-13, 2009, Rhodes, Greece.

  11. Analyzing the effect of slowly variable parameters on the adaptive active control strategy

    This paper reveals that the adaptive active control strategy used to completely synchronize two chaotic systems with unknown parameters is not suitable to those systems with slowly variable parameters, such as electronic neuron systems. Simulation results show that two electronic neuron systems can be phase synchronized only by using adaptive active control strategy

  12. Study of Mental Activity and Regular Training (SMART in at risk individuals: A randomised double blind, sham controlled, longitudinal trial

    Jain Nidhi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The extent to which mental and physical exercise may slow cognitive decline in adults with early signs of cognitive impairment is unknown. This article provides the rationale and methodology of the first trial to investigate the isolated and combined effects of cognitive training (CT and progressive resistance training (PRT on general cognitive function and functional independence in older adults with early cognitive impairment: Study of Mental and Regular Training (SMART. Our secondary aim is to quantify the differential adaptations to these interventions in terms of brain morphology and function, cardiovascular and metabolic function, exercise capacity, psychological state and body composition, to identify the potential mechanisms of benefit and broader health status effects. Methods SMART is a double-blind randomized, double sham-controlled trial. One hundred and thirty-two community-dwelling volunteers will be recruited. Primary inclusion criteria are: at risk for cognitive decline as defined by neuropsychology assessment, low physical activity levels, stable disease, and age over 55 years. The two active interventions are computerized CT and whole body, high intensity PRT. The two sham interventions are educational videos and seated calisthenics. Participants are randomized into 1 of 4 supervised training groups (2 d/wk × 6 mo in a fully factorial design. Primary outcomes measured at baseline, 6, and 18 months are the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS-Cog, neuropsychological test scores, and Bayer Informant Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (B-IADLs. Secondary outcomes are psychological well-being, quality of life, cardiovascular and musculoskeletal function, body composition, insulin resistance, systemic inflammation and anabolic/neurotrophic hormones, and brain morphology and function via Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI and Spectroscopy (fMRS. Discussion SMART will provide a novel evaluation of the

  13. Efficacy of GP referral of insufficiently active patients for expert physical activity counseling: protocol for a pragmatic randomized trial (The NewCOACH trial)

    James, Erica L.; Ewald, Ben; Johnson, Natalie; Brown, Wendy; Stacey, Fiona G; McElduff, Patrick; Booth, Angela; Yang, Fan; Hespe, Charlotte; Ronald C Plotnikoff

    2014-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity is fourth in the list of risk factors for global mortality. General practitioners are well placed to offer physical activity counseling but insufficient time is a barrier. Although referral to an exercise specialist is an alternative, in Australia, these allied health professionals are only publicly funded to provide face-to-face counseling to patients who have an existing chronic illness. Accordingly, this trial aims to determine the efficacy of GP referral of ...

  14. Child Centred Approach to Climate Change and Health Adaptation through Schools in Bangladesh: A Cluster Randomised Intervention Trial.

    Md Iqbal Kabir

    Full Text Available Bangladesh is one of the most vulnerable countries to climate change. People are getting educated at different levels on how to deal with potential impacts. One such educational mode was the preparation of a school manual, for high school students on climate change and health protection endorsed by the National Curriculum and Textbook Board, which is based on a 2008 World Health Organization manual. The objective of this study was to test the effectiveness of the manual in increasing the knowledge level of the school children about climate change and health adaptation.This cluster randomized intervention trial involved 60 schools throughout Bangladesh, with 3293 secondary school students participating. School upazilas (sub-districts were randomised into intervention and control groups, and two schools from each upazila were randomly selected. All year seven students from both groups of schools sat for a pre-test of 30 short questions of binary response. A total of 1515 students from 30 intervention schools received the intervention through classroom training based on the school manual and 1778 students of the 30 control schools did not get the manual but a leaflet on climate change and health issues. Six months later, a post-intervention test of the same questionnaire used in the pre-test was performed at both intervention and control schools. The pre and post test scores were analysed along with the demographic data by using random effects model.None of the various school level and student level variables were significantly different between the control and intervention group. However, the intervention group had a 17.42% (95% CI: 14.45 to 20.38, P = <0.001 higher score in the post-test after adjusting for pre-test score and other covariates in a multi-level linear regression model.These results suggest that school-based intervention for climate change and health adaptation is effective for increasing the knowledge level of school children on

  15. Adaptive RBF Neural Network Control for Three-Phase Active Power Filter

    Juntao Fei; Zhe Wang

    2013-01-01

    An adaptive radial basis function (RBF) neural network control system for three‐phase active power filter (APF) is proposed to eliminate harmonics. Compensation current is generated to track command current so as to eliminate the harmonic current of non‐linear load and improve the quality of the power system. The asymptotical stability of the APF system can be guaranteed with the proposed adaptive neural network strategy. The parameters of the neural network can be adaptively updated to achie...

  16. Prevention through Activity in Kindergarten Trial (PAKT: A cluster randomised controlled trial to assess the effects of an activity intervention in preschool children

    Lenz Dorothea

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity and motor skills acquisition are of high importance for health-related prevention and a normal development in childhood. However, few intervention studies exist in preschool children focussing on an increase in physical activity and motor skills. Proof of positive effects is available but not consistent. Methods/Design The design, curriculum, and evaluation strategy of a cluster randomised intervention study in preschool children are described in this manuscript. In the Prevention through Activity in Kindergarten Trial (PAKT, 41 of 131 kindergartens of Wuerzburg and Kitzingen, Germany, were randomised into an intervention and a control group by a random number table stratified for the location of the kindergarten in an urban (more than 20.000 inhabitants or rural area. The aims of the intervention were to increase physical activity and motor skills in the participating children, and to reduce health risk factors as well as media use. The intervention was designed to involve children, parents and teachers, and lasted one academic year. It contained daily 30-min sessions of physical education in kindergarten based on a holistic pedagogic approach termed the "early psychomotor education". The sessions were instructed by kindergarten teachers under regular supervision by the research team. Parents were actively involved by physical activity homework cards. The kindergarten teachers were trained in workshops and during the supervision. Assessments were performed at baseline, 3-5 months into the intervention, at the end of the intervention and 2-4 months after the intervention. The primary outcomes of the study are increases in physical activity (accelerometry and in motor skills performance (composite score of obstacle course, standing long jump, balancing on one foot, jumping sidewise to and fro between baseline and the two assessments during the intervention. Secondary outcomes include decreases in body

  17. Physical Activity, Function, and Quality of Life: Design and Methods of the FlexToBa™ Trial

    McAuley, Edward; Wójcicki, Thomas R.; White, Siobhan M.; Mailey, Emily L; Szabo, Amanda N.; Gothe, Neha; Olson, Erin A.; Mullen, Sean P.; Fanning, Jason; Motl, Robert W.; Rosengren, Karl; Estabrooks, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The Flexibility, Toning, and Balance (FlexToBa™) Trial is a two-armed randomized controlled trial which will contrast the effects of a DVD-delivered, home-based, physical activity intervention and a Healthy Aging attention control condition on physical activity, functional performance, functional limitations, and quality of life in low active, older adults. This innovative trial will recruit 300 participants across central Illinois who will be randomized into the intervention arm or control a...

  18. Testing a workplace physical activity intervention: a cluster randomized controlled trial

    Jackson Cath; Lawton Rebecca J; McEachan Rosemary RC; Conner Mark; Meads David M; West Robert M

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Increased physical activity levels benefit both an individuals' health and productivity at work. The purpose of the current study was to explore the impact and cost-effectiveness of a workplace physical activity intervention designed to increase physical activity levels. Methods A total of 1260 participants from 44 UK worksites (based within 5 organizations) were recruited to a cluster randomized controlled trial with worksites randomly allocated to an intervention or cont...

  19. Initial trials for in-house neutron activation analysis

    A range of elements in previously analysed rock samples have been assayed by neutron activation analysis and the practicality of performing such analyses at the Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences has been established. Further work is needed to fully refine the technique. A cost estimate has been made for a routine procedure. (author) 1 tab., 6 figs

  20. Recruitment and enrollment of caregivers for a lifestyle physical activity clinical trial.

    Etkin, Caryn D; Farran, Carol J; Barnes, Lisa L; Shah, Raj C

    2012-02-01

    This article presents the efficacy of the recruitment framework used for a clinical trial with sedentary family caregivers of persons with Alzheimer's disease. An integrated social marketing approach with principles of community-based participatory research provided the theoretical framework for organizing recruitment activities. This multi-pronged approach meant that caregivers were identified from a range of geographic locations and numerous sources including a federally funded Alzheimer's disease center, health care providers, community based and senior organizations, and broad-based media. Study enrollment projections were exceeded by 11% and resulted in enrolling n = 211 caregivers into this clinical trial. We conclude that social marketing and community-based approaches provide a solid foundation for organizing recruitment activities for clinical trials with older adults. PMID:22083931

  1. [Clinical trial of the new percutaneously active antirheumatic etofenamate. Summarising report (author's transl)].

    Heindl, I; Lorenz, D; Sieberns, S; Blumberger, W

    1977-01-01

    2-(2-Hydroxyethoxy)ethyl-N-(a,a,a-trifluoro-m-tolyl)anthranilate (etofenamate, Rheumon Gel), a percutaneously active antirheumatic containing etofenamate as active principle has been subjected to clinical studies in both hospitalized and out-patients in various types of rheumatic disease. These trials included double-blind studies against placebo gel, controlled comparative studies against two topical commercial products (ointmentI: combination of 2-hydroxyethyl salicylate and p-menthan-3-ol; ointment II: 3,5-dioxo-1,2-diphenyl-4-n-butylpyrazolidine) and open trials for efficacy and tolerance. Of the 760 patients taking part in the trials, 556 were treated with Rheumon Gel. PMID:144509

  2. Improving aerobic capacity through active videogames: A randomized controlled trial

    Jorge Luiz de Brito-Gomes; Raphael José Perrier-Melo; Erik Anders Wikstrom; Manoel da Cunha Costa

    2015-01-01

    AbstractThe rate of peak workload improvement between different types of Active Video Games (AVG) in young sedentary adults was investigated. Aerobic capacity improvement after a 6-week intervention between AVG types was also compared. Twenty participants, after baseline assessments, were randomized into one of three parallel groups: structured AVG (n= 6), unstructured AVG (n= 7) and a control group (n= 7). Participants played their respective AVG 3 times a week for 6-weeks (30 minutes-sessio...

  3. Length adaptation of smooth muscle contractile filaments in response to sustained activation.

    Stålhand, Jonas; Holzapfel, Gerhard A

    2016-05-21

    Airway and bladder smooth muscles are known to undergo length adaptation under sustained contraction. This adaptation process entails a remodelling of the intracellular actin and myosin filaments which shifts the peak of the active force-length curve towards the current length. Smooth muscles are therefore able to generate the maximum force over a wide range of lengths. In contrast, length adaptation of vascular smooth muscle has attracted very little attention and only a handful of studies have been reported. Although their results are conflicting on the existence of a length adaptation process in vascular smooth muscle, it seems that, at least, peripheral arteries and arterioles undergo such adaptation. This is of interest since peripheral vessels are responsible for pressure regulation, and a length adaptation will affect the function of the cardiovascular system. It has, e.g., been suggested that the inward remodelling of resistance vessels associated with hypertension disorders may be related to smooth muscle adaptation. In this study we develop a continuum mechanical model for vascular smooth muscle length adaptation by assuming that the muscle cells remodel the actomyosin network such that the peak of the active stress-stretch curve is shifted towards the operating point. The model is specialised to hamster cheek pouch arterioles and the simulated response to stepwise length changes under contraction. The results show that the model is able to recover the salient features of length adaptation reported in the literature. PMID:26925813

  4. Reporting disease activity in clinical trials of patients with rheumatoid arthritis: EULAR/ACR collaborative recommendations.

    Aletaha, D.; Landewe, R.B.; Karonitsch, T.; Bathon, J.; Boers, M.; Bombardier, C.; Bombardieri, S.; Choi, H.; Combe, B.; Dougados, M.; Emery, P.; Gomez-Reino, J.; Keystone, E.C.; Koch, G.; Kvien, T.K.; Martin-Mola, E.; Matucci-Cerinic, M.; Michaud, K.; O'Dell, J.; Paulus, H.; Pincus, T.; Richards, P.; Simon, L.; Siegel, J.; Smolen, J.S.; Sokka, T.; Strand, V.; Tugwell, P.; Heijde, D. van der; Riel, P.L.C.M. van; Vlad, S.; Vollenhoven, R. van; Ward, M.; Weinblatt, M.; Wells, G.A.; White, B.; Wolfe, F.; Zhang, B.; Zink, A.; Felson, D.T.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To make recommendations on how to report disease activity in clinical trials of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) endorsed by the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) and the American College of Rheumatology (ACR). METHODS: The project followed the EULAR standardised operating procedures, w

  5. 21 CFR 312.87 - Active monitoring of conduct and evaluation of clinical trials.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Active monitoring of conduct and evaluation of clinical trials. 312.87 Section 312.87 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE INVESTIGATIONAL NEW DRUG APPLICATION Drugs...

  6. Initial Open Trial of a Computerized Behavioral Activation Treatment for Depression

    Spates, C. Richard; Kalata, Alyssa H.; Ozeki, Satoshi; Stanton, Cory E.; Peters, Sofia

    2013-01-01

    This article presents preliminary findings from use of a novel computer program that implements an evidence-based psychological intervention to treat depression based on behavioral activation (BA) therapy. The program is titled “Building a Meaningful Life Through Behavioral Activation”. The findings derive from an open trial with moderate to…

  7. A Controlled Trial of Active versus Passive Learning Strategies in a Large Group Setting

    Haidet, Paul; Morgan, Robert O.; O'Malley, Kimberly; Moran, Betty Jeanne; Richards, Boyd F.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effects of active and didactic teaching strategies on learning- and process-oriented outcomes. Design: Controlled trial. Setting: After-hours residents' teaching session. Participants: Family and Community Medicine, Internal Medicine, and Pediatrics residents at two academic medical institutions. Interventions: We…

  8. Physical activity, mindfulness meditation, or heart rate variability biofeedback for stress reduction: a randomized controlled trial

    Zwan, van der J.E.; Vente, de W.; Huizink, A.C.; Bögels, S.M.; Bruin, de E.I.

    2015-01-01

    In contemporary western societies stress is highly prevalent, therefore the need for stress-reducing methods is great. This randomized controlled trial compared the efficacy of self-help physical activity (PA), mindfulness meditation (MM), and heart rate variability biofeedback (HRV-BF) in reducing

  9. Application of Adaptive Filters to Active Noise Control

    PEI Bingnan; LI Chuanguang

    2001-01-01

    A modified LMS algorithm for noise-control is suggested after a mathematical model ofsound-cancellation is established, on the basis of thesound wave interference principle and the physicalmodel of progressive waves in a duct. Its applicationin controlling noise with the frequency range from 100to 800 Hz can be implemented by using the adaptivedigital signal processing technique. The experimentson a pink noise, a broadband noise and a noise takenfrom a tank were made, which show that there existsan attenuation of 11 dB at the frequency of 500 Hzor so, and that the proposed adaptive noise controltechnique is very effective and valid.

  10. Aero-Effected Distributed Adaptive Control of Flexible Aircraft Using Active Bleed Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed research focuses on the development of a new adaptive control methodology for active control of wing aerodynamic shape to effect distributed...

  11. Improving aerobic capacity through active videogames: A randomized controlled trial

    Jorge Luiz de Brito-Gomes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe rate of peak workload improvement between different types of Active Video Games (AVG in young sedentary adults was investigated. Aerobic capacity improvement after a 6-week intervention between AVG types was also compared. Twenty participants, after baseline assessments, were randomized into one of three parallel groups: structured AVG (n= 6, unstructured AVG (n= 7 and a control group (n= 7. Participants played their respective AVG 3 times a week for 6-weeks (30 minutes-session. The control group maintained normal activities. Both structured and unstructured AVG improved peak workload after four weeks but only the structured group maintained this improvement through week five and six. Aerobic capacity improved in the unstructured (Pre: 36.0 ± 5.2ml.kg.min-¹,Post: 39.7 ± 4.9ml.kg.min-¹, p = .038 and structured AVG (Pre: 39.0 ± 5.9ml.kg.min-¹,Post: 47.8 ± 4.3ml.kg.min-¹, p = .006 groups. Structured AVG provide greater health benefits to aerobic capacity and peak workload in young sedentary but otherwise healthy males relative to unstructured AVG.

  12. Exoskeleton control for lower-extremity assistance based on adaptive frequency oscillators: adaptation of muscle activation and movement frequency.

    Aguirre-Ollinger, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we analyze a novel strategy for assisting the lower extremities based on adaptive frequency oscillators. Our aim is to use the control algorithm presented here as a building block for the control of powered lower-limb exoskeletons. The algorithm assists cyclic movements of the human extremities by synchronizing actuator torques with the estimated net torque exerted by the muscles. Synchronization is produced by a nonlinear dynamical system combining an adaptive frequency oscillator with a form of adaptive Fourier analysis. The system extracts, in real time, the fundamental frequency component of the net muscle torque acting on a specific joint. Said component, nearly sinusoidal in shape, is the basis for the assistive torque waveform delivered by the exoskeleton. The action of the exoskeleton can be interpreted as a virtual reduction in the mechanical impedance of the leg. We studied the ability of human subjects to adapt their muscle activation to the assistive torque. Ten subjects swung their extended leg while coupled to a stationary hip joint exoskeleton. The experiment yielded a significant decrease, with respect to unassisted movement, of the activation levels of an agonist/antagonist pair of muscles controlling the hip joint's motion, which suggests the exoskeleton control has potential for assisting human gait. A moderate increase in swing frequency was observed as well. We theorize that the increase in frequency can be explained by the impedance model of the assisted leg. Per this model, subjects adjust their swing frequency in order to control the amount of reduction in net muscle torque. PMID:25655955

  13. A trial-by-trial analysis reveals more intense physical activity is associated with better cognitive control performance in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Hartanto, T A; Krafft, C E; Iosif, A M; Schweitzer, J B

    2016-01-01

    Hyperactivity is a key symptom and the most observable manifestation of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The over-activity associated with ADHD can cause specific challenges in academic settings, extracurricular activities and social relationships. Cognitive control challenges are also well established in ADHD. The current study included 44 children between the ages of 10 and 17 diagnosed with ADHD or who were typically developing (TD), all of whom had no psychiatric co-morbidity or significant learning disorders. Participants wore an actometer on their ankle while performing a flanker paradigm in order to objectively measure their rates of activity in association with cognitive control. Analyses assessed the relationship between frequency and intensity of activity to task accuracy on a trial-by-trial basis. A significant interaction effect between group and performance revealed that more intense movement was associated with better performance in the ADHD group but not in the TD group. The ADHD group demonstrated more intense activity than the TD group during correct (but not error) trials. Within-group, children with ADHD generated higher intensity movements in their correct trials compared to their error trials, whereas the TD group did not demonstrate any within-group differences. These findings suggest that excessive motoric activity associated with clinically significant ADHD symptoms may reflect compensatory efforts to modulate attention and alertness. Future research should systematically explore the relationship between motion in ADHD and how it might be used to improve cognitive performance. PMID:26059476

  14. Use of the foil activation method with arbitrary trial functions to determine neutron energy spectra

    Neutron Spectra have been measured by the foil activation method in thirteen different environments in and around the Sandia Pulsed Reactor (SPR-III), the White Sands Missile Range FBR, and the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR). The unfolded spectra were obtained by using the SANDII code in a manner which was not dependent on the initial trial. This altered technique is, therefore, better suited for the determination of spectra in environments that are difficult to predict by calculation, and it tends to reveal features that may be biased out by the use of standard trial functions

  15. Inactive experiments for advanced separation processes prior to high activity trials in ATALANTE

    Duhamet, Jean; Lanoe, Jean-Yves; Rivalier, Patrick; Borda, Gilles [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (CEA), CEA/DEN/VRH/DTEC/SGCS, Centre de Marcoule - BP 17171, 302007 Bagnols-sur-Ceze cedex (France)

    2008-07-01

    Many trials have been performed in ATALANTE's shielded cells to demonstrate the technical feasibility of processes involving minor actinide separation. They required developments of new extractors as well as a step by step procedure have been used to lower the risks of malfunction during high active operation. The design of the extractors developed by Cea has included shielded cells restrictions, miniaturization to lower the quantity of high active material and wastes and the care for being representative of industrial equipment. After individual shake down inactive tests, with actual phases, each process experiment scheduled in ATALANTE has been tested at G1 Facility in Marcoule. The objective was to reproduce as much as possible all the equipment chosen for active tests. This procedure has demonstrated its efficiency to detect many problems that would have heavy impact if they have been discovered during active trials. It was also used for operators'training. (authors)

  16. Adaptive/Nonadaptive Proton Radiation Planning and Outcomes in a Phase II Trial for Locally Advanced Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    Koay, Eugene J.; Lege, David [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Mohan, Radhe [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Komaki, Ritsuko; Cox, James D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Chang, Joe Y., E-mail: jychang@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Purpose: To analyze dosimetric variables and outcomes after adaptive replanning of radiation therapy during concurrent high-dose protons and chemotherapy for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Nine of 44 patients with stage III NSCLC in a prospective phase II trial of concurrent paclitaxel/carboplatin with proton radiation [74 Gy(RBE) in 37 fractions] had modifications to their original treatment plans after re-evaluation revealed changes that would compromise coverage of the target volume or violate dose constraints; plans for the other 35 patients were not changed. We compared patients with adaptive plans with those with nonadaptive plans in terms of dosimetry and outcomes. Results: At a median follow-up of 21.2 months (median overall survival, 29.6 months), no differences were found in local, regional, or distant failure or overall survival between groups. Adaptive planning was used more often for large tumors that shrank to a greater extent (median, 107.1 cm{sup 3} adaptive and 86.4 cm{sup 3} nonadaptive; median changes in volume, 25.3% adaptive and 1.2% nonadaptive; P<.01). The median number of fractions delivered using adaptive planning was 13 (range, 4-22). Adaptive planning generally improved sparing of the esophagus (median absolute decrease in V{sub 70}, 1.8%; range, 0%-22.9%) and spinal cord (median absolute change in maximum dose, 3.7 Gy; range, 0-13.8 Gy). Without adaptive replanning, target coverage would have been compromised in 2 cases (57% and 82% coverage without adaptation vs 100% for both with adaptation); neither patient experienced local failure. Radiation-related grade 3 toxicity rates were similar between groups. Conclusions: Adaptive planning can reduce normal tissue doses and prevent target misses, particularly for patients with large tumors that shrink substantially during therapy. Adaptive plans seem to have acceptable toxicity and achieve similar local, regional, and distant control and overall

  17. A cluster-randomized controlled trial of strategies to increase adolescents’ physical activity and motivation during physical education lessons: the Motivating Active Learning in Physical Education (MALP trial

    Rosenkranz Richard R

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The physical activity (PA levels of many children and adolescents in Australia are currently insufficient to promote health benefits. Physical education (PE programs aim to promote PA and reach nearly all school-aged children, but PA levels within PE lessons are often low. PE teachers may influence children’s motivation to be physically active in PE lessons, but little is known about teacher strategies that effectively motivate children to participate in PA, and few intervention studies have examined motivational strategies in PE. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of three motivational strategies, each based on Self-Determination Theory (SDT, on PA levels, and their hypothesized antecedents, during year 8 PE lessons. Methods/design This study employed a cluster-randomized controlled trial design. Following a familiarization session, PA levels and hypothesized PA antecedents were measured during a baseline lesson and a post-intervention or control lesson. Teachers (n = 16 and their classes from five secondary schools in Sydney, Australia were randomly assigned into four blocks and instructed to provide one of four 20-min lesson teaching strategy conditions: (1 explaining the relevance of activities; (2 providing choice from PA options selected by the teacher; (3 providing equipment and free choice of activities; or (4 usual practice. The primary outcomes were lesson time spent in moderate-to-vigorous PA, and motivation towards the lesson. Secondary outcomes were perceptions of teacher behavior, psychological needs satisfaction, and lesson time spent in sedentary behavior. PA and sedentary behavior were measured during baseline and post-intervention lessons with waist-mounted Actigraph GT3X accelerometers. Teacher behavior, psychological needs satisfaction, and motivation were assessed via questionnaires at the end of each lesson. Linear mixed-model analyses will be run on all outcomes, with students nested

  18. Physical activity and anxiety in adolescents : a systematic review of randomized controlled trials

    Shi, Shitian; 石诗田

    2014-01-01

    Background Anxiety disorders are among the most prevalent psychological disorders experienced during adolescence. Studies have suggested that physical activity may contribute to a beneficial role for anxiety including the prevention and reduction of anxiety symptoms among adolescents. This systematic review aims to explore the possible relationship between physical activity and anxiety. Methods A systematic search was performed to locate randomized-controlled trials (RCT)from 1980t...

  19. What Are the Health Benefits of Active Travel? A Systematic Review of Trials and Cohort Studies

    Lucinda E Saunders; Green, Judith M.; Petticrew, Mark P.; Rebecca Steinbach; Helen Roberts

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Increasing active travel (primarily walking and cycling) has been widely advocated for reducing obesity levels and achieving other population health benefits. However, the strength of evidence underpinning this strategy is unclear. This study aimed to assess the evidence that active travel has significant health benefits. METHODS The study design was a systematic review of (i) non-randomised and randomised controlled trials, and (ii) prospective observational studies examining...

  20. Antioxidant Activity of Heracleum persicum Fruit Extract: Evidence from a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Panahi, Yunes; Dadjou, Yahya; Pishgoo, Bahram; Akbari, Ahmad; Sahebkar, Amirhossein

    2016-09-01

    Oxidative stress is a unifying feature of several cardiometabolic risk factors, and has been suggested to be implicated in atherogenesis. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of supplementation with Heracleum persicum fruit-a common dietary spice-in modulating systemic biomarkers of oxidative stress in subjects undergoing coronary angiography. Twenty-seven subjects with minimal coronary artery disease (CAD; defined as < 50% obstruction in the coronary arteries) were selected for this trial and were randomly allocated to Heracleum persicum hydroalcoholic fruit extract (n = 15; 300 mg/day) or placebo (n = 12) for a period of six months. Patients were visited monthly and asked to report the adverse events during the treatment period. Serum levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and enzymatic activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) were determined at baseline and at the end of trial. Comparison of changes in the evaluated biomarkers of oxidative stress indicated a significantly greater effect of H. persicum extract versus placebo in reducing serum MDA (p = .001), and elevating GSH (p = .001), and TAC (p = .001) concentrations, as well as activities of GPx (p = .001) and CAT (p = .001). The groups were comparable with respect to changes in serum SOD activities during the course of trial (p = .255). The findings of the present randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial clearly support the efficacy of H. persicum fruit extract as a safe antioxidant supplement in subjects with minimal CAD. PMID:26820395

  1. Increasing efficacy of primary care-based counseling for diabetes prevention: Rationale and design of the ADAPT (Avoiding Diabetes Thru Action Plan Targeting trial

    Mann Devin M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have shown that lifestyle behavior changes are most effective to prevent onset of diabetes in high-risk patients. Primary care providers are charged with encouraging behavior change among their patients at risk for diabetes, yet the practice environment and training in primary care often do not support effective provider counseling. The goal of this study is to develop an electronic health record-embedded tool to facilitate shared patient-provider goal setting to promote behavioral change and prevent diabetes. Methods The ADAPT (Avoiding Diabetes Thru Action Plan Targeting trial leverages an innovative system that integrates evidence-based interventions for behavioral change with already-existing technology to enhance primary care providers' effectiveness to counsel about lifestyle behavior changes. Using principles of behavior change theory, the multidisciplinary design team utilized in-depth interviews and in vivo usability testing to produce a prototype diabetes prevention counseling system embedded in the electronic health record. Results The core element of the tool is a streamlined, shared goal-setting module within the electronic health record system. The team then conducted a series of innovative, "near-live" usability testing simulations to refine the tool and enhance workflow integration. The system also incorporates a pre-encounter survey to elicit patients' behavior-change goals to help tailor patient-provider goal setting during the clinical encounter and to encourage shared decision making. Lastly, the patients interact with a website that collects their longitudinal behavior data and allows them to visualize their progress over time and compare their progress with other study members. The finalized ADAPT system is now being piloted in a small randomized control trial of providers using the system with prediabetes patients over a six-month period. Conclusions The ADAPT system combines the influential

  2. A Web-Based, Social Networking Physical Activity Intervention for Insufficiently Active Adults Delivered via Facebook App: Randomized Controlled Trial

    Ferguson, Monika; Vandelanotte, Corneel; Plotnikoff, Ron; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Thomas, Samantha; Nelson-Field, Karen; Olds, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Background Online social networks offer considerable potential for delivery of socially influential health behavior change interventions. Objective To determine the efficacy, engagement, and feasibility of an online social networking physical activity intervention with pedometers delivered via Facebook app. Methods A total of 110 adults with a mean age of 35.6 years (SD 12.4) were recruited online in teams of 3 to 8 friends. Teams were randomly allocated to receive access to a 50-day online social networking physical activity intervention which included self-monitoring, social elements, and pedometers (“Active Team” Facebook app; n=51 individuals, 12 teams) or a wait-listed control condition (n=59 individuals, 13 teams). Assessments were undertaken online at baseline, 8 weeks, and 20 weeks. The primary outcome measure was self-reported weekly moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Secondary outcomes were weekly walking, vigorous physical activity time, moderate physical activity time, overall quality of life, and mental health quality of life. Analyses were undertaken using random-effects mixed modeling, accounting for potential clustering at the team level. Usage statistics were reported descriptively to determine engagement and feasibility. Results At the 8-week follow-up, the intervention participants had significantly increased their total weekly MVPA by 135 minutes relative to the control group (P=.03), due primarily to increases in walking time (155 min/week increase relative to controls, Psocial networking physical activity intervention with pedometers can produce sizable short-term physical activity changes. Future work is needed to determine how to maintain behavior change in the longer term, how to reach at-need populations, and how to disseminate such interventions on a mass scale. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR): ACTRN12614000488606; https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/Trial

  3. Two separate mechanisms of enforced viral replication balance innate and adaptive immune activation.

    Shaabani, Namir; Khairnar, Vishal; Duhan, Vikas; Zhou, Fan; Tur, Rita Ferrer; Häussinger, Dieter; Recher, Mike; Tumanov, Alexei V; Hardt, Cornelia; Pinschewer, Daniel; Christen, Urs; Lang, Philipp A; Honke, Nadine; Lang, Karl S

    2016-02-01

    The induction of innate and adaptive immunity is essential for controlling viral infections. Limited or overwhelming innate immunity can negatively impair the adaptive immune response. Therefore, balancing innate immunity separately from activating the adaptive immune response would result in a better antiviral immune response. Recently, we demonstrated that Usp18-dependent replication of virus in secondary lymphatic organs contributes to activation of the innate and adaptive immune responses. Whether specific mechanisms can balance innate and adaptive immunity separately remains unknown. In this study, using lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and replication-deficient single-cycle LCMV vectors, we found that viral replication of the initial inoculum is essential for activating virus-specific CD8(+) T cells. In contrast, extracellular distribution of virus along the splenic conduits is necessary for inducing systemic levels of type I interferon (IFN-I). Although enforced virus replication is driven primarily by Usp18, B cell-derived lymphotoxin beta contributes to the extracellular distribution of virus along the splenic conduits. Therefore, lymphotoxin beta regulates IFN-I induction independently of CD8(+) T-cell activity. We found that two separate mechanisms act together in the spleen to guarantee amplification of virus during infection, thereby balancing the activation of the innate and adaptive immune system. PMID:26553386

  4. The integration effect of activity on adaptation of junior children.

    Liasota T. I.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The level of disease and activity of 6-7 years old children are shown. Their relation to indicator of physical state is presented. The indexes of a number of children and their parents that used to train sports and physical culture are shown in the article. It is proved that the influence of different factors on the child's health depends on the way of life. Healthy effects of specially organized form of moving activity strengthening child's health and rising up the viability. It is revealed that not high moving activity is bringing down resistibility to a negative influence of environment, and frequent illnesses are limiting moving actions.

  5. Active adaptive management for reintroduction of an animal population

    Runge, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    Captive animals are frequently reintroduced to the wild in the face of uncertainty, but that uncertainty can often be reduced over the course of the reintroduction effort, providing the opportunity for adaptive management. One common uncertainty in reintroductions is the short-term survival rate of released adults (a release cost), an important factor because it can affect whether releasing adults or juveniles is better. Information about this rate can improve the success of the reintroduction program, but does the expected gain offset the costs of obtaining the information? I explored this question for reintroduction of the griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus) by framing the management question as a belief Markov decision process, characterizing uncertainty about release cost with 2 information state variables, and finding the solution using stochastic dynamic programming. For a reintroduction program of fixed length (e.g., 5 years of releases), the optimal policy in the final release year resembles the deterministic solution: release either all adults or all juveniles depending on whether the point estimate for the survival rate in question is above or below a specific threshold. But the optimal policy in the earlier release years 1) includes release of a mixture of juveniles and adults under some circumstances, and 2) recommends release of adults even when the point estimate of survival is much less than the deterministic threshold. These results show that in an iterated decision setting, the optimal decision in early years can be quite different from that in later years because of the value of learning. 

  6. Visual adaptations in the night-active wasp Apoica pallens.

    Greiner, Birgit

    2006-03-20

    The apposition compound eye of the nocturnal polistine wasp Apoica pallens shows, in comparison to the closely related diurnal wasp Polistes occidentalis, specific adaptations to vision at low light intensities. When considering recent work on nocturnal and diurnal bees, general principles for dim-light vision in hymenopterans become evident: The rhabdom diameters in nocturnal bees and wasps are 4 times wider compared to their diurnal relatives, leading to wide receptive fields, which in turn account for a 25-fold higher optical sensitivity. Interestingly, the rhabdom diameters in both nocturnal bees and wasps measure 8 mum, which may represent the maximum width for nocturnal hymenopteran apposition eyes. A ratio of 1.8 times larger eyes is present in the nocturnal bees and wasps, which in A. pallens is achieved by increasing the facet number, instead of enlarging the facets, as in nocturnal bees. Although this initially indicates spatial resolution to be important for the nocturnal wasp, the wide receptive fields of the rhabdoms will reduce its potentially high acuity. As the optical sensitivity alone cannot account for the 8 log units intensity difference between day and night, a possible role of neural summation within the first optic ganglion (lamina) of nocturnal hymenopterans is discussed. PMID:16440299

  7. Active adaptive conservation of threatened species in the face of uncertainty.

    McDonald-Madden, Eve; Probert, William J M; Hauser, Cindy E; Runge, Michael C; Possingham, Hugh P; Jones, Menna E; Moore, Joslin L; Rout, Tracy M; Vesk, Peter A; Wintle, Brendan A

    2010-07-01

    Adaptive management has a long history in the natural resource management literature, but despite this, few practitioners have developed adaptive strategies to conserve threatened species. Active adaptive management provides a framework for valuing learning by measuring the degree to which it improves long-run management outcomes. The challenge of an active adaptive approach is to find the correct balance between gaining knowledge to improve management in the future and achieving the best short-term outcome based on current knowledge. We develop and analyze a framework for active adaptive management of a threatened species. Our case study concerns a novel facial tumor disease affecting the Australian threatened species Sarcophilus harrisii: the Tasmanian devil. We use stochastic dynamic programming with Bayesian updating to identify the management strategy that maximizes the Tasmanian devil population growth rate, taking into account improvements to management through learning to better understand disease latency and the relative effectiveness of three competing management options. Exactly which management action we choose each year is driven by the credibility of competing hypotheses about disease latency and by the population growth rate predicted by each hypothesis under the competing management actions. We discover that the optimal combination of management actions depends on the number of sites available and the time remaining to implement management. Our approach to active adaptive management provides a framework to identify the optimal amount of effort to invest in learning to achieve long-run conservation objectives. PMID:20666263

  8. Spontaneous improvement in randomised clinical trials: meta-analysis of three-armed trials comparing no treatment, placebo and active intervention

    Gøtzsche Peter C

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It can be challenging for patients and clinicians to properly interpret a change in the clinical condition after a treatment has been given. It is not known to which extent spontaneous improvement, effect of placebo and effect of active interventions contribute to the observed change from baseline, and we aimed at quantifying these contributions. Methods Systematic review and meta-analysis, based on a Cochrane review of the effect of placebo interventions for all clinical conditions. We selected all trials that had randomised the patients to three arms: no treatment, placebo and active intervention, and that had used an outcome that was measured on a continuous scale or on a ranking scale. Clinical conditions that had been studied in less than three trials were excluded. Results We analysed 37 trials (2900 patients that covered 8 clinical conditions. The active interventions were psychological in 17 trials, physical in 15 trials, and pharmacological in 5 trials. Overall, across all conditions and interventions, there was a statistically significant change from baseline in all three arms. The standardized mean difference (SMD for change from baseline was -0.24 (95% confidence interval -0.36 to -0.12 for no treatment, -0.44 (-0.61 to -0.28 for placebo, and -1.01 (-1.16 to -0.86 for active treatment. Thus, on average, the relative contributions of spontaneous improvement and of placebo to that of the active interventions were 24% and 20%, respectively, but with some uncertainty, as indicated by the confidence intervals for the three SMDs. The conditions that had the most pronounced spontaneous improvement were nausea (45%, smoking (40%, depression (35%, phobia (34% and acute pain (25%. Conclusion Spontaneous improvement and effect of placebo contributed importantly to the observed treatment effect in actively treated patients, but the relative importance of these factors differed according to clinical condition and intervention.

  9. Disruption of locomotor adaptation with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over the motor cortex

    Choi, Julia Tsok Lam; Bouyer, Laurent J; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2015-01-01

    Locomotor patterns are adapted on a trial-and-error basis to account for predictable dynamics. Once a walking pattern is adapted, the new calibration is stored and must be actively de-adapted. Here, we tested the hypothesis that storage of newly acquired ankle adaptation in walking is dependent o...

  10. Adaptive flight control surfaces, wings, rotors, and active aerodynamics

    Barrett, Ronald M.; Brozoski, Fred

    1996-05-01

    This study outlines active flight control materials, structural arrangements, and several new active flight control methods for rotorcraft, airplanes and missiles. A system-level comparison shows that flight control actuator systems using materials like piezoceramics have approximately double the mass-specific energy and 4 to 6 times the volume specific energy of conventional actuators. New fabrication techniques centered on the principal of directional attachment allow wings and rotor blades to become twist active. Using these new methods, directionally attached piezoelectric (DAP) actuator elements were built into graphite-epoxy sandwich structures. When compared to conventionally attached piezoelectric (CAP) elements, twist deflections (important for flight control) of DAP plates were an order of magnitude greater. By using such twist-active elements in a torque-plate configuration, an active helicopter rotor was built. This Froude-scaled solid state rotor was whirl-stand tested and showed steady blade pitch deflections in excess of plus or minus 8 degrees with good correlation between theory and experiment rates up to 42 Hz (which corresponded to 2.5/rev) and no degradation in deflection as RPM was increased. DAP elements were also used in high aspect ratio subsonic and supersonic wings, demonstrating static twist deflections of plus or minus 2 degrees and plus or minus 6 degrees respectively, with good correlation between experiment and finite element results. The final section compares all-moving active stabilator structural arrangements and pitch deflections, which range up to plus or minus 12 degrees, generating lift coefficient changes in excess of plus or minus 0.8.

  11. The integration effect of activity on adaptation of junior children.

    Liasota T. I.

    2010-01-01

    The level of disease and activity of 6-7 years old children are shown. Their relation to indicator of physical state is presented. The indexes of a number of children and their parents that used to train sports and physical culture are shown in the article. It is proved that the influence of different factors on the child's health depends on the way of life. Healthy effects of specially organized form of moving activity strengthening child's health and rising up the viability. It is revealed ...

  12. Experiments on active precision isolation with a smart conical adapter

    Li, H.; Li, H. Y.; Chen, Z. B.; Tzou, H. S.

    2016-07-01

    Based on a conical shell adaptor, an active vibration isolator for vibration control of precision payload is designed and tested in this study. Flexible piezoelectric sensors and actuators are bonded on the adaptor surface for active vibration monitoring and control. The mathematical model of a piezoelectric laminated conical shell is derived and then optimal design of the actuators is performed for the first axial vibration mode of the isolation system. A scaled conical adaptor is manufactured with four MFC actuators laminating on its outer surface. Active vibration isolation efficiency is then evaluated on a vibration shaker. The control model is built in Matlab/Simulink and programmed into the dSPACE control board. Experimental results show that, the proposed active isolator is effective in vibration suppression of payloads with the negative velocity feedback control. In contrast, the amplitude responses increase with positive feedback control. Furthermore, the amplitude responses increases when time delay is added into the control signals, and gets the maximum when the delay is close to one quarter of one cycle time.

  13. Adaptive control of an active magnetic bearing flywheel system using neural networks / Angelique Combrinck

    Combrinck, Angelique

    2010-01-01

    The School of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering at the North-West University in Potchefstroom has established an active magnetic bearing (AMB) research group called McTronX. This group provides extensive knowledge and experience in the theory and application of AMBs. By making use of the expertise contained within McTronX and the rest of the control engineering community, an adaptive controller for an AMB flywheel system is implemented. The adaptive controller is ...

  14. Effect of dronabinol therapy on physical activity in anorexia nervosa: a randomised, controlled trial

    Andries, Alin; Gram, Bibi; Støving, René Klinkby

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The level of physical activity is inappropriately high in up to 80 % of the patients suffering of anorexia nervosa (AN), as a result of conscious efforts to lose weight, affect regulation and biological adaptive changes to starvation induced by hypothermia and neuroendocrine mechanisms...

  15. The Effects of Reflective Activities on Skill Adaptation in a Work-Related Instrumental Learning Setting

    Roessger, Kevin M.

    2014-01-01

    In work-related instrumental learning contexts, the role of reflective activities is unclear. Kolb's experiential learning theory and Mezirow's transformative learning theory predict skill adaptation as an outcome. This prediction was tested by manipulating reflective activities and assessing participants' response and error rates…

  16. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a very brief physical activity intervention delivered in NHS Health Checks (VBI Trial): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Mitchell, Joanna; Hardeman, Wendy; Pears, Sally; Vasconcelos, Joana C.; Prevost, A. Toby; Wilson, Ed; Sutton, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physical activity interventions that are targeted at individuals can be effective in encouraging people to be more physically active. However, most such interventions are too long or complex and not scalable to the general population. This trial will test the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a very brief physical activity intervention when delivered as part of preventative health checks in primary care (National Health Service (NHS) Health Check). Methods/design: The Very B...

  17. Adaptation of muscle gene expression to changes in contractile activity

    Booth, F. W.; Babij, P.; Thomason, D. B.; Wong, T. S.; Morrison, P. R.

    1987-01-01

    A review of the existing literature regarding the effects of different types of physical activities on the gene expression of adult skeletal muscles leads us to conclude that each type of exercise training program has, as a result, a different phenotype, which means that there are multiple mechanisms, each producing a unique phenotype. A portion of the facts which support this position is presented and interpreted here. [Abstract translated from the original French by NASA].

  18. Physical activity, mindfulness meditation, or heart rate variability biofeedback for stress reduction: a randomized controlled trial

    Zwan, van der, G.; Vente, de, W.; Huizink, A.C.; Bögels, S.M.; Bruin, de, B.

    2015-01-01

    In contemporary western societies stress is highly prevalent, therefore the need for stress-reducing methods is great. This randomized controlled trial compared the efficacy of self-help physical activity (PA), mindfulness meditation (MM), and heart rate variability biofeedback (HRV-BF) in reducing stress and its related symptoms. We randomly allocated 126 participants to PA, MM, or HRV-BF upon enrollment, of whom 76 agreed to participate. The interventions consisted of psycho-education and a...

  19. ELISPOT Assay for Monitoring Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes (CTL Activity in Cancer Vaccine Clinical Trials

    Thomas J. Sayers

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The profiling and monitoring of immune responses are key elements in the evaluation of the efficacy and development of new biotherapies, and a number of assays have been introduced for analyzing various immune parameters before, during, and after immunotherapy. The choice of immune assays for a given clinical trial depends on the known or suggested immunomodulating mechanisms associated with the tested therapeutic modality. Cell-mediated cytotoxicity represents a key mechanism in the immune response to various pathogens and tumors. Therefore, the selection of monitoring methods for the appropriate assessment of cell-mediated cytotoxicity is thought to be crucial. Assays that can detect both cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL frequency and function, such as the IFN-γ enzyme-linked immunospot assay (ELISPOT have gained increasing popularity for monitoring clinical trials and in basic research. Results from various clinical trials, including peptide and whole tumor cell vaccination and cytokine treatment, have shown the suitability of the IFN-γ ELISPOT assay for monitoring T cell responses. However, the Granzyme B ELISPOT assay and Perforin ELISPOT assay may represent a more direct analysis of cell-mediated cytotoxicity as compared to the IFN-γ ELISPOT, since Granzyme B and perforin are the key mediators of target cell death via the granule-mediated pathway. In this review we analyze our own data and the data reported by others with regard to the application of various modifications of ELISPOT assays for monitoring CTL activity in clinical vaccine trials.

  20. Characteristics of control group participants who increased their physical activity in a cluster-randomized lifestyle intervention trial

    Fjeldsoe Brianna S; Reeves Marina M; Waters Lauren A; Eakin Elizabeth G

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Meaningful improvement in physical activity among control group participants in lifestyle intervention trials is not an uncommon finding, and may be partly explained by participant characteristics. This study investigated which baseline demographic, health and behavioural characteristics were predictive of successful improvement in physical activity in usual care group participants recruited into a telephone-delivered physical activity and diet intervention trial, and desc...

  1. ADAPTIVE AND ACTIVE COMPUTING PARADIGM FOR PERSONALIZED INFORMATION SERVICE IN DISTRIBUTED HETERONGEOUS ENVIRONMENT

    马兆丰; 冯博琴

    2003-01-01

    To solve the problem that traditional pull-based information service can't meet the demand of long-term users getting domain information timely and properly, an adaptive and active computing paradigm (AACP) for personalized information service in heterogeneous environment is proposed to provide user-centered, push-based higsh quality information service timely in a proper way, the motivation of which is generalized as R4 Service: the right information at the right time in the right way to the right person, upon which formalized algorithms framework of adaptive user profile management, incremental information retrieval, information filtering, and active delivery mechanism are discussed in details. The AACP paradigm serves users in a push-based, event-driven, interest-related, adaptive and active information service mode, which is useful and promising for long-term user to gain fresh information instead of polling from kinds of information sources.

  2. Adaptive and innovative Radiation Treatment FOR improving Cancer treatment outcomE (ARTFORCE); a randomized controlled phase II trial for individualized treatment of head and neck cancer

    Failure of locoregional control is the main cause of recurrence in advanced head and neck cancer. This multi-center trial aims to improve outcome in two ways. Firstly, by redistribution of the radiation dose to the metabolically most FDG-PET avid part of the tumour. Hereby, a biologically more effective dose distribution might be achieved while simultaneously sparing normal tissues. Secondly, by improving patient selection. Both cisplatin and Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) antibodies like Cetuximab in combination with Radiotherapy (RT) are effective in enhancing tumour response. However, it is unknown which patients will benefit from either agent in combination with irradiation. We will analyze the predictive value of biological markers and 89Zr-Cetuximab uptake for treatment outcome of chemoradiation with Cetuximab or cisplatin to improve patient selection. ARTFORCE is a randomized phase II trial for 268 patients with a factorial 2 by 2 design: cisplatin versus Cetuximab and standard RT versus redistributed RT. Cisplatin is dosed weekly 40 mg/m2 for 6 weeks. Cetuximab is dosed 250mg/m2 weekly (loading dose 400 mg/m2) for 6 weeks. The standard RT regimen consists of elective RT up to 54.25 Gy with a simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) to 70 Gy in 35 fractions in 6 weeks. Redistributed adaptive RT consists of elective RT up to 54.25 Gy with a SIB between 64-80 Gy in 35 fractions in 6 weeks with redistributed dose to the gross tumour volume (GTV) and clinical target volume (CTV), and adaptation of treatment for anatomical changes in the third week of treatment. Patients with locally advanced, biopsy confirmed squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx, oral cavity or hypopharynx are eligible. Primary endpoints are: locoregional recurrence free survival at 2 years, correlation of the median 89Zr-cetuximab uptake and biological markers with treatment specific outcome, and toxicity. Secondary endpoints are quality of life, swallowing function preservation

  3. Online Event Segmentation in Active Perception using Adaptive Strong Anticipation

    Nery, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Most cognitive architectures rely on discrete representation, both in space (e.g., objects) and in time (e.g., events). However, a robot interaction with the world is inherently continuous, both in space and in time. The segmentation of the stream of perceptual inputs a robot receives into discrete and meaningful events poses as a challenge in bridging the gap between internal cognitive representations, and the external world. Event Segmentation Theory, recently proposed in the context of cognitive systems research, sustains that humans segment time into events based on matching perceptual input with predictions. In this work we propose a framework for online event segmentation, targeting robots endowed with active perception. Moreover, sensory processing systems have an intrinsic latency, resulting from many factors such as sampling rate, and computational processing, and which is seldom accounted for. This framework is founded on the theory of dynamical systems synchronization, where the system considered i...

  4. A behavioural intervention increases physical activity in people with subacute spinal cord injury: a randomised trial

    Carla FJ Nooijen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Questions: For people with subacute spinal cord injury, does rehabilitation that is reinforced with the addition of a behavioural intervention to promote physical activity lead to a more active lifestyle than rehabilitation alone? Design: Randomised, controlled trial with concealed allocation, intention-to-treat analysis, and blinded assessors. Participants: Forty-five adults with subacute spinal cord injury who were undergoing inpatient rehabilitation and were dependent on a manual wheelchair. The spinal cord injuries were characterised as: tetraplegia 33%; motor complete 62%; mean time since injury 150 days (SD 74. Intervention: All participants received regular rehabilitation, including handcycle training. Only the experimental group received a behavioural intervention promoting an active lifestyle after discharge. This intervention involved 13 individual sessions delivered by a coach who was trained in motivational interviewing; it began 2 months before and ended 6 months after discharge from inpatient rehabilitation. Outcome measures: The primary outcome was physical activity, which was objectively measured with an accelerometer-based activity monitor 2 months before discharge, at discharge, and 6 and 12 months after discharge from inpatient rehabilitation. The accelerometry data were analysed as total wheeled physical activity, sedentary time and motility. Self-reported physical activity was a secondary outcome. Results: The behavioural intervention significantly increased wheeled physical activity (overall between-group difference from generalised estimating equation 21 minutes per day, 95% CI 8 to 35. This difference was evident 6 months after discharge (28 minutes per day, 95% CI 8 to 48 and maintained at 12 months after discharge (25 minutes per day, 95% CI 1 to 50. No significant intervention effect was found for sedentary time or motility. Self-reported physical activity also significantly improved. Conclusion: The behavioural

  5. Measurement of neutron spectra in varied environments by the foil-activation method with arbitrary trials

    Neutron spectra have been measured by the foil-activation method in 13 different environments in and around the Sandia Pulsed Reactor, the White Sands Missile Range Fast Burst Reactor, and the Sandia Annular Core Research Reactor. The spectra were obtained by using the SANDII code in a manner that was not dependent on the initial trial. This altered technique is better suited for the determination of spectra in environments that are difficult to predict by calculation, and it tends to reveal features that may be biased out by the use of standard trial-dependent methods. For some of the configurations, studies have also been made of how well the solution is determined in each energy region. The experimental methods and the techniques used in the analyses are thoroughly explained. 34 refs., 51 figs., 40 tabs

  6. Evaluating the effects of increasing physical activity to optimize rehabilitation outcomes in hospitalized older adults (MOVE Trial): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Said, Catherine M.; Morris, Meg E; McGinley, Jennifer L.; Szoeke, Cassandra; Workman, Barbara; Liew, Danny; Hill, Keith; Woodward, Michael; Wittwer, Joanne E; Churilov, Leonid; Ventura, Cameron; Bernhardt, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Background Older adults who have received inpatient rehabilitation often have significant mobility disability at discharge. Physical activity levels in rehabilitation are also low. It is hypothesized that providing increased physical activity to older people receiving hospital-based rehabilitation will lead to better mobility outcomes at discharge. Methods/Design A single blind, parallel-group, multisite randomized controlled trial with blinded assessment of outcome and intention-to-treat ana...

  7. Can lay-led walking programmes increase physical activity in middle aged adults? A randomised controlled trial

    Lamb, S.; Bartlett, H; Ashley, A; W. Bird

    2002-01-01

    Design: Randomised controlled trial with one year follow up. Physical activity was measured by questionnaire. Other measures included attitudes to exercise, body mass index, cholesterol, aerobic capacity, and blood pressure.

  8. Adaptive Current Control with PI-Fuzzy Compound Controller for Shunt Active Power Filter

    Juntao Fei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An adaptive control technology and PI-fuzzy compound control technology are proposed to control an active power filter (APF. AC side current compensation and DC capacitor voltage tracking control strategy are discussed and analyzed. Model reference adaptive controller for the AC side current compensation is derived and established based on Lyapunov stability theory; proportional and integral (PI fuzzy compound controller is designed for the DC side capacitor voltage control. The adaptive current controller based on PI-fuzzy compound system is compared with the conventional PI controller for active power filter. Simulation results demonstrate the feasibility and satisfactory performance of the proposed control strategies. It is shown that the proposed control method has an excellent dynamic performance such as small current tracking error, reduced total harmonic distortion (THD, and strong robustness in the presence of parameters variation and nonlinear load.

  9. Study Protocol: A randomized controlled trial of patient navigation-activation to reduce cancer health disparities

    Rousseau Sally

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer health disparities affecting low-income and minority patients are well documented. Root-causes are multifactorial, including diagnostic and treatment delays, social and financial barriers, and poor communication. Patient navigation and communication coaching (activation are potential interventions to address disparities in cancer treatment. The purpose of this clinical trial is to test the effectiveness of an intervention combining patient navigation and activation to improve cancer treatment. Methods/Design The Rochester Patient Navigation Research Program (PNRP is a National Cancer Institute-sponsored, patient-level randomized trial (RCT of patient navigation and activation, targeting newly-diagnosed breast and colorectal cancer patients in Rochester, NY. The goal of the program is to decrease cancer health disparities by addressing barriers to receipt of cancer care and promoting patient self-efficacy. The intervention uses trained, paraprofessional patient navigators recruited from the target community, and a detailed training and supervisory program. Recruited patients are randomly assigned to receive either usual care (except for baseline and follow-up questionnaires and interviews or intervention. The intervention patients receive tailored assistance from their patient navigators, including phone calls, in-person meetings, and behind-the-scenes coordination of care. A total of 344 patients have been recruited. Outcomes measured at three month intervals include timeliness of care, patient adherence, patient satisfaction, quality of life, self-efficacy, health literacy, and cancer knowledge. Discussion This unique intervention combining patient navigation and patient activation is designed to address the multifactorial problem of cancer health disparities. If successful, this study will affect the design and implementation of patient navigation programs. Trials Registration clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT

  10. Adaptive RBF network with active contour coupling for multispectral MRI segmentation

    Valdes-Cristerna, Raquel; Medina, Veronica; Yanez-Suarez, Oscar

    2002-05-01

    A segmentation procedure using a radial basis function network (RBFN), coupled with an active contour (AC) model based on a cubic splines formulation is presented for the detection of the gray-white matter boundary in axial MMRI (T1, T2 and PD). A RBFN classifier has been previously introduced for MMRI segmentation, with good generalization at a rate of 10% misclassification over white and gray matter pixels on the validation set. The coupled RBFN and AC model system incorporates the posterior probability estimation map into the AC energy term as a restriction force. The RBFN output is also employed to provide an initial contour for the AC. Furthermore, an adaptation strategy for the network weights, guided by a feedback from the contour model adjustment at each iteration, is described. In order to compare the algorithm's performance, the segmentations using the adaptive, as well as the non-adaptive schemes were computed. It was observed that the major differences are located around deep circonvolutions, where the result of the adaptive process is superior than that obtained with the non-adaptive scheme, even in moderate noise conditions. In summary, the RBFN provides a good initial contour for the AC, the coupling of both processes keeps the final contour within the desired region and the adaptive strategy enhances the contour location.

  11. Liver afferents contribute to water drinking-induced sympathetic activation in human subjects: a clinical trial.

    Marcus May

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Water drinking acutely increases sympathetic activity in human subjects. In animals, the response appears to be mediated through transient receptor potential channel TRPV4 activation on osmosensitive hepatic spinal afferents, described as osmopressor response. We hypothesized that hepatic denervation attenuates water drinking-induced sympathetic activation. We studied 20 liver transplant recipients (44±2.6 years, 1.2±0.1 years post transplant as model of hepatic denervation and 20 kidney transplant recipients (43±2.6 years, 0.8±0.1 years post transplant as immunosuppressive drug matched control group. Before and after 500 ml water ingestion, we obtained venous blood samples for catecholamine analysis. We also monitored brachial and finger blood pressure, ECG, and thoracic bioimpedance. Plasma norepinephrine concentration had changed by 0.01±0.07 nmol/l in liver and by 0.21±0.07 nmol/l in kidney transplant recipients (p<0.05 between groups after 30-40 minutes of water drinking. While blood pressure and systemic vascular resistance increased in both groups, the responses tended to be attenuated in liver transplant recipients. Our findings support the idea that osmosensitive hepatic afferents are involved in water drinking-induced sympathetic activation in human subjects. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01237431.

  12. Emergent literacy activities, instructional adaptations and school absence of children with cerebral palsy in special education

    Peeters, M.H.J.; Moor, J.M.H. de; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to get an overview of the emergent literacy activities, instructional adaptations and school absence of children with cerebral palsy (CP) compared to normally developing peers. The results showed that there were differences between the groups regarding the amount of

  13. Psychological and Pedagogical Support for Students' Adaptation to Learning Activity in High Science School

    Zeleeva, Vera P.; Bykova, Svetlana S.; Varbanova, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the study is due to the importance of psychological and pedagogical support for students in university that would prevent difficulties in learning activities and increase adaptive capacity through the development of relevant personal traits. Therefore, this article is aimed at solving the problem of arranging psychological and…

  14. Adaptive and innate immune reactions regulating mast cell activation: from receptor-mediated signaling to responses

    Tkaczyk, Christine; Jensen, Bettina M; Iwaki, Shoko; Gilfillan, Alasdair M

    2006-01-01

    In this article, we have described studies that have demonstrated that mast cells can be activated as a consequence of adaptive and innate immune reactions and that these responses can be modified by ligands for other receptors expressed on the surface of mast cells. These various stimuli differe...

  15. Emergent Literacy Activities, Instructional Adaptations and School Absence of Children with Cerebral Palsy in Special Education

    Peeters, Marieke; de Moor, Jan; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to get an overview of the emergent literacy activities, instructional adaptations and school absence of children with cerebral palsy (CP) compared to normally developing peers. The results showed that there were differences between the groups regarding the amount of emergent literacy instruction. While time…

  16. Physical activity as a treatment for depression: the TREAD randomised trial protocol

    Lawlor Debbie A

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression is one of the most common reasons for consulting a General Practitioner (GP within the UK. Whilst antidepressants have been shown to be clinically effective, many patients and healthcare professionals would like to access other forms of treatment as an alternative or adjunct to drug therapy for depression. A recent systematic review presented some evidence that physical activity could offer one such option, although further investigation is needed to test its effectiveness within the context of the National Health Service. The aim of this paper is to describe the protocol for a randomised, controlled trial (RCT designed to evaluate an intervention developed to increase physical activity as a treatment for depression within primary care. Methods/design The TREAD study is a pragmatic, multi-centre, two-arm RCT which targets patients presenting with a new episode of depression. Patients were approached if they were aged 18-69, had recently consulted their GP for depression and, where appropriate, had been taking antidepressants for less than one month. Only those patients with a confirmed diagnosis of a depressive episode as assessed by the Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised (CIS-R, a Beck Depression Inventory (BDI score of at least 14 and informed written consent were included in the study. Eligible patients were individually randomised to one of two treatment groups; usual GP care or usual GP care plus facilitated physical activity. The primary outcome of the trial is clinical symptoms of depression assessed using the BDI four months after randomisation. A number of secondary outcomes are also measured at the 4-, 8- and 12-month follow-up points including quality of life, attitude to and involvement in physical activity and antidepressant use/adherence. Outcomes will be analysed on an intention-to-treat (ITT basis and will use linear and logistic regression models to compare treatments. Discussion The results of

  17. Single-trial prediction of reaction time variability from MEG brain activity.

    Ohata, Ryu; Ogawa, Kenji; Imamizu, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Neural activity prior to movement onset contains essential information for predictive assistance for humans using brain-machine-interfaces (BMIs). Even though previous studies successfully predicted different goals for upcoming movements, it is unclear whether non-invasive recording signals contain the information to predict trial-by-trial behavioral variability under the same movement. In this paper, we examined the predictability of subsequent short or long reaction times (RTs) from magnetoencephalography (MEG) signals in a delayed-reach task. The difference in RTs was classified significantly above chance from 550 ms before the go-signal onset using the cortical currents in the premotor cortex. Significantly above-chance classification was performed in the lateral prefrontal and the right inferior parietal cortices at the late stage of the delay period. Thus, inter-trial variability in RTs is predictable information. Our study provides a proof-of-concept of the future development of non-invasive BMIs to prevent delayed movements. PMID:27250872

  18. Use of the Crohn's disease activity index in clinical trials of biological agents

    2008-01-01

    The Crohn's disease activity index (CDAI) has been commonly used to assess the effects of treatment with different agents in Crohn's disease (CD). However, these studies may be compromised, if the results compared to a placebo or standard therapy group (in the absence of a placebo) substantially differ from the expected response. In addition, significant concerns have been raised regarding the reliability and validity of the CDAI. Reproducibility of the CDAI may be limited as significant inter-observer error has been recorded, even if measurements are done by experienced clinicians with expertise in the diagnosis and treatment of CD. Finally, many CDAI endpoints are open to subjective interpretation and have the potential for manipulation. This is worrisome as there is the potential for significant financial gain, if the results of a clinical trial appear to provide a positive result. Physicians caring for patients should be concerned about the positive results in clinical trials that are sponsored by industry, even if the trials involve respected centers and the results appear in highly ranked medical journals.

  19. Characterization of Adapter Protein NRBP as a Negative Regulator of T Cell Activation

    WANG Hui; LIN Zhi-xin; WU Jun

    2008-01-01

    Adapter proteins can regulate the gene transcriptions in disparate signaling pathway by interacting with multiple signaling molecules, including T cell activation signaling. Nuclear receptor binding protein (NRBP), a novel adapter protein, represents a small family of evolutionarily conserved proteins with homologs in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans), Drosophila melanogaster (D.melanogaster), mouse and human. Here, we demonstrated that overexpression of NRBP in Jurkat TAg cells specifically impairs T cell receptor (TCR) or phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)/ionomycin-mediated signaling leading to nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) promoter activation. Furthermore, the N-terminal of NRBP is necessary for its regulation of NFAT activation. Finally, we showed that NRBP has minimal effect on both TCR- and PMA-induced CD69 up-regulation in Jurkat TAg cells, which suggests that NRBP may function downstream of protein kinase C (PKC)/Ras pathway.

  20. Physical Activity Counselling during Pulmonary Rehabilitation in Patients with COPD: A Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Chris Burtin

    Full Text Available Pulmonary rehabilitation programs only modestly enhance daily physical activity levels in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. This randomised controlled trial investigates the additional effect of an individual activity counselling program during pulmonary rehabilitation on physical activity levels in patients with moderate to very severe COPD.Eighty patients (66 ± 7 years, 81% male, forced expiratory volume in 1 second 45 ± 16% of predicted referred for a six-month multidisciplinary pulmonary rehabilitation program were randomised. The intervention group was offered an additional eight-session activity counselling program. The primary outcomes were daily walking time and time spent in at least moderate intense activities.Baseline daily walking time was similar in the intervention and control group (median 33 [interquartile range 16-47] vs 29 [17-44] whereas daily time spent in at least moderate intensity was somewhat higher in the intervention group (17[4-50] vs 12[2-26] min. No significant intervention*time interaction effects were observed in daily physical activity levels. In the whole group, daily walking time and time spent in at least moderate intense activities did not significantly change over time.The present study identified no additional effect of eight individual activity counselling sessions during pulmonary rehabilitation to enhance physical activity levels in patients with COPD.clinicaltrials.gov NCT00948623.

  1. Motor control or graded activity exercises for chronic low back pain? A randomised controlled trial

    McAuley James H

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic low back pain remains a major health problem in Australia and around the world. Unfortunately the majority of treatments for this condition produce small effects because not all patients respond to each treatment. It appears that only 25–50% of patients respond to exercise. The two most popular types of exercise for low back pain are graded activity and motor control exercises. At present however, there are no guidelines to help clinicians select the best treatment for a patient. As a result, time and money are wasted on treatments which ultimately fail to help the patient. Methods This paper describes the protocol of a randomised clinical trial comparing the effects of motor control exercises with a graded activity program in the treatment of chronic non specific low back pain. Further analysis will identify clinical features that may predict a patient's response to each treatment. One hundred and seventy two participants will be randomly allocated to receive either a program of motor control exercises or graded activity. Measures of outcome will be obtained at 2, 6 and 12 months after randomisation. The primary outcomes are: pain (average pain intensity over the last week and function (patient-specific functional scale at 2 and 6 months. Potential treatment effect modifiers will be measured at baseline. Discussion This trial will not only evaluate which exercise approach is more effective in general for patients will chronic low back pain, but will also determine which exercise approach is best for an individual patient. Trial registration number ACTRN12607000432415

  2. Physical Activity during Cancer Treatment (PACT Study: design of a randomised clinical trial

    de Wit G Ardine

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fatigue is a major problem of cancer patients. Thirty percent of cancer survivors report serious fatigue three years after finishing treatment. There is evidence that physical exercise during cancer treatment reduces fatigue. This may also lead to an improvement of quality of life. Such findings may result in a decrease of healthcare related expenditures and societal costs due to sick leave. However, no studies are known that investigated these hypotheses. Therefore, the primary aim of our study is to assess the effect of exercise during cancer treatment on reducing complaints of fatigue and on reducing health service utilisation and sick leave. Methods/Design The Physical Activity during Cancer Treatment study is a multicentre randomised controlled trial in 150 breast and 150 colon cancer patients undergoing cancer treatment. Participants will be randomised to an exercise or a control group. In addition to the usual care, the exercise group will participate in an 18-week supervised group exercise programme. The control group will be asked to maintain their habitual physical activity pattern. Study endpoints will be assessed after 18 weeks (short term and after 9 months (long term. Validated questionnaires will be used. Primary outcome: fatigue (Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory and Fatigue Quality List and cost-effectiveness, health service utilisation and sick leave. Secondary outcome: health related quality of life (European Organisation Research and Treatment of Cancer-Quality of Life questionnaire-C30, Short Form 36 healthy survey, impact on functioning and autonomy (Impact on functioning and autonomy questionnaire, anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, physical fitness (aerobic peak capacity, muscle strength, body composition and cognitive-behavioural aspects. To register health service utilisation and sick leave, participants will keep diaries including the EuroQuol-5D. Physical activity level

  3. Influence of physical education on the level of adaptation of students to educational activity.

    Korolinska S.V.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Examined and summarized problems of adaptation of students to educational activity. 100 students took part in research. Found out a row socially psychological factors which determine efficiency of process of adaptation of students to the scientific process. Practical recommendations are developed on organization of educational process of students. It is recommended widely to utillize a physical culture as mean of reduction of adaptation period and increase of level of physical and mental capacity. It is marked that almost 90% students have rejections in a health. Also over 50% - unsatisfactory physical preparedness. It is set that for the students of the II course the indexes of low situation anxiety prevail as compared to the I course. It is set that the characteristic feature of the psychological state during an examination session is emotionally volitional instability.

  4. An adaptive synchronization strategy based on active control for demodulating message hidden in chaotic signals

    In the field of secure communication, it is very important to demodulate the message hidden in chaotic signals. In this paper, an adaptive synchronization strategy based on active control is proposed, which is used to design an active controller and an appropriate adaptive demodulator at the receiver to recover the transmitted message hidden in chaotic signals of a drive system. Based on Lyapunov stability theory, it is shown that the transmitted message can be theoretically recovered by using the proposed strategy. Numerical simulations based on the Chua's circuit are also presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed strategy. In addition, it is shown via simulations that, by increasing the gain of the active controller the message error caused by the external noise and the discontinuous property of the message can be reduced

  5. INTERACTIVE DOMAIN ADAPTION FOR THE CLASSIFICATION OF REMOTE SENSING IMAGES USING ACTIVE LEARNING

    U.Pushpa Lingam

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Interactive Domain Adaptation (IDA technique based on active learning for the classification of remote sensing images. Interactive domain adaptation method is used for adapting the supervised classifier trained on a given remote sensing source image to make it suitable for classifying a different but related target image. The two images can be acquired in different locations and at different times. This method iteratively selects the most informative samples of the target image to be labeled and included in the training set and the source image samples are reweighted or removed from the training set on the basis of their disagreement with the target image classification problem. The consistent information available from the source image can be effectively exploited for the classification of the target image and for guiding the selection of new samples to be labeled, whereas the inconsistent information is automatically detected and removed. This approach significantly reduces the number of new labeled samples to be collected from the target image. Experimental results on both a multispectral very high resolution and a hyper spectral data set confirm the effectiveness of the interactive domain adaptation for theclassification of remote sensing using active learning method.

  6. Participating in Clinical Trials

    Full Text Available ... Trials About Clinical Trials A Research Study With Human Subjects A clinical trial is a research study ... lifestyle changes, such as exercising more, getting more sleep, keeping mentally active, or eating nutritious foods, can ...

  7. Sedentary Activity and Body Composition of Middle School Girls: The Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls

    Pratt, Charlotte; Webber, Larry S.; Baggett, Chris D.; Ward, Dianne; Pate, Russell R.; Murray, David; Lohman, Timothy; Lytle, Leslie; Elder, John P.

    2008-01-01

    This study describes the relationships between sedentary activity and body composition in 1,458 sixth-grade girls from 36 middle schools across the United States. Multivariate associations between sedentary activity and body composition were examined with regression analyses using general linear mixed models. Mean age, body mass index, and…

  8. Healing Touch with Guided Imagery for PTSD in returning active duty military: a randomized controlled trial.

    Jain, Shamini; McMahon, George F; Hasen, Patricia; Kozub, Madelyn P; Porter, Valencia; King, Rauni; Guarneri, Erminia M

    2012-09-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) remains a significant problem in returning military and warrants swift and effective treatment. We conducted a randomized controlled trial to determine whether a complementary medicine intervention (Healing Touch with Guided Imagery [HT+GI]) reduced PTSD symptoms as compared to treatment as usual (TAU) returning combat-exposed active duty military with significant PTSD symptoms. Active duty military (n = 123) were randomized to 6 sessions (within 3 weeks) of HT+GI vs. TAU. The primary outcome was PTSD symptoms; secondary outcomes were depression, quality of life, and hostility. Repeated measures analysis of covariance with intent-to-treat analyses revealed statistically and clinically significant reduction in PTSD symptoms (p biofield therapy approaches for mitigating PTSD in military populations is warranted. PMID:23025129

  9. Local adaptive approach toward segmentation of microscopic images of activated sludge flocs

    Khan, Muhammad Burhan; Nisar, Humaira; Ng, Choon Aun; Lo, Po Kim; Yap, Vooi Voon

    2015-11-01

    Activated sludge process is a widely used method to treat domestic and industrial effluents. The conditions of activated sludge wastewater treatment plant (AS-WWTP) are related to the morphological properties of flocs (microbial aggregates) and filaments, and are required to be monitored for normal operation of the plant. Image processing and analysis is a potential time-efficient monitoring tool for AS-WWTPs. Local adaptive segmentation algorithms are proposed for bright-field microscopic images of activated sludge flocs. Two basic modules are suggested for Otsu thresholding-based local adaptive algorithms with irregular illumination compensation. The performance of the algorithms has been compared with state-of-the-art local adaptive algorithms of Sauvola, Bradley, Feng, and c-mean. The comparisons are done using a number of region- and nonregion-based metrics at different microscopic magnifications and quantification of flocs. The performance metrics show that the proposed algorithms performed better and, in some cases, were comparable to the state-of the-art algorithms. The performance metrics were also assessed subjectively for their suitability for segmentations of activated sludge images. The region-based metrics such as false negative ratio, sensitivity, and negative predictive value gave inconsistent results as compared to other segmentation assessment metrics.

  10. Nordic Walking improves daily physical activities in COPD: a randomised controlled trial

    Breyer Marie-Kathrin

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In patients with COPD progressive dyspnoea leads to a sedentary lifestyle. To date, no studies exist investigating the effects of Nordic Walking in patients with COPD. Therefore, the aim was to determine the feasibility of Nordic Walking in COPD patients at different disease stages. Furthermore we aimed to determine the short- and long-term effects of Nordic Walking on COPD patients' daily physical activity pattern as well as on patients exercise capacity. Methods Sixty COPD patients were randomised to either Nordic Walking or to a control group. Patients of the Nordic Walking group (n = 30; age: 62 ± 9 years; FEV1: 48 ± 19% predicted underwent a three-month outdoor Nordic Walking exercise program consisting of one hour walking at 75% of their initial maximum heart rate three times per week, whereas controls had no exercise intervention. Primary endpoint: daily physical activities (measured by a validated tri-axial accelerometer; secondary endpoint: functional exercise capacity (measured by the six-minute walking distance; 6MWD. Assessment time points in both groups: baseline, after three, six and nine months. Results After three month training period, in the Nordic Walking group time spent walking and standing as well as intensity of walking increased (Δ walking time: +14.9 ± 1.9 min/day; Δ standing time: +129 ± 26 min/day; Δ movement intensity: +0.40 ± 0.14 m/s2 while time spent sitting decreased (Δ sitting time: -128 ± 15 min/day compared to baseline (all: p Conclusions Nordic Walking is a feasible, simple and effective physical training modality in COPD. In addition, Nordic Walking has proven to positively impact the daily physical activity pattern of COPD patients under short- and long-term observation. Clinical trial registration Nordic Walking improves daily physical activities in COPD: a randomised controlled trial - ISRCTN31525632

  11. What are the health benefits of active travel? A systematic review of trials and cohort studies.

    Lucinda E Saunders

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Increasing active travel (primarily walking and cycling has been widely advocated for reducing obesity levels and achieving other population health benefits. However, the strength of evidence underpinning this strategy is unclear. This study aimed to assess the evidence that active travel has significant health benefits. METHODS: The study design was a systematic review of (i non-randomised and randomised controlled trials, and (ii prospective observational studies examining either (a the effects of interventions to promote active travel or (b the association between active travel and health outcomes. Reports of studies were identified by searching 11 electronic databases, websites, reference lists and papers identified by experts in the field. Prospective observational and intervention studies measuring any health outcome of active travel in the general population were included. Studies of patient groups were excluded. RESULTS: Twenty-four studies from 12 countries were included, of which six were studies conducted with children. Five studies evaluated active travel interventions. Nineteen were prospective cohort studies which did not evaluate the impact of a specific intervention. No studies were identified with obesity as an outcome in adults; one of five prospective cohort studies in children found an association between obesity and active travel. Small positive effects on other health outcomes were found in five intervention studies, but these were all at risk of selection bias. Modest benefits for other health outcomes were identified in five prospective studies. There is suggestive evidence that active travel may have a positive effect on diabetes prevention, which may be an important area for future research. CONCLUSIONS: Active travel may have positive effects on health outcomes, but there is little robust evidence to date of the effectiveness of active transport interventions for reducing obesity. Future evaluations of such

  12. Improving the recruitment activity of clinicians in randomised controlled trials: a systematic review.

    Fletcher, Ben; Gheorghe, Adrian; Moore, David; Wilson, Sue; Damery, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Background Poor recruitment to randomised controlled trials (RCTs) is a widespread problem. Provision of interventions aimed at supporting or incentivising clinicians may improve recruitment to RCTs. Objectives To quantify the effects of strategies aimed at improving the recruitment activity of clinicians in RCTs, complemented with a synthesis of qualitative evidence related to clinicians' attitudes towards recruiting to RCTs. Data sources A systematic review of English and non-English articles identified from: The Cochrane Library, Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE, Ovid PsycINFO, Ebsco CINAHL, Index to Theses and Open SIGLE from 2001 to March 2011. Additional reports were identified through citation searches of included articles. Study eligibility criteria Quantitative studies were included if they evaluated interventions aimed at improving the recruitment activity of clinicians or compared recruitment by different groups of clinicians. Information about host trial, study design, participants, interventions, outcomes and host RCT was extracted by one researcher and checked by another. Studies that met the inclusion criteria were assessed for quality using a standardised tool, the Effective Public Health Practice Project tool. Qualitative studies were included if they investigated clinicians' attitudes to recruiting patients to RCTs. All results/findings were extracted, and content analysis was carried out. Overarching themes were abstracted, followed by a metasummary analysis. Studies that met the inclusion criteria were assessed for quality using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme qualitative checklist. Data extraction Data extraction was carried out by one researcher using predefined data fields, including study quality indicators, and verified by another. Results Eight quantitative studies were included describing four interventions and a comparison of recruiting clinicians. One study was rated as strong, one as moderate and the remaining six as weak when

  13. Periodic activations of behaviours and emotional adaptation in behaviour-based robotics

    Burattini, Ernesto; Rossi, Silvia

    2010-09-01

    The possible modulatory influence of motivations and emotions is of great interest in designing robotic adaptive systems. In this paper, an attempt is made to connect the concept of periodic behaviour activations to emotional modulation, in order to link the variability of behaviours to the circumstances in which they are activated. The impact of emotion is studied, described as timed controlled structures, on simple but conflicting reactive behaviours. Through this approach it is shown that the introduction of such asynchronies in the robot control system may lead to an adaptation in the emergent behaviour without having an explicit action selection mechanism. The emergent behaviours of a simple robot designed with both a parallel and a hierarchical architecture are evaluated and compared.

  14. Research Trends in Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly From 2004 to 2013.

    Haegele, Justin A; Lee, Jihyun; Porretta, David L

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this documentary analysis was to examine trends in research published in Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly (APAQ) over a 10-yr span. A total of 181 research articles published from 2004 to 2013 were coded and analyzed using the following categories: first-author country affiliation, theoretical framework, intervention, research methods, disability categories, and topical focus. Results indicate high frequencies of nonintervention and group-design studies, as well as a low frequency of studies that describe a theoretical or conceptual framework. Trends in disability of participants and topical focus reflect current interests of researchers publishing in APAQ. While some scholars have suggested that changes in research on adapted physical activity would occur, the results of this analysis suggest that many of these categories remain largely unchanged for research published in APAQ. This study calls attention to similarities between the results of the current analysis and previous ones. PMID:26113549

  15. A Modified Active Appearance Model Based on an Adaptive Artificial Bee Colony

    Mohammed Hasan Abdulameer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Active appearance model (AAM is one of the most popular model-based approaches that have been extensively used to extract features by highly accurate modeling of human faces under various physical and environmental circumstances. However, in such active appearance model, fitting the model with original image is a challenging task. State of the art shows that optimization method is applicable to resolve this problem. However, another common problem is applying optimization. Hence, in this paper we propose an AAM based face recognition technique, which is capable of resolving the fitting problem of AAM by introducing a new adaptive ABC algorithm. The adaptation increases the efficiency of fitting as against the conventional ABC algorithm. We have used three datasets: CASIA dataset, property 2.5D face dataset, and UBIRIS v1 images dataset in our experiments. The results have revealed that the proposed face recognition technique has performed effectively, in terms of accuracy of face recognition.

  16. Inter-trial analysis of post-movement Beta activities in EEG signals using multivariate empirical mode decomposition.

    Chang, Hsiang-Chih; Lee, Po-Lei; Lo, Men-Tzung; Wu, Yu-Te; Wang, Kuo-Wei; Lan, Gong-Yau

    2013-07-01

    Event-related desynchronization/synchronization (ERD/ERS) is a technique to quantify subject's nonphase-locked neural activities underlying specific frequency bands, reactive to external/internal stimulus. However, conventional ERD/ERS studies usually utilize fixed frequency band determined from one or few channels to filter whole-head EEG/MEG data, which may inevitably include task-unrelated signals and result in underestimation of reactive oscillatory activities in multichannel studies. In this study, we adopted multivariate empirical mode decomposition (MEMD) to extract beta-related oscillatory activities in performing self-paced right and left index-finger lifting tasks. The MEMD extracts common modes from all channels in same-index intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) which allows the temporal-frequency features among different channels can be compared in each subband. The beta-band oscillatory activities were further bandpass filtered within trial-specific beta bands determined from sensorimotor-related channels (C3 and C4), and then rectified using amplitude modulation method to detect trial-by-trial beta rebound (BR) values in ERS time courses. The validity of the MEMD approach in BR values extraction has been demonstrated in multichannel EEG study which showed larger BR values than conventional ERS technique. The MEMD-based method enables the trial-by-trial extraction of sensorimotor oscillatory activities which might allow the exploration of subtle brain dynamics in future studies. PMID:23661320

  17. Intelligent Electric Power Systems with Active-Adaptive Electric Networks: Challenges for Simulation Tools

    Ufa Ruslan A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The motivation of the presented research is based on the needs for development of new methods and tools for adequate simulation of intelligent electric power systems with active-adaptive electric networks (IES including Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System (FACTS devices. The key requirements for the simulation were formed. The presented analysis of simulation results of IES confirms the need to use a hybrid modelling approach.

  18. Adaptation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha to hibernation in bats

    Han, Yijie; Zheng, Guantao; Yang, Tianxiao; Zhang, Shuyi; Dong, Dong; Pan, Yi-Hsuan

    2015-01-01

    Background Hibernation is a survival mechanism in the winter for some animals. Fat preserved instead of glucose produced is the primary fuel during winter hibernation of mammals. Many genes involved in lipid metabolism are regulated by the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα). The role of PPARα in hibernation of mammals remains largely unknown. Using a multidisciplinary approach, we investigated whether PPARα is adapted to hibernation in bats. Results Evolutionary analyses...

  19. Adaptations in Muscle Activity to Induced, Short-Term Hindlimb Lameness in Trotting Dogs

    Fischer, Stefanie; Nolte, Ingo; Schilling, Nadja

    2013-01-01

    Muscle tissue has a great intrinsic adaptability to changing functional demands. Triggering more gradual responses such as tissue growth, the immediate responses to altered loading conditions involve changes in the activity. Because the reduction in a limb’s function is associated with marked deviations in the gait pattern, understanding the muscular responses in laming animals will provide further insight into their compensatory mechanisms as well as help to improve treatment options to prev...

  20. Peers as resources for learning : a situated learning approach to adapted physical activity in rehabilitation

    Standal, Øyvind Førland; Jespersen, Ejgil

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the learning that takes place when people with disabilities interact in a rehabilitation context. Data were generated through in-depth interviews and close observations in a 2 1/2 week-long rehabilitation program, where the participants learned both wheelchair skills and adapted physical activities. The findings from the qualitative data analysis are discussed in the context of situated learning (Lave & Wenger, 1991; Wenger, 1998). The results indi...

  1. Adaptations in muscle activity to induced, short-term hindlimb lameness in trotting dogs.

    Fischer, Stefanie; Nolte, Ingo; Schilling, Nadja

    2013-01-01

    Muscle tissue has a great intrinsic adaptability to changing functional demands. Triggering more gradual responses such as tissue growth, the immediate responses to altered loading conditions involve changes in the activity. Because the reduction in a limb's function is associated with marked deviations in the gait pattern, understanding the muscular responses in laming animals will provide further insight into their compensatory mechanisms as well as help to improve treatment options to prevent musculoskeletal sequelae in chronic patients. Therefore, this study evaluated the changes in muscle activity in adaptation to a moderate, short-term, weight-bearing hindlimb lameness in two leg and one back muscle using surface electromyography (SEMG). In eight sound adult dogs that trotted on an instrumented treadmill, bilateral, bipolar recordings of the m. triceps brachii, the m. vastus lateralis and the m. longissimus dorsi were obtained before and after lameness was induced. Consistent with the unchanged vertical forces as well as temporal parameters, neither the timing nor the level of activity changed significantly in the m. triceps brachii. In the ipsilateral m. vastus lateralis, peak activity and integrated SEMG area were decreased, while they were significantly increased in the contralateral hindlimb. In both sides, the duration of the muscle activity was significantly longer due to a delayed offset. These observations are in accordance with previously described kinetic and kinematic changes as well as changes in muscle mass. Adaptations in the activity of the m. longissimus dorsi concerned primarily the unilateral activity and are discussed regarding known alterations in trunk and limb motions. PMID:24236207

  2. ExStroke Pilot Trial of the effect of repeated instructions to improve physical activity after ischaemic stroke: a multinational randomised controlled clinical trial

    Boysen, Gudrun; Krarup, Lars-Henrik; Zeng, Xianrong;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate if repeated verbal instructions about physical activity to patients with ischaemic stroke could increase long term physical activity. DESIGN: Multicentre, multinational, randomised clinical trial with masked outcome assessment. SETTING: Stroke units in Denmark, China......, Poland, and Estonia. PARTICIPANTS: 314 patients with ischaemic stroke aged >or=40 years who were able to walk-157 (mean age 69.7 years) randomised to the intervention, 157 (mean age 69.4 years) in the control group. INTERVENTIONS: Patients randomised to the intervention were instructed in a detailed...... training programme before discharge and at five follow-up visits during 24 months. Control patients had follow-up visits with the same frequency but without instructions in physical activity. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Physical activity assessed with the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) at each...

  3. The Subarray MVDR Beamformer: A Space-Time Adaptive Processor Applied to Active Sonar

    Bezanson, Leverett Guidroz

    The research for this thesis was mainly performed at the NATO Underwater Research Center, now named the Center for Maritime Research and Experimentation (CMRE). The purpose of the research was to improve the detection of underwater targets in the littoral ocean when using active sonar. Currently these detections are being made by towed line arrays using a delay and sum beamformer for bearing measurements and noise suppression. This method of beamforming has can suffer from reverberation that commonly is present in the littoral environment. A proposed solution is to use an adaptive beamformer which can attenuate reverberation and increase the bearing resolution. The adaptive beamforming algorithms have existed for a long time and typically are not used in the active case due to limited amount of observable data that is needed for adaptation. This deficiency is caused by the conflicting requirements for high Doppler resolution for target detection and small time windows for building up full-rank covariance estimates. The algorithms also are sensitive to bearing estimate errors that commonly occur in active sonar systems. Recently it has been proposed to overcome these limitations through the use of reduced beamspace adaptive beamforming. The Subarray MVDR beamformer is analyzed, both against simulated data and against experimental data collected by CMRE during the GLINT/NGAS11 experiment in 2011. Simulation results indicate that the Subarray MVDR beamformer rejects interfering signals that are not effectively attenuated by conventional beamforming. The application of the Subarray MVDR beamformer to the experimental data shows that the Doppler spread of the reverberation ridge is reduced, and the bearing resolution improved. The signal to noise ratio is calculated at the target location and also shows improvement. These calculated and observed performance metrics indicate an improvement of detection in reverberation noise.

  4. Regulation of pH in human skeletal muscle: adaptations to physical activity

    Juel, C

    2008-01-01

    Regulation of pH in skeletal muscle is the sum of mechanisms involved in maintaining intracellular pH within the normal range. Aspects of pH regulation in human skeletal muscle have been studied with various techniques from analysis of membrane proteins, microdialysis, and the nuclear magnetic...... describes the contribution of each transport system in pH regulation at rest and during muscle activity. It is reported that the mechanisms involved in pH regulation can undergo adaptational changes in association with physical activity and that these changes are of functional importance....

  5. INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECT OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORTS ACTIVITIES ON PSYCHOLOGICAL ADAPTATION LEVELS OF CHILDREN

    Erkan; Eylem; Ekrem Levent

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine whether regular application of physical education and sports activities was effective on psychological adaptation levels of children or not. The research group was constituted of 80 students in the range of 10-11 years old who take education in Ankara Keçioren Hacı Sabancı Secondary School. The research was designed as a test-module with pretest-posttest control group. Physical education and sports activities were performed with application group as 2...

  6. Discontinuation of oxytocin in the active phase of labour. A randomised controlled trial

    Bor, Isil Pinar; Boie, Sidsel; Ledertoug, Susanne; Stornes, Inger

    2015-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether discontinuation of oxytocin infusion increases the duration of the active phase of labour and reduces maternal and neonatal complications. DESIGN: Randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Regional Hospital of Randers......, Denmark. POPULATION: Women with singleton pregnancy in the vertex position undergoing labour induction or augmentation. METHODS: Two hundred women were randomised when cervical dilation was ≤4 cm to either continue or discontinue oxytocin infusion when cervical dilation reached 5 cm. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES......). The incidence of fetal heart rate abnormalities (51 versus 20%) and uterine hyperstimulation (12 versus 2%) was significantly greater in the continued than the discontinued oxytocin group. The incidence of tachysystole, caesarean deliveries, postpartum haemorrhage, third degree perineal tears and...

  7. A one-year clinical trial using didanosine, stavudine and nevirapine for highly active antiretroviral therapy

    ZHOU Hua-ying; ZHENG Yu-huang; ZHANG Chun-ying; DING Pei-pei; ZOU Wen

    2005-01-01

    @@ Antiretroviral therapy is a key determinant in the treatment and prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Initial treatment for patients with HIV infection generally includes two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) and a protease inhibitor (PI) or a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI). The combination antiretroviral therapy (refers to highly active antiretroviral therapy or HAART) showed a significant effect upon reducing morbidity and mortality of HIV disease. Cao and colleagues1 began the clinical application of HAART in 1999 and completed the first clinical trial in China using a combination of two NRTIs and one PI. The result in using combivir (AZT+3TC) and indinavir (2 NRTIs+1 PI) are consistent with those reported in the literature.2 In this study, we report the first virological and immunological outcomes in HIV infected Chinese patients treated with a combination of didanosine, stavudine and nevirapine (2 NRTIs+1 NNRTI) for 52 weeks.

  8. Physical activity: benefit or weakness in metabolic adaptations in a mouse model of chronic food restriction?

    Méquinion, Mathieu; Caron, Emilie; Zgheib, Sara; Stievenard, Aliçia; Zizzari, Philippe; Tolle, Virginie; Cortet, Bernard; Lucas, Stéphanie; Prévot, Vincent; Chauveau, Christophe; Viltart, Odile

    2015-02-01

    In restrictive-type anorexia nervosa (AN) patients, physical activity is usually associated with food restriction, but its physiological consequences remain poorly characterized. In female mice, we evaluated the impact of voluntary physical activity with/without chronic food restriction on metabolic and endocrine parameters that might contribute to AN. In this protocol, FRW mice (i.e., food restriction with running wheel) reached a crucial point of body weight loss (especially fat mass) faster than FR mice (i.e., food restriction only). However, in contrast to FR mice, their body weight stabilized, demonstrating a protective effect of a moderate, regular physical activity. Exercise delayed meal initiation and duration. FRW mice displayed food anticipatory activity compared with FR mice, which was strongly diminished with the prolongation of the protocol. The long-term nature of the protocol enabled assessment of bone parameters similar to those observed in AN patients. Both restricted groups adapted their energy metabolism differentially in the short and long term, with less fat oxidation in FRW mice and a preferential use of glucose to compensate for the chronic energy imbalance. Finally, like restrictive AN patients, FRW mice exhibited low leptin levels, high plasma concentrations of corticosterone and ghrelin, and a disruption of the estrous cycle. In conclusion, our model suggests that physical activity has beneficial effects on the adaptation to the severe condition of food restriction despite the absence of any protective effect on lean and bone mass. PMID:25465889

  9. The HIKCUPS trial: a multi-site randomized controlled trial of a combined physical activity skill-development and dietary modification program in overweight and obese children

    Warren Janet M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity is one of the most pressing health issues of our time. Key health organizations have recommended research be conducted on the effectiveness of well-designed interventions to combat childhood obesity that can be translated into a variety of settings. This paper describes the design and methods used in the Hunter Illawarra Kids Challenge Using Parent Support (HIKCUPS trial, an ongoing multi-site randomized controlled trial, in overweight/obese children comparing the efficacy of three interventions: 1 a parent-centered dietary modification program; 2 a child-centered physical activity skill-development program; and 3 a program combining both 1 and 2 above. Methods/Design Each intervention consists of three components: i 10-weekly face-to-face group sessions; ii a weekly homework component, completed between each face-to-face session and iii three telephone calls at monthly intervals following completion of the 10-week program. Details of the programs' methodological aspects of recruitment, randomization and statistical analyses are described here a priori. Discussion Importantly this paper describes how HIKCUPS addresses some of the short falls in the current literature pertaining to the efficacy of child obesity interventions. The HIKCUPS trial is funded by the National Medical Research Council, Australia.

  10. Two adaptation processes in auditory hair cells together can provide an active amplifier

    Vilfan, A; Vilfan, Andrej; Duke, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    The hair cells of the vertebrate inner ear convert mechanical stimuli to electrical signals. Two adaptation mechanisms are known to modify the ionic current flowing through the transduction channels of the hair bundles: a rapid process involves calcium ions binding to the channels; and a slower adaptation is associated with the movement of myosin motors. We present a mathematical model of the hair cell which demonstrates that the combination of these two mechanisms can produce `self-tuned critical oscillations', i.e. maintain the hair bundle at the threshold of an oscillatory instability. The characteristic frequency depends on the geometry of the bundle and on the calcium dynamics, but is independent of channel kinetics. Poised on the verge of vibrating, the hair bundle acts as an active amplifier. However, if the hair cell is sufficiently perturbed, other dynamical regimes can occur. These include slow relaxation oscillations which resemble the hair bundle motion observed in some experimental preparations.

  11. Selection pressure, cropping system and rhizosphere proximity affect atrazine degrader populations and activity in s-triazine adapted soil

    Atrazine degrader populations and activity in s-triazine adapted soils are likely affected by interactions among and (or) between s-triazine application frequency, crop production system, and proximity to the rhizosphere. A field study was conducted on an s-triazine adapted soil to determine the ef...

  12. Caste-specific visual adaptations to distinct daily activity schedules in Australian Myrmecia ants.

    Narendra, Ajay; Reid, Samuel F; Greiner, Birgit; Peters, Richard A; Hemmi, Jan M; Ribi, Willi A; Zeil, Jochen

    2011-04-22

    Animals are active at different times of the day and their activity schedules are shaped by competition, time-limited food resources and predators. Different temporal niches provide different light conditions, which affect the quality of visual information available to animals, in particular for navigation. We analysed caste-specific differences in compound eyes and ocelli in four congeneric sympatric species of Myrmecia ants, with emphasis on within-species adaptive flexibility and daily activity rhythms. Each caste has its own lifestyle: workers are exclusively pedestrian; alate females lead a brief life on the wing before becoming pedestrian; alate males lead a life exclusively on the wing. While workers of the four species range from diurnal, diurnal-crepuscular, crepuscular-nocturnal to nocturnal, the activity times of conspecific alates do not match in all cases. Even within a single species, we found eye area, facet numbers, facet sizes, rhabdom diameters and ocelli size to be tuned to the distinct temporal niche each caste occupies. We discuss these visual adaptations in relation to ambient light levels, visual tasks and mode of locomotion. PMID:20926444

  13. Mechanisms Underlying Adaptation of Respiratory Network Activity to Modulatory Stimuli in the Mouse Embryo

    Chevalier, Marc; De Sa, Rafaël; Cardoit, Laura; Thoby-Brisson, Muriel

    2016-01-01

    Breathing is a rhythmic behavior that requires organized contractions of respiratory effector muscles. This behavior must adapt to constantly changing conditions in order to ensure homeostasis, proper body oxygenation, and CO2/pH regulation. Respiratory rhythmogenesis is controlled by neural networks located in the brainstem. One area considered to be essential for generating the inspiratory phase of the respiratory rhythm is the preBötzinger complex (preBötC). Rhythmogenesis emerges from this network through the interplay between the activation of intrinsic cellular properties (pacemaker properties) and intercellular synaptic connections. Respiratory activity continuously changes under the impact of numerous modulatory substances depending on organismal needs and environmental conditions. The preBötC network has been shown to become active during the last third of gestation. But only little is known regarding the modulation of inspiratory rhythmicity at embryonic stages and even less on a possible role of pacemaker neurons in this functional flexibility during the prenatal period. By combining electrophysiology and calcium imaging performed on embryonic brainstem slice preparations, we provide evidence showing that embryonic inspiratory pacemaker neurons are already intrinsically sensitive to neuromodulation and external conditions (i.e., temperature) affecting respiratory network activity, suggesting a potential role of pacemaker neurons in mediating rhythm adaptation to modulatory stimuli in the embryo.

  14. Physical activity and nutrition behavioural outcomes of a home-based intervention program for seniors: a randomized controlled trial

    Burke Linda; Lee Andy H; Jancey Jonine; Xiang Liming; Kerr Deborah A; Howat Peter A; Hills Andrew P; Anderson Annie S

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background This intervention aimed to ascertain whether a low-cost, accessible, physical activity and nutrition program could improve physical activity and nutrition behaviours of insufficiently active 60–70 year olds residing in Perth, Australia. Methods A 6-month home-based randomised controlled trial was conducted on 478 older adults (intervention, n = 248; control, n = 230) of low to medium socioeconomic status. Both intervention and control groups completed postal questionnaires...

  15. Physical activity and nutrition behavioural outcomes of a home-based intervention program for seniors: a randomized controlled trial

    Burke, Linda; Lee, Andy H.; Jancey, Jonine; Xiang, Liming; Deborah A. Kerr; Howat, Peter A.; Hills, Andrew P; Anderson, Annie S

    2013-01-01

    Background This intervention aimed to ascertain whether a low-cost, accessible, physical activity and nutrition program could improve physical activity and nutrition behaviours of insufficiently active 60–70 year olds residing in Perth, Australia. Methods A 6-month home-based randomised controlled trial was conducted on 478 older adults (intervention, n = 248; control, n = 230) of low to medium socioeconomic status. Both intervention and control groups completed postal questionnaires at basel...

  16. Designing clinical trials for assessing the effects of cognitive training and physical activity interventions on cognitive outcomes: The Seniors Health and Activity Research Program Pilot (SHARP-P Study, a randomized controlled trial

    Rejeski W Jack

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The efficacy of non-pharmacological intervention approaches such as physical activity, strength, and cognitive training for improving brain health has not been established. Before definitive trials are mounted, important design questions on participation/adherence, training and interventions effects must be answered to more fully inform a full-scale trial. Methods SHARP-P was a single-blinded randomized controlled pilot trial of a 4-month physical activity training intervention (PA and/or cognitive training intervention (CT in a 2 × 2 factorial design with a health education control condition in 73 community-dwelling persons, aged 70-85 years, who were at risk for cognitive decline but did not have mild cognitive impairment. Results Intervention attendance rates were higher in the CT and PACT groups: CT: 96%, PA: 76%, PACT: 90% (p=0.004, the interventions produced marked changes in cognitive and physical performance measures (p≤0.05, and retention rates exceeded 90%. There were no statistically significant differences in 4-month changes in composite scores of cognitive, executive, and episodic memory function among arms. Four-month improvements in the composite measure increased with age among participants assigned to physical activity training but decreased with age for other participants (intervention*age interaction p = 0.01. Depending on the choice of outcome, two-armed full-scale trials may require fewer than 1,000 participants (continuous outcome or 2,000 participants (categorical outcome. Conclusions Good levels of participation, adherence, and retention appear to be achievable for participants through age 85 years. Care should be taken to ensure that an attention control condition does not attenuate intervention effects. Depending on the choice of outcome measures, the necessary sample sizes to conduct four-year trials appear to be feasible. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00688155

  17. Effects of dihydrocapsiate on adaptive and diet-induced thermogenesis with a high protein very low calorie diet: a randomized control trial

    Zerlin Alona

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dihydrocapsiate (DCT is a natural safe food ingredient which is structurally related to capsaicin from chili pepper and is found in the non-pungent pepper strain, CH-19 Sweet. It has been shown to elicit the thermogenic effects of capsaicin but without its gastrointestinal side effects. Methods The present study was designed to examine the effects of DCT on both adaptive thermogenesis as the result of caloric restriction with a high protein very low calorie diet (VLCD and to determine whether DCT would increase post-prandial energy expenditure (PPEE in response to a 400 kcal/60 g protein liquid test meal. Thirty-three subjects completed an outpatient very low calorie diet (800 kcal/day providing 120 g/day protein over 4 weeks and were randomly assigned to receive either DCT capsules three times per day (3 mg or 9 mg or placebo. At baseline and 4 weeks, fasting basal metabolic rate and PPEE were measured in a metabolic hood and fat free mass (FFM determined using displacement plethysmography (BOD POD. Results PPEE normalized to FFM was increased significantly in subjects receiving 9 mg/day DCT by comparison to placebo (p Conclusions These data provide evidence for postprandial increases in thermogenesis and fat oxidation secondary to administration of dihydrocapsiate. Trial registration clinicaltrial.govNCT01142687

  18. Community dynamics and glycoside hydrolase activities of thermophilic bacterial consortia adapted to switchgrass

    Gladden, J.M.; Allgaier, M.; Miller, C.S.; Hazen, T.C.; VanderGheynst, J.S.; Hugenholtz, P.; Simmons, B.A.; Singer, S.W.

    2011-05-01

    Industrial-scale biofuel production requires robust enzymatic cocktails to produce fermentable sugars from lignocellulosic biomass. Thermophilic bacterial consortia are a potential source of cellulases and hemicellulases adapted to harsher reaction conditions than commercial fungal enzymes. Compost-derived microbial consortia were adapted to switchgrass at 60 C to develop thermophilic biomass-degrading consortia for detailed studies. Microbial community analysis using small-subunit rRNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing and short-read metagenomic sequencing demonstrated that thermophilic adaptation to switchgrass resulted in low-diversity bacterial consortia with a high abundance of bacteria related to thermophilic paenibacilli, Rhodothermus marinus, and Thermus thermophilus. At lower abundance, thermophilic Chloroflexi and an uncultivated lineage of the Gemmatimonadetes phylum were observed. Supernatants isolated from these consortia had high levels of xylanase and endoglucanase activities. Compared to commercial enzyme preparations, the endoglucanase enzymes had a higher thermotolerance and were more stable in the presence of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2mim][OAc]), an ionic liquid used for biomass pretreatment. The supernatants were used to saccharify [C2mim][OAc]-pretreated switchgrass at elevated temperatures (up to 80 C), demonstrating that these consortia are an excellent source of enzymes for the development of enzymatic cocktails tailored to more extreme reaction conditions.

  19. Activity Increase Despite Arthritis (AÏDA: design of a Phase II randomised controlled trial evaluating an active management booklet for hip and knee osteoarthritis [ISRCTN24554946

    Edwards Rhiannon T

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hip and knee osteoarthritis is a common cause of pain and disability, which can be improved by exercise interventions. However, regular exercise is uncommon in this group because the low physical activity level in the general population is probably reduced even further by pain related fear of movement. The best method of encouraging increased activity in this patient group is not known. A booklet has been developed for patients with hip or knee osteoarthritis. It focuses on changing disadvantageous beliefs and encouraging increased physical activity. Methods/Design This paper describes the design of a Phase II randomised controlled trial (RCT to test the effectiveness of this new booklet for patients with hip and knee osteoarthritis in influencing illness and treatment beliefs, and to assess the feasibility of conducting a larger definitive RCT in terms of health status and exercise behaviour. A computerised search of four general medical practice patients' record databases will identify patients older than 50 years of age who have consulted with hip or knee pain in the previous twelve months. A random sample of 120 will be invited to participate in the RCT comparing the new booklet with a control booklet, and we expect 100 to return final questionnaires. This trial will assess the feasibility of recruitment and randomisation, the suitability of the control intervention and outcome measurement tools, and will provide an estimate of effect size. Outcomes will include beliefs about hip and knee pain, beliefs about exercise, fear avoidance, level of physical activity, health status and health service costs. They will be measured at baseline, one month and three months. Discussion We discuss the merits of testing effectiveness in a phase II trial, in terms of intermediate outcome measures, whilst testing the processes for a larger definitive trial. We also discuss the advantages and disadvantages of testing the psychometric

  20. Multi-GPU adaptation of a simulator of heart electric activity

    Víctor M. García

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The simulation of the electrical activity of the heart is calculated by solving a large system of ordinary differential equations; this takes an enormous amount of computation time. In recent years graphics processing unit (GPU are being introduced in the field of high performance computing. These powerful computing devices have attracted research groups requiring simulate the electrical activity of the heart. The research group signing this paper has developed a simulator of cardiac electrical activity that runs on a single GPU. This article describes the adaptation and modification of the simulator to run on multiple GPU. The results confirm that the technique significantly reduces the execution time compared to those obtained with a single GPU, and allows the solution of larger problems.

  1. Brain serotonergic activation in growth-stunted farmed salmon: adaption versus pathology

    Vindas, Marco A.; Johansen, Ida B.; Folkedal, Ole;

    2016-01-01

    Signalling systems activated under stress are highly conserved, suggesting adaptive effects of their function. Pathologies arising from continued activation of such systems may represent a mismatch between evolutionary programming and current environments. Here, we use Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar......) in aquaculture as a model to explore this stance of evolutionary-based medicine, for which empirical evidence has been lacking. Growth-stunted (GS) farmed fish were characterized by elevated brain serotonergic activation, increased cortisol production and behavioural inhibition. We make the novel...... observation that the serotonergic system in GS fish is unresponsive to additional stressors, yet a cortisol response is maintained. The inability of the serotonergic system to respond to additional stress, while a cortisol response is present, probably leads to both imbalance in energy metabolism and...

  2. Adaptive Trailing Edge Flaps for Active Load Alleviation in a Smart Rotor Configuration

    Bergami, Leonardo

    The work investigates the development of an active smart rotor concept from an aero-servo-elastic perspective. An active smart rotor is a wind turbine rotor that, through a combination of sensors, control units and actuators, is able to alleviate the fluctuating part of the aerodynamic loads it has...... to withstand. The investigation focuses on a specific actuator type: the Adaptive Trailing Edge Flap (ATEF), which introduces a continuous deformation of the aft part of the airfoil camber-line. An aerodynamic model that accounts for the steady and unsteady effects of the flap deflection on a 2D...... energy capture below rated conditions by using the flaps. Two model based control algorithms are developed to actively alleviate the fatigue loads on the smart rotor with ATEF. The first algorithm features a linear quadratic regulator with periodic disturbance rejection, and controls the deflection of...

  3. A New Hyperchaotic System and the Synchronization Using Active Variable Universe Adaptive Fuzzy Controller

    Baojie Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new hyperchaotic system by introducing an additional state variable into Lorenz system. The system’s characteristics, including the dissipativity, equilibrium, and Lyapunov exponents, are studied. A controller is developed which consists of an active control term and a variable universe adaptive fuzzy system. By using this controller, the synchronization of the new hyperchaotic systems with uncertain linear part is accomplished according to Lyapunov’s direct method. Simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  4. Active Video Game Exercise Training Improves the Clinical Control of Asthma in Children: Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Evelim L F D Gomes

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine whether aerobic exercise involving an active video game system improved asthma control, airway inflammation and exercise capacity in children with moderate to severe asthma.A randomized, controlled, single-blinded clinical trial was carried out. Thirty-six children with moderate to severe asthma were randomly allocated to either a video game group (VGG; N = 20 or a treadmill group (TG; n = 16. Both groups completed an eight-week supervised program with two weekly 40-minute sessions. Pre-training and post-training evaluations involved the Asthma Control Questionnaire, exhaled nitric oxide levels (FeNO, maximum exercise testing (Bruce protocol and lung function.No differences between the VGG and TG were found at the baseline. Improvements occurred in both groups with regard to asthma control and exercise capacity. Moreover, a significant reduction in FeNO was found in the VGG (p < 0.05. Although the mean energy expenditure at rest and during exercise training was similar for both groups, the maximum energy expenditure was higher in the VGG.The present findings strongly suggest that aerobic training promoted by an active video game had a positive impact on children with asthma in terms of clinical control, improvement in their exercise capacity and a reduction in pulmonary inflammation.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01438294.

  5. Physical activity, mindfulness meditation, or heart rate variability biofeedback for stress reduction: a randomized controlled trial.

    van der Zwan, Judith Esi; de Vente, Wieke; Huizink, Anja C; Bögels, Susan M; de Bruin, Esther I

    2015-12-01

    In contemporary western societies stress is highly prevalent, therefore the need for stress-reducing methods is great. This randomized controlled trial compared the efficacy of self-help physical activity (PA), mindfulness meditation (MM), and heart rate variability biofeedback (HRV-BF) in reducing stress and its related symptoms. We randomly allocated 126 participants to PA, MM, or HRV-BF upon enrollment, of whom 76 agreed to participate. The interventions consisted of psycho-education and an introduction to the specific intervention techniques and 5 weeks of daily exercises at home. The PA exercises consisted of a vigorous-intensity activity of free choice. The MM exercises consisted of guided mindfulness meditation. The HRV-BF exercises consisted of slow breathing with a heart rate variability biofeedback device. Participants received daily reminders for their exercises and were contacted weekly to monitor their progress. They completed questionnaires prior to, directly after, and 6 weeks after the intervention. Results indicated an overall beneficial effect consisting of reduced stress, anxiety and depressive symptoms, and improved psychological well-being and sleep quality. No significant between-intervention effect was found, suggesting that PA, MM, and HRV-BF are equally effective in reducing stress and its related symptoms. These self-help interventions provide easily accessible help for people with stress complaints. PMID:26111942

  6. Anti-biofilm activities from marine cold adapted bacteria against staphylococci and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Rosanna ePapa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Microbial biofilms have great negative impacts on the world’s economy and pose serious problems to industry, public health and medicine. The interest in the development of new approaches for the prevention and treatment of bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation has increased. Since, bacterial pathogens living in biofilm induce persistent chronic infections due to the resistance to antibiotics and host immune system. A viable approach should target adhesive properties without affecting bacterial vitality in order to avoid the appearance of resistant mutants. Many bacteria secrete anti-biofilm molecules that function in regulating biofilm architecture or mediating the release of cells from it during the dispersal stage of biofilm life cycle. Cold-adapted marine bacteria represent an untapped reservoir of biodiversity able to synthesize a broad range of bioactive compounds, including anti-biofilm molecules.The anti-biofilm activity of cell-free supernatants derived from sessile and planktonic cultures of cold-adapted bacteria belonging to Pseudoalteromonas, Psychrobacter and Psychromonas species were tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. Reported results demonstrate that we have selected supernatants, from cold-adapted marine bacteria, containing non-biocidal agents able to destabilize biofilm matrix of all tested pathogens without killing cells. A preliminary physico-chemical characterization of supernatants was also performed, and these analyses highlighted the presence of molecules of different nature that act by inhibiting biofilm formation. Some of them are also able to impair the initial attachment of the bacterial cells to the surface, thus likely containing molecules acting as anti-biofilm surfactant molecules.The described ability of cold-adapted bacteria to produce effective anti-biofilm molecules paves the way to further characterization of the most promising molecules

  7. USE OF SUBCUTANEOUS METHOTREXATE FOR THE TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH ACTIVE RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS: THE REMARCA TRIAL

    D. E. Karateev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The early administration of methotrexate (MTX and the use of its high (by the rheumatology practice standards doses contribute to the enhanced efficiency of therapy and the reduced severity of rheumatoid arthritis (RA. One of the important merits of MTX in the treatment of RA is the possibility of adjusting its dose and choosing its (oral or subcutaneous administration routes, which makes it possible to individualize treatment. Particular emphasis has been recently placed just on a subcutaneous MTX formulation that creates prerequisites for substantially improving the efficiency of RA therapy. The paper gives the data of the REMARCA (Russian investigation of methotrexate and biologicals for early active arthritis trial assessing the results of RA treatment in the use of the subcutaneous MTX dosage form as a first-line drug and in the elaboration of management tactics for this disease.Subjects and methods. The investigation included 191 patients (34 men and 157 women with active RA; of whom 51.8% had very early RA (< 6 months' disease duration. 115 patients with RA completed a 24-month follow-up period; and their data were analyzed in more detail.Results and discussion. The findings may substantiate treatment policy based on the prescription of subcutaneous MTX (without previously administering its oral formulation in patients with early RA and high disease activity, starting the drug at 15 mg/week and rapidly escalating with the highest tolerable doses during 4-8 weeks, which allows remission (or low disease activity in the majority of patients without using glucocorticoids and biological agents.

  8. Methods of deriving EULAR/ACR recommendations on reporting disease activity in clinical trials of patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Karonitsch, T.; Aletaha, D.; Boers, M.; Bombardieri, S.; Combe, B.; Dougados, M.; Emery, P.; Felson, D.; Gomez-Reino, J.; Keystone, E.; Kvien, T.K.; Martin-Mola, E.; Matucci-Cerinic, M.; Richards, P.; Riel, P.L.C.M. van; Siegel, J.; Smolen, J.S.; Sokka, T.; Heijde, D. van der; Vollenhoven, R. van; Ward, M.; Wells, G.; Zink, A.; Landewe, R.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To use an evidence-based and consensus-based approach to elaborate recommendations on how to report disease activity in clinical trials of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) endorsed by the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) and the American College of Rheumatology (ACR). MET

  9. Randomized Trial of Behavioral Activation, Cognitive Therapy, and Antidepressant Medication in the Prevention of Relapse and Recurrence in Major Depression

    Dobson, Keith S.; Hollon, Steven D.; Dimidjian, Sona; Schmaling, Karen B.; Kohlenberg, Robert J.; Gallop, Robert J.; Rizvi, Shireen L.; Gollan, Jackie K.; Dunner, David L.; Jacobson, Neil S.

    2008-01-01

    This study followed treatment responders from a randomized controlled trial of adults with major depression. Patients treated with medication but withdrawn onto pill-placebo had more relapse through 1 year of follow-up compared to patients who received prior behavioral activation, prior cognitive therapy, or continued medication. Prior…

  10. Protocol for the PACE trial: A randomised controlled trial of adaptive pacing, cognitive behaviour therapy, and graded exercise as supplements to standardised specialist medical care versus standardised specialist medical care alone for patients with the chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis or encephalopathy

    DeCesare Julia C

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS, also called myalgic encephalomyelitis/encephalopathy or ME is a debilitating condition with no known cause or cure. Improvement may occur with medical care and additional therapies of pacing, cognitive behavioural therapy and graded exercise therapy. The latter two therapies have been found to be efficacious in small trials, but patient organisations' surveys have reported adverse effects. Although pacing has been advocated by patient organisations, it lacks empirical support. Specialist medical care is commonly provided but its efficacy when given alone is not established. This trial compares the efficacy of the additional therapies when added to specialist medical care against specialist medical care alone. Methods/Design 600 patients, who meet operationalised diagnostic criteria for CFS, will be recruited from secondary care into a randomised trial of four treatments, stratified by current comorbid depressive episode and different CFS/ME criteria. The four treatments are standardised specialist medical care either given alone, or with adaptive pacing therapy or cognitive behaviour therapy or graded exercise therapy. Supplementary therapies will involve fourteen sessions over 23 weeks and a 'booster session' at 36 weeks. Outcome will be assessed at 12, 24, and 52 weeks after randomisation. Two primary outcomes of self-rated fatigue and physical function will assess differential effects of each treatment on these measures. Secondary outcomes include adverse events and reactions, subjective measures of symptoms, mood, sleep and function and objective measures of physical activity, fitness, cost-effectiveness and cost-utility. The primary analysis will be based on intention to treat and will use logistic regression models to compare treatments. Secondary outcomes will be analysed by repeated measures analysis of variance with a linear mixed model. All analyses will allow for stratification

  11. Intelligent Speed Adaptation for involuntary drivers

    Agerholm, Niels; Tradisauskas, Nerius; Juhl, Jens; Berthelsen, Kasper Klitgaard; Lahrmann, Harry

    2012-01-01

    The Danish Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA) trial ISA C included 26 commercial cars and 51 drivers a number of whom were involuntary. After a baseline period, ISA was activated for one year. The drivers should identify themselves with a personal key ID before driving. As well as being informative...

  12. The Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial (INFANT) an early intervention to prevent childhood obesity: Cluster-randomised controlled trial

    Campbell Karen; Hesketh Kylie; Crawford David; Salmon Jo; Ball Kylie; McCallum Zoë

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Multiple factors combine to support a compelling case for interventions that target the development of obesity-promoting behaviours (poor diet, low physical activity and high sedentary behaviour) from their inception. These factors include the rapidly increasing prevalence of fatness throughout childhood, the instigation of obesity-promoting behaviours in infancy, and the tracking of these behaviours from childhood through to adolescence and adulthood. The Infant Feeding A...

  13. Maintenance of Physical Activity and Exercise Capacity After Rehabilitation in Coronary Heart Disease: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Physical activity is one of the core components in cardiac rehabilitation and secondary prevention programs. This study investigated the effect of an intervention based on the health action process approach (HAPA) together with family support in the maintenance of physical activity and exercise capacity in coronary heart disease after discharge from rehabilitation. Method and Materials: In this randomized controlled trial, 96 patients with coronary heart disease wer...

  14. Process evaluation results from a school- and community-linked intervention: the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls (TAAG)

    Young, D. R.; Steckler, A.; Cohen, S.; Pratt, C; Felton, G.; Moe, S. G.; Pickrel, J.; Johnson, C C; Grieser, M.; Lytle, L. A.; Lee, J. -S.; Raburn, B.

    2008-01-01

    Process evaluation is a component of intervention research that evaluates whether interventions are delivered and received as intended. Here, we describe the process evaluation results for the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls (TAAG) intervention. The intervention consisted of four synergistic components designed to provide supportive school- and community-linked environments to prevent the decline in physical activity in adolescent girls. Process evaluation results indicate that the int...

  15. Intervening on spontaneous physical activity to prevent weight regain in older adults: Design of a randomized, clinical trial

    Nicklas, Barbara J.; Gaukstern, Jill E.; Legault, Claudine; Leng, Iris; Rejeski, W. Jack

    2011-01-01

    There is a need to identify evidenced-based obesity treatments that are effective in maintaining lost weight. Weight loss results in reductions in energy expenditure, including spontaneous physical activity (SPA) which is defined as energy expenditure resulting primarily from unstructured mobility-related activities that occur during daily life. To date, there is little research, especially randomized, controlled trials, testing strategies that can be adopted and sustained to prevent declines...

  16. Field trial of applicability of lot quality assurance sampling survey method for rapid assessment of prevalence of active trachoma.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the applicability of lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) for the rapid assessment of the prevalence of active trachoma. METHODS: Prevalence of active trachoma in six communities was found by examining all children aged 2-5 years. Trial surveys were conducted in these communities. A sampling plan appropriate for classifying communities with prevalences or =40% was applied to the survey data. Operating characteristic and average sample number curves were plo...

  17. Land- and water-based exercise intervention in women with fibromyalgia: The al-Andalus physical activity randomised controlled trial

    Carbonell-Baeza Ana; Ruiz Jonatan R; Aparicio Virginia A; Ortega Francisco B; Munguía-Izquierdo Diego; Álvarez-Gallardo Inmaculada C; Segura-Jiménez Víctor; Camiletti-Moirón Daniel; Romero Alejandro; Estévez-López Fernando; Samos Blanca; Casimiro Antonio J; Sierra Ángela; Latorre Pedro A; Pulido-Martos Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The al-Andalus physical activity intervention study is a randomised control trial to investigate the effectiveness of a land- and water-based exercise intervention for reducing the overall impact of fibromyalgia (primary outcome), and for improving tenderness and pain-related measures, body composition, functional capacity, physical activity and sedentary behaviour, fatigue, sleep quality, health-related quality of life, and cognitive function (secondary outcomes) in women...

  18. IIR filtering based adaptive active vibration control methodology with online secondary path modeling using PZT actuators

    Boz, Utku; Basdogan, Ipek

    2015-12-01

    Structural vibrations is a major cause for noise problems, discomfort and mechanical failures in aerospace, automotive and marine systems, which are mainly composed of plate-like structures. In order to reduce structural vibrations on these structures, active vibration control (AVC) is an effective approach. Adaptive filtering methodologies are preferred in AVC due to their ability to adjust themselves for varying dynamics of the structure during the operation. The filtered-X LMS (FXLMS) algorithm is a simple adaptive filtering algorithm widely implemented in active control applications. Proper implementation of FXLMS requires availability of a reference signal to mimic the disturbance and model of the dynamics between the control actuator and the error sensor, namely the secondary path. However, the controller output could interfere with the reference signal and the secondary path dynamics may change during the operation. This interference problem can be resolved by using an infinite impulse response (IIR) filter which considers feedback of the one or more previous control signals to the controller output and the changing secondary path dynamics can be updated using an online modeling technique. In this paper, IIR filtering based filtered-U LMS (FULMS) controller is combined with online secondary path modeling algorithm to suppress the vibrations of a plate-like structure. The results are validated through numerical and experimental studies. The results show that the FULMS with online secondary path modeling approach has more vibration rejection capabilities with higher convergence rate than the FXLMS counterpart.

  19. Adaptive Neural-Sliding Mode Control of Active Suspension System for Camera Stabilization

    Feng Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The camera always suffers from image instability on the moving vehicle due to the unintentional vibrations caused by road roughness. This paper presents a novel adaptive neural network based on sliding mode control strategy to stabilize the image captured area of the camera. The purpose is to suppress vertical displacement of sprung mass with the application of active suspension system. Since the active suspension system has nonlinear and time varying characteristics, adaptive neural network (ANN is proposed to make the controller robustness against systematic uncertainties, which release the model-based requirement of the sliding model control, and the weighting matrix is adjusted online according to Lyapunov function. The control system consists of two loops. The outer loop is a position controller designed with sliding mode strategy, while the PID controller in the inner loop is to track the desired force. The closed loop stability and asymptotic convergence performance can be guaranteed on the basis of the Lyapunov stability theory. Finally, the simulation results show that the employed controller effectively suppresses the vibration of the camera and enhances the stabilization of the entire camera, where different excitations are considered to validate the system performance.

  20. Patient Activation through Counseling and Exercise – Acute Leukemia (PACE-AL) – a randomized controlled trial

    Jarden, Mary; Møller, Tom; Kjeldsen, Lars;

    2013-01-01

    treatment related symptoms and side effects. To date, there are no clinical practice exercise guidelines for patients with acute leukemia undergoing induction and consolidation chemotherapy. A randomized controlled trial is needed to determine if patients with acute leukemia can benefit by a structured and...... supervised counseling and exercise program.Methods/design: This paper presents the study protocol: Patient Activation through Counseling and Exercise -- Acute Leukemia (PACE-AL) trial, a two center, randomized controlled trial of 70 patients with acute leukemia (35 patients/study arm) following induction...... chemotherapy in the outpatient setting. Eligible patients will be randomized to usual care or to the 12 week exercise and counseling program. The intervention includes 3 hours + 30 minutes per week of supervised and structured aerobic training (moderate to high intensity 70 - 80%) on an ergometer cycle...

  1. Functional Based Adaptive and Fuzzy Sliding Controller for Non-Autonomous Active Suspension System

    Huang, Shiuh-Jer; Chen, Hung-Yi

    In this paper, an adaptive sliding controller is developed for controlling a vehicle active suspension system. The functional approximation technique is employed to substitute the unknown non-autonomous functions of the suspension system and release the model-based requirement of sliding mode control algorithm. In order to improve the control performance and reduce the implementation problem, a fuzzy strategy with online learning ability is added to compensate the functional approximation error. The update laws of the functional approximation coefficients and the fuzzy tuning parameters are derived from the Lyapunov theorem to guarantee the system stability. The proposed controller is implemented on a quarter-car hydraulic actuating active suspension system test-rig. The experimental results show that the proposed controller suppresses the oscillation amplitude of the suspension system effectively.

  2. Physical Activity, Function, and Quality of Life: Design and Methods of the FlexToBa™ Trial

    McAuley, Edward; Wójcicki, Thomas R.; White, Siobhan M.; Mailey, Emily L.; Szabo, Amanda N.; Gothe, Neha; Olson, Erin A.; Mullen, Sean P.; Fanning, Jason; Motl, Robert W.; Rosengren, Karl; Estabrooks, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The Flexibility, Toning, and Balance (FlexToBa™) Trial is a two-armed randomized controlled trial which will contrast the effects of a DVD-delivered, home-based, physical activity intervention and a Healthy Aging attention control condition on physical activity, functional performance, functional limitations, and quality of life in low active, older adults. This innovative trial will recruit 300 participants across central Illinois who will be randomized into the intervention arm or control arm of the study. The intervention will last 6 months with a 6 month follow-up. Assessments at baseline, post intervention and follow-up will include physical activity (self-report and accelerometry), a battery of functional performance measures, functional limitations, quality of life, and an array of psychological health measures. In addition, measures of external validity will be included to determine public health significance of a successful outcome. Participants will engage in a progressive series of activities focusing on flexibility, strengthening, and balance exercises which are demonstrated by a trained exercise leader and age-appropriate models on a series of DVDs. Delivery of the intervention has its basis in social cognitive theory. The specific aims of the trial are (a) to determine the effects of the DVD-delivered FlexToBa™ program on physical activity, functional performance, functional limitations, and quality of life, (b) to examine the mediators of the relationships between physical activity and functional limitations and quality of life, (c) to assess external validity indicators relative to the intervention, and (d) to determine differential effects of the intervention on psychosocial health measures. PMID:22024470

  3. Coordinated activity of ventral tegmental neurons adapts to appetitive and aversive learning.

    Kim, Yunbok; Wood, Jesse; Moghaddam, Bita

    2012-01-01

    Our understanding of how value-related information is encoded in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) is based mainly on the responses of individual putative dopamine neurons. In contrast to cortical areas, the nature of coordinated interactions between groups of VTA neurons during motivated behavior is largely unknown. These interactions can strongly affect information processing, highlighting the importance of investigating network level activity. We recorded the activity of multiple single units and local field potentials (LFP) in the VTA during a task in which rats learned to associate novel stimuli with different outcomes. We found that coordinated activity of VTA units with either putative dopamine or GABA waveforms was influenced differently by rewarding versus aversive outcomes. Specifically, after learning, stimuli paired with a rewarding outcome increased the correlation in activity levels between unit pairs whereas stimuli paired with an aversive outcome decreased the correlation. Paired single unit responses also became more redundant after learning. These response patterns flexibly tracked the reversal of contingencies, suggesting that learning is associated with changing correlations and enhanced functional connectivity between VTA neurons. Analysis of LFP recorded simultaneously with unit activity showed an increase in the power of theta oscillations when stimuli predicted reward but not an aversive outcome. With learning, a higher proportion of putative GABA units were phase locked to the theta oscillations than putative dopamine units. These patterns also adapted when task contingencies were changed. Taken together, these data demonstrate that VTA neurons organize flexibly as functional networks to support appetitive and aversive learning. PMID:22238652

  4. Changes in activities of adaptive liver enzymes in rats after non-lethal x-irradiation

    The effect of a single dose of whole-body X-irradiation of 2.39 Gy (250 R) on the activities of selected adaptive rat liver enzymes and blood serum corticosterone concentrations was followed for a period of 28 days. Rats of Wistar strain SPF breeding (VELAZ Prague) were used. Both irradiated and control animals were fed in pairs with the same amount of feed as was consumed by irradiated animals in the pilot experiment. The feed intake of irradiated animals decreased significantly until the fourth day. During the rest of the experimental period no significant differences were recorded in feed intake between the experimental and control groups. The activity of tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) in the liver of irradiated animals increased, with the exception of the initial period. Similar changes were recorded in the activity of tryptophane-2-3 dioxygenase (TO). A significant increase on the third day and a significant decrease from the seventh day after irradiation was recorded in the activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Similar changes were observed with alanine aminotransferase (ALT). It is necessary to stress that the activity of this enzyme decreased also on the first day after irradiation. Until the third day there was a marked increase of serum corticosterone in the irradiated animals. The results point not only towards significant changes to the parameters observed, caused by a non-lethal irradiation dose, but also towards the importance of the nutritional regime, so-called paired feeding

  5. Coordinated activity of ventral tegmental neurons adapts to appetitive and aversive learning.

    Yunbok Kim

    Full Text Available Our understanding of how value-related information is encoded in the ventral tegmental area (VTA is based mainly on the responses of individual putative dopamine neurons. In contrast to cortical areas, the nature of coordinated interactions between groups of VTA neurons during motivated behavior is largely unknown. These interactions can strongly affect information processing, highlighting the importance of investigating network level activity. We recorded the activity of multiple single units and local field potentials (LFP in the VTA during a task in which rats learned to associate novel stimuli with different outcomes. We found that coordinated activity of VTA units with either putative dopamine or GABA waveforms was influenced differently by rewarding versus aversive outcomes. Specifically, after learning, stimuli paired with a rewarding outcome increased the correlation in activity levels between unit pairs whereas stimuli paired with an aversive outcome decreased the correlation. Paired single unit responses also became more redundant after learning. These response patterns flexibly tracked the reversal of contingencies, suggesting that learning is associated with changing correlations and enhanced functional connectivity between VTA neurons. Analysis of LFP recorded simultaneously with unit activity showed an increase in the power of theta oscillations when stimuli predicted reward but not an aversive outcome. With learning, a higher proportion of putative GABA units were phase locked to the theta oscillations than putative dopamine units. These patterns also adapted when task contingencies were changed. Taken together, these data demonstrate that VTA neurons organize flexibly as functional networks to support appetitive and aversive learning.

  6. Randomized controlled trial of the efficacy of aerobic exercise in reducing metabolic risk in healthy older people: The Hertfordshire Physical Activity Trial

    Sharp Stephen J

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While there are compelling observational data confirming that individuals who exercise are healthier, the efficacy of aerobic exercise interventions to reduce metabolic risk and improve insulin sensitivity in older people has not been fully elucidated. Furthermore, while low birth weight has been shown to predict adverse health outcomes later in life, its influence on the response to aerobic exercise is unknown. Our primary objective is to assess the efficacy of a fully supervised twelve week aerobic exercise intervention in reducing clustered metabolic risk in healthy older adults. A secondary objective is to determine the influence of low birth weight on the response to exercise in this group. Methods/Design We aim to recruit 100 participants born between 1931–1939, from the Hertfordshire Cohort Study and randomly assign them to no intervention or to 36 fully supervised one hour sessions on a cycle ergometer, over twelve weeks. Each participant will undergo detailed anthropometric and metabolic assessment pre- and post-intervention, including muscle biopsy, magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy, objective measurement of physical activity and sub-maximal fitness testing. Discussion Given the extensive phenotypic characterization, this study will provide valuable insights into the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of aerobic exercise as well as the efficacy, feasibility and safety of such interventions in this age group. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials: ISRCTN60986572

  7. Support or competition? How online social networks increase physical activity: A randomized controlled trial.

    Zhang, Jingwen; Brackbill, Devon; Yang, Sijia; Becker, Joshua; Herbert, Natalie; Centola, Damon

    2016-12-01

    To identify what features of online social networks can increase physical activity, we conducted a 4-arm randomized controlled trial in 2014 in Philadelphia, PA. Students (n = 790, mean age = 25.2) at an university were randomly assigned to one of four conditions composed of either supportive or competitive relationships and either with individual or team incentives for attending exercise classes. The social comparison condition placed participants into 6-person competitive networks with individual incentives. The social support condition placed participants into 6-person teams with team incentives. The combined condition with both supportive and competitive relationships placed participants into 6-person teams, where participants could compare their team's performance to 5 other teams' performances. The control condition only allowed participants to attend classes with individual incentives. Rewards were based on the total number of classes attended by an individual, or the average number of classes attended by the members of a team. The outcome was the number of classes that participants attended. Data were analyzed using multilevel models in 2014. The mean attendance numbers per week were 35.7, 38.5, 20.3, and 16.8 in the social comparison, the combined, the control, and the social support conditions. Attendance numbers were 90% higher in the social comparison and the combined conditions (mean = 1.9, SE = 0.2) in contrast to the two conditions without comparison (mean = 1.0, SE = 0.2) (p = 0.003). Social comparison was more effective for increasing physical activity than social support and its effects did not depend on individual or team incentives. PMID:27617191

  8. Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies Trial Edition. Set III.

    Fairwell, Kay, Ed.; And Others

    The predominant focus of the 24 Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies (OBIS) Trial Edition Set III activities is on animal behavior, and the adaptations and diversity of both plants and animals. Night time activities, games, investigation, experimentation, and crafts are used to study ants, birds, clams, water snails, water striders, spiders,…

  9. Adaptation of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens VirG response regulator to activate transcription in plants.

    Czarnecka-Verner, Eva; Salem, Tarek A; Gurley, William B

    2016-02-01

    The Agrobacterium tumefaciens VirG response regulator of the VirA/VirG two-component system was adapted to function in tobacco protoplasts. The subcellular localization of VirG and VirA proteins transiently expressed in onion cells was determined using GFP fusions. Preliminary studies using Gal4DBD-VP16 fusions with VirG and Escherichia coli UhpA, and NarL response regulators indicated compatibility of these bacterial proteins with the eukaryotic transcriptional apparatus. A strong transcriptional activator based on tandem activation domains from the Drosophila fushi tarazu and Herpes simplex VP16 was created. Selected configurations of the two-site Gal4-vir box GUS reporters were activated by chimeric effectors dependent on either the yeast Gal4 DNA-binding domain or that of VirG. Transcriptional induction of the GUS reporter was highest for the VirE19-element promoter with both constitutive and wild-type VirG-tandem activation domain effectors. Multiple VirE19 elements increased the reporter activity proportionately, indicating that the VirG DNA binding domain was functional in plants. The VirG constitutive-Q-VP16 effector was more active than the VirG wild-type. In both the constitutive and wild-type forms of VirG, Q-VP16 activated transcription of the GUS reporter best when located at the C-terminus, i.e. juxtaposed to the VirG DNA binding domain. These results demonstrate the possibility of using DNA binding domains from bacterial response regulators and their cognate binding elements in the engineering of plant gene expression. PMID:26646288

  10. A cluster randomised trial of a school-based intervention to prevent decline in adolescent physical activity levels: study protocol for the ‘Physical Activity 4 Everyone’ trial

    Sutherland Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescence is an established period of physical activity decline. Multi-component school-based interventions have the potential to slow the decline in adolescents’ physical activity; however, few interventions have been conducted in schools located in low-income or disadvantaged communities. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of a multi-component school-based intervention in reducing the decline in physical activity among students attending secondary schools located in disadvantaged communities. Methods/Design The cluster randomised trial will be conducted with 10 secondary schools located in selected regions of New South Wales, Australia. The schools will be selected from areas that have a level of socio-economic status that is below the state average. Five schools will be allocated to receive an intervention based on the Health Promoting Schools framework, and will be supported by a part-time physical activity consultant placed in intervention schools who will implement a range of intervention adoption strategies. Study measures will be taken at baseline when students are in Year 7 (12–13 years and again after 12- and 24-months. The primary outcome, minutes of moderate- to-vigorous- intensity physical activity per day and percentage of time in moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA, will be objectively assessed using accelerometers (Actigraph GT3x+. Group allocation and intervention delivery will commence after baseline data collection. The intervention will continue during school terms through to 24-month follow-up. Discussion The study will provide evidence regarding the effectiveness of a multi-component school-based intervention that includes an in-school physical activity consultant targeting the physical activity levels of adolescents in disadvantaged Australian secondary schools. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12612000382875.