WorldWideScience

Sample records for activity transport

  1. Transportation activity analysis using smartphones

    Xiao, Yu; Low, David; Bandara, Thusitha; Pathak, Parth; Lim, Hock Beng; Goyal, Devendra; Santos, Jorge Oliveira; Cottrill, Caitlin; Pereira, Francisco C.; Zegras, P. Christopher; Ben-Akiva, Moshe E.

    2012-01-01

    Transportation activity surveys investigate when, where and how people travel in urban areas to provide information necessary for urban transportation planning. In Singapore, the Land Transport Authority (LTA) carries out such a survey amongst households every four years. The survey is conducted through conventional questionnaires and travel diaries. However, the conventional surveys are problematic and error-prone. We are developing a smartphone-based transportation activity survey system to...

  2. Political activity for physical activity: health advocacy for active transport

    Amun Qa-t-a

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Effective health advocacy is a priority for efforts to increase population participation in physical activity. Local councils are an important audience for this advocacy. The aim of the current study was to describe features of advocacy for active transport via submissions to city council annual plans in New Zealand, and the impact of an information sheet to encourage the health sector to be involved in this process. Written submissions to city council's annual consultation process were requested for 16 city councils over the period of three years (2007/08, 2008/09, and 2009/10. Submissions were reviewed and categories of responses were created. An advocacy information sheet encouraging health sector participation and summarising some of the evidence-base related to physical activity, active transport and health was released just prior to the 2009/10 submission time. Over the period of the study, city councils received 47,392 submissions, 17% of which were related to active transport. Most submissions came from city residents, with a small proportion (2% from the health sector. The largest category of submissions was in support of pedestrian and cycling infrastructure, design and maintenance of facilities and additional features to support use of these transport modes. Health arguments featured prominently in justifications for active transport initiatives, including concerns about injury risk, obesity, physical inactivity, personal safety and facilities for people with disabilities. There was evidence that the information sheet was utilised by some health sector submitters (12.5%, providing tentative support for initiatives of this nature. In conclusion, the study provides novel information about the current nature of health advocacy for active transport and informs future advocacy efforts about areas for emphasis, such as health benefits of active transport, and potential alliances with other sectors such as environmental

  3. Activity assay of membrane transport proteins

    Hao Xie

    2008-01-01

    Membrane transport proteins are integral membrane proteins and considered as potential drug targets. Activity assay of transport proteins is essential for developing drugs to target these proteins. Major issues related to activity assessment of transport proteins include availability of transporters,transport activity of transporters, and interactions between ligands and transporters. Researchers need to consider the physiological status of proteins (bound in lipid membranes or purified), availability and specificity of substrates, and the purpose of the activity assay (screening, identifying, or comparing substrates and inhibitors) before choosing appropriate assay strategies and techniques. Transport proteins bound in vesicular membranes can be assayed for transporting substrate across membranes by means of uptake assay or entrance counterflow assay. Alternatively, transport proteins can be assayed for interactions with ligands by using techniques such as isothermal titration calorimetry, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, or surface plasmon resonance. Other methods and techniques such as fluorometry, scintillation proximity assay, electrophysiological assay, or stopped-flow assay could also be used for activity assay of transport proteins. In this paper the major strategies and techniques for activity assessment of membrane transport proteins are reviewed.

  4. Health Impacts of Active Transportation in Europe.

    Rojas-Rueda, David; de Nazelle, Audrey; Andersen, Zorana J; Braun-Fahrländer, Charlotte; Bruha, Jan; Bruhova-Foltynova, Hana; Desqueyroux, Hélène; Praznoczy, Corinne; Ragettli, Martina S; Tainio, Marko; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2016-01-01

    Policies that stimulate active transportation (walking and bicycling) have been related to heath benefits. This study aims to assess the potential health risks and benefits of promoting active transportation for commuting populations (age groups 16-64) in six European cities. We conducted a health impact assessment using two scenarios: increased cycling and increased walking. The primary outcome measure was all-cause mortality related to changes in physical activity level, exposure to fine particulate matter air pollution with a diameter reduce carbon dioxide emissions in the six cities by 1,139 to 26,423 (metric tonnes per year). Policies to promote active transportation may produce health benefits, but these depend of the existing characteristics of the cities. Increased collaboration between health practitioners, transport specialists and urban planners will help to introduce the health perspective in transport policies and promote active transportation. PMID:26930213

  5. Political activity for physical activity: health advocacy for active transport

    Amun Qa-t-a; Reeder Anthony I; Murdoch Linda; Richards Rosalina

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Effective health advocacy is a priority for efforts to increase population participation in physical activity. Local councils are an important audience for this advocacy. The aim of the current study was to describe features of advocacy for active transport via submissions to city council annual plans in New Zealand, and the impact of an information sheet to encourage the health sector to be involved in this process. Written submissions to city council's annual consultation process w...

  6. Health Impacts of Active Transportation in Europe

    Rojas-Rueda, David; de Nazelle, Audrey; Andersen, Zorana J;

    2016-01-01

    reduce carbon dioxide emissions in the six cities by 1,139 to 26,423 (metric tonnes per year). Policies to promote active transportation may produce health benefits, but these depend of the existing characteristics of the cities. Increased collaboration between health practitioners, transport specialists...

  7. Modeling activity transport in the CANDU heat transport system

    The release and transport of corrosion products from the surfaces of primary coolant system components is a serious concern for all water-cooled nuclear power plants. The consequences of high levels of corrosion product transport are twofold: a) increased corrosion product (crud) deposition on fuel cladding surfaces, leading to reduced heat transfer and the possibility of fuel failures, and b) increased production of radioactive species by neutron activation, resulting in increased out-of-core radiation fields and worker dose. In recent years, a semi-empirical activity transport model has been successfully developed to predict the deposition of radionuclides, including 60Co, 95Zr, 124Sb and fission products, around the CANDU® primary Heat Transport System (HTS), and to predict radiation fields at the steam generators and reactor face. The model links corrosion of the carbon steel outlet feeders to magnetite and radionuclide deposition on steam generator and inlet piping surfaces. This paper will describe the model development, key assumptions, required inputs, and model validation. The importance of reactor artefact characterization in the model development will be highlighted, and some key results will be presented, including oxide morphology and loadings, and radionuclide distributions within the oxide. The predictive capabilities of the model will also be described, including predictions of oxide thickness and the effects of changes in chemistry parameters such as alkalinity. While the model was developed primarily for the CANDU® HTS, the information gained during model development regarding corrosion product and radionuclide transport and deposition can also provide insights into activity transport in other water-cooled reactor systems. (author)

  8. Activity transport models for PWR primary circuits

    The corrosion products activated in the primary circuit form a major source of occupational radiation dose in the PWR reactors. Transport of corrosion activity is a complex process including chemistry, reactor physics, thermodynamics and hydrodynamics. All the mechanisms involved are not known and there is no comprehensive theory for the process, so experimental test loops and plant data are very important in research efforts. Several activity transport modelling attempts have been made to improve the water chemistry control and to minimise corrosion in PWR's. In this research report some of these models are reviewed with special emphasis on models designed for Soviet VVER type reactors. (51 refs., 16 figs., 4 tabs.)

  9. Modelling activity transport behavior in PWR plant

    The activation and transport of corrosion products around a PWR circuit is a major concern to PWR plant operators as these may give rise to high personnel doses. The understanding of what controls dose rates on ex-core surfaces and shutdown releases has improved over the years but still several questions remain unanswered. For example the relative importance of particle and soluble deposition in the core to activity levels in the plant is not clear. Wide plant to plant and cycle to cycle variations are noted with no apparent explanations why such variations are observed. Over the past few years this group have been developing models to simulate corrosion product transport around a PWR circuit. These models form the basis for the latest version of the BOA code and simulate the movement of Fe and Ni around the primary circuit. Part of this development is to include the activation and subsequent transport of radioactive species around the circuit and this paper describes some initial modelling work in this area. A simple model of activation, release and deposition is described and then applied to explain the plant behaviour at Sizewell B and Vandellos II. This model accounts for activation in the core, soluble and particulate activity movement around the circuit and for activity capture ex-core on both the inner and outer oxides. The model gives a reasonable comparison with plant observations and highlights what controls activity transport in these plants and importantly what factors can be ignored. (authors)

  10. Transportation activities for BWR fuels at NFI

    Nuclear Fuel Industries, LTD. (NFI) supplies fuel assemblies for both PWR and BWR in Japan. We can also manage transportation of the fuel assemblies from our fabrication facilities to the nuclear power plants of Japanese utilities. For the transportation of fuel assembly, we designed and fabricated the transportation containers to meet the requirements of the IAEA regulations, and licensed in Japan. This paper introduced the recent activity and R and D of NFI concerning transportation of BWR fuel assembly. NT-XII transportation container was developed for fresh BWR fuel assemblies. NT-XII container consists of inner container and outer container. Two BWR fuel assemblies with up to 5 wt.-% 235-U enriched are enclosed in an inner container. In the concept of NT-XII container design, we made the best priority to transportation efficiency, as well as ensuring fuel integrity during transportation. NT-XII has been used since 2002 in Japan. Thanks to the lightening weight of containers, the number of containers to be loaded to one transportation truck was increased up to 9 containers (equivalent to 18 fuel assemblies) compared with former type container (NT-IV transportation container) which can be loaded up to 6 containers (equivalent to 12 fuel assemblies). In addition to the design of brand-new container, we promote the improvement of the packaging methods. In Japan, in order to reduce the damage to the fuel rod and fuel spacer while transporting, polyethylene sleeves which are called 'packing separators' are inserted in the rod-to-rod gap of fuel assembly. However, packing separators requires time and cost for the installation at fuel fabrication facility. In the same way, huge time and cost are needed for removal of packing separators at nuclear power plant. For the improvement of preparation efficiency before and after transportation, we investigated the influence of vibration to fuel integrity in case of transportation without packing separators. Based on the above

  11. Stochastic steps in secondary active sugar transport.

    Adelman, Joshua L; Ghezzi, Chiara; Bisignano, Paola; Loo, Donald D F; Choe, Seungho; Abramson, Jeff; Rosenberg, John M; Wright, Ernest M; Grabe, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Secondary active transporters, such as those that adopt the leucine-transporter fold, are found in all domains of life, and they have the unique capability of harnessing the energy stored in ion gradients to accumulate small molecules essential for life as well as expel toxic and harmful compounds. How these proteins couple ion binding and transport to the concomitant flow of substrates is a fundamental structural and biophysical question that is beginning to be answered at the atomistic level with the advent of high-resolution structures of transporters in different structural states. Nonetheless, the dynamic character of the transporters, such as ion/substrate binding order and how binding triggers conformational change, is not revealed from static structures, yet it is critical to understanding their function. Here, we report a series of molecular simulations carried out on the sugar transporter vSGLT that lend insight into how substrate and ions are released from the inward-facing state of the transporter. Our simulations reveal that the order of release is stochastic. Functional experiments were designed to test this prediction on the human homolog, hSGLT1, and we also found that cytoplasmic release is not ordered, but we confirmed that substrate and ion binding from the extracellular space is ordered. Our findings unify conflicting published results concerning cytoplasmic release of ions and substrate and hint at the possibility that other transporters in the superfamily may lack coordination between ions and substrate in the inward-facing state. PMID:27325773

  12. Development of novel active transport membrande devices

    Laciak, D.V.

    1994-11-01

    Air Products has undertaken a research program to fabricate and evaluate gas separation membranes based upon promising ``active-transport`` (AT) materials recently developed in our laboratories. Active Transport materials are ionic polymers and molten salts which undergo reversible interaction or reaction with ammonia and carbon dioxide. The materials are useful for separating these gases from mixtures with hydrogen. Moreover, AT membranes have the unique property of possessing high permeability towards ammnonia and carbon dioxide but low permeability towards hydrogen and can thus be used to permeate these components from a gas stream while retaining hydrogen at high pressure.

  13. Health Impacts of Active Transportation in Europe

    Rojas-Rueda, David; de Nazelle, Audrey; Andersen, Zorana J.; Braun-Fahrländer, Charlotte; Bruha, Jan; Bruhova-Foltynova, Hana; Desqueyroux, Hélène; Praznoczy, Corinne; Ragettli, Martina S.; Tainio, Marko; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    Policies that stimulate active transportation (walking and bicycling) have been related to heath benefits. This study aims to assess the potential health risks and benefits of promoting active transportation for commuting populations (age groups 16–64) in six European cities. We conducted a health impact assessment using two scenarios: increased cycling and increased walking. The primary outcome measure was all-cause mortality related to changes in physical activity level, exposure to fine particulate matter air pollution with a diameter <2.5 μm, as well as traffic fatalities in the cities of Barcelona, Basel, Copenhagen, Paris, Prague, and Warsaw. All scenarios produced health benefits in the six cities. An increase in bicycle trips to 35% of all trips (as in Copenhagen) produced the highest benefits among the different scenarios analysed in Warsaw 113 (76–163) annual deaths avoided, Prague 61 (29–104), Barcelona 37 (24–56), Paris 37 (18–64) and Basel 5 (3–9). An increase in walking trips to 50% of all trips (as in Paris) resulted in 19 (3–42) deaths avoided annually in Warsaw, 11(3–21) in Prague, 6 (4–9) in Basel, 3 (2–6) in Copenhagen and 3 (2–4) in Barcelona. The scenarios would also reduce carbon dioxide emissions in the six cities by 1,139 to 26,423 (metric tonnes per year). Policies to promote active transportation may produce health benefits, but these depend of the existing characteristics of the cities. Increased collaboration between health practitioners, transport specialists and urban planners will help to introduce the health perspective in transport policies and promote active transportation. PMID:26930213

  14. Health Impacts of Active Transportation in Europe.

    David Rojas-Rueda

    Full Text Available Policies that stimulate active transportation (walking and bicycling have been related to heath benefits. This study aims to assess the potential health risks and benefits of promoting active transportation for commuting populations (age groups 16-64 in six European cities. We conducted a health impact assessment using two scenarios: increased cycling and increased walking. The primary outcome measure was all-cause mortality related to changes in physical activity level, exposure to fine particulate matter air pollution with a diameter <2.5 μm, as well as traffic fatalities in the cities of Barcelona, Basel, Copenhagen, Paris, Prague, and Warsaw. All scenarios produced health benefits in the six cities. An increase in bicycle trips to 35% of all trips (as in Copenhagen produced the highest benefits among the different scenarios analysed in Warsaw 113 (76-163 annual deaths avoided, Prague 61 (29-104, Barcelona 37 (24-56, Paris 37 (18-64 and Basel 5 (3-9. An increase in walking trips to 50% of all trips (as in Paris resulted in 19 (3-42 deaths avoided annually in Warsaw, 11(3-21 in Prague, 6 (4-9 in Basel, 3 (2-6 in Copenhagen and 3 (2-4 in Barcelona. The scenarios would also reduce carbon dioxide emissions in the six cities by 1,139 to 26,423 (metric tonnes per year. Policies to promote active transportation may produce health benefits, but these depend of the existing characteristics of the cities. Increased collaboration between health practitioners, transport specialists and urban planners will help to introduce the health perspective in transport policies and promote active transportation.

  15. Modelling of activity transport in PHWR

    The modelling of mass and activity transport in PHWR is of importance in predicting the build up of radiation field in and around the Primary Heat Transport system which will consequently help in planning the Dilute Chemical Decontamination and man rem budgeting. Modeling also helps in understanding the different parameters controlling the transport behaviour. Some of the important parameters include coolant chemistry like pH, physical parameters like temperature, the nature of the corrosion film and hence the effect of passivation techniques. VVER code for activity transport uses six nodes for the primary system and is essentially devised for stainless steel system. In the present work though based on this model, major modifications have been incorporated to suit the PHWR conditions. In the code, the PHT system of PHWR is suitably divided into 14 nodes, 5 in-core and 9 out of core nodes based on material and heat transfer properties. This paper describes the mechanisms involved in the various processes like generation of corrosion products, their release as well as their transport into the primary coolant, the activation of inactive corrosion product nuclides and the build up of radiation field due to 60Co around the PHT system. (author)

  16. Ionizing radiation affects active ileal electrolyte transport

    Exposure to ionizing radiation has pronounced effects on gastrointestinal physiology eliciting the fluid and electrolyte loss of the gastrointestinal syndrome. This study reports on the effect of whole-body cobalt-60 exposure on active electrolyte transport by rabbit ileum in an effort to quantify these changes and to define the mechanism by which electrolyte transport is altered. The short-circuit current (lsc), a measure of active electrolyte transport, was determined for ileal segments isolated from rabbits radiated with 5 to 100 Gy and compared to those from sham irradiated control 1 to 96 hours after exposure. One hour after exposure there was no apparent effect of radiation. However by 24 hours, there was a significant increase in lsc of segments from animals exposed to doses of 7.5 Gy and greater. The lsc remained elevated during the 96 hours for 10 and 12 Gy whereas at 7.5 Gy it returned to control values by 72 hours. The response of the tissue to a secretagogue, theophylline, was reduced 72 hours post-irradiation. By 96 hours after exposure, the response to an actively transported amino acid, alanine, was also reduced. These results indicate that radiation-induced fluid and electrolyte loss is not simply a consequence of denudiation of the intestine but due in part to alterations in cellular transport processes

  17. Regulators of Slc4 bicarbonate transporter activity

    Ian M. Thornell

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Slc4 family of transporters is comprised of anion exchangers (AE1-4, Na-coupled bicarbonate transporters (NCBTs including electrogenic Na/bicarbonate cotransporters (NBCe1 and NBCe2, electroneutral Na/bicarbonate cotransporters (NBCn1 and NBCn2, and the electroneutral Na-driven Cl-bicarbonate exchanger (NDCBE, as well as a borate transporter (BTR1. These transporters regulate intracellular pH (pHi and contribute to steady-state pHi, but are also involved in other physiological processes including CO2 carriage by red blood cells and solute secretion/reabsorption across epithelia. Acid-base transporters function as either acid extruders or acid loaders, with the Slc4 proteins moving HCO3– either into or out of cells. According to results from both molecular and functional studies, multiple Slc4 proteins and/or associated splice variants with similar expected effects on pHi are often found in the same tissue or cell. Such apparent redundancy is likely to be physiologically important. In addition to regulating pHi, a HCO3– transporter contributes to a cell’s ability to fine tune the intracellular regulation of the cotransported/exchanged ion(s (e.g., Na+ or Cl–. In addition, functionally similar transporters or splice variants with different regulatory profiles will optimize pH physiology and solute transport under various conditions or within subcellular domains. Such optimization will depend on activated signaling pathways and transporter expression profiles. In this review, we will summarize and discuss both classical and more recently identified regulators of the Slc4 proteins. Some of these regulators include traditional second messengers, lipids, binding proteins, autoregulatory domains, and less conventional regulators. The material presented will provide insight into the diversity and physiological significance of multiple members within the Slc4 gene family.

  18. Final Technical Report Transport Task Force Activities

    The Transport Task Force has functioned as the primary scientific organization in the area of magnetic-fusion confinement and transport since its inception in 1988. It has defined and set research directions, coordinated broad research efforts, advocated new funding initiatives, and created a highly successful and widely admired interactive culture between experiment, theory and modeling. The Transport Task Force carries out its activities under the direction of its chair and the Executive Committee. The Executive Committee is comprised of the leaders and deputy leaders of the scientific working groups. The working groups are structured and organized according to research needs and priorities and have been organized around the areas of Core Transport, H Mode and Pedestal, Fast Particle Transport, Transient Transport Phenomena, and Modeling and Simulation. A steering committee provides advise on TTF activities. Further information on the working groups and the structure and management of the TTF can be found at http://psfcwww2.psfc.mit.edu/ttf/index.html. The TTF holds an annual workshop. A summary of the workshops held during the period of this report is given in Appendix I. During the period of this report the Transport Task Force was involved in several significant activities. Foremost of these was a sweeping review of the status of transport science, the key research tasks for progress during the next 5-10 years, and a proposal for a funding initiative to ensure application of adequate resources to these problems. The conclusions of this study were incorporated into a white paper, which is copied below in Appendix II. Other significant activities have included the introduction of an extended, ongoing discussion on verification and validation as a requisite for defining and codifying the path toward predictive capability, the orchestration of a gradual shift of focus from ion thermal confinement to electron thermal confinement, and a joining of efforts on edge

  19. Activity transport in nuclear generating stations

    The objective of this paper is to give a basic understanding of the operational limitations caused by radiation fields in the present design of CANDU-PHW reactors. A simple model of activity transport is described, and the significance of various radioisotopes identified. The impact which radiation fields have at the Divisional, Station Manager and Operation levels, is outlined in the context of typical work situations. (author)

  20. BWR startup and shutdown activity transport control

    This paper summarizes BWR industry experience on good practices for controlling the transport of corrosion product activity during shutdowns, particularly refueling outages, and for startup chemistry control to minimize IGSCC (intergranular stress corrosion cracking). For shutdown, overall goals are to minimize adverse impacts of crud bursts and the time required to remove activated corrosion products from the reactor coolant during the shutdown process prior to refueling, and to assist plants in predicting and controlling radiation exposure during outages. For startup, the overall goals are to highlight conditions during early heatup and startup when sources of reactor coolant oxidants are high, when there is a greater likelihood for chemical excursions associated with refueling outage work activities, and when hydrogen injection is not available to mitigate IGSCC due to system design limitations. BWR water chemistry has changed significantly in recent years with the adoption of hydrogen water chemistry, zinc addition and noble metal chemical applications. These processes have, in some instances, resulted in significant activity increases during shutdown evolutions, which together with reduced time for cleanup because of shorter outages, has consequently increased outage radiation exposure. A review several recent outages shows that adverse effects from these conditions can be minimized, leading to the set of good practice recommendations for shutdown chemistry control. Most plants lose the majority of their hydrogen availability hours during early startup because feedwater hydrogen injection systems were not originally designed to inject hydrogen below 20% power. Hydrogen availability has improved through modifications to inject hydrogen at lower power levels, some near 5%. However, data indicate that IGSCC is accelerated during early startup, when dissolved oxygen and hydrogen peroxide levels are high and reactor coolant temperatures are in the 300 to 400 oF (

  1. Associations between street connectivity and active transportation

    Pickle Linda W

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Past studies of associations between measures of the built environment, particularly street connectivity, and active transportation (AT or leisure walking/bicycling have largely failed to account for spatial autocorrelation of connectivity variables and have seldom examined both the propensity for AT and its duration in a coherent fashion. Such efforts could improve our understanding of the spatial and behavioral aspects of AT. We analyzed spatially identified data from Los Angeles and San Diego Counties collected as part of the 2001 California Health Interview Survey. Results Principal components analysis indicated that ~85% of the variance in nine measures of street connectivity are accounted for by two components representing buffers with short blocks and dense nodes (PRIN1 or buffers with longer blocks that still maintain a grid like structure (PRIN2. PRIN1 and PRIN2 were positively associated with active transportation (AT after adjustment for diverse demographic and health related variables. Propensity and duration of AT were correlated in both Los Angeles (r = 0.14 and San Diego (r = 0.49 at the zip code level. Multivariate analysis could account for the correlation between the two outcomes. After controlling for demography, measures of the built environment and other factors, no spatial autocorrelation remained for propensity to report AT (i.e., report of AT appeared to be independent among neighborhood residents. However, very localized correlation was evident in duration of AT, particularly in San Diego, where the variance of duration, after accounting for spatial autocorrelation, was 5% smaller within small neighborhoods (~0.01 square latitude/longitude degrees = 0.6 mile diameter compared to within larger zip code areas. Thus a finer spatial scale of analysis seems to be more appropriate for explaining variation in connectivity and AT. Conclusions Joint analysis of the propensity and duration of AT behavior and an

  2. Air pollution exposure: An activity pattern approach for active transportation

    Adams, Matthew D.; Yiannakoulias, Nikolaos; Kanaroglou, Pavlos S.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the calculation of personal air pollution exposure during trips made by active transportation using activity patterns without personal monitors. We calculate exposure as the inhaled dose of particulate matter 2.5 μg or smaller. Two modes of active transportation are compared, and they include cycling and walking. Ambient conditions are calculated by combining mobile and stationary monitoring data in an artificial neural network space-time model. The model uses a land use regression framework and has a prediction accuracy of R2 = 0.78. Exposure is calculated at 10 m or shorter intervals during the trips using inhalation rates associated with both modes. The trips are children's routes between home and school. The average dose during morning cycling trips was 2.17 μg, during morning walking trips was 3.19 μg, during afternoon cycling trips was 2.19 μg and during afternoon walking trips was 3.23 μg. The cycling trip dose was significantly lower than the walking trip dose. The air pollution exposure during walking or cycling trips could not be strongly predicted by either the school or household ambient conditions, either individually or in combination. Multiple linear regression models regressing both the household and school ambient conditions against the dose were only able to account for, at most, six percent of the variance in the exposure. This paper demonstrates that incorporating activity patterns when calculating exposure can improve the estimate of exposure compared to its calculation from ambient conditions.

  3. A Simple Laboratory Exercise Illustrating Active Transport in Yeast Cells.

    Stambuk, Boris U.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a simple laboratory activity illustrating the chemiosmotic principles of active transport in yeast cells. Demonstrates the energy coupling mechanism of active a-glucoside uptake by Saccaromyces cerevisiae cells with a colorimetric transport assay using very simple equipment. (Contains 22 references.) (Author/YDS)

  4. Active transport among Czech school-aged children

    Jan Pavelka

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Active transport is a very important factor for increasing the level of physical activity in children, which is significant for both their health and positive physical behaviour in adult age. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to establish the proportion of Czech children aged 11 to 15 who select active transport to and from school and, at the same time, describe socio-economic and socio-demographic factors influencing active transport to and from school among children. METHODS: To establish the socio-demographic factors affecting active transport, data of a national representative sample of 11 to 15 year-old elementary school children in the Czech Republic (n = 4,425. Research data collection was performed within an international research study called Health Behaviour in School Aged Children in June 2010. Statistical processing of the results was made using a logistic regression analysis in the statistical programme IBM SPSS v 20. RESULTS: Active transport to and from school is opted for in the Czech Republic by approximately 2/3 of children aged 11 to 15. Differences between genders are not statistically significant; most children opting for active transport are aged 11 (69%. An important factor increasing the probability of active transport as much as 16 times is whether a child's place of residence is in the same municipality as the school. Other factors influencing this choice include BMI, time spent using a computer or a privateroom in a family. A significant factor determining active transport by children is safety; safe road crossing, opportunity to leave a bicycle safely at school, no fear of being assaulted on the way or provision of school lockers where children can leave their items. CONCLUSIONS: Active transport plays an important role in increasing the overall level of physical activity in children. Promotion of active transport should focus on children who spend more time using a computer; attention should also be

  5. Passenger transport and household activity patterns

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1997-01-01

    Review of Danish passenger transport patterns and analysis of energy consumption, emissions and safety impacts for selected typical households' travelling......Review of Danish passenger transport patterns and analysis of energy consumption, emissions and safety impacts for selected typical households' travelling...

  6. Pedometer-determined physical activity and active transport in girls

    Schofield Grant

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well established that the risk of insufficient physical activity is greater in girls than in boys, especially during the adolescent years. The promotion of active transport (AT to and from school has been posited as a practical and convenient solution for increasing girls' total daily activity. However, there is limited information describing the associations between AT choices and girls' physical activity across a range of age, ethnic, and socioeconomic groups. The objectives of this study were to (1 investigate physical activity patterns in a large multiethnic sample of female children and adolescents, and to (2 estimate the physical activity associated with AT to and from school. Methods A total of 1,513 girls aged 5–16 years wore sealed multiday memory (MDM pedometers for three weekdays and two weekend days. The ethnic composition of this sample was 637 European (42.1%, 272 Pacific Island (18.0%, 207 East Asian (13.7%, 179 Maori (11.8%, 142 South Asian (9.4%, and 76 from other ethnic groups (5%. Pedometer compliance and school-related AT were assessed by questionnaire. Results Mean weekday step counts (12,597 ± 3,630 were higher and less variable than mean weekend steps (9,528 ± 4,407. A consistent decline in daily step counts was observed with age: after adjustment for ethnicity and SES, girls in school years 9–10 achieved 2,469 (weekday and 4,011 (weekend fewer steps than girls in years 1–2. Daily step counts also varied by ethnicity, with Maori girls the most active and South Asian girls the least active. Overall, 44.9% of participants used AT for school-related travel. Girls who used AT to and from school averaged 1,052 more weekday steps than those who did not use AT. However, the increases in steps associated with AT were significant only in older girls (school years 5–10 and in those of Maori or European descent. Conclusion Our data suggest that adolescent-aged girls and girls of Asian descent are

  7. Effects of a Danish multicomponent physical activity intervention on active school transport

    Breum, Lars; Toftager, Mette; Ersbøll, Annette K.;

    2014-01-01

    activity, active transport and after-school fitness program. Transport mode to school was assessed through a 5-day transportation diary. Results The proportion of active transport was high at baseline (86.0%) and was maintained at the two-year follow-up (87.0%). There was no difference in active travel......AbstractIntroduction Walking and bicycling to school yields great potential in increasing the physical activity levels of adolescents, but to date very few intervention studies have been evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a multicomponent school-based physical activity...... intervention on adolescent active school transport (AST) and three intermediate outcomes: perceived school route safety, parent support and attitude towards bicycling. Methods In total, 1014 adolescents at 14 schools filled in a transport diary at baseline and at a two-year follow-up and were included in the...

  8. THE TIME FACTOR IN MARITIME TRANSPORT AND PORT LOGISTICS ACTIVITIES

    Florin NICOLAE

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Execution of the carriage contract requires compliance to all the conditions in it, by all those involved in the transport. Main obligations incumbent upon the vessel, and obviously, to other transporters, who must provide transportation according to deadlines and safety. Contract compliance is certifying transport participants about their seriousness and an appropriate market quotation. Therefore, present work pragmatically sets schematics reference time associated implementation of the carriage contract. Also, are demonstrated relationships established between maritime transport “players” and sequence of activities related to the operation of the vessel in port. The authors propose a set of concepts and terms whose utility is established to solve practical problems in this area of activity.

  9. Sintering as a process of transport of activated volume

    Nikolić Nataša S.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Starting with the fact that sintering is the consequence of the process of transport of activated volume, it has been shown how the kinetics of the sintering process can be defined. The activated volume was in principle defined as a parameter which describes a system’s deffectivity on an atomic level.

  10. Platelet Serotonin Transporter Function Predicts Default-Mode Network Activity

    Christian Scharinger; Ulrich Rabl; Christian H. Kasess; Meyer, Bernhard M.; Tina Hofmaier; Kersten Diers; Lucie Bartova; Gerald Pail; Wolfgang Huf; Zeljko Uzelac; Beate Hartinger; Klaudius Kalcher; Thomas Perkmann; Helmuth Haslacher; Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg

    2014-01-01

    Background The serotonin transporter (5-HTT) is abundantly expressed in humans by the serotonin transporter gene SLC6A4 and removes serotonin (5-HT) from extracellular space. A blood-brain relationship between platelet and synaptosomal 5-HT reuptake has been suggested, but it is unknown today, if platelet 5-HT uptake can predict neural activation of human brain networks that are known to be under serotonergic influence. Methods A functional magnetic resonance study was performed in 48 healthy...

  11. Update of Nuclear Waste Policy Act transportation activities

    As directed by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA), the Department of Energy (DOE) is developing a nationwide system for transporting spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste from commercial power plants to deep geologic repositories for disposal. Plans for the transportation system will consider the following factors: the President's 1985 decision to co-locate some defense high-level waste with commercial waste in a repository, the NWPA requirement that the private sector be used to the fullest extent possible in developing and operating the system, and the possible approval by Congress of the DOE's proposal for a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility, submitted in March 1987. (The MRS, if approved, would provide for the consolidation, packaging, and perhaps the temporary storage of spent fuel from reactors.) The ''Transportation Business Plan'', published in January 1986, reflects these considerations. The transportation system, when operational, will consist of two elements: (1) the cask system, which includes the transportation casks, the vehicular conveyances, tie-downs, and associated equipment for handling the casks; and (2) the transportation support system which is comprised of facilities, equipment, and services to support waste transportation. Development of the transportation system incorporates the following work elements: operational planning, support systems development, cash system development, systems analysis, and institutional activities. This paper focusses on the technical aspects of the system

  12. Substrate regulation of ascorbate transport activity in astrocytes

    Astrocytes possess a concentrative L-ascorbate (vitamin C) uptake mechanism involving a Na(+)-dependent L-ascorbate transporter located in the plasma membrane. The present experiments examined the effects of deprivation and supplementation of extracellular L-ascorbate on the activity of this transport system. Initial rates of L-ascorbate uptake were measured by incubating primary cultures of rat astrocytes with L-[14C]ascorbate for 1 min at 37 degrees C. We observed that the apparent maximal rate of uptake (Vmax) increased rapidly (less than 1 h) when cultured cells were deprived of L-ascorbate. In contrast, there was no change in the apparent affinity of the transport system for L-[14C]ascorbate. The increase in Vmax was reversed by addition of L-ascorbate, but not D-isoascorbate, to the medium. The effects of external ascorbate on ascorbate transport activity were specific in that preincubation of cultures with L-ascorbate did not affect uptake of 2-deoxy-D-[3H(G)]glucose. We conclude that the astroglial ascorbate transport system is modulated by changes in substrate availability. Regulation of transport activity may play a role in intracellular ascorbate homeostasis by compensating for regional differences and temporal fluctuations in external ascorbate levels

  13. Advocacy for active transport: advocate and city council perspectives

    Rosenby Marieah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective advocacy is an important part of efforts to increase population participation in physical activity. Research about effective health advocacy is scarce, however, the health sector can learn from the experiences and knowledge of community advocates and those who are on the receiving end of this advocacy. The aim of this study is to explore advocacy for active transport from the perspectives of community advocates and representatives from City councils. Methods Cycling and walking advocates were identified from the local contact list of Cycling Advocates Network and Living Streets Aotearoa. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with cycle and walking advocates from throughout New Zealand. Advocates also nominated a suitable council officer at their local City council to be interviewed. Interviews were recorded and transcribed and categories of responses for each of the questions created. Results Several processes were used by advocates to engage with council staff, including formal council submissions, meetings, stakeholder forums and partnership in running community events promoting active transport. Several other agencies were identified as being influential for active transport, some as potential coalition partners and others as potential adversaries. Barriers to improving conditions for active transport included a lack of funding, a lack of will-power among either council staff or councillors, limited council staff capacity (time or training and a culture of providing infrastructure for motor vehicles instead of people. Several suggestions were made about how the health sector could contribute to advocacy efforts, including encouraging political commitment, engaging the media, communicating the potential health benefits of active transport to the general public and being role models in terms of personal travel mode choice and having workplaces that support participation in active transport

  14. Presentation and exhibition activities for promoting theexportof transport services

    Darya Vladimirovna Nesterova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Development of presentation and exhibition activities is considered as an important factor in providing new competitive advantages at the strategic markets for exporting of transportation services. A specific role for exhibition activities as a factor to overcome market failures arose from imperfect information and incomplete markets is displayed. Exhibitions are considered as a true reflection of most market parameters, as a means to get correct information concerning market capacity and its borders, as an instrument to access to new markets. At the firm level presentation and branding activities should be considered as a modern technology (especially it concerns Russian companies which provide to hold up already existed markets and to conquer new ones. Presentation and branding activities are an effective technology to promote company trade-mark, competitive advantages for market demand increasing. Comparative analysis of the main exhibitions on transport and logistics issues is fulfilled on the data basecollected by authors. Data observes geographical distribution of transport exhibition and exhibition facilities development at several regions for the last years. The analyses allow to revealing a geographical structure of the exhibitions and its distribution by type of transport. The most promising and economically favorable exhibition areas for the promotion of Russian transport services are shown.

  15. Active transport and cluster formation on 2D networks

    Greulich, Philip

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a model for active transport on inhomogeneous networks embedded in a diffusive environment and investigate the formation of particle clusters. In the presence of a hard-core interaction, cluster sizes exhibit an algebraically decaying distribution in a large parameter regime, indicating the existence of clusters on all scales. The results are compared with a diffusion limited aggregation model and active transport on a regular network. For both models we observe aggregation of particles to clusters which are characterized by a finite size-scale if the relevant time-scales and particle densities are considered.

  16. Activation of ion transport systems during cell volume regulation

    This review discusses the activation of transport pathways during volume regulation, including their characteristics, the possible biochemical pathways that may mediate the activation of transport pathways, and the relations between volume regulation and transepithelial transport in renal cells. Many cells regulate their volume when exposed to an anisotonic medium. The changes in cell volume are caused by activation of ion transport pathways, plus the accompanying osmotically driven water movement such that cell volume returns toward normal levels. The swelling of hypertonically shrunken cells is termed regulatory volume increase (RVI) and involves an influx of NaCl into the cell via either activation of Na-Cl, Na-K-2Cl cotransport systems, or Na+-H+ and Cl--HCO3- exchangers. The reshrinking of hypotonically swollen cells is termed regulatory volume decrease (RVD) and involves an efflux of KCl and water from the cell by activation of either separate K+ and Cl- conductances, a K-Cl cotransport system, or parallel K+-H+ and Cl--HCO3- exchangers. The biochemical mechanisms involved in the activation of transport systems are largely unknown, however, the phosphoinositide pathway may be implicated in RVI; phorbol esters, cGMP, and Ca2+ affect the process of volume regulation. Renal tubular cells, as well as the blood cells that transverse the medulla, are subjected to increasing osmotic gradients from the corticomedullary junction to the papillary tip, as well as changing interstitial and tubule fluid osmolarity, depending on the diuretic state of the animal. Medullary cells from the loop of Henle and the papilla can volume regulate by activating Na-K-2Cl cotransport or Na+-H+ and Cl--HCO3- exchange systems

  17. Berberine acutely activates the glucose transport activity of GLUT1

    Cok, Alexandra; Plaisier, Christina; Salie, Matthew J.; Oram, Daniel S.; Chenge, Jude; Louters, Larry L.

    2011-01-01

    Berberine, which has a long history of use in Chinese medicine, has recently been shown to have efficacy in the treatment of diabetes. While the hypoglycemic effect of berberine has been clearly documented in animal and cell line models, such as 3T3-L1 adipocytes and L6 myotube cells, the mechanism of action appears complex with data implicating activation of the insulin signaling pathway as well as activation of the exercise or AMP kinase-mediated pathway. There have been no reports of the a...

  18. Advocacy for active transport: advocate and city council perspectives

    Rosenby Marieah; Reeder Anthony I; Murdoch Linda; Richards Rosalina

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Effective advocacy is an important part of efforts to increase population participation in physical activity. Research about effective health advocacy is scarce, however, the health sector can learn from the experiences and knowledge of community advocates and those who are on the receiving end of this advocacy. The aim of this study is to explore advocacy for active transport from the perspectives of community advocates and representatives from City councils. Methods Cycl...

  19. Unraveling fatty acid transport and activation mechanisms in Yarrowia lipolytica.

    Dulermo, Rémi; Gamboa-Meléndez, Heber; Ledesma-Amaro, Rodrigo; Thévenieau, France; Nicaud, Jean-Marc

    2015-09-01

    Fatty acid (FA) transport and activation have been extensively studied in the model yeast species Saccharomyces cerevisiae but have rarely been examined in oleaginous yeasts, such as Yarrowia lipolytica. Because the latter begins to be used in biodiesel production, understanding its FA transport and activation mechanisms is essential. We found that Y. lipolytica has FA transport and activation proteins similar to those of S. cerevisiae (Faa1p, Pxa1p, Pxa2p, Ant1p) but mechanism of FA peroxisomal transport and activation differs greatly with that of S. cerevisiae. While the ScPxa1p/ScPxa2p heterodimer is essential for growth on long-chain FAs, ΔYlpxa1 ΔYlpxa2 is not impaired for growth on FAs. Meanwhile, ScAnt1p and YlAnt1p are both essential for yeast growth on medium-chain FAs, suggesting they function similarly. Interestingly, we found that the ΔYlpxa1 ΔYlpxa2 ΔYlant1 mutant was unable to grow on short-, medium-, or long-chain FAs, suggesting that YlPxa1p, YlPxa2p, and YlAnt1p belong to two different FA degradation pathways. We also found that YlFaa1p is involved in FA storage in lipid bodies and that FA remobilization largely depended on YlFat1p, YlPxa1p and YlPxa2p. This study is the first to comprehensively examine FA intracellular transport and activation in oleaginous yeast. PMID:25887939

  20. Engineering intracellular active transport systems as in vivo biomolecular tools.

    Bachand, George David; Carroll-Portillo, Amanda

    2006-11-01

    Active transport systems provide essential functions in terms of cell physiology and metastasis. These systems, however, are also co-opted by invading viruses, enabling directed transport of the virus to and from the cell's nucleus (i.e., the site of virus replication). Based on this concept, fundamentally new approaches for interrogating and manipulating the inner workings of living cells may be achievable by co-opting Nature's active transport systems as an in vivo biomolecular tool. The overall goal of this project was to investigate the ability to engineer kinesin-based transport systems for in vivo applications, specifically the collection of effector proteins (e.g., transcriptional regulators) within single cells. In the first part of this project, a chimeric fusion protein consisting of kinesin and a single chain variable fragment (scFv) of an antibody was successfully produced through a recombinant expression system. The kinesin-scFv retained both catalytic and antigenic functionality, enabling selective capture and transport of target antigens. The incorporation of a rabbit IgG-specific scFv into the kinesin established a generalized system for functionalizing kinesin with a wide range of target-selective antibodies raised in rabbits. The second objective was to develop methods of isolating the intact microtubule network from live cells as a platform for evaluating kinesin-based transport within the cytoskeletal architecture of a cell. Successful isolation of intact microtubule networks from two distinct cell types was demonstrated using glutaraldehyde and methanol fixation methods. This work provides a platform for inferring the ability of kinesin-scFv to function in vivo, and may also serve as a three-dimensional scaffold for evaluating and exploiting kinesin-based transport for nanotechnological applications. Overall, the technology developed in this project represents a first-step in engineering active transport system for in vivo

  1. Analysis of Charge Carrier Transport in Organic Photovoltaic Active Layers

    Han, Xu; Maroudas, Dimitrios

    2015-03-01

    We present a systematic analysis of charge carrier transport in organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices based on phenomenological, deterministic charge carrier transport models. The models describe free electron and hole transport, trapping, and detrapping, as well as geminate charge-pair dissociation and geminate and bimolecular recombination, self-consistently with Poisson's equation for the electric field in the active layer. We predict photocurrent evolution in devices with active layers of P3HT, P3HT/PMMA, and P3HT/PS, as well as P3HT/PCBM blends, and photocurrent-voltage (I-V) relations in these devices at steady state. Charge generation propensity, zero-field charge mobilities, and trapping, detrapping, and recombination rate coefficients are determined by fitting the modeling predictions to experimental measurements. We have analyzed effects of the active layer morphology for layers consisting of both pristine drop-cast films and of nanoparticle (NP) assemblies, as well as effects on device performance of insulating NP doping in conducting polymers and of specially designed interlayers placed between an electrode and the active layer. The model predictions provide valuable input toward synthesis of active layers with prescribed morphology that optimize OPV device performance.

  2. Fluctuation driven active molecular transport in passive channel proteins

    Kosztin, Ioan

    2006-03-01

    Living cells interact with their extracellular environment through the cell membrane, which acts as a protective permeability barrier for preserving the internal integrity of the cell. However, cell metabolism requires controlled molecular transport across the cell membrane, a function that is fulfilled by a wide variety of transmembrane proteins, acting as either passive or active transporters. In this talk it is argued that, contrary to the general belief, in active cell membranes passive and spatially asymmetric channel proteins can act as active transporters by consuming energy from nonequilibrium fluctuations fueled by cell metabolism. This assertion is demonstrated in the case of the E. coli aquaglyceroporin GlpF channel protein, whose high resolution crystal structure is manifestly asymmetric. By calculating the glycerol flux through GlpF within the framework of a stochastic model, it is found that, as a result of channel asymmetry, glycerol uptake driven by a concentration gradient is enhanced significantly in the presence of non-equilibrium fluctuations. Furthermore, the enhancement caused by a ratchet-like mechanism is larger for the outward, i.e., from the cytoplasm to the periplasm, flux than for the inward one, suggesting that the same non-equilibrium fluctuations also play an important role in protecting the interior of the cell against poisoning by excess uptake of glycerol. Preliminary data on water and sugar transport through aquaporin and maltoporin channels, respectively, are indicative of the universality of the proposed nonequilibrium-fluctuation-driven active transport mechanism. This work was supported by grants from the Univ. of Missouri Research Board, the Institute for Theoretical Sciences and the Department of Energy (DOE Contract W-7405-ENG-36), and the National Science Foundation (FIBR-0526854).

  3. Radioprotector modifying influence upon the ion transport ATPase activities

    The effects of aminothiol and biogenic amine radioprotectors (β-mercaptoethylamine, AET, serotonin, dopamine, histamine) on the basic ion transport enzymes, such as Na, K-ATP ase and Mg, Ca-ATPase activities were investigated in the tissues of numerous organs, with different radiosensitivity in the wistar rats. Experimental results showed that intraperitoneal injection of the used radioprotectors caused preliminary inhibition of the Na, K-ATPase activity in tissues from organs with different radioresistance, but had no influence on the Mg, Ca-ATPase activity in membranes of erythrocytes and rat brain cells. (2 tabs.)

  4. Activation of CFTR-mediated Cl- Transport by Magnolin

    JIN Ling-ling; LIU Xin; SUN Yan; LIN Sen; ZHOU Na; XU Li-na; YU BO; HOU Shu-guang; YANG Hong

    2008-01-01

    Magnolin is a herbal compound from Magnolia biondii Pamp.It possesses numerous biological activities.Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator(CFTR)is all epithelial chloride channel that plays a key role in the fluid secretion of various exocrine organs.In the present study,the activation of CFTR-mediated chloride transport by magnolin is indentified and characterized.In CFTR stably trailsfected FRT cells.magnolin increases CFTR Cl- currents in a concentration-dependent manner.The activation of magnolin on CFTR is rapid,reversible,and cAMP-dependent.Magnolin does not elevate cellular cAMP level.indicating that it activates CFTR by direct binding and interaction with CFTR protein.Magnolin selectively activates wildtype CFTR rather than mutant CFTIL Magnolin may present a novel class of therapeutic lead compound for the treatment of diseases associated with reduced CFTR function such as keratoconjunctivitis sicca,idiopathic chronic pancreatiti,and chromc constipation.

  5. Active flow control systems architectures for civil transport aircraft

    Jabbal, M; Liddle, SC; Crowther, WJ

    2010-01-01

    Copyright @ 2010 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics This paper considers the effect of choice of actuator technology and associated power systems architecture on the mass cost and power consumption of implementing active flow control systems on civil transport aircraft. The research method is based on the use of a mass model that includes a mass due to systems hardware and a mass due to the system energy usage. An Airbus A320 aircraft wing is used as a case-study applicatio...

  6. The Asymmetric Active Coupler: Stable Nonlinear Supermodes and Directed Transport

    Kominis, Yannis; Flach, Sergej

    2016-01-01

    We consider the asymmetric active coupler (AAC) consisting of two coupled dissimilar waveguides with gain and loss. We show that under generic conditions, not restricted by parity-time symmetry, there exist finite-power, constant-intensity nonlinear supermodes (NS), resulting from the balance between gain, loss, nonlinearity, coupling and dissimilarity. The system is shown to possess nonreciprocal dynamics enabling directed power transport and optical isolation functionality.

  7. 78 FR 68908 - Proposed Information Collection (Veterans Transportation Service Data Collection); Activity...

    2013-11-15

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Veterans Transportation Service Data Collection); Activity... needed to evaluate the Veterans Transportation Service Data Collection program to ensure Veterans... Control No. 2900-NEW (Veterans Transportation Service Data Collection)'' in any correspondence. During...

  8. Chloride transport in human fibroblasts is activated by hypotonic shock

    Incubation of human skin fibroblasts in hypotonic media induced the activation of 36Cl- efflux which was roughly proportional to the decrease in the osmolality of the media. The efflux of 36Cl- was insensitive to DIDS plus furosemide and inhibited by addition of a Cl- channel blocker such as 5-nitro-2-(3-phenyl propylamino) benzoic acid (NPPB). We propose that a conductive pathway for Cl- transport, almost silent in isotonic conditions, is activated by exposing human fibroblasts to hypotonic shock, this conclusion being supported by evidence that also 36Cl- influx was enhanced by hypotonic medium

  9. Active urea transport by the skin of Bufo viridis: Amiloride- and phloretin-sensitive transport sites

    Urea is actively transported inwardly (Ji) across the skin of the green toad Bufo viridis. Ji is markedly enhanced in toads adapted to hypertonic saline. The authors studied urea transport across the skin of Bufo viridis under a variety of experimental conditions, including treatment with amiloride and phloretin, agents that inhibit urea permeability in the bladder of Bufo marinus. Amiloride (10-4 M) significantly inhibited Ji in both adapted and unadapted animals and was unaffected by removal of sodium from the external medium. Phloretin (10-4 M) significantly inhibited Ji in adapted animals by 23-46%; there was also a reduction in Ji in unadapted toads at 10-4 and 5 x 10-4 M phloretin. A dose-response study revealed that the concentration of phloretin causing half-maximal inhibition (K1/2) was 5 x 10-4 M for adapted animals. Ji was unaffected by the substitution of sucrose for Ringer solution or by ouabain. They conclude (1) the process of adaptation appears to involve an increase in the number of amiloride- and phloretin-inhibitable urea transport sites in the skin, with a possible increase in the affinity of the sites for phloretin; (2) the adapted skin resembles the Bufo marinus urinary bladder with respect to amiloride and phloretin-inhibitable sites; (3) they confirm earlier observations that Ji is independent of sodium transport

  10. Examining Changes in Radioxenon Isotope Activity Ratios during Subsurface Transport

    Annewandter, Robert

    2014-05-01

    The Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE) has demonstrated and modelled the usefulness of barometric pumping induced gas transport and subsequent soil gas sampling during On-Site inspections. Generally, gas transport has been widely studied with different numerical codes. However, gas transport of radioxenons and radioiodines in the post-detonation regime and their possible fractionation is still neglected in the open peer-reviewed literature. Atmospheric concentrations of the radioxenons Xe-135, Xe-133m, Xe-133 and Xe-131m can be used to discriminate between civilian releases (nuclear power plants or medical isotope facilities), and nuclear explosion sources. It is based on the multiple isotopic activity ratio method. Yet it is not clear whether subsurface migration of the radionuclides, with eventual release into the atmosphere, can affect the activity ratios due to fractionation. Fractionation can be caused by different mass diffusivities due to mass differences between the radionuclides. Cyclical changes in atmospheric pressure can drive subsurface gas transport. This barometric pumping phenomenon causes an oscillatoric flow in upward trending fractures or highly conductive faults which, combined with diffusion into the porous matrix, leads to a net transport of gaseous components - a so-called ratcheting effect. We use a general purpose reservoir simulator (Complex System Modelling Platform, CSMP++) which is recognized by the oil industry as leading in Discrete Fracture-Matrix (DFM) simulations. It has been applied in a range of fields such as deep geothermal systems, three-phase black oil simulations, fracture propagation in fractured, porous media, and Navier-Stokes pore-scale modelling among others. It is specifically designed to account for structurally complex geologic situation of fractured, porous media. Parabolic differential equations are solved by a continuous Galerkin finite-element method, hyperbolic differential equations by a complementary finite

  11. Ride On! Mini-Units and Learning Activities on Public Transportation for Grades 6 through 9.

    Finn, Peter; And Others

    One of a series of eleven curriculum manuals which cover the four transportation topics of public transportation, transportation and the environment, transportation safety, and bicycles for elementary, secondary, and adult levels, this manual covers the public transportation topic for grades 6-9. It contains forty-two learning activities grouped…

  12. Ride On! Mini-Units and Learning Activities on Public Transportation for Grades 9 through 12.

    Finn, Peter; And Others

    One of a series of eleven curriculum manuals which cover the four transportation topics of public transportation, transportation and the environment, transportation safety, and bicycles for elementary, secondary, and adult levels, this manual covers the public transportation topic for grades 9-12. It contains forty-nine learning activities grouped…

  13. Platelet serotonin transporter function predicts default-mode network activity.

    Christian Scharinger

    Full Text Available The serotonin transporter (5-HTT is abundantly expressed in humans by the serotonin transporter gene SLC6A4 and removes serotonin (5-HT from extracellular space. A blood-brain relationship between platelet and synaptosomal 5-HT reuptake has been suggested, but it is unknown today, if platelet 5-HT uptake can predict neural activation of human brain networks that are known to be under serotonergic influence.A functional magnetic resonance study was performed in 48 healthy subjects and maximal 5-HT uptake velocity (Vmax was assessed in blood platelets. We used a mixed-effects multilevel analysis technique (MEMA to test for linear relationships between whole-brain, blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD activity and platelet Vmax.The present study demonstrates that increases in platelet Vmax significantly predict default-mode network (DMN suppression in healthy subjects independent of genetic variation within SLC6A4. Furthermore, functional connectivity analyses indicate that platelet Vmax is related to global DMN activation and not intrinsic DMN connectivity.This study provides evidence that platelet Vmax predicts global DMN activation changes in healthy subjects. Given previous reports on platelet-synaptosomal Vmax coupling, results further suggest an important role of neuronal 5-HT reuptake in DMN regulation.

  14. Modelling of electron transport and of sawtooth activity in tokamaks

    Angioni, C

    2001-10-01

    Transport phenomena in tokamak plasmas strongly limit the particle and energy confinement and represent a crucial obstacle to controlled thermonuclear fusion. Within the vast framework of transport studies, three topics have been tackled in the present thesis: first, the computation of neoclassical transport coefficients for general axisymmetric equilibria and arbitrary collisionality regime; second, the analysis of the electron temperature behaviour and transport modelling of plasma discharges in the Tokamak a configuration Variable (TCV); third, the modelling and simulation of the sawtooth activity with different plasma heating conditions. The work dedicated to neoclassical theory has been undertaken in order to first analytically identify a set of equations suited for implementation in existing Fokker-Planck codes. Modifications of these codes enabled us to compute the neoclassical transport coefficients considering different realistic magnetic equilibrium configurations and covering a large range of variation of three key parameters: aspect ratio, collisionality, and effective charge number. A comparison of the numerical results with an analytical limit has permitted the identification of two expressions for the trapped particle fraction, capable of encapsulating the geometrical effects and thus enabling each transport coefficient to be fitted with a single analytical function. This has allowed us to provide simple analytical formulae for all the neoclassical transport coefficients valid for arbitrary aspect ratio and collisionality in general realistic geometry. This work is particularly useful for a correct evaluation of the neoclassical contribution in tokamak scenarios with large bootstrap cur- rent fraction, or improved confinement regimes with low anomalous transport and for the determination of the plasma current density profile, since the plasma conductivity is usually assumed neoclassical. These results have been included in the plasma transport code

  15. Modelling of electron transport and of sawtooth activity in tokamaks

    Transport phenomena in tokamak plasmas strongly limit the particle and energy confinement and represent a crucial obstacle to controlled thermonuclear fusion. Within the vast framework of transport studies, three topics have been tackled in the present thesis: first, the computation of neoclassical transport coefficients for general axisymmetric equilibria and arbitrary collisionality regime; second, the analysis of the electron temperature behaviour and transport modelling of plasma discharges in the Tokamak a configuration Variable (TCV); third, the modelling and simulation of the sawtooth activity with different plasma heating conditions. The work dedicated to neoclassical theory has been undertaken in order to first analytically identify a set of equations suited for implementation in existing Fokker-Planck codes. Modifications of these codes enabled us to compute the neoclassical transport coefficients considering different realistic magnetic equilibrium configurations and covering a large range of variation of three key parameters: aspect ratio, collisionality, and effective charge number. A comparison of the numerical results with an analytical limit has permitted the identification of two expressions for the trapped particle fraction, capable of encapsulating the geometrical effects and thus enabling each transport coefficient to be fitted with a single analytical function. This has allowed us to provide simple analytical formulae for all the neoclassical transport coefficients valid for arbitrary aspect ratio and collisionality in general realistic geometry. This work is particularly useful for a correct evaluation of the neoclassical contribution in tokamak scenarios with large bootstrap cur- rent fraction, or improved confinement regimes with low anomalous transport and for the determination of the plasma current density profile, since the plasma conductivity is usually assumed neoclassical. These results have been included in the plasma transport code

  16. Curcumin directly inhibits the transport activity of GLUT1.

    Gunnink, Leesha K; Alabi, Ola D; Kuiper, Benjamin D; Gunnink, Stephen M; Schuiteman, Sam J; Strohbehn, Lauren E; Hamilton, Kathryn E; Wrobel, Kathryn E; Louters, Larry L

    2016-06-01

    Curcumin, a major ingredient in turmeric, has a long history of medicinal applications in a wide array of maladies including treatment for diabetes and cancer. Seemingly counterintuitive to the documented hypoglycemic effects of curcumin, however, a recent report indicates that curcumin directly inhibits glucose uptake in adipocytes. The major glucose transporter in adipocytes is GLUT4. Therefore, this study investigates the effects of curcumin in cell lines where the major transporter is GLUT1. We report that curcumin has an immediate inhibitory effect on basal glucose uptake in L929 fibroblast cells with a maximum inhibition of 80% achieved at 75 μM curcumin. Curcumin also blocks activation of glucose uptake by azide, glucose deprivation, hydroxylamine, or phenylarsine oxide. Inhibition does not increase with exposure time and the inhibitory effects reverse within an hour. Inhibition does not appear to involve a reaction between curcumin and the thiol side chain of a cysteine residue since neither prior treatment of cells with iodoacetamide nor curcumin with cysteine alters curcumin's inhibitory effects. Curcumin is a mixed inhibitor reducing the Vmax of 2DG transport by about half with little effect on the Km. The inhibitory effects of curcumin are not additive to the effects of cytochalasin B and 75 μM curcumin actually reduces specific cytochalasin B binding by 80%. Taken together, the data suggest that curcumin binds directly to GLUT1 at a site that overlaps with the cytochalasin B binding site and thereby inhibits glucose transport. A direct inhibition of GLUT proteins in intestinal epithelial cells would likely reduce absorption of dietary glucose and contribute to a hypoglycemic effect of curcumin. Also, inhibition of GLUT1 activity might compromise cancer cells that overexpress GLUT1 and be another possible mechanism for the documented anticancer effects of curcumin. PMID:27039889

  17. Saharan Dust, Transport Processes, and Possible Impacts on Hurricane Activities

    Lau, William K. M.; Kim, K. M.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present observational evidence of significant relationships between Saharan dust outbreak, and African Easterly wave activities and hurricane activities. We found two dominant paths of transport of Saharan dust: a northern path, centered at 25degN associated with eastward propagating 6-19 days waves over northern Africa, and a southern path centered at 15degN, associated with the AEW, and the Atlantic ITCZ. Seasons with stronger dust outbreak from the southern path are associated with a drier atmosphere over the Maximum Development Region (MDR) and reduction in tropical cyclone and hurricane activities in the MDR. Seasons with stronger outbreak from the northern path are associated with a cooler N. Atlantic, and suppressed hurricane in the western Atlantic basin.

  18. Artemisinin inhibits chloroplast electron transport activity: mode of action.

    Adyasha Bharati

    Full Text Available Artemisinin, a secondary metabolite produced in Artemisia plant species, besides having antimalarial properties is also phytotoxic. Although, the phytotoxic activity of the compound has been long recognized, no information is available on the mechanism of action of the compound on photosynthetic activity of the plant. In this report, we have evaluated the effect of artemisinin on photoelectron transport activity of chloroplast thylakoid membrane. The inhibitory effect of the compound, under in vitro condition, was pronounced in loosely and fully coupled thylakoids; being strong in the former. The extent of inhibition was drastically reduced in the presence of uncouplers like ammonium chloride or gramicidin; a characteristic feature described for energy transfer inhibitors. The compound, on the other hand, when applied to plants (in vivo, behaved as a potent inhibitor of photosynthetic electron transport. The major site of its action was identified to be the Q(B; the secondary quinone moiety of photosystemII complex. Analysis of photoreduction kinetics of para-benzoquinone and duroquinone suggest that the inhibition leads to formation of low pool of plastoquinol, which becomes limiting for electron flow through photosystemI. Further it was ascertained that the in vivo inhibitory effect appeared as a consequence of the formation of an unidentified artemisinin-metabolite rather than by the interaction of the compound per se. The putative metabolite of artemisinin is highly reactive in instituting the inhibition of photosynthetic electron flow eventually reducing the plant growth.

  19. Kinesin KIFC1 actively transports bare double-stranded DNA

    Farina, Francesca; Pierobon, Paolo; Delevoye, Cédric; Monnet, Jordan; Dingli, Florent; Loew, Damarys; Quanz, Maria; Dutreix, Marie; Cappello, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    During the past years, exogenous DNA molecules have been used in gene and molecular therapy. At present, it is not known how these DNA molecules reach the cell nucleus. We used an in cell single-molecule approach to observe the motion of exogenous short DNA molecules in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. Our observations suggest an active transport of the DNA along the cytoskeleton filaments. We used an in vitro motility assay, in which the motion of single-DNA molecules along cytoskeleton fi...

  20. Active transport and accumulation of bicarbonate by a unicellular cyanobacterium.

    Miller, A G; Colman, B

    1980-09-01

    The rates of inorganic carbon accumulation and carbon fixation in light by the unicellular cyanobacterim Coccohloris peniocystis have been determined. Cells incubated in the light in medium containing H14CO3- were rapidly separated from the medium by centrifugation through silicone oil into a strongly basic terminating solution. Samples of these inactivated cells were assayed to determine total 14C accumulation, and acid-treated samples were assayed to determine 14C fixation. The rate of transport of inorganic into illuminated cells was faster than the rate of CO2 production in the medium from HCO3- dehydration. This evidence for HCO3- transport in these cells is in agreement with our previous results based upon measurements of photosynthetic O2 evolution. A substantial pool of inorganic carbon was bulit up within the cells presumably as HCO3- before the onset of the maximum rate of photosynthesis. Large accumulation ratios were observed, greater than 1,000 times the external HCO3- concentration. Accumulation did not occur in the dark and was greatly suppressed by the photosynthesis inhibitors 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethyl urea and 3-chloro-carbonylcyanide phenylhydrazone. These results indicate that the accumulation of inorganic carbon in these cells involves a light-dependent active transport process. PMID:6773925

  1. CFD Model of Water Droplet Transport for ISS Hygiene Activity

    Son, Chang H.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the study is to assess the impacts of free water propagation in the Waste and Hygiene Compartment (WHC). Free water can be generated inside the WHC in small quantities due to crew hygiene activity. To mitigate potential impact of free water in Node 3 cabin the WHC doorway is enclosed by a waterproof bump-out, Kabin, with openings at the top and bottom. At the overhead side of the rack, there is a screen that prevents large drops of water from exiting. However, as the avionics fan in the WHC causes airflow toward the deck side of the rack, small quantities of free water may exit at the bottom of the Kabin. A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis of Node 3 cabin airflow made possible to identify the paths of water transport. The Node 3 airflow was computed for several ventilation scenarios. To simulate the droplet transport the Lagrangian discrete phase approach was used. Various initial droplet distributions were considered in the study. The droplet diameter was varied in the range of 2-20 mm. The results of the computations showed that most of the drops fall to the rack surface not far from the WHC curtain. The probability of the droplet transport to the adjacent rack surface with electronic equipment was predicted.

  2. Adult active transport in the Netherlands: an analysis of its contribution to physical activity requirements.

    Elliot Fishman

    Full Text Available Modern, urban lifestyles have engineered physical activity out of everyday life and this presents a major threat to human health. The Netherlands is a world leader in active travel, particularly cycling, but little research has sought to quantify the cumulative amount of physical activity through everyday walking and cycling.Using data collected as part of the Dutch National Travel Survey (2010 - 2012, this paper determines the degree to which Dutch walking and cycling contributes to meeting minimum level of physical activity of 150 minutes of moderate intensity aerobic activity throughout the week. The sample includes 74,465 individuals who recorded at least some travel on the day surveyed. As physical activity benefits are cumulative, all walking and cycling trips are analysed, including those to and from public transport. These trips are then converted into an established measure of physical activity intensity, known as metabolic equivalents of tasks. Multivariate Tobit regression models were performed on a range of socio-demographic, transport resources, urban form and meteorological characteristics.The results reveal that Dutch men and women participate in 24 and 28 minutes of daily physical activity through walking and cycling, which is 41% and 55% more than the minimum recommended level. It should be noted however that some 57% of the entire sample failed to record any walking or cycling, and an investigation of this particular group serves as an important topic of future research. Active transport was positively related with age, income, bicycle ownership, urban density and air temperature. Car ownership had a strong negative relationship with physically active travel.The results of this analysis demonstrate the significance of active transport to counter the emerging issue of sedentary lifestyle disease. The Dutch experience provides other countries with a highly relevant case study in the creation of environments and cultures that

  3. Verification of Monte Carlo transport codes by activation experiments

    With the increasing energies and intensities of heavy-ion accelerator facilities, the problem of an excessive activation of the accelerator components caused by beam losses becomes more and more important. Numerical experiments using Monte Carlo transport codes are performed in order to assess the levels of activation. The heavy-ion versions of the codes were released approximately a decade ago, therefore the verification is needed to be sure that they give reasonable results. Present work is focused on obtaining the experimental data on activation of the targets by heavy-ion beams. Several experiments were performed at GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung. The interaction of nitrogen, argon and uranium beams with aluminum targets, as well as interaction of nitrogen and argon beams with copper targets was studied. After the irradiation of the targets by different ion beams from the SIS18 synchrotron at GSI, the γ-spectroscopy analysis was done: the γ-spectra of the residual activity were measured, the radioactive nuclides were identified, their amount and depth distribution were detected. The obtained experimental results were compared with the results of the Monte Carlo simulations using FLUKA, MARS and SHIELD. The discrepancies and agreements between experiment and simulations are pointed out. The origin of discrepancies is discussed. Obtained results allow for a better verification of the Monte Carlo transport codes, and also provide information for their further development. The necessity of the activation studies for accelerator applications is discussed. The limits of applicability of the heavy-ion beam-loss criteria were studied using the FLUKA code. FLUKA-simulations were done to determine the most preferable from the radiation protection point of view materials for use in accelerator components.

  4. The Influence of Urban Land-Use and Public Transport Facilities on Active Commuting in Wellington, New Zealand: Active Transport Forecasting Using the WILUTE Model

    Joreintje Dingena Mackenbach; Edward Randal; Pengjun Zhao; Philippa Howden-Chapman

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity has numerous physical and mental health benefits, and active commuting (walking or cycling to work) can help meet physical activity recommendations. This study investigated socioeconomic differences in active commuting, and assessed the impact of urban land-use and public transport policies on active commuting in the Wellington region in New Zealand. We combined data from the New Zealand Household Travel Survey and GIS data on land-use and public transport facilities with th...

  5. Socioeconomic and regional differences in active transportation in Brazil

    de Sá, Thiago Hérick; Pereira, Rafael Henrique Moraes; Duran, Ana Clara; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To present national estimates regarding walking or cycling for commuting in Brazil and in 10 metropolitan regions. METHODS By using data from the Health section of 2008’s Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílio (Brazil’s National Household Sample Survey), we estimated how often employed people walk or cycle to work, disaggregating our results by sex, age range, education level, household monthly income per capita, urban or rural address, metropolitan regions, and macro-regions in Brazil. Furthermore, we estimated the distribution of this same frequency according to quintiles of household monthly income per capita in each metropolitan region of the country. RESULTS A third of the employed men and women walk or cycle from home to work in Brazil. For both sexes, this share decreases as income and education levels rise, and it is higher among younger individuals, especially among those living in rural areas and in the Northeast region of the country. Depending on the metropolitan region, the practice of active transportation is two to five times more frequent among low-income individuals than among high-income individuals. CONCLUSIONS Walking or cycling to work in Brazil is most frequent among low-income individuals and the ones living in less economically developed areas. Active transportation evaluation in Brazil provides important information for public health and urban mobility policy-making PMID:27355465

  6. Body Composition, Physical Activity and Active Transportation in Adolescents of Metropolitan Region of Curitiba, Brazil

    Leandra Ulbrict

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical activity is a part of a healthy lifestyle, however sed entary habits are currently prevalent among adolescents which impacts rates of overweight and obesity in this group. This study aims to describe the relationship of physical activity with the use of active transportation to school (ATS and its relationshi p with body composition in adolescents. Materials and Methods: Information about physical activity, sedentary behavior and active transportation were collected through two survey instruments, one completed by a responsible parent/guardian and other by the adolescent. Body composition was assessed by dual - energy x - ray absorptiometry (DXA. Excess body fat was defined as ≥ 25% in male and ≥ 30% among female adolescents. Less than 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous daily physical activity defined one as sede ntary and greater than 2 hours of screen time per day was defined as excessive. Results: The prevalence of excess body fat was 46.5%. Only 24.7% of the sample performed recommended amounts of physical activity and 92.3% engaged in excess screen time. Appro ximately one - fifth of our sample (19.2% used ATS. The main barriers to active transport were traffic, distance and safety. Those that used ATS had lower body fat and fewer hours of sedentary behavior.

  7. The Influence of Active Transport Systems on Morphine -6-Glucuronide Transport in MDCKII and MDCK-PGP Cells

    SO. Mashayekhi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and the purpose of the study: Morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G is a potent metabolite of morphine which has high penetration into the brain despite its high polarity, which could be the result of an active transport system involved in M6G transport through blood brain barrier. Examples of such transporters are p-glycoprotein (PGP, probenecid-sensitive transport mechanism, multidrug resistance related protein 1-3, the organic anion transporter family, and the organic anion transporter polypeptide family. The aim of present study was to elucidate the mechanisms involved in transporting morphine's potent metabolite, M6G.Methods: M6G permeability via two cell lines; MDCKII and MDCK-PGP, was compared with that of sucrose. M6G transport was examined in different concentrations and in the presence of inhibitors of different transport systems such as cyclosporine, digoxin and probenecid. M6G concentration was measured using ELISA assay. The method was sensitive, reliable and reproducible.Results: The results confirmed that M6G could cross a layer of MDCK II or MDR-PGP cells more than sucrose could. It was also observed that M6G is a PGP transporter substrate. Its permeability was increased by the use of a PGP expressed cell line, and also in the presence of a strong PGP inhibitor. Digoxin related transporters such as Oatp2 may also involved in transport of M6G. M6G seemed to be a glucose transporter 1 substrate, but was not a substrate to probenecid sensitive transporters.Major conclusion: It is concluded that different transporters are responsible for M6G transports via different membrane, which could have effects on its pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics.

  8. Reliability and validity of the transport and physical activity questionnaire (TPAQ for assessing physical activity behaviour.

    Emma J Adams

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: No current validated survey instrument allows a comprehensive assessment of both physical activity and travel behaviours for use in interdisciplinary research on walking and cycling. This study reports on the test-retest reliability and validity of physical activity measures in the transport and physical activity questionnaire (TPAQ. METHODS: The TPAQ assesses time spent in different domains of physical activity and using different modes of transport for five journey purposes. Test-retest reliability of eight physical activity summary variables was assessed using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC and Kappa scores for continuous and categorical variables respectively. In a separate study, the validity of three survey-reported physical activity summary variables was assessed by computing Spearman correlation coefficients using accelerometer-derived reference measures. The Bland-Altman technique was used to determine the absolute validity of survey-reported time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA. RESULTS: In the reliability study, ICC for time spent in different domains of physical activity ranged from fair to substantial for walking for transport (ICC = 0.59, cycling for transport (ICC = 0.61, walking for recreation (ICC = 0.48, cycling for recreation (ICC = 0.35, moderate leisure-time physical activity (ICC = 0.47, vigorous leisure-time physical activity (ICC = 0.63, and total physical activity (ICC = 0.56. The proportion of participants estimated to meet physical activity guidelines showed acceptable reliability (k = 0.60. In the validity study, comparison of survey-reported and accelerometer-derived time spent in physical activity showed strong agreement for vigorous physical activity (r = 0.72, p<0.001, fair but non-significant agreement for moderate physical activity (r = 0.24, p = 0.09 and fair agreement for MVPA (r = 0.27, p = 0.05. Bland

  9. Variability and seasonality of active transportation in USA: evidence from the 2001 NHTS

    Bingham C Raymond

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Active transportation including walking and bicycling is an important source of physical activity. Promoting active transportation is a challenge for the fields of public health and transportation. Descriptive data on the predictors of active transportation, including seasonal patterns in active transportation in the US as a whole, is needed to inform interventions and policies. Methods This study analyzed monthly variation in active transportation for the US using National Household Travel Survey 2001 data. For each age group of children, adolescents, adults and elderly, logistic regression models were used to identify predictors of the odds of active transportation including gender, race/ethnicity, household income level, geographical region, urbanization level, and month. Results The probability of engaging in active transportation was generally higher for children and adolescents than for adults and the elderly. Active transportation was greater in the lower income groups (except in the elderly, was lower in the South than in other regions of the US, and was greater in areas with higher urbanization. The percentage of people using active transportation exhibited clear seasonal patterns: high during summer months and low during winter months. Children and adolescents were more sensitive to seasonality than other age groups. Women, non-Caucasians, persons with lower household income, who resided in the Midwest or Northeast, and who lived in more urbanized areas had greater seasonal variation. Conclusions These descriptive results suggest that interventions and policies that target the promotion of active transportation need to consider socio-demographic factors and seasonality.

  10. Physical Activity Energy Expenditure in Dutch Adolescents: Contribution of Active Transport to School, Physical Education, and Leisure Time Activities

    Slingerland, Menno; Borghouts, Lars B.; Hesselink, Matthijs K. C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Detailed knowledge about physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) can guide the development of school interventions aimed at reducing overweight in adolescents. However, relevant components of PAEE have never been objectively quantified in this population. This study investigated the contribution of active transport to and from…

  11. Transcriptional and nontranscriptional regulation of NIS activity and radioiodide transport

    Jung, Kyung Ho; Lee, Kyung Han [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-10-15

    Radioiodide transport has been extensively and successfully used in the evaluation and management of thyroid disease. The molecular characterization of the sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) and cloning of the NIS gene has led to the recent expansion of the use of radioiodide to cancers of the breast and other nonthyroidal tissues exogenously transduced with the NIS gene. More recently, discoveries regarding the functional analysis and regulatory processes of the NIS molecule are opening up exciting opportunities for new research and applications for NIS and radioiodide. The success of NIS based cancer therapy is dependent on achievement of maximal radioiodide transport sufficient to allow delivery of effective radiation doses. This in turn relies on high transcription rates of the NIS gene. However, newer discoveries indicate that nontranscriptional processes that regulate NIS trafficking to cell membrane are also critical determinants of radioiodide uptake. In this review, molecular mechanisms that underlie regulation of NIS transcription and stimuli that augment membrane trafficking and functional activation of NIS molecules will be discussed. A better understanding of how the expression and cell surface targeting of NIS proteins is controlled will hopefully aid in optimizing NIS gene based cancer treatment as well as NIS based reporter-gene imaging strategies.

  12. Hypoxia inhibits colonic ion transport via activation of AMP kinase.

    Collins, Danielle

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Mucosal hypoxia is a common endpoint for many pathological processes including ischemic colitis, colonic obstruction and anastomotic failure. Previous studies suggest that hypoxia modulates colonic mucosal function through inhibition of chloride secretion. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this observation are poorly understood. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a metabolic energy regulator found in a wide variety of cells and has been linked to cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) mediated chloride secretion in several different tissues. We hypothesized that AMPK mediates many of the acute effects of hypoxia on human and rat colonic electrolyte transport. METHODS: The fluorescent chloride indicator dye N-(ethoxycarbonylmethyl)-6-methoxyquinolinium bromide was used to measure changes in intracellular chloride concentrations in isolated single rat colonic crypts. Ussing chamber experiments in human colonic mucosa were conducted to evaluate net epithelial ion transport. RESULTS: This study demonstrates that acute hypoxia inhibits electrogenic chloride secretion via AMPK mediated inhibition of CFTR. Pre-treatment of tissues with the AMPK inhibitor 6-[4-(2-piperidin-1-yl-ethoxy)-phenyl)]-3-pyridin-4-yl-pyyrazolo [1,5-a] pyrimidine (compound C) in part reversed the effects of acute hypoxia on chloride secretion. CONCLUSION: We therefore suggest that AMPK is a key component of the adaptive cellular response to mucosal hypoxia in the colon. Furthermore, AMPK may represent a potential therapeutic target in diseased states or in prevention of ischemic intestinal injury.

  13. Associations between built environment and active transport in Danish adolescents

    Breum, Lars

    adolescents (11-13 years) attending 5th or 6th grade in 14 different schools in Region Southern Denmark. Measures: - 5-day commuting diary. Mode of transport was reported from home to school and return (walk, bike, car, bus, train and other). - Web based questionnaire to asses perceived safety of bike route...... % (walk or cycle every day to and from school) and a summed rank-score between 14-36 (index). 86 % reported a safe or very safe cycle route to school. The OR for all-day active commuting was 1.05(p=0.09) for the three component index in the single factor model and 1.02 (0.47) in the adjusted model. The OR...

  14. Tracking soil transport to sugarcane industry using neutron activation analysis

    Soil as mineral impurity in sugarcane loads impacts the Brazilian sugar-ethanol industry with rising production and maintenance costs as well as decreased productivity. The mechanical harvesting of sugarcane was conceived as a technology with potential to increase the raw material quality thereby has been gradually replacing manual harvesting throughout the country. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied for determination of soil tracers in order to compare the performance of both harvesting systems in terms of mineral impurities. There were no significant differences in the amount of soil transported to sugarcane industry despite the technological progress aggregated to mechanical harvesting. However, for both harvesting systems there were significant differences on the amount of such mineral impurity between clay and sandy soils. (author)

  15. Activity and travel choice(s) in multimodal public transport systems

    Krygsman, Stephan

    2004-01-01

    Transport planners and policymakers are increasingly considering multimodal public transport and travel demand management (TDM) strategies to stem the unsustainable travel behaviour trends associated with modern-day, car-dominated travel. Multimodal public transport, however, implies that people change transport mode, which may mean that they can no longer implement their usual activity patterns, perhaps even resulting in increased car use. The quality of public transport is determined not on...

  16. Built Environment and Active Transport to School (BEATS) Study: protocol for a cross-sectional study

    Mandic, Sandra; Williams, John; Moore, Antoni; Hopkins, Debbie; Flaherty, Charlotte; Wilson, Gordon; García Bengoechea, Enrique; Spence, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Active transport to school (ATS) is a convenient way to increase physical activity and undertake an environmentally sustainable travel practice. The Built Environment and Active Transport to School (BEATS) Study examines ATS in adolescents in Dunedin, New Zealand, using ecological models for active transport that account for individual, social, environmental and policy factors. The study objectives are to: (1) understand the reasons behind adolescents and their parents' choice of...

  17. Water activated doping and transport in multilayered germanane crystals

    The synthesis of germanane (GeH) has opened the door for covalently functionalizable 2D materials in electronics. Herein, we demonstrate that GeH can be electronically doped by incorporating stoichiometric equivalents of phosphorus dopant atoms into the CaGe2 precursor. The electronic properties of these doped materials show significant atmospheric sensitivity, and we observe a reduction in resistance by up to three orders of magnitude when doped samples are measured in water-containing atmospheres. This variation in resistance is a result of water activation of the phosphorus dopants. Transport measurements in different contact geometries show a significant anisotropy between in-plane and out-of-plane resistances, with a much larger out-of-plane resistance. These measurements along with finite element modeling results predict that the current distribution in top-contacted crystals is restricted to only the topmost, water activated crystal layers. Taken together, these results pave the way for future electronic and optoelectronic applications utilizing group IV graphane analogues. (paper)

  18. The Influence of Urban Land-Use and Public Transport Facilities on Active Commuting in Wellington, New Zealand: Active Transport Forecasting Using the WILUTE Model

    Joreintje Dingena Mackenbach

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity has numerous physical and mental health benefits, and active commuting (walking or cycling to work can help meet physical activity recommendations. This study investigated socioeconomic differences in active commuting, and assessed the impact of urban land-use and public transport policies on active commuting in the Wellington region in New Zealand. We combined data from the New Zealand Household Travel Survey and GIS data on land-use and public transport facilities with the Wellington Integrated Land-Use, Transportation and Environment (WILUTE model, and forecasted changes in active commuter trips associated with changes in the built environment. Results indicated high income individuals were more likely to commute actively than individuals on low income. Several land-use and transportation factors were associated with active commuting and results from the modelling showed a potential increase in active commuting following an increase in bus frequency and parking fees. In conclusion, regional level policies stimulating environmental factors that directly or indirectly affect active commuting may be a promising strategy to increase population level physical activity. Access to, and frequency of, public transport in the neighbourhood can act as a facilitator for a more active lifestyle among its residents without negatively affecting disadvantaged groups.

  19. Alkaline pH activates the transport activity of GLUT1 in L929 fibroblast cells.

    Gunnink, Stephen M; Kerk, Samuel A; Kuiper, Benjamin D; Alabi, Ola D; Kuipers, David P; Praamsma, Riemer C; Wrobel, Kathryn E; Louters, Larry L

    2014-04-01

    The widely expressed mammalian glucose transporter, GLUT1, can be acutely activated in L929 fibroblast cells by a variety of conditions, including glucose deprivation, or treatment with various respiration inhibitors. Known thiol reactive compounds including phenylarsine oxide and nitroxyl are the fastest acting stimulators of glucose uptake, implicating cysteine biochemistry as critical to the acute activation of GLUT1. In this study, we report that in L929 cells glucose uptake increases 6-fold as the pH of the uptake solution is increased from 6 to 9 with the half-maximal activation at pH 7.5; consistent with the pKa of cysteine residues. This pH effect is essentially blocked by the pretreatment of the cells with either iodoacetamide or cinnamaldehyde, compounds that form covalent adducts with reduced cysteine residues. In addition, the activation by alkaline pH is not additive at pH 8 with known thiol reactive activators such as phenylarsine oxide or hydroxylamine. Kinetic analysis in L929 cells at pH 7 and 8 indicate that alkaline conditions both increases the Vmax and decreases the Km of transport. This is consistent with the observation that pH activation is additive to methylene blue, which activates uptake by increasing the Vmax, as well as to berberine, which activates uptake by decreasing the Km. This suggests that cysteine biochemistry is utilized in both methylene blue and berberine activation of glucose uptake. In contrast a pH increase from 7 to 8 in HCLE cells does not further activate glucose uptake. HCLE cells have a 25-fold higher basal glucose uptake rate than L929 cells and the lack of a pH effect suggests that the cysteine biochemistry has already occurred in HCLE cells. The data are consistent with pH having a complex mechanism of action, but one likely mediated by cysteine biochemistry. PMID:24333987

  20. The Association between Access to Public Transportation and Self-Reported Active Commuting

    Sune Djurhuus

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Active commuting provides routine-based regular physical activity which can reduce the risk of chronic diseases. Using public transportation involves some walking or cycling to a transit stop, transfers and a walk to the end location and users of public transportation have been found to accumulate more moderate physical activity than non-users. Understanding how public transportation characteristics are associated with active transportation is thus important from a public health perspective. This study examines the associations between objective measures of access to public transportation and self-reported active commuting. Self-reported time spent either walking or cycling commuting each day and the distance to workplace were obtained for adults aged 16 to 65 in the Danish National Health Survey 2010 (n = 28,928. Access to public transportation measures were computed by combining GIS-based road network distances from home address to public transit stops an integrating their service level. Multilevel logistic regression was used to examine the association between access to public transportation measures and active commuting. Distance to bus stop, density of bus stops, and number of transport modes were all positively associated with being an active commuter and with meeting recommendations of physical activity. No significant association was found between bus services at the nearest stop and active commuting. The results highlight the importance of including detailed measurements of access to public transit in order to identify the characteristics that facilitate the use of public transportation and active commuting.

  1. Evaluation of Proposed In Vivo Probe Substrates and Inhibitors for Phenotyping Transporter Activity in Humans.

    Momper, Jeremiah D; Tsunoda, Shirley M; Ma, Joseph D

    2016-07-01

    Drug transporters are present in various tissues and have a significant role in drug absorption, distribution, and elimination. The International Transporter Consortium has identified 7 transporters of increasing importance from evidence of clinically significant transporter-mediated drug-drug interactions. The transporters are P-glycoprotein, breast cancer resistance protein, organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B1, OATP1B3, organic cation transporter 2, organic anion transporters (OAT) 1, and OAT3. Decision trees were created based on in vitro experiments to determine whether an in vivo transporter-mediated drug-drug interaction study is needed. Phenotyping is a methodology that evaluates real-time in vivo transporter activity, whereby changes in a probe substrate or probe inhibitor reflect alternations in the activity of the specified transporter. In vivo probe substrates and/or probe inhibitors have been proposed for each aforementioned transporter. In vitro findings and animal models provide the strongest evidence regarding probe specificity. However, such findings have not conclusively correlated with human phenotyping studies. Furthermore, the extent of contribution from multiple transporters in probe disposition complicates the ability to discern if study findings are the result of a specific transporter and thus provide a recommendation for a preferred probe for a drug transporter. PMID:27385182

  2. School Travel Planning: Mobilizing School and Community Resources to Encourage Active School Transportation

    Buliung, Ron; Faulkner, Guy; Beesley, Theresa; Kennedy, Jacky

    2011-01-01

    Background: Active school transport (AST), school travel using an active mode like walking, may be important to children's overall physical activity. A "school travel plan" (STP) documents a school's transport characteristics and provides an action plan to address school and neighborhood barriers to AST. Methods: We conducted a pilot STP…

  3. Regulation of dopamine transporter activity by carboxypeptidase E

    Zhang Heping

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The dopamine transporter (DAT plays a critical role in terminating the action of dopamine by rapid reuptake into the presynaptic neuron. Previous studies have revealed that the DAT carboxyl terminus (DAT-CT can directly interact with other cellular proteins and regulate DAT function and trafficking. Results Here, we have identified that carboxypeptidase E (CPE, a prohormone processing exopeptidase and sorting receptor for the regulated secretory pathway, interacts with the DAT-CT and affects DAT function. Mammalian cell lines coexpressing CPE and DAT exhibited increased DAT-mediated dopamine uptake activity compared to cells expressing DAT alone. Moreover, coexpression of an interfering DAT-CT minigene inhibited the effects of CPE on DAT. Functional changes caused by CPE could be attributed to enhanced DAT expression and subsequent increase in DAT cell surface localization, due to decreased DAT degradation. In addition, CPE association could reduce the phosphorylation state of DAT on serine residues, potentially leading to reduced internalization, thus stabilizing plasmalemmal DAT localization. Conclusion Taken together, our results reveal a novel role for CPE in the regulation of DAT trafficking and DAT-mediated DA uptake, which may provide a novel target in the treatment of dopamine-governed diseases such as drug addiction and obesity.

  4. Clinical application of transcriptional activators of bile salt transporters

    Baghdasaryan, Anna; Chiba, Peter; Trauner, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Hepatobiliary bile salt (BS) transporters are critical determinants of BS homeostasis controlling intracellular concentrations of BSs and their enterohepatic circulation. Genetic or acquired dysfunction of specific transport systems causes intrahepatic and systemic retention of potentially cytotoxic BSs, which, in high concentrations, may disturb integrity of cell membranes and subcellular organelles resulting in cell death, inflammation and fibrosis. Transcriptional regulation of canalicular...

  5. News on Accounting and Tax Treatment Related to the Activity of Intracommunitarian Goods Transport

    Pravãþ Ionela-Cristina

    2012-01-01

    The economical activity of transport fits within the broad category of services, but in terms of taxation, transport services are treated as an exception, compared to how services are approached in general. Among the categories of transportation services, intracommunitarian transport shows certain particularities. Therefore, we proposed in this work to address from a theoretical point of view a series of news occured in the tax and accounting treatment of specific business operations of intra...

  6. Are characteristics of the school district associated with active transportation to school in Danish adolescents?

    Stock, Christiane; Bloomfield, Kim; Ejstrud, Bo;

    2012-01-01

    models determined the effects of individual (gender, family affluence, enjoyment of school and academic performance) and school district factors (educational level, household savings, land use and size) on active transportation to school (by foot, bicycle or other active means) among 10 380 pupils aged...... 13-15 years nested in 407 school districts. RESULTS: Of all students, 64.4% used active transportation to school daily. Boys, those with perceived higher school performance and those with lower family affluence were more likely to use active transportation to school. After adjustment for all......: Policies aiming at reducing social inequalities at the school district level may enhance active transportation to school. School districts with farming land use face barriers for active transportation to school, requiring special policy attention....

  7. Dynamic Loading of Deformable Porous Media Can Induce Active Solute Transport

    Albro, Michael B.; Chahine, Nadeen O; Li, Roland; Yeager, Keith; Hung, Clark T.; Ateshian, Gerard A.

    2008-01-01

    Active solute transport mediated by molecular motors across porous membranes is a well-recognized mechanism for transport across the cell membrane. In contrast, active transport mediated by mechanical loading of porous media is a non-intuitive mechanism that has only been predicted recently from theory, but not yet observed experimentally. This study uses agarose hydrogel and dextran molecules as a model experimental system to explore this mechanism. Results show that dynamic loading can enha...

  8. Blood-Brain Barrier Active Efflux Transporters: ATP-Binding Cassette Gene Family

    Löscher, Wolfgang; Potschka, Heidrun

    2005-01-01

    Summary: The blood-brain barrier (BBB) contributes to brain homeostasis by protecting the brain from potentially harmful endogenous and exogenous substances. BBB active drug efflux transporters of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) gene family are increasingly recognized as important determinants of drug distribution to, and elimination from, the CNS. The ABC efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (Pgp) has been demonstrated as a key element of the BBB that can actively transport a huge variety of lip...

  9. Physical Activity Associated with Public Transport Use—A Review and Modelling of Potential Benefits

    Mark Greenaway; Adrian Bauman; Nada Curac; Chris Rissel

    2012-01-01

    Active travel, particularly walking and cycling, has been recommended because of the health benefits associated with increased physical activity. Use of public transport generally involves some walking to bus stops or train stations. This paper is a systematic review of how much time is spent in physical activity among adults using public transport. It also explores the potential effect on the population level of physical activity if inactive adults in NSW, Australia, increased their walking ...

  10. A Comparative Case Study on Active Transport to and From School

    Carrie E. Fesperman, MPH, MRP; Kelly R. Evenson, PhD; Daniel A. Rodríguez, PhD; David Salvesen, PhD

    2008-01-01

    Introduction This study investigates active-transport-to-school initiatives through the Active Living by Design Community Action Model framework. The framework outlines five strategies that influence physical activity: preparation, promotion, programs, policies, and physical projects. Methods A comparative case study was conducted to investigate active-transport-to-school initiatives at two North Carolina schools. A group of key stakeholders from each site was interviewed (N = 16), including ...

  11. Mechanism of arsenate inhibition of the glucose active transport system in Neurospora crassa

    The mechanism of arsenate inhibition of the glucose active transport system in wild-type cells of Neurospora crassa has been examined. Arsenate treatment results in approximately 65% inhibition of the glucose active transport system with only a small depression of cellular ATP levels. The transport system is not inhibited in cells treated with sodium arsenate in the presence of sodium azide. The transport inhibition is suppressed when orthophosphate is present during arsenate treatment, but is not reversed by orthophosphate when added after the arsenate treatment. The transport inhibition is completely reversed by treatment of the cells with mercaptoethanol. Gel chromatography of sonicates of intact cells which had been treated with [74As]arsenate reveals three radioactive peaks, one with the elution volume of arsenate, one with the elution volume of arsenite, and in high molecular-weight radioactive fraction. Treatment of the high molecular-weight radioactive fraction with mercaptoethanol results in the production of radioactive arsenite. In view of these findings, it is proposed that arsenate inhibition of the glucose active transport system in Neurospora involves transport of arsenate into the cells, probably via the orthophosphate transport system, reduction of the transported arsenate to arsenite, and interaction of arsenite with some component of the glucose active transport system, presumably via covalent binding with vicinal thiol groups. 15 references, 4 figures, 2 tables

  12. What Moves Them? Active Transport among Inhabitants of Dutch Deprived Districts

    Carla Saris

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Active modes of transport like walking and cycling have been shown to be valuable contributions to daily physical activity. The current study investigates associations between personal and neighbourhood environmental characteristics and active transport among inhabitants of Dutch deprived districts. Method. Questionnaires about health, neighbourhoods, and physical activity behaviour were completed by 742 adults. Data was analysed by means of multivariate linear regression analyses. Results. Being younger, female, and migrant and having a normal weight were associated with more walking for active transport. Being younger, male, and native Dutch and having a normal weight were associated with more cycling for active transport. Neighbourhood characteristics were generally not correlated with active transport. Stratified analyses, based on significant person-environment interactions, showed that migrants and women walked more when cars did not exceed maximum speed in nearby streets and that younger people walked more when speed of traffic in nearby streets was perceived as low. Among migrants, more cycling was associated with the perceived attractiveness of the neighbourhood surroundings. Discussion and Conclusion. Results indicated that among inhabitants of Dutch deprived districts, personal characteristics were associated with active transport, whereas neighbourhood environmental characteristics were generally not associated with active transport. Nevertheless, interaction effects showed differences among subgroups that should be considered in intervention development.

  13. Structure-activity-relationships (SAR) in pyrimidine nucleoside transport

    Several series of pyrimidine nucleosides were evaluated as part of a larger program to develop non-invasive brain imaging agents. The interaction of these antitumor/antiviral nucleosides with an NBMPR-sensitive murine erythroctye nucleoside transporter was evaluated by determining their inhibitory effect (Ki) on zero-trans influx of thymidine. Within each series of compounds, which had F, Cl, Br or I as halogen substituents, an increase in size of the halogen atom or a decrease in electronegativity decreased affinity for the transporter. Partition coefficients (P) of these pyrimidine nucleosides were measured to determine their potential to diffuse across the blood-brain-barrier (BBB). Most of the pyrimidine nucleosides had lower P values (log P i for nucleosides with a particular sugar moiety. Within a nucleoside series with a given sugar component, the binding affinity for the transporter was inversely proportional to lipophilicity. 25 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs

  14. Transport

    Transport is one of the major causes of environmental damage in Austria. Energy consumption, pollutants emissions, noise emissions, use of surfaces, sealing of surfaces, dissection of ecosystems and impact on landscape are the most significant environmental impacts caused by it. An overview of the transport development of passengers and freight in Austria is presented. Especially the energy consumption growth, carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxide emissions by type of transport, and the emissions development (HC, particle and carbon monoxide) of goods and passengers transport are analyzed covering the years 1980 - 1999. The health cost resulting from transport-related air pollution in Austria is given and measures to be taken for an effective control of the transport sector are mentioned. Figs. 8, Table 1. (nevyjel)

  15. Physical Activity Associated with Public Transport Use—A Review and Modelling of Potential Benefits

    Mark Greenaway

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Active travel, particularly walking and cycling, has been recommended because of the health benefits associated with increased physical activity. Use of public transport generally involves some walking to bus stops or train stations. This paper is a systematic review of how much time is spent in physical activity among adults using public transport. It also explores the potential effect on the population level of physical activity if inactive adults in NSW, Australia, increased their walking through increased use of public transport. Of 1,733 articles, 27 met the search criteria, and nine reported on absolute measures of physical activity associated with public transport. A further 18 papers reported on factors associated with physical activity as part of public transport use. A range of 8–33 additional minutes of walking was identified from this systematic search as being attributable to public transport use. Using “bootstrapping” statistical modelling, if 20% of all inactive adults increased their walking by only 16 minutes a day for five days a week, we predict there would be a substantial 6.97% increase in the proportion of the adult population considered “sufficiently active”. More minutes walked per day, or a greater uptake of public transport by inactive adults would likely lead to significantly greater increases in the adult population considered sufficiently active.

  16. The impact of smarter choices of the use of active travel and public transport

    Preston, John; Wong, Alan; Hickford, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of the Local Sustainable Transport Fund (LSTF) and the Better Bus Area Fund (BBAF), with a particular focus on South Hampshire. In particular, it examines the impact on the extent of active travel (walking and cycling) and public transport usage. In so doing, the nudge hypothesis is critically examined. This hypothesis suggests that small changes in choice architecture can lead to large changes in behaviour. In the local transport context, this has meant an emp...

  17. The Green Revolution in Transportation. Resource Recovery. Technology Learning Activities.

    Technology Teacher, 1991

    1991-01-01

    These two learning activities provide context, objectives, list of materials, student activity, and evaluation criteria. The first involves an automotive class in developing a model alternative fueled vehicle, and the second involves the design of a useful recyclable product. (JOW)

  18. A fully resolved active musculo-mechanical model for esophageal transport

    Kou, Wenjun; Griffith, Boyce E; Pandolfino, John E; Kahrilas, Peter J; Patankar, Neelesh A

    2015-01-01

    Esophageal transport is a physiological process that mechanically transports an ingested food bolus from the pharynx to the stomach via the esophagus, a multi-layered muscular tube. This process involves interactions between the bolus, the esophagus, and the neurally coordinated activation of the esophageal muscles. In this work, we use an immersed boundary (IB) approach to simulate peristaltic transport in the esophagus. The bolus is treated as a viscous fluid that is actively transported by the muscular esophagus, which is modeled as an actively contracting, fiber-reinforced tube. A simplified version of our model is verified by comparison to an analytic solution to the tube dilation problem. Three different complex models of the multi-layered esophagus, which differ in their activation patterns and the layouts of the mucosal layers, are then extensively tested. To our knowledge, these simulations are the first of their kind to incorporate the bolus, the multi-layered esophagus tube, and muscle activation i...

  19. A homogeneous assay to assess GABA transporter activity.

    Kopec, Karla K; McKenna, Beth Ann; Pauletti, Daniel

    2005-10-01

    This unit describes a convenient functional uptake assay for GABA transport into cell lines transiently transfected with GABA transporter-1 (GAT-1) and other GAT isoforms. This facile, homogeneous assay allows for the determination of K(m), V(max), and K(i) values. The assay utilizes commercially available microtiter plates that contain scintillant embedded in the bottom of the wells. Whereas a signal is generated as the cell accumulates the labeled neurotransmitter, label in the medium is undetected. While GABA uptake is observed in several cell lines transfected with GAT-1, K(m) values for GABA uptake may vary with the cell line. This indicates that the choice of cell line is an important consideration when conducting uptake assays. PMID:21953387

  20. A systematic review of interventions for promoting active transportation to school

    Evenson Kelly R

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Active transportation to school is an important contributor to the total physical activity of children and adolescents. However, active school travel has declined over time, and interventions are needed to reverse this trend. The purpose of this paper is to review intervention studies related to active school transportation to guide future intervention research. Methods A systematic review was conducted to identify intervention studies of active transportation to school published in the scientific literature through January 2010. Five electronic databases and a manual search were conducted. Detailed information was extracted, including a quantitative assessment comparing the effect sizes, and a qualitative assessment using an established evaluation tool. Results We identified 14 interventions that focused on active transportation to school. These interventions mainly focused on primary school children in the United States, Australia, and the United Kingdom. Almost all the interventions used quasi-experimental designs (10/14, and most of the interventions reported a small effect size on active transportation (6/14. Conclusion More research with higher quality study designs and measures should be conducted to further evaluate interventions and to determine the most successful strategies for increasing active transportation to school.

  1. Alteration of human hepatic drug transporter activity and expression by cigarette smoke condensate.

    Sayyed, Katia; Vee, Marc Le; Abdel-Razzak, Ziad; Jouan, Elodie; Stieger, Bruno; Denizot, Claire; Parmentier, Yannick; Fardel, Olivier

    2016-07-01

    Smoking is well-known to impair pharmacokinetics, through inducing expression of drug metabolizing enzymes. In the present study, we demonstrated that cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) also alters activity and expression of hepatic drug transporters, which are now recognized as major actors of hepatobiliary elimination of drugs. CSC thus directly inhibited activities of sinusoidal transporters such as OATP1B1, OATP1B3, OCT1 and NTCP as well as those of canalicular transporters like P-glycoprotein, MRP2, BCRP and MATE1, in hepatic transporters-overexpressing cells. CSC similarly counteracted constitutive OATP, NTCP and OCT1 activities in human highly-differentiated hepatic HepaRG cells. In parallel, CSC induced expression of BCRP at both mRNA and protein level in HepaRG cells, whereas it concomitantly repressed mRNA expression of various transporters, including OATP1B1, OATP2B1, OAT2, NTCP, OCT1 and BSEP, and enhanced that of MRP4. Such changes in transporter gene expression were found to be highly correlated to those caused by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, a reference activator of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) pathway, and were counteracted, for some of them, by siRNA-mediated AhR silencing. This suggests that CSC alters hepatic drug transporter levels via activation of the AhR cascade. Importantly, drug transporter expression regulations as well as some transporter activity inhibitions occurred for a range of CSC concentrations similar to those required for inducing drug metabolizing enzymes and may therefore be hypothesized to be relevant for smokers. Taken together, these data established human hepatic transporters as targets of cigarette smoke, which could contribute to known alteration of pharmacokinetics and some liver adverse effects caused by smoking. PMID:27450509

  2. Individual public transportation accessibility is positively associated with self-reported active commuting

    Sune eDjurhuus

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Active commuters have lower risk of chronic disease. Understanding which of the, to some extent, modifiable characteristics of public transportation that facilitate its use is thus important in a public health perspective. The aim of the study was to examine the association between individual public transportation accessibility and self-reported active commuting, and whether the associations varied with commute distance, age and gender. Methods: 28,928 commuters in the Capital Region of Denmark reported self-reported time spent either walking or cycling to work or study each day and the distance to work or study. Data were obtained from the Danish National Health Survey collected in February to April 2010. Individual accessibility by public transportation was calculated using a multimodal network in a GIS. Multilevel logistic regression was used to analyze the association between accessibility, expressed as access area, and being an active commuter.Results: Public transport accessibility area based on all stops within walking and cycling distance was positively associated with being an active commuter. Distance to work, age and gender modified the associations. Residing within 10 km commuting distance and in areas of high accessibility was associated with being an active commuter and meeting the recommendations of physical activity. For the respondents above 29 years, Individual public transportation accessibility was positively associated with being an active commuter. Women having high accessibility had significantly higher odds of being an active commuter compared to having a low accessibility. For men the associations were insignificant.Conclusions: This study extends the knowledge about the driving forces of using public transportation for commuting by examining the individual public transportation accessibility. Findings suggest that transportation accessibility supports active commuting and planning of improved public transit

  3. A Comparative Case Study on Active Transport to and From School

    Carrie E. Fesperman, MPH, MRP

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionThis study investigates active-transport-to-school initiatives through the Active Living by Design Community Action Model framework. The framework outlines five strategies that influence physical activity: preparation, promotion, programs, policies, and physical projects.MethodsA comparative case study was conducted to investigate active-transport-to-school initiatives at two North Carolina schools. A group of key stakeholders from each site was interviewed (N = 16, including principals, physical education teachers, public safety officers, city planners, regional transportation planners, city council members, and parent representatives. Content analysis was carried out using NVivo software, and data were evaluated using the framework.ResultsApplications designed around all five strategies positively influenced active-transport-to-school programs. Both schools used similar strategies including promotional tactics, policies, and physical projects; however, only one used all five strategies. The scope and duration of these strategies varied by school and ultimately seemed to influence their success. Enablers and challenges to active-transport-to-school programs were identified, including funding, school location, available infrastructure, community involvement, school support, parental buy-in, and sufficient program promotion.ConclusionThe quality of the strategies, not their mere presence or use, proved important in active-transport-to-school programs. These results suggest that a multidisciplinary approach that develops promotional materials, resources, school support, and environmental changes to sustain factors that influence parental buy-in will prove critical to the success of future walk-to-school initiatives.

  4. Analysis of Thalassiosira pseudonana Silicon Transporters Indicates Distinct Regulatory Levels and Transport Activity through the Cell Cycle▿

    Thamatrakoln, Kimberlee; Hildebrand, Mark

    2006-01-01

    An analysis of the expression and activity of silicon transporters (SITs) was done on synchronously growing cultures of the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana to provide insight into the role these proteins play in cellular silicon metabolism during the cell cycle. The first SIT-specific polyclonal peptide antibody was generated and used in the immunoblot analysis of whole-cell protein lysates to monitor SIT protein levels during synchronized progression through the cell cycle. Peaks in SIT prot...

  5. Dopamine Transporter Genotype Conveys Familial Risk of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder through Striatal Activation

    Durston, Sarah; Fossella, John A.; Mulder, Martijn J.; Casey B. J.; Ziermans, Tim B.; Vessaz, M. Nathalie; Van Engeland, Herman

    2008-01-01

    The study examines the effect of the dopamine transporter (DAT1) genotype in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The results confirm that DAT1 translates the genetic risk of ADHD through striatal activation.

  6. Development and testing of heat transport fluids for use in active solar heating and cooling systems

    Parker, J. C.

    1981-01-01

    Work on heat transport fluids for use with active solar heating and cooling systems is described. Program objectives and how they were accomplished including problems encountered during testing are discussed.

  7. Active transport improves the precision of linear long distance molecular signalling

    Godec, Aljaz; Metzler, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Molecular signalling in living cells occurs at low copy numbers and is thereby inherently limited by the noise imposed by thermal diffusion. The precision at which biochemical receptors can count signalling molecules is intimately related to the noise correlation time. In addition to passive thermal diffusion, messenger RNA and vesicle-engulfed signalling molecules can transiently bind to molecular motors and are actively transported across biological cells. Active transport is most beneficia...

  8. Influence of detergents on the activity of the ABC transporter LmrA

    Infed, Nacera; Hanekop, Nils; Driessen, Arnold J. M.; Smits, Sander H. J.; Schmitt, Lutz

    2011-01-01

    The ABC transporter LmrA from Lactococcus lactis has been intensively studied and a role in multidrug resistance was proposed. Here, we performed a comprehensive detergent screen to analyze the impact of detergents for a successful solubilization, purification and retention of functional properties of this ABC transporter. Our screen revealed the preference of LmrA for zwitterionic detergents. In detergent solution, LmrA purified with FC-16 was highly active with respect to ATPase activity, w...

  9. Webcams, crowdsourcing, and enhanced crosswalks: Developing a novel method to analyze active transportation

    J. Aaron eHipp

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Active transportation opportunities and infrastructure are an important component of a community’s design, livability, and health. Features of the built environment influence active transportation, but objective study of the natural experiment effects of built environment improvements on active transportation is challenging. The purpose of this study was to develop and present a novel method of active transportation research using webcams and crowdsourcing, and to determine if crosswalk enhancement was associated with changes in active transportation rates, including across a variety of weather conditions. Methods: 20,529 publicly available webcam images from two street intersections in Washington, D.C., were used to examine the impact of an improved crosswalk on active transportation. A crowdsource, Amazon Mechanical Turk, annotated image data. Temperature data was collected from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and precipitation data was annotated from images by trained research assistants. Results: Summary analyses demonstrated slight, bi-directional differences in the percent of images with pedestrians and bicyclists captured before and after the enhancement of the crosswalks. Chi-square analyses revealed these changes were not significant. In general, pedestrian presence increased in images captured during moderate temperatures compared to images captured during hot or cold temperatures. Chi-square analyses indicated the crosswalk improvement may have encouraged walking and biking in uncomfortable outdoor conditions (p<0.5. Conclusion: The methods employed provide an objective, cost-effective alternative to traditional means of examining the effects of built environment changes on active transportation. The use of webcams to collect active transportation data has applications for community policymakers, planners, and health professionals. Future research will work to validate this method in a variety of

  10. Contrasts in active transport behaviour across four countries: How do they translate into public health benefits?

    Götschi, T.; Tainio, M; Maizlish, N.; Schwanen, T.; Goodman, A.; Woodcock, J

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Countries and regions vary substantially in transport related physical activity that people gain from walking and cycling and in how this varies by age and gender. This study aims to quantify the population health impacts of differences between four settings. METHOD: The Integrated Transport and Health Model (ITHIM) was used to estimate health impacts from changes to physical activity that would arise if adults in urban areas in England and Wales adopted travel patterns of Switzerl...

  11. Kinetics of Ion Transport in Perovskite Active Layers and Its Implications for Active Layer Stability.

    Bag, Monojit; Renna, Lawrence A; Adhikari, Ramesh Y; Karak, Supravat; Liu, Feng; Lahti, Paul M; Russell, Thomas P; Tuominen, Mark T; Venkataraman, D

    2015-10-14

    Solar cells fabricated using alkyl ammonium metal halides as light absorbers have the right combination of high power conversion efficiency and ease of fabrication to realize inexpensive but efficient thin film solar cells. However, they degrade under prolonged exposure to sunlight. Herein, we show that this degradation is quasi-reversible, and that it can be greatly lessened by simple modifications of the solar cell operating conditions. We studied perovskite devices using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) with methylammonium (MA)-, formamidinium (FA)-, and MA(x)FA(1-x) lead triiodide as active layers. From variable temperature EIS studies, we found that the diffusion coefficient using MA ions was greater than when using FA ions. Structural studies using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) show that for MAPbI3 a structural change and lattice expansion occurs at device operating temperatures. On the basis of EIS and PXRD studies, we postulate that in MAPbI3 the predominant mechanism of accelerated device degradation under sunlight involves thermally activated fast ion transport coupled with a lattice-expanding phase transition, both of which are facilitated by absorption of the infrared component of the solar spectrum. Using these findings, we show that the devices show greatly improved operation lifetimes and stability under white-light emitting diodes, or under a solar simulator with an infrared cutoff filter or with cooling. PMID:26414066

  12. Generation of an activating Zn(2+) switch in the dopamine transporter

    Loland, Claus Juul; Norregaard, Lene; Litman, Thomas;

    2002-01-01

    Binding of Zn(2+) to the endogenous Zn(2+) binding site in the human dopamine transporter leads to potent inhibition of [(3)H]dopamine uptake. Here we show that mutation of an intracellular tyrosine to alanine (Y335A) converts this inhibitory Zn(2+) switch into an activating Zn(2+) switch, allowing...... Zn(2+)-dependent activation of the transporter. The tyrosine is part of a conserved YXX Phi trafficking motif (X is any residue and Phi is a residue with a bulky hydrophobic group), but Y335A did not show alterations in surface targeting or protein kinase C-mediated internalization. Despite wild...... of conformational states in the transport cycle upon mutation of Tyr-335. We propose that this shift is caused by disruption of intramolecular interactions important for stabilizing the transporter in a conformation in which extracellular substrate can bind and initiate transport, and accordingly that Tyr-335...

  13. Activity-Based Costing Application in an Urban Mass Transport Company

    Popesko Boris

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide a basic overview of the application of Activity-Based Costing in an urban mass transport company which operates land public transport via buses and trolleys within the city. The case study was conducted using the Activity-Based Methodology in order to calculate the true cost of individual operations and to measure the profitability of particular transport lines. The case study analysis showed the possible effects of the application of the Activity-Based Costing for an urban mass transport company as well as the limitations of using the ABC methodology in the service industry. With regards to the application of the ABC methodology, the primary limitation of the accuracy of the conclusions is the quality of the non-financial information which had to be gathered throughout the implementation process. A basic limitation of the accurate data acquisition is the nature of the fare system of the transport company which does not allow the identification of the route that is taken by an individual passenger. The study illustrates the technique of ABC in urban mass transport and provides a real company example of information outputs of the ABC system. The users indicated that, the ABC model is very useful for profitability reporting and profit management. Also, the paper shows specific application of the Activity-Based Methodology in conditions of urban mass transport companies with regional specifics.

  14. Borreliacidal activity of Borrelia metal transporter A (BmtA binding small molecules by manganese transport inhibition

    Wagh D

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Dhananjay Wagh,* Venkata Raveendra Pothineni,* Mohammed Inayathullah, Song Liu, Kwang-Min Kim, Jayakumar Rajadas Biomaterials and Advanced Drug Delivery Laboratory, Stanford Cardiovascular Pharmacology Division, Cardiovascular Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work  Abstract: Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, utilizes manganese (Mn for its various metabolic needs. We hypothesized that blocking Mn transporter could be a possible approach to inhibit metabolic activity of this pathogen and eliminate the infection. We used a combination of in silico protein structure prediction together with molecular docking to target the Borrelia metal transporter A (BmtA, a single known Mn transporter in Borrelia and screened libraries of FDA approved compounds that could potentially bind to the predicted BmtA structure with high affinity. Tricyclic antihistamines such as loratadine, desloratadine, and 3-hydroxydesloratadine as well as yohimbine and tadalafil demonstrated a tight binding to the in silico folded BmtA transporter. We, then, tested borreliacidal activity and dose response of the shortlisted compounds from this screen using a series of in vitro assays. Amongst the probed compounds, desloratadine exhibited potent borreliacidal activity in vitro at and above 78 µg/mL (250 µM. Borrelia treated with lethal doses of desloratadine exhibited a significant loss of intracellular Mn specifically and a severe structural damage to the bacterial cell wall. Our results support the possibility of developing a novel, targeted therapy to treat Lyme disease by targeting specific metabolic needs of Borrelia.  Keywords: Lyme disease, BmtA, Borrelia burgdorferi, desloratadine, Bac Titer-Glo assay

  15. Activated human CD4 T cells express transporters for both cysteine and cystine

    Levring, Trine Bøegh; Hansen, Ann Kathrine; Nielsen, Bodil Lisbeth;

    2012-01-01

    Because naïve T cells are unable to import cystine due to the absence of cystine transporters, it has been suggested that T cell activation is dependent on cysteine generated by antigen presenting cells. The aim of this study was to determine at which phases during T cell activation exogenous...... cystine/cysteine is required and how T cells meet this requirement. We found that early activation of T cells is independent of exogenous cystine/cysteine, whereas T cell proliferation is strictly dependent of uptake of exogenous cystine/cysteine. Naïve T cells express no or very low levels of both...... cystine and cysteine transporters. However, we found that these transporters become strongly up-regulated during T cell activation and provide activated T cells with the required amount of cystine/cysteine needed for T cell proliferation. Thus, T cells are equipped with mechanisms that allow T cell...

  16. Memoryless self-reinforcing directionality in endosomal active transport within living cells

    Chen, Kejia; Wang, Bo; Granick, Steve

    2015-06-01

    In contrast to Brownian transport, the active motility of microbes, cells, animals and even humans often follows another random process known as truncated Lévy walk. These stochastic motions are characterized by clustered small steps and intermittent longer jumps that often extend towards the size of the entire system. As there are repeated suggestions, although disagreement, that Lévy walks have functional advantages over Brownian motion in random searching and transport kinetics, their intentional engineering into active materials could be useful. Here, we show experimentally in the classic active matter system of intracellular trafficking that Brownian-like steps self-organize into truncated Lévy walks through an apparent time-independent positive feedback such that directional persistence increases with the distance travelled persistently. A molecular model that allows the maximum output of the active propelling forces to fluctuate slowly fits the experiments quantitatively. Our findings offer design principles for programming efficient transport in active materials.

  17. School-travel by public transit: Rethinking active transportation

    Christine Voss; Meghan Winters; Amanda Frazer; Heather McKay

    2015-01-01

    Background: Walking and cycling to school is a source of physical activity (PA). Little is known about public transit use for travel to school and whether it is a physically active alternative to car use for those who live too far to walk. Purpose: To describe school-trip characteristics, including PA, across travel modes and to assess the association between PA with walk distance. Methods: High school students (13.3 ± 0.7 years, 37% female) from Downtown Vancouver wore accelerometers (...

  18. Contribution of Physical Education and Active Transport to Energy Expenditure in Adolescents

    Slingerland, Menno; Borghouts, Lars

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested that physical education (PE) and active transport can make a meaningful contribution to children's physical activity (PA) levels. However, data on the contribution these activities to total PA is scarce, and PE's contribution to total physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) has to our knowledge never been determined. This is probably explained by the methodological complexity of determining PAEE (Welk, 2002). In this paper, we present the first data of an ongoing stu...

  19. Evidence that insulin causes translocation of glucose transport activity to the plasma membrane from an intracellular storage site.

    K. Suzuki; Kono, T.

    1980-01-01

    The glucose transport activity of fat cells was assayed in a cell-free system. The activity was solubilized and incorporated into egg-lecithin liposomes. The carrier-mediated glucose transport activity was estimated by subtracting the cytochalasin B-insensitive component from the total glucose uptake activity of the modified liposomes. When a crude microsomal preparation from fat cells was fractionated by sucrose density gradient centrifugation, two transport activities (peaks A and B) were s...

  20. Regulation of human hepatic drug transporter activity and expression by diesel exhaust particle extract.

    Marc Le Vee

    Full Text Available Diesel exhaust particles (DEPs are common environmental air pollutants primarily affecting the lung. DEPs or chemicals adsorbed on DEPs also exert extra-pulmonary effects, including alteration of hepatic drug detoxifying enzyme expression. The present study was designed to determine whether organic DEP extract (DEPe may target hepatic drug transporters that contribute in a major way to drug detoxification. Using primary human hepatocytes and transporter-overexpressing cells, DEPe was first shown to strongly inhibit activities of the sinusoidal solute carrier (SLC uptake transporters organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATP 1B1, 1B3 and 2B1 and of the canalicular ATP-binding cassette (ABC efflux pump multidrug resistance-associated protein 2, with IC50 values ranging from approximately 1 to 20 μg/mL and relevant to environmental exposure situations. By contrast, 25 μg/mL DEPe failed to alter activities of the SLC transporter organic cation transporter (OCT 1 and of the ABC efflux pumps P-glycoprotein and bile salt export pump (BSEP, whereas it only moderately inhibited those of sodium taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide and of breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP. Treatment by 25 μg/mL DEPe was next demonstrated to induce expression of BCRP at both mRNA and protein level in cultured human hepatic cells, whereas it concomitantly repressed mRNA expression of various transporters, including OATP1B3, OATP2B1, OCT1 and BSEP. Such changes in transporter expression were found to be highly correlated to those caused by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, a reference activator of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR pathway. This suggests that DEPe, which is enriched in known ligands of AhR like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, alters drug transporter expression via activation of the AhR cascade. Taken together, these data established human hepatic transporters as targets of organic chemicals containing in DEPs, which may contribute

  1. Fosfomycin Enhances the Active Transport of Tobramycin in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    MacLeod, David L.; Velayudhan, Jyoti; Kenney, Thomas F.; Therrien, Joseph H.; Sutherland, Jennifer L.; Barker, Lynn M.; Baker, William R.

    2012-01-01

    Elevated levels of mucins present in bronchiectatic airways predispose patients to bacterial infections and reduce the effectiveness of antibiotic therapies by directly inactivating antibiotics. Consequently, new antibiotics that are not inhibited by mucins are needed to treat chronic respiratory infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. In these studies, we demonstrate that fosfomycin synergistically enhances the activity of tobramycin in the presence of mucin. T...

  2. Active transmembrane drug transport in microgravity: a validation study using an ABC transporter model [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/41n

    Sergi Vaquer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Microgravity has been shown to influence the expression of ABC (ATP-Binding Cassette transporters in bacteria, fungi and mammals, but also to modify the activity of certain cellular components with structural and functional similarities to ABC transporters. Changes in activity of ABC transporters could lead to important metabolic disorders and undesired pharmacological effects during spaceflights. However, no current means exist to study the functionality of these transporters in microgravity. To this end, a Vesicular Transport Assay® (Solvo Biotechnology, Hungary was adapted to evaluate multi-drug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2 trans-membrane estradiol-17-β-glucuronide (E17βG transport activity, when activated by adenosine-tri-phosphate (ATP during parabolic flights. Simple diffusion, ATP-independent transport and benzbromarone inhibition were also evaluated. A high accuracy engineering system was designed to perform, monitor and synchronize all procedures. Samples were analysed using a validated high sensitivity drug detection protocol. Experiments were performed in microgravity during parabolic flights, and compared to 1g on ground results using identical equipment and procedures in all cases. Our results revealed that sufficient equipment accuracy and analytical sensitivity were reached to detect transport activity in both gravitational conditions. Additionally, transport activity levels of on ground samples were within commercial transport standards, proving the validity of the methods and equipment used. MRP2 net transport activity was significantly reduced in microgravity, so was signal detected in simple diffusion samples. Ultra-structural changes induced by gravitational stress upon vesicle membranes or transporters could explain the current results, although alternative explanations are possible. Further research is needed to provide a conclusive answer in this regard. Nevertheless, the present validated technology

  3. Polystyrene nanoparticles activate ion transport in human airway epithelial cells

    McCarthy J

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available J McCarthy1, X Gong2, D Nahirney2, M Duszyk2, MW Radomski11School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Panoz Institute, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland; 2Department of Physiology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, CanadaBackground: Over the last decade, nanotechnology has provided researchers with new nanometer materials, such as nanoparticles, which have the potential to provide new therapies for many lung diseases. In this study, we investigated the acute effects of polystyrene nanoparticles on epithelial ion channel function.Methods: Human submucosal Calu-3 cells that express cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR and baby hamster kidney cells engineered to express the wild-type CFTR gene were used to investigate the actions of negatively charged 20 nm polystyrene nanoparticles on short-circuit current in Calu-3 cells by Ussing chamber and single CFTR Cl- channels alone and in the presence of known CFTR channel activators by using baby hamster kidney cell patches.Results: Polystyrene nanoparticles caused sustained, repeatable, and concentration-dependent increases in short-circuit current. In turn, these short-circuit current responses were found to be biphasic in nature, ie, an initial peak followed by a plateau. EC50 values for peak and plateau short-circuit current responses were 1457 and 315.5 ng/mL, respectively. Short-circuit current was inhibited by diphenylamine-2-carboxylate, a CFTR Cl- channel blocker. Polystyrene nanoparticles activated basolateral K+ channels and affected Cl- and HCO3- secretion. The mechanism of short-circuit current activation by polystyrene nanoparticles was found to be largely dependent on calcium-dependent and cyclic nucleotide-dependent phosphorylation of CFTR Cl- channels. Recordings from isolated inside-out patches using baby hamster kidney cells confirmed the direct activation of CFTR Cl- channels by the nanoparticles.Conclusion: This is the first study to identify

  4. Active transportation to school in Canadian youth: should injury be a concern?

    Gropp, Kathleen; Janssen, Ian; Pickett, William

    2012-01-01

    Active transportation to school provides a means for youth to incorporate physical activity into their daily routines, and this has obvious benefits for child health. Studies of active transportation have rarely focused on the negative health effects in terms of injury. This cross-sectional study is based on the 2009/10 Canadian Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children survey. A sample of children aged 11–15 years (n=20 076) was studied. Multi-level logistic regression was used to examine ass...

  5. Policies Related to Active Transport to and from School: A Multisite Case Study

    Eyler, Amy A.; Brownson, Ross C.; Doescher, Mark P.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Fesperman, Carrie E.; Litt, Jill S.; Pluto, Delores; Steinman, Lesley E.; Terpstra, Jennifer L.; Troped, Philip J.; Schmid, Thomas L.

    2008-01-01

    Active transportation to and from school (ATS) is a viable strategy to help increase physical activity among youth. ATS can be challenging because initiatives require transdisciplinary collaboration, are influenced by the built environment and are affected by numerous policies. The purpose of this study is to identify policies and factors that…

  6. SMART: A simple model for activity removal and transport

    SMART is a computer program designed to predict the radionuclide behaviour in containment following a loss-of-coolant accident, including the time-dependant source term from the break and the subsequent transport, removal and releases to the atmosphere. The SMART code uses containment thermal-hydraulic data generated by a containment thermal-hydraulic code. The node-link structure of SMART is set by the containment thermal-hydraulic code, using a data transfer file. Other relevant information, such as the location and type of holes in containment, cooler characteristics, surface areas, etc., is also directly transferred between the two codes. Transient thermal-hydraulic data transfer between these two codes includes link flow rates, nodal temperatures, nodal pressures, the node mass, the flow through holes etc. The SMART program considers the build-up of radionuclides due to the decay of their precursor(s). Decay chains of two levels can be considered. It also simulates the production of penetrating (organic) iodine and its partitioning from the water pools if the airborne fraction of the penetrating iodine falls below a specified equilibrium level. The philosophy of the radionuclide treatment is based on combining the unit processes to define the behavioral models, and combining the behavioral models to define a radionuclide model. A unit process is the presentation of a specific phenomenon such as sedimentation, washout by liquid drops etc. A behavioral model is a collection of relevant unit processes to define the behaviour of a given physical and chemical form of a chemical species such as gaseous molecular iodine. Other than the user defined behavioral model, the predefined behavioral models available in SMART are: stable gas, noble gas, fog, liquid aerosol, molecular iodine, drop, penetrating iodine and non-mobile form. Even when the user selects a predefined behavioral model, he has a choice to deselect some non-critical unit processes; for example using the

  7. Built Environment and Active Transport to School (BEATS) Study: protocol for a cross-sectional study

    Mandic, Sandra; Williams, John; Moore, Antoni; Hopkins, Debbie; Flaherty, Charlotte; Wilson, Gordon; García Bengoechea, Enrique; Spence, John C

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Active transport to school (ATS) is a convenient way to increase physical activity and undertake an environmentally sustainable travel practice. The Built Environment and Active Transport to School (BEATS) Study examines ATS in adolescents in Dunedin, New Zealand, using ecological models for active transport that account for individual, social, environmental and policy factors. The study objectives are to: (1) understand the reasons behind adolescents and their parents' choice of transport mode to school; (2) examine the interaction between the transport choices, built environment, physical activity and weight status in adolescents; and (3) identify policies that promote or hinder ATS in adolescents. Methods and analysis The study will use a mixed-method approach incorporating both quantitative (surveys, anthropometry, accelerometers, Geographic Information System (GIS) analysis, mapping) and qualitative methods (focus groups, interviews) to gather data from students, parents, teachers and school principals. The core data will include accelerometer-measured physical activity, anthropometry, GIS measures of the built environment and the use of maps indicating route to school (students)/work (parents) and perceived safe/unsafe areas along the route. To provide comprehensive data for understanding how to change the infrastructure to support ATS, the study will also examine complementary variables such as individual, family and social factors, including student and parental perceptions of walking and cycling to school, parental perceptions of different modes of transport to school, perceptions of the neighbourhood environment, route to school (students)/work (parents), perceptions of driving, use of information communication technology, reasons for choosing a particular school and student and parental physical activity habits, screen time and weight status. The study has achieved a 100% school recruitment rate (12 secondary schools). Ethics and

  8. Formation of the Cycle of Business Processes of Management of Marketing Activity of a Transport Enterprise

    Horielov Dmytro O.; Lavrova Yuliia V.

    2014-01-01

    The article is devoted to problems of organisation of the process of management of marketing activity of an enterprise. It specifies the model of services of a transport enterprise and provides levels of services and their structure: basic, real, expanded, expected and prospective. The article offers to differentiate planning and realisation of the transportation service by its levels, each of which would correspond with a separate business process of management. It reveals specific features ...

  9. Phononless thermally activated transport through a disordered array of quantum wires

    Chudnovskiy, A. L.

    2005-01-01

    Phononless plasmon assisted transport through a long disordered array of finite length quantum wires is investigated analytically. Two temperature regimes, the low- and the high-temperature ones, with qualitatively different temperature dependencies of thermally activated resistance are identified. The characteristics of plasmon assisted and phonon assisted transport mechanisms are compared. Generically strong electron-electron interaction in quantum wires results in a qualitative change of t...

  10. Synaptic GABA release prevents GABA transporter type-1 reversal during excessive network activity

    Savtchenko, L.; Megalogeni, M.; Rusakov, D. A.; Walker, M. C.; Pavlov, I.

    2015-01-01

    GABA transporters control extracellular GABA, which regulates the key aspects of neuronal and network behaviour. A prevailing view is that modest neuronal depolarization results in GABA transporter type-1 (GAT-1) reversal causing non-vesicular GABA release into the extracellular space during intense network activity. This has important implications for GABA uptake-targeting therapies. Here we combined a realistic kinetic model of GAT-1 with experimental measurements of tonic GABAA receptor cu...

  11. Mechanism of active transport: Free energy dissipation and free energy transduction

    Tanford, C

    1983-01-01

    The thermodynamic pathway for "chemiosmotic" free energy transduction in active transport is discussed with an ATP-driven Ca2+ pump as an illustrative example. Two innovations are made in the analysis. (i) Free energy dissipated as heat is rigorously excluded from overall free energy bookkeeping by focusing on the dynamic equilibrium state of the chemiosmotic process. (ii) Separate chemical potential terms for free energy donor and transported ions are used to keep track of the thermodynamic ...

  12. Objective and subjective measures of neighborhood environment (NE): relationships with transportation physical activity among older persons

    Nyunt, Ma Shwe Zin; Shuvo, Faysal Kabir; Eng, Jia Yen; Yap, Keng Bee; Scherer, Samuel; Hee, Li Min; Chan, Siew Pang; Ng, Tze Pin

    2015-01-01

    Background This study examined the associations of subjective and objective measures of the neighbourhood environment with the transportation physical activity of community-dwelling older persons in Singapore. Method A modified version of the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS) and Geographical Information System (GIS) measures of the built environment characteristics were related to the frequency of walking for transportation purpose in a study sample of older persons living in...

  13. Built Environment and Physical Activity for Transportation in Adults from Curitiba, Brazil

    Hino, Adriano A. F.; Reis, Rodrigo S.; Olga L Sarmiento; Parra, Diana C; Brownson, Ross C.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the association between features of the built environment and levels of walking and cycling as forms of transportation in the city of Curitiba, Brazil. Data collection was conducted through a telephone survey in 2008. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to identify walking or cycling as forms of transportation. The built environment characteristics were obtained through the Geographic Information System for 1,206 adults. Density indi...

  14. Active transport between home and school assessed with GPS: a cross-sectional study among Dutch elementary school children

    Dessing, D.; Vries, S.I. de; Graham, J.M.A.; Pierik, F.H.

    2014-01-01

    Background : Active transport to school is associated with higher levels of physical activity in children. Promotion of active transport has therefore gained attention as a potential target to increase children’s physical activity levels. Recent studies have recognized that the distance between home

  15. Metal dispersion and transportational activities using food crops as biomonitors.

    Ward, N I; Savage, J M

    1994-05-23

    The multielement (Al, Ca, Cd, Ce, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Si, and Zn) levels of various common vegetables (bean, broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, lettuce, marrow, onion, parsnip, spinach, sprouts, sweet corn, and tomato); fruits (grape and strawberry); herbs (garlic, lemon balm, marjoram, mint, rosemary and tarragon); local pasture species and surface soils collected from a commercial garden centre located within a distance of 30 m of the London Orbital Motorway (M25) is presented. Comparative values are given from a background area, namely a domestic garden located in the North Yorkshire Dales National Park area. Analysis was undertaken by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and inductively coupled plasma-source mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) with quality control assessment using four international biological reference materials; BCR:CRM 62 Olive Leaves, NIST 1575 Pine Needles, NIST 1573 Tomato Leaves, and NIST 1572 Citrus Leaves. Inter-analytical method comparison is given using two methods of ICP-MS; namely conventional pneumatic nebulisation of sample solution, and direct solids analysis by laser ablation; and neutron activation analysis methods (NAA). For the elements listed there is a good precision obtained by ICP-MS and NAA. In particular levels of herbs > vegetables > cereals > fruits. Measured values are in good agreement with reported literature values. The lowest Pb values are for marrow, lettuce, tomato and sweet corn samples (approximately 0.001-0.021 microgram/g). 'Green' leaf material levels were approximately 0.02-0.10 microgram/g (i.e. sprouts and cabbage). Root vegetables contain higher levels, approximately 0.02-0.125 microgram/g (especially carrot), reflecting possible metal uptake from soil. The highest vegetable Pb values are for leek and onion (approximately 0.35 microgram/g). Background values are also provided for nineteen elements (Al, As, B, Ba, Br, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Rb, Se, Sr, V, and Zn

  16. Further activities of safety culture toward nuclear transportation industry

    On September 30, 1999, a criticality accident occurred at the uranium processing facility of the JCO Co. Ltd. (hereinafter referred to as ''JCO'') Tokai plant, located in Tokaimura, Ibaraki Prefecture. This was an unprecedented accident in Japan's history of peaceful use of nuclear power, resulting in three workers exposed to severe radiation, two of whom died, and the evacuation and enforced indoor confinement of local residents. Nuclear power suppliers must take personal responsibility for ensuring safety. In this connection, the electric power industry, heavy electric machinery manufacturers, fuel fabricators, and nuclear power research organizations gathered together to establish the Nuclear Safety Network (NSnet) in December 1999, based on the resolve to share and improve the level of the safety culture across the entire nuclear power industry and to assure that such an accident never occurs again. NSnet serves as a link between nuclear power enterprises, research organizations, and other bodies, based on the principles of equality and reciprocity. A variety of activities are pursued, such as diffusing a safety culture, implementing mutual evaluation among members, and exchanging safety-related information. Aiming to share and improve the safety culture throughout the entire nuclear power industry, NSnet thoroughly implements the principle of safety first, while at the same time making efforts to restore trust in nuclear power

  17. Impact of travel mode shift and trip distance on active and non-active transportation in the São Paulo Metropolitan Area in Brazil

    Thiago Hérick de Sá; Parra, Diana C.; Carlos Augusto Monteiro

    2015-01-01

    Background: Changes in urban mobility play a major role in transforming metropolitan areas into healthier places. This study quantified the impact of changes in travel mode shift and trip distance on active and non-active transportation of working age adult population of São Paulo. Methods and findings: Through different scenarios, we estimated the daily time spent in transportation per inhabitant (divided in active and non-active transportation time) and the proportion of inhabitants accu...

  18. Individual public transportation accessibility is positively associated with self-reported active commuting

    Djurhuus, Sune; Hansen, Henning Sten; Aadahl, Mette;

    2014-01-01

    individual public transportation accessibility and self-reported active commuting, and whether the associations varied with commute distance, age, and gender. METHODS: Twenty-eight thousand nine hundred twenty-eight commuters in The Capital Region of Denmark reported self-reported time spent either walking...... or cycling to work or study each day and the distance to work or study. Data were obtained from the Danish National Health Survey collected in February to April 2010. Individual accessibility by public transportation was calculated using a multi-modal network in a GIS. Multilevel logistic regression...... was used to analyze the association between accessibility, expressed as access area, and being an active commuter. RESULTS: Public transport accessibility area based on all stops within walking and cycling distance was positively associated with being an active commuter. Distance to work, age, and...

  19. Packaging design criteria (onsite) project W-520 immobilized low-activity waste transportation system

    A plan is currently in place to process the high-level radioactive wastes that resulted from uranium and plutonium recovery operations from Spent Nuclear Fuel at the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. Currently, millions of gallons of high-level radioactive waste in the form of liquids, sludges, and saltcake are stored in many large underground tanks onsite. This waste will be processed and separated into high-level and low-activity fractions. Both fractions will then be vitrified (i.e., blended with molten borosilicate glass) in order to encapsulate the toxic radionuclides. The immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) glass will be poured into LAW canisters, allowed to cool and harden to solid form, sealed by welding, and then transported to a double-lined trench in the 200 East Area for permanent disposal. This document presents the packaging design criteria (PDC) for an onsite LAW transportation system, which includes the ILAW canister, ILAW package, and transport vehicle and defines normal and accident conditions. This PDC provides the basis for the ILAW onsite transportation system design and fabrication and establishes the transportation safety criteria that the design will be evaluated against in the Package Specific Safety Document (PSSD). It provides the criteria for the ILAW canister, cask and transport vehicles and defines normal and accident conditions. The LAW transportation system is designed to transport stabilized waste from the vitrification facility to the ILAW disposal facility developed by Project W-520. All ILAW transport will take place within the 200 East Area (all within the Hanford Site)

  20. Monoclonal antibodies to the human insulin receptor that activate glucose transport but not insulin receptor kinase activity

    Forsayeth, J.R.; Caro, J.F.; Sinha, M.K.; Maddux, B.A.; Goldfine, I.D.

    1987-05-01

    Three mouse monoclonal antibodies were produced that reacted with the ..cap alpha.. subunit of the human insulin receptor. All three both immunoprecipitated /sup 125/I-labeled insulin receptors from IM-9 lymphocytes and competitively inhibited /sup 125/I-labeled insulin binding to its receptor. Unlike insulin, the antibodies failed to stimulate receptor autophosphorylation in both intact IM-9 lymphocytes and purified human placental insulin receptors. Moreover, unlike insulin, the antibodies failed to stimulate receptor-mediated phosphorylation of exogenous substrates. However, like insulin, two of the three antibodies stimulated glucose transport in isolated human adipocytes. One antibody, on a molar basis, was as potent as insulin. These studies indicate, therefore, that monoclonal antibodies to the insulin receptor can mimic a major function of insulin without activating receptor kinase activity. They also raise the possibility that certain actions of insulin such as stimulation of glucose transport may not require the activation of receptor kinase activity.

  1. Monoclonal antibodies to the human insulin receptor that activate glucose transport but not insulin receptor kinase activity

    Three mouse monoclonal antibodies were produced that reacted with the α subunit of the human insulin receptor. All three both immunoprecipitated 125I-labeled insulin receptors from IM-9 lymphocytes and competitively inhibited 125I-labeled insulin binding to its receptor. Unlike insulin, the antibodies failed to stimulate receptor autophosphorylation in both intact IM-9 lymphocytes and purified human placental insulin receptors. Moreover, unlike insulin, the antibodies failed to stimulate receptor-mediated phosphorylation of exogenous substrates. However, like insulin, two of the three antibodies stimulated glucose transport in isolated human adipocytes. One antibody, on a molar basis, was as potent as insulin. These studies indicate, therefore, that monoclonal antibodies to the insulin receptor can mimic a major function of insulin without activating receptor kinase activity. They also raise the possibility that certain actions of insulin such as stimulation of glucose transport may not require the activation of receptor kinase activity

  2. Active transport improves the precision of linear long distance molecular signalling

    Godec, Aljaž; Metzler, Ralf

    2016-09-01

    Molecular signalling in living cells occurs at low copy numbers and is thereby inherently limited by the noise imposed by thermal diffusion. The precision at which biochemical receptors can count signalling molecules is intimately related to the noise correlation time. In addition to passive thermal diffusion, messenger RNA and vesicle-engulfed signalling molecules can transiently bind to molecular motors and are actively transported across biological cells. Active transport is most beneficial when trafficking occurs over large distances, for instance up to the order of 1 metre in neurons. Here we explain how intermittent active transport allows for faster equilibration upon a change in concentration triggered by biochemical stimuli. Moreover, we show how intermittent active excursions induce qualitative changes in the noise in effectively one-dimensional systems such as dendrites. Thereby they allow for significantly improved signalling precision in the sense of a smaller relative deviation in the concentration read-out by the receptor. On the basis of linear response theory we derive the exact mean field precision limit for counting actively transported molecules. We explain how intermittent active excursions disrupt the recurrence in the molecular motion, thereby facilitating improved signalling accuracy. Our results provide a deeper understanding of how recurrence affects molecular signalling precision in biological cells and novel medical-diagnostic devices.

  3. The transports in the French Plutonium Industry. A high risk activity

    This study throws light on the scale of transport of plutonium in France nuclear industry, an activity involving quantities of high risk materials often unknown to the public. The study is a significantly extended update of the one carried out by WISE-Paris in 1995 for the Plutonium Forum. It was motivated by important developments in the French plutonium industry and the publication of numerous data concerning transport activities since 1995. The 2003 study presents, in particular, all of the flows of plutonium crossing France every year, as well as analysis of the risks associated with this particular transport activity. Putting these data into perspective in terms of a rapidly and permanently changing political and industrial context, and a description of the regulatory framework within which shipments of plutonium take place, serve as a guide and source of reference to help readers better understand the issues. The importance of transport in the plutonium ''chain'', i.e. the stages corresponding to various industrial processes, is often under-estimated, even by the nuclear industry itself. Transport is, in fact, the activity which involves the greatest quantities of plutonium in the entire nuclear chain. Plutonium, produced during the fission reactions in the cores of nuclear reactors, is transported, contained in the irradiated fuel, to the facilities at La Hague where reprocessing separates it from the other radioactive components of the spent fuel. Part of the plutonium, now isolated in powder form, is then shipped to one of the three plants able to produce the fuel known as MOX. These are located at Cadarache and Marcoule, in France, and at Dessel in Belgium. Once in the MOX form, this plutonium has to be re-transported to reactor sites to be used. Once irradiated, the spent MOX will return to the La Hague installations to be stored for an unknown period; the plutonium contained in the spent MOX is not, at present, destined to be re-used. (author)

  4. The transports in the French Plutonium Industry. A high risk activity

    NONE

    2003-02-01

    This study throws light on the scale of transport of plutonium in France nuclear industry, an activity involving quantities of high risk materials often unknown to the public. The study is a significantly extended update of the one carried out by WISE-Paris in 1995 for the Plutonium Forum. It was motivated by important developments in the French plutonium industry and the publication of numerous data concerning transport activities since 1995. The 2003 study presents, in particular, all of the flows of plutonium crossing France every year, as well as analysis of the risks associated with this particular transport activity. Putting these data into perspective in terms of a rapidly and permanently changing political and industrial context, and a description of the regulatory framework within which shipments of plutonium take place, serve as a guide and source of reference to help readers better understand the issues. The importance of transport in the plutonium ''chain'', i.e. the stages corresponding to various industrial processes, is often under-estimated, even by the nuclear industry itself. Transport is, in fact, the activity which involves the greatest quantities of plutonium in the entire nuclear chain. Plutonium, produced during the fission reactions in the cores of nuclear reactors, is transported, contained in the irradiated fuel, to the facilities at La Hague where reprocessing separates it from the other radioactive components of the spent fuel. Part of the plutonium, now isolated in powder form, is then shipped to one of the three plants able to produce the fuel known as MOX. These are located at Cadarache and Marcoule, in France, and at Dessel in Belgium. Once in the MOX form, this plutonium has to be re-transported to reactor sites to be used. Once irradiated, the spent MOX will return to the La Hague installations to be stored for an unknown period; the plutonium contained in the spent MOX is not, at present, destined to be re

  5. Benomyl inhibits phosphorus transport but not fungal alkaline phosphatase activity in a Glomus–cucumber symbiosis

    Larsen, John; Thingstrup, Ida; Jakobsen, Iver;

    1996-01-01

    Short-term effects of benomyl on the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus caledonium (Nicol. & Gerd.) Trappe and Gerdeman associated with Cucumis sativus L. were studied by measuring effects on fungal P transport and on fungal alkaline phosphatase activity. Mycorrhizal plants were grown in three...... when benomyl was applied to the HC at 10 µg g-1 soil, whereas the uptake of 32P from RHC I roots + hyphae) was reduced only at the highest dose of application to the RHC (100 µ g g-1 soil). In contrast to the marked reduction of benomyl on fungal P transport, the activity of fungal alkaline phosphatase...

  6. The Association between Access to Public Transportation and Self-Reported Active Commuting

    Djurhuus, Sune; Hansen, Henning S; Aadahl, Mette;

    2014-01-01

    self-reported active commuting. Self-reported time spent either walking or cycling commuting each day and the distance to workplace were obtained for adults aged 16 to 65 in the Danish National Health Survey 2010 (n = 28,928). Access to public transportation measures were computed by combining GIS......-based road network distances from home address to public transit stops an integrating their service level. Multilevel logistic regression was used to examine the association between access to public transportation measures and active commuting. Distance to bus stop, density of bus stops, and number of...

  7. Activation product transport in the helium cooling circuit of the SEAFP Plant Model 1

    This paper presents results using the steady-state activation transport and deposition code TRAP. Activation of the helium coolant and pipe wall deposits are calculated at important locations of the primary circuit loop of the SEAFP Plant Model 1. The dominant sources of active material in the coolant comprise a nuclear sputtering mechanism and direct generation in the coolant due to the neutron-coolant interaction. Coolant activity behavior is shown to be dictated by the volatile nuclides whereas surface activity behavior is dictated by the non-volatiles. Resulting hazards are estimated to be extremely small

  8. A fully resolved active musculo-mechanical model for esophageal transport

    Kou, Wenjun; Bhalla, Amneet Pal Singh; Griffith, Boyce E.; Pandolfino, John E.; Kahrilas, Peter J.; Patankar, Neelesh A.

    2015-10-01

    Esophageal transport is a physiological process that mechanically transports an ingested food bolus from the pharynx to the stomach via the esophagus, a multi-layered muscular tube. This process involves interactions between the bolus, the esophagus, and the neurally coordinated activation of the esophageal muscles. In this work, we use an immersed boundary (IB) approach to simulate peristaltic transport in the esophagus. The bolus is treated as a viscous fluid that is actively transported by the muscular esophagus, and the esophagus is modeled as an actively contracting, fiber-reinforced tube. Before considering the full model of the esophagus, however, we first consider a standard benchmark problem of flow past a cylinder. Next a simplified version of our model is verified by comparison to an analytic solution to the tube dilation problem. Finally, three different complex models of the multi-layered esophagus, which differ in their activation patterns and the layouts of the mucosal layers, are extensively tested. To our knowledge, these simulations are the first of their kind to incorporate the bolus, the multi-layered esophagus tube, and muscle activation into an integrated model. Consistent with experimental observations, our simulations capture the pressure peak generated by the muscle activation pulse that travels along the bolus tail. These fully resolved simulations provide new insights into roles of the mucosal layers during bolus transport. In addition, the information on pressure and the kinematics of the esophageal wall resulting from the coordination of muscle activation is provided, which may help relate clinical data from manometry and ultrasound images to the underlying esophageal motor function.

  9. Uterine activity, sperm transport, and the role of boar stimuli around insemination in sows.

    Langendijk, P; Soede, N M; Kemp, B

    2005-01-15

    This paper describes changes in spontaneous myometrial activity around estrus, factors that affect myometrial activity, and the possible role of uterine contractions in the process of (artificial) insemination, sperm transport and fertilization. Myometrial activity in the sow increases during estrus. The activity is myogenic in origin, but several factors have been shown to affect myometrial activity. Natural mating stimulates uterine contractions through several mechanisms. The presence of a boar, rather than the act of mating, induces central oxytocin release in the sow and thus increases uterine activity. Estrogens in the ejaculate of a boar can trigger prostaglandin release by the endometrium and thus increase uterine activity. Tactile stimulation of the genital tract (cervix) or tactile stimulation of the back and flanks of the sow during artificial insemination does not cause a release of oxytocin. There is hardly any evidence for the effects of these latter stimuli on uterine activity, and if they are present at all, the effects are very small. Evidence for the effects of synthetic boar odor on oxytocin release and/or uterine activity is inconsistent. The mere presence of a boar during insemination, in contrast, clearly stimulates uterine activity through the release of oxytocin. Hormonal stimulation (intrauterine) of uterine activity with estrogens, prostaglandins, or oxytocins before, during or after insemination generally improves fertilization rate, especially in situations with reduced fertility. Therefore, uterine contractions are believed to play an important role in the transport of sperm cells to the oviducts after insemination. Whether uterine contractions are absolutely necessary for sperm transport through the uterine horns, however, is not clear. Intensive stimulation of uterine contractions using hormones can also reduce the fertilization rate, probably by increasing the reflux of sperm cells during insemination. In this respect, the presence

  10. Utility of passive photography to objectively audit built environment features of active transport journeys: an observational study

    Oliver, Melody; Doherty, Aiden R.; Kelly, Paul; Badland, Hannah M; Mavoa, Suzanne; Shepherd, Janine; Kerr, Jacqueline; Marshall, Simon; Hamilton, Alexander; Foster, Charlie

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Active transport can contribute to physical activity accumulation and improved health in adults. The built environment is an established associate of active transport behaviours; however, assessment of environmental features encountered during journeys remains challenging. The purpose of this study was to examine the utility of wearable cameras to objectively audit and quantify environmental features along work-related walking and ...

  11. Inhibition of Activity of GABA Transporter GAT1 by δ-Opioid Receptor

    Lu Pu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Analgesia is a well-documented effect of acupuncture. A critical role in pain sensation plays the nervous system, including the GABAergic system and opioid receptor (OR activation. Here we investigated regulation of GABA transporter GAT1 by δOR in rats and in Xenopus oocytes. Synaptosomes of brain from rats chronically exposed to opiates exhibited reduced GABA uptake, indicating that GABA transport might be regulated by opioid receptors. For further investigation we have expressed GAT1 of mouse brain together with mouse δOR and μOR in Xenopus oocytes. The function of GAT1 was analyzed in terms of Na+-dependent [3H]GABA uptake as well as GAT1-mediated currents. Coexpression of δOR led to reduced number of fully functional GAT1 transporters, reduced substrate translocation, and GAT1-mediated current. Activation of δOR further reduced the rate of GABA uptake as well as GAT1-mediated current. Coexpression of μOR, as well as μOR activation, affected neither the number of transporters, nor rate of GABA uptake, nor GAT1-mediated current. Inhibition of GAT1-mediated current by activation of δOR was confirmed in whole-cell patch-clamp experiments on rat brain slices of periaqueductal gray. We conclude that inhibition of GAT1 function will strengthen the inhibitory action of the GABAergic system and hence may contribute to acupuncture-induced analgesia.

  12. Test-Retest Reliability of a Survey to Measure Transport-Related Physical Activity in Adults

    Badland, Hannah; Schofield, Grant

    2006-01-01

    The present research details test-retest reliability of a newly developed, telephone-administered TPA survey for adults. This instrument examines barriers, perceptions, and current travel behaviors to place of work/study and local convenience shops. Demonstrated test-retest reliability of the Active Friendly Environments-Transport-Related Physical…

  13. The Association Between the Physical Environment of Primary Schools and Active School Transport

    Kann, D.H.H. van; Kremers, S.P.J.; Gubbels, J.S.; Bartelink, N.H.M.; Vries, S.I. de; Vries, N.K. de; Jansen, M.W.J.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between the physical environment characteristics of primary schools and active school transport among 3,438 5- to 12-year-old primary school children in the Netherlands. The environmental characteristics were categorized into four theory-based clusters (function,

  14. Transportation impact analysis for the shipment of low specific activity nitric acid. Revisison 1

    This is in support of the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Facility Low Specific Activity (LSA) Nitric Acid Shipment Environmental Assessment. It analyzes potential toxicological and radiological risks associated with transportation of PUREX Facility LSA Nitric Acid from the Hanford Site to Portsmouth VA, Baltimore MD, and Port Elizabeth NJ

  15. Transportation impact analysis for the shipment of low specific activity nitric acid. Revisison 1

    Green, J.R.

    1995-05-16

    This is in support of the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Facility Low Specific Activity (LSA) Nitric Acid Shipment Environmental Assessment. It analyzes potential toxicological and radiological risks associated with transportation of PUREX Facility LSA Nitric Acid from the Hanford Site to Portsmouth VA, Baltimore MD, and Port Elizabeth NJ.

  16. Filling the Gap : Relationship Between the Serotonin-Transporter-Linked Polymorphic Region and Amygdala Activation

    Bastiaansen, Jojanneke A.; Servaas, Michelle N.; Marsman, Jan-Bernard; Ormel, Johan; Nolte, Ilja M.; Riese, Harriette; Aleman, Andre

    2014-01-01

    The alleged association between the serotonin-transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) and amygdala activation forms a cornerstone of the common view that carrying the short allele of this polymorphism is a potential risk factor for affective disorders. The authors of a recent meta-analysis

  17. SYSTEM OF INNOVATIVE ACTIVITY MANAGEMENT AT A MOTOR-TRANSPORT ENTERPRISE

    Shinkarenko, V.; Klepikova, O.

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of the system and cybernetic approach a system of innovative activity management at a motor-transport enterprise where the administrative work is organized as extended and elementary cycles of management has been developed. The extended cycle corresponds to strategic and tactical horizons of management and the elementary cycle corresponds to an operative one. To define the correlation and sequence of realization the administrative functions in each cycle of innovative activity ma...

  18. 49 CFR 173.427 - Transport requirements for low specific activity (LSA) Class 7 (radioactive) materials and...

    2010-10-01

    ... this section must be packaged in accordance with 10 CFR part 71. (e) Tables 5 and 6 are as follows... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transport requirements for low specific activity... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.427 Transport requirements for low...

  19. Suppression of adenosine-activated chloride transport by ethanol in airway epithelia.

    Sammeta V Raju

    Full Text Available Alcohol abuse is associated with increased lung infections. Molecular understanding of the underlying mechanisms is not complete. Airway epithelial ion transport regulates the homeostasis of airway surface liquid, essential for airway mucosal immunity and lung host defense. Here, air-liquid interface cultures of Calu-3 epithelial cells were basolaterally exposed to physiologically relevant concentrations of ethanol (0, 25, 50 and 100 mM for 24 hours and adenosine-stimulated ion transport was measured by Ussing chamber. The ethanol exposure reduced the epithelial short-circuit currents (I(SC in a dose-dependent manner. The ion currents activated by adenosine were chloride conductance mediated by cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR, a cAMP-activated chloride channel. Alloxazine, a specific inhibitor for A(2B adenosine receptor (A(2BAR, largely abolished the adenosine-stimulated chloride transport, suggesting that A(2BAR is a major receptor responsible for regulating the chloride transport of the cells. Ethanol significantly reduced intracellular cAMP production upon adenosine stimulation. Moreover, ethanol-suppression of the chloride secretion was able to be restored by cAMP analogs or by inhibitors to block cAMP degradation. These results imply that ethanol exposure dysregulates CFTR-mediated chloride transport in airways by suppression of adenosine-A(2BAR-cAMP signaling pathway, which might contribute to alcohol-associated lung infections.

  20. Benzotropolone moiety in theaflavins is responsiblefor inhibitingpeptide-transport and activating AMP-activated protein kinase in Caco-2 cells

    Ha-Young Park

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTObjective:In the small intestine, peptide transporter 1 (PEPT1 plays a role in the transport of di- and tri-peptides. Recently, we found that theaflavins (TFs, dimeric catechins, inhibitedthe transport of di-peptides across Caco-2 monolayersby suppressingthe expression of PEPT1 through AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK activation. In this study, we investigated the structural requirement of theaflavinsfor the effect, and the mechanism(sunderling theaflavin-induced AMPK activation.Methods:Theaflavin-3’-O-gallate (TF3’G was used forthis study, since it possessed the most potent inhibition power for peptide-transport among theaflavins. Absorption ability was measured with Caco-2 cell monolayers treated with or without 20 M sample (TF3’G or its related compounds in an Ussing Chamber. The amountof Gly-Sar (a model of PEPT1-transporing peptide transportat fixed time-pointsto 60min wasdeterminedby fluorescent naphthalene-2,3-dicarboxaldehyde-derivatized assay(Ex/Em: 405 nm/460 nm. The apparent permeability coefficient(Papp wasused to evaluate the permeability. Expression of PEPT1 protein in Caco-2 cells treated with or without 20 M TF3’G in the presence or absence of inhibitor (10 μM compound C as AMPK inhibitor or 25 μMSTO-609 as CaMKK inhibitor wasevaluated by Western blot.Results:The Pappvalue of Gly-Sar significantly (P<0.05 decreasedin 20 μM purprogallin-treated Caco-2 cellsas well asin TF3’G-treated cells, together with the reduction of PEPT1 expression, while their monomeric catechins did not show any Pappreduction. In TF3’G-treated Caco-2 cells, the recovery of the reduced PEPT1 expression was found by 10 μM compound C,but not STO-609.Conclusion:The study demonstrated that the benzotropolone moiety in theaflavins was a crucial structural requirement for exerting the inhibition of intestinal peptide-transport,and the suppression of PEPT1 expression by theaflavins would be caused by activating LKB1/AMPK pathway

  1. Effect of insulin-like factors on glucose transport activity in unweighted rat skeletal muscle

    Henriksen, Erik J.; Ritter, Leslie S.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of 3 or 6 days of unweighting on glucose transport activity, as assessed by 2-deoxyglucose uptake, in soleus strips stimulated by maximally effective concentrations of insulin, IGF-I, vanadate, or phospholipase C (PLC) is examined. Progressively increased responses to maximally effective doses of insulin or insulin-like growth factor were observed after 3 and 6 days of unweighting compared with weight matched control strips. Enhanced maximal responses to vanadate (6 days only) and PLC (3 and 6 days) were also observed. The data provide support for the existance of postreceptor binding mechanisms for the increased action of insulin on the glucose transport system in unweighted rat skeletal muscle.

  2. Comparative Localization and Functional Activity of the Main Hepatobiliary Transporters in HepaRG Cells and Primary Human Hepatocytes

    Bachour-El Azzi, Pamela; Sharanek, Ahmad; Burban, Audrey; Li, Ruoya; Guével, Rémy Le; Abdel-Razzak, Ziad; Stieger, Bruno; Guguen-Guillouzo, Christiane; Guillouzo, André

    2015-01-01

    The role of hepatobiliary transporters in drug-induced liver injury remains poorly understood. Various in vivo and in vitro biological approaches are currently used for studying hepatic transporters; however, appropriate localization and functional activity of these transporters are essential for normal biliary flow and drug transport. Human hepatocytes (HHs) are considered as the most suitable in vitro cell model but erratic availability and inter-donor functional variations limit their use....

  3. Active K transport across rabbit distal colon: relation to Na absorption and Cl secretion

    The authors measured isotopic unidirectional fluxes of K to elucidate the mechanisms of active K transport across the distal colon of the rabbit. Separate pathways for active K absorption and active K secretion were detected using various transport inhibitors and stimulators. The rate and direction of net 42K transport depend on the activities of these two pathways. K absorption was reduced by orthovanadate (both solutions) or serosal Ba, consistent with ATPase-dependent uptake of K across the apical membrane and exit via a Ba-sensitive basolateral K conductance. K secretion was inhibited by serosal ouabain or mucosal Ba, indicating that K secretion involves basolateral uptake via the Na-K pump and apical exit via a Ba-sensitive K conductance. Active K secretion appears to be electrogenic, since inhibition by ouabain produced equivalent changes in the net K flux and short-circuit current. Addition of bumetanide to the serosal solution or the removal of either Na or Cl from the serosal solution inhibited K secretion; mucosal solutions amiloride was without effect. These results indicate that this K secretory process is independent of electrogenic Na absorption but is mechanistically similar to 36Cl secretory processes. Both epinephrine and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) stimulate K secretion, but only PGE2 also stimulates Cl secretion. The response to these secretogogues suggest that the mechanisms underlying K and Cl secretion are closely linked but can be regulated independently

  4. Adult active transport in the Netherlands: An analysis of its contribution to physical activity requirements

    Fishman, E; Böcker, L; Helbich, M

    2015-01-01

    Modern, urban lifestyles have engineered physical activity out of everyday life and this presents a major threat to human health. The Netherlands is a world leader in active travel, particularly cycling, but little research has sought to quantify the cumulative amount of physical activity through ev

  5. Criterion distances and correlates of active transportation to school in Belgian older adolescents

    De Bourdeaudhuij Ilse

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since physical activity levels in older adolescents have the potential to be increased by stimulating active transportation to school (ATS, the most important correlates of ATS should be determined before developing interventions, especially in those adolescents for whom the distance to school is feasible for active commuting. The main aims of this study were to determine criterion distances for ATS in Belgian older adolescents, to examine multidimensional correlates of ATS in adolescents living within a feasible distance from school and to investigate the associations of ATS with total physical activity and with other physical activities besides ATS. Methods In total, 1281 older adolescents (17-18 years from 20 general secondary schools in East- and West-Flanders completed a questionnaire on physical activity behaviors, demographic factors and psychosocial and physical environmental correlates of physical activity. Distance to school was objectively measured using Routenet online route planner. Results In total, 58.4% of the participants commuted actively to school. The criterion distance for ATS could be set at eight kilometers for cycling and two kilometers for walking. For those adolescents living within a feasible distance for ATS, gender, smoking status, walkability of the neighborhood and social modeling were associated with transportation mode choice. ATS was positively associated with total physical activity, but not significantly related to min/week of other physical activities. Conclusions For older adolescents living within eight kilometers of their school, interventions taking into account the correlates found to be related to ATS could possibly be effective to enhance ATS and to increase total physical activity levels. In the context of the overall physical activity decline in adolescence, also interventions targeting physical activity behaviors of adolescents living further away from school might be needed, but

  6. Community Vision and Interagency Alignment: A Community Planning Process to Promote Active Transportation.

    DeGregory, Sarah Timmins; Chaudhury, Nupur; Kennedy, Patrick; Noyes, Philip; Maybank, Aletha

    2016-04-01

    In 2010, the Brooklyn Active Transportation Community Planning Initiative launched in 2 New York City neighborhoods. Over a 2-year planning period, residents participated in surveys, school and community forums, neighborhood street assessments, and activation events-activities that highlighted the need for safer streets locally. Consensus among residents and key multisectoral stakeholders, including city agencies and community-based organizations, was garnered in support of a planned expansion of bicycling infrastructure. The process of building on community assets and applying a collective impact approach yielded changes in the built environment, attracted new partners and resources, and helped to restore a sense of power among residents. PMID:26959270

  7. Arsenic-Lipid Complex Formation During the Active Transport of Arsenate in Yeast

    Cerbón, Jorge

    1969-01-01

    In studying formation of an arsenic-lipid complex during the active transport of 74As-arsenate in yeast, it was found that adaptation of yeast to arsenate resulted in cell populations which showed a deficient inflow of arsenate as compared to the nonadapted yeast. Experiments with both types of cells showed a direct correlation between the arsenate taken up and the amount of As-lipid complex formed. 74As-arsenate was bound exclusively to the phosphoinositide fraction of the cellular lipids. When arsenate transport was inhibited by dinitrophenol and sodium azide, the formation of the As-lipid complex was also inhibited. Phosphate did not interfere with the arsenate transport at a non-inhibitory concentration of external arsenate (10−9m). The As-adapted cells but not the unadapted cells were able to take up phosphate when growing in the presence of 10−2m arsenate. PMID:5773018

  8. Arsenic-lipid complex formatinon during the active transport of arsenate in yeast.

    Cerbón, J

    1969-02-01

    In studying formation of an arsenic-lipid complex during the active transport of (74)As-arsenate in yeast, it was found that adaptation of yeast to arsenate resulted in cell populations which showed a deficient inflow of arsenate as compared to the nonadapted yeast. Experiments with both types of cells showed a direct correlation between the arsenate taken up and the amount of As-lipid complex formed. (74)As-arsenate was bound exclusively to the phosphoinositide fraction of the cellular lipids. When arsenate transport was inhibited by dinitrophenol and sodium azide, the formation of the As-lipid complex was also inhibited. Phosphate did not interfere with the arsenate transport at a non-inhibitory concentration of external arsenate (10(-9)m). The As-adapted cells but not the unadapted cells were able to take up phosphate when growing in the presence of 10(-2)m arsenate. PMID:5773018

  9. Estimating Active Transportation Behaviors to Support Health Impact Assessment in the United States.

    Mansfield, Theodore J; Gibson, Jacqueline MacDonald

    2016-01-01

    Health impact assessment (HIA) has been promoted as a means to encourage transportation and city planners to incorporate health considerations into their decision-making. Ideally, HIAs would include quantitative estimates of the population health effects of alternative planning scenarios, such as scenarios with and without infrastructure to support walking and cycling. However, the lack of baseline estimates of time spent walking or biking for transportation (together known as "active transportation"), which are critically related to health, often prevents planners from developing such quantitative estimates. To address this gap, we use data from the 2009 US National Household Travel Survey to develop a statistical model that estimates baseline time spent walking and biking as a function of the type of transportation used to commute to work along with demographic and built environment variables. We validate the model using survey data from the Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill, NC, USA, metropolitan area. We illustrate how the validated model could be used to support transportation-related HIAs by estimating the potential health benefits of built environment modifications that support walking and cycling. Our statistical model estimates that on average, individuals who commute on foot spend an additional 19.8 (95% CI 16.9-23.2) minutes per day walking compared to automobile commuters. Public transit riders walk an additional 5.0 (95% CI 3.5-6.4) minutes per day compared to automobile commuters. Bicycle commuters cycle for an additional 28.0 (95% CI 17.5-38.1) minutes per day compared to automobile commuters. The statistical model was able to predict observed transportation physical activity in the Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill region to within 0.5 MET-hours per day (equivalent to about 9 min of daily walking time) for 83% of observations. Across the Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill region, an estimated 38 (95% CI 15-59) premature deaths potentially could be avoided if the entire

  10. Estimating active transportation behaviors to support health impact assessment in the United States

    Theodore J Mansfield

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Health impact assessment (HIA has been promoted as a means to encourage transportation and city planners to incorporate health considerations into their decision-making. Ideally, HIAs would include quantitative estimates of the population health effects of alternative planning scenarios, such as scenarios with and without infrastructure to support walking and cycling. However, the lack of baseline estimates of time spent walking or biking for transportation (together known as active transportation, which are critically related to health, often prevents planners from developing such quantitative estimates. To address this gap, we use data from the 2009 US National Household Travel Survey to develop a statistical model that estimates baseline time spent walking and biking as a function of the type of transportation used to commute to work along with demographic and built environment variables. We validate the model using survey data from the Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill, NC, metropolitan area. We illustrate how the validated model could be used to support transportation-related HIAs by estimating the potential health benefits of built environment modifications that support walking and cycling. Our statistical model estimates that on average, individuals who commute on foot spend an additional 19.8 (95% CI 16.9–23.2 minutes per day walking compared to automobile commuters. Public transit riders walk an additional 5.0 (95% CI 3.5–6.4 minutes per day compared to automobile commuters. Bicycle commuters cycle for an additional 28.0 (95% CI 17.5–38.1 minutes per day compared to automobile commuters. The statistical model was able to predict observed transportation physical activity in the Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill region to within 0.5 MET-hours per day (equivalent to about 9 minutes of daily walking time for 83% of observations. Across the Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill region, an estimated 38 (95% CI 15–59 premature deaths potentially could be

  11. The contribution of SNAT1 to system A amino acid transporter activity in human placental trophoblast

    Research highlights: → mRNA levels for SNAT1 are higher than other system A subtype mRNAs in primary human cytotrophoblast. → SNAT1 knockdown in cytotrophoblast cells significantly reduces system A activity. → SNAT1 is a key contributor to system A-mediated amino acid transport in human placenta. -- Abstract: System A-mediated amino acid transport across the placenta is important for the supply of neutral amino acids needed for fetal growth. All three system A subtypes (SNAT1, 2, and 4) are expressed in human placental trophoblast suggesting there is an important biological role for each. Placental system A activity increases as pregnancy progresses, coinciding with increased fetal nutrient demands. We have previously shown SNAT4-mediated system A activity is higher in first trimester than at term, suggesting that SNAT1 and/or SNAT2 are responsible for the increased system A activity later in gestation. However, the relative contribution of each subtype to transporter activity in trophoblast at term has yet to be evaluated. The purpose of this study was to identify the predominant subtype of system A in cytotrophoblast cells isolated from term placenta, maintained in culture for 66 h, by: (1) measuring mRNA expression of the three subtypes and determining the Michaelis-Menten constants for uptake of the system A-specific substrate, 14C-MeAIB, (2) investigating the contribution of SNAT1 to total system A activity using siRNA. Results: mRNA expression was highest for the SNAT1 subtype of system A. Kinetic analysis of 14C-MeAIB uptake revealed two distinct transport systems; system 1: Km = 0.38 ± 0.12 mM, Vmax = 27.8 ± 9.0 pmol/mg protein/20 min, which resembles that reported for SNAT1 and SNAT2 in other cell types, and system 2: Km = 45.4 ± 25.0 mM, Vmax = 1190 ± 291 pmol/mg protein/20 min, which potentially represents SNAT4. Successful knockdown of SNAT1 mRNA using target-specific siRNA significantly reduced system A activity (median 75% knockdown, n = 7

  12. Promoting Active Transportation as a Partnership Between Urban Planning and Public Health: The Columbus Healthy Places Program

    Green, Christine Godward; Klein, Elizabeth G.

    2011-01-01

    Active transportation has been considered as one method to address the American obesity epidemic. To address obesity prevention through built-environment change, the local public health department in Columbus, Ohio, established the Columbus Healthy Places (CHP) program to formally promote active transportation in numerous aspects of community design for the city.

  13. Summary of needs assessment for long-term planning of DOE's transportation and packaging activities

    DOE has performed a global scoping of packaging and transportation needs to prepare for changes in its transportation requirements in the future. This needs assessment, initiated in mid-August 1994 and completed in December 1994, provides a global took at the types and quantities of materials DOE will be required to package and transport from 1995 through 2030. Results of the assessment indicate that DOE can expect a rapid increase in the shipment of radioactive and other hazardous materials during the late 1990s and on into the first decades of the 21st century. A significant increase in DOE-related packaging and transportation activities is expected as extensive waste remediation is undertaken at various DOE sites. For example, some 1400 facilities are expected to be transferred to DOE EM for decommissioning, decontamination, or other similar actions. As this occurs, the quantities of hazardous materials destined for long-term storage and/or disposal are expected to grow significantly. DOE must be prepared to accommodate these shipping needs relative to human resources, packaging, systems interfacing, logistics, regulatory compliance, training, and operations. Results of the needs assessment are expected to be used by DOE planners and managers to guide future efforts. Summary results of the Transportation Needs Assessment are outlined, presenting the findings in terms of both projected growth of shipping patterns and resulting identified human resource, software, and hardware needs--and their associated costs--that DOE needs to prepare to satisfy in the future

  14. Modeling preferential water flow and solute transport in unsaturated soil using the active region model

    Sheng, F.; Wang, K.; Zhang, R.; Liu, H.H.

    2009-03-15

    Preferential flow and solute transport are common processes in the unsaturated soil, in which distributions of soil water content and solute concentrations are often characterized as fractal patterns. An active region model (ARM) was recently proposed to describe the preferential flow and transport patterns. In this study, ARM governing equations were derived to model the preferential soil water flow and solute transport processes. To evaluate the ARM equations, dye infiltration experiments were conducted, in which distributions of soil water content and Cl{sup -} concentration were measured. Predicted results using the ARM and the mobile-immobile region model (MIM) were compared with the measured distributions of soil water content and Cl{sup -} concentration. Although both the ARM and the MIM are two-region models, they are fundamental different in terms of treatments of the flow region. The models were evaluated based on the modeling efficiency (ME). The MIM provided relatively poor prediction results of the preferential flow and transport with negative ME values or positive ME values less than 0.4. On the contrary, predicted distributions of soil water content and Cl- concentration using the ARM agreed reasonably well with the experimental data with ME values higher than 0.8. The results indicated that the ARM successfully captured the macroscopic behavior of preferential flow and solute transport in the unsaturated soil.

  15. Adult active transport in the Netherlands: An analysis of its contribution to physical activity requirements

    Elliot Fishman; Lars Böcker; Marco Helbich

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Modern, urban lifestyles have engineered physical activity out of everyday life and this presents a major threat to human health. The Netherlands is a world leader in active travel, particularly cycling, but little research has sought to quantify the cumulative amount of physical activity through everyday walking and cycling. Methods Using data collected as part of the Dutch National Travel Survey (2010 – 2012), this paper determines the degree to which Dutch walking and cycling ...

  16. Regulation of Taurine transporter activity in cultured rat retinal ganglion cells and rat retinal Muller Cells

    Diabetic retinopathy is one of the most common complications of diabetes. The amino acid taurine is believed to play an antioxidant protective role in diabetic retinopathy through the scavenging of the reactive species. It is not well established whether taurine uptake is altered in retina cells during diabetic conditions. Thus, the present study was designed to investigate the changes in taurine transport in cultures of rat retinal Muller cells and rat retinal ganglion cells under conditions associated with diabetes. Taurine was abundantly taken up by retinal Muller cells and rat retinal ganglion cells under normal glycemic condition. Taurine was actively transported to rat Muller cells and rat retinal ganglion cells in a Na and Cl dependant manner. Taurine uptake further significantly elevated in both type of cells after the incubation with high glucose concentration. This effect could be attributed to the increase in osmolarity. Because Nitric Oxide (NO) is a molecule implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetes, we also determined the activity of taurine transporter in cultured rat retinal Muller cells and rat retinal ganglion cells in the presence of the NO donors, SIN-1 and SNAP. Taurine uptake was elevated above control value after 24-h incubation with low concentration of NO donors. We finally investigated the ability of neurotoxic glutamate to change taurine transporter activity in both types of cells. Uptake of taurine was significantly increased in rat retinal ganglion cells when only incubated with high concentration of glutamate. Our data provide evidence that taurine transporter is present in cultured rat retinal ganglion and Muller cells and is regulated by hyperosmolarity. The data are relevant to disease such as diabetes and neuronal degeneration where retinal cell volume may dramatically change. (author)

  17. Impact of travel mode shift and trip distance on active and non-active transportation in the São Paulo Metropolitan Area in Brazil

    Thiago Hérick de Sá

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Transport and urban planning policies to reduce individual motorized trips and the number of long trips might produce important health benefits, both by increasing population levels of active transportation and reducing the non-active and the total time of daily trips.

  18. A novel areneisonitrile Tc complex inhibits the transport activity of MDR P-glycoprotein

    P-glycoprotein (Pgp), the product of the multidrug resistance (MDR1) gene, has been an important cancer target for development of MDR modulators that act to inhibit Pgp efflux transport activity. From a series of novel substituted areneisonitrile analogues of Tc-sestamibi, a known Pgp transport substrate, emerged the hexakis(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenylisonitrile)Tc(I) complex (Tc-TMPI) as a potential modulator of Pgp. Tracer 99mTc-TMPI showed net cellular accumulation in inverse proportion to expression of Pgp and enhancement upon addition of classic MDR modulators. At pharmacological concentrations, the carrier-added 99Tc-TMPI complex showed potent inhibition of Pgp-mediated 99mTc-sestamibi transport (EC50, 1.1 ± 0.2 μM) and displacement of a Pgp-specific photolabel in a concentration-dependent manner. We conclude that 99Tc-TMPI directly inhibited Pgp transport activity and serves as a convenient template for development of nonradioactive Re(I) analogues as novel MDR modulators

  19. A novel areneisonitrile Tc complex inhibits the transport activity of MDR P-glycoprotein

    Rao, Vallabhaneni V.; Herman, Lee W.; Kronauge, James F.; Piwnica-Worms, David

    1998-04-01

    P-glycoprotein (Pgp), the product of the multidrug resistance (MDR1) gene, has been an important cancer target for development of MDR modulators that act to inhibit Pgp efflux transport activity. From a series of novel substituted areneisonitrile analogues of Tc-sestamibi, a known Pgp transport substrate, emerged the hexakis(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenylisonitrile)Tc(I) complex (Tc-TMPI) as a potential modulator of Pgp. Tracer {sup 99m}Tc-TMPI showed net cellular accumulation in inverse proportion to expression of Pgp and enhancement upon addition of classic MDR modulators. At pharmacological concentrations, the carrier-added {sup 99}Tc-TMPI complex showed potent inhibition of Pgp-mediated {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi transport (EC{sub 50}, 1.1 {+-} 0.2 {mu}M) and displacement of a Pgp-specific photolabel in a concentration-dependent manner. We conclude that {sup 99}Tc-TMPI directly inhibited Pgp transport activity and serves as a convenient template for development of nonradioactive Re(I) analogues as novel MDR modulators.

  20. Sediment transport in an active erodible channel bend of Brahmaputra river

    Tapas Karmaker; Y Ramprasad; Subashisa Dutta

    2010-12-01

    Spatial variation of sediment transport in an alluvial sand-bed river bend needs to be understood with its influencing factors such as bank erosion, secondary current formation, land spur and bed-material characteristics. In this study, detailed hydrographic surveys with Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) were conducted at an active erodible river bend to measure suspended load, velocity, bathymetric profile and characteristics of the bed material. Study indicates the presence of multi-thread flow in the channel bend. Local variation of sediment transport is primarily controlled by active bank erosion, land spur and sand bar formation. Vertical distribution of suspended sediment concentration follows a power function with normalized depth. Average bed-material concentration at the reach level is computed from observed sediment profiles, and is compared against various sediment transport functions. Results show that the sediment transport function suggested by Yang gives better predictions for this reach. Transverse bed slopes at critical survey transects were computed from the bathymetric data and evaluated with analytical approaches. Out of three analytical approaches used, Odgaard’s approach estimates the bed slopes fairly close to the observed one. These two functions are suitable in the Brahmaputra river for further morphological studies.

  1. Quantification of ionic transport within thermally-activated batteries using electron probe micro-analysis

    Humplik, Thomas; Stirrup, Emily K.; Grillet, Anne M.; Grant, Richard P.; Allen, Ashley N.; Wesolowski, Daniel E.; Roberts, Christine C.

    2016-07-01

    The transient transport of electrolytes in thermally-activated batteries is studied using electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA), demonstrating the robust capability of EPMA as a useful tool for studying and quantifying mass transport within porous materials, particularly in difficult environments where classical flow measurements are challenging. By tracking the mobility of bromine and potassium ions from the electrolyte stored within the separator into the lithium silicon anode and iron disulfide cathode, we are able to quantify the transport mechanisms and physical properties of the electrodes including permeability and tortuosity. Due to the micron to submicron scale porous structure of the initially dry anode, a fast capillary pressure driven flow is observed into the anode from which we are able to set a lower bound on the permeability of 10-1 mDarcy. The transport into the cathode is diffusion-limited because the cathode originally contained some electrolyte before activation. Using a transient one-dimensional diffusion model, we estimate the tortuosity of the cathode electrode to be 2.8 ± 0.8.

  2. Nanoscale charge transport in cytochrome c3/DNA network: Comparative studies between redox-active molecules

    Yamaguchi, Harumasa; Che, Dock-Chil; Hirano, Yoshiaki; Suzuki, Masayuki; Higuchi, Yoshiki; Matsumoto, Takuya

    2015-09-01

    The redox-active molecule of a cytochrome c3/DNA network exhibits nonlinear current-voltage (I-V) characteristics with a threshold bias voltage at low temperature and zero-bias conductance at room temperature. I-V curves for the cytochrome c3/DNA network are well matched with the Coulomb blockade network model. Comparative studies of the Mn12 cluster, cytochrome c, and cytochrome c3, which have a wide variety of redox potentials, indicate no difference in charge transport, which suggests that the conduction mechanism is not directly related to the redox states. The charge transport mechanism has been discussed in terms of the newly-formed electronic energy states near the Fermi level, induced by the ionic interaction between redox-active molecules with the DNA network.

  3. System Studies on Active Thermal Protection of a Hypersonic Suborbital Passenger Transport Vehicle

    Schwanekamp, Tobias; Meyer, Frank; Reimer, Thomas; Petkov, Ivaylo; Tröltzsch, Anke; Siggel, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Aerodynamic heating is a critical design aspect for the development of reusable hypersonic transport and reentry vehicles. The reliability in terms of thermal resistance is one of the major driving factors with respect to the design margins, the mass balance and finally the total costs of a configuration. Potential designs of active cooling systems for critical regions such as the vehicle nose and leading edges are presented as well as preliminary approaches for their impact on the total mass...

  4. Physical Activity through Sustainable Transport Approaches (PASTA): a study protocol for a multicentre project

    de Nazelle, Audrey; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Panis, Luc Int; Anaya, Esther; Avila-Palencia, Ione; Boschetti, Florinda; Brand, Christian; Cole-Hunter, Tom; Dons, Evi; Eriksson, Ulf; Gaupp-Berghausen, Mailin; Kahlmeier, Sonja; Laeremans, Michelle; Mueller, Natalie; Orjuela, Juan Pablo; Racioppi, Francesca; Raser, Elisabeth; Rojas-Rueda, David; Schweizer, Christian; Standaert, Arnout; Uhlmann, Tina; Wegener, Sandra; Götschi, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Only one-third of the European population meets the minimum recommended levels of physical activity (PA). Physical inactivity is a major risk factor for non-communicable diseases. Walking and cycling for transport (active mobility, AM) are well suited to provide regular PA. The European research project Physical Activity through Sustainable Transport Approaches (PASTA) pursues the following aims: (1) to investigate correlates and interrelations of AM, PA, air pollution and crash risk; (2) to evaluate the effectiveness of selected interventions to promote AM; (3) to improve health impact assessment (HIA) of AM; (4) to foster the exchange between the disciplines of public health and transport planning, and between research and practice. Methods and analysis PASTA pursues a mixed-method and multilevel approach that is consistently applied in seven case study cities. Determinants of AM and the evaluation of measures to increase AM are investigated through a large scale longitudinal survey, with overall 14 000 respondents participating in Antwerp, Barcelona, London, Örebro, Rome, Vienna and Zurich. Contextual factors are systematically gathered in each city. PASTA generates empirical findings to improve HIA for AM, for example, with estimates of crash risks, factors on AM-PA substitution and carbon emissions savings from mode shifts. Findings from PASTA will inform WHO's online Health Economic Assessment Tool on the health benefits from cycling and/or walking. The study's wide scope, the combination of qualitative and quantitative methods and health and transport methods, the innovative survey design, the general and city-specific analyses, and the transdisciplinary composition of the consortium and the wider network of partners promise highly relevant insights for research and practice. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval has been obtained by the local ethics committees in the countries where the work is being conducted, and sent to the European

  5. Active control of internal transport barrier and confinement database in JT-60U reversed shear plasma

    Active control of internal transport barrier (ITB) and confinement properties of plasma with ITB have been studied in reversed shear plasmas. Modifications of the radial electric field (Er) profile by changing the combination of tangential neutral beams can control the ITB strength, where the contribution to Er from the toroidal rotation plays an important role. The ITB confinement database of reversed shear plasmas has been constructed. Stored energy is strongly correlated with poloidal magnetic field at the ITB foot. (author)

  6. Interactions of [3H]amphetamine with rat brain synaptosomes. II. Active transport

    The accumulation of 5 nM d-[3H]amphetamine (d-[3H]AMPH) into rat brain synaptosomes was examined using physiological buffer conditions. The accumulation of d-[3H]AMPH into striatal synaptosomes was saturable, of high affinity, ouabain-sensitive and temperature-dependent, suggesting an active transport phenomenon. Eadee-Hofstee analysis of striatal d-[3H]AMPH transport (AMT) saturation isotherms indicated an apparent Km of 97 nM and a Vmax of 3.0 fmol/mg tissue/min. Lesion of the striatal dopaminergic innervation led to equivalent decreases of [3H] dopamine (DA) transport and AMT, indicating that AMT occurs in DA terminals. Furthermore, AMT was not evident in cerebral cortex, a brain region with a paucity of DA terminals. In competition studies, AMT was stereospecific; d-AMPH (IC50 = 60 nM) was an 8-fold more potent inhibitor of the transport than its I-isomer (IC50 = 466 nM). DA(IC50 = 257 nM), DA uptake blockers and substrates were found to be potent inhibitors of AMT: GBR12909 IC50 = 5 nM; methamphetamine IC50 = 48 nM; methylphenidate IC50 = 53 nM; and cocaine IC50 = 172 nM. In contrast, serotonin was relatively weak in inhibiting AMT (IC50 = 7.9 microM). There was a highly significant (P less than .001; slope = 1.2) linear correlation between the AMT-inhibiting potencies of AMPH analogs and their potencies in stimulating locomotor activity in rodents. AMT may be important in the low dose effects of AMPH such as increased locomotor activity in rodents and stimulant activity in man. Differences between AMT and d-[3H]AMPH sequestration described earlier, as well as their possible relevance to behavioral and neurochemical sequelae of AMPH administration are also discussed

  7. Striatal Presynaptic Dopamine in Schizophrenia, Part I: Meta-Analysis of Dopamine Active Transporter (DAT) Density

    Fusar-Poli, Paolo; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Background: Striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission has been postulated to be fundamental to the emergence of key symptoms of schizophrenia, such as psychotic symptoms, and is targeted by currently available dopaminergic drugs. A specific marker of the integrity of presynaptic dopamine neurons in the striatum, the density of striatal dopamine terminals, can be quantified through molecular neuroimaging of the dopamine active transporter (DAT). However, the currently available results using thi...

  8. Interactions of ( sup 3 H)amphetamine with rat brain synaptosomes. II. Active transport

    Zaczek, R.; Culp, S.; De Souza, E.B. (Addiction Research Center, Baltimore, MD (USA))

    1991-05-01

    The accumulation of 5 nM d-({sup 3}H)amphetamine (d-({sup 3}H)AMPH) into rat brain synaptosomes was examined using physiological buffer conditions. The accumulation of d-({sup 3}H)AMPH into striatal synaptosomes was saturable, of high affinity, ouabain-sensitive and temperature-dependent, suggesting an active transport phenomenon. Eadee-Hofstee analysis of striatal d-({sup 3}H)AMPH transport (AMT) saturation isotherms indicated an apparent Km of 97 nM and a Vmax of 3.0 fmol/mg tissue/min. Lesion of the striatal dopaminergic innervation led to equivalent decreases of ({sup 3}H) dopamine (DA) transport and AMT, indicating that AMT occurs in DA terminals. Furthermore, AMT was not evident in cerebral cortex, a brain region with a paucity of DA terminals. In competition studies, AMT was stereospecific; d-AMPH (IC50 = 60 nM) was an 8-fold more potent inhibitor of the transport than its I-isomer (IC50 = 466 nM). DA(IC50 = 257 nM), DA uptake blockers and substrates were found to be potent inhibitors of AMT: GBR12909 IC50 = 5 nM; methamphetamine IC50 = 48 nM; methylphenidate IC50 = 53 nM; and cocaine IC50 = 172 nM. In contrast, serotonin was relatively weak in inhibiting AMT (IC50 = 7.9 microM). There was a highly significant (P less than .001; slope = 1.2) linear correlation between the AMT-inhibiting potencies of AMPH analogs and their potencies in stimulating locomotor activity in rodents. AMT may be important in the low dose effects of AMPH such as increased locomotor activity in rodents and stimulant activity in man. Differences between AMT and d-({sup 3}H)AMPH sequestration described earlier, as well as their possible relevance to behavioral and neurochemical sequelae of AMPH administration are also discussed.

  9. Torsten Hagerstrands time-geography as the cradle of the activity approach in transport geography

    Ellegård, Kajsa; Svedin, Uno

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article is to put Torsten Hagerstrands contribution to the development of the activity approach in transport geography into the context of his development of time-geography as an integrative ecological world view. This is discussed from a biographical perspective where experiences in his everyday life and scientific investigations are linked into a theoretical whole. The theoretical approach of Hagerstrand can be traced to experiences several years before he presented his time...

  10. Shoe leather epidemiology: active travel and transport infrastructure in the urban landscape

    Mutrie Nanette; Mitchell Richard; Ogilvie David; Petticrew Mark; Platt Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Building new transport infrastructure could help to promote changes in patterns of mobility, physical activity, and other determinants of population health such as economic development. However, local residents may not share planners' goals or assumptions about the benefits of such interventions. A particularly contentious example is the construction of major roads close to deprived residential areas. We report the qualitative findings of the baseline phase of a longitudin...

  11. The multidrug transporter, P-glycoprotein, actively mediates cholesterol redistribution in the cell membrane

    Garrigues, Alexia; Escargueil, Alexandre E.; Orlowski, Stéphane

    2002-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a plasma membrane ATP-binding cassette transporter, responsible for multidrug resistance in tumor cells. P-gp catalyzes the ATP hydrolysis-dependent efflux of numerous amphiphilic compounds of unrelated chemical structures. In the absence of any identified substrate, P-gp exhibits an apparently futile, basal ATPase activity. By using native membrane vesicles containing high amounts of P-gp, we show here that (i) this basal ATPase activity is tightly dependent on the p...

  12. Long-term transportation noise annoyance is associated with subsequent lower levels of physical activity.

    Foraster, Maria; Eze, Ikenna C; Vienneau, Danielle; Brink, Mark; Cajochen, Christian; Caviezel, Seraina; Héritier, Harris; Schaffner, Emmanuel; Schindler, Christian; Wanner, Miriam; Wunderli, Jean-Marc; Röösli, Martin; Probst-Hensch, Nicole

    2016-05-01

    Noise annoyance (NA) might lead to behavioral patterns not captured by noise levels, which could reduce physical activity (PA) either directly or through impaired sleep and constitute a noise pathway towards cardiometabolic diseases. We investigated the association of long-term transportation NA and its main sources (aircraft, road, and railway) at home with PA levels. We assessed 3842 participants (aged 37-81) that attended the three examinations (SAP 1, 2, and 3 in years 1991, 2001 and 2011, respectively) of the population-based Swiss cohort on Air Pollution and Lung and Heart Diseases in Adults (SAPALDIA). Participants reported general 24-h transportation NA (in all examinations) and source-specific NA at night (only SAP 3) on an ICBEN-type 11-point scale. We assessed moderate, vigorous, and total PA from a short-questionnaire (SAP 3). The main outcome was moderate PA (active/inactive: cut-off≥150min/week). We used logistic regression including random effects by area and adjusting for age, sex, socioeconomic status, and lifestyles (main model) and evaluated potential effect modifiers. We analyzed associations with PA at SAP 3 a) cross-sectionally: for source-specific and transportation NA in the last year (SAP 3), and b) longitudinally: for 10-y transportation NA (mean of SAP 1+2), adjusting for prior PA (SAP 2) and changes in NA (SAP 3-2). Reported NA (score≥5) was 16.4%, 7.5%, 3%, and 1.1% for 1-year transportation, road, aircraft, and railway at SAP 3, respectively. NA was greater in the past, reaching 28.5% for 10-y transportation NA (SAP 1+2). The 10-y transportation NA was associated with a 3.2% (95% CI: 6%-0.2%) decrease in moderate PA per 1-NA rating point and was related to road and aircraft NA at night in cross-sectional analyses. The longitudinal association was stronger for women, reported daytime sleepiness or chronic diseases and it was not explained by objectively modeled levels of road traffic noise at SAP 3. In conclusion, long-term NA

  13. Evaluation of Activity Concentration Values and Doses due to the Transport of Low Level Radioactive Material

    Rawl, Richard R [ORNL; Scofield, Patricia A [ORNL; Leggett, Richard Wayne [ORNL; Eckerman, Keith F [ORNL

    2010-04-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) initiated an international Coordinated Research Project (CRP) to evaluate the safety of transport of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). This report presents the United States contribution to that IAEA research program. The focus of this report is on the analysis of the potential doses resulting from the transport of low level radioactive material. Specific areas of research included: (1) an examination of the technical approach used in the derivation of exempt activity concentration values and a comparison of the doses associated with the transport of materials included or not included in the provisions of Paragraph 107(e) of the IAEA Safety Standards, Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, Safety Requirements No. TS-R-1; (2) determination of the doses resulting from different treatment of progeny for exempt values versus the A{sub 1}/A{sub 2} values; and (3) evaluation of the dose justifications for the provisions applicable to exempt materials and low specific activity materials (LSA-I). It was found that the 'previous or intended use' (PIU) provision in Paragraph 107(e) is not risk informed since doses to the most highly exposed persons (e.g., truck drivers) are comparable regardless of intended use of the transported material. The PIU clause can also have important economic implications for co-mined ores and products that are not intended for the fuel cycle but that have uranium extracted as part of their industrial processing. In examination of the footnotes in Table 2 of TS-R-1, which identifies the progeny included in the exempt or A1/A2 values, there is no explanation of how the progeny were selected. It is recommended that the progeny for both the exemption and A{sub 1}/A{sub 2} values should be similar regardless of application, and that the same physical information should be used in deriving the limits. Based on the evaluation of doses due to the transport of low

  14. Momentum Transport in DIII-D Discharges with and Without Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Activity

    REN Qilong; J.M.PARK; J.S.DEGRASSIE; M.S.CHU; L.L.LAO; H.St.JOHN; R.LAHAYE; Y.M.JEON; ZHANG Cheng; ZHOU Deng; LI Guoqiang

    2009-01-01

    Two phases of a DIII-D discharge with and without magnetohydrodynamics(MHD)activity are analysed using ONETWO code.The toroidal momentum flux is extracted from experimental data and compared with the predictions by neoclassical theory,Gyro-Landau fluid transport model (GLF23) and Multi-Mode model(MMM95). It iS found that without MHD activities GLF23 and MMM95 provide a reasonable description while with MHD activity no model alone can fully describe the experimental momentum flux.For the phase with MHD activity a simple model of resonant magnetic drag is tested and it cannot fully explain the plasma slowing down observed in experiment.

  15. Optical imaging of neuronal activity in tissue labeled by retrograde transport of Calcium Green Dextran.

    McPherson, D R; McClellan, A D; O'Donovan, M J

    1997-05-01

    In many neurophysiological studies it is desirable to simultaneously record the activity of a large number of neurons. This is particularly true in the study of vertebrate motor systems that generate rhythmic behaviors, such as the pattern generator for locomotion in vertebrate spinal cord. Optical imaging of neurons labeled with appropriate fluorescent dyes, in which fluorescence is activity-dependent, provides a means to record the activity of many neurons at the same time, while also providing fine spatial resolution of the position and morphology of active neurons. Voltage-sensitive dyes have been explored for this purpose and have the advantage of rapid response to transmembrane voltage changes. However, voltage-sensitive dyes bleach readily, which results in phototoxic damage and limits the time that labeled neurons can be imaged. In addition, the signal-to-noise ratio is typically small, so that averaging of responses is usually required. As an alternative to voltage-sensitive dyes, calcium-sensitive dyes can exhibit large changes in fluorescence. Most neurons contain voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channels, and numerous reports indicate that neuronal activity is accompanied by increased intracellular Ca2+ concentration. In this protocol we describe a method to use retrograde transport of the dextran conjugate of a calcium-sensitive dye (Calcium Green Dextran) to label selectively populations of brain and spinal interneurons in a primitive vertebrate (lamprey), for subsequent video-rate imaging of changes in intracellular fluorescence during neuronal activity. Although described with specific reference to lampreys, the technique has also been applied to embryonic chick spinal cord and larval zebrafish preparations and should be easily adaptable to other systems. The most significant novel feature of the protocol is the use of retrograde axonal transport to selectively fill neurons that have known axonal trajectories. Using lampreys, we have obtained activity

  16. Evidence for Active Electrolyte Transport by Two-Dimensional Monolayers of Human Salivary Epithelial Cells.

    Hegyesi, Orsolya; Földes, Anna; Bori, Erzsébet; Németh, Zsolt; Barabás, József; Steward, Martin C; Varga, Gábor

    2015-12-01

    Functional reconstruction of lost tissue by regenerative therapy of salivary glands would be of immense benefit following radiotherapy or in the treatment of Sjogren's syndrome. The purpose of this study was to develop primary cultures of human salivary gland cells as potential regenerative resources and to characterize their acinar/ductal phenotype using electrophysiological measurements of ion transport. Human salivary gland cultures were prepared either from adherent submandibular gland cells (huSMG) or from mixed adherent and nonadherent cells (PTHSG) and were cultivated in Hepato-STIM or minimum essential medium (MEM). Expression of key epithelial marker proteins was determined by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) was monitored following seeding the cells on Transwell membranes. Transepithelial ion transport was estimated by short-circuit current (Isc) measurements in an Ussing chamber. Both huSMG and PTHSG cells showed epithelial characteristics when cultivated in Hepato-STIM, while fibroblast-like elements dominated in MEM. Compared to intact tissue, cultivation of the cells resulted in substantial decreases in AQP5 and NKCC1 expression and moderate increases in claudin-1 and ENaC expression. Both cultures achieved high TER and transepithelial electrolyte movement in Hepato-STIM, but not in MEM. The Isc was substantially reduced by basolateral Cl(-) and bicarbonate withdrawal, indicating the involvement of basolateral-to-apical anion transport, and by the blockade of apical ENaC by amiloride, indicating the involvement of apical-to-basolateral Na(+) transport. An almost complete inhibition was observed following simultaneous ENaC block and withdrawal of the two anions. Isc was enhanced by either apical adenosine triphosphate (ATP) or basolateral carbachol application, but not by forskolin, confirming the expected role of Ca(2+)-activated regulatory pathways in electrolyte

  17. Coupling between insulin binding and activation of glucose transport in rat adipocytes

    Previous studies have shown that the kinetics of binding of insulin (I) to its receptor (R) in isolated rat adipocytes at 150C, where insulin degradation was observed to be negligible, could best be described by the model: R+I ↔ RI ↔ R'I. According to this model, bound insulin is distributed between two kinetically distinct states of the occupied receptor, RI and R'I. The quantities of RI and R'I contributing to the observed total binding of insulin to cells can be obtained from the four rate constants describing the model. In order to examine the possible roles of RI and R'I in mediating hormone action, insulin stimulation of carrier-mediated 3-0-methyl-[U-14C] glucose transport at 150C was studied. The results show that insulin activation of the rate of glucose transport was sigmoidal with time, and this was qualitatively similar to the formation of R'I with time. In contrast, formation of RI was described by an exponential approach to a plateau. This finding raises the possibility that R'I is the form of the insulin receptor directly mediating insulin activation of glucose transport

  18. Impairment of GABA transporter GAT-1 terminates cortical recurrent network activity via enhanced phasic inhibition

    David Johannes Hawellek

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the central nervous system, GABA transporters (GATs very efficiently clear synaptically released GABA from the extracellular space, and thus exert a tight control on GABAergic inhibition. In neocortex, GABAergic inhibition is heavily recruited during recurrent phases of spontaneous action potential activity which alternate with neuronally quiet periods. Therefore, such activity should be quite sensitive to minute alterations of GAT function. Here, we explored the effects of a gradual impairment of GAT-1 and GAT-2/3 on spontaneous recurrent network activity – termed network bursts and silent periods – in organotypic slice cultures of rat neocortex. The GAT-1 specific antagonist NO-711 depressed activity already at nanomolar concentrations (IC50 for depression of spontaneous multiunit firing rate of 42 nM, reaching a level of 80% at 500-1000 nM. By contrast, the GAT-2/3 preferring antagonist SNAP-5114 had weaker and less consistent effects. Several lines of evidence pointed towards an enhancement of phasic GABAergic inhibition as the dominant activity-depressing mechanism: network bursts were drastically shortened, phasic GABAergic currents decayed slower, and neuronal excitability during ongoing activity was diminished. In silent periods, NO-711 had little effect on neuronal excitability or membrane resistance, quite in contrast to the effects of muscimol, a GABA mimetic which activates GABAA receptors tonically. Our results suggest that an enhancement of phasic GABAergic inhibition efficiently curtails cortical recurrent activity and may mediate antiepileptic effects of therapeutically relevant concentrations of GAT-1 antagonists.

  19. E17110 promotes reverse cholesterol transport with liver X receptor β agonist activity in vitro

    Ni Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Liver X receptor (LXR plays an important role in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT, and activation of LXR could reduce atherosclerosis. In the present study we used a cell-based screening method to identify new potential LXRβ agonists. A novel benzofuran-2-carboxylate derivative was identified with LXRβ agonist activity: E17110 showed a significant activation effect on LXRβ with an EC50 value of 0.72 μmol/L. E17110 also increased the expression of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1 and G1 (ABCG1 in RAW264.7 macrophages. Moreover, E17110 significantly reduced cellular lipid accumulation and promoted cholesterol efflux in RAW264.7 macrophages. Interestingly, we found that the key amino acids in the LXRβ ligand-binding domain had distinct interactions with E17110 as compared to TO901317. These results suggest that E17110 was identified as a novel compound with LXRβ agonist activity in vitro via screening, and could be developed as a potential anti-atherosclerotic lead compound.

  20. USE OF 137CS ACTIVITY TO INVESTIGATE SEDIMENT MOVEMENT AND TRANSPORT MODELING IN RIVER COASTAL ENVIRONMENT

    Toriman, M. E.; Muhamad Barzani Gasim; Zulkifli Yusop; Ismail Shahid; S. A. Sharifah Mastura; Pauzi Abdullah; Mokhtar Jaafar; Nor Azlina Abdul Aziz; M. K.A. Kamarudin; Othman Jaafar; Othman Karim; Hafizan Juahir; N. R. Jamil

    2012-01-01

    Conflicts between human and environment always triggered to sedimentation and erosion problems within the coastal areas, Therefore understanding sediment transport processes in a river estuary and coastal waters was important when studying sediment transport and mobility within the river coastal environment. This article aims to investigate the sediment transport and mobility of the Kemaman River estuary, Terengganu Malaysia. In this article, it was demonstrated that anthropogenic activities ...

  1. Stimulation of Na+/K+ ATPase activity and Na+ coupled glucose transport by β-catenin

    Research highlights: → The oncogenic transcription factor β-catenin stimulates the Na+/K+-ATPase. → β-Catenin stimulates SGLT1 dependent Na+, glucose cotransport. → The effects are independent of transcription. → β-Catenin sensitive transport may contribute to properties of proliferating cells. -- Abstract: β-Catenin is a multifunctional protein stimulating as oncogenic transcription factor several genes important for cell proliferation. β-Catenin-regulated genes include the serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase SGK1, which is known to stimulate a variety of transport systems. The present study explored the possibility that β-catenin influences membrane transport. To this end, β-catenin was expressed in Xenopus oocytes with or without SGLT1 and electrogenic transport determined by dual electrode voltage clamp. As a result, expression of β-catenin significantly enhanced the ouabain-sensitive current of the endogeneous Na+/K+-ATPase. Inhibition of vesicle trafficking by brefeldin A revealed that the stimulatory effect of β-catenin on the endogenous Na+/K+-ATPase was not due to enhanced stability of the pump protein in the cell membrane. Expression of β-catenin further enhanced glucose-induced current (Ig) in SGLT1-expressing oocytes. In the absence of SGLT1 Ig was negligible irrespective of β-catenin expression. The stimulating effect of β-catenin on both Na+/K+ ATPase and SGLT1 activity was observed even in the presence of actinomycin D, an inhibitor of transcription. The experiments disclose a completely novel function of β-catenin, i.e. the regulation of transport.

  2. Allantoin transport protein, PucI, from Bacillus subtilis: evolutionary relationships, amplified expression, activity and specificity.

    Ma, Pikyee; Patching, Simon G; Ivanova, Ekaterina; Baldwin, Jocelyn M; Sharples, David; Baldwin, Stephen A; Henderson, Peter J F

    2016-05-01

    This work reports the evolutionary relationships, amplified expression, functional characterization and purification of the putative allantoin transport protein, PucI, from Bacillus subtilis. Sequence alignments and phylogenetic analysis confirmed close evolutionary relationships between PucI and membrane proteins of the nucleobase-cation-symport-1 family of secondary active transporters. These include the sodium-coupled hydantoin transport protein, Mhp1, from Microbacterium liquefaciens, and related proteins from bacteria, fungi and plants. Membrane topology predictions for PucI were consistent with 12 putative transmembrane-spanning α-helices with both N- and C-terminal ends at the cytoplasmic side of the membrane. The pucI gene was cloned into the IPTG-inducible plasmid pTTQ18 upstream from an in-frame hexahistidine tag and conditions determined for optimal amplified expression of the PucI(His6) protein in Escherichia coli to a level of about 5 % in inner membranes. Initial rates of inducible PucI-mediated uptake of 14C-allantoin into energized E. coli whole cells conformed to Michaelis-Menten kinetics with an apparent affinity (Kmapp) of 24 ± 3 μM, therefore confirming that PucI is a medium-affinity transporter of allantoin. Dependence of allantoin transport on sodium was not apparent. Competitive uptake experiments showed that PucI recognizes some additional hydantoin compounds, including hydantoin itself, and to a lesser extent a range of nucleobases and nucleosides. PucI(His6) was solubilized from inner membranes using n-dodecyl-β-d-maltoside and purified. The isolated protein contained a substantial proportion of α-helix secondary structure, consistent with the predictions, and a 3D model was therefore constructed on a template of the Mhp1 structure, which aided localization of the potential ligand binding site in PucI. PMID:26967546

  3. Transport and deposition of activation products in a helium cooled fusion power plant

    The transport and deposition of neutron activation products in a helium cooled tokamak fusion power plant are investigated. Stainless steel is used as coolant channel material for a helium/steam system. The important gamma emitting nuclides 56Mn, 54Mn, 57Co, 58Co, 60Co, 51Cr, and 99Mo are considered. The dominant release mechanism identified is direct daughter recoil emission from (n,x) type reactions. Corrosion and evaporation are discussed. The radionuclide inventory released by these mechanisms is predicted to exceed 1 x 104 Ci for a reference reactor design after only several days of operation, and approach 3.5 x 104 Ci in equilibrium. A mass transport model is then used to predict the deposition pattern of this inventory in the reactor cooling system

  4. Active diffusion and microtubule-based transport oppose myosin forces to position organelles in cells

    Lin, Congping; Schuster, Martin; Guimaraes, Sofia Cunha; Ashwin, Peter; Schrader, Michael; Metz, Jeremy; Hacker, Christian; Gurr, Sarah Jane; Steinberg, Gero

    2016-06-01

    Even distribution of peroxisomes (POs) and lipid droplets (LDs) is critical to their role in lipid and reactive oxygen species homeostasis. How even distribution is achieved remains elusive, but diffusive motion and directed motility may play a role. Here we show that in the fungus Ustilago maydis ~95% of POs and LDs undergo diffusive motions. These movements require ATP and involve bidirectional early endosome motility, indicating that microtubule-associated membrane trafficking enhances diffusion of organelles. When early endosome transport is abolished, POs and LDs drift slowly towards the growing cell end. This pole-ward drift is facilitated by anterograde delivery of secretory cargo to the cell tip by myosin-5. Modelling reveals that microtubule-based directed transport and active diffusion support distribution, mobility and mixing of POs. In mammalian COS-7 cells, microtubules and F-actin also counteract each other to distribute POs. This highlights the importance of opposing cytoskeletal forces in organelle positioning in eukaryotes.

  5. Active diffusion and microtubule-based transport oppose myosin forces to position organelles in cells.

    Lin, Congping; Schuster, Martin; Guimaraes, Sofia Cunha; Ashwin, Peter; Schrader, Michael; Metz, Jeremy; Hacker, Christian; Gurr, Sarah Jane; Steinberg, Gero

    2016-01-01

    Even distribution of peroxisomes (POs) and lipid droplets (LDs) is critical to their role in lipid and reactive oxygen species homeostasis. How even distribution is achieved remains elusive, but diffusive motion and directed motility may play a role. Here we show that in the fungus Ustilago maydis ∼95% of POs and LDs undergo diffusive motions. These movements require ATP and involve bidirectional early endosome motility, indicating that microtubule-associated membrane trafficking enhances diffusion of organelles. When early endosome transport is abolished, POs and LDs drift slowly towards the growing cell end. This pole-ward drift is facilitated by anterograde delivery of secretory cargo to the cell tip by myosin-5. Modelling reveals that microtubule-based directed transport and active diffusion support distribution, mobility and mixing of POs. In mammalian COS-7 cells, microtubules and F-actin also counteract each other to distribute POs. This highlights the importance of opposing cytoskeletal forces in organelle positioning in eukaryotes. PMID:27251117

  6. Heating and active control of profiles and transport by IBW in the HT-7 tokamak

    Significant progress on Ion Bernstein Wave (IBW) heating and control of profiles has been obtained in HT-7. Both on-axis and off-axis electron heating with global peaked and local steep electron pressure profiles were realized if the position of the resonant layer was selected to be plasma far from the plasma edge region. Reduction of electron heat transport has been observed from sawtooth heat pulse propagation. Improvement of both particle and energy confinement was slight in the on-axis and considerable in the off-axis heating cases. The improved confinement in off-axis heating mode may be due to the extension of the high performance plasma volume caused by IBW. These studies demonstrate that IBWs are potentially a tool for active control of plasma profiles and transport. (author)

  7. Glucose-6-phosphate transport activity in liver microsomes exposed to stilbene disulfonate derivatives

    Glucose-6-P (G6P) hydrolysis by hepatic microsomes (MS) is mediated by a coupled system composed of the G6P transporter (T1), the enzyme (E) and a phosphate transporter (T2). Zoccoli et al. concluded that T1 is a 54 kDa protein based on a linear correlation of labeling by 3H-4,4'diisothiocyano-1,2-diphenylethane-2,2'-disulfonate (3H-H2DIDS) and inhibition of system activity. The authors cannot support this conclusion: (1) in their hands the reaction of 3H-H2DIDS with MS proteins is extremely nonspecific, and (2) the linear correlation must be between labeling and inhibition of T1 activity, because transport per se is not the absolute rate limiting step in hydrolysis by the system. Point 2 is readily demonstrated by examining the influence of the enzyme inhibitor, D-glucose, on the sensitivity of the system to inhibition by H2DIDS. Studies of H2DIDS inhibition of the system in MS from fasted and diabetic rats revealed that the observed inhibition constant for the system, K/sub i(S)/, is inversely proportional to the fraction of latent G6Pase activity (LF) seen before exposure to H2DIDS, and K/sub i(S)/ x LF - K/sub i(T1)/, the inhibition constant for T1 activity. This relationship is derived from the equation 1/V/sub (S)/ - 1/V/sub (E)/ = 1/V/sub (T1)/, where V denotes the initial rates of S, E and T1, respectively. The latter equation can be used to calculate V/sub (T1)/ for any preparation of intact MS, and it predicts that labeling and inhibition of T1 will be linearly correlated with V/sub (T1)/ but not V/sub (S)/

  8. Glucose Transport into Everted Sacks of Intestine of Mice: A Model for the Study of Active Transport.

    Deyrup-Olsen, Ingrith; Linder, Alison R.

    1979-01-01

    Described is a laboratory procedure which uses the small intestines of mice as models for the transport of glucose and other solutes. Demonstrations are suitable for either introductory or advanced physiology courses. (RE)

  9. ENZYMATIC ACTIVITY OF SOILS EXPOSED TO TRANSPORTATION POLLUTANTS, LOCATED ALONG ROAD NO. 957

    Barbara Filipek-Mazur

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted in order to determine the catalase, dehydrogenase, and arylsulfatase activities of soils exposed to transportation pollutants. The research material consisted of soil samples collected from points located along road no. 957 at a section passing through Zawoja (the Malopolska Region, from places at a distance of 5 and 200 m from the road edge. The samples were collected from a 0–10 cm layer, from areas covered with grasses. No considerable diversification in the enzymatic activity of the soils, depending on their distance from the road edge, was found. The mean activity of catalase and dehydrogenases in the soils located 5 m from the road edge was, respectively, 4 and 7% greater than the activity of the soils located 200 m from the road edge. The mean arylsulfatase activity in the soils located 5 m from the road edge was 3% lower than in the soils located at a distance of 200 m. A positive correlation was found between the catalase and arylsulfatase activities, and the dehydrogenase activity in the soils.

  10. Dioxin mediates downregulation of the reduced folate carrier transport activity via the arylhydrocarbon receptor signalling pathway

    Dioxins such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlordibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) are common environmental contaminants known to regulate several genes via activation of the transcription factor aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) associated with the development of numerous adverse biological effects. However, comparatively little is known about the molecular mechanisms by which dioxins display their toxic effects in vertebrates. The 5' untranslated region of the hepatocellular Reduced folate carrier (Rfc1; Slc19a1) exhibits AhR binding sites termed dioxin responsive elements (DRE) that have as yet only been found in the promoter region of prototypical TCDD target genes. Rfc1 mediated transport of reduced folates and antifolate drugs such as methotrexate (MTX) plays an essential role in physiological folate homeostasis and MTX cancer chemotherapy. In order to determine whether this carrier represents a target gene of dioxins we have investigated the influence of TCDD on functional Rfc1 activity in rat liver. Pre-treatment of rats with TCDD significantly diminished hepatocellular Rfc1 uptake activity in a time- and dose-dependent manner. In further mechanistic studies we demonstrated that this reduction was due to TCDD-dependent activation of the AhR signalling pathway. We additionally showed that binding of the activated receptor to DRE motifs in the Rfc1 promoter resulted in downregulation of Rfc1 gene expression and reduced carrier protein levels. As downregulation of pivotal Rfc1 activity results in functional folate deficiency associated with an elevated risk of cardiovascular diseases or carcinogenesis, our results indicate that deregulation of this essential transport pathway represents a novel regulatory mechanism how dioxins display their toxic effects through the Ah receptor.

  11. Some effects of MHD activity on impurity transport in the PBX tokamak

    The effects of MHD activity on intrinsic impurity transport are studied in ohmic discharges of the Princeton Beta Experiment (PBX) by measuring of the Z/sub eff/ profile from visible bremsstrahlung radiation and the spectral line intensities from ultraviolet spectroscopy. A diffusive/convective transport model, including an internal disruption model, is used to simulate the data. The Z/sub eff/ profile with no MHD activity is fitted with a strong inward convection, characterized by a peaking parameter c/sub v/ (= -a2v/2rD) = 11 (3.5, +4.5). At the onset of MHD activity (a large m = 1 n = 1 oscillation followed by sawteeth), this strongly peaked profile is flattened and subsequently reaches a new quasi-equilibrium shape. This profile is characterized by reduced convection [c/sub v/ = 3.6 (-1.1, +1.6), D = 1.4 (-0.7, +5.6) x 104 cm2/s], in addition to the particle redistribution which accompanies the sawtooth internal disruptions. 10 figs

  12. Some effects of MHD activity on impurity transport in the PBX tokamak

    Ida, K.; Fonck, R.J.; Hulse, R.A.; LeBlanc, B.

    1985-10-01

    The effects of MHD activity on intrinsic impurity transport are studied in ohmic discharges of the Princeton Beta Experiment (PBX) by measuring of the Z/sub eff/ profile from visible bremsstrahlung radiation and the spectral line intensities from ultraviolet spectroscopy. A diffusive/convective transport model, including an internal disruption model, is used to simulate the data. The Z/sub eff/ profile with no MHD activity is fitted with a strong inward convection, characterized by a peaking parameter c/sub v/ (= -a/sup 2/v/2rD) = 11 (3.5, +4.5). At the onset of MHD activity (a large m = 1 n = 1 oscillation followed by sawteeth), this strongly peaked profile is flattened and subsequently reaches a new quasi-equilibrium shape. This profile is characterized by reduced convection (c/sub v/ = 3.6 (-1.1, +1.6), D = 1.4 (-0.7, +5.6) x 10/sup 4/ cm/sup 2//s), in addition to the particle redistribution which accompanies the sawtooth internal disruptions. 10 figs.

  13. Magnetic Flux Transport and the Long-Term Evolution of Solar Active Regions

    Ugarte-Urra, Ignacio; Warren, Harry P; Hathaway, David H

    2015-01-01

    With multiple vantage points around the Sun, STEREO and SDO imaging observations provide a unique opportunity to view the solar surface continuously. We use He II 304 A data from these observatories to isolate and track ten active regions and study their long-term evolution. We find that active regions typically follow a standard pattern of emergence over several days followed by a slower decay that is proportional in time to the peak intensity in the region. Since STEREO does not make direct observations of the magnetic field, we employ a flux-luminosity relationship to infer the total unsigned magnetic flux evolution. To investigate this magnetic flux decay over several rotations we use a surface flux transport model, the Advective Flux Transport (AFT) model, that simulates convective flows using a time-varying velocity field and find that the model provides realistic predictions when information about the active region's magnetic field strength and distribution at peak flux is available. Finally, we illust...

  14. Magnetic Flux Transport and the Long-term Evolution of Solar Active Regions

    Ugarte-Urra, Ignacio; Upton, Lisa; Warren, Harry P.; Hathaway, David H.

    2015-12-01

    With multiple vantage points around the Sun, Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) and Solar Dynamics Observatory imaging observations provide a unique opportunity to view the solar surface continuously. We use He ii 304 Å data from these observatories to isolate and track ten active regions and study their long-term evolution. We find that active regions typically follow a standard pattern of emergence over several days followed by a slower decay that is proportional in time to the peak intensity in the region. Since STEREO does not make direct observations of the magnetic field, we employ a flux-luminosity relationship to infer the total unsigned magnetic flux evolution. To investigate this magnetic flux decay over several rotations we use a surface flux transport model, the Advective Flux Transport model, that simulates convective flows using a time-varying velocity field and find that the model provides realistic predictions when information about the active region's magnetic field strength and distribution at peak flux is available. Finally, we illustrate how 304 Å images can be used as a proxy for magnetic flux measurements when magnetic field data is not accessible.

  15. Diffusive transport parameters of deuterium through China reduced activation ferritic-martensitic steels

    Wang, Bo; Liu, Lingbo; Xiang, Xin; Rao, Yongchu; Ye, Xiaoqiu; Chen, Chang An

    2016-03-01

    Reduced Activation Ferritic/Martensitic (RAFM) steels have been considered as the most promising candidate structure materials for a fusion reactor. In the recent decades, two new types of RAFM steels, called China Low Activation Martensitic (CLAM) steel and China Low-activation Ferritic (CLF-1) steel, have been developed. The gas evolution permeation technique has been used to investigate diffusive transport parameters of deuterium through CLAM and CLF-1 over the temperature range 623 ∼ 873 K at deuterium pressure of 105 Pa. The resultant transport parameters are: Φ (mol. m-1 s-1 Pa-1/2) = 5.40 × 10-8 exp (-46.8 (kJ. mol-1)/RT), D(m2 s-1) = 3.81 × 10-7 exp(-24.0(kJ. mol-1)/RT) and S (mol. m-3 Pa-1/2) = 1.42 × 10-1 exp(-22.8(kJ. mol-1)/RT) for CLAM; while Φ(mol m-1 s-1 Pa-1/2) = 1.76 × 10-8 exp(-43.9(kJ. mol-1)/RT), D(m2. s-1) = 1.02 × 10-7 exp(-16.9(kJ. mol-1)/RT) and S(mol. m-1 Pa-1/2) = 1.73 × 10-1 exp(-27.0(kJ. mol-1) /RT) for CLF-1. The results show that CLAM is more permeable than CLF-1, thus it is easier for hydrogen isotopes to transport and be removed.

  16. USE OF 137CS ACTIVITY TO INVESTIGATE SEDIMENT MOVEMENT AND TRANSPORT MODELING IN RIVER COASTAL ENVIRONMENT

    M. E. Toriman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Conflicts between human and environment always triggered to sedimentation and erosion problems within the coastal areas, Therefore understanding sediment transport processes in a river estuary and coastal waters was important when studying sediment transport and mobility within the river coastal environment. This article aims to investigate the sediment transport and mobility of the Kemaman River estuary, Terengganu Malaysia. In this article, it was demonstrated that anthropogenic activities within a watershed, such as agriculture and urbanization affected the sediment yield from the watershed. Over four months observation (November 2008-February 2009, the delivery of suspended sediment from the Kemaman River to the Kemaman Estuary had increased by about 25%. Based on the in-situ measurement of 137Cs activity, the measure activity ranged between 5638-22421 cpm for backshore while for foreshore was between 2655-13354 cpm. The mean values for backshore and foreshore were 15153 and 6261 cpm respectively with suspended sediment concentration, recorded from 17 November to 10 February was between 110.5-218.8 mg L-1. Using flow and suspended sediment discharge data provided by the Drainage and Irrigation Department (DID revealed were possible increasing trend in suspended sediment discharge and concentration, particularly during the monsoon season. Temporal analysis indicates that the trend of sediment yield was increased during the monsoon season resulting over sediment supply adjacent to the river mouth and causing difficulty for fisherman to navigate the boats. In a broader context, this study can underscores the need to address the anthropogenic impacts and flood monsoon on sediment yield in the Kemaman-Chendor estuary system.

  17. Active control of internal transport barrier and confinement database in JT-60U reversed shear plasma

    Sakamoto, Yoshiteru; Takizuka, Tomonori; Shirai, Hiroshi; Fujita, Takaaki; Kamada, Yutaka; Ide, Shunsuke; Fukuda, Takeshi; Koide, Yoshihiko [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    2001-07-01

    Active control of internal transport barrier (ITB) and confinement properties of plasma with ITB have been studied in reversed shear plasmas. Modifications of the radial electric field (E{sub r}) profile by changing the combination of tangential neutral beams can control the ITB strength, where the contribution to E{sub r} from the toroidal rotation plays an important role. The ITB confinement database of reversed shear plasmas has been constructed. Stored energy is strongly correlated with poloidal magnetic field at the ITB foot. (author)

  18. School site walkability and active school transport - association, mediation and moderation

    Breum, Lars; Toftager, M.; Schipperijn, J.; Ersbøll, A.K.; Giles-Corti, B.; Troelsen, J.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing active school transport (AST) can improve population health, but its association with the urban form is not fully clear. This study investigated the association of an objective school walkability index with AST and how this association is mediated by the perceived physical and social...... walkability index was significantly associated with AST (Medium vs. Low OR 2.68; High vs. Low OR 2.49). Adding the perceived physical and social environment variables improved the model prediction of AST, with no change in the association with the school walkability index. Furthermore, distance to school...

  19. FhuA Barrel-Cork Hybrids Are Active Transporters and Receptors

    Killmann, Helmut; Braun, Michael; Herrmann, Christina; Braun, Volkmar

    2001-01-01

    The crystal structure of Escherichia coli FhuA reveals a β-barrel domain that is closed by a globular cork domain. It has been assumed that the proton motive force of the cytoplasmic membrane through the interaction of the TonB protein with the TonB box of the cork opens the FhuA channel. Yet, deletion of the cork results in an FhuA derivative, FhuAΔ5–160, that still displays TonB-dependent substrate transport and phage receptor activity. To investigate this unexpected finding further, we con...

  20. Effect of vanadate on glucose transporter (GLUT4) intrinsic activity in skeletal muscle plasma membrane giant vesicles

    Kristiansen, S; Youn, J; Richter, Erik

    1996-01-01

    vanadate (NaVO3) on glucose transporter (GLUT4) intrinsic activity (V(max) = intrinsic activity x [GLUT4 protein]) was studied in muscle plasma membrane giant vesicles. Giant vesicles (average diameter 7.6 microns) were produced by collagenase treatment of rat skeletal muscle. The vesicles were incubated......) 55% and 60%, respectively, compared with control. The plasma membrane GLUT4 protein content was not changed in response to vanadate. It is concluded that vanadate decreased glucose transport per GLUT4 (intrinsic activity). This finding suggests that regulation of glucose transport in skeletal muscle......Maximally effective concentrations of vanadate (a phosphotyrosine phosphatase inhibitor) increase glucose transport in muscle less than maximal insulin stimulation. This might be due to vanadate-induced decreased intrinsic activity of GLUT4 accompanying GLUT4 translocation. Thus, the effect of...

  1. Getting There! Mini-Units and Learning Activities on Transportation Safety for Grades 9 through 12.

    Wolff, Peter; And Others

    One of a series of eleven curriculum manuals which cover the four transportation topics of public transportation, transportation and the environment, transportation safety, and bicycles for elementary, secondary, and adult levels, this manual covers the transportation safety topic for grades 9-12. It contains forty-three learning activities…

  2. Getting There! Mini-Units and Learning Activities on Transportation Safety for Grades 6 through 9.

    Wolff, Peter; And Others

    One of a series of eleven curriculum manuals which cover the four transportation topics of public transportation, transportation and the environment, transportation safety, and bicycles for elementary, secondary, and adult levels, this manual covers the transportation safety topic for grades 6-9. The manual contains forty-seven learning activities…

  3. Health Impacts of Increased Physical Activity from Changes in Transportation Infrastructure: Quantitative Estimates for Three Communities.

    Mansfield, Theodore J; MacDonald Gibson, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Recently, two quantitative tools have emerged for predicting the health impacts of projects that change population physical activity: the Health Economic Assessment Tool (HEAT) and Dynamic Modeling for Health Impact Assessment (DYNAMO-HIA). HEAT has been used to support health impact assessments of transportation infrastructure projects, but DYNAMO-HIA has not been previously employed for this purpose nor have the two tools been compared. To demonstrate the use of DYNAMO-HIA for supporting health impact assessments of transportation infrastructure projects, we employed the model in three communities (urban, suburban, and rural) in North Carolina. We also compared DYNAMO-HIA and HEAT predictions in the urban community. Using DYNAMO-HIA, we estimated benefit-cost ratios of 20.2 (95% C.I.: 8.7-30.6), 0.6 (0.3-0.9), and 4.7 (2.1-7.1) for the urban, suburban, and rural projects, respectively. For a 40-year time period, the HEAT predictions of deaths avoided by the urban infrastructure project were three times as high as DYNAMO-HIA's predictions due to HEAT's inability to account for changing population health characteristics over time. Quantitative health impact assessment coupled with economic valuation is a powerful tool for integrating health considerations into transportation decision-making. However, to avoid overestimating benefits, such quantitative HIAs should use dynamic, rather than static, approaches. PMID:26504832

  4. Discovery of a Biological Mechanism of Active Transport through the Tympanic Membrane to the Middle Ear.

    Kurabi, Arwa; Pak, Kwang K; Bernhardt, Marlen; Baird, Andrew; Ryan, Allen F

    2016-01-01

    Otitis media (OM) is a common pediatric disease for which systemic antibiotics are often prescribed. While local treatment would avoid the systemic treatment side-effects, the tympanic membrane (TM) represents an impenetrable barrier unless surgically breached. We hypothesized that the TM might harbor innate biological mechanisms that could mediate trans-TM transport. We used two M13-bacteriophage display biopanning strategies to search for mediators of trans-TM transport. First, aliquots of linear phage library displaying 10(10th) 12mer peptides were applied on the TM of rats with active bacterial OM. The middle ear (ME) contents were then harvested, amplified and the preparation re-applied for additional rounds. Second, the same naïve library was sequentially screened for phage exhibiting TM binding, internalization and then transit. Results revealed a novel set of peptides that transit across the TM to the ME in a time and temperature dependent manner. The peptides with highest transport capacities shared sequence similarities. Historically, the TM was viewed as an impermeable barrier. However, our studies reveal that it is possible to translocate peptide-linked small particles across the TM. This is the first comprehensive biopanning for the isolation of TM transiting peptidic ligands. The identified mechanism offers a new drug delivery platform into the ME. PMID:26946957

  5. Alteration of natural (37)Ar activity concentration in the subsurface by gas transport and water infiltration.

    Guillon, Sophie; Sun, Yunwei; Purtschert, Roland; Raghoo, Lauren; Pili, Eric; Carrigan, Charles R

    2016-05-01

    High (37)Ar activity concentration in soil gas is proposed as a key evidence for the detection of underground nuclear explosion by the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty. However, such a detection is challenged by the natural background of (37)Ar in the subsurface, mainly due to Ca activation by cosmic rays. A better understanding and improved capability to predict (37)Ar activity concentration in the subsurface and its spatial and temporal variability is thus required. A numerical model integrating (37)Ar production and transport in the subsurface is developed, including variable soil water content and water infiltration at the surface. A parameterized equation for (37)Ar production in the first 15 m below the surface is studied, taking into account the major production reactions and the moderation effect of soil water content. Using sensitivity analysis and uncertainty quantification, a realistic and comprehensive probability distribution of natural (37)Ar activity concentrations in soil gas is proposed, including the effects of water infiltration. Site location and soil composition are identified as the parameters allowing for a most effective reduction of the possible range of (37)Ar activity concentrations. The influence of soil water content on (37)Ar production is shown to be negligible to first order, while (37)Ar activity concentration in soil gas and its temporal variability appear to be strongly influenced by transient water infiltration events. These results will be used as a basis for practical CTBTO concepts of operation during an OSI. PMID:26939033

  6. Electron transport chain inhibitors induce microglia activation through enhancing mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production.

    Ye, Junli; Jiang, Zhongxin; Chen, Xuehong; Liu, Mengyang; Li, Jing; Liu, Na

    2016-01-15

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are believed to be mediators of excessive microglial activation, yet the resources and mechanism are not fully understood. Here we stimulated murine microglial BV-2 cells and primary microglial cells with different inhibitors of electron transport chain (ETC), rotenone, thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTFA), antimycin A, and NaN3 to induce mitochondrial ROS production and we observed the role of mitochondrial ROS in microglial activation. Our results showed that ETC inhibitors resulted in significant changes in cell viability, microglial morphology, cell cycle arrest and mitochondrial ROS production in a dose-dependent manner in both primary cultural microglia and BV-2 cell lines. Moreover, ETC inhibitors, especially rotenone and antimycin A stimulated secretion of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 12 (IL-12) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) by microglia with marked activation of mitogen-activated proteinkinases (MAPKs) and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), which could be blocked by specific inhibitors of MAPK and NF-κB and mitochondrial antioxidants, Mito-TEMPO. Taken together, our results demonstrated that inhibition of mitochondrial respiratory chain in microglia led to production of mitochondrial ROS and therefore may activate MAPK/NF-кB dependent inflammatory cytokines release in microglia, which indicated that mitochondrial-derived ROS were contributed to microglial activation. PMID:26511505

  7. Accelerated development and flight evaluation of active controls concepts for subsonic transport aircraft

    1979-01-01

    The flight test of an active load alleviation/extended span for the L-1011 wide-body transport aircraft, and piloted simulation work leading to use of active stability augmentation with a small tail and aft center of gravity are reported. The extended span showed the expected cruise drag reduction of 3%. The small tail is expected to reduce cruise drag by another 3%, and eventual use of more aft center of gravity with active stability augmentation will provide further fuel savings. The active load alleviation functions included maneuver load control (MLC) and elastic mode suppression (EMS), using symmetric motions of the outboard ailerons to reduce wing bending loads in maneuvers or long-term up- or down-drafts (MLC), and to damp wing bending motions in turbulence (EMS). A gust load alleviation function using the active horizontal tail to provide airplane pitch damping in turbulence was found unnecessary. The piloted simulation tests evaluated criteria for augmentation-on and augmentation-off flying qualities. of a simple pitch control law was verified at neutral static margin. The simulation tasks established the basis for follow-on construction and flight testing of a small tail with active stability augmentation.

  8. Membrane-Associated Transporter Protein (MATP) Regulates Melanosomal pH and Influences Tyrosinase Activity.

    Bin, Bum-Ho; Bhin, Jinhyuk; Yang, Seung Ha; Shin, Misun; Nam, Yeon-Ju; Choi, Dong-Hwa; Shin, Dong Wook; Lee, Ai-Young; Hwang, Daehee; Cho, Eun-Gyung; Lee, Tae Ryong

    2015-01-01

    The SLC45A2 gene encodes a Membrane-Associated Transporter Protein (MATP). Mutations of this gene cause oculocutaneous albinism type 4 (OCA4). However, the molecular mechanism of its action in melanogenesis has not been elucidated. Here, we discuss the role of MATP in melanin production. The SLC45A2 gene is highly enriched in human melanocytes and melanoma cell lines, and its protein, MATP, is located in melanosomes. The knockdown of MATP using siRNAs reduced melanin content and tyrosinase activity without any morphological change in melanosomes or the expression of melanogenesis-related proteins. Interestingly, the knockdown of MATP significantly lowered the melanosomal pH, as verified through DAMP analysis, suggesting that MATP regulates melanosomal pH and therefore affects tyrosinase activity. Finally, we found that the reduction of tyrosinase activity associated with the knockdown of MATP was readily recovered by copper treatment in the in vitro L-DOPA oxidase activity assay of tyrosinase. Considering that copper is an important element for tyrosinase activity and that its binding to tyrosinase depends on melanosomal pH, MATP may play an important role in regulating tyrosinase activity via controlling melanosomal pH. PMID:26057890

  9. Membrane-Associated Transporter Protein (MATP Regulates Melanosomal pH and Influences Tyrosinase Activity.

    Bum-Ho Bin

    Full Text Available The SLC45A2 gene encodes a Membrane-Associated Transporter Protein (MATP. Mutations of this gene cause oculocutaneous albinism type 4 (OCA4. However, the molecular mechanism of its action in melanogenesis has not been elucidated. Here, we discuss the role of MATP in melanin production. The SLC45A2 gene is highly enriched in human melanocytes and melanoma cell lines, and its protein, MATP, is located in melanosomes. The knockdown of MATP using siRNAs reduced melanin content and tyrosinase activity without any morphological change in melanosomes or the expression of melanogenesis-related proteins. Interestingly, the knockdown of MATP significantly lowered the melanosomal pH, as verified through DAMP analysis, suggesting that MATP regulates melanosomal pH and therefore affects tyrosinase activity. Finally, we found that the reduction of tyrosinase activity associated with the knockdown of MATP was readily recovered by copper treatment in the in vitro L-DOPA oxidase activity assay of tyrosinase. Considering that copper is an important element for tyrosinase activity and that its binding to tyrosinase depends on melanosomal pH, MATP may play an important role in regulating tyrosinase activity via controlling melanosomal pH.

  10. Warehousing and support activities for transportation in Central and Eastern Europe – regional disproportions and development perspectives

    Zimny, Artur; Zawieja-Żurowska, Karina

    2014-01-01

    In the article an attempt to present the differences between some regions of Central and Eastern Europe with regard to warehousing and support activities for transportation has been made and furthermore, the perspectives of development in this branch have been depicted. The results of the analysis based on the data provided by Eurostat (NACE code – H, division 52) indicate that warehousing and support activities for transportation are usually best developed in the regions where there are the ...

  11. Antibacterial action of gramicidin S and tyrocidines in relation to active transport, in vitro transcription, and spore outgrowth.

    Danders, W; Marahiel, M A; Krause, M.; Kosui, N; Kato, T.; Izumiya, N; Kleinkauf, H

    1982-01-01

    The cyclopeptide antibiotic gramicidin S or tyrocidine in concentrations of 2 to 4 mumol/mg of membrane protein inhibited the active transport of [3H]alanine and [3H]uridine in membrane vesicles isolated from Bacillus brevis and Bacillus subtilis. We used one analog of gramicidin S and two of tyrocidine A to study the relationship between peptide structure and antibacterial action as seen in inhibiting active transport and in vitro transcription and in delaying spore outgrowth. The data showe...

  12. Activity and travel choice(s) in multimodal public transport systems

    Krygsman, Stephan

    2004-01-01

    Transport planners and policymakers are increasingly considering multimodal public transport and travel demand management (TDM) strategies to stem the unsustainable travel behaviour trends associated with modern-day, car-dominated travel. Multimodal public transport, however, implies that people cha

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF MICROORGANISMS WITH IMPROVED TRANSPORT AND BIOSURFACTANT ACTIVITY FOR ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY

    M.J. McInerney; N. Youssef; T. Fincher; S.K. Maudgalya; M.J. Folmsbee; R. Knapp; D. Nagle

    2004-05-31

    Diverse microorganisms were screened for biosurfactant production and anaerobic growth at elevated salt concentrations to obtain candidates most suitable for microbial oil recovery. Seventy percent of the 205 strains tested, mostly strains of Bacillus mojavensis, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, and Bacillus sonorensis, produced biosurfactants aerobically and 41% of the strains had biosurfactant activity greater than Bacillus mojavensis JF-2, the current candidate for oil recovery. Biosurfactant activity varied with the percentage of the 3-hydroxy-tetradecanoate isomers in the fatty acid portion of the biosurfactant. Changing the medium composition by incorporation of different precursors of 3-hydroxy tetradecanoate increased the activity of biosurfactant. The surface tension and critical micelle concentration of 15 different, biosurfactant-producing Bacillus strains was determined individually and in combination with other biosurfactants. Some biosurfactant mixtures were found to have synergistic effect on surface tension (e.g. surface tension was lowered from 41 to 31 mN/m in some cases) while others had a synergistic effect on CMD-1 values. We compared the transport abilities of spores from three Bacillus strains using a model porous system to study spore recovery and transport. Sand-packed columns were used to select for spores or cells with the best transport abilities through brine-saturated sand. Spores of Bacillus mojavensis strains JF-2 and ROB-2 and a natural recombinant, strain C-9, transported through sand at very high efficiencies. The earliest cells/spores that emerged from the column were re-grown, allowed to sporulate, and applied to a second column. This procedure greatly enhanced the transport of strain C-9. Spores with enhanced transport abilities can be easily obtained and that the preparation of inocula for use in MEOR is feasible. Tertiary oil recovery experiments showed that 10 to 40 mg/l of JF-2 biosurfactant in the presence of 0

  14. Classification of alpha-active workplace aerosols based on coefficient of transportability as measured by the dialysis method

    This report describes a method by which potentially inhaled workplace aerosols containing plutonium compounds are classified on the basis of measured transportability in Ringer's solution. It is suggested that the criterion 'transportability' be used in the ICRP respiratory tract model. Transportability is measured as the fraction of plutonium alpha activity, deposited on a collecting filter, that passes through a semi-permeable membrane in Ringer's physiological solution during two days of dialysis. First order kinetic equations are used for explanation of dialysis results. The dissolution characteristics of alpha-active aerosols are important in interpretation of their passage from the lungs after inhalation. (author)

  15. Can clouds enhance long-range transport of low volatile, ionizable and surface-active chemicals?

    Franco, Antonio; Trapp, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    potential of non-volatile substances. The liquid water content of clouds and the high specific surface of frozen or liquid cloud droplets can significantly contribute to the total activity capacity (i.e. the capacity to sorb chemicals) of the atmosphere for non-volatile, ionizable and surface active...... volatile or ionizable chemicals to investigate the potential of clouds to enhance the atmospheric transport potential. Probability density functions were derived for input substance properties and environmental parameters to quantify uncertainty and variability and probabilistic simulations at steady state...... were run for a constant emission to the atmospheric boundary layer to identify key model inputs. The degradation rate, the duration of dry and wet periods and the parameters describing air-water bulk partitioning (KAW and T) and ionization (pKa and pH) determine the residence time in the ABL. In the...

  16. Motion-base simulator results of advanced supersonic transport handling qualities with active controls

    Feather, J. B.; Joshi, D. S.

    1981-01-01

    Handling qualities of the unaugmented advanced supersonic transport (AST) are deficient in the low-speed, landing approach regime. Consequently, improvement in handling with active control augmentation systems has been achieved using implicit model-following techniques. Extensive fixed-based simulator evaluations were used to validate these systems prior to tests with full motion and visual capabilities on a six-axis motion-base simulator (MBS). These tests compared the handling qualities of the unaugmented AST with several augmented configurations to ascertain the effectiveness of these systems. Cooper-Harper ratings, tracking errors, and control activity data from the MBS tests have been analyzed statistically. The results show the fully augmented AST handling qualities have been improved to an acceptable level.

  17. Charge transport and activation energy of amorphous silicon carbide thin film on quartz at elevated temperature

    Dinh, Toan; Viet Dao, Dzung; Phan, Hoang-Phuong; Wang, Li; Qamar, Afzaal; Nguyen, Nam-Trung; Tanner, Philip; Rybachuk, Maksym

    2015-06-01

    We report on the temperature dependence of the charge transport and activation energy of amorphous silicon carbide (a-SiC) thin films grown on quartz by low-pressure chemical vapor deposition. The electrical conductivity as characterized by the Arrhenius rule was found to vary distinctly under two activation energy thresholds of 150 and 205 meV, corresponding to temperature ranges of 300 to 450 K and 450 to 580 K, respectively. The a-SiC/quartz system displayed a high temperature coefficient of resistance ranging from -4,000 to -16,000 ppm/K, demonstrating a strong feasibility of using this material for highly sensitive thermal sensing applications.

  18. Scintigraphic quantitation of gastrointestinal motor activity and transport: Oesophagus and stomach

    For the recognition and characterisation of oesophageal motor disorders, manometry represents the most reliable tool but yields no information on bolus transport. The transport can be quantitated by radionuclide techniques. The patient is positioned supine beneath a gamma-camera and instructed to swallow a radiolabelled bolus in a single gulp. Using a marker over the cricoid and the activity in the stomach as landmarks, regions of interest are drawn representing the upper, middle and lower third of the oesophagus and the gastric fundus. Activity-time curves enable one to recognise the clearance patterns in these regions. In combination, manometric and radionuclide transit studies recognise a higher number of motor disorders than either procedure alone. Radionuclide methods also are the most reliable and sensitive to quantitate gastric emptying. Procedure, meal size and composition as well as patient position must be standardised and correction techniques applied. The emptying of solid and liquid meal constituents can be evaluated concomitantly. Solids start to empty only after a lag phase of varying extent. With semi-solid meals, which are emptied at the same rate as solid meals of identical composition in the postlag phase, the recording time can be considerably shorter. Besides gastric emptying, the amplitude, frequency and propagation velocity of antral contractions can be recorded using serial images of short frame time and specially devised analytic techniques. (orig.)

  19. Effect of cyclic aromatics on sodium active transport in frog skin

    Blankemeyer, J.T.; Bowerman, M.C. (Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater (United States))

    1993-01-01

    A modified glass Ussing-chamber was used to mount the skin. The electrical potential difference (PD) was measured by two 3% agar-frog Ringer's bridges. Current (i.e. short-circuit current, or ISC) was passed by Ag-AgCl electrodes placed so that current density was uniform across the skin. Ringer's solution, bathing each side of the frog skin, was stirred and aerated by gas-lift pumps. The effect of toxicants on the ISC was determined by using the 15 min prior to toxicant administration as a control period, then calculating the change in ISC during the toxicant period as a percent of the control ISC. Phenol and benzene are components of crude oil and crude oil waste. These hydrocarbons and phenanthrene were tested for their effect on frog skin. The results show that the effect of organics on sodium active transport of an epithelium is to alter the active transport of sodium ions. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Human proximal tubule epithelial cells cultured on hollow fibers: living membranes that actively transport organic cations.

    Jansen, J; De Napoli, I E; Fedecostante, M; Schophuizen, C M S; Chevtchik, N V; Wilmer, M J; van Asbeck, A H; Croes, H J; Pertijs, J C; Wetzels, J F M; Hilbrands, L B; van den Heuvel, L P; Hoenderop, J G; Stamatialis, D; Masereeuw, R

    2015-01-01

    The bioartificial kidney (BAK) aims at improving dialysis by developing 'living membranes' for cells-aided removal of uremic metabolites. Here, unique human conditionally immortalized proximal tubule epithelial cell (ciPTEC) monolayers were cultured on biofunctionalized MicroPES (polyethersulfone) hollow fiber membranes (HFM) and functionally tested using microfluidics. Tight monolayer formation was demonstrated by abundant zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) protein expression along the tight junctions of matured ciPTEC on HFM. A clear barrier function of the monolayer was confirmed by limited diffusion of FITC-inulin. The activity of the organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) in ciPTEC was evaluated in real-time using a perfusion system by confocal microscopy using 4-(4-(dimethylamino)styryl)-N-methylpyridinium iodide (ASP(+)) as a fluorescent substrate. Initial ASP(+) uptake was inhibited by a cationic uremic metabolites mixture and by the histamine H2-receptor antagonist, cimetidine. In conclusion, a 'living membrane' of renal epithelial cells on MicroPES HFM with demonstrated active organic cation transport was successfully established as a first step in BAK engineering. PMID:26567716

  1. Increased activity of Pgp multidrug transporter in patients with Helicobacter pylori infection

    Zarko Babic; Ivna Svoboda-Beusan; Nastja Kucisec-Tepes; Dragan Dekaris; Rosana Troskot

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether local antibiotic resistance involves P-glycoprotein (Pgp)-mediated active drug outpumping during Helicobacter pylori ( H pylori) infection treatment with classic antibiotic therapy. METHODS: Pgp activity was determined in gastric mucosa biopsy specimens obtained from 53 patients with pathohistologically verified gastritis and microbiologically confirmed H pylori infection, and compared with the Pgp activity in 12 control subjects with normal endoscopic findings. TheH pylori positive patients were treated with short-term 7-d therapy consisting of two antibiotics (amoxicillin and azithromycin/metronidazole and clarithromycin) and a proton pump inhibitor. Pgp activity was determined by flow cytometry in the test of rhodamine dye efflux and quantified as mean fluorescence ratio (RMF).RESULTS: Upon the first cycle,H pylori was successfully eradicated in 20 patients, whereas therapy was continued in 33 patients. In the course of antibiotic therapy, RMF increased (P<0.05) and gastric cells showed higher rhodamine dye efflux. The mean pre-treatment RMF values were also higher (P<0.0001) in patients with multiple therapeutic failure than in those with successful H pylorieradication and control subjects.CONCLUSION: Pgp might be one of the causes of therapy failure in patients with H pylori and antibiotic therapy could be chosen and followed up on the basis of the Pgp transporter local activity.

  2. Electrolyte Composition of Mink (Mustela vison Erythrocytes and Active Cation Transporters of the Cell Membrane

    Clausen TN

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Red blood cells from mink (Mustela vison were characterized with respect to their electrolyte content and their cell membranes with respect to enzymatic activity for cation transport. The intra- and extracellular concentrations of Na+, K+, Cl-, Ca2+ and Mg2+ were determined in erythrocytes and plasma, respectively. Plasma and red cell water content was determined, and molal electrolyte concentrations were calculated. Red cells from male adult mink appeared to be of the low-K+, high-Na+ type as seen in other carnivorous species. The intracellular K+ concentration is slightly higher than the extracellular one and the plasma-to-cell chemical gradient for Na+ is weak, though even the molal concentrations may differ significantly. Consistent with the high intracellular Na+ and low K+ concentrations, a very low or no ouabain-sensitive Na+,K+-ATPase activity and no K+-activated pNPPase activity were found in the plasma membrane fraction from red cells. The Cl- and Mg2+ concentrations expressed per liter cell water were significantly higher in red cells than in plasma whereas the opposite was the case with Ca2+. The distribution of Cl- thus does not seem compatible with an inside-negative membrane potential in mink erythrocytes. In spite of a steep calcium gradient across the red cell membrane, neither a calmodulin-activated Ca2+-ATPase activity nor an ATP-activated Ca2+-pNPPase activity were detectable in the plasma membrane fraction. The origin of a supposed primary Ca2+ gradient for sustaining of osmotic balance thus seems uncertain.

  3. A Mathematical Model of Solute Coupled Water Transport in Toad Intestine Incorporating Recirculation of the Actively Transported Solute

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Sørensen, Jakob Balslev; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2000-01-01

    A mathematical model of an absorbing leaky epithelium is developed for analysis of solute coupled water transport. The non-charged driving solute diffuses into cells and is pumped from cells into the lateral intercellular space (lis). All membranes contain water channels with the solute passing...... those of tight junction and interspace basement membrane by convection-diffusion. With solute permeability of paracellular pathway large relative to paracellular water flow, the paracellular flux ratio of the solute (influx/outflux) is small (2-4) in agreement with experiments. The virtual solute...... concentration of fluid emerging from lis is then significantly larger than the concentration in lis. Thus, in absence of external driving forces the model generates isotonic transport provided a component of the solute flux emerging downstream lis is taken up by cells through the serosal membrane and pumped...

  4. Transportation Consumer Education for Adults: Mini-Units and Learning Activities.

    Finn, Peter; And Others

    One of a series of eleven curriculum manuals which cover the four transportation topics of public transportation, transportation and the environment, transportation safety, and bicycles for elementary, secondary, and adult levels, this manual covers all four topics at the adult level. Materials in four chapters comprising seventeen mini-units…

  5. Travel On! Mini-Units and Learning Activities on Transportation for Grades K-3.

    Lawson, Jane; And Others

    One of a series of eleven curriculum manuals which cover the four transportation topics of public transportation, transportation and the environment, transportation safety, and bicycles for elementary, secondary, and adult levels, this manual for grades K-3 covers all four topics. Materials in the thirteen mini-units present different aspects of…

  6. Travel On! Mini-Units and Learning Activities on Transportation for Grades 4-6.

    Lawson, Jane; And Others

    One of a series of eleven curriculum manuals which cover the four transportation topics of public transportation, transportation and the environment, transportation safety, and bicycles for elementary, secondary, and adult levels, this manual for grades 4-6 covers all four topics. Materials in four chapters comprising fourteen mini-units cover…

  7. Comparative Localization and Functional Activity of the Main Hepatobiliary Transporters in HepaRG Cells and Primary Human Hepatocytes.

    Bachour-El Azzi, Pamela; Sharanek, Ahmad; Burban, Audrey; Li, Ruoya; Guével, Rémy Le; Abdel-Razzak, Ziad; Stieger, Bruno; Guguen-Guillouzo, Christiane; Guillouzo, André

    2015-05-01

    The role of hepatobiliary transporters in drug-induced liver injury remains poorly understood. Various in vivo and in vitro biological approaches are currently used for studying hepatic transporters; however, appropriate localization and functional activity of these transporters are essential for normal biliary flow and drug transport. Human hepatocytes (HHs) are considered as the most suitable in vitro cell model but erratic availability and inter-donor functional variations limit their use. In this work, we aimed to compare localization of influx and efflux transporters and their functional activity in differentiated human HepaRG hepatocytes with fresh HHs in conventional (CCHH) and sandwich (SCHH) cultures. All tested influx and efflux transporters were correctly localized to canalicular [bile salt export pump (BSEP), multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2), multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1), and MDR3] or basolateral [Na(+)-taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP) and MRP3] membrane domains and were functional in all models. Contrary to other transporters, NTCP and BSEP were less abundant and active in HepaRG cells, cellular uptake of taurocholate was 2.2- and 1.4-fold and bile excretion index 2.8- and 2.6-fold lower, than in SCHHs and CCHHs, respectively. However, when taurocholate canalicular efflux was evaluated in standard and divalent cation-free conditions in buffers or cell lysates, the difference between the three models did not exceed 9.3%. Interestingly, cell imaging showed higher bile canaliculi contraction/relaxation activity in HepaRG hepatocytes and larger bile canaliculi networks in SCHHs. Altogether, our results bring new insights in mechanisms involved in bile acids accumulation and excretion in HHs and suggest that HepaRG cells represent a suitable model for studying hepatobiliary transporters and drug-induced cholestasis. PMID:25690737

  8. A needs assessment for DOE's packaging and transportation activities - a look into the twenty-first century

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has performed a department-wide scoping of its packaging and transportation needs and has arrived at a projection of these needs for well into the twenty-first century. The assessment, known as the Transportation Needs Assessment (TNA) was initiated during August 1994 and completed in December 1994. The TNA will allow DOE to better prepare for changes in its transportation requirements in the future. The TNA focused on projected, quantified shipping needs based on forecasts of inventories of materials which will ultimately require transport by the DOE for storage, treatment and/or disposal. In addition, experts provided input on the growing needs throughout DOE resulting from changes in regulations, in DOE's mission, and in the sociopolitical structure of the United States. Through the assessment, DOE's transportation needs have been identified for a time period extending from the present through the first three decades of the twenty-first century. The needs assessment was accomplished in three phases: (1) defining current packaging, shipping, resource utilization, and methods of managing packaging and transportation activities; (2) establishing the inventory of materials which DOE will need to transport on into the next century and scenarios which project when, from where, and to where these materials will need to be transported; and (3) developing requirements and projected changes for DOE to accomplish the necessary transport safely and economically

  9. Photometry of Pluto 2008-2014: Evidence of Ongoing Seasonal Volatile Transport and Activity

    Buratti, B. J.; Hicks, M. D.; Dalba, P. A.; Chu, Devin; O'Neill, Ariel; Hillier, J. K.; Masiero, J.; Banholzer, Sophianna; Rhoades, H.

    2015-05-01

    The New Horizons spacecraft will encounter Pluto in 2015 July. As this fast flyby will yield a picture of Pluto frozen in time, ground-based observations are key to understanding this dwarf ice planet, especially with regard to the seasonal transport of surface volatiles. This paper reports on changes in Pluto's rotational light curve as evidence for this transport. Historical observations are consistent with a stable frost pattern, but since 2002, changes began to appear in both light curves and Hubble Space Telescope maps. Our BVR observations at Table Mountain Observatory from 2008 to 2014 show evidence for sustained and continued albedo and color changes on Pluto. The B and V albedos are stable, but Pluto is becoming redder in color, particularly on its low-albedo side. This view is consistent with the transport of a bright volatile (nitrogen) with the uncovering of a substrate of red material such as photolyzed methane. As Buie et al. reported a B - V of 0.96 in 2002-2003, and our B - V was higher in 2008-2012, Pluto may have experienced a transient reddening in the 1999-2012 period. We also discovered an opposition supersurge in all three colors at very small solar phase angles (˜0.°10). Explosive geysers have been observed on Triton and Mars, the two other celestial bodies with receding polar caps. Because the physical conditions existing on Pluto are similar to those on Triton, we predict that plume deposits and possibly active plumes will be found on its surface.

  10. Corrosion products, activity transport and deposition in boiling water reactor recirculation systems

    The deposition of activated corrosion products in the recirculation loops of Boiling Water Reactors produces increased radiation levels which lead to a corresponding increase in personnel radiation dose during shut down and maintenance. The major part of this dose rate is due to cobalt-60. The following areas are discussed in detail: - the origins of the corrosion products and of cobalt-59 in the reactor feedwaters, - the consolidation of the cobalt in the fuel pin deposits (activation), - the release and transport of cobalt-60, - the build-up of cobalt-60 in the corrosion products in the recirculation loops. Existing models of the build-up of circuit radioactivity are discussed and the operating experiences from selected reactors are summarised. Corrosion chemistry aspects of the cobalt build-up in the primary circuit have already been studied on a broad basis and are continuing to be researched in a number of centers. The crystal chemistry of chromium-nickel steel corrosion products poses a number of yet unanswered questions. There are major loopholes associated with the understanding of activation processes of cobalt deposited on the fuel pins and in the mass transfer of cobalt-60. For these processes, the most important influence stems from factors associated with colloid chemistry. Accumulation of data from different BWRs contributes little to the understanding of the activity build-up. However, there are examples that the problem of activity build-up can be kept under control. Although many details for a quantitative understanding are still missing, the most important correlations are visible. The activity build-up in the BWR recirculation systems cannot be kept low by a single measure. Rather a whole series of measures is necessary, which influences not only cobalt-60 deposition but also plant and operation costs. (author) 26 figs., 13 tabs., 90 refs

  11. Study on transport of powdered activated carbon using a rotating circular flume

    尹海龙; 邱敏燕; 徐祖信

    2013-01-01

    This study employed a rotating flume to examine the Powdered Activated Carbon (PAC) transport with water flow. The initial PAC concentration was 10 mg/L-30 mg/L, and PAC concentration versus time under a specified cross-sectional averaging fluid shear was observed. Results show that compared with PAC deposition in still water, PAC is depleted to zero faster under a fluid shear of 0.02 Pa, due to PAC agglomeration with the fluid shear. However, since PAC floc size only ranges from a single particle (2mm) to approximate 6mm, an increasing of instantaneous turbulent fluctuations could counteract the force of PAC floc settling downward, and as a result the steady PAC concentration increases with the increase of shear stress. It is found that the critical shear stress for PAC deposition is about 0.60 Pa, and further the PAC deposition probability is presented according to the experimental scenarios between 0.02 Pa and 0.60 Pa. Combining the PAC transport and deposition formula with PAC-pollutant removal model provides an insight into PAC deployment in raw water aqueduct for sudden open water source pollution.

  12. Lessons learned from reactive transport modeling of a low-activity waste glass disposal system

    Bacon, Diana H.; Peter McGrail, B.

    2003-04-01

    A set of reactive chemical transport calculations were conducted with the Subsurface Transport Over Reactive Multi-phases (STORM) code to evaluate the long-term performance of a representative low-activity waste glass in a shallow subsurface disposal system located on the Hanford site. Two different trench designs were considered, one with four rows of small waste packages (old design), the other with three layers of larger waste packages (new design). One-dimensional (1D) simulations were carried out to 20,000 yr, whereas two-dimensional (2D) simulations could only be carried out for 10,000 yr due to constraints on computational time. Both the 1D and 2D simulations predicted that the technetium release rate from the waste packages would be lower for the new trench design at times greater than 1 yr. Having fewer, larger waste packages decreases the glass surface area exposed to reaction with pore water. In the 2D simulations, water can flow around the waste packages, which causes a decrease in the water flux through the waste packages and lower release rates than predicted in the 1D simulations. This result reinforces the importance of performing multi-dimensional waste form release simulations.

  13. MAGNETIC HELICITY TRANSPORTED BY FLUX EMERGENCE AND SHUFFLING MOTIONS IN SOLAR ACTIVE REGION NOAA 10930

    We present a new methodology which can determine magnetic helicity transport by the passage of helical magnetic field lines from the sub-photosphere and the shuffling motions of footpoints of preexisting coronal field lines separately. It is well known that only the velocity component, which is perpendicular to the magnetic field (υB), has contributed to the helicity accumulation. Here, we demonstrate that υB can be deduced from a horizontal motion and vector magnetograms under a simple relation of υt = μt + (υn/Bn ) Bt, as suggested by Démoulin and Berger. Then after dividing υB into two components, as one is tangential and the other is normal to the solar surface, we can determine both terms of helicity transport. Active region (AR) NOAA 10930 is analyzed as an example during its solar disk center passage by using data obtained by the Spectropolarimeter and the Narrowband Filter Imager of Solar Optical Telescope on board Hinode. We find that in our calculation the helicity injection by flux emergence and shuffling motions have the same sign. During the period we studied, the main contribution of helicity accumulation comes from the flux emergence effect, while the dynamic transient evolution comes from the shuffling motions effect. Our observational results further indicate that for this AR the apparent rotational motion in the following sunspot is the real shuffling motions on the solar surface.

  14. CFD Lagrangian Modeling of Water Droplet Transport for ISS Hygiene Activity Application

    Son, Chang H.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the impacts of free water propagation in the Waste and Hygiene Compartment (WHC) installed in Node 3. Free water can be generated inside the WHC in small quantities due to crew hygiene activity. To mitigate potential impact of free water in Node 3 cabin the WHC doorway is enclosed by a waterproof bump-out, Kabin, with openings at the top and bottom. At the overhead side of the rack, there is a screen that prevents large drops of water from exiting. However, as the avionics fan in the WHC causes airflow toward the deck side of the rack, small quantities of free water may exit at the bottom of the Kabin. A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis of Node 3 cabin airflow enable identifying the paths of water transport. To simulate the droplet transport the Lagrangian discrete phase approach was used. Various initial droplet distributions were considered in the study. The droplet diameter was varied in the range of 5-20 mm. The results of the computations showed that most of the drops fall to the rack surface not far from the WHC curtain.

  15. Aluminum-activated citrate and malate transporters encoded by distinct Al tolerance genes function independently in Arabidopsis

    Aluminum (Al) -activated malate and citrate exudation from roots plays an important role in conferring Al tolerance to many plant species. Here, we report on the identification and characterization of AtMATE, the gene encoding an Al-activated root citrate efflux transporter that functions in Arabid...

  16. Aluminum-activated citrate and malate transporters from the MATE and ALMT families function independently to confer Arabidopsis aluminum tolerance

    Aluminum (Al) activated root malate and citrate exudation play an important role in Al tolerance in many plant species. AtALMT1, an Al-activated malate transporter, is a major contributor to Arabidopsis Al tolerance. Here, we demonstrate that a second, unrelated gene, AtMATE, encodes an Arabidopsi...

  17. Synthesis and serotonin transporter activity of sulphur-substituted alpha-alkyl phenethylamines as a new class of anticancer agents

    Cloonan, Suzanne M.; Keating, John J.; Butler, Stephen G.;

    2009-01-01

    The discovery that some serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT) ligands have the potential to act as pro-apoptotic agents in the treatment of cancer adds greatly to their diverse pharmacological application. 4-Methylthioamphetamine (MTA) is a selective ligand for SERT over other monoamine transport......The discovery that some serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT) ligands have the potential to act as pro-apoptotic agents in the treatment of cancer adds greatly to their diverse pharmacological application. 4-Methylthioamphetamine (MTA) is a selective ligand for SERT over other monoamine...... transporters. In this study, a novel library of structurally diverse 4-MTA analogues were synthesised with or without N-alkyl and/or C-alpha methyl or ethyl groups so that their potential SERT-dependent antiproliferative activity could be assessed. Many of the compounds displayed SERT-binding activity as well...

  18. Thermally activated phase slips in superfluid spin transport in magnetic wires

    Kim, Se Kwon; Takei, So; Tserkovnyak, Yaroslav

    2016-01-01

    We theoretically study thermally activated phase slips in superfluid spin transport in easy-plane magnetic wires within the stochastic Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert phenomenology, which runs parallel to the Langer-Ambegaokar-McCumber-Halperin theory for thermal resistances in superconducting wires. To that end, we start by obtaining the exact solutions for free-energy minima and saddle points. We provide an analytical expression for the phase-slip rate in the zero spin-current limit, which involves a detailed analysis of spin fluctuations at the extrema of the free energy. An experimental setup for a magnetoelectric circuit is proposed, in which thermal phase slips can be inferred by measuring nonlocal magnetoresistance.

  19. Localized MHD activity near transport barriers in JT-60U and TFTR

    Localized MHD activity observed in JT-60U and TFTR near transport barriers with their associated large pressure gradients is investigated. Stability analysis of equilibria modeling the experiments supports an identification of this MHD as being due to an ideal MHD n = 1 instability. The appearance of the instability depends on the local pressure gradient, local shear in the q profile and the proximity of rational surfaces where q ∼ m/n and m and n are the poloidal and toroidal mode numbers respectively. The mode width is shown to depend on the local value of q, and is larger when q is smaller. In addition the role of the edge current density in coupling the internal mode to the plasma edge and of the energetic particles which can drive fishbone like modes is investigated. (author)

  20. Experimental Investigation of Active Feedback Control of Turbulent Transport in a Magnetized Plasma

    Gilmore, Mark Allen [University of New Mexico

    2013-07-07

    A new and unique basic plasma science laboratory device - the HelCat device (HELicon-CAThode) - has been constructed and is operating at the University of New Mexico. HelCat is a 4 m long, 0.5 m diameter device, with magnetic field up to 2.2 kG, that has two independent plasmas sources - an RF helicon source, and a thermionic cathode. These two sources, which can operate independently or simultaneously, are capable of producing plasmas with a wide range of parameters and turbulence characteristics, well suited to a variety of basic plasma physics experiments. An extensive set of plasma diagnostics is also operating. Experiments investigating the active feedback control of turbulent transport of particles and heat via electrode biasing to affect plasma ExB flows are underway, and ongoing.

  1. Disposition and transportation of surplus radioactive low specific activity nitric acid. Volume 1, Environmental Assessment

    DOE is deactivating the PUREX plant at Hanford; this will involve the disposition of about 692,000 liters (183,000 gallons) of surplus nitric acid contaminated with low levels of U and other radionuclides. The nitric acid, designated as low specific activity, is stored in 4 storage tanks at PUREX. Five principal alternatives were evaluated: transfer for reuse (sale to BNF plc), no action, continued storage in Hanford upgraded or new facility, consolidation of DOE surplus acid, and processing the LSA nitric acid as waste. The transfer to BNF plc is the preferred alternative. From the analysis, it is concluded that the proposed disposition and transportation of the acid does not constitute a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of NEPA; therefore an environmental impact statement is not required

  2. Modelling the activity of 99Tc the primary heat transport system of a CANDU reactor

    A physical model has been developed to describe the coolant activity behaviour of 99Tc, during constant and reactor shutdown operations. This analysis accounts for the fission production of technetium and molybdenum, in which their chemical form and volatility is determined by a thermodynamic treatment using a Gibbs-energy minimization. The release kinetics are calculated according to the rate-controlling step of diffusional transport in the fuel matrix and vaporization from the fuel-grain surface. Based on several in-reactor tests with defective fuel elements, and as supported by the thermodynamic analysis, the model accounts for the washout of molybdenum from the defective fuel on reactor shutdown. The model also considers the recoil release of both 99Mo and 99Tc from uranium contamination, as well as a corrosion source due to activation of 98Mo. The model has provided an estimate of the activity ratio 99Tc/137Cs in the ion-exchange columns of the Darlington Nuclear Generating Station, i.e., 6 x 10-6 (following ∼200 d of steady reactor operation) and 4 x 10-6 (with reactor shutdown). These results are consistent with that measured by the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories with a mixed-bed resin-sampling device installed in a number of Pressurized Water Reactor and Boiling Water Reactor plants. (author)

  3. Heme oxygenase-1 enhances renal mitochondrial transport carriers and cytochrome C oxidase activity in experimental diabetes.

    Di Noia, Maria Antonietta; Van Driesche, Sarah; Palmieri, Ferdinando; Yang, Li-Ming; Quan, Shuo; Goodman, Alvin I; Abraham, Nader G

    2006-06-01

    Up-regulation of heme oxygenase (HO-1) by either cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP) or human gene transfer improves vascular and renal function by several mechanisms, including increases in antioxidant levels and decreases in reactive oxygen species (ROS) in vascular and renal tissue. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of HO-1 overexpression on mitochondrial transporters, cytochrome c oxidase, and anti-apoptotic proteins in diabetic rats (streptozotocin, (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetes). Renal mitochondrial carnitine, deoxynucleotide, and ADP/ATP carriers were significantly reduced in diabetic compared with nondiabetic rats (p SnMP), an inhibitor of HO-1 activity, prevented the restoration of MCs in diabetic rats. Human HO-1 cDNA transfer into diabetic rats increased both HO-1 protein and activity, and restored mitochondrial ADP/ATP and deoxynucleotide carriers. The increase in HO-1 by CoPP administration was associated with a significant increase in the phosphorylation of AKT and levels of BcL-XL proteins. These observations in experimental diabetes suggest that the cytoprotective mechanism of HO-1 against oxidative stress involves an increase in the levels of MCs and anti-apoptotic proteins as well as in cytochrome c oxidase activity. PMID:16595661

  4. Site-directed mutagenesis reveals the importance of conserved charged residues for the transport activity of the PheP permease of Escherichia coli.

    Pi, J; Wookey, P J; Pittard, A. J.

    1993-01-01

    Site-directed mutagenesis has been used to identify a number of charged residues essential for the transport activity of the PheP protein. These residues are highly conserved in the cluster of amino acid transporters. However, some other conserved residues and a number of aromatic residues have been shown not to be essential for transport activity.

  5. Built environment and physical activity for transportation in adults from Curitiba, Brazil.

    Hino, Adriano A F; Reis, Rodrigo S; Sarmiento, Olga L; Parra, Diana C; Brownson, Ross C

    2014-06-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the association between features of the built environment and levels of walking and cycling as forms of transportation in the city of Curitiba, Brazil. Data collection was conducted through a telephone survey in 2008. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to identify walking or cycling as forms of transportation. The built environment characteristics were obtained through the Geographic Information System for 1,206 adults. Density indicators were computed, considering a radius of 500 m around each individual's household. For the accessibility measures, the shortest distance to selected built environment features (e.g., bus stop, bike path) was used. The association between characteristics of the environment and the practice of walking or cycling was assessed through logistic regressions. After considering individual characteristics, higher-income areas (OR = 0.56, 95 % CI = 0.41-0.76), higher density of Bus Rapid Transit stations (OR = 1.50, 95 % CI = 1.22-1.84), and the proportion of residential (OR = 1.25, 95 % CI = 1.02-1.53) and commercial (OR = 1.47, 95 % CI = 1.13-1.91) areas were associated with any walking prevalence (≥ 10 min/week). Higher access to bike paths (OR = 0.80, 95 % CI = 0.64-1.00) was inversely associated with walking at recommended levels (≥ 150 min/week). Higher-income areas (OR = 0.26, 95 % CI = 0.08-0.81), greater number of traffic lights (OR = 0.27, 95 % CI = 0.09-0.88), and higher land use mix (OR = 0.52, 95 % CI = 0.31-0.88) were inversely associated with cycling. The neighborhood built environment may affect active commuting among adults living in urban centers in middle-income countries. PMID:24096625

  6. Sugar transport and nitrate reductase activity rate in roots affect plant adaptation to cold and warm climate plants

    Kafkafi, Uzi

    2009-01-01

    Nitrogen metabolism in the root is controlled by 2 fluxes: 1) nitrate intake from the external solution. 2) Transport of sugar from the leaves. Nitrate reduction to ammonium or direct ammonium uptake produce ammonia in the root cell. When the rate of sugar transport to root cells is slower than their sugar consumption for respiration, ammonia will accumulate and the root cells will die from ammonia toxicity. In nature, plants can be defined with regard to the activity of their root nitrate re...

  7. Transforming Growth Factor β Signaling Upregulates the Expression of Human GDP-Fucose Transporter by Activating Transcription Factor Sp1

    Yu-Xin Xu; Anna Ma; Li Liu

    2013-01-01

    GDP-fucose transporter plays a crucial role in fucosylation of glycoproteins by providing activated fucose donor, GDP-fucose, for fucosyltransferases in the lumen of the Golgi apparatus. Fucose-containing glycans are involved in many biological processes, which are essential for growth and development. Mutations in the GDP-fucose transporter gene cause leukocyte adhesion deficiency syndrome II, a disease characterized by slow growth, mental retardation and immunodeficiency. However, no inform...

  8. Development of Microorganisms with Improved Transport and Biosurfactant Activity for Enhanced Oil Recovery

    M.J. McInerney; K.E. Duncan; N. Youssef; T. Fincher; S.K. Maudgalya; M.J. Folmsbee; R. Knapp; Randy R. Simpson; N.Ravi; D. Nagle

    2005-08-15

    growth at elevated salt concentrations to obtain candidates most suitable for microbial oil recovery. Seventy percent of the 205 strains tested, mostly strains of Bacillus mojavensis, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, and Bacillus sonorensis, produced biosurfactants aerobically and 41% of the strains had biosurfactant activity greater than Bacillus mojavensis JF-2, the current candidate for oil recovery. Biosurfactant activity varied with the percentage of the 3-hydroxy-tetradecanoate isomers in the fatty acid portion of the biosurfactant. Changing the medium composition by incorporation of different precursors of 3-hydroxy tetradecanoate increased the activity of biosurfactant. The surface tension and critical micelle concentration of 15 different, biosurfactant-producing Bacillus strains was determined individually and in combination with other biosurfactants. Some biosurfactant mixtures were found to have synergistic effect on surface tension (e.g. surface tension was lowered from 41 to 31 mN/m in some cases) while others had a synergistic effect on CMD-1 values. We compared the transport abilities of spores from three Bacillus strains using a model porous system to study spore recovery and transport. Sand-packed columns were used to select for spores or cells with the best transport abilities through brine-saturated sand. Spores of Bacillus mojavensis strains JF-2 and ROB-2 and a natural recombinant, strain C-9, transported through sand at very high efficiencies. The earliest cells/spores that emerged from the column were regrown, allowed to sporulate, and applied to a second column. This procedure greatly enhanced the transport of strain C-9. Spores with enhanced transport abilities can be easily obtained and that the preparation of inocula for use in MEOR is feasible. We conducted a push-pull test to study in-situ biosurfactant production by exogenous biosurfactant producers to aid in oil recovery from depleted reservoirs. Five wells from the same

  9. Living City: community mobilization to build active transport policies and programs in Santiago, Chile

    L. Sagaris

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Although the usefulness of walking and cycling to promote health is increasingly recognized, the importance of civil society leadership in developing new policies and activities is often overlooked. This case study, of Living City (Ciudad Viva a community-based organization in Santiago, Chile, examines how several communities used knowledge about transport’s impact on the environment and health, gained through opposition to a major highway project, to build effective sustainable urban transport initiatives.Inspired by urban reforms in Bogot´a, Living City now focuses mainly on “active transport” (formerly nonmotorized, building the policies, attitudes and infrastructure necessary to encourage walking and cycling, and the inclusion of the differently abled. It has won two major awards for innovation and now partners with NGOs in The Netherlands and elsewhere in Chile and Latin America.Moreover, Living City now organizes cycling-inclusive training programs, design charrettes and participatory processes in cooperation with Santiago’s regional and national authorities. Its publication, La Voz de La Chimba, distributed free throughout the city by volunteers, has helped to open people’s eyes to the implications of active transport for social equality and health, and provided support to other citizens’ initiatives, struggling to get off the ground.This experience illustrates how citizens’ and community organizations acquire important knowledge and practical experience in learning by doing situations, and how they can learn to reach out to ordinary people and key policymakers, building bridges across the citizen-policy divide to produce innovative, win-win programs that simultaneously bring change at micro- and macro-levels.Bien que la nécessité de marcher et de faire du vélo pour rester en bonne santé soit de plus en plus reconnue, l’importance du rôle prépondérant de la société civile dans le développement de nouvelles

  10. Gender differences in association between serotonin transporter gene polymorphism and resting-state EEG activity.

    Volf, N V; Belousova, L V; Knyazev, G G; Kulikov, A V

    2015-01-22

    Human brain oscillations represent important features of information processing and are highly heritable. Gender has been observed to affect association between the 5-HTTLPR (serotonin-transporter-linked polymorphic region) polymorphism and various endophenotypes. This study aimed to investigate the effects of 5-HTTLPR on the spontaneous electroencephalography (EEG) activity in healthy male and female subjects. DNA samples extracted from buccal swabs and resting EEG recorded at 60 standard leads were collected from 210 (101 men and 109 women) volunteers. Spectral EEG power estimates and cortical sources of EEG activity were investigated. It was shown that effects of 5-HTTLPR polymorphism on electrical activity of the brain vary as a function of gender. Women with the S/L genotype had greater global EEG power compared to men with the same genotype. In men, current source density was markedly different among genotype groups in only alpha 2 and alpha 3 frequency ranges: S/S allele carriers had higher current source density estimates in the left inferior parietal lobule in comparison with the L/L group. In women, genotype difference in global power asymmetry was found in the central-temporal region. Contrasting L/L and S/L genotype carriers also yielded significant effects in the right hemisphere inferior parietal lobule and the right postcentral gyrus with L/L genotype carriers showing lower current source density estimates than S/L genotype carriers in all but gamma bands. So, in women, the effects of 5-HTTLPR polymorphism were associated with modulation of the EEG activity in a wide range of EEG frequencies. The significance of the results lies in the demonstration of gene by sex interaction with resting EEG that has implications for understanding sex-related differences in affective states, emotion and cognition. PMID:25450956

  11. Transit and health: mode of transport, employer-sponsored public transit pass programs, and physical activity.

    Lachapelle, Ugo; Frank, Lawrence D

    2009-01-01

    Increased provision of transit service and policy incentives that favor transit use can support a physically active lifestyle. We used the smartraq travel survey in metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia (in 2001-2002) to assess whether transit and car trips were associated with meeting the recommended levels of physical activity by using walking as a means of transportation. Additionally, we assessed associations between walking and using an employer-sponsored public transit pass. We controlled for demographics, neighborhood density, presence of services near workplaces, distance from home to transit, and car availability in our sample of 4,156 completed surveys. Walking distances from origin to destination were derived by a geographical information system and categorized as: no walking, moderate walking, or meeting recommendation (walking>or=2.4 km (1.5 miles) a day, approximately>or=30 min). In a multinomial logistic regression controlling for other covariates, transit trips were associated with an odds ratio (OR) of 3.87 (confidence interval (CI) 95%, 2.93-5.11) of meeting recommendation. In a multinominal logistical regression controlling for other covariates, transit users were associated with meeting recommendation, OR 2.23 (CI 95%, 1.27-3.90). PMID:19190584

  12. Cation transport in oxidant-stressed human erythrocytes: heightened N-ethylmaleimide activation of passive K+ influx after mild peroxidation.

    Sheerin, H E; Snyder, L M; Fairbanks, G

    1989-07-24

    Normal and chronically dehydrated (hereditary xerocytosis) human red cells were subjected to mild peroxidative treatment (315 microM hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), 15 min) in the presence of azide. The subsequent expression of passive (ouabain-resistant) K+ transport activities was analyzed by measurement of 86Rb+ influx. Peroxidation of normal red cells did not affect basal K+ transport activity, but the increment in K+ influx elicited by 0.5 mM N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) was increased 3-fold. The enhanced K+ influx was chloride-dependent, but only partially inhibited by 0.1 mM furosemide. Stimulated activity declined progressively after NEM activation, but could be restored by a second NEM treatment. Prior conversion of hemoglobin to the carbonmonoxy form abolished the response to peroxide, while 200 microM butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) exerted only partial inhibition, suggesting that the effect of H2O2 requires interaction of activated, unstable hemoglobin species with the membrane, but that lipid peroxidation is not sufficient. Peroxidation following NEM treatment also enhanced NEM activation, indicating that enhancement does not require altered NEM reactions with stimulatory or inhibitory sites. Passive K+ transport in hereditary xerocytosis red cells was not activated by NEM, with or without H2O2 pretreatment. The results demonstrate that modest peroxidative damage to red cells can heighten the activation of a transport system that is thought to be capable of mediating net K+ efflux and volume reduction in cells that express it. Models are proposed in which the effects of NEM, H2O2, cell swelling and other factors are mediated by conformational changes in a postulated subpopulation of anion channel (Band 3) molecules that bind the K+ transporter. PMID:2758051

  13. High-performance organic solar cells with spray-coated hole-transport and active layers

    Girotto, Claudio; Heremans, Paul [IMEC vzw-Organic Photovoltaics, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); ESAT, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 10, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Moia, Davide [IMEC vzw-Organic Photovoltaics, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Politecnico di Milano, via Golgi 40, 20133 Milano (Italy); Rand, Barry P. [IMEC vzw-Organic Photovoltaics, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2011-01-07

    In this study, we report high performance organic solar cells with spray coated hole-transport and active layers. With optimized ink formulations we are able to deposit films with controlled thickness and very low surface roughness (<10 nm). Specifically we deposit smooth and uniform 40 nm thick films of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) as well as films composed of a mixture of poly(3-hexyl thiophene) (P3HT) and the C{sub 60}-derivative (6,6)-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) with thicknesses in the range 200-250 nm. To control film morphology, formation and thickness, the optimized inks incorporate two solvent systems in order to take advantage of surface tension gradients to create Marangoni flows that enhance the coverage of the substrate and reduce the roughness of the film. Notably, we achieve fill factors above 70% and attribute the improvement to an enhanced P3HT crystallization, which upon optimized post-drying thermal annealing results in a favorable morphology. As a result, we could extend the thickness of the layer to several hundreds of nanometers without noticing a substantial decrease of the transport properties of the layer. By proper understanding of the spreading and drying dynamics of the inks we achieve spray coated devices with power conversion efficiency of 3.75%, with fill factor, short circuit current and open circuit voltage of 70%, 9.8 mA cm{sup -2} and 550 mV, respectively. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Atmospheric Transport Modelling Activities at CTBTO in the Aftermath of the Fukushima Release

    Krysta, M.; Coyne, J.; Nikkinen, M.; Gheddou, A.; Stöhlker, U.

    2012-04-01

    For an accidental radioactive release from the Fukushima nuclear power plant, a spatial location of the source term was known and some reasonable hypotheses were made concerning the time of the emission. Consequently, tests of the performance of an atmospheric transport model operational at CTBTO, FLEXPART, were made. Initially, FLEXPART was run daily in an analysis-forecast mode using NCEP meteorological fields to predict the dates when detections of the radioactive material at the IMS radionuclide stations should be expected. In parallel, ECMWF meteorological analyses were used to drive FLEXPART in a purely diagnostic mode to check for possible better matches between model outputs and radionuclide measurements than those forecast by the NCEP-driven runs. Secondly, once the operational forecasting period at CTBTO came to an end, the ATM activities have been re-focused on the problem of inferring source location from the radionuclide measurements. In addition to radionuclide measurements, a source location algorithm needs outputs of FLEXPART backtracking calculations, Source Receptor Sensitivity (SRS) fields. The SRS fields allow to make a link between radionuclide stations and possible source locations and are computed at CTBTO for each IMS radionuclide station on a daily basis. Various subsets of detections made in the aftermath of the Fukushima release were used to test source location algorithm implemented in our visualisation and analysis software, WEB-Grape. Finally, similar analyses were performed replacing CTBTO SRS fields with the SRS fields provided by the co-operating Regional Specialised Meteorological Centres (RSMCs) of WMO. In fact, the RSMCs support abnormal detections of radionuclides within the IMS network with the SRS calculations performed using their own atmospheric transport models fed with their own meteorological fields. The added value of the SRS fields provided by the RSMCs shall be illustrated.

  15. Simulation of Cl- secretion in epithelial tissues: New methodology estimating activity of electro-neutral Cl- transporter

    Kouhei eSasamoto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Transcellular Cl- secretion is, in general, mediated by two steps; 1 the entry step of Cl- into the cytosolic space from the basolateral space across the basolateral membrane by Cl- transporters, such as Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter (NKCC1, an isoform of NKCC, and 2 the releasing step of Cl- from the cytosolic space into the luminal (air space across the apical membrane via Cl- channels, such as cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR Cl- channel. Transcellular Cl- secretion has been characterized by using various experimental techniques. For example, measurements of short-circuit currents in the Ussing chamber and patch clamp techniques provide us information on transepithelial ion movements via transcellular pathway, transepithelial conductance, activity (open probability of single channel, and whole cell currents. Although many investigators have tried to clarify roles of Cl- channels and transporters located at the apical and basolateral membranes in transcellular Cl- secretion, it is still unclear how Cl- channels/transporters contribute to transcellular Cl- secretion and are regulated by various stimuli such as Ca2+ and cAMP. In the present study, we simulate transcellular Cl- secretion using mathematical models combined with electrophysiological measurements, providing information on contribution of Cl- channels/transporters to transcellular Cl- secretion, activity of electro-neutral ion transporters and how Cl- channels/transporters are regulated.

  16. Simulation of Cl− Secretion in Epithelial Tissues: New Methodology Estimating Activity of Electro-Neutral Cl− Transporter

    Sasamoto, Kouhei; Niisato, Naomi; Taruno, Akiyuki; Marunaka, Yoshinori

    2015-01-01

    Transcellular Cl− secretion is, in general, mediated by two steps; (1) the entry step of Cl− into the cytosolic space from the basolateral space across the basolateral membrane by Cl− transporters, such as Na+-K+-2Cl− cotransporter (NKCC1, an isoform of NKCC), and (2) the releasing step of Cl− from the cytosolic space into the luminal (air) space across the apical membrane via Cl− channels, such as cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl− channel. Transcellular Cl− secretion has been characterized by using various experimental techniques. For example, measurements of short-circuit currents in the Ussing chamber and patch clamp techniques provide us information on transepithelial ion movements via transcellular pathway, transepithelial conductance, activity (open probability) of single channel, and whole cell currents. Although many investigators have tried to clarify roles of Cl− channels and transporters located at the apical and basolateral membranes in transcellular Cl− secretion, it is still unclear how Cl− channels/transporters contribute to transcellular Cl− secretion and are regulated by various stimuli such as Ca2+ and cAMP. In the present study, we simulate transcellular Cl− secretion using mathematical models combined with electrophysiological measurements, providing information on contribution of Cl− channels/transporters to transcellular Cl− secretion, activity of electro-neutral ion transporters and how Cl− channels/transporters are regulated. PMID:26779025

  17. High capacity cask (TN28V) and International Transport System for the return shipment of vitrified high activity wastes

    The reprocessing of spent fuel generates different kinds of wastes. Among them fission products and non fissile actinides represent 98% of the radioactivity; these wastes are separated, concentrated, mixed with molten glass and poured into stainless steel containers. For political reasons, it is necessary to return these vitrified high activity wastes to the foreign countries which have decided to have their spent fuel reprocessed in France. So the transport of vitrified waste is vital for both the reprocessor and the utilities that have trusted the reprocessor and this operation has to be securely performed to give satisfaction to all concerned particles. For that reason Cogema will control the whole transport activity from La Hague plants to the receiving facilities of the customers. Therefore cogema will be responsible of the transport whatever the cask type (transport or storage) and will subcontract the transport operation to experienced companies such as Transnucleaire, PNTL or NTL, who will act on behalf of Cogema. Cogema will be the owner of the transport casks while the storage casks will normally be owned by the customers. Both cask types will of course have to comply with the requirements of La Hague, as published by Cogema

  18. Gamma radiation affects active electrolyte transport by rabbit ileum. II. Correlation of alanine and theophylline response with morphology

    Gunter-Smith, P.J.

    1989-03-01

    The response of ileal segments isolated from rabbits to an actively transported amino acid and a secretagogue was evaluated following exposure to 10 Gy whole-body gamma irradiation. The ability of ileal segments to respond to the actively transported amino acid, alanine, was not significantly diminished until 96 h postexposure. Decreased responsiveness to the secretagogue, theophylline, occurred earlier at 72 h. These effects did not appear to be accounted for by decreased food intake of irradiated animals alone. Examination of intestinal morphological changes with respect to these changes in electrolyte transport revealed that decreased amino acid transport coincides with loss of intestinal villi. Although a morphological correlate of decreased secretory response was not as striking as that for absorption, the theophylline response appeared to decline concomitant with the appearance of increased mitotic activity in the intestinal crypts. The results of this study indicate that, following a dose of 10 Gy, the inability of these tissues to respond to amino acids is due to a loss of mature villus absorptive cells subsequent to denudation of the intestinal mucosa. There appeared to be little impairment of cell membrane transport processes for alanine. In contrast, the decreased secretory response could not be correlated with the disappearance of any one cell type and perhaps results from increased proliferation in the crypts at the expense of differentiation.

  19. Gamma-radiation affects active electrolyte transport by rabbit ileum. 2. Correlation of alanine and theophylline response with morphology

    Gunter-Smith, P.J.

    1989-01-01

    The response of ileal segments isolated from rabbits to an actively transported amino acid and a secretagogue was evaluated following exposure to 10-Gy whole-body gamma irradiation. The ability of ileal segments to respond to the actively transported amino acid, alanine, was not significantly diminished until 96 h postexposure. Decreased responsiveness to the secretagogue, theophylline, occurred earlier at 72 h. These effects did not appear to be accounted for by decreased food intake of irradiated animals alone. Examination of intestinal morphological changes with respect to these changes in electrolyte transport revealed that decreased amino acid transport coincides with loss of intestinal villi. Although a morphological correlate of decreased secretory response was not as striking as that for absorption, the theophylline response appeared to decline concomitant with the appearance of increased mitotic activity in the intestinal crypts. The result of this study indicate that, following a dose of 10 Gy, the inability of these tissues to respond to amino acids is due to a loss of mature villus absorptive cells subsequent to denudation of the intestinal mucosa. There appeared to be little impairment of cell membrane transport processes for alanine. In contrast, the decreased secretory response could not be correlated with the disappearance of any one cell type and perhaps results from increased proliferation in the crypts at the expense of differentiation.

  20. Gamma radiation affects active electrolyte transport by rabbit ileum. II. Correlation of alanine and theophylline response with morphology

    The response of ileal segments isolated from rabbits to an actively transported amino acid and a secretagogue was evaluated following exposure to 10 Gy whole-body gamma irradiation. The ability of ileal segments to respond to the actively transported amino acid, alanine, was not significantly diminished until 96 h postexposure. Decreased responsiveness to the secretagogue, theophylline, occurred earlier at 72 h. These effects did not appear to be accounted for by decreased food intake of irradiated animals alone. Examination of intestinal morphological changes with respect to these changes in electrolyte transport revealed that decreased amino acid transport coincides with loss of intestinal villi. Although a morphological correlate of decreased secretory response was not as striking as that for absorption, the theophylline response appeared to decline concomitant with the appearance of increased mitotic activity in the intestinal crypts. The results of this study indicate that, following a dose of 10 Gy, the inability of these tissues to respond to amino acids is due to a loss of mature villus absorptive cells subsequent to denudation of the intestinal mucosa. There appeared to be little impairment of cell membrane transport processes for alanine. In contrast, the decreased secretory response could not be correlated with the disappearance of any one cell type and perhaps results from increased proliferation in the crypts at the expense of differentiation

  1. Fate and Transport of Methane Formed in the Active Layer of Alaskan Permafrost

    Conrad, M. E.; Curtis, J. B.; Smith, L. J.; Bill, M.; Torn, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    Over the past 2 years a series of tracer tests designed to estimate rates of methane formation via acetoclastic methanogenesis in the active layer of permafrost soils were conducted at the Barrow Environmental Observatory (BEO) in northernmost Alaska. The tracer tests consisted of extracting 0.5 to 1.0 liters of soil water in gas-tight bags from different features of polygons at the BEO, followed by addition of a tracer cocktail including acetate with a 13C-labeled methyl group and D2O (as a conservative tracer) into the soil water and injection of the mixture back into the original extraction site. Samples were then taken at depths of 30 cm (just above the bottom of the active layer), 20 cm, 10 cm and surface flux to determine the fate of the 13C-labeled acetate. During 2014 (2015 results are pending) water, soil gas, and flux gas were sampled for 60 days following injection of the tracer solution. Those samples were analyzed for concentrations and isotopic compositions of CH4, DIC/CO2 and water. At one site (the trough of a low-centered polygon) the 13C acetate was completely converted to 13CH4 within the first 2 days. The signal persisted for throughout the entire monitoring period at the injection depth with little evidence of transport or oxidation in any of the other sampling depths. In the saturated center of the same polygon, the acetate was also rapidly converted to 13CH4, but water turnover caused the signal to rapidly dissipate. High δ13C CO2 in flux samples from the polygon center indicate oxidation of the 13CH4 in near-surface waters. Conversely, CH4 production in the center of an unsaturated, flat-centered polygon was relatively small 13CH4 and dissipated rapidly without any evidence of either 13CH4 transport to shallower levels or oxidation. At another site in the edge of that polygon no 13CH4 was produced, but significant 13CO2/DIC was observed indicating direct aerobic oxidation of the acetate was occurring at this site. These results suggest that

  2. Shoe leather epidemiology: active travel and transport infrastructure in the urban landscape

    Mutrie Nanette

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Building new transport infrastructure could help to promote changes in patterns of mobility, physical activity, and other determinants of population health such as economic development. However, local residents may not share planners' goals or assumptions about the benefits of such interventions. A particularly contentious example is the construction of major roads close to deprived residential areas. We report the qualitative findings of the baseline phase of a longitudinal mixed-method study of a new urban section of the M74 motorway in Glasgow, Scotland, that aims to combine quantitative epidemiological and spatial data with qualitative interview data from local residents. Methods We interviewed 12 residents purposively sampled from a larger study cohort of 1322 to include men and women, different age groups, and people with and without cars, all living within 400 metres of the proposed route of the new motorway. We elicited their views and experiences of the local urban environment and the likely impact of the new motorway using a topic guide based on seven key environmental constructs (aesthetics, green space, convenience of routes, access to amenities, traffic, road danger and personal danger reflecting an overall ecological model of walking and cycling. Results Traffic was widely perceived to be heavy despite a low local level of car ownership. Few people cycled, and cycling on the roads was widely perceived to be dangerous for both adults and children. Views about the likely impacts of the new motorway on traffic congestion, pollution and the pleasantness of the local environment were polarised. A new motorway has potential to cause inequitable psychological or physical severance of routes to local amenities, and people may not necessarily use local walking routes or destinations such as parks and shops if these are considered undesirable, unsafe or 'not for us'. Public transport may have the potential to promote or

  3. Modelling carrier decisions in an activity-based freight transportation framework

    MAES, Tabitha

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to develop a new freight transportation framework in which the focus lies on the logistic decisions taken by the involved actors. Two main topics can be recognized in this thesis. The first part of this thesis deals with understanding how current freight transportation models work and what their shortcomings are (chapter 2). Based on this analysis a new conceptual freight transportation framework is proposed to fill in the research gaps (chapters 3 and 4). Secon...

  4. Environmental law issues: Offshore oil and gas activities and tanker transportation

    The environmental law issues that arise from offshore oil/gas activities and petroleum transport are reviewed, focusing on marine oil pollution and especially on the issues surrounding accidental spills. Some observations are offered on the context of these issues, namely on the risks of oil spills, the difficulty of spill response in the ocean and on shorelines, and the possible environmental damage. Environmental control of petroleum operations is discussed with reference to Canadian regulation, the primary source of which is the Oil and Gas Production and Conservation Act. These regulations require developmental approval for offshore operations, formulation of plans for foreseeable spill emergencies, and compensation to those affected by spills, notably those in the fishing industry. Ship-source oil pollution and spill compensation is discussed with reference to international agreements and the Canada Shipping Act. Some problems and trends with oil spill compensation and recovery for environmental damage are noted in such areas as tanker ship standards, cleanup capabilities, and inadequacy of spill penalties and compensation. 18 refs., 1 fig

  5. Robust active noise control in the loadmaster area of a military transport aircraft.

    Kochan, Kay; Sachau, Delf; Breitbach, Harald

    2011-05-01

    The active noise control (ANC) method is based on the superposition of a disturbance noise field with a second anti-noise field using loudspeakers and error microphones. This method can be used to reduce the noise level inside the cabin of a propeller aircraft. However, during the design process of the ANC system, extensive measurements of transfer functions are necessary to optimize the loudspeaker and microphone positions. Sometimes, the transducer positions have to be tailored according to the optimization results to achieve a sufficient noise reduction. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a controller design method for such narrow band ANC systems. The method can be seen as an extension of common transducer placement optimization procedures. In the presented method, individual weighting parameters for the loudspeakers and microphones are used. With this procedure, the tailoring of the transducer positions is replaced by adjustment of controller parameters. Moreover, the ANC system will be robust because of the fact that the uncertainties are considered during the optimization of the controller parameters. The paper describes the necessary theoretic background for the method and demonstrates the efficiency in an acoustical mock-up of a military transport aircraft. PMID:21568404

  6. Neuronal activity mediated regulation of glutamate transporter GLT-1 surface diffusion in rat astrocytes in dissociated and slice cultures.

    Al Awabdh, Sana; Gupta-Agarwal, Swati; Sheehan, David F; Muir, James; Norkett, Rosalind; Twelvetrees, Alison E; Griffin, Lewis D; Kittler, Josef T

    2016-07-01

    The astrocytic GLT-1 (or EAAT2) is the major glutamate transporter for clearing synaptic glutamate. While the diffusion dynamics of neurotransmitter receptors at the neuronal surface are well understood, far less is known regarding the surface trafficking of transporters in subcellular domains of the astrocyte membrane. Here, we have used live-cell imaging to study the mechanisms regulating GLT-1 surface diffusion in astrocytes in dissociated and brain slice cultures. Using GFP-time lapse imaging, we show that GLT-1 forms stable clusters that are dispersed rapidly and reversibly upon glutamate treatment in a transporter activity-dependent manner. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching and single particle tracking using quantum dots revealed that clustered GLT-1 is more stable than diffuse GLT-1 and that glutamate increases GLT-1 surface diffusion in the astrocyte membrane. Interestingly, the two main GLT-1 isoforms expressed in the brain, GLT-1a and GLT-1b, are both found to be stabilized opposed to synapses under basal conditions, with GLT-1b more so. GLT-1 surface mobility is increased in proximity to activated synapses and alterations of neuronal activity can bidirectionally modulate the dynamics of both GLT-1 isoforms. Altogether, these data reveal that astrocytic GLT-1 surface mobility, via its transport activity, is modulated during neuronal firing, which may be a key process for shaping glutamate clearance and glutamatergic synaptic transmission. GLIA 2016;64:1252-1264. PMID:27189737

  7. A systematic review of active transportation research in Africa and the psychometric properties of measurement tools for children and youth

    Larouche, Richard; Oyeyemi, Adewale L.; Prista, Antonio; Onywera, Vincent; Akinroye, Kingsley K; Tremblay, Mark S

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous systematic reviews indicate that active transportation (AT; the use of non-motorized travel modes such as walking, running and cycling) is an important source of daily physical activity (PA). However, no previous systematic review has examined travel behaviours among African children and youth or the psychometric properties of measurement tools used among children and youth worldwide. Methods Studies on AT among African children and youth (aged 5–17 years) were identified ...

  8. Cholinergic activation of the murine trachealis muscle via non-vesicular acetylcholine release involving low-affinity choline transporters.

    Nassenstein, Christina; Wiegand, Silke; Lips, Katrin S; Li, Guanfeng; Klein, Jochen; Kummer, Wolfgang

    2015-11-01

    In addition to quantal, vesicular release of acetylcholine (ACh), there is also non-quantal release at the motor endplate which is insufficient to evoke postsynaptic responses unless acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is inhibited. We here addressed potential non-quantal release in the mouse trachea by organ bath experiments and (immuno)histochemical methods. Electrical field stimulation (EFS) of nerve terminals elicited tracheal constriction that is largely due to ACh release. Classical enzyme histochemistry demonstrated acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in nerve fibers in the muscle and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activity in the smooth muscle cells. Acute inhibition of both esterases by eserine significantly raised tracheal tone which was fully sensitive to atropine. This effect was reduced, but not abolished, in AChE, but not in BChE gene-deficient mice. The eserine-induced increase in tracheal tone was unaffected by vesamicol (10(-5)M), an inhibitor of the vesicular acetylcholine transporter, and by corticosterone (10(-4)M), an inhibitor of organic cation transporters. Hemicholinium-3, in low concentrations an inhibitor of the high-affinity choline transporter-1 (CHT1), completely abrogated the eserine effects when applied in high concentrations (10(-4)M) pointing towards an involvement of low-affinity choline transporters. To evaluate the cellular sources of non-quantal ACh release in the trachea, expression of low-affinity choline transporter-like family (CTL1-5) was evaluated by RT-PCR analysis. Even though these transporters were largely abundant in the epithelium, denudation of airway epithelial cells had no effect on eserine-induced tracheal contraction, indicating a non-quantal release of ACh from non-epithelial sources in the airways. These data provide evidence for an epithelium-independent non-vesicular, non-quantal ACh release in the mouse trachea involving low-affinity choline transporters. PMID:26278668

  9. Repeat-swap homology modeling of secondary active transporters: updated protocol and prediction of elevator-type mechanisms.

    Vergara-Jaque, Ariela; Fenollar-Ferrer, Cristina; Kaufmann, Desirée; Forrest, Lucy R

    2015-01-01

    Secondary active transporters are critical for neurotransmitter clearance and recycling during synaptic transmission and uptake of nutrients. These proteins mediate the movement of solutes against their concentration gradients, by using the energy released in the movement of ions down pre-existing concentration gradients. To achieve this, transporters conform to the so-called alternating-access hypothesis, whereby the protein adopts at least two conformations in which the substrate binding sites are exposed to one or other side of the membrane, but not both simultaneously. Structures of a bacterial homolog of neuronal glutamate transporters, GltPh, in several different conformational states have revealed that the protein structure is asymmetric in the outward- and inward-open states, and that the conformational change connecting them involves a elevator-like movement of a substrate binding domain across the membrane. The structural asymmetry is created by inverted-topology repeats, i.e., structural repeats with similar overall folds whose transmembrane topologies are related to each other by two-fold pseudo-symmetry around an axis parallel to the membrane plane. Inverted repeats have been found in around three-quarters of secondary transporter folds. Moreover, the (a)symmetry of these systems has been successfully used as a bioinformatic tool, called "repeat-swap modeling" to predict structural models of a transporter in one conformation using the known structure of the transporter in the complementary conformation as a template. Here, we describe an updated repeat-swap homology modeling protocol, and calibrate the accuracy of the method using GltPh, for which both inward- and outward-facing conformations are known. We then apply this repeat-swap homology modeling procedure to a concentrative nucleoside transporter, VcCNT, which has a three-dimensional arrangement related to that of GltPh. The repeat-swapped model of VcCNT predicts that nucleoside transport also

  10. Effect of nerve activity on transport of nerve growth factor and dopamine β-hydroxylase antibodies in sympathetic neurones

    The effect of nerve activity on the uptake and retrograde transport of nerve growth factor (NGF) and dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH) antibodies was studied by injecting 125I-labelled NGF and anti-DBH into the anterior eye chamber of guinea-pigs. Decentralization of the ipsilateral superior cervical ganglion (SCG) had no significant effect on the retrograde transport of either NGF or anti-DBH. Phenoxybenzamine produced a 50% increase in anti-DBH but not NGF accumulation and this effect was prevented by prior decentralization. This demonstrates that NGF is taken up independently of the retrieval of synaptic vesicle components. (Auth.)

  11. Preparation of wheat root plasma membrane vesicles and effect of water stress on 45Ca2+ transport activity

    The wheat roots plasma membrane (PM) vesicles were obtained by sucrose gradient centrifugation. The experiment results shows that the wheat roots of Zhengyin No.1 PM H+-ATPase latent activity was 24%, and PM inside-out vesicle (IOV) accounts for 76%. With -1.0 MPa stress of 24h, PM Ca2+-ATPase activity of both orientation wheat roots were increased. Under normal water condition and PEG stress, 62% and 53% of the enzyme activity was inhibited respectively by EGTA, radioactive calcium-45 transport amount was 22.09 nmol/mg pro and 4.17 nmol/mg pro. respectively with PM-IOV.PEG stress results in a decrease of 45Ca2+ transport amount of wheat roots PM-IOV by 81%

  12. Membrane metabolism mediated by Sec14 family members influences Arf GTPase activating protein activity for transport from the trans-Golgi

    Wong, Tania A.; Fairn, Gregory D.; Poon, Pak P.; Shmulevitz, Maya; McMaster, Christopher R.; Singer, Richard A.; Johnston, Gerald C.

    2005-01-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains a family of Arf (ADP-ribosylation factor) GTPase activating protein (GAP) proteins with the Gcs1 + Age2 ArfGAP pair providing essential overlapping function for the movement of transport vesicles from the trans-Golgi network. We have generated a temperature-sensitive but stable version of the Gcs1 protein that is impaired only for trans-Golgi transport and find that deleterious effects of this enfeebled Gcs1-4 mutant protein are relieved by ...

  13. GIS measured environmental correlates of active school transport: A systematic review of 14 studies

    Faulkner Guy

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emerging frameworks to examine active school transportation (AST commonly emphasize the built environment (BE as having an influence on travel mode decisions. Objective measures of BE attributes have been recommended for advancing knowledge about the influence of the BE on school travel mode choice. An updated systematic review on the relationships between GIS-measured BE attributes and AST is required to inform future research in this area. The objectives of this review are: i to examine and summarize the relationships between objectively measured BE features and AST in children and adolescents and ii to critically discuss GIS methodologies used in this context. Methods Six electronic databases, and websites were systematically searched, and reference lists were searched and screened to identify studies examining AST in students aged five to 18 and reporting GIS as an environmental measurement tool. Fourteen cross-sectional studies were identified. The analyses were classified in terms of density, diversity, and design and further differentiated by the measures used or environmental condition examined. Results Only distance was consistently found to be negatively associated with AST. Consistent findings of positive or negative associations were not found for land use mix, residential density, and intersection density. Potential modifiers of any relationship between these attributes and AST included age, school travel mode, route direction (e.g., to/from school, and trip-end (home or school. Methodological limitations included inconsistencies in geocoding, selection of study sites, buffer methods and the shape of zones (Modifiable Areal Unit Problem [MAUP], the quality of road and pedestrian infrastructure data, and school route estimation. Conclusions The inconsistent use of spatial concepts limits the ability to draw conclusions about the relationship between objectively measured environmental attributes and AST. Future

  14. Summary report for ITER task - D10: Update and implementation of neutron transport and activation codes and processed libraries

    The primary goal of this task is to provide the capabilities in the activation code RACC, to treat pulsed operation modes. In addition, it is required that the code utilizes the same spatial mesh and geometrical models as employed in the one or multidimensional neutron transport codes used in ITER design. This would ensure the use of the same neutron flux generated by those codes to calculate the different activation parameters. It is also required to have the capabilities for generating graphical outputs for the calculated activation parameters

  15. Turbulent transport of He II in active and passive phase separators using slit devices and porous media

    Yuan, S. W. K.; Lee, J. M.; Frederking, T. H. K.

    1988-01-01

    The turbulent transport mode of vapor liquid phase separators (VLPS) for He II has been investigated comparing passive porous plug separators with active phase separators (APS) using slits of variable flow paths within a common frame of reference. It is concluded that the basic transport regimes in both devices are identical. An integrated Gorter-Mellink (1949) equation, found previously to predict VLPS results of porous plugs, is employed to analyze APS data published in the literature. It is found that the Gorter-Mellink flow rate parameter for 9-micron and 14-micron APS slit widths are relatively independent of the slit width, having a rate constant of about 9 + or - 10 percent. This agrees with the early heat flow results for He II entropy transport at zero net mass flow in wide capillaries and slits.

  16. EUV-driven ionospheres and electron transport on extrasolar giant planets orbiting active stars

    Chadney, J. M.; Galand, M.; Koskinen, T. T.; Miller, S.; Sanz-Forcada, J.; Unruh, Y. C.; Yelle, R. V.

    2016-03-01

    The composition and structure of the upper atmospheres of extrasolar giant planets (EGPs) are affected by the high-energy spectrum of their host stars from soft X-rays to the extreme ultraviolet (EUV). This emission depends on the activity level of the star, which is primarily determined by its age. In this study, we focus upon EGPs orbiting K- and M-dwarf stars of different ages - ɛ Eridani, AD Leonis, AU Microscopii - and the Sun. X-ray and EUV (XUV) spectra for these stars are constructed using a coronal model. These spectra are used to drive both a thermospheric model and an ionospheric model, providing densities of neutral and ion species. Ionisation - as a result of stellar radiation deposition - is included through photo-ionisation and electron-impact processes. The former is calculated by solving the Lambert-Beer law, while the latter is calculated from a supra-thermal electron transport model. We find that EGP ionospheres at all orbital distances considered (0.1-1 AU) and around all stars selected are dominated by the long-lived H+ ion. In addition, planets with upper atmospheres where H2 is not substantially dissociated (at large orbital distances) have a layer in which H3+ is the major ion at the base of the ionosphere. For fast-rotating planets, densities of short-lived H3+ undergo significant diurnal variations, with the maximum value being driven by the stellar X-ray flux. In contrast, densities of longer-lived H+ show very little day/night variability and the magnitude is driven by the level of stellar EUV flux. The H3+ peak in EGPs with upper atmospheres where H2 is dissociated (orbiting close to their star) under strong stellar illumination is pushed to altitudes below the homopause, where this ion is likely to be destroyed through reactions with heavy species (e.g. hydrocarbons, water). The inclusion of secondary ionisation processes produces significantly enhanced ion and electron densities at altitudes below the main EUV ionisation peak, as

  17. porewater chemistry experiment at Mont Terri rock laboratory. Reactive transport modelling including bacterial activity

    Document available in extended abstract form only. An in-situ test in the Opalinus Clay formation, termed pore water Chemistry (PC) experiment, was run for a period of five years. It was based on the concept of diffusive equilibration whereby traced water with a composition close to that expected in the formation was continuously circulated and monitored in a packed off borehole. The main original focus was to obtain reliable data on the pH/pCO2 of the pore water, but because of unexpected microbially- induced redox reactions, the objective was then changed to elucidate the biogeochemical processes happening in the borehole and to understand their impact on pH/pCO2 and pH in the low permeability clay formation. The biologically perturbed chemical evolution of the PC experiment was simulated with reactive transport models. The aim of this modelling exercise was to develop a 'minimal-' model able to reproduce the chemical evolution of the PC experiment, i.e. the chemical evolution of solute inorganic and organic compounds (organic carbon, dissolved inorganic carbon etc...) that are coupled with each other through the simultaneous occurrence of biological transformation of solute or solid compounds, in-diffusion and out-diffusion of solute species and precipitation/dissolution of minerals (in the borehole and in the formation). An accurate description of the initial chemical conditions in the surrounding formation together with simplified kinetics rule mimicking the different phases of bacterial activities allowed reproducing the evolution of all main measured parameters (e.g. pH, TOC). Analyses from the overcoring and these simulations evidence the high buffer capacity of Opalinus clay regarding chemical perturbations due to bacterial activity. This pH buffering capacity is mainly attributed to the carbonate system as well as to the clay surfaces reactivity. Glycerol leaching from the pH-electrode might be the primary organic source responsible for

  18. Conserved charged amino acid residues in the extracellular region of sodium/iodide symporter are critical for iodide transport activity

    Liang Ji-An

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sodium/iodide symporter (NIS mediates the active transport and accumulation of iodide from the blood into the thyroid gland. His-226 located in the extracellular region of NIS has been demonstrated to be critical for iodide transport in our previous study. The conserved charged amino acid residues in the extracellular region of NIS were therefore characterized in this study. Methods Fourteen charged residues (Arg-9, Glu-79, Arg-82, Lys-86, Asp-163, His-226, Arg-228, Asp-233, Asp-237, Arg-239, Arg-241, Asp-311, Asp-322, and Asp-331 were replaced by alanine. Iodide uptake abilities of mutants were evaluated by steady-state and kinetic analysis. The three-dimensional comparative protein structure of NIS was further modeled using sodium/glucose transporter as the reference protein. Results All the NIS mutants were expressed normally in the cells and targeted correctly to the plasma membrane. However, these mutants, except R9A, displayed severe defects on the iodide uptake. Further kinetic analysis revealed that mutations at conserved positively charged amino acid residues in the extracellular region of NIS led to decrease NIS-mediated iodide uptake activity by reducing the maximal rate of iodide transport, while mutations at conserved negatively charged residues led to decrease iodide transport by increasing dissociation between NIS mutants and iodide. Conclusions This is the first report characterizing thoroughly the functional significance of conserved charged amino acid residues in the extracellular region of NIS. Our data suggested that conserved charged amino acid residues, except Arg-9, in the extracellular region of NIS were critical for iodide transport.

  19. ESSENCE OF THE CONCEPT "COMPETITIVENESS" ON THE ACTIVITIES OF RAILWAY TRANSPORT

    Kalinichenko, O.

    2011-01-01

    Сlarify the essence of the concept of "competitiveness" of relatively rail transport from the position of the effect on the process of ensuring the implementation of major, and related administrative processes.

  20. The transport of plutonium industry in France. A high risk activity

    According to the estimations of the report more than 450 transport of materials including about 40 tons of plutonium circulate in France during one year. The nuclear matters transported are a source of danger. The risks in relation with the handling and transport of plutonium touch the criticality risk, its great toxicity, and the problem of proliferation. To these risks it is necessary to add terrorists attacks. Three scenarios of accidents have been developed to illustrate the risk potential. A scenario of train accident, with derailment in a tunnel then crash with an other train; a simple scenario occurring to a lorry of plutonium powder; then a scenario of an accident following a terrorist act. These scenarios should be studied by I.R.S.N and the results should be given to the public and to elected people confronted to the transport of plutonium. (N.C.)

  1. Discovery of a Biological Mechanism of Active Transport through the Tympanic Membrane to the Middle Ear

    Arwa Kurabi; Kwang K. Pak; Marlen Bernhardt; Andrew Baird; Ryan, Allen F.

    2016-01-01

    Otitis media (OM) is a common pediatric disease for which systemic antibiotics are often prescribed. While local treatment would avoid the systemic treatment side-effects, the tympanic membrane (TM) represents an impenetrable barrier unless surgically breached. We hypothesized that the TM might harbor innate biological mechanisms that could mediate trans-TM transport. We used two M13-bacteriophage display biopanning strategies to search for mediators of trans-TM transport. First, aliquots of ...

  2. Cuticular transport of hydrophilic molecules with special focus on primary metabolites and active ingredients

    Popp, Christian

    2005-01-01

    The plant cuticle as an interface between the plant interior and the adjoining atmosphere plays an important role in any interaction between the plant and its environment. Transport processes across the cuticles were the object of countless research since many decades. However, bulk of the work done was focused on transport of lipophilic molecules. It is highly plausible to examine the penetration of lipophilic compounds, since the cuticle is dominated by lipophilic compartments itself, and t...

  3. Integrated Modelling of ITER Hybrid Scenarios Including Momentum Transport, NTMs, and ELMs in Preparation for Active Control

    Full text: Hybrid scenario is an operational regime designed to achieve a long pulse operation with a combination of inductive and non-inductive current drive. It was suggested for the operation of ITER to allow high fusion power in long pulse operations over 1000 s at a plasma current lower than the inductive reference scenario. Engineering tests of reactor-relevant components, such as breeding blankets are planned to perform in this scenario. Here, we report integrated simulation results of ITER hybrid scenario including momentum transport, neoclassical tearing mode (NTM), and edge localised mode (ELM). In this work, ASTRA is used for integrated simulations of plasma equilibrium, transport, heating and current drive, and magnetic island evolution, self-consistently. Firstly, the effect of toroidal rotation to confinement is addressed by solving the momentum transport equation including inward pinch, turbulent transport and residual stress. Secondly, the ELM activities are simulated and the pedestal height of ITER hybrid scenario is predicted. Lastly, the NTM activities are simulated and the capability of the ECH upper launcher is evaluated. The methodology of simulations presented can be applied to design feedback controllers for ELMs and NTMs in ITER. (author)

  4. Membrane metabolism mediated by Sec14 family members influences Arf GTPase activating protein activity for transport from the trans-Golgi.

    Wong, Tania A; Fairn, Gregory D; Poon, Pak P; Shmulevitz, Maya; McMaster, Christopher R; Singer, Richard A; Johnston, Gerald C

    2005-09-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains a family of Arf (ADP-ribosylation factor) GTPase activating protein (GAP) proteins with the Gcs1 + Age2 ArfGAP pair providing essential overlapping function for the movement of transport vesicles from the trans-Golgi network. We have generated a temperature-sensitive but stable version of the Gcs1 protein that is impaired only for trans-Golgi transport and find that deleterious effects of this enfeebled Gcs1-4 mutant protein are relieved by increased gene dosage of the gcs1-4 mutant gene itself or by the SFH2 gene (also called CSR1), encoding a phosphatidylinositol transfer protein (PITP). This effect was not seen for the SEC14 gene, encoding the founding member of the yeast PITP protein family, even though the Gcs1 and Age2 ArfGAPs are known to be downstream effectors of Sec14-mediated activity for trans-Golgi transport. Sfh2-mediated suppression of inadequate Gcs1-4 function depended on phospholipase D, whereas inadequate Gcs1-4 activity was relieved by increasing levels of diacylglycerol (DAG). Recombinant Gcs1 protein was found to bind certain phospholipids but not DAG. Our findings favor a model of Gcs1 localization through binding to specific phospholipids and activation of ArfGAP activity by DAG-mediated membrane curvature as the transport vesicle is formed. Thus, ArfGAPs are subject to both temporal and spatial regulation that is facilitated by Sfh2-mediated modulation of the lipid environment. PMID:16126894

  5. SIT1 is a betaine/proline transporter that is activated in mouse eggs after fertilization and functions until the 2-cell stage.

    Anas, Mohamed-Kheir Idris; Lee, Martin B; Zhou, Chenxi; Hammer, Mary-Anne; Slow, Sandy; Karmouch, Jennifer; Liu, X Johné; Bröer, Stefan; Lever, Michael; Baltz, Jay M

    2008-12-01

    Betaine (N,N,N-trimethylglycine) added to culture media is known to substantially improve the development of preimplantation mouse embryos in vitro, and to be imported into 1-cell embryos by a transporter that also accepts proline. Here, we found that the betaine/proline transporter is active in preimplantation mouse embryos only for a short period of development, between the 1- and 2-cell stages. Betaine/proline transport was activated after fertilization, beginning approximately 4 hours post-egg activation and reaching a maximum by approximately 10 hours. One- and 2-cell embryos contained endogenous betaine, indicating that a likely function for the transporter in vivo is the accumulation or retention of intracellular betaine. The appearance of transport activity after egg activation was independent of protein synthesis, but was reversibly blocked by disruption of the Golgi with brefeldin A. We assessed two candidates for the betaine/proline transporter: SIT1 (IMINO; encoded by Slc6a20a) and PROT (Slc6a7). mRNA from both genes was present in eggs and 1-cell embryos. However, when exogenously expressed in Xenopus oocytes, mouse PROT did not transport betaine and had an inhibition profile different from that of the embryonic transporter. By contrast, exogenously expressed mouse SIT1 transported both betaine and proline and closely resembled the embryonic transporter. A morpholino oligonucleotide designed to block translation of SIT1, when present from the germinal vesicle stage, blocked the appearance of betaine transport activity in parthenogenotes. Thus, SIT1 is likely to be a developmentally restricted betaine transporter in mouse preimplantation embryos that is activated by fertilization. PMID:19029042

  6. Novel compound, organic cation transporter 3 detection agent and organic cation transporter 3 activity inhibitor, WO2015002150 A1: a patent evaluation.

    Hu, Tao; Wang, Li; Pan, Xiaolei; Qi, Hualin

    2016-08-01

    Increasing pharmacological studies have demonstrated that organic cation transporter 3 (OCT3) plays an important role in controlling the extracellular concentrations of released monoamine neurotransmitter, suggesting that OCT3 might be a promising target in the treatment of depression. As a consequence, compounds showing inhibitory effects on the function of OCT3 have the potential for depression treatment. The current patent WO2015002150 A1 described the synthesis of 59 novel guanidine derivatives. All investigated compounds exhibited significant inhibitory effects (41.9-88.2%) on human OCT3 activity at 30 µM, using human OCT3-transfected human embryonic kidney 293 cell. Concentration-response curves (IC50 values) were determined for seven compounds with higher inhibition potency from the initial screening. IC50 values ranged from 1.9 to 24 µM. In addition, the concentration of these compound in aqueous solution with artificial membranes containing human OCT3 protein was measured. The concentration of compound 6 (SR-2045) was significantly reduced in the presence of human OCT3. Therefore, these compounds have the potential to be further developed as novel antidepressant and human OCT3 detection agent. Future investigations are needed to study the pharmacokinetic and pharmacological properties of these compounds and potential interaction with other transporters. PMID:27097290

  7. The hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated HCN2 channel transports ammonium in the distal nephron

    Carrisoza-Gaytán, Rolando; Rangel, Claudia; Salvador, Carolina; Saldaña-Meyer, Ricardo; Escalona, Christian; Satlin, Lisa M.; Liu, Wen; Zavilowitz, Beth; Trujillo, Joyce; Bobadilla, Norma A.; Escobar, Laura I.

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have identified Rhesus proteins as important molecules for ammonia transport in acid-secreting intercalated cells in the distal nephron. Here, we provide evidence for an additional molecule that can mediate NH3/NH4 excretion, the subtype 2 of the hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channel family (HCN2), in collecting ducts in rat renal cortex and medulla. Chronic metabolic acidosis in rats did not alter HCN2 protein expression but downregulated the relative abu...

  8. Mode shifting in school travel mode: examining the prevalence and correlates of active school transport in Ontario, Canada

    Buliung Ron

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies examining the correlates of school transport commonly fail to make the distinction between morning and afternoon school trips. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and correlates of mode shift from passive in the morning to active in the afternoon among elementary and secondary school students in Ontario, Canada. Methods Data were derived from the 2009 cycle of the Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey (OSDUHS. 3,633 students in grades 7 through 12 completed self-administered questionnaires. Socio-demographic, behavioural, psychological, and environmental predictors of active school transport (AST were assessed using logistic regression. Results Overall, 47% and 38% of elementary school students reported AST to and from school, respectively. The corresponding figures were 23% and 32% for secondary school students. The prevalence of AST varied temporarily and spatially. There was a higher prevalence of walking/biking found for elementary school students than for secondary school students, and there was an approximate 10% increase in AST in the afternoon. Different correlates of active school transport were also found across elementary and secondary school students. For all ages, students living in urban areas, with a shorter travel time between home and school, and having some input to the decision making process, were more likely to walk to and from school. Conclusions Future research examining AST should continue to make the analytic distinction between the morning and afternoon trip, and control for the moderating effect of age and geography in predicting mode choice. In terms of practice, these variations highlight the need for school-specific travel plans rather than 'one size fits all' interventions in promoting active school transport.

  9. Mode shifting in school travel mode: examining the prevalence and correlates of active school transport in Ontario, Canada

    Buliung Ron; Faulkner Guy; Wong Bonny Yee-Man; Irving Hyacinth

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Studies examining the correlates of school transport commonly fail to make the distinction between morning and afternoon school trips. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and correlates of mode shift from passive in the morning to active in the afternoon among elementary and secondary school students in Ontario, Canada. Methods Data were derived from the 2009 cycle of the Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey (OSDUHS). 3,633 students in grades 7 th...

  10. Montmorillonite enhanced ciprofloxacin transport in saturated porous media with sorbed ciprofloxacin showing antibiotic activity

    Chen, Hao; Gao, Bin; Yang, Liu-Yan; Ma, Lena Q.

    2015-02-01

    Antibiotic ciprofloxacin (CIP) is immobile in the subsurface but it has been frequently detected in the aquatic system. Therefore it is important to investigate the factors impacting CIP's mobilization in aquifer. Laboratory columns packed with sand were used to test colloid-facilitated CIP transport by 1) using kaolinite or montmorillonite to mobilize presorbed-CIP in a column or 2) co-transporting with CIP by pre-mixing them before transport. The Langmuir model showed that CIP sorption by montmorillonite (23 g kg- 1) was 100 times more effective than sand or kaolinite. Even with strong CIP complexation ability to Fe/Al coating on sand surface, montmorillonite promoted CIP transport, but not kaolinite. All presorbed-CIP by sand was mobilized by montmorillonite after 3 pore volumes through co-transporting of CIP with montmorillonite. The majority of CIP was fixed onto the montmorillonite interlayer but still showed inhibition of bacteria growth. Our results suggested that montmorillonite with high CIP sorption ability can act as a carrier to enhance CIP's mobility in aquifer.

  11. The ARIPAR project: analysis of the major accident risks connected with industrial and transportation activities in the Ravenna area

    The paper describes the ARIPAR project aimed at the assessment of the major accident risks connected with storage, process and transportation of dangerous substances in the densely populated Ravenna area in Italy, which includes a large complex of chemical and petrochemical plants and minor industries, essentially distributed around an important commercial port. Large quantities of dangerous goods are involved in various transportation forms connected with the industrial and commercial activity of the port. The project started by making a complete inventory of fixed installations and transportation activities capable of provoking major fire, explosion and toxic release events; then relevant accident scenarios were developed for the single hazard sources; probabilities were assigned to the events and consequences were evaluated; finally iso-risk contours and F-N diagrams were evaluated both for the single sources and for the overall area. This required the development of a particular methodology for analysis of area risk and of associated software packages which allowed examination of the relative importance of the different activities and typologies of materials involved. The methodological approach and the results have proved to be very useful for the priority-ranking of risk mitigating interventions and physical planning in a complex area

  12. The ionophore nigericin transports Pb2+ with high activity and selectivity: a comparison to monensin and ionomycin.

    Hamidinia, Shawn A; Tan, Bo; Erdahl, Warren L; Chapman, Clifford J; Taylor, Richard W; Pfeiffer, Douglas R

    2004-12-21

    The K(+) ionophore nigericin is shown to be highly effective as an ionophore for Pb(2+) but not other divalent cations, including Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+), Mn(2+), Co(2+), Ca(2+), Ni(2+), and Sr(2+). Among this group a minor activity for Cu(2+) transport is seen, while for the others activity is near or below the limit of detection. The selectivity of nigericin for Pb(2+) exceeds that of ionomycin or monensin and arises, at least in part, from a high stability of nigericin-Pb(2+) complexes. Plots of log rate vs log Pb(2+) or log ionophore concentration, together with the pH dependency, indicate that nigericin transports Pb(2+) via the species NigPbOH and by a mechanism that is predominately electroneutral. As with monensin and ionomycin, a minor fraction of activity may be electrogenic, based upon a stimulation of rate that is produced by agents which prevent the formation of transmembrane electrical potentials. Nigericin-catalyzed Pb(2+) transport is not inhibited by physiological concentrations of Ca(2+) or Mg(2+) and is only modestly affected by K(+) and Na(+) concentrations in the range of 0-100 mM. These characteristics, together with higher selectivity and efficiency, suggest that nigericin may be more useful than monensin in the treatment of Pb intoxication. PMID:15595852

  13. Sociospatial distribution of access to facilities for moderate and vigorous intensity physical activity in Scotland by different modes of transport

    Lamb Karen E

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People living in neighbourhoods of lower socioeconomic status have been shown to have higher rates of obesity and a lower likelihood of meeting physical activity recommendations than their more affluent counterparts. This study examines the sociospatial distribution of access to facilities for moderate or vigorous intensity physical activity in Scotland and whether such access differs by the mode of transport available and by Urban Rural Classification. Methods A database of all fixed physical activity facilities was obtained from the national agency for sport in Scotland. Facilities were categorised into light, moderate and vigorous intensity activity groupings before being mapped. Transport networks were created to assess the number of each type of facility accessible from the population weighted centroid of each small area in Scotland on foot, by bicycle, by car and by bus. Multilevel modelling was used to investigate the distribution of the number of accessible facilities by small area deprivation within urban, small town and rural areas separately, adjusting for population size and local authority. Results Prior to adjustment for Urban Rural Classification and local authority, the median number of accessible facilities for moderate or vigorous intensity activity increased with increasing deprivation from the most affluent or second most affluent quintile to the most deprived for all modes of transport. However, after adjustment, the modelling results suggest that those in more affluent areas have significantly higher access to moderate and vigorous intensity facilities by car than those living in more deprived areas. Conclusions The sociospatial distributions of access to facilities for both moderate intensity and vigorous intensity physical activity were similar. However, the results suggest that those living in the most affluent neighbourhoods have poorer access to facilities of either type that can be reached on foot

  14. Control of plasma transport by active tailoring of potential profile along open magnetic fields

    Tatematsu, Y.; Kiwamoto, Y.; Saito, T.; Yoshimura, Y.; Takahashi, T.; Katanuma, I.; Inutake, M.; Tamano, T.

    1995-04-01

    This paper studies modifications of convective heat transport in terms of electric and magnetic forces acting on electrons streaming along open field lines. The heat transport is greatly affected by the potential profile along the field lines. One important mechanism of the transport is associated with the exchange of impingig warm electrons with cold electrons produced near or on the surface of plasma-facing walls such as end plates and divertor plates. A recently developed potential model predicts that the end plate potential deepens associated with reduction of cold electron emission. In the GAMMA 10 tandem mirror a negatively biased mesh placed in front of the end plate has successfully suppressed secondary electron emission and leads to deepening of the end plate potential. In the thermal dike ECRH works to mirror reflect colder electrons back to the plate by increasing their pitch angles. The consequent potential depression enhances reflection of warm electrons reaching the plate.

  15. Control of plasma transport by active tailoring of potential profile along open magnetic fields

    This paper studies modifications of convective heat transport in terms of electric and magnetic forces acting on electrons streaming along open field lines. The heat transport is greatly affected by the potential profile along the field lines. One important mechanism of the transport is associated with the exchange of impinging warm electrons with cold electrons produced near or on the surface of plasma-facing walls such as end plates and divertor plates. A recently developed potential model predicts that the end plate potential deepens associated with reduction of cold electron emission. In the GAMMA 10 tandem mirror a negatively biased mesh placed in front of the end plate has successfully suppressed secondary electron emission and leads to deepening of the end plate potential. In the thermal dike ECRH works to mirror-reflect colder electrons back to the plate by increasing their pitch angles. The consequent potential depression enhances reflection of warm electrons reaching the plate. ((orig.))

  16. SNPs altering ammonium transport activity of human Rhesus factors characterized by a yeast-based functional assay.

    Aude Deschuyteneer

    Full Text Available Proteins of the conserved Mep-Amt-Rh family, including mammalian Rhesus factors, mediate transmembrane ammonium transport. Ammonium is an important nitrogen source for the biosynthesis of amino acids but is also a metabolic waste product. Its disposal in urine plays a critical role in the regulation of the acid/base homeostasis, especially with an acid diet, a trait of Western countries. Ammonium accumulation above a certain concentration is however pathologic, the cytotoxicity causing fatal cerebral paralysis in acute cases. Alteration in ammonium transport via human Rh proteins could have clinical outcomes. We used a yeast-based expression assay to characterize human Rh variants resulting from non synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs with known or unknown clinical phenotypes and assessed their ammonium transport efficiency, protein level, localization and potential trans-dominant impact. The HsRhAG variants (I61R, F65S associated to overhydrated hereditary stomatocytosis (OHSt, a disease affecting erythrocytes, proved affected in intrinsic bidirectional ammonium transport. Moreover, this study reveals that the R202C variant of HsRhCG, the orthologue of mouse MmRhcg required for optimal urinary ammonium excretion and blood pH control, shows an impaired inherent ammonium transport activity. Urinary ammonium excretion was RHcg gene-dose dependent in mouse, highlighting MmRhcg as a limiting factor. HsRhCG(R202C may confer susceptibility to disorders leading to metabolic acidosis for instance. Finally, the analogous R211C mutation in the yeast ScMep2 homologue also impaired intrinsic activity consistent with a conserved functional role of the preserved arginine residue. The yeast expression assay used here constitutes an inexpensive, fast and easy tool to screen nsSNPs reported by high throughput sequencing or individual cases for functional alterations in Rh factors revealing potential causal variants.

  17. Variations in active transport behavior among different neighborhoods and across adult life stages

    Christiansen, Lars Breum; Madsen, Thomas; Schipperijn, Jasper; Ersbøll, Annette K; Troelsen, Jens

    2014-01-01

    getting around easily on foot and by bicycle. Three self-selection factors were detected, and varied across the life stages. In the multivariable models high neighborhood walkability was associated with less motorized transport (OR 0.33 95%CI 0.18-0.58), more walking (OR 1.65 95%CI 1.03-2.65) and cycling...... between neighborhood walkability and walking for transport. Getting around easily by bicycle and on foot was the highest rated self-selection factor second only to perceived neighborhood safety....

  18. The implications of megatrends in information and communication technology and transportation for changes in global physical activity

    Pratt, Michael; Sarmiento, Olga L; Montes, Felipe;

    2012-01-01

    Physical inactivity accounts for more than 3 million deaths per year, most from non-communicable diseases in low-income and middle-income countries. We used reviews of physical activity interventions and a simulation model to examine how megatrends in information and communication technology...... and transportation directly and indirectly aff ect levels of physical activity across countries of low, middle, and high income. The model suggested that the direct and potentiating eff ects of information and communication technology, especially mobile phones, are nearly equal in magnitude to the mean eff ects...

  19. Effect of the PPARα-activator gemfibrozil on whole blood drug transporter gene expression in humans

    Miao, Zefeng Jr

    2014-01-01

    Gemfibrozil is a fibric acid derivative used in the treatment of dyslipidemia. It activates peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (PPARα) and alters lipoprotein metabolism gene expression. PPARα may also regulate the expression of drug disposition genes (e.g., CYP3A4). The aim of this study was to investigate possible effects of gemfibrozil on drug transporter gene expression in human whole blood. In a randomized crossover study, 10 healthy volunteers took 600 mg gemfibrozil or p...

  20. The response of electron transport mediated by active NADPH dehydrogenase complexes to heat stress in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis 6803

    2008-01-01

    The electron-transport machinery in photosynthetic membranes is known to be very sensitive to heat. In this study, the rate of electron transport (ETR) driven by photosystem I (PSI) and photosystem II (PSII) during heat stress in the wild-type Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 (WT) and its ndh gene inactiva-tion mutants △ndhB (M55) and △ndhD1/ndhD2 (D1/D2) was simultaneously assessed by using the novel Dual-PAM-100 measuring system. The rate of electron transport driven by the photosystems (ETRPSs) in the WT, M55, and D1/D2 cells incubated at 30℃ and at 55℃ for 10 min was compared. Incubation at 55 ℃ for 10 min significantly inhibited PSII-driven ETR (ETRPSII) in the WT, M55 and D1/D2 cells, and the ex-tent of inhibition in both the M55 and D1/D2 cells was greater than that in the WT cells. Further, PSI-driven ETR (ETRPSI) was stimulated in both the WT and D1/D2 cells, and this rate was increased to a greater extent in the D1/D2 than in the WT cells. However, ETRPSI was considerably inhibited in the M55 cells. Analysis of the effect of heat stress on ETRPSs with regard to the alterations in the 2 active NDH-1 complexes in the WT, M55, and D1/D2 cells indicated that the active NDH-1 supercomplex and medi-umcomplex are essential for alleviating the heat-induced inhibition of ETRPSII and for accelerating the heat-induced stimulation of ETRPSI, respectively. Further, it is believed that these effects are most likely brought about by the electron transport mediated by each of these 2 active NDH-1 complexes.

  1. Evidence of active transport (filtration?) of plasma proteins across the capillary walls in muscle and subcutis

    Noer, Ivan; Lassen, N A

    1978-01-01

    Under slight lymphatic stasis (tilting the body 15 degrees) we measured the arrival of locally injected I-albumin to the plasma pool. From 30 min. to 90 min. after the injection the return rate was zero i.e. local back transport in the two tissues studied viz.muscle and subcutaneous fat is very...

  2. Evidence of active transport (filtration?) of plasma proteins across the capillary walls in muscle and subcutis

    Noer, Ivan; Lassen, N A

    1979-01-01

    Under slight lymphatic stasis (tilting the body 15 degrees) we measured the arrival of locally injected 131I-albumin in the plasma pool. From 30 min to 90 min after the injection the return rate was zero, i.e. local back transport in the two tissues studied, muscle and subcutaneous fat, is very...

  3. Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment Facilitating Active Learning of Concepts in Transport Phenomena: Experiment with a Subliming Solid

    Utgikar, Vivek P.

    2015-01-01

    An experiment based on the sublimation of a solid was introduced in the undergraduate Transport Phenomena course. The experiment required the students to devise their own apparatus and measurement techniques. The theoretical basis, assignment of the experiment, experimental results, and student/instructor observations are described in this paper.…

  4. Active lithium transport by rat renal proximal tubule: a micropuncture study

    Leyssac, P P; Frederiksen, O; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Alfrey, A C; Christensen, P

    We tested the hypothesis that proximal tubular Li+ reabsorption is due to passive transport. Clearances of [14C]inulin (CIn) and Li+ (CLi), proximal transepithelial electrical potential difference (PD), and tubular fluid-to-plasma Li+ concentration ratios [(TF/P)Li] were measured in anesthetized...

  5. Atovaquone and quinine anti-malarials inhibit ATP binding cassette transporter activity

    Rijpma, S.R.; Heuvel, J. J.; van de Velden, M.; Sauerwein, R. W.; Russel, F. G.; Koenderink, J.B.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Therapeutic blood plasma concentrations of anti-malarial drugs are essential for successful treatment. Pharmacokinetics of pharmaceutical compounds are dependent of adsorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion. ATP binding cassette (ABC) transport proteins are particularly involved in drug deposition, as they are located at membranes of many uptake and excretory organs and at protective barriers, where they export endogenous and xenobiotic compounds, including pharmaceutica...

  6. St. John's Wort constituents modulate P-glycoprotein transport activity at the blood-brain barrier.

    Ott, M.; Huls, M.; Cornelius, M.G.; Fricker, G.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the short-term signaling effects of St. John's Wort (SJW) extract and selected SJW constituents on the blood-brain barrier transporter P-glycoprotein and to describe the role of PKC in the signaling. METHODS: Cultured porcine brain capillary endo

  7. Lattice-gas model for active vesicle transport by molecular motors with opposite polarities

    Muhuri, Sudipto; Pagonabarraga, Ignacio

    2010-08-01

    We introduce a multispecies lattice-gas model for motor protein driven collective cargo transport on cellular filaments. We use this model to describe and analyze the collective motion of interacting vesicle cargos being carried by oppositely directed molecular motors, moving on a single biofilament. Building on a totally asymmetric exclusion process to characterize the motion of the interacting cargos, we allow for mass exchange with the environment, input, and output at filament boundaries and focus on the role of interconversion rates and how they affect the directionality of the net cargo transport. We quantify the effect of the various different competing processes in terms of nonequilibrium phase diagrams. The interplay of interconversion rates, which allow for flux reversal and evaporation-deposition processes, introduces qualitatively unique features in the phase diagrams. We observe regimes of three-phase coexistence, the possibility of phase re-entrance, and a significant flexibility in how the different phase boundaries shift in response to changes in control parameters. The moving steady-state solutions of this model allows for different possibilities for the spatial distribution of cargo vesicles, ranging from homogeneous distribution of vesicles to polarized distributions, characterized by inhomogeneities or shocks. Current reversals due to internal regulation emerge naturally within the framework of this model. We believe that this minimal model will clarify the understanding of many features of collective vesicle transport, apart from serving as the basis for building more exact quantitative models for vesicle transport relevant to various in vivo situations.

  8. Multiple transport-active binding sites are available for a single substrate on human P-glycoprotein (ABCB1).

    Chufan, Eduardo E; Kapoor, Khyati; Sim, Hong-May; Singh, Satyakam; Talele, Tanaji T; Durell, Stewart R; Ambudkar, Suresh V

    2013-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (Pgp, ABCB1) is an ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) transporter that is associated with the development of multidrug resistance in cancer cells. Pgp transports a variety of chemically dissimilar amphipathic compounds using the energy from ATP hydrolysis. In the present study, to elucidate the binding sites on Pgp for substrates and modulators, we employed site-directed mutagenesis, cell- and membrane-based assays, molecular modeling and docking. We generated single, double and triple mutants with substitutions of the Y307, F343, Q725, F728, F978 and V982 residues at the proposed drug-binding site with cys in a cysless Pgp, and expressed them in insect and mammalian cells using a baculovirus expression system. All the mutant proteins were expressed at the cell surface to the same extent as the cysless wild-type Pgp. With substitution of three residues of the pocket (Y307, Q725 and V982) with cysteine in a cysless Pgp, QZ59S-SSS, cyclosporine A, tariquidar, valinomycin and FSBA lose the ability to inhibit the labeling of Pgp with a transport substrate, [(125)I]-Iodoarylazidoprazosin, indicating these drugs cannot bind at their primary binding sites. However, the drugs can modulate the ATP hydrolysis of the mutant Pgps, demonstrating that they bind at secondary sites. In addition, the transport of six fluorescent substrates in HeLa cells expressing triple mutant (Y307C/Q725C/V982C) Pgp is also not significantly altered, showing that substrates bound at secondary sites are still transported. The homology modeling of human Pgp and substrate and modulator docking studies support the biochemical and transport data. In aggregate, our results demonstrate that a large flexible pocket in the Pgp transmembrane domains is able to bind chemically diverse compounds. When residues of the primary drug-binding site are mutated, substrates and modulators bind to secondary sites on the transporter and more than one transport-active binding site is available for each

  9. Multiple transport-active binding sites are available for a single substrate on human P-glycoprotein (ABCB1.

    Eduardo E Chufan

    Full Text Available P-glycoprotein (Pgp, ABCB1 is an ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC transporter that is associated with the development of multidrug resistance in cancer cells. Pgp transports a variety of chemically dissimilar amphipathic compounds using the energy from ATP hydrolysis. In the present study, to elucidate the binding sites on Pgp for substrates and modulators, we employed site-directed mutagenesis, cell- and membrane-based assays, molecular modeling and docking. We generated single, double and triple mutants with substitutions of the Y307, F343, Q725, F728, F978 and V982 residues at the proposed drug-binding site with cys in a cysless Pgp, and expressed them in insect and mammalian cells using a baculovirus expression system. All the mutant proteins were expressed at the cell surface to the same extent as the cysless wild-type Pgp. With substitution of three residues of the pocket (Y307, Q725 and V982 with cysteine in a cysless Pgp, QZ59S-SSS, cyclosporine A, tariquidar, valinomycin and FSBA lose the ability to inhibit the labeling of Pgp with a transport substrate, [(125I]-Iodoarylazidoprazosin, indicating these drugs cannot bind at their primary binding sites. However, the drugs can modulate the ATP hydrolysis of the mutant Pgps, demonstrating that they bind at secondary sites. In addition, the transport of six fluorescent substrates in HeLa cells expressing triple mutant (Y307C/Q725C/V982C Pgp is also not significantly altered, showing that substrates bound at secondary sites are still transported. The homology modeling of human Pgp and substrate and modulator docking studies support the biochemical and transport data. In aggregate, our results demonstrate that a large flexible pocket in the Pgp transmembrane domains is able to bind chemically diverse compounds. When residues of the primary drug-binding site are mutated, substrates and modulators bind to secondary sites on the transporter and more than one transport-active binding site is available

  10. Photosystem II cycle activity and alternative electron transport in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum under dynamic light conditions and nitrogen limitation.

    Wagner, Heiko; Jakob, Torsten; Lavaud, Johann; Wilhelm, Christian

    2016-05-01

    Alternative electron sinks are an important regulatory mechanism to dissipate excessively absorbed light energy particularly under fast changing dynamic light conditions. In diatoms, the cyclic electron transport (CET) around Photosystem II (PS II) is an alternative electron transport pathway (AET) that contributes to avoidance of overexcitation under high light illumination. The combination of nitrogen limitation and high-intensity irradiance regularly occurs under natural conditions and is expected to force the imbalance between light absorption and the metabolic use of light energy. The present study demonstrates that under N limitation, the amount of AET and the activity of CETPSII in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum were increased. Thereby, the activity of CETPSII was linearly correlated with the amount of AET rates. It is concluded that CETPSII significantly contributes to AET in P. tricornutum. Surprisingly, CETPSII was found to be activated already at the end of the dark period under N-limited conditions. This coincided with a significantly increased degree of reduction of the plastoquinone (PQ) pool. The analysis of the macromolecular composition of cells of P. tricornutum under N-limited conditions revealed a carbon allocation in favor of carbohydrates during the light period and their degradation during the dark phase. A possible linkage between the activity of CETPSII and degree of reduction of the PQ pool on the one side and the macromolecular changes on the other is discussed. PMID:26650230

  11. The effect of active warming in prehospital trauma care during road and air ambulance transportation - a clinical randomized trial

    Naredi Peter

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevention and treatment of hypothermia by active warming in prehospital trauma care is recommended but scientifical evidence of its effectiveness in a clinical setting is scarce. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of additional active warming during road or air ambulance transportation of trauma patients. Methods Patients were assigned to either passive warming with blankets or passive warming with blankets with the addition of an active warming intervention using a large chemical heat pad applied to the upper torso. Ear canal temperature, subjective sensation of cold discomfort and vital signs were monitored. Results Mean core temperatures increased from 35.1°C (95% CI; 34.7-35.5°C to 36.0°C (95% CI; 35.7-36.3°C (p Conclusions In mildly hypothermic trauma patients, with preserved shivering capacity, adequate passive warming is an effective treatment to establish a slow rewarming rate and to reduce cold discomfort during prehospital transportation. However, the addition of active warming using a chemical heat pad applied to the torso will significantly improve thermal comfort even further and might also reduce the cold induced stress response. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01400152

  12. Promoting the safe transport of radioactive material: Activities of the ISO

    Standards help to make life simpler and to increase the reliability and effectiveness of goods and services. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) plays a key role in developing standards at the international level, including those that apply to the packaging and transport of radioactive material. Such standards can have positive effects, not only on engineers and manufacturers, but also on society as a whole. ISO standards are useful to industrial and business organizations of all kinds, to governments and other regulatory bodies, to trade officials, to conformity-assessment professionals, to suppliers and customers of products and services both in the public and private sectors, and, ultimately, to consumers and end-users in general. The paper outlines the role ISO is playing in this field and summarizes the status of standards that apply to the packaging and transport of radioactive material. (author)

  13. Excess Weapons Plutonium Disposition: Plutonium Packaging, Storage and Transportation and Waste Treatment, Storage and Disposal Activities

    Jardine, L J; Borisov, G B

    2004-07-21

    A fifth annual Excess Weapons Plutonium Disposition meeting organized by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was held February 16-18, 2004, at the State Education Center (SEC), 4 Aerodromnya Drive, St. Petersburg, Russia. The meeting discussed Excess Weapons Plutonium Disposition topics for which LLNL has the US Technical Lead Organization responsibilities. The technical areas discussed included Radioactive Waste Treatment, Storage, and Disposal, Plutonium Oxide and Plutonium Metal Packaging, Storage and Transportation and Spent Fuel Packaging, Storage and Transportation. The meeting was conducted with a conference format using technical presentations of papers with simultaneous translation into English and Russian. There were 46 Russian attendees from 14 different Russian organizations and six non-Russian attendees, four from the US and two from France. Forty technical presentations were made. The meeting agenda is given in Appendix B and the attendance list is in Appendix C.

  14. INFLUENCE OF MOTOR TRANSPORT ON VITAL ACTIVITY SAFETY OF INHABITANTS OF DNEPROPETROVSK

    Dolzhenkova, O.; V Petrova

    2007-01-01

    The car is an integral part of a civilization. But at the same time the car exerts negative influence on the environment. It is known that inhabitants of large cities suffer from the engine emission into the atmosphere, from car noise and vibrations. Also there are a lot of accidents on the roads. In this article the estimation of harmful influence of transport on the environment has been made and possible ways of solving this problem has been offered

  15. The influence of the membrane transport on the heart mechanical activity

    Převorovská, Světlana; Maršík, František

    Vol. 2. Brno : VUT, 1999 - (Kratochvíl, C.; Kotek, V.; Krejsa, J.), s. 55-60 ISBN 80-214-1325-5. [International conference Engineering mechanics '99.. Svratka (CZ), 17.05.1999-20.05.1999] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/98/1373 Grant ostatní: PP ÚT AV ČR(XC) 2/50 U Keywords : human cardiovascular system * myocardium * membrane transport Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery

  16. ACTIVE MEASURES AS PART OF DIALOGUE MARKETING PROMOTING THE USE OF PUBLIC TRANSPORT IN RURAL AREAS

    KLEMENTSCHITZ, Roman; Oliver ROIDER

    2015-01-01

    The SmartMove project is working to advance innovative marketing and mobility solutions in eight rural and peripheral European regions and is co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the European Union. Through tailor-made strategies, it aims to provide information and encourage people to use public transport in their region. Sparsely populated rural areas in Europe are facing tremendous social changes due to shrinking and ageing populations. Because of the scattered settlement...

  17. When electron transfer meets electron transport in redox-active molecular nanojunctions.

    Janin, Marion; Ghilane, Jalal; Lacroix, Jean-Christophe

    2013-02-13

    A scanning electrochemical microscope (SECM) was used to arrange two microelectrodes face-to-face separated by a micrometric gap. Polyaniline (PANI) was deposited electrochemically from the SECM tip side until it bridged the two electrodes. The junctions obtained were characterized by following the current through the PANI as a function of its electrochemical potential measured versus a reference electrode acting as a gate electrode in a solid-state transistor. PANI nanojunctions showed conductances below 100 nS in the oxidized state, indicating control of the charge transport within the whole micrometric gap by a limited number of PANI wires. The SECM configuration makes it possible to observe in the same experiment and in the same current range the electron-transfer and electron-transport processes. These two phenomena are distinguished here and characterized by following the variation of the current with the bias voltage and the scan rate. The electron-transfer current changes with the scan rate, while the charge-transport current varies with the bias voltage. Finally, despite the initially micrometric gap, a junction where the conductance is controlled by a single oligoaniline strand is achieved. PMID:23331168

  18. Improving activity transport models for water-cooled nuclear power reactors

    Eight current models for describing radioactivity transport and radiation field growth around water-cooled nuclear power reactors have been reviewed and assessed. A frequent failing of the models is the arbitrary nature of the determination of the important processes. Nearly all modelers agree that the kinetics of deposition and release of both dissolved and particulate material must be described. Plant data must be used to guide the selection and development of suitable improved models, with a minimum of empirically-based rate constraints being used. Limiting case modelling based on experimental data is suggested as a way to simplify current models and remove their subjectivity. Improved models must consider the recent change to 'coordinated water chemistry' that appears to produce normal solubility behaviour for dissolved iron throughout the fuel cycle in PWRs, but retrograde solubility remains for dissolved nickel. Profiles are suggested for dissolved iron and nickel concentrations around the heat transport system in CANDU reactors, which operate nominally at constant chemistry, i.e., pHT constant with time, and which use carbon steel isothermal piping. These diagrams are modified for a CANDU reactor with stainless steel piping, in order to show the changes expected. The significance of these profiles for transport in PWRs is discussed for further model improvement. (author)

  19. A single active catalytic site is sufficient to promote transport in P-glycoprotein.

    Bársony, Orsolya; Szalóki, Gábor; Türk, Dóra; Tarapcsák, Szabolcs; Gutay-Tóth, Zsuzsanna; Bacsó, Zsolt; Holb, Imre J; Székvölgyi, Lóránt; Szabó, Gábor; Csanády, László; Szakács, Gergely; Goda, Katalin

    2016-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (Pgp) is an ABC transporter responsible for the ATP-dependent efflux of chemotherapeutic compounds from multidrug resistant cancer cells. Better understanding of the molecular mechanism of Pgp-mediated transport could promote rational drug design to circumvent multidrug resistance. By measuring drug binding affinity and reactivity to a conformation-sensitive antibody we show here that nucleotide binding drives Pgp from a high to a low substrate-affinity state and this switch coincides with the flip from the inward- to the outward-facing conformation. Furthermore, the outward-facing conformation survives ATP hydrolysis: the post-hydrolytic complex is stabilized by vanadate, and the slow recovery from this state requires two functional catalytic sites. The catalytically inactive double Walker A mutant is stabilized in a high substrate affinity inward-open conformation, but mutants with one intact catalytic center preserve their ability to hydrolyze ATP and to promote drug transport, suggesting that the two catalytic sites are randomly recruited for ATP hydrolysis. PMID:27117502

  20. Analysis of different research activities and description of parties within the Swedish Knowledge Centre for Renewable Transportation Fuels

    Lundgren, Joakim [Bio4Energy, Luleaa (Sweden); Wallberg, Ola [Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden)

    2012-07-01

    The Swedish Knowledge Centre for Renewable Transportation Fuels (f3) is a nationwide centre, which through cooperation and a systems approach will contribute to the development of sustainable fossil free fuels for transportation. The centre will, through joint efforts by the centre partners, perform syntheses of current research about the production of renewable fuels as well as supplementing research, such as comparative systems analyses of fuels, processes, raw materials and plant design. f3 provides a platform for collaboration between centre partners, with a common vision of sustainable fuels for transportation and common objectives. The centre partners include Sweden's most active universities and research institutes within the field, as well as a number of highly relevant industrial companies. New fuels will be an important component of a strategy to reduce both greenhouse gas emissions and our dependence on petroleum. The Swedish Government has established a vision for the Swedish transport industry to function without fossil fuels by 2030. Such a development requires a concerted response, with participation from all stake holders. Swedish researchers in various disciplines and at various colleges and institutes have a unique breadth and they are at the forefront in several areas of knowledge appropriate for a centre for renewable fuels. Through collaboration, f3 should help to link engineering and systems research and communicate results and conclusions from these research efforts. Within the f3 centre, several parties with different research activities are represented. This document is a snapshot of the different parties at the end of 2011 where the stake holders are described and their current research is highlighted. Also, the different projects conducted by the parties have been categorized and presented at the end of the document.

  1. Methane efflux from marine sediments in passive and active margins: Estimations from bioenergetic reaction-transport simulations

    Dale, A. W.; Van Cappellen, P.; Aguilera, D. R.; Regnier, P.

    2008-01-01

    A simplified version of a kinetic-bioenergetic reaction model for anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) in marine sediments [Dale, A.W., Regnier, P., Van Cappellen, P., 2006. Bioenergetic controls on anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) in coastal marine sediments: a theoretical analysis. Am. J. Sci. 306, 246-294.] is used to assess the impact of transport processes on biomass distributions, AOM rates and methane release fluxes from the sea floor. The model explicitly represents the functional microbial groups and the kinetic and bioenergetic limitations of the microbial metabolic pathways involved in AOM. Model simulations illustrate the dominant control exerted by the transport regime on the activity and abundance of AOM communities. Upward fluid flow at active seep systems restricts AOM to a narrow subsurface reaction zone and sustains high rates of methane oxidation. In contrast, pore-water transport dominated by molecular diffusion leads to deeper and broader zones of AOM, characterized by much lower rates and biomasses. Under steady-state conditions, less than 1% of the upward dissolved methane flux reaches the water column, irrespective of the transport regime. However, a sudden increase in the advective flux of dissolved methane, for example as a result of the destabilization of methane hydrates, causes a transient efflux of methane from the sediment. The benthic efflux of dissolved methane is due to the slow growth kinetics of the AOM community and lasts on the order of 60 years. This time window is likely too short to allow for a significant escape of pore-water methane following a large scale gas hydrate dissolution event such as the one that may have accompanied the Paleocene/Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM).

  2. Butyrate activates the monocarboxylate transporter MCT4 expression in breast cancer cells and enhances the antitumor activity of 3-bromopyruvate.

    Queirós, Odília; Preto, Ana; Pacheco, António; Pinheiro, Céline; Azevedo-Silva, João; Moreira, Roxana; Pedro, Madalena; Ko, Young H; Pedersen, Peter L; Baltazar, Fátima; Casal, Margarida

    2012-02-01

    Most malignant tumors exhibit the Warburg effect, which consists in increased glycolysis rates with production of lactate, even in the presence of oxygen. Monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs), maintain these glycolytic rates, by mediating the influx and/or efflux of lactate and are overexpressed in several cancer cell types. The lactate and pyruvate analogue 3-bromopyruvate (3-BP) is an inhibitor of the energy metabolism, which has been proposed as a specific antitumor agent. In the present study, we aimed at determining the effect of 3-BP in breast cancer cells and evaluated the putative role of MCTs on this effect. Our results showed that the three breast cancer cell lines used presented different sensitivities to 3-BP: ZR-75-1 ER (+)>MCF-7 ER (+)>SK-BR-3 ER (-). We also demonstrated that 3-BP reduced lactate production, induced cell morphological alterations and increased apoptosis. The effect of 3-BP appears to be cytotoxic rather than cytostatic, as a continued decrease in cell viability was observed after removal of 3-BP. We showed that pre-incubation with butyrate enhanced significantly 3-BP cytotoxicity, especially in the most resistant breast cancer cell line, SK-BR-3. We observed that butyrate treatment induced localization of MCT1 in the plasma membrane as well as overexpression of MCT4 and its chaperone CD147. Our results thus indicate that butyrate pre-treatment potentiates the effect of 3-BP, most probably by increasing the rates of 3-BP transport through MCT1/4. This study supports the potential use of butyrate as adjuvant of 3-BP in the treatment of breast cancer resistant cells, namely ER (-). PMID:22350013

  3. The influence of ionizing radiation at the alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium 45 transport under hypothyroid conditions

    The experiments with 2-month-old hypothyroid male rats (mercasolil 10 mg/kg per os during 21 days) have shown that total gamma-irradiation ( 0,5 Gy) caused phased changes of alkaline phosphatase - its reduction in the first dates of the investigation (3, 10 and 30 days), normal activity in a 90 days and repeated drop of the activity at the end of the experiment (180 days). In a 3 and 10 days after irradiation it was revealed the diminish of the calcium-accumulated ability of the duodenum mucous membrane in the hypothyroid rats. So it was concluded that combined action of radiation and mercasolil leaded to a decrease in calcium 45 transport in the duodenum and reduction in the activity of thermo labile isoenzyme of alkaline phosphatase in blood serum

  4. A chimeric protein of aluminum-activated malate transporter generated from wheat and Arabidopsis shows enhanced response to trivalent cations.

    Sasaki, Takayuki; Tsuchiya, Yoshiyuki; Ariyoshi, Michiyo; Ryan, Peter R; Yamamoto, Yoko

    2016-07-01

    TaALMT1 from wheat (Triticum aestivum) and AtALMT1 from Arabidopsis thaliana encode aluminum (Al)-activated malate transporters, which confer acid-soil tolerance by releasing malate from roots. Chimeric proteins from TaALMT1 and AtALMT1 (Ta::At, At::Ta) were previously analyzed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Those studies showed that Al could activate malate efflux from the Ta::At chimera but not from At::Ta. Here, functions of TaALMT1, AtALMT1 and the chimeric protein Ta::At were compared in cultured tobacco BY-2 cells. We focused on the sensitivity and specificity of their activation by trivalent cations. The activation of malate efflux by Al was at least two-fold greater in the chimera than the native proteins. All proteins were also activated by lanthanides (erbium, ytterbium, gadolinium, and lanthanum), but the chimera again released more malate than TaALMT1 or AtALMT1. In Xenopus oocytes, Al, ytterbium, and erbium activated inward currents from the native TaALMT1 and the chimeric protein, but gadolinium only activated currents from the chimera. Lanthanum inhibited currents from both proteins. These results demonstrated that function of the chimera protein was altered compared to the native proteins and was more responsive to a range of trivalent cations when expressed in plant cells. PMID:27039280

  5. Meta-analysis: a functional polymorphism in the gene encoding for activity of the serotonin transporter protein is not associated with the irritable bowel syndrome.

    Kerkhoven, L.A.S. van; Laheij, R.J.F.; Jansen, J.B.M.J.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Serotonin is associated with symptoms of the irritable bowel syndrome, its action is terminated by the serotonin transporter protein. AIM: To assess the association between a functional polymorphism in the gene encoding for activity of the serotonin transporter protein and the irritable

  6. Transport and Application of Heat-Activated Persulfate for In-situ Chemical Oxidation of Residual Trichloroethylene

    Quig, L.; Johnson, G. R.

    2015-12-01

    Persulfate ISCO has been shown to treat a wide range of contaminants. While persulfate ISCO can be tailored to site and pollutant specific characteristics (e.g., activation via energy or catalysis), thermal activation of persulfate is particularly promising as it can be easily controlled and requires no additional reagents. A mechanistic study of the physical and chemical processes controlling the effectiveness of this remedial approach is not well documented in the literature with much therein focused on reactions in batch systems. The purpose of this research was twofold. Initial studies characterized the overall transport behavior of unactivated and thermally-activated persulfate (20, 60, and 90°C) in one-dimensional soil column systems. Finally, experiments were conducted to investigate persulfate ISCO as a remedial approach for residual-phase trichloroethylene (TCE). At all activation temperatures investigated, persulfate exhibited ideal transport behavior in miscible displacement experiments. Moment analysis of persulfate ion breakthrough curves indicated negligible interaction of persulfate with the natural sandy material. Persulfate ISCO for residual-phase TCE was characterized at two flow rates, 0.2 mL/min and 0.5 mL/min, resulting in two degrees of persulfate activation, 39.5% and 24.6%, respectively. Both ISCO soil column systems showed an initial, long-term plateau in effluent TCE concentrations indicating steady-state dissolution of pure phase TCE. Observed effluent concentrations decreased after 75 and 100 pore volumes (normalized for the measured residual NAPL fraction) compared to 110 pore volumes in the control study. Pseudo first-order reaction rate constants for the decreasing TCE concentrations equaled 0.063/hr and 0.083/hr, respectively, compared to 0.041/hr for the control. Moment analysis of the complete dissolution of TCE in the persulfate/activated persulfate remediation systems indicated approximately 33% oxidation of TCE mass present. By

  7. 76 FR 47612 - AAR Manufacturing, Inc.; Completion of Radiological Survey Activities at CSX Transportation...

    2011-08-05

    ..., Decommissioning and Uranium Recovery Licensing Directorate, Division of Waste Management and Environmental... activities (ADAMS Accession No. ML110670259). The AAR site was added to the Site Decommissioning...

  8. Role of "active" potassium transport in the regulation of cytoplasmic pH by nonanimal cells.

    Blatt, M.R.; Slayman, C L

    1987-01-01

    High-affinity potassium uptake in Neurospora occurs by symport with protons [Km (apparent) = 15 microM at pH 5.8], for which a large inward gradient (approximately 400 mV) is generated by the H+-extruding ATPase of the plasma membrane. Operating in parallel, the two transport systems yield a net 1:1 exchange of K+ for cytoplasmic H+. Since this exchange could play a role in cytoplasmic pH (pHi) regulation, the coordinated functioning of the K+-H+ symport and H+ pump has been examined during a...

  9. Chemical constituents from Eucalyptus citriodora Hook leaves and their glucose transporter 4 translocation activities.

    Wang, Chao; Yang, Jing; Zhao, Ping; Zhou, Qi; Mei, Zhinan; Yang, Guangzhong; Yang, Xinzhou; Feng, Yunjiang

    2014-07-15

    Bioassay-guided phytochemical investigation of the EtOAc fraction from the leaves of a Chinese medicinal herb, Eucalyptus citriodora Hook, resulted in the isolation of a new compound rhodomyrtosone E (1), along with 12 known compounds (2-13). The structure of the new compound was established by 1D and 2D NMR, MS data and X-ray crystallographic analysis. Betulinic acid (2) and corosolic acid (5) increased glucose transporter 4 (GLUT-4) translocation by 2.38 and 1.78-fold, respectively. PMID:24894556

  10. Glutamine deprivation enhances antitumor activity of 3-bromopyruvate through the stabilization of monocarboxylate transporter-1.

    Cardaci, Simone; Rizza, Salvatore; Filomeni, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Roberta; Bertocchi, Fabio; Mattei, Maurizio; Paci, Maurizio; Rotilio, Giuseppe; Ciriolo, Maria Rosa

    2012-09-01

    Anticancer drug efficacy might be leveraged by strategies to target certain biochemical adaptations of tumors. Here we show how depriving cancer cells of glutamine can enhance the anticancer properties of 3-bromopyruvate, a halogenated analog of pyruvic acid. Glutamine deprival potentiated 3-bromopyruvate chemotherapy by increasing the stability of the monocarboxylate transporter-1, an effect that sensitized cells to metabolic oxidative stress and autophagic cell death. We further elucidated mechanisms through which resistance to chemopotentiation by glutamine deprival could be circumvented. Overall, our findings offer a preclinical proof-of-concept for how to employ 3-bromopyruvate or other monocarboxylic-based drugs to sensitize tumors to chemotherapy. PMID:22773663

  11. Diffusion Coefficients and Activation Energies for Ag Transport through SiC

    One of the desired functions of TRISO coating is to prevent the release of fission products from inside the particle into the coolant. Among these layers, the retention of fission products is accomplished primarily by the SiC layer of the coating. These processes include oxide fuel kernel migration (via the transport of carbon from the cool to hot side); intra-layer crack formation, noble gas (Kr, Xe), Ba, Ag, Sr, Cs diffusion out of the kernel; pressure build-up due to noble gas release from the kernel and CO from released oxygen in ungettered oxide kernel; a Pd attack on SiC and noble gas, Pd, Ba, Sr, Cs, Ag, transport via bulk diffusion, grain boundaries, and cracks through the coating layers. In this paper, the measured and estimated diffusion coefficients of Ag in and/or through SiC are compared based on the following experimental methods: 1) measuring Ag diffusion through ion-implanted cubic (3C) SiC and 6H-SiC samples and annealing, 2) measuring Ag diffusion through a diffusion couple and annealing, and 3) fitting the overall integrated/fractional Ag release from a batch of TRISO fuel particle during heating after irradiation and irradiation testing. The causes of uprising Ag transport through SiC, the coating layer of TRISO fuel are complex depending on the temperature during operation or irradiation testing. Although Ag transport depends on the microstructure of SiC (such as grain boundary stoichiometry, SiC grain size and shape, the presence of free silicon, nano-cracks, etc.), neutron irradiation, irradiation temperature, Pd attack, thermal decomposition, transmutation products, layer thinning and coated particle shape, etc., Ag diffusion along the grain boundary of SiC plays a major role. Considering that the current Ag diffusion coefficient is summarized and compared from previous studies, it might also be possible that, considering the irradiation effects of SiC, the Ag retention ability of a TRISO particle somehow improves during the TRISO

  12. Membrane-Associated Transporter Protein (MATP) Regulates Melanosomal pH and Influences Tyrosinase Activity

    Bin, Bum-Ho; Bhin, Jinhyuk; Yang, Seung Ha; Shin, Misun; Nam, Yeon-Ju; Choi, Dong-Hwa; Shin, Dong Wook; Lee, Ai-Young; Hwang, Daehee; Cho, Eun-Gyung; Lee, Tae Ryong

    2015-01-01

    The SLC45A2 gene encodes a Membrane-Associated Transporter Protein (MATP). Mutations of this gene cause oculocutaneous albinism type 4 (OCA4). However, the molecular mechanism of its action in melanogenesis has not been elucidated. Here, we discuss the role of MATP in melanin production. The SLC45A2 gene is highly enriched in human melanocytes and melanoma cell lines, and its protein, MATP, is located in melanosomes. The knockdown of MATP using siRNAs reduced melanin content and tyrosinase ac...

  13. Protein–DNA charge transport: Redox activation of a DNA repair protein by guanine radical

    Yavin, Eylon; Boal, Amie K.; Stemp, Eric D. A.; Boon, Elizabeth M; Livingston, Alison L.; O'Shea, Valerie L.; David, Sheila S.; Barton, Jacqueline K.

    2005-01-01

    DNA charge transport (CT) chemistry provides a route to carry out oxidative DNA damage from a distance in a reaction that is sensitive to DNA mismatches and lesions. Here, DNA-mediated CT also leads to oxidation of a DNA-bound base excision repair enzyme, MutY. DNA-bound Ru(III), generated through a flash/quench technique, is found to promote oxidation of the [4Fe-4S](2+) cluster of MutY to [4Fe-4S](3+) and its decomposition product [3Fe-4S](1+). Flash/quench experiments monitored by EPR spec...

  14. Type B activity limits for air transport - (an examination of special form and non-special form limits)

    This paper examines the application of the ''Q system'' with respect to the maximum limits of activity permitted in Type B (Type B(U) or Type B(M)) packages when transported by air. In particular, estimation is made of the radiological consequences to determine if there is a difference depending on whether the material is in special form or not. An estimate is also made of the radiological consequences of an air accident involving low dispersible radioactive material (LDRM) in the reference Type B package

  15. Opioids and Efflux Transporters. 1. P-Glycoprotein Substrate Activity of N-Substituted Analogs of Meperidine.

    Mercer, Susan L.; Cunningham, Christopher W.; Hassan, Hazem; Eddington, Natalie D.; Coop, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    P-Glycoprotein (P-gp) is an efflux transporter which is up-regulated at the blood brain barrier in both morphine and oxycodone tolerant rats. Numerous studies have shown that many clinically employed opioid analgesics are substrates for P-gp, suggesting that up-regulation of P-gp may contribute to the development of central tolerance to opioids. The studies herein focus on the development of SAR for P-gp substrate activity in the meperidine series of compounds, and show that a meperidine anal...

  16. Development of three-dimensional burn-up and activation code based on discrete ordinate transport method

    By coupling a three-dimensional Discrete Ordinate (SN) code with an Exponential Euler Method inventory code, a three-dimensional code system was developed for accurate and rapid fuel burnup and material activation analyses. Resonance self-shielding effect was corrected dynamically in each step and each fuel zone. The update of compositions and nuclide densities in transport calculation was treated by setting nuclide density limitation, keeping important nuclides and using pseudo fission products (FPeff). The validation was described, which illustrates the robustness and reliability of this code system. (authors)

  17. Transportation and the Environment in Harmony: Mini-Units and Learning Activities for Grades 9 through 12.

    Finn, Peter; And Others

    One of a series of eleven curriculum manuals which cover the four transportation topics of public transportation, transportation and the environment, transportation safety, and bicycles for elementary, secondary, and adult levels, this manual covers the transportation and the environment topic for grades 9-12. It contains forty-four learning…

  18. Transportation and the Environment in Harmony: Mini-Units and Learning Activities for Grades 6 through 9.

    Finn, Peter; And Others

    One of a series of eleven curriculum manuals which cover the four transportation topics of public transportation, transportation and the environment, transportation safety, and bicycles for elementary, secondary, and adult levels, this manual covers the transportation and the environment topic for grades 6-9. It contains thirty-nine learning…

  19. Physical, Hydraulic, and Transport Properties of Sediments and Engineered Materials Associated with Hanford Immobilized Low-Activity Waste

    Rockhold, Mark L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhang, Z. F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Meyer, Philip D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Thomle, Jonathan N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-02-28

    Current plans for treatment and disposal of immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) from Hanford’s underground waste storage tanks include vitrification and storage of the glass waste form in a nearsurface disposal facility. This Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) is located in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Central Plateau. Performance assessment (PA) of the IDF requires numerical modeling of subsurface flow and reactive transport processes over very long periods (thousands of years). The models used to predict facility performance require parameters describing various physical, hydraulic, and transport properties. This report provides updated estimates of physical, hydraulic, and transport properties and parameters for both near- and far-field materials, intended for use in future IDF PA modeling efforts. Previous work on physical and hydraulic property characterization for earlier IDF PA analyses is reviewed and summarized. For near-field materials, portions of this document and parameter estimates are taken from an earlier data package. For far-field materials, a critical review is provided of methodologies used in previous data packages. Alternative methods are described and associated parameters are provided.

  20. Qualification tests of packages used for transport and storage of low activity radioactive wastes in INR Pitesti

    Radioactive wastes generated by the TRIGA INR research reactor are packaged according to the national and international rules and standards. The technology for packaging and treatment of radioactive wastes can also be used at the Nuclear Power Plant Cernavoda. The qualification tests for the package used for transport and storage of radioactive wastes (low activity, up to 6.07 GBq (0.164 Ci) per drum) are described. The package used is a drum manufactured from 1 mm thick mild steel with the dimensions: height 915 ± 10 mm; diameter 600 ± 5 mm; volume 220 litres. To achieve adequate safety in the transport of radioactive wastes strict precautions must be taken according to the IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials. The adequacy of the package design is therefore of primary importance, the design requirements being supplemented by careful construction, quality assurance and inspection procedures. Taking into consideration the above requirements, qualification tests for the prototype package were carried out. These tests include compression, penetration, free fall, leaching, safety in use (biological protection), checking of chemical and mechanical characteristics, and the effect of the product on the environment. Performance of these tests, and the results obtained, prove that our technology for treatment and packaging of radioactive waste is in accordance with international rules. (author)

  1. Qualification tests of packages used for transport and storage of low activity radioactive wastes in INR Pitesti

    Vieru, G. (Institute for Nuclear Research, Pitesti (Romania))

    1994-01-01

    Radioactive wastes generated by the TRIGA INR research reactor are packaged according to the national and international rules and standards. The technology for packaging and treatment of radioactive wastes can also be used at the Nuclear Power Plant Cernavoda. The qualification tests for the package used for transport and storage of radioactive wastes (low activity, up to 6.07 GBq (0.164 Ci) per drum) are described. The package used is a drum manufactured from 1 mm thick mild steel with the dimensions: height 915 [+-] 10 mm; diameter 600 [+-] 5 mm; volume 220 litres. To achieve adequate safety in the transport of radioactive wastes strict precautions must be taken according to the IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials. The adequacy of the package design is therefore of primary importance, the design requirements being supplemented by careful construction, quality assurance and inspection procedures. Taking into consideration the above requirements, qualification tests for the prototype package were carried out. These tests include compression, penetration, free fall, leaching, safety in use (biological protection), checking of chemical and mechanical characteristics, and the effect of the product on the environment. Performance of these tests, and the results obtained, prove that our technology for treatment and packaging of radioactive waste is in accordance with international rules. (author).

  2. A DOUBLE-RING ALGORITHM FOR MODELING SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS: UNIFYING KINEMATIC DYNAMO MODELS AND SURFACE FLUX-TRANSPORT SIMULATIONS

    The emergence of tilted bipolar active regions (ARs) and the dispersal of their flux, mediated via processes such as diffusion, differential rotation, and meridional circulation, is believed to be responsible for the reversal of the Sun's polar field. This process (commonly known as the Babcock-Leighton mechanism) is usually modeled as a near-surface, spatially distributed α-effect in kinematic mean-field dynamo models. However, this formulation leads to a relationship between polar field strength and meridional flow speed which is opposite to that suggested by physical insight and predicted by surface flux-transport simulations. With this in mind, we present an improved double-ring algorithm for modeling the Babcock-Leighton mechanism based on AR eruption, within the framework of an axisymmetric dynamo model. Using surface flux-transport simulations, we first show that an axisymmetric formulation-which is usually invoked in kinematic dynamo models-can reasonably approximate the surface flux dynamics. Finally, we demonstrate that our treatment of the Babcock-Leighton mechanism through double-ring eruption leads to an inverse relationship between polar field strength and meridional flow speed as expected, reconciling the discrepancy between surface flux-transport simulations and kinematic dynamo models.

  3. Activity build-up on the circulation loops of boiling water reactors: Basics for modelling of transport and deposition processes

    In the past 20 years the radiation field of nuclear power plant loops outside the core zone was the object of investigations in many countries. In this context test loops were built and basic research done. At our Institute PSI the installation of a LWR-contamination loop is planned for this year. This experimental loop has the purpose to investigate the complex phenomena of activity deposition from the primary fluid of reactor plants and to formulate analytical models. From the literature the following conclusions can be drawn: The principal correlations of the activity build-up outside the core are known. The plant specific single phenomena as corrosion, crud-transport, activation and deposit of cobalt in the oxide layer are complex and only partially understood. The operational experience of particular plants with low contaminated loops (BWR-recirculation loops) show that in principle the problem is manageable. The reduction of the activity build-up in older plants necessitates a combination of measures to modify the crud balance in the primary circuit. In parallel to the experimental work several simulation models in the form of computer programs were developed. These models have the common feature that they are based on mass balances, in which the exchange of materials and the sedimentation processes are described by global empirical transport coefficients. These models yield satisfactory results and allow parameter studies; the application however is restricted to the particular installation. All programs lack models that describe the thermodynamic and hydrodynamic mechanisms on the surface of deposition layers. Analytical investigations on fouling of process equipment led to models that are also applicable to the activity build-up in reactor loops. Therefore it seems appropriate to combine the nuclear simulation models with the fundamental equations for deposition. 10 refs., 18 figs., 3 tabs

  4. Disaggregation of nation-wide dynamic population exposure estimates in The Netherlands: Applications of activity-based transport models

    Beckx, Carolien; Int Panis, Luc; Uljee, Inge; Arentze, Theo; Janssens, Davy; Wets, Geert

    Traditional exposure studies that link concentrations with population data do not always take into account the temporal and spatial variations in both concentrations and population density. In this paper we present an integrated model chain for the determination of nation-wide exposure estimates that incorporates temporally and spatially resolved information about people's location and activities (obtained from an activity-based transport model) and about ambient pollutant concentrations (obtained from a dispersion model). To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time that such an integrated exercise was successfully carried out in a fully operational modus for all models under consideration. The evaluation of population level exposure in The Netherlands to NO 2 at different time-periods, locations, for different subpopulations (gender, socio-economic status) and during different activities (residential, work, transport, shopping) is chosen as a case-study to point out the new features of this methodology. Results demonstrate that, by neglecting people's travel behaviour, total average exposure to NO 2 will be underestimated by 4% and hourly exposure results can be underestimated by more than 30%. A more detailed exposure analysis reveals the intra-day variations in exposure estimates and the presence of large exposure differences between different activities (traffic > work > shopping > home) and between subpopulations (men > women, low socio-economic class > high socio-economic class). This kind of exposure analysis, disaggregated by activities or by subpopulations, per time of day, provides useful insight and information for scientific and policy purposes. It demonstrates that policy measures, aimed at reducing the overall (average) exposure concentration of the population may impact in a different way depending on the time of day or the subgroup considered. From a scientific point of view, this new approach can be used to reduce exposure misclassification.

  5. The air transport of radioactive material in large quantities or with high activity

    The present TECDOC is a mixture of new regulatory provisions for the air transport of large quantities of radioactive material, explanatory and background material for these new provisions and other issues which have been discussed by the various technical committees, advisory groups and consultants that contributed to its development. It represents the broad consensus that has been reached between IAEA Member States on the major fundamental issues related to air transport of radioactive material with high potential hazard. The most visible novelty in the TECDOC is the proposal to introduce a new package type, the Type C package. The material contained in the TECDOC will be subject to further scrutiny by Member States and be cognizant international organizations. It is intended that the new regulatory provisions will be incorporated in the new, comprehensively revised Edition of the Regulations, due in 1996. To let the regulatory provisions proper stand out from background material it is printed in italics throughout the TECDOC. 33 refs, 6 figs

  6. Preparation, characterization, biological activity, and transport study of polystyrene based calcium–barium phosphate composite membrane

    Calcium–barium phosphate (CBP) composite membrane with 25% polystyrene was prepared by co-precipitation method. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR), and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were used to characterize the membrane. The membrane was found to be crystalline in nature with consistent arrangement of particles and no indication of visible cracks. The electrical potentials measured across the composite membrane in contact with univalent electrolytes (KCl, NaCl and LiCl), have been found to increase with decrease in concentrations. Thus the membrane was found to be cation-selective. Transport properties of developed membranes may be utilized for the efficient desalination of saline water and more importantly demineralization process. The antibacterial study of this composite membrane shows good results for killing the disease causing bacteria along with waste water treatment. Highlights: • Transport properties of composite membrane are evaluated. • The composite membrane was found to be stable in all media. • TMS method is used for electrochemical characterization. • The membrane was found to be cation selective. • The order of surface charge density was found to be LiCl < NaCl < KCl

  7. ACTIVE MEASURES AS PART OF DIALOGUE MARKETING PROMOTING THE USE OF PUBLIC TRANSPORT IN RURAL AREAS

    Roman KLEMENTSCHITZ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The SmartMove project is working to advance innovative marketing and mobility solutions in eight rural and peripheral European regions and is co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the European Union. Through tailor-made strategies, it aims to provide information and encourage people to use public transport in their region. Sparsely populated rural areas in Europe are facing tremendous social changes due to shrinking and ageing populations. Because of the scattered settlement structure in these areas, the public transport network density is low and service frequency is often poor. The problems are exacerbated by increasing private car use, which, in a vicious circle, leads to further reductions in services. However, simple tools such as dialogue marketing and minor adjustments to scheduling can help change people’s perceptions. Dialogue marketing techniques have already been shown to increase passenger numbers by as much as 10 to 15 percent. Greater demand leads to higher revenues, making it possible to improve the system and attract even more passengers, turning the vicious circle into a positive loop.

  8. Schisandra chinensis regulates drug metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters via activation of Nrf2-mediated signaling pathway

    He JL

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Jin-Lian He,1 Zhi-Wei Zhou,2,3 Juan-Juan Yin,2 Chang-Qiang He,1 Shu-Feng Zhou,2,3 Yang Yu1 1College of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, Guangdong, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA; 3Guizhou Provincial Key Laboratory for Regenerative Medicine, Stem Cell and Tissue Engineering Research Center and Sino-US Joint Laboratory for Medical Sciences, Guiyang Medical University, Guiyang, Guizhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Drug metabolizing enzymes (DMEs and drug transporters are regulated via epigenetic, transcriptional, posttranscriptional, and translational and posttranslational modifications. Phase I and II DMEs and drug transporters play an important role in the disposition and detoxification of a large number of endogenous and exogenous compounds. The nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2 is a critical regulator of a variety of important cytoprotective genes that are involved in disposition and detoxification of xenobiotics. Schisandra chinensis (SC is a commonly used traditional Chinese herbal medicine that has been primarily used to protect the liver because of its potent antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. SC can modulate some DMEs and drug transporters, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. In this study, we aimed to explore the role of Nrf2 in the regulatory effect of SC extract (SCE on selected DMEs and drug transporters in human hepatocellular liver carcinoma cell line (HepG2 cells. The results showed that SCE, schisandrin A, and schisandrin B significantly increased the expression of NAD(PH: Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate-oxidase or:quinone oxidoreductase 1, heme oxygenase-1, glutamate–cysteine ligase, and glutathione S-transferase A4 at both transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. Incubation of HepG2 cells with SCE resulted in a significant

  9. Effect of Aloe vera extract on the improvement of the respiratory activity of leukocytes of matrinxã during the transport stress

    Fábio Sabbadin Zanuzzo; Jaqueline Dalbello Biller-Takahashi; Elisabeth Criscuolo Urbinati

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of extract of Aloe vera in the transport water of matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus) fish on stress response and leukocyte respiratory activity. Fish was transported for 4 h in water containing Aloe at levels 0; 0.02; 0.2 and 2 mg/L, and sampled before transport 2, 4, 24 and 96 h after for determination of plasma glucose and respiratory activity of leukocytes. An additional in vitro assay was conducted with another fish species, pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus), to tes...

  10. Ciprofloxacin Is Actively Transported across Bronchial Lung Epithelial Cells Using a Calu-3 Air Interface Cell Model

    Ong, Hui Xin; Traini, Daniela; Bebawy, Mary; Young, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    Ciprofloxacin is a well-established broad-spectrum fluoroquinolone antibiotic that penetrates well into the lung tissues; still, the mechanisms of its transepithelial transport are unknown. The contributions of specific transporters, including multidrug efflux transporters, organic cation transporters, and organic anion-transporting polypeptide transporters, to the uptake of ciprofloxacin were investigated in vitro using an air interface bronchial epithelial model. Our results demonstrate tha...

  11. Releasable activity and maximum permissible leakage rate within a transport cask of Tehran Research Reactor fuel samples

    Rezaeian Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Containment of a transport cask during both normal and accident conditions is important to the health and safety of the public and of the operators. Based on IAEA regulations, releasable activity and maximum permissible volumetric leakage rate within the cask containing fuel samples of Tehran Research Reactor enclosed in an irradiated capsule are calculated. The contributions to the total activity from the four sources of gas, volatile, fines, and corrosion products are treated separately. These calculations are necessary to identify an appropriate leak test that must be performed on the cask and the results can be utilized as the source term for dose evaluation in the safety assessment of the cask.

  12. Tivantinib (ARQ 197) exhibits antitumor activity by directly interacting with tubulin and overcomes ABC transporter-mediated drug resistance.

    Aoyama, Aki; Katayama, Ryohei; Oh-Hara, Tomoko; Sato, Shigeo; Okuno, Yasushi; Fujita, Naoya

    2014-12-01

    Tivantinib (ARQ197) was first reported as a highly selective inhibitor of c-MET and is currently being investigated in a phase III clinical trial. However, as recently reported by us and another group, tivantinib showed cytotoxic activity independent of cellular c-MET status and also disrupted microtubule dynamics. To investigate if tivantinib exerts its cytotoxic activity by disrupting microtubules, we quantified polymerized tubulin in cells and xenograft tumors after tivantinib treatment. Consistent with our previous report, tivantinib reduced tubulin polymerization in cells and in mouse xenograft tumors in vivo. To determine if tivantinib directly binds to tubulin, we performed an in vitro competition assay. Tivantinib competitively inhibited colchicine but not vincristine or vinblastine binding to purified tubulin. These results imply that tivantinib directly binds to the colchicine binding site of tubulin. To predict the binding mode of tivantinib with tubulin, we performed computer simulation of the docking pose of tivantinib with tubulin using GOLD docking program. Computer simulation predicts tivantinib fitted into the colchicine binding pocket of tubulin without steric hindrance. Furthermore, tivantinib showed similar IC50 values against parental and multidrug-resistant cells. In contrast, other microtubule-targeting drugs, such as vincristine, paclitaxel, and colchicine, could not suppress the growth of cells overexpressing ABC transporters. Moreover, the expression level of ABC transporters did not correlate with the apoptosis-inducing ability of tivantinib different from other microtubule inhibitor. These results suggest that tivantinib can overcome ABC transporter-mediated multidrug-resistant tumor cells and is potentially useful against various tumors. PMID:25313010

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF TOURIST ROUTES HOW DIRECTION OF DIFFERENTIATION OF ACTIVITY IS ON A RAILWAY TRANSPORT

    Sivolovskaya, E.; Shalya, O.

    2009-01-01

    In the article there are the rassmotrenni questions of introduction of tourist trains as directions of differentiation of activity of railways. Sound comparative description of railway tourism is resulted

  14. Reduction of spatial distribution of risk factors for transportation of contaminants released by coal mining activities.

    Karan, Shivesh Kishore; Samadder, Sukha Ranjan

    2016-09-15

    It is reported that water-energy nexus composes two of the biggest development and human health challenges. In the present study we presented a Risk Potential Index (RPI) model which encapsulates Source, Vector (Transport), and Target risks for forecasting surface water contamination. The main aim of the model is to identify critical surface water risk zones for an open cast mining environment, taking Jharia Coalfield, India as the study area. The model also helps in feasible sampling design. Based on spatial analysis various risk zones were successfully delineated. Monthly RPI distribution revealed that the risk of surface water contamination was highest during the monsoon months. Surface water samples were analysed to validate the model. A GIS based alternative management option was proposed to reduce surface water contamination risk and observed 96% and 86% decrease in the spatial distribution of very high risk areas for the months June and July respectively. PMID:27240204

  15. A Review of some Critical Assumptions in the Relationship between Economic Activity and Freight Transport

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Kveiborg, Ole

    2004-01-01

    into weight terms. Data to describe these conversions are hard to come by and modellers have been left to resort to various ad hoc assumptions. We have obtained a data set covering the period from 1981 to 1992 detailing production by industry and commodity both in fixed prices and in tons based on the...... explicitly. We find that it is necessary to account for changing composition of production across industries, but that the commodity mix within each industry safely can be regarded as constant. Changing value densities account for almost a third of transport growth; however, this is attributable to the first...... year of data. Otherwise, value densities could be regarded as constant with our data. Finally, we find that using import or export data to impute value densities induces unacceptably large errors....

  16. Structural and dynamic perspectives on the promiscuous transport activity of P-glycoprotein.

    Subramanian, Nandhitha; Condic-Jurkic, Karmen; O'Mara, Megan L

    2016-09-01

    The multidrug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is expressed in the blood-brain barrier endothelium where it effluxes a range of drug substrates, preventing their accumulation within the brain. P-gp has been studied extensively for 40 years because of its crucial role in the absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination of a range of pharmaceutical compounds. Despite this, many aspects of the structure-function mechanism of P-gp are unresolved. Here we review the emerging role of molecular dynamics simulation techniques in our understanding of the membrane-embedded conformation of P-gp. We discuss its conformational plasticity in the presence and absence of ATP, and recent efforts to characterize the drug binding sites and uptake pathways. PMID:27180050

  17. Evaluation of active cooling systems for a Mach 6 hypersonic transport airframe, part 2

    Helenbrook, R. G.; Mcconarty, W. A.; Anthony, F. M.

    1971-01-01

    Transpiration and convective cooling concepts are examined for the fuselage and tail surface of a Mach 6 hypersonic transport aircraft. Hydrogen, helium, and water are considered as coolants. Heat shields and radiation barriers are examined to reduce heat flow to the cooled structures. The weight and insulation requirements for the cryogenic fuel tanks are examined so that realistic totals can be estimated for the complete fuselage and tail. Structural temperatures are varied to allow comparison of aluminum alloy, titanium alloy, and superalloy contruction materials. The results of the study are combined with results obtained on the wing structure, obtained in a previous study, to estimate weights for the complete airframe. The concepts are compared among themselves, and with the uncooled concept on the basis of structural weight, cooling system weight, and coolant weight.

  18. Intestinal deletion of leptin signaling alters activity of nutrient transporters and delayed the onset of obesity in mice

    Tavernier, Annabelle; Cavin, Jean-Baptiste; Le Gall, Maude; Ducroc, Robert; Denis, Raphaël G. P.; Cluzeaud, Françoise; Guilmeau, Sandra; Sakar, Yassine; Barbot, Laurence; Kapel, Nathalie; Le Beyec, Johanne; Joly, Francisca; Chua, Streamson; Luquet, Serge; Bado, Andre

    2014-01-01

    The importance of B-isoform of leptin receptor (LEPR-B) signaling in the hypothalamus, pancreas, or liver has been well characterized, but in the intestine, a unique site of entry for dietary nutrition into the body, it has been relatively ignored. To address this question, we characterized a mouse model deficient for LEPR-B specifically in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). IECLEPR-B-knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice were generated by Cre-Lox strategy and fed a normal or high-fat diet (HFD). The analyses of the animals involved histology and immunohistochemistry of intestinal mucosa, indirect calorimetric measurements, whole-body composition, and expression and activities of nutrient transporters. IECLEPR-B-KO mice exhibited a 2-fold increase in length of jejunal villi and have normal growth on a normal diet but were less susceptible (PJoly, F., Chua, S., Luquet, S., Bado, A. Intestinal deletion of leptin signaling alters activity of nutrient transporters and delayed the onset of obesity in mice. PMID:24928195

  19. Which Socio-Ecological Factors Associate with a Switch to or Maintenance of Active and Passive Transport during the Transition from Primary to Secondary School?

    Griet Vanwolleghem

    Full Text Available The aim was to investigate which individual, psychosocial and physical neighborhood environmental factors associate with children's switch to or maintenance of active/passive transport to school and to leisure time destinations during the transition from primary to secondary school.Children (n = 313 filled out a questionnaire in the last year of primary school and 2 years later to assess socio-demographic characteristics and self-reported transport. One of their parents completed a questionnaire to assess parental perceptions of psychosocial and physical neighborhood environmental factors.The increase of the home-school distance was significantly associated with children's switch to or maintenance of passive transport to school compared to a switch to (OR = 0.81; p = 0.03 and maintenance (OR = 0.87; p = 0.03 of active transport to school. Low SES was associated with children's switch to active transport to school compared to maintenance of active transport (OR = 3.67; p = 0.07. For transport to leisure time destinations, other factors such as parental perceived neighborhood safety from traffic and crime (OR = 2.78; p = 0.004, a positive social norm (OR = 1.49; p = 0.08, positive attitudes (OR = 1.39; p = 0.08 (i.e. more benefits, less barriers towards their children's physical activity and poor walking/cycling facilities in the neighborhood (OR = 0.70; p = 0.06 were associated with children's maintenance of active transport to leisure time destinations compared to a switch to or maintenance of passive transport.This longitudinal study can give directions for interventions promoting children's active transport during the transition to secondary school. It is necessary to promote different possibilities at primary school for children to use active transport when going to secondary school. Walking/cycling a part of the home-school trip can be a possible solution for children who will be living at non-feasible distances from secondary school

  20. ACTIVE CALCIUM TRANSPORT IN PLASMA MEMBRANE VESICLES FROM DEVELOPING COTYLEDONS OF COMMON BEAN

    黄建中; 陈子元

    1995-01-01

    Plasma membrane vesicles were prepared from the developing cotyledons of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L cv Diyundou)by aqueous two-phase partitioning and characterized as to their purity by assaying marker enzymes for other membranes.The putative plasma membrane fraction was minimalyy contaminated by membranes other than plasma membrane and hence was of high purity,It exhibited a Ca2+-dependent ATPase activity,which was inhibited by 1umol/L EB and promoted by calcium ionophore A23187.Such an activity was responsible for the observed ATP dependent 45Ca2+ uptake into inside-out plasma membrane vesicles.This process was stimulated by 0.5μmol/L CaM and 20μmol/L IAA but inhibited by 2μmol/L ABA and abolished by A23187,Possible role of cytoplasmic Ca2+ in mediating phytohormones activity is discussed.

  1. Active calcium transport in plasma membrane vesicles from developing cotyledons of common bean

    Plasma membrane vesicles were prepared from the developing cotyledons of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L cv Diyundou) by aqueous two-phase partitioning and characterized as to their purity by assaying marker enzymes for other membranes. The putative plasma membrane fraction was minimally contaminated by membranes other than plasma membrane and hence was of high purity. It exhibited a Ca2+-dependent ATPase activity, which was inhibited by 1 μmol/L EB and promoted by calcium ionophore A23187. Such an activity was responsible for the observed ATP-dependent 45Ca2+ uptake into inside-out plasma membrane vesicles. This process was stimulated by 0.6 μmol/L CaM and 20 μmol/L IAA but inhibited by 2 μmol/L ABA and abolished by A23187. Possible role of cytoplasmic Ca2+ in mediating phytohormones activity is discussed

  2. Action of bicyclic isoxazole GABA analogues on GABA transporters and its relation to anticonvulsant activity

    Bolvig, T; Larsson, O M; Pickering, D S;

    1999-01-01

    The inhibitory action of bicyclic isoxazole gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) analogues and their 4,4-diphenyl-3-butenyl (DPB) substituted derivatives has been investigated in cortical neurones and astrocytes as well as in human embryonic kidney (HEK 293) cells transiently expressing either mouse GABA...... anticonvulsant activity, lack of proconvulsant activity and the ability of THPO to increase extracellular GABA concentration, indicate that these bicyclic isoxazole GABA analogues and their DPB derivatives may be useful lead structures in future search for new antiepileptic drugs....

  3. 78 FR 59364 - Revision of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Transportation Worker...

    2013-09-26

    ... by individuals applying for a TWIC and a customer satisfaction survey. DATES: Send your comments by... Replacement or Extended Expiration Date Request, and TWIC Customer Satisfaction Survey. Affected Public... with the enrollment and activation process. This optional customer satisfaction survey is provided...

  4. Modulators of membrane drug transporters potentiate the activity of the DMI fungicide oxpoconazole against Botrytis cinerea

    Hayashi, K.; Schoonbeek, H.; Waard, de M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Modulators known to reduce multidrug resistance in tumour cells were tested for their potency to synergize the fungitoxic activity of the fungicide oxpoconazole, a sterol demethylation inhibitor (DMI), against Botrytis cinerea Pers. Chlorpromazine, a phenothiazine compound known as a calmodulin anta

  5. Activation of CFTR-mediated CI-Transport by Capsaicinoids in Cell Culture Model

    ZHAO Xue-liang; HOU Ting-ting; GE Hong; SUN Juan-juan; YANG Hong; MA Tong-hui

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies reported that capsaicin potentiates ΔF508 mutant cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator(CFTR) channel gating defect by transfected cell-based assays.It has been postulated that orally ingested capsaicin may conceptually be used to develop a therapeutic strategy to treat gastrointestinal disorders in CF patients.We tried to reproduce and extend those pre-clinical data of previous studies.Cell-based fluorescence functional measurements in Fischer thyroid epithelial cells(FRT) expressing CFTR showed no effect of capsaicin on potentiating ΔF508-CFTR.while genistein showed a strongly positive activity.Studies show that capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin activated cAMP-prestimulated wild-type CFTR in a dose-dependent manner with a maximal response of 70% of that activated by genistein,thus gave an apparent EC50 of (40.4±6.8)μmol/L and (150.2±7.4) μmol/L respectively.Preliminary study shows that the binding sites for capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin may be probably partially overlapped with that for genistein because the maximal activation of wild-type CFTR with genistein is partially blocked by capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin.

  6. Electrochemical gate-controlled electron transport of redox-active single perylene bisimide molecular junctions

    We report a scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) experiment in an electrochemical environment which studies a prototype molecular switch. The target molecules were perylene tetracarboxylic acid bisimides modified with pyridine (P-PBI) and methylthiol (T-PBI) linker groups and with bulky tert-butyl-phenoxy substituents in the bay area. At a fixed bias voltage, we can control the transport current through a symmetric molecular wire Au|P-PBI(T-PBI)|Au by variation of the electrochemical 'gate' potential. The current increases by up to two orders of magnitude. The conductances of the P-PBI junctions are typically a factor 3 larger than those of T-PBI. A theoretical analysis explains this effect as a consequence of shifting the lowest unoccupied perylene level (LUMO) in or out of the bias window when tuning the electrochemical gate potential VG. The difference in on/off ratios reflects the variation of hybridization of the LUMO with the electrode states with the anchor groups. IT-ES(T) curves of asymmetric molecular junctions formed between a bare Au STM tip and a T-PBI (P-PBI) modified Au(111) electrode in an aqueous electrolyte exhibit a pronounced maximum in the tunneling current at -0.740, which is close to the formal potential of the surface-confined molecules. The experimental data were explained by a sequential two-step electron transfer process

  7. Significant activity of ecdysteroids on the resistance to doxorubicin in mammalian cancer cells expressing the human ABCB1 transporter.

    Martins, Ana; Tóth, Noémi; Ványolós, Attila; Béni, Zoltán; Zupkó, István; Molnár, József; Báthori, Mária; Hunyadi, Attila

    2012-06-14

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major cause of failure of cancer chemotherapy. Fifty-eight ecdysteroids, herbal analogues of the insect molting hormone and their semisynthetic derivatives, were tested for their activity against L5178 mouse T-cell lymphoma cells (non-MDR) and their subcell line transfected with pHa MDR1/A retrovirus overexpressing the human ABCB1 efflux pump (MDR cell line). The compounds showed very low antiproliferative activities but modulated the efflux of rhodamine 123 mediated by the ABCB1 transporter. Roughly depending on the polarity, mild to strong synergism or antagonism was observed by combining ecdysteroids with doxorubicin, and specific structure-activity relationships were also found. Our results show the effect of ecdysteroids on MDR cancer cells for the first time. Less polar derivatives may serve as valuable leads toward a potent and safe resistance modulator. Biological significance of the resistance-increasing activity of the most abundant phytoecdysteroids including 20-hydroxyecdysone is yet to be clarified. PMID:22578055

  8. Metformin, an AMPK activator, stimulates the phosphorylation of aquaporin 2 and urea transporter A1 in inner medullary collecting ducts.

    Klein, Janet D; Wang, Yanhua; Blount, Mitsi A; Molina, Patrick A; LaRocque, Lauren M; Ruiz, Joseph A; Sands, Jeff M

    2016-05-15

    Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is characterized by production of very large quantities of dilute urine due to an inability of the kidney to respond to vasopressin. Congenital NDI results from mutations in the type 2 vasopressin receptor (V2R) in ∼90% of families. These patients do not have mutations in aquaporin-2 (AQP2) or urea transporter UT-A1 (UT-A1). We tested adenosine monophosphate kinase (AMPK) since it is known to phosphorylate another vasopressin-sensitive transporter, NKCC2 (Na-K-2Cl cotransporter). We found AMPK expressed in rat inner medulla (IM). AMPK directly phosphorylated AQP2 and UT-A1 in vitro. Metformin, an AMPK activator, increased phosphorylation of both AQP2 and UT-A1 in rat inner medullary collecting ducts (IMCDs). Metformin increased the apical plasma membrane accumulation of AQP2, but not UT-A1, in rat IM. Metformin increased both osmotic water permeability and urea permeability in perfused rat terminal IMCDs. These findings suggest that metformin increases osmotic water permeability by increasing AQP2 accumulation in the apical plasma membrane but increases urea permeability by activating UT-A1 already present in the membrane. Lastly, metformin increased urine osmolality in mice lacking a V2R, a mouse model of congenital NDI. We conclude that AMPK activation by metformin mimics many of the mechanisms by which vasopressin increases urine-concentrating ability. These findings suggest that metformin may be a novel therapeutic option for congenital NDI due to V2R mutations. PMID:26962099

  9. A single intact ATPase site of the ABC transporter BtuCD drives 5% transport activity yet supports full in vivo vitamin B12 utilization

    Tal, Nir; Ovcharenko, Elena; Lewinson, Oded

    2013-01-01

    In all kingdoms of life, ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters are essential to many cellular functions. In this large superfamily of proteins, two catalytic sites hydrolyze ATP to power uphill substrate translocation. A central question in the field concerns the relationship between the two ATPase catalytic sites: Are the sites independent of one another? Are both needed for function? Do they function cooperatively? These issues have been resolved for type I ABC transporters but never for ...

  10. Transport of a dilute active suspension in pressure-driven channel flow

    Ezhilan, Barath

    2015-01-01

    Confined suspensions of active particles show peculiar dynamics characterized by wall accumulation, as well as upstream swimming, centerline depletion and shear-trapping when a pressure-driven flow is imposed. We use theory and numerical simulations to investigate the effects of confinement and non-uniform shear on the dynamics of a dilute suspension of Brownian active swimmers by incorporating a detailed treatment of boundary conditions within a simple kinetic model where the configuration of the suspension is described using a conservation equation for the probability distribution function of particle positions and orientations, and where particle-particle and particle-wall hydrodynamic interactions are neglected. Based on this model, we first investigate the effects of confinement in the absence of flow, in which case the dynamics is governed by a swimming Peclet number, or ratio of the persistence length of particle trajectories over the channel width, and a second swimmer-specific parameter whose inverse...

  11. Methamphetamine Increases Locomotion and Dopamine Transporter Activity in Dopamine D5 Receptor-Deficient Mice

    Hayashizaki, Seiji; Hirai, Shinobu; Ito, Yumi; Honda, Yoshiko; Arime, Yosefu; Sora, Ichiro; Okado, Haruo; Kodama, Tohru; Takada, Masahiko

    2013-01-01

    Dopamine regulates the psychomotor stimulant activities of amphetamine-like substances in the brain. The effects of dopamine are mediated through five known dopamine receptor subtypes in mammals. The functional relevance of D5 dopamine receptors in the central nervous system is not well understood. To determine the functional relevance of D5 dopamine receptors, we created D5 dopamine receptor-deficient mice and then used these mice to assess the roles of D5 dopamine receptors in the behaviora...

  12. Source-term analysis for Hanford low-activity tank waste using the reaction-transport code AREST-CT

    A general, integrated performance assessment code, AREST-CT, was used to analyze the influence of various factors on the release rates of radionuclides from a proposed facility for disposal of low-activity tank wastes. The code couples various process models together based on the framework of reaction-transport theory. The disposal facility was modeled as a 1-D column surrounded by soil. A borosilicate waste glass, LD6-5412 was the waste form considered in the analysis. Included in the simulations were 38 aqueous species, 14 minerals, 21 equilibrium reactions, and 16 kinetic reactions. Dissolution rate of the glass and the release rates of Tc, Pu, U, Np, I. Se under different conditions were calculated for 50,000 years. The simulations revealed that (1) open exchange between the atmosphere and pore-water within the vault significantly improves the performance; (2) an ion-exchange reaction between the glass and aqueous phase increases the release rates significantly; and (3) at the hydrogeologic conditions under consideration, variation of the pore-water velocity has little effect on the release rate of radionuclides. These results provide a scientific basis for formulation of waste forms and engineering design of the disposal facility. Reaction-transport modeling can provide information on the long-term performance of disposal systems that are not obtainable from laboratory experiments alone or by conventional decoupled process models

  13. Urinary Dopamine as a Potential Index of the Transport Activity of Multidrug and Toxin Extrusion in the Kidney

    Kajiwara, Moto; Ban, Tsuyoshi; Matsubara, Kazuo; Nakanishi, Yoichi; Masuda, Satohiro

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine is a cationic natriuretic catecholamine synthesized in proximal tubular cells (PTCs) of the kidney before secretion into the lumen, a key site of its action. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying dopamine secretion into the lumen remain unclear. Multidrug and toxin extrusion (MATE) is a H+/organic cation antiporter that is highly expressed in the brush border membrane of PTCs and mediates the efflux of organic cations, including metformin and cisplatin, from the epithelial cells into the urine. Therefore, we hypothesized that MATE mediates dopamine secretion, a cationic catecholamine, into the tubule lumen, thereby regulating natriuresis. Here, we show that [3H]dopamine uptake in human (h) MATE1-, hMATE-2K- and mouse (m) MATE-expressing cells exhibited saturable kinetics. Fluid retention and decreased urinary excretion of dopamine and Na+ were observed in Mate1-knockout mice compared to that in wild-type mice. Imatinib, a MATE inhibitor, inhibited [3H]dopamine uptake by hMATE1-, hMATE2-K- and mMATE1-expressing cells in a concentration-dependent manner. At clinically-relevant concentrations, imatinib inhibited [3H]dopamine uptake by hMATE1- and hMATE2-K-expressing cells. The urinary excretion of dopamine and Na+ decreased and fluid retention occurred in imatinib-treated mice. In conclusion, MATE transporters secrete renally-synthesized dopamine, and therefore, urinary dopamine has the potential to be an index of the MATE transporter activity. PMID:27483254

  14. Isomeric iodinated analogs of nimesulide: Synthesis, physicochemical characterization, cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitory activity, and transport across Caco-2 cells.

    Yamamoto, Yumi; Arai, Jun; Hisa, Takuya; Saito, Yohei; Mukai, Takahiro; Ohshima, Takashi; Maeda, Minoru; Yamamoto, Fumihiko

    2016-08-15

    Isomeric iodinated derivatives of nimesulide, with an iodine substituent on the phenoxy ring, were prepared with the aim of identifying potential candidate compounds for the development of imaging agents targeting cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in the brain. Both the experimental logP7.4 and pKa values for these iodinated analogs were in the acceptable range for passive brain penetration. The para-iodo-substituted analog was a more potent and selective COX-2 inhibitor than nimesulide, with a potency that was comparable to the reference drug, celecoxib. Iodination at the ortho- or meta-position of the phenoxy ring was associated with a substantial loss of COX-2 inhibitory activity. Transport studies across Caco-2 cell monolayers in the presence and absence of a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor, verapamil, indicated that the para-iodo-substituted analog was not a P-gp transport substrate; this feature is a prerequisite for potential in vivo brain imaging compounds. The para-iodo-substituted analog of nimesulide appears to be an attractive candidate for the development of radioiodine-labeled tracers for in vivo brain imaging of COX-2 levels. PMID:27325447

  15. Public transport

    Lethbridge, Jane

    2008-01-01

    Public transport plays an essential role in enabling people from low income and other disadvantaged groups to access employment and services. It also contributes to the development of social networks and social capital, by helping people to visit friends and relatives and take part in community and other social activities. Public policy makers have begun to recognise that adequate public transport provision can play an important role in reducing social exclusion. [Taken from introductory p...

  16. AIR TRANSPORTS – COMPONENT OF INTERNATIONAL TRANSPORTS

    Mihaela Loredana LĂPĂDUŞI

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Air transports activity has known an important development caused by the economic increase, by Romania’s involvement in the international products trade, in international tourism. They are completed by the specific characteristics of air transports, which, together with the characteristics of the other ways of transport, has certain transport objectives with a higher and higher significance. Air traffic has a national commercial value and thus practices have been established in approaching national policies regarding: internal traffic protection through national air transporters, granting access to foreign transporters to national traffic in international transports.

  17. Intestinal Phosphate Transport

    Sabbagh, Yves; Giral, Hector; Caldas, Yupanqui; Levi, Moshe; Schiavi, Susan C.

    2011-01-01

    Phosphate is absorbed in the small intestine by at least two distinct mechanisms: paracellular phosphate transport which is dependent on passive diffusion and active transport which occurs through the sodium-dependent phosphate co-transporters. Despite evidence emerging for other ions, regulation of the phosphate specific paracellular pathways remains largely unexplored. In contrast, there is a growing body of evidence that active transport through the sodium-dependent phosphate co-transporte...

  18. Role of Branched-Chain Amino Acid Transport in Bacillus subtilis CodY Activity

    Belitsky, Boris R.

    2015-01-01

    CodY is a branched-chain amino acid-responsive transcriptional regulator that controls the expression of several dozen transcription units in Bacillus subtilis. The presence of isoleucine, valine, and leucine in the growth medium is essential for achieving high activity of CodY and for efficient regulation of the target genes. We identified three permeases—BcaP, BraB, and BrnQ—that are responsible for the bulk of isoleucine and valine uptake and are also involved in leucine uptake. At least o...

  19. Qualification tests for packages used for transport and storage of radioactive waste (low activity) in INR Pitesti

    Vieru, G. (Institute for Nuclear Research, Pitesti (Romania))

    1993-01-01

    Radioactive wastes generated by the TRIGA INR research reactor are packaged according to the national and international standards and the IAEA Regulations. The technology for packaging and treatment of radioactive wastes used in this institute can be applied, prospectively, at the Nuclear Power Plant Cernavoda, after commissioning. The qualification tests (low tests) are described for packages used for transport and storage (for a long period of about 30 years) of radioactive wastes (low activity, up to 0.5068 x 10[sup 10] Bq per drum, or 0.164 Ci per drum). As a result of the tests, Romanian technology for treatment and packaging of radioactive wastes is considered to be in accordance with IAEA Regulations. (author).

  20. Neighbourhood walkability, leisure-time and transport-related physical activity in a mixed urban–rural area

    Eric de Sa

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To develop a walkability index specific to mixed rural/suburban areas, and to explore the relationship between walkability scores and leisure time physical activity. Methods. Respondents were geocoded with 500 m and 1,000 m buffer zones around each address. A walkability index was derived from intersections, residential density, and land-use mix according to built environment measures. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to quantify the association between the index and physical activity levels. Analyses used cross-sectional data from the 2007–2008 Canadian Community Health Survey (n = 1158; ≥18 y. Results. Respondents living in highly walkable 500 m buffer zones (upper quartiles of the walkability index were more likely to walk or cycle for leisure than those living in low-walkable buffer zones (quartile 1. When a 1,000 m buffer zone was applied, respondents in more walkable neighbourhoods were more likely to walk or cycle for both leisure-time and transport-related purposes. Conclusion. Developing a walkability index can assist in exploring the associations between measures of the built environment and physical activity to prioritize neighborhood change.

  1. Microwave plasma doping: Arsenic activation and transport in germanium and silicon

    Miyoshi, Hidenori; Oka, Masahiro; Ueda, Hirokazu; Ventzek, Peter L. G.; Sugimoto, Yasuhiro; Kobayashi, Yuuki; Nakamura, Genji; Hirota, Yoshihiro; Kaitsuka, Takanobu; Kawakami, Satoru

    2016-04-01

    Microwave RLSA™ plasma doping technology has enabled conformal doping of non-planar semiconductor device structures. An important attribute of RLSA™ plasma doping is that it does not impart physical damage during processing. In this work, carrier activation measurements for AsH3 based plasma doping into silicon (Si) and germanium (Ge) using rapid thermal annealing are presented. The highest carrier concentrations are 3.6 × 1020 and 4.3 × 1018 cm-3 for Si and Ge, respectively. Secondary ion mass spectrometry depth profiles of arsenic in Ge show that intrinsic dopant diffusion for plasma doping followed by post activation anneal is much slower than for conventional ion implantation. This is indicative of an absence of defects. The comparison is based on a comparison of diffusion times at identical annealing temperatures. The absence of defects, like those generated in conventional ion implantation, in RLSA™ based doping processes makes RLSA™ doping technology useful for damage free conformal doping of topographic structures.

  2. Functional Expression of a Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) Channel Modulator Involved in Ion Transport and Epithelial Cell Differentiation.

    Yamazaki, Jun

    2016-01-01

      Cl(-)-permeable channels and transporters expressed on the cell membranes of various mammalian cell types play pivotal roles in the transport of electrolytes and water, pH regulation, cell volume and membrane excitability, and are therefore expected to be useful molecular targets for drug discovery. Both TMEM16A (a possible candidate for Ca(2+)-regulated Cl(-) channels recently identified) and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) (or cAMP-regulated Cl(-) channels) have been known to be involved in Cl(-) secretion and reabsorption in the rat salivary gland. Crosstalk between two types of regulatory pathways through these two types of channels has also been described. Previously, we demonstrated that CLCA, a Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel modulator, was involved in Cl(-) absorption in rat salivary ducts. In addition to Ca(2+), basal NF-κB activity in a mouse keratinocyte line was shown to be involved in the transcriptional regulation of CLCA. Conversely, a truncated isoform of CLCA was found in undifferentiated epithelial cells present in the rat epidermal basal layers. Under regulation by Ca(2+) and PKC, the surface expression of β1-integrin and cell adhesion were decreased in the CLCA-overexpressing cells. Knockdown of this isoform elevated the expression of β1-integrin in rat epidermis in vivo. These results indicate that the specific differentiation-dependent localization of CLCA, and transcriptional regulation through Ca(2+), are likely to affect ion permeability and the adhesive potential of epithelial cells. In summary, these types of Cl(-) channels and their modulators may function in a coordinated manner in regulating the functions of epithelial cells under different physiological conditions. PMID:26935091

  3. The importance of glucose transport activity as the rate-limiting step of 2-deoxyglucose uptake in tumor cells in vitro

    Glucose transporter (GLUT) expression and hexokinase activity are thought to be related to high [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in tumor cells, but their relative importance is still unknown. To determine which is the predominant factor in FDG uptake in tumor cells, cultured tumor cell lines and a normal cell line were studied in vitro with respect to 2-deoxyglucose (DG) uptake, hexokinase activity, and the initial uptake rate of 3-O-methylglucose (3-O-MG) transport, which is generally accepted as indicating the amount of GLUT expressed on the plasma membrane. In 16 types of tumor cells and one fibroblast cell line, DG uptake was assessed for 60 min, the initial uptake rate of 3-O-MG transport was measured for 1 min, and total hexokinase activity, including that in the mitochondrial fraction, was determined. Across all 16 tumor cell lines, there was a significant correlation between DG uptake and 3-O-MG transport (p=0.0012, F test), but not between DG uptake and hexokinase activity. Hexokinase activity of the tumor cells was comparable to that of the human fibroblast cells in the exponential growth phase. Most tumor cells showed higher DG uptake and 3-O-MG transport than the human fibroblast cells. The results suggest that DG uptake of cultured tumor cells is governed by GLUT expression, which may be a distinct characteristic of the neoplastic process

  4. Deletion of a Histidine-rich Loop of AtMTP1, a Vacuolar Zn2+/H+ Antiporter of Arabidopsis thaliana, Stimulates the Transport Activity*

    Kawachi, Miki; Kobae, Yoshihiro; Mimura, Tetsuro; Maeshima, Masayoshi

    2008-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana AtMTP1 belongs to the cation diffusion facilitator family and is localized on the vacuolar membrane. We investigated the enzymatic kinetics of AtMTP1 by a heterologous expression system in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which lacked genes for vacuolar membrane zinc transporters ZRC1 and COT1. The yeast mutant expressing AtMTP1 heterologously was tolerant to 10 mm ZnCl2. Active transport of zinc into vacuoles of living yeast cells expressing At...

  5. The Activity of the Lactose Transporter from Streptococcus thermophilus Is Increased by Phosphorylated IIA and the Action of β-Galactosidase

    Geertsma, Eric R.; Duurkens, Ria H.; Poolman, Bert

    2005-01-01

    The metabolism of lactose by Streptococcus thermophilus is highly regulated, allowing the bacterium to prefer lactose over glucose as main source of carbon and energy. In vitro analysis of the enzymes involved in transport and hydrolysis of lactose showed that the transport reaction benefits from the hydrolysis of lactose at the trans side of the membrane. Furthermore, the activity of LacS is modulated by PEP-dependent phosphorylation of the IIA domain via the general energy coupling proteins...

  6. A functional EXXEK motif is essential for proton coupling and active glucosinolate transport by NPF2.11

    Jørgensen, Morten Egevang; Olsen, Carl Erik; Geiger, Dietmar;

    2015-01-01

    The proton-dependent oligopeptide transporter (POT/PTR) family shares a highly conserved E1X1X2E2RFXYY (E1X1X2E2R) motif across all kingdoms of life. This motif is suggested to have a role in proton coupling and active transport in bacterial homologs. For the plant POT/PTR family, also known as t...

  7. Thermodynamic and transport properties of some biologically active compounds in aqueous solutions at different temperatures

    Dhondge, Sudhakar S., E-mail: s_dhondge@hotmail.co [P.G. Department of Chemistry, S.K. Porwal College, Kamptee, Nagpur 441 002 (India); Zodape, Sangesh P.; Parwate, Dilip V. [Department of Chemistry, R.T.M. Nagpur University, Nagpur 440 033 (India)

    2011-01-15

    The experimental data of density and viscosity have been obtained for aqueous solutions of biologically active compounds like salbutamol sulphate (SS), diethylcarbamazine citrate (DEC), and chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) in the concentration range (0 to 0.15) mol . kg{sup -1} at three different temperatures. The derived parameters, such as apparent molar volume of solute ({phi}{sub V})), limiting apparent molar volume of solute ({phi}{sub V}{sup 0}), limiting apparent molar expansivity ({phi}{sub E}{sup 0}), thermal expansion coefficient ({alpha}*) and Jones-Dole equation viscosity A and B coefficients, were obtained using the density and viscosity results. It has been observed that the electrolyte-salt (SS) as well as adducts exhibit a positive viscosity B coefficient having negative ((dB)/(dT)). These results are interpreted in the light of possible solute-solute and solute-solvent interactions.

  8. Thermodynamic and transport properties of some biologically active compounds in aqueous solutions at different temperatures

    The experimental data of density and viscosity have been obtained for aqueous solutions of biologically active compounds like salbutamol sulphate (SS), diethylcarbamazine citrate (DEC), and chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) in the concentration range (0 to 0.15) mol . kg-1 at three different temperatures. The derived parameters, such as apparent molar volume of solute (φV)), limiting apparent molar volume of solute (φV0), limiting apparent molar expansivity (φE0), thermal expansion coefficient (α*) and Jones-Dole equation viscosity A and B coefficients, were obtained using the density and viscosity results. It has been observed that the electrolyte-salt (SS) as well as adducts exhibit a positive viscosity B coefficient having negative ((dB)/(dT) ). These results are interpreted in the light of possible solute-solute and solute-solvent interactions.

  9. Actively transporting virus like analytes with optofluidics for rapid and ultrasensitive biodetection.

    Huang, Min; Galarreta, Betty C; Cetin, Arif E; Altug, Hatice

    2013-12-21

    Effective analyte delivery is essential to achieve rapid and sensitive biodetection systems. In this article, we present an actively controlled fluidic system integrated with a suspended plasmonic nanohole sensor to achieve superior analyte delivery efficiency and ultrafast sensor response, as compared to conventional fluidic systems. 70 nm sized virus like analyte solution is used to experimentally demonstrate the system performance improvements. Sensor response time is reduced by one order of magnitude as compared to the conventional methods. A seven orders of magnitude dynamic concentration range from 10(3) to 10(9) particles mL(-1) is quantified, corresponding to a concentration window relevant to clinical diagnosis and drug screening. Our non-destructive detection system, by enabling efficient analyte delivery, fast sensing response and minimal sample volume, opens up opportunities for sensitive, rapid and real-time virus detection in infectious disease control and point-of-care applications. PMID:24170146

  10. Study of the long-range transport of atmospheric pollutants by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Aerosol samples were collected to study the characteristics of marine aerosols in the different western Pacific ocean areas. During the first cruise from 15 October to 25 November 1989, aerosol samples were collected with a kA-200 Andersen cascade impactor and a kB-120 sampler. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used to determine the elemental composition of the aerosols. The concentrations of crustal and pollution elements in aerosols were higher over the ocean area close to the China coast and decreased very rapidly with increasing distance from land. The morphology and elemental composition of aerosol particles showed that the seasalt particles may conglomerate with small crustal and pollution particles from land to form large particles. (author). 4 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  11. Mutation of aspartic acid-351, lysine-352, and lysine-515 alters the Ca2+ transport activity of the Ca2+-ATPase expressed

    Full-length cDNAs encoding neonatal and adult isoforms of the Ca2+-ATPase of rabbit fast-twitch skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum were expressed transiently in COS-1 cells. The microsomal fraction isolated from transfected COS-1 cells contained immunoreactive Ca2+-ATPase and catalyzed 45Ca2+ transport at rates at least 15-fold above controls. No differences were observed in either the rates or Ca2+ dependency of 45Ca2+ transport catalyzed by the two isoforms. Aspartic acid-351, the site of formation of the catalytic acyl phosphate in the enzyme, was mutated to asparagine, glutamic acid, serine, threonine, histidine, or alanine. In every case, Ca2+ transport activity and Ca2+-dependent phosphorylation were eliminated. Ca2+ transport was also eliminated by mutation of lysine-352 to arginine, glutamine, or glutamic acid or by mutation of Asp351-Lys352 to Lys351-Asp352. Mutation of lysine-515, the site of fluorescein isothiocyanate modification in the enzyme, resulted in diminished Ca2+ transport activity as follows: arginine, 60%; glutamine, 25%; glutamic acid, 5%. These results demonstrate the absolute requirement of acylphosphate formation for the Ca2+ transport function and define a residue important for ATP binding. They also demonstrate the feasibility of a thorough analysis of active sites in the Ca2+-ATPase by expression and site-specific mutagenesis

  12. Biodegradable Inorganic Nanovector: Passive versus Active Tumor Targeting in siRNA Transportation.

    Park, Dae-Hwan; Cho, Jaeyong; Kwon, Oh-Joon; Yun, Chae-Ok; Choy, Jin-Ho

    2016-03-24

    The biodegradable inorganic nanovector based on a layered double hydroxide (LDH) holds great promise for gene and drug delivery systems. However, in vivo targeted delivery of genes through LDH still remains a key challenge in the development of RNA interference therapeutics. Here, we describe in vivo and in vitro delivery system for Survivin siRNA (siSurvivin) assembled with passive LDH with a particle size of 100 nm or active LDH conjugated with a cancer overexpressing receptor targeting ligand, folic acid (LDHFA), conferring them an ability to target the tumor by either EPR-based clathrin-mediated or folate receptor-mediated endocytosis. When not only transfected into KB cells but also injected into xenograft mice, LDHFA/siSurvivin induced potent gene silencing at mRNA and protein levels in vitro, and consequently achieved a 3.0-fold higher suppression of tumor volume than LDH/siSurvivin in vivo. This anti-tumor effect was attributed to a selectively 1.2-fold higher accumulation of siSurvivin in tumor tissue compared with other organs. Targeting to the tumor with inorganic nanovector can guide and accelerate an evolution of next-generation theranosis system. PMID:26879376

  13. Foil activity measurements for testing transport calculations in the Budapest Research Reactor

    The upgraded VVR-SM type (Russian design) Budapest Research Reactor serves both research and practical applications. As a by-product of the experimental methods used in the field of the neutron activation analysis a unique opportunity arose for benchmarking the neutron physical algorithms against measurements. As the original aim of the measurements was the determination of the concentrations and the necessary neutron flux characteristics, the measured primary data had to be reevaluated to verity the neutron physical calculations. The reaction rates of the following measured reactions were selected for the comparison: 94Zr(n,γ)95Zr, 96Zr(n,γ)97Zr/97mNb, 58Ni(n,p)58Co, 176Lu(n,γ)177Lu and 197Au(n,γ)198Au. For the sake of comparison, the multigroup cross section library of the MULTICELL code had been supplemented with the data of the above reactions by using the NJOY code. As the reaction rates are measured at the same positions (practically without shielding effects), the measured and calculated reaction rate ratios were compared on the level of the multigroup MULTICELL calculations. The accuracy of the MULTICELL code for the research reactor has been tested by comparative MCNP calculations. (author)

  14. Radioactive fission and activation products: Transport from soil to plant under swedish field conditions

    The uptake of four activation products: 57 Co, 54 Mn, 65 Zn and 63 Ni, and two fission products: 90 Sr and 137 Cs by different crops was studied in a long term field experiment. Some of the soils used were sampled in the vicinity of nuclear power plants, while the others represented the most frequent types of agricultural soils occurring in Sweden. Data on the uptake by clover, timothy and wheat during the period 1976-84 were used for the calculation of soil-plant transfer factors of these nuclides. The temporal distribution of the transfer factors and the variations exhibited by the different nuclides were examined, as well as the differences between crops. The increased uptake at the early stage of the experiment observed in clover and to some extent in wheat is discussed. The soil characteristics that most influenced the uptake are the pH and the soil content of calcium, potassium and clay. The nuclide fractionation in soil was evaluated and regression analyses were employed to quantify the dependence of uptake on soil parameters. The nuclide fractions delivered to consumption through grain foods was calculated, highlighting the temporal variation of this contribution. 112 refs., 23 figs., 39 tabs

  15. EUV-driven ionospheres and electron transport on extrasolar giant planets orbiting active stars

    Chadney, J M; Koskinen, T T; Miller, S; Sanz-Forcada, J; Unruh, Y C; Yelle, R V

    2016-01-01

    The composition and structure of the upper atmospheres of Extrasolar Giant Planets (EGPs) are affected by the high-energy spectrum of their host stars from soft X-rays to EUV. This emission depends on the activity level of the star, which is primarily determined by its age. We focus upon EGPs orbiting K- and M-dwarf stars of different ages. XUV spectra for these stars are constructed using a coronal model. These spectra are used to drive both a thermospheric model and an ionospheric model, providing densities of neutral and ion species. Ionisation is included through photo-ionisation and electron-impact processes. We find that EGP ionospheres at all orbital distances considered and around all stars selected are dominated by the long-lived H$^+$ ion. In addition, planets with upper atmospheres where H$_2$ is not substantially dissociated have a layer in which H$_3^+$ is the major ion at the base of the ionosphere. For fast-rotating planets, densities of short-lived H$_3^+$ undergo significant diurnal variation...

  16. Transport of uranium concentrates: low specific activity versus logistic complexity; Transporte de concentrado de uranio: baixa atividade especifica versus complexidade logistica

    Dias, Pedro L.S.; Macedo, Eclesio F.; Carvalho, Leonardo B.; Carvalho, Renata R., E-mail: pedroluis@inb.gov.b, E-mail: eclesio@inb.gov.b, E-mail: leonardobernadino@inb.gov.b, E-mail: renatarangel@inb.gov.b [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil S.A., Caetite, BA (Brazil)

    2011-10-26

    This paper describes the case of radioactive material transport, according to pertinent documentation - nuclear material specifically in the form op ammonium diuranate, produced by Industrias Nucleares do Brasil S.A. - from the mine and physic-chemical processing at Caetite, Bahia, to the port of Salvador, state of Bahia, approaching the radiological protection aspects

  17. Targeting the lactate transporter MCT1 in endothelial cells inhibits lactate-induced HIF-1 activation and tumor angiogenesis.

    Pierre Sonveaux

    Full Text Available Switching to a glycolytic metabolism is a rapid adaptation of tumor cells to hypoxia. Although this metabolic conversion may primarily represent a rescue pathway to meet the bioenergetic and biosynthetic demands of proliferating tumor cells, it also creates a gradient of lactate that mirrors the gradient of oxygen in tumors. More than a metabolic waste, the lactate anion is known to participate to cancer aggressiveness, in part through activation of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1 pathway in tumor cells. Whether lactate may also directly favor HIF-1 activation in endothelial cells (ECs thereby offering a new druggable option to block angiogenesis is however an unanswered question. In this study, we therefore focused on the role in ECs of monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1 that we previously identified to be the main facilitator of lactate uptake in cancer cells. We found that blockade of lactate influx into ECs led to inhibition of HIF-1-dependent angiogenesis. Our demonstration is based on the unprecedented characterization of lactate-induced HIF-1 activation in normoxic ECs and the consecutive increase in vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2 and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF expression. Furthermore, using a variety of functional assays including endothelial cell migration and tubulogenesis together with in vivo imaging of tumor angiogenesis through intravital microscopy and immunohistochemistry, we documented that MCT1 blockers could act as bona fide HIF-1 inhibitors leading to anti-angiogenic effects. Together with the previous demonstration of MCT1 being a key regulator of lactate exchange between tumor cells, the current study identifies MCT1 inhibition as a therapeutic modality combining antimetabolic and anti-angiogenic activities.

  18. Serum biochemical activities and muscular soreness in transported goats administered with ascorbic acid during the hot-dry season

    Ndazo S Minka; Olusegun J Ayo

    2010-01-01

    The effects of handling, loading and 12 h of road transportation during the hot-dry season on muscular metabolism of 20 experimental goats administered orally with 100 mg/kg body weight of ascorbic acid (AA) dissolved in 10 ml of sterile water, and other 20 control goats given equivalent of sterile water 40 min prior to transportation were investigated. The result obtained post-transportation showed that handling, loading and transportation were stressful to the goats, especially the control ...

  19. Handling qualities of a wide-body transport airplane utilizing Pitch Active Control Systems (PACS) for relaxed static stability application

    Grantham, William D.; Person, Lee H., Jr.; Brown, Philip W.; Becker, Lawrence E.; Hunt, George E.; Rising, J. J.; Davis, W. J.; Willey, C. S.; Weaver, W. A.; Cokeley, R.

    1985-01-01

    Piloted simulation studies have been conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of two pitch active control systems (PACS) on the flying qualities of a wide-body transport airplane when operating at negative static margins. These two pitch active control systems consisted of a simple 'near-term' PACS and a more complex 'advanced' PACS. Eight different flight conditions, representing the entire flight envelope, were evaluated with emphasis on the cruise flight conditions. These studies were made utilizing the Langley Visual/Motion Simulator (VMS) which has six degrees of freedom. The simulation tests indicated that (1) the flying qualities of the baseline aircraft (PACS off) for the cruise and other high-speed flight conditions were unacceptable at center-of-gravity positions aft of the neutral static stability point; (2) within the linear static stability flight envelope, the near-term PACS provided acceptable flying qualities for static stabilty margins to -3 percent; and (3) with the advanced PACS operative, the flying qualities were demonstrated to be good (satisfactory to very acceptable) for static stabilty margins to -20 percent.

  20. Health impact modelling of active travel visions for England and Wales using an Integrated Transport and Health Impact Modelling Tool (ITHIM.

    James Woodcock

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Achieving health benefits while reducing greenhouse gas emissions from transport offers a potential policy win-win; the magnitude of potential benefits, however, is likely to vary. This study uses an Integrated Transport and Health Impact Modelling tool (ITHIM to evaluate the health and environmental impacts of high walking and cycling transport scenarios for English and Welsh urban areas outside London. METHODS: Three scenarios with increased walking and cycling and lower car use were generated based upon the Visions 2030 Walking and Cycling project. Changes to carbon dioxide emissions were estimated by environmental modelling. Health impact assessment modelling was used to estimate changes in Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs resulting from changes in exposure to air pollution, road traffic injury risk, and physical activity. We compare the findings of the model with results generated using the World Health Organization's Health Economic Assessment of Transport (HEAT tools. RESULTS: This study found considerable reductions in disease burden under all three scenarios, with the largest health benefits attributed to reductions in ischemic heart disease. The pathways that produced the largest benefits were, in order, physical activity, road traffic injuries, and air pollution. The choice of dose response relationship for physical activity had a large impact on the size of the benefits. Modelling the impact on all-cause mortality rather than through individual diseases suggested larger benefits. Using the best available evidence we found fewer road traffic injuries for all scenarios compared with baseline but alternative assumptions suggested potential increases. CONCLUSIONS: Methods to estimate the health impacts from transport related physical activity and injury risk are in their infancy; this study has demonstrated an integration of transport and health impact modelling approaches. The findings add to the case for a move from

  1. Effect of Aloe vera extract on the improvement of the respiratory activity of leukocytes of matrinxã during the transport stress

    Fábio Sabbadin Zanuzzo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of extract of Aloe vera in the transport water of matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus fish on stress response and leukocyte respiratory activity. Fish was transported for 4 h in water containing Aloe at levels 0; 0.02; 0.2 and 2 mg/L, and sampled before transport 2, 4, 24 and 96 h after for determination of plasma glucose and respiratory activity of leukocytes. An additional in vitro assay was conducted with another fish species, pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus, to test the respiratory burst of leukocytes exposed to Aloe extract (0.0, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS only at 0.1, 0.2, 0.5 and 1 mg/L. Plasma glucose increased after 2 and 4 h of transport and returned to control levels within 24 h, but the addition of Aloe in the transport water did not affect the level of blood glucose. However, at 2 h of transport, Aloe enhanced the respiratory activity of leukocytes in a dose-dependent way. The highest value of respiratory burst activity of leukocytes was observed in the fish transported in water containing Aloe at 2 mg/L. The enhancing effect of the plant extract on the production of oxygen radicals was confirmed in vitro in leukocytes of pacu incubated in Aloe at concentrations 0.1 and 0.2 mg/L. The results suggest that Aloe vera is a modulator of the immune system in fish improving the innate immune response tested.

  2. Evidence of independent action of neurohypophyseal peptides on osmotic water flow and active sodium transport in the same target organ: studies on RANA esculenta skin and bladder (1961)

    Neurohypophyseal peptides produce on the skin and bladder of certain amphibia simultaneous increases of the passive osmotic permeability to water and active transport of sodium. The present work shows that oxytocin and two of its analogues arginine-8-oxytocin (arginine vasotocin) and lysine-8-oxytocin (lysine vasotocin) may produce the same increase of water permeability, while stimulating in quite different ways the sodium transport. This is the case for both skin and bladder. In other words, there is no correlation between natriferic and hydro-osmotic activities. The results are interpreted as evidence that neurohypophyseal hormones act on not one, as previously assumed, but two targets, inside the same epithelial cell. (author)

  3. Development of a transportable neutron activation analysis system to quantify manganese in bone in vivo: feasibility and methodology

    This study was conducted to investigate the methodology and feasibility of developing a transportable neutron activation analysis (NAA) system to quantify manganese (Mn) in bone using a portable deuterium–deuterium (DD) neutron generator as the neutron source. Since a DD neutron generator was not available in our laboratory, a deuterium–tritium (DT) neutron generator was used to obtain experimental data and validate the results from Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. After validation, MC simulations using a DD generator as the neutron source were then conducted. Different types of moderators and reflectors were simulated, and the optimal thicknesses for the moderator and reflector were determined. To estimate the detection limit (DL) of the system, and to observe the interference of the magnesium (Mg) γ line at 844 keV to the Mn γ line at 847 keV, three hand phantoms with Mn concentrations of 30 parts per million (ppm), 150 ppm, and 500 ppm were made and irradiated by the DT generator system. The Mn signals in these phantoms were then measured using a 50% high-efficiency high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The DL was calculated to be about 4.4 ppm for the chosen irradiation, decay, and measurement time. This was calculated to be equivalent to a DL of about 3.3 ppm for the DD generator system. To achieve this DL with one 50% high-efficiency HPGe detector, the dose to the hand was simulated to be about 37 mSv, with the total body equivalent dose being about 23µSv. In conclusion, it is feasible to develop a transportable NAA system to quantify Mn in bone in vivo with an acceptable radiation exposure to the subject. (paper)

  4. Polyamines interact with hydroxyl radicals in activating Ca(2+) and K(+) transport across the root epidermal plasma membranes.

    Zepeda-Jazo, Isaac; Velarde-Buendía, Ana María; Enríquez-Figueroa, René; Bose, Jayakumar; Shabala, Sergey; Muñiz-Murguía, Jesús; Pottosin, Igor I

    2011-12-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are integral components of the plant adaptive responses to environment. Importantly, ROS affect the intracellular Ca(2+) dynamics by activating a range of nonselective Ca(2+)-permeable channels in plasma membrane (PM). Using patch-clamp and noninvasive microelectrode ion flux measuring techniques, we have characterized ionic currents and net K(+) and Ca(2+) fluxes induced by hydroxyl radicals (OH(•)) in pea (Pisum sativum) roots. OH(•), but not hydrogen peroxide, activated a rapid Ca(2+) efflux and a more slowly developing net Ca(2+) influx concurrent with a net K(+) efflux. In isolated protoplasts, OH(•) evoked a nonselective current, with a time course and a steady-state magnitude similar to those for a K(+) efflux in intact roots. This current displayed a low ionic selectivity and was permeable to Ca(2+). Active OH(•)-induced Ca(2+) efflux in roots was suppressed by the PM Ca(2+) pump inhibitors eosine yellow and erythrosine B. The cation channel blockers gadolinium, nifedipine, and verapamil and the anionic channel blockers 5-nitro-2(3-phenylpropylamino)-benzoate and niflumate inhibited OH(•)-induced ionic currents in root protoplasts and K(+) efflux and Ca(2+) influx in roots. Contrary to expectations, polyamines (PAs) did not inhibit the OH(•)-induced cation fluxes. The net OH(•)-induced Ca(2+) efflux was largely prolonged in the presence of spermine, and all PAs tested (spermine, spermidine, and putrescine) accelerated and augmented the OH(•)-induced net K(+) efflux from roots. The latter effect was also observed in patch-clamp experiments on root protoplasts. We conclude that PAs interact with ROS to alter intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis by modulating both Ca(2+) influx and efflux transport systems at the root cell PM. PMID:21980172

  5. Prognostic impact of high ABC transporter activity in 111 adult acute myeloid leukemia patients with normal cytogenetics when compared to FLT3, NPM1, CEBPA and BAALC.

    Hirsch, Pierre; Tang, Ruoping; Marzac, Christophe; Perrot, Jean-Yves; Fava, Fanny; Bernard, Chantal; Jeziorowska, Dorota; Marie, Jean Pierre; Legrand, Ollivier

    2012-02-01

    ATP-binding cassette transporter (and specially P-glycoprotein) activity is a well known prognostic factor in acute myeloid leukemia, but when compared to other molecular markers its prognostic value has not been well studied. Here we study relationships between this activity, fms-like tyro-sine kinase 3(FLT3/ITD), nucleophosmin(NPM1), CAAT-enhancer binding protein alpha(CEBPα), and brain and acute leukemia cytoplasmic protein (BAALC), in 111 patients with normal cytogenetics who underwent the same treatment, and evaluate its prognostic impact. Independent factors for survival were age (P=0.0126), ATP-binding cassette transporter activity (P=0.018) and duplications in the fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (P=0.0273). In the 66 patients without fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 duplication and without nucleophosmin mutation, independent prognostic factors for complete remission achievement and survival were age and ATP-binding cassette transporter activity. In conclusion, ATP-binding cassette transporter activity remains an independent prognostic factor, and could assist treatment decisions in patients with no nucleophosmin mutation and no fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 duplication. PMID:22058196

  6. Superiority of the S,S conformation in diverse pharmacological processes: Intestinal transport and entry inhibition activity of novel anti-HIV drug lead.

    Fanous, Joseph; Swed, Avi; Joubran, Salim; Hurevich, Mattan; Britan-Rosich, Elena; Kotler, Moshe; Gilon, Chaim; Hoffman, Amnon

    2015-11-30

    Chirality is an important aspect in many pharmacological processes including drug transport and metabolism. The current investigation examined the stereospecific transport and entry inhibitory activity of four diastereomers derived from a small (macrocyclic) molecule that has two chiral centers. These molecules were designed to mimic the interaction between CD4 and gp120 site of HIV-1 and thereby to function as entry inhibitor(s). Intestinal permeability was assessed by ex-vivo model using excised rat intestine mounted in side-by-side diffusion chambers. The entry inhibitory activity was monitored using indicator HeLa-CD4-LTR-beta-gal cells (MAGI assay). The (S/S) diastereomer, named CG-1, exhibited superiority in both unrelated tested biological processes: (I) high transport through the intestine and (II) entry inhibition activity (in the low μM range). The permeability screening revealed a unique transporter-mediated absorption pathway of CG-1, suggesting a significant role of the molecule's conformation on the mechanism of intestinal absorption. Here we highlight that only the S,S enantiomer (CG-1) has both (I) promising anti HIV-1 entry inhibitory properties and (II) high transporter mediated intestinal permeability. Hence we suggest preference in pharmacological processes to the S,S conformation. This report augments the knowledge regarding stereoselectivity in receptor mediated and protein-protein interaction processes. PMID:26392249

  7. Encouraging walking for transport and physical activity in children and adolescents: how important is the built environment?

    Giles-Corti, Billie; Kelty, Sally F; Zubrick, Stephen R; Villanueva, Karen P

    2009-01-01

    In the post-World War II era, there have been dramatic changes to the environment that appear to be having a detrimental impact on the lifestyles and incidental physical activities of young people. These changes are not trivial and have the potential to influence not only physical health, but also mental health and child development. However, the evidence of the impact of the built environment on physical activity to date is inconsistent. This review examines the evidence on the association between the built environment and walking for transport as well as physical activity generally, with a focus on methodological issues that may explain inconsistencies in the literature to date. It appears that many studies fail to measure behaviour-specific environmental correlates, and insufficient attention is being given to differences according to the age of study participants. Higher levels of out-of-school-hours physical activity and walking appear to be significantly associated with higher levels of urban density and neighbourhoods with mixed-use planning, especially for older children and adolescents. Proximate recreational facilities also appear to predict young people's level of physical activity. However, there are inconsistencies in the literature involving studies with younger children. Independent mobility increases with age. For younger children, the impact of the built environment is influenced by the decision-making of parents as the gatekeepers of their behaviour. Cross-cultural differences may also be present and are worthy of greater exploration. As children develop and are given more independent mobility, it appears that the way neighbourhoods are designed - particularly in terms of proximity and connectivity to local destinations, including schools and shopping centres, and the presence of footpaths - becomes a determinant of whether children are able, and are permitted by their parents, to walk and use destinations locally. If older children and

  8. A role for tungsten in the biology of Campylobacter jejuni: tungstate stimulates formate dehydrogenase activity and is transported via an ultra-high affinity ABC system distinct from the molybdate transporter.

    Smart, Jonathan P; Cliff, Matthew J; Kelly, David J

    2009-11-01

    The food-borne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni possesses no known tungstoenzymes, yet encodes two ABC transporters (Cj0300-0303 and Cj1538-1540) homologous to bacterial molybdate (ModABC) uptake systems and the tungstate transporter (TupABC) of Eubacterium acidaminophilum respectively. The actual substrates and physiological role of these transporters were investigated. Tryptophan fluorescence spectroscopy and isothermal titration calorimetry of the purified periplasmic binding proteins of each system revealed that while Cj0303 is unable to discriminate between molybdate and tungstate (K(D) values for both ligands of 4-8 nM), Cj1540 binds tungstate with a K(D) of 1.0 +/- 0.2 pM; 50 000-fold more tightly than molybdate. Induction-coupled plasma mass spectroscopy of single and double mutants showed that this large difference in affinity is reflected in a lower cellular tungsten content in a cj1540 (tupA) mutant compared with a cj0303c (modA) mutant. Surprisingly, formate dehydrogenase (FDH) activity was decreased approximately 50% in the tupA strain, and supplementation of the growth medium with tungstate significantly increased FDH activity in the wild type, while inhibiting known molybdoenzymes. Our data suggest that C. jejuni possesses a specific, ultra-high affinity tungstate transporter that supplies tungsten for incorporation into FDH. Furthermore, possession of two MoeA paralogues may explain the formation of both molybdopterin and tungstopterin in this bacterium. PMID:19818021

  9. Continuous on-line calibration of diffusive soil-atmosphere trace gas transport using vertical 220Rn- and 222Rn-activity profiles

    Continuous monitoring of 220Rn- and 222Rn-activities above and below the soil surface combined with sporadic direct 222Rn-flux measurements is used to quantify diffusive trace gas transport in the air-filled pore space of soil, through the soil-atmosphere interface and in the lowest layers of the atmosphere. In a calm night, 222Rn-activities above the surface first build-up near the ground (z 222Rn-flux from activity profiles measured in soil gas, (2) from direct flux determinations and (3) using information about atmospheric diffusion parameters from 220Rn-activities measured near the surface it is possible to model the temporal evolution of the vertical 222Rn-profiles in a night with stable weather and constant soil conditions. The system operates automatically for extended periods of time in the field enabling a better understanding of transport processes in response to changing environmental conditions (wind, rain, soil humidity). (orig.)

  10. Acute Modulation of Sugar Transport in Brain Capillary Endothelial Cell Cultures during Activation of the Metabolic Stress Pathway*

    Cura, Anthony J.; Carruthers, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    GLUT1-catalyzed equilibrative sugar transport across the mammalian blood-brain barrier is stimulated during acute and chronic metabolic stress; however, the mechanism of acute transport regulation is unknown. We have examined acute sugar transport regulation in the murine brain microvasculature endothelial cell line bEnd.3. Acute cellular metabolic stress was induced by glucose depletion, by potassium cyanide, or by carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone, which reduce or deplete i...

  11. Policies to Accelerate Fuel, Technology andBehavioural Change in Transport - Results and Success of the Austrian Climate: Active Mobile Programme after the First Seven Years

    There is plenty of concepts and strategies on almost all administrative levels to reduce carbon emissions and boost energy efficiency in transport. But it usually takes a long time to adapt national and regional legislation to these strategies with considerable loss of valuable time. Furthermore some of the defined measures will never find the necessary ''political will'' for implementation. To bridge this gap Austria's Environmental ministry supported by the Austrian Energy Agency, got into action 2005 and set up an action programme, condensing all so called ''soft'' and ''voluntary'' measures in transport (''mobility management''), that do not necessarily need to wait for legislation or specific administrative framework conditions. In its comprehensive approach - not only transport is targeted, but also buildings, renewables and energy saving - and also in its effects regarding the reduction of GHG emissions, Climate:active and especially climate:active mobile seems to be one-of-a-kind in Europe. Climate-active mobile set-up: free-of-charge consulting programmes addressing specific target groups (companies, cites andmunicipalities, real estate developers, schools andyouth, tourism); a financial support programme with 51 Mio Euro since 2007 for mobility management measures, fleet conversions to low-carbon technologies, work travel plans etc.; an EcoDriving training programme with up to now 20,000 trainees and educating all novice drivers in Austria in a smart driving style; a broad awareness raising campaign; about 2,900 klima:aktiv mobil partners among the target groups implementing sustainable transport measures and therewith reduces more than 530,000 tons of CO2 emissions every year, created or saved 4300 ''green jobs'' in transport and induced ''green'' investments by companies and administrations 7 to 8 times higher as the funding. Climate-active mobile is one of the main drivers in Austria to accelerate fuel, technology andbehavioural change in transport and

  12. Effects of hypobaric hypoxia on adenine nucleotide pools, adenine nucleotide transporter activity and protein expression in rat liver

    Cong-Yang Li; Jun-Ze Liu; Li-Ping Wu; Bing Li; Li-Fen Chen

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To explore the effect of hypobaric hypoxia on mitochondrial energy metabolism in rat liver.METHODS: Adult male Wistar rats were exposed to a hypobaric chamber simulating 5000 m high altitude for 23 h every day for 0 (HO), 1 (H1), 5 (HS), 15 (H15) and 30 d (H30) respectively. Rats were sacrificed by decapitation and liver was removed. Liver mitochondria were isolated by differential centrifugation program. The size of adenine nucleotide pool (ATP, ADP, and AMP) in tissue and mitochondria was separated and measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The adenine nucleotide transporter (ANT) activity was determined by isotopic technique. The ANT total protein level was determined by Western blot. RESULTS: Compared with HO group, intra-mitochondrial ATP content decreased in all hypoxia groups. However,the H5 group reached the lowest point (70.6%) (P< 0.01)when compared to the control group. Intra-mitochondrial ADP and AMP level showed similar change in all hypoxia groups and were significantly lower than that in HO group. In addition, extra-mitochondrial ATP and ADP content decreased significantly in all hypoxia groups.Furthermore, extra-mitochondrial AMP in groups H5, H15and H30 was significantly lower than that in HO group,whereas H1 group had no marked change compared to the control situation. The activity of ANT in hypoxia groups decreased significantly, which was the lowest in H5 group (55.7%) (P<0.01) when compared to HO group. ANT activity in H30 group was higher than in H15 group, but still lower than that in HO group. ANT protein level in H5, H15, H30 groups, compared with HO group decreased significantly, which in H5 group was the lowest, being 27.1% of that in HO group (P<0.01). ANT protein level in H30 group was higher than in H15 group,but still lower than in HO group.CONCLUSION: Hypobaric hypoxia decreases the mitochondrial ATP content in rat liver, while mitochondrial ATP level recovers during long-term hypoxia exposure.The lower

  13. Accelerated OH(-) transport in activated carbon air cathode by modification of quaternary ammonium for microbial fuel cells.

    Wang, Xin; Feng, Cuijuan; Ding, Ning; Zhang, Qingrui; Li, Nan; Li, Xiaojing; Zhang, Yueyong; Zhou, Qixing

    2014-04-01

    Activated carbon (AC) is a promising catalyst for the air cathode of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) because of its high performance and low cost. To increase the performance of AC air cathodes, the acceleration of OH(-) transport is one of the most important methods, but it has not been widely investigated. Here we added quaternary ammonium to ACs by in situ anchoring of a quaternary ammonium/epoxide-reacting compound (QAE) or ex situ mixing with anion exchange resins in order to modify ACs from not only the external surface but also inside the pores. In 50 mM phosphate buffer solution (PBS), the in situ anchoring of QAE was a more effective way to increase the power. The highest power density of 2781 ± 36 mW/m(2), which is 10% higher than that of the control, was obtained using QAE-anchored AC cathodes. When the medium was switched to an unbuffered NaCl solution, the increase in maximum power density (885 ± 25 mW/m(2)) was in accordance with the anion exchange capacity (0.219 mmol/g). The highest power density of the anion exchange resin-mixed air cathode was 51% higher than that of the control, indicating that anion exchange is urgently needed in real wastewaters. Excess anchoring of QAE blocked both the mesopores and micropores, causing the power output to be inhibited. PMID:24597673

  14. Chloride/formate exchange with formic acid recycling: a mechanism of active chloride transport across epithelial membranes

    The pathways for transport of Cl- and formate in microvillus membrane vesicles isolated from rabbit renal cortex were evaluated. An outward formate gradient stimulated the uptake of 36Cl-, and an outward 36Cl- gradient stimulated the uptake of formate, indicating Cl-/formate exchange. In addition, an inside alkaline pH gradient induced the accumulation of formate, consistent with nonionic diffusion of formic acid. Although an inward Na+ gradient also stimulated uphill formate accumulation, this effect was abolished when ionophores were used to prevent the generation of a transmembrane pH gradient. An inside alkaline pH gradient only minimally stimulated the uptake of 82Br-, used as tracer for Cl-, confirming the absence of appreciable Cl-/OH- exchange. However, the same pH gradient in the presence of a physiologic formate concentration (0.2 mM) markedly stimulated 82Br- influx. These data suggest that Cl-/formate exchange with recycling of formic acid by nonionic diffusion is a potential mechanism for active Cl- absorption across the luminal membrane in the proximal tubule and perhaps in other epithelia

  15. Active core profile and transport modification by application of Ion Bernstein Wave power in PBX-M

    Application of Ion Bernstein Wave Heating (IBWH) into the Princeton Beta Experiment-Modification (PBX-M) tokamak stabilizes sawtooth oscillations and generates peaked density profiles. A transport barrier, spatially correlated with the IBWH power deposition profile, is observed in the core of IBWH assisted neutral beam injection (NBI) discharges. A precursor to the fully developed barrier is seen in the soft x-ray data during edge localized mode (ELM) activity. Sustained IBWH operation is conducive to a regime where the barrier supports large triangledown ne, triangledown Te, triangledown vphi, and triangledown Ti, delimiting the confinement zone. This regime is reminiscent of the H(high)-mode but with a confinement zone moved inwards. The core region has better than H-mode confinement while the peripheral region is L(low)-mode-like. The peaked profile enhanced NBI core deposition and increases nuclear reactivity. An increase in central Ti results from χi reduction (compared to H-mode) and better beam penetration. Bootstrap current fractions of up to 0.32--0.35 locally and 0.28 overall were obtained when an additional NBI burst is applied to this plasma

  16. An electrochemical one-step system for assaying methyltransferase activity based on transport of a quantum dot signaling tracer.

    Baek, Songyi; Won, Byoung Yeon; Park, Ki Soo; Park, Hyun Gyu

    2013-11-15

    A one-step, electrochemical method for assaying methyltransferase (MTase) activity, based on the convective transport of a quantum dot (QD) signaling tracer, has been developed. The assay chip used in this system was prepared by modifying a gold matrix with CdSe/ZnS QD-tagged dsDNA, which contains a specific methylation site (5'-GATC-3') recognized by MTase. Treatment of the chip with DNA adenine methylation (Dam) MTase, generates a methylated sequence (5'-GAmTC-3') within the dsDNA. The methylated dsDNA is then subjected to a cleavage reaction, induced by DpnI, which leads to release from the gold matrix of a DNA fragment tethered to a QD. Detection of the released QD, using square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV) on a glassy carbon (GC) electrode, enables the reliable quantitation of the methylated DNA. Because it is accomplished in a simple and convenient one step and does not require any complicated secondary or tedious washing steps, the new assay method holds great promise for epigenetic analysis in facility-limited environments or point-of-care testing (POCT) applications. PMID:23777705

  17. Using accelerometers and global positioning system devices to assess gender and age differences in children's school, transport, leisure and home based physical activity

    Klinker, Charlotte D; Schipperijn, Jasper; Christian, Hayley; Kerr, Jacqueline; Ersbøll, Annette K; Troelsen, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge on domain-specific physical activity (PA) has the potential to advance public health interventions and inform new policies promoting children's PA. The purpose of this study is to identify and assess domains (leisure, school, transport, home) and subdomains (e.g., recess, playgrounds, and...

  18. Metabolic targeting of oncogene MYC by selective activation of the proton-coupled monocarboxylate family of transporters.

    Gan, L; Xiu, R; Ren, P; Yue, M; Su, H; Guo, G; Xiao, D; Yu, J; Jiang, H; Liu, H; Hu, G; Qing, G

    2016-06-01

    Deregulation of the MYC oncogene produces Myc protein that regulates multiple aspects of cancer cell metabolism, contributing to the acquisition of building blocks essential for cancer cell growth and proliferation. Therefore, disabling Myc function represents an attractive therapeutic option for cancer treatment. However, pharmacological strategies capable of directly targeting Myc remain elusive. Here, we identified that 3-bromopyruvate (3-BrPA), a drug candidate that primarily inhibits glycolysis, preferentially induced massive cell death in human cancer cells overexpressing the MYC oncogene, in vitro and in vivo, without appreciable effects on those exhibiting low MYC levels. Importantly, pharmacological inhibition of glutamine metabolism synergistically potentiated the synthetic lethal targeting of MYC by 3-BrPA due in part to the metabolic disturbance caused by this combination. Mechanistically, we identified that the proton-coupled monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) and MCT2, which enable efficient 3-BrPA uptake by cancer cells, were selectively activated by Myc. Two regulatory mechanisms were involved: first, Myc directly activated MCT1 and MCT2 transcription by binding to specific recognition sites of both genes; second, Myc transcriptionally repressed miR29a and miR29c, resulting in enhanced expression of their target protein MCT1. Of note, expressions of MCT1 and MCT2 were each significantly elevated in MYCN-amplified neuroblastomas and C-MYC-overexpressing lymphomas than in tumors without MYC overexpression, correlating with poor prognosis and unfavorable patient survival. These results identify a novel mechanism by which Myc sensitizes cells to metabolic inhibitors and validate 3-BrPA as potential Myc-selective cancer therapeutics. PMID:26434591

  19. Apparent receptor-mediated activation of Ca2+-dependent conductive Cl- transport by shark-derived polyaminosterols.

    Chernova, Marina N; Vandorpe, David H; Clark, Jeffrey S; Williams, Jon I; Zasloff, Michael A; Jiang, Lianwei; Alper, Seth L

    2005-12-01

    The shark liver antimicrobial polyaminosterol squalamine is an angiogenesis inhibitor under clinical investigation as an anti-cancer agent and as a treatment for the choroidal neovascularization associated with macular degeneration of the retina. The related polyaminosterol MSI-1436 is an appetite suppressant that decreases systemic insulin resistance. However, the mechanisms of action of these polyaminosterols are unknown. We report effects of MSI-1436 on Xenopus oocytes consistent with the existence of a receptor for polyaminosterols. MSI-1436 activates bidirectional, trans-chloride-independent Cl- flux in Xenopus oocytes. At least part of this DIDS-sensitive Cl- flux is conductive, as measured using two-electrode voltage-clamp and on-cell patch-clamp techniques. MSI-1436 also elevates cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]) and increases bidirectional 45Ca2+ flux. Activation of Cl- flux and elevation of cytosolic [Ca2+] by MSI-1436 both are accelerated by lowering bath Ca2+ and are not acutely inhibited by extracellular EGTA. Elevation of cytosolic [Ca2+] by MSI-1436 requires heparin-sensitive intracellular Ca2+ stores. Although injected EGTA abolishes the increased conductive Cl- flux, that Cl- flux is not dependent on heparin-sensitive stores. In low-bath Ca2+ conditions, several structurally related polyaminosterols act as strong agonists or weak agonists of conductive Cl- flux in oocytes. Weak agonist polyaminosterols antagonize the strong agonist, MSI-1436, but upon addition of the conductive Cl- transport inhibitor DIDS, they are converted into strong agonists. Together, these properties operationally define a polyaminosterol receptor at or near the surface of the Xenopus oocyte, provide an initial description of receptor signaling, and suggest routes toward further understanding of a novel class of appetite suppressants and angiogenesis inhibitors. PMID:16109810

  20. Serotonin/dopamine interactions in a hyperactive mouse: reduced serotonin receptor 1B activity reverses effects of dopamine transporter knockout.

    Frank Scott Hall

    Full Text Available Knockout (KO mice that lack the dopamine transporter (SL6A3; DAT display increased locomotion that can be attenuated, under some circumstances, by administration of drugs that normally produce psychostimulant-like effects, such as amphetamine and methylphenidate. These results have led to suggestions that DAT KO mice may model features of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and that these drugs may act upon serotonin (5-HT systems to produce these unusual locomotor decreasing effects. Evidence from patterns of brain expression and initial pharmacologic studies led us to use genetic and pharmacologic approaches to examine the influence of altered 5-HT1B receptor activity on hyperactivity in DAT KO mice. Heterozygous 5-HT1B KO and pharmacologic 5-HT1B antagonism both attenuated locomotor hyperactivity in DAT KO mice. Furthermore, DAT KO mice with reduced, but not eliminated, 5-HT1B receptor expression regained cocaine-stimulated locomotion, which was absent in DAT KO mice with normal levels of 5-HT1B receptor expression. Further experiments demonstrated that the degree of habituation to the testing apparatus determined whether cocaine had no effect on locomotion in DAT KO or reduced locomotion, helping to resolve differences among prior reports. These findings of complementation of the locomotor effects of DAT KO by reducing 5-HT1B receptor activity underscore roles for interactions between specific 5-HT receptors and dopamine (DA systems in basal and cocaine-stimulated locomotion and support evaluation of 5-HT1B antagonists as potential, non-stimulant ADHD therapeutics.

  1. Prognostic impact of high ABC transporter activity in 111 adult acute myeloid leukemia patients with normal cytogenetics when compared to FLT3, NPM1, CEBPA and BAALC

    Hirsch, Pierre; Tang, Ruoping; Marzac, Christophe; Perrot, Jean-Yves; FAVA, FANNY; Bernard, Chantal; Jeziorowska, Dorota; MARIE, JEAN PIERRE; Legrand, Ollivier

    2012-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette transporter (and specially P-glycoprotein) activity is a well known prognostic factor in acute myeloid leukemia, but when compared to other molecular markers its prognostic value has not been well studied. Here we study relationships between this activity, fms-like tyro-sine kinase 3(FLT3/ITD), nucleophosmin(NPM1), CAAT-enhancer binding protein alpha(CEBPα), and brain and acute leukemia cytoplasmic protein (BAALC), in 111 patients with normal cytogenetics who underwent th...

  2. Estimation of the Arctic aerosols from local and long-range transport using relationships between 210Pb and 212Pb atmospheric activity concentrations

    In this study, the aerosol activity concentrations of 210Pb at 28 Canadian radiological monitoring stations from 2009 to 2013 were analyzed. The results show that the ratio of 210Pb winter average concentration to summer average concentration increases with increasing latitude. This could be used to evaluate the transport of pollutants to the Arctic region such as the Arctic haze from Eurasia through long-range atmospheric transport during winter. Based on 12 years of monitoring results from the Yellowknife station that includes both 210Pb and 212Pb concentrations, the study confirms that the seasonal distribution of 210Pb to 212Pb activity concentration ratios has a significant peak in winter and a relatively low value in summer, which can be used as an indicator of the air mass flow to the Arctic. The period dominated by long-range aerosol transport and Arctic haze was estimated by fitting a Gaussian distribution function to the peak values of this ratio in winter. A peak width parameter of full width at half maximum (FWHM) allows a year by year estimate of the period of influence by long-range transport of aerosols, and this varied between 67 and 88 days in this study. The fitted Gaussian peak also shows that the season of the continental influenced air mass in Yellowknife usually starts in mid-to-late November and ends in mid-to-late April. Thus, the 210Pb to 212Pb ratio distributions may enable the determination of periods dominated by long-range aerosol transport and the scale of the Arctic haze at different latitudes. - Highlights: • Twelve years 210Pb/212Pb monitoring results from low to high altitude are presented. • The 210Pbwinter/210Pbsummer ratio increases clearly with latitude of monitoring site. • The pollutant transport to the Arctic is estimated by distribution 210Pb/212Pb ratio. • The time scale of long-range transport aerosol bearing 210Pb to Arctic is reported

  3. Calculation of activation energies for transport and recombination in mesoporous TiO2/dye/electrolyte films--taking into account surface charge shifts with temperature.

    O'Regan, Brian C; Durrant, James R

    2006-05-01

    Transient photovoltage and photocurrent measurements have been employed to determine the recombination and transport kinetics in operating dye-sensitized photovoltaic cells as a function of potential and temperature. Photocurrent transients have been taken at the open circuit potential, as opposed to the standard measurement at short circuit. Kinetic results have been used to calculate the activation energy as function of the Fermi level position in the TiO(2). In the calculation of activation energies, we have explicitly taken into account the temperature dependence of the offset between the electrolyte redox potential and the conduction band edge. This new method gives activation energies that decrease linearly as the Fermi level position moves toward the conduction band edge, as expected, but not found in previous studies. The results are consistent with the presence of a distribution of traps below the TiO(2) conduction band, the detrapping from which limits both the transport and the recombination of electrons. PMID:16640403

  4. Serum biochemical activities and muscular soreness in transported goats administered with ascorbic acid during the hot-dry season

    Ndazo S Minka

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of handling, loading and 12 h of road transportation during the hot-dry season on muscular metabolism of 20 experimental goats administered orally with 100 mg/kg body weight of ascorbic acid (AA dissolved in 10 ml of sterile water, and other 20 control goats given equivalent of sterile water 40 min prior to transportation were investigated. The result obtained post-transportation showed that handling, loading and transportation were stressful to the goats, especially the control goats and resulted into muscular damage and the development of delayed-onset-muscular-soreness (DOMS, which may lead to dark-firm-dry (DFD syndrome meat with undesirable effects on its quality. In the experimental goats administered AA such transportation effects were minimal or completely abolished. The result demonstrated that AA reduced the incidence of DOMS and muscular damage in transported goats, therefore it may be used to improve the welfare and quality of meat obtained from goats subjected to long period of road transportation under adverse climatic conditions.

  5. Diagnostic of MHD activity and impurity transport in NSTX spherical torus using ultrasoft X-ray arrays

    The spherical torus (ST) is an alternate concept magnetic fusion device, which maximizes magnetic field utilization and MHD stability at low aspect ratio. The mission of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is to establish the physics principles in this new configuration. To accomplish this, NSTX will produce plasmas with R/ao/oo 1.25 (R o/oo 0.85 m, a o/oo 0.68 m), Ip = 1 MA, BT3/4 0.6 T, elongation 2.2, triangularity 3/4 0.5, using 6 MW of High Harmonic Fast Wave (HHFW) heating and current drive, 5 MW of Neutral Beam Injection (NBI) and Co-axial Helicity Injection (CHI) for non-inductive startup. To study MHD activity and impurity transport in all the above operational regimes the Johns Hopkins Plasma Spectroscopy Group has developed 2-D imaging arrays for the ultrasoft X-ray (USXR) range. The arrays use filtered, low capacitance, absolute photodiodes for fast, broad band imaging, or multilayer mirrors and absolute photodiodes for slower, but monochromatic imaging. The absolute diodes also enable measurements of the total radiated power. Four bandpass filters (0.3 μm Ti, 10 μm, 100 μm and 500 μm Be) are used on each array to define spectral ranges corresponding to the low or high Z impurity line and continuum emission. The Granetz-Cormack algorithm with Bessel radial base functions is used to derive emissivity maps from the measured brightness profiles. The emissivity is modeled using atomic data for impurity line emission computed with the HULAC atomic physics package. The performance of the system, the evolution of the USXR emissivity, radiated power, and estimated impurity and plasma profiles during MHD phenomena like the Internal Reconnection Event, the sawtooth, the m=1 'snake', as well as emission data for ohmic, auxiliary heated and coaxial helicity injection discharges will be presented and discussed. (authors)

  6. Development of Novel active transport membrane devices. Phase I. Final report, 31 October 1988--31 January 1994

    Laciak, D.V.; Quinn, R.; Choe, G.S.; Cook, P.J.; Tsai, Fu-Jya

    1994-08-01

    The main objective of this program was to identify and develop a technique for fabricating Active Transport Materials (ATM) into lab-scale membrane devices. Air Products met this objective by applying thin film, multilayer fabrication techniques to support the AT material on a substrate membrane. In Phase IA, spiral-wound hollow fiber membrane modules were fabricated and evaluated. These nonoptimized devices were used to demonstrate the AT-based separation of carbon dioxide from methane, hydrogen sulfide from methane, and ammonia from hydrogen. It was determined that a need exists for a more cost efficient and less energy intensive process for upgrading subquality natural gas. Air Products estimated the effectiveness of ATM for this application and concluded that an optimized ATM system could compete effectively with both conventional acid gas scrubbing technology and current membrane technology. In addition, the optimized ATM system would have lower methane loss and consume less energy than current alternative processes. Air Products made significant progress toward the ultimate goal of commercializing an advanced membrane for upgrading subquality natural gas. The laboratory program focused on developing a high performance hollow fiber substrate and fabricating and evaluating ATM-coated lab-scale hollow fiber membrane modules. Selection criteria for hollow fiber composite membrane supports were developed and used to evaluate candidate polymer compositions. A poly(amide-imide), PAI, was identified for further study. Conditions were identified which produced microporous PAI support membrane with tunable surface porosity in the range 100-1000{Angstrom}. The support fibers exhibited good hydrocarbon resistance and acceptable tensile strength though a higher elongation may ultimately be desirable. ATM materials were coated onto commercial and PAI substrate fiber. Modules containing 1-50 fibers were evaluated for permselectivity, pressure stability, and lifetime.

  7. Application of the Monte Carlo technique to the study of radiation transport in a prompt gamma in vivo neutron activation system

    A Monte Carlo code (MORSE-SGC) from the Radiation Shielding Information Centre at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, USA, has been adapted and used to model radiation transport in the Auckland prompt gamma in vivo neutron activation analysis facility. Preliminary results are presented for the slow neutron flux in an anthropomorphic phantom which are in broad agreement with those obtained by measurement via activation foils. Since experimental optimization is not logistically feasible and since theoretical optimization of neutron activation facilities has not previously been attempted, it is hoped that the Monte Carlo calculations can be used to provide a basis for improved system design

  8. The diabetic phenotype is conserved in myotubes established from diabetic subjects: evidence for primary defects in glucose transport and glycogen synthase activity

    Gaster, Michael; Petersen, Ingrid; Højlund, Kurt;

    2002-01-01

    (GS) activity; the content of glucose-6-phosphate, glucose, and glycogen; and the glucose transport in satellite cell cultures established from diabetic and control subjects. Myotubes were precultured in increasing insulin concentrations for 4 days and subsequently stimulated acutely by insulin. The...... present study shows that the basal glucose uptake as well as insulin-stimulated GS activity is reduced in satellite cell cultures established from patients with type 2 diabetes. Moreover, increasing insulin concentrations could compensate for the reduced GS activity to a certain extent, whereas chronic...

  9. Regulation of taurine transport at the blood-placental barrier by calcium ion, PKC activator and oxidative stress conditions

    Lee Na-Young; Kang Young-Sook

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background In the present study, we investigated the changes of uptake and efflux transport of taurine under various stress conditions using rat conditionally immortalized syncytiotrophoblast cell line (TR-TBT cells), as in vitro blood-placental barrier (BPB) model. Methods The transport of taurine in TR-TBT cells were characterized by cellular uptake study using radiolabeled taurine. The efflux of taurine was measured from the amount of radiolabeled taurine remaining in the cells af...

  10. The activity of the lactose transporter from Streptococcus thermophilus is increased by phosphorylated IIA and the action of beta-galactosidase.

    Geertsma, Eric R; Duurkens, Ria H; Poolman, Bert

    2005-12-01

    The metabolism of lactose by Streptococcus thermophilus is highly regulated, allowing the bacterium to prefer lactose over glucose as main source of carbon and energy. In vitro analysis of the enzymes involved in transport and hydrolysis of lactose showed that the transport reaction benefits from the hydrolysis of lactose at the trans side of the membrane. Furthermore, the activity of LacS is modulated by PEP-dependent phosphorylation of the IIA domain via the general energy coupling proteins of the PTS, Enzyme I and HPr. To determine whether unphosphorylated LacS-IIA inhibited, or the phosphorylated form stimulated lactose counterflow, a LacS-IIA truncation mutant of LacS was constructed. Detailed analyses of transport in whole cells and in proteoliposomes indicated that unphosphorylated LacS-IIA does not functionally interact with the carrier domain. Instead, interaction of the phosphorylated form of LacS-IIA with the carrier stimulates lactose counterflow transport. The proposed mode of regulation thus proceeds via a mechanism opposite to the inducer exclusion type of regulation in gram-negative bacteria, where transporters are inhibited by binding of the unphosphorylated form of IIA(Glc). PMID:16313191

  11. Subtle Structural Differences Trigger Inhibitory Activity of Propafenone Analogues at the Two Polyspecific ABC Transporters: P-Glycoprotein (P-gp) and Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (BCRP).

    Schwarz, Theresa; Montanari, Floriane; Cseke, Anna; Wlcek, Katrin; Visvader, Lene; Palme, Sarah; Chiba, Peter; Kuchler, Karl; Urban, Ernst; Ecker, Gerhard F

    2016-06-20

    The transmembrane ABC transporters P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) are widely recognized for their role in cancer multidrug resistance and absorption and distribution of compounds. Furthermore, they are linked to drug-drug interactions and toxicity. Nevertheless, due to their polyspecificity, a molecular understanding of the ligand-transporter interaction, which allows designing of both selective and dual inhibitors, is still in its infancy. This study comprises a combined approach of synthesis, in silico prediction, and in vitro testing to identify molecular features triggering transporter selectivity. Synthesis and testing of a series of 15 propafenone analogues with varied rigidity and basicity of substituents provide first trends for selective and dual inhibitors. Results indicate that both the flexibility of the substituent at the nitrogen atom, as well as the basicity of the nitrogen atom, trigger transporter selectivity. Furthermore, inhibitory activity of compounds at P-gp seems to be much more influenced by logP than those at BCRP. Exploiting these differences further should thus allow designing specific inhibitors for these two polyspecific ABC-transporters. PMID:26970257

  12. Trend in active transportation to school among Swiss school children and its associated factors: three cross-sectional surveys 1994, 2000 and 2005

    Bringolf-Isler Bettina

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Giving the rising trend in childhood obesity in many countries including Switzerland, strategies to increase physical activity such as promoting active school travel are important. Yet, little is known about time trends of active commuting in Swiss schoolchildren and factors associated with changes in walking and biking to school. Methods Between 1994 and 2005, information about mobility behaviour of children aged 6-14 years was collected within three Swiss population based national travel behaviour surveys. Mode of transport to school was reported for 4244 children. Weighted multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess active school travel time trends and their influencing factors. Results More than 70% of Swiss children walked or biked to school. Nevertheless, the proportion of children biking to school decreased (p = 0.05, linear trend, predominately in urban areas, and motorized transportation increased since 1994 (p = 0.02. Distance to school did not change significantly over time but availability of bikes decreased (p Conclusions Programs to encourage safe biking and to limit car use as mode of transport to school are warranted to stop this trend.

  13. Understanding the Transport of Patagonian Dust and Its Influence on Marine Biological Activity in the South Atlantic Ocean

    Johnson, Matthew; Meskhidze, Nicholas; Kiliyanpilakkil, Praju; Gasso, Santiago

    2010-01-01

    Modeling and remote sensing techniques were applied to examine the horizontal and vertical transport pathways of Patagonian dust and quantify the effect of soluble-iron- laden mineral dust deposition on marine primary productivity in the South Atlantic Ocean (SAO) surface waters. The global chemistry transport model GEOS-Chem, implemented with an iron dissolution scheme, was applied to evaluate the atmospheric transport and deposition of mineral dust and bioavailable iron during two dust outbreaks originating in the source regions of Patagonia. In addition to this "rapidly released" iron, offline calculations were also carried out to estimate the amount of bioavailable iron leached during the residence time of dust in the ocean mixed layer. Model simulations showed that the horizontal and vertical transport pathways of Patagonian dust plumes were largely influenced by the synoptic meteorological patterns of high and low pressure systems. Model-predicted horizontal and vertical transport pathways of Patagonian dust over the SAO were in reasonable agreement with remotely-sensed data. Comparison between remotely-sensed and offline calculated ocean surface chlorophyll-a concentrations indicated that, for the two dust outbreaks examined in this study, the deposition of bioavailable iron in the SAO through atmospheric pathways was insignificant. As the two dust transport episodes examined here represent typical outflows of mineral dust from South American sources, our study suggests that the atmospheric deposition of mineral dust is unlikely to induce large scale marine primary productivity and carbon sequestration in the South Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean.

  14. NATURAL GAS TRANSPORTATION

    Stanis³aw Brzeziñski

    2007-01-01

    In the paper, Author presents chosen aspects of natural gas transportation within global market. Natural gas transportation is a technicaly complicated and economicly expensive process; in infrastructure construction and activities costs. The paper also considers last and proposed initiatives in natural gas transportation.

  15. Riluzole-Triggered GSH Synthesis via Activation of Glutamate Transporters to Antagonize Methylmercury-Induced Oxidative Stress in Rat Cerebral Cortex

    Yu Deng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study was to evaluate the effect of riluzole on methylmercury- (MeHg- induced oxidative stress, through promotion of glutathione (GSH synthesis by activating of glutamate transporters (GluTs in rat cerebral cortex. Methods. Eighty rats were randomly assigned to four groups, control group, riluzole alone group, MeHg alone group, and riluzole + MeHg group. The neurotoxicity of MeHg was observed by measuring mercury (Hg absorption, pathological changes, and cell apoptosis of cortex. Oxidative stress was evaluated via determining reactive oxygen species (ROS, 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG, malondialdehyde (MDAs, carbonyl, sulfydryl, and GSH in cortex. Glutamate (Glu transport was studied by measuring Glu, glutamine (Gln, mRNA, and protein of glutamate/aspartate transporter (GLAST and glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1. Result. (1 MeHg induced Hg accumulation, pathological injury, and apoptosis of cortex; (2 MeHg increased ROS, 8-OHdG, MDA, and carbonyl, and inhibited sulfydryl and GSH; (3 MeHg elevated Glu, decreased Gln, and downregulated GLAST and GLT-1 mRNA expression and protein levels; (4 riluzole antagonized MeHg-induced downregulation of GLAST and GLT-1 function and expression, GSH depletion, oxidative stress, pathological injury, and apoptosis obviously. Conclusion. Data indicate that MeHg administration induced oxidative stress in cortex and that riluzole could antagonize this situation through elevation of GSH synthesis by activating of GluTs.

  16. Systems and methods for solar energy storage, transportation, and conversion utilizing photochemically active organometallic isomeric compounds and solid-state catalysts

    Vollhardt, K. Peter C.; Segalman, Rachel A; Majumdar, Arunava; Meier, Steven

    2015-02-10

    A system for converting solar energy to chemical energy, and, subsequently, to thermal energy includes a light-harvesting station, a storage station, and a thermal energy release station. The system may include additional stations for converting the released thermal energy to other energy forms, e.g., to electrical energy and mechanical work. At the light-harvesting station, a photochemically active first organometallic compound, e.g., a fulvalenyl diruthenium complex, is exposed to light and is photochemically converted to a second, higher-energy organometallic compound, which is then transported to a storage station. At the storage station, the high-energy organometallic compound is stored for a desired time and/or is transported to a desired location for thermal energy release. At the thermal energy release station, the high-energy organometallic compound is catalytically converted back to the photochemically active organometallic compound by an exothermic process, while the released thermal energy is captured for subsequent use.

  17. Gaseous transport and deposition of gold in magmatic fluid: evidence from the active Kudryavy volcano, Kurile Islands

    Yudovskaya, Marina A.; Distler, Vadim V.; Chaplygin, Ilya V.; Mokhov, Andrew V.; Trubkin, Nikolai V.; Gorbacheva, Sonya A.

    2006-03-01

    The distribution of gold in high-temperature fumarole gases of the Kudryavy volcano (Kurile Islands) was measured for gas, gas condensate, natural fumarolic sublimates, and precipitates in silica tubes from vents with outlet temperatures ranging from 380 to 870°C. Gold abundance in condensates ranges from 0.3 to 2.4 ppb, which is significantly lower than the abundances of transition metals. Gold contents in zoned precipitates from silica tubes increase gradually with a decrease in temperature to a maximum of 8 ppm in the oxychloride zone at a temperature of approximately 300°C. Total Au content in moderate-temperature sulfide and oxychloride zones is mainly a result of Au inclusions in the abundant Fe-Cu and Zn sulfide minerals as determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Most Au occurs as a Cu-Au-Ag triple alloy. Single grains of native gold and binary Au-Ag alloys were also identified among sublimates, but aggregates and crystals of Cu-Au-Ag alloy were found in all fumarolic fields, both in silica tube precipitates and in natural fumarolic crusts. Although the Au triple alloy is homogeneous on the scale of microns and has a composition close to (Cu,Ni,Zn)3(Au,Ag)2, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) shows that these alloy solid solutions consist of monocrystal domains of Au-Ag, Au-Cu, and possibly Cu2O. Gold occurs in oxide assemblages due to the decomposition of its halogenide complexes under high-temperature conditions (650-870°C). In lower temperature zones (behavior is related to sulfur compounds whose evolution is strongly controlled by redox state. Other minerals that formed from gas transport and precipitation at Kudryavy volcano include garnet, aegirine, diopside, magnetite, anhydrite, molybdenite, multivalent molybdenum oxides (molybdite, tugarinovite, and ilsemannite), powellite, scheelite, wolframite, Na-K chlorides, pyrrhotite, wurtzite, greenockite, pyrite, galena, cubanite, rare native metals (including Fe, Cr, Mo, Sn, Ag, and

  18. Diet effects on glucose absorption in the small intestine of neonatal calves: importance of intestinal mucosal growth, lactase activity, and glucose transporters.

    Steinhoff-Wagner, Julia; Zitnan, Rudolf; Schönhusen, Ulrike; Pfannkuche, Helga; Hudakova, Monika; Metges, Cornelia C; Hammon, Harald M

    2014-10-01

    Colostrum (C) feeding in neonatal calves improves glucose status and stimulates intestinal absorptive capacity, leading to greater glucose absorption when compared with milk-based formula feeding. In this study, diet effects on gut growth, lactase activity, and glucose transporters were investigated in several gut segments of the small intestine. Fourteen male German Holstein calves received either C of milkings 1, 3, and 5 (d 1, 2, and 3 in milk) or respective formulas (F) twice daily from d 1 to d 3 after birth. Nutrient content, and especially lactose content, of C and respective F were the same. On d 4, calves were fed C of milking 5 or respective F and calves were slaughtered 2h after feeding. Tissue samples from duodenum and proximal, mid-, and distal jejunum were taken to measure villus size and crypt depth, mucosa and brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) were taken to determine protein content, and mRNA expression and activity of lactase and mRNA expression of sodium-dependent glucose co-transporter-1 (SGLT1) and facilitative glucose transporter (GLUT2) were determined from mucosal tissue. Additionally, protein expression of SGLT1 in BBMV and GLUT2 in crude mucosal membranes and BBMV were determined, as well as immunochemically localized GLUT2 in the intestinal mucosa. Villus circumference, area, and height were greater, whereas crypt depth was smaller in C than in F. Lactase activity tended to be greater in C than in F. Protein expression of SGLT1 was greater in F than in C. Parameters of villus size, lactase activity, SGLT1 protein expression, as well as apical and basolateral GLUT2 localization in the enterocytes differed among gut segments. In conclusion, C feeding, when compared with F feeding, enhances glucose absorption in neonatal calves primarily by stimulating mucosal growth and increasing absorptive capacity in the small intestine, but not by stimulating abundance of intestinal glucose transporters. PMID:25108868

  19. Impact of Ultra-low Platinum loading on Mass Activity and Mass Transport in H2-Oxygen and H2-Air PEM Fuel Cells

    Highlights: • Platinum loading of a PEM fuel cell is decreased from 0.4 to 0.05 mgcm-2 • Mass activity increases but mass transport losses decrease simultaneously • A self-similar agglomerate model incorporating fractal dimension is developed • Specific surface area per unit volume is corrected by the fractal dimension and • A new form of Thiele modulus is proposed to explain transport losses - Abstract: The impact of 46% Pt/C catalyst loading was investigated on mass activity and mass transport losses of proton exchange membrane fuel cell using experimental and simulation techniques. Our results indicated that, as the Pt loading decreased from 0.4 to 0.05 mg cm−2, the mass activity increased by a factor of 2.7, but in the same time the mass transport resistance increased. To explain the observed phenomena, a novel catalyst layer model was suggested based on a self-assembled self-similar structure rather than randomly distributed spherical agglomerates. The utilized volumetric surface area, tha diffusion through the covering Nafion film, the Thiele modulus, and the gas phase diffusion were estimated using a novel fitting algorithm. The self-assemble nature of the catalyst layer was supposed to be characterized by its fractal dimension. It was measured independently by Hg-porosimetry, and found to increase from 2.7 to 2.93 as the Pt loading decreased from 0.4 to 0.05 mg cm−2. The fractal dimension has been incorporated into the macrohomogeneous model, which resulted the observed increase of mass activity. Correlation is proposed between the fractal dimension and Thiele modulus, which accounts for the simulteneous deterioration of the catalyst layer performance at high currents and ultra-low loading of platinum

  20. Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transport project: Current and advanced act control system definition study. Volume 2: Appendices

    Hanks, G. W.; Shomber, H. A.; Dethman, H. A.; Gratzer, L. B.; Maeshiro, A.; Gangsaas, D.; Blight, J. D.; Buchan, S. M.; Crumb, C. B.; Dorwart, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    The current status of the Active Controls Technology (ACT) for the advanced subsonic transport project is investigated through analysis of the systems technical data. Control systems technologies under examination include computerized reliability analysis, pitch axis fly by wire actuator, flaperon actuation system design trade study, control law synthesis and analysis, flutter mode control and gust load alleviation analysis, and implementation of alternative ACT systems. Extensive analysis of the computer techniques involved in each system is included.

  1. The deviant ATP-binding site of the multidrug efflux pump Pdr5 plays an active role in the transport cycle.

    Furman, Christopher; Mehla, Jitender; Ananthaswamy, Neeti; Arya, Nidhi; Kulesh, Bridget; Kovach, Ildiko; Ambudkar, Suresh V; Golin, John

    2013-10-18

    Pdr5 is the founding member of a large subfamily of evolutionarily distinct, clinically important fungal ABC transporters containing a characteristic, deviant ATP-binding site with altered Walker A, Walker B, Signature (C-loop), and Q-loop residues. In contrast to these motifs, the D-loops of the two ATP-binding sites have similar sequences, including a completely conserved aspartate residue. Alanine substitution mutants in the deviant Walker A and Signature motifs retain significant, albeit reduced, ATPase activity and drug resistance. The D-loop residue mutants D340A and D1042A showed a striking reduction in plasma membrane transporter levels. The D1042N mutation localized properly had nearly WT ATPase activity but was defective in transport and was profoundly hypersensitive to Pdr5 substrates. Therefore, there was a strong uncoupling of ATPase activity and drug efflux. Taken together, the properties of the mutants suggest an additional, critical intradomain signaling role for deviant ATP-binding sites. PMID:24019526

  2. Preparation of andrographolide-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles and their in vitro and in vivo evaluations: characteristics, release, absorption, transports, pharmacokinetics, and antihyperlipidemic activity.

    Yang, Tao; Sheng, Huan-Huan; Feng, Nian-Ping; Wei, Hai; Wang, Zheng-Tao; Wang, Chang-Hong

    2013-12-01

    Andrographolide (AND) is one of diterpenoids separated from Andrographis paniculata with a wide spectrum of biological activities of being anti-inflammatory, anticancer, hepatoprotective, and antihyperlipidemic. But its poor water solubility and instability resulted in lower bioavailability and seriously limited its pharmacological function. In this study, AND-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (AND-SLNs) were prepared by a high-pressure homogenization method and presented as spherically shaped under transmission electron microscopy with an average diameter of 286.1 nm and zeta potential of -20.8 mV. The average drug-entrapment efficiency and drug loading were 91.00% and 3.49%, respectively. The results indicated that the lower bioavailability of AND is not only because of the poor solubility but also owing to its metabolic instability in intestinal segments. Furthermore, the transport mechanism of AND in Caco-2 cell model is complex in which an active transport carrier (P-glycoprotein) is involved in. The bioavailability and antihyperlipidemic activity of AND were improved by AND-SLNs by increasing the solubility and stability of AND in the intestine and by changing its transport mode in Caco-2 cell. The bioavailability of AND was increased to 241% by AND-SLNs as compared with AND suspension. AND-SLNs would be a promising drug-delivery system to enhance the oral absorption and bioavailability of AND. PMID:24166599

  3. Activities of the Radiation Shielding Information Center and a report on codes/data for high energy radiation transport

    From the very early days in its history Radiation Shielding Information Center (RSIC) has been involved with high energy radiation transport. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration was an early sponsor of RSIC until the completion of the Apollo Moon Exploration Program. In addition, the intranuclear cascade work of Bertini at Oak Ridge National Laboratory provided valuable resources which were made available through RSIC. Over the years, RSIC has had interactions with many of the developers of high energy radiation transport computing technology and data libraries and has been able to collect and disseminate this technology. The current status of this technology will be reviewed and prospects for new advancements will be examined

  4. Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transport project: Current and advanced act control system definition study

    1982-01-01

    The Current and Advanced Technology ACT control system definition tasks of the Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) Technology project within the Energy Efficient Transport Program are summarized. The systems mechanize six active control functions: (1) pitch augmented stability; (2) angle of attack limiting; (3) lateral/directional augmented stability; (4) gust load alleviation; (5) maneuver load control; and (6) flutter mode control. The redundant digital control systems meet all function requirements with required reliability and declining weight and cost as advanced technology is introduced.

  5. MEK1/2 inhibitors activate macrophage ABCG1 expression and reverse cholesterol transport-An anti-atherogenic function of ERK1/2 inhibition.

    Zhang, Ling; Chen, Yuanli; Yang, Xiaoxiao; Yang, Jie; Cao, Xingyue; Li, Xiaoju; Li, Luyuan; Miao, Qing Robert; Hajjar, David P; Duan, Yajun; Han, Jihong

    2016-09-01

    Expression of ATP-binding cassette transporter G1 (ABCG1), a molecule facilitating cholesterol efflux to HDL, is activated by liver X receptor (LXR). In this study, we investigated if inhibition of ERK1/2 can activate macrophage ABCG1 expression and functions. MEK1/2 inhibitors, PD98059 and U0126, increased ABCG1 mRNA and protein expression, and activated the natural ABCG1 promoter but not the promoter with the LXR responsive element (LXRE) deletion. Inhibition of ABCG1 expression by ABCG1 siRNA did enhance the formation of macrophage/foam cells and it attenuated the inhibitory effect of MEK1/2 inhibitors on foam cell formation. MEK1/2 inhibitors activated macrophage cholesterol efflux to HDL in vitro, and they enhanced reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) in vivo. ApoE deficient (apoE(-/-)) mice receiving U0126 treatment had reduced sinus lesions in the aortic root which was associated with activated macrophage ABCG1 expression in the lesion areas. MEK1/2 inhibitors coordinated the RXR agonist, but not the LXR agonist, to induce ABCG1 expression. Furthermore, induction of ABCG1 expression by MEK1/2 inhibitors was associated with activation of SIRT1, a positive regulator of LXR activity, and inactivation of SULT2B1 and RIP140, two negative regulators of LXR activity. Taken together, our study suggests that MEK1/2 inhibitors activate macrophage ABCG1 expression/RCT, and inhibit foam cell formation and lesion development by multiple mechanisms, supporting the concept that ERK1/2 inhibition is anti-atherogenic. PMID:27365310

  6. Identification of a crucial histidine involved in metal transport activity in the Arabidopsis cation/H(+) exchanger CAX1

    In plants, yeast and bacteria, cation/H(+) exchangers (CAXs), have been shown to translocate Ca(2+) and other metals. The best characterized of these related transporters is the plant vacuolar-localized CAX1. We used site-directed mutagenesis to assess the impact of altering the seven histidine re...

  7. The use of albedo neutron dosemeters for the measurement of low doses in mixed photon neutron radiation fields at transport casks for high active waste

    Radiation exposure of the police forces accompanying transports of spent fuel elements and high-active waste form reprocessing (HAW) is determined by means of albedo dosemeters. The official dosimetry services use this type of dosemeter to mesure the personal dose in mixed gamma/neutron radiation fields above all for routine monitoring of workers occupationally exposed to radiation. The present report describes the detailed set-up and functioning of the albedo dosemeter, the process of obtaining the photon and neutron personal dose from the detector indications as well as the determination of the detection limit of the total personal dose of the albedo dosemeter according to the methods specified in the valid standards. Determination of the detection limit is based on the experience gained during previous transports, on measurements performed at transport casks, on results of type tests at PTB (Federal Physical and Technical Authority), on the measurement uncertainties obtained from the annual intercomparison measurements of the PTB as well as on the test irradiation specially performed in the range of small neutron and photon doses under laboratory conditions. For the dosimetry systems of the dosimetry services and the specific transport conditions, a reference level of 100 μSv was specified with regard to the dose detection limit. (orig.)

  8. Molecular Characterization of an Ice Nucleation Protein Variant (InaQ from Pseudomonas syringae and the Analysis of Its Transmembrane Transport Activity in Escherichia coli

    Qianqian Li, Qi Yan, Jinsi Chen, Yan He, Jing Wang, Hongxing Zhang, Ziniu Yu, Lin Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The ice nucleation protein (INP of Pseudomonas syringae has gained scientific interest not only because of its pathogenicity of foliar necroses but also for its wide range of potential applications, such as in snow making, frozen food preparation, and surface-display system development. However, studies on the transport activity of INP remain lacking. In the present study, a newly identified INP-gene variant, inaQ, from a P. syringae MB03 strain was cloned. Its structural domains, signal sequences, and the hydrophilicity or hydrophobicity of each domain, were then characterized. The deduced amino acid sequence of InaQ shares similar protein domains with three P. syringae INPs, namely, InaK, InaZ, and InaV, which were identified as an N-terminal domain, a central repeating domain, and a C-terminal domain. The expression of the full-length InaQ and of various truncated variants was induced in Escherichia coli to analyze their transmembrane transport and surface-binding activities, while using the green fluorescence protein (GFP as the fusion partner. With two transmembrane segments and a weak secretion signal, the N-terminal domain (InaQ-N alone was found to be responsible for the transport process as well as for the binding to the outer membrane, whereas the C-terminal region was nonfunctional in protein transport. Increased membrane transport and surface-binding capacities were induced by a low isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactoside concentration (0.1 mmol/l but not by culture temperatures (15 ºC to 37 ºC. Furthermore, by constructing the GFP-fused proteins with a single InaQ-N, as well as two and three tandemly aligned InaQ-N molecules, the transport and membrane-binding activities of these proteins were compared using Western blot analysis, immmunofluorescence microscopy, and assays of the GFP specific fluorescence intensity of subcellular fractions and flow cytometry, which showed that the increase of InaQ-N repeats resulted in a coordinated

  9. MBAS (Methylene Blue Active Substances) and LAS (Linear Alkylbenzene Sulphonates) in Mediterranean coastal aerosols: Sources and transport processes

    Becagli, S.; Ghedini, C.; Peeters, S.; Rottiers, A.; Traversi, R.; Udisti, R.; Chiari, M.; Jalba, A.; Despiau, S.; Dayan, U.; Temara, A.

    2011-12-01

    Methylene Blue Active Substances (MBAS) and Linear Alkylbenzene Sulphonates (LAS) concentrations, together with organic carbon and ions were measured in atmospheric coastal aerosols in the NW Mediterranean Basin. Previous studies have suggested that the presence of surfactants in coastal aerosols may result in vegetation damage without specifically detecting or quantifying these surfactants. Coastal aerosols were collected at a remote site (Porquerolles Island-Var, France) and at a more anthropised site (San Rossore National Park-Tuscany, Italy). The chemical data were interpreted according to a comprehensive local meteorological analysis aiming to decipher the airborne source and transport processes of these classes of compounds. The LAS concentration (anthropogenic surfactants) was measured in the samples using LC-MS/MS, a specific analytical method. The values were compared with the MBAS concentration, determined by a non-specific analytical method. At Porquerolles, the MBAS concentration (103 ± 93 ng m -3) in the summer samples was significantly higher than in the winter samples. In contrast, LAS concentrations were rarely greater than in the blank filters. At San Rossore, the mean annual MBAS concentration (887 ± 473 ng m -3 in PM10) contributed about 10% to the total atmospheric particulate organic matter. LAS mean concentration in these same aerosol samples was 11.5 ± 10.5 ng m -3. A similar MBAS (529 ± 454 ng m -3) - LAS (7.1 ± 4.1 ng m -3 LAS) ratio of ˜75 was measured in the fine (PM2.5) aerosol fraction. No linear correlation was found between MBAS and LAS concentrations. At San Rossore site the variation of LAS concentrations was studied on a daily basis over a year. The LAS concentrations in the coarse fraction (PM10-2.5) were higher during strong sea storm conditions, characterized by strong air flow coming from the sea sector. These events, occurring with more intensity in winter, promoted the formation of primary marine aerosols containing LAS

  10. The Next Generation Non-competitive Active Polyester Nanosystems for Transferrin Receptor-mediated Peroral Transport Utilizing Gambogic Acid as a Ligand.

    Saini, P; Ganugula, R; Arora, M; Kumar, M N V Ravi

    2016-01-01

    The current methods for targeted drug delivery utilize ligands that must out-compete endogenous ligands in order to bind to the active site facilitating the transport. To address this limitation, we present a non-competitive active transport strategy to overcome intestinal barriers in the form of tunable nanosystems (NS) for transferrin receptor (TfR) utilizing gambogic acid (GA), a xanthanoid, as its ligand. The NS made using GA conjugated poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) have shown non-competitive affinity to TfR evaluated in cell/cell-free systems. The fluorescent PLGA-GA NS exhibited significant intestinal transport and altered distribution profile compared to PLGA NS in vivo. The PLGA-GA NS loaded with cyclosporine A (CsA), a model peptide, upon peroral dosing to rodents led to maximum plasma concentration of CsA at 6 h as opposed to 24 h with PLGA-NS with at least 2-fold higher levels in brain at 72 h. The proposed approach offers new prospects for peroral drug delivery and beyond. PMID:27388994

  11. Thermodynamics of nuclear transport

    Wang, Ching-Hao; Mehta, Pankaj; Elbaum, Michael

    Molecular transport across the nuclear envelope is important for eukaryotes for gene expression and signaling. Experimental studies have revealed that nuclear transport is inherently a nonequilibrium process and actively consumes energy. In this work we present a thermodynamics theory of nuclear transport for a major class of nuclear transporters that are mediated by the small GTPase Ran. We identify the molecular elements responsible for powering nuclear transport, which we term the ``Ran battery'' and find that the efficiency of transport, measured by the cargo nuclear localization ratio, is limited by competition between cargo molecules and RanGTP to bind transport receptors, as well as the amount of NTF2 (i.e. RanGDP carrier) available to circulate the energy flow. This picture complements our current understanding of nuclear transport by providing a comprehensive thermodynamics framework to decipher the underlying biochemical machinery. Pm and CHW were supported by a Simons Investigator in the Mathematical Modeling in Living Systems grant (to PM).

  12. Modeling Transport in Fractured Porous Media with the Random-Walk Particle Method: The Transient Activity Range and the Particle-Transfer Probability

    Multiscale features of transport processes in fractured porous media make numerical modeling a difficult task, both in conceptualization and computation. Modeling the mass transfer through the fracture-matrix interface is one of the critical issues in the simulation of transport in a fractured porous medium. Because conventional dual-continuum-based numerical methods are unable to capture the transient features of the diffusion depth into the matrix (unless they assume a passive matrix medium), such methods will overestimate the transport of tracers through the fractures, especially for the cases with large fracture spacing, resulting in artificial early breakthroughs. We have developed a new method for calculating the particle-transfer probability that can capture the transient features of diffusion depth into the matrix within the framework of the dual-continuum random-walk particle method (RWPM) by introducing a new concept of activity range of a particle within the matrix. Unlike the multiple-continuum approach, the new dual-continuum RWPM does not require using additional grid blocks to represent the matrix. It does not assume a passive matrix medium and can be applied to the cases where global water flow exists in both continua. The new method has been verified against analytical solutions for transport in the fracture-matrix systems with various fracture spacing. The calculations of the breakthrough curves of radionuclides from a potential repository to the water table in Yucca Mountain demonstrate the effectiveness of the new method for simulating 3-D, mountain-scale transport in a heterogeneous, fractured porous medium under variably saturated conditions

  13. Stimulation of Na{sup +}/K{sup +} ATPase activity and Na{sup +} coupled glucose transport by {beta}-catenin

    Sopjani, Mentor [Department of Physiology, University of Tuebingen (Germany); Department of Chemistry, University of Prishtina, Kosovo (Country Unknown); Alesutan, Ioana; Wilmes, Jan [Department of Physiology, University of Tuebingen (Germany); Dermaku-Sopjani, Miribane [Department of Physiology, University of Tuebingen (Germany); Faculty of Medicine, University of Prishtina, Kosovo (Country Unknown); Lam, Rebecca S. [Department of Physiology, University of Tuebingen (Germany); Department of Molecular Neurogenetics, Max Planck Institute of Biophysics, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Koutsouki, Evgenia [Department of Physiology, University of Tuebingen (Germany); Jakupi, Muharrem [Faculty of Medicine, University of Prishtina, Kosovo (Country Unknown); Foeller, Michael [Department of Physiology, University of Tuebingen (Germany); Lang, Florian, E-mail: florian.lang@uni-tuebingen.de [Department of Physiology, University of Tuebingen (Germany)

    2010-11-19

    Research highlights: {yields} The oncogenic transcription factor {beta}-catenin stimulates the Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase. {yields} {beta}-Catenin stimulates SGLT1 dependent Na{sup +}, glucose cotransport. {yields} The effects are independent of transcription. {yields} {beta}-Catenin sensitive transport may contribute to properties of proliferating cells. -- Abstract: {beta}-Catenin is a multifunctional protein stimulating as oncogenic transcription factor several genes important for cell proliferation. {beta}-Catenin-regulated genes include the serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase SGK1, which is known to stimulate a variety of transport systems. The present study explored the possibility that {beta}-catenin influences membrane transport. To this end, {beta}-catenin was expressed in Xenopus oocytes with or without SGLT1 and electrogenic transport determined by dual electrode voltage clamp. As a result, expression of {beta}-catenin significantly enhanced the ouabain-sensitive current of the endogeneous Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase. Inhibition of vesicle trafficking by brefeldin A revealed that the stimulatory effect of {beta}-catenin on the endogenous Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase was not due to enhanced stability of the pump protein in the cell membrane. Expression of {beta}-catenin further enhanced glucose-induced current (Ig) in SGLT1-expressing oocytes. In the absence of SGLT1 Ig was negligible irrespective of {beta}-catenin expression. The stimulating effect of {beta}-catenin on both Na{sup +}/K{sup +} ATPase and SGLT1 activity was observed even in the presence of actinomycin D, an inhibitor of transcription. The experiments disclose a completely novel function of {beta}-catenin, i.e. the regulation of transport.

  14. Active glucose transport and proton pumping in tonoplast membrane of Zea mays L. coleoptiles are inhibited by anti-H+-ATPase antibodies

    A tonoplast enriched fraction was obtained from Zea mays L. coleoptiles by isopycnic centrifugation of microsomal membranes in a sucrose step gradient. At the 18/26% interface chloride-stimulated and nitrate-inhibited proton pumping activity coincided with a Mg2+-ATP dependent accumulation of 3-O-methyl-D-glucose (OMG) as determined by a membrane filtration technique using 14C-labeled substrate. OMG transport showed an apparently saturable component with a K/sub m/ of 110 micromolar, and was completely inhibited by 10 micromolar carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone. Polyclonal antibodies against solubilized native tonoplast H+-ATPase and its 62 and 72 kilodalton subunits were assayed for their ability to inhibit proton pumping and OMG accumulation. Antibodies against both the native enzyme and the putative catalytic subunit strongly inhibited proton pumping and OMG transport whereas antibodies against the 62 kilodalton subunit had only a slight effect on both processes

  15. Transcriptional activation and localization of expression of Brassica juncea putative metal transport protein BjMTP1

    Salt David E; Yakubov Bakhtiyor; Muthukumar Balasubramaniam

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Metal hyperaccumulators, including various Thlaspi species, constitutively express the putative metal transporter MTP1 to high levels in shoots. Here we present data on the transcriptional regulation and localization of expression of the homologous gene BjMTP1 in Brassica juncea. Though B. juncea lacks the ability to hyperaccumulate metals, its relatively high biomass, rapid growth and relatedness to true metal hyperaccumulating plants makes it a promising starting point f...

  16. Simulation of Cl− Secretion in Epithelial Tissues: New Methodology Estimating Activity of Electro-Neutral Cl− Transporter

    Sasamoto, Kouhei; Niisato, Naomi; Taruno, Akiyuki; Marunaka, Yoshinori

    2015-01-01

    Transcellular Cl− secretion is, in general, mediated by two steps; (1) the entry step of Cl− into the cytosolic space from the basolateral space across the basolateral membrane by Cl− transporters, such as Na+-K+-2Cl− cotransporter (NKCC1, an isoform of NKCC), and (2) the releasing step of Cl− from the cytosolic space into the luminal (air) space across the apical membrane via Cl− channels, such as cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl− channel. Transcellular Cl− secre...

  17. Activity and Phenotype of Natural Killer Cells in Peptide Transporter (TAP)-deficient Patients (Type I Bare Lymphocyte Syndrome)

    Zimmer, Jacques; Donato, Lionel; Hanau, Daniel; Cazenave, Jean-Pierre; Tongio, Marie-Marthe; Moretta, Alessandro; Salle, Henri de la

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we describe the function and phenotype of natural killer (NK) lymphocytes from HLA class I–deficient patients. These cells are, as has been previously reported, unable to lyse HLA class I− K562 cells, but are able to perform antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), although with lower efficiency as compared to NK cells from normal individuals. Transporter associated to antigen processing (TAP)− NK cells proliferate when cultured in the presence of lymphoblastoid B cells ...

  18. Distal retinal ganglion cell axon transport loss and activation of p38 MAPK stress pathway following VEGF-A antagonism.

    Foxton, R; Osborne, A; Martin, K R; Ng, Y-S; Shima, D T

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that VEGF-A antagonists may be detrimental to neuronal health following ocular administration. Here we investigated firstly the effects of VEGF-A neutralization on retinal neuronal survival in the Ins2(Akita) diabetic and JR5558 spontaneous choroidal neovascularization (CNV) mice, and then looked at potential mechanisms contributing to cell death. We detected elevated apoptosis in the ganglion cell layer in both these models following VEGF-A antagonism, indicating that even when vascular pathologies respond to treatment, neurons are still vulnerable to reduced VEGF-A levels. We observed that retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) seemed to be the cells most susceptible to VEGF-A antagonism, so we looked at anterograde transport in these cells, due to their long axons requiring optimal protein and organelle trafficking. Using cholera toxin B-subunit tracer studies, we found a distal reduction in transport in the superior colliculus following VEGF-A neutralization, which occurred prior to net RGC loss. This phenomenon of distal transport loss has been described as a feature of early pathological changes in glaucoma, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease models. Furthermore, we observed increased phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and downstream Hsp27 stress pathway signaling in the retinas from these experiments, potentially providing a mechanistic explanation for our findings. These experiments further highlight the possible risks of using VEGF-A antagonists to treat ocular neovascular disease, and suggest that VEGF-A may contribute to the maintenance and function of axonal transport in neurons of the retina. PMID:27148685

  19. Railroad Lines - RAIL_SYSTEM_ACTIVE_ABANDONED_INDOT_IN: Active and Abandoned Rail System in Indiana, 2005 (Indiana Department of Transportation, 1:1200, Line Shapefile)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — RAIL_SYSTEM_ACTIVE_ABANDONED_INDOT_IN is a line shapefile that contains all active and abandoned rail lines in Indiana, provided by personnel of Indiana Department...

  20. Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transport project. ACT/Control/Guidance System study, volume 1

    1982-01-01

    The active control technology (ACT) control/guidance system task of the integrated application of active controls (IAAC) technology project within the NASA energy efficient transport program was documented. The air traffic environment of navigation and air traffic control systems and procedures were extrapolated. An approach to listing flight functions which will be performed by systems and crew of an ACT configured airplane of the 1990s, and a determination of function criticalities to safety of flight, are the basis of candidate integrated ACT/Control/Guidance System architecture. The system mechanizes five active control functions: pitch augmented stability, angle of attack limiting, lateral/directional augmented stability, gust load alleviation, and maneuver load control. The scope and requirements of a program for simulating the integrated ACT avionics and flight deck system, with pilot in the loop, are defined, system and crew interface elements are simulated, and mechanization is recommended. Relationships between system design and crew roles and procedures are evaluated.

  1. Nitrate transport in cucumber leaves is an inducible process involving an increase in plasma membrane H+-ATPase activity and abundance

    Nikolic Miroslav

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mechanisms by which nitrate is transported into the roots have been characterized both at physiological and molecular levels. It has been demonstrated that nitrate is taken up in an energy-dependent way by a four-component uptake machinery involving high- and low- affinity transport systems. In contrast very little is known about the physiology of nitrate transport towards different plant tissues and in particular at the leaf level. Results The mechanism of nitrate uptake in leaves of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Chinese long plants was studied and compared with that of the root. Net nitrate uptake by roots of nitrate-depleted cucumber plants proved to be substrate-inducible and biphasic showing a saturable kinetics with a clear linear non saturable component at an anion concentration higher than 2 mM. Nitrate uptake by leaf discs of cucumber plants showed some similarities with that operating in the roots (e.g. electrogenic H+ dependence via involvement of proton pump, a certain degree of induction. However, it did not exhibit typical biphasic kinetics and was characterized by a higher Km with values out of the range usually recorded in roots of several different plant species. The quantity and activity of plasma membrane (PM H+-ATPase of the vesicles isolated from leaf tissues of nitrate-treated plants for 12 h (peak of nitrate foliar uptake rate increased with respect to that observed in the vesicles isolated from N-deprived control plants, thus suggesting an involvement of this enzyme in the leaf nitrate uptake process similar to that described in roots. Molecular analyses suggest the involvement of a specific isoform of PM H+-ATPase (CsHA1 and NRT2 transporter (CsNRT2 in root nitrate uptake. At the leaf level, nitrate treatment modulated the expression of CsHA2, highlighting a main putative role of this isogene in the process. Conclusions Obtained results provide for the first time evidence that a saturable

  2. Human B lymphoblastoid cells contain distinct patterns of cathepsin activity in endocytic compartments and regulate MHC class II transport in a cathepsin S-independent manner.

    Lautwein, Alfred; Kraus, Marianne; Reich, Michael; Burster, Timo; Brandenburg, J; Overkleeft, Herman S; Schwarz, Gerold; Kammer, Winfried; Weber, Ekkehard; Kalbacher, Hubert; Nordheim, Alfred; Driessen, Christoph

    2004-05-01

    Endocytic proteolysis represents a major functional component of the major histocompatibility complex class II antigen-presentation machinery. Although transport and assembly of class II molecules in the endocytic compartment are well characterized, we lack information about the pattern of endocytic protease activity along this pathway. Here, we used chemical tools that visualize endocytic proteases in an activity-dependent manner in combination with subcellular fractionation to dissect the subcellular distribution of the major cathepsins (Cat) CatS, CatB, CatH, CatD, CatC, and CatZ as well as the asparagine-specific endoprotease (AEP) in human B-lymphoblastoid cells (BLC). Endocytic proteases were distributed in two distinct patterns: CatB and CatZ were most prominent in early and late endosomes but absent from lysosomes, and CatH, CatS, CatD, CatC, and AEP distributed between late endosomes and lysosomes, suggesting that CatB and CatZ might be involved in the initial proteolytic attack on a given antigen. The entire spectrum of protease activity colocalized with human leukocyte antigen-DM and the C-terminal and N-terminal processing of invariant chain (Ii) in late endosomes. CatS was active in all endocytic compartments. Surprisingly and in contrast with results from dendritic cells, inhibition of CatS activity by leucine-homophenylalanine-vinylsulfone-phenol prevented N-terminal processing of Ii but did not alter the subcellular trafficking or surface delivery of class II complexes, as deferred from pulse-chase analysis in combination with subcellular fractionation and biotinylation of cell-surface protein. Thus, BLC contain distinct activity patterns of proteases in endocytic compartments and regulate the intracellular transport and surface-delivery of class II in a CatS-independent manner. PMID:14966190

  3. Enhanced Oxygen and Hydroxide Transport in a Cathode Interface by Efficient Antibacterial Property of a Silver Nanoparticle-Modified, Activated Carbon Cathode in Microbial Fuel Cells.

    Li, Da; Qu, Youpeng; Liu, Jia; Liu, Guohong; Zhang, Jie; Feng, Yujie

    2016-08-17

    A biofilm growing on an air cathode is responsible for the decreased performance of microbial fuel cells (MFCs). For the undesired biofilm to be minimized, silver nanoparticles were synthesized on activated carbon as the cathodic catalyst (Ag/AC) in MFCs. Ag/AC enhanced maximum power density by 14.6% compared to that of a bare activated carbon cathode (AC) due to the additional silver catalysis. After operating MFCs over five months, protein content on the Ag/AC cathode was only 38.3% of that on the AC cathode, which resulted in a higher oxygen concentration diffusing through the Ag/AC cathode. In addition, a lower pH increment (0.2 units) was obtained near the Ag/AC catalyst surface after biofouling compared to 0.8 units of the AC cathode, indicating that less biofilm on the Ag/AC cathode had a minor resistance on hydroxide transported from the catalyst layer interfaces to the bulk solution. Therefore, less decrements of the Ag/AC activity and MFC performance were obtained. This result indicated that accelerated transport of oxygen and hydroxide, benefitting from the antibacterial property of the cathode, could efficiently maintain higher cathode stability during long-term operation. PMID:27441786

  4. Study of Electrical Transport Properties of Thin Films Used as HTL and as Active Layer in Organic Solar Cells, through Impedance Spectroscopy Measurements

    Camilo A. Otalora

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Impedance spectroscopy (IS is used for studying the electrical transport properties of thin films used in organic solar cells with structure ITO/HTL/active layer/cathode, where PEDOT:PSS (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene:polystyrene sulfonic acid and CuPC (tetrasulfonated copper-phthalocyanine were investigated as HTL (hole transport layer and P3HT:PCBM (poly-3-hexylthiophene:phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester blends prepared from mesitylene and chlorobenzene based solutions were studied as active layer and Ag and Al were used as cathode. The study allowed determining the influence of the type of solvent used for the preparation of the active layer as well as the speed at which the solvents are removed on the carriers mobility. The effect of exposing the layer of P3HT to the air on its mobility was also studied. It was established that samples of P3HT and P3HT:PCBM prepared using mesitylene as a solvent have mobility values significantly higher than those prepared from chlorobenzene which is the solvent most frequently used. It was also determined that the mobility of carriers in P3HT films strongly decreases when this sample is exposed to air. In addition, it was found that the electrical properties of P3HT:PCBM thin films can be improved by removing the solvent slowly which is achieved by increasing the pressure inside the system of spin-coating during the film growth.

  5. Targeted drug delivery systems 6: Intracellular bioreductive activation, uptake and transport of an anticancer drug delivery system across intestinal Caco-2 cell monolayers.

    Gharat, L; Taneja, R; Weerapreeyakul, N; Rege, B; Polli, J; Chikhale, P J

    2001-05-21

    We demonstrate transport across, intracellular accumulation and bioreductive activation of a conformationally constrained, anticancer drug delivery system (the CH(3)-TDDS) using Caco-2 cell monolayers (CCMs) as an in vitro model of the human intestinal mucosa. Reverse-phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) coupled with UV detection was used to detect CH(3)-TDDS, the bioreduction product (lactone) and the released drug (melphalan methyl ester; MME). Upon incubation of the CH(3)-TDDS with the apical (AP) surface of 21-day-old CCM, we observed rapid decrease in the AP concentration of the CH(3)-TDDS (60%/hr) as a result of cellular uptake. Rapid intracellular accumulation of the CH(3)-TDDS was followed by bioreductive activation to deplete the cellular levels of CH(3)-TDDS. The drug part (MME) and lactone, as well as CH(3)-TDDS, were detected in the basolateral (BL) chamber. Intracellular Caco-2 levels of TDDS and lactone were also detectable. Bioreductive activation of the CH(3)-TDDS was additionally confirmed by formation of lactone after incubation of the CH(3)-TDDS in the presence of freshly prepared Caco-2 cell homogenates. During transport studies of melphalan or MME alone (as control), the intact drug was not detected in the intracellular compartment or in the BL chamber. These observations demonstrate that CH(3)-TDDS has potential for improving intestinal delivery of MME. TDDS could be useful in facilitating oral absorption of MME as well as the oral delivery of other agents. PMID:11337161

  6. Glutamate transporters combine transporter- and channel-like features

    Slotboom, DJ; Konings, WN; Lolkema, JS

    2001-01-01

    Glutamate transporters in the mammalian central nervous system have a unique position among secondary transport proteins as they exhibit glutamate-gated chloride-channel activity in addition to glutamate-transport activity. In this article, the available data on the structure of the glutamate transp

  7. Reduction of mitochondrial electron transport complex activity is restricted to the ischemic focus after transient focal cerebral ischemia in rats

    Christensen, Thomas; Diemer, Nils Henrik

    2003-01-01

    the ipsilateral cortex and caudate putamen were measured by densitometric image analysis. Reductions in complex I, II, and IV activity were restricted to areas in the ischemic foci in cortex and caudate putamen, which microscopically displayed signs of early morphological damage. In cortex, the tissue...... volume with reduced activity did not change significantly during reperfusion but progressively increased in the caudate putamen, possibly reflecting a faster maturation of morphological damage in this region. Treatment with alpha-PBN did not affect the observed reductions in activities. We deduce that...... inhibition of mitochondrial ETC complex activity does not play a critical role for recruitment of the penumbra in the infarction process....

  8. Transcriptional Regulation and Posttranslational Activity of the Betaine Transporter BetL in Listeria monocytogenes Are Controlled by Environmental Salinity

    Sleator, Roy D.; Wood, Janet M.; Hill, Colin

    2003-01-01

    While the genetic elements contributing to the salinity tolerance of Listeria monocytogenes have been well characterized, the regulatory signals and responses (genetic and/or biochemical) that govern these mechanisms have yet to be elucidated. Encoded by betL, the first genetic element to be linked to listerial osmotolerance, the secondary betaine uptake system BetL is a member of the betaine-carnitine-choline transporter family. Preceded by consensus σA- and σB-dependent promoter sites, betL...

  9. Axonal transport of labelled proteins and increased functional activity in sciatic nerve of the frog Rana hexadactyla in vitro

    In vitro speed of fast moving labelled protein fraction was investigated in the lumbar 8 nerve of R.hexadactyla during normal and electrical stimulation conditions. 3H-leucine labelled oroteins moved in a proximo-distal direction at a speed of 144 mm/day at 25 deg C. No change was observed in the rate of proteins transported in stimulated nerves but the amount of protein bound radioactivity increased over stimulation. In ligature experiments, amount of labelled proteins accumulating at a ligature was higher in stimulated nerves. Electrical stimulation of nerve resulted in an increase in protein synthetic rate in the respective ganglion. (author)

  10. Rapid kinetics of liver microsomal glucose-6-phosphatase. Evidence for tight-coupling between glucose-6-phosphate transport and phosphohydrolase activity

    Rapid kinetics of both glucose-6-P uptake and hydrolysis in fasted rat liver microsomes were investigated with a recently developed fast-sampling, rapid-filtration apparatus. Experiments were confronted with both the substrate transport and conformational models currently proposed for the glucose-6-phosphatase system. Accumulation in microsomes of 14C products from [U-14C]glucose-6-P followed biexponential kinetics. From the inside to outside product concentrations, it could be inferred that mostly glucose should accumulate inside the vesicles. While biexponential kinetics are compatible with the mathematical predictions of a simplified substrate transport model, the latter fails in explaining the burst in total glucose production over a similar time scale to that used for the uptake measurements. Since the initial rate of the burst phase in untreated microsomes exactly matched the steady-state rate of glucose production in detergent-treated vesicles, it can be definitely concluded that the substrate transport model does not describe adequately our results. While the conformational model accounts for both the burst of glucose production and the kinetics of glucose accumulation into the vesicles, it cannot explain the burst in 32Pi production from [32P]glucose-6-P measured under the same conditions. Since the amplitude of the observed bursts is not compatible with a presteady state in enzyme activity, we propose that a hysteretic transition best explains our results in both untreated and permeabilized microsomes, thus providing a new rationale to understand the molecular mechanism of the glucose-6-phosphatase system

  11. Some aspects regarding the qualifications tests of packages used for transport and storage of radioactive waste (low activity) in INR Pitesti

    Radioactive wastes generated by TRIGA INR research reactor are packaged according to the national and international standards and to the IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials and Advisory Material for the Application of the IAEA Transport Regulations. The technology for packaging and treatment of Radioactive wastes used in our institute can be applied, in perspective, also at the Nuclear Power Plant Cernavoda, after commissioning. This paper describes the qualifications tests (type tests) for packages used for transport and storage (for a long period of about 30 years) of radioactive wastes (low activity, up to 0.5068x1010 Bq/drum, 0.164 Ci/drum, respectively). The package used is a drum manufactured by Romanian industry (according to the national standard 7683-79) of 1 mm thick mild steel with the following dimensions: height: 915 ± 10 mm, diameter: 600 ± 5 mm, volume: 220 liters, approximately. There are presented the type tests carried-out, e.g. compression, penetration, free fall, lixiviation, safety in utilizing (biological protection), checking of chemical and mechanical characterization and the effect of the product on the environment, the results, interpretation and conclusions. The performing of the above mentioned tests and other additional ones, the results obtained, prove that our technology for treatment and packaging of radioactive wastes is in accordance with IAEA Regulations in the field. (author). 6 refs, 6 figs

  12. Facilitated transport of Cr(III) through activated composite membrane containing di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (DEHPA) as carrier agent

    The facilitated transport of chromium(III) through activated composite membrane (ACM) containing di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (DEHPA) was investigated. DEHPA was immobilised by interfacial polymerisation on polysulfone layer which was deposited on non-woven fabric by using spin coater. Then, ACM was characterised by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), contact angle measurements and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Initially, batch experiments of liquid-liquid distribution of Cr(III) and the extractant (DEHPA) were carried out to determine the appropriate pH of the feed phase and the results showed that maximum extraction of Cr(III) was achieved at a pH of 4. It was also found that Cr(III) and DEHPA reacted in 1/1 molar ratio. The effects of Cr(III) (in feed phase), HCl (in stripping phase) and DEHPA (in ACM) concentrations were investigated. DEHPA concentration varies from 0.1 to 1.0 M and it was determined that the transport of Cr(III) increased with the carrier concentration up to 0.8 M. It was also observed that the transport of Cr(III) through the ACM tended to increase with Cr(III) and HCl concentrations. The stability of ACM was also confirmed with replicate experiments.

  13. Effect of ethanolic extract of Cryptolepis sanguinolenta stem on in vivo and in vitro glucose absorption and transport: Mechanism of its antidiabetic activity

    A F Ajayi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Extracts from various morphological parts of Cryptolepis sanguinolenta are widely used traditionally in folklore medicine in many parts of the world for the management, control, and/or treatment of a plethora of human ailments, including diabetes mellitus. In order to scientifically appraise some of the ethnomedical uses of Cryptolepis sanguinolenta, the present study was undertaken to investigate its influence at varying doses on intestinal glucose absorption and transport in relation to its hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects in rat experimental paradigms. Materials and Methods: The animals used were divided into four groups. Control animals received 2 ml of distilled water, while treated groups received 50, 150, and 250 mg/kg bw of Cryptolepis sanguinolenta extract per oral respectively daily for 21 days. Results: Cryptolepis sanguinolenta led to a significant decrease in glucose transport and absorption. It also caused significant reductions in plasma glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and LDL cholesterol. Biochemical changes observed were suggestive of dose dependence. Histopathological studies also showed increased sizes of β cells of the pancreas. Conclusion: The findings in these normoglycemic laboratory animals suggest that Cryptolepis sanguinolenta has hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activities, possibly by reducing glucose absorption and transport, and enhancing the structural and functional abilities of the β cells. This is the first study to report the effect of Cryptolepis sanguinolenta on intestinal glucose absorption. This effect could be attributed to its major bioactive principle, cryptolepine, an indoloquinoline alkaloid. This study thus lends credence to the use of Cryptolepis sanguinolenta in the management of diabetes mellitus.

  14. Transport policy

    1980-01-01

    Transport is a fundamental component of all modern economies. Transport Policy presents a wide ranging collection of previously published articles which aim to provide the reader with an understanding of the main elements of transport policy.

  15. Aluminum-activated citrate and malate transporters from the MATE and ALMT families function independently to confer Arabidopsis aluminum tolerance

    Aluminum (Al) activated root malate and citrate exudation plays an important role in Al tolerance in many plant species. Here, we report on the identification and characterization of AtMATE, a homolog of the recently discovered sorghum and barley Al tolerance genes, here shown to encode an Al-activ...

  16. Reversed Field Pinch dynamics and transport studies. Final report on first year activities, April 1983-April 1984

    As a result of work performed under the first year of this contract, the fundamental MHD processes that occur in the RFP have been identified. These processes have been correlated with experimental observations, and an assessment of their effect on transport and confinement has begun. Analytic studies have provided insight into the conditions necessary for dynamo action. Specific accomplishments during the first year of performance include: (a) the three-dimensional, compressible MHD code SPECTR3 and its associated post-processors were developed and brought into production; (b) SPECTR3 was used to identify, for the first-time, the fundamental nonlinear MHD processes that occur in the RFP; (c) because of these results, a model explaining many of the experimental observations on ZT-40M was given; (d) a three-dimensional incompressible MHD code INCOMPR was written and debugged. This code is now ready for production; (e) a reduced computational model for the study of low-frequency current drive in the RFP was developed; (f) analytic studies of the helical dynamo in the RFP yielded necessary conditions, under certain circumstances, for the existence of the dynamo; (g) statistical studies of the stochastic regions appearing in the numerical simulations produced an upper limit on the degree of stochasticity to be expected in the RFP, and its potential impact on transport

  17. Radiation Transport

    Urbatsch, Todd James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-06-15

    We present an overview of radiation transport, covering terminology, blackbody raditation, opacities, Boltzmann transport theory, approximations to the transport equation. Next we introduce several transport methods. We present a section on Caseology, observing transport boundary layers. We briefly broach topics of software development, including verification and validation, and we close with a section on high energy-density experiments that highlight and support radiation transport.

  18. Handling and Transport Problems

    I. The handling and transport of radioactive waste involves the risk of irradiation and contamination. It is necessary to draw up special regulations governing the removal and transport of waste within the centres or from one centre to another, and to entrust transport to a group in charge of specialized teams. The organization, equipment and efficiency of such teams is then considered. II. Certain types of transport operation are particularly dangerous and require special transport units and fixed installations. This applies, in particular, to the disposal of highly radioactive liquids. A description is given of a composite transport unit, consisting of a towing vehicle, semi-trailer and tank holding 500 l of liquid with an activity of up to 1,000 c/l. The drawing-off of the liquid waste, routing of the transport unit and precautions to be taken are discussed. (author)

  19. TRANSPORT/HANDLING REQUESTS

    Groupe ST/HM

    2002-01-01

    A new EDH document entitled 'Transport/Handling Request' will be in operation as of Monday, 11th February 2002, when the corresponding icon will be accessible from the EDH desktop, together with the application instructions. This EDH form will replace the paper-format transport/handling request form for all activities involving the transport of equipment and materials. However, the paper form will still be used for all vehicle-hire requests. The introduction of the EDH transport/handling request form is accompanied by the establishment of the following time limits for the various services concerned: 24 hours for the removal of office items, 48 hours for the transport of heavy items (of up to 6 metric tons and of standard road width), 5 working days for a crane operation, extra-heavy transport operation or complete removal, 5 working days for all transport operations relating to LHC installation. ST/HM Group, Logistics Section Tel: 72672 - 72202

  20. Energy and transport.

    Woodcock, James; Banister, David; Edwards, Phil; Prentice, Andrew M; Roberts, Ian

    2007-09-22

    We examine the links between fossil-fuel-based transportation, greenhouse-gas emissions, and health. Transport-related carbon emissions are rising and there is increasing consensus that the growth in motorised land vehicles and aviation is incompatible with averting serious climate change. The energy intensity of land transport correlates with its adverse health effects. Adverse health effects occur through climate change, road-traffic injuries, physical inactivity, urban air pollution, energy-related conflict, and environmental degradation. For the world's poor people, walking is the main mode of transport, but such populations often experience the most from the harms of energy-intensive transport. New energy sources and improvements in vehicle design and in information technology are necessary but not sufficient to reduce transport-related carbon emissions without accompanying behavioural change. By contrast, active transport has the potential to improve health and equity, and reduce emissions. Cities require safe and pleasant environments for active transport with destinations in easy reach and, for longer journeys, public transport that is powered by renewable energy, thus providing high levels of accessibility without car use. Much investment in major road projects does not meet the transport needs of poor people, especially women whose trips are primarily local and off road. Sustainable development is better promoted through improving walking and cycling infrastructures, increasing access to cycles, and investment in transport services for essential needs. Our model of London shows how increased active transport could help achieve substantial reductions in emissions by 2030 while improving population health. There exists the potential for a global contraction and convergence in use of fossil-fuel energy for transport to benefit health and achieve sustainability. PMID:17868817