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Sample records for activity tissue morphology

  1. Dynamic myosin activation promotes collective morphology and migration by locally balancing oppositional forces from surrounding tissue.

    Aranjuez, George; Burtscher, Ashley; Sawant, Ketki; Majumder, Pralay; McDonald, Jocelyn A

    2016-06-15

    Migrating cells need to overcome physical constraints from the local microenvironment to navigate their way through tissues. Cells that move collectively have the additional challenge of negotiating complex environments in vivo while maintaining cohesion of the group as a whole. The mechanisms by which collectives maintain a migratory morphology while resisting physical constraints from the surrounding tissue are poorly understood. Drosophila border cells represent a genetic model of collective migration within a cell-dense tissue. Border cells move as a cohesive group of 6-10 cells, traversing a network of large germ line-derived nurse cells within the ovary. Here we show that the border cell cluster is compact and round throughout their entire migration, a shape that is maintained despite the mechanical pressure imposed by the surrounding nurse cells. Nonmuscle myosin II (Myo-II) activity at the cluster periphery becomes elevated in response to increased constriction by nurse cells. Furthermore, the distinctive border cell collective morphology requires highly dynamic and localized enrichment of Myo-II. Thus, activated Myo-II promotes cortical tension at the outer edge of the migrating border cell cluster to resist compressive forces from nurse cells. We propose that dynamic actomyosin tension at the periphery of collectives facilitates their movement through restrictive tissues. PMID:27122602

  2. Morphology of urethral tissues

    Müller, Bert; Schulz, Georg; Herzen, Julia; Mushkolaj, Shpend; Bormann, Therese; Beckmann, Felix; Püschel, Klaus

    2010-09-01

    Micro computed tomography has been developed to a powerful technique for the characterization of hard and soft human and animal tissues. Soft tissues including the urethra, however, are difficult to be analyzed, since the microstructures of interest exhibit X-ray absorption values very similar to the surroundings. Selective staining using highly absorbing species is a widely used approach, but associated with significant tissue modification. Alternatively, one can suitably embed the soft tissue, which requires the exchange of water. Therefore, the more recently developed phase contrast modes providing much better contrast of low X-ray absorbing species are especially accommodating in soft tissue characterization. The present communication deals with the morphological characterization of sheep, pig and human urethras on the micrometer scale taking advantage of micro computed tomography in absorption and phase contrast modes. The performance of grating-based tomography is demonstrated for freshly explanted male and female urethras in saline solution. The micro-morphology of the urethra is important to understand how the muscles close the urethra to reach continence. As the number of incontinent patients is steadily increasing, the function under static and, more important, under stress conditions has to be uncovered for the realization of artificial urinary sphincters, which needs sophisticated, biologically inspired concepts to become nature analogue.

  3. [Functional morphology of pulp tissue].

    Heine, H; Schaeg, G; Türk, R

    1989-01-01

    As compared with mesenchyme no genuine defense cells are developed in the tissue of the dental pulp and the nervous tissue. This is a further hint for the common development from ectoderm. The three dimensional meshwork of pulpa fibroblasts ("mesectoderm") is structured by elongated cell processes connected with each other by a variety of special cell junctions ("electronic cell coupling"). Metabolites from the microcirculation and neuropeptides from vegetative axons influence the activity of fibroblasts synthetizing groundsubstance. The meshwork of the groundsubstance has exclusion effects concerning molecules with a distinct molecular weight and charge. Thus a primitive defense system is established. With this the role of a newly described cell type of the dental pulp, the "lymphocytic pericyte" is discussed. Because of the poor capacity of the pulpa tissue for immunological reactions pathologically disorders may easily become chronically spreading their antigenic components throughout the body. PMID:2800671

  4. Adipocyte Turnover: Relevance to Human Adipose Tissue Morphology

    Arner, Erik; Westermark, Pål O.; Spalding, Kirsty L.; Britton, Tom; Rydén, Mikael; Frisén, Jonas; Bernard, Samuel; Arner, Peter

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Adipose tissue may contain few large adipocytes (hypertrophy) or many small adipocytes (hyperplasia). We investigated factors of putative importance for adipose tissue morphology. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Subcutaneous adipocyte size and total fat mass were compared in 764 subjects with BMI 18–60 kg/m2. A morphology value was defined as the difference between the measured adipocyte volume and the expected volume given by a curved-line fit for a given body fat mass and was related ...

  5. Borrelia burgdorferi tissue morphologies and imaging methodologies.

    MacDonald, A B

    2013-08-01

    This manuscript offers an image presentation of diverse forms of Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes which are not spiral or corkscrew shaped. Explanations are offered to justify the legitimacy of tissue forms of Borrelia which may confuse the inexperienced microscopic examiner and which may lead to the misdiagnosis of non-spiral forms as artifacts. Images from the author's personal collection of Borrelia burgdorferi images and a few select images of Borrelia burgdorferi from the peer-reviewed published literature are presented. A commentary justifying each of the image profiles and a survey of the imaging modalities utilized provides the reader with a frame of reference. Regularly spiraled Borrelia are rarely seen in solid tissues. A variety of straightened, undulating, and clipped-off profiles are demonstrated, and the structural basis for each image is explained. Tissue examination is a diagnostic tool and a quality control for judging the eradication or the persistence of borreliosis following attempts to eradicate the infection with antibiotic therapy. The presence or absence of chronic Lyme borreliosis may be objectively adjudicated by tissue examinations which demonstrate or which fail to show pathogenic microbes in patients who have received a full course of antibiotics. PMID:23479042

  6. pPKCα mediated-HIF-1α activation related to the morphological modifications occurring in neonatal myocardial tissue in response to severe and mild hyperoxia

    S. Zara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In premature babies birth an high oxygen level exposure can occur and newborn hyperoxia exposure can be associated with free radical oxygen release with impairment of myocardial function, while in adult animal models short exposure to hyperoxia seems to protect heart against ischemic injury. Thus, the mechanisms and consequences which take place after hyperoxia exposure are different and related to animals age. The aim of our work has been to analyze the role played by HIF-1α in the occurrence of the morphological modifications upon hyperoxia exposure in neonatal rat heart. Hyperoxia exposure induces connective compartment increase which seems to allow enhanced blood vessels growth. An increased hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α translocation and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF expression has been found upon 95% oxygen exposure to induce morphological modifications. Upstream pPKC-α expression increase in newborn rats exposed to 95% oxygen can suggest PKC involvement in HIF-1α activation. Since nitric oxide synthase (NOS are involved in heart vascular regulation, endothelial NOS (e-NOS and inducible NOS (i-NOS expression has been investigated: a lower eNOS and an higher iNOS expression has been found in newborn rats exposed to 95% oxygen related to the evidence that hyperoxia provokes a systemic vasoconstriction and to the iNOS pro-apoptotic action, respectively. The occurrence of apoptotic events, evaluated by TUNEL and Bax expression analyses, seems more evident in sample exposed to severe hyperoxia. All in all such results suggest that in newborn rats hyperoxia can trigger oxygen free radical mediated membrane injury through a pPKCα mediated HIF-1α signalling system, even though specificity of such response could be obtained by in vivo administration to the rats of specific inhibitors of PKCα. This intracellular signalling can switch molecular events leading to blood vessels development in parallel to pro-apoptotic events

  7. Morphological characteristics of tissue damages from electrical contact.

    Grigolia, D; Beriashvili, R; Kilasonia, B

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to reveal the morphological pattern of different tissues mostly vulnerable to electric contact injury from domestic electrical appliances and to determine the possible diagnostic criteria of this damage. The matter is of particular importance as domestic electrical appliances are widely used in torture and other cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment or punishment. The pilot part of the study was experimental and as the material of study have been used adult Wistar white rats. The microscopic study of slides taken from tissues damaged by electricity and dyed by routine Hematoxilin-Eosin reveals general structural changes that does not represent characteristic morphological pattern sufficient for forensic diagnosis of electric injury. The electricity damage of kidney and adrenal glands reflects the morphological pattern of stress that allows complex evaluation of damage but could have only orientating value for the estimation of cause of injury. Due to results obtained from pilot part of the study there is considered in regard to determine the possible diagnostic criteria for electrical injury of tissues the experimental morphological study must continue on skin and myocardial material using routine Hematoxilin-Eosin as well as other classical and modern morphological methods of study. PMID:19556650

  8. Early B-cell Factor 1 Regulates Adipocyte Morphology and Lipolysis in White Adipose Tissue

    Gao, Hui; Mejhert, Niklas; Fretz, Jackie A.; Arner, Erik; Lorente-Cebrián, Silvia; Ehrlund, Anna; Dahlman-Wright, Karin; Gong, Xiaowei; Strömblad, Staffan; Douagi, Iyadh; Laurencikiene, Jurga; Dahlman, Ingrid; Daub, Carsten O.; Rydén, Mikael; Horowitz, Mark C.

    2014-01-01

    White adipose tissue (WAT) morphology characterized by hypertrophy (i.e. fewer but larger adipocytes) associates with increased adipose inflammation, lipolysis, insulin resistance and risk of diabetes. However, the causal relationships and the mechanisms controlling WAT morphology are unclear. Herein, we identified EBF1 as an adipocyte-expressed transcription factor with decreased expression/activity in WAT hypertrophy. In human adipocytes, the regulatory targets of EBF1 were enriched for gen...

  9. Morphology of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue in odontocetes.

    Silva, Fernanda M O; Guimarães, Juliana P; Vergara-Parente, Jociery E; Carvalho, Vitor L; Carolina, Ana; Meirelles, O; Marmontel, Miriam; Oliveira, Bruno S S P; Santos, Silvanise M; Becegato, Estella Z; Evangelista, Janaina S A M; Miglino, Maria Angelica

    2016-09-01

    This study describes the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) in odontocetes from the Brazilian coast and freshwater systems. Seven species were evaluated and tissue samples were analyzed by light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and immunohistochemistry. Laryngeal tonsil was a palpable oval mass located in the larynx, composed of a lymphoepithelial complex. Dense collections of lymphocytes were found in the skin of male fetus and calf. Clusters of lymphoid tissue were found in the uterine cervix of a reproductively active juvenile female and along the pulmonary artery of an adult female. Lymphoid tissues associated with the gastrointestinal tract were characterized by diffusely arranged or organized lymphocytes. The anal tonsil was composed of an aggregate of lymphoid tissue occurring exclusively in the anal canal, being composed of squamous epithelium branches. MALT was present in different tissues and organic systems of cetaceans, providing constant protection against mucosal pathogens present in their environment. PMID:27380767

  10. ultrasound reflecting the morphological properties in soft tissue

    Lorentzen, Torben; Larsen, Torben; Court-Payen, Michel;

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) is an image modality providing the examiner with real-time images which reflect the morphological properties in soft tissue. Different types of transducers are used for different kind of exams. US is cheap, fast, and safe. US is widely used in abdominal imaging including obstetrics...... and gynaecology plus cardiology. Furthermore, US has gained significant interest in rheumatology, orthopaedics and anaesthetics. Colour Doppler and spectral Doppler is useful in vascular imaging. The use of US contrast increases accuracy in liver imaging. US can guide for different interventional...

  11. Tracking mechanical and morphological dynamics of regenerating Hydra tissue fragments using a two fingered micro-robotic hand

    Veschgini, M.; Gebert, F.; Khangai, N.; Ito, H.; Suzuki, R.; Holstein, T. W.; Mae, Y.; Arai, T.; Tanaka, M.

    2016-03-01

    Regeneration of a tissue fragment of freshwater polyp Hydra is accompanied by significant morphological fluctuations, suggesting the generation of active forces. In this study, we utilized a two fingered micro-robotic hand to gain insights into the mechanics of regenerating tissues. Taking advantage of a high force sensitivity (˜1 nN) of our micro-hand, we non-invasively acquired the bulk elastic modulus of tissues by keeping the strain levels low (ɛ soft, dynamic tissue during the regeneration and development in a non-invasive manner.

  12. Role of tissue thickness on depth of morphologic skin damage

    RajaMahmood, T. L. I.; Mat Jafri, M. Z.; Omar, Khalid M.

    2013-05-01

    Different zonal areas of the skins have different thickness and different adnexal composition. For this reason, the power density and exposure duration have to be adjusted to the area that being treated. The effects of laser expose to the different area of the skin has been studied by using the power density of 20.31 W/cm2 and the times when the cracking sound heard is the explosive duration recorded for each area of the skins. As a result, the histologic sections revealed that the explosive duration varied significantly with the difference in thickness of the skin tissue. Also, the expanding spaces between hair follicles and its surrounding tissue as well as denaturation of collagen fiberswere shownin each skin section and were mainly affected by the photothermal effect produced from the CO2 laser-skin tissue interaction.

  13. Clinical and morphological investigations on ependymomas and their tissue cultures.

    Casentini, L; Gullotta, F; Möhrer, U

    1981-03-01

    A morphological investigation was carried out on 56 ependymomas cultivated in vitro as short-term cultures in roller tubes. The tumours had been histologically classified as cellular and fibrillary ependymomas, subependymomas, myxopapillary and malignant ependymomas (Table 1). A very good growth was detected in 32 cases, most of them being cellular and malignant ependymomas (Table 2). The prevailing growth pattern was epithelial in type, i.e. proliferating cells forming a carpet. In some cases, in the first stages of growth elongated bipolar cells did appear, but they evolved later as flattened epithelial elements. In four cases, a mixed proliferation of piloid astrocytes and ependymal cells was seen; these tumours were regarded as mixed gliomas. In 46 cases an exact evaluation of the history was possible. Although no correlation could be found between histology and survival time (Table 4), the longest survival was observed in spinal tumours (Table 3). Tumours in children had a slightly worse prognosis in comparison with adults (Table 5). A radical removal of the tumour was generally followed by a longer survival time (Table 6), although the operative procedure employed did not seem to influence the development of recurrences (Table 7). PMID:7219656

  14. Morphological Integration of Soft-Tissue Facial Morphology in Down Syndrome and Siblings

    Starbuck, John; Reeves, Roger H.; Richtsmeier, Joan

    2011-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS), resulting from trisomy of chromosome 21, is the most common live-born human aneuploidy. The phenotypic expression of trisomy 21 produces variable, though characteristic, facial morphology. Although certain facial features have been documented quantitatively and qualitatively as characteristic of DS (e.g., epicanthic folds, macroglossia, and hypertelorism), all of these traits occur in other craniofacial conditions with an underlying genetic cause. We hypothesize that the t...

  15. Morphological integration of soft-tissue facial morphology in Down Syndrome and siblings.

    Starbuck, John; Reeves, Roger H; Richtsmeier, Joan

    2011-12-01

    Down syndrome (DS), resulting from trisomy of chromosome 21, is the most common live-born human aneuploidy. The phenotypic expression of trisomy 21 produces variable, though characteristic, facial morphology. Although certain facial features have been documented quantitatively and qualitatively as characteristic of DS (e.g., epicanthic folds, macroglossia, and hypertelorism), all of these traits occur in other craniofacial conditions with an underlying genetic cause. We hypothesize that the typical DS face is integrated differently than the face of non-DS siblings, and that the pattern of morphological integration unique to individuals with DS will yield information about underlying developmental associations between facial regions. We statistically compared morphological integration patterns of immature DS faces (N = 53) with those of non-DS siblings (N = 54), aged 6-12 years using 31 distances estimated from 3D coordinate data representing 17 anthropometric landmarks recorded on 3D digital photographic images. Facial features are affected differentially in DS, as evidenced by statistically significant differences in integration both within and between facial regions. Our results suggest a differential affect of trisomy on facial prominences during craniofacial development. PMID:21996933

  16. Optimised crystal morphologies for active pharmaceutical ingredients and related studies

    Horgan, Danielle E.

    2015-01-01

    The majority of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) are crystalline solids in their pure forms. Crystalline solids have definable morphologies, i.e. shape and size. Crystal morphology is determined by both the internal structure of the crystals and external factors during growth from solution. The morphology of a crystal batch can affect key processes during manufacturing. Companies generally accept whatever morphology the manufacturing process provides and deal with any subsequent probl...

  17. [Tissue grafts: an activity concerning many patients].

    Loty, B

    1997-11-15

    Tissue allografts mainly include corneas, bone (and cartilage, tendon, ligament, aponevrosis), skin, vessels and cardiac valves. All these grafts have been widely used for many years and were the subject of a large number of experimental and clinical studies. The different steps allowing the obtention of different tissue allografts have in fact a common organization through tissue procurement and banking activities. Tissue banks have a central situation ensuring security, safety, traceability and distribution of tissues. Appropriate organization of the banks, and respect of high level standards are thus mandatory. Tissue transplantation activity in France has been studied through national surveys: they concern more than 600 hospitals and clinics, and grafts procured in France (excluding imported allografts) are around 15,000 a year. Precise regulation implied by the bioethical law published in 1994 and homogeneous organization of the activity allow the use of stringent and regularly updated standards, allowing the distribution to the patients of safe grafts procured in ethical conditions. The actual shortage of tissue allografts in France implies increasing procurement through a better organization of retrieval in hospitals and clinics and donation promotion. PMID:9501596

  18. Antioxidant activity of Moringa oleifera tissue extracts

    Santos, Andréa F. S.; Argôlo, Adriana C. C.; Paiva, Patrícia M. G.; Coelho, L. C. B. B.

    2012-01-01

    Moringa oleifera is an important source of antioxidants, tools in nutritional biochemistry that could be beneficial for human health; the leaves and flowers are used by the population with great nutritional importance. This work investigates the antioxidant activity of M. oleifera ethanolic (E1) and saline (E2) extracts from flowers (a), inflorescence rachis (b), seeds (c), leaf tissue (d), leaf rachis (e) and fundamental tissues of stem (f). The radical scavenging capacity (RSC) of extracts ...

  19. Freezing-Thawing Characteristics of Botanical Tissues and Influence of Water Morphology

    WU Hai-Ling; MA Yuan; PENG Xiao-Feng

    2004-01-01

    @@ A series of visualization experiments were conducted to investigate the transport phenomena and interface behaviour during the freezing-thawing process of typical botanical tissues. Attention was paid to the growth of ice crystals and the advance of the phase-change interface. A comparison was made to identify the freezing/thawing behaviour for different tissues under various freezing conditions. Based on the experimental observation, analyses were conducted to explore the influence of water morphology on the freezing/thawing characteristics.

  20. [Morphological characteristics of the changes in the skeletal muscle tissue in acute experimental ischemia of the extremities].

    Savel'ev, V S; Chekareva, G A; Mishnev, O D; Bogdanov, O A

    1985-05-01

    A comprehensive morphological study of the ischemic skeletal muscles of the limbs was performed in experiments on dogs. Ischemia of the muscle tissue was induced by artificial embolic occlusion of the terminal part of the aorta. A quantitative functional and morphological study revealed serious disturbances in metabolism of the skeletal muscle that was subjected to a 6-hour ischemia. Depression of aerobic metabolism, ineffectiveness of anaerobic glycolysis (a spare pathway of the synthesis of macroergic substances), a dramatic lowering of ATPase activity, and activation of acid phosphatase in experiments of such a duration are important signs of a probably compromised adaptation process and irreversibility of the lesions in the tissue. The data should be taken into consideration in determining the optimal periods of the blood flow recovery in the limbs. Morphological changes in muscle fibers under ischemia progress with an increase in the experiment duration (up to 9 and 12 h). An important morphological sign of ischemia is a disturbed typification of muscle fibers. PMID:4005420

  1. Adipose atrophy in cancer cachexia: morphologic and molecular analysis of adipose tissue in tumour-bearing mice.

    Bing, C; Russell, S; Becket, E; Pope, M; Tisdale, M J; Trayhurn, P; Jenkins, J R

    2006-10-23

    Extensive loss of adipose tissue is a hallmark of cancer cachexia but the cellular and molecular basis remains unclear. This study has examined morphologic and molecular characteristics of white adipose tissue in mice bearing a cachexia-inducing tumour, MAC16. Adipose tissue from tumour-bearing mice contained shrunken adipocytes that were heterogeneous in size. Increased fibrosis was evident by strong collagen-fibril staining in the tissue matrix. Ultrastructure of 'slimmed' adipocytes revealed severe delipidation and modifications in cell membrane conformation. There were major reductions in mRNA levels of adipogenic transcription factors including CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha (C/EBPalpha), CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) in adipose tissue, which was accompanied by reduced protein content of C/EBPalpha and SREBP-1. mRNA levels of SREBP-1c targets, fatty acid synthase, acetyl CoA carboxylase, stearoyl CoA desaturase 1 and glycerol-3-phosphate acyl transferase, also fell as did glucose transporter-4 and leptin. In contrast, mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha and uncoupling protein-2 were increased in white fat of tumour-bearing mice. These results suggest that the tumour-induced impairment in the formation and lipid storing capacity of adipose tissue occurs in mice with cancer cachexia. PMID:17047651

  2. One-Step Preservation of Phosphoproteins and Tissue Morphology at Room Temperature for Diagnostic and Research Specimens

    Mueller, Claudius; Edmiston, Kirsten H.; Carpenter, Calvin; Gaffney, Eoin; Ryan, Ciara; Ward, Ronan; White, Susan; Memeo, Lorenzo; Colarossi, Cristina; Petricoin, Emanuel F.; Liotta, Lance A.; Espina, Virginia

    2011-01-01

    Background There is an urgent need to measure phosphorylated cell signaling proteins in cancer tissue for the individualization of molecular targeted kinase inhibitor therapy. However, phosphoproteins fluctuate rapidly following tissue procurement. Snap-freezing preserves phosphoproteins, but is unavailable in most clinics and compromises diagnostic morphology. Formalin fixation preserves tissue histomorphology, but penetrates tissue slowly, and is unsuitable for stabilizing phosphoproteins. ...

  3. Antioxidant activity of Moringa oleifera tissue extracts.

    Santos, Andréa F S; Argolo, Adriana C C; Paiva, Patrícia M G; Coelho, Luana C B B

    2012-09-01

    Moringa oleifera is an important source of antioxidants, tools in nutritional biochemistry that could be beneficial for human health; the leaves and flowers are used by the population with great nutritional importance. This work investigates the antioxidant activity of M. oleifera ethanolic (E1) and saline (E2) extracts from flowers (a), inflorescence rachis (b), seeds (c), leaf tissue (d), leaf rachis (e) and fundamental tissues of stem (f). The radical scavenging capacity (RSC) of extracts was determined using dot-blots on thin layer chromatography stained with a 0.4 mM 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) solution; spectrophotometric assays were recorded (515 nm). Antioxidant components were detected in all E1 and E2 from a, b and d. The best RSC was obtained with E1d; the antioxidants present in E2 reacted very slowly with DPPH. The chromatogram revealed by diphenylborinate-2-ethylamine methanolic solution showed that the ethanolic extract from the flowers, inflorescence rachis, fundamental tissue of stem and leaf tissue contained at least three flavonoids; the saline extract from the flowers and leaf tissue revealed at least two flavonoids. In conclusion, M. oleifera ethanolic and saline extracts contain antioxidants that support the use of the plant tissues as food sources. PMID:22294387

  4. Comparing the Morphological Changes in Burn Wound Tissues and the Procalcitonin Concentration

    Ludmila I. Budkevich, PhD, ScD²

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The problem of early diagnostics of bacterial complications is particularly true for children with extensive burn trauma (BT. Procalcitonin concentration levels considerably facilitate the diagnosis of sepsis. In all, 50 children with severe burns were included in our research. We conducted histological tests of the burn wound tissues from 13 patients. On comparison of the results of the PCT-tests with the results of the morphological investigation, we observed that the depth of the penetration of the microorganisms in the damaged tissues quite precisely corresponded to changes in the procalcitonin concentration.

  5. Light-activated communication in synthetic tissues.

    Booth, Michael J; Schild, Vanessa Restrepo; Graham, Alexander D; Olof, Sam N; Bayley, Hagan

    2016-04-01

    We have previously used three-dimensional (3D) printing to prepare tissue-like materials in which picoliter aqueous compartments are separated by lipid bilayers. These printed droplets are elaborated into synthetic cells by using a tightly regulated in vitro transcription/translation system. A light-activated DNA promoter has been developed that can be used to turn on the expression of any gene within the synthetic cells. We used light activation to express protein pores in 3D-printed patterns within synthetic tissues. The pores are incorporated into specific bilayer interfaces and thereby mediate rapid, directional electrical communication between subsets of cells. Accordingly, we have developed a functional mimic of neuronal transmission that can be controlled in a precise way. PMID:27051884

  6. Light-activated communication in synthetic tissues

    Booth, Michael J.; Schild, Vanessa Restrepo; Graham, Alexander D.; Olof, Sam N.; Bayley, Hagan

    2016-01-01

    We have previously used three-dimensional (3D) printing to prepare tissue-like materials in which picoliter aqueous compartments are separated by lipid bilayers. These printed droplets are elaborated into synthetic cells by using a tightly regulated in vitro transcription/translation system. A light-activated DNA promoter has been developed that can be used to turn on the expression of any gene within the synthetic cells. We used light activation to express protein pores in 3D-printed patterns within synthetic tissues. The pores are incorporated into specific bilayer interfaces and thereby mediate rapid, directional electrical communication between subsets of cells. Accordingly, we have developed a functional mimic of neuronal transmission that can be controlled in a precise way. PMID:27051884

  7. Morphological aspects of chromaffin tissue: the differential fixation of adrenaline and noradrenaline.

    Kobayashi, S; Coupland, R. E.

    1993-01-01

    The morphological aspects of chromaffin tissue are reviewed, based mainly on our studies on the mouse adrenal gland. Particular attention was focused on the differential fixation of adrenaline and noradrenaline, and on the uptake and storage of [3H]dopa, [3H]dopamine and related substances in the adrenaline-storing (A) and noradrenaline-storing (NA) cells. Scanning electron microscopy combined with the NaOH-maceration method was useful for demonstrating the 3-dimensional organisation of nerve...

  8. Morphology and survival of cryopreserved-thawed ovarian tissues after heterotopic autotransplantation

    Rumana Jafarey; Jing Yang

    2014-01-01

    Objective:The aim of our study was to observe the survival and morphological changes of thawed ovarian tis-sues after heterotopic transplantation. Methods:Twenty SPF-SD female rats (5-6 weeks old) were equal y randomized into the control group and experimental group. In control group, the freshly isolated ovaries were fixed in formalin. In experimental group, the freshly isolated ovaries were vitrified immediately and cut into thin slices. After stored in liquid nitrogen for 21 days, the tissues of experimental group were rapidly thawed and transplanted into back muscles of rats for 2 or 4 weeks, respectively. After that, al rats in experimental group were sacrificed and the ovarian tissues were col ected and fixed in 4%formaldehyde solution. Then the ovarian tissues were stained with HE and observed under the light confocal microscope. Re-sults:With the naked eyes, there was no specific alteration except the size reduction with color changing. Under microscopy, we found normal cortex and medul a in the ovary, and the primordial fol icles and fol icles in various stages were observed in the cortex. The normal oocytes in ovarian tissues of experimental group were significant decreased than in the control group. Conclusion:The ovarian tissues survive wel in experimental group and there is no significant dif erence in the proportion of fol icles between dif erent times (2 and 4 weeks) after grafting. Our results suggest that thawed ovarian tissues could survive after heterotopic transplantation into back muscles of rat models and maintain their morphology and function.

  9. Metre-long cell-laden microfibres exhibit tissue morphologies and functions

    Onoe, Hiroaki; Okitsu, Teru; Itou, Akane; Kato-Negishi, Midori; Gojo, Riho; Kiriya, Daisuke; Sato, Koji; Miura, Shigenori; Iwanaga, Shintaroh; Kuribayashi-Shigetomi, Kaori; Matsunaga, Yukiko T.; Shimoyama, Yuto; Takeuchi, Shoji

    2013-06-01

    Artificial reconstruction of fibre-shaped cellular constructs could greatly contribute to tissue assembly in vitro. Here we show that, by using a microfluidic device with double-coaxial laminar flow, metre-long core-shell hydrogel microfibres encapsulating ECM proteins and differentiated cells or somatic stem cells can be fabricated, and that the microfibres reconstitute intrinsic morphologies and functions of living tissues. We also show that these functional fibres can be assembled, by weaving and reeling, into macroscopic cellular structures with various spatial patterns. Moreover, fibres encapsulating primary pancreatic islet cells and transplanted through a microcatheter into the subrenal capsular space of diabetic mice normalized blood glucose concentrations for about two weeks. These microfibres may find use as templates for the reconstruction of fibre-shaped functional tissues that mimic muscle fibres, blood vessels or nerve networks in vivo.

  10. Isolation of tissue layers in hermatypic corals by N-acetylcysteine: morphological and proteomic examinations

    Peng, S.-E.; Luo, Y.-J.; Huang, H.-J.; Lee, I.-T.; Hou, L.-S.; Chen, W.-N. U.; Fang, L.-S.; Chen, C.-S.

    2008-03-01

    Corals are diploblastic in body pattern and include two tissue layers, the epidermis and gastrodermis, interconnected by an acellular matrix mesoglea. During development, cells in these tissue layers differentiate morphologically and functionally. In most hermatypic corals, the gastrodermis further develops an ability to associate with microalgae dinoflagellates. This endosymbiosis occurs inside specific host gastrodermal cells, and its mechanism still remains unclear notwithstanding decades of research. The delay in progress is partly due to the difficulty in separating the gastrodermis and its symbionts from the epidermis for detailed cellular and biochemical investigations. The present study reports a simple method to separate these two tissue layers in hermatypic corals using the reducing agent, N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Efficient tissue and proteomic isolations are demonstrated by microscopy and two-dimensional SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D SDS-PAGE). The NAC treatment was able to separate tissue layers without inducing protein degradation. Furthermore, the sensitivity of protein detection greatly increases in the isolated tissue layers. The application of the present technique provides future research on endosymbiosis and coral development with a tool for higher accuracy and sensitivity.

  11. Influence of plant root morphology and tissue composition on phenanthrene uptake: Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are contaminants that reside mainly in surface soils. Dietary intake of plant-based foods can make a major contribution to total PAH exposure. Little information is available on the relationship between root morphology and plant uptake of PAHs. An understanding of plant root morphologic and compositional factors that affect root uptake of contaminants is important and can inform both agricultural (chemical contamination of crops) and engineering (phytoremediation) applications. Five crop plant species are grown hydroponically in solutions containing the PAH phenanthrene. Measurements are taken for 1) phenanthrene uptake, 2) root morphology – specific surface area, volume, surface area, tip number and total root length and 3) root tissue composition – water, lipid, protein and carbohydrate content. These factors are compared through Pearson's correlation and multiple linear regression analysis. The major factors which promote phenanthrene uptake are specific surface area and lipid content. -- Highlights: •There is no correlation between phenanthrene uptake and total root length, and water. •Specific surface area and lipid are the most crucial factors for phenanthrene uptake. •The contribution of specific surface area is greater than that of lipid. -- The contribution of specific surface area is greater than that of lipid in the two most important root morphological and compositional factors affecting phenanthrene uptake

  12. Assessment of nerve morphology in nerve activation during electrical stimulation

    Gomez-Tames, Jose; Yu, Wenwei

    2013-10-01

    The distance between nerve and stimulation electrode is fundamental for nerve activation in Transcutaneous Electrical Stimulation (TES). However, it is not clear the need to have an approximate representation of the morphology of peripheral nerves in simulation models and its influence in the nerve activation. In this work, depth and curvature of a nerve are investigated around the middle thigh. As preliminary result, the curvature of the nerve helps to reduce the simulation amplitude necessary for nerve activation from far field stimulation.

  13. Development of Micro-Grippers for Tissue and Cell Manipulation with Direct Morphological Comparison

    Rossana Cecchi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Although tissue and cell manipulation nowadays is a common task in biomedical analysis, there are still many different ways to accomplish it, most of which are still not sufficiently general, inexpensive, accurate, efficient or effective. Several problems arise both for in vivo or in vitro analysis, such as the maximum overall size of the device and the gripper jaws (like in minimally-invasive open biopsy or very limited manipulating capability, degrees of freedom or dexterity (like in tissues or cell-handling operations. This paper presents a new approach to tissue and cell manipulation, which employs a conceptually new conjugate surfaces flexure hinge (CSFH silicon MEMS-based technology micro-gripper that solves most of the above-mentioned problems. The article describes all of the phases of the development, including topology conception, structural design, simulation, construction, actuation testing and in vitro observation. The latter phase deals with the assessment of the function capability, which consists of taking a series of in vitro images by optical microscopy. They offer a direct morphological comparison between the gripper and a variety of tissues.

  14. Salsalate activates brown adipose tissue in mice.

    van Dam, Andrea D; Nahon, Kimberly J; Kooijman, Sander; van den Berg, Susan M; Kanhai, Anish A; Kikuchi, Takuya; Heemskerk, Mattijs M; van Harmelen, Vanessa; Lombès, Marc; van den Hoek, Anita M; de Winther, Menno P J; Lutgens, Esther; Guigas, Bruno; Rensen, Patrick C N; Boon, Mariëtte R

    2015-05-01

    Salsalate improves glucose intolerance and dyslipidemia in type 2 diabetes patients, but the mechanism is still unknown. The aim of the current study was to unravel the molecular mechanisms involved in these beneficial metabolic effects of salsalate by treating mice with salsalate during and after development of high-fat diet-induced obesity. We found that salsalate attenuated and reversed high-fat diet-induced weight gain, in particular fat mass accumulation, improved glucose tolerance, and lowered plasma triglyceride levels. Mechanistically, salsalate selectively promoted the uptake of fatty acids from glycerol tri[(3)H]oleate-labeled lipoprotein-like emulsion particles by brown adipose tissue (BAT), decreased the intracellular lipid content in BAT, and increased rectal temperature, all pointing to more active BAT. The treatment of differentiated T37i brown adipocytes with salsalate increased uncoupled respiration. Moreover, salsalate upregulated Ucp1 expression and enhanced glycerol release, a dual effect that was abolished by the inhibition of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). In conclusion, salsalate activates BAT, presumably by directly activating brown adipocytes via the PKA pathway, suggesting a novel mechanism that may explain its beneficial metabolic effects in type 2 diabetes patients. PMID:25475439

  15. Morphological analysis of dentin tissue after Er, Cr: YSGG laser irradiation

    Yu, Lili; Lin, Qi; Zhang, Xianzeng; Zhan, Zhenlin; Lin, Shi; Xie, Shusen

    2009-08-01

    The object of this study is to evaluate the morphological changes of dentin tissue after Er, Cr: YSGG laser Irradiation. The wavelength is 2.78 μm with pulse repetition rate of 20 Hz and pulse duration of 140 μs. The samples extracted from sound intact adult human premolars were cut into 1 mm thick dentin slices, and then polished by abrasive papers. After preparation, specimens were randomly divided into two groups: one group treated with conventional drills (a diamond drill and a fissure bur), and the other group treated with lasers at four different power settings (2W to 3.5W). The morphological alterations produced by the different treatments were observed and compared by scanning electron microscope (SEM). It showed that the dentin surfaces had distinct and characteristic morphological alteration with different power settings. Compared with the samples treated with conventional drills, the irradiated samples revealed an absent smear layer with open dentinal tubules. The ablation of intertubular dentin was more evident than that of peritubular dentin.

  16. Morphological segmentation of multiprobe fluorescence images for immunophenotyping in melanoma tissue sections

    Dow, Alasdair I.; Shafer, Steven A.; Waggoner, Alan S.

    1993-08-01

    A fundamental task in studying the action of cancer chemotherapy is to determine the quantity and spatial relationship of tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte populations. Classically this is performed by staining thin tissue sections with antibodies by immunoperoxidase amplification. The staining technique is practically limited to locating a single cell type per tissue section. Full immunophenotyping requires successive staining of serial sections, using statistical analysis to correlate the results. This paper describes a system that brings together multi- parameter fluorescence imaging and morphological segmentation techniques to provide a fast, accurate, and automatic analysis of the lymphocyte infiltrate in tissue sections. With fluorescence techniques a single section can be stained with up to four distinct fluorescently labelled antibodies to determine cell phenotypes. To harness this potential computer vision techniques are required to analyze the images. A routine based on the water shed algorithm has been developed that segments the nuclei image with an accuracy of greater than 90%. By matching the nuclei boundaries to the local peak fluorescence, cell boundary estimates are obtained in the antigen images. By then extracting two measurements from the boundary signal the cells can be classified according to their antigen expression. Determining cell expression of multiple antigens simultaneously provides a more detailed and accurate picture of the tumor infiltrate than single parameter analysis, and increases understanding of the immune response associated with the chemotherapy.

  17. Effects of estradiol and medroxyprogesterone acetate on morphology, proliferation and apoptosis of human breast tissue in organ cultures

    Human breast tissue undergoes phases of proliferation, differentiation and regression regulated by changes of the levels of circulating sex hormones during the menstrual cycle or aging. Ovarian hormones also likely play a key role in the etiology and biology of breast cancer. Reports concerning the proliferative effects of steroid hormones on the normal epithelium of human breast have been conflicting. Some studies have shown that steroid hormones may predispose breast epithelial cells to malignant changes by stimulating their proliferation, which is known to be regulated tightly by stromal cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 17β-estradiol and medroxyprogesterone acetate on proliferation, apoptosis, expression of differentiation markers and steroid hormone receptors in breast epithelium using an in vitro model of freshly isolated human breast tissue, in which a proper interaction of breast epithelium and stroma has been maintained. Human breast tissues were obtained from women undergoing surgery for breast tumours. Peritumoral tissues were excised and explants were cultured for 3 weeks in medium supplemented with E2 or MPA or with E2+MPA. Endpoints included histopathological, histomorphometric and immunohistochemical assessment of the breast explants. Culture of breast explants for 14 or 21 days with steroid hormones increased proliferative activity and the thickness of acinar and ductal epithelium. E2-treatment led to hyperplastic epithelial morphology, MPA to hypersecretory single-layered epithelium and E2+MPA to multilayered but organised epithelium. The proliferative response to E2 in comparison to control (p < 0.001) was more pronounced than to MPA (p < 0.05) or E2+MPA (p < 0.05) at 7 and 14 days for Ki-67 and PCNA. E2 treatment also decreased the proportion of apoptotic cells after 7 (p < 0.01) and 14 (p < 0.01) days. In addition, the relative number of ERα, ERβ and PR positive epithelial cells was decreased by all hormonal

  18. Effects of estradiol and medroxyprogesterone acetate on morphology, proliferation and apoptosis of human breast tissue in organ cultures

    Härkönen Pirkko

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human breast tissue undergoes phases of proliferation, differentiation and regression regulated by changes of the levels of circulating sex hormones during the menstrual cycle or aging. Ovarian hormones also likely play a key role in the etiology and biology of breast cancer. Reports concerning the proliferative effects of steroid hormones on the normal epithelium of human breast have been conflicting. Some studies have shown that steroid hormones may predispose breast epithelial cells to malignant changes by stimulating their proliferation, which is known to be regulated tightly by stromal cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 17β-estradiol and medroxyprogesterone acetate on proliferation, apoptosis, expression of differentiation markers and steroid hormone receptors in breast epithelium using an in vitro model of freshly isolated human breast tissue, in which a proper interaction of breast epithelium and stroma has been maintained. Methods Human breast tissues were obtained from women undergoing surgery for breast tumours. Peritumoral tissues were excised and explants were cultured for 3 weeks in medium supplemented with E2 or MPA or with E2+MPA. Endpoints included histopathological, histomorphometric and immunohistochemical assessment of the breast explants. Results Culture of breast explants for 14 or 21 days with steroid hormones increased proliferative activity and the thickness of acinar and ductal epithelium. E2-treatment led to hyperplastic epithelial morphology, MPA to hypersecretory single-layered epithelium and E2+MPA to multilayered but organised epithelium. The proliferative response to E2 in comparison to control (p was more pronounced than to MPA (p or E2+MPA (p at 7 and 14 days for Ki-67 and PCNA. E2 treatment also decreased the proportion of apoptotic cells after 7 (p and 14 (p days. In addition, the relative number of ERα, ERβ and PR positive epithelial cells was decreased by all

  19. Salivary gland morphology, tissue tropism and the progression of tospovirus infection in Frankliniella occidentalis.

    Montero-Astúa, Mauricio; Ullman, Diane E; Whitfield, Anna E

    2016-06-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is transmitted by thrips in a propagative manner; however, progression of virus infection in the insect is not fully understood. The goal of this work was to study the morphology and infection of thrips salivary glands. The primary salivary glands (PSG) are complex, with three distinct regions that may have unique functions. Analysis of TSWV progression in thrips revealed the presence of viral proteins in the foregut, midgut, ligaments, tubular salivary glands (TSG), and efferent duct and filament structures connecting the TSG and PSG of first and second instar larvae. The primary site of virus infection shifted from the midgut and TSG in the larvae to the PSG in adults, suggesting that tissue tropism changes with insect development. TSG infection was detected in advance of PSG infection. These findings support the hypothesis that the TSG are involved in trafficking of TSWV to the PSG. PMID:26999025

  20. Comparison of regional pancreatic tissue fluid pressure and endoscopic retrograde pancreatographic morphology in chronic pancreatitis

    Ebbehøj, N; Borly, L; Madsen, P; Matzen, Peter

    1990-01-01

    The relation between pancreatic tissue fluid pressure measured by the needle method and pancreatic duct morphology was studied in 16 patients with chronic pancreatitis. After preoperative endoscopic retrograde pancreatography (ERP) the patients were submitted to a drainage operation. The...... predrainage pressures were higher in the tail of the pancreas (29 mm Hg; range, 16-37 mm Hg) than in the head (18 mm Hg; range, 2-30 mm Hg; p = 0.02). The regional pressure differences were significantly greater in four patients who had previously undergone pancreatic surgery than in the 12 patients without...... previous surgery. A stone, total obstruction, or major stenosis in the pancreatic duct at ERP was related to a downstream pressure gradient significantly higher than found in a non-obstructed pancreatic main duct, but the relation was not uniform. Generally, there was no significant relation between...

  1. Pancreatic tissue fluid pressure in chronic pancreatitis. Relation to pain, morphology, and function

    Ebbehøj, N; Borly, L; Bülow, J;

    1990-01-01

    The relation between pancreatic tissue fluid pressure and pain, morphology, and function was studied in a cross-sectional investigation. Pressure measurements were performed by percutaneous fine-needle puncture. Thirty-nine patients with chronic pancreatitis were included, 25 with pain and 14...... without pain. The pressure was higher in patients with pain than in patients without pain (p = 0.000001), and this was significantly related to a pain score from a visual analogue scale (p less than 0.001). Patients with pancreatic pseudocysts had both higher pressure and higher pain score than patients...... without (p = 0.004 and p = 0.0003, respectively). The pressure was significantly related (inversely) to pancreatic duct diameter only in the group of 19 patients with earlier pancreatic surgery (R = -0.57, p = 0.02). The pressure was not related to functional factors or the presence of pancreatic...

  2. Morphological and biochemical examination of Cosmos 1887 rat heart tissue. Part 1: Ultrastructure

    Philpott, D. E.; Popova, I. A.; Kato, K.; Stevenson, J.; Miquel, J.; Sapp, W.

    1990-01-01

    Morphological changes were observed in the left ventricle of rat heart tissue from animals flown on the Cosmos 1887 biosatellite for 12.5 days. These tissues were compared to the synchronous and vivarium control hearts. While many normal myofibrils were observed, others exhibited ultrastructural alterations, i.e., damaged and irregular-shaped mitochondria and generalized myofibrillar edema. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the volume density data revealed a statistically significant increase in glycogen and a significant decrease in mitochondria compared to the synchronous and vivarium controls. Point counting indicated an increase in lipid and myeloid bodies and a decrease in microtubules, but these changes were not statistically significant. In addition, the flight animals exhibited some patchy loss of protofibrils (actin and myosin filaments) and some abnormal supercontracted myofibrils that were not seen in the controls. This study was undertaken to gain insight into the mechanistic aspects of cardiac changes in both animals and human beings as a consequence of space travel. Cardiac hypotrophy and fluid shifts have been observed after actual or simulated weightlessness and raise concerns about the functioning of the heart and circulatory system during and after travel in space.

  3. Antimicrobial activity of UMFix tissue fixative

    Cleary, T J; Morales, A. R.; Nadji, M.; Nassiri, M.; Vincek, V.

    2005-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial effects of UMFix, an alcohol based tissue fixative, on various microorganisms. The UMFix solution was compared with 10% neutral buffered formalin.

  4. Influencing Factors of Thermogenic Adipose Tissue Activity

    Zhang, Guoqing; Sun, Qinghua; Liu, Cuiqing

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is an escalating public health challenge and contributes tremendously to the disease burden globally. New therapeutic strategies are required to alleviate the health impact of obesity-related metabolic dysfunction. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized for dissipating chemical energy for thermogenesis as a defense against cold environment. Intriguingly, the brown-fat like adipocytes that dispersed throughout white adipose tissue (WAT) in rodents and humans, called “brite” or “beig...

  5. Influencing Factors of Thermogenic Adipose Tissue Activity.

    Zhang, Guoqing; Sun, Qinghua; Liu, Cuiqing

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is an escalating public health challenge and contributes tremendously to the disease burden globally. New therapeutic strategies are required to alleviate the health impact of obesity-related metabolic dysfunction. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized for dissipating chemical energy for thermogenesis as a defense against cold environment. Intriguingly, the brown-fat like adipocytes that dispersed throughout white adipose tissue (WAT) in rodents and humans, called "brite" or "beige" adipocytes, share similar thermogenic characteristics to brown adipocytes. Recently, researchers have focused on cognition of these thermogenic adipose tissues. Some factors have been identified to regulate the development and function of thermogenic adipose tissues. Cold exposure, pharmacological conditions, and lifestyle can enhance non-shivering thermogenesis and metabolism via some mechanisms. However, environmental pollutants, such as ambient fine particulates and ozone, may impair the function of these thermogenic adipose tissues and thereby induce metabolic dysfunction. In this review, the origin, function and influencing factors of thermogenic adipose tissues were summarized and it will provide insights into identifying new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of obesity and obesity-related diseases. PMID:26903879

  6. Morphological, biochemical and genetic influence of mutagen treatments on medicinal plant tissue cultures

    Gamma rays and/or alkylant agents have been applied on callus tissue, young regenerants and cell suspension in order to establish their effect on morphogenesis, regeneration ability and biosynthetic potential. Growth dynamics, morpho-anatomic variables, secondary metabolite production, cell cytogenetics, enzyme specific activities, isoperoxidase and isoesterase patterns were analyzed in relation to the morphogenetic response of Atropa belladonna, Datura innoxia, Lavandula angustifolia, Chamomilla recutita, Digitalis lanata and Vinca minor tissue cultures. The effects of gamma-ray doses varied from one species to another; 10 to 20 Gy were generally able to stimulate growth and plant regeneration (via organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis), while 10 to 50 Gy enhanced secondary metabolite biosynthesis both in callus and cell suspension culture. Semnificative increase of secondary metabolite production was obtained when treatments with EMS (0.1-0.2%) have been applied to young regenerants. Many differences in biological features and biochemical behaviour were registered 20 days and one year, respectively, after treatment. (author)

  7. Activity and immunohistochemical localization of porphobilinogen deaminase in rat tissues

    Jørgensen, P E; Erlandsen, E J; Poulsen, Steen Seier;

    2000-01-01

    the activity and the immunohistochemical localization of PBGD in the following tissues of wistar female rats: brain, heart, submandibular gland, liver, kidney, pancreas, ovary, stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon and musculature. The PBGD activity varied considerably among the tissues. It was highest...... in the intestine. Especially, the immunohistochemical reaction in nerve cells is notable considering the nervous dysfunction in AIP....

  8. Emergent cell and tissue dynamics from subcellular modeling of active biomechanical processes

    Cells and the tissues they form are not passive material bodies. Cells change their behavior in response to external biochemical and biomechanical cues. Behavioral changes, such as morphological deformation, proliferation and migration, are striking in many multicellular processes such as morphogenesis, wound healing and cancer progression. Cell-based modeling of these phenomena requires algorithms that can capture active cell behavior and their emergent tissue-level phenotypes. In this paper, we report on extensions of the subcellular element model to model active biomechanical subcellular processes. These processes lead to emergent cell and tissue level phenotypes at larger scales, including (i) adaptive shape deformations in cells responding to slow stretching, (ii) viscous flow of embryonic tissues, and (iii) streaming patterns of chemotactic cells in epithelial-like sheets. In each case, we connect our simulation results to recent experiments

  9. Hyaluronidase activity in gynaecological cancer tissues with different metastatic forms.

    Tamakoshi, K.; Kikkawa, F; Maeda, O; Suganuma, N; Yamagata, S.; T. Yamagata; Tomoda, Y

    1997-01-01

    We investigated hyaluronidase activity in gynaecological normal and malignant tissues. Hyaluronidase activity in culture medium of tissue specimens was detected by hyaluronic acid zymography and quantified by densitometry. Hyaluronidase activity was shown as one dominant band (molecular weight 65 kDa) at pH 3.5. Hyaluronidase activity was significantly higher in normal ovary (P < 0.05) and normal endometrium (P< 0.05) than in normal cervix. One dominant 65-kDa hyaluronidase was expressed in 1...

  10. Effects of tacrolimus on morphology, proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells derived from gingiva tissue

    HA, DONG-HO; YONG, CHUL SOON; KIM, JONG OH; JEONG, JEE-HEON; PARK, JUN-BEOM

    2016-01-01

    Tacrolimus is a 23-membered macrolide lactone with potent immunosuppressive activity that is effective in the prophylaxis of organ rejection following kidney, heart and liver transplantation. Tacrolimus also exerts a variety of actions on bone metabolism. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of different concentrations of tacrolimus on the morphology and viability of human stem cells derived from the gingiva. Gingival-derived stem cells were grown in the presence of tacrolimus at final concentrations ranging from 0.001 to 100 µg/ml. The morphology of the cells was viewed under an inverted microscope and the cell viability was analyzed using Cell Counting kit-8 (CCK-8) on days 1, 3, 5 and 7. Alizarin Red S staining was used to assess mineralization of treated cells. The control group showed spindle-shaped, fibroblast-like morphology and the shapes of the cells in 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1 and 10 µg/ml tacrolimus were similar to those of the control group. All groups except the 100 µg/ml group showed increased cell proliferation over time. Cultures grown in the presence of tacrolimus at 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1 and 10 µg/ml were not identified to be significantly different compared with the control at days 1, 3 and 5 using the CCK-8 assays. Increased mineralized deposits were noted with increased incubation time. Treatment with tacrolimus from 0.001 to 1 µg/ml led to an increase in mineralization compared with the control group. Within the limits of this study, tacrolimus at the tested concentrations (ranging from 0.001 to 10 µg/ml) did not result in differences in the viability of stem cells derived from gingiva; however it did enhance osteogenic differentiation of the stem cells. PMID:27177273

  11. The effects of 30 days resveratrol supplementation on adipose tissue morphology and gene expression patterns in obese men

    Konings, E.; Timmers, S.; Boekschoten, M.V.; Goossens, G.H.; Jocken, J.W.; Afman, L.A.; Müller, M.R.; Schrauwen, P.; Mariman, E.C.; Blaak, E.E.

    2014-01-01

    Polyphenolic compounds, such as resveratrol, have recently received widespread interest because of their ability to mimic effects of calorie restriction. The objective of the present study was to gain more insight into the effects of 30 days resveratrol supplementation on adipose tissue morphology a

  12. Morphological study of dynamic culture of thermosensitive collagen hydrogel in constructing tissue engineering complex.

    Huang, Lanfeng; Xu, Feixiang; Guo, Bin; Ma, Jianchao; Zhao, Jinsong

    2016-07-01

    ABSTACT The purpose of this study is to research the morphologies and functional characteristics of the cell-scaffold complex in vitro constructed under dynamic culture conditions. BMSCs were isolated from the long bones of Fischer344 rats, and performed in vitro amplification to the third generation as seed cells, together with thermosensitive collagen hydrogel (TCH) as cell adhesion matrix, and poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) as scaffold, to construct cell-scaffold complex. The cell-scaffold complexes in the experiment group and the control group were then performed dynamic culture and static culture. After 7 d of in vitro culture, the complexes in the 2 groups were performed gross observation and SEM; meanwhile, the total DNA content in the complex was detected on D0,1,3, and 7 of culture. After cultured using these 2 ways, collagen could both wrap the PLLA scaffold, forming dense film-like structures on the PLLA surface. The total DNA contents in the cell-scaffold complex of the experiment group on D1,3, and 7 were significantly higher than the control group (P constructed complex extracellular matrix had good biocompatibility, and dynamic culture could promote the distribution of BMSCs on the surface and inside the structure, thus promoting cell proliferation, so it could be used for the in vitro construction of tissue engineering complex. PMID:27459597

  13. Imaging the morphological change of tissue structure during the early phase of esophageal tumor progression using multiphoton microscopy

    Xu, Jian; Kang, Deyong; Xu, Meifang; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Chen, Jianxin

    2012-12-01

    Esophageal cancer is a common malignancy with a very poor prognosis. Successful strategies for primary prevention and early detection are critically needed to control this disease. Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) is becoming a novel optical tool of choice for imaging tissue architecture and cellular morphology by two-photon excited fluorescence. In this study, we used MPM to image microstructure of human normal esophagus, carcinoma in situ (CIS), and early invasive carcinoma in order to establish the morphological features to differentiate these tissues. The diagnostic features such as the appearance of cancerous cells, the significant loss of stroma, the absence of the basement membrane were extracted to distinguish between normal and cancerous esophagus tissue. These results correlated well with the paired histological findings. With the advancement of clinically miniaturized MPM and the multi-photon probe, combining MPM with standard endoscopy will therefore allow us to make a real-time in vivo diagnosis of early esophageal cancer at the cellular level.

  14. The Influence of Tissue Procurement Procedures on RNA Integrity, Gene Expression, and Morphology in Porcine and Human Liver Tissue

    Kap, M.; Sieuwerts, A.M.; Kubista, Mikael; Oomen, M.; Arshad, S.; Riegman, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 3 (2015), s. 200-206. ISSN 1947-5535 Institutional support: RVO:86652036 Keywords : WARM ISCHEMIA * SPECIMENS * FROZEN TISSUE * PURPOSE Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.340, year: 2014

  15. The Impact of Tissue Fixatives on Morphology and Antibody-based Protein Profiling in Tissues and Cells

    Paavilainen, Linda; Edvinsson, Åsa; Asplund, Anna; Hober, Sophia; Kampf, Caroline; Pontén, Fredrik; Wester, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Pathology archives harbor large amounts of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples, used mainly in clinical diagnostics but also for research purposes. Introduction of heat-induced antigen retrieval has enabled the use of tissue samples for extensive immunohistochemical analysis, despite the fact that antigen retrieval may not recover all epitopes, owing to alterations of the native protein structure induced by formalin. The aim of this study was to investigate how different fixative...

  16. Prolidase Enzyme Activity in Conjunctiva and Pterygium Tissues

    Yıldırım, Yıldıray; Kaya, Abdullah; Kar, Taner; Muftuoglu, Tuba; Ayata, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to determine prolidase activity in conjunctival tissue and its relationship with pterygium. Material/Methods Prolidase activity was measured in 23 pterygium and 25 healthy conjunctival tissues and the 2 groups were compared. Results Prolidase enzyme activity could not be measured in either the healthy conjunctival or in pterygium tissues. The mean serum prolidase levels of the control and pterygium groups were 967.46±353.64 and 858.29±301.83, respectively....

  17. Morphological analysis on adhesion and invasion involved in endometriosis with tissue culture

    SHI Jing-hua; YANG Yan-jun; DONG Zhe; LANG Jing-he; LENG Jin-hua

    2011-01-01

    Background Endometriosis (EM) is a benign gynecologic disease predominantly found in women of reproductive age.However, its pathogenesis is still poorly understood. Our experiment was designed to establish a stable and reliable cultural environment for coculture of endometrium and peritoneum, so as to observe the adhesion/invasion ability of endometrium from patients with or without EM.Methods Endometria of secretory phase and peritoneum were sampled from 6 women with endometriois during laparoscopy. Six with ovarian teratoma or simple ovarian cyst were taken as control. We cocultured endometrium and peritoneum into four groups (endometrium from EM cultured with peritoneum from EM, endometrium from control cultured with peritoneum from control, endometrium from EM cultured with peritoneum from non-EM and the endometrium from control cultured with peritoneum from EM) to observe the adhesion/invasion process in gas-liquid surface culture and in-medium culture. Specimens were collected at 1 hour, 6 hours, 12 hours, 24 hours, 2 days, 3 days,4 days, 5 days, 6 days and 7 days for histology, immunofluorescence and immunohistochemical analysis on cytokeratin 8(CK8) and CD10.Results The gas-liquid surface culture was superior to in-medium culture for the maintenance of tissue morphology and survival of endometrium. CK8 immunoflurescence demonstrated no remarkable difference in adhesion process between patients with and without EM. CD10 immunochemistry manifested frequent invasion of endometrial stromal cells from EM patients into peritoneum of up to 3 days culture, while the endometriotic cells from non-EM patients did not invade into peritoneum.Conclusions Gas-liquid surface culture is a suitable model for observing the early events in EM lesion formation.Endometrium from patients with EM showed increased invasion capacity during coculture, which might help to explain the etiology of endometriosis.

  18. Morphological changes of adrenal gland and heart tissue after varying duration of noise exposure in adult rat

    Noura Gannouni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise was considered an environmental stressor causing a wide range of health effects such as acoustic, cardiovascular, nervous, and endocrine systems. The present study was performed to examine the effects of a repeated noise exposure on adrenal gland and heart tissue. The results showed that exposure to moderate intensity sound (70 dB[A] causes time-dependent changes in the morphological structure of the adrenal cortex that involve disarrangement of cells and modification in thickness of the different layers of the adrenal gland. The experiment revealed important changes depending on exposure duration in the morphological structure of heart tissue that causes irreversible cell damage leading to cell death or necrosis.

  19. Genetic randomization reveals functional relationships among morphologic and tissue-quality traits that contribute to bone strength and fragility

    Jepsen, Karl J; Hu, Bin; Tommasini, Steven M.; Courtland, Hayden-William; Price, Christopher; Terranova, Carl J.; Nadeau, Joseph H.

    2007-01-01

    We examined femora from adult AXB/BXA recombinant inbred (RI) mouse strains to identify skeletal traits that are functionally related and to determine how functional interactions among these traits contribute to genetic variability in whole-bone stiffness, strength, and toughness. Randomization of A/J and C57BL/6J genomic regions resulted in each adult male and female RI strain building mechanically functional femora by assembling unique sets of morphologic and tissue-quality traits. A correl...

  20. Control of tissue morphology by Fasciclin III-mediated intercellular adhesion.

    Wells, Richard E; Barry, Joseph D; Warrington, Samantha J; Cuhlmann, Simon; Evans, Paul; Huber, Wolfgang; Strutt, David; Zeidler, Martin P

    2013-09-01

    Morphogenesis is dependent on the orchestration of multiple developmental processes to generate mature functional organs. However, the signalling pathways that coordinate morphogenesis and the mechanisms that translate these signals into tissue shape changes are not well understood. Here, we demonstrate that changes in intercellular adhesion mediated by the transmembrane protein Fasciclin III (FasIII) represent a key mediator of morphogenesis. Using the embryonic Drosophila hindgut as an in vivo model for organogenesis, we show that the tightening of hindgut curvature that normally occurs between embryonic stage 12 and 15 to generate the characteristic shepherd's crook shape is dependent on localised JAK/STAT pathway activation. This localised pathway activity drives the expression of FasIII leading to its subcellular lateralisation at a stage before formation of septate junctions. Additionally, we show that JAK/STAT- and FasIII-dependent morphogenesis also regulates folds within the third instar wing imaginal disc. We show that FasIII forms homophilic intercellular interactions that promote intercellular adhesion in vivo and in cultured cells. To explore these findings, we have developed a mathematical model of the developing hindgut, based on the differential interfacial tension hypothesis (DITH) linking intercellular adhesion and localised surface tension. Our model suggests that increased intercellular adhesion provided by FasIII can be sufficient to drive the tightening of tube curvature observed. Taken together, these results identify a conserved molecular mechanism that directly links JAK/STAT pathway signalling to intercellular adhesion and that sculpts both tubular and planar epithelial shape. PMID:23946443

  1. Long-Term Morphological and Microarchitectural Stability of Tissue-Engineered, Patient-Specific Auricles In Vivo.

    Cohen, Benjamin Peter; Hooper, Rachel C; Puetzer, Jennifer L; Nordberg, Rachel; Asanbe, Ope; Hernandez, Karina A; Spector, Jason A; Bonassar, Lawrence J

    2016-03-01

    Current techniques for autologous auricular reconstruction produce substandard ear morphologies with high levels of donor-site morbidity, whereas alloplastic implants demonstrate poor biocompatibility. Tissue engineering, in combination with noninvasive digital photogrammetry and computer-assisted design/computer-aided manufacturing technology, offers an alternative method of auricular reconstruction. Using this method, patient-specific ears composed of collagen scaffolds and auricular chondrocytes have generated auricular cartilage with great fidelity following 3 months of subcutaneous implantation, however, this short time frame may not portend long-term tissue stability. We hypothesized that constructs developed using this technique would undergo continued auricular cartilage maturation without degradation during long-term (6 month) implantation. Full-sized, juvenile human ear constructs were injection molded from high-density collagen hydrogels encapsulating juvenile bovine auricular chondrocytes and implanted subcutaneously on the backs of nude rats for 6 months. Upon explantation, constructs retained overall patient morphology and displayed no evidence of tissue necrosis. Limited contraction occurred in vivo, however, no significant change in size was observed beyond 1 month. Constructs at 6 months showed distinct auricular cartilage microstructure, featuring a self-assembled perichondrial layer, a proteoglycan-rich bulk, and rounded cellular lacunae. Verhoeff's staining also revealed a developing elastin network comparable to native tissue. Biochemical measurements for DNA, glycosaminoglycan, and hydroxyproline content and mechanical properties of aggregate modulus and hydraulic permeability showed engineered tissue to be similar to native cartilage at 6 months. Patient-specific auricular constructs demonstrated long-term stability and increased cartilage tissue development during extended implantation, and offer a potential tissue-engineered solution for

  2. Up-Regulation of Mitochondrial Activity and Acquirement of Brown Adipose Tissue-Like Property in the White Adipose Tissue of Fsp27 Deficient Mice

    Toh, Shen Yon; Gong, Jingyi; Du, Guoli; Li, John Zhong; Yang, Shuqun; Ye, Jing; Yao, Huilan; Zhang, Yinxin; Xue, Bofu; Li, Qing; Yang, Hongyuan; Wen, Zilong; Li, Peng

    2008-01-01

    Fsp27, a member of the Cide family proteins, was shown to localize to lipid droplet and promote lipid storage in adipocytes. We aimed to understand the biological role of Fsp27 in regulating adipose tissue differentiation, insulin sensitivity and energy balance. Fsp27 −/− mice and Fsp27/lep double deficient mice were generated and we examined the adiposity, whole body metabolism, BAT and WAT morphology, insulin sensitivity, mitochondrial activity, and gene expression changes in these mouse st...

  3. Up-Regulation of Mitochondrial Activity and Acquirement of Brown Adipose Tissue-Like Property in the White Adipose Tissue of Fsp27 Deficient Mice

    Shen Yon Toh; Jingyi Gong; Guoli Du; John Zhong Li; Shuqun Yang; Jing Ye; Huilan Yao; Yinxin Zhang; Bofu Xue; Qing Li; Hongyuan Yang; Zilong Wen; Peng Li

    2008-01-01

    Fsp27, a member of the Cide family proteins, was shown to localize to lipid droplet and promote lipid storage in adipocytes. We aimed to understand the biological role of Fsp27 in regulating adipose tissue differentiation, insulin sensitivity and energy balance. Fsp27(-/-) mice and Fsp27/lep double deficient mice were generated and we examined the adiposity, whole body metabolism, BAT and WAT morphology, insulin sensitivity, mitochondrial activity, and gene expression changes in these mouse s...

  4. Quantitative methylation profiling in tumor and matched morphologically normal tissues from breast cancer patients

    In the present study, we determined the gene hypermethylation profiles of normal tissues adjacent to invasive breast carcinomas and investigated whether these are associated with the gene hypermethylation profiles of the corresponding primary breast tumors. A quantitative methylation-specific PCR assay was used to analyze the DNA methylation status of 6 genes (DAPK, TWIST, HIN-1, RASSF1A, RARβ2 and APC) in 9 normal breast tissue samples from unaffected women and in 56 paired cancerous and normal tissue samples from breast cancer patients. Normal tissue adjacent to breast cancer displayed statistically significant differences to unrelated normal breast tissues regarding the aberrant methylation of the RASSF1A (P = 0.03), RARβ2 (P = 0.04) and APC (P = 0.04) genes. Although methylation ratios for all genes in normal tissues from cancer patients were significantly lower than in the cancerous tissue from the same patient (P ≤ 0.01), in general, a clear correlation was observed between methylation ratios measured in both tissue types for all genes tested (P < 0.01). When analyzed as a categorical variable, there was a significant concordance between methylation changes in normal tissues and in the corresponding tumor for all genes tested but RASSF1A. Notably, in 73% of patients, at least one gene with an identical methylation change in cancerous and normal breast tissues was observed. Histologically normal breast tissues adjacent to breast tumors frequently exhibit methylation changes in multiple genes. These methylation changes may play a role in the earliest stages of the development of breast neoplasia

  5. [Focal morphological changes in the bone tissue of the mandible and tibia of rabbits under the influence of different metal inclusions].

    Izabakarov, Ia I

    1999-01-01

    Morphological changes in bone tissue were studied in an experimental model with electrochemical polarization of the bone, which was achieved by applying electrodes (anode made of silver-palladium alloy SPS-250 and cathode of copper-aluminum alloy manufactured as orthodontic ligature wire) on the mandibular periosteum and tibial bone of rabbits. Macroscopic changes were as follows: osseous tissue hypertrophy at the zone of cathode polarization with a corresponding increase in the area of transverse section of the mandible and atrophy of the bone under the anode, all this causing pronounced asymmetry of the jaw bones. Microscopic changes in the bone were adequate to the macroscopic and characterized by sharp activation of its apposition (under cathode) and resorption (under anode). PMID:10590695

  6. Tissue uptake of docetaxel loaded hydrophobically derivatized hyperbranched polyglycerols and their effects on the morphology of the bladder urothelium.

    Mugabe, Clement; Raven, Peter A; Fazli, Ladan; Baker, Jennifer H E; Jackson, John K; Liggins, Richard T; So, Alan I; Gleave, Martin E; Minchinton, Andrew I; Brooks, Donald E; Burt, Helen M

    2012-01-01

    Recently, we have reported that docetaxel (DTX) loaded, amine terminated hyperbranched polyglycerol (HPG-C(8/10)-MePEG-NH(2)) nanoparticles significantly increased drug uptake in mouse bladder tissues and was the most effective formulation to significantly inhibit tumor growth in an orthotopic model of bladder cancer. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of HPG-C(8/10)-MePEG-NH(2) nanoparticles on bladder urothelial morphology and integrity, DTX uptake and permeability in bladder tissue and the extent of bladder urothelial recovery following exposure to, and then washout of, HPG-C(8/10)-MePEG-NH(2) nanoparticles. HPG-C(8/10)-MePEG-NH(2) nanoparticles significantly increased the uptake of DTX in both isolated pig bladder as well as in live mouse bladder tissues. Furthermore, HPG-C(8/10)-MePEG-NH(2) nanoparticles were demonstrated to increase the permeability of the urinary bladder wall by causing changes to the urothelial barrier function and morphology through opening of tight junctions and exfoliation of the superficial umbrella cells. These data suggest that exfoliation may be triggered by an apoptosis mechanism, which was followed by a rapid recovery of the urothelium within 24 h post-instillation of HPG-C(8/10)-MePEG-NH(2) nanoparticles. HPG-C(8/10)-MePEG-NH(2) nanoparticles cause significant but rapidly recoverable changes in the bladder urothelial morphology, which we believe may make them suitable for increasing drug permeability of bladder tissue and intravesical drug delivery. PMID:22014457

  7. Tissue type plasminogen activator regulates myeloid-cell dependent neoangiogenesis during tissue regeneration

    Ohki, Makiko; Ohki, Yuichi; Ishihara, Makoto;

    2010-01-01

    Ischemia of the heart, brain, and limbs is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Treatment with tissue type plasminogen activator (tPA) can dissolve blood clots and can ameliorate the clinical outcome in ischemic diseases. But the underlying mechanism by which tPA improves ischemi...

  8. Polyurethane/fluor-hydroxyapatite nanocomposite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Part I: morphological, physical, and mechanical characterization.

    Asefnejad, Azadeh; Behnamghader, Aliasghar; Khorasani, Mohammad Taghi; Farsadzadeh, Babak

    2011-01-01

    In this study, new nano-fluor-hydroxyapatite (nFHA)/polyurethane composite scaffolds were fabricated for potential use in bone tissue engineering. Polyester urethane samples were synthesized from polycaprolactone, hexamethylene diisocyanate, and 1,4-butanediol as chain extender. Nano fluor-hydroxyapatite (nFHA) was successfully synthesized by sol-gel method. The solid-liquid phase separation and solvent sublimation methods were used for preparation of the porous composites. Mechanical properties, chemical structure, and morphological characteristics of the samples were investigated by compressive test, Fourier transform infrared, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques, respectively. The effect of nFHA powder content on porosity and pore morphology was investigated. SEM images demonstrated that the scaffolds were constituted of interconnected and homogeneously distributed pores. The pore size of the scaffolds was in the range 50-250 μm. The result obtained in this research revealed that the porosity and pore average size decreased and compressive modulus increased with nFHA percentage. Considering morphological, physical, and mechanical properties, the scaffold with a higher ratio of nFHA has suitable potential use in tissue regeneration. PMID:21289986

  9. Polyurethane/fluor-hydroxyapatite nanocomposite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Part I: morphological, physical, and mechanical characterization

    Azadeh Asefnejad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Azadeh Asefnejad1, Aliasghar Behnamghader2, Mohammad Taghi Khorasani3, Babak Farsadzadeh11Department of Biomedical Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran; 2Materials and Energy Research Center, Tehran, Iran; 3Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, Tehran, IranAbstract: In this study, new nano-fluor-hydroxyapatite (nFHA/polyurethane composite scaffolds were fabricated for potential use in bone tissue engineering. Polyester urethane samples were synthesized from polycaprolactone, hexamethylene diisocyanate, and 1,4-butanediol as chain extender. Nano fluor-hydroxyapatite (nFHA was successfully synthesized by sol-gel method. The solid–liquid phase separation and solvent sublimation methods were used for preparation of the porous composites. Mechanical properties, chemical structure, and morphological characteristics of the samples were investigated by compressive test, Fourier transform infrared, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM techniques, respectively. The effect of nFHA powder content on porosity and pore morphology was investigated. SEM images demonstrated that the scaffolds were constituted of interconnected and homogeneously distributed pores. The pore size of the scaffolds was in the range 50–250 µm. The result obtained in this research revealed that the porosity and pore average size decreased and compressive modulus increased with nFHA percentage. Considering morphological, physical, and mechanical properties, the scaffold with a higher ratio of nFHA has suitable potential use in tissue regeneration.Keywords: polyester urethane, composite, fluor-hydroxyapatite, scaffold

  10. Influence of dietary zinc and copper on digestive enzyme activity and intestinal morphology in weaned pigs.

    Hedemann, M S; Jensen, B B; Poulsen, H D

    2006-12-01

    The current study was conducted to investigate the effects of high dietary concentrations of Zn as zinc oxide and Cu as copper sulfate on the activity of digestive enzymes in the pancreas and the intestinal mucosa, intestinal morphology, and mucin histochemistry in pigs after weaning. Thirty-two pigs were weaned at 4 wk of age. The pigs were fed standard weaning diets supplemented with Zn (100 or 2,500 ppm) and Cu (0 or 175 ppm) in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments for a 14-d period. In pancreatic tissue, the activity of amylase, carboxypeptidase A, chymotrypsin, trypsin, and lipase increased (P pigs fed 2,500 ppm of Zn, whereas the activity of carboxypeptidase B and carboxylester hydrolase was unaffected. Copper had no effect on the activity of pancreatic enzymes. In small intestinal contents, the total activity of amylase and carboxypeptidase A was greater in pigs fed 100 ppm of Zn (P pigs fed 100 ppm of Zn than in pigs fed 2,500 ppm of Zn, but otherwise there were no clear effects of Zn and Cu supplementation on intestinal morphology. In the cranial small intestine, the activity of maltase (P pigs fed 100 ppm of Zn, even though there was a Zn x Cu interaction (P pigs fed 100 ppm of Zn, the activity of aminopeptidase N was greater in the caudal small intestine, but dietary Zn or Cu had no effect on aminopeptidase N in the cranial and middle small intestine. No effect of dietary Zn or Cu supplementation was found on carbohydrate histochemistry in the caudal small intestine, whereas high dietary Zn increased the area of neutral, acidic, and sulfomucins in the cecum (P < 0.01) and in the colon (P < 0.001). In summary, high dietary Zn increased the activity of several enzymes in the pancreatic tissue and increased the mucin staining area in the large intestine, whereas Cu had no clear effect on these variables. However, no definite answers were found as to how the growth promoting and diarrhea reducing effects of excess dietary Zn are exerted. PMID:17093223

  11. SEM evaluation of the morphological changes in hard dental tissues prepared by Er: YAG laser and rotary instruments

    Tomov Georgi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Effective ablation of dental hard tissues by means of the erbium:yttrium-aluminum garnet (Er: YAG laser has been reported recently, and its application to caries removal and cavity preparation has been expected. However, few studies have investigated the morphological changes in hard dental tissues after Er: YAG laser caries treatment. In the present study the morphological changes in hard dental tissues after Er: YAG laser caries ablation in vitro was compared with that of conventional mechanical treatment. Thirty extracted human teeth with caries were used. Ten tooth was treated with the Er: YAG laser, and the other was treated with a conventional steel and diamond burs. Laser treatment was performed by means of a non-contact irradiation modes with cooling water spray, with a new Er: YAG laser (LiteTouch. Conventional bur treatment was conducted by means of a low-speed micromotor and air turbine with water cooling. Scanning electron microscope (SEM observations were performed for each treatment. The Er: YAG laser ablated carious dentin effectively with minimal thermal damage to the surrounding intact dentin, and removed infected and softened carious dentin to the same degree as the burtreatment. In addition, a lower degree of vibration was noted with the Er: YAG laser treatment. The SEM examination revealed characteristic micro-irregularities of the lased dentin and enamel surfaces with potential benefits for adhesive restorations. Our results show that the Er: YAG laser is promising as a new technical modality for caries treatment

  12. Changes of Adipose Tissue Morphology and Composition during Late Pregnancy and Early Lactation in Dairy Cows.

    Ákos Kenéz

    Full Text Available Dairy cows mobilize large amounts of body fat during early lactation to overcome negative energy balance which typically arises in this period. As an adaptation process, adipose tissues of cows undergo extensive remodeling during late pregnancy and early lactation. The objective of the present study was to characterize this remodeling to get a better understanding of adaptation processes in adipose tissues, affected by changing metabolic conditions including lipid mobilization and refilling as a function of energy status. This was done by determining adipocyte size in histological sections of subcutaneous and retroperitoneal adipose tissue biopsy samples collected from German Holstein cows at 42 days prepartum, and 1, 21, and 100 days postpartum. Characterization of cell size changes was extended by the analysis of DNA, triacylglycerol, and protein content per gram tissue, and β-actin protein expression in the same samples. In both adipose tissue depots cell size was becoming smaller during the course of the study, suggesting a decrease in cellular triacylglycerol content. Results of DNA, triacylglycerol, and protein content, and β-actin protein expression could only partially explain the observed differences in cell size. The retroperitoneal adipose tissue exhibited a greater extent of time-related differences in cell size, DNA, and protein content, suggesting greater dynamics and metabolic flexibility for this abdominal depot compared to the investigated subcutaneous depot.

  13. One-step preservation of phosphoproteins and tissue morphology at room temperature for diagnostic and research specimens.

    Claudius Mueller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is an urgent need to measure phosphorylated cell signaling proteins in cancer tissue for the individualization of molecular targeted kinase inhibitor therapy. However, phosphoproteins fluctuate rapidly following tissue procurement. Snap-freezing preserves phosphoproteins, but is unavailable in most clinics and compromises diagnostic morphology. Formalin fixation preserves tissue histomorphology, but penetrates tissue slowly, and is unsuitable for stabilizing phosphoproteins. We originated and evaluated a novel one-step biomarker and histology preservative (BHP chemistry that stabilizes signaling protein phosphorylation and retains formalin-like tissue histomorphology with equivalent immunohistochemistry in a single paraffin block. RESULTS: Total protein yield extracted from BHP-fixed, routine paraffin-embedded mouse liver was 100% compared to snap-frozen tissue. The abundance of 14 phosphorylated proteins was found to be stable over extended fixation times in BHP fixed paraffin embedded human colon mucosa. Compared to matched snap-frozen tissue, 8 phosphoproteins were equally preserved in mouse liver, while AMPKβ1 Ser108 was slightly elevated after BHP fixation. More than 25 tissues from mouse, cat and human specimens were evaluated for preservation of histomorphology. Selected tissues were evaluated in a multi-site, independent pathology review. Tissue fixed with BHP showed equivalent preservation of cytoplasmic and membrane cytomorphology, with significantly better nuclear chromatin preservation by BHP compared to formalin. Immunohistochemical staining of 13 non-phosphorylated proteins, including estrogen receptor alpha, progesterone receptor, Ki-67 and Her2, was equal to or stronger in BHP compared to formalin. BHP demonstrated significantly improved immunohistochemical detection of phosphorylated proteins ERK Thr202/Tyr204, GSK3-α/β Ser21/Ser9, p38-MAPK Thr180/Tyr182, eIF4G Ser1108 and Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase Ser79

  14. The morphology, mechanical properties and ageing behavior of porous injection molded starch-based blends for tissue engineering scaffolding

    Neves, N. M.; Kouyumdzhiev, A.; Reis, R. L.

    2005-01-01

    One important parameter in the tissue engineering of hard tissues is the scaffold. A scaffold is a support in which cells are seeded and that should create the adequate environment for the cells to attach and proliferate. Furthermore the scaffold should allow the flow of an appropriate culture media, providing nutrients to the cells and simultaneously removing the metabolites resulting from the cells activity. One of the possibilities is to obtain solid foamed structures that will en...

  15. Use of Molecular and Morphological Markers as a Quality Control in Plant Tissue Culture

    Saifullah Khan; W. Spoor

    2001-01-01

    The concept of utilizing markers in plant breeding as an indirect method of selecting desirable recombinant genotypes is well established. Until relatively recently, the markers employed were morphological characters which are limited in number and often agronomically undesirable. As a means of increasing the number of markers, different strategies have been developed based on existing natural variation present in plant genomes. The significance of this variation is that a large number of gen...

  16. A role of active brown adipose tissue in cancer cachexia?

    Emiel Beijer; Janna Schoenmakers; Guy Vijgen; Fons Kessels; Anne-Marie Dingemans; Patrick Schrauwen; Miel Wouters; Wouter van Marken Lichtenbelt; Jaap Teule; Boudewijn Brans

    2012-01-01

    Until a few years ago, adult humans were not thought to have brown adipose tissue (BAT). Now, this is a rapidly evolving field of research with perspectives in metabolic syndromes such as obesity and new therapies targeting its bio-energetic pathways. White, brown and socalled brite adipose fat seem to be able to trans-differentiate into each other, emphasizing the dynamic nature of fat tissue for metabolism. Human and animal data in cancer cachexia to date provide some evidence for BAT activ...

  17. A role of active brown adipose tissue in cancer cachexia?

    Emiel Beijer

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Until a few years ago, adult humans were not thought to have brown adipose tissue (BAT. Now, this is a rapidly evolving field of research with perspectives in metabolic syndromes such as obesity and new therapies targeting its bio-energetic pathways. White, brown and socalled brite adipose fat seem to be able to trans-differentiate into each other, emphasizing the dynamic nature of fat tissue for metabolism. Human and animal data in cancer cachexia to date provide some evidence for BAT activation, but its quantitative impact on energy expenditure and weight loss is controversial. Prospective clinical studies can address the potential role of BAT in cancer cachexia using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography scanning, with careful consideration of co-factors such as diet, exposure to the cold, physical activity and body mass index, that all seem to act on BAT recruitment and activity.

  18. Evolution & Phylogenetic Analysis: Classroom Activities for Investigating Molecular & Morphological Concepts

    Franklin, Wilfred A.

    2010-01-01

    In a flexible multisession laboratory, students investigate concepts of phylogenetic analysis at both the molecular and the morphological level. Students finish by conducting their own analysis on a collection of skeletons representing the major phyla of vertebrates, a collection of primate skulls, or a collection of hominid skulls.

  19. Porosity, Mineralization, Tissue Type and Morphology Interactions at the Human Tibial Cortex

    Hampson, Naomi A.

    Prior research has shown a relationship between tibia robustness (ratio of cross-sectional area to bone length) and stress fracture risk, with less robust bones having a higher risk, which may indicate a compensatory increase in elastic modulus to increase bending strength. Previous studies of human tibiae have shown higher ash content in slender bones. In this study, the relationships between variations in volumetric porosity, ash content, tissue mineral density, secondary bone tissue, and cross sectional geometry, were investigated in order to better understand the tissue level adaptations that may occur in the establishment of cross-sectional properties. In this research, significant differences were found between porosity, ash content, and tissue type around the cortex between robust and slender bones, suggesting that there was a level of co-adaption occurring. Variation in porosity correlated with robustness, and explained large parts of the variation in tissue mineral density. The nonlinear relationship between porosity and ash content may support that slender bones compensate for poor geometry by increasing ash content through reduced remodeling, while robust individuals increase porosity to decrease mass, but only to a point. These results suggest that tissue level organization plays a compensatory role in the establishment of adult bone mass, and may contribute to differences in bone aging between different bone phenotypes. The results suggest that slender individuals have significantly less remodeled bone, however the proportion of remodeled bone was not uniform around the tibia. In the complex results of the study of 38% vs. 66% sites the distal site was subject to higher strains than the 66% site, indicating both local and global regulators may be affecting overall remodeling rates and need to be teased apart in future studies. This research has broad clinical implications on the diagnosis and treatment of fragility fractures. The relationships that

  20. How Orthography Modulates Morphological Priming: Subliminal Kanji Activation in Japanese

    Nakano, Yoko; Ikemoto, Yu; Jacob, Gunnar; Clahsen, Harald

    2016-01-01

    The current study investigates to what extent masked morphological priming is modulated by language-particular properties, specifically by its writing system. We present results from two masked priming experiments investigating the processing of complex Japanese words written in less common (moraic) scripts. In Experiment 1, participants performed lexical decisions on target verbs; these were preceded by primes which were either (i) a past-tense form of the same verb, (ii) a stem-related form with the epenthetic vowel -i, (iii) a semantically-related form, and (iv) a phonologically-related form. Significant priming effects were obtained for prime types (i), (ii), and (iii), but not for (iv). This pattern of results differs from previous findings on languages with alphabetic scripts, which found reliable masked priming effects for morphologically related prime/target pairs of type (i), but not for non-affixal and semantically-related primes of types (ii), and (iii). In Experiment 2, we measured priming effects for prime/target pairs which are neither morphologically, semantically, phonologically nor - as presented in their moraic scripts—orthographically related, but which—in their commonly written form—share the same kanji, which are logograms adopted from Chinese. The results showed a significant priming effect, with faster lexical-decision times for kanji-related prime/target pairs relative to unrelated ones. We conclude that affix-stripping is insufficient to account for masked morphological priming effects across languages, but that language-particular properties (in the case of Japanese, the writing system) affect the processing of (morphologically) complex words. PMID:27065895

  1. How Orthography Modulates Morphological Priming: Subliminal Kanji Activation in Japanese

    Yoko eNakano

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The current study investigates to what extent masked morphological priming is modulated by language-particular properties, specifically by its writing system. We present results from two masked priming experiments investigating the processing of complex Japanese words written in less common (moraic scripts. In Experiment 1, participants performed lexical decisions on target verbs; these were preceded by primes which were either (i a past-tense form of the same verb, (ii a stem-related form with the epenthetic vowel -i, (iii a semantically-related form, and (iv a phonologically-related form. Significant priming effects were obtained for prime types (i, (ii and (iii, but not for (iv. This pattern of results differs from previous findings on languages with alphabetic scripts, which found reliable masked priming effects for morphologically related prime/target pairs of type (i, but not for non-affixal and semantically-related primes of types (ii and (iii. In Experiment 2, we measured priming effects for prime/target pairs which are neither morphologically, semantically, phonologically nor - as presented in their moraic scripts – orthographically related, but which - in their commonly written form - share the same kanji, which are logograms adopted from Chinese. The results showed a significant priming effect, with faster lexical-decision times for kanji-related prime/target pairs relative to unrelated ones. We conclude that affix-stripping is insufficient to account for masked morphological priming effects across languages, but that language-particular properties (in the case of Japanese, the writing system affect the processing of (morphologically complex words.

  2. How Orthography Modulates Morphological Priming: Subliminal Kanji Activation in Japanese.

    Nakano, Yoko; Ikemoto, Yu; Jacob, Gunnar; Clahsen, Harald

    2016-01-01

    The current study investigates to what extent masked morphological priming is modulated by language-particular properties, specifically by its writing system. We present results from two masked priming experiments investigating the processing of complex Japanese words written in less common (moraic) scripts. In Experiment 1, participants performed lexical decisions on target verbs; these were preceded by primes which were either (i) a past-tense form of the same verb, (ii) a stem-related form with the epenthetic vowel -i, (iii) a semantically-related form, and (iv) a phonologically-related form. Significant priming effects were obtained for prime types (i), (ii), and (iii), but not for (iv). This pattern of results differs from previous findings on languages with alphabetic scripts, which found reliable masked priming effects for morphologically related prime/target pairs of type (i), but not for non-affixal and semantically-related primes of types (ii), and (iii). In Experiment 2, we measured priming effects for prime/target pairs which are neither morphologically, semantically, phonologically nor - as presented in their moraic scripts-orthographically related, but which-in their commonly written form-share the same kanji, which are logograms adopted from Chinese. The results showed a significant priming effect, with faster lexical-decision times for kanji-related prime/target pairs relative to unrelated ones. We conclude that affix-stripping is insufficient to account for masked morphological priming effects across languages, but that language-particular properties (in the case of Japanese, the writing system) affect the processing of (morphologically) complex words. PMID:27065895

  3. Effects of FGF-2 on human adipose tissue derived adult stem cells morphology and chondrogenesis enhancement in Transwell culture

    Highlights: ► We investigated effects of FGF-2 on hADSCs. ► We examine changes in the level of gene expressions of SOX-9, aggrecan and collagen type II and type X. ► FGF-2 induces chondrogenesis in hADSCs, which •Increasing information will decrease quality if hospital costs are very different. ► The result of this study may be beneficial in cartilage tissue engineering. -- Abstract: Injured cartilage is difficult to repair due to its poor vascularisation. Cell based therapies may serve as tools to more effectively regenerate defective cartilage. Both adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and human adipose derived stem cells (hADSCs) are regarded as potential stem cell sources able to generate functional cartilage for cell transplantation. Growth factors, in particular the TGF-b superfamily, influence many processes during cartilage formation, including cell proliferation, extracellular matrix synthesis, maintenance of the differentiated phenotype, and induction of MSCs towards chondrogenesis. In the current study, we investigated the effects of FGF-2 on hADSC morphology and chondrogenesis in Transwell culture. hADSCs were obtained from patients undergoing elective surgery, and then cultured in expansion medium alone or in the presence of FGF-2 (10 ng/ml). mRNA expression levels of SOX-9, aggrecan and collagen type II and type X were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The morphology, doubling time, trypsinization time and chondrogenesis of hADSCs were also studied. Expression levels of SOX-9, collagen type II, and aggrecan were all significantly increased in hADSCs expanded in presence of FGF-2. Furthermore FGF-2 induced a slender morphology, whereas doubling time and trypsinization time decreased. Our results suggest that FGF-2 induces hADSCs chondrogenesis in Transwell culture, which may be beneficial in cartilage tissue engineering.

  4. Effects of FGF-2 on human adipose tissue derived adult stem cells morphology and chondrogenesis enhancement in Transwell culture

    Kabiri, Azadeh, E-mail: z_kabiri@resident.mui.ac.ir [Department of Anatomical Sciences and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Esfandiari, Ebrahim, E-mail: esfandiari@med.mui.ac.ir [Department of Anatomical Sciences and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hashemibeni, Batool, E-mail: hashemibeni@med.mui.ac.ir [Department of Anatomical Sciences and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kazemi, Mohammad, E-mail: m_kazemi@med.mui.ac.i [Department of Anatomical Sciences and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mardani, Mohammad, E-mail: mardani@med.mui.ac.ir [Department of Anatomical Sciences and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Esmaeili, Abolghasem, E-mail: abesmaeili@yahoo.com [Cell, Molecular and Developmental Biology Division, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Isfahan, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-07-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated effects of FGF-2 on hADSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine changes in the level of gene expressions of SOX-9, aggrecan and collagen type II and type X. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FGF-2 induces chondrogenesis in hADSCs, which Bullet Increasing information will decrease quality if hospital costs are very different. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The result of this study may be beneficial in cartilage tissue engineering. -- Abstract: Injured cartilage is difficult to repair due to its poor vascularisation. Cell based therapies may serve as tools to more effectively regenerate defective cartilage. Both adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and human adipose derived stem cells (hADSCs) are regarded as potential stem cell sources able to generate functional cartilage for cell transplantation. Growth factors, in particular the TGF-b superfamily, influence many processes during cartilage formation, including cell proliferation, extracellular matrix synthesis, maintenance of the differentiated phenotype, and induction of MSCs towards chondrogenesis. In the current study, we investigated the effects of FGF-2 on hADSC morphology and chondrogenesis in Transwell culture. hADSCs were obtained from patients undergoing elective surgery, and then cultured in expansion medium alone or in the presence of FGF-2 (10 ng/ml). mRNA expression levels of SOX-9, aggrecan and collagen type II and type X were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The morphology, doubling time, trypsinization time and chondrogenesis of hADSCs were also studied. Expression levels of SOX-9, collagen type II, and aggrecan were all significantly increased in hADSCs expanded in presence of FGF-2. Furthermore FGF-2 induced a slender morphology, whereas doubling time and trypsinization time decreased. Our results suggest that FGF-2 induces hADSCs chondrogenesis in Transwell culture, which may be beneficial in cartilage tissue engineering.

  5. Characterising human atherosclerotic carotid plaque tissue composition and morphology using combined spectroscopic and imaging modalities.

    Barrett, Hilary E; Mulvihill, John J; Cunnane, Eoghan M; Walsh, Michael T

    2015-01-01

    Calcification is a marked pathological component in carotid artery plaque. Studies have suggested that calcification may induce regions of high stress concentrations therefore increasing the potential for rupture. However, the mechanical behaviour of the plaque under the influence of calcification is not fully understood. A method of accurately characterising the calcification coupled with the associated mechanical plaque properties is needed to better understand the impact of calcification on the mechanical behaviour of the plaque during minimally invasive treatments. This study proposes a comparison of biochemical and structural characterisation methods of the calcification in carotid plaque specimens to identify plaque mechanical behaviour. Biochemical analysis, by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, was used to identify the key components, including calcification, in each plaque sample. However, FTIR has a finite penetration depth which may limit the accuracy of the calcification measurement. Therefore, this FTIR analysis was coupled with the identification of the calcification inclusions located internally in the plaque specimen using micro x-ray computed tomography (μX-CT) which measures the calcification volume fraction (CVF) to total tissue content. The tissue characterisation processes were then applied to the mechanical material plaque properties acquired from experimental circumferential loading of human carotid plaque specimen for comparison of the methods. FTIR characterised the degree of plaque progression by identifying the functional groups associated with lipid, collagen and calcification in each specimen. This identified a negative relationship between stiffness and 'lipid to collagen' and 'calcification to collagen' ratios. However, μX-CT results suggest that CVF measurements relate to overall mechanical stiffness, while peak circumferential strength values may be dependent on specific calcification geometries. This study

  6. Activation of factor VII bound to tissue factor: A key early step in the tissue factor pathway of blood coagulation

    Whether the factor VII/tissue factor complex that forms in tissue factor-dependent blood coagulation must be activated to factor VIIa/tissue factor before it can activate its substrates, factor X and IX, has been a difficult question to answer because the substrates, once activated, back-activate factor VII. The earlier studies suggested that human factor VII/tissue factor cannot activate factor IX. Studies have now been extended to the activation of factor X. Reaction mixtures were made with purified factor VII, X, and tissue factor; in some experiments antithrombin III and heparin were added to prevent back-activation of factor VII. Factor X was activated at similar rates in reaction mixtures containing either VII or factor VIIa after an initial 30-sec lag with factor VII. In reaction mixtures with factor VII a linear activation of factor X was established several minutes before cleavage of 125I-labeled factor VII to the two-chain activated molecule was demonstrable on gel profiles. These data suggest that factor VII/tissue factor cannot activate measurable amounts of factor X over several minutes. Overall, the results support the hypothesis that a rapid preferential activation of factor VII bound to tissue factor by trace amounts of factor Xa is a key early step in tissue factor-dependent blood coagulation

  7. Morphological Characterisation of Unstained and Intact Tissue Micro-architecture by X-ray Computed Micro- and Nano-Tomography

    Walton, Lucy A.; Bradley, Robert S.; Withers, Philip J.; Newton, Victoria L.; Watson, Rachel E. B.; Austin, Clare; Sherratt, Michael J.

    2015-05-01

    Characterisation and quantification of tissue structures is limited by sectioning-induced artefacts and by the difficulties of visualising and segmenting 3D volumes. Here we demonstrate that, even in the absence of X-ray contrast agents, X-ray computed microtomography (microCT) and nanotomography (nanoCT) can circumvent these problems by rapidly resolving compositionally discrete 3D tissue regions (such as the collagen-rich adventitia and elastin-rich lamellae in intact rat arteries) which in turn can be segmented due to their different X-ray opacities and morphologies. We then establish, using X-ray tomograms of both unpressurised and pressurised arteries that intra-luminal pressure not only increases lumen cross-sectional area and straightens medial elastic lamellae but also induces profound remodelling of the adventitial layer. Finally we apply microCT to another human organ (skin) to visualise the cell-rich epidermis and extracellular matrix-rich dermis and to show that conventional histological and immunohistochemical staining protocols are compatible with prior X-ray exposure. As a consequence we suggest that microCT could be combined with optical microscopy to characterise the 3D structure and composition of archival paraffin embedded biological materials and of mechanically stressed dynamic tissues such as the heart, lungs and tendons.

  8. Shaping tissues by balancing active forces and geometric constraints

    The self-organization of cells into complex tissues during growth and regeneration is a combination of physical–mechanical events and biochemical signal processing. Cells actively generate forces at all stages in this process, and according to the laws of mechanics, these forces result in stress fields defined by the geometric boundary conditions of the cell and tissue. The unique ability of cells to translate such force patterns into biochemical information and vice versa sets biological tissues apart from any other material. In this topical review, we summarize the current knowledge and open questions of how forces and geometry act together on scales from the single cell to tissues and organisms, and how their interaction determines biological shape and structure. Starting with a planar surface as the simplest type of geometric constraint, we review literature on how forces during cell spreading and adhesion together with geometric constraints impact cell shape, stress patterns, and the resulting biological response. We then move on to include cell–cell interactions and the role of forces in monolayers and in collective cell migration, and introduce curvature at the transition from flat cell sheets to three-dimensional (3D) tissues. Fibrous 3D environments, as cells experience them in the body, introduce new mechanical boundary conditions and change cell behaviour compared to flat surfaces. Starting from early work on force transmission and collagen remodelling, we discuss recent discoveries on the interaction with geometric constraints and the resulting structure formation and network organization in 3D. Recent literature on two physiological scenarios—embryonic development and bone—is reviewed to demonstrate the role of the force-geometry balance in living organisms. Furthermore, the role of mechanics in pathological scenarios such as cancer is discussed. We conclude by highlighting common physical principles guiding cell mechanics, tissue patterning

  9. Adipocyte insulin receptor activity maintains adipose tissue mass and lifespan.

    Friesen, Max; Hudak, Carolyn S; Warren, Curtis R; Xia, Fang; Cowan, Chad A

    2016-08-01

    Type 2 diabetes follows a well-defined progressive pathogenesis, beginning with insulin resistance in metabolic tissues such as the adipose. Intracellular signaling downstream of insulin receptor activation regulates critical metabolic functions of adipose tissue, including glucose uptake, lipogenesis, lipolysis and adipokine secretion. Previous studies have used the aP2 promoter to drive Cre recombinase expression in adipose tissue. Insulin receptor (IR) knockout mice created using this aP2-Cre strategy (FIRKO mice) were protected from obesity and glucose intolerance. Later studies demonstrated the promiscuity of the aP2 promoter, casting doubts upon the tissue specificity of aP2-Cre models. It is our goal to use the increased precision of the Adipoq promoter to investigate adipocyte-specific IR function. Towards this end we generated an adipocyte-specific IR knockout (AIRKO) mouse using an Adipoq-driven Cre recombinase. Here we report AIRKO mice are less insulin sensitive throughout life, and less glucose tolerant than wild-type (WT) littermates at the age of 16 weeks. In contrast to WT littermates, the insulin sensitivity of AIRKO mice is unaffected by age or dietary regimen. At any age, AIRKO mice are comparably insulin resistant to old or obese WT mice and have a significantly reduced lifespan. Similar results were obtained when these phenotypes were re-examined in FIRKO mice. We also found that the AIRKO mouse is protected from high-fat diet-induced weight gain, corresponding with a 90% reduction in tissue weight of major adipose depots compared to WT littermates. Adipose tissue mass reduction is accompanied by hepatomegaly and increased hepatic steatosis. These data indicate that adipocyte IR function is crucial to systemic energy metabolism and has profound effects on adiposity, hepatic homeostasis and lifespan. PMID:27246738

  10. Shaping tissues by balancing active forces and geometric constraints

    Foolen, Jasper; Yamashita, Tadahiro; Kollmannsberger, Philip

    2016-02-01

    The self-organization of cells into complex tissues during growth and regeneration is a combination of physical-mechanical events and biochemical signal processing. Cells actively generate forces at all stages in this process, and according to the laws of mechanics, these forces result in stress fields defined by the geometric boundary conditions of the cell and tissue. The unique ability of cells to translate such force patterns into biochemical information and vice versa sets biological tissues apart from any other material. In this topical review, we summarize the current knowledge and open questions of how forces and geometry act together on scales from the single cell to tissues and organisms, and how their interaction determines biological shape and structure. Starting with a planar surface as the simplest type of geometric constraint, we review literature on how forces during cell spreading and adhesion together with geometric constraints impact cell shape, stress patterns, and the resulting biological response. We then move on to include cell-cell interactions and the role of forces in monolayers and in collective cell migration, and introduce curvature at the transition from flat cell sheets to three-dimensional (3D) tissues. Fibrous 3D environments, as cells experience them in the body, introduce new mechanical boundary conditions and change cell behaviour compared to flat surfaces. Starting from early work on force transmission and collagen remodelling, we discuss recent discoveries on the interaction with geometric constraints and the resulting structure formation and network organization in 3D. Recent literature on two physiological scenarios—embryonic development and bone—is reviewed to demonstrate the role of the force-geometry balance in living organisms. Furthermore, the role of mechanics in pathological scenarios such as cancer is discussed. We conclude by highlighting common physical principles guiding cell mechanics, tissue patterning and

  11. Tankyrase Activity in Organs and Tissues of Mice.

    Kuimov, A N; Zhozhikashvili, A S; Manskikh, V N; Platonova, L V; Dyuzheva, T G

    2016-03-01

    Tankyrase, one of the NAD+ ADP-ribosyltransferases, is a target for drugs developed for their anticancer and other pharmacological activities. We designed an assay for estimation of the inhibition or activation of the enzyme in preclinical studies. In mice, the highest specific activity of tankyrase was observed in thymus, spleen, pancreas, and bone marrow. In murine liver, tankyrase is active in ontogenesis and during reparative regeneration; however, the basal activity is hardly detectable in normal liver and most of other organs of adult animals. We suggest that tankyrase is a part of the tissue growth and repair machinery, while its age-dependent inhibition, when an organism stops growing, turns on phenoptosis. PMID:27262195

  12. Locomotor activity influences muscle architecture and bone growth but not muscle attachment site morphology

    Rabey, Karyne N.; Green, David J; Taylor, Andrea B.; Begun, David R.; Richmond, Brian G.; McFarlin, Shannon C.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to make behavioural inferences from skeletal remains is critical to understanding the lifestyles and activities of past human populations and extinct animals. Muscle attachment site (enthesis) morphology has long been assumed to reflect muscle strength and activity during life, but little experimental evidence exists to directly link activity patterns with muscle development and the morphology of their attachments to the skeleton. We used a mouse model to experimentally test how t...

  13. 131I-activity in man's thyroid and 137Cs-activity in muscle tissue

    131I- and 137Cs-activities in milk and salad on one hand, and in thyroid - and muscle tissues of deceased persons on the other hand were determined in the days and weeks after the Chernobyl accident around Graz, Austria. The values listed in the tables are intended to investigate radionuclides migration from the food chain to human tissues. 4 tabs. (qui)

  14. The study of morphological changes of periodontal tissue by using different groups of endosealers in conditions of experiment

    Makedonova Yu.A.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the nature and duration of the violations of adaptive-compensatory reactions of the periodontium depending on the physico-chemical properties of endosealers is an important part of endodontic treatment. The aim is to reveal the conditions of the experiment peculiarities of morphological changes of periodontal tissue in direct contact with the main filling material for root canal. Material and methods. The traditional method of obturation by modern endosealers was used to seal the root canal of teeth of experimental animal. Results of the study demonstrated the bio-compatibility of new experimental material Real Seal. Conclusion. The data obtained justify a differentiated approach to the choice of the root filling material for teeth with a healthy periodontosis.

  15. Mechanisms of Hepatocyte Growth Factor Activation in Cancer Tissues

    Kawaguchi, Makiko; Kataoka, Hiroaki, E-mail: mejina@med.miyazaki-u.ac.jp [Section of Oncopathology and Regenerative Biology, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Miyazaki, 5200 Kihara, Kiyotake, Miyazaki 889-1692 (Japan)

    2014-09-29

    Hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF) plays critical roles in cancer progression through its specific receptor, MET. HGF/SF is usually synthesized and secreted as an inactive proform (pro-HGF/SF) by stromal cells, such as fibroblasts. Several serine proteases are reported to convert pro-HGF/SF to mature HGF/SF and among these, HGF activator (HGFA) and matriptase are the most potent activators. Increased activities of both proteases have been observed in various cancers. HGFA is synthesized mainly by the liver and secreted as an inactive pro-form. In cancer tissues, pro-HGFA is likely activated by thrombin and/or human kallikrein 1-related peptidase (KLK)-4 and KLK-5. Matriptase is a type II transmembrane serine protease that is expressed by most epithelial cells and is also synthesized as an inactive zymogen. Matriptase activation is likely to be mediated by autoactivation or by other trypsin-like proteases. Recent studies revealed that matriptase autoactivation is promoted by an acidic environment. Given the mildly acidic extracellular environment of solid tumors, matriptase activation may, thus, be accelerated in the tumor microenvironment. HGFA and matriptase activities are regulated by HGFA inhibitor (HAI)-1 (HAI-1) and/or HAI-2 in the pericellular microenvironment. HAIs may have an important role in cancer cell biology by regulating HGF/SF-activating proteases.

  16. Mechanisms of Hepatocyte Growth Factor Activation in Cancer Tissues

    Hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF) plays critical roles in cancer progression through its specific receptor, MET. HGF/SF is usually synthesized and secreted as an inactive proform (pro-HGF/SF) by stromal cells, such as fibroblasts. Several serine proteases are reported to convert pro-HGF/SF to mature HGF/SF and among these, HGF activator (HGFA) and matriptase are the most potent activators. Increased activities of both proteases have been observed in various cancers. HGFA is synthesized mainly by the liver and secreted as an inactive pro-form. In cancer tissues, pro-HGFA is likely activated by thrombin and/or human kallikrein 1-related peptidase (KLK)-4 and KLK-5. Matriptase is a type II transmembrane serine protease that is expressed by most epithelial cells and is also synthesized as an inactive zymogen. Matriptase activation is likely to be mediated by autoactivation or by other trypsin-like proteases. Recent studies revealed that matriptase autoactivation is promoted by an acidic environment. Given the mildly acidic extracellular environment of solid tumors, matriptase activation may, thus, be accelerated in the tumor microenvironment. HGFA and matriptase activities are regulated by HGFA inhibitor (HAI)-1 (HAI-1) and/or HAI-2 in the pericellular microenvironment. HAIs may have an important role in cancer cell biology by regulating HGF/SF-activating proteases

  17. Tissue plasminogen activator and urokinase plasminogen activator in human epileptogenic pathologies

    A.M. Iyer; E. Zurolo; K. Boer; J.C. Baayen; F. Giangaspero; A. Arcella; G.C. Di Gennaro; V. Esposito; W.G.M. Spliet; P.C. van Rijen; D. Troost; J.A. Gorter; E. Aronica

    2010-01-01

    A growing body of evidence demonstrates the involvement of plasminogen activators (PAs) in a number of physiologic and pathologic events in the CNS. Induction of both tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) has been observed in different experimental models of ep

  18. Synthesis of hierarchical anatase TiO 2 nanostructures with tunable morphology and enhanced photocatalytic activity

    Rahal, Raed

    2012-01-01

    A facile one-pot method to prepare three-dimensional hierarchical nanostructures of titania with good control over their morphologies without the use of hydrofluoric acid is developed. The reaction is performed under microwave irradiation conditions in pure water, and enables enhanced photocatalytic activity. This study indicates that photocatalytic activity depends not only on the surface area but also on the morphology of the titania. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  19. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in cardiac tissues.

    Page, C; Doubell, A F

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) has recently emerged as a prominent role player in intracellular signalling in the ventricular myocyte with attention being focussed on its possible role in the development of ventricular hypertrophy. It is becoming clear that MAPK is also active in other cells of cardiac origin such as cardiac fibroblasts and possible functions of this signalling pathway in the heart have yet to be explored. In this report the mammalian MAPK pathway is briefly outlined, before reviewing current knowledge of the MAPK pathway in cardiac tissue (ventricular myocytes, vascular smooth muscle cells and cardiac fibroblasts). New data is also presented on the presence and activity of MAPK in two additional cardiac celltypes namely atrial myocytes and vascular endothelial cells from the coronary microcirculation. PMID:8739228

  20. Influence of Different-Frequency Glucocorticoid Induction on Morphological Structures of Humeri, Soft Tissues and Immune System in Rats

    Jian-min LI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the influence of different-frequency glucocorticoid (GC induction on morphological structures of humeri and soft tissues as well as immune system in rats. Methods: A total of 32 specific pathogen-free (SPF SD rats at the age of 3 months were selected and randomly divided into 4 groups, 8 cases in each group. The rats in control group were not given any treatment, while those in low-, moderate- and high-frequency groups were treated with intramuscular injection of dexamethasone 1 mg/kg per time for twice, 4 times and 6 times per week, respectively. All the rats were sacrificed on d30 to measure their body mass and qualities of soft tissues and immune organs, and bone histomorphometry was applied to analyze humeral bone mass and bone structural changes.Results: Compared with control group, there was no change in cancellous bone mass and bone structures of upper humeri in low-frequency group, but serious loss of bone mass, significantly degenerated bone structure, markedly reduced trabecular thickness and number as well as notably increased trabecular separation was all observed in moderate- and high-frequency groups. The size of cortical bones, total size of bone structure, thickness of cortical bones and size percentage of cortical bones in middle humeri reduced apparently, while the size percentage of medullary cavity increased dramatically in high-frequency group. Growth plate thickness of upper humeri decreased in low-, moderate- and high-frequency groups, and the diameters of mastocytes diminished in moderate- and high-frequency groups. Compared with control group, body mass decreased obviously, qualities and indexes of spleen and thymus showed decreasing tendency along with the increase of drug administration frequency in low-, moderate- and high-frequency groups.Conclusion: Low-frequency GC cannot change humeral morphology. The higher the frequency of drug administration is, the more the loss of cancellous bone mass is

  1. Inlfuence of Different-Frequency Glucocorticoid Induction on Morphological Structures of Humeri, Soft Tissues and Immune System in Rats

    LI Jian-min; LI Heng

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To explore the influence of different-frequency glucocorticoid (GC) induction on morphological structures of humeri and soft tissues as well as immune system in rats. Methods: A total of 32 speciifc pathogen-free (SPF) SD rats at the age of 3 months were selected and randomly divided into 4 groups, 8 cases in each group. The rats in control group were not given any treatment, while those in low-, moderate- and high-frequency groups were treated with intramuscular injection of dexamethasone 1 mg/kg per time for twice, 4 times and 6 times per week, respectively. All the rats were sacriifced on d30 to measure their body mass and qualities of soft tissues and immune organs, and bone histomorphometry was applied to analyze humeral bone mass and bone structural changes. Results: Compared with control group, there was no change in cancellous bone mass and bone structures of upper humeri in low-frequency group, but serious loss of bone mass, signiifcantly degenerated bone structure, markedly reduced trabecular thickness and number as well as notably increased trabecular separation was all observed in moderate- and high-frequency groups. The size of cortical bones, total size of bone structure, thickness of cortical bones and size percentage of cortical bones in middle humeri reduced apparently, while the size percentage of medullary cavity increased dramatically in high-frequency group. Growth plate thickness of upper humeri decreased in low-, moderate- and high-frequency groups, and the diameters of mastocytes diminished in moderate- and high-frequency groups. Compared with control group, body mass decreased obviously, qualities and indexes of spleen and thymus showed decreasing tendency along with the increase of drug administration frequency in low-, moderate- and high-frequency groups. Conclusion: Low-frequency GC cannot change humeral morphology. The higher the frequency of drug administration is, the more the loss of cancellous bone mass is. When the

  2. A stereotaxic, population-averaged T1w ovine brain atlas including cerebral morphology and tissue volumes

    Björn eNitzsche

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Standard stereotaxic reference systems play a key role in human brain studies. Stereotaxic coordinate systems have also been developed for experimental animals including non-human primates, dogs and rodents. However, they are lacking for other species being relevant in experimental neuroscience including sheep. Here, we present a spatial, unbiased ovine brain template with tissue probability maps (TPM that offer a detailed stereotaxic reference frame for anatomical features and localization of brain areas, thereby enabling inter-individual and cross-study comparability. Three-dimensional data sets from healthy adult Merino sheep (Ovis orientalis aries, 12 ewes and 26 neutered rams were acquired on a 1.5T Philips MRI using a T1w sequence. Data were averaged by linear and non-linear registration algorithms. Moreover, animals were subjected to detailed brain volume analysis including examinations with respect to body weight, age and sex. The created T1w brain template provides an appropriate population-averaged ovine brain anatomy in a spatial standard coordinate system. Additionally, TPM for gray (GM and white (WM matter as well as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF classification enabled automatic prior-based tissue segmentation using statistical parametric mapping (SPM. Overall, a positive correlation of GM volume and body weight explained about 15% of the variance of GM while a positive correlation between WM and age was found. Absolute tissue volume differences were not detected, indeed ewes showed significantly more GM per bodyweight as compared to neutered rams. The created framework including spatial brain template and TPM represent a useful tool for unbiased automatic image preprocessing and morphological characterization in sheep. Therefore, the reported results may serve as a starting point for further experimental and/or translational research aiming at in vivo analysis in this species.

  3. Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator following paediatric cataract surgery

    Mehta, J; ADAMS, G

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—The use of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (r-TPA) has been advocated in the treatment of postsurgical fibrinous membrane formation following cataract surgery in adults. Its use in paediatric cases is not well documented.
METHOD—A retrospective review of paediatric cataract extractions performed at Moorfields Eye Hospital between 1 January 1997 and 4 April 1999 was carried out.
RESULTS—Cataract extractions were performed in 37 patients, 22 in males 15 in females. Four (9.2...

  4. Modulation of hepatocarcinoma cell morphology and activity by parylene-C coating on PDMS.

    Nazaré Pereira-Rodrigues

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The ability to understand and locally control the morphogenesis of mammalian cells is a fundamental objective of cell and developmental biology as well as tissue engineering research. We present parylene-C (ParC deposited on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS as a new substratum for in vitro advanced cell culture in the case of Human Hepatocarcinoma (HepG2 cells. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our findings establish that the intrinsic properties of ParC-coated PDMS (ParC/PDMS influence and modulate initial extracellular matrix (ECM; here, type-I collagen surface architecture, as compared to non-coated PDMS substratum. Morphological changes induced by the presence of ParC on PDMS were shown to directly affect liver cell metabolic activity and the expression of transmembrane receptors implicated in cell adhesion and cell-cell interaction. These changes were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM, which elucidated differences in HepG2 cell adhesion, spreading, and reorganization into two- or three-dimensional structures by neosynthesis of ECM components. Local modulation of cell aggregation was successfully performed using ParC/PDMS micropatterns constructed by simple microfabrication. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrated for the first time the modulation of HepG2 cells' behavior in relation to the intrinsic physical properties of PDMS and ParC, enabling the local modulation of cell spreading in a 2D or 3D manner by simple microfabrication techniques. This work will provide promising insights into the development of cell-based platforms that have many applications in the field of in vitro liver tissue engineering, pharmacology and therapeutics.

  5. The role of active brown adipose tissue in human metabolism

    Ozguven, Salih; Turoglu, H.T. [S.B. Marmara Universitesi Pendik Egitim ve Arastirma Hastanesi, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Istanbul (Turkey); Ones, Tunc [S.B. Marmara Universitesi Pendik Egitim ve Arastirma Hastanesi, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Istanbul (Turkey); Kozyatagi/Kadikoy, Istanbul (Turkey); Yilmaz, Yusuf; Imeryuz, Nese [S.B. Marmara Universitesi Pendik Egitim ve Arastirma Hastanesi, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2016-02-15

    The presence of activated brown adipose tissue (ABAT) has been associated with a reduced risk of obesity in adults. We aimed to investigate whether the presence of ABAT in patients undergoing {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT examinations was related to blood lipid profiles, liver function, and the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We retrospectively and prospectively analysed the {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT scans from 5,907 consecutive patients who were referred to the Nuclear Medicine Department of the Marmara University School of Medicine from outpatient oncology clinics between July 2008 and June 2014 for a variety of diagnostic reasons. Attenuation coefficients for the liver and spleen were determined for at least five different areas. Blood samples were obtained before PET/CT to assess the blood lipid profiles and liver function. A total of 25 of the 5,907 screened individuals fulfilling the inclusion criteria for the study demonstrated brown fat tissue uptake [ABAT(+) subjects]. After adjustment for potential confounders, 75 individuals without evidence of ABAT on PET [ABAT(-) subjects] were enrolled for comparison purposes. The ABAT(+) group had lower total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate transaminase levels (p < 0.01), whereas we found no significant differences in the serum triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels between the two groups. The prevalence of NAFLD was significantly lower in ABAT(+) than in ABAT(-) subjects (p < 0.01). Our study showed that the presence of ABAT in adults had a positive effect on their blood lipid profiles and liver function and was associated with reduced prevalence of NAFLD. Thus, our data suggest that activating brown adipose tissue may be a potential target for preventing and treating dyslipidaemia and NAFLD. (orig.)

  6. The role of active brown adipose tissue in human metabolism

    The presence of activated brown adipose tissue (ABAT) has been associated with a reduced risk of obesity in adults. We aimed to investigate whether the presence of ABAT in patients undergoing 18F-FDG PET/CT examinations was related to blood lipid profiles, liver function, and the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We retrospectively and prospectively analysed the 18F-FDG PET/CT scans from 5,907 consecutive patients who were referred to the Nuclear Medicine Department of the Marmara University School of Medicine from outpatient oncology clinics between July 2008 and June 2014 for a variety of diagnostic reasons. Attenuation coefficients for the liver and spleen were determined for at least five different areas. Blood samples were obtained before PET/CT to assess the blood lipid profiles and liver function. A total of 25 of the 5,907 screened individuals fulfilling the inclusion criteria for the study demonstrated brown fat tissue uptake [ABAT(+) subjects]. After adjustment for potential confounders, 75 individuals without evidence of ABAT on PET [ABAT(-) subjects] were enrolled for comparison purposes. The ABAT(+) group had lower total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate transaminase levels (p < 0.01), whereas we found no significant differences in the serum triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels between the two groups. The prevalence of NAFLD was significantly lower in ABAT(+) than in ABAT(-) subjects (p < 0.01). Our study showed that the presence of ABAT in adults had a positive effect on their blood lipid profiles and liver function and was associated with reduced prevalence of NAFLD. Thus, our data suggest that activating brown adipose tissue may be a potential target for preventing and treating dyslipidaemia and NAFLD. (orig.)

  7. Morphology Dependent Photocatalytic Activity of α-MoO3 Nanostructures Towards Mutagenic Acridine Orange Dye.

    2015-06-01

    The morphological evolutions of orthorhombic molybdenum oxide nanostructures with high crystalline nature have been successfully synthesized by combining low-temperature sol-gel and annealing processes. Strong influence of gelation temperature is a factor facilitated to control the material morphology. Morphological transformations like nanospheres, nanoplatelets, mixtures of hexagonal platelets, and one-dimensional nanobars were obtained. The possible morphological formation mechanism has been proposed as a self-assemble process of nucleation and a mechanism for particle growth by Ostwald ripening. The as-prepared nanostructures were recognized as photocatalysts for the degradation of Acridine Orange under Ultra Violet light. The obtained mixed morphology (hexagonal nanoplatelets and nanobars) showed a high photocatalytic property to degrade mutagenic Acridine Orange dye. Moreover, they could be easily recycled without changing the photocatalytic activity due to their 1-Dimensional and 2-Dimensional nanostructure property. PMID:26369043

  8. Sutureless cataract incision closure using laser-activated tissue glues

    Eaton, Alexander M.; Bass, Lawrence S.; Libutti, Steven K.; Schubert, Herman D.; Treat, Michael R.

    1991-06-01

    With the advent of phacoemulsification and foldable intraocular lenses, there is renewed interest in sutureless cataract wound. We report the use of laser activated tissue glues for the closure of scleral tunnel cataract incisions. Two glue mixtures were tested in enucleated porcine eyes. Glue A was composed of hyaluronic acid, human albumin, and indocyanine green dye. Glue B contained hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfate, human albumin, and indocyanine green dye. A Spectra Physics diode laser (808 nm) with a power density of 7-1 1 watts/cm2 was used for glue activation. Wound bursting pressures, as determined by the presence of fluid at the wound margin, was significantly higher with both glue combinations than without the glue (Pcataract incisions.

  9. Activation of brown adipose tissue mitochondrial GDP binding sites

    The primary function of brown adipose tissue (BAT) is heat production. This ability is attributed to the existence of a unique inner mitochondrial membrane protein termed the uncoupling protein or thermogenin. This protein is permeable to H+ and thus allows respiration (and therefore thermogenesis) to proceed at a rapid rate, independent of ADP phosphorylation. Proton conductance can be inhibited by the binding of purine nucleotides to the uncoupling protein. The binding of [3H]-GDP to BAT mitochondria is frequently used as a measure of BAT thermogenic activity. Rats fed a diet that was low but adequate in protein exhibited a decrease in feed efficiency. In addition, BAT thermogenesis was activated as indicated by an elevation in the level of GDP binding to BAT mitochondria. This phenomena occurred in older rats and persisted over time

  10. Activation of brown adipose tissue mitochondrial GDP binding sites

    Swick, A.G.

    1987-01-01

    The primary function of brown adipose tissue (BAT) is heat production. This ability is attributed to the existence of a unique inner mitochondrial membrane protein termed the uncoupling protein or thermogenin. This protein is permeable to H+ and thus allows respiration (and therefore thermogenesis) to proceed at a rapid rate, independent of ADP phosphorylation. Proton conductance can be inhibited by the binding of purine nucleotides to the uncoupling protein. The binding of (/sup 3/H)-GDP to BAT mitochondria is frequently used as a measure of BAT thermogenic activity. Rats fed a diet that was low but adequate in protein exhibited a decrease in feed efficiency. In addition, BAT thermogenesis was activated as indicated by an elevation in the level of GDP binding to BAT mitochondria. This phenomena occurred in older rats and persisted over time.

  11. Cross-language activation of morphological relatives in cognates: The role of orthographic overlap and task-related processing

    Mulder, K.; Dijkstra, A.F.J.; Baayen, Harald

    2015-01-01

    We considered the role of orthography and task-related processing mechanisms in the activation of morphologically related complex words during bilingual word processing. So far, it has only been shown that such morphologically related words (i.e., morphological family members) are activated through

  12. Irbesartan increased PPARγ activity in vivo in white adipose tissue of atherosclerotic mice and improved adipose tissue dysfunction

    Research highlights: → Atherosclerotic apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoEKO) mice were treated with irbesartan. → Irbesartan decreased white adipose tissue weight without affecting body weight. → DNA-binding for PPARγ was increased in white adipose tissue in vivo by irbesartan. → Irbesartan increased adipocyte number in white adipose tissue. → Irbesatan increased the expression of adiponectin and leptin in white adipose tissue. -- Abstract: The effect of the PPARγ agonistic action of an AT1 receptor blocker, irbesartan, on adipose tissue dysfunction was explored using atherosclerotic model mice. Adult male apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoEKO) mice at 9 weeks of age were treated with a high-cholesterol diet (HCD) with or without irbesartan at a dose of 50 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks. The weight of epididymal and retroperitoneal adipose tissue was decreased by irbesartan without changing food intake or body weight. Treatment with irbesartan increased the expression of PPARγ in white adipose tissue and the DNA-binding activity of PPARγ in nuclear extract prepared from adipose tissue. The expression of adiponectin, leptin and insulin receptor was also increased by irbesartan. These results suggest that irbesartan induced activation of PPARγ and improved adipose tissue dysfunction including insulin resistance.

  13. Irbesartan increased PPAR{gamma} activity in vivo in white adipose tissue of atherosclerotic mice and improved adipose tissue dysfunction

    Iwai, Masaru; Kanno, Harumi; Senba, Izumi; Nakaoka, Hirotomo; Moritani, Tomozo [Department of Molecular Cardiovascular Biology and Pharmacology, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Shitsukawa, Tohon, Ehime 791-0295 (Japan); Horiuchi, Masatsugu, E-mail: horiuchi@m.ehime-u.ac.jp [Department of Molecular Cardiovascular Biology and Pharmacology, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Shitsukawa, Tohon, Ehime 791-0295 (Japan)

    2011-03-04

    Research highlights: {yields} Atherosclerotic apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoEKO) mice were treated with irbesartan. {yields} Irbesartan decreased white adipose tissue weight without affecting body weight. {yields} DNA-binding for PPAR{gamma} was increased in white adipose tissue in vivo by irbesartan. {yields} Irbesartan increased adipocyte number in white adipose tissue. {yields} Irbesatan increased the expression of adiponectin and leptin in white adipose tissue. -- Abstract: The effect of the PPAR{gamma} agonistic action of an AT{sub 1} receptor blocker, irbesartan, on adipose tissue dysfunction was explored using atherosclerotic model mice. Adult male apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoEKO) mice at 9 weeks of age were treated with a high-cholesterol diet (HCD) with or without irbesartan at a dose of 50 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks. The weight of epididymal and retroperitoneal adipose tissue was decreased by irbesartan without changing food intake or body weight. Treatment with irbesartan increased the expression of PPAR{gamma} in white adipose tissue and the DNA-binding activity of PPAR{gamma} in nuclear extract prepared from adipose tissue. The expression of adiponectin, leptin and insulin receptor was also increased by irbesartan. These results suggest that irbesartan induced activation of PPAR{gamma} and improved adipose tissue dysfunction including insulin resistance.

  14. Morphological aspects of the study of tissue reactions in the application of synthetic materials in experimental hernioplasty

    Tverdokhleb I.V.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Experience in usage of synthetic prostheses in hernioplasty has been significantly enriched in recent years. Theimportance of considering morphological aspects of engraftment of such the implants at the tissue and cellular levels underexperimental conditions is caused by the fact that in previous years usage of xenoplastic materials are often accompanied bycomplications. A significant amount of research devoted to the experimental evaluation of prostheses made of polypropylene,which are widely used in clinical practice. Plastic hernial defects of the abdominal wall at the current stage of surgery involvesthe use of intraperitoneal synthetic implants, but the use of these materials contributes to adhesive disease in the postoperativeperiod. Adhesions in the abdominal cavity is a common complex, multi-faceted both protective and adaptive pathologicalprocess that requires further detailed study, both in terms of pathogenetic mechanisms underlying it, and for the preventionof postoperative adhesive disease. For this purpose it is necessary to take into account all the local and systemic factorsleading to adhesions development. Questions about adhesive disease and prevention remain the subject of intensive studyin many studies.

  15. Characterisation of the horse transcriptome from immunologically active tissues

    Joanna Moreton

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The immune system of the horse has not been well studied, despite the fact that the horse displays several features such as sensitivity to bacterial lipopolysaccharide that make them in many ways a more suitable model of some human disorders than the current rodent models. The difficulty of working with large animal models has however limited characterisation of gene expression in the horse immune system with current annotations for the equine genome restricted to predictions from other mammals and the few described horse proteins. This paper outlines sequencing of 184 million transcriptome short reads from immunologically active tissues of three horses including the genome reference “Twilight”. In a comparison with the Ensembl horse genome annotation, we found 8,763 potentially novel isoforms.

  16. Postirradiation proliferative activity and morphology of human bone marrow

    Bone marrow cells distribution by cell cycle stages (S, G1/0, G2+M) were studied by flow cytometry and myelograms analyzed in 13 subjects occupationally irradiated during an emergency situation, in 19 patients administered radiotherapy, and in 26 normal subjects. Low-dose (0,2 to 0,4 Gy) exposure was associated with an increase of proliferative activity, higher doses (1 to 4 Gy) caused a reduction of the share of cells in the phase of DNA synthesis and an expressed block at the C2+M stage. The studied parameters of cellular cycle reflect the degree of radiation exposure and together with myelogram values may be regarded as diagnostic characteristics of hemopoiesis. 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  17. Interrelationships Between Cellulase Activity and Cellulose Particle Morphology.

    Olsen, Johan P.; Donohoe, Bryon S.; Borch, Kim; Westh, Peter; Resch, Michael G.

    2016-08-01

    It is well documented that the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose follows a reaction pattern where an initial phase of relatively high activity is followed by a gradual slow-down over the entire course of the reaction. This phenomenon is not readily explained by conventional factors like substrate depletion, product inhibition or enzyme instability. It has been suggested that the underlying reason for the loss of enzyme activity is connected to the heterogeneous structure of cellulose, but so far attempts to establish quantitative measures of such a correlation remain speculative. Here, we have carried out an extensive microscopy study of Avicel particles during extended hydrolysis with Hypocrea jecorina cellobiohydrolase 1 (CBH1) and endoglucanase 1 and 3 (EG1 and EG3) alone and in mixtures. We have used differential interference contrast microscopy and transmission electron microscopy to observe and quantify structural features at um and nm resolution, respectively. We implemented a semi-automatic image analysis protocol, which allowed us to analyze almost 3000 individual micrographs comprising a total of more than 300,000 particles. From this analysis we estimated the temporal development of the accessible surface area throughout the reaction. We found that the number of particles and their size as well as the surface roughness contributed to surface area, and that within the investigated degree of conversion (<30 %) this measure correlated linearly with the rate of reaction. Based on this observation we argue that cellulose structure, specifically surface area and roughness, plays a major role in the ubiquitous rate loss observed for cellulases.

  18. Aberrant innate immune activation following tissue injury impairs pancreatic regeneration.

    Alexandra E Folias

    Full Text Available Normal tissue architecture is disrupted following injury, as resident tissue cells become damaged and immune cells are recruited to the site of injury. While injury and inflammation are critical to tissue remodeling, the inability to resolve this response can lead to the destructive complications of chronic inflammation. In the pancreas, acinar cells of the exocrine compartment respond to injury by transiently adopting characteristics of progenitor cells present during embryonic development. This process of de-differentiation creates a window where a mature and stable cell gains flexibility and is potentially permissive to changes in cellular fate. How de-differentiation can turn an acinar cell into another cell type (such as a pancreatic β-cell, or a cell with cancerous potential (as in cases of deregulated Kras activity is of interest to both the regenerative medicine and cancer communities. While it is known that inflammation and acinar de-differentiation increase following pancreatic injury, it remains unclear which immune cells are involved in this process. We used a combination of genetically modified mice, immunological blockade and cellular characterization to identify the immune cells that impact pancreatic regeneration in an in vivo model of pancreatitis. We identified the innate inflammatory response of macrophages and neutrophils as regulators of pancreatic regeneration. Under normal conditions, mild innate inflammation prompts a transient de-differentiation of acinar cells that readily dissipates to allow normal regeneration. However, non-resolving inflammation developed when elevated pancreatic levels of neutrophils producing interferon-γ increased iNOS levels and the pro-inflammatory response of macrophages. Pancreatic injury improved following in vivo macrophage depletion, iNOS inhibition as well as suppression of iNOS levels in macrophages via interferon-γ blockade, supporting the impairment in regeneration and the

  19. Implant based differences in adverse local tissue reaction in failed total hip arthroplasties: a morphological and immunohistochemical study

    Perino, Giorgio; Ricciardi, Benjamin F.; Jerabek, Seth A.; Martignoni, Guido; Wilner, Gabrielle; Maass, Dan; Goldring, Steven R.; Purdue, P Edward

    2014-01-01

    Background Adverse local tissue reaction (ALTR) is characterized by periprosthetic soft tissue inflammation composed of a mixed inflammatory cell infiltrate, extensive soft tissue necrosis, and vascular changes. Multiple hip implant classes have been reported to result in ALTR, and clinical differences may represent variation in the soft tissue response at the cellular and tissue levels. The purpose of this study was to describe similarities and differences in periprosthetic tissue structure,...

  20. Grain sorting in the morphological active layer of a braided river physical model

    Leduc, P.; Ashmore, P.; Gardner, J. T.

    2015-07-01

    A physical scale model of a gravel-bed braided river was used to measure vertical grain size sorting in the morphological active layer aggregated over the width of the river. This vertical sorting is important for analyzing braided river sedimentology, for numerical modeling of braided river morpho-dynamics and for measuring and predicting bed load transport rate. We define the morphological active layer as the bed material between the maximum and minimum bed elevations at a point over extended time periods sufficient for braiding processes to re-work the river bed. The vertical extent of the active layer was measured using 40 hourly high-resolution DEMs of the model river bed. An image texture algorithm was used to map bed material grain size of each DEM. Analysis of the 40 DEMs and texture maps provides data on the geometry of the morphological active layer and variation in grain size in three-dimensions. Normalizing active layer thickness and dividing into 10 sub-layers we show that all grain sizes occur with almost equal frequency in all sub-layers. Occurrence of patches and strings of coarser (or finer) material relates to preservation of particular morpho-textural features within the active layer. For numerical modeling and bed load prediction a morphological active layer that is fully mixed with respect to grain size is a reliable approximation.

  1. Grain sorting in the morphological active layer of a braided river physical model

    Leduc, P.; Ashmore, P.; Gardner, J. T.

    2015-12-01

    A physical scale model of a gravel-bed braided river was used to measure vertical grain size sorting in the morphological active layer aggregated over the width of the river. This vertical sorting is important for analyzing braided river sedimentology, for numerical modeling of braided river morphodynamics, and for measuring and predicting bedload transport rate. We define the morphological active layer as the bed material between the maximum and minimum bed elevations at a point over extended time periods sufficient for braiding processes to rework the river bed. The vertical extent of the active layer was measured using 40 hourly high-resolution DEMs (digital elevation models) of the model river bed. An image texture algorithm was used to map bed material grain size of each DEM. Analysis of the 40 DEMs and texture maps provides data on the geometry of the morphological active layer and variation in grain size in three dimensions. By normalizing active layer thickness and dividing into 10 sublayers, we show that all grain sizes occur with almost equal frequency in all sublayers. Occurrence of patches and strings of coarser (or finer) material relates to preservation of particular morpho-textural features within the active layer. For numerical modeling and bedload prediction, a morphological active layer that is fully mixed with respect to grain size is a reliable approximation.

  2. Design of Bicontinuous Donor/Acceptor Morphologies for Use as Organic Solar Cell Active Layers

    Kipp, Dylan; Mok, Jorge; Verduzco, Rafael; Ganesan, Venkat

    Two of the primary challenges limiting the marketability of organic solar cells are i) the smaller device efficiency of the organic solar cell relative to the conventional silicon-based solar cell and ii) the long term thermal instability of the device active layer. The achievement of equilibrium donor/acceptor morphologies with the characteristics believed to yield high device performance characteristics could address each of these two challenges. In this work, we present the results of a combined simulations and experiments-based approach to investigate if a conjugated BCP additive can be used to control the self-assembled morphologies taken on by conjugated polymer/PCBM mixtures. First, we use single chain in mean field Monte Carlo simulations to identify regions within the conjugated polymer/PCBM composition space in which addition of copolymers can lead to bicontinuous equilibrium morphologies with high interfacial areas and nanoscale dimensions. Second, we conduct experiments as directed by the simulations to achieve such morphologies in the PTB7 + PTB7- b-PNDI + PCBM model blend. We characterize the results of our experiments via a combination of transmission electron microscopy and X-ray scattering techniques and demonstrate that the morphologies from experiments agree with those predicted in simulations. Accordingly, these results indicate that the approach utilized represents a promising approach to intelligently design the morphologies taken on by organic solar cell active layers.

  3. Removing or truncating connexin 43 in murine osteocytes alters cortical geometry, nanoscale morphology, and tissue mechanics in the tibia.

    Hammond, Max A; Berman, Alycia G; Pacheco-Costa, Rafael; Davis, Hannah M; Plotkin, Lilian I; Wallace, Joseph M

    2016-07-01

    Gap junctions are formed from ubiquitously expressed proteins called connexins that allow the transfer of small signaling molecules between adjacent cells. Gap junctions are especially important for signaling between osteocytes and other bone cell types. The most abundant type of connexin in bone is connexin 43 (Cx43). The C-terminal domain of Cx43 is thought to be an important modulator of gap junction function but the role that this domain plays in regulating tissue-level mechanics is largely unknown. We hypothesized that the lack of the C-terminal domain of Cx43 would cause morphological and compositional changes as well as differences in how bone responds to reference point indentation (RPI) and fracture toughness testing. The effects of the C-terminal domain of Cx43 in osteocytes and other cell types were assessed in a murine model (C57BL/6 background). Mice with endogenous Cx43 in their osteocytes removed via a Cre-loxP system were crossed with knock-in mice which expressed Cx43 that lacked the C-terminal domain in all cell types due to the insertion of a truncated allele to produce the four groups used in the study. The main effect of removing the C-terminal domain from osteocytic Cx43 increased cortical mineral crystallinity (p=0.036) and decreased fracture toughness (p=0.017). The main effect of the presence of the C-terminal domain in other cell types increased trabecular thickness (p<0.001), cortical thickness (p=0.008), and average RPI unloading slope (p=0.004). Collagen morphology was altered when either osteocytes lacked Cx43 (p=0.008) or some truncated Cx43 was expressed in all cell types (p<0.001) compared to controls but not when only the truncated form of Cx43 was expressed in osteocytes (p=0.641). In conclusion, the presence of the C-terminal domain of Cx43 in osteocytes and other cell types is important to maintain normal structure and mechanical integrity of bone. PMID:27113527

  4. Gamma radiation affects active electrolyte transport by rabbit ileum. II. Correlation of alanine and theophylline response with morphology

    Gunter-Smith, P.J.

    1989-03-01

    The response of ileal segments isolated from rabbits to an actively transported amino acid and a secretagogue was evaluated following exposure to 10 Gy whole-body gamma irradiation. The ability of ileal segments to respond to the actively transported amino acid, alanine, was not significantly diminished until 96 h postexposure. Decreased responsiveness to the secretagogue, theophylline, occurred earlier at 72 h. These effects did not appear to be accounted for by decreased food intake of irradiated animals alone. Examination of intestinal morphological changes with respect to these changes in electrolyte transport revealed that decreased amino acid transport coincides with loss of intestinal villi. Although a morphological correlate of decreased secretory response was not as striking as that for absorption, the theophylline response appeared to decline concomitant with the appearance of increased mitotic activity in the intestinal crypts. The results of this study indicate that, following a dose of 10 Gy, the inability of these tissues to respond to amino acids is due to a loss of mature villus absorptive cells subsequent to denudation of the intestinal mucosa. There appeared to be little impairment of cell membrane transport processes for alanine. In contrast, the decreased secretory response could not be correlated with the disappearance of any one cell type and perhaps results from increased proliferation in the crypts at the expense of differentiation.

  5. Gamma-radiation affects active electrolyte transport by rabbit ileum. 2. Correlation of alanine and theophylline response with morphology

    Gunter-Smith, P.J.

    1989-01-01

    The response of ileal segments isolated from rabbits to an actively transported amino acid and a secretagogue was evaluated following exposure to 10-Gy whole-body gamma irradiation. The ability of ileal segments to respond to the actively transported amino acid, alanine, was not significantly diminished until 96 h postexposure. Decreased responsiveness to the secretagogue, theophylline, occurred earlier at 72 h. These effects did not appear to be accounted for by decreased food intake of irradiated animals alone. Examination of intestinal morphological changes with respect to these changes in electrolyte transport revealed that decreased amino acid transport coincides with loss of intestinal villi. Although a morphological correlate of decreased secretory response was not as striking as that for absorption, the theophylline response appeared to decline concomitant with the appearance of increased mitotic activity in the intestinal crypts. The result of this study indicate that, following a dose of 10 Gy, the inability of these tissues to respond to amino acids is due to a loss of mature villus absorptive cells subsequent to denudation of the intestinal mucosa. There appeared to be little impairment of cell membrane transport processes for alanine. In contrast, the decreased secretory response could not be correlated with the disappearance of any one cell type and perhaps results from increased proliferation in the crypts at the expense of differentiation.

  6. Gamma radiation affects active electrolyte transport by rabbit ileum. II. Correlation of alanine and theophylline response with morphology

    The response of ileal segments isolated from rabbits to an actively transported amino acid and a secretagogue was evaluated following exposure to 10 Gy whole-body gamma irradiation. The ability of ileal segments to respond to the actively transported amino acid, alanine, was not significantly diminished until 96 h postexposure. Decreased responsiveness to the secretagogue, theophylline, occurred earlier at 72 h. These effects did not appear to be accounted for by decreased food intake of irradiated animals alone. Examination of intestinal morphological changes with respect to these changes in electrolyte transport revealed that decreased amino acid transport coincides with loss of intestinal villi. Although a morphological correlate of decreased secretory response was not as striking as that for absorption, the theophylline response appeared to decline concomitant with the appearance of increased mitotic activity in the intestinal crypts. The results of this study indicate that, following a dose of 10 Gy, the inability of these tissues to respond to amino acids is due to a loss of mature villus absorptive cells subsequent to denudation of the intestinal mucosa. There appeared to be little impairment of cell membrane transport processes for alanine. In contrast, the decreased secretory response could not be correlated with the disappearance of any one cell type and perhaps results from increased proliferation in the crypts at the expense of differentiation

  7. Novel needle-in-straw vitrification can effectively preserve the follicle morphology, viability, and vascularization of ovarian tissue in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

    Liu, Jianan; Cheng, Kimberly M; Silversides, Frederick G

    2012-10-01

    Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue has been the only effective way of ex situ conservation of female germplasm in avian species. A novel needle-in-straw (NIS) vitrification method was developed to store tissue in straws instead of cryovials. Fragments of ovarian tissue from one-week old Japanese quail were transfixed on an acupuncture needle. They were immersed in equilibration and vitrification solutions containing dimethyl sulphoxide, ethylene glycol and sucrose. A layer of tin foil was rolled over the tissue fragments and the tin foil package was plunged into liquid nitrogen and inserted into a pre-cooled, 0.5-ml straw which was stored in liquid nitrogen. Tissue was also preserved using a needle immersed vitrification (NIV) method, in which tissue fragments transfixed on needles without tin foil and were stored in cryovials filled with liquid nitrogen. Cryopreserved tissue was warmed at room temperature (RT) or 37°C and the ratio of normal follicles to total visible follicles was determined by histological methods. In addition, cryopreserved and warmed tissue was cultured on the chorioallantoic membranes of fertilized chicken eggs for 5-6 days. The viability and vascularization of the grafts were evaluated. The tissue cryopreserved by NIS and warmed at RT showed comparable follicle morphology to fresh tissue and to that preserved by NIV and warmed at RT. No significant impairment on the viability or vascularization of the grafted tissue was observed. The NIS method allows tissue to be stored and transported safely and efficiently and can be used instead of cryovials in tissue cryobanking. PMID:22921390

  8. Seasonal and geographical impact on the morphology and 20-hydroxyecdysone content in different tissue types of wild Ajuga bracteosa Wall. ex Benth.

    Kayani, Waqas Khan; Rani, Rehana; Ihsan-ul-Haq; Mirza, Bushra

    2014-09-01

    Ajuga bracteosa is an endangered medicinal herb which contains several natural products of therapeutic importance like 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-HE). As geography and habitat play a crucial role in the metabolism and morphology of a plant, the present study was aimed at evaluating the impact of phytogeography, season and tissue type on morphology and 20-HE content of A. bracteosa. The results revealed large morphological variations in various ecotypes of A. bracteosa. However, plants from the same altitude, regardless of their phytogeography, represented similar morphology. Effect of habitat on 20-HE content remained non-significant except for Karot (1608μg/g) and Kahuta (728μg/g). Effect of tissue types was significant (p value hormonal supremacy. Seasons showed a significant impact (p value spring (1071μg/g)>summer (617μg/g). The aerial tissue types contained more 20-HE content in all seasons; especially during winter its amount radically rose in flowers (μ=2814μg/g). The aerial portion of Karot ecotype harvested in winter offers a valuable source of 20-HE. To confirm the effect of low temperature on 20-HE content, profiling of A. bracteosa raised in vitro at different temperature regime was carried out. On the basis of these results we hypothesize that chilling cold hampers vegetative growth and triggers stress induced 20-HE accumulation as a defense response. PMID:24819991

  9. MicroCT for comparative morphology: simple staining methods allow high-contrast 3D imaging of diverse non-mineralized animal tissues

    Metscher Brian D

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparative, functional, and developmental studies of animal morphology require accurate visualization of three-dimensional structures, but few widely applicable methods exist for non-destructive whole-volume imaging of animal tissues. Quantitative studies in particular require accurately aligned and calibrated volume images of animal structures. X-ray microtomography (microCT has the potential to produce quantitative 3D images of small biological samples, but its widespread use for non-mineralized tissues has been limited by the low x-ray contrast of soft tissues. Although osmium staining and a few other techniques have been used for contrast enhancement, generally useful methods for microCT imaging for comparative morphology are still lacking. Results Several very simple and versatile staining methods are presented for microCT imaging of animal soft tissues, along with advice on tissue fixation and sample preparation. The stains, based on inorganic iodine and phosphotungstic acid, are easier to handle and much less toxic than osmium, and they produce high-contrast x-ray images of a wide variety of soft tissues. The breadth of possible applications is illustrated with a few microCT images of model and non-model animals, including volume and section images of vertebrates, embryos, insects, and other invertebrates. Each image dataset contains x-ray absorbance values for every point in the imaged volume, and objects as small as individual muscle fibers and single blood cells can be resolved in their original locations and orientations within the sample. Conclusion With very simple contrast staining, microCT imaging can produce quantitative, high-resolution, high-contrast volume images of animal soft tissues, without destroying the specimens and with possibilities of combining with other preparation and imaging methods. Such images are expected to be useful in comparative, developmental, functional, and quantitative studies of

  10. Inhibition of the central melanocortin system decreases brown adipose tissue activity[S

    Kooijman, Sander; Boon, Mariëtte R.; Parlevliet, Edwin T.; Geerling, Janine J.; van de Pol, Vera; Romijn, Johannes A.; Havekes, Louis M.; Meurs, Illiana; Rensen, Patrick C. N.

    2014-01-01

    The melanocortin system is an important regulator of energy balance, and melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) deficiency is the most common monogenic cause of obesity. We investigated whether the relationship between melanocortin system activity and energy expenditure (EE) is mediated by brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity. Therefore, female APOE*3-Leiden.CETP transgenic mice were fed a Western-type diet for 4 weeks and infused intracerebroventricularly with the melanocortin 3/4 receptor (MC3/4R) a...

  11. Optical imaging of neuronal activity in tissue labeled by retrograde transport of Calcium Green Dextran.

    McPherson, D R; McClellan, A D; O'Donovan, M J

    1997-05-01

    In many neurophysiological studies it is desirable to simultaneously record the activity of a large number of neurons. This is particularly true in the study of vertebrate motor systems that generate rhythmic behaviors, such as the pattern generator for locomotion in vertebrate spinal cord. Optical imaging of neurons labeled with appropriate fluorescent dyes, in which fluorescence is activity-dependent, provides a means to record the activity of many neurons at the same time, while also providing fine spatial resolution of the position and morphology of active neurons. Voltage-sensitive dyes have been explored for this purpose and have the advantage of rapid response to transmembrane voltage changes. However, voltage-sensitive dyes bleach readily, which results in phototoxic damage and limits the time that labeled neurons can be imaged. In addition, the signal-to-noise ratio is typically small, so that averaging of responses is usually required. As an alternative to voltage-sensitive dyes, calcium-sensitive dyes can exhibit large changes in fluorescence. Most neurons contain voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channels, and numerous reports indicate that neuronal activity is accompanied by increased intracellular Ca2+ concentration. In this protocol we describe a method to use retrograde transport of the dextran conjugate of a calcium-sensitive dye (Calcium Green Dextran) to label selectively populations of brain and spinal interneurons in a primitive vertebrate (lamprey), for subsequent video-rate imaging of changes in intracellular fluorescence during neuronal activity. Although described with specific reference to lampreys, the technique has also been applied to embryonic chick spinal cord and larval zebrafish preparations and should be easily adaptable to other systems. The most significant novel feature of the protocol is the use of retrograde axonal transport to selectively fill neurons that have known axonal trajectories. Using lampreys, we have obtained activity

  12. Engineering the Morphology and Configuration of Ternary Heterostructures for Improving Their Photocatalytic Activity.

    Li, Kui; Chen, Rong; Li, Shun-Li; Xie, Shuai-Lei; Cao, Xue-Li; Dong, Long-Zhang; Bao, Jian-Chun; Lan, Ya-Qian

    2016-02-01

    Heteronanomaterials composed of suitable semiconductors enable the direct conversion from solar power into clean and renewable energy. Ternary heterostructures with appropriate configuration and morphology possess rich and varied properties, especially for improving the photocatalytic activity and stability synchronously. However, suitable ternary heterostructure prototypes and facile while effective strategy for modulating their morphology and configuration are still scarce. Herein, various ternary ZnS-CdS-Zn(1-x)Cd(x)S heterostructures with tunable morphology (0 to 2 D) and semiconductor configurations (randomly distributed, interface mediated, and quantum dots sensitized core@shell heterostructures) were facilely synthesized via one-pot hydrothermal method resulting from the different molecular structures of the amine solvents. Semiconductor morphology, especially configuration of the ternary heterostructure, shows dramatic effect on their photocatalytic activity. The CdS sensitized porous Zn(1-x)CdxS@ZnS core@shell takes full advantage of ZnS, Zn(1-x)Cd(x)S and CdS and shows the maximal photocatalytic H2-production rate of 100.2 mmol/h/g and excellent stability over 30 h. This study provides some guidelines for the design and synthesis of high-performance ternary heterostructure via modulation of semiconductor configuration and morphology using one-pot method. PMID:26835705

  13. Pneumatic displacement without tissue plasminogen activator in premacular subhyaloid hemorrhage

    Rumita S. Kadarisman

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available To assess the efficacy and safety of intravitreal injection of Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6 gas without the use of tissue Plasminogen Activator (tPA in premacular Subhyaloid Hemorrhage (SHH, 5 eyes of 5 patients with premacular SHH were enrolled. After performing paracentesis of the anterior chamber, 0.3 ml pure SF6 gas was injected through pars plana with a 30 gauge needle. Facedown position was maintained for 5 days. Subhyaloid Hemorrhage was displaced in 4/5 (80% eyes with a duration of SHH less than 2 weeks. The pre-injection visual acuity of all 5 eyes was finger counting and improved in 4/5 ( 80% eyes within 3 days to 7 days post-injection to 6/20 - 6/6. The underlying disease was hypercoagulation in 1 patient, diabetes mellitus in 2 patients, hypertension in 1 patient and unknown in 1 patient. No complications were encountered. In conclusion, SF6 gas injected into the vitreous without the use of tPA, can displace SHH if performed within 14 days of duration, and results in rapid visual recovery. This procedure is proven to be safe. (Med J Indones 2007; 16:104-7 Keywords: subhyaloid hemorrhage, pneumatic displacement, sulfur hexafluoride gas

  14. Study of synthesis parameters and active layer morphology of interfacially polymerized polyamide-polysulfone membranes

    Hermans, Sanne; Bernstein, Roy; Volodin, Alexander; Vankelecom, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    Thin film composite (TFC) polyamide membranes were prepared on a polysulfone support membrane and the effect of various synthesis conditions on the active layer morphology, the physicochemical properties and the membrane performance was investigated. The support membrane porosity factor had a significant effect on the TFC membrane performance. A polyamide top layer was formed within 15 s of reaction. Prolonging the reaction time, although resulting in a thicker active layer, only had a minor ...

  15. Morphological analysis of activity-reduced adult-born neurons in the mouse olfactory bulb

    Jeffrey E Dahlen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Adult born neurons are added to the olfactory bulb (OB throughout life in rodents. While many factors have been identified as regulating the survival and integration of adult-born neurons (ABNs into existing circuitry, the understanding of how these factors affect ABN morphology and connectivity is limited. Here we compare how cell intrinsic (siRNA knock down of voltage gated sodium channels NaV1.1-1.3 and circuit level (naris occlusion reductions in activity affect ABN morphology during integration into the OB. We found that both manipulations reduce the number of dendritic spines (and thus likely the number of reciprocal synaptic connections formed with the surrounding circuitry and inhibited dendritic ramification of ABNs. Further, we identified regions of ABN apical dendrites where the largest and most significant decreases occur following siRNA knock down or naris occlusion. In siRNA knock down cells, reduction of spines is observed in proximal regions of the apical dendrite. This suggests that distal regions of the dendrite may remain active independent of NaV1.1-1.3 channel expression, perhaps facilitated by activation of T-type calcium channels and NMDA receptors. By contrast, circuit level reduction of activity by naris occlusion resulted in a global depression of spine number. Together, these results indicate that ABNs retain the ability to develop their typical overall morphological features regardless of experienced activity, and activity modulates the number and location of formed connections.

  16. Microwave Synthesis of Cuprous Oxide Micro-/Nanocrystals with Different Morphologies and Photocatalytic Activities

    Qingwei Zhu; Yihe Zhang; Jiajun Wang; Fengshan Zhou; Paul K. Chu

    2011-01-01

    Cuprous oxide micro-/nanocrystals were synthesized by using a simple liquid phase reduction process under microwave irradiation. Copper sulfate was used as the starting materials and macromolecule surfactants served as the templates.The morphologies phase and optical properties of them are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflection absorptive spectra (UV-vis/DRS), respectively. The crystals had four different shapes, namely spheres, strips, octahedrons, and dandelions. The photocatalytic behavior of the cuprous oxide particles were investigated by monitoring the degradation of rhodamine B. In spite of the different morphologies, all of the cuprous oxide micro-/nanocrystals exhibited photocatalytic activities under visible light irradiation in the following order: dandelions, strips, spheres, and octahedral crystals. The photocatalytic degradation rates of rhodamine B are 56.37%, 55.68%, 51.83% and 46.16%, respectively. The morphology affects significantly the photocatalytic performance.

  17. Tissue-dependent regulation of protein tyrosine kinase activity during embryonic development

    1991-01-01

    Protein tyrosine kinase activity was assayed in a variety of chicken tissues during embryonic development and in the adult. In some tissues protein tyrosine kinase activity decreased during embryonic development; however, in other tissues it remained high throughout development, it contrast to the level of protein tyrosine phosphorylation, which decreased during development. The highest levels of tyrosine kinase activity were detected in 17-d embryonic brain although only low levels of protei...

  18. Variations on metabolic activities of legume tissues through radiation in tissue culture

    Cell cultures from Arachis hypogaea L. cultivated in a modified medium developed by Murashige and Skoog (1962) showed vigorous qrowth after radiation treatment. Investigations on the effect of various sugars on the chlorophyll formation and growth of the irradiated tissues showed that sucrose was superior to maltose, glucose or fructose as a carbon source. Lactose and mannitol supported growth and development of chlorophyll to a less degree. On prolonging the cultures on a sugar free medium, the tissues failed to regain either growth or chlorophyll content. (author)

  19. Tissue plasminogen activator attenuates ventilatorinduced lung injury in rats

    Liang-ti HUANG; Hsiu-chu CHOU; Leng-fang WANG; Chung-ming CHEN

    2012-01-01

    Aim:To test the hypothesis that the tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) may counteract the inhibitory effect ot plasminogen activator inhibitors (PAI) and attenuate lung injury in a rat model of ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI).Methods:Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were ventilated with a HVZP (high-volume zero PEEP) protocol for 2 h at a tidal volume of 30 ml/kg,a respiratory rate of 25 breaths/min,and an inspired oxygen fraction of 21%.The rats were divided into 3 groups (n=7 for each):HVZP+tPA group receiving tPA (1.25 mg/kg,iv) 15 min before ventilation,HVZP group receiving HVZP+vehicle injection,and a control group receiving no ventilation.After 2 h of ventilation,the rats were killed; blood and lungs were collected for biochemical and histological analyses.Results:HVZP ventilation significantly increased total protein content and the concentration of macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) as well as the lung injury score.Rats that received HVZP ventilation had significantly higher lung PAI-1 mRNA expression,plasma PAI-1and plasma D-dimer levels than the control animals,tPA treatment significantly reduced the BALF total protein and the lung injury score as compared to the HVZP group,tPA treatment also significantly decreased the plasma D-dimer levels and the HVZP ventilation-induced lung vascular fibrin thrombi,tPA treatment showed no effect on MIP-2 level in BALF.Conclusion:These results demonstrate that VILI increases lung PAI-1 mRNA expression,plasma levels of PAI-1 and D-limers,lung injury score and vascular fibrin deposition,tPA can attenuate VILI by decreasing capillary-alveolar protein leakage as well as local and systemic coagulation as shown by decreased lung vascular fibrin deposition and plasma D-dimers.

  20. Up-regulation of mitochondrial activity and acquirement of brown adipose tissue-like property in the white adipose tissue of fsp27 deficient mice.

    Shen Yon Toh

    Full Text Available Fsp27, a member of the Cide family proteins, was shown to localize to lipid droplet and promote lipid storage in adipocytes. We aimed to understand the biological role of Fsp27 in regulating adipose tissue differentiation, insulin sensitivity and energy balance. Fsp27(-/- mice and Fsp27/lep double deficient mice were generated and we examined the adiposity, whole body metabolism, BAT and WAT morphology, insulin sensitivity, mitochondrial activity, and gene expression changes in these mouse strains. Furthermore, we isolated mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs from wildtype and Fsp27(-/- mice, followed by their differentiation into adipocytes in vitro. We found that Fsp27 is expressed in both brown adipose tissue (BAT and white adipose tissue (WAT and its levels were significantly elevated in the WAT and liver of leptin-deficient ob/ob mice. Fsp27(-/- mice had increased energy expenditure, lower levels of plasma triglycerides and free fatty acids. Furthermore, Fsp27(-/-and Fsp27/lep double-deficient mice are resistant to diet-induced obesity and display increased insulin sensitivity. Moreover, white adipocytes in Fsp27(-/- mice have reduced triglycerides accumulation and smaller lipid droplets, while levels of mitochondrial proteins, mitochondrial size and activity are dramatically increased. We further demonstrated that BAT-specific genes and key metabolic controlling factors such as FoxC2, PPAR and PGC1alpha were all markedly upregulated. In contrast, factors inhibiting BAT differentiation such as Rb, p107 and RIP140 were down-regulated in the WAT of Fsp27(-/- mice. Remarkably, Fsp27(-/- MEFs differentiated in vitro show many brown adipocyte characteristics in the presence of the thyroid hormone triiodothyronine (T3. Our data thus suggest that Fsp27 acts as a novel regulator in vivo to control WAT identity, mitochondrial activity and insulin sensitivity.

  1. Sonic Hedgehog-activated engineered blood vessels enhance bone tissue formation

    N C Rivron; Raiss, C.C.; Liu, J.; Nandakumar, A.; Sticht, C; Gretz, N; Truckenmuller, R.K.; Rouwkema, J.; Blitterswijk, van, W.J.

    2012-01-01

    Large bone defects naturally regenerate via a highly vascularized tissue which progressively remodels into cartilage and bone. Current approaches in bone tissue engineering are restricted by delayed vascularization and fail to recapitulate this stepwise differentiation toward bone tissue. Here, we use the morphogen Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) to induce the in vitro organization of an endothelial capillary network in an artificial tissue. We show that endogenous Hedgehog activity regulates angiogenic...

  2. Assessment of Morphology, Activity, and Infiltration of Astrocytes on Marine EPS-Imbedded Electrospun PCL Nanofiber

    Seul Ki Min

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tissue engineering using a biomaterial including bioactive compounds has been researched as a way to restore injured neural systems. Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS extracted from marine seaweeds have been known to produce positive effects on physiological activities in human tissues. In this study, an electrospun nanofiber containing brown seaweed EPS was proven to be a candidate biomaterial for neural tissue engineering. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP as a specific marker protein increased in the astrocytes cultured on the polycaprolactone (PCL nanofiber containing EPS (EPS-PCL nanofiber, compared with PCL nanofiber. The upregulation of GFAP indicates that the EPS-PCL nanofiber induced astrocyte activation, which supports physiological agents favorable to restore injured neural tissue. Astrocytes could infiltrate into the EPS-PCL nanofiber mat without toxicity, comparable to PCL nanofiber. These results imply that EPS-PCL nanofiber could be a useful biomaterial to regulate astrocyte activity at a molecular level and could be considered as a novel therapeutic material for neural tissue engineering.

  3. Photocatalytic and antibacterial activity of cadmium sulphide/zinc oxide nanocomposite with varied morphology.

    Jana, T K; Maji, S K; Pal, A; Maiti, R P; Dolai, T K; Chatterjee, K

    2016-10-15

    Nanocomposites with multifunctional application prospects have already dragged accelerating interests of materials scientists. Here we present CdS/ZnO nanocomposites with different morphology engineering the precursor molar ratio in a facile wet chemical synthesis route. The materials were structurally and morphologically characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The growth mechanism of the composite structure with varying molar ratio is delineated with oriented attachment self assemble techniques. Photocatalytic activity of CdS/ZnO nanocomposites with varying morphology were explored for the degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) dye in presence of visible light irradiation and the results reveal that the best catalytic performance arises in CdS/ZnO composite with 1: 1 ratio. The antibacterial efficiency of all nanocomposites were investigated on Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumonia without light irradiation. Antibacterial activity of CdS/ZnO nanocomposites were studied using the bacteriological test-well diffusion agar method and results showed significant antibacterial activity in CdS/ZnO composite with 1:3 ratio. Overall, CdS/ZnO nanocomposites excel in different potential applications, such as visible light photocatalysis and antimicrobial activity with their tuneable structure. PMID:27399614

  4. Ovarian teratoma displaying a wide variety of tissue components in a broiler chicken (Gallus Domesticus: morphological heterogeneity of pluripotential germ cell during tumorigenesis

    S. Ohfuji

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous ovarian teratoma was found in a seven-week-old female Chunky broiler chicken that was slaughtered for food. On post-mortem inspection, a spherical tumor mass attaching to a juvenile ovary was found in the abdominal cavity. Histopathologically, the tumor was comprised of immature mesenchymal stroma and a variety of mature tissue elements of mesodermal and ectodermal origin. In addition, there were multiple indistinguishable tissue elements, which showed no malignant cytological features but were unidentifiable as to corresponding embryological layer of origin. These heterogeneous teratoma tissues consisted of a variety of glandular, cystic, duct-like, and tubular structures, some of which exhibited a lining by a mixture of both keratinizing/non-keratinizing stratified squamous epithelial cells and cuboidal/columnar epithelial cells. The ovarian tetatoma was considered a benign and congenital one. The highly diverse differentiation of the teratoma might have manifested a morphological aspect of intrinsic character of the pluripotential germ cells during tumorigenesis.

  5. Ovarian teratoma displaying a wide variety of tissue components in a broiler chicken (Gallus Domesticus): morphological heterogeneity of pluripotential germ cell during tumorigenesis.

    Ohfuji, S

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous ovarian teratoma was found in a seven-week-old female Chunky broiler chicken that was slaughtered for food. On post-mortem inspection, a spherical tumor mass attaching to a juvenile ovary was found in the abdominal cavity. Histopathologically, the tumor was comprised of immature mesenchymal stroma and a variety of mature tissue elements of mesodermal and ectodermal origin. In addition, there were multiple indistinguishable tissue elements, which showed no malignant cytological features but were unidentifiable as to corresponding embryological layer of origin. These heterogeneous teratoma tissues consisted of a variety of glandular, cystic, duct-like, and tubular structures, some of which exhibited a lining by a mixture of both keratinizing/non-keratinizing stratified squamous epithelial cells and cuboidal/columnar epithelial cells. The ovarian tetatoma was considered a benign and congenital one. The highly diverse differentiation of the teratoma might have manifested a morphological aspect of intrinsic character of the pluripotential germ cells during tumorigenesis. PMID:27303655

  6. A new method to determine tissue specific tissue factor thrombomodulin activities: endotoxin and particulate air pollution induced disbalance

    Gerlofs-Nijland Miriam E

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increase in tissue factor (TF and loss in thrombomodulin (TM antigen levels has been described in various inflammatory disorders. The functional consequences of such changes in antigen concentrations in the coagulation balance are, however, not known. This study was designed to assess the consequences of inflammation-driven organ specific functional properties of the procoagulant response. Methods Tissue specific procoagulant activity was assessed by adding tissue homogenate to normal human pool plasma and recording of the thrombin generation curve. The new technique was subsequently applied on two inflammation driven animal models: 1 mouse lipopolysaccharide (LPS induced endotoxemia and 2 spontaneously hypertensive rats exposed to environmental air pollution (particulate matter (PM. Results Addition of lung tissue from untreated animals to human plasma suppressed the endogenous thrombin potential (ETP (175 ± 61 vs. 1437 ± 112 nM.min for control. This inhibitory effect was due to TM, because a it was absent in protein C deficient plasma and b lungs from TMpro/pro mice allowed full thrombin generation (ETP: 1686 ± 209 nM.min. The inhibitory effect of TM was lost after LPS administration to mice, which induced TF activity in lungs of C57Bl/6 mice as well as increased the ETP (941 ± 523 vs. 194 ± 159 nM.min for control. Another pro-inflammatory stimulus, PM dose-dependently increased TF in the lungs of spontaneously hypertensive rats at 4 and 48 hours after PM exposure. The ETP increased up to 48 hours at the highest concentration of PM (1441 ± 289 nM.min vs. saline: 164 ± 64 nM.min, p Conclusion Inflammation associated procoagulant effects in tissues are dependent on variations in activity of the TF-TM balance. The application of these novel organ specific functional assays is a useful tool to monitor inflammation-driven shifts in the coagulation balance within animal or human tissues.

  7. [Standardization of pathoanatomic activities in performing specialized and high-tech morphological studies].

    Vorob'ev, S L; Chibisov, V N; Krivolapov, Iu A

    2006-01-01

    The study reports the standard for the activity of an immunohistochemical laboratory. The standard includes a staff list, objective calculation, and planning the salary in accordance with a real amount of work. On performing the high-tech and labor-intensive morphological studies, the actual spent time essentially differs from the current standards, which requires implementation of organizational, financial, economic, and methodological measures at the federal level. PMID:17290899

  8. Synchrotron soft X-ray imaging and fluorescence microscopy reveal novel features of asbestos body morphology and composition in human lung tissues

    Polentarutti Maurizio

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Occupational or environmental exposure to asbestos fibres is associated with pleural and parenchymal lung diseases. A histopathologic hallmark of exposure to asbestos is the presence in lung parenchyma of the so-called asbestos bodies. They are the final product of biomineralization processes resulting in deposition of endogenous iron and organic matter (mainly proteins around the inhaled asbestos fibres. For shedding light on the formation mechanisms of asbestos bodies it is of fundamental importance to characterize at the same length scales not only their structural morphology and chemical composition but also to correlate them to the possible alterations in the local composition of the surrounding tissues. Here we report the first correlative morphological and chemical characterization of untreated paraffinated histological lung tissue samples with asbestos bodies by means of soft X-ray imaging and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF microscopy, which reveals new features in the elemental lateral distribution. Results The X-ray absorption and phase contrast images and the simultaneously monitored XRF maps of tissue samples have revealed the location, distribution and elemental composition of asbestos bodies and associated nanometric structures. The observed specific morphology and differences in the local Si, Fe, O and Mg content provide distinct fingerprints characteristic for the core asbestos fibre and the ferruginous body. The highest Si content is found in the asbestos fibre, while the shell and ferruginous bodies are characterized by strongly increased content of Mg, Fe and O compared to the adjacent tissue. The XRF and SEM-EDX analyses of the extracted asbestos bodies confirmed an enhanced Mg deposition in the organic asbestos coating. Conclusions The present report demonstrates the potential of the advanced synchrotron-based X-ray imaging and microspectroscopy techniques for studying the response of the lung tissue to the

  9. Superoxide Dismutase (SOD Enzyme Activity Assay in Fasciola spp. Para-sites and Liver Tissue Extract

    M Assady

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this comparative study was to detect superoxide dismutase (SOD activities in Fasciola hepatica, F. gigantica parasites, infected and healthy liver tissues in order to determine of species effects and liver infection on SODs activity level.Methods: Fasciola spp. parasites and sheep liver tissues (healthy and infected liver tissues, 10 samples for each, were collected, homogenized and investigated for protein measurement, protein detection and SOD enzyme activity assay. Protein concentration was measured by Bradford method and SODs band protein was detected on SDS-PAGE. SODs activity was determined by iodonitrotetrazolium chloride, INT, and xanthine substrates. Independent samples t-test was conducted for analysis of SODs activities difference.Results: Protein concentration means were detected for F. hepatica 1.3 mg/ ml, F. gigantica 2.9 mg/ml, healthy liver tissue 5.5 mg/ml and infected liver tissue 1.6 mg/ml (with similar weight sample mass. Specific enzyme activities in the samples were obtained 0.58, 0.57, 0.51, 1.43 U/mg for F. hepatica, F. gigantica, healthy liver and infected liver respectively. Gel electrophoresis of Fasciola spp. and sheep liver tissue extracts revealed a band protein with MW of 60 kDa. The statistical analysis revealed significant difference between SOD activities of Fasciola species and also between SOD activity of liver tissues (P<.05.Conclusion: Fasciola species and liver infection are effective causes on SOD enzyme activity level.

  10. Bardoxolone Methyl Prevents Fat Deposition and Inflammation in Brown Adipose Tissue and Enhances Sympathetic Activity in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Chi H. L. Dinh; Alexander Szabo; Yinghua Yu; Danielle Camer; Qingsheng Zhang; Hongqin Wang; Xu-Feng Huang

    2015-01-01

    Obesity results in changes in brown adipose tissue (BAT) morphology, leading to fat deposition, inflammation, and alterations in sympathetic nerve activity. Bardoxolone methyl (BARD) has been extensively studied for the treatment of chronic diseases. We present for the first time the effects of oral BARD treatment on BAT morphology and associated changes in the brainstem. Three groups (n = 7) of C57BL/6J mice were fed either a high-fat diet (HFD), a high-fat diet supplemented with BARD (HFD/B...

  11. The Study of Morphological Structure, Phase Structure and Molecular Structure of Collagen-PEO 600K Blends for Tissue Engineering Application

    N. F. Mohd Nasir

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A new material which is collagen/ poly (ethylene oxide (PEO blend was developed to determine its possibility as a promising material for tissue scaffold. PEO with average molecular weight of 600,000 and collagen originated from calf skin were dispersed in 0.1 M acetic acid to prepare a concentration of 1 wt% for PEO and 0.15 wt% for collagen. The collagen-PEO600K blend film was then obtained by solution casting method. SEM results shown that by having certain ratio of collagen and PEO, the membrane began to developed porous structures which are possible to assist tissue attachment on the scaffold. The X-ray diffractograms demonstrate PEO 600K influences on the blend thus enhancing crystallinity of collagen. The Infra red spectrum shows intermolecular interactions of collagen and PEO which alter the collagen structure thus explained the membrane morphological changes. Therefore, we concluded that the phase structure and also the molecular structure of the blend are crucial to produce desirable morphological structure of the membrane which is required for a reliable tissue scaffold.

  12. Morphological Characterisation of Unstained and Intact Tissue Micro-architecture by X-ray Computed Micro- and Nano-Tomography

    Walton, Lucy A.; Bradley, Robert S.; Withers, Philip J; Newton, Victoria L.; Watson, Rachel E.B.; Austin, Clare; Sherratt, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Characterisation and quantification of tissue structures is limited by sectioning-induced artefacts and by the difficulties of visualising and segmenting 3D volumes. Here we demonstrate that, even in the absence of X-ray contrast agents, X-ray computed microtomography (microCT) and nanotomography (nanoCT) can circumvent these problems by rapidly resolving compositionally discrete 3D tissue regions (such as the collagen-rich adventitia and elastin-rich lamellae in intact rat arteries) which in...

  13. Fish-isolated strains of Hartmannella vermiformis Page, 1967: morphology, phylogeny and molecular diagnosis of the species in tissue lesions

    Dyková, Iva; Pindová, Z.; Fiala, Ivan; Dvořáková, Helena; Macháčková, Blanka

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 4 (2005), s. 295-303. ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6022202 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : amphizoic amoeba e * Hartmannella vermiformis * morphology Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.138, year: 2005

  14. Lung cancer chemotherapy agents increase procoagulant activity via protein disulfide isomerase-dependent tissue factor decryption.

    Lysov, Zakhar; Swystun, Laura L; Kuruvilla, Sara; Arnold, Andrew; Liaw, Patricia C

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy have an elevated risk for thrombosis. However, the mechanisms by which chemotherapy agents increase the risk for thrombosis remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the mechanism(s) by which lung cancer chemotherapy agents cisplatin, carboplatin, gemcitabine, and paclitaxel elicit increased tissue factor activity on endothelial cells, A549 cells, and monocytes. Tissue factor activity, tissue factor antigen, and phosphatidylserine exposure were measured on chemotherapy-treated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), A549 cells, and monocytes. Cell surface protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) and cell surface free thiol levels were measured on HUVEC and A549 non-small cell lung carcinoma cells. Treatment of HUVECs, A549 cells, and monocytes with lung cancer chemotherapy significantly increased cell surface tissue factor activity. However, elevated tissue factor antigen levels were observed only on cisplatin-treated and gemcitabine-treated monocytes. Cell surface levels of phosphatidylserine were increased on HUVEC and monocytes treated with cisplatin/gemcitabine combination therapy. Chemotherapy also resulted in increased cell surface levels of PDI and reduced cell surface free thiol levels. Glutathione treatment and PDI inhibition, but not phosphatidylserine inhibition, attenuated tissue factor activity. Furthermore, increased tissue factor activity was reversed by reducing cysteines with dithiothreitol. These studies are the first to demonstrate that lung cancer chemotherapy agents increase procoagulant activity on endothelial cells and A549 cells by tissue factor decryption through a disulfide bond formation in a PDI-dependent mechanism. PMID:24911456

  15. Defective peripheral nerve development is linked to abnormal architecture and metabolic activity of adipose tissue in Nscl-2 mutant mice.

    Karen Ruschke

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In mammals the interplay between the peripheral nervous system (PNS and adipose tissue is widely unexplored. We have employed mice, which develop an adult onset of obesity due to the lack the neuronal specific transcription factor Nscl-2 to investigate the interplay between the nervous system and white adipose tissue (WAT. METHODOLOGY: Changes in the architecture and innervation of WAT were compared between wildtype, Nscl2-/-, ob/ob and Nscl2-/-//ob/ob mice using morphological methods, immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. Metabolic alterations in mutant mice and in isolated cells were investigated under basal and stimulated conditions. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found that Nscl-2 mutant mice show a massive reduction of innervation of white epididymal and paired subcutaneous inguinal fat tissue including sensory and autonomic nerves as demonstrated by peripherin and neurofilament staining. Reduction of innervation went along with defects in the formation of the microvasculature, accumulation of cells of the macrophage/preadipocyte lineage, a bimodal distribution of the size of fat cells, and metabolic defects of isolated adipocytes. Despite a relative insulin resistance of white adipose tissue and isolated Nscl-2 mutant adipocytes the serum level of insulin in Nscl-2 mutant mice was only slightly increased. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the reduction of the innervation and vascularization of WAT in Nscl-2 mutant mice leads to the increase of preadipocyte/macrophage-like cells, a bimodal distribution of the size of adipocytes in WAT and an altered metabolic activity of adipocytes.

  16. Design of a novel chimeric tissue plasminogen activator with favorable Vampire bat plasminogen activator properties.

    Kazemali, MohammadReza; Majidzadeh-A, Keivan; Sardari, Soroush; Saadatirad, Amir Hossein; Khalaj, Vahid; Zarei, Najmeh; Barkhordari, Farzaneh; Adeli, Ahmad; Mahboudi, Fereidoun

    2014-12-01

    Fibrinolytic agents are widely used in treatment of the thromboembolic disorders. The new generations like recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA, alteplase) are not showing promising results in clinical practice in spite of displaying specific binding to fibrin in vitro. Vampire bat plasminogen activator (b-PA) is a plasminogen activator with higher fibrin affinity and specificity in comparison to t-PA resulting in reduced probability of hemorrhage. b-PA is also resistant to plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) showing higher half-life compared to other variants of t-PA. However, its non-human origin was a driving force to design a human t-PA with favorable properties of b-PA. In the present study, we designed a chimeric t-PA with desirable b-PA properties and this new molecule was called as CT-b. The construct was prepared through kringle 2 domain removal and replacement of t-PA finger domain with b-PA one. In addition, the KHRR sequence at the initial part of protease domain was replaced by four alanine residues. The novel construct was integrated in Pichia pastoris genome by electroporation. Catalytic activity was investigated in the presence and absence of fibrin. The purified protein was analyzed by western blot. Fibrin binding and PAI resistance assays were also conducted. The activity of the recombinant protein in the presence of fibrin was 1560 times more than its activity in the absence of fibrin, showing its higher specificity to fibrin. The fibrin binding of CT-b was 1.2 fold more than t-PA. In addition, it was inhibited by PAI enzyme 44% less than t-PA. Although the presented data demonstrate a promising in vitro activity, more in vivo studies are needed to confirm the therapeutic advantage of this novel plasminogen activator. PMID:25442953

  17. Characterizing active and inactive brown adipose tissue in adult humans using PET-CT and MR imaging.

    Gifford, Aliya; Towse, Theodore F; Walker, Ronald C; Avison, Malcolm J; Welch, E Brian

    2016-07-01

    Activated brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays an important role in thermogenesis and whole body metabolism in mammals. Positron emission tomography (PET)-computed tomography (CT) imaging has identified depots of BAT in adult humans, igniting scientific interest. The purpose of this study is to characterize both active and inactive supraclavicular BAT in adults and compare the values to those of subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT). We obtained [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([(18)F]FDG) PET-CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of 25 healthy adults. Unlike [(18)F]FDG PET, which can detect only active BAT, MRI is capable of detecting both active and inactive BAT. The MRI-derived fat signal fraction (FSF) of active BAT was significantly lower than that of inactive BAT (means ± SD; 60.2 ± 7.6 vs. 62.4 ± 6.8%, respectively). This change in tissue morphology was also reflected as a significant increase in Hounsfield units (HU; -69.4 ± 11.5 vs. -74.5 ± 9.7 HU, respectively). Additionally, the CT HU, MRI FSF, and MRI R2* values are significantly different between BAT and WAT, regardless of the activation status of BAT. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to quantify PET-CT and MRI FSF measurements and utilize a semiautomated algorithm to identify inactive and active BAT in the same adult subjects. Our findings support the use of these metrics to characterize and distinguish between BAT and WAT and lay the foundation for future MRI analysis with the hope that some day MRI-based delineation of BAT can stand on its own. PMID:27166284

  18. Active Tectonics in crossroads of an evolving orogen and morphological consequences: Anatolia

    Koral, Hayrettin

    2016-04-01

    Anatolia lies in a curved setting of the active Alpine Mountain Range and is located in crossroads of the European and Asian terrains. It is one of the fastest deforming land in the world, manifested by seismicity, characteristic landforms and GPS measurements. Active tectonics in Anatolia provides not only a comparable geological model for the past orogens, but also a laboratory case for morphological consequences of an orogenic processes. Anatolia comprise different tectonic subsettings with its own characteristics. Northern part is influenced by tectonic characteristics of the Black Sea Basin, the Pontides and the Caucasian Range; northwestern part by the Balkanides; eastern-southeastern part by the Bitlis-Zagros suture; and south-southwestern part by the eastern Mediterranean subduction setting. Much of its present tectonic complexity was inherited from the convergence dominant plate tectonic setting of the platelets prior to the Middle-Neogene. Beginning about 11 Ma ago, the deformed and uplifted landmass unable to accommodate further deformation in Anatolia and ongoing tectonic activity gave rise to rearrangement of tectonic forces and westerly translational movements. Formation of major strike-slip faults in Anatolia including the North and East Anatolian Faults and a new platelet called the Anatolian Plate are the consequences of this episode. Such change in the tectonic regime has led to modification of previously-formed landscape, modification and sometimes termination of previously-formed basins. Evidence is present in the Plio-Quaternary stratigraphy, tectonic characteristics and morphology of the well-studied areas. This presentation will discuss active tectonic features of the northwestern, southwestern and eastern Anatolian subsettings and their influence on morphology that is closely related to sites of pre-historical human settlement.

  19. Tissue hypoxygenation activates the adrenomedullin system in vivo

    Hofbauer, K H; Jensen, B L; Kurtz, A; Sandner, P

    2000-01-01

    Our study aimed to investigate the influence of tissue hypo-oxygenation on the adrenomedullin (ADM) system in vivo. For this purpose, male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to normobaric hypoxia (8% oxygen) or to functional anemia [0.1% carbon monoxide (CO)] or to cobalt chloride (60 mg/kg) for 6 h......-fold in all organs examined. Similarly, ADM-R mRNA abundance increased during hypoxia and CO inhalation in all organs examined with exception of the liver. The effects of hypoxia and of CO inhalation on ADM and ADM-R mRNAs were mimicked by injection of cobaltous chloride. Hypoxia also significantly...

  20. Morphological evaluation of the active tip of six types of orthodontic mini-implants

    Flávia Mitiko Fernandes Kitahara-Céia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To morphologically evaluate the active tip of six different types of self-drilling mini-implants for orthodontic anchorage. METHODS: Images of the active tips of the mini-implants were obtained with a Zeiss optical microscope, Stemi 200-C with magnification of 1.6X. The images of the surface were viewed with the Axio Vision program (Zeiss, Jena, Germany to calculate linear and angular measures. Mini-implant morphology and the details of tips and threads were also evaluated through Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM (JEOL, model JSM5800 LV - JEOL, Tokyo, Japan with magnifications of 90X and 70X, respectively. The evaluation of the mini-implant taper shape was assessed using to the formula: (b - a / (2 x D. RESULTS: The following variables were measured: (1 active tip width, (2 major diameter of external thread, (3 minor diameter of internal thread and taper of the mini-implant, (4 number of threads and lead of the screw, (5 angle of thread, (6 flank width and (7 pitch width. CONCLUSION: Mini-implants from different manufacturers presented active tips with different characteristics. Mechanical testing is necessary to cor-relate the analyzed characteristics aiming to determine the best performance.

  1. AMP-Activated Kinase (AMPK) Activation by AICAR in Human White Adipocytes Derived from Pericardial White Adipose Tissue Stem Cells Induces a Partial Beige-Like Phenotype

    Abdul-Rahman, Omar; Kristóf, Endre; Doan-Xuan, Quang-Minh; Vida, András; Nagy, Lilla; Horváth, Ambrus; Simon, József; Maros, Tamás; Szentkirályi, István; Palotás, Lehel; Debreceni, Tamás; Csizmadia, Péter; Szerafin, Tamás; Fodor, Tamás; Szántó, Magdolna; Tóth, Attila; Kiss, Borbála; Bacsó, Zsolt; Bai, Péter

    2016-01-01

    Beige adipocytes are special cells situated in the white adipose tissue. Beige adipocytes, lacking thermogenic cues, morphologically look quite similar to regular white adipocytes, but with a markedly different response to adrenalin. White adipocytes respond to adrenergic stimuli by enhancing lipolysis, while in beige adipocytes adrenalin induces mitochondrial biogenesis too. A key step in the differentiation and function of beige adipocytes is the deacetylation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARγ) by SIRT1 and the consequent mitochondrial biogenesis. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an upstream activator of SIRT1, therefore we set out to investigate the role of AMPK in beige adipocyte differentiation using human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hADMSCs) from pericardial adipose tissue. hADMSCs were differentiated to white and beige adipocytes and the differentiation medium of the white adipocytes was supplemented with 100 μM [(2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-(4-Carbamoyl-5-aminoimidazol-1-yl)-3,4-dihydroxyoxolan-2-yl]methyl dihydrogen phosphate (AICAR), a known activator of AMPK. The activation of AMPK with AICAR led to the appearance of beige-like morphological properties in differentiated white adipocytes. Namely, smaller lipid droplets appeared in AICAR-treated white adipocytes in a similar fashion as in beige cells. Moreover, in AICAR-treated white adipocytes the mitochondrial network was more fused than in white adipocytes; a fused mitochondrial system was characteristic to beige adipocytes. Despite the morphological similarities between AICAR-treated white adipocytes and beige cells, functionally AICAR-treated white adipocytes were similar to white adipocytes. We were unable to detect increases in basal or cAMP-induced oxygen consumption rate (a marker of mitochondrial biogenesis) when comparing control and AICAR-treated white adipocytes. Similarly, markers of beige adipocytes such as TBX1, UCP1, CIDEA, PRDM16 and TMEM26 remained the same when

  2. AMP-Activated Kinase (AMPK Activation by AICAR in Human White Adipocytes Derived from Pericardial White Adipose Tissue Stem Cells Induces a Partial Beige-Like Phenotype.

    Omar Abdul-Rahman

    Full Text Available Beige adipocytes are special cells situated in the white adipose tissue. Beige adipocytes, lacking thermogenic cues, morphologically look quite similar to regular white adipocytes, but with a markedly different response to adrenalin. White adipocytes respond to adrenergic stimuli by enhancing lipolysis, while in beige adipocytes adrenalin induces mitochondrial biogenesis too. A key step in the differentiation and function of beige adipocytes is the deacetylation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARγ by SIRT1 and the consequent mitochondrial biogenesis. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK is an upstream activator of SIRT1, therefore we set out to investigate the role of AMPK in beige adipocyte differentiation using human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hADMSCs from pericardial adipose tissue. hADMSCs were differentiated to white and beige adipocytes and the differentiation medium of the white adipocytes was supplemented with 100 μM [(2R,3S,4R,5R-5-(4-Carbamoyl-5-aminoimidazol-1-yl-3,4-dihydroxyoxolan-2-yl]methyl dihydrogen phosphate (AICAR, a known activator of AMPK. The activation of AMPK with AICAR led to the appearance of beige-like morphological properties in differentiated white adipocytes. Namely, smaller lipid droplets appeared in AICAR-treated white adipocytes in a similar fashion as in beige cells. Moreover, in AICAR-treated white adipocytes the mitochondrial network was more fused than in white adipocytes; a fused mitochondrial system was characteristic to beige adipocytes. Despite the morphological similarities between AICAR-treated white adipocytes and beige cells, functionally AICAR-treated white adipocytes were similar to white adipocytes. We were unable to detect increases in basal or cAMP-induced oxygen consumption rate (a marker of mitochondrial biogenesis when comparing control and AICAR-treated white adipocytes. Similarly, markers of beige adipocytes such as TBX1, UCP1, CIDEA, PRDM16 and TMEM26 remained

  3. Dietary zinc oxide in weaned pigs--effects on performance, tissue concentrations, morphology, neutrophil functions and faecal microflora.

    Jensen-Waern, M; Melin, L; Lindberg, R; Johannisson, A; Petersson, L; Wallgren, P

    1998-01-01

    The uptake and distribution of zinc in tissues and the effects of 2500 ppm dietary zinc oxide on health, faecal microflora, and the functions of circulating neutrophils were evaluated in weaned pigs. One group was fed a zinc supplement diet and another group was used as a control. All pigs remained healthy throughout the study, but the supplemented animals showed better performance than the controls. The serum zinc values rose rapidly. At autopsy, carried out at the age of 63 days, the zinc concentrations in liver tissue were 4.5 times higher, and in renal tissue two times higher in the supplemented group than in controls (Ppigs. No effect on the number of excreted Escherichia coli and enterococci per gram faeces or on the functions of circulating neutrophils was observed. Dietary supplementation with 2500 ppm ZnO for up to two weeks after weaning appears to be potentially beneficial in the prevention of postweaning diarrhoea in pigs. PMID:9690608

  4. Development and differentiation of adipose tissue

    Ivković-Lazar Tatjana A.

    2003-01-01

    Introduction For years adipose tissue has been considered inert, serving only as a depot of energy surplus. However, there have been recent changes, undoubtedly due to advancement of methods for studying the morphology and metabolic activities of adipose tissue (microdialysis and adipose tissue catheterization). In normal-weight subjects, adipose tissue makes 10-12% with males and 15-20% with females. About 80 % of adipose tissue is located under the skin, and the rest envelops the internal o...

  5. Influence of USP laser radiation on cell morphology: HaCat and MG-63 cell lines for bone and soft tissue modelling in dentistry

    Meister, Joerg; Schelle, Florian; Beier, Imke; Bourauel, Christoph; Frentzen, Matthias; Kraus, Dominik

    Due to the high intensities of USP laser radiation, the interaction with matter is always attended with a plasma formation. Therefore the surrounding tissue can be influenced by heat generation and additional light emission from the UV up to the near and mid infrared. In dentistry it is of importance that the treatment of bone and soft tissues, i.e. oral mucosa, with a USP laser should not cause any kind of morphological changes on the cell level leading to a delayed wound healing or cell mutation. HaCaT keratinocyte cells were used for epidermal (soft tissue) and MG-63 osteoblast-like cells for hard tissue (bone) modelling. Cell growing was realized on glas cover slips. Irradiation was carried out with a USP Nd:YVO4 laser having a center wavelength at 1064 nm. Based on the pulse duration of 8 ps and a pulse repetition rate of 500 kHz the laser emits an average power of 9 W. For efficiency testing of cell removal on glas cover slips, 1, 5, 25, 50 and 75 repetitions of the scanning pattern (scan loops) were used. Heat distribution during laser irradiation was measured with an infrared camera system. Subsequently haematoxylin staining and SEM investigations were used to analyse the morphological changes. Differences of cell removal efficiency were observed with repetitions =50 were cell-free. Additionally, repetitions >=25 showed side effects for both cell lines. Cell destruction in both cell lines could be verified using the haematoxylin staining and the SEM pictures.

  6. The morphological and morphometric study of tissues of dentoalveolar system in children with impaired course of the antenatal period.

    Drogomiretskaya M.S.; Ahmad Saleh Khalyaf Salama

    2016-01-01

    Anomalies and deformation of dental system in children and adolescents contribute not only to the deterioration of dental health, bat quite often this is the cause of a wide range of somatic pathology. The aim of our study was to determine risk factors of dental system myofunctional disorders in children with impaired course of the antenatal period using morphological and morphometric studies. The changes that have been defined in the organs examined were dystrophic and dyscirculatory and di...

  7. p53 increases caspase-6 expression and activation in muscle tissue expressing mutant huntingtin

    Ehrnhoefer, Dagmar E; Skotte, Niels H; Ladha, Safia;

    2014-01-01

    as in muscle tissues from two different HD mouse models. p53, a transcriptional activator of caspase-6, is upregulated in neuronal cells and tissues expressing mutant huntingtin. Activation of p53 leads to a dramatic increase in levels of caspase-6 mRNA, caspase-6 activity and cleavage of lamin A....... Using mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) from YAC128 mice, we show that this increase in caspase-6 activity can be mitigated by pifithrin-α (pifα), an inhibitor of p53 transcriptional activity, but not through the inhibition of p53's mitochondrial pro-apoptotic function. Remarkably, the p53-mediated...... increase in caspase-6 expression and activation is exacerbated in cells and tissues of both neuronal and peripheral origin expressing mutant huntingtin (Htt). These findings suggest that the presence of the mutant Htt protein enhances p53 activity and lowers the apoptotic threshold, which activates caspase...

  8. Influence of wastewater treatment plants' operational conditions on activated sludge microbiological and morphological characteristics.

    Amanatidou, Elisavet; Samiotis, Georgios; Trikoilidou, Eleni; Tzelios, Dimitrios; Michailidis, Avraam

    2016-01-01

    The effect of wastewater composition and operating conditions in activated sludge (AS) microbiological and morphological characteristics was studied in three AS wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs): (a) a high organic load slaughterhouse AS WWTP, operating at complete solids retention, monitored from its start-up and for 425 days; (b) a seasonally operational, low nitrogen load fruit canning industry AS WWTP, operating at complete solids retention, monitored from its start-up and until the end of the season (87 days); (c) a municipal AS WWTP, treating wastewater from a semi-combined sewer system, monitored during the transitions from dry to rainy and again to dry periods of operation. The sludge microbiological and morphological characteristics were correlated to nutrients' availability, solids retention time, hydraulic retention time, dissolved oxygen, mixed liquor suspended solids (MLVSS), organic load (F/M) and substrate utilization rate. The AS WWTPs' operation was distinguished in periods based on biomass growth phase, characterized by different biological and morphological characteristics and on operational conditions. An anoxic/aerobic selector minimizes the readily biodegradable compounds in influent, inhibiting filamentous growth. Plant performance controlling is presented in a logic flowchart in which operational parameters are linked to microbial manipulation, resulting in a useful tool for researchers and engineers. PMID:26145184

  9. Effect of substrate (ZnO morphology on enzyme immobilization and its catalytic activity

    Huang Xuelei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, zinc oxide (ZnO nanocrystals with different morphologies were synthesized and used as substrates for enzyme immobilization. The effects of morphology of ZnO nanocrystals on enzyme immobilization and their catalytic activities were investigated. The ZnO nanocrystals were prepared through a hydrothermal procedure using tetramethylammonium hydroxide as a mineralizing agent. The control on the morphology of ZnO nanocrystals was achieved by varying the ratio of CH3OH to H2O, which were used as solvents in the hydrothermal reaction system. The surface of as-prepared ZnO nanoparticles was functionalized with amino groups using 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane and tetraethyl orthosilicate, and the amino groups on the surface were identified and calculated by FT-IR and the Kaiser assay. Horseradish peroxidase was immobilized on as-modified ZnO nanostructures with glutaraldehyde as a crosslinker. The results showed that three-dimensional nanomultipod is more appropriate for the immobilization of enzyme used further in catalytic reaction.

  10. Effect of substrate (ZnO) morphology on enzyme immobilization and its catalytic activity

    Zhang, Yan; Wu, Haixia; Huang, Xuelei; Zhang, Jingyan; Guo, Shouwu

    2011-07-01

    In this study, zinc oxide (ZnO) nanocrystals with different morphologies were synthesized and used as substrates for enzyme immobilization. The effects of morphology of ZnO nanocrystals on enzyme immobilization and their catalytic activities were investigated. The ZnO nanocrystals were prepared through a hydrothermal procedure using tetramethylammonium hydroxide as a mineralizing agent. The control on the morphology of ZnO nanocrystals was achieved by varying the ratio of CH3OH to H2O, which were used as solvents in the hydrothermal reaction system. The surface of as-prepared ZnO nanoparticles was functionalized with amino groups using 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane and tetraethyl orthosilicate, and the amino groups on the surface were identified and calculated by FT-IR and the Kaiser assay. Horseradish peroxidase was immobilized on as-modified ZnO nanostructures with glutaraldehyde as a crosslinker. The results showed that three-dimensional nanomultipod is more appropriate for the immobilization of enzyme used further in catalytic reaction.

  11. Antifungal activity of clotrimazole against Candida albicans depends on carbon sources, growth phase and morphology.

    Kasper, Lydia; Miramón, Pedro; Jablonowski, Nadja; Wisgott, Stephanie; Wilson, Duncan; Brunke, Sascha; Hube, Bernhard

    2015-07-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis, a superficial infection caused predominantly by the pathogenic fungus Candida albicans, is frequently treated with clotrimazole. Some drug formulations contain lactate for improved solubility. Lactate may modify C. albicans physiology and drug sensitivity by serving as a carbon source for the fungus and/or affecting local pH. Here, we explored the effects of lactate, in combination with pH changes, on C. albicans proliferation, morphology and clotrimazole sensitivity. Moreover, we determined the influence of growth phase and morphology per se on drug sensitivity. We showed that utilization of lactate as a carbon source did not promote fast fungal proliferation or filamentation. Lactate had no influence on clotrimazole-mediated killing of C. albicans in standard fungal cultivation medium but had an additive effect on the fungicidal clotrimazole action under in vitro vagina-simulative conditions. Moreover, clotrimazole-mediated killing was growth-phase and morphology dependent. Post-exponential cells were resistant to the fungicidal action of clotrimazole, whilst logarithmic cells were sensitive, and hyphae showed the highest susceptibility. Finally, we showed that treatment of pre-formed C. albicans hyphae with sublethal concentrations of clotrimazole induced a reversion to yeast-phase growth. As C. albicans hyphae are considered the pathogenic morphology during mucosal infections, these data suggest that elevated fungicidal activity of clotrimazole against hyphae plus clotrimazole-induced hyphae-to-yeast reversion may help to dampen acute vaginal infections by reducing the relative proportion of hyphae and thus shifting to a non-invasive commensal-like population. In addition, lactate as an ingredient of clotrimazole formulations may potentiate clotrimazole killing of C. albicans in the vaginal microenvironment. PMID:25976001

  12. Reductant and sequence effects on the morphology and catalytic activity of peptide-capped Au nanoparticles.

    Briggs, Beverly D; Li, Yue; Swihart, Mark T; Knecht, Marc R

    2015-04-29

    The use of peptides as capping ligands for materials synthesis has been widely explored. The ambient conditions of bio-inspired syntheses using molecules such as peptides represent an attractive route for controlling the morphology and activity of nanomaterials. Although various reductants can be used in such syntheses, no comprehensive comparison of the same bio-based ligand with different reductants has been reported. In this contribution, peptides AuBP1, AuBP2, and Pd4 are used in the synthesis of Au nanoparticles. The reductant strength is varied by using three different reducing agents: NaBH4, hydrazine, and ascorbic acid. These changes in reductant produce significant morphological differences in the final particles. The weakest reductant, ascorbic acid, yields large, globular nanoparticles with rough surfaces, whereas the strongest reductant, NaBH4, yields small, spherical, smooth nanomaterials. Studies of 4-nitrophenol reduction using the Au nanoparticles as catalysts reveal a decrease in activation energy for the large, globular, rough materials relative to the small, spherical, smooth materials. These studies demonstrate that modifying the reductant is a simple way to control the activity of peptide-capped nanoparticles. PMID:25839335

  13. Characterization and inhibitory activity of chitosan on hyphae growth and morphology of Botrytis cinerea plant pathogen

    Sebastião Silva Junior

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Low and high molecular weight chitosan were tested in different concentrations and growth times with the aim to evaluate the inhibitory activity against Botrytis cinerea, a very important plant pathogen. Tested chitosans were characterized by vibratory spectroscopy and elementary analyzes to determine the deacetylation degree. In addiction molar mass was estimated by viscosity measuring. Scanning electron microscopy was utilized for antimicrobial activity observation. Results showed that both chitosans markedly inhibited fungal growth, which was effected by incubation time and chitosan concentration. Scanning electron microscopy observations revealed that chitosan induced changes in surface morphology. The present study show that chitosan is capable of inhibit the growth and cause serious damage to the cell structure of the B. cinerea, as well as have the ability to form an impervious layer around the cell. Therefore, chitosan could be considered as a potential alternative for synthetic fungicides.Industrial relevance. Ultrastructural analysis showed that chitosan is capable of causing serious damage to the cell structure of the B. cinerea, as well as have the ability to form an impervious layer around the cell. Chitosan could inhibit the growth of B. cinerea in vitro and consequently may be considered as a potential alternative in replacement of synthetic fungicides.Keywords. biopolymer; chitosan; antifungal activity; fungal morphology; electron microscopy

  14. Did Adult Diurnal Activity Influence the Evolution of Wing Morphology in Opoptera Butterflies?

    Penz, C M; Heine, K B

    2016-02-01

    The butterfly genus Opoptera includes eight species, three of which have diurnal habits while the others are crepuscular (the usual activity period for members of the tribe Brassolini). Although never measured in the field, it is presumed that diurnal Opoptera species potentially spend more time flying than their crepuscular relatives. If a shift to diurnal habits potentially leads to a higher level of activity and energy expenditure during flight, then selection should operate on increased aerodynamic and energetic efficiency, leading to changes in wing shape. Accordingly, we ask whether diurnal habits have influenced the evolution of wing morphology in Opoptera. Using phylogenetically independent contrasts and Wilcoxon rank sum tests, we confirmed our expectation that the wings of diurnal species have higher aspect ratios (ARs) and lower wing centroids (WCs) than crepuscular congeners. These wing shape characteristics are known to promote energy efficiency during flight. Three Opoptera wing morphotypes established a priori significantly differed in AR and WC values. The crepuscular, cloud forest dweller Opoptera staudingeri (Godman & Salvin) was exceptional in having an extended forewing tip and the highest AR and lowest WC within Opoptera, possibly to facilitate flight in a cooler environment. Our study is the first to investigate how butterfly wing morphology might evolve as a response to a behavioral shift in adult time of activity. PMID:26429581

  15. Sex and depot differences in ex vivo adipose tissue fatty acid storage and glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase activity

    Morgan-Bathke, Maria; Chen, Liang; Oberschneider, Elisabeth; Harteneck, Debra; Jensen, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue fatty acid storage varies according to sex, adipose tissue depot, and degree of fat gain. However, the mechanism(s) for these variations is not completely understood. We examined whether differences in adipose tissue glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) might play a role in these variations. We optimized an enzyme activity assay for total GPAT and GPAT1 activity in human adipose tissue and measured GPAT activity. Omental and subcutaneous adipose tissue was collected from...

  16. Soot Aerosol Particles as Cloud Condensation Nuclei: from Ice Nucleation Activity to Ice Crystal Morphology

    Pirim, Claire; Ikhenazene, Raouf; Ortega, Isamel Kenneth; Carpentier, Yvain; Focsa, Cristian; Chazallon, Bertrand; Ouf, François-Xavier

    2016-04-01

    Emissions of solid-state particles (soot) from engine exhausts due to incomplete fuel combustion is considered to influence ice and liquid water cloud droplet activation [1]. The activity of these aerosols would originate from their ability to be important centers of ice-particle nucleation, as they would promote ice formation above water homogeneous freezing point. Soot particles are reported to be generally worse ice nuclei than mineral dust because they activate nucleation at higher ice-supersaturations for deposition nucleation and at lower temperatures for immersion freezing than ratios usually expected for homogeneous nucleation [2]. In fact, there are still numerous opened questions as to whether and how soot's physico-chemical properties (structure, morphology and chemical composition) can influence their nucleation ability. Therefore, systematic investigations of soot aerosol nucleation activity via one specific nucleation mode, here deposition nucleation, combined with thorough structural and compositional analyzes are needed in order to establish any association between the particles' activity and their physico-chemical properties. In addition, since the morphology of the ice crystals can influence their radiative properties [3], we investigated their morphology as they grow over both soot and pristine substrates at different temperatures and humidity ratios. In the present work, Combustion Aerosol STandart soot samples were produced from propane using various experimental conditions. Their nucleation activity was studied in deposition mode (from water vapor), and monitored using a temperature-controlled reactor in which the sample's relative humidity is precisely measured with a cryo-hygrometer. Formation of water/ice onto the particles is followed both optically and spectroscopically, using a microscope coupled to a Raman spectrometer. Vibrational signatures of hydroxyls (O-H) emerge when the particle becomes hydrated and are used to characterize ice

  17. Tissue plasminogen activator in the treatment of superior vena caval thrombosis associated with parenteral nutrition.

    Barclay, G R; Allen, K.; Pennington, C R

    1990-01-01

    Two patients, one of whom was pregnant, developed superior vena caval thrombosis while receiving central parenteral nutrition. They were successfully treated with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA).

  18. A stereotaxic, population-averaged T1w ovine brain atlas including cerebral morphology and tissue volumes

    Nitzsche, Björn; Frey, Stephen; Collins, Louis D.; Seeger, Johannes; Lobsien, Donald; Dreyer, Antje; Kirsten, Holger; Stoffel, Michael H.; Fonov, Vladimir S.; Boltze, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Standard stereotaxic reference systems play a key role in human brain studies. Stereotaxic coordinate systems have also been developed for experimental animals including non-human primates, dogs, and rodents. However, they are lacking for other species being relevant in experimental neuroscience including sheep. Here, we present a spatial, unbiased ovine brain template with tissue probability maps (TPM) that offer a detailed stereotaxic reference frame for anatomical features and localization...

  19. A stereotaxic, population-averaged T1w ovine brain atlas including cerebral morphology and tissue volumes

    Björn Nitzsche; Stephen Frey; Johannes Seeger; Donald Lobsien; Antje Dreyer; Holger Kirsten; Stoffel, Michael H.; Johannes Boltze

    2015-01-01

    Standard stereotaxic reference systems play a key role in human brain studies. Stereotaxic coordinate systems have also been developed for experimental animals including non-human primates, dogs and rodents. However, they are lacking for other species being relevant in experimental neuroscience including sheep. Here, we present a spatial, unbiased ovine brain template with tissue probability maps (TPM) that offer a detailed stereotaxic reference frame for anatomical features and localization ...

  20. Polyurethane/fluor-hydroxyapatite nanocomposite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Part I: morphological, physical, and mechanical characterization

    Azadeh Asefnejad; Aliasghar Behnamghader; Mohammad Taghi Khorasani; et al

    2011-01-01

    Azadeh Asefnejad1, Aliasghar Behnamghader2, Mohammad Taghi Khorasani3, Babak Farsadzadeh11Department of Biomedical Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran; 2Materials and Energy Research Center, Tehran, Iran; 3Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, Tehran, IranAbstract: In this study, new nano-fluor-hydroxyapatite (nFHA)/polyurethane composite scaffolds were fabricated for potential use in bone tissue engineering. Polyester urethane samples were synt...

  1. Morphological study of the radioprotective effect of vitamin E (dl-alpha-tocopheryl) in tissue reparation in rats

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the action of the vitamin E as a radioprotective agent in the process of tissue reparation in rats submitted to a surgical procedure, which consisted of a wound done in the fore dorsal area. The animals were divided into five groups: group C (controls) - wound; group VE - previous treatment with vitamin E (90 UI); group IR - wound and irradiation of the borders three days after surgery; group VEIR - previous treatment with 90 UI of the vitamin E and irradiation of the borders three days after the surgery; group OIR - previous treatment with olive oil and irradiation of the borders three days after surgery. The radioprotective effect of the vitamin E was evaluated using hematoxylin-eosin stained specimens in order to identify granulation tissue, at 4, 7, 14 and 21 days after the surgical procedures. The results showed that 6 Gy of electron irradiation with a beam of 6 MeV caused retardation of the tissue repairing process and that vitamin E was effective as a radioprotective agent. (author)

  2. Influence of scaffold morphology on co-cultures of human endothelial and adipose tissue-derived stem cells.

    Arnal-Pastor, M; Martínez-Ramos, C; Vallés-Lluch, A; Pradas, M Monleón

    2016-06-01

    The interior of tissue engineering scaffolds must be vascularizable and allow adequate nutrients perfusion in order to ensure the viability of the cells colonizing them. The promotion of rapid vascularization of scaffolds is critical for thick artificial constructs. In the present study co-cultures of human endothelial and adipose tissue-derived stem cells have been performed in poly(ethyl acrylate) scaffolds with two different pore structures: grid-like (PEA-o) or sponge-like (PEA-s), in combination with a self-assembling peptide gel filling the pores, which aims to mimic the physiological niche. After 2 and 7 culture days, cell adhesion, proliferation and migration, the expression of cell surface markers like CD31 and CD90 and the release of VEGF were assessed by means of immunocytochemistry, scanning electronic microscopy, flow cytometry and ELISA analyses. The study demonstrated that PEA-s scaffolds promoted greater cell organization into tubular-like structures than PEA-o scaffolds, and this was enhanced by the presence of the peptide gel. Paracrine signaling from adipose cells significantly improved endothelial cell viability, proving the advantageous combination of this system for obtaining easily vascularizable tissue engineered grafts. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 1523-1533, 2016. PMID:26860551

  3. Advancement of Molecular Morphology

    顾江

    2004-01-01

    @@ Molecular morphology is a new discipline of medical science that studies morphology at the molecular level. This includes the investigation of occurrence and distribution of proteins, peptides, DNA and RNA sequences at the tissue, cellular, and ultrastructural levels.

  4. The Drosophila hindgut lacks constitutively active adult stem cells but proliferates in response to tissue damage

    D.T., Fox; Spradling, A.C.

    2009-01-01

    The adult Drosophila hindgut was recently reported to contain active, tissue-replenishing stem cells, like those of the midgut, but located within an anterior ring so as to comprise a single giant crypt. In contrast to this view, we observed no active stem cells and little cell turnover in adult hindgut tissue based on clonal marking and BrdU incorporation studies. Again contradicting the previous proposal, we showed that the adult hindgut is not generated by anterior stem cells during larval...

  5. Tissue distribution and regulation of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in obese mice.

    Samad, F; Loskutoff, D J

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although elevated plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is associated with obesity and may be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, the mechanism(s) that lead to this elevation, and the tissue/cellular origins of this increase, remain to be defined. In this report, we have addressed these questions using genetically obese mice (ob/ob) and their lean counterparts (+/?). MATERIALS AND METHODS: PAI-1 activity and antigen levels were determined using a tissue-type plasminogen ...

  6. Close temporal coupling of neuronal activity and tissue oxygen responses in rodent whisker barrel cortex

    Li, Jennifer; Bravo, Diego S.; Upton, A. Louise; Gilmour, Gary; Tricklebank, Mark; Fillenz, Marianne; Martin, Chris; Lowry, John P.; Bannerman, David M.; McHugh, Stephen B.

    2011-01-01

    Neuronal activity elicits metabolic and vascular responses, during which oxygen is first consumed and then supplied to the tissue via an increase in cerebral blood flow. Understanding the spatial and temporal dynamics of blood and tissue oxygen (To2 ) responses following neuronal activity is crucial for understanding the physiological basis of functional neuroimaging signals. However, our knowledge is limited because previous To2 measurements have been made at low temporal resolution...

  7. Penta-L-lysine Potentiates Fibrin-Independent Activity of Human Tissue Plasminogen Activator.

    Rehan, Mohammad; Sagar, Amin; Sharma, Vandna; Mishra, Sanskruti; Ashish; Sahni, Girish

    2015-10-22

    The therapeutic action of tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) is a two-step process: (1) binding to lysine-rich fibrin (Km event) and (2) converting local plasminogen into plasmin (Kcat event). Overcoming limitations of other structural biophysics methods, we wanted to employ small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) to visualize what shape changes occur/accompany t-PA activation, but the prime hurdle was the polydisperse nature of the fibrin, which occluded scattering information from t-PA. Earlier, larger polylysine peptides have been used to potentiate activation of t-PA, so while screening short polylysine peptides as alternatives to fibrin or larger peptides, we found that penta-polylysine (P5) specifically activates t-PA in a dose-dependent manner, averaging to almost 3-fold more than in the absence of any peptide. SAXS data analysis confirmed that P5 does not induce association of t-PA molecules, and a narrower peak profile of the Kratky plot indicated that P5 binding quenches inherent motion in t-PA. Shape reconstruction of t-PA ∓ P5 revealed that P5 closes the "gap" between the two gross domains of t-PA, viz. fused F/E, K1 and K2 domains, and the P domain. Docking experiments suggested that, while other polylysine peptides preferentially interacted with the surfaces of kringle domains, P5 "slipped into" the gap/groove between K2 and P domains, thereby mediating a substantial increase in the number of long-range interactions between the K2 domain and exosites in the P domain. We report here dissection of shape events involved in between Km/Kcat steps of t-PA activation, which can pave the way toward the search for small molecule function regulator(s) of t-PA. PMID:26447340

  8. Toxicity of azodrin on the morphology and acetylcholinesterase activity of the earthworm Eisenia foetida

    The acute toxicity of azodrin (monocrotophos, an organophosphorus insecticide) was determined on a soil organism, Eisenia foetida. The median lethal concentrations (LC50) were derived from a 48-h paper contact test and from artificial soil tests. The LC50 of azodrin in the paper contact test was 0.46±0.1 μg cm-2 (23±6 mg L-1) and those in the 7- and 14-day artificial soil tests were 171±21 and 132±20 mg kg-1, respectively. The neurotoxic potentiality of azodrin was assessed by using a marker enzyme, acetylcholinesterase (AChE; EC 3.1.1.7) in both in vitro and in vivo experiments. The progressive signs of morphological destruction are correlated with percentage inhibition of AChE in the in vivo experiments. The kinetics of AChE activity in the presence and absence of azodrin indicated that the toxicant is competitive in nature. This study demonstrated that azodrin causes concentration-dependent changes in the morphology and AChE activity of the earthworm E. foetida

  9. Three-dimensional imaging methods for quantitative analysis of facial soft tissues and skeletal morphology in patients with orofacial clefts: a systematic review.

    Mette A R Kuijpers

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Current guidelines for evaluating cleft palate treatments are mostly based on two-dimensional (2D evaluation, but three-dimensional (3D imaging methods to assess treatment outcome are steadily rising. OBJECTIVE: To identify 3D imaging methods for quantitative assessment of soft tissue and skeletal morphology in patients with cleft lip and palate. DATA SOURCES: Literature was searched using PubMed (1948-2012, EMBASE (1980-2012, Scopus (2004-2012, Web of Science (1945-2012, and the Cochrane Library. The last search was performed September 30, 2012. Reference lists were hand searched for potentially eligible studies. There was no language restriction. STUDY SELECTION: We included publications using 3D imaging techniques to assess facial soft tissue or skeletal morphology in patients older than 5 years with a cleft lip with/or without cleft palate. We reviewed studies involving the facial region when at least 10 subjects in the sample size had at least one cleft type. Only primary publications were included. DATA EXTRACTION: Independent extraction of data and quality assessments were performed by two observers. RESULTS: Five hundred full text publications were retrieved, 144 met the inclusion criteria, with 63 high quality studies. There were differences in study designs, topics studied, patient characteristics, and success measurements; therefore, only a systematic review could be conducted. Main 3D-techniques that are used in cleft lip and palate patients are CT, CBCT, MRI, stereophotogrammetry, and laser surface scanning. These techniques are mainly used for soft tissue analysis, evaluation of bone grafting, and changes in the craniofacial skeleton. Digital dental casts are used to evaluate treatment and changes over time. CONCLUSION: Available evidence implies that 3D imaging methods can be used for documentation of CLP patients. No data are available yet showing that 3D methods are more informative than conventional 2D methods

  10. Antioxidant activity and total phenolics in selected cereal grains and their different morphological fractions.

    Zieliński, H; Kozłowska, H

    2000-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the antioxidant properties of water and 80% methanolic extracts of cereal grains and their different morphological fractions. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cv. Almari and cv. Henika, barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cv. Gregor and cv. Mobek, rye (Secale cereale L.) cv. Dańkowskie Zlote, oat (Avena sativa L.) cv. Slawko and buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) cv. Kora were used. PC (L-alpha-phosphatidylcholine) liposome system and spectrophotometric assay of total antioxidant activity (TAA) were used to evaluate the antioxidative activity of extracts. Among the water extracts, only the one prepared from buckwheat exhibited antioxidant activity at the concentration analyzed. The following hierarchy of antioxidant activity was provided for 80% methanolic extracts originated from whole grain: buckwheat > barley > oat > wheat congruent with rye. The antioxidant activity was observed in extract prepared from separated parts of buckwheat and barley. In respect to hulls, the antioxidant hierarchy was as follows: buckwheat > oat > barley. The correlation coefficient between total phenolic compounds and total antioxidative activity of the extracts was -0.35 for water extracts and 0.96, 0.99, 0.80, and 0.99 for 80% methanolic extracts originated from whole grains, hulls, pericarb with testa fractions and endosperm with embryo fractions, respectively. PMID:10888490

  11. Catalytic Activity of Iridium Dioxide With Different Morphologies for Oxygen Reduction Reaction

    WANG Guangjin; HUANG Fei; XU Tian; YU Yi; CHENG Feng; ZHANG Yue; PAN Mu

    2015-01-01

    Iridium dioxide with different morphologies (nanorod and nanogranular) is successfully prepared by a modiifed sol-gel and Adams methods. The catalytic activity of both samples for oxygen reduction reaction is investigated in an alkaline solution. The electrochemical results show that the catalytic activity of the nanogranular IrO2 sample is superior to that of the nanorod sample due to its higher onset potential for oxygen reduction reaction and higher electrode current density in low potential region. The results of Koutecky-Levich analysis indicate that the oxygen reduction reaction catalyzed by both samples is a mixture transfer pathway. It is dominated by four electron transfer pathway for both samples in high overpotential area, while it is controlled by two electron transfer process for both samples in low overpotential area.

  12. Active shoreline of Ontario Lacus, Titan: A morphological study of the lake and its surroundings

    Wall, S.; Hayes, A.; Bristow, C.; Lorenz, R.; Stofan, E.; Lunine, J.; Le, Gall A.; Janssen, M.; Lopes, R.; Wye, L.; Soderblom, L.; Paillou, P.; Aharonson, O.; Zebker, H.; Farr, Tom; Mitri, G.; Kirk, R.; Mitchell, Ken; Notarnicola, C.; Casarano, D.; Ventura, B.

    2010-01-01

    Of more than 400 filled lakes now identified on Titan, the first and largest reported in the southern latitudes is Ontario Lacus, which is dark in both infrared and microwave. Here we describe recent observations including synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images by Cassini's radar instrument (??= 2 cm) and show morphological evidence for active material transport and erosion. Ontario Lacus lies in a shallow depression, with greater relief on the southwestern shore and a gently sloping, possibly wave-generated beach to the northeast. The lake has a closed internal drainage system fed by Earth-like rivers, deltas and alluvial fans. Evidence for active shoreline processes, including the wave-modified lakefront and deltaic deposition, indicates that Ontario is a dynamic feature undergoing typical terrestrial forms of littoral modification. Copyright ?? 2010 by the American Geophysical Union.

  13. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SOME ENZYMES ACTIVITY, SPERM MORPHOLOGY AND STALLION SEMEN QUALITY

    Z. PODSTAWSKI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The sperm morphology is one of the factors determining semen quality besidessperm motility and concentration. An important role in this aspect plays someenzymes which are estimated in raw semen plasma. The examination of numerouspopulations of stallions of different breeds and age performed by Kosiniak-Kamyszet al. (2005 showed that significant differences occurred between stallion semenquality concerning both macro- and microscopic examination and some enzymesactivity. It was found that aspartate aminotranspherase (AspAT, lactatedehydrogenase (LDH and alkaline phosphatase (AP activity and total proteinamount (TP in raw seminal plasma decreased when the percent of sperms withcytoplasmatic droplets increased. The increase of these enzymes activity is observedwith the increase of the number of loose heads. These observations showed thatmany examined factors of the semen and semen plasma decided on its quality and onthis reason that these factors need to be applied for seminological diagnosis.

  14. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SOME ENZYMES ACTIVITY, SPERM MORPHOLOGY AND STALLION SEMEN QUALITY

    PODSTAWSKI Z.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The sperm morphology is one of the factors determining semen quality besidessperm motility and concentration. An important role in this aspect plays someenzymes which are estimated in raw semen plasma. The examination of numerouspopulations of stallions of different breeds and age performed by Kosiniak-Kamyszet al. (2005 showed that significant differences occurred between stallion semenquality concerning both macro- and microscopic examination and some enzymesactivity. It was found that aspartate aminotranspherase (AspAT, lactatedehydrogenase (LDH and alkaline phosphatase (AP activity and total proteinamount (TP in raw seminal plasma decreased when the percent of sperms withcytoplasmatic droplets increased. The increase of these enzymes activity is observedwith the increase of the number of loose heads. These observations showed thatmany examined factors of the semen and semen plasma decided on its quality and onthis reason that these factors need to be applied for seminological diagnosis

  15. Intrinsic optical signals of the nervous tissue during neuronal activation

    Konopková, Renata; Otáhal, Jakub

    Brno : Brno University of Technology, 2006 - (Burša, J.; Fuis, V.). s. 124-125 ISBN 80-214-3232-2. [Human Biomechanics 2006 : international conference /11./. 13.11.2006-16.11.2006, Hrotovice] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS501210509 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : intrinsic optical signals * neuronal activation * light transmission Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  16. Comparative analysis of adherence, viability, proliferation and morphology of umbilical cord tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells seeded on different titanium-coated expanded polytetrafluoroethylene scaffolds

    Hollweck, Trixi; Marschmann, Michaela; Hartmann, Isabel; Akra, Bassil; Meiser, Bruno; Reichart, Bruno; Eissner, Guenther [Department of Cardiac Surgery, University of Munich, Marchioninistrasse 15, 81377 Munich (Germany); Eblenkamp, Markus; Wintermantel, Erich, E-mail: Guenther.Eissner@med.uni-muenchen.d [Chair of Medical Engineering, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Boltzmannstrasse 15, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    Umbilical cord tissue comprises an attractive new source for mesenchymal stem cells. Umbilical cord tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCMSC) exhibit self-renewal, multipotency and immunological naivity, and they can be obtained without medical intervention. The transfer of UCMSC to the ischemic region of the heart may have a favorable impact on tissue regeneration. Benefit from typical cell delivery by injection to the infarcted area is often limited due to poor cell retention and survival. Another route of administration is to use populated scaffolds implanted into the infarcted zone. In this paper, the seeding efficiency of UCMSC on uncoated and titanium-coated expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) scaffolds with different surface structures was determined. Dualmesh (registered) (DM) offers a corduroy-like surface in contrast to the comparatively planar surface of cardiovascular patch (CVP). The investigation of adherence, viability and proliferation of UCMSC demonstrates that titanium-coated scaffolds are superior to uncoated scaffolds, independent of the surface structure. Microscopic images reveal spherical UCMSC seeded on uncoated scaffolds. In contrast, UCMSC on titanium-coated scaffolds display their characteristic spindle-shaped morphology and a homogeneous coverage of CVP. In summary, titanium coating of clinically approved CVP enhances the retention of UCMSC and thus offers a potential cell delivery system for the repair of the damaged myocardium.

  17. Morphology and Ultrastructure of Brain Tissue and Fat Body from the Flesh Fly, Sarcophaga bullata Parker (Diptera: Sarcophagidae, Envenomated by the Ectoparasitic Wasp Nasonia vitripennis (Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae

    David B. Rivers

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study tested the hypothesis that venom from the ectoparasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis targets brain tissue and fat body from its flesh fly host, Sarcophaga bullata. By 1 h postenvenomation, some brain neurons began to show irregularities in nuclear shape, and though they were predominately euchromatic, there was evidence of heterochromatin formation. Irregularity in the nuclear envelope became more prominent by 3 h after envenomation, as did the condensation of heterochromatin. The severity of ultrastructural changes continued to increase until at least 24 h after parasitoid attack. At this point, cellular swelling and extensive heterochromatic inclusions were evident, multivesicular bodies occurred in the cytoplasm of some cells, and the rough endoplasmic reticulum was dilated in many of the cells. Immunohistochemical staining revealed significant apoptosis in neurons located in brain tissues. By contrast, there was no evidence of any morphological or ultrastructural disturbances in fat body tissues up to 24 h after envenomation, nor did any of the cells display signs of cell death.

  18. The morphological and morphometric study of tissues of dentoalveolar system in children with impaired course of the antenatal period

    Drogomiretskaya M.S.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Anomalies and deformation of dental system in children and adolescents contribute not only to the deterioration of dental health, bat quite often this is the cause of a wide range of somatic pathology. The aim of our study was to determine risk factors of dental system myofunctional disorders in children with impaired course of the antenatal period using morphological and morphometric studies. The changes that have been defined in the organs examined were dystrophic and dyscirculatory and differed in degrees of severity in all parts of the oral cavity. Dystrophic changes were detected in the gums and tongue epithelium. Dyscirculatory disorders were characterized by formation of submucosal edema, development of the vascular bed hyperemia and presence of hemorrhage under the basement membrane of the epithelium and salivary gland stroma. Pronounced changes were recorded in the nerve cells of the oral cavity.

  19. TELOMERASE ACTIVITY IN HUMAN GASTRIC AND COLORECTAL CANCER AND SURROUNDING TISSUES

    CHEN Wen; ZHANG Qiao; WAN De-sen; CUN Ling-yun; WU Cheng-qiu; PAN Zhi-zhong

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To study the telomerase activities in human gastric and colorectal tumors. Methods: The telomerase activity was assayed by the telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) technique. Forty human tumor samples including 9 colonic, 20 rectal and 11gastric carcinomas and their surrounding tissues were used for the detection. Results: Thirty-six out of 40human tumor samples exhibited telomerase activity regardless of the stages or the differentiation of the tumors. However, only 1 out of 39 tumor surrounding tissues showed telomerase activity. Conclusion: Telomerase may be a good diagnosis biomarker for tumor detection.

  20. Activity Based Profiling of Deubiquitylating Enzymes and Inhibitors in Animal Tissues.

    McLellan, Lauren; Forder, Cassie; Cranston, Aaron; Harrigan, Jeanine; Jacq, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    The attachment of ubiquitin or ubiquitin-like modifiers to proteins is an important signal for the regulation of a variety of biological processes including the targeting of substrates for degradation, receptor internalization, regulation of gene expression, and DNA repair. Posttranslational modification of proteins by ubiquitin controls many cellular processes, and aberrant ubiquitylation can contribute to cancer, immunopathologies, and neurodegeneration. Thus, deubiquitylating enzymes (DUBs) that remove ubiquitin from proteins have become attractive therapeutic targets. Monitoring the activity of DUBs in cells or in tissues is critical for understanding the biological function of DUBs in particular pathways and is essential for determining the physiological specificity and potency of small-molecule DUB inhibitors. Here, we describe a method for the homogenization of animal tissues and incubation of tissue lysates with ubiquitin-based activity probes to monitor DUB activity in mouse tissues and target engagement following treatment of animals with small-molecule DUB inhibitors. PMID:27613053

  1. Antioxidant enzyme activities in different genders and tissues of amphioxus Branchiostoma belcheri tsingtauense

    WEI Ran; ZHANG Shicui; WANG Changfa; PANG Qiuxiang

    2007-01-01

    Information regarding antioxidant enzymes in amphioxus remains lacking, and this study was carried out to examine the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) in different genders and tissues of amphioxus Branchiostoma belcheri tsingtauense.Results show that (1) CuZn-SOD, CAT and GPX activities in the whole amphioxus B. belcheri tsingtauense were basically at the same levels in male and female amphioxus, whereas both T-SOD and Mn-SOD activities in male amphioxus were significantly higher than that in the female (P<0.05); (2) The testis had significantly higher T-SOD and CuZn-SOD activities than the ovary (P<0.05); (3) CuZn-SOD activity was undetectable in the guts of male and female amphioxus; (4) For both male and female amphioxus, the activities of CAT and GPX in the gonads including testis and ovary were the lowest (P<0.05)among the tissues examined; (5) The gut and gill had the same level GPX activities while the gut had a higher CAT activity; (6) There was no clear difference in CAT and GPX activities in the corresponding tissues between male and female amphioxus. The study on SOD, CAT and GPX activities in different genders and tissues of the protochordate provides data for future comparison of amphioxus antioxidant enzymes with those of invertebrates and vertebrates.

  2. Hypothermia activates adipose tissue to promote malignant lung cancer progression.

    Gangjun Du

    Full Text Available Microenvironment has been increasingly recognized as a critical regulator of cancer progression. In this study, we identified early changes in the microenvironment that contribute to malignant progression. Exposure of human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B to methylnitrosourea (MNU caused a reduction in cell toxicity and an increase in clonogenic capacity when the temperature was lowered from 37°C to 28°C. Hypothermia-incubated adipocyte media promoted proliferation in A549 cells. Although a hypothermic environment could increase urethane-induced tumor counts and Lewis lung cancer (LLC metastasis in lungs of three breeds of mice, an increase in tumor size could be discerned only in obese mice housed in hypothermia. Similarly, coinjections using differentiated adipocytes and A549 cells promoted tumor development in athymic nude mice when adipocytes were cultured at 28°C. Conversely, fat removal suppressed tumor growth in obese C57BL/6 mice inoculated with LLC cells. Further studies show hypothermia promotes a MNU-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT and protects the tumor cell against immune control by TGF-β1 upregulation. We also found that activated adipocytes trigger tumor cell proliferation by increasing either TNF-α or VEGF levels. These results suggest that hypothermia activates adipocytes to stimulate tumor boost and play critical determinant roles in malignant progression.

  3. Control of sulfatase activity by nomegestrol acetate in normal and cancerous human breast tissues.

    Chetrite, Gérard Samuel; Thomas, Jean-Louis; Shields-Botella, Jaqueline; Cortes-Prieto, Joaquin; Philippe, Jean-Claude; Pasqualini, Jorge Raul

    2005-01-01

    Nomegestrol acetate (NOMAC), a 17alpha-hydroxy-nor-progesterone derivative (17alpha-acetoxy-6-methyl-19-nor-4,6-pregnadiene-3,20-dione, the active substance in Lutenyl), is a potent and useful clinical synthetic progestin for the treatment of menopausal complaints and is under current development for oral contraception. Previous studies in this laboratory demonstrated that NOMAC can block sulfatase and 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, the enzymes involved in the biosynthesis and transformation of estradiol (E2) in hormone-dependent MCF-7 and T-47D breast cancer cells. In the present study, the effect of NOMAC on sulfatase activity using total breast cancer tissue, compared to the effect in normal breast tissue, was explored. Slices of tumoral or normal breast tissues (45-65 mg) were incubated in buffer (20 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.2) with physiological concentrations of [3H]-estrone sulfate (5x10(-9) M), alone or in the presence of nomegestrol acetate (5x10(-5) - 5x10(-7) - 5x10(-9) M), for 4 h at 37 degrees C. Estrone sulfate (E1S), estrone (E1) and E2 were characterized by thin layer chromatography and quantified using the corresponding standard. It was observed that [3H]- E1S was only converted to [3H]- E1 and not to [3H]- E2, in normal or cancerous breast tissues, which suggests a low or no 17beta-HSD activity under these experimental conditions. The sulfatase activity was more intense with breast cancer tissue than normal tissue, since the concentrations of E1 were 42.5 +/- 3.4 and 27.2 +/- 2.5 pg/mg tissue, respectively. NOMAC, at the concentration of 5x10(-5) M, inhibited this conversion by 49.2% and 40.8% in cancerous and normal breast tissues, respectively. The sulfatase inhibition at low concentration (5x10(-7) M) was 32.5% and 22.8%, respectively. It is concluded that sulfatase activity is almost twice as potent in cancerous breast tissues than in normal tissues. Nomegestrol acetate is a strong anti-sulfatase agent, in particular with cancerous breast

  4. Isolation of biologically active and morphologically intact exosomes from plasma of patients with cancer

    Chang-Sook Hong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Isolation from human plasma of exosomes that retain functional and morphological integrity for probing their protein, lipid and nucleic acid content is a priority for the future use of exosomes as biomarkers. A method that meets these criteria and can be scaled up for patient monitoring is thus desirable. Methods: Plasma specimens (1 mL of patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML or a head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC were differentially centrifuged, ultrafiltered and fractionated by size exclusion chromatography in small disposable columns (mini-SEC. Exosomes were eluted in phosphate-buffered saline and were evaluated by qNano for particle size and counts, morphology by transmission electron microscopy, protein content, molecular profiles by western blots, and for ability to modify functions of immune cells. Results: Exosomes eluting in fractions #3–5 had a diameter ranging from 50 to 200 nm by qNano, with the fraction #4 containing the bulk of clean, unaggregated exosomes. The exosome elution profiles remained constant for repeated runs of the same plasma. Larger plasma volumes could be fractionated running multiple mini-SEC columns in parallel. Particle concentrations per millilitre of plasma in #4 fractions of AML and HNSCC were comparable and were higher (p<0.003 than those in normal controls. Isolated AML exosomes co-incubated with normal human NK cells inhibited NKG2D expression levels (p<0.004, and HNSCC exosomes suppressed activation (p<0.01 and proliferation of activated T lymphocytes (p<0.03. Conclusions: Mini-SEC allows for simple and reproducible isolation from human plasma of exosomes retaining structural integrity and functional activity. It enables molecular/functional analysis of the exosome content in serial specimens of human plasma for clinical applications.

  5. Fullerenol Nanoparticles with Structural Activity Induce Variable Intracellular Actin Filament Morphologies.

    Jin, Junjiang; Dong, Ying; Wang, Ying; Xia, Lin; Gu, Weihong; Bai, Xue; Chang, Yanan; Zhang, Mingyi; Chen, Kui; Li, Juan; Zhao, Lina; Xing, Gengmei

    2016-06-01

    Fullerenol nanoparticles are promising for various biological applications; many studies have shown that they induce variable and diverse biological effects including side effects. Separation and purification of two fractions of fullerenols has demonstrated that they have varied chemical structures on the surfaces of their carbon cages. Actin is an important structural protein that is able to transform functional structures under varied physiological conditions. We assessed the abilities of the two fractions of fullerenols to attach to actin and induce variable morphological features in actin filament structures. Specifically the fullerenol fraction with a surface electric charge of -1.913 ± 0.008q (x10(-6) C) has percentages of C-OH and C=O on the carbon cage of 16.14 ± 0.60 and 17.55 ± 0.69. These features allow it to form intermolecular hydrogen bonds with actin at a stoichiometric ratio of four fullerenols per actin subunit. Molecular simulations revealed these specific binding sites and binding modes in atomic details in the interaction between the active fullerenol and actin filament. Conversely, these interactions were not possible for the other fraction of fullerenol with that percentages of C-OH and C=O on the carbon cage were 15.59 ± 0.01 and 1.94 ± 0.11. Neither sample induced appreciable cytotoxicity or acute cell death. After entering cells, active fullerenol binding to actin induces variable morphological features and may transform ATP-actin to ADP-actin. These changes facilitate the binding of ADF/cofilin, allowing cofilin to sever actin filaments to form cofilin/actin/fullerenol rods. Our findings suggest that fullerenol with structural activity binding disturbs actin filament structure, which may inhibit locomotion of cell or induce chronic side effects in to cells. PMID:27319217

  6. Assessment of the influence of the inflammatory process on the activation of blood platelets and morphological parameters in patients with ulcerative colitis (colitis ulcerosa

    Beata Polińska

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Ulcerative colitis (colitis ulcerosa is a non-specific inflammatory bowel disease of unknown etiology. Thesymptoms which are observed in the course of ulcerative colitis are: an increase in the number of leukocytes andblood platelets, an increase in the concentration of IL-6 and anemia. Blood platelets are the key element, linkingthe processes of hemostasis, inflammation and the repair of damaged tissues. Activation of blood platelets is connectedwith changes in their shape and the occurrence of the reaction of release. P-selectin appears on the surfacesof activated blood platelets and the concentration level of soluble P-selectin increases in the blood plasma. The aimof this study was to define whether the increased number of blood platelets in patients with ulcerative colitisaccompanies changes in their activation and morphology. A total of 16 subjects with ulcerative colitis and 32healthy subjects were studied. Mean platelet count, morphological parameters of platelets and MPC were measuredusing an ADVIA 120 hematology analyzer. Concentrations of sP-selectin and IL-6 in serum were marked byimmunoassay (ELISA. MPC, concentration of sP-selectin and IL-6 were significantly higher in subjects with ulcerativecolitis compared to those in the healthy group. There was a decrease of MPV in patients with ulcerativecolitis, which is statistically significant. Chronic inflammation in patients with ulcerative colitis causes an increase inthe number of blood platelets, a change in their morphology and activation. Decreased MPV value reflects activationand the role blood platelets play in the inflammatory process of the mucous membrane of the colon. A highconcentration of sP-selectin, which is a marker of blood platelet activation, demonstrates their part in the inflammatoryprocess. The increase in the concentration of sP-selectin correlated positively with the increase in concentrationof IL-6. This is why it may be a useful marker of the activity of

  7. Morphological and surface compositional changes in poly(lactide-co-glycolide) tissue engineering scaffolds upon radio frequency glow discharge plasma treatment

    Chemical functionalisation of polymeric scaffolds with functional groups such as amine could provide optimal conditions for loading of signalling biomolecules over the entire volume of the porous scaffolds. Three-dimensional (both surface and bulk) functionlisation of large volume scaffolds is highly desirable, but preferably without any change to the basic morphological, structural and bulk chemical properties of the scaffolds. In this work, we have carried out and compared treatments of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) tissue engineering scaffolds by two methods, that is, a wet chemical method using ethylenediamine and a glow discharge plasma method using heptylamine as a precursor. The samples thus prepared were analysed by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The plasma treatment generated amide and protonated amine (NH+) groups which were present in the bulk and on the surface of the scaffold. Amination also occurred for the wet chemical treatments but the structural and chemical integrity were adversely affected

  8. Zymomonas mobilis Levan is Involved in Metalloproteinases Activation in Healing of Wounded and Burned Tissues

    Cristina Sturzoiu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Healing of burn tissue is a complete process involving reepitelization, granulation tissue formation and extracellular matrix remodeling. Thermal injury produces profound systemic changes, such as oligemic shock, anemia, renal failure and metabolic disorders. This causes direct tissue damages: inflammation and infection reactions. The tissue lesion also leads to increased oxidative stress in cells, as it has been observed by the low activity of endogenous antioxidant enzymatic and nonenzymatic systems. In this context, tissue matrix metalloproteinases (MMP plays a key role in normal physiology of conjunctive tissue during its development, morphogenesis or wound healing, having an irregular activity and being involved in the patho-physiological processes. The analysis of biological samples, MMP profiles contribute to the characterization of some processes involving tissue remodeling, processes related to wound or burn healing, possibly to the development of new therapies. In this context we studied the proliferative effect of levan, a polysaccharide produced by Gram negative bacteria, Zymomonas mobilis, a microorganism that plays an important role in modern biotechnology to produce substances of great interest in biotechnology, food industry or in biomedicine. Our studies focused on analysis of tissue MMPs profiles from Wistar rats with lesions caused by mechanic processes on skin (wounds and thermal (burn, treated by hallotherapy inCacica and Dej salt mines, before and after the treatment with levan. The results indicate that levan, a natural polysaccharide produced by wild type Z. mobilis NCIB 11163, as well as other bacterial strains, seems to have real value in the management of wounds and burns, applied individually or in combination with natural or artificial haloteraphy. The way that levan participates in the healing process is unknown, probably by activating the tissue metalloproteinases.

  9. Activation of prostaglandin E2-EP4 signaling reduces chemokine production in adipose tissue.

    Tang, Eva H C; Cai, Yin; Wong, Chi Kin; Rocha, Viviane Z; Sukhova, Galina K; Shimizu, Koichi; Xuan, Ge; Vanhoutte, Paul M; Libby, Peter; Xu, Aimin

    2015-02-01

    Inflammation of adipose tissue induces metabolic derangements associated with obesity. Thus, determining ways to control or inhibit inflammation in adipose tissue is of clinical interest. The present study tested the hypothesis that in mouse adipose tissue, endogenous prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) negatively regulates inflammation via activation of prostaglandin E receptor 4 (EP4). PGE2 (5-500 nM) attenuated lipopolysaccharide-induced mRNA and protein expression of chemokines, including interferon-γ-inducible protein 10 and macrophage-inflammatory protein-1α in mouse adipose tissue. A selective EP4 antagonist (L161,982) reversed, and two structurally different selective EP4 agonists [CAY10580 and CAY10598] mimicked these actions of PGE2. Adipose tissue derived from EP4-deficient mice did not display this response. These findings establish the involvement of EP4 receptors in this anti-inflammatory response. Experiments performed on adipose tissue from high-fat-fed mice demonstrated EP4-dependent attenuation of chemokine production during diet-induced obesity. The anti-inflammatory actions of EP4 became more important on a high-fat diet, in that EP4 activation suppressed a greater variety of chemokines. Furthermore, adipose tissue and systemic inflammation was enhanced in high-fat-fed EP4-deficient mice compared with wild-type littermates, and in high-fat-fed untreated C57BL/6 mice compared with mice treated with EP4 agonist. These findings provide in vivo evidence that PGE2-EP4 signaling limits inflammation. In conclusion, PGE2, via activation of EP4 receptors, functions as an endogenous anti-inflammatory mediator in mouse adipose tissue, and targeting EP4 may mitigate adipose tissue inflammation. PMID:25510249

  10. Determination of Magnesium in Needle Biopsy Samples of Muscle Tissue by Means of Neutron Activation Analysis

    Magnesium has been determined by means of neutron-activation analysis in needle biopsy samples of the order of magnitude 1 mg dry weight. The procedure applied was to extract the Mg-27 activity from irradiated muscle tissue with concentrated hydrochloric acid followed by a fast hydroxide precipitation and gamma-spectrometric measurements. The Mg activity was recovered in the muscle tissue samples to (97 ± 2) per cent. The sensitivity for the magnesium determination is estimated as 0.3 μg

  11. Active specific immunotherapy using the immune reaction of a low-dose irradiated tumor tissue

    Active specific immunotherapy using the immune reaction of a low-dose irradiated tumor tissue was studied on the transplanted MM46 tumor of female C3H/He mice after radiotherapy. MM46 tumor cells were inoculated into the right hind paws of mice. On the 5th day, irradiation with the dose irradiated tumor tissue (2000 rad on the fifth day), were injected into the left hind paws of the tumor-bearing mice. Effectiveness of this active specific immunotherapy against tumor was evaluated by the regression of tumor and survival rate of mice. Tumor was markedly regressed and survival rate was significantly increased by the active specific immunitherapy

  12. Increased activities of mitochondrial enzymes in white adipose tissue in trained rats

    Stallknecht, B; Vinten, J; Ploug, T;

    1991-01-01

    of 8-12 rats were swim trained for 10 wk or served as either sedentary, sham swim-trained, or cold-stressed controls. White adipose tissue was removed, and the activities of the respiratory chain enzyme cytochrome-c oxidase (CCO) and of the enzyme malate dehydrogenase (MDH), which participates...... 0.05). In female rats the CCO activity expressed per milligram protein was increased 4.5-fold in the trained compared with the sedentary control rats (P less than 0.01). Neither cold stress nor sham swim training increased CCO or MDH activities in white adipose tissue (P greater than 0.......05). In conclusion, in rats, intensive endurance training induces an increase in mitochondrial enzyme activities in white adipose tissue as is seen in skeletal muscle....

  13. Plasma matrix metalloproteinase-1 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 as biomarkers of ulcerative colitis activity

    Wiercinska-Drapalo, Alicja; Jaroszewicz, Jerzy; Flisiak, Robert; Prokopowicz, Danuta

    2003-01-01

    AIM: Overexpression of mucosal metalloproteinases (MMP) have been demonstrated recently in inflammatory bowel disease. Their activity can be counterbalanced by the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ulcerative colitis (UC) on MMP-1 and TIMP-1 plasma concentrations, as two possible biomarkers of the disease activity.

  14. Prenatal stress is a vulnerability factor for altered morphology and biological activity of microglia cells.

    Joanna eŚlusarczyk

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Several lines of evidence suggest that the dysregulation of the immune system is an important factor in the development of depression. Microglia are the resident macrophages of the central nervous system and a key player in innate immunity of the brain. We hypothesized that prenatal stress (an animal model of depression as a priming factor could affect microglial cells and might lead to depressive-like disturbances in adult male rat offspring. We investigated the behavioral changes (sucrose preference test, Porsolt test, the expression of C1q and CD40 mRNA and the level of microglia (Iba1 positive in 3 month old control and prenatally stressed male offspring rats. In addition, we characterized the morphological and biochemical parameters of potentially harmful (NO, iNOS, IL-1β, IL-18, IL-6, TNF-α, CCL2, CXCL12, CCR2, CXCR4 and beneficial (IGF-1, BDNF phenotypes in cultures of microglia obtained from the cortices of 1-2 days old control and prenatally stressed pups. The adult prenatally stressed rats showed behavioral (anhedonic- and depression-like disturbances, enhanced expression of microglial activation markers and an increased number of Iba1-immunopositive cells in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. The morphology of glia was altered in cultures from prenatally stressed rats, as demonstrated by immunofluorescence microscopy. Moreover, in these cultures, we observed enhanced expression of CD40 and MHC II and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β, IL-18, TNF-α and IL-6. Prenatal stress significantly up-regulated levels of the chemokines CCL2, CXCL12 and altered expression of their receptors, CCR2 and CXCR4 while IGF-1 production was suppressed in cultures of microglia from prenatally stressed rats.Our results suggest that prenatal stress may lead to excessive microglia activation and contribute to the behavioral changes observed in depression in adulthood.

  15. Prenatal stress is a vulnerability factor for altered morphology and biological activity of microglia cells.

    Ślusarczyk, Joanna; Trojan, Ewa; Głombik, Katarzyna; Budziszewska, Bogusława; Kubera, Marta; Lasoń, Władysław; Popiołek-Barczyk, Katarzyna; Mika, Joanna; Wędzony, Krzysztof; Basta-Kaim, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that the dysregulation of the immune system is an important factor in the development of depression. Microglia are the resident macrophages of the central nervous system and a key player in innate immunity of the brain. We hypothesized that prenatal stress (an animal model of depression) as a priming factor could affect microglial cells and might lead to depressive-like disturbances in adult male rat offspring. We investigated the behavioral changes (sucrose preference test, Porsolt test), the expression of C1q and CD40 mRNA and the level of microglia (Iba1 positive) in 3-month-old control and prenatally stressed male offspring rats. In addition, we characterized the morphological and biochemical parameters of potentially harmful (NO, iNOS, IL-1β, IL-18, IL-6, TNF-α, CCL2, CXCL12, CCR2, CXCR4) and beneficial (insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)) phenotypes in cultures of microglia obtained from the cortices of 1-2 days old control and prenatally stressed pups. The adult prenatally stressed rats showed behavioral (anhedonic- and depression-like) disturbances, enhanced expression of microglial activation markers and an increased number of Iba1-immunopositive cells in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. The morphology of glia was altered in cultures from prenatally stressed rats, as demonstrated by immunofluorescence microscopy. Moreover, in these cultures, we observed enhanced expression of CD40 and MHC II and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β, IL-18, TNF-α and IL-6. Prenatal stress significantly up-regulated levels of the chemokines CCL2, CXCL12 and altered expression of their receptors, CCR2 and CXCR4 while IGF-1 production was suppressed in cultures of microglia from prenatally stressed rats. Our results suggest that prenatal stress may lead to excessive microglia activation and contribute to the behavioral changes observed in depression in adulthood. PMID

  16. Morphology and activity of vanadium-containing catalysts for the selective oxidation of benzene to maleic anhydride

    Dosumov, K.; Ergazieva, G. E.

    2012-11-01

    The morphology and activity of vanadium catalysts are studied using a number of physicochemical methods: electron microscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance, and infrared spectroscopy. It is found that the active agent of the conversion of benzene to maleic anhydride over modified vanadium catalysts is the V4+ ion in the vanadyl configuration.

  17. Alternatively Spliced Tissue Factor Promotes Plaque Angiogenesis Through the Activation of HIF-1α and VEGF Signaling

    Giannarelli, Chiara; Alique, Matilde; Rodriguez, David T.; Yang, Dong Kwon; Jeong, Dongtak; Calcagno, Claudia; Hutter, Randolph; Millon, Antoine; Kovacic, Jason C.; Weber, Thomas; Faries, Peter L.; Soff, Gerald A.; Fayad, Zahi A.; Hajjar, Roger J.; Fuster, Valentin; Badimon, Juan J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Alternatively Spliced Tissue Factor (asTF) is a novel isoform of full-length Tissue Factor (fl-TF) that exhibits angiogenic activity. Although asTF has been detected in human plaques, it is unknown whether its expression in atherosclerosis causes increased neovascularization and an advanced plaque phenotype. Methods and Results Carotid (n=10) and coronary specimens (n=8), from patients with stable or unstable angina, were classified as complicated or uncomplicated based on plaque morphology. Analysis of asTF expression and cell type –specific expression revealed a strong expression and co-localization of asTF with macrophages and neovessels within complicated, but not un-complicated, human plaques. Our results showed that the angiogenic activity of asTF is mediated via HIF-1α up-regulation through integrins and activation of phosphatidylinositol-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. HIF-1α up-regulation by asTF also was associated with increased VEGF expression in primary human endothelial cells, and VEGF-Trap significantly reduced the angiogenic effect of asTF in vivo. Furthermore, asTF gene transfer significantly increased neointima formation and neovascularization following carotid wire injury in ApoE−/− mice. Conclusions The results of this study provide strong evidence that asTF promotes neointima formation and angiogenesis in an experimental model of accelerated atherosclerosis. Herein, we demonstrate that the angiogenic effect of asTF is mediated via the activation of the HIF-1/VEGF signaling. This mechanism may be relevant to neovascularization, progression and associated complications of human atherosclerosis as suggested by the increased expression of asTF in complicated vs. uncomplicated human carotid and coronary plaques. PMID:25116956

  18. Trace Element Analysis of Human Lung Tissue by Neutron Activation and Instrumental Analysis

    The measurement of trace elements in tissues in the ppm to pp109 range requires very careful and specialized techniques both in the sample acquisition and in subsequent analysis. Many of the trace elements which are present in human tissues are at lower concentrations than those in super-pure chemical reagents; also, an acid rinse of typical laboratory glassware may contain as much of some trace elements as the tissue sample being studied. An analytical technique based on neutron activation for the measurement of trace elements in tissues has been developed which requires a minimum of pre-irradiation handling followed by the direct measurement of the activation products on a multidimensional or a solid-state gammaray spectrometer. This technique has been applied to a study of trace elements in human lung tissue. Lung tissue contains not only the tissue-bound elements but also those which have been deposited in the cells of the pulmonary alveoli through inhalation. The method permits the direct measurement of 15 trace elements. The analysis of lung tissues thus provides information on the integrated trace element deposition resulting during the life of an individual. The concentrations of several of these including Fe, Br, P, Se, Ag, Zn, Cs, Co, Sc, U and Sb have been measured in several autopsy and biopsy samples of both normal and diseased tissues from several subjects with known case histories. The variations in the observed trace element compositions are presented and considered in terms of the occupational and medical history of the subject. (author)

  19. Detection of telomerase activity in malignant neoplasms and nonmalignantepithelial tissues of human esophagus

    Shah Min Yang; Tian Jiao Wang; Bao Yu Li; Yuan Huan Wu

    2000-01-01

    AIM To study the expression of telomerase activity in malignant esophageal neoplasms and normal humanesophageal epithelia.METHODS Telomerase activity was assayed by the telomere repeat amplification protocol (TRAP)method. All the neoplasms and epithelia of esophagus were confirmed by routine pathological diagnosis.RESULTS Telomerase activity was assayed in 18 normal esophageal epithelial tissues and in 35 malignantneoplasms of esophagus, including 27 cases of esophageal carcinoma and 8 cases of cardiac carcinoma.Telomerase activity was detected in most of malignant neoplasms of esophagus (91.4%, 32/35) and in allthe normal esophageal epithelial tissues except one (18/19).CONCLUSION The results suggest that in addition to contributing to proliferation of immortal blast cellsand neoplastic cells, telomerase activity may also play a similar role in regeneration of normal epithelia ofhuman esophagus. The potential use of telomerase activity as a diagnostic marker in human esophagealneoplasm might not be suitable.

  20. Tissue plasminogen activator modulates the cellular and behavioral response to cocaine

    Maiya, Rajani; Zhou, Yan; Norris, Erin H.; Kreek, Mary Jeanne; Strickland, Sidney

    2009-01-01

    Cocaine exposure induces long-lasting molecular and structural adaptations in the brain. In this study, we show that tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), an extracellular protease involved in neuronal plasticity, modulates the biochemical and behavioral response to cocaine. When injected in the acute binge paradigm, cocaine enhanced tPA activity in the amygdala, which required activation of corticotropin-releasing factor type-1 (CRF-R1) receptors. Compared with WT mice, tPA−/− mice injected wi...

  1. AMP-Activated Protein Kinase alpha1 Dependent Signaling in Renal Tissue Fibrosis

    Mia, Sobuj

    2016-01-01

    Tubulointerstitial fibrosis is a common hallmark of chronic kidney disease caused by diabetes, hypertension, ischemia, renal injury and obstructive uropathy. The hetereotrimeric AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) consists of three subunits (α, β, γ) and is a master sensor of cellular energy status. Activation of AMPK contributes to monocyte-fibroblast transition and production of matrix protein even though accumulating evidence suggests that activated AMPK inhibits tissue fibrosis, which may...

  2. Adenosine activates brown adipose tissue and recruits beige adipocytes via A2A receptors

    Gnad, Thorsten; Scheibler, Saskia; von Kügelgen, Ivar;

    2014-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized in energy expenditure, making it a potential target for anti-obesity therapies. Following exposure to cold, BAT is activated by the sympathetic nervous system with concomitant release of catecholamines and activation of β-adrenergic receptors. Because BAT...... that adenosine-A2A signalling plays an unexpected physiological role in sympathetic BAT activation and protects mice from diet-induced obesity. Those findings reveal new possibilities for developing novel obesity therapies....

  3. Tissue factor activates allosteric networks in factor VIIa through structural and dynamic changes

    Madsen, Jesper Jonasson; Persson, E.; Olsen, O. H.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Tissue factor (TF) promotes colocalization of enzyme (factorVIIa) and substrate (FX or FIX), and stabilizes the active conformation of FVIIa. Details on how TF induces structural and dynamic changes in the catalytic domain of FVIIa to enhance its efficiency remain elusive. Objective: To...... domain that are activated by TF and help to make FVIIa an efficient catalyst of FIX and FX activation....

  4. ACYCLOVIR IS ACTIVATED INTO A HIV-1 REVERSE TRANSCRIPTASE INHIBITOR IN HERPESVIRUS-INFECTED HUMAN TISSUES

    Lisco, Andrea; Vanpouille, Christophe; Tchesnokov, Egor P.; Grivel, Jean-Charles; Biancotto, Angélique; Brichacek, Beda; Elliott, Julie; Fromentin, Emilie; Shattock, Robin; Anton, Peter; Gorelick, Robert; Balzarini, Jan; McGuigan, Christopher; Derudas, Marco; Götte, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    For most viruses, there is a need for antimicrobials that target unique viral molecular properties. Acyclovir (ACV) is one such drug. It is activated into a human herpesvirus (HHV) DNA polymerase inhibitor exclusively by HHV kinases and, thus, does not suppress other viruses. Here, we show that ACV suppresses HIV-1 in HHV-coinfected human tissues, but not in HHV-free tissue or cell cultures. However, addition of HHV-6-infected cells renders these cultures sensitive to anti-HIV ACV activity. W...

  5. Methodologic basis for the radioimmunoassay of endogenous LH-like activity in human prostatic tissue

    The aim of this study was to develop a technique for the radioimmunological determination of the activity of LH-like substances in the human prostate. The material comprised 19 specimens of prostatic tissue obtained during transbladder extirpation in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Tissues of human testes and human sceletal muscle were used as controls. The method adopted for LH extraction from the membrane fraction of human prostatic tissue appeared to be sufficiently specific, accurate and sensitive for routine laboratory investigations. The concentrations of the LH-like immunoreactivity in human testicular tissue was found to be 57, 46 and 70 mU per g of the membrane fraction while those of the prostatic gland tissues ranged from 34 to 155 mU per g of the membrane fraction. However such LH-like substance was not found in human sceletal muscle tissue. It seems that the LH-type activity is an indirect proof for the existence of LH receptors in the human prostate. (orig.)

  6. The Effect of Cellulose Crystal Structure and Solid-State Morphology on the Activity of Cellulases

    Stipanovic, Arthur J [SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry

    2014-11-17

    Consistent with the US-DOE and USDA “Roadmap” objective of producing ethanol and chemicals from cellulosic feedstocks more efficiently, a three year research project entitled “The Effect of Cellulose Crystal Structure and Solid-State Morphology on the Activity of Cellulases” was initiated in early 2003 under DOE sponsorship (Project Number DE-FG02-02ER15356). A three year continuation was awarded in June 2005 for the period September 15, 2005 through September 14, 2008. The original goal of this project was to determine the effect of cellulose crystal structure, including allomorphic crystalline form (Cellulose I, II, III, IV and sub-allomorphs), relative degree of crystallinity and crystallite size, on the activity of different types of genetically engineered cellulase enzymes to provide insight into the mechanism and kinetics of cellulose digestion by “pure” enzymes rather than complex mixtures. We expected that such information would ultimately help enhance the accessibility of cellulose to enzymatic conversion processes thereby creating a more cost-effective commercial process yielding sugars for fermentation into ethanol and other chemical products. Perhaps the most significant finding of the initial project phase was that conversion of native bacterial cellulose (Cellulose I; BC-I) to the Cellulose II (BC-II) crystal form by aqueous NaOH “pretreatment” provided an increase in cellulase conversion rate approaching 2-4 fold depending on enzyme concentration and temperature, even when initial % crystallinity values were similar for both allomorphs.

  7. Methyl jasmonate affects morphology, number and activity of endoplasmic reticulum bodies in Raphanus sativus root cells.

    Gotté, Maxime; Ghosh, Rajgourab; Bernard, Sophie; Nguema-Ona, Eric; Vicré-Gibouin, Maïté; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko; Driouich, Azeddine

    2015-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) bodies are ER-derived structures that are found in Brassicaceae species and thought to play a role in defense. Here, we have investigated the occurrence, distribution and function of ER bodies in root cells of Raphanus sativus using a combination of microscopic and biochemical methods. We have also assessed the response of ER bodies to methyl jasmonate (MeJA), a phytohormone that mediates plant defense against wounding and pathogens. Our results show that (i) ER bodies do occur in different root cell types from the root cap region to the differentiation zone; (ii) they do accumulate a PYK10-like protein similar to the major marker protein of ER bodies that is involved in defense in Arabidopsis thaliana; and (iii) treatment of root cells with MeJA causes a significant increase in the number of ER bodies and the activity of β-glucosidases. More importantly, MeJA was found to induce the formation of very long ER bodies that results from the fusion of small ones, a phenomenon that has not been reported in any other study so far. These findings demonstrate that MeJA impacts the number and morphology of functional ER bodies and stimulates ER body enzyme activities, probably to participate in defense responses of radish root. They also suggest that these structures may provide a defensive system specific to root cells. PMID:25305245

  8. Radiation effects of some enzymatic activities in tissues of rats subjected to whole body gamma irradiation

    The present study deals with the changes produced in the activity of transaminases and cholinesterase in the tissues of male rats exposed to 6 Gy whole body-irradiation. The activity of these enzymes was estimated at 1, 3, 7 and 14 days following irradiation. The results indicated that radiation induced changes in the activity of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic pyrovic transaminase (GPT) in liver brain and serum of white rats; as well as in the activity of liver and brain cholinesterase. Changes in the enzymatic activities are dependent on the time after irradiation and the tissue containing the enzyme. It could be concluded that each enzyme has a range of sensitivity to ionizing radiation according to its presence in the animal organ. This must serve cancer radiotherapy for patients

  9. Advancement of Molecular Morphology

    顾江

    2004-01-01

    Molecular morphology is a new discipline of medical science that studies morphology at the molecular level. This includes the investigation of occurrence and distribution of proteins, peptides, DNA and RNA sequences at the tissue, cellular, and uhrastructural levels. Morphology is defined as a field of science investigating the shape,

  10. Defective Peripheral Nerve Development Is Linked to Abnormal Architecture and Metabolic Activity of Adipose Tissue in Nscl-2 Mutant Mice

    Karen Ruschke; Henning Ebelt; Nora Klöting; Thomas Boettger; Kay Raum; Matthias Blüher; Thomas Braun

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In mammals the interplay between the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and adipose tissue is widely unexplored. We have employed mice, which develop an adult onset of obesity due to the lack the neuronal specific transcription factor Nscl-2 to investigate the interplay between the nervous system and white adipose tissue (WAT). METHODOLOGY: Changes in the architecture and innervation of WAT were compared between wildtype, Nscl2-/-, ob/ob and Nscl2-/-//ob/ob mice using morphological m...

  11. Cross-language activation of morphological relatives in cognates: The role of orthographic overlap and task-related processing

    Kimberley eMulder

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We considered the role of orthography and task-related processing mechanisms in the activation of morphologically related complex words during bilingual word processing. So far, it has only been shown that such morphologically related words (i.e., morphological family members are activated through the semantic and morphological overlap they share with the target word. In this study, we investigated family size effects in Dutch-English identical cognates (e.g., tent in both languages, non-identical cognates (e.g., pil and pill, in English and Dutch, respectively, and non-cognates (e.g., chicken in English. Because of their cross-linguistic overlap in orthography, reading a cognate can result in activation of family members both languages. Cognates are therefore well-suited for studying mechanisms underlying bilingual activation of morphologically complex words. We investigated family size effects in an English lexical decision task and a Dutch-English language decision task, both performed by Dutch-English bilinguals. English lexical decision showed a facilitatory effect of English and Dutch family size on the processing of English-Dutch cognates relative to English non-cognates. These family size effects were not dependent on cognate type. In contrast, for language decision, in which a bilingual context is created, Dutch and English family size effects were inhibitory. Here, the combined family size of both languages turned out to better predict reaction time than the separate family size in Dutch or English. Moreover, the combined family size interacted with cognate type: The response to identical cognates was slowed by morphological family members in both languages. We conclude that (1 family size effects are sensitive to the task performed on the lexical items, and (2 depend on both semantic and formal aspects of bilingual word processing. We discuss various mechanisms that can explain the observed family size effects in a spreading

  12. Effects of doping of metal cations on morphology, activity, and visible light response of photocatalysts

    Effects of doping of metal cations into wide band gap semiconductor photocatalysts on morphology, visible light response, and photocatalytic performance were studied. Doping of lanthanide and alkaline earth ions improved activity of a NaTaO3 photocatalyst for water splitting. Lanthanum was the most effective dopant. The NaTaO3:La with a NiO cocatalyst gave 56% of a quantum yield at 270 nm. This remarkable photocatalytic activity was brought by formations of nano-crystalline particle and surface nano-step structure by the doping. On the other hand, metal cation doping into ZnS, TiO2, and SrTiO3 gave visible light responses for H2 or O2 evolution from aqueous solutions containing of sacrificial reagents. The visible light responses were due to the electronic transition from donor levels formed with dopants to conduction bands of the host photocatalysts. Codoping was effective to compensate charge unbalance brought by doping of transition metal cations, resulting in the improvement of visible light response for photocatalytic reactions. Among the transition metal-doped photocatalysts, SrTiO3 doped with Rh (SrTiO3:Rh) was the novel metal oxide photocatalyst that produced H2 under visible light irradiation. The SrTiO3:Rh photocatalyst was employed with O2 evolution photocatalysts such as BiVO4 and WO3 for construction of Z-scheme systems that were active for water splitting into H2 and O2 under visible light irradiation

  13. Morphology of 557.7 nm dayglow emission under varying solar activity conditions

    Krishna, M. V. Sunil; Singh, Vir

    The atomic oxygen emission at 557.7 nm is the most widely observed airglow feature in the upper mesosphere and lower thermospheric regions. The approximation of solar irradiance fluxes is very crucial in the modeling of this emission. The recently introduced Solar2000 EUV flux model is a suitable candidate to provide the solar EUV flux for any level of solar activity on any given day. The Solar2000 EUV flux model has not been tested for its applicability in the airglow modeling studies. In the present study a comprehensive model has been developed to study the 557.7 nm dayglow emission using Solar2000 EUV flux model. This study presents the model results of diurnal and yearly variations of 557.7 nm dayglow emission under equinox conditions. The effect of varying solar activity on this emission is studied for a period of five years (2001-2005) at a fixed date of April 3. This date is chosen due to the fact of large variations in the solar activity during the period of five years. The volume emission rates obtained from the model in the upper mesospheric region are found higher than the observed results. This discrepancy is due to the extremely high values of solar EUV flux generated by the Solar2000 EUV flux model at 102.5 and 103.7 nm wavelengths. The model is found in good agreement with the measurements in the thermospheric region. The morphology is presented as a function of F10.7 solar index for five years (2001 -2005) equator and 45° N at a fixed longitude.

  14. Wild Sicilian rosemary: phytochemical and morphological screening and antioxidant activity evaluation of extracts and essential oils.

    Napoli, Edoardo M; Siracusa, Laura; Saija, Antonella; Speciale, Antonio; Trombetta, Domenico; Tuttolomondo, Teresa; La Bella, Salvatore; Licata, Mario; Virga, Giuseppe; Leone, Raffaele; Leto, Claudio; Rubino, Laura; Ruberto, Giuseppe

    2015-07-01

    To identify the best biotypes, an extensive survey of Sicilian wild rosemary was carried out by collecting 57 samples from various sites, followed by taxonomic characterization from an agronomic perspective. All the biotypes collected were classified as Rosmarinus officinalis L. A cluster analysis based on the morphological characteristics of the plants allowed the division of the biotypes into seven main groups, although the characteristics examined were found to be highly similar and not area-dependent. Moreover, all samples were analyzed for their phytochemical content, applying an extraction protocol to obtain the nonvolatile components and hydrodistillation to collect the essential oils for the volatile components. The extracts were characterized by LC-UV-DAD/ESI-MS, and the essential oils by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. In the nonvolatile fractions, 18 components were identified, namely, 13 flavones, two organic acids, and three diterpenes. In the volatile fractions, a total of 82 components were found, with as predominant components α-pinene and camphene among the monoterpene hydrocarbons and 1,8-cineole, camphor, borneol, and verbenone among the oxygenated monoterpenes. Cluster analyses were carried out on both phytochemical profiles, allowing the separation of the rosemary samples into different chemical groups. Finally, the total phenol content and the antioxidant activity of the essential oils and extracts were determined with the Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) colorimetric assay, the UV radiation-induced peroxidation in liposomal membranes (UV-IP test), and the scavenging activity of the superoxide radical (O$\\rm{{_{2}^{{^\\cdot} -}}}$). The present study confirmed that the essential oils and organic extracts of the Sicilian rosemary samples analyzed showed a considerable antioxidant/free radical-scavenging activity. PMID:26172328

  15. [Dynamics of osteogenesis associated with inoculation of autologous stromal cells from rat adipose tissue (experimental-morphological study)].

    Grigoryan, A S; Orlov, A A; Saburina, I N; Zurina, I M; Sysoev, S D

    2015-01-01

    Experiment was evaluated on 40 male Wistar rats. On the experimental model of mandible injury, bone autologous graft from tibia was placed on the surface of mandible (host bone). In the main experimental group, consisting of 20 animals, autologous rat adipose-derived stromal cells (ADSCs) were inoculated in space between autograph and host bones. ADSCs were not inoculated in the group of comparison. In experimental group with inoculated cells, the formation of a new fibroreticular bone structures in space between autograph and host bone was observed. These structures further underwent secondary reorganization and differentiation during the process of remodeling. As a result of the conducted study it was shown that in the experimental group by the day 180, statistically significant reduction of the area occupied by an immature fibroreticular bone took place. The reported phenomenon could be explained as a result of decline of the number of active cells in the population of inoculated ADSC, which is in consent with theory of limited cell division number due to telomeres shortening, described by Hayflick L. and Moorhead P.S. (1961). PMID:26571800

  16. Functional and morphological parameters with tissue characterization of cardiovascular magnetic imaging in clinically verified ''infarct-like myocarditis''

    Schwab, Johannes [Paracelsus Medical Univ., General Hospital Nuremberg (Germany). Dept. of Cardiology and Radiology; Rogg, H.J.; Pauschinger, M.; Fessele, K. [Paracelsus Medical Univ., General Hospital Nuremberg (Germany). Dept. of Cardiology; Bareiter, T.; Baer, I. [Paracelsus Medical Univ., General Hospital Nuremberg (Germany). Dept. of Cardiology and Neuroradiology; Loose, R. [Paracelsus Medical Univ., General Hospital Nuremberg (Germany). Dept. of Radiology

    2016-04-15

    Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) has increasingly proved to be a valuable diagnostic tool for evaluating patients with suspected myocarditis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of functional and morphological parameters including tissue characterization in patients with ''infarct-like myocarditis''. 43 patients with clinically verified cases of ''infarct-like myocarditis'' (median time to MRI scanning after admission for acute symptoms 3 days) and 35 control patients matched by age and sex were included in this retrospective case control study. In this study we used a 1.5 T MRI scanner conducting steady-state-free-precession sequences, T2-weighted imaging, T1-weighted imaging before and after contrast administration and late gadolinium enhancement sequences. According to the recommendations for CMR diagnosis of myocarditis (Lake Louise consensus criteria), a scan was positive for acute myocarditis if 2 of 3 CMR criteria were present. 30 % of the patients with ''infarct-like myocarditis'' had a reduced left ventricular ejection fraction, 11 % had an increased LV end-diastolic volume index and 35 % had an increased LV mass index. The sensitivity of wall motion abnormalities was 63 % with a regional distribution in 49 %. In 47 % of cases regional wall motion abnormalities were present in the lateral left ventricular segments. Pericardial effusions were discovered in 65 % of cases with a circular appearance in 21 % and focal manifestation in 44 %. The diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of CMR in patients with ''infarct-like myocarditis'' were 67 %, 100 % and 82 %, respectively. The LGE alone was the most sensitive test parameter with 86 %, providing a specificity of 100 % and accuracy of 92 %. Our study results can be applied to the subgroup of patients with ''infarct-like myocarditis'', where we found that LGE alone was the

  17. Functional and morphological parameters with tissue characterization of cardiovascular magnetic imaging in clinically verified ''infarct-like myocarditis''

    Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) has increasingly proved to be a valuable diagnostic tool for evaluating patients with suspected myocarditis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of functional and morphological parameters including tissue characterization in patients with ''infarct-like myocarditis''. 43 patients with clinically verified cases of ''infarct-like myocarditis'' (median time to MRI scanning after admission for acute symptoms 3 days) and 35 control patients matched by age and sex were included in this retrospective case control study. In this study we used a 1.5 T MRI scanner conducting steady-state-free-precession sequences, T2-weighted imaging, T1-weighted imaging before and after contrast administration and late gadolinium enhancement sequences. According to the recommendations for CMR diagnosis of myocarditis (Lake Louise consensus criteria), a scan was positive for acute myocarditis if 2 of 3 CMR criteria were present. 30 % of the patients with ''infarct-like myocarditis'' had a reduced left ventricular ejection fraction, 11 % had an increased LV end-diastolic volume index and 35 % had an increased LV mass index. The sensitivity of wall motion abnormalities was 63 % with a regional distribution in 49 %. In 47 % of cases regional wall motion abnormalities were present in the lateral left ventricular segments. Pericardial effusions were discovered in 65 % of cases with a circular appearance in 21 % and focal manifestation in 44 %. The diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of CMR in patients with ''infarct-like myocarditis'' were 67 %, 100 % and 82 %, respectively. The LGE alone was the most sensitive test parameter with 86 %, providing a specificity of 100 % and accuracy of 92 %. Our study results can be applied to the subgroup of patients with ''infarct-like myocarditis'', where we found that LGE alone was the

  18. Cellular origin and procoagulant activity of tissue factor-exposing microparticles in cancer patients

    Kleinjan, A.; Berckmans, R.J.; Böing, A.N.; Sturk, A.; Büller, H.R.; Kamphuisen, P.W.; Nieuwland, R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In patients with cancer, tissue factor-exposing microparticles (TF-exposing MP) have been associated with disease progression and thrombosis. The cellular origin and coagulant activity of TF-exposing MP, however, remain disputed. Therefore, we investigated the cellular origin of the TF-e

  19. Molecular assembly of plasminogen and tissue-type plasminogen activator on an evolving fibrin surface

    Fleury, V.; Loyau, S.; Lijnen, H.R.; Nieuwenhuizen, W.; Anglés-Cano, E.

    1993-01-01

    A well characterized model of an intact and a degraded surface of fibrin that represents the states of fibrin during the initiation and the progression of fibrinolysis was used to quantitatively characterize the molecular interplay between tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA), plasminogen and fi

  20. Effects of a physical activity intervention study in obese/overweight children adipose tissue

    Lopes, Vítor P.; Vasques, Catarina; D.C. Gomes; Correia, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    The worldwide increase of obesity in children claim for urgent measures in several instances. One of the keys measures is to increase the children habitual physical activity (PA). The propose of this study is to analyze the effects of an PA intervention program in the children adipose tissue.

  1. Morphology and geotechnique of active-layer detachment failures in discontinuous and continuous permafrost, northern Canada

    Lewkowicz, Antoni G.; Harris, Charles

    2005-07-01

    Fifty active-layer detachment failures triggered after forest fire in the discontinuous permafrost zone (central Mackenzie Valley, 65° N.) are compared to several hundred others caused by summer meteorological triggers in continuous permafrost (Fosheim Peninsula, Ellesmere Island, 80°N). Most failures fall into compact or elongated morphological categories. The compact type occur next to stream channels and have little internal disturbance of the displaced block, whereas the elongated types can develop on any part of the slope and exhibit greater internal deformation. Frequency distributions of length-to-width and length-to-depth ratios are similar at all sites. Positive pore pressures, expected theoretically, were measured in the field at the base of the thawing layer. Effective stress analysis could predict the instability of slopes in both areas, providing cohesion across the thaw plane was set to zero and/or residual strength parameters were employed. The location of the shear planes or zones in relation to the permafrost table and the degree of post-failure secondary movements (including headwall recession and thermokarst development within the failure track) differed between the localities, reflecting dissimilarity in the environmental triggers and in the degree of ground thermal disturbance.

  2. Demonstration of extrapulmonary activity of angiotensin converting enzyme in intact tissue preparations.

    Lembeck, F.; Griesbacher, T; Eckhardt, M.

    1990-01-01

    1. The activity of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) has been studied on functional parameters of intact isolated preparations of extrapulmonary tissues. The conversion of angiotensin I (A I) to angiotensin II (A II) and the cleavage of bradykinin (BK) were used as indicators of ACE activity. Captopril was employed as a specific inhibitor of ACE. 2. Captopril augmented the BK-induced contractions of the rat isolated uterus, the BK- and substance P-induced contractions of the guinea-pig ileu...

  3. Activated alveolar epithelial cells initiate fibrosis through autocrine and paracrine secretion of connective tissue growth factor

    Yang, Jibing; Velikoff, Miranda; Canalis, Ernesto; Horowitz, Jeffrey C.; Kim, Kevin K.

    2014-01-01

    Fibrogenesis involves a pathological accumulation of activated fibroblasts and extensive matrix remodeling. Profibrotic cytokines, such as TGF-β, stimulate fibroblasts to overexpress fibrotic matrix proteins and induce further expression of profibrotic cytokines, resulting in progressive fibrosis. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a profibrotic cytokine that is indicative of fibroblast activation. Epithelial cells are abundant in the normal lung, but their contribution to fibrogenesis...

  4. Cold but not sympathomimetics activates human brown adipose tissue in vivo

    Cypess, Aaron M.; Chen, Yih-Chieh; Sze, Cathy; Wang, Ke; English, Jeffrey; Chan, Onyee; Holman, Ashley R.; Tal, Ilan; Palmer, Matthew R.; Kolodny, Gerald M.; Kahn, C. Ronald

    2012-01-01

    As potential activators of brown adipose tissue (BAT), mild cold exposure and sympathomimetic drugs have been considered as treatments for obesity and diabetes, but whether they activate the same pathways is unknown. In 10 healthy human volunteers, we found that the sympathomimetic ephedrine raised blood pressure, heart rate, and energy expenditure, and increased multiple circulating metabolites, including glucose, insulin, and thyroid hormones. Cold exposure also increased blood pressure and...

  5. BMP7 Activates Brown Adipose Tissue and Reduces Diet-Induced Obesity Only at Subthermoneutrality

    Boon, M.R.; Berg, S.A.A. van den; Wang, Y; Bossche, J. van den; Karkampouna, S.; Bauwens, M.; Saint-Hubert, M. de; Horst, G; Vukicevic, S.; de Winther, M. P. J.; Havekes, L M; Jukema, J.W.; Tamsma, J. T.; Pluijm, G. van der; van Dijk, K W

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims:Brown adipose tissue (BAT) dissipates energy stored in triglycerides as heat via the uncoupling protein UCP-1 and is a promising target to combat hyperlipidemia and obesity. BAT is densely innervated by the sympathetic nervous system, which increases BAT differentiation and activity upon cold exposure. Recently, Bone Morphogenetic Protein 7 (BMP7) was identified as an inducer of BAT differentiation. We aimed to elucidate the role of sympathetic activation in the effect of BMP7...

  6. Plasticity in gastrointestinal morphology and enzyme activity in lactating striped hamsters (Cricetulus barabensis).

    Zhang, Ji-Ying; Zhao, Xiao-Ya; Wen, Jing; Tan, Song; Zhao, Zhi-Jun

    2016-05-01

    In small mammals, marked phenotypic plasticity of digestive physiology has been shown to make it easier for them to cope with energetically stressful periods, such as lactation. It has been proposed that the capacity of the gut to digest and absorb food is not the limiting factor to sustained energy intake (SusEI) during peak lactation. In this study, plasticity in energy intake and gastrointestinal morphology was examined in striped hamsters at different stages of reproduction and when raising litters of different sizes. Mechanisms associated with digestive enzymes and neuroendocrine hormones underpinning the plasticity were also examined. Females significantly increased energy intake, digestibility, digestive tract mass and the activity of stomach pepsin and small intestine maltase, sucrase and aminopeptidase in peak lactation compared with the non-productive and post-lactating periods. Further, females raising large litters significantly increased energy intake, digestibility, gastrointestinal mass and activity of digestive enzymes, and weaned heavier offspring compared with those nursing small and medium litters, indicating that the significant plasticity of digestive physiology increased reproductive performance. Agouti-related protein (AgRP) mRNA expression in the hypothalamus was up-regulated significantly in females raising large litters relative to those raising small litters. Serum leptin levels, and mRNA expression of hypothalamus neuropeptide Y (NPY) and the anorexigenic neuropeptides pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) did not differ among females raising small, medium and large litters. Leptin levels in lactation may only reflect a state of energy balance rather than being the prime driver of hyperphagia. Some hypothalamic neuropeptides, such as NPY, POMC and CART, may be involved in the limits to the SusEI during lactation. PMID:26944487

  7. Tissue micro array analysis of ganglioside N-glycolyl GM3 expression and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT-3 activation in relation to dendritic cell infiltration and microvessel density in non-small cell lung cancer

    de Gruijl Tanja D

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tumor immune escape and angiogenesis contribute to tumor progression, and gangliosides and activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT-3 are implicated in these processes. As both are considered as novel therapeutic targets, we assessed the possible association of ganglioside GM3 expression and STAT3 activation with suppression of dendritic cell (DC activation and angiogenesis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Methods Immunohistochemistry was performed on a tissue array to determine N-glycolyl GM3 (GM3 and phosphorylated STAT3 (pSTAT3 expression in 176 primary NSCLC resections. Median values of GM3 and pSTAT3 expression were used as cut off. Microvessel density (MVD was determined by CD34 staining and morphology. CD1a and CD83 were used to determine infiltrating immature and mature dendritic cells, respectively. Results 94% and 71% of the NSCLC samples expressed GM3 and nuclear pSTAT3, respectively. Median overall survival was 40.0 months. Both low GM3 expression and high pSTAT3 expression were associated with a worse survival, which reached near significance for GM3 (P = 0.08. Microvessel density (MVD, determined by CD34 staining and morphology, was lower in NSCLC samples with high GM3 expression. CD1a+ cells (immature DCs were more frequent in NSCLC tissues as compared to peritumoral lung tissue, while CD83+ cells (mature DCs were more frequent in peritumoral lung tissue. CD83+ DCs were less frequent in NSCLC tissues with high GM3 expression. Conclusion GM3 and pSTAT3 are widely expressed in NSCLC. Based on CD83 expression, GM3, but not pSTAT3, appeared to be involved in tumor-induced DC suppression. pSTAT3 expression was not associated with MVD, while GM3 might play an anti-angiogenic role.

  8. Tissue micro array analysis of ganglioside N-glycolyl GM3 expression and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-3 activation in relation to dendritic cell infiltration and microvessel density in non-small cell lung cancer

    Tumor immune escape and angiogenesis contribute to tumor progression, and gangliosides and activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-3 are implicated in these processes. As both are considered as novel therapeutic targets, we assessed the possible association of ganglioside GM3 expression and STAT3 activation with suppression of dendritic cell (DC) activation and angiogenesis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Immunohistochemistry was performed on a tissue array to determine N-glycolyl GM3 (GM3) and phosphorylated STAT3 (pSTAT3) expression in 176 primary NSCLC resections. Median values of GM3 and pSTAT3 expression were used as cut off. Microvessel density (MVD) was determined by CD34 staining and morphology. CD1a and CD83 were used to determine infiltrating immature and mature dendritic cells, respectively. 94% and 71% of the NSCLC samples expressed GM3 and nuclear pSTAT3, respectively. Median overall survival was 40.0 months. Both low GM3 expression and high pSTAT3 expression were associated with a worse survival, which reached near significance for GM3 (P = 0.08). Microvessel density (MVD), determined by CD34 staining and morphology, was lower in NSCLC samples with high GM3 expression. CD1a+ cells (immature DCs) were more frequent in NSCLC tissues as compared to peritumoral lung tissue, while CD83+ cells (mature DCs) were more frequent in peritumoral lung tissue. CD83+ DCs were less frequent in NSCLC tissues with high GM3 expression. GM3 and pSTAT3 are widely expressed in NSCLC. Based on CD83 expression, GM3, but not pSTAT3, appeared to be involved in tumor-induced DC suppression. pSTAT3 expression was not associated with MVD, while GM3 might play an anti-angiogenic role

  9. An electrically-activated dynamic tissue-equivalent phantom for assessment of diffuse optical imaging systems

    Hebden, Jeremy C; Brunker, Joanna; Correia, Teresa; Price, Ben D; Gibson, Adam P; Everdell, N L [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2008-01-21

    A novel design of solid dynamic phantom with tissue-like optical properties is presented, which contains variable regions of contrast which are activated electrically. Reversible changes in absorption are produced by localized heating of targets impregnated with thermochromic pigment. A portable, battery-operated prototype has been constructed, and its optical and temporal characteristics have been investigated. The phantom has been developed as a means of assessing the performance of diffuse optical imaging systems, such as those used to monitor haemodynamic changes in the brain and other tissues. Images of the phantom have been reconstructed using data acquired with a continuous wave optical topography system.

  10. An electrically-activated dynamic tissue-equivalent phantom for assessment of diffuse optical imaging systems

    Hebden, Jeremy C.; Brunker, Joanna; Correia, Teresa; Price, Ben D.; Gibson, Adam P.; Everdell, N. L.

    2008-01-01

    A novel design of solid dynamic phantom with tissue-like optical properties is presented, which contains variable regions of contrast which are activated electrically. Reversible changes in absorption are produced by localized heating of targets impregnated with thermochromic pigment. A portable, battery-operated prototype has been constructed, and its optical and temporal characteristics have been investigated. The phantom has been developed as a means of assessing the performance of diffuse optical imaging systems, such as those used to monitor haemodynamic changes in the brain and other tissues. Images of the phantom have been reconstructed using data acquired with a continuous wave optical topography system.

  11. An electrically-activated dynamic tissue-equivalent phantom for assessment of diffuse optical imaging systems

    A novel design of solid dynamic phantom with tissue-like optical properties is presented, which contains variable regions of contrast which are activated electrically. Reversible changes in absorption are produced by localized heating of targets impregnated with thermochromic pigment. A portable, battery-operated prototype has been constructed, and its optical and temporal characteristics have been investigated. The phantom has been developed as a means of assessing the performance of diffuse optical imaging systems, such as those used to monitor haemodynamic changes in the brain and other tissues. Images of the phantom have been reconstructed using data acquired with a continuous wave optical topography system

  12. Study of Se subcellular distribution in human tissues by neutron activation analysis

    Subcellular distribution of selenium in certain important human tissues is studied by neutron activation analysis combined with differential centrifugation method. The standard reference materials, bovine liver NIST 1577a and horse kidney IAEA H8, are used to validate the analytical quality. The experimental results show that the slenium levels in various individuals are significantly different. Body selenium is highly enriched in human kidney. Different subcellular selenium distribution patterns are also found in different tissues. The selenium levels in various organelles are sequenced as mitochondria >nuclei>cytosol>lysosome, microsome in liver; nuclei>mitochondria>cytosol>lysosome, microsome in kidney; and mitochondria, nuclei>cytosol, lysosome, microsome in heart

  13. The cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter sequence alters the level and patterns of activity of adjacent tissue- and organ-specific gene promoters.

    Zheng, Xuelian; Deng, Wei; Luo, Keming; Duan, Hui; Chen, Yongqin; McAvoy, Richard; Song, Shuiqing; Pei, Yan; Li, Yi

    2007-08-01

    Here we report the effect of the 35S promoter sequence on activities of the tissue- and organ-specific gene promoters in tobacco plants. In the absence of the 35S promoter sequence the AAP2 promoter is active only in vascular tissues as indicated by expression of the AAP2:GUS gene. With the 35S promoter sequence in the same T-plasmid, transgenic plants exhibit twofold to fivefold increase in AAP2 promoter activity and the promoter becomes active in all tissue types. Transgenic plants hosting the ovary-specific AGL5:iaaM gene (iaaM coding an auxin biosynthetic gene) showed a wild-type phenotype except production of seedless fruits, whereas plants hosting the AGL5:iaaM gene along with the 35S promoter sequence showed drastic morphological alterations. RT-PCR analysis confirms that the phenotype was caused by activation of the AGL5:iaaM gene in non-ovary organs including roots, stems and flowers. When the pollen-, ovule- and early embryo-specific PAB5:barnase gene (barnase coding a RNase gene) was transformed, the presence of 35S promoter sequence drastically reduced transformation efficiencies. However, the transformation efficiencies were restored in the absence of 35S promoter, indicating that the 35S promoter might activate the expression of PAB5:barnase in non-reproductive organs such as calli and shoot primordia. Furthermore, if the 35S promoter sequence was replaced with the NOS promoter sequence, no alteration in AAP2, AGL5 or PAB5 promoter activities was observed. Our results demonstrate that the 35S promoter sequence can convert an adjacent tissue- and organ-specific gene promoter into a globally active promoter. PMID:17340093

  14. Measurement of human tissue-type plasminogen activator by a two-site immunoradiometric assay

    A two-site immunoradiometric assay for human extrinsic (tissue-type) plasminogen activator was developed by using rabbit antibodies raised against plasminogen activator purified from human melanoma cell culture fluid. Samples of 100 μl containing 1 to 100 ng/ml plasminogen activator were incubated in the wells of polyvinyl chloride microtiter plates coated with antibody. The amount of bound extrinsic plasminogen activator was quantitated by the subsequent binding of 125I-labeled affinospecific antibody. The mean level of plasma samples taken at rest was 6.6 +/- 2.9 ng/ml (n = 54). This level increased approximately threefold by exhaustive physical exercise, venous occlusion, or infusion of DDAVP. Extrinsic plasminogen activator in plasma is composed of a fibrin-adsorbable and active component (1.9 +/- 1.1 ng/ml, n = 54, in resting conditions) and an inactive component that does not bind to a fibrin clot (probably extrinsic plasminogen activator-proteinase inhibitor complexes). The fibrin-adsorbable fraction increased approximately fivefold to eightfold after physical exercise, venous occlusion, or DDAVP injections. Potential applications of the immunoradiometric assay are illustrated by the measurement of extrinsic plasminogen activator in different tissue extracts, body fluids, and cell culture fluids and in oocyte translation products after injection with mRNA for plasminogen activator

  15. Tissue Distribution and Anti-inflammatory Activity of DexamethasoneAcetate Incorporated In Lipid Emulsion

    QuanDongqin; CuiGuanghua; DongHuajin; RuanJinxiu

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study the anti-inflammatory activity and tissue distribution patterns of intravenousemulsion of dexamethasone acetate in mice. Methods: The anti-inflammatory solution for injection andLimethasone(Jepanese product) given intravenously were evaluated by using the preformed carrageenan granulomapouch method in rats. Results: The anti-inflammatory activity of dexamethasone acetate emulsion at low dose of 0.05mg.kg1 was as potent as dexamethasone sodium phosphate solution at high dose of 0.3 mg.kg1. The distributionpatterns in mice tissues of [3H]dexamethasone acetate emulsion and [3H]dexamethasone sodium phosphate solution inmice were markedly different. Dexamethasone acetate emulsion showed a much higher concentration in the liver,spleen, lung, and inflamed tissues, whereas dexamethasone sodium phosphate had a high concenti,mon in themuscles of vastus lateralis. These results may indicate that dexamethasone incoporated in lipid emulsion was taken upby the reticuloendothelial system and inflammatory cells much more than dexamethasone sodium phosphate solution.Conclusion: When dexamethasone acetate was incorporated in emulsion, the distribution patterns in tissues werechanged and they had a stronger anti-inflammatory activity.

  16. Effect of an Activated Platelet Concentrate on Differentiated Cells Involved in Tissue Healing.

    Brini, Anna T; Ceci, Caterina; Taschieri, Silvio; Niada, Stefania; Lolato, Alessandra; Giannasi, Chiara; Mortellaro, Carmen; Del Fabbro, Massimo

    2016-05-01

    Tissue healing is a complex process involving several players such as cells and growth factors released from platelets upon activation. Today, platelet concentrates (PCs) are used in many different medical fields including oral, orthopaedic, and reconstructive surgery since they allow growth factors delivery to the injured site, aiming at enhancing tissue regeneration. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of the acellular plasma of an activated platelet concentrate obtained using a manual protocol, on the proliferation, and biological activity of differentiated cells involved in tissue healing. Human osteoblasts and dermal fibroblasts were grown in serum-free medium supplemented with PC derived from several donors. Human osteoblast and human dermal fibroblast proliferation was assessed by MTT test after 7 days and cells were count up to 12-day incubation. Human osteoblast osteo-differentiation was tested after 7 and 14-day incubation by alkaline phosphatase assay. The addition of PC to the culture medium caused an increased proliferation with respect to cells grown in standard condition. The results of the present study suggest that PC supports the proliferation of terminally differentiated cells involved in wound healing and tissue regeneration, confirming its beneficial clinical application in regenerative therapies. PMID:27054419

  17. The effect of dichlorvos on acetylcholinesterase activity in some tissues in rats

    Dere E.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the changes with respect to time in the serum, brain, liver, kidney and small intestine acetylcholinesterase activities were investigated in both male and female rats administered dichlorvos intraperitoneally (i.p.. For this purpose, 4 mg kg-1 doses of dichlorvos were injected i.p. in the rats. The control groups, on the other hand, were administered physiological saline via the same route. Rats were killed by decapitation at 0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64 and 72 hours after administration of dichlorvos and tissues were harvested. Enzyme activities were determined following the necessary treatments. While a significant decrease in enzyme activities in the kidney and small intestine tissues with respect to time were not observed in either sex, a significant decrease in enzyme activities in the serum, as well as in the brain and liver tissues were observed. As a result of our study, acetylcholinesterase activity was found to be decreased compared to controls in both male and female rats from 2 and 4 hours. Enzyme inhibition continued for up to 72 hours.

  18. Nanocomposites of polymers with layered inorganic nanofillers: Antimicrobial activity, thermo-mechanical properties, morphology, and dispersion

    Songtipya, Ponusa

    In the first part of the thesis, polyethylene/layered silicate nanocomposites that exhibit an antimicrobial activity were synthesized and studied. Their antimicrobial activity was designed to originate from non-leaching, novel cationic modifiers---amine-based surfactants---used as the organic-modification of the fillers. Specifically, PE/organically-modified montmorillonite ( mmt) nanocomposites were prepared via melt-processing, and simultaneous dispersion and antimicrobial activity was designed by proper choice of the fillers' organic modification. The antimicrobial activity was measured against three micotoxinogen fungal strains (Penicillium roqueforti and claviforme, and Fusarium graminearum ). Various mmt-based organofillers, which only differ in the type or amount of their organic modification, were used to exemplify how these surfactants can be designed to render antifungal activity to the fillers themselves and the respective nanocomposites. A comparative discussion of the growth of fungi on unfilled PE and nanocomposite PE films is used to demonstrate how the antimicrobial efficacy is dictated by the surfactant chemistry and, further, how the nanocomposites' inhibitory activity compares to that of the organo-fillers and the surfactants. An attempt to improve the thermomechanical reinforcement of PE/mmt nanocomposites while maintaining their antimicrobial activity, was also carried out by combining two different organically modified montmorillonites. However, a uniform microscopic dispersion could not be achieved through this approach. In the second part of this thesis, a number of fundamental studies relating to structure-property relations in nanocomposites were carried out, towards unveiling strategies that can concurrently optimize selected properties of polymers by the addition of nanofillers. Specifically, the dispersion-crystallinity-reinforcement relations in HDPE/mmt nanocomposites was investigated. The influence of a functional HDPE compatibilizer

  19. Template directed preparation of TiO2 nanomaterials with tunable morphologies and their photocatalytic activity research

    TiO2 nanomaterials with tunable morphologies including nanotubes, nanofibers–nanoparticles, and nanoparticles were fabricated using electrospun nanofibers as the template and ammonium as the additives. The morphologies and the crystallization of the obtained samples were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. The formation mechanism was explored and it was supposed that the formation of tunable morphologies of the samples was realized by the hydrogen bonding interaction between the TiO2 precursor and the nanofibers, which can be modulated by the ammonium. The photocatalytic activities of the samples obtained under different circumstances were invested by degradation of Methylene Blue (MB) under the irradiation of mercury lamp of 300 W. The morphologies are in close relation with the photocatalytic activities. The nanotubes and nanoparticles exhibit similar and higher photocatalytic activities while the nanofibers–nanoparticles composites show lower one. The research work can provide some fundamental research for the photocatalysis area. Additionally, the fabrication method adopted here seems to be simple and can be easily extended to prepare other semiconductor materials.

  20. Template directed preparation of TiO{sub 2} nanomaterials with tunable morphologies and their photocatalytic activity research

    Xu, Guo-Rong [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Wang, Jiao-Na [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Fashion Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Beijing Key Laboratory of Clothing Materials R and D and Assessment, Beijing 100029 (China); Li, Cong-Ju, E-mail: congjuli@gmail.com [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); College of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Fashion Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Beijing Key Laboratory of Clothing Materials R and D and Assessment, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2013-08-15

    TiO{sub 2} nanomaterials with tunable morphologies including nanotubes, nanofibers–nanoparticles, and nanoparticles were fabricated using electrospun nanofibers as the template and ammonium as the additives. The morphologies and the crystallization of the obtained samples were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. The formation mechanism was explored and it was supposed that the formation of tunable morphologies of the samples was realized by the hydrogen bonding interaction between the TiO{sub 2} precursor and the nanofibers, which can be modulated by the ammonium. The photocatalytic activities of the samples obtained under different circumstances were invested by degradation of Methylene Blue (MB) under the irradiation of mercury lamp of 300 W. The morphologies are in close relation with the photocatalytic activities. The nanotubes and nanoparticles exhibit similar and higher photocatalytic activities while the nanofibers–nanoparticles composites show lower one. The research work can provide some fundamental research for the photocatalysis area. Additionally, the fabrication method adopted here seems to be simple and can be easily extended to prepare other semiconductor materials.

  1. Phase- and morphology-controlled synthesis of cobalt sulfide nanocrystals and comparison of their catalytic activities for hydrogen evolution

    Pan, Yuan; Liu, Yunqi; Liu, Chenguang

    2015-12-01

    Colalt sulfide nanocrystals (NCs), including dandelion-like Co9S8 and sphere-like Co3S4, have been synthesized via a thermal decomposition approach using cobalt acetylacetonate as the cobalt source, 1-dodecanethiol as the sulfur source and oleic acid or oleylamine as the high boiling organic solvent. It is found that the molar ratio of the Co:S precursor and the species of solvent play an important role in the control of phase and morphology of cobalt sulfide nanostructures. The phase structure and morphology of the as-synthesized nickel sulfide NCs are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectrum (EDS) mapping, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and N2 adsorption-desorption. Then we further compare the electrocatalytic activity and stability of as-synthesized cobalt sulfide NCs for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). The results show that sphere-like Co3S4 exhibits better electrocatalytic activity than the dandelion-like Co9S8 NCs for HER, which can be attributed to the difference of phase structure and morphology. The sphere-like Co3S4 NCs have large surface area and high electrical conductivity, both are beneficial to enhance the catalytic activity. This study indicates that the crystalline phase structure and morphology of cobalt sulfide NCs are important for designing HER electrocatalysts with high efficiency and good stability.

  2. Brown Adipose Tissue Activation Is Linked to Distinct Systemic Effects on Lipid Metabolism in Humans.

    Chondronikola, Maria; Volpi, Elena; Børsheim, Elisabet; Porter, Craig; Saraf, Manish K; Annamalai, Palam; Yfanti, Christina; Chao, Tony; Wong, Daniel; Shinoda, Kosaku; Labbė, Sebastien M; Hurren, Nicholas M; Cesani, Fernardo; Kajimura, Shingo; Sidossis, Labros S

    2016-06-14

    Recent studies suggest that brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays a role in energy and glucose metabolism in humans. However, the physiological significance of human BAT in lipid metabolism remains unknown. We studied 16 overweight/obese men during prolonged, non-shivering cold and thermoneutral conditions using stable isotopic tracer methodologies in conjunction with hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps and BAT and white adipose tissue (WAT) biopsies. BAT volume was significantly associated with increased whole-body lipolysis, triglyceride-free fatty acid (FFA) cycling, FFA oxidation, and adipose tissue insulin sensitivity. Functional analysis of BAT and WAT demonstrated the greater thermogenic capacity of BAT compared to WAT, while molecular analysis revealed a cold-induced upregulation of genes involved in lipid metabolism only in BAT. The accelerated mobilization and oxidation of lipids upon BAT activation supports a putative role for BAT in the regulation of lipid metabolism in humans. PMID:27238638

  3. Adipose Tissue and Energy Expenditure: Central and Peripheral Neural Activation Pathways.

    Blaszkiewicz, Magdalena; Townsend, Kristy L

    2016-06-01

    Increasing energy expenditure is an appealing therapeutic target for the prevention and reversal of metabolic conditions such as obesity or type 2 diabetes. However, not enough research has investigated how to exploit pre-existing neural pathways, both in the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS), in order to meet these needs. Here, we review several research areas in this field, including centrally acting pathways known to drive the activation of sympathetic nerves that can increase lipolysis and browning in white adipose tissue (WAT) or increase thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT), as well as other central and peripheral pathways able to increase energy expenditure of these tissues. In addition, we describe new work investigating the family of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels on metabolically important sensory nerves, as well as the role of the vagus nerve in regulating energy balance. PMID:27055864

  4. Coma Morphology Due to an Extended Active Region and Implications for the Spin State of Comet Hale-Bopp

    Samarasinha, Nalin H.

    2000-01-01

    We show that the circular character of continuum structures observed in the coma of comet Hale-Bopp around the perihelion passage is most likely due to a dust jet from a large extended active region on the surface. Coma morphology due to a wide jet is different from that due to a narrow jet. The latter shows foreshortening effects due to observing geometry, wider jet produces more circular features. This circularization effect provides a self-consistent explanation for the evolution of near-perihelion coma morphology. No changes in the direction of the rotational angular momentum vector are required during this period in contrast to the models of Schleicher et al. This circularization effect also enables us to produce near-circular coma features in the S-E quadrant during 1997 late February and therefore questions the basic premise on which Sekanina bases his morphological arguments for a gravitationally bound satellite nucleus.

  5. Lipocalin 2, a Regulator of Retinoid Homeostasis and Retinoid-mediated Thermogenic Activation in Adipose Tissue.

    Guo, Hong; Foncea, Rocio; O'Byrne, Sheila M; Jiang, Hongfeng; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Deis, Jessica A; Blaner, William S; Bernlohr, David A; Chen, Xiaoli

    2016-05-20

    We have recently characterized the role of lipocalin 2 (Lcn2) as a new adipose-derived cytokine in the regulation of adaptive thermogenesis via a non-adrenergic pathway. Herein, we explored a potential non-adrenergic mechanism by which Lcn2 regulates thermogenesis and lipid metabolism. We found that Lcn2 is a retinoic acid target gene, and retinoic acid concurrently stimulated UCP1 and Lcn2 expression in adipocytes. Lcn2 KO mice exhibited a blunted effect of all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) on body weight and fat mass, lipid metabolism, and retinoic acid signaling pathway activation in adipose tissue under the high fat diet-induced obese condition. We further demonstrated that Lcn2 is required for the full action of ATRA on the induction of UCP1 and PGC-1α expression in brown adipocytes and the restoration of cold intolerance in Lcn2 KO mice. Interestingly, we discovered that Lcn2 KO mice have decreased levels of retinoic acid and retinol in adipose tissue. The protein levels of STRA6 responsible for retinol uptake were significantly decreased in adipose tissue. The retinol transporter RBP4 was increased in adipose tissue but decreased in the circulation, suggesting the impairment of RBP4 secretion in Lcn2 KO adipose tissue. Moreover, Lcn2 deficiency abolished the ATRA effect on RBP4 expression in adipocytes. All the data suggest that the decreased retinoid level and action are associated with impaired retinol transport and storage in adipose tissue in Lcn2 KO mice. We conclude that Lcn2 plays a critical role in regulating metabolic homeostasis of retinoids and retinoid-mediated thermogenesis in adipose tissue. PMID:27008859

  6. In vitro determination of inorganic constituents in bone tissues using neutron activation analysis

    In the past years, there has been an increasing interest in bone analyses since they are deposits of essential and toxic elements. Besides they have supporting function of human body and protect vital organs. Besides, analyses of inorganic constituents in bones have been carried out to study bone diseases such as osteoporosis and tumors in bones. In this work, an adequate experimental procedure was established for bone tissue treatment, and instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied to trace element determinations in freeze-dried cortical and trabecular tissues and whole bone ash from animal (porcine and bovine) and human ribs. Using short and long-period irradiations at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor, the elements Ba, Br, Ca, Cl, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Rb, Sb, Sr and Zn were determined in bone tissues. To validate the analytical methodology, biological certified reference materials were analyzed and their results showed good precision and accuracy. Besides analyses of a bovine rib bone presented precise data for most elements with relative standard deviations lower than 14 %. This result demonstrated that the procedure defined for bone tissue treatment was appropriate to obtain homogeneous samples. However, the calcination was not suitable for whole bone treatment due to loss of Br and Cl. Statistical t test was applied to compare the results obtained for different tissues of bone and also the results found for ribs of two animal species. Comparisons between the results obtained for correspondent tissues of porcine and bovine ribs present different element concentration. Moreover, cortical and trabecular tissues of humans presented different concentrations for all the elements analyzed in this work. These findings indicate that trace elements in bone samples have to be separately studied. (author)

  7. Spatial heterogeneity in active chlorophyll fluorescence and PSII activity of coral tissues

    Ralph, P.J.; Gademann, R.; Larkum, A.W.D.;

    2002-01-01

    Chlorophyll-a fluorescence was measured in six species of coral, using pulse-amplitude-modulated fluorometers employing fibre-optic probes with diameters of 8 mm, 1 mm and 140 µm. The 8-mm probe integrated responses over a large area, giving more weight to coenosarc than polyp tissue for Acropora...... down-regulation at higher irradiances. Coenosarc and polyp tissue (both containing zooxanthellae) showed a wide range of responses in the other corals. Down-regulation of photosynthesis in a single polyp of Pocillopora damicornis was followed after exposure to moderate irradiance, with recovery...... occurring over a further 4 h of shade conditions. All the corals (Acropora millepora, A. nobilis, Cyphastrea serailia, Montipora tuberculosa, Pocillopora damicornis and Porites cylindrica) showed evidence of strong down-regulation of photosynthesis under high irradiance, and little evidence of...

  8. The activity of some phosphatases in tissues of adult Hymenolepis nana Siebold (Csetoda).

    Humiczewska, M

    1989-01-01

    Histochemical methods were used to study the localization and activity of acid and alkaline phosphatases, ATP-ase, 5-nucleotidase, and glucose-6-phosphatase in tissues of the mature form of Hymenolepis nana. Considerable differences in activity and localization of particular enzymes were observed in the organs of the parasite. The results obtained permit the statement that the integument is the most active enzymatically; in connection with the literature data, this gives grounds for the thesis that the integument of the cestodes functions as an absorbent-digestive organ. PMID:2558920

  9. Trace elements determination in human bone tissue by neutron activation analysis

    Determination of trace elements in human bones is of the great interest for evaluating nutritional state and for prevention, control and study of several diseases caused by mineral or trace element imbalance. In this study, neutron activation analysis (NAA) was applied for trace elements in human rib bone tissue. Elements Ba, Br, Ca, Cl, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Rb, Sr and Zn were determined in total bone tissue and in its subcompartments (cortical and trabecular tissue) separately. Irradiations were performed at IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor of IPEN-CNEN/SP. Short irradiations of 4 minutes were carried out under thermal neutron flux of 4.5x1011 n cm-2 s-1 and long irradiations of 16 hours under neutron flux of 1012 n cm-2 s-1. Results obtained showed a variability between elemental concentrations found for bones from different individuals. A comparative study made between the data obtained for cortical and trabecular bones indicated that these two tissues present different elemental concentrations. Concentrations of Ca, Mg, Na and P obtained for cortical tissue were the same magnitude of those published data. (author)

  10. Assessment of the influence of the inflammatory process on the activation of blood platelets and morphological parameters in patients with ulcerative colitis (colitis ulcerosa

    Halina Kemona

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Ulcerative colitis (colitis ulcerosa is a non-specific inflammatory bowel disease of unknown etiology. The symptoms which are observed in the course of ulcerative colitis are: an increase in the number of leukocytes and blood platelets, an increase in the concentration of IL-6 and anemia. Blood platelets are the key element, linking the processes of hemostasis, inflammation and the repair of damaged tissues. Activation of blood platelets is connected with changes in their shape and the occurrence of the reaction of release. P-selectin appears on the surfaces of activated blood platelets and the concentration level of soluble P-selectin increases in the blood plasma. The aim of this study was to define whether the increased number of blood platelets in patients with ulcerative colitis accompanies changes in their activation and morphology. A total of 16 subjects with ulcerative colitis and 32 healthy subjects were studied. Mean platelet count, morphological parameters of platelets and MPC were measured using an ADVIA 120 hematology analyzer. Concentrations of sP-selectin and IL-6 in serum were marked by immunoassay (ELISA. MPC, concentration of sP-selectin and IL-6 were significantly higher in subjects with ulcerative colitis compared to those in the healthy group. There was a decrease of MPV in patients with ulcerative colitis, which is statistically significant. Chronic inflammation in patients with ulcerative colitis causes an increase in the number of blood platelets, a change in their morphology and activation. Decreased MPV value reflects activation and the role blood platelets play in the inflammatory process of the mucous membrane of the colon. A high concentration of sP-selectin, which is a marker of blood platelet activation, demonstrates their part in the inflammatory process. The increase in the concentration of sP-selectin correlated positively with the increase in concentration of IL-6. This is why it may be a useful marker

  11. Adipogenic role of alternatively activated macrophages in β-adrenergic remodeling of white adipose tissue.

    Lee, Yun-Hee; Kim, Sang-Nam; Kwon, Hyun-Jung; Maddipati, Krishna Rao; Granneman, James G

    2016-01-01

    De novo brown adipogenesis involves the proliferation and differentiation of progenitors, yet the mechanisms that guide these events in vivo are poorly understood. We previously demonstrated that treatment with a β3-adrenergic receptor (ADRB3) agonist triggers brown/beige adipogenesis in gonadal white adipose tissue following adipocyte death and clearance by tissue macrophages. The close physical relationship between adipocyte progenitors and tissue macrophages suggested that the macrophages that clear dying adipocytes might generate proadipogenic factors. Flow cytometric analysis of macrophages from mice treated with CL 316,243 identified a subpopulation that contained elevated lipid and expressed CD44. Lipidomic analysis of fluorescence-activated cell sorting-isolated macrophages demonstrated that CD44+ macrophages contained four- to five-fold higher levels of the endogenous peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) ligands 9-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (HODE), and 13-HODE compared with CD44- macrophages. Gene expression profiling and immunohistochemistry demonstrated that ADRB3 agonist treatment upregulated expression of ALOX15, the lipoxygenase responsible for generating 9-HODE and 13-HODE. Using an in vitro model of adipocyte efferocytosis, we found that IL-4-primed tissue macrophages accumulated lipid from dying fat cells and upregulated expression of Alox15. Furthermore, treatment of differentiating adipocytes with 9-HODE and 13-HODE potentiated brown/beige adipogenesis. Collectively, these data indicate that noninflammatory removal of adipocyte remnants and coordinated generation of PPARγ ligands by M2 macrophages provides localized adipogenic signals to support de novo brown/beige adipogenesis. PMID:26538237

  12. Enzymatic activity of granulations tissues under low doses of radiation. Biochemical analysis in rats

    This paper was designed to investigate in the rat subcutaneous sponge-induced granulation tissue under low doses of X-ray, the activity of alkaline phosphatase, 5'nucleotide phosphodiesterase and adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) enzymes. One hundred and fourteen Wistar rats were divided into three groups, as follows: Group I as control, Group II that received single 7,14 R in split-dosis immediately after sponge-implantation at the third and fifth days postoperatively. Biopsies were taken after 7, 11, 14, 21 and 28 days and the activity of the three enzymes was determined. The results have shown that in Group II alkaline phosphatase had higher activity in the 14th day of tissue evolution when compared to Groups I and III . The 5'nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity in Group I was similar in all days checked, although in Group II the enzyme showed higher activity in 7th day and lower in 21st. In Group III the activity was higher after 14 and 7 days and lower after 28 and 21 days. There was no observation of changing in adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activity when the three groups were compared. (author)

  13. The ATP-P2X7 signalling axis is dispensable for obesity-associated inflammasome activation in adipose tissue

    Sun, S.; Xia, S.; Ji, Y.; Kersten, A.H.; Qi, L.

    2012-01-01

    Inflammasome activation in adipose tissue has been implicated in obesity-associated insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. However, when and how inflammasome is activated in adipose tissue remains speculative. Here we test the hypothesis that extracellular ATP, a potent stimulus of inflammasome in

  14. Association of Geographical Factors With Administration of Tissue Plasminogen Activator for Acute Ischemic Stroke

    Kunisawa, Susumu; Morishima, Toshitaka; Ukawa, Naoto; Ikai, Hiroshi; Otsubo, Tetsuya; Ishikawa, Koichi B.; Yokota, Chiaki; Minematsu, Kazuo; Fushimi, Kiyohide; Imanaka, Yuichi

    2013-01-01

    Background Intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is an effective treatment for acute ischemic stroke if administered within a few hours of stroke onset. Because of this time restriction, tPA administration remains infrequent. Ambulance use is an effective strategy for increasing tPA administration but may be influenced by geographical factors. The objectives of this study are to investigate the relationship between tPA administration and ambulance use and to examine how patient trave...

  15. Quantitative Measurement of Protease-Activity with Correction of Probe Delivery and Tissue Absorption Effects

    Salthouse, Christopher D.; Reynolds, Fred; Tam, Jenny M.; Josephson, Lee; Mahmood, Umar

    2009-01-01

    Proteases play important roles in a variety of pathologies from heart disease to cancer. Quantitative measurement of protease activity is possible using a novel spectrally matched dual fluorophore probe and a small animal lifetime imager. The recorded fluorescence from an activatable fluorophore, one that changes its fluorescent amplitude after biological target interaction, is also influenced by other factors including imaging probe delivery and optical tissue absorption of excitation and em...

  16. Serum B cell–activating factor (BAFF) level in connective tissue disease associated interstitial lung disease

    Hamada, Tsutomu; Samukawa, Takuya; Kumamoto, Tomohiro; Hatanaka, Kazuhito; Tsukuya, Go; Yamamoto, Masuki; Machida, Kentaro; Watanabe, Masaki; Mizuno, Keiko; Higashimoto, Ikkou; Inoue, Yoshikazu; Inoue, Hiromasa

    2015-01-01

    Background Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) are common in patients with connective tissue diseases (CTDs). Although the diagnosis of an underlying CTD in ILD (CTD-ILD) affects both prognosis and treatment, it is sometimes difficult to distinguish CTD-ILD from chronic fibrosing interstitial pneumonia (CFIP). B cell–activating factor belonging to the tumour necrosis factor family (BAFF) plays a crucial role in B cell development, survival, and antibody production. Methods We examined serum lev...

  17. Combinations of WOX activities regulate tissue proliferation during Arabidopsis embryonic development

    Wu, Xuelin; Chory, Joanne; Weigel, Detlef

    2007-01-01

    Tissue growth as the result of cell division is an essential part of embryonic development. Previous studies have shown that STIMPY (STIP)/WOX9, a homeodomain transcription factor of the Arabidopsis thaliana WOX family, is required for maintaining cell division and preventing premature differentiation in emerging seedlings. Here we present evidence that STIP performs similar functions during embryogenesis. Complete loss of STIP activity results in early embryonic arrest, most likely due to a ...

  18. Tissue plasminogen activator and neuroserpin are widely expressed in the human central nervous system.

    Teesalu, Tambet; Kulla, Andres; Simisker, Aadu; Sirén, Vappu; Lawrence, Daniel A; Asser, Toomas; Vaheri, Antti

    2004-08-01

    Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is increasingly recognized to play important roles in various physiological and pathological processes in the central nervous system (CNS). Much of the data on the involvement of plasminogen activators in neurophysiology and -pathology have been derived from studies on experimental animals. We have now performed a systematic characterization of the expression of tPA and its inhibitor, neuroserpin, in normal human CNS. Brain and spinal cord samples from 30-36 anatomic locations covering all major brain regions were collected at 9 autopsies of donors with no neurological disease. Tissues were embedded in paraffin and tissue arrays were constructed. In two cases parallel samples were snap-frozen for biochemical analysis. Expression and activity profiling of tPA and neuroserpin were performed by immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, immunocapture and zymography assays. In the adult CNS, tPA was expressed at the mRNA and protein levels in many types of neurons, in particular in thalamus, cortex of cerebellum, pontine nuclei, neocortex, limbic system, and medulla oblongata. Interestingly, tPA was often co-expressed with its CNS inhibitor, neuroserpin. Despite overlapping expression of tPA and neuroserpin, zymography and immunocapture assays demonstrated that human neural tissue is a rich source of active tPA. Our analysis documents a detailed map of expression of tPA and its inhibitor in the human CNS and is compatible with the view that tPA is a key player in CNS physiology and pathology. PMID:15269833

  19. Effect of Amiloride to Retinal Toxicity Induced by Tissue Plasminogen Activator

    Kim, Ungsoo Samuel; Oh, Hyun-Sub; Kwon, Oh Woong; Chung, In; Lee, Sung-Ho; Lee, Joon Haeng

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The effects of amiloride on cellular toxicity caused by tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) in mouse primary retinal cells were investigated. Methods Primary retinal cell cultures were maintained using glial conditioned medium. Commercial tPA and L-arginine were added, and the level of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cyclic-GMP) in the culture supernatant was assessed using an ELISA assay. We measured the cell viability of cultured retinal cells pretreated with three different concentr...

  20. 3,5-Diiodo-L-Thyronine Activates Brown Adipose Tissue Thermogenesis in Hypothyroid Rats

    Lombardi, Assunta; Senese, Rosalba; De Matteis, Rita; Busiello, Rosa Anna; Cioffi, Federica; Goglia, Fernando; Lanni, Antonia

    2015-01-01

    3,5-diiodo-l-thyronine (T2), a thyroid hormone derivative, is capable of increasing energy expenditure, as well as preventing high fat diet-induced overweight and related metabolic dysfunction. Most studies to date on T2 have been carried out on liver and skeletal muscle. Considering the role of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in energy and metabolic homeostasis, we explored whether T2 could activate BAT thermogenesis. Using euthyroid, hypothyroid, and T2-treated hypothyroid rats (all maintained a...

  1. Laser-activated nano-biomaterials for tissue repair and controlled drug release

    Matteini, P; Ratto, F; Rossi, F; Pini, R [Institute of Applied Physics ' Nello Carrara' , National Research Council, via Madonna del Piano 10 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)

    2014-07-31

    We present recent achievements of minimally invasive welding of biological tissue and controlled drug release based on laser-activated nano-biomaterials. In particular, we consider new advancements in the biomedical application of near-IR absorbing gold nano-chromophores as an original solution for the photothermal repair of surgical incisions and as nanotriggers of controlled drug release from hybrid biopolymer scaffolds. (laser biophotonics)

  2. Whole-Blood Tissue Factor Procoagulant Activity Is Elevated in Type 1 Diabetes

    Singh, Anamika; Boden, Guenther; Homko, Carol; Gunawardana, Jay; Rao, A. Koneti

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine tissue factor procoagulant activity (TF-PCA) in patients with type 1 diabetes and to examine effects of hyperglycemia and hyperglycemia plus hyperinsulinemia on TF-PCA. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We have determined circulating TF-PCA and other coagulation factors under basal (hyperglycemic) conditions, after acute correction of hyperglycemia, in response to 24 h of selective hyperglycemia, and in response to 24 h of hyperglycemia plus hyperinsulinemia in nine type 1 di...

  3. Tel omerase Activity in Condyloma Acuminatum Tissue with Different HPV Types

    涂亚庭; 陈善娟; 樊超; 林能兴; 刘厚君; 刘志香

    2002-01-01

    Summary: The telomerse activity in condyloma acuminatum (CA) tissue with human papillomavirus (HPV) types of 6/11 and 16/18 was detected to investigate the function of telomerase in the occur rence, development and carcinogenesis of genital CA. Forty-two biopsies from patients with gennital CA and 30 control tissue samples were tested for telomerase activity, HPV presence and types. The telomerase activity was determined by modified telomerase repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) as say and HPV typing by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with typing-specific primers. Results showed that HPV-DNA was negative and the expression rate of telomerase was 16.7 % in all normal skin samples. All CA samples were positive for HPV (6/11 type was found in 32 cases, 16/18 in 3 and mixed type in 7). Telomerarase activity was detectable in all CA patients. The telomerase activity in CA of 16/18 type was apparently higher than in CA of 6/11 type. It was concluded that the hy-perplasia in CA might be increased as a result of HPV infection, suggesting that the activation of telomerase by HPV, especially by 16/18 type may play a role in the etiology and carcinogenesis of genital CA.

  4. Links among Slope Morphology, Canyon Types and Tectonics on Passive and Active Margins in the Northernmost South China Sea

    Ho-Shing Yu; Emmy T Y Chang

    2009-01-01

    We examine slope profile types and variations in slope gradient and slope relief with depth for both passive and active margins in the northern most South China Sea.The passive South China margin is characterized by an exponential slope profile,mainly assodated with clustered slope-confined canyons.The active Taiwan margin shows a linear-like shape with great variations along the lower slope.Fewer eanyom occur on the Taiwau margin,and hence the influence of canyon incision on slope morphology is relatively less significant.Quantitative analyses of slope curvature,slope gradleut and square root of relief variance are useful statistical parameters to explain characteristics and variability of morphology of the slope of the South China margin,but not for the Kaoping slope on the Talwan side.On the active Taiwan margin,tectonic activities are dominant over sediment deposition and surface erosion,producing a slope profile quite different from those of passive margins of the Middle Atlantic,KwaZulu-Natal,South Africa where failure on slope and accompanying canyon incision are the dominant processes shaping the slope morphology.

  5. Influences of Silver-Doping on the Crystal Structure, Morphology and Photocatalytic Activity of TiO2 Nanofibers

    Barakat, Nasser A. M.; Kanjwal, Muzafar Ahmed; Al-Deyab, Salem S.;

    2011-01-01

    Doping of titanium dioxide nanofibers by silver nanoparticles revealed distinct improvement in the photocatalytic activ-ity; however other influences have not been investigated. In this work, effect of sliver-doping on the crystal structure, the nanofibrous morphology as well as the photocatalytic...... activity of titanium oxide nanofibers has been studied. Sil-ver-doped TiO2 nanofibers having different silver contents were prepared by calcination of electrospun nanofiber mats consisting of silver nitrate, titanium isopropoxide and poly(vinyl acetate) at 600°C. The results affirmed formation of silver...

  6. Simulation and experimental studies of the SMA-activated needle behavior inside the tissue

    Konh, Bardia; Honarvar, Mohammad; Hutapea, Parsaoran

    2015-04-01

    Recently, the concept of developing an active steerable needle has gathered a lot of attention as they could potentially result in an improved outcome in various medical percutaneous procedures. Compared to the conventional straight bevel tip needles, active needles can be bent by means of the attached actuation component in order to reach the target locations more accurately. In this study, the movement of the passive needle inside the tissue was investigated using numerical and experimental approaches. A finite element simulation of needle insertion was developed using LSDYNA software to study the maneuverability of the passive needle. The Arbitrary-Eulerian-Lagrangian (ALE) formulation was used to model the interactions between the solid elements of the needle and the fluid elements of the tissue. Also the passive needle insertion tests were performed inside a tissue mimicking phantom. This model was validated for the 150mm of insertion which is similar to the depth in our needle insertion experiments. The model is intended to be based as a framework for modeling the active needle insertion in future.

  7. ChIP-seq Accurately Predicts Tissue-Specific Activity of Enhancers

    Visel, Axel; Blow, Matthew J.; Li, Zirong; Zhang, Tao; Akiyama, Jennifer A.; Holt, Amy; Plajzer-Frick, Ingrid; Shoukry, Malak; Wright, Crystal; Chen, Feng; Afzal, Veena; Ren, Bing; Rubin, Edward M.; Pennacchio, Len A.

    2009-02-01

    A major yet unresolved quest in decoding the human genome is the identification of the regulatory sequences that control the spatial and temporal expression of genes. Distant-acting transcriptional enhancers are particularly challenging to uncover since they are scattered amongst the vast non-coding portion of the genome. Evolutionary sequence constraint can facilitate the discovery of enhancers, but fails to predict when and where they are active in vivo. Here, we performed chromatin immunoprecipitation with the enhancer-associated protein p300, followed by massively-parallel sequencing, to map several thousand in vivo binding sites of p300 in mouse embryonic forebrain, midbrain, and limb tissue. We tested 86 of these sequences in a transgenic mouse assay, which in nearly all cases revealed reproducible enhancer activity in those tissues predicted by p300 binding. Our results indicate that in vivo mapping of p300 binding is a highly accurate means for identifying enhancers and their associated activities and suggest that such datasets will be useful to study the role of tissue-specific enhancers in human biology and disease on a genome-wide scale.

  8. Changes in lipoprotein lipase activity in the adipose tissue, heart and liver of continuously irradiated rats

    Adult male Wistar rats were continuously irradiated for 30 days on an experimental field from a 60Co source of radiation. Lipoprotein lipase activity was determined in their adipose tissue, heart and liver at intervals of 1, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 30 days from the beginning of irradiation and triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, phospholipid and non-esterified fatty acid concentrations were determined in their serum. Throughout the whole of the study, lipoprotein lipase activity was lower in the adipose tissue and higher in the heart of irradiated rats than in the controls. In the liver it was low 3 days from the onset of irradiation; at the other intervals it was variable and differed only non-significantly from the controls. Serum lipid concentrations were raised in irradiated rats - triacylglycerol from the 7th day, phospholipids from the 14th day and non-esterified fatty acids throughout the whole period of irradiation. In keeping with the high triacylglycerol values in the serum of irradiated rats, lipoprotein lipase activity in their adipose tissue was low. (author)

  9. Telomere Lengths and Telomerase Activity in Dog Tissues: A Potential Model System to Study Human Telomere and Telomerase Biology

    Lubna Nasir

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on telomere and telomerase biology are fundamental to the understanding of aging and age-related diseases such as cancer. However, human studies have been hindered by differences in telomere biology between humans and the classical murine animal model system. In this paper, we describe basic studies of telomere length and telomerase activity in canine normal and neoplastic tissues and propose the dog as an alternative model system. Briefly, telomere lengths were measured in normal canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs, a range of normal canine tissues, and in a panel of naturally occurring soft tissue tumours by terminal restriction fragment (TRF analysis. Further, telomerase activity was measured in canine cell lines and multiple canine tissues using a combined polymerase chain reaction/enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. TRF analysis in canine PBMCs and tissues demonstrated mean TRF lengths to range between 12 and 23 kbp with heterogeneity in telomere lengths being observed in a range of normal somatic tissues. In soft tissue sarcomas, two subgroups were identified with mean TRFs of 22.2 and 18.2 kbp. Telomerase activity in canine tissue was present in tumour tissue and testis with little or no activity in normal somatic tissues. These results suggest that the dog telomere biology is similar to that in humans and may represent an alternative model system for studying telomere biology and telomerase-targeted anticancer therapies.

  10. Subaqueous cryptodome eruption, hydrothermal activity and related seafloor morphologies on the andesitic North Su volcano

    Thal, Janis; Tivey, Maurice; Yoerger, Dana R.; Bach, Wolfgang

    2016-09-01

    North Su is a double-peaked active andesite submarine volcano located in the eastern Manus Basin of the Bismarck Sea that reaches a depth of 1154 m. It hosts a vigorous and varied hydrothermal system with black and white smoker vents along with several areas of diffuse venting and deposits of native sulfur. Geologic mapping based on ROV observations from 2006 and 2011 combined with morphologic features identified from repeated bathymetric surveys in 2002 and 2011 documents the emplacement of a volcanic cryptodome between 2006 and 2011. We use our observations and rock analyses to interpret an eruption scenario where highly viscous, crystal-rich andesitic magma erupted slowly into the water-saturated, gravel-dominated slope of North Su. An intense fragmentation process produced abundant blocky clasts of a heterogeneous magma (olivine crystals within a rhyolitic groundmass) that only rarely breached through the clastic cover onto the seafloor. Phreatic and phreatomagmatic explosions beneath the seafloor cause mixing of juvenile and pre-existing lithic clasts and produce a volcaniclastic deposit. This volcaniclastic deposit consists of blocky, non-altered clasts next, variably (1-100%) altered clasts, hydrothermal precipitates and crystal fragments. The usually applied parameters to identify juvenile subaqueous lava fragments, i.e. fluidal shape or chilled margin, were not applicable to distinguish between pre-existing non-altered clasts and juvenile clasts. This deposit is updomed during further injection of magma and mechanical disruption. Gas-propelled turbulent clast-recycling causes clasts to develop variably rounded shapes. An abundance of blocky clasts and the lack of clasts typical for the contact of liquid lava with water is interpreted to be the result of a cooled, high-viscosity, crystal-rich magma that failed as a brittle solid upon stress. The high viscosity allows the lava to form blocky and short lobes. The pervasive volcaniclastic cover on North Su is

  11. Rosetta/OSIRIS: Nucleus morphology and activity of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    Sierks, Holger

    2015-08-01

    Introduction: The Rosetta mission of the European Space Agency arrived on August 6, 2014, at the target comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko after 10 years of cruise. OSIRIS (Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System) is the scientific imaging system onboard Rosetta. It comprises a Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) for broad-band nucleus surface and dust studies and a Wide Angle Camera (WAC) for the wide field coma investigations.OSIRIS images the nucleus and the coma of comet 67P/C-G from the arrival throughout early mapping phase, PHILAE landing, and escort phase with close fly-by beginning of the year 2015.The team paper presents the surface morphology and activity of the nucleus as seen in gas, dust, and local jets and the larger scale coma studied by OSIRIS.Acknowledgements: OSIRIS was built by a consortium led by the Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Göttingen, Germany, in collaboration with CISAS, University of Padova, Italy, the Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, France, the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucia, CSIC, Granada, Spain, the Scientific Support Office of the European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, the Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial, Madrid, Spain, the Universidad Politéchnica de Madrid, Spain, the Department of Physics and Astronomy of Uppsala University, Sweden, and the Institut für Datentechnik und Kommunikationsnetze der Technischen Universität Braunschweig, Germany.Additional Information: The OSIRIS team is H. Sierks, C. Barbieri, P. Lamy, R. Rodrigo, D. Koschny, H. Rickman, J. Agarwal, M. A'Hearn, I. Bertini, F. Angrilli, M. A. Barucci, J. L. Bertaux, G. Cremonese, V. Da Deppo, B. Davidsson, S. Debei, M. De Cecco, S. Fornasier, M. Fulle, O. Groussin, C. Güttler, P. Gutierrez, S. Hviid, W. Ip, L. Jorda, H. U. Keller, J. Knollenberg, R. Kramm, E. Kührt, M. Küppers, L. Lara, M. Lazzarin, J. J. Lopez, S. Lowry, S. Marchi, F. Marzari, H. Michalik, S. Mottola, G. Naletto, N. Oklay, L

  12. Tissue plasminogen activator-independent roles of neuroserpin in the central nervous system

    Jiao Ma; Yu Tong; Dan Yu; Meng Mao

    2012-01-01

    A number of studies have confirmed the existence of tissue-type plasminogen activator-independent roles of neuroserpin, a member of the serine protease inhibitor superfamily. In this review article, we aim to clarify this role. These unique roles of neuroserpin are involved in its neuroprotective effect during ischemic brain injury, its regulation of tumorigenesis, and the mediation of emotion and cognition through the inhibition of urokinase-type plasminogen activator and fibrinolysin, modification of Th cells, reducing plaque formation, promoting process growth and intracellular adhesion, and altering the expression of cadherin and nuclear factor kappa B.

  13. The Influence of Surface-Active Agent on the Micro-Morphology and Crystallinity of Spherical Hexagonal Boron Nitride.

    Zhang, Ning; Liu, Huan; Kan, Hongmin; Wang, Xiaoyang; Long, Haibo; Zhou, Yonghui

    2015-08-01

    This search used the low-cost boric acid and borax as a source of boron, urea as a nitrogen source, surface-active agent Dodecyl benzenesulfonic acid (SDBS) as a dispersant, and thus prepared different micro-morphology and crystallinity hexagonal boron nitride powders under a flowing ammonia atmosphere at a nitriding temperature of 900 °C. The effect of the surface-active agent (SDBS) content on the crystallinity and micro-morphology of hexagonal boron nitride powders was studied, and the corresponding relationship between micro-morphology and crystallinity was explored. The results showed that under a certain synthetic process (900 °C for 3 h), the surfactant content had affected the crystallinity and micro-morphology of h-BN powders. Without the added surfactant, the graphitization index (GI) was 3.61, and micro-morphology of h-BN powders. was spherical, the distribution of ball diameters was uneven, and there was also significant particle agglomeration, with some particles even exhibiting adhesion, sintering necks, and high sphericity and diameter. When the added SDBS percentages were 2%, 4% and 6%, the graphitization index (GI) decreased to 2.98, 2.58 and 2.41 respectively: the corresponding crystallinity improved significantly. When the surfactant SDBS content was higher (10%), the diameter distribution of the h-BN powders was even, but there was evidence of agglomeration of particles and particle adhesion. The crystallinity decreased when the GI value was increased to 4. When the surfactant SDBS content was 6%, the dispersion of h-BN powders was at its optimum, and the particle size distribution was at its most uniform. Meanwhile the GI value was at its lowest, and the crystallinity at its highest. PMID:26369229

  14. Trace Elements in the Conductive Tissue of Beef Heart Determined by Neutron Activation Analysis

    By means of neutron activation analysis, samples of four beef hearts taken from the bundle of His and adjacent ventricular muscle, the AV node and adjacent atrial muscle are investigated with respect to the concentration of 23 trace elements. The bulk elements K, Na and P are also determined. A recently developed ion-exchange technique, combined with subsequent γ-spectrometry, is used. The following trace elements are determined: Ag, As, Au, Ba, Br, .Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hg, La, Mo, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, W and Zn. In the conductive tissue compared to adjacent muscle tissue, calculations on a wet weight basis show a lower concentration of Cs, Cu, Fe, K, P, Rb and Zn in the former, and a higher concentration of Ag, Au, Br, Ca and Na. The mean differences (μg/g wet tissue), as well as their degree of significance, between the bundle of His and adjacent tissue from the ventricular septum, between the AV node and adjacent atrial muscle, between the ventricular septum and the right atrium, and between the bundle of His and the AV node are given for the elements Cu, Fe, K, Na, P and Zn

  15. Study of MEH–PPV/PCBM active layer morphology and its application for hybrid solar cell performance

    Quynh Nhu Nguyen Truong; Nguyen Tam Nguyen Truong; Chinho Park; Jae Hak Jung

    2012-04-01

    Surface morphologies of MEH–PPV:PCBM active layers were optimized by investigating ITO substrate treated with oxygen and nitrogen plasma. This treatment effectively improved smoothness, transmittance, and contact angle of ITO’s, resulting in good anode contacts for hybrid device structures. The consistently improved performance of hybrid solar cells was also achieved. The surface properties of treated and untreated ITO substrates were compared by contact angle, four point probe, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy.

  16. Effect of synthesis temperature on the morphology, structure and photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanocrystals

    Nayak, J.; Mohapatra, A. K.; Kim, Heeje

    2015-06-01

    Nanocrystals of TiO2 were synthesized by a single-step chemical reaction between oleic acid and titanium (IV) iso-propoxide. The morphology and structure of the crystals were studied by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The vibrational properties of the nanocrystals were studied by Raman spectroscopy. The ultraviolet photocatalytic activity of the TiO2 nanocrystals was investigated by studying the photodegradation of aqueous solution of protocatecheuic acid (3,4-dihydroxy benzoic acid).

  17. Effects of Different Systemic Insecticides in Carotenoid Content, Antibacterial Activity and Morphological Characteristics of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum var Diamante)

    LEXTER R. NATIVIDAD; Maria Fatima T. Astrero; Lenard T. Basinga; Maria Karysa G. Calang

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of different systemic insecticides in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum var. Diamante). The study also assessed different systemic insecticides used in other plants in their effectiveness and suitability to tomato by evaluating the carotenoid content and antibacterial activity of each insecticide. Morphological characteristics such as the weight, the number and the circumference of tomato fruits and the height of the plant were also observed. Moreover, ...

  18. Effect of synthesis temperature on the morphology, structure and photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanocrystals

    Nanocrystals of TiO2 were synthesized by a single-step chemical reaction between oleic acid and titanium (IV) iso-propoxide. The morphology and structure of the crystals were studied by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The vibrational properties of the nanocrystals were studied by Raman spectroscopy. The ultraviolet photocatalytic activity of the TiO2 nanocrystals was investigated by studying the photodegradation of aqueous solution of protocatecheuic acid (3,4-dihydroxy benzoic acid)

  19. Thin films of Type 1 collagen for cell by cell analysis of morphology and tenascin-C promoter activity

    Tona Alex; McDaniel Dennis; Elliott John T; Langenbach Kurt J; Plant Anne L

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background The use of highly reproducible and spatiallyhomogeneous thin film matrices permits automated microscopy and quantitative determination of the response of hundreds of cells in a population. Using thin films of extracellular matrix proteins, we have quantified, on a cell-by-cell basis, phenotypic parameters of cells on different extracellular matrices. We have quantitatively examined the relationship between fibroblast morphology and activation of the promoter for the extrac...

  20. Characterizing the Activation of the Wnt Signaling Pathway in Hilar Cholangiocarcinoma Using a Tissue Microarray Approach

    Chen, W.; Huang, L.; Liang, J.; Cai, J.; Lei, Y.; Lai, J.; Liang, L.; Zhang, K.

    2016-01-01

    Hilar cholangiocarcinoma (HCCA) is an invasive hepatic malignancy that is difficult to biopsy; therefore, novel markers of HCCA prognosis are needed. Here, the level of canonical Wnt activation in patients with HCCA, intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (IHCC), and congenital choledochal cysts (CCC) was compared to understand the role of Wnt signaling in HCCA. Pathology specimens from HCCA (n=129), IHCC (n=31), and CCC (n=45) patients were used to construct tissue microarrays. Wnt2, Wnt3, β-catenin, TCF4, c-Myc, and cyclin D1 were detected by immunohistochemistry. Parallel correlation analysis was used to analyze differences in protein levels between the HCCA, IHCC, and CCC groups. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to determine independent predictors of successful resection and prognosis in the HCCA group. The protein levels of Wnt2, β-catenin, TCF4, c-Myc, and cyclin D1 were significantly higher in HCCA compared to IHHC or CCC. Wnt signaling activation (Wnt2+, Wnt3+, nuclear β-catenin+, nuclear TCF4+) was significantly greater in HCCA tissues than CCC tissues. Univariable analyses indicated that expression of cyclin D1 as well as Wnt signaling activation, and partial Wnt activation (Wnt2+ or Wnt3+ and nuclear β-catenin+ or nuclear TCF4+) predicted successful resection, but only cyclin D1 expression remained significant in multivariable analyses. Only partial Wnt activation was an independent predictor of survival time. Proteins in the canonical Wnt signaling pathway were present at higher levels in HCCA and correlated with tumor resecility and patient prognosis. These results suggest that Wnt pathway analysis may be a useful marker for clinical outcome in HCCA. PMID:26972709

  1. Stability of Recombinant Tissue Plasminogen Activator at −30 °C Over One Year

    Alkatheri, Abdulmalik

    2012-01-01

    Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) is used to restore patency and avoid inadvertent removal of peripheral and central venous catheters. rt-PA was reconstituted (1 mg/mL) then cryopreserved at −30 °C for 1, 2, 3, 6, 8, and 12 months and, then its stability was determined. After cryopreservation for one and two months, rt-PA kept more than 95% of its activity compared to standard samples, while cryopreservation for three months caused 8% loss of activity. However, after cryopreservation for six months or more, rt-PA retained only 87.5% or less activity compared to standard samples. Therefore, it is recommended that reconstituted rt-PA be cryopreserved at −30 °C for a maximum period of three months. PMID:24275785

  2. Aqueous extract from taxus baccata inhibits adenosine deaminase activity significantly in cancerous and noncancerous human gastric and colon tissues

    Zahide Esra Durak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate possible effects of aqueous taxus baccata extract on adenosine deaminase (ADA activity in cancerous and noncancerous human tissues and to clarify mechanism(s of its anticancer potential. Materials and Methods: Cancerous and noncancerous human gastric and colon tissues were used in the study. The extracts were prepared in distilled water. Before and after treatment with the extracts, ADA activities in the tissue homogenates were measured. Results: ADA activity was found to be higher in gastric tissue compared with colon tissue, but no differences were found between ADA activities of cancerous and noncancerous tissues for both as well. In the plant extract studies, it was found that taxus extract significantly inhibited ADA activity both in cancerous and noncancerous gastric and colon tissues. Conclusion: Our results suggest that aqueous extract from taxus baccata inhibits ADA activities in both gastric and colon tissues significantly. It is suggested that in addition to other proposed mechanisms, accumulated adenosine due to the inhibition of ADA enzyme might also play part in the anticancer properties of taxus species.

  3. Hematology, plasma biochemistry, and tissue enzyme activities of invasive red lionfish captured off North Carolina, USA.

    Anderson, E T; Stoskopf, M K; Morris, J A; Clarke, E O; Harms, C A

    2010-12-01

    The red lionfish Pterois volitans is important not only in the aquarium trade but also as an invasive species in the western Atlantic. Introduced to waters off the southeastern coast of the United States, red lionfish have rapidly spread along much of the East Coast and throughout Bermuda, the Bahamas, and much of the Caribbean. Hematology and plasma biochemistry were evaluated in red lionfish captured from the offshore waters of North Carolina to establish baseline parameters for individual and population health assessment. Blood smears were evaluated for total and differential white blood cell counts, and routine clinical biochemical profiles were performed on plasma samples. To improve the interpretive value of routine plasma biochemistry profiles, tissue enzyme activities (alkaline phosphatase [ALP], alanine aminotransferase [ALT], aspartate aminotransferase [AST], gamma-glutamyl transferase [GGT], lactate dehydrogenase [LD], and creatine kinase [CK]) were analyzed from liver, kidney, skeletal muscle, gastrointestinal tract, and heart tissues from five fish. The hematological and plasma biochemical values were similar to those of other marine teleosts except that the estimated white blood cell counts were much lower than those routinely found in many species. The tissue enzyme activity findings suggest that plasma LD, CK, and AST offer clinical relevance in the assessment of red lionfish. PMID:21413511

  4. Functional properties of the recombinant kringle-2 domain of tissue plasminogen activator produced in Escherichia coli

    The kringle-2 domain (residues 176-262) of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant peptide, which concentrated in cytoplasmic inclusion bodies, was isolated, solubilized, chemically refolded, and purified by affinity chromatography on lysine-Sepharose to apparent homogeneity. [35S]Cysteine-methionine-labeled polypeptide was used to study the interactions of kringle-2 with lysine, fibrin, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. The kringle-2 domain bound to lysine-Sepharose and to preformed fibrin with a Kd = 104 +/- 6.2 microM (0.86 +/- 0.012 binding site) and a Kd = 4.2 +/- 1.05 microM (0.80 +/- 0.081 binding site), respectively. Competition experiments and direct binding studies showed that the kringle-2 domain is required for the formation of the ternary t-PA-plasminogen-intact fibrin complex and that the association between the t-PA kringle-2 domain and fibrin does not require plasmin degradation of fibrin and exposure of new COOH-terminal lysine residues. We also observed that kringle-2 forms a complex with highly purified guanidine-activated plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, dissociable by 0.2 M epsilon-aminocaproic acid. The kringle-2 polypeptide significantly inhibited tissue plasminogen activator/plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 interaction. The kringle-2 domain bound to plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in a specific and saturable manner with a Kd = 0.51 +/- 0.055 microM (0.35 +/- 0.026 binding site). Therefore, the t-PA kringle-2 domain is important for the interaction of t-PA not only with fibrin, but also with plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and thus represents a key structure in the regulation of fibrinolysis

  5. TET1 Suppresses Cancer Invasion by Activating the Tissue Inhibitors of Metalloproteinases

    Chih-Hung Hsu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Tumor suppressor gene silencing through cytosine methylation contributes to cancer formation. Whether DNA demethylation enzymes counteract this oncogenic effect is unknown. Here, we show that TET1, a dioxygenase involved in cytosine demethylation, is downregulated in prostate and breast cancer tissues. TET1 depletion facilitates cell invasion, tumor growth, and cancer metastasis in prostate xenograft models and correlates with poor survival rates in breast cancer patients. Consistently, enforced expression of TET1 reduces cell invasion and breast xenograft tumor formation. Mechanistically, TET1 suppresses cell invasion through its dioxygenase and DNA binding activities. Furthermore, TET1 maintains the expression of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMP family proteins 2 and 3 by inhibiting their DNA methylation. Concurrent low expression of TET1 and TIMP2 or TIMP3 correlates with advanced node status in clinical samples. Together, these results illustrate a mechanism by which TET1 suppresses tumor development and invasion partly through downregulation of critical gene methylation.

  6. Roles of tissue plasminogen activator and its inhibitor in proliferative diabetic retinopathy

    Shu-Ling; Wu; Dong-Mei; Zhan; Shu-Hong; Xi; Xiang-Lian; He

    2014-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the role of tissue plasminogen activator(t-PA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor(PAI)in proliferative diabetic retinopathy(PDR) and to discuss the correlations among t-PA, PAI and vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) expressions.METHODS:A total of 36 vitreous samples were collected from 36 patients with PDR(PDR group), and 17 vitreous samples from 17 patients with idiopathic macular hole were used as control. The concentrations of t-PA, PAI and VEGF in samples were determined by ELISA method. The correlations among t-PA, PAI and VEGF expressions were discussed.RESULTS:The concentrations of t-PA, PAI and VEGF in the PDR group were significantly higher than those in the control group(P <0.001). The t-PA and PAI expressions were highly correlated with the VEGF expression(P <0.001).CONCLUSION:In addition to VEGF, a variety of bioactive substances, such as t-PA and PAI, are involved in the pathogenesis involved in the angiogenesis of PDR.VEGF can activate t-PA expression, resulting in collagen tissue degradation and angiogenesis. VEGF may also activate the mechanism for endogenous anti-neovascularization.

  7. Hydrogen sulfide and sodium nitroprusside compete to activate/deactivate MMPs in bone tissue homogenates

    Vacek TP

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Thomas P Vacek, Natia Qipshidze, Suresh C Tyagi Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY, USA Background: Bone microvascular remodeling is the primary predictor of bone structure and function. Remodeling by its very nature implies synthesis and degradation of the extracellular matrix. Normally, 50% of total protein in the vessel wall is elastin. During remodeling, elastin is degraded by specialized matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs. Because the turnover of elastin is 1000-fold slower than that of collagen, most of the elastin is replaced by stiffer collagen. Stiffer vessels impose pressure on the aortic valve, causing regurgitation and increased pulse pressure. On the other hand, high MMP activity will cause vascular dilatation, leading to aneurysm. Therefore, balanced constitutive remodeling is necessary for adequate bone structure and function. Interestingly, collagen-degrading MMPs are involved in various pathological conditions, including osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, and cardiovascular disease. Sodium nitroprusside is a nitric oxide donor that could potentially alter MMP activity via vasodilation in vivo, but can also produce peroxynitrite, which activates MMPs by combining with superoxide. Moreover, hydrogen sulfide is a known antioxidant as well as a vasodilator, and is also speculated to contribute directly to MMP activity. We hypothesized that hydrogen sulfide reduced activity of MMP in ex vivo bone tissue homogenates and that sodium nitroprusside would increase MMP activity in vitro. Methods: We surgically removed the tibia and femur from anesthetized mice, and prepared bone tissue homogenates using a mortar and pestle, measured the protein concentration with a spectrophotometer, and detected MMP activity using gelatin gel zymography. Results: Our data showed increased MMP activity at a sodium nitroprusside concentration of 1 µM, and MMP activity increased exponentially. There

  8. Tissue-Mimicking Geometrical Constraints Stimulate Tissue-Like Constitution and Activity of Mouse Neonatal and Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiac Myocytes

    Pilarczyk, Götz; Raulf, Alexandra; Gunkel, Manuel; Fleischmann, Bernd K.; Lemor, Robert; Hausmann, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The present work addresses the question of to what extent a geometrical support acts as a physiological determining template in the setup of artificial cardiac tissue. Surface patterns with alternating concave to convex transitions of cell size dimensions were used to organize and orientate human-induced pluripotent stem cell (hIPSC)-derived cardiac myocytes and mouse neonatal cardiac myocytes. The shape of the cells, as well as the organization of the contractile apparatus recapitulates the anisotropic line pattern geometry being derived from tissue geometry motives. The intracellular organization of the contractile apparatus and the cell coupling via gap junctions of cell assemblies growing in a random or organized pattern were examined. Cell spatial and temporal coordinated excitation and contraction has been compared on plain and patterned substrates. While the α-actinin cytoskeletal organization is comparable to terminally-developed native ventricular tissue, connexin-43 expression does not recapitulate gap junction distribution of heart muscle tissue. However, coordinated contractions could be observed. The results of tissue-like cell ensemble organization open new insights into geometry-dependent cell organization, the cultivation of artificial heart tissue from stem cells and the anisotropy-dependent activity of therapeutic compounds. PMID:26751484

  9. Morphology dependent catalytic activity of TiO2 nanostructures towards photodegradation of Rose Bengal

    This work deals with the synthesis of TiO2 nanostructures using sol-gel and hydrothermal method for evaluating their photodegradation performance towards decolorization of Rose Bengal (RB). A combination of characterization techniques including X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and UV–Vis spectroscopy were utilized to evaluate the structural, morphological and optical properties of the obtained nanostructures. It was observed that the TiO2 nanoparticles prepared using hydrothermal method were highly crystalline and possess higher band gap value, even when same conditions of temperature, pressure, precursor ratios and solvent amount was kept constant while synthesizing TiO2 nanostructures via sol-gel method. The obvious effect of porous morphology exhibited by TiO2 nanoparticles prepared using hydrothermal route is reflected in its decolorization performance whereby 92.5% of the RB dye solution was degraded in 70 min of irradiation time

  10. Hillslope morphology as an indicator of landscape evolution in tectonically active landscapes

    Hurst, Martin David

    2013-01-01

    Hillslopes comprise the majority of unglaciated upland landscapes; they are the primary source for the production of sediment from bedrock, and the routing system by which sediment is delivered to the channel network. Yet the nature of hillslope response to changes in tectonic, climatic or base-level boundary conditions is poorly understood in terms of the spatial and temporal distribution of hillslope morphology. Here I exploit a previously published framework for exploring hi...

  11. Isolation of biologically active and morphologically intact exosomes from plasma of patients with cancer

    Hong, Chang-Sook; Funk, Sonja; Muller, Laurent; Boyiadzis, Michael; Whiteside, Theresa L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Isolation from human plasma of exosomes that retain functional and morphological integrity for probing their protein, lipid and nucleic acid content is a priority for the future use of exosomes as biomarkers. A method that meets these criteria and can be scaled up for patient monitoring is thus desirable.Methods: Plasma specimens (1 mL) of patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) or a head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) were differentially centrifuged, ultrafiltered an...

  12. Morphology-dependent photocatalytic activity of octahedral anatase particles prepared by ultrasonication-hydrothermal reaction of titanates

    Wei, Zhishun; Kowalska, Ewa; Verrett, Jonathan; Colbeau-Justin, Christophe; Remita, Hynd; Ohtani, Bunsho

    2015-07-01

    Octahedral anatase particles (OAPs) were prepared by an ultrasonication (US)-hydrothermal (HT) reaction of partially proton-exchanged potassium titanate nanowires (TNWs). The structural/physical properties of OAP-containing samples, including specific surface area, crystallinity, crystallite size, particle aspect ratio, composition and total OAP content, were analyzed. Photocatalytic activities of samples were measured under irradiation (>290 nm) for oxidative decomposition of acetic acid (CO2 system) and dehydrogenation of methanol (H2 system) under aerobic and deaerated conditions, respectively. Total density of electron traps (ETs) was measured by double-beam photoacoustic spectroscopy (DB-PAS). Mobility and lifetime of charge carriers (electrons) were investigated by the time-resolved microwave conductivity (TRMC) method. The effects of synthesis parameters, i.e., HT duration, HT temperature and US duration, on properties and photocatalytic activities of final products were examined in detail. The sample prepared with 1 h US duration and 6 h HT duration at 433 K using 267 mg of TNWs in 80 mL of Milli-Q water exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity. It was found that change in HT duration or HT temperature while keeping the other conditions the same resulted in changes in all properties and photocatalytic activity. On the other hand, duration of US treatment, before HT reaction, influenced the morphology of both the reagent (by TNWs breaking) and final products (change in total OAP content); samples prepared with various US durations exhibited almost the same structural/physical properties evaluated in this study but were different in morphology and photocatalytic activity. This enabled clarification of the correlation between morphology and photocatalytic activity, i.e., the higher the total OAP content was, the higher was the level of photocatalytic activity, especially in the CO2 system. Although the decay after maximum TRMC signal intensity (Imax) was

  13. Tuning the morphology, stability and photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanocrystal colloids by tungsten doping

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • W6+-doped TiO2 nanocrystal colloids were prepared by hydrothermal methods. • The properties of TiO2 nanocrystal colloids can be tuned by tungsten doping. • W6+-doped TiO2 nanocrystal colloids show higher stability and dispersity. • W6+-doped TiO2 nanocrystal colloids show higher photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: The effects of tungsten doping on the morphology, stability and photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanocrystal colloids were investigated. The nanostructure, chemical state of Ti, W, O, and the properties of tungsten doped TiO2 samples were investigated carefully by TEM, XRD, XPS, UV–vis, PL and photocatalytic degradation experiments. And the structure–activity relationship was discussed according to the analysis and measurement results. The analysis results reveal that the morphology, zeta potential and photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanocrystals can be easily tuned by changing the tungsten doping concentration. The tungsten doped TiO2 colloid combines the characters of high dispersity and high photocatalytic activity

  14. A Method for Serial Tissue Processing and Parallel Analysis of Aberrant Crypt Morphology, Mucin Depletion, and Beta-Catenin Staining in an Experimental Model of Colon Carcinogenesis

    McGinley John N

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The use of architectural and morphological characteristics of cells for establishing prognostic indicators by which individual pathologies are assigned grade and stage is a well-accepted practice. Advances in automated micro- and macroscopic image acquisition and digital image analysis have created new opportunities in the field of prognostic assessment; but, one area in experimental pathology, animal models for colon cancer, has not taken advantage of these opportunities. This situation is primarily due to the methods available to evaluate the colon of the rodent for the presence of premalignant and malignant pathologies. We report a new method for the excision and processing of the entire colon of the rat and illustrate how this procedure permitted the quantitative assessment of aberrant crypt foci (ACF, a premalignant colon pathology, for characteristics consistent with progression to malignancy. ACF were detected by methylene blue staining and subjected to quantitative morphometric analysis. Colons were then restained with high iron diamine–alcian blue for assessment of mucin depletion using an image overlay to associate morphometric data with mucin depletion. The subsequent evaluation of ACF for beta-catenin staining is also demonstrated. The methods described are particularly relevant to the screening of compounds for cancer chemopreventive activity. Additional file 1 Click here for file

  15. Activity of kallikrein and kininases in lung tissue and serum of whole-body irradiated rats

    The activity of kallikrein, kininase 1 and kininase 2 (Angiotensin converting enzyme, ACE) was assayed using chromogenic substrates in lung tissue preparation (microsomal fraction) and in serum of rats irradiated with a dose of 7.0 Gy of X-rays. Kallikrein and ACE in lung were decreased on the 1, 6 and 28 day while kininase 1 was increased from the 6 day on after irradiation. In serum no significant changes were observed in kallikrein and kininase 1. Significant decrease in ACE activity during two weeks after exposure was noticed. Three weeks after irradiation the activity of all three enzymes was significantly lower than in controls. The changes observed are interpreted as contributing to a diminished removal of kinins from irradiated animals and thus favouring vasodilating effect of irradiation. 22 refs. (author)

  16. Technetium-99m-labeled recombinant tissue plasminogen activator for the imaging of emboli in vivo

    Takahashi, Akihiro; Itoh, Kazuo; Tsukamoto, Eriko; Furudate, Masayori; Kamiyama, Hiroyasu; Abe, Hiroshi (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1993-07-01

    Tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) effectively lyses activate thrombus by direct action. Recombinant t-PA (rt-PA) was labeled with technetium-99m ([sup 99m]Tc) to investigate the in vivo binding to fibrin clots in a feline cerebral embolism model created by insertion of an artificial fibrin clot within the carotid artery. [sup 99m]Tc-rt-PA administered intravenously provided clearer imaging of clots after priming with cold rt-PA, with uptake peaking 5-10 minutes after the injection. [sup 99m]Tc-labeled human serum albumin was not retained at clot sites. Systemically administered [sup 99m]Tc-rt-PA binds to fibrin clots within carotid arteries in our feline model. Our results suggest that the interaction of intrinsic plasminogen activator inhibitors with extrinsically administered rt-PA may regulate the demonstration of a clot, although the precise mechanism is unclear. (author).

  17. Nanostructured cerium oxide catalyst support: Effects of morphology on the electro activity of gold toward oxidative sensing of glucose

    We report on the fabrication of nanostructured CeO2-gold electrodes by means of laser ablation. The synthetic conditions were varied in order to obtain different morphologies of CeO2. The physical and chemical properties of the samples were studied by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The effect of the morphology of CeO2 on the electrocatalytic oxidation of glucose were studied by cyclic voltammetry and square-wave voltammetry. Among the various electrodes fabricated, the CeO2 coating produced under 10 mTorr of oxygen showed the best supporting catalytic properties for gold by displaying 44 μA cm−2 mM−1 sensitivity for glucose oxidation at near neutral pH values. The detection limit is as low as 10 μM. This electrochemical activity makes the optimized nanostructured electrode potentially useful for non-enzymatic sensing of glucose. (author)

  18. Influence of feeding alternative fiber sources on the gastrointestinal fermentation, digestive enzyme activities and mucosa morphology of growing Greylag geese.

    He, L W; Meng, Q X; Li, D Y; Zhang, Y W; Ren, L P

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this trial was to study the influence of dietary fiber sources on the gastrointestinal fermentation, digestive enzyme activity, and mucosa morphology of growing Greylag geese. In total, 240 Greylag geese (28-day-old) were allocated to 4 treatments (15 pens/treatment) differing in dietary fiber source: corn straw silage (CSS group), steam-exploded corn straw (SECS group), steam-exploded wheat straw (SEWS group), or steam-exploded rice straw (SERS group). At 112 days of age, 15 birds per group were euthanized to collect samples. No difference (P > 0.05) was found on all the gastrointestinal pH values and ammonia-nitrogen concentrations between the groups. The CSS and SERS groups had a lower (P  0.05) on the intestinal mucosa morphology. These results suggest that corn straw silage improves protein digestion while steam-exploded straw provides more energy. PMID:26316338

  19. 75 FR 9226 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Human Tissue...

    2010-03-01

    ... tissue banks and 112 are eye tissue banks. Based on information provided by industry, there are an estimated total of 1,959,270 conventional tissue products and 82,741 eye tissue products recovered per year with an average of 25 percent of the tissue discarded due to unsuitability for transplant. In...

  20. Influence of Echinacea purpurea intake during pregnancy on fetal growth and tissue angiogenic activity.

    Ewa Sommer

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The process of angiogenesis and control of blood vessels sprouting are fundamental to human health, as they play key roles in many physiological and pathological conditions. Intake of different pharmaceuticals with antiangiogenic activity by pregnant women may lead to severe developmental disturbances as it was described in case of thalidomide. It may also cause immunomodulatory effects as it was shown for antibiotics, theobromine, caffeic acid or catechins on the pregnant mice model. At present, Echinacea purpurea-based phytoceuticals are among the most popular herbals in the marketplace. Many compounds of Echinacea extracts (polysaccharides, alkamides, polyphenols, glycoproteins exert immunomodulatory, anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activity. Echinacea is one of the most powerful and effective remedies against many kinds of bacterial and viral infections. In previous studies we shown significant inhibitory effect of the Echinacea purpurea based remedy on tumour angiogenic activity using cutaneous angiogenesis test, and an inhibitory effect on L-1 sarcoma growth was observed . The aim of the present study was to establish whether pharmaceuticals containing alcoholic extracts of Echinacea purpurea given to pregnant mice influence angiogenic activity and tissue VEGF and bFGF production of their fetuses. We showed that angiogenic activity of tissue homogenates was increased in Esberitox group and diminished in case of Immunal forte as compared to standard diet group. In case of Echinapur group we did not find significant differences in angiogenic activity. VEGF and bFGF concentration were lower in all groups compared to the control. In the case of Echinapur and Esberitox number of fetuses in one litter were slightly lower as compared to control group, but the difference is on the border of statistical significance. In conclusion, there is some possibility that pharmaceuticals containing Echinacea purpurea might influence fetal development in

  1. Review Analysis of the Association between the Prevalence of Activated Brown Adipose Tissue and Outdoor Temperature

    Yung-Cheng Huang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brown adipose tissue (BAT is important for regulating body weight. Environmental temperature influences BAT activation. Activated BAT is identifiable using F18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F18-FDG PET/CT. F18-FDG PET/CT scans done between June 2005 and May 2009 in our institution in tropical southern Taiwan and BAT studies from PubMed (2002–2011 were reviewed, and the average outdoor temperatures during the study periods were obtained. A simple linear regression was used to analyze the association between the prevalence of activated BAT (P and the average outdoor temperature (T. The review analysis for 9 BAT studies (n=16,765 showed a significant negative correlation (r=-0.741, P=0.022 between the prevalence of activated BAT and the average outdoor temperature. The equation of the regression line is P(%=6.99−0.20×T  (C∘. The prevalence of activated BAT decreased by 1% for each 5C∘ increase in average outdoor temperature. In a neutral ambient temperature, the prevalence of activated BAT is low and especially rare in the tropics. There is a significant linear negative correlation between the prevalence of activated BAT and the average outdoor temperature.

  2. Ornithine decarboxylase activity (ODC) in tissues of the postnatal developing and young adult minipig

    Increasing use of the minipig in biological research and widespread acceptance of ODC as a sensitive and general biochemical marker for cellular proliferation and hormonal action prompted the study of this enzyme in selected organs - brain (B), kidneys (K), liver (L), pancreas (P) and spleen (S) - of this animal. Male, miniature swine (n = 4) of FDA's strain (Hormel-Hanford) were sacrificed at 1, 7, 28 and 56 d and 6-8 months after birth and the tissues prepared for assay of ODC by a modification of the Russell and Snyder technique, measuring trapped 14CO2 derived from 1 - 14C ornithine. Results are expressed as pmoles CO2/hr/mg protein. For B,P and possibly L ODC was highest at 1 d and generally declined with age. For K and S peak activity was at 7 d. S ODC was highest while P ODC was lowest at all ages. At the peak (7 d) of activity for S and K the mean ODC for the 5 tissues were 1779 (S), 617 (K), 259 (B), 129 (L) and 47 (P). ODC in the adult pig were 666 (S), 151 (B), 40.7 (L) and 6.7 (P) (K not determined). The relative ODC activities parallel for the most part that reported for the rodent and generally correspond to the relative proliferative status of these tissues early in development and at maturity. The low baseline values for P provide an attractive model for studies of compounds suspected of inducing hyperplastic lesions in this organ

  3. Interleukin-15 modulates adipose tissue by altering mitochondrial mass and activity.

    Nicole G Barra

    Full Text Available Interleukin-15 (IL-15 is an immunomodulatory cytokine that affects body mass regulation independent of lymphocytes; however, the underlying mechanism(s involved remains unknown. In an effort to investigate these mechanisms, we performed metabolic cage studies, assessed intestinal bacterial diversity and macronutrient absorption, and examined adipose mitochondrial activity in cultured adipocytes and in lean IL-15 transgenic (IL-15tg, overweight IL-15 deficient (IL-15-/-, and control C57Bl/6 (B6 mice. Here we show that differences in body weight are not the result of differential activity level, food intake, or respiratory exchange ratio. Although intestinal microbiota differences between obese and lean individuals are known to impact macronutrient absorption, differing gut bacteria profiles in these murine strains does not translate to differences in body weight in colonized germ free animals and macronutrient absorption. Due to its contribution to body weight variation, we examined mitochondrial factors and found that IL-15 treatment in cultured adipocytes resulted in increased mitochondrial membrane potential and decreased lipid deposition. Lastly, IL-15tg mice have significantly elevated mitochondrial activity and mass in adipose tissue compared to B6 and IL-15-/- mice. Altogether, these results suggest that IL-15 is involved in adipose tissue regulation and linked to altered mitochondrial function.

  4. Concentration of 17 Elements in Subcellular Fractions of Beef Heart Tissue Determined by Neutron Activation Analysis

    Subcellular fractions of beef heart tissue are investigated, by means of neutron activation analysis, with respect to their concentration of 17 different elements. A recently developed ion-exchange technique combined with gamma spectrometry is used. The homogeneity of the subcellular fractions is examined electron microscopically. The following elements are determined: As, Ba, Br, Cas Co, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hg, La, Mo, P, Rb, Se, Sm, W and Zn. The determination of Ag, Au, Cd, Ce, Cr, Sb and Sc is omitted, in view of contamination. Reproducible and characteristic patterns of distribution are obtained for all elements studied

  5. Neutron activation analysis of NBS oyster tissue (SRM 1566) and IAEA animal bone (H-5)

    Instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation analysis (INAA and RNAA) were employed to measure about 37 major, minor, and trace elements in two standard reference materials: oyster tissue (SRM 1566) supplied by the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) and animal bone (H-5) supplied by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Wherever the comparison exists, the data show excellent agreement with accepted values for each SRM. These SRM's are useful as reference standards for the analysis of biological materials. Additionally, the chondritic normalized rare earth element pattern of animal bone behaves as a smooth function of the ionic radii, as previously observed for biological materials. 7 references, 2 figures, 2 tables

  6. Does intravenous administration of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator for ischemic stroke can cause inferior myocardial infarction?

    Mostafa Almasi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rTPA is one of the main portions of acute ischemic stroke management, but unfortunately has some complications. Myocardial infarction (MI is a hazardous complication of administration of intravenous rTPA that has been reported recently. A 78-year-old lady was admitted for elective coronary artery bypass graft surgery. On the second day of admission, she developed acute left hemiparesis and intravenous rTPA was administered within 120 minutes. Three hours later, she has had chest pain. Rescue percutaneous coronary intervention was performed on right coronary artery due to diagnosis of inferior MI, and the symptoms were resolved.

  7. Radiochemical determination of lipoprotein lipase activity (LPLA) in human adipose tissue

    Lipoprotein lipase activity (LPLA) is measured in samples (20 to 100 mg) of human fatty tissue obtained by needle biopsy. The material is converted into an acetone-ether powder by defatting. 3H-labelled triolein which is suspended in glycerol, using inactive triolein, lecithin and ultrasonication, serves as a substrate concentrate, from which a substrate is prepared by adding Tris buffer, albumin and serum. The amount of oleic acid liberated from the suspended acetone-ether powder during incubation is measured by its radioactivity. 78 determinations in patients with hyperlipoproteinemia yielded a mean LPLA value of 0.606 +- 0.501 μmoles/g-1h-1. (author)

  8. GADD34 suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced sepsis and tissue injury through the regulation of macrophage activation.

    Ito, S; Tanaka, Y; Oshino, R; Okado, S; Hori, M; Isobe, K-I

    2016-01-01

    Growth arrest and DNA damage inducible protein 34 (GADD34) is induced by various cellular stresses, such as DNA damage, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and amino-acid deprivation. Although the major roles of GADD34 are regulating ER stress responses and apoptosis, a recent study suggested that GADD34 is linked to innate immune responses. In this report, we investigated the roles of GADD34 in inflammatory responses against bacterial infection. To explore the effects of GADD34 on systemic inflammation in vivo, we employed a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced murine sepsis model and assessed the lethality, serum cytokine levels, and tissue injury in the presence or absence of GADD34. We found that GADD34 deficiency increased the lethality and serum cytokine levels in LPS-induced sepsis. Moreover, GADD34 deficiency enhanced tissue destruction, cell death, and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in LPS-induced acute liver injury. Pro-inflammatory cytokine production after LPS stimulation is regulated by the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-mediated NF-κB signaling pathway. In vitro experiments revealed that GADD34 suppressed pro-inflammatory cytokine production by macrophages through dephosphorylation of IKKβ. In conclusion, GADD34 attenuates LPS-induced sepsis and acute tissue injury through suppressing macrophage activation. Targeting this anti-inflammatory role of GADD34 may be a promising area for the development of therapeutic agents to regulate inflammatory disorders. PMID:27171261

  9. Type I iodothyronine 5′-deiodinase mRNA and activity is increased in adipose tissue of obese subjects

    Ortega, F.J.; Jílková, Zuzana; Moreno-Navarrete, J.M.; Pavelka, S.; Rodriguez-Hermosa, J.I.; Kopecký, Jan; Fernández-Real, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 2 (2012), s. 320-324. ISSN 0307-0565 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) OC08008 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : adipose tissue * thyroid hormones * deiodinases * tissue expression * enzyme activity Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 5.221, year: 2012

  10. Bardoxolone Methyl Prevents Fat Deposition and Inflammation in Brown Adipose Tissue and Enhances Sympathetic Activity in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Dinh, Chi H. L.; Szabo, Alexander; Yu, Yinghua; Camer, Danielle; Zhang, Qingsheng; Wang, Hongqin; Huang, Xu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Obesity results in changes in brown adipose tissue (BAT) morphology, leading to fat deposition, inflammation, and alterations in sympathetic nerve activity. Bardoxolone methyl (BARD) has been extensively studied for the treatment of chronic diseases. We present for the first time the effects of oral BARD treatment on BAT morphology and associated changes in the brainstem. Three groups (n = 7) of C57BL/6J mice were fed either a high-fat diet (HFD), a high-fat diet supplemented with BARD (HFD/BARD), or a low-fat diet (LFD) for 21 weeks. BARD was administered daily in drinking water. Interscapular BAT, and ventrolateral medulla (VLM) and dorsal vagal complex (DVC) in the brainstem, were collected for analysis by histology, immunohistochemistry and Western blot. BARD prevented fat deposition in BAT, demonstrated by the decreased accumulation of lipid droplets. When administered BARD, HFD mice had lower numbers of F4/80 and CD11c macrophages in the BAT with an increased proportion of CD206 macrophages, suggesting an anti-inflammatory effect. BARD increased phosphorylation of tyrosine hydroxylase in BAT and VLM. In the VLM, BARD increased energy expenditure proteins, including beta 3-adrenergic receptor (β3-AR) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α). Overall, oral BARD prevented fat deposition and inflammation in BAT, and stimulated sympathetic nerve activity. PMID:26066016

  11. Bardoxolone Methyl Prevents Fat Deposition and Inflammation in Brown Adipose Tissue and Enhances Sympathetic Activity in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Chi H. L. Dinh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Obesity results in changes in brown adipose tissue (BAT morphology, leading to fat deposition, inflammation, and alterations in sympathetic nerve activity. Bardoxolone methyl (BARD has been extensively studied for the treatment of chronic diseases. We present for the first time the effects of oral BARD treatment on BAT morphology and associated changes in the brainstem. Three groups (n = 7 of C57BL/6J mice were fed either a high-fat diet (HFD, a high-fat diet supplemented with BARD (HFD/BARD, or a low-fat diet (LFD for 21 weeks. BARD was administered daily in drinking water. Interscapular BAT, and ventrolateral medulla (VLM and dorsal vagal complex (DVC in the brainstem, were collected for analysis by histology, immunohistochemistry and Western blot. BARD prevented fat deposition in BAT, demonstrated by the decreased accumulation of lipid droplets. When administered BARD, HFD mice had lower numbers of F4/80 and CD11c macrophages in the BAT with an increased proportion of CD206 macrophages, suggesting an anti-inflammatory effect. BARD increased phosphorylation of tyrosine hydroxylase in BAT and VLM. In the VLM, BARD increased energy expenditure proteins, including beta 3-adrenergic receptor (β3-AR and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α. Overall, oral BARD prevented fat deposition and inflammation in BAT, and stimulated sympathetic nerve activity.

  12. Bardoxolone Methyl Prevents Fat Deposition and Inflammation in Brown Adipose Tissue and Enhances Sympathetic Activity in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    Dinh, Chi H L; Szabo, Alexander; Yu, Yinghua; Camer, Danielle; Zhang, Qingsheng; Wang, Hongqin; Huang, Xu-Feng

    2015-06-01

    Obesity results in changes in brown adipose tissue (BAT) morphology, leading to fat deposition, inflammation, and alterations in sympathetic nerve activity. Bardoxolone methyl (BARD) has been extensively studied for the treatment of chronic diseases. We present for the first time the effects of oral BARD treatment on BAT morphology and associated changes in the brainstem. Three groups (n = 7) of C57BL/6J mice were fed either a high-fat diet (HFD), a high-fat diet supplemented with BARD (HFD/BARD), or a low-fat diet (LFD) for 21 weeks. BARD was administered daily in drinking water. Interscapular BAT, and ventrolateral medulla (VLM) and dorsal vagal complex (DVC) in the brainstem, were collected for analysis by histology, immunohistochemistry and Western blot. BARD prevented fat deposition in BAT, demonstrated by the decreased accumulation of lipid droplets. When administered BARD, HFD mice had lower numbers of F4/80 and CD11c macrophages in the BAT with an increased proportion of CD206 macrophages, suggesting an anti-inflammatory effect. BARD increased phosphorylation of tyrosine hydroxylase in BAT and VLM. In the VLM, BARD increased energy expenditure proteins, including beta 3-adrenergic receptor (β3-AR) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α). Overall, oral BARD prevented fat deposition and inflammation in BAT, and stimulated sympathetic nerve activity. PMID:26066016

  13. Peripheral CLOCK regulates target-tissue glucocorticoid receptor transcriptional activity in a circadian fashion in man.

    Evangelia Charmandari

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Circulating cortisol fluctuates diurnally under the control of the "master" circadian CLOCK, while the peripheral "slave" counterpart of the latter regulates the transcriptional activity of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR at local glucocorticoid target tissues through acetylation. In this manuscript, we studied the effect of CLOCK-mediated GR acetylation on the sensitivity of peripheral tissues to glucocorticoids in humans. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: We examined GR acetylation and mRNA expression of GR, CLOCK-related and glucocorticoid-responsive genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs obtained at 8 am and 8 pm from 10 healthy subjects, as well as in PBMCs obtained in the morning and cultured for 24 hours with exposure to 3-hour hydrocortisone pulses every 6 hours. We used EBV-transformed lymphocytes (EBVLs as non-synchronized controls. RESULTS: GR acetylation was higher in the morning than in the evening in PBMCs, mirroring the fluctuations of circulating cortisol in reverse phase. All known glucocorticoid-responsive genes tested responded as expected to hydrocortisone in non-synchronized EBVLs, however, some of these genes did not show the expected diurnal mRNA fluctuations in PBMCs in vivo. Instead, their mRNA oscillated in a Clock- and a GR acetylation-dependent fashion in naturally synchronized PBMCs cultured ex vivo in the absence of the endogenous glucocorticoid, suggesting that circulating cortisol might prevent circadian GR acetylation-dependent effects in some glucocorticoid-responsive genes in vivo. CONCLUSIONS: Peripheral CLOCK-mediated circadian acetylation of the human GR may function as a target-tissue, gene-specific counter regulatory mechanism to the actions of diurnally fluctuating cortisol, effectively decreasing tissue sensitivity to glucocorticoids in the morning and increasing it at night.

  14. Tissue-specific promoters active in CD44+CD24-/low breast cancer cells.

    Bauerschmitz, Gerd J; Ranki, Tuuli; Kangasniemi, Lotta; Ribacka, Camilla; Eriksson, Minna; Porten, Marius; Herrmann, Isabell; Ristimäki, Ari; Virkkunen, Pekka; Tarkkanen, Maija; Hakkarainen, Tanja; Kanerva, Anna; Rein, Daniel; Pesonen, Sari; Hemminki, Akseli

    2008-07-15

    It has been proposed that human tumors contain stem cells that have a central role in tumor initiation and posttreatment relapse. Putative breast cancer stem cells may reside in the CD44(+)CD24(-/low) population. Oncolytic adenoviruses are attractive for killing of these cells because they enter through infection and are therefore not susceptible to active and passive mechanisms that render stem cells resistant to many drugs. Although adenoviruses have been quite safe in cancer trials, preclinical work suggests that toxicity may eventually be possible with more active agents. Therefore, restriction of virus replication to target tissues with tissues-specific promoters is appealing for improving safety and can be achieved without loss of efficacy. We extracted CD44(+)CD24(-/low) cells from pleural effusions of breast cancer patients and found that modification of adenovirus type 5 tropism with the serotype 3 knob increased gene delivery to CD44(+)CD24(-/low) cells. alpha-Lactalbumin, cyclo-oxygenase 2, telomerase, and multidrug resistance protein promoters were studied for activity in CD44(+)CD24(-/low) cells, and a panel of oncolytic viruses was subsequently constructed. Each virus featured 5/3 chimerism of the fiber and a promoter controlling expression of E1A, which was also deleted in the Rb binding domain for additional tumor selectivity. Cell killing assays identified Ad5/3-cox2L-d24 and Ad5/3-mdr-d24 as the most active agents, and these viruses were able to completely eradicate CD44(+)CD24(-/low) cells in vitro. In vivo, these viruses had significant antitumor activity in CD44(+)CD24(-/low)-derived tumors. These findings may have relevance for elimination of cancer stem cells in humans. PMID:18632604

  15. Volatile profiling of aromatic traditional medicinal plant, Polygonum minus in different tissues and its biological activities.

    Ahmad, Rafidah; Baharum, Syarul Nataqain; Bunawan, Hamidun; Lee, Minki; Mohd Noor, Normah; Rohani, Emelda Roseleena; Ilias, Norashikin; Zin, Noraziah Mohamad

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to identify the volatile metabolites produced in different organs (leaves, stem and roots) of Polygonum minus, an important essential oil producing crop in Malaysia. Two methods of extraction have been applied: Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) and hydrodistillation coupled with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Approximately, 77 metabolites have been identified and aliphatic compounds contribute significantly towards the aroma and flavour of this plant. Two main aliphatic compounds: decanal and dodecanal were found to be the major contributor. Terpenoid metabolites were identified abundantly in leaves but not in the stem and root of this plant. Further studies on antioxidant, total phenolic content, anticholinesterase and antimicrobial activities were determined in the essential oil and five different extracts. The plant showed the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity in polar (ethanol) extract for all the tissues tested. For anti-acetylcholinesterase activity, leaf in aqueous extract and methanol extract showed the best acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities. However, in microbial activity, the non-polar extracts (n-hexane) showed high antimicrobial activity against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) compared to polar extracts. This study could provide the first step in the phytochemical profiles of volatile compounds and explore the additional value of pharmacology properties of this essential oil producing crop Polygonum minus. PMID:25420073

  16. Volatile Profiling of Aromatic Traditional Medicinal Plant, Polygonum minus in Different Tissues and Its Biological Activities

    Rafidah Ahmad

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to identify the volatile metabolites produced in different organs (leaves, stem and roots of Polygonum minus, an important essential oil producing crop in Malaysia. Two methods of extraction have been applied: Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME and hydrodistillation coupled with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS. Approximately, 77 metabolites have been identified and aliphatic compounds contribute significantly towards the aroma and flavour of this plant. Two main aliphatic compounds: decanal and dodecanal were found to be the major contributor. Terpenoid metabolites were identified abundantly in leaves but not in the stem and root of this plant. Further studies on antioxidant, total phenolic content, anticholinesterase and antimicrobial activities were determined in the essential oil and five different extracts. The plant showed the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity in polar (ethanol extract for all the tissues tested. For anti-acetylcholinesterase activity, leaf in aqueous extract and methanol extract showed the best acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities. However, in microbial activity, the non-polar extracts (n-hexane showed high antimicrobial activity against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA compared to polar extracts. This study could provide the first step in the phytochemical profiles of volatile compounds and explore the additional value of pharmacology properties of this essential oil producing crop Polygonum minus.

  17. Tissue transglutaminase (TG2 activity regulates osteoblast differentiation and mineralization in the SAOS-2 cell line

    Xiaoxue Yin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Tissue transglutaminase (type II, TG2 has long been postulated to directly promote skeletal matrix calcification and play an important role in ossification. However, limited information is available on the expression, function and modulating mechanism of TG2 during osteoblast differentiation and mineralization. To address these issues, we cultured the well-established human osteosarcoma cell line SAOS-2 with osteo-inductive conditioned medium and set up three time points (culture days 4, 7, and 14 to represent different stages of SAOS-2 differentiation. Osteoblast markers, mineralization, as well as TG2 expression and activity, were then assayed in each stage. Furthermore, we inhibited TG activity with cystamine and then checked SAOS-2 differentiation and mineralization in each stage. The results showed that during the progression of osteoblast differentiation SAOS-2 cells presented significantly high levels of osteocalcin (OC mRNA, bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2 and collagen I, significantly high alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity, and the increased formation of calcified matrix. With the same tendency, TG2 expression and activity were up-regulated. Furthermore, inhibition of TG activity resulted in a significant decrease of OC, collagen I, and BMP-2 mRNA and of ALP activity and mineralization. This study demonstrated that TG2 is involved in osteoblast differentiation and may play a role in the initiation and regulation of the mineralization processes. Moreover, the modulating effects of TG2 on osteoblasts may be related to BMP-2.

  18. A micromethod for assay of lipoprotein lipase activity in needle biopsy samples of human adipose tissue and skeletal muscle

    A rapid and simple procedure for assay of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity in small amounts of human adipose tissue and skeletal muscle is described and validated. The enzyme is eluted from tissues with heparin and the activity is determined from the eluate by measuring the release of [14C]oleic acid from a gum arabic stabilized emulsion of glycerol-tri[14C]oleate in a Tris-buffer medium containing albumin and pooled normal human serum. Reproducible results are obtained with amounts of tissue ranging from 2 to 25 mg. The Ksub(m) values of the adipose tissue and skeletal muscle LPL for the triolein substrate were 0.74 +- 0.06 and 0.77 +- 0.05 mmol/l, respectively. The standard radioactive triolein emulsion was hydrolyzed by adipose tissue LPL at a rate closely similar to rat VLDL-triglyceride labeled in vivo with [1-14C]palmitic acid, suggesting that the experimental substrate behaved in a similar manner to the natural substrate. The LPL activity was much higher in adipose tissue than in muscle. In adipose tissue the LPL activity was 2-4 times higher in women than in men whereas no sex difference was present in the LPL activity of muscle. (Auth.)

  19. Effect of the reproductive cycle on morphology and activity of the ovarian surface epithelium in mammals

    Saddick, Salina Yahya

    2010-01-01

    The layer of cells lining the outer surface of the mammalian ovary, the ovarian surface epithelium (OSE), is a constant feature throughout the dynamic tissue remodeling that occurs throughout the reproductive cycle (follicle growth, ovulation, corpora lutea formation and pregnancy). Abnormal development of these cells is responsible for 90% of all epithelial ovarian cancers in women and epidemiological studies have shown that susceptibility to ovarian cancer is negatively co...

  20. Activity of lysosomal and mitochondrial ferments in serum and liver tissue at controlled and treated by leukotitin animals

    In this chapter author describes the experiments on rats and gives the information on activity of lysosomal and mitochondrial ferments in serum and liver tissue at controlled and treated by leukotitin animals

  1. Predominance of Th1 cytokine in peripheral blood and pathological tissues of patients with active untreated adult onset Still's disease

    Chen, D; Lan, J; Lin, F.; Hsieh, T; Wen, M.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine the type 1 T helper (Th1)/type 2 T helper (Th2) balance in the peripheral blood (PB) and pathological tissues of patients with active untreated adult onset Still's disease (AOSD).

  2. A single early postnatal estradiol injection affects morphology and gene expression of the ovary and parametrial adipose tissue in adult female rats

    Alexanderson, Camilla; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Kullberg, Joel;

    2010-01-01

    theca interna thickness in atretic antral follicles. Adult estradiol-injected rats also had malformed vaginal openings and lacked corpora lutea, confirming anovulation. Estradiol markedly reduced parametrial adipose tissue mass. Adipocyte size was unchanged, suggesting reduced adipocyte number...... expression related to follicular development and adipose tissue metabolism, and developed a non-invasive volumetric estimation of parametrial adipose tissue by magnetic resonance imaging. Estradiol reduced ovarian weight, increased antral follicle size and number of atretic antral follicles, and decreased...

  3. Global endometrial transcriptomic profiling: transient immune activation precedes tissue proliferation and repair in healthy beef cows

    Foley Cathriona

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background All cows experience bacterial contamination and tissue injury in the uterus postpartum, instigating a local inflammatory immune response. However mechanisms that control inflammation and achieve a physiologically functioning endometrium, while avoiding disease in the postpartum cow are not succinctly defined. This study aimed to identify novel candidate genes indicative of inflammation resolution during involution in healthy beef cows. Previous histological analysis of the endometrium revealed elevated inflammation 15 days postpartum (DPP which was significantly decreased by 30 DPP. The current study generated a genome-wide transcriptomic profile of endometrial biopsies from these cows at both time points using mRNA-Seq. The pathway analysis tool GoSeq identified KEGG pathways enriched by significantly differentially expressed genes at both time points. Novel candidate genes associated with inflammatory resolution were subsequently validated in additional postpartum animals using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR. Results mRNA-Seq revealed 1,107 significantly differentially expressed genes, 73 of which were increased 15 DPP and 1,034 were increased 30 DPP. Early postpartum, enriched immune pathways (adjusted P P SAA1/2, GATA2, IGF1, SHC2, and SERPINA14 genes were significantly elevated 30 DPP and are functionally associated with tissue repair and the restoration of uterine homeostasis postpartum. Conclusions The results of this study reveal an early activation of the immune response which undergoes a temporal functional change toward tissue proliferation and regeneration during endometrial involution in healthy postpartum cows. These molecular changes mirror the activation and resolution of endometrial inflammation during involution previously classified by the degree of neutrophil infiltration. SAA1/2, GATA2, IGF1, SHC2, and SERPINA14 genes may become potential markers for resolution of endometrial inflammation in

  4. METEORIN-LIKE is a cytokine associated with barrier tissues and alternatively activated macrophages

    Ushach, Irina; Burkhardt, Amanda M.; Martinez, Cynthia; Hevezi, Peter A.; Gerber, Peter Arne; Buhren, Bettina Alexandra; Schrumpf, Holger; Valle-Rios, Ricardo; Vazquez, Monica I.; Homey, Bernhard; Zlotnik, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Cytokines are involved in many functions of the immune system including initiating, amplifying and resolving immune responses. Through bioinformatics analyses of a comprehensive database of gene expression (BIGE: Body Index of Gene Expression) we observed that a small secreted protein encoded by a poorly characterized gene called meteorin-like (METRNL), is highly expressed in mucosal tissues, skin and activated macrophages. Further studies indicate that Metrnl is produced by Alternatively Activated Macrophages (AAM) and M-CSF cultured bone marrow macrophages (M2-like macrophages). In the skin, METRNL is expressed by resting fibroblasts and IFNγ-treated keratinocytes. A screen of human skin-associated diseases showed significant over-expression of METRNL in psoriasis, prurigo nodularis, actinic keratosis and atopic dermatitis. METRNL is also up-regulated in synovial membranes of human rheumatoid arthritis. Taken together, these results indicate that Metrnl represents a novel cytokine, which is likely involved in both innate and acquired immune responses. PMID:25486603

  5. Serum thyroid hormones and tissue 5'-monodeiodinase activity in acutely thyroidectomized newborn lambs

    After either total thyroidectomy or sham operation in full-term fetal sheep, fetuses were delivered and serial blood samples were obtained for measurements of thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), and catecholamines. Despite comparable serum T4 values, serum T3 values were lower in the thyroidectomized animals. Four hours after birth, the animals were killed with an intravenous overdose of barbiturate. Brain, thyroid, liver, kidney, and brown adipose tissues were dissected and analyzed for thyroxine 5'-monodeiodinase (5'-MDI) activity in vitro. 5'-MDI activity was comparable in all tissues from sham-operated and thyroidectomized lambs. Plasma epinephrine and norepinehprine concentrations, mean arterial pressure, mean pulse, rectal temperature, and arterial blood gas values were similar in the two groups of animals. These data support the hypothesis that the thyroid gland is the major source of T3 for the T3 surge in the immediate newborn period. They also indicate that the neonatal T3 surge has limited immediate metabolic significance in euthyroid newborns

  6. Tissue plasminogen activator as a key effector in neurobiology and neuropathology.

    Teesalu, T; Kulla, A; Asser, T; Koskiniemi, M; Vaheri, A

    2002-04-01

    Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is expressed by many types of neurons in the developing and adult rodent brain. We have now mapped tPA transcripts and protein in the human central nervous system using tissue arrays and find widespread expression, in particular in neocortical mantle, thalamus, amygdala, and hippocampal pyramidal neurons. The abundant presence of tPA protein in cellular vesicles implies that its acute release, e.g. upon ischaemic stroke or trauma, could play a role in neuronal damage. We also found in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), and to a lesser extent patients with leukaemia and encephalitis, prominently elevated tPA activity in the cerebrospinal fluid and in MS in neurons in the proximity of areas of demyelination elevated tPA mRNA and antigen levels. In addition, we observed up-regulation of tPA expression in a mouse model of MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Accumulating evidence implies roles for tPA in normal neural function, as well as in neurodestructive processes in humans, such as occur in MS and brain tumours and warrant further studies on expression of tPA and its regulatory molecules in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:12023848

  7. IMPACT OF HEAVY METALS ON ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY IN DIFFERENT TISSUE OF MILK FISH Chanos chanos.

    Sivakumar Rajeshkumar,

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The impact of heavy metal accumulation on antioxidant activity in Chanos chanos, (Milk fish was studied in two different locations polluted sites (Kaattuppalli Island and less polluted sites (Kovalam estuary. Accumulation of heavy metals in the gills, liver and muscles were observed Zn >Fe >Cu >Pb >Mn >Cd >Ni. The results reveal that highest concentration of metals in muscle, gills and liver were observed in Kaattuppalli Island when compared to Kovalam estuary. The antioxidant activity showed significant increased in lipid peroxidase (LPO, superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione-S-tranferese (GST and reduced glutathione (GSH in different tissues of Chanos chanos collected Kaattuppalli Island. Among the studied enzymes, total glutathione peroxidase, catalase and glutathione Stransferase appeared to be the most responsive biomarkers of oxidative stress biomarkers and membrane disruption as the sensitive parameters of environmental pollutant contamination and their importance in biomonitoring of aquatic ecosystems. This is also the first such attempt reported at the tissue level from South India stressing the importance of biomarkers in biomonitoring programmes using fish muscle, gills and liver as the model system.

  8. Neutron activation and electron microscopy in the study of human hair and breast tissues

    Methods for the preparation of hair samples and soft tissue samples employed in instrumental neutron activation analysis and in electron probe microanalysis are given. Realistic values of detection limits for liver, muscle, hair and nail samples are found for different irradiation and counting conditions in both techniques. The variation of flux in the reactor core affects the intensity of the activity produced in the sample, so method and results of measurement of these variations were investigated and are presented. Hair and nail samples collected from a selected population group in Africa were analysed using the above described techniques, as were hair samples collected from breast cancer patients and both sets of results are given. The distribution of some elements along selected lines on the hair cross section were studied using the electron probe microanalyser, whereas the elemental content of microvolumes in both pigmented and matrix areas in the hair cross section were looked at using the transmission electron microscope with electron probe microanalyser. Cancerous and non-cancerous breast tissues were analysed for their elemental content. (author)

  9. Influence of irradiation and the pathogen (fusarium sulphureum) activity on electrolyte leakage from potato tuber tissue

    Irradiation and pathogen activity can be classified as abiotic and biotic stress, respectively. Since irradiation can disturb the defence mechanism of a potato tuber against the microbial attack, it was interesting to observe alterations of general vitality of the tissue subjected to both kinds of stress. The vitality of the tubers (var. Mila) was assessed by determination of electrolyte leakage from potato tissue discs soaked in destiled water. The electrolyte leakage was estimated from the tubers subjected to the pathogen Fusarium sulphureum Schlecht and ionizing radiation with the dose of 105 Gy. Besides, the same estimation was made for the tubers subjected to re-irradiation treatment (2x105 Gy) and for the tubers inoculated with the pathogen after irradiation (105 Gy). Resulted exponential functions of Y=A'XN type were tested statistically by the estimation of confidence intervals for x coefficients a. A significant higher rate of electrolyte leakage was observed as a result of either irradiation or the pathogen activity, while there was no significant disparity of the rate due to the pathogenesis after the irradiation. (orig.)

  10. FADS2 genotype regulates delta-6 desaturase activity and inflammation in human adipose tissue.

    Vaittinen, Maija; Walle, Paula; Kuosmanen, Emmi; Männistö, Ville; Käkelä, Pirjo; Ågren, Jyrki; Schwab, Ursula; Pihlajamäki, Jussi

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is associated with disturbed lipid metabolism and low-grade inflammation in tissues. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between FA metabolism and adipose tissue (AT) inflammation in the Kuopio Obesity Surgery study. We investigated the association of surgery-induced weight loss and FA desaturase (FADS)1/2 genotypes with serum and AT FA profile and with AT inflammation, measured as interleukin (IL)-1β and NFκB pathway gene expression, in order to find potential gene-environment interactions. We demonstrated an association between serum levels of saturated and polyunsaturated n-6 FAs, and estimated enzyme activities of FADS1/2 genes with IL-1β expression in AT both at baseline and at follow-up. Variation in the FADS1/2 genes associated with IL-1β and NFκB pathway gene expression in SAT after weight reduction, but not at baseline. In addition, the FA composition in subcutaneous and visceral fat correlated with serum FAs, and the associations between serum PUFAs and estimated D6D enzyme activity with AT inflammation were also replicated with corresponding AT FAs and AT inflammation. We conclude that the polymorphism in FADS1/2 genes associates with FA metabolism and AT inflammation, leading to an interaction between weight loss and FADS1/2 genes in the regulation of AT inflammation. PMID:26609056

  11. Interleukin-10 Regulates the Tissue Factor Activity of Monocytes in an In Vitro Model of Bacterial Endocarditis

    Veltrop, Marcel H. A. M.; Langermans, Jan A. M.; Thompson, Jan; Bancsi, Maurice J. L. M. F.

    2001-01-01

    Monocytes are important effector cells in the pathogenesis of bacterial endocarditis since they provide the tissue factor that activates the coagulation system and maintains established vegetations. Monocytes secrete cytokines that can modulate monocyte tissue factor activity (TFA), thereby affecting the formation and maintenance of vegetations. In this study, we show that monocytes cultured for 4 h on a Streptococcus sanguis-infected fibrin matrix mimicking the in vivo vegetational surface e...

  12. Gender differences in the activities of aspirin-esterases in rat tissues

    Benedito M.A.C.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The activities of aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid-esterases were measured in several tissues (liver, kidney, adrenal glands, brain and serum from adult male and female Wistar rats. In males, both aspirin-esterase I (assayed at pH 5.5 and II (assayed at pH 7.4 activities were higher in liver homogenates when compared to females (aspirin-esterase I: males 48.9 ± 4.8 (N = 8 and females 29.3 ± 4.2 (N = 8 nmol of salicylic acid formed min-1 mg protein-1; aspirin-esterase II: males 41.4 ± 4.1 (N = 8 and females 26.1 ± 4.5 (N = 8 nmol of salicylic acid formed min-1 mg protein-1, P<0.001. In serum, enzyme activity was higher in females than in males (aspirin-esterase I: males 0.85 ± 0.06 (N = 6 and females 1.18 ± 0.11 (N = 6 nmol of salicylic acid formed min-1 mg protein-1; aspirin-esterase II: males 1.03 ± 0.13 (N = 6 and females 1.34 ± 0.11 (N = 6 nmol of salicylic acid formed min-1 mg protein-1, P<0.001. In the other tissues assayed, no statistically significant difference between males and females was found. There were no statistically significant differences when the enzymes were assayed in different phases of the estrous cycle in liver and serum. These results show that the differences in aspirin-esterase activity observed between males and females are not due to the estrous cycle. The gender difference obtained in our study may indicate an involvement of gonadal hormones in the control of the hydrolysis of aspirin. This possibility is currently under investigation.

  13. Alteration of phospholipase D activity in the rat tissues by irradiation

    Phospholipase D (PLD) catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine to phosphatidic acid (PA) and choline. Recently, PLD has been drawing much attentions and considered to be associated with cancer process since it is involved in cellular signal transduction. In this experiment, oleate-PLD activities were measured in various tissues of the living rats after whole body irradiation. The reaction mixture for the PLD assay contained 0.1μCi 1,2-di[1-14C]palmitoyl phosphatidylcholine, 0.5mM phosphatidylcholine, 5mM sodium oleate, 0.2% taurodeoxycholate, 50mM HEPES buffer(pH 6.5), 10mM CaCl2, and 25mM KF. phosphatidic acid, the reaction product, was separated by TLC and its radioactivity was measured with a scintillation counter. The whole body irradiation was given to the female Wistar rats via Cobalt 60 Teletherapy with field size of 10cm x 10cm and an exposure of 2.7Gy per minute to the total doses of 10Gy and 25Gy. Among the tissues examined, PLD activity in lung was the highest one and was followed by kidney, skeletal muscle, brain, spleen, bone marrow, thymus, and liver. Upon irradiation, alteration of PLD activity was observed in thymus, spleen, lung, and bone marrow. Especially PLD activities of the spleen and thymus revealed the highest sensitivity toward γ-ray with more than two times amplification in their activities. In contrast, the PLD activity of bone marrow appears to be reduced to nearly 30%. Irradiation effect was hardly detected in liver which showed the lowest PLD activity. The PLD activities affected most sensitively by the whole-body irradiation seem to be associated with organs involved in immunity and hematopoiesis. This observation strongly indicates that the PLD is closely related to the physiological function of these organs. Furthermore, radiation stress could offer an important means to explore the phenomena covering from cell proliferation to cell death on these organs. (author)

  14. Alteration of phospholipase D activity in the rat tissues by irradiation

    Choi, M. S. [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Coll. of Medicine; Cho, Y. J. [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Coll. of Medicine; Choi, M. U. [Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of). Coll. of Natural Sciences

    1997-09-01

    Phospholipase D (PLD) catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine to phosphatidic acid (PA) and choline. Recently, PLD has been drawing much attentions and considered to be associated with cancer process since it is involved in cellular signal transduction. In this experiment, oleate-PLD activities were measured in various tissues of the living rats after whole body irradiation. The reaction mixture for the PLD assay contained 0.1{mu}Ci 1,2-di[1-{sup 14}C]palmitoyl phosphatidylcholine, 0.5mM phosphatidylcholine, 5mM sodium oleate, 0.2% taurodeoxycholate, 50mM HEPES buffer(pH 6.5), 10mM CaCl{sub 2}, and 25mM KF. phosphatidic acid, the reaction product, was separated by TLC and its radioactivity was measured with a scintillation counter. The whole body irradiation was given to the female Wistar rats via Cobalt 60 Teletherapy with field size of 10cm x 10cm and an exposure of 2.7Gy per minute to the total doses of 10Gy and 25Gy. Among the tissues examined, PLD activity in lung was the highest one and was followed by kidney, skeletal muscle, brain, spleen, bone marrow, thymus, and liver. Upon irradiation, alteration of PLD activity was observed in thymus, spleen, lung, and bone marrow. Especially PLD activities of the spleen and thymus revealed the highest sensitivity toward {gamma}-ray with more than two times amplification in their activities. In contrast, the PLD activity of bone marrow appears to be reduced to nearly 30%. Irradiation effect was hardly detected in liver which showed the lowest PLD activity. The PLD activities affected most sensitively by the whole-body irradiation seem to be associated with organs involved in immunity and hematopoiesis. This observation strongly indicates that the PLD is closely related to the physiological function of these organs. Furthermore, radiation stress could offer an important means to explore the phenomena covering from cell proliferation to cell death on these organs. (author).

  15. Chronic intermittent hypoxia activates nuclear factor-κB in cardiovascular tissues in vivo

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is an important risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The mechanisms through which OSA promotes the development of cardiovascular disease are poorly understood. In this study, we tested the hypotheses that chronic exposure to intermittent hypoxia and reoxygenation (CIH) is a major pathologic factor causing cardiovascular inflammation, and that CIH-induces cardiovascular inflammation and pathology by activating the NF-κB pathway. We demonstrated that exposure of mice to CIH activated NF-κB in cardiovascular tissues, and that OSA patients had markedly elevated monocyte NF-κB activity, which was significantly decreased when obstructive apneas and their resultant CIH were eliminated by nocturnal CPAP therapy. The elevated NF-κB activity induced by CIH is accompanied by and temporally correlated to the increased expression of iNOS protein, a putative and important NF-κB-dependent gene product. Thus, CIH-mediated NF-κB activation may be a molecular mechanism linking OSA and cardiovascular pathologies seen in OSA patients

  16. Improvement of Psychotic Symptoms and the Role of Tissue Plasminogen Activator.

    Hoirisch-Clapauch, Silvia; Nardi, Antonio E

    2015-01-01

    Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) mediates a number of processes that are pivotal for synaptogenesis and remodeling of synapses, including proteolysis of the brain extracellular matrix, degradation of adhesion molecules, activation of neurotrophins, and activation of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor. Abnormalities in these processes have been consistently described in psychotic disorders. In this paper, we review the physiological roles of tPA, focusing on conditions characterized by low tPA activity, which are prevalent in schizophrenia. We then describe how tPA activity is influenced by lifestyle interventions and nutritional supplements that may ameliorate psychotic symptoms. Next, we analyze the role of tPA in the mechanism of action of hormones and medications effective in mitigating psychotic symptoms, such as pregnenolone, estrogen, oxytocin, dopamine D3 receptor antagonists, retinoic acid, valproic acid, cannabidiol, sodium nitroprusside, N-acetyl cysteine, and warfarin. We also review evidence that tPA participates in the mechanism by which electroconvulsive therapy and cigarette smoking may reduce psychotic symptoms. PMID:26593907

  17. Improvement of Psychotic Symptoms and the Role of Tissue Plasminogen Activator

    Silvia Hoirisch-Clapauch

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA mediates a number of processes that are pivotal for synaptogenesis and remodeling of synapses, including proteolysis of the brain extracellular matrix, degradation of adhesion molecules, activation of neurotrophins, and activation of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor. Abnormalities in these processes have been consistently described in psychotic disorders. In this paper, we review the physiological roles of tPA, focusing on conditions characterized by low tPA activity, which are prevalent in schizophrenia. We then describe how tPA activity is influenced by lifestyle interventions and nutritional supplements that may ameliorate psychotic symptoms. Next, we analyze the role of tPA in the mechanism of action of hormones and medications effective in mitigating psychotic symptoms, such as pregnenolone, estrogen, oxytocin, dopamine D3 receptor antagonists, retinoic acid, valproic acid, cannabidiol, sodium nitroprusside, N-acetyl cysteine, and warfarin. We also review evidence that tPA participates in the mechanism by which electroconvulsive therapy and cigarette smoking may reduce psychotic symptoms.

  18. Effects of dietary supplementation of Chinese medicinal herbs on polymorphonuclear neutrophil immune activity and small intestinal morphology in weanling pigs.

    Huang, C W; Lee, T T; Shih, Y C; Yu, B

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary Chinese medicinal herbs (CMH) supplementation composed of Panax ginseng, Dioscoreaceae opposite, Atractylodes macrocephala, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Ziziphus jujube and Platycodon grandiflorum, on the performance, intestinal tract morphology and immune activity in weanling pigs. Two hundred and forty weaned pigs were assigned randomly to four dietary groups including the negative control (basal diet), 0.1% CMH, 0.3% CMH and 0.114% antibiotic (Chlortetracycline calcium Complex, Sulfathiazole and Procaine Penicillin G) supplementation groups for a 28-day feeding trial. Results indicated that both CMH supplementation groups had a better gain and feed/gain than control group (CT) during the first 2 weeks of the experimental period. The 0.3% CMH had a significant decrease in the diarrhoea score in first 10 days of experimental period when compared with other groups. The CMH supplementation groups had a higher villous height, increased lactobacilli counts in digesta of ileum and decreased coliform counts in colon compared with CT. The immune activities of polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNs), including the respiratory burst and Salmonella-killing ability, were significantly enhanced in CMH supplementation groups at day 7 of experiment period. The CMH and antibiotic supplementations increased the nutrient digestibility such as dietary dry matter, crude protein and gross energy in weanling pigs. In conclusion, the dietary CMH supplementation improved intestinal morphology and immune activities of PMNs, thus giving rise to nutrient digestibility and reduce diarrhoea frequency in weanling pigs. PMID:21535231

  19. NADPH-diaphorase activity in area 17 of the squirrel monkey visual cortex: neuropil pattern, cell morphology and laminar distribution

    Franca J.G.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the distribution of NADPH-diaphorase activity in the visual cortex of normal adult New World monkeys (Saimiri sciureus using the malic enzyme "indirect" method. NADPH-diaphorase neuropil activity had a heterogeneous distribution. In coronal sections, it had a clear laminar pattern that was coincident with Nissl-stained layers. In tangential sections, we observed blobs in supragranular layers of V1 and stripes throughout the entire V2. We quantified and compared the tangential distribution of NADPH-diaphorase and cytochrome oxidase blobs in adjacent sections of the supragranular layers of V1. Although their spatial distributions were rather similar, the two enzymes did not always overlap. The histochemical reaction also revealed two different types of stained cells: a slightly stained subpopulation and a subgroup of deeply stained neurons resembling a Golgi impregnation. These neurons were sparsely spined non-pyramidal cells. Their dendritic arbors were very well stained but their axons were not always evident. In the gray matter, heavily stained neurons showed different dendritic arbor morphologies. However, most of the strongly reactive cells lay in the subjacent white matter, where they presented a more homogenous morphology. Our results demonstrate that the pattern of NADPH-diaphorase activity is similar to that previously described in Old World monkeys

  20. AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation in brain is dependent on method of sacrifice and tissue preparation

    Scharf, Matthew T.; Mackiewicz, Miroslaw; Naidoo, Nirinjini; O'Callaghan, James P.; Pack, Allan I.

    2007-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase is activated when the catalytic α subunit is phosphorylated on Thr172 and therefore, phosphorylation of the α subunit is used as a measure of activation. However, measurement of α-AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation in vivo can be technically challenging. To determine the most accurate method for measuring α-AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation in the mouse brain, we compared different methods of sacrifice and tissue preparation. We found that fre...

  1. 78 FR 41403 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Human Tissue...

    2013-07-10

    ... transplant. In addition, there are an estimated 73,075 donors of conventional tissue and 49,026 donors of eye... 185 are conventional tissue banks and 96 are eye tissue banks. Based on information provided by industry, there are an estimated total of 1,959,270 conventional tissue products and 82,741 eye...

  2. Hypoxia-ischemia or excitotoxin-induced tissue plasminogen activator- dependent gelatinase activation in mice neonate brain microvessels.

    Priscilla L Omouendze

    Full Text Available Hypoxia-ischemia (HI and excitotoxicity are validated causes of neonatal brain injuries and tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA participates in the processes through proteolytic and receptor-mediated pathways. Brain microvascular endothelial cells from neonates in culture, contain and release more t-PA and gelatinases upon glutamate challenge than adult cells. We have studied t-PA to gelatinase (MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity links in HI and excitotoxicity lesion models in 5 day-old pups in wild type and in t-PA or its inhibitor (PAI-1 genes inactivated mice. Gelatinolytic activities were detected in SDS-PAGE zymograms and by in situ fluorescent DQ-gelatin microscopic zymographies. HI was achieved by unilateral carotid ligature followed by a 40 min hypoxia (8%O₂. Excitotoxic lesions were produced by intra parenchymal cortical (i.c. injections of 10 µg ibotenate (Ibo. Gel zymograms in WT cortex revealed progressive extinction of MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities near day 15 or day 8 respectively. MMP-2 expression was the same in all strains while MMP-9 activity was barely detectable in t-PA⁻/⁻ and enhanced in PAI-1⁻/⁻ mice. HI or Ibo produced activation of MMP-2 activities 6 hours post-insult, in cortices of WT mice but not in t-PA⁻/⁻ mice. In PAI-1⁻/⁻ mice, HI or vehicle i.c. injection increased MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities. In situ zymograms using DQ-gelatin revealed vessel associated gelatinolytic activity in lesioned areas in PAI-1⁻/⁻ and in WT mice. In WT brain slices incubated ex vivo, glutamate (200 µM induced DQ-gelatin activation in vessels. The effect was not detected in t-PA⁻/⁻ mice, but was restored by concomitant exposure to recombinant t-PA (20 µg/mL. In summary, neonatal brain lesion paradigms and ex vivo excitotoxic glutamate evoked t-PA-dependent gelatinases activation in vessels. Both MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities appeared t-PA-dependent. The data suggest that vascular directed protease inhibition may have

  3. Morphology and oxygen incorporation effect on antimicrobial activity of silver thin films

    Rebelo, Rita; Manninen, N. K.; Fialho, Luísa; Henriques, Mariana; Carvalho, Sandra

    2016-05-01

    Ag and AgxO thin films were deposited by non-reactive and reactive pulsed DC magnetron sputtering, respectively, with the final propose of functionalizing the SS316L substrate with antibacterial properties. The coatings were characterized chemically, physically and structurally. The coatings nanostructure was assessed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), while the coatings morphology was determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The XRD and XPS analyses suggested that Ag thin film is composed by metallic Ag, which crystallizes in fcc-Ag phase, while the AgxO thin film showed both metallic Ag and Agsbnd O bonds, which crystalize in fcc-Ag and silver oxide phases. The SEM results revealed that Ag thin film formed a continuous layer, while AgxO layer was composed of islands with hundreds of nanometers surrounded by small nanoparticles with tens of nanometers. The surface wettability and surface tension parameters were determined by contact angle measurements, being found that Ag and AgxO surfaces showed very similar behavior, with all the surfaces showing a hydrophobic character. In order to verify the antibacterial behavior of the coatings, halo inhibition zone tests were realized for Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus. Ag coatings did not show antibacterial behavior, contrarily to AgxO coating, which presented antibacterial properties against the studied bacteria. The presence of silver oxide phase along with the development of different morphology was pointed as the main factors in the origin of the antibacterial effect found in AgxO thin film. The present study demonstrated that AgxO coating presented antibacterial behavior and its application in cardiovascular stents is promising.

  4. Effect of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 and Tissue Plasminogen Activator Polymorphisms on Susceptibility to Type 2 Diabetes in Malaysian Subjects

    Zaid Al-Hamodi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Elevated activity of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 and decreased tissue plasminogen activator (tPA activity are considered to be important risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and metabolic syndrome (MetS. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of the PAI-1 4G/5G and tPA Alu-repeat I/D polymorphisms with T2DM in Malaysian subjects. Serum insulin, coronary risk panel, plasma glucose, and PAI-1 4G/5G and tPA Alu-repeat I/D polymorphisms were studied in 303 T2DM subjects (227 with MetS and 76 without MetS and 131 normal subjects without diabetes and MetS. Statistical analysis showed that the dominant and additive models of PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism showed a weak association with T2DM without MetS (OR=2.35, P=0.045; OR=1.67, P=0.058. On the other hand, the recessive model of the tPA Alu-repeat I/D polymorphism showed an association with T2DM with MetS (OR=3.32, P=0.013 whereas the dominant and additive models of the tPA Alu-repeat I/D polymorphism were not associated with T2DM either with or without MetS.

  5. LXR activation by GW3965 alters fat tissue distribution and adipose tissue inflammation in ob/ob female mice[S

    Archer, Amena; Stolarczyk, Émilie; Doria, Maria Luisa; Helguero, Luisa; Domingues, Rosário; Howard, Jane K; Mode, Agneta; Korach-André, Marion; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the role of liver X receptor (LXR) in adipose tissue metabolism during obesity, ob/ob mice were treated for 5 weeks with the synthetic LXR agonist GW3965. MRI analysis revealed that pharmacological activation of LXR modified fat distribution by decreasing visceral (VS) fat and inversely increasing subcutaneous (SC) fat storage without affecting whole body fat content. This was concordant with opposite regulation by GW3965 of the lipolytic markers hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) ...

  6. Characterization of indium-111 labeled recombinant tissue plasminogen activator for the imaging of thrombi

    The in vitro functional properties of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA), its biodistribution in mice, and its pharmacokinetics and clot localization properties in dogs have been investigated after labeling rt-PA with 111In. The rt-PA was coupled with the cyclic anhydride of DTPA using standard methodology. Amidolytic and fibrinolytic assays showed retention of protein activity when rt-PA was conjugated with an average of one DTPA group or less per molecule. Size exclusion HPLC showed each preparation to be radiochemically pure with 111In bound exlusively to the attached DTPA groups. Biodistribution in mice showed major accumulation of activity in the liver and kidneys. After administration of 0.5-1.0 mg of the labeled protein to dogs, blood activity decreased with a half time of approximately 5 min in agreement with previous reports of rapid blood clearance. Largely because of decreased blood levels, clot:blood ratios of labeled protein increased rapidly, in one study reaching 6.3 after 31 min, and satisfactory images of fibrin thrombi were obtained. The rt-PA may be labeled with 111In without destroying the ability of the protein to loacalize n clot and images of forming clot can be obtained with this agent within 1 h after administration. (orig.)

  7. Suppression of estrogen receptor transcriptional activity by connective tissue growth factor.

    Long Cheng

    Full Text Available Secreted growth factors have been shown to stimulate the transcriptional activity of estrogen receptors (ER that are responsible for many biological processes. However, whether these growth factors physically interact with ER remains unclear. Here, we show for the first time that connective tissue growth factor (CTGF physically and functionally associates with ER. CTGF interacted with ER both in vitro and in vivo. CTGF interacted with ER DNA-binding domain. ER interaction region in CTGF was mapped to the thrombospondin type I repeat, a cell attachment motif. Overexpression of CTGF inhibited ER transcriptional activity as well as the expression of estrogen-responsive genes, including pS2 and cathepsin D. Reduction of endogenous CTGF with CTGF small interfering RNA enhanced ER transcriptional activity. The interaction between CTGF and ER is required for the repression of estrogen-responsive transcription by CTGF. Moreover, CTGF reduced ER protein expression, whereas the CTGF mutant that did not repress ER transcriptional activity also did not alter ER protein levels. The results suggested the transcriptional regulation of estrogen signaling through interaction between CTGF and ER, and thus may provide a novel mechanism by which cross-talk between secreted growth factor and ER signaling pathways occurs.

  8. Determination of chromium, cobalt and nickel in tissue samples by radiochemical activation analysis

    A radiochemical neutron activation analysis method for the determination of chromium, cobalt and nickel in tissue samples. A radiochemical neutron activation analysis method for the determination of chromium, cobalt and nickel has been developed. The destruction device used consisted of a combined wet-ashing-distillation and ion-exchange system. Six samples could be treated at the same time. The samples were wet-ashed with H*L2SO*L4-H*L2O*L2 mixture. Volatile elements were distilled as bromide compounds with HBr*H-. The distillation residue in 8M HCl was passed through hydrated antimony pentoxide (HAP) in order to remove disturbing *H2*H4Na-activity and through a Dowex 2 x 8 column so as to retain *H6*H0Co (formed from *H5*H8Ni). Chromium was elutriated from the column and precipitated as Cr(OH)*L3 for the removal of disturbing *H3*H2P-activity. The standards and samples were treated in a similar manner each so that the yield determination is not necessarily needed. The yields by tracer experiments were (43 +- 5) % for Cr, (93 +- 4) % for Co and (88 +- 14) % for Ni. The precision and accuracy of the method were studied by using reference materials of the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

  9. Effects of Different Systemic Insecticides in Carotenoid Content, Antibacterial Activity and Morphological Characteristics of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum var Diamante

    LEXTER R. NATIVIDAD

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the effects of different systemic insecticides in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum var. Diamante. The study also assessed different systemic insecticides used in other plants in their effectiveness and suitability to tomato by evaluating the carotenoid content and antibacterial activity of each insecticide. Morphological characteristics such as the weight, the number and the circumference of tomato fruits and the height of the plant were also observed. Moreover, the cost effectiveness was computed. Treatments were designated as follows: Treatment 1- plants sprayed with active ingredient (a.i. cartap hydrochloride; Treatment 2 - plants sprayed with a.i. indoxacarb; Treatment 3- plants sprayed with a.i. chlorantraniliprole and thiamethoxam; Treatment 4 - plants sprayed with a.i. dinotefuran (positive control; and Treatment 5 - no insecticide applied. The experimental design used was Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD with three replications. The first three systemic insecticides with such active ingredient were not yet registered for tomato plant. Statistical analyses show that there were no significant differences among the weight, the number and the circumference of tomato fruits and the height of the plant for each treatment. Results showed that treatments 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 extracts have 49.74, 44.16, 48.19, 52.57 and 50.60 μg/g of total carotenoids (TC, respectively. Statistical analysis shows that there no significant differences in the TC content of each treatment. The antibacterial activity of each plant sample showed no significant differences among treatments. Thin layer chromatographic analysis revealed that there were equal numbers of spots for all the plant samples.The study concluded that systemic insecticide with a.i. cartap hydrochloride be introduced to the farmers as insecticide for tomato plant since it shows comparable effect with the registered insecticide (T4 based on the morphological

  10. BMP7 Activates Brown Adipose Tissue and Reduces Diet-Induced Obesity Only at Subthermoneutrality

    Boon, Mariëtte R.; van den Berg, Sjoerd A. A.; Wang, Yanan; van den Bossche, Jan; Karkampouna, Sofia; Bauwens, Matthias; De Saint-Hubert, Marijke; van der Horst, Geertje; Vukicevic, Slobodan; de Winther, Menno P. J.; Havekes, Louis M.; Jukema, J. Wouter; Tamsma, Jouke T.; van der Pluijm, Gabri; van Dijk, Ko Willems; Rensen, Patrick C. N.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims Brown adipose tissue (BAT) dissipates energy stored in triglycerides as heat via the uncoupling protein UCP-1 and is a promising target to combat hyperlipidemia and obesity. BAT is densely innervated by the sympathetic nervous system, which increases BAT differentiation and activity upon cold exposure. Recently, Bone Morphogenetic Protein 7 (BMP7) was identified as an inducer of BAT differentiation. We aimed to elucidate the role of sympathetic activation in the effect of BMP7 on BAT by treating mice with BMP7 at varying ambient temperature, and assessed the therapeutic potential of BMP7 in combating obesity. Methods and Results High-fat diet fed lean C57Bl6/J mice were treated with BMP7 via subcutaneous osmotic minipumps for 4 weeks at 21°C or 28°C, the latter being a thermoneutral temperature in which sympathetic activation of BAT is largely diminished. At 21°C, BMP7 increased BAT weight, increased the expression of Ucp1, Cd36 and hormone-sensitive lipase in BAT, and increased total energy expenditure. BMP7 treatment markedly increased food intake without affecting physical activity. Despite that, BMP7 diminished white adipose tissue (WAT) mass, accompanied by increased expression of genes related to intracellular lipolysis in WAT. All these effects were blunted at 28°C. Additionally, BMP7 resulted in extensive ‘browning’ of WAT, as evidenced by increased expression of BAT markers and the appearance of whole clusters of brown adipocytes via immunohistochemistry, independent of environmental temperature. Treatment of diet-induced obese C57Bl6/J mice with BMP7 led to an improved metabolic phenotype, consisting of a decreased fat mass and liver lipids as well as attenuated dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia. Conclusion Together, these data show that BMP7-mediated recruitment and activation of BAT only occurs at subthermoneutral temperature, and is thus likely dependent on sympathetic activation of BAT, and that BMP7 may be a promising tool to

  11. Activities of asymmetric dimethylarginine-related enzymes in white adipose tissue are associated with circulating lipid biomarkers

    Iwasaki Hiroaki

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asymmetric NG,NG-dimethylarginine (ADMA, an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, is regulated by the enzymatic participants of synthetic and metabolic processes, i.e., type I protein N-arginine methyltransferase (PRMT and dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH. Previous reports have demonstrated that circulating ADMA levels can vary in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. White adipose tissue expresses the full enzymatic machinery necessary for ADMA production and metabolism; however, modulation of the activities of adipose ADMA-related enzymes in T2DM remains to be determined. Methods A rodent model of T2DM using 11- and 20-week old Goto-Kakizaki (GK rats was used. The expression and catalytic activity of PRMT1 and DDAH1 and 2 in the white adipose tissues (periepididymal, visceral and subcutaneous fats and femur skeletal muscle tissue were determined by immunoblotting, in vitro methyltransferase and in vitro citrulline assays. Results Non-obese diabetic GK rats showed low expression and activity of adipose PRMT1 compared to age-matched Wistar controls. Adipose tissues from the periepididymal, visceral and subcutaneous fats of GK rats had high DDAH1 expression and total DDAH activity, whereas the DDAH2 expression was lowered below the control value. This dynamic of ADMA-related enzymes in white adipose tissues was distinct from that of skeletal muscle tissue. GK rats had lower levels of serum non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA and triglycerides (TG than the control rats. In all subjects the adipose PRMT1 and DDAH activities were statistically correlated with the levels of serum NEFA and TG. Conclusion Activities of PRMT1 and DDAH in white adipose tissues were altered in diabetic GK rats in an organ-specific manner, which was reflected in the serum levels of NEFA and TG. Changes in adipose ADMA-related enzymes might play a part in the function of white adipose tissue.

  12. The capabilities and limitations of conductance-based compartmental neuron models with reduced branched or unbranched morphologies and active dendrites.

    Hendrickson, Eric B; Edgerton, Jeremy R; Jaeger, Dieter

    2011-04-01

    Conductance-based neuron models are frequently employed to study the dynamics of biological neural networks. For speed and ease of use, these models are often reduced in morphological complexity. Simplified dendritic branching structures may process inputs differently than full branching structures, however, and could thereby fail to reproduce important aspects of biological neural processing. It is not yet well understood which processing capabilities require detailed branching structures. Therefore, we analyzed the processing capabilities of full or partially branched reduced models. These models were created by collapsing the dendritic tree of a full morphological model of a globus pallidus (GP) neuron while preserving its total surface area and electrotonic length, as well as its passive and active parameters. Dendritic trees were either collapsed into single cables (unbranched models) or the full complement of branch points was preserved (branched models). Both reduction strategies allowed us to compare dynamics between all models using the same channel density settings. Full model responses to somatic inputs were generally preserved by both types of reduced model while dendritic input responses could be more closely preserved by branched than unbranched reduced models. However, features strongly influenced by local dendritic input resistance, such as active dendritic sodium spike generation and propagation, could not be accurately reproduced by any reduced model. Based on our analyses, we suggest that there are intrinsic differences in processing capabilities between unbranched and branched models. We also indicate suitable applications for different levels of reduction, including fast searches of full model parameter space. PMID:20623167

  13. Effect of Endosulfan on Azospirillum lipoferum Growth, Morphology, Nitrogenase Activity, and Protein Binding

    Buff, Klaus; Mano, Denise M. S.; Langenbach, Tomaz

    1992-01-01

    The organochlorine Thiodan CE inhibited growth and nitrogenase activity of Azospirillum lipoferum. The active ingredient, Endosulfan, was nonspecifically bound to proteins and mainly adsorbed to the cell envelope with small amounts transported into cytosol. The involvement of the external membrane and cyst formation in protection against hazardous substances is discussed.

  14. Maternal celiac disease autoantibodies bind directly to syncytiotrophoblast and inhibit placental tissue transglutaminase activity

    Robinson Nicola J

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Celiac disease (CD occurs in as many as 1 in 80 pregnant women and is associated with poor pregnancy outcome, but it is not known if this is an effect on maternal nutrient absorption or, alternatively, if the placenta is an autoimmune target. The major autoantigen, tissue transglutaminase (tTG, has previously been shown to be present in the maternal-facing syncytiotrophoblast plasma membrane of the placenta. Methods ELISA was used to demonstrate the presence of antibodies to tissue transglutaminase in a panel of CD sera. Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate the binding of IgA autoantibodies from CD serum to term placenta. In addition, novel direct binding and activity assays were developed to mimic the in vivo exposure of the villous placenta to maternal autoantibody. Results and Discussion CD IgA autoantibodies located to the syncytial surface of the placenta significantly more than IgA antibodies in control sera (P Conclusion These data indicate that direct immune effects in untreated CD women may compromise placental function.

  15. Role of plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 in radiation-induced normal tissues injury

    Radiotherapy is an essential tool for cancer treatment, but there is a balance between benefits and risks related to the use of ionizing radiation: the objective is to deliver a maximum dose to the tumour to destroy or to sterilize it while protecting surrounding normal tissues. Radio-induced damages to normal tissues are therefore a limiting factor when increasing the dose delivered to the tumour. One of the objectives of this research thesis is to bring to the fore a relationship between the initiation of lesions and the development of late damages, more particularly in the intestine, and to identify the involved molecular actors and their inter-connectivity. After a first part presenting ionizing radiation, describing biological effects of ionizing radiation and their use in radiotherapy, presenting the intestine and the endothelium and discussing the intestine radio-sensitivity, discussing the radio-induced intestine damages and radiotherapy-induced complications, and presenting the plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) and its behaviour in presence of ionizing radiation, two articles are reproduced. The first one addresses the effect of a pharmacological inhibition and of genetic deficiency in PAI-1 on the evolution of radio-induced intestine lesions. The second one discusses the fact that radio-induced PAI-1-related death of endothelial cells determines the severity of early radio-induced intestine lesions

  16. Binding of tissue plasminogen activator to human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    The binding of purified, recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) was studied in vitro using immunofluorescence as well as radiolabeled tPA. Immunofluorescence was performed on HUVEC grown on round glass coverslips using rabbit anti-human tPA and fluorescein-conjugated anti-rabbit immunoglobulin. Positive fluorescence was observed only after incubation of HUVEC with tPA. HUVEC were grown to confluence in 24-well tissue culture plates, washed, and incubated with a constant amount of 125I-tPA and various concentrations of unlabeled tPA. The binding of tPA to HUVEC was found to be specific, saturable, and reversible. Scatchard analysis yielded as equilibrium constant (K/sub eq/) of 4.2 x 106 M-1 and 1.2 x 107 binding sites per cell. Binding was inhibited by positively charged amino acids and by D-phenylalanyl-L-prolyl-L-arginine chloromethyl ketone but not by carbohydrates including mannose, galactose, N-acetyl glucosamine and N-acetyl galactosamine. Neat human plasma abrogates but does not totally inhibit binding of tPA to HUVEC. Binding was neither enhanced nor inhibited by fibronectin. Although the affinity of binding of tPA to HUVEC is low, the endothelial cell may be involved in regulating plasma levels of tPA in vivo which may have therapeutic significance

  17. Investigating the effect of solvent boiling temperature on the active layer morphology of diffusive bilayer solar cells

    Vohra, Varun; Dörling, Bernhard; Higashimine, Koichi; Murata, Hideyuki

    2016-01-01

    Using chlorobenzene as a base solvent for the deposition of the poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) layer in P3HT:phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester diffusive bilayer solar cells, we investigate the effect of adding of small amounts of high-boiling-point solvents with similar chemical structures on the resulting active layer morphologies. The results demonstrate that the crystallinity of the P3HT films as well as the vertical donor-acceptor gradient in the active layer can be tuned by this approach. The use of high-boiling-point solvents improved all photovoltaic parameters and resulted in a 32% increase in power conversion efficiency.

  18. Morphology Investigation of Electrolessly Deposited Ag Film on Ag-Activated p-Type Silicon(111) Wafer

    TONG, Hao; WANG, Chun-Ming

    2006-01-01

    A method of electroless silver deposition on silver activated p-type silicon(111) wafer was proposed. The silver seed layer was deposited firstly on the wafer in the solution of 0.005 mol/L AgNO3 + 0.06 mol/L HF. Then the silver film was electrolessly deposited on the seed layer in the electroless bath of AgNO3+NH3+acetic acid+NH2NH2(pH 10.2). The morphology of the seed layer and the silver films prepared under the condition of the different bath composition was compared by atomic force microscopy. The reflectance of the silver films with different thickness was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. The experimental results indicate that the seed layer possesses excellent catalytic activity toward electroless silver deposition and rotating of the silicon wafer during the electroless silver deposition could lead to formation of the smoother silver film.

  19. Small oscillatory accelerations, independent of matrix deformations, increase osteoblast activity and enhance bone morphology.

    Russell Garman

    Full Text Available A range of tissues have the capacity to adapt to mechanical challenges, an attribute presumed to be regulated through deformation of the cell and/or surrounding matrix. In contrast, it is shown here that extremely small oscillatory accelerations, applied as unconstrained motion and inducing negligible deformation, serve as an anabolic stimulus to osteoblasts in vivo. Habitual background loading was removed from the tibiae of 18 female adult mice by hindlimb-unloading. For 20 min/d, 5 d/wk, the left tibia of each mouse was subjected to oscillatory 0.6 g accelerations at 45 Hz while the right tibia served as control. Sham-loaded (n = 9 and normal age-matched control (n = 18 mice provided additional comparisons. Oscillatory accelerations, applied in the absence of weight bearing, resulted in 70% greater bone formation rates in the trabeculae of the metaphysis, but similar levels of bone resorption, when compared to contralateral controls. Quantity and quality of trabecular bone also improved as a result of the acceleration stimulus, as evidenced by a significantly greater bone volume fraction (17% and connectivity density (33%, and significantly smaller trabecular spacing (-6% and structural model index (-11%. These in vivo data indicate that mechanosensory elements of resident bone cell populations can perceive and respond to acceleratory signals, and point to an efficient means of introducing intense physical signals into a biologic system without putting the matrix at risk of overloading. In retrospect, acceleration, as opposed to direct mechanical distortion, represents a more generic and safe, and perhaps more fundamental means of transducing physical challenges to the cells and tissues of an organism.

  20. Quantitative morphological assessment of microvascular network of leiomyoma tissue and the layers of myometrium in patients with uterine leiomyoma with hypo- and hyperestrogenic conditions induced by different schemes of gonadotroping relising hormone agonists therapy

    Medvedev M.V.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Microvascular components of myomatous tissue and the layers of myometrium were evaluated using mорmorphometric analysis in 35 patients with uterine leiomyoma with long-term and short-term preoperative hormonal correction with Gosereline Acetate. Our results show that the microvessels density depends on morphological type of the fibroid, which in case of the cellular leiomyoma is 2.9 times greater compared to the regular one. The tissue is characterized by decreased vascularization of simple leiomyoma as compared to surrounding myometrium. In conditions of a drug-induced 3-month menopause density of microvessels was significantly decreased. In conditions of elevated levels of sex steroids amount of microvessels in fibrois tissue increases, with expanding of the lumen of arterioles and metarterioles and thickening of their walls. Hipoestrogenic condition contributes significantly to reduction of the average diameter of arterioles in the tissue of cellular and simple leiomyoma, which in some cases leads to complete obliteration of the vessels. Short-time hypere-strogenemia leads to a statistically significant increase in wall thickness of arterioles in fibroid tissue samples. Similar changes observed in vessels of pseudocapsula of women with cellular leiomyoma.

  1. Gelatin crosslinked with dehydroascorbic acid as a novel scaffold for tissue regeneration with simultaneous antitumor activity

    A porous scaffold was developed to support normal tissue regeneration in the presence of residual tumor disease. It was prepared by gelatin crosslinked with dehydroascorbic acid (DHA). A physicochemical characterization of the scaffold was carried out. SEM and mercury porosimetry revealed a high porosity and interconnection of pores in the scaffold. Enzymatic degradation provided 56% weight loss in ten days. The scaffold was also evaluated in vitro for its ability to support the growth of normal cells while hindering tumor cell development. For this purpose, primary human fibroblasts and osteosarcoma tumor cells (MG-63) were seeded on the scaffold. Fibroblasts attached the scaffold and proliferated, while the tumor cells, after an initial attachment and growth, failed to proliferate and progressively underwent cell death. This was attributed to the progressive release of DHA during the scaffold degradation and its cytotoxic activity towards tumor cells. (paper)

  2. Concentration of 24 Trace Elements in Human Heart Tissue Determined by Neutron Activation Analysis

    By means of neutron-activation analysis, human heart tissue from autopsy of 20 victims of traumatic accidents has been investigated with respect to the concentration of 24 different trace elements. A recently developed ion-exchange technique combined with gamma spectrometry has been used, which permits simultaneous determination of a large number of trace elements. The following trace elements have been determined quantitatively: Ag, As, Au, Ba, Br; Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hg, La, Mo, Pt, Rb, Sb, Se, Se, Sm, Zn, W. In some heart samples, Hf and Os were determined qualitatively. The mean and standard deviation are given for the elements Cu, Fe, Se and Zn, Since none of the other quantitatively determined trace elements were normally distributed, the median is given as the central value. When possible, comparisons with values from other investigations have been made. No marked differences in the trace-element concentrations with age or sex could be detected

  3. Concentration of 24 Trace Elements in Human Heart Tissue Determined by Neutron Activation Analysis

    Wester, P.O.

    1964-06-15

    By means of neutron-activation analysis, human heart tissue from autopsy of 20 victims of traumatic accidents has been investigated with respect to the concentration of 24 different trace elements. A recently developed ion-exchange technique combined with gamma spectrometry has been used, which permits simultaneous determination of a large number of trace elements. The following trace elements have been determined quantitatively: Ag, As, Au, Ba, Br; Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hg, La, Mo, Pt, Rb, Sb, Se, Se, Sm, Zn, W. In some heart samples, Hf and Os were determined qualitatively. The mean and standard deviation are given for the elements Cu, Fe, Se and Zn, Since none of the other quantitatively determined trace elements were normally distributed, the median is given as the central value. When possible, comparisons with values from other investigations have been made. No marked differences in the trace-element concentrations with age or sex could be detected.

  4. Myocardial infarction following recombinant tissue plasminogen activator treatment for acute ischemic stroke: a dangerous complication

    ZHOU Zhi-gang; WANG Rui-lan; YU Kang-long

    2012-01-01

    Thrombolysis with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) is currently an approved therapy for patients with acute ischemic stroke.Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) immediately following t-PA treatment for stroke is a rare but serious complication.A case of acute myocardial infarction (MI) following IV t-PA infusion for acute stroke was observed.This is a 52-year-old male with a known history of hypertension and chest pain,who subsequently developed MI four hours after IV t-PA was administered for acute ischemic stroke.The disruption of intra-cardiac thrombus and subsequent embolization to the coronary arteries may be an important mechanism.In addition.spontaneous recanalization of infarct-related arteries may be associated with 9reater myocardial salvage and better prognosis.

  5. STUDY OF HEARING OUTCOMES IN SUDDEN SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS TREATED WITH TISSUE PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR (TPA

    Rama Krishna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss (SSHNL is a clinical condition that requires immediate management. There are many treatment options, which may not always revert the hearing to normal. Not only recording the degree of hearing loss, but also establishing the concurrent dysfunction of saccule by VEMP has facilitated a new approach to treatment strategy. Recombinant tissue Plasminogen Activator ((rtPA proved its efficacy in stroke and subsequently considered an option in the management of ISSNHL. The curren t study, conducted at different centres, on 15 patients utilized rtPA. The results showed a promising trend when saccular pathology is also evident by VEMP in association with Hearing loss. We recommend use of rtPA as primary modality in cases of ISSNHL wi th Saccular involvement.

  6. Tissue Plasminogen Activator Expression Is Restricted to Subsets of Excitatory Pyramidal Glutamatergic Neurons.

    Louessard, Morgane; Lacroix, Alexandre; Martineau, Magalie; Mondielli, Gregoire; Montagne, Axel; Lesept, Flavie; Lambolez, Bertrand; Cauli, Bruno; Mothet, Jean-Pierre; Vivien, Denis; Maubert, Eric

    2016-09-01

    Although the extracellular serine protease tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is involved in pathophysiological processes such as learning and memory, anxiety, epilepsy, stroke, and Alzheimer's disease, information about its regional, cellular, and subcellular distribution in vivo is lacking. In the present study, we observed, in healthy mice and rats, the presence of tPA in endothelial cells, oligodendrocytes, mastocytes, and ependymocytes, but not in pericytes, microglial cells, and astrocytes. Moreover, blockage of the axo-dendritic transport unmasked tPA expression in neurons of cortical and hippocampal areas. Interestingly, combined electrophysiological recordings, single-cell reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and immunohistological analyses revealed that the presence of tPA is restricted to subsets of excitatory pyramidal glutamatergic neurons. We further evidenced that tPA is stored in synaptobrevin-2-positive glutamatergic synaptic vesicles. Based on all these data, we propose the existence of tPA-ergic neurons in the mature brain. PMID:26377106

  7. Adipose tissue has aberrant morphology and function in PCOS: enlarged adipocytes and low serum adiponectin, but not circulating sex steroids, are strongly associated with insulin resistance

    Mannerås-Holm, Louise; Leonhardt, Henrik; Kullberg, Joel;

    2011-01-01

    Comprehensive characterization of the adipose tissue in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), over a wide range of body mass indices (BMIs), is lacking. Mechanisms behind insulin resistance in PCOS are unclear....

  8. Adipose tissue has aberrant morphology and function in PCOS: enlarged adipocytes and low serum adiponectin, but not circulating sex steroids, are strongly associated with insulin resistance

    2011-01-01

    Comprehensive characterization of the adipose tissue in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), over a wide range of body mass indices (BMIs), is lacking. Mechanisms behind insulin resistance in PCOS are unclear.......Comprehensive characterization of the adipose tissue in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), over a wide range of body mass indices (BMIs), is lacking. Mechanisms behind insulin resistance in PCOS are unclear....

  9. Ovarian teratoma displaying a wide variety of tissue components in a broiler chicken (Gallus Domesticus): morphological heterogeneity of pluripotential germ cell during tumorigenesis

    S. Ohfuji

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous ovarian teratoma was found in a seven-week-old female Chunky broiler chicken that was slaughtered for food. On post-mortem inspection, a spherical tumor mass attaching to a juvenile ovary was found in the abdominal cavity. Histopathologically, the tumor was comprised of immature mesenchymal stroma and a variety of mature tissue elements of mesodermal and ectodermal origin. In addition, there were multiple indistinguishable tissue elements, which showed no malignant cytological fea...

  10. Tissue-Specific Distribution of Ginsenosides in Different Aged Ginseng and Antioxidant Activity of Ginseng Leaf

    Ying-Chun Zhang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to systematically evaluate the effect of the cultivation year on the quality of different ginseng tissues. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of ginsenosides were conducted using a UPLC-UV-MS method. Eight main ginsenosides in three tissues (leaf, rhizome and main root and four parts (periderm, phloem, cambium and xylem of ginseng aged from 1 to 13 years were determined using a UPLC-PDA method. Additionally, the antioxidant capacities of ginseng leaves were analyzed by the DPPH, ABTS and HRSA methods. It was found that the contents of ginsenosides increased with cultivation years, causing a sequential content change of ginsenosides in an organ-specific manner: leaf > rhizome > main root. The ratio between protopanaxatriol (PPT, Rg1, Re and RF and protopanaxadiol (PPD, Rb1, Rb2, RC and Rd in the main root remained stable (about 1.0, while it increased in leaf from 1.37 to 3.14 and decreased in the rhizome from 0.99 to 0.72. The amount of ginsenosides accumulated in the periderm was 45.48 mg/g, which was more than twice as high compared with the other three parts. Furthermore, the antioxidant activities of ginseng leaves were measured as Trolox equivalents, showing that antioxidant activity increased along with time of cultivation. The results show that the best harvest time for shizhu ginseng is the fifth year of cultivation, and the root and rhizome could be used together within seven planting years for their similar PPT/PPD level. Besides, the quality of the ginseng products would be enhanced with the periderm. The ginseng leaf is rich in ginsenosides and has potential application for its antioxidant capacity.

  11. Matured Hop Bittering Components Induce Thermogenesis in Brown Adipose Tissue via Sympathetic Nerve Activity.

    Yumie Morimoto-Kobayashi

    Full Text Available Obesity is the principal symptom of metabolic syndrome, which refers to a group of risk factors that increase the likelihood of atherosclerosis. In recent decades there has been a sharp rise in the incidence of obesity throughout the developed world. Iso-α-acids, the bitter compounds derived from hops in beer, have been shown to prevent diet-induced obesity by increasing lipid oxidation in the liver and inhibition of lipid absorption from the intestine. Whereas the sharp bitterness induced by effective dose of iso-α-acids precludes their acceptance as a nutrient, matured hop bittering components (MHB appear to be more agreeable. Therefore, we tested MHB for an effect on ameliorating diet-induced body fat accumulation in rodents. MHB ingestion had a beneficial effect but, compared to iso-α-acids and despite containing structurally similar compounds, acted via different mechanisms to reduce body fat accumulation. MHB supplementation significantly reduced body weight gain, epididymal white adipose tissue weight, and plasma non-esterified free fatty acid levels in diet-induced obese mice. We also found that uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1 expression in brown adipose tissue (BAT was significantly increased in MHB-fed mice at both the mRNA and protein levels. In addition, MHB administration in rats induced the β-adrenergic signaling cascade, which is related to cAMP accumulation in BAT, suggesting that MHB could modulate sympathetic nerve activity innervating BAT (BAT-SNA. Indeed, single oral administration of MHB elevated BAT-SNA in rats, and this elevation was dissipated by subdiaphragmatic vagotomy. Single oral administration of MHB maintained BAT temperature at a significantly higher level than in control rats. Taken together, these findings indicate that MHB ameliorates diet-induced body fat accumulation, at least partly, by enhancing thermogenesis in BAT via BAT-SNA activation. Our data suggests that MHB is a useful tool for developing functional

  12. Effects of Silica and Titanium Oxide Particles on a Human Neural Stem Cell Line: Morphology, Mitochondrial Activity, and Gene Expression of Differentiation Markers

    Kouki Fujioka

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Several in vivo studies suggest that nanoparticles (smaller than 100 nm have the ability to reach the brain tissue. Moreover, some nanoparticles can penetrate into the brains of murine fetuses through the placenta by intravenous administration to pregnant mice. However, it is not clear whether the penetrated nanoparticles affect neurogenesis or brain function. To evaluate its effects on neural stem cells, we assayed a human neural stem cell (hNSCs line exposed in vitro to three types of silica particles (30 nm, 70 nm, and <44 µm and two types of titanium oxide particles (80 nm and < 44 µm. Our results show that hNSCs aggregated and exhibited abnormal morphology when exposed to the particles at concentrations = 0.1 mg/mL for 7 days. Moreover, all the particles affected the gene expression of Nestin (stem cell marker and neurofilament heavy polypeptide (NF-H, neuron marker at 0.1 mg/mL. In contrast, only 30-nm silica particles at 1.0 mg/mL significantly reduced mitochondrial activity. Notably, 30-nm silica particles exhibited acute membrane permeability at concentrations =62.5 µg/mL in 24 h. Although these concentrations are higher than the expected concentrations of nanoparticles in the brain from in vivo experiments in a short period, these thresholds may indicate the potential toxicity of accumulated particles for long-term usage or continuous exposure.

  13. Sustained thrombolysis with DNA-recombinant tissue type plasminogen activator in rabbits

    Tissue type plasminogen activator (t-PA) is an effective thrombolytic agent in experimental animals. The duration of the thrombolytic effect of infused t-PA is unknown. The authors compared the duration of the thrombolytic effect of t-PA with streptokinase by measuring the lysis of 125I-fibrin-labeled thrombi in rabbit jugular veins at different times after a bolus injection of the fibrinolytic agents. The pharmacodynamics of both thrombolytic agents were determined in rabbits using a sensitive ex vivo fibrinolytic assay. Streptokinase and t-PA were given as a bolus dose of 15,000 U/kg. There was no detectable circulating fibrinolytic activity 30 minutes after the bolus dose of t-PA and 120 minutes after the bolus dose of streptokinase. The t-PA injection produced 34% thrombolysis at 30 minutes, 90% thrombolysis at 120 minutes, and 96% thrombolysis at 240 minutes. The streptokinase injection produced 17% thrombolysis at 30 minutes, 34% at 120 minutes, and 34% at 240 minutes. These observations indicate that the thrombolytic effect of t-PA is sustained beyond its time of clearance from the circulation whereas the thrombolytic effect of streptokinase closely parallels its activity in the circulation

  14. USF1 deficiency activates brown adipose tissue and improves cardiometabolic health.

    Laurila, Pirkka-Pekka; Soronen, Jarkko; Kooijman, Sander; Forsström, Saara; Boon, Mariëtte R; Surakka, Ida; Kaiharju, Essi; Coomans, Claudia P; Van Den Berg, Sjoerd A A; Autio, Anu; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Kettunen, Johannes; Tikkanen, Emmi; Manninen, Tuula; Metso, Jari; Silvennoinen, Reija; Merikanto, Krista; Ruuth, Maija; Perttilä, Julia; Mäkelä, Anne; Isomi, Ayaka; Tuomainen, Anita M; Tikka, Anna; Ramadan, Usama Abo; Seppälä, Ilkka; Lehtimäki, Terho; Eriksson, Johan; Havulinna, Aki; Jula, Antti; Karhunen, Pekka J; Salomaa, Veikko; Perola, Markus; Ehnholm, Christian; Lee-Rueckert, Miriam; Van Eck, Miranda; Roivainen, Anne; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Peltonen, Leena; Mervaala, Eero; Jalanko, Anu; Hohtola, Esa; Olkkonen, Vesa M; Ripatti, Samuli; Kovanen, Petri T; Rensen, Patrick C N; Suomalainen, Anu; Jauhiainen, Matti

    2016-01-27

    USF1 (upstream stimulatory factor 1) is a transcription factor associated with familial combined hyperlipidemia and coronary artery disease in humans. However, whether USF1 is beneficial or detrimental to cardiometabolic health has not been addressed. By inactivating USF1 in mice, we demonstrate protection against diet-induced dyslipidemia, obesity, insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis, and atherosclerosis. The favorable plasma lipid profile, including increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and decreased triglycerides, was coupled with increased energy expenditure due to activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT). Usf1 inactivation directs triglycerides from the circulation to BAT for combustion via a lipoprotein lipase-dependent mechanism, thus enhancing plasma triglyceride clearance. Mice lacking Usf1 displayed increased BAT-facilitated, diet-induced thermogenesis with up-regulation of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes, as well as increased BAT activity even at thermoneutrality and after BAT sympathectomy. A direct effect of USF1 on BAT activation was demonstrated by an amplified adrenergic response in brown adipocytes after Usf1 silencing, and by augmented norepinephrine-induced thermogenesis in mice lacking Usf1. In humans, individuals carrying SNP (single-nucleotide polymorphism) alleles that reduced USF1 mRNA expression also displayed a beneficial cardiometabolic profile, featuring improved insulin sensitivity, a favorable lipid profile, and reduced atherosclerosis. Our findings identify a new molecular link between lipid metabolism and energy expenditure, and point to the potential of USF1 as a therapeutic target for cardiometabolic disease. PMID:26819196

  15. Study on the NO Concentration and NOS Activity in the Serum and Tissues of Ducklings with Selenium Poisoning

    WU Rui; KANG Shi-liang; XU Shi-wen; WANG Wei; LIN Hong-jin

    2003-01-01

    One-day-old healthy ducklings (n=100) were divided into control group and experimental group randomly, and selenium poisoning of ducklings was artificially caused by feeding ration containing 8 lng kg-1 Se every day. The dynamic changes of No content and NOS activity in the serum and tissues were determined by means of the method of nitric acid reductase. Results showed that the NO content and NOS activity in serum and tissues in experimental group increased significantly (P<0.05) and they were time-dependent.It was suggested that the high level of selenium in bodies could increase the NOS activity and NO content as it destroyed the metabolism of material and energy as well as structure and function of tissues and cells. These changes of NO content and NOS activity might be involved in the metabolism of selenium poisoning.

  16. Natural Killer T Cells in Adipose Tissue Are Activated in Lean Mice

    Kondo, Taisuke; Toyoshima, Yujiro; Ishii, Yoshiyuki; Kyuwa, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    Adipose tissues are closely connected with the immune system. It has been suggested that metabolic syndromes such as type 2 diabetes, arteriosclerosis and liver steatosis can be attributed to adipose tissue inflammation characterized by macrophage infiltration. To understand a physiological and pathological role of natural killer T (NKT) cells on inflammation in adipose tissue, we characterized a subset of NKT cells in abdominal and subcutaneous adipose tissues in C57BL/6J mice fed normal or ...

  17. Activity and tissue-specific expression of lipases and tumor-necrosis factor alpha in lean and obese cats.

    Hoenig, M.; McGoldrick, J.B.; Beer, M. de; Demacker, P.N.M.; Ferguson, D.C.

    2006-01-01

    Post-heparin plasma activity of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hepatic lipase (HL), and fat and muscle activity of LPL were measured in neutered lean and obese cats. Lipoprotein lipase, hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), and tumor necrosis factor a (TNF) mRNA were measured in muscle and fat tissue with r

  18. Evaluation of differential antitermitic activities of Lantana camara oven-dried tissues against Reticufitermes virginicus (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)

    Zhonglin Yuan; Xingl Ping Hu

    2011-01-01

    Chemical-treated soil or physical barriers have been the most commonly used approach for termite management.We hypothesized that a barrier of soil incorporated with oven-dried Lantana camara L.tissues could prevent termite infestation.We first examined the antitermitic effects of the dried tissues from two cultivars (‘Mozelle’ and ‘New Gold’)on the subterranean termite,Reticulitermes virginicus (Banks) (Isoptera:Rhinotermitidae).Results show that all of the tissues of Mozelle had greater antitermic activity than corresponding tissues of New Gold,and leaves had greater termiticidal effects than flowers and stems.When termites were exposed to the test materials in a no-choice bioassay,the 24-day test resulted in a significant reduction of survival (52.5%-88.6%),running speed (18.2%-37.3%),live weight (21.8%-53.5%) and body water content (33.2%-56.2%) compared to the control.The consumption of leaves and flowers was exiguous.When used as 25% tissue mulch-barrier,the oven-dried lantana tissues decreased termite tunneling and wood consumption and increased termite mortality.The decreased survival,vigor,and low consumption indicate a toxic and anti-feeding property of the materials tested.The results therefore support our hypothesis that the dried lantana tissues possess antitermitic activities.

  19. Chandra X-ray and Hubble Space Telescope Imaging of Optically Selected Kiloparsec-Scale Binary Active Galactic Nuclei II: Host Galaxy Morphology and AGN Activity

    Shangguan, Jinyi; Ho, Luis C; Shen, Yue; Peng, Chien Y; Greene, Jenny E; Strauss, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Binary active galactic nuclei (AGNs) provide clues to how gas-rich mergers trigger and fuel AGNs and how supermassive black hole (SMBH) pairs evolve in a gas-rich environment. While significant effort has been invested in their identification, the detailed properties of binary AGNs and their host galaxies are still poorly constrained. In a companion paper, we examined the nature of ionizing sources in the double nuclei of four kpc-scale binary AGNs with redshifts between 0.1~0.2. Here, we present their host galaxy morphology based on F336W (U-band) and F105W (Y-band) images taken by the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) onboard the Hubble Space Telescope. Our targets have double-peaked narrow emission lines and were confirmed to host binary AGNs with follow up observations. We find that kpc-scale binary AGNs occur in galaxy mergers with diverse morphological types. There are three major mergers with intermediate morphologies and a minor merger with a dominant disk component. We estimate the masses of the SMBHs from ...

  20. Methods for demonstration of enzyme activity in muscle fibres at the muscle/bone interface in demineralized tissue

    Kirkeby, S; Vilmann, H

    1981-01-01

    A method for demonstration of activity for ATPase and various oxidative enzymes (succinic dehydrogenase, alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase, and lactic dehydrogenase) in muscle/bone sections of fixed and demineralized tissue has been developed. It was found that it is possible to preserve...... with the aid of a mapping of presence of phosphomonoesterases on bone surfaces, the method may be used to study possible biochemical interactions between bone and muscle tissue at the muscle/bone interface....

  1. Studies on the Morphological Characters of South China Double Cropping Super Rice at the Active Tillering Stage

    CHEN You-ding; WAN Bang-hui; ZHANG Xu

    2004-01-01

    The morphological characters of the newly released super hybrid rice in South China, Yueza122, Fengyou428, Peiza 67, and super conventional varieties, Guangchao3, Shengtail at the active tillering stage in both early and late crops were investigated. Using the analysis of variance and other statistic methods, the ideal morphological characteristics of South China double cropping super-rice at the active tillering stage were determined. They are 55-60 cm in the early crop and 60-76 cm in the late crop for the ideal plant height, about 15 tillers in the early crop and 14-19 tillers in the late crop for the ideal tiller number per plant, 40-44 cm in the early crop and 42-60 cm in the late crop for the ideal length of the first leaf under the top leaf, 1.2-1.4 cm in the early crop and 1.2-1.3cm in the late crop for the ideal width of the first leaf under the top leaf, 3944 cm in the early crop and 37-43cm in the late crop for the ideal length of the second leaf under the top leaf, 1.1-1.4cm in the early crop and about 1.1cm in the late crop for the ideal width of the second leaf under the top leaf, 22-58° in the early crop and 4 12° in the late crop for the ideal top leaf angle at the active tillering stage. Based on these results, a new concept of "dynamic plant type structure" for South China double cropping super rice breeding was suggested.

  2. STRUCTURE AND MORPHOLOGY OF X-RAY-SELECTED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS HOSTS AT 1 < z < 3 IN THE CANDELS-COSMOS FIELD

    We analyze morphologies of the host galaxies of 35 X-ray-selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at z ∼ 2 in the Cosmic Evolution Survey field using Hubble Space Telescope/WFC3 imaging taken from the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey. We build a control sample of 350 galaxies in total by selecting 10 non-active galaxies drawn from the same field with a similar stellar mass and redshift for each AGN host. By performing two-dimensional fitting with GALFIT on the surface brightness profile, we find that the distribution of the Sérsic index (n) of AGN hosts does not show a statistical difference from that of the control sample. We measure the nonparametric morphological parameters (the asymmetry index A, the Gini coefficient G, the concentration index C, and the M 20 index) based on point-source-subtracted images. All the distributions of these morphological parameters of AGN hosts are consistent with those of the control sample. We finally investigate the fraction of distorted morphologies in both samples by visual classification. Only ∼15% of the AGN hosts have highly distorted morphologies, possibly due to a major merger or interaction. We find there is no significant difference in the distortion fractions between the AGN host sample and control sample. We conclude that the morphologies of X-ray-selected AGN hosts are similar to those of non-active galaxies and most AGN activity is not triggered by a major merger

  3. Comparing performance of K-zero neutron activation. Fresh and freeze-dried animal tissue analysis

    The success attainable in K-zero neutron activation analysis using a Triga Mark-1 reactor, IPR-R1 CDTN/CNEN, Belo Horizonte - Brazil, operating at 100 MW and thermal neutron flux of 6.6 1011 neutron.cm-2.s-1 - is to a large degree dependent on the sample composition and the upper limit of each element considered. In practice, carrying out investigations on essential and non-essential elements in fresh cattle muscle tissues, only concentrations of major elements which often dominate the gamma-ray spectrum are obtained by virtue of their relative high values. In order to evidence additional elements when their concentrations have values under the upper limits, the pre-concentration of biological matrices before applying K-zero neutron activation analysis will probably be an appropriate alternative. For this purpose, a nondestructive freeze-drying process - lyophilization was carried out in this study due to small losses of chemical elements as reviewed in previous studies. (orig.)

  4. Constitutive Activation of Neuregulin/ERBB3 Signaling Pathway in Clear Cell Sarcoma of Soft Tissue

    Karl-Ludwig Schaefer

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Clear cell sarcoma of soft tissue (CCSST represents a highly malignant tumor of the musculoskeletal system that is characterized by the chromosomal translocation t(12;22(g13;q12 of the Ewing sarcoma gene (EWSR1 and activating transcription factor 1 (ATF1. In a former microarray expression study, we identified ERBB3, a member of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR family, as a promising new diagnostic marker in the differential diagnosis of CCSST. Here we show that, besides ErbB3, all CCSST cell lines (n = 8 also express the ErbB2 receptor or the ErbB4 receptor, representing an adequate coreceptor of ErbB3. The phosphorylation status of ErbB3 revealed these receptor pairs to be either constitutively activated in CCSST cells with high neuregulin-1 (NRG1 expression (n= 4 or activatable by exogenic NRG1 in cells showing low amounts of NRG1 mRNA (n = 4. Exogenous NRG1 stimulated the growth of a subset of CCSST cells but did not affect the kinetics of another subset. This difference was not strictly dependent on endogenous NRG1 expression; however, the growth-inhibiting effect of the pan-ErbB tyrosine kinase inhibitor Cl-1033 or PD158780 clearly correlated with NRG1 expression indicating an autocrine growth stimulation loop, which may constitute an interesting target of new therapeutic strategies in this tumor entity.

  5. p53 alteration in morphologically normal/benign breast tissue in patients with triple-negative high-grade breast carcinomas: breast p53 signature?

    Wang, Xi; Stolla, Moritz; Ring, Brian Z; Yang, Qi; Laughlin, Todd S; Rothberg, Paul G; Skinner, Kristin; Hicks, David G

    2016-09-01

    p53 alterations have been identified in approximately 23% of breast carcinomas, particularly in hormone receptor-negative high-grade carcinomas. It is considered to be an early event in breast carcinogenesis. Nevertheless, the putative precursor lesion of high-grade breast carcinoma remains elusive. Breast excision specimens from 93 triple-negative high-grade invasive ductal carcinomas, 48 estrogen receptor (ER)-positive/progesterone receptor-positive/Her2-negative non-high-grade invasive ductal carcinomas, and 50 mammoplasty breasts were selected. At least 2 tissue blocks with tumor and adjacent benign tissue were sectioned and subjected to immunohistochemistry staining for p53. TP53 gene sequencing was performed on select tumors. Further immunohistochemistry staining for ER and Ki-67 was performed on consecutive sections of tissue with p53-positive normal/benign cells. Of the 93 high-grade carcinomas, 51 (55%) were positive for p53 alteration, whereas only 3 (6.25%) of the 48 non-high-grade carcinomas were p53 altered. Focal p53 positivity in adjacent normal/benign breast tissue was identified in 19 cases, and 18 of them also had p53 alteration in their carcinomas. Only 1 case had focal p53 staining in normal/benign tissue, but the tumor was negative for p53 alteration. No p53 staining positivity was identified in the mammoplasty specimens. The p53-stained normal/benign cells were ER negative and did not show an increase in the Ki-67 labeling index. These findings indicate that the p53 staining positivity in normal/benign breast tissue is not a random event. It could be considered as the "p53 signature" in breast and serve as an indicator for future potential risk of p53-positive high-grade breast carcinoma. PMID:27246177

  6. Activity and Tissue Expression of Tyrosine Phosphatase PTP-MEG2

    DONG Hong-bo; LI Guo-dong; WANG Shao-feng; FU Xue-qi; ZHAO Zhi-zhuang Joe

    2011-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatases(PTPs) are crucial regulators of signal transduction. Among them,PTP-MEG2 is an intracellular enzyme of 593 amino acid residues with a putative lipid-binding domain at the N-terminus. In the present study, we cloned the full-length form of the enzyme and expressed it in E. coli cells as a 6xHis-tagged protein. The majority of the expressed enzyme was found in the inclusion body of E. coli cell extracts.Upon extraction with a buffer containing urea, the recombinant enzyme was purified to near homogeneity on a single Ni-NTA-agarose column. This procedure resulted in the production of over 100 mg of purified recombinant PTP-MEG2 from 1 L E. coli cell culture. The purified protein displayed a single polypeptide band with expected molecular size on SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under reducing conditions. Isolated under denatured conditions in urea, the purified enzyme was re-natured by dialyzing against a refolding buffer. The re-natured enzyme effectively dephosphorylated the common PTP substrate para-nitrophenylphosphate with a specific activity of 2000 units/mg. Meanwhile, the denatured enzyme was used to immunize a rabbit to produce antibodies. The resulting antiserum had extremely high sensitivity and specificity. When used for Western blot analysis, the anti-serum revealed a wide expression of PTP-MEG2 in many tissues of mice. Together, we developed a highly effective way to purify a large amount of PTP-MEG2 and generated highly sensitive antibodies that can specifically detect endogenous expression of the enzyme in tissues.

  7. In vivo distribution and tissue localization of highly purified rat lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells

    A highly purified population of effector lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells was generated by culturing nylon-wool column nonadherent rat splenocytes in the presence of interleukin 2 (IL-2), and the cells which became adherent to the plastic flasks were separated and maintained in culture for a total of 5 days. More than 95% of these cells had the morphology of large granular lymphocytes (LGL), expressed surface phenotypes characteristic of rat natural killer (NK) cells, and were able to kill NK-sensitive and NK-resistant tumor target cells. 51Cr-labeled purified A-LAK cells injected intravenously into syngeneic F344 rats localized primarily in the lungs 2 hr after injection but then redistributed to the liver and the spleen by 24 hr after injection. The effects of various immunological manipulations on the distribution pattern of the isolated LAK cells were evaluated. Treatment of the host with 500 rad total body X-irradiation 24 hr before cell injection resulted in an early uptake of LAK cells into the liver and the spleen, whereas treatment with cyclophosphamide 1 day before cell injection, resulted in an early uptake of LAK cells into the liver but not into the spleen. Treatment of the recipient rats with up to 120,000 units recombinant interleukin-2 intraperitoneally did not result in the accumulation of LAK cells at the site of IL-2 injection, nor did it result in a modulation of the overall distribution pattern or total recovery of radiolabeled LAK cells. Rather, the administration of IL-2 was necessary to maintain the cytotoxic activity of the injected LAK cells isolated from the liver and spleen

  8. Synthetic Plasmodium-Like Hemozoin Activates the Immune Response: A Morphology - Function Study

    Jaramillo, Maritza; Bellemare, Marie-Josée; Martel, Caroline; Shio, Marina Tiemi; Contreras, Ana Paulina; Godbout, Marianne; Roger, Michel; Gaudreault, Eric; Gosselin, Jean; Bohle, D. Scott; Olivier, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Increasing evidence points to an important role for hemozoin (HZ), the malaria pigment, in the immunopathology related to this infection. However, there is no consensus as to whether HZ exerts its immunostimulatory activity in absence of other parasite or host components. Contamination of native HZ preparations and the lack of a unified protocol to produce crystals that mimic those of Plasmodium HZ (PHZ) are major technical limitants when performing functional studies with HZ. In fact, the mo...

  9. Morphology-dependent bactericidal activities of Ag/CeO2 catalysts against Escherichia coli.

    Wang, Lian; He, Hong; Yu, Yunbo; Sun, Li; Liu, Sijin; Zhang, Changbin; He, Lian

    2014-06-01

    Silver-loaded CeO2 nanomaterials (Ag/CeO2) including Ag/CeO2 nanorods, nanocubes, nanoparticles were prepared with hydrothermal and impregnation methods. Catalytic inactivation of Escherichia coli with Ag/CeO2 catalysts through the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was investigated. For comparison purposes, the bactericidal activities of CeO2 nanorods, nanocubes and nanoparticles were also studied. There was a 3-4 log order improvement in the inactivation of E. coli with Ag/CeO2 catalysts compared with CeO2 catalysts. Temperature-programmed reduction of H2 showed that Ag/CeO2 catalysts had higher catalytic oxidation ability than CeO2 catalysts, which was the reason for that Ag/CeO2 catalysts exhibited stronger bactericidal activities than CeO2 catalysts. Further, the bactericidal activities of CeO2 and Ag/CeO2 depend on their shapes. Results of 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide spin-trapping measurements by electron spin resonance and addition of catalase as a scavenger indicated the formation of OH, O2(-), and H2O2, which caused the obvious bactericidal activity of catalysts. The stronger chemical bond between Ag and CeO2 nanorods led to lower Ag(+) elution concentrations. The toxicity of Ag(+) eluted from the catalysts did not play an important role during the bactericidal process. Experimental results also indicated that Ag/CeO2 induced the production of intracellular ROS and disruption of the cell wall and cell membrane. A possible production mechanism of ROS and bactericidal mechanism of catalytic oxidation were proposed. PMID:24662462

  10. Influences of Silver-Doping on the Crystal Structure, Morphology and Photocatalytic Activity of TiO2 Nanofibers

    Barakat, Nasser A. M.; Kanjwal, Muzafar Ahmed; Al-Deyab, Salem S.; Chronakis, Ioannis S.

    activity of titanium oxide nanofibers has been studied. Sil-ver-doped TiO2 nanofibers having different silver contents were prepared by calcination of electrospun nanofiber mats consisting of silver nitrate, titanium isopropoxide and poly(vinyl acetate) at 600°C. The results affirmed formation of silver......-doped TiO2 nanofibers composed of anatase and rutile when the silver nitrate content in the original electrospun solution was more than 3 wt%. The rutile phase content was directly proportional with the AgNO3 concentration in the electrospun solution. Negative impact of the silver-doping on the nanofibrous...... morphology was observed as increase the silver content caused to decrease the aspect ratio, i.e. producing nanorods rather nanofibers. However, silver-doping leads to modify the surface roughness. Study of the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye clarified that in-crease the silver content...

  11. Influence of ammonia on the morphologies and enhanced photocatalytic activity of TiO2 micro/nanospheres

    TiO2 micro/nanospheres were synthesized by a combination process contains hydrolysis of titanium tetra-n-butyl in mixed solution of anhydrous ethanol/ammonia and the subsequent calcination under 550 deg. C for 7 h. The pH values of the mixed solution were tuned to be 10.4, 11.0 and 11.6, respectively, by adding different amounts of ammonia. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) were used to characterize the morphologies and the crystallinity. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns indicated that pH value of the precursors has an important effect on the crystal phase composition. UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectrum was applied to characterize the optical properties of samples. Degradation of methylene blue under the irradiation of 300 W Hg lamp confirmed the enhanced photocatalytic activity of TiO2 micro/nanospheres. In addition, the formation mechanism was proposed.

  12. Effect of clay on the surface morphology and field emission properties of screen-printed activated carbon

    Surface morphology of the screen-printed activated carbon paste with organophobic montmorillonite clay and electron field emission properties was studied. X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to evaluate the distribution of filler in the carbon paste and the structure of carbon film. The addition of clay particles improved homogeneous dispersion of carbon in paste, which contributed to the formation of uniform carbon film during screen-printing. The current density J increased significantly, while the threshold electric field Eth decreased when the filler particles were added to the carbon paste. The enhancement of field emission properties is believed to be due to the improvement of the dispersivity and adhesiveness of the paste. The organoclay loading also showed better thermal stability.

  13. Tissue Plasminogen Activator Binding to Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticle-Covalent Versus Adsorptive Approach.

    Friedrich, Ralf P; Zaloga, Jan; Schreiber, Eveline; Tóth, Ildikó Y; Tombácz, Etelka; Lyer, Stefan; Alexiou, Christoph

    2016-12-01

    Functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles are frequently used to develop vehicles for drug delivery, hyperthermia, and photodynamic therapy and as tools used for magnetic separation and purification of proteins or for biomolecular imaging. Depending on the application, there are various possible covalent and non-covalent approaches for the functionalization of particles, each of them shows different advantages and disadvantages for drug release and activity at the desired location.Particularly important for the production of adsorptive and covalent bound drugs to nanoparticles is the pureness of the involved formulation. Especially the covalent binding strategy demands defined chemistry of the drug, which is stabilized by excess free amino acids which could reduce reaction efficiency. In this study, we therefore used tangential flow filtration (TFF) method to purify the drugs before the reaction and used the frequently applied and clinically available recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (tPA; Actilyse(®)) as a proof of concept. We then coupled the tPA preparation to polyacrylic acid-co-maleic acid (PAM)-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) using an amino-reactive activated ester reaction and compared these particles to PAM-coated SPIONs with electrostatically adsorbed tPA.Using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and pH-dependent electrokinetic mobility measurements, we showed that surface properties of the SPIONs were significantly greater affected after activation of the particles compared to the adsorption controls. Different in vitro assays were used to investigate the activity of tPA after coupling to the particles and purification of the ferrofluid. Covalent linkage significantly improves the reactivity and long-term stability of the conjugated SPION-tPA system compared to simple adsorption. In conclusion, we have shown an effective way to produce SPIONs with covalent and non-covalent ultra-filtrated drugs. We showed

  14. Dietary whole cottonseed depresses lipogenesis but has no effect on stearoyl coenzyme desaturase activity in bovine subcutaneous adipose tissue.

    Page, A M; Sturdivant, C A; Lunt, D K; Smith, S B

    1997-09-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine the effect of long-term feeding of whole cottonseed (WCS) on lipogenesis and stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase activity in growing steers. Brangus steers were fed either a control, cornbased diet (n = 11) or 30% WCS (n = 12). The 30% WCS contributed an estimated 6.6% additional lipid to the diet. Steers fed the added WCS had greater live weights (P = 0.04) and kidney, pelvic, and heart fat (P = 0.005). Subcutaneous fat thickness was not different (P = 0.20) between treatment groups, although WCS elicited an increase in the proportion of large diameter subcutaneous adipocytes. The rate of [U-14C]acetate incorporation into fatty acids in subcutaneous adipose tissue was reduced by dietary WCS (171.4 vs 122.1 nmol x 100 mg adipose tissue-1 x 2 hr-1, P = 0.03), indicating that the increased dietary fat depressed de novo lipogenesis. Hepatic desaturase activity was much lower than that of subcutaneous adipose tissue, a feature common to cattle. We anticipated that added WCS also would depress stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase activity in subcutaneous adipose tissue and liver due to its cyclopropene fatty acid content. Instead, desaturase activity was numerically (although not significantly) greater in liver (P = 0.37) and adipose tissue (P = 0.23). PMID:9417995

  15. An active artificial cornea with the function of inducing new corneal tissue generation in vivo-a new approach to corneal tissue engineering

    An active artificial cornea which can perform the function of inducing new cornea generation in vivo but does not need culture cells in vitro and which has similar optical and mechanical properties to those of the human cornea was constructed. An animal keratoplasty experiment using the artificial cornea as the implant showed that the animals' corneas could keep smooth surface and clear stroma postoperatively, and that the repopulation of the host's keratocytes, the degradation of the implant and new corneal tissue generation were completed at 5-6 months after surgery. Such an artificial cornea has several advantages over other corneal equivalents constructed in the typical way of tissue engineering: in having similar mechanical and optical properties to those of the human cornea and with no exogenetic cells, it can be used universally in different implantation surgeries without immunoreaction; it is easy to prepare and process into different shapes and sizes on a large scale, and suitable for long-distance transportation and long-term storage. All these characteristics make it a new approach to cornea tissue engineering having potential in many clinical applications

  16. Melanoma-derived factors alter the maturation and activation of differentiated tissue-resident dendritic cells.

    Hargadon, Kristian M; Bishop, Johnathan D; Brandt, John P; Hand, Zachary C; Ararso, Yonathan T; Forrest, Osric A

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are key regulators of host immunity that are capable of inducing either immune tolerance or activation. In addition to their well-characterized role in shaping immune responses to foreign pathogens, DCs are also known to be critical for the induction and maintenance of anti-tumor immune responses. Therefore, it is important to understand how tumors influence the function of DCs and the quality of immune responses they elicit. Although the majority of studies in this field to date have utilized either immortalized DC lines or DC populations that have been generated under artificial conditions from hematopoietic precursors in vitro, we wished to investigate how tumors impact the function of already differentiated, tissue-resident DCs. Therefore, we used both an ex vivo and in vivo model system to assess the influence of melanoma-derived factors on DC maturation and activation. In ex vivo studies with freshly isolated splenic DCs, we demonstrate that the extent to which DC maturation and activation are altered by these factors correlates with melanoma tumorigenicity, and we identify partial roles for tumor-derived transforming growth factor (TGF)β1 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A in the altered functionality of DCs. In vivo studies using a lung metastasis model of melanoma also demonstrate tumorigenicity-dependent alterations to the function of lung-resident DCs, and skewed production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines by these tumor-altered cells is associated with recruitment of an immune infiltrate that may ultimately favor tumor immune escape and outgrowth. PMID:26010746

  17. Tissue-type plasminogen activator induces synaptic vesicle endocytosis in cerebral cortical neurons.

    Yepes, M; Wu, F; Torre, E; Cuellar-Giraldo, D; Jia, D; Cheng, L

    2016-04-01

    The release of the serine proteinase tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) from the presynaptic terminal of cerebral cortical neurons plays a central role in the development of synaptic plasticity, adaptation to metabolic stress and neuronal survival. Our earlier studies indicate that by inducing the recruitment of the cytoskeletal protein βII-spectrin and voltage-gated calcium channels to the active zone, tPA promotes Ca(2+)-dependent translocation of synaptic vesicles (SVs) to the synaptic release site where they release their load of neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft. Here we used a combination of in vivo and in vitro experiments to investigate whether this effect leads to depletion of SVs in the presynaptic terminal. Our data indicate that tPA promotes SV endocytosis via a mechanism that does not require the conversion of plasminogen into plasmin. Instead, we show that tPA induces calcineurin-mediated dynamin I dephosphorylation, which is followed by dynamin I-induced recruitment of the actin-binding protein profilin II to the presynaptic membrane, and profilin II-induced F-actin formation. We report that this tPA-induced sequence of events leads to the association of newly formed SVs with F-actin clusters in the endocytic zone. In summary, the data presented here indicate that following the exocytotic release of neurotransmitters tPA activates the mechanism whereby SVs are retrieved from the presynaptic membrane and endocytosed to replenish the pool of vesicles available for a new cycle of exocytosis. Together, these results indicate that in murine cerebral cortical neurons tPA plays a central role coupling SVs exocytosis and endocytosis. PMID:26820595

  18. Effect of growth hormone on aging connective tissue in muscle and tendon - gene expression, morphology and function following immobilization and rehabilitation

    Boesen, Anders Ploug; Dideriksen, Kasper Juel; Couppe, Christian;

    2014-01-01

    It is unknown whether loss in musculo-tendinous tissue during inactivity can be counteracted by growth hormone(GH), and whether GH accelerate rehabilitation in aging individuals. Elderly men (65-75 years; n=12) had one leg immobilized two weeks followed by six weeks re-training, and were randomly...

  19. Toward guided tissue and bone regeneration: morphology, attachment, proliferation, and migration of cells cultured on collagen barrier membranes. A systematic review.

    Behring, J.; Junker, R.; Walboomers, X.F.; Chessnut, B.; Jansen, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Collagen barrier membranes are frequently used in both guided tissue regeneration (GTR) and guided bone regeneration (GBR). Collagen used for these devices is available from different species and is often processed to alter the properties of the final product. This is necessary because unprocessed c

  20. Polyvinylpyrrolidone adsorption effects on the morphologies of synthesized platinum particles and its catalytic activity

    Ooi, Mahayatun Dayana Johan [Nano - Optoelectronic Research and Technology Laboratory, School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800, Minden, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Aziz, Azlan Abdul [Nano - Optoelectronic Research and Technology Laboratory, School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800, Minden, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Nanobiotechnology Research and Innovation (NanoBRI), INFORMM, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800, Minden, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2015-04-24

    Flower-like Platinum micro-structures were synthesized from different concentration of the PVP using solvothermal method. At 5.0×10{sup −3} mmol of PVP, well-defined flower-like pattern consists of triangular petals radiating from the centre were produced whereas larger flower network developed at higher PVP concentration. High degree of crystallinity was obtained upon each increment of PVP. The well defined flower like pattern synthesized using 5.0×10{sup −3} mmol PVP exhibit the highest catalytic activity and stability towards electro-oxidation of formic acid.

  1. Polyvinylpyrrolidone adsorption effects on the morphologies of synthesized platinum particles and its catalytic activity

    Ooi, Mahayatun Dayana Johan; Aziz, Azlan Abdul

    2015-04-01

    Flower-like Platinum micro-structures were synthesized from different concentration of the PVP using solvothermal method. At 5.0×10-3 mmol of PVP, well-defined flower-like pattern consists of triangular petals radiating from the centre were produced whereas larger flower network developed at higher PVP concentration. High degree of crystallinity was obtained upon each increment of PVP. The well defined flower like pattern synthesized using 5.0×10-3 mmol PVP exhibit the highest catalytic activity and stability towards electro-oxidation of formic acid.

  2. Invisible Active Galactic Nuclei. II Radio Morphologies & Five New HI 21 cm Absorption Line Detections

    Yan, Ting; Stocke, John T.; Darling, Jeremy; Momjian, Emmanuel; Sharma, Soniya; Kanekar, Nissim

    2015-01-01

    We have selected a sample of 80 candidates for obscured radio-loud active galactic nuclei and presented their basic optical/near-infrared (NIR) properties in Paper 1. In this paper, we present both high-resolution radio continuum images for all of these sources and HI 21cm absorption spectroscopy for a few selected sources in this sample. A-configuration 4.9 and 8.5 GHz VLA continuum observations find that 52 sources are compact or have substantial compact components with size

  3. Effect of selenite on the morphology and respiratory activity of Phanerochaete chrysosporium biofilms.

    Espinosa-Ortiz, Erika J; Pechaud, Yoan; Lauchnor, Ellen; Rene, Eldon R; Gerlach, Robin; Peyton, Brent M; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Lens, Piet N L

    2016-06-01

    The temporal and spatial effects of selenite (SeO3(2-)) on the physical properties and respiratory activity of Phanerochaete chrysosporium biofilms, grown in flow-cell reactors, were investigated using oxygen microsensors and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) imaging. Exposure of the biofilm to a SeO3(2-) load of 1.67mgSeL(-1)h(-1) (10mgSeL(-1) influent concentration), for 24h, resulted in a 20% reduction of the O2 flux, followed by a ∼10% decrease in the glucose consumption rate. Long-term exposure (4days) to SeO3(2-) influenced the architecture of the biofilm by creating a more compact and dense hyphal arrangement resulting in a decrease of biofilm thickness compared to fungal biofilms grown without SeO3(2-). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that the effect of SeO3(2-) on the aerobic respiratory activity on fungal biofilms is described. PMID:26935326

  4. Adipose Triglyceride Lipase (ATGL) and Hormone-Sensitive Lipase (HSL) Deficiencies Affect Expression of Lipolytic Activities in Mouse Adipose Tissues*

    Morak, Maria; Schmidinger, Hannes; Riesenhuber, Gernot; Rechberger, Gerald N.; Kollroser, Manfred; Haemmerle, Guenter; Zechner, Rudolf; Kronenberg, Florian; Hermetter, Albin

    2012-01-01

    Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) are key enzymes involved in intracellular degradation of triacylglycerols. It was the aim of this study to elucidate how the deficiency in one of these proteins affects the residual lipolytic proteome in adipose tissue. For this purpose, we compared the lipase patters of brown and white adipose tissue from ATGL (−/−) and HSL (−/−) mice using differential activity-based gel electrophoresis. This method is based on activity-r...

  5. Thioredoxin 1 in Prostate Tissue Is Associated with Gleason Score, Erythrocyte Antioxidant Enzyme Activity, and Dietary Antioxidants

    Terrence M. Vance

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Prostate cancer is the most common noncutaneous cancer and second leading cause of cancer-related mortality in men in the US. Growing evidence suggests that oxidative stress is involved in prostate cancer. Methods. In this study, thioredoxin 1 (Trx 1, an enzyme and subcellular indicator of redox status, was measured in prostate biopsy tissue from 55 men from the North Carolina-Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project. A pathologist blindly scored levels of Trx 1. The association between Trx 1 and the Gleason score, erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity, and dietary antioxidant intake was determined using Fisher’s exact test. Results. Trx 1 levels in benign prostate tissue in men with incident prostate cancer were positively associated with the Gleason score (P=0.01 and inversely associated with dietary antioxidant intake (P=0.03. In prostate cancer tissue, Trx 1 levels were associated with erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity (P=0.01. No association was found for other erythrocyte enzymes. Greater Gleason score of malignant tissue corresponds to a greater difference in Trx 1 levels between malignant and benign tissue (P=0.04. Conclusion. These results suggest that the redox status of prostate tissue is associated with prostate cancer grade and both endogenous and exogenous antioxidants.

  6. Induced nuclear activity in galaxy pairs with different morphologies (E+E), (E+S) and (S+S)

    Hernández-Ibarra, Francisco J; Dultzin, Deborah; del Olmo, Ascensión; Perea, Jaime; González, Jesús; Mendoza-Castrejón, Sandro; Bitsakis, Theodoros

    2015-01-01

    We analysed 385 galactic spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 (SDSS-DR7) that belong to the catalog of isolated pairs of galaxies by Karachentsev. The spectra corresponds to physical pairs of galaxies as defined by V $\\leq$ 1200 Km/s and a pair separation $\\leq$ 100 kpc. We search for the incidence of nuclear activity, both thermal (star-forming) and non-thermal -Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). After a careful extraction of the nuclear spectra, we use diagnostic diagrams and find that the incidence of AGN activity is 48 \\% in the paired galaxies with emission lines and 40\\% for the total sample (as compared to $\\sim$ 43 \\% and 41\\% respectively in a sample of isolated galaxies). These results remain after dissecting the effects of morphological type and galactic stellar mass (with only a small, non significant, enhancement of the AGN fraction in pairs of objects). These results suggest that weak interactions are not necessary or sufficient to trigger low-luminosity AGN. Since the fraction of...

  7. Thin films of Type 1 collagen for cell by cell analysis of morphology and tenascin-C promoter activity

    Tona Alex

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of highly reproducible and spatiallyhomogeneous thin film matrices permits automated microscopy and quantitative determination of the response of hundreds of cells in a population. Using thin films of extracellular matrix proteins, we have quantified, on a cell-by-cell basis, phenotypic parameters of cells on different extracellular matrices. We have quantitatively examined the relationship between fibroblast morphology and activation of the promoter for the extracellular matrix protein tenascin-C using a tenascin-C promoter-based GFP reporter construct. Results We find that when considering the average response from the population of cells, cell area correlates with tenascin-C promoter activity as has been previously suggested; however cell-by-cell analysis suggests that cell area and promoter activity are not tightly correlated within individual cells. Conclusion This study demonstrates how quantitative cell-by-cell analysis, facilitated by the use of thin films of extracellular matrix proteins, can provide insight into the relationship between phenotypic parameters.

  8. Analysis of Heavy Metal Elements in Coral Tissue from Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam Coast by Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA)

    Neutron activation analysis method has been done for analysis of heavy metal elements in coral tissues. Removing coral tissues from its skeleton is done through oxidation process using 10% hydrogen peroxide solution and by sonication process. Samples and standard were irradiated together at Siwabessy Research Reactor - BATAN with a thermal neutron flux ≈1013 n.cm-2.s-1 by 50 MW during 20 minutes. Coral tissue samples, skeleton and standard were measured by Gamma Spectrometer after 5 and 30 days of cooling time respectively. The system is calibrated by 152Eu radionuclide standard. Elements analyzed in coral tissue by this method are Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Z, Cd, Sb, Hg and As. 65Zn, radionuclide is considered as an essential element with wide range concentration and long enough half life can be used as a radiotracer in coral bioaccumulation for future research. (author)

  9. Increased cytotoxicity and streptolysin O activity in group G streptococcal strains causing invasive tissue infections

    Siemens, Nikolai; Kittang, Bård R; Chakrakodi, Bhavya;

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE) has emerged as an important cause of severe skin and soft tissue infections, but little is known of the pathogenic mechanisms underlying tissue pathology. Patient samples and a collection of invasive and non-invasive group G SDSE strains (n = 69......) were analyzed with respect to virulence factor expression and cytotoxic or inflammatory effects on human cells and 3D skin tissue models. SDSE strains efficiently infected the 3D-skin model and severe tissue pathology, inflammatory responses and altered production of host structural framework proteins...

  10. Hierarchical nanostructures of nickel-doped zinc oxide: Morphology controlled synthesis and enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity

    Yin, Qiaoqiao [College of Chemistry and Life Sciences, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321004 (China); Qiao, Ru, E-mail: qiaoru@zjnu.cn [College of Chemistry and Life Sciences, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321004 (China); Li, Zhengquan [College of Chemistry and Life Sciences, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321004 (China); Zhang, Xiao Li [ARC Centre of Excellence for Functional Nanomaterials, School of Chemical Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Zhu, Lanlan [College of Mathematics, Physics and Information Engineering, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321004 (China)

    2015-01-05

    Highlights: • Zn{sub 1−x}Ni{sub x}O hierarchical nanostructures were synthesized via a solvothermal approach. • Their growth mechanisms and related physicochemical properties were discussed. • The photocatalytic properties were studied upon visible-light irradiation. • Fraction of exposed polar facets and doping level affect their catalytic activity. • Particle size distribution and specific surface area can also influence the activity. - Abstract: Nickel-doped zinc oxide hollow nanospheres have been synthesized using a simple solvothermal approach through a morphological transformation driven by a localized Ostwald ripening process. The saturation magnetization of the system shows that the materials have only a short-range magnetic ordering in them. Based on the visible-light photocatalytic experiment, we could confirm that, with a high doping content (10 mol%), the doping accompanied with increased recombination which reduced the energy of photoinduced electron leading to suppressed photocatalytic activity. Changing reaction parameters, i.e. the mixed reactant concentration, doping content, and different solvents, Zn{sub 1−x}Ni{sub x}O powders exhibited the elongated prismatic form with sharp tips, quasi-spherical structure, and hexagonal-based polyhedron, respectively. The photocatalytic results demonstrate that different crystal growth orientations, specific surface areas, particle size distributions, and doping levels have strong influences on the photocatalytic activity performances. Among the samples, hexagonal-based polyhedrons have the best photodegradation efficiency standing on higher fraction of exposed polar facets, larger specific surface area, as well as an optimal doping level. The 1 mol% nickel content showed the best photocatalytic activities among the nickel-doped zinc oxide samples.

  11. Effects of silver nanoparticle on lactate dehydrogenase activity and histological changes of heart tissue in male wistar rats

    Noushin Naghsh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: The silver nanoparticles are important in many applications of nanoparticles on human health . The toxicity of silver nanoparticles are not well documented yet. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of silver nanoparticles on lactate dehydrogenase activity and histological changes in heart tissue.   Materials &Methods: In this study, 40 adult male wistar rats of 220±20gr were divided in to five groups including control and four experimental groups. The latter groups were injected intraperitoneally spherical nano silver particles of 50, 100, 200 and 400 ppm respectively for five consecutive days. Then three, eight and twelve days after the last injection, blood samples were collected and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activity was assayed . Also, tissue samples from the heart muscle were prepared and studied after staining with Hematoxiline-Eosine. Data of LDH activity was analyzed by One way- ANOVA- test and P-value of ≤ 0.05 were considered as significant.   Results : The result showed that different concentrations of silver nanoparticles have no significant effect on the lactate dehydrogenase (p=0.192 . T he histological study of the tissue after exposure to 400 ppm concentration of silver nanoparticles showed the start of primary apoptosis in heart tissue.   Conclusion: The LDH activity was not changed significantly after exposure to different concentration of silver nanoparticles, which shows the safety of these particles on LDH activity.

  12. Biological and binding activities of ovine and porcine prolactins in porcine mammary tissue

    The concentration of prolactin receptors may play a critical role in regulating growth and development of the mammary gland during gestation and tumor development; however, the discrepancy between specific binding of ovine prolactin (oPRL) and porcine prolactin (pPRL) in porcine mammary tissue was disturbing. It was possible that 125I-oPRL may be an unsuitable ligand for the procine prolactin receptor. The validate the use of oPRL in binding assays, the biological and binding activities of oPRL and pPRL were compared. A lactogenic bioassay of pPRL was developed using porcine mammary explants cultured in Medium 199 containing insulin, cortisol, and pPRL. The potencies of oPRL and pPRL were compared using this bioassay. Oxidation of glucose and incorporation of glucose into lipids were similarly enhanced by physiological concentrations of both oPRL and pPRL. However, specific binding of 125I-oPRL was 20%, while less than 1% of 125I-pPRL was bound. 125I-oPRL bound to high affinity sites

  13. Early intracardiac thrombosis in preterm infants and thrombolysis with recombinant tissue type plasminogen activator

    Ferrari, F; Vagnarelli, F; Gargano, G; Roversi, M; Biagioni, O; Ranzi, A; Cavazzuti, G

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To determine the incidence of catheter related thrombosis and to test the efficacy of recombinant tissue type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) in preterm infants.
STUDY DESIGN—From January 1995 to December 1998, echocardiography was performed in the first few days of life in 76 very low birthweight (⩽ 1500 g) infants out of a total of 147 having an umbilical catheter placed. When intracardiac thrombosis was diagnosed, rt-PA infusion was performed.
RESULTS—Four infants (5%) developed an intracardiac thrombosis during the first few days of life. In three of them, rt-PA at a dose of 0.4-0.5 mg/kg in a 20-30 minute bolus led to dissolution of the clot. One patient received a three hour infusion after the bolus, at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg/h, with resolution of the thrombus. No systemic effects were observed after rt-PA infusion.
CONCLUSIONS—Early thrombosis may occur as a complication of umbilical catheterisation in preterm infants; early echocardiographic detection of this disorder allows complete, safe, and rapid lysis with rt-PA.

 PMID:11420328

  14. Factors predicting intracerebral hemorrhage of patients treated with intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator

    The use of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) was approved in Japan in October 2005, and has had a marked effect on the treatment of patients presenting with acute ischemic stroke. Since the administration of rt-PA might cause intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and a poor prognosis, it is necessary to identify predictors of ICH after treatment with rt-PA. In this article, we examined 58 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke treated with intravenous rt-PA within 3 hours of symptom onset for 45 months, March 2006 to November 2009. In principle, we evaluated patients before and one day after rt-PA with MRI. We made a retrospective comparison of 21 patients with hemorrhagic change on CT and MRI T2* within 36 hours and 37 patients without hemorrhagic change. The rate of ICH with or without symptoms was increased with a higher National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) and infarction range, defined by diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) Alberta Stroke Programme Early CT Score (ASPECTS). Major artery occlusion and reperfusion, including partial recanalization in MR angiography (MRA), were taken as factors in the hemorrhage group. In conclusion, DWI ASPECTS and NIHSS were useful predictors of ICH after rt-PA administration. (author)

  15. Dynamic Enhancer Methylation--A Previously Unrecognized Switch for Tissue-Type Plasminogen Activator Expression.

    Mia Magnusson

    Full Text Available Tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA, which is synthesized in the endothelial cells lining the blood vessel walls, is a key player in the fibrinolytic system protecting the circulation against occluding thrombus formation. Although classical gene regulation has been quite extensively studied in order to understand the mechanisms behind t-PA regulation, epigenetics, including DNA methylation, still is a largely unexplored field. The aim of this study was to establish the methylation pattern in the t-PA promoter and enhancer in non-cultured compared to cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs, and to simultaneously examine the level of t-PA gene expression. Bisulphite sequencing was used to evaluate the methylation status, and real-time RT-PCR to determine the gene expression level. While the t-PA promoter was stably unmethylated, we surprisingly observed a rapid reduction in the amount of methylation in the enhancer during cell culturing. This demethylation was in strong negative correlation with a pronounced (by a factor of approximately 25 increase in t-PA gene expression levels. In this study, we show that the methylation level in the t-PA enhancer appears to act as a previously unrecognized switch controlling t-PA expression. Our findings, which suggest that DNA methylation is quite dynamic, have implications also for the interpretation of cell culture experiments in general, as well as in a wider biological context.

  16. Timing of tissue plasminogen activator for acute ischemic stroke: outcomes-based recommendations for practice.

    Hanselman, Carol J

    2014-12-01

    Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is a major cause of death and disability in the United States. Tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) is an intravenously administered therapy that can prevent death and disability for patients presenting within early onset of AIS. There has been a debate around the exact time parameters for administration, because very few patients present to the hospital within the initial 0- to 3-hour window of time. Not all of the current national guidelines for timing of AIS in the United States are in agreement with regards to this issue. To the nurse caring for patients with neurologic illnesses, this topic is of utmost importance. Nurse are not only involved in determining the time of stroke symptom onset, but nurses also hold responsibility for a working knowledge of the latest eligibility and exclusion criteria for t-PA administration. This article examines the central body of research related to the timing of t-PA and makes recommendations for eligible candidates based on this literature. PMID:25365047

  17. Pneumatic Displacement of a Dense Submacular Hemorrhage with or without Tissue Plasminogen Activator

    Po-Min Yang

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: To evaluate the efficacy of treating a dense submacular hemorrhage withpneumatic displacement with or without tissue plasminogen activator (tPA.Methods: Twenty-four patients with a dense submacular hemorrhage were treated withintravitreal expansile gas, with or without an intravitreal injection of tPA, inorder to displace the submacular blood. The main outcome measurementsinclude preoperative and postoperative visual acuity, postoperative fluoresceinangiography (FAG results and additional postoperative treatments.Results: Total or subtotal subfoveal blood displacement was achieved in all 24 eyes.After a mean follow-up of 15.5 months (range 6-50 months, final visualacuity had improved two or more lines in 11 (45.8% of the 24 eyes, andmeasured 20/100 or better in 10 (4l.7% of the 11 eyes. Based on the FAGresults for 14 cases, nine eyes (64.3% received additional postoperativelaser treatment. Final visual acuity of 20/100 or better was achieved in four(40% of the 10 eyes, with a choroidal neovascular membrane (CNVMdetected on FAG, and dye leakage not detected in three (75% of the foureyes.Conclusions: Pneumatic displacement, with or without intravitreal injection of tPA, seemsuseful in displacing dense submacular hemorrhage and facilitating visualimprovement, although the visual result is often limited by the progression ofthe underlying macular disease. In patients with age-related macular degeneration,more treatable CNVM may be detected on postoperative FAG.

  18. Neutron activation analysis of the central nervous system tissues in neurological diseases

    As the diseases due to excessive metals in living bodies and the metals of their causes, Minamata disease due to Hg, itai-itai disease due to Cd, dialysis brain disease due to Al, hemochromatosis due to Fe, Wilson disease due to Cu and so on have been known. Also as the neural diseases, in which the possibility that metals take part in them is presumed, there are amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, Parkinsonism dementia and so on. In order to know the causes of the diseases due to excessive metals in living bodies and neurological diseases, the authors have measured Cu, Ca, Al, Mn, Zn and Fe in central nervous system tissues by activation analysis nondestructive method. The cases investigated were 4 cases of hepatocerebral diseases, 6 cases of ALS, 4 cases of Parkinson disease, 4 cases of Parkinsonism dementia, 4 cases of multiple sclerosis and 5 cases without CNS disease for the control. The method of measurement is described. The results for respective diseases are reported. Cu and Fe are in the relation of mirror images, and Cu formed Cu-superoxide dismutase (SOD) similarly to Zn and Mn as SOD carrier metals, and protects living bodies and CNS from oxidative stress. (K.I.)

  19. Tissue distribution of adoptively transferred adherent lymphokine-activated killer cells assessed by different cell labels

    Basse, P; Herberman, R B; Hokland, M;

    1992-01-01

    alternative direct visual methods for identification of the injected cells, such as fluorescent dyes (rhodamine and H33342) or immunohistochemical staining of asialo-GM1-positive cells. The number of i.v. injected A-LAK cells found in the liver by all visual methods ranged from 1% to 5% of the injected dose...... staining of asialo-GM1-positive cells appear to be reliable and essentially equivalent methods for investigations of the fate of adoptively transferred A-LAK cells. Using these methods, we found that only few A-LAK cells redistribute to the liver upon i.v., i.e. systemic, injection, whereas 40%-50% of......Assessment of the tissue distribution of adoptively transferred adherent lymphokine-activated killer A-LAK) cells by use of 51Cr indicated that these effector cells, after an initial phase in the lungs, distributed in high numbers to liver and spleen (30% and 10% of injected dose, respectively...

  20. Cucumarioside A2-2 causes changes in the morphology and proliferative activity in mouse spleen.

    Pislyagin, E A; Manzhulo, I V; Dmitrenok, P S; Aminin, D L

    2016-05-01

    The immunomodulatory effect of triterpene glycoside cucumarioside A2-2 (CA2-2), isolated from the Far Eastern sea cucumber Cucumaria japonica, on the mouse spleen was investigated in comparison with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). It has been shown that the intraperitoneal (i.p.) glycoside administration did not influence on splenic weights, while the statistically significant increase in splenic weight was observed after LPS administration. Changes in the ratio of red to white pulp after CA2-2 or LPS administration were observed. The proportion of splenic white pulp after glycoside or LPS administration increased by up to 34% and 36%, respectively. A detailed study of the distribution of the РСNA (Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen) marker showed that the proliferative activity in the white pulp under CA2-2 and LPS influence increased 2.07 and 2.24 times, respectively. The localization of PCNA-positive nuclei in the white pulp region, as well as their dimensional characteristics, suggests that a large proportion of the proliferating cell population consisted of B cells. The mass spectrometry profiles of spleen peptide/protein homogenate were obtained using the MALDI-TOF-MS (Matrix -Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry) approach. It was found that i.p. stimulation of animals with CA2-2 or LPS leads to marked changes in the intensity of revealed characteristic peaks of peptides/proteins after exposure to immunostimulants. PMID:27079859

  1. Invisible Active Galactic Nuclei. II Radio Morphologies & Five New HI 21 cm Absorption Line Detections

    Yan, Ting; Darling, Jeremy; Momjian, Emmanuel; Sharma, Soniya; Kanekar, Nissim

    2015-01-01

    We have selected a sample of 80 candidates for obscured radio-loud active galactic nuclei and presented their basic optical/near-infrared (NIR) properties in Paper 1. In this paper, we present both high-resolution radio continuum images for all of these sources and HI 21cm absorption spectroscopy for a few selected sources in this sample. A-configuration 4.9 and 8.5 GHz VLA continuum observations find that 52 sources are compact or have substantial compact components with size 0.1 Jy at 4.9 GHz. The most compact 36 sources were then observed with the VLBA at 1.4 GHz. One definite and 10 candidate Compact Symmetric Objects (CSOs) are newly identified, a detection rate of CSOs ~3 times higher than the detection rate previously found in purely flux-limited samples. Based on possessing compact components with high flux densities, 60 of these sources are good candidates for absorption-line searches. Twenty seven sources were observed for HI 21cm absorption at their photometric or spectroscopic redshifts with only ...

  2. The hemocytes of Polyandrocarpa mysakiensis: morphology and immune-related activities

    L Ballarin

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary study of the hemocytes of developing buds of the compound ascidian Polyandrocarpa misakiensis was carried out at the light microscope level for a better understanding of their biological role. Similarly to other ascidians, P. misakiensis immunocytes are represented by phagocytes and morula cells. Phagocytes include hyaline amoebocytes and round, giant phagocytes, the former the probable precursors of the latter. Hyaline amoebocytes showed high macropinocytotic activity in the presence of bacteria, whereas yeast cells were ingested by phagocytosis. Morula cells contain the enzyme phenoloxidase inside their vacuoles, probably stored as pro-enzyme, which is released upon the recognition of non-self. Together with macrogranular leukocytes, morula cells were the most abundant hemocyte-types which stresses the importance of these cells in Polyandrocarpa biology. Macrogranular leukocytes are frequently found inside the vacuoles of phagocytes and were recognized by a polyclonal antibody raised against an opsonin purified from the colonial ascidian Botryllus schlosseri, which suggests that a similar lectin can be involved in the interaction between these cells and phagocytes.

  3. Nuclear factor-κB p65 (RelA) transcription factor is constitutively activated in human colorectal carcinoma tissue

    Liang-Liang Yu; Hong-Gang Yu; Jie-Ping Yu; He-Sheng Luo; Xi-Ming Xu; Jun-Hua Li

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Activation of transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) has been shown to play a role in cell proliferation,apoptosis, cytokine production, and oncogenesis. The purpose of this study was to determine whether NF-κB was constitutively activated in human colorectal tumor tissues and, if so, to determine the role of NF-κB in colorectal tumorigenesis, and furthermore, to determine the association of RelA expression with tumor cell apoptosis and the expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL.METHODS: Paraffin sections of normal epithelial, adenomatous and adenocarcinoma tissues were analysed immunohistochemically for expression of RelA, Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL proteins.Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) was used to confirm the increased nuclear translocation of RelA in colorectal tumor tissues. The mRNA expressions of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL were determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. Apoptotic cells were detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate fluorescence nick end labeling (TUNEL) method.RESULTS: The activity of NF-κB was significantly higher in adenocarcinoma tissue in comparison with that in adenomatous and normal epithelial tissues. The apoptotic index (AI)significantly decreased in the transition from adenoma to adenocarcinoma. Meanwhile, the expressions of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL protein and their mRNAs were significantly higher in adenocarcinoma tissues than that in adenomatous and normal epithelial tissues.CONCLUSION: NF-κB may inhibit apoptosis via enhancing the expression of the apoptosis genes Bcl-2 and BCl-xL. And the increased expression of RelA/nuclear factor-κB plays an important rote in the pathogenesis of colorectal carcinoma.

  4. Parathyroid imaging with thallium-201, activity in parathyroid and other tissue removed surgically

    Parathyroid imaging by the T1-201 thallous chloride and Tc-99m pertechnetate subtraction technique is moderately successful, but its sensitivity is limited by the difficulty in correctly localizing small parathyroid lesions, particularly those of less than 0.5 g. In a series of 35 patients operated upon for primary or secondary hyperparathyroidism, only one parathyroid lesion out of ten less than 0.5 g was correctly localized, while twenty-nine out of thirty-five over 0.5 g were correctly localized. In order to quantify further the limitations of the test, percentage uptake of Tl-201 in parathyroid lesions has been estimated. Doses of 3.7 MBq (100 μCi) T1-201 were injected intravenously in 7 patients when the thyroid was exposed at operation before dissection or compromise of the blood supply occurred. Subsequently weighed and histologically confirmed samples of parathyroid, thyroid and skeletal muscle were counted against a standard in a well counter. Samples had been removed at times from 5 to 180 minutes after the injection of T1-201. Parathyroid activity varied from 0.011-0.033%/g (mean 0.018%/g), thyroid from 0.004-0.014%/g (mean 0.009%/g) and skeletal muscle from 0.001-0.004%/g. Activity in the tissues sampled tended to decrease with time after injection. The findings suggest that a parathyroid uptake of some 0.01% of the imaging dose (74 MBq, 2 mCi) defines approximately the lower limit for correct localization by current methods using T1-201

  5. Relationship of angiogenic and apoptotic activities in soft-tissue sarcoma

    Thin Thin Win

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Angiogenesis and apoptosis play an essential role in tumor development and progression. Previous studies on apoptosis and angiogenesis of soft-tissue sarcoma (STS were done separately. This is the first study of the relationship between apoptotic and angiogenic activity. Correlation of expression of anti-apoptotic protein (Bcl-2 and pro-apoptotic protein (Bax in the tumor cells (TCs with their expression in endothelial cell (EC of the tumor blood vessels in STS were also carried out. Materials and Methods: 101 cases of STS; consisting liposarcoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma, synovial sarcoma, fibrosarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor; were collected and immunohistochemical reaction of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, Bcl-2 and Bax were examined. Results: Higher Bax expression in TCs (54.5% was seen compared to Bcl-2 expression (44.6%. There was a significant association between Bcl-2 and Bax in TCs with ECs. Significant association was also seen between histological types of STS with Bcl-2 expression; however not with Bax expression. There was an association between VEGF and Bax with high VEGF expression and weak Bax expression. However, VEGF expression was not associated with Bcl-2 expression and histological types. Conclusion: This study supports the role of ECs of tumor blood vessels and apoptosis of TCs in tumor management. Increased angiogenesis may inhibit apoptosis of TCs and lead to tumor growth. Therefore, inhibition of ECs survival or activation of ECs death is promising prospect for tumor therapy. Immunohistochemical antibodies in this study might be potential useful marker for the prognosis of STS.

  6. Smashing Tissue Extraction and GC Analysis of Active Fatty Acids from Oil Cake of Perilla Seeds

    SUN Yan-ling; LIU Yan-ze; XIAO Han; WEI Ying-feng; ZHAO Yu-qing

    2011-01-01

    Objective To optimize the extraction technology of perilla seeds oil from the oil cake of perilla seeds (OCPS) by using the contents of active fatty acids as evaluation standard. Methods The fatty acids were extracted from OCPS,the residue of perilla seeds after cold-press, by smashing tissue extraction (STE), the new technology selected through comparing with classical leaching extraction (LE), Soxhlet extraction (SE), ultrasonic extraction (UE), and supercritical-CO2 fluid extraction (SFE). For optimized condition of STE, orthogonal test was designed and completed. The contents of five fatty acids in extracted oil and OCPS were determined by GC. Results The optimized extraction parameters were smashing for 1.5 min under extraction power of 150 W and 1:6 of the material/solvent ratio. The contents of five fatty acids in the oils extracted by five techniques from OCPS and determined by GC were as follows:a-linolenic acid (41.12%-51.81%), linoleic acid (15.38%-16.43%), oleic acid (18.93%-27.28010), stearic acid (2.56%-4.01%), and palmitic acid (7.38%-10.77%). Conclusion The results show that STE is the most efficient technology with the highest yield (LE:0.57%; SE:1.03%; UE:0.61%; SFE:0.8(r; STE:1.17%) and shortest time (LE:720 min; SE:360 min; UE:30 min; SFE:120 min; STE:1.5 min) among five tested extraction technologies. It is fast reported using STE to extract herbal oil enriched with active fatty acids.

  7. Nd:YAG laser irradiation on temporary teeth carious tissue using 12% diamine silver fluoride as a photo-absorber - a morphological study

    Since Nd:YAG laser radiation was first introduced in Dentistry various photo-absorbers were employed with the intent of improving its efficacy when used on dental carious tissue. The purpose of the present study was to analyze the influence of this radiation using Scanning and Optical microscopy over carious tissue of primary teeth using two photo-absorbers. 15 primary human teeth were used and, in each one, 3 cavity preparations were performed. Specimens were then submitted to an in vitro demineralizing environment during 18 days. Two of the cavities of each specimen were laser irradiated using the Nd:YAG laser with 60 mJ of energy per pulse, 10 Hz and average power of 0,6 W. The 12% diamine silver fluoride or the mineral coal were used as photo-absorbers. The third cavity of the specimens was used as a control and received no laser irradiation. Samples were transversally cut and the section analyzed by SEM and OM. Results showed that the 12% diamine silver fluoride is an efficient photo-absorber and, when used it the Nd:YAG laser, leading to melting and resolidification of the carious tissue. It can be concluded that the 12% diammine silver fluoride presents advantages over the mineral coal as a photo absorber when used in primary teeth as it promotes and improves the efficacy of laser irradiation. This substance also works as a barrier on the carie progression in deeper areas such as the infected and necrotic zones. (author)

  8. Estimation of dynamic metabolic activity in micro-tissue cultures from sensor recordings with an FEM model.

    Pfister, Cornelia; Forstmeier, Christian; Biedermann, Johannes; Schermuly, Julia; Demmel, Franz; Wolf, Peter; Kaspers, Bernd; Brischwein, Martin

    2016-05-01

    We estimated the dynamic cell metabolic activity and the distribution of the pH value and oxygen concentration in tissue samples cultured in vitro by using real-time sensor records and a numerical simulation of the underlying reaction-diffusion processes. As an experimental tissue model, we used chicken spleen slices. A finite element method model representing the biochemical processes and including the relevant sensor data was set up. By fitting the calculated results to the measured data, we derived the spatiotemporal values of the pH value, the oxygen concentration and the absolute metabolic activity (extracellular acidification and oxygen uptake rate) of the samples. Notably, the location of the samples in relation to the sensors has a great influence on the detectable metabolic rates. The long-term vitality of the tissue samples strongly depends on their size. We further discuss the benefits and limitations of the model. PMID:26296800

  9. In vivo human lipolytic activity in preperitoneal and subdivisions of subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue

    Enevoldsen, L H; Simonsen, L; Stallknecht, Bente;

    2001-01-01

    We studied eight normal-weight male subjects to examine whether the lipolytic rate of deep subcutaneous and preperitoneal adipose tissues differs from that of superficial abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue. The lipolytic rates in the superficial anterior and deep posterior subcutaneous abdomin...

  10. Canalicular network morphology is the major determinant of the spatial distribution of mass density in human bone tissue: evidence by means of synchrotron radiation phase-contrast nano-CT.

    Hesse, Bernhard; Varga, Peter; Langer, Max; Pacureanu, Alexandra; Schrof, Susanne; Männicke, Nils; Suhonen, Heikki; Maurer, Peter; Cloetens, Peter; Peyrin, Francoise; Raum, Kay

    2015-02-01

    In bone remodeling, maturation of the newly formed osteonal tissue is associated with a rapid primary increase followed by a slower secondary increase of mineralization. This requires supply and precipitation of mineral into the bone matrix. Mineral delivery can occur only from the extracellular fluid via interfaces such as the Haversian system and the osteocyte pore network. We hypothesized that in mineralization, mineral exchange is achieved by the diffusion of mineral from the lacunar-canalicular network (LCN) to the bone matrix, resulting in a gradual change in tissue mineralization with respect to the distance from the pore-matrix interface. We expected to observe alterations in the mass density distribution with tissue age. We further hypothesized that mineral exchange occurs not only at the lacunar but also at the canalicular boundaries. The aim of this study was, therefore, to investigate the spatial distribution of mass density in the perilacunar and pericanalicular bone matrix and to explore how these densities are influenced by tissue aging. This is achieved by analyzing human jawbone specimens originating from four healthy donors and four treated with high-dosage bisphosphonate using synchrotron radiation phase-contrast nano-CT with a 50-nm voxel size. Our results provide the first experimental evidence that mass density in the direct vicinity of both lacunae (p < 0.001) and canaliculi (p < 0.001) is different from the mean matrix mass density, resulting in gradients with respect to the distance from both pore-matrix interfaces, which diminish with increasing tissue age. Though limited by the sample size, these findings support our hypotheses. Moreover, the density gradients are more pronounced around the lacunae than around the canaliculi, which are explained by geometrical considerations in the LCN morphology. In addition, we speculate that mineral exchange occurs at all interfaces of the LCN, not only in mineralization but also in mineral

  11. Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein-1 Mediates Endocytic Clearance of Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases-1 and Promotes Its Cytokine-Like Activities

    Devy, Jerôme; Etique, Nicolas; Jeanne, Albin; Schneider, Christophe; Hachet, Cathy; Ferracci, Géraldine; David, Marion; Martiny, Laurent; Charpentier, Emmanuelle; Khrestchatisky, Michel; Rivera, Santiago; Dedieu, Stéphane; Emonard, Hervé

    2014-01-01

    Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) regulates the extracellular matrix turnover by inhibiting the proteolytic activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). TIMP-1 also displays MMP-independent activities that influence the behavior of various cell types including neuronal plasticity, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain mostly unknown. The trans-membrane receptor low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP-1) consists of a large extracellular chain with distinct ligand-binding domains that interact with numerous ligands including TIMP-2 and TIMP-3 and a short transmembrane chain with intracellular motifs that allow endocytosis and confer signaling properties to LRP-1. We addressed TIMP-1 interaction with recombinant ligand-binding domains of LRP-1 expressed by CHO cells for endocytosis study, or linked onto sensor chips for surface plasmon resonance analysis. Primary cortical neurons bound and internalized endogenous TIMP-1 through a mechanism mediated by LRP-1. This resulted in inhibition of neurite outgrowth and increased growth cone volume. Using a mutated inactive TIMP-1 variant we showed that TIMP-1 effect on neurone morphology was independent of its MMP inhibitory activity. We conclude that TIMP-1 is a new ligand of LRP-1 and we highlight a new example of its MMP-independent, cytokine-like functions. PMID:25075518

  12. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 mediates endocytic clearance of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 and promotes its cytokine-like activities.

    Jessica Thevenard

    Full Text Available Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1 regulates the extracellular matrix turnover by inhibiting the proteolytic activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs. TIMP-1 also displays MMP-independent activities that influence the behavior of various cell types including neuronal plasticity, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain mostly unknown. The trans-membrane receptor low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP-1 consists of a large extracellular chain with distinct ligand-binding domains that interact with numerous ligands including TIMP-2 and TIMP-3 and a short transmembrane chain with intracellular motifs that allow endocytosis and confer signaling properties to LRP-1. We addressed TIMP-1 interaction with recombinant ligand-binding domains of LRP-1 expressed by CHO cells for endocytosis study, or linked onto sensor chips for surface plasmon resonance analysis. Primary cortical neurons bound and internalized endogenous TIMP-1 through a mechanism mediated by LRP-1. This resulted in inhibition of neurite outgrowth and increased growth cone volume. Using a mutated inactive TIMP-1 variant we showed that TIMP-1 effect on neurone morphology was independent of its MMP inhibitory activity. We conclude that TIMP-1 is a new ligand of LRP-1 and we highlight a new example of its MMP-independent, cytokine-like functions.

  13. Antimicrobial activity of tissue and associated bacteria from benthic sea anemone Stichodactyla haddoni against microbial pathogens.

    Williams, G Prakash; Babu, S; Ravikumar, S; Kathiresan, K; Prathap, S Arul; Chinnapparaj, S; Marian, M P; Alikhan, S Liakath

    2007-10-01

    Associated bacteria from Stichodactyla haddoni are found maximum in tentacle tissues than the body tissue. There are eight associated bacterial species viz., Alcaligenes sp, Corynebacterium sp, Aeromonas sp, Sporosarcina sp, Renibacterium sp, Camobacterium sp1, Camobacterium sp2 and Salinococcus sp were recorded. The culture extracts from the associated bacterial species showed sensitivity against human bacterial and fungalpathogens. However, the hexane tissue extract of sea anemone showed maximum sensitivity (24 mm dia.) against the fish bacterial pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila than the other chosen pathogens. Comparatively the tissue extracts showed promising antimicrobial sensitivity than the cell free extracts of associated bacteria, and hence, the tissue samples from the sea anemone Stichodactyla haddoni is recommended for further exploration of novel antimicrobial drugs than the associated bacteria. PMID:18405113

  14. Intravenous tissue plasminogen activator in patients with stroke increases the bioavailability of insulin-like growth factor-1

    Wilczak, Nadine; Elting, Jan Willem; Chesik, Daniel; Kema, Ido P.; De Keyser, Jacques

    2006-01-01

    Background and Purpose-Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 has potent neuroprotective properties. We investigated the effects of intravenous administration of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) on serum levels of IGF-1 and IGF-binding protein (IGFBP)-3 in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Methods-

  15. Evaluation of viability and proliferative activity of human urothelial cells cultured onto xenogenic tissue-engineered extracellular matrices.

    Davis, Niall F

    2011-04-01

    To evaluate the viability and proliferative activity of human urothelial cells (HUCs) cultured on tissue-engineered extracellular matrix scaffolds and to assess the potential of extracellular matrixes to support the growth of HUCs in their expected in vivo urine environment.

  16. Effect of oxygen partial pressure on the structure, surface morphology and photo catalytic activity of TiO2 films grown on silicone by PLD

    Effect of oxygen partial pressure on the structure, surface morphology and photocatalytic activity of TiO2 films grown on silicone by PLD. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) films have been deposited on silicone (100) substrate of 248 nm at oxygen pressures of 5 to 90 mTorr and temperature of 500oC. The dependence of crystal structure, surface morphology and photocatalytic activity on oxygen partial pressure has been investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). When the oxygen partial pressure increased from 5 to 20 mTorr, the crystalline phase of the film changed from rutile to anatase and surface morphology became rough. Until the oxygen pressure of 50 mTorr, the formation of the rough surface and the transformation to the anatase phase resulted in a high photacatalytic activity. In this range of oxygen partial pressure, the effect of surface morpology on the photocatalytic activity is significant, However, at oxygen partial pressures over 50 mTorr, the photocatalytic activity was independent of surface morphology. In this range of oxygen pressure, the photocatalytic activity was probably controlled also by the electronic properties of the TiO2 films

  17. Bathysa cuspidata extract modulates the morphological reorganization of the scar tissue and accelerates skin wound healing in rats: a time-dependent study.

    Gonçalves, Reggiani V; Novaes, Rômulo D; Cupertino, Marli C; Araújo, Bruna M; Vilela, Emerson F; Machado, Aline T; Leite, João P V; Matta, Sérgio L P

    2014-01-01

    The technological development of pharmaceutical products based on plant extracts is currently responsible for a large number of recent innovations in healthcare. The objective of this study was to develop and investigate the effect and potential applicability of an ointment-based Bathysa cuspidata extract (BCE) for the management of skin wounds in rats. Three skin wounds of 12 mm in diameter were made on the backs of the animals, which were randomized into 4 groups according to the application received, i.e. the SAL group: 0.9% saline solution, the LAN group: lanolin, the BCE 2.5% group: 2.5% BCE emulsified in lanolin and the BCE 5% group: 5% BCE emulsified in lanolin. The applications were made daily over 21 days, and every 7 days tissue from different wounds was removed. On days 7, 14 and 21, the BCE 2.5% and BCE 5% groups showed the best results in relation to wound closure, and a higher proportion (in length, density and volume) of blood vessels and fibroblasts compared to the other groups. On days 7 and 14, there was a significant increase in the number of mast cells in these 2 groups when compared to the SAL and LAN groups. On day 21, they also had a higher proportion of collagen I than collagen III. B. cuspidata in an ointment base was effective in stimulating tissue cellularity, mast cell recruitment, neoangiogenesis, synthesis and maturation of collagen, epidermal thickness and surface area in scar tissue. These events were potentially related to the best quality and speed for skin regeneration in the rats treated with the BCE ointment. PMID:25300223

  18. Influence of monocytes and antibiotic treatment on tissue factor activity of endocardial vegetations in rabbits infected with Streptococcus sanguis.

    Bancsi, M J; Veltrop, M H; Bertina, R M; Thompson, J

    1996-01-01

    A main feature in the pathogenesis of bacterial endocarditis is the activation of the coagulation system via the extrinsic pathway, resulting in the formation of infected endocardial vegetations. Earlier studies gave indirect evidence that monocytes play an important role in the procoagulant response during the course of the disease. In this study, we assessed the role of monocytes more directly. We compared weights and tissue factor activities (TFA) of endocardial vegetations of normal rabbi...

  19. Protein disulfide isomerase acts as an injury response signal that enhances fibrin generation via tissue factor activation

    Reinhardt, Christoph; von Brühl, Marie-Luise; Manukyan, Davit; Grahl, Lenka; Lorenz, Michael; Altmann, Berid; Dlugai, Silke; Hess, Sonja; Konrad, Ildiko; Orschiedt, Lena; Mackman, Nigel; Ruddock, Lloyd; Massberg, Steffen; Engelmann, Bernd

    2008-01-01

    The activation of initiator protein tissue factor (TF) is likely to be a crucial step in the blood coagulation process, which leads to fibrin formation. The stimuli responsible for inducing TF activation are largely undefined. Here we show that the oxidoreductase protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) directly promotes TF-dependent fibrin production during thrombus formation in vivo. After endothelial denudation of mouse carotid arteries, PDI was released at the injury site from adherent platelets...

  20. Changes in gross beta activity of dental tissue in the Kosice population in the 20th century

    The procedure and results are given of the determination of gross beta activity of the ash of dental tissue of random selected inhabitants of Kosice born in the years 1905 to 1974. The results show that the increase in the beta activity of teeth evident in individuals of the population group born in the years 1945 to 1969 and obviously caused by nuclear weapon tests in the atmosphere, is not so evident in younger age groups. (author)

  1. Does low protein concentration of tissue-type plasminogen activator predict a low risk of spontaneous deep vein thrombosis?

    Gram, J; Sidelmann, Johannes Jakobsen; Jespersen, J

    1995-01-01

    Many reports have demonstrated an abnormal fibrinolysis in a subset of patients with deep vein thrombosis. We have studied systemic global fibrinolytic activity and protein concentrations of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) in plasma of 25...... activity (p < 0.02), and significantly higher protein concentrations of t-PA (p < 0.0001) and PAI-1 (p < 0.0006). We used probit scale plots to identify the consequence of different cut-off points to separate patients from controls. Reasonable separation could be obtained for t-PA with a cut-off point of 5...

  2. Tissue-specific changes of glutamine synthetase activity in oats after rhizosphere infestation by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci. Final report

    Knight, T.J. [Univ. of Southern Maine, Portland, ME (United States); Temple, S.; Sengupta-Gopalan, C. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Curces, NM (United States)] [and others

    1996-05-15

    Oats (Avena sativa L. lodi) tolerant of rhizosphere infestation by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci when challenged by the pathogen experience tissue-specific alterations of ammonia assimilatory capabilities. Altered ammonia assimilatory potentials between root and leaf tissue result from selective inactivation of glutamine synthetase (GS) by the toxin Tabtoxinine-B-lactam (TBL). Root GS is sensitive and leaf GSs are resistant to TBL inactivation. With prolonged challenge by the pathogen root GS activity decreases but leaf GS specific activity increase. Higher leaf GS activity is due to decreased rates of degradation rather than increased GS synthesis. Higher leaf GS activity and elevated levels of GS polypeptide appear to result from a limited interaction between GS and TBL leading to the accumulation of a less active but more stable GS holoenzyme. Tolerant challenged oats besides surviving rhizosphere infestation, experience enhanced growth. A strong correlation exists between leaf GS activity and whole plant fresh weight, suggesting that tissue-specific changes in ammonia assimilatory capability provides the plant a more efficient mechanism for uptake and utilization of nitrogen.

  3. Effect of Excess Iodine on Oxidative Stress Markers, Steroidogenic-Enzyme Activities, Testicular Morphology, and Functions in Adult Male Rats.

    Chakraborty, Arijit; Mandal, Jagadis; Mondal, Chiranjit; Sinha, Sabyasachi; Chandra, Amar K

    2016-08-01

    Improper iodine intake is a major concern in public health. Chronic intake of low iodine affects gonadal functions of man and animals; however, such effects of excess iodine in male reproduction, specially on testicular morphology, testicular steroidogenic enzyme activities, sperm morphology, sperm viability, and sperm count including male hormonal profiles in reference to iodine status and thyroid hormone profiles are yet to be explored. With this background, adult male rats of 120 ± 10 gm Bw of 90 ± 5 days were divided broadly in two groups depending on the duration of the treatment for 30 and 60 days, respectively. Both the groups consisted of control animals. Excess iodine (100EI), i.e., 100 times more than its recommended level but within its tolerable ranges, was administered through gavage regularly to the first group of experimental animals for 30 and 60 days, respectively, and excessive iodine (500EI), i.e., 500 times more than its recommended level and above tolerable range in the same way and for the same durations, was administered to the other group of experimental animals. Overall results revealed that regular consumption of iodine in excess impairs reproductive functions in adult male rats depending on the dose and duration of its exposure through different mechanisms. Excess iodine accumulates in the testis which results in generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as evidenced by higher lipid peroxidation level as well as an imbalance in the pro-/antioxidant status inhibiting the activity of ∆(5) 3β- hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) and 17β-HSD resulting to reduced synthesis of testosterone that causes structural and functional changes of the testis. Secondly, persistent generation of ROS in testis as a result of prolonged excess iodine exposure affects hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis that stimulates synthesis and secretion of corticosterone which inhibits LH release that downregulates testosterone synthesis causing further

  4. In vivo kinetics of [sup 99m]Tc labeled recombinant tissue plasminogen activator in rabbits

    Itoh, Kazuo; Ieko, Masahiro; Hiraguchi, Etsuro; Kitayama, Hide; Tsukamoto, Eriko (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1994-08-01

    Our previous studies demonstrated that [sup 99m]Tc labeled recombinant tissue plasminiogen activator (rt-PA) retained high affinity with fibrin in vitro but showed unexpectedly low uptake in fresh thrombi in vivo. The present study was performed to determine the in vivo kinetics of radiolabeled t-PA in the rabbit. Sequential images and blood samples after the intravenous administration of [sup 99m]Tc labeled rt-PA in thrombus-bearing rabbits were taken. The radioactivity and immunological level of t-PA and PAI-1 in the solution eluted to each fraction by gel permeation chromatography were measured by means of a well scintillation counter and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Most of the radioactivity was eluted in the fraction (Fr.7) of larger molecular weight than that (Fr.9) of intact t-PA. The level of intact rt-PA was increased with a regimen involving the preadministration of cold rt-PA which was followed by the administration of hot rt-PA. The level of PAI-1 in plasma showed an increased rebound 15 minutes after the intravenous injection. These results suggest two possible reasons why rt-PA retains high affinity with fibrin in vitro, once radiolabeled, but was ineffective in delineating fresh thrombi with a gamma camera: (1) some plasma components such as PAI-1 combine with circulating radiolabeled rt-PA and form a larger molecule immediately and/or (2) radiolabeled rt-PA is modulated as a consequence of the radiolabeling and forms a larger molecule than intact rt-PA. (author).

  5. Intravenous Tissue Plasminogen Activator Can Be Safely Given without Complete Blood Count Results Back.

    Yi Dong

    Full Text Available It is well known that the efficacy of intravenous (i.v. tissue plasminogen activator (tPA is time-dependent when used to treat patients with acute ischemic strokes.Our study examines the safety issue of giving IV tPA without complete blood count (CBC resulted.This is a retrospective observational study by examining the database from Huashan Hospital in China and OSF/INI Comprehensive Stroke Center in United States. Patient data collected included demographics, occurrence of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage, door to needle intervals, National Institute of Health Stroke Scale scores on admission, CBC results on admission and follow-up modified Rankin Scale scores. Linear regression and multivariable logistic regression analysis were used to identify factors that would have an impact on door-to-needle intervals.Our study included 120 patients from Huashan Hospital and 123 patients from INI. Among them, 36 in Huashan Hospital and 51 in INI received i.v. tPA prior to their CBC resulted. Normal platelet count was found in 98.8% patients after tPA was given. One patient had thrombocytopenia but no hemorrhagic event. A significantly shorter door to needle interval (DTN was found in the group without CBC resulted. There was also a difference in treatment interval between the two hospitals. Door to needle intervals had a strong correlation to onset to treatment intervals and NIHSS scores on admission.In patients presented with acute ischemic stroke, the risk of developing hemorrhagic event is low if i.v. tPA is given before CBC has resulted. The door to needle intervals can be significantly reduced.

  6. Tissue factor/FVIIa activates Bcl-2 and prevents doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in neuroblastoma cells

    Tissue factor (TF) is a transmembrane protein that acts as a receptor for activated coagulation factor VII (FVIIa), initiating the coagulation cascade. Recent studies demonstrate that expression of tumor-derived TF also mediates intracellular signaling relevant to tumor growth and apoptosis. Our present study investigates the possible mechanism by which the interaction between TF and FVIIa regulates chemotherapy resistance in neuroblastoma cell lines. Gene and siRNA transfection was used to enforce TF expression in a TF-negative neuroblastoma cell line and to silence endogenous TF expression in a TF-overexpressing neuroblastoma line, respectively. The expression of TF, Bcl-2, STAT5, and Akt as well as the phosphorylation of STAT5 and Akt in gene transfected cells or cells treated with JAK inhibitor and LY294002 were determined by Western blot assay. Tumor cell growth was determined by a clonogenic assay. Cytotoxic and apoptotic effect of doxorubicin on neuroblastoma cell lines was analyzed by WST assay and annexin-V staining (by flow cytometry) respectively. Enforced expression of TF in a TF-negative neuroblastoma cell line in the presence of FVIIa induced upregulation of Bcl-2, leading to resistance to doxorubicin. Conversely, inhibition of endogenous TF expression in a TF-overexpressing neuroblastoma cell line using siRNA resulted in down-regulation of Bcl-2 and sensitization to doxorubicin-induced apoptosis. Additionally, neuroblastoma cells expressing high levels of either endogenous or transfected TF treated with FVIIa readily phosphorylated STAT5 and Akt. Using selective pharmacologic inhibitors, we demonstrated that JAK inhibitor I, but not the PI3K inhibitor LY294002, blocked the TF/FVIIa-induced upregulation of Bcl-2. This study shows that in neuroblastoma cell lines overexpressed TF ligated with FVIIa produced upregulation of Bcl-2 expression through the JAK/STAT5 signaling pathway, resulting in resistance to apoptosis. We surmise that this TF

  7. Facile synthesis and photocatalytic activity of monoclinic BiVO4 micro/nanostructures with controllable morphologies

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► BiVO4 micro/nanostructures have been synthesized by a facile solvothermal method. ► The shapes of BiVO4 micro/nanostructures can be controlled by tuning the synthetic parameters. ► BiVO4 nanorods with rectangular cross sections exhibit improved photocatalytic activities. -- Abstract: Monoclinic BiVO4 (m-BiVO4) micro/nanostructures, such as nanorods, nanofibers, bundle-like nanostructures, and porous submicrometer-sized rods, have been successfully synthesized by a facile solvothermal method in an ethylene glycol–water–sodium oleate system. The morphologies and sizes of m-BiVO4 micro/nanostructures can be controlled by adjusting the synthetic parameters, such as the concentrations of sodium oleate and reaction time. Among them, the synthesized m-BiVO4 nanorods have rectangular cross sections, and can grow along the [0 0 1] direction, and are enclosed by well-defined facets, such as (0 0 2), (2 4 0), and (2¯10), which are distinct from that with circular cross sections. A crystallization-cleavage-disassembly process has been proposed for the formation of m-BiVO4 nanorods with rectangular cross sections. The photocatalytic activity of m-BiVO4 nanostructures is affected greatly by the sizes and shapes of m-BiVO4 nanostructures. Photocatalytic measurements show that the m-BiVO4 nanorods with rectangular cross sections exhibit higher photocatalytic activities of Rhodamine B in comparison with m-BiVO4 nanofibers with circular cross-sections and porous submicrometer-sized rods.

  8. Effect of Cereal Type and Enzyme Addition on Performance, Pancreatic Enzyme Activity, Intestinal Microflora and Gut Morphology of Broilers

    Kalantar M

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of grain and carbohydrase enzyme supplementation were investigated on digestive physiology of chickens. A total of 625 one-day-old chicks (Ross 308 were randomly assigned to five treatments in a completely randomized design. Treatments included two different types of grains (wheat, and barley with or without a multi-carbohydrase supplement. A corn-based diet was also considered to serve as a control. Feeding barley-based diet with multi-carbohydrase led to higher feed intake (P < 0.01 than those fed corn- and wheat-based diets. Birds fed on barley and wheat diets had lower weight gain despite a higher feed conversion ratio (P < 0.01. Total count and number of different type of bacteria including Gram-negative, E. coli, and Clostridia increased after feeding wheat and barley but the number of Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria decreased (P < 0.01. Feeding barley and wheat diets reduced villus height in different parts of the small intestine when compared to those fed on a corn diet. However, enzyme supplementation of barley and wheat diets improved weight gain and feed conversion ratio and resulted in reduced number of E. coli and Clostridia and increased number of Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria, and also restored the negative effects on intestinal villi height (P < 0.01. The activities of pancreatic α-amylase and lipase were (P < 0.01 increased in chickens fed wheat and barley diets when compared to the control fed on a corn diet. Enzyme supplementation reduced the activities of pancreatic α-amylase and lipase (P < 0.01. In conclusion, various dietary non-starch polysaccharides without enzyme supplementation have an adverse effect on digesta viscosity, ileal microflora, villi morphology, and pancreatic enzyme activity.

  9. Enhanced the photocatalytic activity of Ni-doped ZnO thin films: Morphological, optical and XPS analysis

    Abdel-wahab, M. Sh.; Jilani, Asim; Yahia, I. S.; Al-Ghamdi, Attieh A.

    2016-06-01

    Pure and Ni-doped ZnO thin films with different concentration of Ni (3.5 wt%, 5 wt%, 7 wt%) were prepared by DC/RF magnetron sputtering technique. The X-rays diffraction pattern showed the polycrystalline nature of pure and Ni-doped ZnO thin films. The surface morphology of pure and Ni doped ZnO thin films were investigated through atomic force microscope, which indicated the increase in the grain dimension and surface roughness with increasing the Ni doping. The UV-Visible transmission spectra showed the decrease in the transmittance of doped ZnO thin films with the incorporation of Ni dopants. The surface and chemical state analysis of pure and Ni doped ZnO thin films were investigated by X-rays photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The photocatalytic activities were evaluated by an aqueous solution of methyl green dye. The tungsten lamp of 500 W was used as a source of visible light for photocatalytic study. The degradation results showed that the Ni-doped ZnO thin films exhibit highly enhanced photocatalytic activity as compared to the pure ZnO thin films. The enhanced photocatalytic activities of Ni-doped ZnO thin films were attributed to the enhanced surface area (surface defects), surface roughness and decreasing the band gap of Ni-doped ZnO thin films. Our work supports the applications of thin film metal oxides in waste water treatment.

  10. Estudo morfológico do tecido hepático de Leporinus macrocephalus = Morphological study of the hepatic tissue of Leporinus macrocephalus

    Maria Terezinha Siqueira Bombonato

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou análise macroscópica e histológica do fígado de Leporinus macrocephalus para avaliar a estrutura do tecido hepático. Os peixes provenientes de um pesqueiro da região de Bauru, Estado de São Paulo, foram anestesiados, mortos, e os fígados foram retirados e encaminhados à rotina histológica, com inclusão em paraplast. A macroscopia mostrou um figado de estrutura homogênea, de coloração marron-avermelhada, localizado na região medial do corpo, caudalmente ao coração e posterior às brânquias, apresentando três lóbos de forma piramidal, sendo um central e dois laterais direito eesquerdo. A análise histológica revelou o tecido hepático constituído por cordões duplos de hepatócitos circundados por sinusóides, denominado de “muralha dupla”. Revelou, ainda, um sistema biliar disperso pelo parênquima hepático mostrando ductos com epitélio cúbicosimples, circundado por fibras musculares e tecido conjuntivo. Células do tecido pancreático exócrino foram observadas, margeando vasos sangüíneos, organizando-se em ácinos apresentando grânulos de zimogênio. Além disso, existem centros melanomacrófagos distribuídos ao longo de todo parênquima, preferencialmente próximos aos vasos sanguíneos, formados por células que acumulam materiais como melanina e lipofucsina, podendo sua presença estar relacionada com o estado nutricional do peixe.The objective of this work was to analyze the liver of Leporinus macrocephalus at the macroscopic and histologic level by evaluating the characteristics of the hepatic tissue. The fishes from a fishery in Bauru, S.P., were collected and sacrificed by destroying the spinalcord; afterwards the collected hepatic tissue was fixed and followed by histological routine. Macroscopic analysis of L. macrocephalus liver showed an organ of homogeneous structure, with red-brown color, located in the medial region of the body, caudal to heart and after the gills. It

  11. Effect of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) on lipolysis and lipoprotein lipase activities in adipose tissue of rats.

    Martinelli, Marcela I; Mocchiutti, Norberto O; Bernal, Claudio A

    2010-09-01

    The di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is an ubiquitous environmental chemical with detrimental health effects. The present work was designed to asses some potential mechanisms by which DEHP causes, among others, a reduced body fat retention. Since this effect could be related to an alteration of adipocyte triacylglycerol (TG) metabolism, we evaluated the effects of dietary DEHP in adipose tissues upon (1) the number and size of fat cells; (2) the basal and stimulated lipolysis and (3) the lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity. Groups of male Wistar rats were fed for 21 days a control diet alone (control group) or the same control diet supplemented with 2% (w/w) of DEHP (DEHP group). The LPL activity of DEHP-fed rats was increased in lumbar and epididymal adipose tissues. These rats had significantly reduced weight in epididymal and lumbar tissues, together with reduced size of epididymal adipocytes. These alterations do not seem to be associated with higher lipid mobility because neither basal lipolysis nor 'in vitro' stimulated lipolysis by noradrenaline (NA) showed to be modified by DEHP. Based on these results, we concluded that the adipose tissue size reduction induced by DEHP intake is not due to changes in lipolysis nor to a decreased LPL activity. More research is needed to achieve a comprehensive understanding of the potential mechanisms by which DEHP causes, among others, a reduced body fat retention. PMID:20144957

  12. TCUP: A Novel hAT Transposon Active in Maize Tissue Culture

    Smith, Alan M; Hansey, Candice N; Kaeppler, Shawn M.

    2012-01-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) are capable of inducing heritable de novo genetic variation. The sequences capable of reactivation, and environmental factors that induce mobilization, remain poorly defined even in well-studied genomes such as maize. We treated maize tissue culture with the demethylating agent 5-aza-2-deoxcytidine and examined long-term tissue culture lines to discover silenced TEs that have the potential to induce heritable genetic variation. Through these screens we have identif...

  13. Dietary Fructose Activates Insulin Signaling and Inflammation in Adipose Tissue: Modulatory Role of Resveratrol

    Mehmet Bilgehan Pektas; Halit Bugra Koca; Gokhan Sadi; Fatma Akar

    2016-01-01

    The effects of high-fructose diet on adipose tissue insulin signaling and inflammatory process have been poorly documented. In this study, we examined the influences of long-term fructose intake and resveratrol supplementation on the expression of genes involved in insulin signaling and the levels of inflammatory cytokines and sex hormones in the white adipose tissues of male and female rats. Consumption of high-fructose diet for 24 weeks increased the expression of genes involved in insulin ...

  14. Filamentous Network Mechanics and Active Contractility Determine Cell and Tissue Shape

    Bischofs, Ilka B.; Klein, Franziska; Lehnert, Dirk; Bastmeyer, Martin; Schwarz, Ulrich S

    2008-01-01

    For both cells and tissues, shape is closely correlated with function presumably via geometry-dependent distribution of tension. In this study, we identify common shape determinants spanning cell and tissue scales. For cells whose sites of adhesion are restricted to small adhesive islands on a micropatterned substrate, shape resembles a sequence of inward-curved circular arcs. The same shape is observed for fibroblast-populated collagen gels that are pinned to a flat substrate. Quantitative i...

  15. Rhodopsin Kinase Activity in the Mammalian Pineal Gland and Other Tissues

    Somers, Robert L.; Klein, David C.

    1984-10-01

    Rhodopsin kinase, an enzyme involved in photochemical transduction in the retina, has been found in the mammalian pineal gland in amounts equal to those in the retina; other tissues had 7 percent of this amount, or less. This finding suggests that, in mammals, rhodopsin kinase functions in the pineal gland and other tissues to phosphorylate rhodopsin-like integral membrane receptors and is thereby involved in signal transduction.

  16. In vivo neutron activation analysis of sodium and chlorine in tumor tissue after fast neutron therapy.

    Auberger, T; Koester, L; Knopf, K; Weissfloch, L

    1996-01-01

    In 12 patients with recurrences and metastases of different primaries (head and neck cancer, breast cancer, malignant melanoma, and osteosarcoma) who were treated with reactor fission neutrons the photon emission of irradiated tissue was measured after each radiotherapy fraction. Spectral analyses of the decay rates resulted in data for the exchange of sodium (Na) and chlorine (Cl) between the irradiated tissue and the body. About 60% of Na and Cl exchanged rapidly with a turnover half-life of 13 +/- 2 min. New defined mass exchange rates for Na and Cl amount to an average of 0.8 mval/min/kg of soft tissue. At the beginning of radiotherapy the turnover of the electrolytes in tissues with large tumor volumes was about twice that in tissues with small tumor volumes. Depending on the dose, neutron therapy led in all cases to variation in the metabolism. A maximum of Cl exchange and a minimum of Na exchange occurred after 10 Gy of neutrons (group of six previously untreated patients) or after 85 Gy (photon equivalent dose) of combined photon-neutron therapy. A significant increase in non-exchangeable fraction of Na from about 40 to 80% was observed in three tumors after a neutron dose of 10 Gy administered in five fractions correlated with a rapid reduction of tissue within 4 weeks after end of therapy. These results demonstrate for the first time the local response of the electrolyte metabolism to radiotherapy. PMID:8949749

  17. Myocardial Iron Loading Assessment by Automatic Left Ventricle Segmentation with Morphological Operations and Geodesic Active Contour on T2* images

    Luo, Yun-Gang; Ko, Jacky Kl; Shi, Lin; Guan, Yuefeng; Li, Linong; Qin, Jing; Heng, Pheng-Ann; Chu, Winnie Cw; Wang, Defeng

    2015-07-01

    Myocardial iron loading thalassemia patients could be identified using T2* magnetic resonance images (MRI). To quantitatively assess cardiac iron loading, we proposed an effective algorithm to segment aligned free induction decay sequential myocardium images based on morphological operations and geodesic active contour (GAC). Nine patients with thalassemia major were recruited (10 male and 16 female) to undergo a thoracic MRI scan in the short axis view. Free induction decay images were registered for T2* mapping. The GAC were utilized to segment aligned MR images with a robust initialization. Segmented myocardium regions were divided into sectors for a region-based quantification of cardiac iron loading. Our proposed automatic segmentation approach achieve a true positive rate at 84.6% and false positive rate at 53.8%. The area difference between manual and automatic segmentation was 25.5% after 1000 iterations. Results from T2* analysis indicated that regions with intensity lower than 20 ms were suffered from heavy iron loading in thalassemia major patients. The proposed method benefited from abundant edge information of the free induction decay sequential MRI. Experiment results demonstrated that the proposed method is feasible in myocardium segmentation and was clinically applicable to measure myocardium iron loading.

  18. Study of selected trace elements in cancerous and non-cancerous human breast tissues using neutron activation analysis

    This study was performed to investigate the influence of cancer on selected trace elements among sudanese patients with confirmed breast cancer. Eighty samples of cancerous and normal tissues (total of one hundred and sixty) were obtained from the same breast of the same subject from different hospitals in Khartoum State. Samples were freeze dried and analyzed using neutron activation analysis (NAA). Neutron irradiations were performed at Egypt second research reactor with a maximum thermal flux of 2.37 Χ 1014 n cm-2 s-1. To examine if there was any difference in the concentrations of elements from normal and malignant tissues; Wilcox on signed ranks test was used. It was found that Al, Mn, Mg, Se, Zn, and Cr elements from the malignant tissues are significantly elevated (p0.05). The results obtained have shown consistency with results obtained by some previous studies, however, no data could be found for the elements Mg, Cr, and Sc.(Author)

  19. Adapted Physical Activity Programme and Self-Perception in Obese Adolescents with Intellectual Disability: Between Morphological Awareness and Positive Illusory Bias

    Salaun, Laureline; Reynes, Eric; Berthouze-Aranda, Sophie E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In adolescents with intellectual disability, the management of obesity is a crucial issue, yet also quite complex because of their particular perception of themselves. This study investigated the relationship between self-perception variables and morphological variables and their changes after a 9-month Adapted Physical Activity (APA)…

  20. Developmental Axon Stretch Stimulates Neuron Growth While Maintaining Normal Electrical Activity, Intracellular Calcium Flux, and Somatic Morphology

    Joseph R Loverde

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Elongation of nerve fibers intuitively occurs throughout mammalian development, and is synchronized with expansion of the growing body. While most tissue systems enlarge through mitosis and differentiation, elongation of nerve fibers is remarkably unique. The emerging paradigm suggests that axons undergo stretch as contiguous tissues enlarge between the proximal and distal segments of spanning nerve fibers. While stretch is distinct from growth, tension is a known stimulus which regulates the growth of axons. Here, we hypothesized that the axon stretch-growth process may be a natural form of injury, whereby regenerative processes fortify elongating axons in order to prevent disconnection. Harnessing the live imaging capability of our axon stretch-growth bioreactors, we assessed neurons both during and following stretch for biomarkers associated with injury. Utilizing whole-cell patch clamp recording, we found no evidence of changes in spontaneous action potential activity or degradation of elicited action potentials during real-time axon stretch at strains of up to 18 % applied over 5 minutes. Unlike traumatic axonal injury, functional calcium imaging of the soma revealed no shifts in free intracellular calcium during axon stretch. Finally, the cross-sectional areas of nuclei and cytoplasms were normal, with no evidence of chromatolysis following week-long stretch-growth limited to the lower of 25 % strain or 3 mm total daily stretch. The neuronal growth cascade coupled to stretch was concluded to be independent of the changes in membrane potential, action potential generation, or calcium flux associated with traumatic injury. While axon stretch-growth is likely to share overlap with regenerative processes, we conclude that developmental stretch is a distinct stimulus from traumatic axon injury.

  1. Altered active zones, vesicle pools, nerve terminal conductivity, and morphology during experimental MuSK myasthenia gravis.

    Vishwendra Patel

    Full Text Available Recent studies demonstrate reduced motor-nerve function during autoimmune muscle-specific tyrosine kinase (MuSK myasthenia gravis (MG. To further understand the basis of motor-nerve dysfunction during MuSK-MG, we immunized female C57/B6 mice with purified rat MuSK ectodomain. Nerve-muscle preparations were dissected and neuromuscular junctions (NMJs studied electrophysiologically, morphologically, and biochemically. While all mice produced antibodies to MuSK, only 40% developed respiratory muscle weakness. In vitro study of respiratory nerve-muscle preparations isolated from these affected mice revealed that 78% of NMJs produced endplate currents (EPCs with significantly reduced quantal content, although potentiation and depression at 50 Hz remained qualitatively normal. EPC and mEPC amplitude variability indicated significantly reduced number of vesicle-release sites (active zones and reduced probability of vesicle release. The readily releasable vesicle pool size and the frequency of large amplitude mEPCs also declined. The remaining NMJs had intermittent (4% or complete (18% failure of neurotransmitter release in response to 50 Hz nerve stimulation, presumably due to blocked action potential entry into the nerve terminal, which may arise from nerve terminal swelling and thinning. Since MuSK-MG-affected muscles do not express the AChR γ subunit, the observed prolongation of EPC decay time was not due to inactivity-induced expression of embryonic acetylcholine receptor, but rather to reduced catalytic activity of acetylcholinesterase. Muscle protein levels of MuSK did not change. These findings provide novel insight into the pathophysiology of autoimmune MuSK-MG.

  2. Effect of high tidal volume ventilation and lipopolysaccharide on mitogen-activated protein kinase in rat lung tissue

    2006-01-01

    @@ Mechanical ventilation, a crucial therapy to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), could exacerbate lung injury, and even result in ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) if misused in some condition1. Over-activating inflammatory cells and expanding inflammatory responses, which are induced by infection, are fundamental reasons for ARDS. Among them, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) intracellular signal transduction pathways are key processes. This study aimed to investigate the time course of MAPK activation in rat lung tissue after high tidal volume (VT) ventilation and the role of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in high-sensitivity, and to elucidate the effect of the pathway on VILI.

  3. Modulation of NR2B-regulated contextual fear in the hippocampus by the tissue plasminogen activator system

    Norris, Erin H.; Strickland, Sidney

    2007-01-01

    Contextual fear conditioning is regulated by the hippocampus, and NR2B, a subunit of the NMDA receptor (NR), is involved in this process. We show that acute stress modulates tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) activity in the hippocampus by inducing expression of its inhibitor, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. Acute stress increases NR2B expression and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, a classical marker of postsynaptic plasticity, in the hippocampus. tPA forms a complex with NR2B and is necessary for...

  4. Fish Manoeuvres and Morphology

    Singh, Kiran; Pedley, Timothy

    2008-11-01

    The extraordinary manoeuvrability observed in many fish is attributed to their inherent flexibility, which might be enhanced by the use of appendages like fins. The aim of this work is to understand the role of morphological adaptations, such as body shape and deployment of median fins, on manoeuvrability and internal body dynamics. The 3d vortex lattice numerical method was employed to analyse the hydrodynamics for arbitrary body planforms of infinitesimal thickness. The internal structure of the body due to the combined skeletal system and soft tissue, is represented as an active Euler-Bernoulli beam, in which the time-dependent bending moment distribution is calculated from body inertia and the hydrodynamic pressure difference across the body. C-turns are the manoeuvre of choice for this work and the response for three different species of fish are examined. Angelfish(Pterophyllum eimekei), pike (Esox sp) and tuna (Thunnus albacares) were chosen for their differences in body profile, median fin use and manoeuvrability. Net direction change and bending moment response to prescribed backbone flexure are calculated and used to interpret the influence of body profile on manoeuvrability and muscle work done. Internal stresses may be computed from anatomical data on muscle fibre distribution and recruitment. To the future, it is intended to extend this work to other typical manoeuvres, such as fast starts for which muscle activation patterns have been measured quite widely.

  5. Mean transit times and the sites of synthesis and catabolism of tissue plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 in young subjects

    Jørgensen, M; Petersen, K R; Vinberg, N; Jespersen, J; Gram, J; Tønnesen, K H

    2001-01-01

    .8 min. No net extraction of PAI-1 antigen took place in the splanchnic circulation. In conclusion, we demonstrated that active t-PA and t-PA antigen are catabolized and active PAI-1 produced in the splanchnic circulation in young healthy subjects during steady state. Furthermore, our data show that......Using an invasive technique, we studied the mean transit time, the net quantitative turnover rate, and the sites of synthesis and catabolism of tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) in healthy young volunteers in the fasting, steady state. Blood was...

  6. 1. Improving Strawberry Through Gamma Irradiation and Tissue Culture; 2. Characterization of some Induced Mutants in the M1V2 Generation of Irradiated Population Derived Tissue Culture Using Morphological and Genetic Markers

    The plantlets obtained from multiplicated meristems of strawberry variety chandleron the MS medium provided with 15μM 2ip in vitro were irradiated with gamma ray doses of 0 (control) and 55 gray (mutational dose). The survived plantlets were multiplied by subculturing 4 times on the same medium. The plantlets of M1V2 generation were cultured on the rooting medium (MS + 2μM IBA). After root formation, they were transferred to pots in the greenhouse to be acclimatized. When the plantlets become healthy, they were transferred to the open field. Results indicated that irradiated population showed a significant increase in total soluble solids content, anthocyanin content, number of fruits/plant and fruit weight /plant in comparison with un-irradiated control. However, no significant difference was obtained between the irradiated population and the control for other studied traits. Five different morphological variants were selected in the M1V2 generation. These were characterized by multirunner, monofoliate leaves, long flower peduncle, fruit of spherical shape and late flowering. Concerning the fractionated protein in the SDS-PAGE gels in the induced mutants, results indicated that bands 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 9, 12 and 14 did not appear in control plants. The densities in bands 1, 8 and 13 were higher in the control plants than those of the mutants. The lowest similarity index was recorded between the round fruit and the late flowering plants (0.588). (Authors)

  7. Tissue factor/FVIIa activates Bcl-2 and prevents doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in neuroblastoma cells

    Alvarado Carlos S

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tissue factor (TF is a transmembrane protein that acts as a receptor for activated coagulation factor VII (FVIIa, initiating the coagulation cascade. Recent studies demonstrate that expression of tumor-derived TF also mediates intracellular signaling relevant to tumor growth and apoptosis. Our present study investigates the possible mechanism by which the interaction between TF and FVIIa regulates chemotherapy resistance in neuroblastoma cell lines. Methods Gene and siRNA transfection was used to enforce TF expression in a TF-negative neuroblastoma cell line and to silence endogenous TF expression in a TF-overexpressing neuroblastoma line, respectively. The expression of TF, Bcl-2, STAT5, and Akt as well as the phosphorylation of STAT5 and Akt in gene transfected cells or cells treated with JAK inhibitor and LY294002 were determined by Western blot assay. Tumor cell growth was determined by a clonogenic assay. Cytotoxic and apoptotic effect of doxorubicin on neuroblastoma cell lines was analyzed by WST assay and annexin-V staining (by flow cytometry respectively. Results Enforced expression of TF in a TF-negative neuroblastoma cell line in the presence of FVIIa induced upregulation of Bcl-2, leading to resistance to doxorubicin. Conversely, inhibition of endogenous TF expression in a TF-overexpressing neuroblastoma cell line using siRNA resulted in down-regulation of Bcl-2 and sensitization to doxorubicin-induced apoptosis. Additionally, neuroblastoma cells expressing high levels of either endogenous or transfected TF treated with FVIIa readily phosphorylated STAT5 and Akt. Using selective pharmacologic inhibitors, we demonstrated that JAK inhibitor I, but not the PI3K inhibitor LY294002, blocked the TF/FVIIa-induced upregulation of Bcl-2. Conclusion This study shows that in neuroblastoma cell lines overexpressed TF ligated with FVIIa produced upregulation of Bcl-2 expression through the JAK/STAT5 signaling pathway, resulting

  8. Thrombolysis by intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA). Current status and future direction

    In Japan, the intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) Alteplase (0.6 mg/kg) administration of the within 3 h of the onset of acute ischemic stroke was approved for therapeutic use in the year 2006. t-PA induces thrombolysis in patients with acute ischemic stroke, and this method has gradually gained recognition among physicians and the general population. However, the number of patients who were treated using Alteplase is low (4,000-5,000 patients/year), and this figure accounts for only 2-3% of the annual number of cases of ischemic stroke. There is little doubt that Alteplase treatment is a potentially effective modality for some patients with acute ischemic stroke. The post-marketing surveillance of 4,749 Japanese patients treated using Alteplase showed that 33% of the patients had modified Rankin scale (mRS) scores of 0-1, 17% of patients died and 4.5% presented with symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH); these results were comparable to those from other countries. The expansion of the therapeutic time window has been a matter of concern. The investigators of the European Cooperative Acute Stroke Study (ECASS) have reported that there was significant improvement in the clinical outcomes of patients with acute ischemie stroke when Alteplase was administered 3-4.5 h after the onset of the symptoms. Mismatches in perfusion- and diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images have been used for selecting patients 3 h after the onset of symptoms, and the findings from MRI, dwimages (DWI) and MR angiography are practical predictors of t-PA therapy within 3 h of onset. The Middle Cerebral Artery Embolism Local Fibrinolytic Intervention Trial (MELT) Japan study showed that local intra-arterial fibrinolysis is effective in patients with embolic MCA occlusion within 6 h of the onset of symptoms. Combining the initiation of intravenous t-PA administration with further intra-arterial fibrinolysis or mechanical thrombolectomy may improve the

  9. ACTIVATION MECHANISMS OF GUT-ASSOCIATED LYMPHOID TISSUE UNDER CHRONIC SOCIAL STRESS CONDITIONS

    A. M. Kamyshnyi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress-induced immune disregulation is a risk factor of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, but, so far, the mechanisms for this effect are not fully known. Expression levels of specific mRNAs were assessed in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT from Wistar rats subjected to chronic social stress (CSS. Gene expression was evaluated for NR3C1, Adrβ2, as well as IL-1β, IL-17α pro-inflammatory cytokines, and Nlrp, an inflammasome gene. Under the CSS conditions, we have shown altered distribution of RORγt +, FoxP3+, LMP2+, XBP1+ lymphocytes in GALT.The experiments were carried out with female Wistar rats aged 5–6 months. Specific mRNA expression for the target genes was determined by means of real-time PCR performed in a CFX96™ thermocycler («BioRadLaboratories, Inc»,USA. Relative levels of a target gene expression were quantified by the ΔΔCt method, being compared with rat GAPDH reference gene expression. Statistical analysis was performed with available «BioRad СFX Manager 3.1» software. Specific monoclonal rat antibodes were used for detection of immunopositive lymphocytes by means of indirect immunofluorescence technique.CSS development leads to decreased levels of mRNA expression for Nr3c1 and Adrβ2-genes in the GALT cells, being accompanied with unidirectional changes, i.e., increased transcription of pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNAs (IL-1β, IL-17α and Nlrp3-inflammasome genes. These changes are accompanied by decreased FoxP3+/RORγt + cell ratio and predominant Th17 differentiation accompanied by suppressor failure. In addition, CSS development was characterized by unidirectional tendency for increasing total number of LMP2+ lymphocytes and reduced ХВР1+ cell population density in lymphoid structures of rat ileum.The events observed in GALT cell populations under CSS conditions are opposing classical paradigm of the stress response. The CSS-associated effects do not promote immunosuppression, however, are able to cause

  10. AMPK Activation by Metformin Suppresses Abnormal Extracellular Matrix Remodeling in Adipose Tissue and Ameliorates Insulin Resistance in Obesity.

    Luo, Ting; Nocon, Allison; Fry, Jessica; Sherban, Alex; Rui, Xianliang; Jiang, Bingbing; Xu, X Julia; Han, Jingyan; Yan, Yun; Yang, Qin; Li, Qifu; Zang, Mengwei

    2016-08-01

    Fibrosis is emerging as a hallmark of metabolically dysregulated white adipose tissue (WAT) in obesity. Although adipose tissue fibrosis impairs adipocyte plasticity, little is known about how aberrant extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling of WAT is initiated during the development of obesity. Here we show that treatment with the antidiabetic drug metformin inhibits excessive ECM deposition in WAT of ob/ob mice and mice with diet-induced obesity, as evidenced by decreased collagen deposition surrounding adipocytes and expression of fibrotic genes including the collagen cross-linking regulator LOX Inhibition of interstitial fibrosis by metformin is likely attributable to the activation of AMPK and the suppression of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)/Smad3 signaling, leading to enhanced systemic insulin sensitivity. The ability of metformin to repress TGF-β1-induced fibrogenesis is abolished by the dominant negative AMPK in primary cells from the stromal vascular fraction. TGF-β1-induced insulin resistance is suppressed by AMPK agonists and the constitutively active AMPK in 3T3L1 adipocytes. In omental fat depots of obese humans, interstitial fibrosis is also associated with AMPK inactivation, TGF-β1/Smad3 induction, aberrant ECM production, myofibroblast activation, and adipocyte apoptosis. Collectively, integrated AMPK activation and TGF-β1/Smad3 inhibition may provide a potential therapeutic approach to maintain ECM flexibility and combat chronically uncontrolled adipose tissue expansion in obesity. PMID:27207538

  11. Development and differentiation of adipose tissue

    Ivković-Lazar Tatjana A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction For years adipose tissue has been considered inert, serving only as a depot of energy surplus. However, there have been recent changes, undoubtedly due to advancement of methods for studying the morphology and metabolic activities of adipose tissue (microdialysis and adipose tissue catheterization. In normal-weight subjects, adipose tissue makes 10-12% with males and 15-20% with females. About 80 % of adipose tissue is located under the skin, and the rest envelops the internal organs. With humans there are white and brown adipose tissues, which is predominant with infants and small children. Histologic characteristics From a histological point of view, it is a special form of reticular connective tissue, which contains adipocytes with netlike structure. Human adipose tissue has four types of adrenergic receptors with different topographic dispositions, which manifest different metabolic activity of adipocytes of particular body organs. Changes in adipose tissue are associated with the process of adipocyte differentiation. Critical moments for this process are last months of pregnancy, the first six months of infancy and then puberty. However, the differentiation process may also begin during maturity. Namely, as size of adipocytes can increase to a certain limit, this process can be activated after reaching a 'critical' adipocyte volume. The differentiation process is affected by a number of hormones (insulin, glucagon, corticosteroids, somatotropin (STH, thyroid gland hormones, prolactin, testosterone, but also by some other substances (fatty acids, prostaglandins, liposoluble vitamins, butyrate, aspirin, indomethacin, metylxanthine, etc..

  12. Chandra X-Ray and Hubble Space Telescope Imaging of Optically Selected Kiloparsec-scale Binary Active Galactic Nuclei. II. Host Galaxy Morphology and AGN Activity

    Shangguan, Jinyi; Liu, Xin; Ho, Luis C.; Shen, Yue; Peng, Chien Y.; Greene, Jenny E.; Strauss, Michael A.

    2016-05-01

    Binary active galactic nuclei (AGNs) provide clues to how gas-rich mergers trigger and fuel AGNs and how supermassive black hole (SMBH) pairs evolve in a gas-rich environment. While significant effort has been invested in their identification, the detailed properties of binary AGNs and their host galaxies are still poorly constrained. In a companion paper, we examined the nature of ionizing sources in the double nuclei of four kiloparsec-scale binary AGNs with redshifts between 0.1 and 0.2. Here, we present their host galaxy morphology based on F336W (U-band) and F105W (Y-band) images taken by the Wide Field Camera 3 on board the Hubble Space Telescope. Our targets have double-peaked narrow emission lines and were confirmed to host binary AGNs with follow-up observations. We find that kiloparsec-scale binary AGNs occur in galaxy mergers with diverse morphological types. There are three major mergers with intermediate morphologies and a minor merger with a dominant disk component. We estimate the masses of the SMBHs from their host bulge stellar masses and obtain Eddington ratios for each AGN. Compared with a representative control sample drawn at the same redshift and stellar mass, the AGN luminosities and Eddington ratios of our binary AGNs are similar to those of single AGNs. The U ‑ Y color maps indicate that clumpy star-forming regions could significantly affect the X-ray detection of binary AGNs, e.g., the hardness ratio. Considering the weak X-ray emission in AGNs triggered in merger systems, we suggest that samples of X-ray-selected AGNs may be biased against gas-rich mergers. Based, in part, on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with program number GO 12363.

  13. Protein Synthesis Inhibition Activity by Strawberry Tissue Protein Extracts during Plant Life Cycle and under Biotic and Abiotic Stresses

    Walther Faedi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs, enzymes that are widely distributed in the plant kingdom, inhibit protein synthesis by depurinating rRNA and many other polynucleotidic substrates. Although RIPs show antiviral, antifungal, and insecticidal activities, their biological and physiological roles are not completely understood. Additionally, it has been described that RIP expression is augmented under stressful conditions. In this study, we evaluated protein synthesis inhibition activity in partially purified basic proteins (hereafter referred to as RIP activity from tissue extracts of Fragaria × ananassa (strawberry cultivars with low (Dora and high (Record tolerance to root pathogens and fructification stress. Association between the presence of RIP activity and the crop management (organic or integrated soil, growth stage (quiescence, flowering, and fructification, and exogenous stress (drought were investigated. RIP activity was found in every tissue tested (roots, rhizomes, leaves, buds, flowers, and fruits and under each tested condition. However, significant differences in RIP distribution were observed depending on the soil and growth stage, and an increase in RIP activity was found in the leaves of drought-stressed plants. These results suggest that RIP expression and activity could represent a response mechanism against biotic and abiotic stresses and could be a useful tool in selecting stress-resistant strawberry genotypes.

  14. Role of the autonomic nervous system in activation of human brown adipose tissue: A review of the literature.

    Bahler, L; Molenaars, R J; Verberne, H J; Holleman, F

    2015-12-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is able to convert calories into heat rather than storing them. Therefore, activated BAT could be a potential target in the battle against obesity and type 2 diabetes. This review focuses on the role of the autonomic nervous system in the activation of human BAT. Although the number of studies focusing on BAT in humans is limited, involvement of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) in BAT activation is evident. Metabolic BAT activity can be visualized with (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose, whereas sympathetic activation of BAT can be visualized with nuclear-medicine techniques using different radiopharmaceuticals. Also, interruption of the sympathetic nerves leading to BAT activation diminishes sympathetic stimulation, resulting in reduced metabolic BAT activity. Furthermore, both β- and α-adrenoceptors might be important in the stimulation process of BAT, as pretreatment with propranolol or α-adrenoceptor blockade also diminishes BAT activity. In contrast, high catecholamine levels are known to activate and recruit BAT. There are several interventional studies in which BAT was successfully inhibited, whereas only one interventional study aiming to activate BAT resulted in the intended outcome. Most studies have focused on the SNS for activating BAT, although the parasympathetic nervous system might also be a target of interest. To better define the possible role of BAT in strategies to combat the obesity epidemic, it seems likely that future studies focusing on both histology and imaging are essential for identifying the factors and receptors critical for activation of human BAT. PMID:26404650

  15. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (pal) and peroxidase activity in brown rust infected tissues of pakistani wheat cultivars

    Besides other factors resistance and susceptibility is the outcome of biochemical processes such as activities of defense-related enzymes. So in this study, Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and Peroxidase activity of resistant (Inqilab-91) and susceptible (Kirin-95) wheat cultivars were determined through spectrophotometer to address the biochemical aspect related to the disease after 8 hours, 24 hours, 48 hours and 72 hours of leaf rust inoculation. The results have shown that these enzymes were present in both the resistant and susceptible cultivars but the activity was more pronounced in the resistant one. The effect of PAL and peroxidase activity was also investigated among inoculated and uninoculated plants within the same cultivar. The activity of both PAL and peroxidase were more significant in inoculated ones. The results have shown that the after 72 hours of inoculation Inqilab-91 had more PAL activity i.e., 5.47 IU/ml/min than in Kirin-95 i.e., 2.08 IU/ml/min at 270 nm. While peroxidase activity in Inqilab-91 was 6.41 IU/ml/min and in Kirin-95, 3.66 IU/ml/min after 72 hours of inoculation, observed under 470 nm wavelength. Increase in one's activity increases the other enzyme's activity. The activity was more prominent after 72 hours of infection as pathogen had successfully established itself in the host plant tissue. The activities of these enzymes act as plants active defense mechanism against the attack of pathogen. (author)

  16. Type 1 iodothyronine deiodinase activity and mRNA expression in rat thyroid tissue with different iodine intakes

    WANG Kun; SUN Yi-na; LIU Jia-yu; YAN Yu-qin; CHEN Zu-pei

    2006-01-01

    Background Type 1 deiodinase (D1) plays an important role in the metabolism of thyroid hormone and has close relationship with thyroid function. In this study we explore the effects of iodine intake on D1 activity and its mRNA expression and its possible mechanism.Methods Forty-eight Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups with 8 in each: low iodine (LI), normal iodine (NI), five-fold iodine (HI5), ten-fold iodine (HI10), fifty-fold iodine (HI50), one hundred-fold iodine (HI100)group. Three months, six months and twelve months after admistration of potassium iodate, they were sacrificed and thyroids were excised. The expression of D1 mRNA in the thyroid tissue was determined by RT-PCR and D1 activity was analyzed by 125I-rT3 as substrate. The thyroid hormone was measured with radioimmunoassay method.Results Compared with NI group, D1 mRNA expression in LI groups slightly decreased, and D1 activity greatly increased. Both T3 and T4 in thyroid tissue significantly decreased, but the T3/T4 ratio increased. D1 mRNA expression decreased in all HI groups, and D1 activity was significantly lower in HI groups. There was a tendency of decrease in D 1 activity with increased doses of iodine intakes. There was no significant difference in T4 in thyroid tissue between HI groups and NI group, but a tendency of decrease in T3 level was found in all HI groups.Conclusions In the case of iodine deficiency, D1 activity increased greatly in order to convert more T4 to T3.Excess iodine can inhibit both D1 mRNA expression and its activity to protect organism from being injured by excessive T3.

  17. Nursing diagnosis activity intolerance and inefficient cardiopulmonary tissue perfusion: evaluation in patients undergoing gene therapy  preview note

    Clarissa Garcia Rodrigues, Maria Antonieta Moraes, Emiliane Nogueira de Souza, Jaquelini Messer Sauer, Andréia Orjana Ribeiro Coutinho, Renato Abdala Karam Kalil

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate and compare the frequency of nursing diagnosis activity intolerance and ineffective cardiopulmonary tissue perfusion in advanced ischemic heart disease patients before and after gene therapy for myocardial revascularization. Methods: cohort study, in which 20 patients developed ischemic heart disease treated with gene therapy are undergoing clinical evaluation of two nurses with experience of minimum three years in cardiology, to identify the presence or absence of the nursing diagnosis activity intolerance and ineffective cardiopulmonary tissue perfusion. These evaluations will be done before gene therapy and three and six months afterwards. The data will be tabulated for later analysis of absolute and relative frequency as well as comparison between the three moments. Will be used for the coefficient of Kappa analysis of agreement between the assessments of nursing. To compare the dichotomous variables will be used for the Cochran Q-test and for ordinal variables will be used the Friedman test.

  18. Rapid modulation of Na+/K+-ATPase activity in osmoregulatory tissues of a salmonid fish

    Tipsmark, Christian Kølbæk; Madsen, Steffen

    2001-01-01

    The effects of cyclic AMP on Na+/K+-ATPase activity were studied in the gill and kidney of the euryhaline brown trout Salmo trutta using two different experimental approaches. In the first series of experiments, in situ Na+/K+-ATPase activity was analyzed by measuring the ouabain-sensitive uptake...... of non-radioactive rubidium (Rb+) into gill cells and blocks of gill and kidney tissue. Rubidium uptake was linear for at least 30 min and was significantly inhibited by 1 mmol x l(-1) ouabain. Several agents presumed to increase the intracellular cyclic AMP concentration inhibited ouabain......-sensitive Rb+ uptake in both gill (0.5 and 2 mmol x l(-1) dibutyryl-cyclic AMP, 1 mmol x l(-1) theophylline, 10 micromol x l(-1) forskolin and 10 micromol x l(-1 )isoproterenol) and kidney (10 micromol x l(-1) forskolin) tissue from freshwater-acclimated fish. In a separate series of experiments, ATP hydrolase...

  19. Optimizing outcomes from ovarian tissue cryopreservation and transplantation; activation versus preservation

    Meirow, Dror; Roness, Hadassa; Kristensen, Stine Gry; Andersen, Claus Yding

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian tissue cryopreservation and transplantation (OTCP) is gaining increasing traction in the field of fertility preservation as a result of accumulated successes. We now have a decade of experience with the technique, with tens of live births and greater than 90% return of ovarian function in...

  20. Autonomous control for mechanically stable navigation of microscale implants in brain tissue to record neural activity.

    Anand, Sindhu; Kumar, Swathy Sampath; Muthuswamy, Jit

    2016-08-01

    Emerging neural prosthetics require precise positional tuning and stable interfaces with single neurons for optimal function over a lifetime. In this study, we report an autonomous control to precisely navigate microscale electrodes in soft, viscoelastic brain tissue without visual feedback. The autonomous control optimizes signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of single neuronal recordings in viscoelastic brain tissue while maintaining quasi-static mechanical stress conditions to improve stability of the implant-tissue interface. Force-displacement curves from microelectrodes in in vivo rodent experiments are used to estimate viscoelastic parameters of the brain. Using a combination of computational models and experiments, we determined an optimal movement for the microelectrodes with bidirectional displacements of 3:2 ratio between forward and backward displacements and a inter-movement interval of 40 s for minimizing mechanical stress in the surrounding brain tissue. A regulator with the above optimal bidirectional motion for the microelectrodes in in vivo experiments resulted in significant reduction in the number of microelectrode movements (0.23 movements/min) and longer periods of stable SNR (53 % of the time) compared to a regulator using a conventional linear, unidirectional microelectrode movement (with 1.48 movements/min and stable SNR 23 % of the time). PMID:27457752