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Sample records for activity predicts responsiveness

  1. Resting lateralized activity predicts the cortical response and appraisal of emotions: an fNIRS study.

    Balconi, Michela; Grippa, Elisabetta; Vanutelli, Maria Elide

    2015-12-01

    This study explored the effect of lateralized left-right resting brain activity on prefrontal cortical responsiveness to emotional cues and on the explicit appraisal (stimulus evaluation) of emotions based on their valence. Indeed subjective responses to different emotional stimuli should be predicted by brain resting activity and should be lateralized and valence-related (positive vs negative valence). A hemodynamic measure was considered (functional near-infrared spectroscopy). Indeed hemodynamic resting activity and brain response to emotional cues were registered when subjects (N = 19) viewed emotional positive vs negative stimuli (IAPS). Lateralized index response during resting state, LI (lateralized index) during emotional processing and self-assessment manikin rating were considered. Regression analysis showed the significant predictive effect of resting activity (more left or right lateralized) on both brain response and appraisal of emotional cues based on stimuli valence. Moreover, significant effects were found as a function of valence (more right response to negative stimuli; more left response to positive stimuli) during emotion processing. Therefore, resting state may be considered a predictive marker of the successive cortical responsiveness to emotions. The significance of resting condition for emotional behavior was discussed. PMID:25862673

  2. Prediction of the antiglycation activity of polysaccharides from Benincasa hispida using a response surface methodology.

    Jiang, Xiang; Kuang, Fei; Kong, Fansheng; Yan, Chunyan

    2016-10-20

    Benincasa hispida is a popular vegetable in China. Our previous experiments suggested that polysaccharides isolated from B. hispida fruits (PBH) have antiglycation effect and DPPH free radical scavenging activity. Ultrasonic treatments can be used to extract polysaccharides from Benincasa hispida (PBH). The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between the ultrasonic treatment conditions and the antiglycation activity of PBH. A mathematical model was generated with an artificial neural network (ANN) toolbox from MATLAB to analyze the effects of ultrasonic treatment conditions on antiglycation activity. The response surface plots showed relationships between ultrasonic extraction conditions and bioactivity. The R(2) value of the model was 0.9919, which suggested good fitness of the neural network. The application of genetic algorithms showed that the optimal ultrasonic extraction conditions resulted in the highest antiglycation activity for PBH. These were 150W, 46°C, and 35min. These conditions produced a predicted antiglycation activity of 41.2%; the actual activity was 40.9% under optimal conditions. This is very close to the predicted value. The experimental data indicated that the PBH possessed both antiglycation and antioxidant activities. The maximum actual value of antiglycation was 101.7% that of the positive control, and the PBH inhibited the DPPH free radicals with an EC50 value of 0.98mg/mL. This is 66.2% that of ascorbic acid. These results explained the observations that B. hispida can decrease glucose levels in diabetic patients. The experimental results also showed that the ANN could be used for optimization and prediction. PMID:27474577

  3. Unsupervised feature learning improves prediction of human brain activity in response to natural images.

    Umut Güçlü

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Encoding and decoding in functional magnetic resonance imaging has recently emerged as an area of research to noninvasively characterize the relationship between stimulus features and human brain activity. To overcome the challenge of formalizing what stimulus features should modulate single voxel responses, we introduce a general approach for making directly testable predictions of single voxel responses to statistically adapted representations of ecologically valid stimuli. These representations are learned from unlabeled data without supervision. Our approach is validated using a parsimonious computational model of (i how early visual cortical representations are adapted to statistical regularities in natural images and (ii how populations of these representations are pooled by single voxels. This computational model is used to predict single voxel responses to natural images and identify natural images from stimulus-evoked multiple voxel responses. We show that statistically adapted low-level sparse and invariant representations of natural images better span the space of early visual cortical representations and can be more effectively exploited in stimulus identification than hand-designed Gabor wavelets. Our results demonstrate the potential of our approach to better probe unknown cortical representations.

  4. Factors Predicting Behavioral Response to a Physical Activity Intervention among Adolescent Females

    Dunton, Genevieve Fridlund; Schneider, Margaret; Cooper, Dan M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether individual factors influenced rates of physical activity change in response to a school-based intervention. Methods: Sedentary adolescent females (N = 63) participated in a 9-month physical activity program. Weekly levels of leisure-time physical activity were reported using an interactive website. Results: Change…

  5. Integrating circadian activity and gene expression profiles to predict chronotoxicity of Drosophila suzukii response to insecticides.

    Hamby, Kelly A; Kwok, Rosanna S; Zalom, Frank G; Chiu, Joanna C

    2013-01-01

    Native to Southeast Asia, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) is a recent invader that infests intact ripe and ripening fruit, leading to significant crop losses in the U.S., Canada, and Europe. Since current D. suzukii management strategies rely heavily on insecticide usage and insecticide detoxification gene expression is under circadian regulation in the closely related Drosophila melanogaster, we set out to determine if integrative analysis of daily activity patterns and detoxification gene expression can predict chronotoxicity of D. suzukii to insecticides. Locomotor assays were performed under conditions that approximate a typical summer or winter day in Watsonville, California, where D. suzukii was first detected in North America. As expected, daily activity patterns of D. suzukii appeared quite different between 'summer' and 'winter' conditions due to differences in photoperiod and temperature. In the 'summer', D. suzukii assumed a more bimodal activity pattern, with maximum activity occurring at dawn and dusk. In the 'winter', activity was unimodal and restricted to the warmest part of the circadian cycle. Expression analysis of six detoxification genes and acute contact bioassays were performed at multiple circadian times, but only in conditions approximating Watsonville summer, the cropping season, when most insecticide applications occur. Five of the genes tested exhibited rhythmic expression, with the majority showing peak expression at dawn (ZT0, 6am). We observed significant differences in the chronotoxicity of D. suzukii towards malathion, with highest susceptibility at ZT0 (6am), corresponding to peak expression of cytochrome P450s that may be involved in bioactivation of malathion. High activity levels were not found to correlate with high insecticide susceptibility as initially hypothesized. Chronobiology and chronotoxicity of D. suzukii provide valuable insights for monitoring and control efforts, because insect activity as well as insecticide timing

  6. Do Cardiovascular Responses to Active and Passive Coping Tasks predict Future Blood Pressure over a 10-Month Later?

    Yuenyongchaiwat, Kornanong; Baker, Ian; Maratos, Frankie; Sheffield, David

    2016-01-01

    The study examined whether cardiovascular responses to active or passive coping tasks and single or multiple tasks predicted changes in resting blood pressure (BP) over a ten-month period. Heart rate (HR), BP, cardiac output (CO), and total peripheral resistance (TPR) were measured at rest, and during mental stress tests (mental arithmetic, speech, and cold pressor tasks). A total of 104 eligible participants participated in the initial study, and 77 (74.04%) normotensive adult participants' resting BP were re-evaluated at ten-month follow-up. Regression analyses indicated that after adjustment for baseline BP, initial age, gender, body mass index, family history of cardiovascular disease, and current cigarette smoking, heighted systolic blood pressure (SBP) and HR responses to an active coping task (mental arithmetic) were associated with increased future SBP (ΔR2 = .060, ΔR2 = .045, respectively). Further, aggregated SBP responsivity (over the three tasks) to the predictor models resulted in significant, but smaller increases in ΔR2 accounting for .040 of the variance of follow-up SBP. These findings suggest that cardiovascular responses to active coping tasks predict future SBP. Further, compared with single tasks, the findings revealed that SBP responses to three tasks were less predictive compared to an individual task (i.e., mental arithmetic). Of importance, hemodynamic reactivity (namely CO and TPR) did not predict future BP suggesting that more general psychophysiological processes (e.g., inflammation, platelet aggregation) may be implicated, or that BP, but not hemodynamic reactivity may be a marker of hypertension. PMID:26972632

  7. Predicting geomagnetic activity indices

    Complete text of publication follows. Magnetically active times, e.g., Kp > 5, are notoriously difficult to predict, precisely the times when such predictions are crucial to the space weather users. Taking advantage of the routinely available solar wind measurements at Lagrangian point (L1) and nowcast Kps, Kp and Dst forecast models based on neural networks were developed with the focus on improving the forecast for active times. To satisfy different needs and operational constraints, three models were developed: (1) a model that inputs nowcast Kp and solar wind parameters and predicts Kp 1 hr ahead; (2) a model with the same input as model 1 and predicts Kp 4 hr ahead; and (3) a model that inputs only solar wind parameters and predicts Kp 1 hr ahead (the exact prediction lead time depends on the solar wind speed and the location of the solar wind monitor.) Extensive evaluations of these models and other major operational Kp forecast models show that, while the new models can predict Kps more accurately for all activities, the most dramatic improvements occur for moderate and active times. Similar Dst models were developed. Information dynamics analysis of Kp, suggests that geospace is more dominated by internal dynamics near solar minimum than near solar maximum, when it is more directly driven by external inputs, namely solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF).

  8. Childhood Poverty Predicts Adult Amygdala and Frontal Activity and Connectivity in Response to Emotional Faces

    Javanbakht, Arash; King, Anthony P.; Evans, Gary W.; Swain, James E.; Angstadt, Michael; Phan, K. Luan; Liberzon, Israel

    2015-01-01

    Childhood poverty negatively impacts physical and mental health in adulthood. Altered brain development in response to social and environmental factors associated with poverty likely contributes to this effect, engendering maladaptive patterns of social attribution and/or elevated physiological stress. In this fMRI study, we examined the association between childhood poverty and neural processing of social signals (i.e., emotional faces) in adulthood. Fifty-two subjects from a longitudinal pr...

  9. Childhood Poverty Predicts Adult Amygdala and Frontal Activity and Connectivity in Response to Emotional Faces

    Arash Javanbakht; Evans, Gary W.; Luan Phan, K.

    2015-01-01

    Childhood poverty negatively impacts physical and mental health in adulthood. Altered brain development in response to social and environmental factors associated with poverty likely contributes to this effect, engendering maladaptive patterns of social attribution and/or elevated physiological stress. In this fMRI study, we examined the association between childhood poverty and neural processing of social signals (i.e., emotional faces) in adulthood. 52 subjects from a longitudinal prospecti...

  10. Childhood Poverty Predicts Adult Amygdala and Frontal Activity and Connectivity in Response to Emotional Faces

    Arash eJavanbakht

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Childhood poverty negatively impacts physical and mental health in adulthood. Altered brain development in response to social and environmental factors associated with poverty likely contributes to this effect, engendering maladaptive patterns of social attribution and/or elevated physiological stress. In this fMRI study, we examined the association between childhood poverty and neural processing of social signals (i.e., emotional faces in adulthood. 52 subjects from a longitudinal prospective study recruited as children, participated in a brain imaging study at 23-25 years of age using the Emotional Faces Assessment Task (EFAT. Childhood poverty, independent of concurrent adult income, was associated with higher amygdala and mPFC responses to threat vs. happy faces. Also, childhood poverty was associated with decreased functional connectivity between left amygdala and mPFC. This study is unique because it prospectively links childhood poverty to emotional processing during adulthood, suggesting a candidate neural mechanism for negative social-emotional bias. Adults who grew up poor appear to be more sensitive to social threat cues and less sensitive to positive social cues.

  11. Integrating Circadian Activity and Gene Expression Profiles to Predict Chronotoxicity of Drosophila suzukii Response to Insecticides

    Hamby, Kelly A.; Kwok, Rosanna S.; Frank G. Zalom; Chiu, Joanna C.

    2013-01-01

    Native to Southeast Asia, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) is a recent invader that infests intact ripe and ripening fruit, leading to significant crop losses in the U.S., Canada, and Europe. Since current D. suzukii management strategies rely heavily on insecticide usage and insecticide detoxification gene expression is under circadian regulation in the closely related Drosophila melanogaster, we set out to determine if integrative analysis of daily activity patterns and detoxification gene ex...

  12. Orbital magnetic resonance imaging combined with clinical activity score can improve the sensitivity of detection of disease activity and prediction of response to immunosuppressive therapy for Graves' ophthalmopathy

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate that the addition of orbital magnetic resonance (MR) imaging can provide improvement in sensitivity of detection of active disease and the prediction of the response to intravenous glucocorticoid therapy (ivGC), over clinical activity score (CAS) alone. A prospective case series was studied at our institution. Forty eight patients were examined by CAS and orbital MR imaging. The maximum of T2 relaxation times of extraocular muscles (maxT2RT) and other parameters were evaluated by MR imaging. Thirty five of 48 patients underwent ivGC. Twenty of 35 patients, whose CAS was 2 points or less, were evaluated for the response to ivGC. The correlation between CAS and maxT2RT was evaluated. Differentiation of active and inactive Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) was performed by CAS and orbital MR imaging. The response to ivGC was evaluated by CAS, orbital MR imaging and ophthalmic parameters. As a result, CAS and maxT2RT showed significant positive correlation (r=0.58, p<0.0001), and 15 patients were positive by CAS and orbital MR imaging. However, 20 patients were positive by only MR imaging. In those 20 patients, there was significant improvement after ivGC. We concluded that orbital MR imaging combined with CAS could improve the sensitivity of detection of active disease and the prediction of the response to ivGC. In addition, even if only one parameter of CAS is positive, further examination with orbital MR imaging is advised. (author)

  13. Frontal responses during learning predict vulnerability to the psychotogenic effects of ketamine - Linking cognition, brain activity, and psychosis

    Corlett, Philip R.; Honey, Garry D.; Aitken, Michael R. F.; Dickinson, Anthony; Shanks, David R.; Absalom, Anthony R.; Lee, Michael; Pomarol-Clotet, Edith; Murray, Graham K.; McKenna, Peter J.; Robbins, Trevor W.; Bullmore, Edward T.; Fletcher, Paul C.

    2006-01-01

    Context: Establishing a neurobiological account of delusion formation that links cognitive processes, brain activity, and symptoms is important to furthering our understanding of psychosis. Objective: To explore a theoretical model of delusion formation that implicates prediction error - dependent a

  14. Expression of Phosphorylated AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Predicts Response to Transarterial Chemoembolization in Postoperative Cases of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Zheng, Long-Yi; Wu, Lu; Lu, Jin; Zou, Da-Jin; Huang, Qin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most prevalent malignancies in the world. Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) was commonly used for HCC patients postoperatively. However, the survival benefits of adjuvant TACE were controversial due to the extensive heterogeneity of HCC. Hence, there is a critical need to explore potential biomarkers that can predict the clinical response to TACE. The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a highly conserved heterotrimeric serine/threonine kinase that plays a central role in linking metabolism and cancer development. In this study, we aimed at evaluating the association of pAMPKα (Thr172) status with clinical outcomes in HCC patients treated with or without postoperative adjuvant TACE. pAMPKα (Thr172) expression was assessed using immunohistochemical analysis in a cohort of 378 Chinese HCC patients who had undergone tumor resection. Kaplan–Meier analysis and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to study the impact on clinical outcomes. High pAMPKα (Thr172) expression was associated with improved disease-free and overall survival and was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival by multivariate analysis. Furthermore, low pAMPKα (Thr172) expression level was correlated with high percentage of OV6+ tumor-initiating cells (T-ICs) in HCC specimens. To our knowledge, it can be demonstrated for the first time that pAMPKα (Thr172) status is associated with response to postoperative adjuvant TACE. High pAMPKα (Thr172) level in HCC may serve as a positive predictor of survival in HCC patients undergoing TACE. PMID:26986101

  15. Utility of the whole-kidney and parenchymal time-activity curves for a prediction of diuretic response

    Full text: In a retrospective study, MAG3 dynamic renal data (90 kidneys in 57 children) have been analyzed with the aim to test a prediction of diuretic response. Whole-kidney (WK) and parenchymal (PA) curves were extracted from 20 min pre-diuretic phase using standard and fuzzy ROIs. Peak time (PT), half time (HT), ratio of the curve value in 20th min to the curve maximum (RM), mean transit time (TT), and output efficiency (OE) were calculated for each curve. With PA curves, also the transit time index (PI) was calculated. The curve parameters were compared with the maximum elimination rate of urine after diuretic (EM) using paired correlation and Fisher's linear discriminate function. The highest correlation was found between ln EM and OE-PA (0.61), RM-PA (-0.58), TT-PA (-0.57), and PI (-0.57). Best diagnostic accuracy in prediction of EM ≤ 7 % (a sign of obstruction) was obtained with OE-PA (87 %), PI (87 %), and both PT-PA and RM-PA (83 %). Parameters of WK curves had higher sensitivity, those of PA curves higher specificity. Most parameters had a high predictive value of negative result (NPV > 90 %) but low predictive value of positive result (PPV < 50 %). Best discrimination of low EM was obtained with a combination of both WK and PA parameters (diagnostic accuracy of 90 %). Using PA curves in kidneys with late PT-WK made possible to increase the diagnostic accuracy from 70 - 80 % (with WK parameters only) to 95 %. Our results demonstrate that PA curves carry additional clinical information and may help to predict and Interpret a diuretic response especially in kidneys with late peak of the WK curves. (author)

  16. A gene expression signature of RAS pathway dependence predicts response to PI3K and RAS pathway inhibitors and expands the population of RAS pathway activated tumors

    Paweletz Cloud

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyperactivation of the Ras signaling pathway is a driver of many cancers, and RAS pathway activation can predict response to targeted therapies. Therefore, optimal methods for measuring Ras pathway activation are critical. The main focus of our work was to develop a gene expression signature that is predictive of RAS pathway dependence. Methods We used the coherent expression of RAS pathway-related genes across multiple datasets to derive a RAS pathway gene expression signature and generate RAS pathway activation scores in pre-clinical cancer models and human tumors. We then related this signature to KRAS mutation status and drug response data in pre-clinical and clinical datasets. Results The RAS signature score is predictive of KRAS mutation status in lung tumors and cell lines with high (> 90% sensitivity but relatively low (50% specificity due to samples that have apparent RAS pathway activation in the absence of a KRAS mutation. In lung and breast cancer cell line panels, the RAS pathway signature score correlates with pMEK and pERK expression, and predicts resistance to AKT inhibition and sensitivity to MEK inhibition within both KRAS mutant and KRAS wild-type groups. The RAS pathway signature is upregulated in breast cancer cell lines that have acquired resistance to AKT inhibition, and is downregulated by inhibition of MEK. In lung cancer cell lines knockdown of KRAS using siRNA demonstrates that the RAS pathway signature is a better measure of dependence on RAS compared to KRAS mutation status. In human tumors, the RAS pathway signature is elevated in ER negative breast tumors and lung adenocarcinomas, and predicts resistance to cetuximab in metastatic colorectal cancer. Conclusions These data demonstrate that the RAS pathway signature is superior to KRAS mutation status for the prediction of dependence on RAS signaling, can predict response to PI3K and RAS pathway inhibitors, and is likely to have the most clinical

  17. A paradigm shift in predicting stormflow responses in an active tectonic region through a similarity analysis of pressure propagation in a hydraulic continuum

    Makoto Tani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil layers on hillslopes acts as systems in quasi-steady states generating rainfall-stormflow responses that are controlled by pressure propagation in a hydraulic continuum established when the rainfall volume is sufficiently large. A similarity analysis for quantifying the sensitivity of the stormflow response and recession limb to topographic and soil properties in a sloping permeable domain showed that the deviation of stormflow responses in the hydraulic continuum decreases due to the macropore effect. The rapid responses seem to be naturally derived from the evolution of the soil layer with the assistance of the vegetation-root system and effective drainage systems in zero-order catchments in active tectonic regions with heavy storms. To predict stormflow responses using distributed runoff models, a paradigm shift to consider this evolution process is needed because the simple stormflow responses and complex and heterogeneous catchment properties are poorly related, but may be mainly determined by soil evolution processes.

  18. Predictable response from MCR operators

    Operating Philosophy in a nuclear power plant is the driving influence that leads to obtaining a predictable response to any operating challenge in the Main Control Room. This means that for any event or abnormal situation in the plant, every operator will take the unit to the required state, every time. This is a must in our industry. This can be achieved by clearly identifying the challenges that face the operating staff. It is essential that a balanced review be done so that there is not over emphasis on any aspect of the operator's ability to respond. The major areas discussed in this presentation are Plant, Procedures and People. Discussion will bring focus to the use of procedures and how to identify good practices that require reinforcement at the simulator, and how to identify potential vulnerabilities. The three overheads will be reviewed to illustrate the systematic approach used at Darlington Nuclear. (author)

  19. Solar regeneration of powdered activated carbon impregnated with visible-light responsive photocatalyst: factors affecting performances and predictive model.

    Yap, Pow-Seng; Lim, Teik-Thye

    2012-06-01

    This study demonstrated a green technique to regenerate spent powdered activated carbon (AC) using solar photocatalysis. The AC was impregnated with a photocatalyst photoexcitable under visible-light irradiation to yield a solar regenerable composite, namely nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide (N-TiO(2)/AC). This composite exhibited bifunctional adsorptive-photocatalytic characteristics. Contaminants of emerging environmental concern, i.e. bisphenol-A (BPA), sulfamethazine (SMZ) and clofibric acid (CFA) which exhibited varying affinities for AC were chosen as target pollutants. The adsorption of BPA and SMZ by the N-TiO(2)/AC was significantly higher than that of CFA. The performance of solar photocatalytic regeneration (SPR) of the spent N-TiO(2)/AC composite generally increased with light intensity, N-TiO(2) loading and temperature. The regeneration efficiency (RE) for CFA-loaded spent composite was the highest compared to the other pollutant-loaded spent composites, achieving 77% within 8h of solar irradiation (765 W m(-2)). The rate-limiting process was pollutant desorption from the interior AC sorption sites. A kinetic model was developed to predict the transient concentration of the sorbate remaining in the spent composite during SPR. Comparison studies using solvent extraction technique indicated a different order of RE for the three pollutants, attributable to their varying solubilities in the aqueous and organic solvents. PMID:22464146

  20. Caregiver Responsiveness to the Family Bereavement Program: What predicts responsiveness? What does responsiveness predict?

    Schoenfelder, Erin N.; Sandler, Irwin N.; Millsap, Roger E.; Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Berkel, Cady; Ayers, Timothy S.

    2013-01-01

    The study developed a multi-dimensional measure to assess participant responsiveness to a preventive intervention, and applied this measure to study how participant baseline characteristics predict responsiveness and how responsiveness predicts program outcomes. The study was conducted with caregivers who participated in the parenting-focused component of the Family Bereavement Program (FBP), a prevention program for families that have experienced parental death. The sample consisted of 89 ca...

  1. Predicting response to epigenetic therapy

    Treppendahl, Marianne B; Sommer Kristensen, Lasse; Grønbæk, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    Drugs targeting the epigenome are new promising cancer treatment modalities; however, not all patients receive the same benefit from these drugs. In contrast to conventional chemotherapy, responses may take several months after the initiation of treatment to occur. Accordingly, identification of ......-approved epigenetic drugs....

  2. Prediction of treatment response to adalimumab

    Krintel, S B; Dehlendorff, C; Hetland, M L;

    2016-01-01

    At least 30% of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) do not respond to biologic agents, which emphasizes the need of predictive biomarkers. We aimed to identify microRNAs (miRNAs) predictive of response to adalimumab in 180 treatment-naïve RA patients enrolled in the OPtimized treatment algori...

  3. Predicting nutrient responses in poultry: future challenges.

    Gous, R M

    2007-02-01

    Predicting the response of poultry to nutrients has progressed to a stage where it is now not only possible to predict voluntary feed intake accurately, but broiler feeds and feeding programmes may now be optimised using the more advanced simulation models. Development of such prediction models has stimulated useful and purposeful research targeted at filling the gaps in our knowledge of critical aspects of the theory incorporated into these models. The aim of this paper was to review some of these past developments, discuss the controversy that exists in designing and interpreting response experiments, and highlight some of the most recent challenges related to the prediction of responses to nutrients by poultry. These latter include differences, brought about by selection for diverse goals, that have become apparent between modern broiler strains in their responses in feed intake and mortality, which are not independent of level of feeding or strain of broiler, as was previously believed. Uniformity, an important quality criterion in broiler processing, is also not independent of level of feeding, and the effect may now be predicted using stochastic models. It is not yet clear whether breast meat yield, the carcass component of broilers yielding the highest returns, is a function of the strain of broiler or simply that of the protein weight of the bird when processed. An important aspect of response prediction is dealing with constraints to performance: whereas it is relatively straightforward to simulate the potential performance of a broiler, such performance is often constrained by the physical, social and infectious environment, among others, providing a challenge to modellers attempting to predict actual performance. Some of these constraints to potential performance have not yet been adequately described, but are now receiving attention, suggesting that nutrient responses in poultry have the potential to be more accurately predicted in the future. PMID

  4. Computational model of the fathead minnow hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis: Incorporating protein synthesis in improving predictability of responses to endocrine active chemicals.

    Breen, Miyuki; Villeneuve, Daniel L; Ankley, Gerald T; Bencic, David; Breen, Michael S; Watanabe, Karen H; Lloyd, Alun L; Conolly, Rory B

    2016-01-01

    There is international concern about chemicals that alter endocrine system function in humans and/or wildlife and subsequently cause adverse effects. We previously developed a mechanistic computational model of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in female fathead minnows exposed to a model aromatase inhibitor, fadrozole (FAD), to predict dose-response and time-course behaviors for apical reproductive endpoints. Initial efforts to develop a computational model describing adaptive responses to endocrine stress providing good fits to empirical plasma 17β-estradiol (E2) data in exposed fish were only partially successful, which suggests that additional regulatory biology processes need to be considered. In this study, we addressed short-comings of the previous model by incorporating additional details concerning CYP19A (aromatase) protein synthesis. Predictions based on the revised model were evaluated using plasma E2 concentrations and ovarian cytochrome P450 (CYP) 19A aromatase mRNA data from two fathead minnow time-course experiments with FAD, as well as from a third 4-day study. The extended model provides better fits to measured E2 time-course concentrations, and the model accurately predicts CYP19A mRNA fold changes and plasma E2 dose-response from the 4-d concentration-response study. This study suggests that aromatase protein synthesis is an important process in the biological system to model the effects of FAD exposure. PMID:26875912

  5. Resting state functional connectivity predicts neurofeedback response

    Dustin Scheinost

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Tailoring treatments to the specific needs and biology of individual patients – personalized medicine – requires delineation of reliable predictors of response. Unfortunately, these have been slow to emerge, especially in neuropsychiatric disorders. We have recently described a real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rt-fMRI neurofeedback protocol that can reduce contamination-related anxiety, a prominent symptom of many cases of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD. Individual response to this intervention is variable. Here we used patterns of brain functional connectivity, as measured by baseline resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI, to predict improvements in contamination anxiety after neurofeedback training. Activity of a region of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC and anterior prefrontal cortex, Brodmann area (BA 10, associated with contamination anxiety in each subject was measured in real time and presented as a neurofeedback signal, permitting subjects to learn to modulate this target brain region. We have previously reported both enhanced OFC/BA 10 control and improved anxiety in a group of subclinically anxious subjects after neurofeedback. Five individuals with contamination-related OCD who underwent the same protocol also showed improved clinical symptomatology. In both groups, these behavioral improvements were strongly correlated with baseline whole-brain connectivity in the OFC/BA 10, computed from rs-fMRI collected several days prior to neurofeedback training. These pilot data suggest that rs-fMRI can be used to identify individuals likely to benefit from rt-fMRI neurofeedback training to control contamination anxiety.

  6. Predicting and measuring fluid responsiveness with echocardiography

    Ashley Miller

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Echocardiography is ideally suited to guide fluid resuscitation in critically ill patients. It can be used to assess fluid responsiveness by looking at the left ventricle, aortic outflow, inferior vena cava and right ventricle. Static measurements and dynamic variables based on heart–lung interactions all combine to predict and measure fluid responsiveness and assess response to intravenous fluid esuscitation. Thorough knowledge of these variables, the physiology behind them and the pitfalls in their use allows the echocardiographer to confidently assess these patients and in combination with clinical judgement manage them appropriately.

  7. How much striving is too much? John Henryism active coping predicts worse daily cortisol responses for African-American but not White female dementia family caregivers

    Merritt, Marcellus M.; McCallum, T. J.; Fritsch, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The John Henryism active coping (JHAC) hypothesis suggests that striving with life challenges predicts increased risk for cardiovascular disease for those with scarce coping resources. This study examined the moderating role of JHAC in the associations of 1) caregiver status and 2) care recipient functional status with diurnal salivary cortisol patterns among 30 African-American (AA) and 24 White female dementia caregivers and 63 noncaregivers (48 AAs).

  8. Predicting unprotected reactor upset response using the maximum likelihood method

    A number of advanced reactor concepts incorporate intrinsic design features that act to safely limit reactor response during upsets. In the integral fast reactor (IFR) concept, for example, metallic fuel is used to provide sufficient negative reactivity feedback to achieve a safe response for a number of unprotected upsets. In reactors such as the IFR that rely on passive features for part of their safety, the licensing of these systems will probably require that they be periodically tested to verify proper operation. Commercial light water plants have similar requirements for active safety systems. The approach to testing considered in this paper involves determining during normal operation the values of key reactor parameters that govern the unprotected reactor response and then using these values to predict upset response. The values are determined using the maximum likelihood method. If the predicted reactor response is within safe limits, then one concludes that the intrinsic safety features are operating correctly

  9. Clinical predictive factors of pathologic tumor response

    Choi, Chi Hwan; Kim, Won Dong; Lee, Sang Jeon; Park, Woo Yoon [Chungbuk National University College of Medicine, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    The aim of this study was to identify clinical predictive factors for tumor response after preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in rectal cancer. The study involved 51 patients who underwent preoperative CRT followed by surgery between January 2005 and February 2012. Radiotherapy was delivered to the whole pelvis at a dose of 45 Gy in 25 fractions, followed by a boost of 5.4 Gy in 3 fractions to the primary tumor with 5 fractions per week. Three different chemotherapy regimens were used. Tumor responses to preoperative CRT were assessed in terms of tumor downstaging and pathologic complete response (ypCR). Statistical analyses were performed to identify clinical factors associated with pathologic tumor response. Tumor downstaging was observed in 28 patients (54.9%), whereas ypCR was observed in 6 patients (11.8%). Multivariate analysis found that predictors of downstaging was pretreatment relative lymphocyte count (p = 0.023) and that none of clinical factors was significantly associated with ypCR. Pretreatment relative lymphocyte count (%) has a significant impact on the pathologic tumor response (tumor downstaging) after preoperative CRT for locally advanced rectal cancer. Enhancement of lymphocyte-mediated immune reactions may improve the effect of preoperative CRT for rectal cancer.

  10. Human activity recognition and prediction

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a unique view of human activity recognition, especially fine-grained human activity structure learning, human-interaction recognition, RGB-D data based action recognition, temporal decomposition, and causality learning in unconstrained human activity videos. The techniques discussed give readers tools that provide a significant improvement over existing methodologies of video content understanding by taking advantage of activity recognition. It links multiple popular research fields in computer vision, machine learning, human-centered computing, human-computer interaction, image classification, and pattern recognition. In addition, the book includes several key chapters covering multiple emerging topics in the field. Contributed by top experts and practitioners, the chapters present key topics from different angles and blend both methodology and application, composing a solid overview of the human activity recognition techniques. .

  11. Towards prediction and modulation of treatment response

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate new predictive assays and their potential to modulate treatment response. Their impact is presented in the context of three EORTC clinical trials in head and neck, lung and breast cancer, showing an improvement in survival by accelerated fractionation, concomitant use of cisplatin and radiotherapy and adjuvant hormonal treatment, respectively. Assays have been developed to predict the response to treatment by measuring tumor characteristics, such as the growth potential by the labeling index after i.v. injection of IdUrd, the extent of radiation-induced stable and unstable chromosome aberrations and the induction of apoptosis. These assays could guide us in the adaptation of the individual radiation doses and fractionation schedules. The measurement of the effect of cisplatin on DNA has become feasible with the development of antibodies against DNA adducts. In a recently completed phase II dose escalation trial with concomitant radiotherapy and daily cisplatin in lung cancer, we found that patients with high DNA adduct levels measured in the buccal mucosa, had a much better survival rate than patients with a low or undetectable amount of cisplatin DNA adducts. A better understanding of the signal transduction pathways involved in radiation-induced apoptosis may help to design studies aimed at modulating the apoptotic response. We and others have recently shown that alkylphospholipids, which inhibit mitogenic signaling, induce apoptosis in a variety of tumor cell lines. In combination with ionizing radiation, these compounds cause an enhancement of apoptotic cell kill. This type of signaling-based intervention study may form the basis for new therapeutic strategies. Pretreatment levels of apoptosis may be helpful in predicting treatment outcome, although the data so far show inconsistent results. The importance of evaluating other tumor-biological parameters, including cell kinetics should be stressed. Based on assays

  12. PREDICTION OF FIGHT OR FLIGHT RESPONSE USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS

    Abhijit Suresh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The modern society has posed several threats to the public. Public security is declining with increasing anti-social behaviour. Cases of rape and terrorist attacks have become increasingly common and there is a strong demand for a security system to control such modalities. Anti-social behaviour is a key issue of public concern. Public perceptions, however, have been improving recently. The vital response to physical and emotional danger is called fight or flight response. It is a basic survival mechanism occurring in response to a specific stimulus, such as pain or the threat of danger. Predicting the flight and fight response is an important aspect to identify possible areas susceptible to such events and provide emergency assistance to the victims involved. This study analyses various physiological changes associated with fight or flight response and proposes an approach to predict measures that determines whether an individual is under fear caused due the perceived threat. The proposed approach uses feed forward neural networks with back propagation algorithm. With the physiological changes such as blood pressure, heart rate and respiratory rate as inputs, the optimal configuration of neural network was configured and the proposed system is able to predict the measure of fight or flight response with minimal error. By monitoring and identifying the fear measure it is possible to prevent or reduce the damage to the society by activities such as rape and terrorist attacks.

  13. Mood Predicts Response to Placebo CPAP

    Carl J. Stepnowsky

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Study Objectives. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP therapy is efficacious for treating obstructive sleep apnea (OSA, but recent studies with placebo CPAP (CPAP administered at subtherapeutic pressure have revealed nonspecific (or placebo responses to CPAP treatment. This study examined baseline psychological factors associated with beneficial effects from placebo CPAP treatment. Participants. Twenty-five participants were studied with polysomnography at baseline and after treatment with placebo CPAP. Design. Participants were randomized to either CPAP treatment or placebo CPAP. Baseline mood was assessed with the Profile of Mood States (POMS. Total mood disturbance (POMS-Total was obtained by summing the six POMS subscale scores, with Vigor weighted negatively. The dependent variable was changed in apnea-hypopnea index (ΔAHI, calculated by subtracting pre- from post-CPAP AHI. Negative values implied improvement. Hierarchical regression analysis was performed, with pre-CPAP AHI added as a covariate to control for baseline OSA severity. Results. Baseline emotional distress predicted the drop in AHI in response to placebo CPAP. Highly distressed patients showed greater placebo response, with a 34% drop (i.e., improvement in AHI. Conclusion. These findings underscore the importance of placebo-controlled studies of CPAP treatment. Whereas such trials are routinely included in drug trials, this paper argues for their importance even in mechanical-oriented sleep interventions.

  14. Activity Prediction: A Twitter-based Exploration

    Weerkamp, W.; Rijke, de, M.

    2012-01-01

    Social media platforms allow users to share their messages with everyone else. In microblogs, e.g., Twitter, people mostly report on what they did, they talk about current activities, and mention things they plan to do in the near future. In this paper, we propose the task of activity prediction, that is, trying to establish a set of activities that are likely to become popular at a later time. We perform a small-scale initial experiment, in which we try to predict popular activities for the ...

  15. Response to mTOR inhibition: activity of eIF4E predicts sensitivity in cell lines and acquired changes in eIF4E regulation in breast cancer

    Bartlett John MS

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inhibitors of the kinase mTOR, such as rapamycin and everolimus, have been used as cancer therapeutics with limited success since some tumours are resistant. Efforts to establish predictive markers to allow selection of patients with tumours likely to respond have centred on determining phosphorylation states of mTOR or its targets 4E-BP1 and S6K in cancer cells. In an alternative approach we estimated eIF4E activity, a key effector of mTOR function, and tested the hypothesis that eIF4E activity predicts sensitivity to mTOR inhibition in cell lines and in breast tumours. Results We found a greater than three fold difference in sensitivity of representative colon, lung and breast cell lines to rapamycin. Using an assay to quantify influences of eIF4E on the translational efficiency specified by structured 5'UTRs, we showed that this estimate of eIF4E activity was a significant predictor of rapamycin sensitivity, with higher eIF4E activities indicative of enhanced sensitivity. Surprisingly, non-transformed cell lines were not less sensitive to rapamycin and did not have lower eIF4E activities than cancer lines, suggesting the mTOR/4E-BP1/eIF4E axis is deregulated in these non-transformed cells. In the context of clinical breast cancers, we estimated eIF4E activity by analysing expression of eIF4E and its functional regulators within tumour cells and combining these scores to reflect inhibitory and activating influences on eIF4E. Estimates of eIF4E activity in cancer biopsies taken at diagnosis did not predict sensitivity to 11-14 days of pre-operative everolimus treatment, as assessed by change in tumour cell proliferation from diagnosis to surgical excision. However, higher pre-treatment eIF4E activity was significantly associated with dramatic post-treatment changes in expression of eIF4E and 4E-binding proteins, suggesting that eIF4E is further deregulated in these tumours in response to mTOR inhibition. Conclusions

  16. Response Predicting LTCC Firing Shrinkage: A Response Surface Analysis Study

    Girardi, Michael; Barner, Gregg; Lopez, Cristie; Duncan, Brent; Zawicki, Larry

    2009-02-25

    The Low Temperature Cofired Ceramic (LTCC) technology is used in a variety of applications including military/space electronics, wireless communication, MEMS, medical and automotive electronics. The use of LTCC is growing due to the low cost of investment, short development time, good electrical and mechanical properties, high reliability, and flexibility in design integration (3 dimensional (3D) microstructures with cavities are possible)). The dimensional accuracy of the resulting x/y shrinkage of LTCC substrates is responsible for component assembly problems with the tolerance effect that increases in relation to the substrate size. Response Surface Analysis was used to predict product shrinkage based on specific process inputs (metal loading, layer count, lamination pressure, and tape thickness) with the ultimate goal to optimize manufacturing outputs (NC files, stencils, and screens) in achieving the final product design the first time. Three (3) regression models were developed for the DuPont 951 tape system with DuPont 5734 gold metallization based on green tape thickness.

  17. Method discussion for quick response grey prediction of stronger aftershocks of an earthquake sequence

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we take occurrence process of early strong aftershocks of a main-after shock type′s earthquake sequence as a complex grey system, and introduce predicting method for its stronger aftershocks by grey predicting theory. Through inspection prediction for 1998 Zhangbei MS=6.2 earthquake sequence, it shows that the grey predicting method maybe has active significance for the investigation of quick response prediction problems of stronger aftershocks of an earthquake sequence.

  18. Climate modelling, uncertainty and responses to predictions of change

    Article 4.1(F) of the Framework Convention on Climate Change commits all parties to take climate change considerations into account, to the extent feasible, in relevant social, economic and environmental policies and actions and to employ methods such as impact assessments to minimize adverse effects of climate change. This could be achieved by, inter alia, incorporating climate change risk assessment into development planning processes, i.e. relating climatic change to issues of habitability and sustainability. Adaptation is an ubiquitous and beneficial natural and human strategy. Future adaptation (adjustment) to climate is inevitable at the least to decrease the vulnerability to current climatic impacts. An urgent issue is the mismatch between the predictions of global climatic change and the need for information on local to regional change in order to develop adaptation strategies. Mitigation efforts are essential since the more successful mitigation activities are, the less need there will be for adaptation responses. And, mitigation responses can be global (e.g. a uniform percentage reduction in greenhouse gas emissions) while adaptation responses will be local to regional in character and therefore depend upon confident predictions of regional climatic change. The dilemma facing policymakers is that scientists have considerable confidence in likely global climatic changes but virtually zero confidence in regional changes. Mitigation and adaptation strategies relevant to climatic change can most usefully be developed in the context of sound understanding of climate, especially the near-surface continental climate, permitting discussion of societally relevant issues. But, climate models can't yet deliver this type of regionally and locationally specific prediction and some aspects of current research even seem to indicate increased uncertainty. These topics are explored in this paper using the specific example of the prediction of land-surface climate changes

  19. Slot Machine Response Frequency Predicts Pathological Gambling

    Linnet, Jakob; Rømer Thomsen, Kristine; Møller, Arne;

    2013-01-01

    Slot machines are among the most addictive forms of gambling, and pathological gambling slot machine players represent the largest group of treatment seekers, accounting for 35% to 93% of the population. Pathological gambling sufferers have significantly higher response frequency (games / time) on...... slot machines compared with non-problem gamblers, which may suggest increased reinforcement of the gambling behavior in pathological gambling. However, to date it is unknown whether or not the increased response frequency in pathological gambling is associated with symptom severity of the disorder....... This study tested the hypothesis that response frequency is associated with symptom severity in pathological gambling. We tested response frequency among twenty-two pathological gambling sufferers and twenty-one non-problem gamblers on a commercially available slot machine, and screened for...

  20. Resting state functional connectivity predicts neurofeedback response

    Scheinost, Dustin; Stoica, Teodora; Wasylink, Suzanne; Gruner, Patricia; Saksa, John; Pittenger, Christopher; Hampson, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Tailoring treatments to the specific needs and biology of individual patients—personalized medicine—requires delineation of reliable predictors of response. Unfortunately, these have been slow to emerge, especially in neuropsychiatric disorders. We have recently described a real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rt-fMRI) neurofeedback protocol that can reduce contamination-related anxiety, a prominent symptom of many cases of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Individual response ...

  1. Prediction of nuclear hormone receptor response elements.

    Sandelin, Albin; Wasserman, Wyeth W

    2005-03-01

    The nuclear receptor (NR) class of transcription factors controls critical regulatory events in key developmental processes, homeostasis maintenance, and medically important diseases and conditions. Identification of the members of a regulon controlled by a NR could provide an accelerated understanding of development and disease. New bioinformatics methods for the analysis of regulatory sequences are required to address the complex properties associated with known regulatory elements targeted by the receptors because the standard methods for binding site prediction fail to reflect the diverse target site configurations. We have constructed a flexible Hidden Markov Model framework capable of predicting NHR binding sites. The model allows for variable spacing and orientation of half-sites. In a genome-scale analysis enabled by the model, we show that NRs in Fugu rubripes have a significant cross-regulatory potential. The model is implemented in a web interface, freely available for academic researchers, available at http://mordor.cgb.ki.se/NHR-scan. PMID:15563547

  2. Human arm posture prediction in response to isometric endpoint forces.

    Davoudabadi Farahani, Saeed; Andersen, Michael Skipper; de Zee, Mark; Rasmussen, John

    2015-11-26

    The ability to predict the musculoskeletal response to external loads has multiple applications for the design of machines with a human interface and for the prediction of outcomes of musculoskeletal interventions. In this study, we applied an inverse-inverse dynamics technique to investigate its ability to predict arm posture in response to isometric hand forces. For each subject, we made a three-dimensional musculoskeletal model using the AnyBody Modelling System (AMS). Then, we had each subject-specific model hold a weight anteriorly to the right shoulder joint at a distance of half of the arm length. We selected the glenohumeral abduction angle (GHAA) as the only free parameter. Subsequently, we used inverse-inverse dynamics to find the optimal GHAA that minimised a performance criterion with physiological constraints. In this study, we investigated the performance of two different objective functions: summation of squared muscle activity (SSMA) and summation of squared normalised joint torques (SSNJT). To validate the simulation results, arm posture responses to different isometric downward hand forces were measured for six healthy male subjects. Five trials were performed for each loading condition. The results showed that, with an increase in hand load, there was a reduced GHAA in all subjects. Another interesting finding was that self-selected postures for lighter tasks varied more than postures for heavier tasks for all subjects. To understand this, we investigated the curvature of the objective function as a function of the load and observed an increased curvature with increased load. This may explain the reduced intra-subject variations observed for increasing loads. PMID:26482735

  3. Mood Predicts Response to Placebo CPAP

    Stepnowsky, Carl J.; Wei-Chung Mao; Bardwell, Wayne A; José S. Loredo; Joel E Dimsdale

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy is efficacious for treating obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), but recent studies with placebo CPAP (CPAP administered at subtherapeutic pressure) have revealed nonspecific (or placebo) responses to CPAP treatment. This study examined baseline psychological factors associated with beneficial effects from placebo CPAP treatment. Participants. Twenty-five participants were studied with polysomnography at baseline and after treatme...

  4. Assays for predicting and monitoring responses to lung cancer immunotherapy

    Cristina Teixid; Niki Karachaliou; Maria Gonzlez-Cao; Daniela Morales-Espinosa; Rafael Rosell

    2015-01-01

    AbstrAct Immunotherapy has become a key strategy for cancer treatment, and two immune checkpoints, namely, programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) and its ligand (PD-L1), have recently emerged as important targets. hTe interaction blockade of PD-1 and PD-L1 demonstrated promising activity and antitumor effcacy in early phase clinical trials for advanced solid tumors such as non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Many cell types in multiple tissues express PD-L1 as well as several tumor types, thereby suggesting that the ligand may play important roles in inhibiting immune responses throughout the body. hTerefore, PD-L1 is a critical immunomodulating component within the lung microenvironment, but the correlation between PD-L1 expression and prognosis is controversial. More evidence is required to support the use of PD-L1 as a potential predictive biomarker. Clinical trials have measured PD-L1 in tumor tissues by immunohistochemistry (IHC) with different antibodies, but the assessment of PD-L1 is not yet standardized. Some commercial antibodies lack speciifcity and their reproducibility has not been fully evaluated. Further studies are required to clarify the optimal IHC assay as well as to predict and monitor the immune responses of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway.

  5. Assays for predicting and monitoring responses to lung cancer immunotherapy

    Immunotherapy has become a key strategy for cancer treatment, and two immune checkpoints, namely, programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) and its ligand (PD-L1), have recently emerged as important targets. The interaction blockade of PD-1 and PD-L1 demonstrated promising activity and antitumor efficacy in early phase clinical trials for advanced solid tumors such as non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Many cell types in multiple tissues express PD-L1 as well as several tumor types, thereby suggesting that the ligand may play important roles in inhibiting immune responses throughout the body. Therefore, PD-L1 is a critical immunomodulating component within the lung microenvironment, but the correlation between PD-L1 expression and prognosis is controversial. More evidence is required to support the use of PD-L1 as a potential predictive biomarker. Clinical trials have measured PD-L1 in tumor tissues by immunohistochemistry (IHC) with different antibodies, but the assessment of PD-L1 is not yet standardized. Some commercial antibodies lack specificity and their reproducibility has not been fully evaluated. Further studies are required to clarify the optimal IHC assay as well as to predict and monitor the immune responses of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway

  6. Prediction control of active power filters

    王莉娜; 罗安

    2003-01-01

    A prediction method to obtain harmonic reference for active power filter is presented. It is a new use ofthe adaptive predictive filter based on FIR. The delay inherent in digital controller is successfully compensated by u-sing the proposed method, and the computing load is not very large compared with the conventional method. Moreo-ver, no additional hardware is needed. Its DSP-based realization is also presented, which is characterized by time-va-riant rate sampling, quasi synchronous sampling, and synchronous operation among the line frequency, PWM gener-ating and sampling in A/D unit. Synchronous operation releases the limitation on PWM modulation ratio and guar-antees that the electrical noises resulting from the switching operation of IGBTs do not interfere with the sampledcurrent. The simulation and experimental results verify the satisfactory performance of the proposed method.

  7. Model for Predicting End User Web Page Response Time

    Nagarajan, Sathya Narayanan

    2012-01-01

    Perceived responsiveness of a web page is one of the most important and least understood metrics of web page design, and is critical for attracting and maintaining a large audience. Web pages can be designed to meet performance SLAs early in the product lifecycle if there is a way to predict the apparent responsiveness of a particular page layout. Response time of a web page is largely influenced by page layout and various network characteristics. Since the network characteristics vary widely from country to country, accurately modeling and predicting the perceived responsiveness of a web page from the end user's perspective has traditionally proven very difficult. We propose a model for predicting end user web page response time based on web page, network, browser download and browser rendering characteristics. We start by understanding the key parameters that affect perceived response time. We then model each of these parameters individually using experimental tests and statistical techniques. Finally, we d...

  8. CERAPP: Collaborative estrogen receptor activity prediction project

    Mansouri, Kamel; Abdelaziz, Ahmed; Rybacka, Aleksandra;

    2016-01-01

    Background: Humans are exposed to thousands of man-made chemicals in the environment. Some chemicals mimic natural endocrine hormones and, thus, have the potential to be endocrine disruptors. Most of these chemicals have never been tested for their ability to interact with the estrogen receptor (ER......). Risk assessors need tools to prioritize chemicals for evaluation in costly in vivo tests, for instance, within the U.S. EPA Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program. oBjectives: We describe a large-scale modeling project called CERAPP (Collaborative Estrogen Receptor Activity Prediction Project) and...

  9. The multiform motor cortical output: Kinematic, predictive and response coding.

    Sartori, Luisa; Betti, Sonia; Chinellato, Eris; Castiello, Umberto

    2015-09-01

    Observing actions performed by others entails a subliminal activation of primary motor cortex reflecting the components encoded in the observed action. One of the most debated issues concerns the role of this output: Is it a mere replica of the incoming flow of information (kinematic coding), is it oriented to anticipate the forthcoming events (predictive coding) or is it aimed at responding in a suitable fashion to the actions of others (response coding)? The aim of the present study was to disentangle the relative contribution of these three levels and unify them into an integrated view of cortical motor coding. We combined transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and electromyography recordings at different timings to probe the excitability of corticospinal projections to upper and lower limb muscles of participants observing a soccer player performing: (i) a penalty kick straight in their direction and then coming to a full stop, (ii) a penalty kick straight in their direction and then continuing to run, (iii) a penalty kick to the side and then continuing to run. The results show a modulation of the observer's corticospinal excitability in different effectors at different times reflecting a multiplicity of motor coding. The internal replica of the observed action, the predictive activation, and the adaptive integration of congruent and non-congruent responses to the actions of others can coexist in a not mutually exclusive way. Such a view offers reconciliation among different (and apparently divergent) frameworks in action observation literature, and will promote a more complete and integrated understanding of recent findings on motor simulation, motor resonance and automatic imitation. PMID:25727547

  10. Generalized Predictive Control: Step Responses and Stability Thoery

    Gomma, H.W.; Owens, D.H.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents new results that use step response data to produce sufficient conditions to guarantee the stability of the closed loop system in Generalized Predictive Control (GPC) . The analysis produces easily checked conditions that provide considerable insight into the effect of parameters such as prediction horizons and control weightings on stability characteristics.

  11. Model Predictive Control based on Finite Impulse Response Models

    Prasath, Guru; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2008-01-01

    We develop a regularized l2 finite impulse response (FIR) predictive controller with input and input-rate constraints. Feedback is based on a simple constant output disturbance filter. The performance of the predictive controller in the face of plant-model mismatch is investigated by simulations...

  12. Assisting Composition of Email Responses: a Topic Prediction Approach

    Gella, Spandana; Dymetman, Marc; Renders, Jean Michel; Venkatapathy, Sriram

    2015-01-01

    We propose an approach for helping agents compose email replies to customer requests. To enable that, we use LDA to extract latent topics from a collection of email exchanges. We then use these latent topics to label our data, obtaining a so-called "silver standard" topic labelling. We exploit this labelled set to train a classifier to: (i) predict the topic distribution of the entire agent's email response, based on features of the customer's email; and (ii) predict the topic distribution of...

  13. Predicting Performance Under Stressful Conditions Using Galvanic Skin Response

    Mundell, Carter; Vielma, Juan Pablo; Zaman, Tauhid

    2016-01-01

    The rapid growth of the availability of wearable biosensors has created the opportunity for using biological signals to measure worker performance. An important question is how to use such signals to not just measure, but actually predict worker performance on a task under stressful and potentially high risk conditions. Here we show that the biological signal known as galvanic skin response (GSR) allows such a prediction. We conduct an experiment where subjects answer arithmetic questions und...

  14. Brain connectomics predict response to treatment in social anxiety disorder.

    Whitfield-Gabrieli, S; Ghosh, S S; Nieto-Castanon, A; Saygin, Z; Doehrmann, O; Chai, X J; Reynolds, G O; Hofmann, S G; Pollack, M H; Gabrieli, J D E

    2016-05-01

    We asked whether brain connectomics can predict response to treatment for a neuropsychiatric disorder better than conventional clinical measures. Pre-treatment resting-state brain functional connectivity and diffusion-weighted structural connectivity were measured in 38 patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD) to predict subsequent treatment response to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). We used a priori bilateral anatomical amygdala seed-driven resting connectivity and probabilistic tractography of the right inferior longitudinal fasciculus together with a data-driven multivoxel pattern analysis of whole-brain resting-state connectivity before treatment to predict improvement in social anxiety after CBT. Each connectomic measure improved the prediction of individuals' treatment outcomes significantly better than a clinical measure of initial severity, and combining the multimodal connectomics yielded a fivefold improvement in predicting treatment response. Generalization of the findings was supported by leave-one-out cross-validation. After dividing patients into better or worse responders, logistic regression of connectomic predictors and initial severity combined with leave-one-out cross-validation yielded a categorical prediction of clinical improvement with 81% accuracy, 84% sensitivity and 78% specificity. Connectomics of the human brain, measured by widely available imaging methods, may provide brain-based biomarkers (neuromarkers) supporting precision medicine that better guide patients with neuropsychiatric diseases to optimal available treatments, and thus translate basic neuroimaging into medical practice. PMID:26260493

  15. Fluid responsiveness is predicted by analysis of extra systoles

    Vistisen, Simon Tilma

    surrounding sinus beats and that the magnitude of the SBP change (DSBP) could predict fluid responsiveness. OBJECTIVES. To study the hypothesis in post-cardiac surgery patients. METHODS. Patients scheduled for a 500 ml volume expansion were observed. In the time frame, 0-30 min prior to volume expansion, ECG...... predict fluid responsiveness in post-cardiac surgery patients. The method needs to be validated in other patient groups. REFERENCE. [1] Mahjoub Y, et al., Evaluation of pulse pressure variation validity criteria in critically ill patients: a prospective observational multicentre point-prevalence study. Br...

  16. Prediction of transcriptional regulatory elements for plant hormone responses based on microarray data

    Yamaguchi-Shinozaki Kazuko

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phytohormones organize plant development and environmental adaptation through cell-to-cell signal transduction, and their action involves transcriptional activation. Recent international efforts to establish and maintain public databases of Arabidopsis microarray data have enabled the utilization of this data in the analysis of various phytohormone responses, providing genome-wide identification of promoters targeted by phytohormones. Results We utilized such microarray data for prediction of cis-regulatory elements with an octamer-based approach. Our test prediction of a drought-responsive RD29A promoter with the aid of microarray data for response to drought, ABA and overexpression of DREB1A, a key regulator of cold and drought response, provided reasonable results that fit with the experimentally identified regulatory elements. With this succession, we expanded the prediction to various phytohormone responses, including those for abscisic acid, auxin, cytokinin, ethylene, brassinosteroid, jasmonic acid, and salicylic acid, as well as for hydrogen peroxide, drought and DREB1A overexpression. Totally 622 promoters that are activated by phytohormones were subjected to the prediction. In addition, we have assigned putative functions to 53 octamers of the Regulatory Element Group (REG that have been extracted as position-dependent cis-regulatory elements with the aid of their feature of preferential appearance in the promoter region. Conclusions Our prediction of Arabidopsis cis-regulatory elements for phytohormone responses provides guidance for experimental analysis of promoters to reveal the basis of the transcriptional network of phytohormone responses.

  17. Prediction and control of neural responses to pulsatile electrical stimulation

    Campbell, Luke J.; Sly, David James; O'Leary, Stephen John

    2012-04-01

    This paper aims to predict and control the probability of firing of a neuron in response to pulsatile electrical stimulation of the type delivered by neural prostheses such as the cochlear implant, bionic eye or in deep brain stimulation. Using the cochlear implant as a model, we developed an efficient computational model that predicts the responses of auditory nerve fibers to electrical stimulation and evaluated the model's accuracy by comparing the model output with pooled responses from a group of guinea pig auditory nerve fibers. It was found that the model accurately predicted the changes in neural firing probability over time to constant and variable amplitude electrical pulse trains, including speech-derived signals, delivered at rates up to 889 pulses s-1. A simplified version of the model that did not incorporate adaptation was used to adaptively predict, within its limitations, the pulsatile electrical stimulus required to cause a desired response from neurons up to 250 pulses s-1. Future stimulation strategies for cochlear implants and other neural prostheses may be enhanced using similar models that account for the way that neural responses are altered by previous stimulation.

  18. The Pupillary Orienting Response Predicts Adaptive Behavioral Adjustment after Errors.

    Peter R Murphy

    Full Text Available Reaction time (RT is commonly observed to slow down after an error. This post-error slowing (PES has been thought to arise from the strategic adoption of a more cautious response mode following deployment of cognitive control. Recently, an alternative account has suggested that PES results from interference due to an error-evoked orienting response. We investigated whether error-related orienting may in fact be a pre-cursor to adaptive post-error behavioral adjustment when the orienting response resolves before subsequent trial onset. We measured pupil dilation, a prototypical measure of autonomic orienting, during performance of a choice RT task with long inter-stimulus intervals, and found that the trial-by-trial magnitude of the error-evoked pupil response positively predicted both PES magnitude and the likelihood that the following response would be correct. These combined findings suggest that the magnitude of the error-related orienting response predicts an adaptive change of response strategy following errors, and thereby promote a reconciliation of the orienting and adaptive control accounts of PES.

  19. Predicting aquifer response time for application in catchment modeling.

    Walker, Glen R; Gilfedder, Mat; Dawes, Warrick R; Rassam, David W

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that changes in catchment land use can lead to significant impacts on water resources. Where land-use changes increase evapotranspiration there is a resultant decrease in groundwater recharge, which in turn decreases groundwater discharge to streams. The response time of changes in groundwater discharge to a change in recharge is a key aspect of predicting impacts of land-use change on catchment water yield. Predicting these impacts across the large catchments relevant to water resource planning can require the estimation of groundwater response times from hundreds of aquifers. At this scale, detailed site-specific measured data are often absent, and available spatial data are limited. While numerical models can be applied, there is little advantage if there are no detailed data to parameterize them. Simple analytical methods are useful in this situation, as they allow the variability in groundwater response to be incorporated into catchment hydrological models, with minimal modeling overhead. This paper describes an analytical model which has been developed to capture some of the features of real, sloping aquifer systems. The derived groundwater response timescale can be used to parameterize a groundwater discharge function, allowing groundwater response to be predicted in relation to different broad catchment characteristics at a level of complexity which matches the available data. The results from the analytical model are compared to published field data and numerical model results, and provide an approach with broad application to inform water resource planning in other large, data-scarce catchments. PMID:24842053

  20. Simplified Analysis Model for Predicting Pyroshock Responses on Composite Panel

    Iwasa, Takashi; Shi, Qinzhong

    A simplified analysis model based on the frequency response analysis and the wave propagation analysis was established for predicting Shock Response Spectrum (SRS) on the composite panel subjected to pyroshock loadings. The complex composite panel was modeled as an isotropic single layer panel defined in NASA Lewis Method. Through the conductance of an impact excitation test on a composite panel with no equipment mounted on, it was presented that the simplified analysis model could estimate the SRS as well as the acceleration peak values in both near and far field in an accurate way. In addition, through the simulation for actual pyroshock tests on an actual satellite system, the simplified analysis model was proved to be applicable in predicting the actual pyroshock responses, while bringing forth several technical issues to estimate the pyroshock test specifications in early design stages.

  1. Subjective responses to alcohol in the lab predict neural responses to alcohol cues

    Courtney, KE; Ray, LA

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Subjective responses to alcohol represent a biologically based, genetically moderated, and clinically informative marker of alcoholism risk; however, the physiology underlying this phenotype remains unclear. This study tested whether subjective responses during alcohol administration predict neural responses to alcohol cues in the scanner and whether these neural responses differ between OPRM1 genotypes. Method: Twenty alcohol-dependent individuals were recruited (10 G-allele carri...

  2. Application of a noninhibitory growth model to predict the transient response in a chemostat

    Chiam, H.F.; Harris, I.J.

    1983-06-01

    A method of adapting a kinetic model based on steady-state chemostat data to predict the transient performance of a chemostat culture is presented. The proposal provides for a time delay which can be considered equivalent to a period of reduced activity of the organism subsequent to the introduction of a step change in operating conditions. The adapted kinetic model gives substantially better performance in predicting the transient response of an experimental system than the unmodified kinetic model.

  3. MTR-18 Predictive Biomarkers Of Bevacizumab Response In Recurrent Glioblastoma Patients

    Urup, Thomas; Michaelsen, Signe Regner; Olsen, Lars Rønn;

    2015-01-01

    Bevacizumab (BEV) plus chemotherapy has shown activity in recurrent glioblastoma (GBM). However, the prognosis varies and only one third of patients have a durable clinical response to BEV combination therapy. Recent findings from a randomized phase-3 study (AVAglio) indicate that patients with the...... evaluate the predictive and prognostic value of GBM subtypes in recurrent GBM patients treated with BEV therapy. The secondary objective was to identify biomarkers able to predict response to BEV therapy in recurrent GBM patients. METHODS: A total of 90 recurrent GBM patients treated with BEV combination...... proneural GBM subtype have a survival benefit when treated with BEV in combination with standard treatment. However, no validated biomarkers able to predict BEV response have been identified and the biology reflecting a clinical BEV response is poorly understood. The primary objective of this study was to...

  4. Predicting the shock compression response of heterogeneous powder mixtures

    Fredenburg, D. A.; Thadhani, N. N.

    2013-06-01

    A model framework for predicting the dynamic shock-compression response of heterogeneous powder mixtures using readily obtained measurements from quasi-static tests is presented. Low-strain-rate compression data are first analyzed to determine the region of the bulk response over which particle rearrangement does not contribute to compaction. This region is then fit to determine the densification modulus of the mixture, σD, an newly defined parameter describing the resistance of the mixture to yielding. The measured densification modulus, reflective of the diverse yielding phenomena that occur at the meso-scale, is implemented into a rate-independent formulation of the P-α model, which is combined with an isobaric equation of state to predict the low and high stress dynamic compression response of heterogeneous powder mixtures. The framework is applied to two metal + metal-oxide (thermite) powder mixtures, and good agreement between the model and experiment is obtained for all mixtures at stresses near and above those required to reach full density. At lower stresses, rate-dependencies of the constituents, and specifically those of the matrix constituent, determine the ability of the model to predict the measured response in the incomplete compaction regime.

  5. Predictive functional control of integrating process based on impulse response

    Bin ZHANG; Ping LI; Weidong ZHANG

    2004-01-01

    The predictive model is built according to the characteristics of the impulse response of integrating process. In order to eliminate the permanent offset between the setpoint and the process output in the presence of the load disturbance, a novel error compensation method is proposed. Then predictive functional control of integrating process is designed. The method given generates a simple control structure, which can significantly reduce online computation. Furthermore, the tuning of the controller is fairly straightforward. Simulation results indicate that the designed control system is relatively robust to the parameters variation of the process.

  6. Metabolic response at repeat PET/CT predicts pathological response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in oesophageal cancer

    Reports have suggested that a reduction in tumour 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake on positron emission tomography (PET) examination during or after neoadjuvant chemotherapy may predict pathological response in oesophageal cancer. Our aim was to determine whether metabolic response predicts pathological response to a standardised neoadjuvant chemotherapy regimen within a prospective clinical trial. Consecutive patients staged with potentially curable oesophageal cancer who underwent treatment within a non-randomised clinical trial were included. A standardised chemotherapy regimen (two cycles of oxaliplatin and 5-fluorouracil) was used. PET/CT was performed before chemotherapy and repeated 24-28 days after the start of cycle 2. Forty-eight subjects were included: mean age 65 years; 37 male. Using the median percentage reduction in SUVmax (42%) to define metabolic response, pathological response was seen in 71% of metabolic responders (17/24) compared with 33% of non-responders (8/24; P = 0.009, sensitivity 68%, specificity 70%). Pathological response was seen in 81% of subjects with a complete metabolic response (13/16) compared with 38% of those with a less than complete response (12/32; P = 0.0042, sensitivity 52%, specificity 87%). There was no significant histology-based effect. There was a significant association between metabolic response and pathological response; however, accuracy in predicting pathological response was relatively low. (orig.)

  7. Mothers' labeling responses to infants' gestures predict vocabulary outcomes.

    Olson, Janet; Masur, Elise Frank

    2015-11-01

    Twenty-nine infants aged 1;1 and their mothers were videotaped while interacting with toys for 18 minutes. Six experimental stimuli were presented to elicit infant communicative bids in two communicative intent contexts - proto-declarative and proto-imperative. Mothers' verbal responses to infants' gestural and non-gestural communicative bids were coded for object and action labels. Relations between maternal labeling responses and infants' vocabularies at 1;1 and 1;5 were examined. Mothers' labeling responses to infants' gestural communicative bids were concurrently and predictively related to infants' vocabularies, whereas responses to non-gestural communicative bids were not. Mothers' object labeling following gestures in the proto-declarative context mediated the association from infants' gesturing in the proto-declarative context to concurrent noun lexicons and was the strongest predictor of subsequent noun lexicons. Mothers' action labeling after infants' gestural bids in the proto-imperative context predicted infants' acquisition of action words at 1;5. Findings show that mothers' responsive labeling explain specific relations between infants' gestures and their vocabulary development. PMID:25643656

  8. Magnetospheric impulse response for many levels of geomagnetic activity

    The temporal relationship between the solar wind and magnetospheric activity has been studied using 34 intervals of high time resolution IMP 8 solar wind data and the corresponding AL auroral activity index. The median value of the AL index for each interval were utilized to rank the intervals according to geomagnetic activity level. The linear prediction filtering technique was then applied to model magnetospheric response as measured by the AL index to the solar wind input function VB/sub s/. The linear prediction filtering routine produces a filter of time-lagged response coefficients which estimates the most general linear relationship between the chosen input and output parameters of the magnetospheric system. It is found that the filters are composed of two response pulses speaking at time lags of 20 and 60 min. The amplitude of the 60-min pulse is the larger for moderate activity levels, while the 20-min pulse is the larger for strong activity levels. A possible interpretation is that the 20-min pulse represents magnetospheric activity driven directly by solar wind coupling and that the 60-min pulse represents magnetospheric activity driven by the relase of energy previously stored in the magnetotal. If this interpretation is correct, the linear filtering results suggest that both the driven and the unloading models of magnetospheric response are important facets of a more comprehensive response model

  9. Plasma Biomarkers Can Predict Treatment Response in Tuberculosis Patients

    Lee, Meng-Rui; Tsai, Chia-Jung; Wang, Wei-Jie; Chuang, Tzu-Yi; Yang, Chih-Mann; Chang, Lih-Yu; Lin, Ching-Kai; Wang, Jann-Yuan; Shu, Chin-Chong; Lee, Li-Na; Yu, Chong-Jen

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Despite numerous studies, there has been little progress in the use of biomarkers for predicting treatment response in patients with tuberculosis (TB). Patients with culture-confirmed pulmonary TB between 2010 and 2014 were prospectively recruited. Blood samples were taken upon diagnosis and 2 months after the start of standard anti-TB treatment. A pilot study utilizing measurement of TB-antigen-stimulated cytokines was conducted to select potential biomarkers for further testing. Ou...

  10. Predicting the response of olfactory sensory neurons to odor mixtures from single odor response

    Marasco, Addolorata; de Paris, Alessandro; Migliore, Michele

    2016-04-01

    The response of olfactory receptor neurons to odor mixtures is not well understood. Here, using experimental constraints, we investigate the mathematical structure of the odor response space and its consequences. The analysis suggests that the odor response space is 3-dimensional, and predicts that the dose-response curve of an odor receptor can be obtained, in most cases, from three primary components with specific properties. This opens the way to an objective procedure to obtain specific olfactory receptor responses by manipulating mixtures in a mathematically predictable manner. This result is general and applies, independently of the number of odor components, to any olfactory sensory neuron type with a response curve that can be represented as a sigmoidal function of the odor concentration.

  11. Response to work activity guidance

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This memorandum is concerning the request from the FY95 PlatteKansas Rivers Ecosystem Work Activity Guidance for refuge managers to review the purposes of refuges...

  12. The Built Environment Predicts Observed Physical Activity

    Kelly, Cheryl; Wilson, Jeffrey S.; Schootman, Mario; Clennin, Morgan; Baker, Elizabeth A.; Miller, Douglas K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In order to improve our understanding of the relationship between the built environment and physical activity, it is important to identify associations between specific geographic characteristics and physical activity behaviors. Purpose: Examine relationships between observed physical activity behavior and measures of the built environment collected on 291 street segments in Indianapolis and St. Louis. Methods: Street segments were selected using a stratified geographic samp...

  13. Elevated EBNA1 Immune Responses Predict Conversion to Multiple Sclerosis

    Lünemann, Jan D.; Tintoré, Mar; Messmer, Brady; Strowig, Till; Rovira, Álex; Perkal, Héctor; Caballero, Estrella; Münz, Christian; Montalban, Xavier; Comabella, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    Objective The aims of the study were to determine the immune responses to candidate viral triggers of multiple sclerosis (MS) in patients with clinically isolated syndromes (CIS), and to evaluate their potential value in predicting conversion to MS. Methods Immune responses to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), human herpesvirus 6, cytomegalovirus (HCMV), and measles were determined in a cohort of 147 CIS patients with a mean follow-up of 7 years and compared with 50 demographically matched controls. Results Compared to controls, CIS patients showed increased humoral (p<0.0001) and cellular (p=0.007) immune responses to the EBV-encoded nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA1), but not to other EBV-derived proteins. IgG responses to other virus antigens and frequencies of T cells specific for HCMV and influenza virus gene products were unchanged in CIS patients. EBNA1 was the only viral antigen towards which immune responses correlated with number of T2 lesions (p=0.006) and number of Barkhof criteria (p=0.001) at baseline, and with number of T2 lesions (p=0.012 both at 1 and 5 years), presence of new T2 lesions (p=0.003 and p=0.028 at 1 and 5 years), and EDSS (p=0.015 and p=0.010 at 1 and 5 years) during follow-up. In a univariate Cox regression model, increased EBNA1-specific IgG responses predicted conversion to MS based on McDonald criteria [hazard ratio (95% confidence interval), 2.2 (1.2–4.3); p=0.003]. Interpretation Our results indicate that elevated immune responses towards EBNA1 are selectively increased in CIS patients and suggest that EBNA1-specific IgG titers could be used as a prognostic marker for disease conversion and disability progression. PMID:20225269

  14. Stock Price Change Rate Prediction by Utilizing Social Network Activities

    Shangkun Deng; Takashi Mitsubuchi; Akito Sakurai

    2014-01-01

    Predicting stock price change rates for providing valuable information to investors is a challenging task. Individual participants may express their opinions in social network service (SNS) before or after their transactions in the market; we hypothesize that stock price change rate is better predicted by a function of social network service activities and technical indicators than by a function of just stock market activities. The hypothesis is tested by accuracy of predictions as well as pe...

  15. Evidence that conditioned avoidance responses are reinforced by positive prediction errors signaled by tonic striatal dopamine.

    Dombrowski, Patricia A; Maia, Tiago V; Boschen, Suelen L; Bortolanza, Mariza; Wendler, Etieli; Schwarting, Rainer K W; Brandão, Marcus Lira; Winn, Philip; Blaha, Charles D; Da Cunha, Claudio

    2013-03-15

    We conducted an experiment in which hedonia, salience and prediction error hypotheses predicted different patterns of dopamine (DA) release in the striatum during learning of conditioned avoidance responses (CARs). The data strongly favor the latter hypothesis. It predicts that during learning of the 2-way active avoidance CAR task, positive prediction errors generated when rats do not receive an anticipated footshock (which is better than expected) cause DA release that reinforces the instrumental avoidance action. In vivo microdialysis in the rat striatum showed that extracellular DA concentration increased during early CAR learning and decreased throughout training returning to baseline once the response was well learned. In addition, avoidance learning was proportional to the degree of DA release. Critically, exposure of rats to the same stimuli but in an unpredictable, unavoidable, and inescapable manner, did not produce alterations from baseline DA levels as predicted by the prediction error but not hedonic or salience hypotheses. In addition, rats with a partial lesion of substantia nigra DA neurons, which did not show increased DA levels during learning, failed to learn this task. These data represent clear and unambiguous evidence that it was the factor positive prediction error, and not hedonia or salience, which caused increase in the tonic level of striatal DA and which reinforced learning of the instrumental avoidance response. PMID:22771418

  16. Activity, exposure rate and spectrum prediction with Java programming

    In order to envision the radiation exposure during Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) experiments, a software called Activity Predictor is developed using JavaTM programming language. The Activity Predictor calculates activities, exposure rates and gamma spectra of activated samples for NAA experiments performed at Radiation Science and Engineering Center (RSEC), Penn State Breazeale Reactor (PSBR). The calculation procedure for predictions involves both analytical and Monte Carlo methods. The Activity Predictor software is validated with a series of activation experiments. It has been found that Activity Predictor software calculates the activities and exposure rates precisely. The software also predicts gamma spectrum for each measurement. The predicted spectra agreed partially with measured spectra. The error in net photo peak areas varied from 4.8 to 51.29%, which is considered to be due to simplistic modeling, statistical fluctuations and unknown contaminants in the samples. (author)

  17. Active Power Filter Using Predicted Current Control

    Xiaojie, Y.; Pivoňka, P.; Valouch, Viktor

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 1 (2001), s. 41-50. ISSN 0001-7043 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2057903 Keywords : active power filter * control strategy Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  18. Predicting mining activity with parallel genetic algorithms

    Talaie, S.; Leigh, R.; Louis, S.J.; Raines, G.L.

    2005-01-01

    We explore several different techniques in our quest to improve the overall model performance of a genetic algorithm calibrated probabilistic cellular automata. We use the Kappa statistic to measure correlation between ground truth data and data predicted by the model. Within the genetic algorithm, we introduce a new evaluation function sensitive to spatial correctness and we explore the idea of evolving different rule parameters for different subregions of the land. We reduce the time required to run a simulation from 6 hours to 10 minutes by parallelizing the code and employing a 10-node cluster. Our empirical results suggest that using the spatially sensitive evaluation function does indeed improve the performance of the model and our preliminary results also show that evolving different rule parameters for different regions tends to improve overall model performance. Copyright 2005 ACM.

  19. Prediction of response to interferon therapy in multiple sclerosis

    Sellebjerg, F; Søndergaard, Helle Bach; Koch-Henriksen, N;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes encoding interferon response factor (IRF)-5, IRF-8 and glypican-5 (GPC5) have been associated with disease activity in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients treated with interferon (IFN)-β. We analysed whether SNPs in the IRF5, IRF8 and GPC5...

  20. Predicting Ecosystem Response to Perturbation from Thermodynamic Criteria

    Michaelian, K

    2008-01-01

    The response of ecosystems to perturbations is considered from a thermodynamic perspective by acknowledging that, as for all macroscopic systems and processes, the dynamics and stability of ecosystems is subject to definite thermodynamic law. For open ecosystems, exchanging energy, work, and mass with the environment, the thermodynamic criteria come from non-equilibrium or irreversible thermodynamics. For ecosystems during periods in which the boundary conditions may be considered as being constant, it is shown that criteria from irreversible thermodynamic theory are sufficient to permit a quantitative prediction of ecosystem response to perturbation. This framework is shown to provide a new perspective on the population dynamics of real ecosystems. The formalism is applied to the problem of the population oscillations of the southern pine beetle.

  1. BRAIN REWARD ACTIVITY TO MASKED IN-GROUP SMILING FACES PREDICTS FRIENDSHIP DEVELOPMENT

    Chen, Pin-Hao A.; Whalen, Paul J.; Freeman, Jonathan B.; Taylor, James M.; Heatherton, Todd F.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether neural responses in the ventral striatum (VS) to in-group facial expressions—presented without explicit awareness—could predict friendship patterns in newly arrived individuals from China six months later. Individuals who initially showed greater VS activity in response to in-group happy expressions during functional neuroimaging later made considerably more in-group friends, suggesting that VS activity might reflect reward processes that drive in-group approach behaviors. PMID:26185595

  2. Using Proximity to Predict Activity in Social Networks

    Lerman, Kristina; Intagorn, Suradej; Kang, Jeon-Hyung; Ghosh, Rumi

    2011-01-01

    The structure of a social network contains information useful for predicting its evolution. Nodes that are "close" in some sense are more likely to become linked in the future than more distant nodes. We show that structural information can also help predict node activity. We use proximity to capture the degree to which two nodes are "close" to each other in the network. In addition to standard proximity metrics used in the link prediction task, such as neighborhood overlap, we introduce new ...

  3. Controllability modulates the neural response to predictable but not unpredictable threat in humans.

    Wood, Kimberly H; Wheelock, Muriah D; Shumen, Joshua R; Bowen, Kenton H; Ver Hoef, Lawrence W; Knight, David C

    2015-10-01

    Stress resilience is mediated, in part, by our ability to predict and control threats within our environment. Therefore, determining the neural mechanisms that regulate the emotional response to predictable and controllable threats may provide important new insight into the processes that mediate resilience to emotional dysfunction and guide the future development of interventions for anxiety disorders. To better understand the effect of predictability and controllability on threat-related brain activity in humans, two groups of healthy volunteers participated in a yoked Pavlovian fear conditioning study during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Threat predictability was manipulated by presenting an aversive unconditioned stimulus (UCS) that was either preceded by a conditioned stimulus (i.e., predictable) or by presenting the UCS alone (i.e., unpredictable). Similar to animal model research that has employed yoked fear conditioning procedures, one group (controllable condition; CC), but not the other group (uncontrollable condition; UC) was able to terminate the UCS. The fMRI signal response within the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC), dorsomedial PFC, ventromedial PFC, and posterior cingulate was diminished during predictable compared to unpredictable threat (i.e., UCS). In addition, threat-related activity within the ventromedial PFC and bilateral hippocampus was diminished only to threats that were both predictable and controllable. These findings provide insight into how threat predictability and controllability affects the activity of brain regions (i.e., ventromedial PFC and hippocampus) involved in emotion regulation, and may have important implications for better understanding neural processes that mediate emotional resilience to stress. PMID:26149610

  4. Predictive active disturbance rejection control for processes with time delay.

    Zheng, Qinling; Gao, Zhiqiang

    2014-07-01

    Active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) has been shown to be an effective tool in dealing with real world problems of dynamic uncertainties, disturbances, nonlinearities, etc. This paper addresses its existing limitations with plants that have a large transport delay. In particular, to overcome the delay, the extended state observer (ESO) in ADRC is modified to form a predictive ADRC, leading to significant improvements in the transient response and stability characteristics, as shown in extensive simulation studies and hardware-in-the-loop tests, as well as in the frequency response analysis. In this research, it is assumed that the amount of delay is approximately known, as is the approximated model of the plant. Even with such uncharacteristic assumptions for ADRC, the proposed method still exhibits significant improvements in both performance and robustness over the existing methods such as the dead-time compensator based on disturbance observer and the Filtered Smith Predictor, in the context of some well-known problems of chemical reactor and boiler control problems. PMID:24182516

  5. Prediction of residual metabolic activity after treatment in NSCLC patients

    Rios Velazquez, Emmanuel; Aerts, Hugo J.W.L.; Oberije, Cary; Ruysscher, Dirk De; Lambin, Philippe (Dept. of Radiation Oncology, School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht Univ. Medical Center, Maastricht (Netherlands)), E-mail: emmanuel.rios@maastro.nl

    2010-10-15

    Purpose. Metabolic response assessment is often used as a surrogate of local failure and survival. Early identification of patients with residual metabolic activity is essential as this enables selection of patients who could potentially benefit from additional therapy. We report on the development of a pre-treatment prediction model for metabolic response using patient, tumor and treatment factors. Methods. One hundred and one patients with inoperable NSCLC (stage I-IV), treated with 3D conformal radical (chemo)-radiotherapy were retrospectively included in this study. All patients received a pre and post-radiotherapy fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography FDG-PET-CT scan. The electronic medical record system and the medical patient charts were reviewed to obtain demographic, clinical, tumor and treatment data. Primary outcome measure was examined using a metabolic response assessment on a post-radiotherapy FDG-PET-CT scan. Radiotherapy was delivered in fractions of 1.8 Gy, twice a day, with a median prescribed dose of 60 Gy. Results. Overall survival was worse in patients with residual metabolic active areas compared with the patients with a complete metabolic response (p=0.0001). In univariate analysis, three variables were significantly associated with residual disease: larger primary gross tumor volume (GTVprimary, p=0.002), higher pre-treatment maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}, p=0.0005) in the primary tumor and shorter overall treatment time (OTT, p=0.046). A multivariate model including GTVprimary, SUV{sub max}, equivalent radiation dose at 2 Gy corrected for time (EQD2, T) and OTT yielded an area under the curve assessed by the leave-one-out cross validation of 0.71 (95% CI, 0.65-0.76). Conclusion. Our results confirmed the validity of metabolic response assessment as a surrogate of survival. We developed a multivariate model that is able to identify patients at risk of residual disease. These patients may

  6. Amygdala response to explicit sad face stimuli at baseline predicts antidepressant treatment response to scopolamine in major depressive disorder.

    Szczepanik, Joanna; Nugent, Allison C; Drevets, Wayne C; Khanna, Ashish; Zarate, Carlos A; Furey, Maura L

    2016-08-30

    The muscarinic antagonist scopolamine produces rapid antidepressant effects in individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD). In healthy subjects, manipulation of acetyl-cholinergic transmission modulates attention in a stimulus-dependent manner. This study tested the hypothesis that baseline amygdalar activity in response to emotional stimuli correlates with antidepressant treatment response to scopolamine and could thus potentially predict treatment outcome. MDD patients and healthy controls performed an attention shifting task involving emotional faces while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We found that blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal in the amygdala acquired while MDD patients processed sad face stimuli correlated positively with antidepressant response to scopolamine. Amygdalar response to sad faces in MDD patients who did not respond to scopolamine did not differ from that of healthy controls. This suggests that the pre-treatment task elicited amygdalar activity that may constitute a biomarker of antidepressant treatment response to scopolamine. Furthermore, in MDD patients who responded to scopolamine, we observed a post-scopolamine stimulus processing shift towards a pattern demonstrated by healthy controls, indicating a change in stimulus-dependent neural response potentially driven by attenuated cholinergic activity in the amygdala. PMID:27366831

  7. Stress responsiveness predicts individual variation in mate selectivity.

    Vitousek, Maren N; Romero, L Michael

    2013-06-15

    Steroid hormones, including glucocorticoids, mediate a variety of behavioral and physiological processes. Circulating hormone concentrations vary substantially within populations, and although hormone titers predict reproductive success in several species, little is known about how individual variation in circulating hormone concentrations is linked with most reproductive behaviors in free-living organisms. Mate choice is an important and often costly component of reproduction that also varies substantially within populations. We examined whether energetically costly mate selection behavior in female Galápagos marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) was associated with individual variation in the concentrations of hormones previously shown to differ between reproductive and non-reproductive females during the breeding season (corticosterone and testosterone). Stress-induced corticosterone levels - which are suppressed in female marine iguanas during reproduction - were individually repeatable throughout the seven-week breeding period. Mate selectivity was strongly predicted by individual variation in stress-induced corticosterone: reproductive females that secreted less corticosterone in response to a standardized stressor assessed more displaying males. Neither baseline corticosterone nor testosterone predicted variation in mate selectivity. Scaled body mass was not significantly associated with mate selectivity, but females that began the breeding period in lower body condition showed a trend towards being less selective about potential mates. These results provide the first evidence that individual variation in the corticosterone stress response is associated with how selective females are in their choice of a mate, an important contributor to fitness in many species. Future research is needed to determine the functional basis of this association, and whether transient acute increases in circulating corticosterone directly mediate mate choice behaviors. PMID

  8. Prediction of placebo responses: A systematic review of the literature

    Bjoern eHoring

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Predicting who responds to placebo treatment – and under which circumstances – has been a question of interest and investigation for generations. However, the literature is disparate and inconclusive. This review aims to identify publications that provide high quality data on the topic of placebo response (PR prediction. Methods: To identify studies concerned with PR prediction, independent searches were performed in an expert database (for all symptom modalities and in PubMed (for pain only. Articles were selected when a they assessed putative predictors prior to placebo treatment and b an adequate control group was included when the association of predictors and PRs were analyzed. Results: Twenty-one studies were identified, most with pain as dependent variable. Most predictors of PRs were psychological constructs related to actions, expected outcomes and the emotional valence attached to these events (goal-seeking, self-efficacy/-esteem, locus of control, optimism. Other predictors involved behavioural control (desire for control, eating restraint, personality variables (fun seeking, sensation seeking, neuroticism, biological markers (sex, a single nucleotide polymorphism related to dopamine metabolism. Finally, suggestibility and beliefs in expectation biases, body consciousness and baseline symptom severity were found to be predictive. Conclusions: While results are heterogeneous, some congruence of predictors can be identified. PRs mainly appear to be moderated by expectations of how the symptom might change after treatment, or the expectation of how symptom repetition can be coped with. It is suggested to include the listed constructs in future research. Furthermore, a closer look at variables moderating symptom change in control groups seems warranted.

  9. Physiological Response to Physical Activity in Children.

    Gilliam, Thomas B.

    This is a report on research in the field of physical responses of children to strenuous activity. The paper is divided into three subtopics: (1) peak performance measure in children; (2) training effects on children; and (3) importance of physical activity for children. Measurements used are oxygen consumption, ventilation, heart rate, cardiac…

  10. Single-subject prediction of response inhibition behavior by event-related potentials.

    Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Popescu, Florin; Neuhaus, Andres H; Beste, Christian

    2016-03-01

    Much research has been devoted to investigating response inhibition and the neuronal processes constituting this essential cognitive faculty. However, the nexus between cognitive subprocesses, behavior, and electrophysiological processes remains associative in nature. We therefore investigated whether neurophysiological correlates of inhibition subprocesses merely correlate with behavioral performance or actually provide information expedient to the prediction of behavior on a single-subject level. Tackling this question, we used different data-driven classification approaches in a sample of n = 262 healthy young subjects who completed a standard Go/Nogo task while an EEG was recorded. On the basis of median-split response inhibition performance, subjects were classified as "accurate/slow" and "less accurate/fast." Even though these behavioral group differences were associated with significant amplitude variations in classical electrophysiological correlates of response inhibition (i.e., N2 and P3), they were not predictive for group membership on a single-subject level. Instead, amplitude differences in the Go-P2 originating in the precuneus (BA7) were shown to predict group membership on a single-subject level with up to 64% accuracy. These findings strongly suggest that the behavioral outcome of response inhibition greatly depends on the amount of cognitive resources allocated to early stages of stimulus-response activation during responding. This suggests that research should focus more on early processing steps during responding when trying to understand the origin of interindividual differences in response inhibition processes. PMID:26683075

  11. Predicting the Response of the Mars Ionosphere to Solar Flares

    Fallows, K.; Withers, P.; Gonzalez, G.

    2015-12-01

    The increased soft X-ray irradiance during solar flares generates increased electron densities in the lower ionosphere of Mars. The relative changes in electron density during a flare are greater for larger flares and also at lower altitudes and larger flares, due to the wavelength dependence of both the flux increase during the flare and the absorption of flux by the neutral atmosphere. These relationships have been explored [Bougher et al. 2001, Fox et al. 2004, Mendillo et al. 2006, Mahajan et al. 2011, Lollo et al. 2012] but not quantified, which has impeded the validation of simulations of the ionospheric effects of solar flares. Such simulations are necessary for developing accurate descriptions of the physical processes governing ionospheric behavior under extreme conditions. We present a response function, a mathematical expression for the change in electron density during a solar flare as a function of the change in solar flux and an optical depth proxy. This response function is based on analysis of 20 Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) radio occultation electron density profiles measured during solar flares. Characterizing the response as a function of optical depth, rather than altitude, provides the best description of ionospheric variability during a flare; otherwise non-negligible solar zenith angle effects are present. We demonstrate that the response function can be used to predict ionospheric electron densities during a specified solar flare by reproducing profiles known to be disturbed by a solar flare. We also demonstrate that the response function can be used to infer the strength of solar flares not visible at Earth by finding the flux enhancement required to reproduce an apparently flare affected profile given an undisturbed profile on the same date.

  12. Preoperative neutrophil response as a predictive marker of clinical outcome following open heart surgery and the impact of leukocyte filtration.

    Soo, Alan W

    2010-11-01

    Open heart surgery is associated with a massive systemic inflammatory response. Neutrophils, are the main mediator of this response. We hypothesised that the degree of neutrophil activation and inflammatory response to open heart surgery varies individually and correlates with clinical outcome. The aim of this study was to determine if individual clinical outcome can be predicted preoperatively through assessment of in-vitro stimulated neutrophil responses. Following that, the effects of neutrophil depletion through leukocyte filters are examined.

  13. Implicit motives predict affective responses to emotional expressions

    AndreasG.Rösch

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We explored the influence of implicit motives and activity inhibition on subjectively experienced affect in response to the presentation of six different facial expressions of emotion (FEEs; anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise and neutral faces from the NimStim set of facial expressions (Tottenham et al., 2009. Implicit motives and activity inhibition were assessed using a Picture Story Exercise (Schultheiss et al., 2009b. Ratings of subjectively experienced affect (arousal and valence were assessed using Self-Assessment Manikins (Bradley and Lang, 1994 in a sample of 84 participants. We found that people with either a strong implicit power or achievement motive experienced stronger arousal, while people with a strong affiliation motive experienced less aroused and felt more unpleasant across emotions. Additionally, we obtained significant power motive × activity inhibition interactions for arousal ratings in response to FEEs and neutral faces. Participants with a strong power motive and weak activity inhibition experienced stronger arousal after the presentation of neutral faces but no additional increase in arousal after the presentation of FEEs. Participants with a strong power motive and strong activity inhibition (inhibited power motive did not feel aroused by neutral faces. However, their arousal increased in response to all FEEs with the exception of happy faces, for which their subjective arousal decreased. These more differentiated reaction pattern of individuals with an inhibited power motive suggest that they engage in a more socially adaptive manner of responding to different FEEs. Our findings extend established links between implicit motives and affective processes found at the procedural level to declarative reactions to FEEs. Implications are discussed with respect to dual-process models of motivation and research in motive congruence.

  14. Plume trajectory prediction for use in radiological emergency response planning

    The SAI multi puff steered plume model was developed for the State of Illinois to aid in emergency response planning. The plume is driven by either user input meteorological data or real-time remote tower data. Realistic steering is accomplished by dividing the plume into small puffs, each of which is individually responsive to wind direction changes. The steered plume is displayed against a topographical background on plotters and color graphics terminals. The background maps, showing realistic local details such as towns and rivers, may be varied both by scale and by amount of detail requested, including an emergency zone overlay. Up to ten contour levels representing nuclide concentrations and various exposure modes may be displayed. A sample scenario is discussed involving a hypothetical non-continuous release under changing meteorological conditions. Slides showing the progress of the plume and displaying contours of gamma dose rate and gamma dose are presented. The Illinois Department of Nuclear Safety emergency response actions for this sample scenario are discussed. The recommendations for evacuation of shelter are based on the predicted doses within specified zones. After an incident, decisions must be made about reentry based in part on deposition and ingestion pathways. Slides showing contour plots of these quantities are shown and the results plotted are analyzed from the point of view of emergency planning

  15. From neural responses to population behavior: neural focus group predicts population-level media effects.

    Falk, Emily B; Berkman, Elliot T; Lieberman, Matthew D

    2012-05-01

    Can neural responses of a small group of individuals predict the behavior of large-scale populations? In this investigation, brain activations were recorded while smokers viewed three different television campaigns promoting the National Cancer Institute's telephone hotline to help smokers quit (1-800-QUIT-NOW). The smokers also provided self-report predictions of the campaigns' relative effectiveness. Population measures of the success of each campaign were computed by comparing call volume to 1-800-QUIT-NOW in the month before and the month after the launch of each campaign. This approach allowed us to directly compare the predictive value of self-reports with neural predictors of message effectiveness. Neural activity in a medial prefrontal region of interest, previously associated with individual behavior change, predicted the population response, whereas self-report judgments did not. This finding suggests a novel way of connecting neural signals to population responses that has not been previously demonstrated and provides information that may be difficult to obtain otherwise. PMID:22510393

  16. IP Tracing and Active Network Response

    Sobh, Tarek S.; Khalil, Awad H.

    2014-01-01

    Active security is mainly concerned with performing one or more security functions when a host in a communication network is subject to an attack. Such security functions include appropriate actions against attackers. To properly afford active security actions a set of software subsystems should be integrated together so that they can automatically detect and appropriately address any vulnerability in the underlying network. This work presents integrated model for active security response mod...

  17. Spatially pooled contrast responses predict neural and perceptual similarity of naturalistic image categories.

    Iris I A Groen

    Full Text Available The visual world is complex and continuously changing. Yet, our brain transforms patterns of light falling on our retina into a coherent percept within a few hundred milliseconds. Possibly, low-level neural responses already carry substantial information to facilitate rapid characterization of the visual input. Here, we computationally estimated low-level contrast responses to computer-generated naturalistic images, and tested whether spatial pooling of these responses could predict image similarity at the neural and behavioral level. Using EEG, we show that statistics derived from pooled responses explain a large amount of variance between single-image evoked potentials (ERPs in individual subjects. Dissimilarity analysis on multi-electrode ERPs demonstrated that large differences between images in pooled response statistics are predictive of more dissimilar patterns of evoked activity, whereas images with little difference in statistics give rise to highly similar evoked activity patterns. In a separate behavioral experiment, images with large differences in statistics were judged as different categories, whereas images with little differences were confused. These findings suggest that statistics derived from low-level contrast responses can be extracted in early visual processing and can be relevant for rapid judgment of visual similarity. We compared our results with two other, well- known contrast statistics: Fourier power spectra and higher-order properties of contrast distributions (skewness and kurtosis. Interestingly, whereas these statistics allow for accurate image categorization, they do not predict ERP response patterns or behavioral categorization confusions. These converging computational, neural and behavioral results suggest that statistics of pooled contrast responses contain information that corresponds with perceived visual similarity in a rapid, low-level categorization task.

  18. Using unknown knowns to predict coastal response to future climate

    Plant, N. G.; Lentz, E. E.; Gutierrez, B.; Thieler, E. R.; Passeri, D. L.

    2015-12-01

    The coastal zone, including its bathymetry, topography, ecosystem, and communities, depends on and responds to a wide array of natural and engineered processes associated with climate variability. Climate affects the frequency of coastal storms, which are only resolved probabilistically for future conditions, as well as setting the pace for persistent processes (e.g., waves driving daily alongshore transport; beach nourishment). It is not clear whether persistent processes or extreme events contribute most to the integrated evolution of the coast. Yet, observations of coastal change record the integration of persistent and extreme processes. When these observations span a large spatial domain and/or temporal range they may reflect a wide range of forcing and boundary conditions that include different levels of sea-level rise, storminess, sediment input, engineering activities, and elevation distributions. We have been using a statistical approach to characterize the interrelationships between oceanographic, ecological, and geomorphic processes—including the role played by human activities via coastal protection, beach nourishment, and other forms of coastal management. The statistical approach, Bayesian networks, incorporates existing information to establish underlying prior expectations for the distributions and inter-correlations of variables most relevant to coastal geomorphic evolution. This underlying information can then be used to make predictions. We demonstrate several examples of the utility of this approach using data as constraints and then propagating the constraints and uncertainty to make predictions of unobserved variables that include changes in shorelines, dunes, and overwash deposits. We draw on data from the Gulf and Atlantic Coasts of the United States, resolving time scales of years to a century. The examples include both short-term storm impacts and long-term evolution associated with sea-level rise. We show that the Bayesian network can

  19. Predicting Physical Activity in Arab American School Children

    Martin, Jeffrey J.; McCaughtry, Nate; Shen, Bo

    2008-01-01

    Theoretically grounded research on the determinants of Arab American children's physical activity is virtually nonexistent. Thus, the purpose of our investigation was to evaluate the ability of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) and social cognitive theory (SCT) to predict Arab American children's moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA).…

  20. Prediction of spectral acceleration response ordinates based on PGA attenuation

    Graizer, V.; Kalkan, E.

    2009-01-01

    Developed herein is a new peak ground acceleration (PGA)-based predictive model for 5% damped pseudospectral acceleration (SA) ordinates of free-field horizontal component of ground motion from shallow-crustal earthquakes. The predictive model of ground motion spectral shape (i.e., normalized spectrum) is generated as a continuous function of few parameters. The proposed model eliminates the classical exhausted matrix of estimator coefficients, and provides significant ease in its implementation. It is structured on the Next Generation Attenuation (NGA) database with a number of additions from recent Californian events including 2003 San Simeon and 2004 Parkfield earthquakes. A unique feature of the model is its new functional form explicitly integrating PGA as a scaling factor. The spectral shape model is parameterized within an approximation function using moment magnitude, closest distance to the fault (fault distance) and VS30 (average shear-wave velocity in the upper 30 m) as independent variables. Mean values of its estimator coefficients were computed by fitting an approximation function to spectral shape of each record using robust nonlinear optimization. Proposed spectral shape model is independent of the PGA attenuation, allowing utilization of various PGA attenuation relations to estimate the response spectrum of earthquake recordings.

  1. Aggression predicts Cortisol Awakening Response in healthy young adults

    Patricia Sariñana-González

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available It seems that aggressive behavior is negatively related to cortisol (C, but this relationship has been established considering the evening C levels. On the other hand, the relationship with the C awakening response (CAR and the influence of gender and menstrual cycle phase are not well understood. This study analyzed this relationship in 83 women (38 in the luteal and 45 in the follicular phase of their menstrual cycle and 20 men. CAR was assessed by measuring salivary free cortisol levels in samples taken immediately following awakening and 30, 45, and 60 minutes later. Additionally, participants completed a self-report of aggression. Men presented lower CAR than women in the luteal phase. Moreover, they also had higher levels of physical aggression than women, independently of their menstrual phase. Regarding the relationships between variables, in men general aggression and verbal aggression predicted the CAR. In women, verbal aggression predicted the CAR during the follicular phase, whereas anger and physical aggression were predictors during the luteal phase. Our data support the view that there is a negative relationship between C and aggressive behavior, even during the morning, this relationship being moderated by gender and menstrual cycle phase in the women. These findings may help improve our understanding of the biological mechanisms involved in violence.

  2. PASS-GP: Predictive active set selection for Gaussian processes

    Henao, Ricardo; Winther, Ole

    We propose a new approximation method for Gaussian process (GP) learning for large data sets that combines inline active set selection with hyperparameter optimization. The predictive probability of the label is used for ranking the data points. We use the leave-one-out predictive probability...... the active set selection strategy and marginal likelihood optimization on the active set. We make extensive tests on the USPS and MNIST digit classification databases with and without incorporating invariances, demonstrating that we can get state-of-the-art results (e.g.0.86% error on MNIST) with...

  3. Nonlinear Predictive Control of Semi-Active Landing Gear System

    Wu, Dongsu; Gu, Hongbin; Liu, Hui

    2010-01-01

    The application of model predictive control and constructive nonlinear control methodology to semi-active landing gear system is studied in this paper. A unified shock absorber mathematical model incorporates solenoid valve’s electromechanical and magnetic dynamics is built to facilitate simulation and controller design. Then we propose a hierarchical control structure to deal with the high nonlinearity. A dual mode model predictive controller as an outer loop controller is developed to gen...

  4. Prediction of fine-tuned promoter activity from DNA sequence

    Siwo, Geoffrey; Rider, Andrew; Tan, Asako; Pinapati, Richard; Emrich, Scott; Chawla, Nitesh; Ferdig, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The quantitative prediction of transcriptional activity of genes using promoter sequence is fundamental to the engineering of biological systems for industrial purposes and understanding the natural variation in gene expression. To catalyze the development of new algorithms for this purpose, the Dialogue on Reverse Engineering Assessment and Methods (DREAM) organized a community challenge seeking predictive models of promoter activity given normalized promoter activity data for 90 ribosomal protein promoters driving expression of a fluorescent reporter gene. By developing an unbiased modeling approach that performs an iterative search for predictive DNA sequence features using the frequencies of various k-mers, inferred DNA mechanical properties and spatial positions of promoter sequences, we achieved the best performer status in this challenge. The specific predictive features used in the model included the frequency of the nucleotide G, the length of polymeric tracts of T and TA, the frequencies of 6 distinct trinucleotides and 12 tetranucleotides, and the predicted protein deformability of the DNA sequence. Our method accurately predicted the activity of 20 natural variants of ribosomal protein promoters (Spearman correlation r = 0.73) as compared to 33 laboratory-mutated variants of the promoters (r = 0.57) in a test set that was hidden from participants. Notably, our model differed substantially from the rest in 2 main ways: i) it did not explicitly utilize transcription factor binding information implying that subtle DNA sequence features are highly associated with gene expression, and ii) it was entirely based on features extracted exclusively from the 100 bp region upstream from the translational start site demonstrating that this region encodes much of the overall promoter activity. The findings from this study have important implications for the engineering of predictable gene expression systems and the evolution of gene expression in naturally occurring

  5. Predictive value of serum medroxyprogesterone acetate concentration for response in advanced or recurrent breast cancer.

    Nishimura, R; Nagao, K; Matsuda, M; Baba, K; Matsuoka, Y; Yamashita, H; Fukuda, M; Higuchi, A; Ikeda, K

    1997-08-01

    Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) is one of the most commonly prescribed drugs for endocrine therapy of metastatic breast cancer. In this study, the serum MPA concentration was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and evaluated for its usefulness in predicting the response in 79 cases of advanced or recurrent breast cancers. Overall, 29 patients (37%) achieved an objective response. The response rate correlated significantly with the oestrogen receptor (ER) status (P = 0.03), proliferative activity determined by DNA polymerase alpha (P = 0.04), the disease-free interval (DFI) (P = 0.05) and the serum MPA concentration (P < 0.001). Patients with ER-positive tumours, lower proliferative activity, a longer (DFI) or a higher serum MPA concentration responded more frequently. The mean serum MPA concentration in the responders with ER-positive tumours (P = 0.01) or tumours with a lower proliferative activity (P = 0.008) were significantly lower than in cases with ER-negative tumours or tumours with a higher proliferative activity, respectively. Cases with soft tissue metastases showed responses at significantly lower MPA concentrations (P = 0.003) than those with bone or visceral metastases. Furthermore, there was a dramatic decrease in the MPA concentration when a responder with a high concentration became unresponsive to the therapy. Thus, the serum MPA concentration is a determining factor for the response to treatment. PMID:9337682

  6. Structure based activity prediction of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors.

    de Jonge, Marc R; Koymans, Lucien M H; Vinkers, H Maarten; Daeyaert, Frits F D; Heeres, Jan; Lewi, Paul J; Janssen, Paul A J

    2005-03-24

    We have developed a fast and robust computational method for prediction of antiviral activity in automated de novo design of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors. This is a structure-based approach that uses a linear relation between activity and interaction energy with discrete orientation sampling and with localized interaction energy terms. The localization allows for the analysis of mutations of the protein target and for the separation of inhibition and a specific binding to the enzyme. We apply the method to the prediction of pIC(50) of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors. The model predicts the activity of an arbitrary compound with a q(2) of 0.681 and an average absolute error of 0.66 log value, and it is fast enough to be used in high-throughput computational applications. PMID:15771460

  7. Fractional Diffusion Based Modelling and Prediction of Human Brain Response to External Stimuli

    Hamidreza Namazi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human brain response is the result of the overall ability of the brain in analyzing different internal and external stimuli and thus making the proper decisions. During the last decades scientists have discovered more about this phenomenon and proposed some models based on computational, biological, or neuropsychological methods. Despite some advances in studies related to this area of the brain research, there were fewer efforts which have been done on the mathematical modeling of the human brain response to external stimuli. This research is devoted to the modeling and prediction of the human EEG signal, as an alert state of overall human brain activity monitoring, upon receiving external stimuli, based on fractional diffusion equations. The results of this modeling show very good agreement with the real human EEG signal and thus this model can be used for many types of applications such as prediction of seizure onset in patient with epilepsy.

  8. Stock price change rate prediction by utilizing social network activities.

    Deng, Shangkun; Mitsubuchi, Takashi; Sakurai, Akito

    2014-01-01

    Predicting stock price change rates for providing valuable information to investors is a challenging task. Individual participants may express their opinions in social network service (SNS) before or after their transactions in the market; we hypothesize that stock price change rate is better predicted by a function of social network service activities and technical indicators than by a function of just stock market activities. The hypothesis is tested by accuracy of predictions as well as performance of simulated trading because success or failure of prediction is better measured by profits or losses the investors gain or suffer. In this paper, we propose a hybrid model that combines multiple kernel learning (MKL) and genetic algorithm (GA). MKL is adopted to optimize the stock price change rate prediction models that are expressed in a multiple kernel linear function of different types of features extracted from different sources. GA is used to optimize the trading rules used in the simulated trading by fusing the return predictions and values of three well-known overbought and oversold technical indicators. Accumulated return and Sharpe ratio were used to test the goodness of performance of the simulated trading. Experimental results show that our proposed model performed better than other models including ones using state of the art techniques. PMID:24790586

  9. Anti-glycated activity prediction of polysaccharides from two guava fruits using artificial neural networks.

    Yan, Chunyan; Lee, Jinsheng; Kong, Fansheng; Zhang, Dezhi

    2013-10-15

    High-efficiency ultrasonic treatment was used to extract the polysaccharides of Psidium guajava (PPG) and Psidium littorale (PPL). The aims of this study were to compare polysaccharide activities from these two guavas, as well as to investigate the relationship between ultrasonic conditions and anti-glycated activity. A mathematical model of anti-glycated activity was constructed with the artificial neural network (ANN) toolbox of MATLAB software. Response surface plots showed the correlation between ultrasonic conditions and bioactivity. The optimal ultrasonic conditions of PPL for the highest anti-glycated activity were predicted to be 256 W, 60 °C, and 12 min, and the predicted activity was 42.2%. The predicted highest anti-glycated activity of PPG was 27.2% under its optimal predicted ultrasonic condition. The experimental result showed that PPG and PPL possessed anti-glycated and antioxidant activities, and those of PPL were greater. The experimental data also indicated that ANN had good prediction and optimization capability. PMID:23987324

  10. Negative-Margin Criterion for Impact-Response Prediction

    Anderson, Denton

    2006-01-01

    Some space missions require a nuclear-power source to generate electrical power to meet mission objectives. At present, the nuclear-power source is an assembly of modular heat sources called the general purpose heat source (GPHS) modules. Each module comprises graphite shells designed to protect iridium-alloy clads which serve as the primary containment shells for the radioactive, heat-producing material. In the course of launching the space vehicle to perform its mission the nuclear heat source may be exposed to severe accident environments. One particular environment is a primary impact event where individual GPHS modules impact hard surfaces at speeds in the range of 50 meters per second or more. Tests have shown that some clads may be breached in particularly severe impacts and release a small fraction of their contents. This paper presents an empirical model for predicting essential ingredients for assessing the risk associated with primary impact events. The ingredients include: clad failure probability, release fraction of clad contents, characterization of the released material in terms of particle-size distribution and a means to estimate uncertainty in the prediction process. The empirical model focuses on the deformation of the clads and their capability to withstand deformation without breaching, measured by ductility. The basic criterion used to estimate all ingredients is called ``negative margin''. The procedure for estimating risk factors entails calculation of clad distortion by, e.g. hydrocode simulation, and high-strain-rate ductility of the iridium alloy. Negative margin is a linear combination of distortion and ductility. Regression equations derived from test data are used to calculate the clad failure probability and the fractional activity release as functions of negative margin. The mass-based particle-size distribution is calculated as a function of release fraction. Cumulative uncertainty in this computing process is evaluated using

  11. NEURAL NETWORKS PREDICTION FOR SEISMIC RESPONSE OF STRUCTURE UNDER THE LEVENBERG-MARQUARDT ALGORITHM

    徐赵东; 沈亚鹏; 李爱群

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prediction effect of neural networks for seismic response of structure under the Levenberg-Marquardt(LM) algorithm. Results Based on identification and prediction ability of neural networks for nonlinear systems, and combined with LM algorithm, a multi-layer forward networks is adopted to predict the seismic responses of structure. The networks is trained in batch by the shaking table test data of three-floor reinforced concrete structure firstly, then the seismic responses of structure are predicted under the unused excitation data, and the predict responses are compared with the experiment responses. The error curves between the prediction and the experimental results show the efficiency of the method. Conclusion LM algorithm has very good convergence rate, and the neural networks can predict the seismic response of the structure well.

  12. Predicting Active Users' Personality Based on Micro-Blogging Behaviors

    Lin LI; Li, Ang; Hao, Bibo; Guan, Zengda; Zhu, Tingshao

    2014-01-01

    Because of its richness and availability, micro-blogging has become an ideal platform for conducting psychological research. In this paper, we proposed to predict active users' personality traits through micro-blogging behaviors. 547 Chinese active users of micro-blogging participated in this study. Their personality traits were measured by the Big Five Inventory, and digital records of micro-blogging behaviors were collected via web crawlers. After extracting 845 micro-blogging behavioral fe...

  13. Early treatment response predicted subsequent clinical response in patients with schizophrenia taking paliperidone extended-release.

    Yeh, En-Chi; Huang, Ming-Chyi; Tsai, Chang-Jer; Chen, Chun-Tse; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Chiu, Chih-Chiang

    2015-11-30

    This 6-week open-labeled study investigated whether early treatment response in patients receiving paliperidone extended-release (paliperidone ER) can facilitate prediction of responses at Week 6. Patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were administered 9mg/day of paliperidone ER during the first 2 weeks, after which the dose was adjusted clinically. They were assessed on Days 0, 4, 7, 14, 28, and 42 by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). The serum concentrations of 9-hydroxyrisperidone were examined on Days 14 and 42. Among the 41 patients enrolled, 26 were classified as responders (≧50% improvement on total PANSS scores at Week 6). In the receiver-operator curves (ROC) analyses, the changes in total PANSS scores at Week 2 appeared to show more accurate predictability compared to Day 4 and Day 7. At Week 6, no significant correlation was observed between blood 9-hydroxyrisperidone concentration and the total score or changes of PANSS scores. The results suggest that early treatment response to paliperidone ER, particularly at Week 2, can serve as a suitable outcome predictor at Week 6. Using 9mg/day paliperidone ER as an initial dose for schizophrenia treatment exhibited relatively favorable tolerability and feasibility. PMID:26319696

  14. Predicting response to chemotherapy with early-stage lung cancer.

    Rosell, Rafael; Taron, Miquel; Massuti, Bartomeu; Mederos, Nuria; Magri, Ignacio; Santarpia, Mariacarmela; Sanchez, Jose Miguel

    2011-01-01

    A recent meta-analysis of 11,107 patients with non-small cell lung cancer who had undergone surgical resection showed that the 5-year survival benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy was 4%, and that of adjuvant chemoradiotherapy was 5%. Two trials have shown a trend toward improved survival with adjuvant paclitaxel plus carboplatin. However, the benefit of adjuvant treatment remains suboptimal. We must distinguish between patients who will not relapse-and who can thus be spared adjuvant treatment-and those who will-for whom adjuvant treatment must be personalized. Several gene expression signatures, generally containing nonoverlapping genes, provide similar predictive information on clinical outcome, and a model combining several signatures did not perform better than did each of the signatures separately. The invasiveness gene signature, containing 186 genes, includes genes involved in the nuclear factor κB pathway, the RAS-mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, and epigenetic control of gene expression. A 15-gene signature has identified JBR.10 patients who are more sensitive to adjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:21263267

  15. Resting alpha activity predicts learning ability in alpha neurofeedback

    Wenya eNan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Individuals differ in their ability to learn how to regulate the alpha activity by neurofeedback. This study aimed to investigate whether the resting alpha activity is related to the learning ability of alpha enhancement in neurofeedback and could be used as a predictor. A total of 25 subjects performed 20 sessions of individualized alpha neurofeedback in order to learn how to enhance activity in the alpha frequency band. The learning ability was assessed by three indices respectively: the training parameter changes between two periods, within a short period and across the whole training time. It was found that the resting alpha amplitude measured before training had significant positive correlations with all learning indices and could be used as a predictor for the learning ability prediction. This finding would help the researchers in not only predicting the training efficacy in individuals but also gaining further insight into the mechanisms of alpha neurofeedback.

  16. Anticipating Human Activities Using Object Affordances for Reactive Robotic Response.

    Koppula, Hema S; Saxena, Ashutosh

    2016-01-01

    An important aspect of human perception is anticipation, which we use extensively in our day-to-day activities when interacting with other humans as well as with our surroundings. Anticipating which activities will a human do next (and how) can enable an assistive robot to plan ahead for reactive responses. Furthermore, anticipation can even improve the detection accuracy of past activities. The challenge, however, is two-fold: We need to capture the rich context for modeling the activities and object affordances, and we need to anticipate the distribution over a large space of future human activities. In this work, we represent each possible future using an anticipatory temporal conditional random field (ATCRF) that models the rich spatial-temporal relations through object affordances. We then consider each ATCRF as a particle and represent the distribution over the potential futures using a set of particles. In extensive evaluation on CAD-120 human activity RGB-D dataset, we first show that anticipation improves the state-of-the-art detection results. We then show that for new subjects (not seen in the training set), we obtain an activity anticipation accuracy (defined as whether one of top three predictions actually happened) of 84.1, 74.4 and 62.2 percent for an anticipation time of 1, 3 and 10 seconds respectively. Finally, we also show a robot using our algorithm for performing a few reactive responses. PMID:26656575

  17. Predicting active users' personality based on micro-blogging behaviors.

    Lin Li

    Full Text Available Because of its richness and availability, micro-blogging has become an ideal platform for conducting psychological research. In this paper, we proposed to predict active users' personality traits through micro-blogging behaviors. 547 Chinese active users of micro-blogging participated in this study. Their personality traits were measured by the Big Five Inventory, and digital records of micro-blogging behaviors were collected via web crawlers. After extracting 839 micro-blogging behavioral features, we first trained classification models utilizing Support Vector Machine (SVM, differentiating participants with high and low scores on each dimension of the Big Five Inventory [corrected]. The classification accuracy ranged from 84% to 92%. We also built regression models utilizing PaceRegression methods, predicting participants' scores on each dimension of the Big Five Inventory. The Pearson correlation coefficients between predicted scores and actual scores ranged from 0.48 to 0.54. Results indicated that active users' personality traits could be predicted by micro-blogging behaviors.

  18. Does salivary gland scintigraphy predict response to pilocarpine in patients with post-radiotherapy xerostomia?

    This study was undertaken to determine whether standard salivary gland scintigraphy may be used for the objective assessment of salivary gland sialogogues, in particular oral pilocarpine, in the treatment of post-radiotherapy xerostomia. Nine patients, with xerostomia following radiotherapy to the head and neck region underwent salivary gland scintigraphy with technetium-99m pertechnetate (40 MBq) both before and following 1 month of oral pilocarpine (5 mg tds). For each scan, the percentage uptake in the first 14 min, the peak uptake, time to peak uptake and the percentage of activity excreted following lemon juice stimulation were calculated. The results were correlated with the subjective response as assessed by questionnaire and visual analogue scale. We found no correlation between subjective response and any of the four scan parameters analysed. We could not identify any parameter that predicted those patients who would respond to pilocarpine. In addition, only one parameter, the percentage of activity excreted following stimulation, correlated with previous dose of radiotherapy to the gland. In conclusion, in this study salivary gland scintigraphy did not appear to correlate with or predict response to oral pilocarpine. However, future studies might consider performing salivary gland scintigraphy prior to radiotherapy as well as at differing time points following the commencement of pilocarpine. (orig.)

  19. Does salivary gland scintigraphy predict response to pilocarpine in patients with post-radiotherapy xerostomia?

    Cooper, R.A.; Cowan, R.A.; Slevin, N.J.; Allan, E.; Gupta, N.K. [Department of Clinical Oncology, Christie Hospital, Manchester (United Kingdom); Owens, S.E.; Jeans, S.P.; Roberts, J.K.; Hillel, P.G. [North Western Medical Physics, Christie Hospital, Manchester (United Kingdom); Collins, C.D. [Department of Radiology, Christie Hospital, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    1999-03-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether standard salivary gland scintigraphy may be used for the objective assessment of salivary gland sialogogues, in particular oral pilocarpine, in the treatment of post-radiotherapy xerostomia. Nine patients, with xerostomia following radiotherapy to the head and neck region underwent salivary gland scintigraphy with technetium-99m pertechnetate (40 MBq) both before and following 1 month of oral pilocarpine (5 mg tds). For each scan, the percentage uptake in the first 14 min, the peak uptake, time to peak uptake and the percentage of activity excreted following lemon juice stimulation were calculated. The results were correlated with the subjective response as assessed by questionnaire and visual analogue scale. We found no correlation between subjective response and any of the four scan parameters analysed. We could not identify any parameter that predicted those patients who would respond to pilocarpine. In addition, only one parameter, the percentage of activity excreted following stimulation, correlated with previous dose of radiotherapy to the gland. In conclusion, in this study salivary gland scintigraphy did not appear to correlate with or predict response to oral pilocarpine. However, future studies might consider performing salivary gland scintigraphy prior to radiotherapy as well as at differing time points following the commencement of pilocarpine. (orig.) With 6 figs., 1 tab., 20 refs.

  20. Doppler laser imaging predicts response to topical minoxidil in the treatment of female pattern hair loss.

    McCoy, J; Kovacevic, M; Situm, M; Stanimirovic, A; Bolanca, Z; Goren, A

    2016-01-01

    Topical minoxidil is the only drug approved by the US FDA for the treatment of female pattern hair loss. Unfortunately, following 16 weeks of daily application, less than 40% of patients regrow hair. Several studies have demonstrated that sulfotransferase enzyme activity in plucked hair follicles predicts topical minoxidil response in female pattern hair loss patients. However, due to patients’ discomfort with the procedure, and the time required to perform the enzymatic assay it would be ideal to develop a rapid, non-invasive test for sulfotransferase enzyme activity. Minoxidil is a pro-drug converted to its active form, minoxidil sulfate, by sulfotransferase enzymes in the outer root sheath of hair. Minoxidil sulfate is the active form required for both the promotion of hair regrowth and the vasodilatory effects of minoxidil. We thus hypothesized that laser Doppler velocimetry measurement of scalp blood perfusion subsequent to the application of topical minoxidil would correlate with sulfotransferase enzyme activity in plucked hair follicles. In this study, plucked hair follicles from female pattern hair loss patients were analyzed for sulfotransferase enzyme activity. Additionally, laser Doppler velocimetry was used to measure the change in scalp perfusion at 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes, after the application of minoxidil. In agreement with our hypothesis, we discovered a correlation (r=1.0) between the change in scalp perfusion within 60 minutes after topical minoxidil application and sulfotransferase enzyme activity in plucked hairs. To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating the feasibility of using laser Doppler imaging as a rapid, non-invasive diagnostic test to predict topical minoxidil response in the treatment of female pattern hair loss. PMID:27049083

  1. Platelet serotonin transporter function predicts default-mode network activity.

    Christian Scharinger

    Full Text Available The serotonin transporter (5-HTT is abundantly expressed in humans by the serotonin transporter gene SLC6A4 and removes serotonin (5-HT from extracellular space. A blood-brain relationship between platelet and synaptosomal 5-HT reuptake has been suggested, but it is unknown today, if platelet 5-HT uptake can predict neural activation of human brain networks that are known to be under serotonergic influence.A functional magnetic resonance study was performed in 48 healthy subjects and maximal 5-HT uptake velocity (Vmax was assessed in blood platelets. We used a mixed-effects multilevel analysis technique (MEMA to test for linear relationships between whole-brain, blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD activity and platelet Vmax.The present study demonstrates that increases in platelet Vmax significantly predict default-mode network (DMN suppression in healthy subjects independent of genetic variation within SLC6A4. Furthermore, functional connectivity analyses indicate that platelet Vmax is related to global DMN activation and not intrinsic DMN connectivity.This study provides evidence that platelet Vmax predicts global DMN activation changes in healthy subjects. Given previous reports on platelet-synaptosomal Vmax coupling, results further suggest an important role of neuronal 5-HT reuptake in DMN regulation.

  2. Predicting activity approach based on new atoms similarity kernel function.

    Abu El-Atta, Ahmed H; Moussa, M I; Hassanien, Aboul Ella

    2015-07-01

    Drug design is a high cost and long term process. To reduce time and costs for drugs discoveries, new techniques are needed. Chemoinformatics field implements the informational techniques and computer science like machine learning and graph theory to discover the chemical compounds properties, such as toxicity or biological activity. This is done through analyzing their molecular structure (molecular graph). To overcome this problem there is an increasing need for algorithms to analyze and classify graph data to predict the activity of molecules. Kernels methods provide a powerful framework which combines machine learning with graph theory techniques. These kernels methods have led to impressive performance results in many several chemoinformatics problems like biological activity prediction. This paper presents a new approach based on kernel functions to solve activity prediction problem for chemical compounds. First we encode all atoms depending on their neighbors then we use these codes to find a relationship between those atoms each other. Then we use relation between different atoms to find similarity between chemical compounds. The proposed approach was compared with many other classification methods and the results show competitive accuracy with these methods. PMID:26117822

  3. Predictive Active Set Selection Methods for Gaussian Processes

    Henao, Ricardo; Winther, Ole

    2012-01-01

    We propose an active set selection framework for Gaussian process classification for cases when the dataset is large enough to render its inference prohibitive. Our scheme consists of a two step alternating procedure of active set update rules and hyperparameter optimization based upon marginal...... active set parameters that directly control its complexity. We also provide both theoretical and empirical support for our active set selection strategy being a good approximation of a full Gaussian process classifier. Our extensive experiments show that our approach can compete with state...... likelihood maximization. The active set update rules rely on the ability of the predictive distributions of a Gaussian process classifier to estimate the relative contribution of a datapoint when being either included or removed from the model. This means that we can use it to include points with potentially...

  4. Music-induced emotions can be predicted from a combination of brain activity and acoustic features.

    Daly, Ian; Williams, Duncan; Hallowell, James; Hwang, Faustina; Kirke, Alexis; Malik, Asad; Weaver, James; Miranda, Eduardo; Nasuto, Slawomir J

    2015-12-01

    It is widely acknowledged that music can communicate and induce a wide range of emotions in the listener. However, music is a highly-complex audio signal composed of a wide range of complex time- and frequency-varying components. Additionally, music-induced emotions are known to differ greatly between listeners. Therefore, it is not immediately clear what emotions will be induced in a given individual by a piece of music. We attempt to predict the music-induced emotional response in a listener by measuring the activity in the listeners electroencephalogram (EEG). We combine these measures with acoustic descriptors of the music, an approach that allows us to consider music as a complex set of time-varying acoustic features, independently of any specific music theory. Regression models are found which allow us to predict the music-induced emotions of our participants with a correlation between the actual and predicted responses of up to r=0.234,pmusic induced emotions can be predicted by their neural activity and the properties of the music. Given the large amount of noise, non-stationarity, and non-linearity in both EEG and music, this is an encouraging result. Additionally, the combination of measures of brain activity and acoustic features describing the music played to our participants allows us to predict music-induced emotions with significantly higher accuracies than either feature type alone (p<0.01). PMID:26544602

  5. Model-based Comparative Prediction of Transcription-Factor Binding Motifs in Anabolic Responses in Bone

    Andy B. Chen; Kazunori Hamamura; Guohua Wang; Weirong Xing; Subburaman Mohan; Hiroki Yokota; Yunlong Liu

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the regulatory mechanism that controls the alteration of global gene expression patterns continues to be a challenging task in computational biology. We previously developed an ant algorithm, a biologically-inspired computational technique for microarray data, and predicted putative transcription-factor binding motifs (TFBMs) through mimicking interactive behaviors of natural ants. Here we extended the algorithm into a set of web-based software, Ant Modeler, and applied it to investigate the transcriptional mechanism underlying bone formation. Mechanical loading and administration of bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) are two known treatments to strengthen bone. We addressed a question: Is there any TFBM that stimulates both "anabolic responses of mechanical loading" and "BMP-mediated osteogenic signaling"? Although there is no significant overlap among genes in the two responses, a comparative model-based analysis suggests that the two independent osteogenic processes employ common TFBMs, such as a stress responsive element and a motif for peroxisome proliferator-activated recep- tor (PPAR). The post-modeling in vitro analysis using mouse osteoblast cells sup- ported involvements of the predicted TFBMs such as PPAR, Ikaros 3, and LMO2 in response to mechanical loading. Taken together, the results would be useful to derive a set of testable hypotheses and examine the role of specific regulators in complex transcriptional control of bone formation.

  6. Precise prediction model and simplified scoring system for sustained combined response to interferon-α

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To establish a predictive algorithm which may serve for selecting optimal candidates for interferon-α(IFN-α) treatment.METHODS:A total of 474 IFN-α treated hepatitis B virus e antigen(HBeAg)-positive patients were enrolled in the present study.The patients' baseline characteristics,such as age,gender,blood tests,activity grading(G) of intrahepatic inflammation,score(S) of liver fibrosis,hepatitis B virus(HBV) DNA and genotype were evaluated;therapy duration and response of each patient at the 24th wk af...

  7. Response surface optimisation for activation of bentonite with microwave irradiation

    Rožić Ljiljana S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the statistical design of the experimental method was applied on the acid activation process of bentonite with microwave irradiation. The influence of activation parameters (time, acid normality and microwave heating power on the selected process response of the activated bentonite samples was studied. The specific surface area was chosen for the process response, because the chemical, surface and structural properties of the activated clay determine and limit its potential applications. The relationship of various process parameters with the specific surface area of bentonite was examined. A mathematical model was developed using a second-order response surface model (RSM with a central composite design incorporating the above mentioned process parameters. The mathematical model developed helped in predicting the variation in specific surface area of activated bentonite with time (5-21 min, acid normality (2-7 N and microwave heating power (63-172 W. The calculated regression models were found to be statistically significant at the required range and presented little variability. Furthermore, high values of R2 (0.957 and R2 (adjusted (0.914 indicate a high dependence and correlation between the observed and the predicted values of the response. These high values also indicate that about 96% of the result of the total variation can be explained by this model. In addition, the model shows that increasing the time and acid normality improves the textural properties of bentonites, resulting in increased specific surface area. This model also can be useful for setting an optimum value of the activation parameters for achieving the maximum specific surface area. An optimum specific surface area of 142 m2g-1 was achieved with an acid normality of 5.2 N, activation time of 7.38 min and microwave power of 117 W. Acid activation of bentonite was found to occur faster with microwave irradiation than with conventional heating. Microwave

  8. Predictive computational modeling of the mucosal immune responses during Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Adria Carbo

    Full Text Available T helper (Th cells play a major role in the immune response and pathology at the gastric mucosa during Helicobacter pylori infection. There is a limited mechanistic understanding regarding the contributions of CD4+ T cell subsets to gastritis development during H. pylori colonization. We used two computational approaches: ordinary differential equation (ODE-based and agent-based modeling (ABM to study the mechanisms underlying cellular immune responses to H. pylori and how CD4+ T cell subsets influenced initiation, progression and outcome of disease. To calibrate the model, in vivo experimentation was performed by infecting C57BL/6 mice intragastrically with H. pylori and assaying immune cell subsets in the stomach and gastric lymph nodes (GLN on days 0, 7, 14, 30 and 60 post-infection. Our computational model reproduced the dynamics of effector and regulatory pathways in the gastric lamina propria (LP in silico. Simulation results show the induction of a Th17 response and a dominant Th1 response, together with a regulatory response characterized by high levels of mucosal Treg cells. We also investigated the potential role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ activation on the modulation of host responses to H. pylori by using loss-of-function approaches. Specifically, in silico results showed a predominance of Th1 and Th17 cells in the stomach of the cell-specific PPARγ knockout system when compared to the wild-type simulation. Spatio-temporal, object-oriented ABM approaches suggested similar dynamics in induction of host responses showing analogous T cell distributions to ODE modeling and facilitated tracking lesion formation. In addition, sensitivity analysis predicted a crucial contribution of Th1 and Th17 effector responses as mediators of histopathological changes in the gastric mucosa during chronic stages of infection, which were experimentally validated in mice. These integrated immunoinformatics approaches

  9. Brain Activity in Response to Visual Symmetry

    Marco Bertamini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A number of studies have explored visual symmetry processing by measuring event related potentials and neural oscillatory activity. There is a sustained posterior negativity (SPN related to the presence of symmetry. There is also functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI activity in extrastriate visual areas and in the lateral occipital complex. We summarise the evidence by answering six questions. (1 Is there an automatic and sustained response to symmetry in visual areas? Answer: Yes, and this suggests automatic processing of symmetry. (2 Which brain areas are involved in symmetry perception? Answer: There is an extended network from extrastriate areas to higher areas. (3 Is reflection special? Answer: Reflection is the optimal stimulus for a more general regularity-sensitive network. (4 Is the response to symmetry independent of view angle? Answer: When people classify patterns as symmetrical or random, the response to symmetry is view-invariant. When people attend to other dimensions, the network responds to residual regularity in the image. (5 How are brain rhythms in the two hemispheres altered during symmetry perception? Answer: Symmetry processing (rather than presence produces more alpha desynchronization in the right posterior regions. Finally, (6 does symmetry processing produce positive affect? Answer: Not in the strongest sense, but behavioural measures reveal implicit positive evaluation of abstract symmetry.

  10. Prepotent response inhibition predicts treatment outcome in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    S. van der Oord; H.M. Geurts; P.J.M. Prins; P.M.G. Emmelkamp; J. Oosterlaan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Inhibition deficits, including deficits in prepotent response inhibition and interference control, are core deficits in ADHD. The predictive value of prepotent response inhibition and interference control was assessed for outcome in a 10-week treatment trial with methylphenidate. Methods:

  11. Dynamic response of active twist rotor blades

    Cesnik, Carlos E. S.; Shin, Sang Joon; Wilbur, Matthew L.

    2001-02-01

    Dynamic characteristics of active twist rotor (ATR) blades are investigated analytically and experimentally in this paper. The ATR system is intended for vibration and potentially for noise reductions in helicopters through individual blade control. An aeroelastic model is developed to identify frequency response characteristics of the ATR blade with integral, generally anisotropic, strain actuators embedded in its composite construction. An ATR prototype blade was designed and manufactured to experimentally study the vibration reduction capabilities of such systems. Several bench and hover tests were conducted and those results are presented and discussed here. Selected results on sensitivity of the ATR system to collective setting (i.e. blade loading), blade rpm (i.e. centrifugal force and blade station velocity), and media density (i.e. altitude) are presented. They indicated that the twist actuation authority of the ATR blade is independent of the collective setting up to approximately 10P, and dependent on rotational speed and altitude near the torsional resonance frequency due to its dependency on the aerodynamic damping. The proposed model captures very well the physics and sensitivities to selected test parameters of the ATR system. The numerical result of the blade torsional loads show an average error of 20% in magnitude and virtually no difference in phase for the blade frequency response. Overall, the active blade model is in very good agreement with the experiments and can be used to analyze and design future active helicopter blade systems.

  12. Platelet Serotonin Transporter Function Predicts Default-Mode Network Activity

    Christian Scharinger; Ulrich Rabl; Christian H. Kasess; Meyer, Bernhard M.; Tina Hofmaier; Kersten Diers; Lucie Bartova; Gerald Pail; Wolfgang Huf; Zeljko Uzelac; Beate Hartinger; Klaudius Kalcher; Thomas Perkmann; Helmuth Haslacher; Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg

    2014-01-01

    Background The serotonin transporter (5-HTT) is abundantly expressed in humans by the serotonin transporter gene SLC6A4 and removes serotonin (5-HT) from extracellular space. A blood-brain relationship between platelet and synaptosomal 5-HT reuptake has been suggested, but it is unknown today, if platelet 5-HT uptake can predict neural activation of human brain networks that are known to be under serotonergic influence. Methods A functional magnetic resonance study was performed in 48 healthy...

  13. Neural activity during encoding predicts false memories created by misinformation

    Okado, Yoko; Stark, Craig E.L.

    2005-01-01

    False memories are often demonstrated using the misinformation paradigm, in which a person's recollection of a witnessed event is altered after exposure to misinformation about the event. The neural basis of this phenomenon, however, remains unknown. We used fMRI to investigate encoding processes during the viewing of an event and misinformation to see whether neural activity during either encoding phase could predict what would be remembered. fMRI data were collected as participants studied ...

  14. Mathematical models for predicting indoor air quality from smoking activity.

    Ott, W R

    1999-01-01

    Much progress has been made over four decades in developing, testing, and evaluating the performance of mathematical models for predicting pollutant concentrations from smoking in indoor settings. Although largely overlooked by the regulatory community, these models provide regulators and risk assessors with practical tools for quantitatively estimating the exposure level that people receive indoors for a given level of smoking activity. This article reviews the development of the mass balanc...

  15. Resource assurance predicts specialist and generalist bee activity in drought

    Minckley, Robert L.; Roulston, T'ai H.; Williams, Neal M.

    2013-01-01

    Many short-lived desert organisms remain in diapause during drought. Theoretically, the cues desert species use to continue diapause through drought should differ depending on the availability of critical resources, but the unpredictability and infrequent occurrence of climate extremes and reduced insect activity during such events make empirical tests of this prediction difficult. An intensive study of a diverse bee–plant community through a drought event found that bee specialists of a drou...

  16. Personalized medicine in psoriasis: developing a genomic classifier to predict histological response to Alefacept

    Haider Asifa S

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alefacept treatment is highly effective in a select group patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis, and is an ideal candidate to develop systems to predict who will respond to therapy. A clinical trial of 22 patients with moderate to severe psoriasis treated with alefacept was conducted in 2002-2003, as a mechanism of action study. Patients were classified as responders or non-responders to alefacept based on histological criteria. Results of the original mechanism of action study have been published. Peripheral blood was collected at the start of this clinical trial, and a prior analysis demonstrated that gene expression in PBMCs differed between responders and non-responders, however, the analysis performed could not be used to predict response. Methods Microarray data from PBMCs of 16 of these patients was analyzed to generate a treatment response classifier. We used a discriminant analysis method that performs sample classification from gene expression data, via "nearest shrunken centroid method". Centroids are the average gene expression for each gene in each class divided by the within-class standard deviation for that gene. Results A disease response classifier using 23 genes was created to accurately predict response to alefacept (12.3% error rate. While the genes in this classifier should be considered as a group, some of the individual genes are of great interest, for example, cAMP response element modulator (CREM, v-MAF avian musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene family (MAFF, chloride intracellular channel protein 1 (CLIC1, also called NCC27, NLR family, pyrin domain-containing 1 (NLRP1, and CCL5 (chemokine, cc motif, ligand 5, also called regulated upon activation, normally T expressed, and presumably secreted/RANTES. Conclusions Although this study is small, and based on analysis of existing microarray data, we demonstrate that a treatment response classifier for alefacept can be created using gene

  17. A model for signal processing and predictive control of semi-active structural control system

    M-H Shih; W-P Sung; Ching-Jong Wang

    2009-06-01

    The theory for structural control has been well developed and applied to perform excellent energy dissipation using dampers. Both active and semi-active control systems may be used to decide on the optimal switch point of the damper based on the current and past structural responses to the excitation of external forces. However, numerous noises may occur when the control signals are accessed and transported thus causing a delay of the damper. Therefore, a predictive control technique that integrates an improved method of detecting the control signal based on the direction of the structural motion, and a calculator for detecting the velocity using the least-square polynomial regression is proposed in this research. Comparisons of the analytical data and experimental results show that this predictor is effective in switching the moving direction of the semi-active damper. This conclusion is further verified using the component and shaking table test with constant amplitude but various frequencies, and the El Centro earthquake test. All tests confirm that this predictive control technique is effective to alleviate the time delay problem of semi-active dampers. This predictive control technique promotes about 30% to 40% reduction of the structural displacement response and about 35% to 45% reduction of the structural acceleration response.

  18. Reward prediction-related increases and decreases in tonic neuronal activity of the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus

    Ken-Ichi Okada

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The neuromodulators serotonin, acetylcholine, and dopamine have been proposed to play important roles in the execution of movement, control of several forms of attentional behavior, and reinforcement learning. While the response pattern of midbrain dopaminergic neurons and its specific role in reinforcement learning have been revealed, the roles of the other neuromodulators remain elusive. Reportedly, neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus, one major source of serotonin, continually track the state of expectation of future rewards by showing a correlated response to the start of a behavioral task, reward cue presentation, and reward delivery. Here, we show that neurons in the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTN, one major source of acetylcholine, showed similar encoding of the expectation of future rewards by a systematic increase or decrease in tonic activity. We recorded and analyzed PPTN neuronal activity in monkeys during a reward conditioned visually guided saccade task. The firing patterns of many PPTN neurons were tonically increased or decreased throughout the task period. The tonic activity pattern of neurons was correlated with their encoding of the predicted reward value; neurons exhibiting an increase or decrease in tonic activity showed higher or lower activity in the large reward-predicted trials, respectively. Tonic activity and reward-related modulation ended around the time of reward delivery. Additionally, some tonic changes in activity started prior to the appearance of the initial stimulus, and were related to the anticipatory fixational behavior. A partially overlapping population of neurons showed both the initial anticipatory response and subsequent predicted reward value-dependent activity modulation by their systematic increase or decrease of tonic activity. These bi-directional reward- and anticipatory behavior-related modulation patterns are suitable for the presumed role of the PPTN in reward processing and

  19. Prefrontal activity predicts monkeys' decisions during an auditory category task

    Jung Hoon Lee

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The neural correlates that relate auditory categorization to aspects of goal-directed behavior, such as decision-making, are not well understood. Since the prefrontal cortex plays an important role in executive function and the categorization of auditory objects, we hypothesized that neural activity in the prefrontal cortex (PFC should predict an animal's behavioral reports (decisions during a category task. To test this hypothesis, we tested PFC activity that was recorded while monkeys categorized human spoken words (Russ et al., 2008b. We found that activity in the ventrolateral PFC, on average, correlated best with the monkeys' choices than with the auditory stimuli. This finding demonstrates a direct link between PFC activity and behavioral choices during a non-spatial auditory task.

  20. Impaired Neural Response to Negative Prediction Errors in Cocaine Addiction

    Parvaz, Muhammad A.; Anna B. Konova; Proudfit, Greg H.; Dunning, Jonathan P.; Malaker, Pias; Moeller, Scott J.; Maloney, Tom; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Goldstein, Rita Z.

    2015-01-01

    Learning can be guided by unexpected success or failure, signaled via dopaminergic positive reward prediction error (+RPE) and negative reward-prediction error (−RPE) signals, respectively. Despite conflicting empirical evidence, RPE signaling is thought to be impaired in drug addiction. To resolve this outstanding question, we studied as a measure of RPE the feedback negativity (FN) that is sensitive to both reward and the violation of expectation. We examined FN in 25 healthy controls; 25 i...

  1. Structure-Functional Study of Tyrosine and Methionine Dipeptides: An Approach to Antioxidant Activity Prediction

    Anna Torkova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Quantum chemical methods allow screening and prediction of peptide antioxidant activity on the basis of known experimental data. It can be used to design the selective proteolysis of protein sources in order to obtain products with antioxidant activity. Molecular geometry and electronic descriptors of redox-active amino acids, as well as tyrosine and methionine-containing dipeptides, were studied by Density Functional Theory method. The calculated data was used to reveal several descriptors responsible for the antioxidant capacities of the model compounds based on their experimentally obtained antioxidant capacities against ABTS (2,2′-Azino-bis-(3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonate and peroxyl radical. A formula to predict antioxidant activity of peptides was proposed.

  2. Predicting potential responses to future climate in an alpine ungulate: interspecific interactions exceed climate effects.

    Mason, Tom H E; Stephens, Philip A; Apollonio, Marco; Willis, Stephen G

    2014-12-01

    The altitudinal shifts of many montane populations are lagging behind climate change. Understanding habitual, daily behavioural rhythms, and their climatic and environmental influences, could shed light on the constraints on long-term upslope range-shifts. In addition, behavioural rhythms can be affected by interspecific interactions, which can ameliorate or exacerbate climate-driven effects on ecology. Here, we investigate the relative influences of ambient temperature and an interaction with domestic sheep (Ovis aries) on the altitude use and activity budgets of a mountain ungulate, the Alpine chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra). Chamois moved upslope when it was hotter but this effect was modest compared to that of the presence of sheep, to which they reacted by moving 89-103 m upslope, into an entirely novel altitudinal range. Across the European Alps, a range-shift of this magnitude corresponds to a 46% decrease in the availability of suitable foraging habitat. This highlights the importance of understanding how factors such as competition and disturbance shape a given species' realised niche when predicting potential future responses to change. Furthermore, it exposes the potential for manipulations of species interactions to ameliorate the impacts of climate change, in this case by the careful management of livestock. Such manipulations could be particularly appropriate for species where competition or disturbance already strongly restricts their available niche. Our results also reveal the potential role of behavioural flexibility in responses to climate change. Chamois reduced their activity when it was warmer, which could explain their modest altitudinal migrations. Considering this behavioural flexibility, our model predicts a small 15-30 m upslope shift by 2100 in response to climate change, less than 4% of the altitudinal shift that would be predicted using a traditional species distribution model-type approach (SDM), which assumes that species' behaviour

  3. Can personality traits and gender predict the response to morphine? An experimental cold pain study.

    Pud, Dorit; Yarnitsky, David; Sprecher, Elliot; Rogowski, Zeev; Adler, Rivka; Eisenberg, Elon

    2006-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the possible role of personality traits, in accordance with Cloninger's theory, and gender, in the variability of responsiveness to opioids. Specifically, it was intended to test whether or not the three personality dimensions - harm avoidance (HA), reward dependence (RD) and novelty seeking (NS) - as suggested by Cloninger, can predict inter-personal differences in responsiveness to morphine after exposure to experimental cold pain. Thirty-four healthy volunteers (15 females, 19 males) were given the cold pressor test (CPT). Pain threshold, tolerance, and magnitude (VAS) were measured before and after (six measures, 30 min apart) the administration of either 0.5 mg/kg oral morphine sulphate (n=21) or 0.33 mg/kg oral active placebo (diphenhydramine) (n=13) in a randomized, double blind design. Assessment of the three personality traits, according to Cloninger's Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire, was performed before the CPT. A high HA score (but not RD, NS, or baseline values of the three pain parameters) predicted a significantly larger pain relief following the administration of morphine sulphate (but not of the placebo). Women exhibited a larger response in response to both treatments, as indicated by a significantly increased threshold and tolerance following morphine sulphate as well as significantly increased tolerance and decreased magnitude following placebo administration. The present study confirms the existence of individual differences in response to analgesic treatment. It suggests that high HA personality trait is associated with better responsiveness to morphine treatment, and that females respond better than men to both morphine and placebo. PMID:16310713

  4. Soil radon response around an active volcano

    Soil radon behavior related to the volcanic eruptive period 1997-1999 of Popocatepetl volcano has been studied as a function of the volcanic activity. Since the volcano is located 60 km from Mexico City, the risk associated with an explosive eruptive phase is high and an intense surveillance program has been implemented. Previous studies in this particular volcano showed soil radon pulses preceding the initial phase of the eruption. The radon survey was performed with LR-115 track detectors at a shallow depth and the effect of the soil moisture during the rainy season has been observed on the detectors response. In the present state of the volcanic activity the soil radon behavior has shown more stability than in previous eruptive stages

  5. Soil radon response around an active volcano

    Segovia, N. E-mail: msa@nuclear.inin.mx; Valdes, C.; Pena, P.; Mena, M.; Tamez, E

    2001-06-01

    Soil radon behavior related to the volcanic eruptive period 1997-1999 of Popocatepetl volcano has been studied as a function of the volcanic activity. Since the volcano is located 60 km from Mexico City, the risk associated with an explosive eruptive phase is high and an intense surveillance program has been implemented. Previous studies in this particular volcano showed soil radon pulses preceding the initial phase of the eruption. The radon survey was performed with LR-115 track detectors at a shallow depth and the effect of the soil moisture during the rainy season has been observed on the detectors response. In the present state of the volcanic activity the soil radon behavior has shown more stability than in previous eruptive stages.

  6. Mouse models of human AML accurately predict chemotherapy response

    Zuber, Johannes; Radtke, Ina; Pardee, Timothy S.; Zhao, Zhen; Rappaport, Amy R.; Luo, Weijun; McCurrach, Mila E.; Yang, Miao-Miao; Dolan, M. Eileen; Kogan, Scott C.; Downing, James R.; Lowe, Scott W.

    2009-01-01

    The genetic heterogeneity of cancer influences the trajectory of tumor progression and may underlie clinical variation in therapy response. To model such heterogeneity, we produced genetically and pathologically accurate mouse models of common forms of human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and developed methods to mimic standard induction chemotherapy and efficiently monitor therapy response. We see that murine AMLs harboring two common human AML genotypes show remarkably diverse responses to co...

  7. Prediction of Inelastic Response Spectra Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Alfredo Reyes-Salazar; Ruiz, Sonia E.; Juan Bojórquez; Edén Bojórquez

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have been oriented to develop methodologies for estimating inelastic response of structures; however, the estimation of inelastic seismic response spectra requires complex analyses, in such a way that traditional methods can hardly get an acceptable error. In this paper, an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model is presented as an alternative to estimate inelastic response spectra for earthquake ground motion records. The moment magnitude (MW), fault mechanism (FM), Joyner-Boor...

  8. Predicting the responses of repetitively firing neurons to current noise.

    Wilson, Charles J; Barraza, David; Troyer, Todd; Farries, Michael A

    2014-05-01

    We used phase resetting methods to predict firing patterns of rat subthalamic nucleus (STN) neurons when their rhythmic firing was densely perturbed by noise. We applied sequences of contiguous brief (0.5-2 ms) current pulses with amplitudes drawn from a Gaussian distribution (10-100 pA standard deviation) to autonomously firing STN neurons in slices. Current noise sequences increased the variability of spike times with little or no effect on the average firing rate. We measured the infinitesimal phase resetting curve (PRC) for each neuron using a noise-based method. A phase model consisting of only a firing rate and PRC was very accurate at predicting spike timing, accounting for more than 80% of spike time variance and reliably reproducing the spike-to-spike pattern of irregular firing. An approximation for the evolution of phase was used to predict the effect of firing rate and noise parameters on spike timing variability. It quantitatively predicted changes in variability of interspike intervals with variation in noise amplitude, pulse duration and firing rate over the normal range of STN spontaneous rates. When constant current was used to drive the cells to higher rates, the PRC was altered in size and shape and accurate predictions of the effects of noise relied on incorporating these changes into the prediction. Application of rate-neutral changes in conductance showed that changes in PRC shape arise from conductance changes known to accompany rate increases in STN neurons, rather than the rate increases themselves. Our results show that firing patterns of densely perturbed oscillators cannot readily be distinguished from those of neurons randomly excited to fire from the rest state. The spike timing of repetitively firing neurons may be quantitatively predicted from the input and their PRCs, even when they are so densely perturbed that they no longer fire rhythmically. PMID:24809636

  9. Prediction of delayed treatment response in pulmonary tuberculosis: use of time to positivity values of Bactec cultures.

    Carroll, N M; Uys, P; Hesseling, A; Lawrence, K; Pheiffer, C; Salker, F; Duncan, K; Beyers, N; van Helden, P D

    2008-11-01

    New drugs that can shorten tuberculosis (TB) treatment and target drug resistant strains are urgently needed. A test which could predict patients at risk of a delayed response to treatment would facilitate clinical trials of new anti-tuberculosis drugs. A widely-used test for the assessment of response to treatment is sputum smear examination. Patients who are smear positive after 2 and 3 months of treatment are said to have delayed and significantly delayed treatment responses respectively. Time to positivity (TTP) values of Bactec cultures, from the first 2 weeks of treatment were used to predict delayed and significantly delayed treatment responses in patients with first time pulmonary tuberculosis. Changes in TTP values early in treatment were transformed to a response ratio (r). Values of r that were less than a threshold value (r(c)) indicated patients who were at risk of having delayed or significantly delayed response to treatment. Accuracy of prediction was sensitive to the timing of sputum sampling and adherence to therapy in the first 2 weeks. Based on TTP data from the first 2 weeks of treatment, significantly delayed treatment response could be predicted with a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 62% while the positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) were 14% and 97% respectively. While the high NPV indicates that a large proportion of patients with a satisfactory response to treatment can be reliably identified, the low PPV value underlines the need to use TTP in conjunction with other markers of disease activity to predict unfavourable treatment response in tuberculosis treatment. PMID:18456556

  10. Impulsive approach tendencies towards physical activity and sedentary behaviors, but not reflective intentions, prospectively predict non-exercise activity thermogenesis.

    Boris Cheval

    Full Text Available Understanding the determinants of non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT is crucial, given its extensive health benefits. Some scholars have assumed that a proneness to react differently to environmental cues promoting sedentary versus active behaviors could be responsible for inter-individual differences in NEAT. In line with this reflection and grounded on the Reflective-Impulsive Model, we test the assumption that impulsive processes related to sedentary and physical activity behaviors can prospectively predict NEAT, operationalized as spontaneous effort exerted to maintain low intensity muscle contractions within the release phases of an intermittent maximal isometric contraction task. Participants (n = 91 completed a questionnaire assessing their intentions to adopt physical activity behaviors and a manikin task to assess impulsive approach tendencies towards physical activity behaviors (IAPA and sedentary behaviors (IASB. Participants were then instructed to perform a maximal handgrip strength task and an intermittent maximal isometric contraction task. As hypothesized, multilevel regression analyses revealed that spontaneous effort was (a positively predicted by IAPA, (b negatively predicted by IASB, and (c was not predicted by physical activity intentions, after controlling for some confounding variables such as age, sex, usual PA level and average force provided during the maximal-contraction phases of the task. These effects remained constant throughout all the phases of the task. This study demonstrated that impulsive processes may play a unique role in predicting spontaneous physical activity behaviors. Theoretically, this finding reinforces the utility of a motivational approach based on dual-process models to explain inter-individual differences in NEAT. Implications for health behavior theories and behavior change interventions are outlined.

  11. Measurement and Prediction of the Thermomechanical Response of Shape Memory Alloy Hybrid Composite Beams

    Davis, Brian; Turner, Travis L.; Seelecke, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    An experimental and numerical investigation into the static and dynamic responses of shape memory alloy hybrid composite (SMAHC) beams is performed to provide quantitative validation of a recently commercialized numerical analysis/design tool for SMAHC structures. The SMAHC beam specimens consist of a composite matrix with embedded pre-strained SMA actuators, which act against the mechanical boundaries of the structure when thermally activated to adaptively stiffen the structure. Numerical results are produced from the numerical model as implemented into the commercial finite element code ABAQUS. A rigorous experimental investigation is undertaken to acquire high fidelity measurements including infrared thermography and projection moire interferometry for full-field temperature and displacement measurements, respectively. High fidelity numerical results are also obtained from the numerical model and include measured parameters, such as geometric imperfection and thermal load. Excellent agreement is achieved between the predicted and measured results of the static and dynamic thermomechanical response, thereby providing quantitative validation of the numerical tool.

  12. Prediction of response to radiotherapy in the treatment of esophageal cancer using stem cell markers

    Background and purpose: In this study, we investigated whether cancer stem cell marker expressing cells can be identified that predict for the response of esophageal cancer (EC) to CRT. Materials and methods: EC cell-lines OE-33 and OE-21 were used to assess in vitro, stem cell activity, proliferative capacity and radiation response. Xenograft tumors were generated using NOD/SCID mice to assess in vivo proliferative capacity and tumor hypoxia. Archival and fresh EC biopsy tissue was used to confirm our in vitro and in vivo results. Results: We showed that the CD44+/CD24− subpopulation of EC cells exerts a higher proliferation rate and sphere forming potential and is more radioresistant in vitro, when compared to unselected or CD44+/CD24+ cells. Moreover, CD44+/CD24− cells formed xenograft tumors faster and were often located in hypoxic tumor areas. In a study of archival pre-neoadjuvant CRT biopsy material from EC adenocarcinoma patients (N = 27), this population could only be identified in 50% (9/18) of reduced-responders to neoadjuvant CRT, but never (0/9) in the complete responders (P = 0.009). Conclusion: These results warrant further investigation into the possible clinical benefit of CD44+/CD24− as a predictive marker in EC patients for the response to chemoradiation

  13. Prediction-error in the context of real social relationships modulates reward system activity

    Joshua ePoore; Jennifer ePfeifer; Elliot eBerkman; Tristen eInagaki; Benjamin Locke Welborn; Matthew eLieberman

    2012-01-01

    The human reward system is sensitive to both social (e.g., validation) and non-social rewards (e.g., money) and is likely integral for relationship development and reputation building. However, data is sparse on the question of whether implicit social reward processing meaningfully contributes to explicit social representations such as trust and attachment security in pre-existing relationships. This event-related fMRI experiment examined reward system prediction-error activity in response to...

  14. 5-HTTLPR differentially predicts brain network responses to emotional faces

    Fisher, Patrick M; Grady, Cheryl L; Madsen, Martin K;

    2015-01-01

    The effects of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism on neural responses to emotionally salient faces have been studied extensively, focusing on amygdala reactivity and amygdala-prefrontal interactions. Despite compelling evidence that emotional face paradigms engage a distributed network of brain regions...... involved in emotion, cognitive and visual processing, less is known about 5-HTTLPR effects on broader network responses. To address this, we evaluated 5-HTTLPR differences in the whole-brain response to an emotional faces paradigm including neutral, angry and fearful faces using functional magnetic...... to fearful faces was significantly greater in S' carriers compared to LA LA individuals. These findings provide novel evidence for emotion-specific 5-HTTLPR effects on the response of a distributed set of brain regions including areas responsive to emotionally salient stimuli and critical components...

  15. Factors Predicting Physical Activity Among Children With Special Needs

    Shahram Yazdani, MD

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Obesity is especially prevalent among children with special needs. Both lack of physical activity and unhealthful eating are major contributing factors. The objective of our study was to investigate barriers to physical activity among these children. Methods We surveyed parents of the 171 children attending Vista Del Mar School in Los Angeles, a nonprofit school serving a socioeconomically diverse group of children with special needs from kindergarten through 12th grade. Parents were asked about their child’s and their own physical activity habits, barriers to their child’s exercise, and demographics. The response rate was 67%. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine predictors of children being physically active at least 3 hours per week. Results Parents reported that 45% of the children were diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, 38% with autism, and 34% with learning disabilities; 47% of children and 56% of parents were physically active less than 3 hours per week. The top barriers to physical activity were reported as child’s lack of interest (43%, lack of developmentally appropriate programs (33%, too many behavioral problems (32%, and parents’ lack of time (29%. However, child’s lack of interest was the only parent-reported barrier independently associated with children’s physical activity. Meanwhile, children whose parents were physically active at least 3 hours per week were 4.2 times as likely to be physically active as children whose parents were less physically active (P = .01. Conclusion In this group of students with special needs, children’s physical activity was strongly associated with parental physical activity; parent-reported barriers may have had less direct effect. Further studies should examine the importance of parental physical activity among children with special needs.

  16. Impaired neural response to negative prediction errors in cocaine addiction.

    Parvaz, Muhammad A; Konova, Anna B; Proudfit, Greg H; Dunning, Jonathan P; Malaker, Pias; Moeller, Scott J; Maloney, Tom; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Goldstein, Rita Z

    2015-02-01

    Learning can be guided by unexpected success or failure, signaled via dopaminergic positive reward prediction error (+RPE) and negative reward-prediction error (-RPE) signals, respectively. Despite conflicting empirical evidence, RPE signaling is thought to be impaired in drug addiction. To resolve this outstanding question, we studied as a measure of RPE the feedback negativity (FN) that is sensitive to both reward and the violation of expectation. We examined FN in 25 healthy controls; 25 individuals with cocaine-use disorder (CUD) who tested positive for cocaine on the study day (CUD+), indicating cocaine use within the past 72 h; and in 25 individuals with CUD who tested negative for cocaine (CUD-). EEG was acquired while the participants performed a gambling task predicting whether they would win or lose money on each trial given three known win probabilities (25, 50, or 75%). FN was scored for the period in each trial when the actual outcome (win or loss) was revealed. A significant interaction between prediction, outcome, and group revealed that controls showed increased FN to unpredicted compared with predicted wins (i.e., intact +RPE) and decreased FN to unpredicted compared with predicted losses (i.e., intact -RPE). However, neither CUD subgroup showed FN modulation to loss (i.e., impaired -RPE), and unlike CUD+ individuals, CUD- individuals also did not show FN modulation to win (i.e., impaired +RPE). Thus, using FN, the current study directly documents -RPE deficits in CUD individuals. The mechanisms underlying -RPE signaling impairments in addiction may contribute to the disadvantageous nature of excessive drug use, which can persist despite repeated unfavorable life experiences (e.g., frequent incarcerations). PMID:25653348

  17. Predicting flow at work: investigating the activities and job characteristics that predict flow states at work.

    Nielsen, Karina; Cleal, Bryan

    2010-04-01

    Flow (a state of consciousness where people become totally immersed in an activity and enjoy it intensely) has been identified as a desirable state with positive effects for employee well-being and innovation at work. Flow has been studied using both questionnaires and Experience Sampling Method (ESM). In this study, we used a newly developed 9-item flow scale in an ESM study combined with a questionnaire to examine the predictors of flow at two levels: the activities (brainstorming, planning, problem solving and evaluation) associated with transient flow states and the more stable job characteristics (role clarity, influence and cognitive demands). Participants were 58 line managers from two companies in Denmark; a private accountancy firm and a public elder care organization. We found that line managers in elder care experienced flow more often than accountancy line managers, and activities such as planning, problem solving, and evaluation predicted transient flow states. The more stable job characteristics included in this study were not, however, found to predict flow at work. PMID:20364915

  18. Predicting beneficial effects of atomoxetine and citalopram on response inhibition in Parkinson's disease with clinical and neuroimaging measures.

    Ye, Zheng; Rae, Charlotte L; Nombela, Cristina; Ham, Timothy; Rittman, Timothy; Jones, Peter Simon; Rodríguez, Patricia Vázquez; Coyle-Gilchrist, Ian; Regenthal, Ralf; Altena, Ellemarije; Housden, Charlotte R; Maxwell, Helen; Sahakian, Barbara J; Barker, Roger A; Robbins, Trevor W; Rowe, James B

    2016-03-01

    Recent studies indicate that selective noradrenergic (atomoxetine) and serotonergic (citalopram) reuptake inhibitors may improve response inhibition in selected patients with Parkinson's disease, restoring behavioral performance and brain activity. We reassessed the behavioral efficacy of these drugs in a larger cohort and developed predictive models to identify patient responders. We used a double-blind randomized three-way crossover design to investigate stopping efficiency in 34 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease after 40 mg atomoxetine, 30 mg citalopram, or placebo. Diffusion-weighted and functional imaging measured microstructural properties and regional brain activations, respectively. We confirmed that Parkinson's disease impairs response inhibition. Overall, drug effects on response inhibition varied substantially across patients at both behavioral and brain activity levels. We therefore built binary classifiers with leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV) to predict patients' responses in terms of improved stopping efficiency. We identified two optimal models: (1) a "clinical" model that predicted the response of an individual patient with 77-79% accuracy for atomoxetine and citalopram, using clinically available information including age, cognitive status, and levodopa equivalent dose, and a simple diffusion-weighted imaging scan; and (2) a "mechanistic" model that explained the behavioral response with 85% accuracy for each drug, using drug-induced changes of brain activations in the striatum and presupplementary motor area from functional imaging. These data support growing evidence for the role of noradrenaline and serotonin in inhibitory control. Although noradrenergic and serotonergic drugs have highly variable effects in patients with Parkinson's disease, the individual patient's response to each drug can be predicted using a pattern of clinical and neuroimaging features. PMID:26757216

  19. Agitation predicts response of depression to botulinum toxin treatment in a randomized controlled trial

    Marc Axel Wollmer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In a randomized, controlled trial (n=30 we showed that botulinum toxin injection to the glabellar region produces a marked improvement in the symptoms of major depression. We hypothesized that the mood-lifting effect was mediated by facial feedback mechanisms. Here we assessed if agitation, which may be associated with increased dynamic psychomotor activity of the facial musculature, can predict response to the treatment. To test this hypothesis we re-analyzed the data of the scales from our previous study on a single item basis and compared the baseline scores in the agitation item (item 9 of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D between responders (n=9 and participants who did not attain response (n=6 among the recipients of onabotulinumtoxinA (n=15. Results: Responders had significantly higher item 9 scores at baseline (1.56+0.88 vs. 0.33+0.52, t(13=3.04, d=1.7, p=0.01, while no other single item of the HAM-D or the Beck Depression Inventory was associated with treatment response. The agitation score had an overall precision of 78% in predicting response in a receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis (area under the curve, AUC=0.87. These data provide a link between response to botulinum toxin treatment with a psychomotor manifestation of depression and thereby indirect support of the proposed facial feedback mechanism of action. Moreover, it suggests that patients with agitated depression may particularly benefit from botulinum toxin treatment.

  20. Prediction of Antifungal Activity of Gemini Imidazolium Compounds

    Łukasz Pałkowski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The progress of antimicrobial therapy contributes to the development of strains of fungi resistant to antimicrobial drugs. Since cationic surfactants have been described as good antifungals, we present a SAR study of a novel homologous series of 140 bis-quaternary imidazolium chlorides and analyze them with respect to their biological activity against Candida albicans as one of the major opportunistic pathogens causing a wide spectrum of diseases in human beings. We characterize a set of features of these compounds, concerning their structure, molecular descriptors, and surface active properties. SAR study was conducted with the help of the Dominance-Based Rough Set Approach (DRSA, which involves identification of relevant features and relevant combinations of features being in strong relationship with a high antifungal activity of the compounds. The SAR study shows, moreover, that the antifungal activity is dependent on the type of substituents and their position at the chloride moiety, as well as on the surface active properties of the compounds. We also show that molecular descriptors MlogP, HOMO-LUMO gap, total structure connectivity index, and Wiener index may be useful in prediction of antifungal activity of new chemical compounds.

  1. Attachment avoidance predicts inflammatory responses to marital conflict

    Gouin, Jean-Philippe; Glaser, Ronald; Loving, Timothy J.; Malarkey, William B.; Stowell, Jeffrey; Houts, Carrie; Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K.

    2008-01-01

    Marital stress has been associated with immune dysregulation, including increased production of interleukin-6 (IL-6). Attachment style, one’s expectations about the availability and responsiveness of others in intimate relationships, appears to influence physiological stress reactivity and thus could influence inflammatory responses to marital conflict. Thirty-five couples were invited for two 24-hour admissions to a hospital research unit. The first visit included a structured social support...

  2. Evaluation of Social Cognitive Scaling Response Options in the Physical Activity Domain

    Rhodes, Ryan E.; Matheson, Deborah Hunt; Mark, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the reliability, variability, and predictive validity of two common scaling response formats (semantic differential, Likert-type) and two numbers of response options (5-point, 7-point) in the physical activity domain. Constructs of the theory of planned behavior were chosen in this analysis based on its…

  3. Optimal Coding Predicts Attentional Modulation of Activity in Neural Systems

    Jaramillo, Santiago; Pearlmutter, Barak A.

    2007-01-01

    Neuronal activity in response to a fixed stimulus has been shown to change as a function of attentional state, implying that the neural code also changes with attention. We propose an information-theoretic account of such modulation: that the nervous system adapts to optimally encode sensory stimuli while taking into account the changing relevance of different features. We show using computer simulation that such modulation emerges in a coding system informed about the uneven relevance of ...

  4. The safeguards active response inventory system (SARIS)

    The Safeguards Active Response Inventory System (SARIS) is a computerized accountability system developed for nuclear materials control that incorporates elements of process monitoring, criticality safety, physical inventory and safeguards. It takes data from the process operations, stores it in an on-line database and translates the information into the formats needed by the various users. It traces the material through the process from feed to product; including recycle, waste and scraps streams. It models the process as the material changes form to ensure that artificial losses are not created. It automatically generates input to Nuclear Materials Management and Safeguards System (NMMSS), performs checks to prevent the possibility of a criticality accident, prepares an audit trail for Safeguards, prints labels for nuclear material containers, and produces DOE/NRC 741 forms. SARIS has been installed at three laboratories across the country

  5. The Safeguards Active Response Inventory System (SARIS)

    The Safeguards Active Response Inventory System (SARIS) was developed by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to perform material control and accountability on all the nuclear material under WHC's jurisdiction. SARIS has been in operation for four and one-half years. It has reduced physical inventory plant shutdown time from several days to a few hours. The user-friendly interface has proven successful, as the training time for a new operator is only two to three hours; also errors have been dramatically reduced. The modeling features of SARIS have reduced the reported inventory difference and provide better information for measurement of scrap and waste. The audit files have been usefull in resolving data entry errors and the backup features have averted several potential problems. SARIS as a computerized accountability system has replaced manual record keeping with a consequent increase in productivity. 4 refs

  6. Predicting reinforced concrete frame response to excavation induced settlement

    Laefer, Debra F.; Ceribasi, Seyit; James H Long; Cording, Edward J.

    2009-01-01

    In many tunneling and excavation projects, free-field vertical ground movements have been used to predict subsidence and empirical limits have been employed to evaluate risk. Validity of such approaches given the reality of two-dimensional ground movements and the influence of adjacent applied loads has been largely unknown. This paper employed analytical and large-scale experimental efforts to quantify these issues, in the case of a reinforced concrete frame structure adjacent to an excavati...

  7. From Boundary Layer Turbulence to Hydrologic Response: Recent Results on Scaling, Nonlinearity, and Predictability and Their Implications

    Foufoula-Georgiou, E.

    2002-12-01

    Deepening our understanding of the space-time variability of atmospheric/hydrologic processes and their interactions over a range of scales has important implications for improving model parameterizations and increasing the accuracy of predictive models. At the same time, the inherent nonlinear and chaotic character of some of these processes imposes limits on their predictability, and therefore provides upper bounds on the expected prediction accuracy from numerical models. This paper will address questions of scaling, nonlinearity and predictability in processes active at two major interfaces of the hydrologic system: the land-atmosphere interface, and the land-water interface. Specifically, recent findings and their practical implications will be presented on: (a) multiscale interactions in turbulent boundary layers and implications for boundary condition formulations; (b) predictability assessment of turbulent velocities in a boundary layer as a function of scale; and (c) nonlinear dynamics of basin hydrologic response as a function of spatio-temporally varying forcing and basin geomorphological organization.

  8. Social responsibility activity of small enterprise – selected areas

    Agnieszka Sokolowska

    2011-01-01

    Rules of social responsibility concept apply more to large enterprises activity than small ones. That is why there exists the need for indication of specificity of social responsibility in this enterprise group. The aim of the paper is to present social responsibility activities in selected areas of social responsibility in a small enterprise. The discussion is of theoretical and empirical nature.

  9. Predicting and preventing the future: actively managing multiple sclerosis.

    Hutchinson, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) has a highly variable clinical course but a number of demographic, clinical and MRI features can guide the clinician in the assessment of disease activity and likely disability outcome. It is also clear that the inflammatory activity in the first five years of relapsing-remitting MS results in the neurodegenerative changes seen in secondary progressive MS 10-15 years later. While conventional first-line disease modifying therapy has an effect on relapses, about one third of patients have a suboptimal response to treatment. With the advent of highly active second-line therapies with their evident marked suppression of inflammation, the clinician now has the tools to manage the course of relapsing-remitting MS more effectively. The development of treatment optimisation recommendations based on the clinical response to first-line therapies can guide the neurologist in more active management of the early course of relapsing-remitting MS, with the aim of preventing both acute inflammatory axonal injury and the neurodegenerative process which leads to secondary progressive MS.

  10. Gene expression signature of fibroblast serum response predicts human cancer progression: similarities between tumors and wounds.

    Howard Y Chang

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Cancer invasion and metastasis have been likened to wound healing gone awry. Despite parallels in cellular behavior between cancer progression and wound healing, the molecular relationships between these two processes and their prognostic implications are unclear. In this study, based on gene expression profiles of fibroblasts from ten anatomic sites, we identify a stereotyped gene expression program in response to serum exposure that appears to reflect the multifaceted role of fibroblasts in wound healing. The genes comprising this fibroblast common serum response are coordinately regulated in many human tumors, allowing us to identify tumors with gene expression signatures suggestive of active wounds. Genes induced in the fibroblast serum-response program are expressed in tumors by the tumor cells themselves, by tumor-associated fibroblasts, or both. The molecular features that define this wound-like phenotype are evident at an early clinical stage, persist during treatment, and predict increased risk of metastasis and death in breast, lung, and gastric carcinomas. Thus, the transcriptional signature of the response of fibroblasts to serum provides a possible link between cancer progression and wound healing, as well as a powerful predictor of the clinical course in several common carcinomas.

  11. Relationship-Based Infant Care: Responsive, on Demand, and Predictable

    Petersen, Sandra; Wittmer, Donna

    2008-01-01

    Young babies are easily overwhelmed by the pain of hunger or gas. However, when an infant's day is filled with caregiving experiences characterized by quick responses to his cries and accurate interpretations of the meaning of his communication, the baby learns that he can count on being fed and comforted. He begins to develop trust in his teacher…

  12. Immune response markers in sentinel nodes may predict melanoma progression

    Rodolfo, Monica; Castelli, Chiara; Rivoltini, Licia

    2014-01-01

    We recently reported that variable expression of immune-response genes distinguishes tumor positive sentinel nodes in melanoma patients with malignant progression from those with non-progressing disease. Our results depict sentinel nodes as sites in which immune functions are associated with metastatic disease and identify CD30 as a host immune-related cancer prognostic marker and potential therapeutic target.

  13. Mothers' Labeling Responses to Infants' Gestures Predict Vocabulary Outcomes

    Olson, Janet; Masur, Elise Frank

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-nine infants aged 1;1 and their mothers were videotaped while interacting with toys for 18 minutes. Six experimental stimuli were presented to elicit infant communicative bids in two communicative intent contexts--proto-declarative and proto-imperative. Mothers' verbal responses to infants' gestural and non-gestural communicative bids were…

  14. Prediction of Inelastic Response Spectra Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Edén Bojórquez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have been oriented to develop methodologies for estimating inelastic response of structures; however, the estimation of inelastic seismic response spectra requires complex analyses, in such a way that traditional methods can hardly get an acceptable error. In this paper, an Artificial Neural Network (ANN model is presented as an alternative to estimate inelastic response spectra for earthquake ground motion records. The moment magnitude (MW, fault mechanism (FM, Joyner-Boore distance (dJB, shear-wave velocity (Vs30, fundamental period of the structure (T1, and the maximum ductility (μu were selected as inputs of the ANN model. Fifty earthquake ground motions taken from the NGA database and recorded at sites with different types of soils are used during the training phase of the Feedforward Multilayer Perceptron model. The Backpropagation algorithm was selected to train the network. The ANN results present an acceptable concordance with the real seismic response spectra preserving the spectral shape between the actual and the estimated spectra.

  15. Impaired hyperemic response is predictive of early access failure.

    Wall, L Philipp; Gasparis, Antonios; Callahan, Susan; van Bemmelen, Paul; Criado, Enrique; Ricotta, John

    2004-03-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate that hyperemic response is a predictor of access failure. We conducted a review of a prospective database of dialysis access patients with preoperative hyperemia studies from June 1998 to August 2002. These consisted of bilateral brachial artery pressures followed by flow velocity measurements of the brachial artery and radial artery at rest and after 3 min of arm ischemia. Measurements were taken by using a cuff placed above the antecubital fossa and inflated to 20 mmHg above systolic pressure. There were no differences recorded in brachial artery pressures for the bilateral studies. Hyperemic response was entered into a stepwise Cox regression to determine its effect on access failure. Access failure was defined as failure to mature or thrombosis. Accesses were placed according to Dialysis Outcome Quality Intiatives (DOQI) guidelines. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed. Log-rank testing was used to compare patency results. Censored end points were death, renal transplant, and access survival to the end of the study period. Fistulas that failed to mature were considered failures at 3 months. Arteries with a <5 cm/sec increase in peak systolic velocity were defined as nonresponders. The 59 arteries used for dialysis access were divided into two groups on the basis of their hyperemic response in cm/sec. The nonresponders were compared with the remainder of accesses performed. Accesses based on arteries with absent or minimal hyperemic response had significantly lower (p < 0.0005) secondary patencies by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Upon further stratification into radial and brachial arteries, the significant difference in secondary patency remained for radial artery--based accesses (p = 0.024) and approached statistical significance for brachial artery--based accesses (p = 0.057). A significant difference was not seen in primary patencies, indicating that accesses based on arteries with an acceptable hyperemic response

  16. Irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking: From modeling and prediction of laboratory and in-core response to component life prediction

    Following an introduction to the phenomenology and consequences of irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC), the many common aspects of SCC response in unirradiated and irradiated environments is reviewed. From a secure basis of understanding and predictive modeling under unirradiated conditions, the effects of individual irradiation phenomenon are identified and modeled. The individual effects of radiation on segregation, creep/stress relaxation, hardening, and radiolytic water chemistry are modeled based on the best available data, some from proprietary sources. Critical issues are addressed, such as the possibility that radiation produces very high corrosion potentials in crevices/cracks under irradiated conditions. A wide variety of irradiated laboratory data and field observations provides a basis for comparison with prediction and an optimism that, despite an imperfect understanding of irradiation phenomena, it is possible to develop predictive algorithms that characterize IASCC with reasonable accuracy and, from that, to develop an effective approach for life prediction

  17. Habituation responses in wild reindeer exposed to recreational activities

    Eigil Reimers

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Displacement is the effect most often predicted when recreational activities in wild reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus areas are discussed. Wild reindeer in Blefjell (225 km2 are exposed to humans more frequently than in Hardangervidda (8200 km2, from which the Blefjell herd originate. We recorded fright and flight response distances of groups of reindeer in both herds to a person directly approaching them on foot or skis during winter, summer, and autumn post-hunting and rutting season in 2004-2006. The response distances sight, alert, flight initiation and escape were shorter in Blefjell than in Hardangervidda while the probability of assessing the observer before flight tended to be greater in Blefjell. To test whether these results could be due to habituation or genetic influence of semi-domestic reindeer previously released in the Blefjell region, we compared the genetic variation of the Blefjell reindeer with previously reported variation in semi-domestic reindeer and in the wild reindeer from Hardangervidda. Microsatellite analyses revealed closer genetic ancestry of the Blefjell reindeer to the wild Hardangervidda reindeer and not to the semi-domestic reindeer at both the herd and the individual level. We conclude that the decreased flight responses in Blefjell reindeer appear to be a habituation response to frequent human encounters rather than traits inherited from a semi-domestic origin.

  18. Pyrotechnic shock response predictions combining statistical energy analysis and local random phase reconstruction.

    Bodin, E; Brévart, B; Wagstaff, P; Borello, G

    2002-07-01

    Numerous pyrotechnic devices are used on satellites to separate structural subsystems, deploy appendages, and activate on-board operating subsystems. The firing of these pyrotechnic mechanisms leads to severe impulsive loads which could sometimes lead to failures in electronic systems. The objective of the present investigation is to assess the relevance of a method combining deterministic calculations and statistical energy analysis to predict the time overall shock environment of electronic equipment components. The methods are applied to the low- and high-frequency ranges, respectively, which may be defined using a modal parameter based on the effective transmissibility. Initially, in order to address the problem of the low-frequency content of the mechanical shock pulse, the linear dynamic response of the equipment was calculated using direct time integration of a finite element model of the structure. The inputs in the form of the accelerations measured in all three directions at each of the four bolted interfaces were injected into the model. The high-frequency content of the shock response is taken into account by considering the intrinsic dynamic filtering of the equipment. This frequency filter magnitude is extrapolated from the transfer function given by statistical energy analysis between the different imposed accelerations and the response accelerations. Their associated phases are synthesized by considering pseudo-modal phase variations around the group velocity of the structural flexural waves. Combining the effects of the high-frequency filter outputs and the low-frequency finite element calculations yields good predictions of the equipment shock time response over the whole frequency range of interest. PMID:12141340

  19. Pyrotechnic shock response predictions combining statistical energy analysis and local random phase reconstruction

    Bodin, E.; Brevart, B.; Wagstaff, P.; Borello, G.

    2002-07-01

    Numerous pyrotechnic devices are used on satellites to separate structural subsystems, deploy appendages, and activate on-board operating subsystems. The firing of these pyrotechnic mechanisms leads to severe impulsive loads which could sometimes lead to failures in electronic systems. The objective of the present investigation is to assess the relevance of a method combining deterministic calculations and statistical energy analysis to predict the time overall shock environment of electronic equipment components. The methods are applied to the low- and high-frequency ranges, respectively, which may be defined using a modal parameter based on the effective transmissibility. Initially, in order to address the problem of the low-frequency content of the mechanical shock pulse, the linear dynamic response of the equipment was calculated using direct time integration of a finite element model of the structure. The inputs in the form of the accelerations measured in all three directions at each of the four bolted interfaces were injected into the model. The high-frequency content of the shock response is taken into account by considering the intrinsic dynamic filtering of the equipment. This frequency filter magnitude is extrapolated from the transfer function given by statistical energy analysis between the different imposed accelerations and the response accelerations. Their associated phases are synthesized by considering pseudo-modal phase variations around the group velocity of the structural flexural waves. Combining the effects of the high-frequency filter outputs and the low-frequency finite element calculations yields good predictions of the equipment shock time response over the whole frequency range of interest. copyright 2002 Acoustical Society of America.

  20. Neuromagnetic oscillations predict evoked-response latency delays and core language deficits in autism spectrum disorders.

    Edgar, J Christopher; Khan, Sarah Y; Blaskey, Lisa; Chow, Vivian Y; Rey, Michael; Gaetz, William; Cannon, Katelyn M; Monroe, Justin F; Cornew, Lauren; Qasmieh, Saba; Liu, Song; Welsh, John P; Levy, Susan E; Roberts, Timothy P L

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies have observed evoked response latency as well as gamma band superior temporal gyrus (STG) auditory abnormalities in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). A limitation of these studies is that associations between these two abnormalities, as well as the full extent of oscillatory phenomena in ASD in terms of frequency and time, have not been examined. Subjects were presented pure tones at 200, 300, 500, and 1,000 Hz while magnetoencephalography assessed activity in STG auditory areas in a sample of 105 children with ASD and 36 typically developing controls (TD). Findings revealed a profile such that auditory STG processes in ASD were characterized by pre-stimulus abnormalities across multiple frequencies, then early high-frequency abnormalities followed by low-frequency abnormalities. Increased pre-stimulus activity was a 'core' abnormality, with pre-stimulus activity predicting post-stimulus neural abnormalities, group membership, and clinical symptoms (CELF-4 Core Language Index). Deficits in synaptic integration in the auditory cortex are associated with oscillatory abnormalities in ASD as well as patient symptoms. Increased pre-stimulus activity in ASD likely demonstrates a fundamental signal-to-noise deficit in individuals with ASD, with elevations in oscillatory activity suggesting an inability to maintain an appropriate 'neural tone' and an inability to rapidly return to a resting state prior to the next stimulus. PMID:23963591

  1. A Framework for Prediction of Response to HCV Therapy Using Different Data Mining Techniques

    Enas M. F. El Houby

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C which is a widely spread disease all over the world is a fatal liver disease caused by Hepatitis C Virus (HCV. The only approved therapy is interferon plus ribavirin. The number of responders to this treatment is low, while its cost is high and side effects are undesirable. Treatment response prediction will help in reducing the patients who suffer from the side effects and high costs without achieving recovery. The aim of this research is to develop a framework which can select the best model to predict HCV patients’ response to the treatment of HCV from clinical information. The framework contains three phases which are preprocessing phase to prepare the data for applying Data Mining (DM techniques, DM phase to apply different DM techniques, and evaluation phase to evaluate and compare the performance of the built models and select the best model as the recommended one. Different DM techniques had been applied which are associative classification, artificial neural network, and decision tree to evaluate the framework. The experimental results showed the effectiveness of the framework in selecting the best model which is the model built by associative classification using histology activity index, fibrosis stage, and alanine amino transferase.

  2. A Simple and Accurate Model to Predict Responses to Multi-electrode Stimulation in the Retina.

    Maturana, Matias I; Apollo, Nicholas V; Hadjinicolaou, Alex E; Garrett, David J; Cloherty, Shaun L; Kameneva, Tatiana; Grayden, David B; Ibbotson, Michael R; Meffin, Hamish

    2016-04-01

    Implantable electrode arrays are widely used in therapeutic stimulation of the nervous system (e.g. cochlear, retinal, and cortical implants). Currently, most neural prostheses use serial stimulation (i.e. one electrode at a time) despite this severely limiting the repertoire of stimuli that can be applied. Methods to reliably predict the outcome of multi-electrode stimulation have not been available. Here, we demonstrate that a linear-nonlinear model accurately predicts neural responses to arbitrary patterns of stimulation using in vitro recordings from single retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) stimulated with a subretinal multi-electrode array. In the model, the stimulus is projected onto a low-dimensional subspace and then undergoes a nonlinear transformation to produce an estimate of spiking probability. The low-dimensional subspace is estimated using principal components analysis, which gives the neuron's electrical receptive field (ERF), i.e. the electrodes to which the neuron is most sensitive. Our model suggests that stimulation proportional to the ERF yields a higher efficacy given a fixed amount of power when compared to equal amplitude stimulation on up to three electrodes. We find that the model captures the responses of all the cells recorded in the study, suggesting that it will generalize to most cell types in the retina. The model is computationally efficient to evaluate and, therefore, appropriate for future real-time applications including stimulation strategies that make use of recorded neural activity to improve the stimulation strategy. PMID:27035143

  3. A Simple and Accurate Model to Predict Responses to Multi-electrode Stimulation in the Retina.

    Matias I Maturana

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Implantable electrode arrays are widely used in therapeutic stimulation of the nervous system (e.g. cochlear, retinal, and cortical implants. Currently, most neural prostheses use serial stimulation (i.e. one electrode at a time despite this severely limiting the repertoire of stimuli that can be applied. Methods to reliably predict the outcome of multi-electrode stimulation have not been available. Here, we demonstrate that a linear-nonlinear model accurately predicts neural responses to arbitrary patterns of stimulation using in vitro recordings from single retinal ganglion cells (RGCs stimulated with a subretinal multi-electrode array. In the model, the stimulus is projected onto a low-dimensional subspace and then undergoes a nonlinear transformation to produce an estimate of spiking probability. The low-dimensional subspace is estimated using principal components analysis, which gives the neuron's electrical receptive field (ERF, i.e. the electrodes to which the neuron is most sensitive. Our model suggests that stimulation proportional to the ERF yields a higher efficacy given a fixed amount of power when compared to equal amplitude stimulation on up to three electrodes. We find that the model captures the responses of all the cells recorded in the study, suggesting that it will generalize to most cell types in the retina. The model is computationally efficient to evaluate and, therefore, appropriate for future real-time applications including stimulation strategies that make use of recorded neural activity to improve the stimulation strategy.

  4. A Simple and Accurate Model to Predict Responses to Multi-electrode Stimulation in the Retina

    Maturana, Matias I.; Apollo, Nicholas V.; Hadjinicolaou, Alex E.; Garrett, David J.; Cloherty, Shaun L.; Kameneva, Tatiana; Grayden, David B.; Ibbotson, Michael R.; Meffin, Hamish

    2016-01-01

    Implantable electrode arrays are widely used in therapeutic stimulation of the nervous system (e.g. cochlear, retinal, and cortical implants). Currently, most neural prostheses use serial stimulation (i.e. one electrode at a time) despite this severely limiting the repertoire of stimuli that can be applied. Methods to reliably predict the outcome of multi-electrode stimulation have not been available. Here, we demonstrate that a linear-nonlinear model accurately predicts neural responses to arbitrary patterns of stimulation using in vitro recordings from single retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) stimulated with a subretinal multi-electrode array. In the model, the stimulus is projected onto a low-dimensional subspace and then undergoes a nonlinear transformation to produce an estimate of spiking probability. The low-dimensional subspace is estimated using principal components analysis, which gives the neuron’s electrical receptive field (ERF), i.e. the electrodes to which the neuron is most sensitive. Our model suggests that stimulation proportional to the ERF yields a higher efficacy given a fixed amount of power when compared to equal amplitude stimulation on up to three electrodes. We find that the model captures the responses of all the cells recorded in the study, suggesting that it will generalize to most cell types in the retina. The model is computationally efficient to evaluate and, therefore, appropriate for future real-time applications including stimulation strategies that make use of recorded neural activity to improve the stimulation strategy. PMID:27035143

  5. Trend modelling of wave parameters and application in onboard prediction of ship responses

    Montazeri, Najmeh; Nielsen, Ulrik Dam; Jensen, J. Juncher

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a trend analysis for prediction of sea state parameters onboard shipsduring voyages. Given those parameters, a JONSWAP model and also the transfer functions, prediction of wave induced ship responses are thus made. The procedure is tested with full-scale data of an in-service ......This paper presents a trend analysis for prediction of sea state parameters onboard shipsduring voyages. Given those parameters, a JONSWAP model and also the transfer functions, prediction of wave induced ship responses are thus made. The procedure is tested with full-scale data of an in...

  6. The sequential structure of brain activation predicts skill.

    Anderson, John R; Bothell, Daniel; Fincham, Jon M; Moon, Jungaa

    2016-01-29

    In an fMRI study, participants were trained to play a complex video game. They were scanned early and then again after substantial practice. While better players showed greater activation in one region (right dorsal striatum) their relative skill was better diagnosed by considering the sequential structure of whole brain activation. Using a cognitive model that played this game, we extracted a characterization of the mental states that are involved in playing a game and the statistical structure of the transitions among these states. There was a strong correspondence between this measure of sequential structure and the skill of different players. Using multi-voxel pattern analysis, it was possible to recognize, with relatively high accuracy, the cognitive states participants were in during particular scans. We used the sequential structure of these activation-recognized states to predict the skill of individual players. These findings indicate that important features about information-processing strategies can be identified from a model-based analysis of the sequential structure of brain activation. PMID:26707716

  7. Prediction of treatment week eight response & sustained virologic response in patients treated with boceprevir plus peginterferon alfa and ribavirin.

    Alex Thompson

    Full Text Available AIM: Sustained virologic response (SVR can be attained with boceprevir plus peginterferon alfa and ribavirin (PR in up to 68% of patients, and short duration therapy is possible if plasma HCV RNA levels are undetectable at treatment week 8 (TW8 response. We have developed predictive models for SVR, and TW8 response using data from boceprevir clinical trials. METHODS: Regression models were built to predict TW8 response and SVR. Separate models were built for TW8 and SVR using baseline variables only, and compared to models with baseline variables plus HCV RNA change after 4 weeks of PR (TW4 delta. Predictive accuracy was assessed by c-statistics, calibration curves, and decision curve analyses. Nomograms were developed to create clinical decision support tools. Models were externally validated using independent data. RESULTS: The models that included TW4 delta produced the best discrimination ability. The predictive factors for TW8 response (n = 856 were TW4 delta, race, platelet count and ALT. The predictive factors for SVR (n = 522 were TW4 delta, HCV-subtype, gender, BMI, RBV dose and platelet count. The discrimination abilities of these models were excellent (C-statistics = 0.88, 0.80 respectively. Baseline models for TW8 response (n = 444 and SVR (n = 197 had weaker discrimination ability (C-statistic = 0.76, 0.69. External validation confirmed the predictive accuracy of the week 4 models. CONCLUSIONS: Models incorporating baseline and treatment week 4 data provide excellent prediction of TW8 response and SVR, and support the clinical utility of the lead-in phase of PR. The nomograms are suitable for point-of-care use to inform individual patient and physician decision-making.

  8. Conceptualizing, Understanding, and Predicting Responsible Decisions and Quality Input

    Wall, N.; PytlikZillig, L. M.

    2012-12-01

    In areas such as climate change, where uncertainty is high, it is arguably less difficult to tell when efforts have resulted in changes in knowledge, than when those efforts have resulted in responsible decisions. What is a responsible decision? More broadly, when it comes to citizen input, what is "high quality" input? And most importantly, how are responsible decisions and quality input enhanced? The aim of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of the different dimensions of "responsible" or "quality" public input and citizen decisions by comparing and contrasting the different predictors of those different dimensions. We first present different possibilities for defining, operationalizing and assessing responsible or high quality decisions. For example, responsible decisions or quality input might be defined as using specific content (e.g., using climate change information in decisions appropriately), as using specific processes (e.g., investing time and effort in learning about and discussing the issues prior to making decisions), or on the basis of some judgment of the decision or input itself (e.g., judgments of the rationale provided for the decisions, or number of issues considered when giving input). Second, we present results from our work engaging people with science policy topics, and the different ways that we have tried to define these two constructs. In the area of climate change specifically, we describe the development of a short survey that assesses exposure to climate information, knowledge of and attitudes toward climate change, and use of climate information in one's decisions. Specifically, the short survey was developed based on a review of common surveys of climate change related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors, and extensive piloting and cognitive interviews. Next, we analyze more than 200 responses to that survey (data collection is currently ongoing and will be complete after the AGU deadline), and report the predictors of

  9. Functional MR imaging for response prediction in rectal cancer treatment

    Intven, M.P.W.

    2015-01-01

    The standard of care treatment for locally advanced rectal cancer is neoadjuvant chemoradiation followed by total mesorectal excision. In recent years, organ-sparing treatments, instead of standard total mesorectal excision, are gradually introduced in the treatment of rectal cancer for patients with good response after neoadjuvant therapy. However, patient selection for organ-sparing treatments is still challenging as no optimal restaging modality is available after neoadjuvant chemoradiatio...

  10. Predicting Ecosystem Response to Perturbation from Thermodynamic Criteria

    Michaelian, K.; Chavez, V. Alonso

    2008-01-01

    The response of ecosystems to perturbations is considered from a thermodynamic perspective by acknowledging that, as for all macroscopic systems and processes, the dynamics and stability of ecosystems is subject to definite thermodynamic law. For open ecosystems, exchanging energy, work, and mass with the environment, the thermodynamic criteria come from non-equilibrium or irreversible thermodynamics. For ecosystems during periods in which the boundary conditions may be considered as being co...

  11. Random Forests for Ordinal Response Data: Prediction and Variable Selection

    Janitza, Silke; Tutz, Gerhard; Boulesteix, Anne-Laure

    2014-01-01

    The random forest method is a commonly used tool for classification with high-dimensional data that is able to rank candidate predictors through its inbuilt variable importance measures (VIMs). It can be applied to various kinds of regression problems including nominal, metric and survival response variables. While classification and regression problems using random forest methodology have been extensively investigated in the past, there seems to be a lack of literature on handling ordinal re...

  12. Aggression predicts Cortisol Awakening Response in healthy young adults

    Patricia Sariñana-González; Ángel Romero-Martínez; Luis Moya-Albiol

    2015-01-01

    It seems that aggressive behavior is negatively related to cortisol (C), but this relationship has been established considering the evening C levels. On the other hand, the relationship with the C awakening response (CAR) and the influence of gender and menstrual cycle phase are not well understood. This study analyzed this relationship in 83 women (38 in the luteal and 45 in the follicular phase of their menstrual cycle) and 20 men. CAR was assessed by measuring salivary free cortisol levels...

  13. Predicting Responses of Asian Christian Clergy to Domestic Violence

    Hsieh, Ellie Y.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined how cultural, religious, and demographic factors of Asian Christian clergy affect their perceptions and responses to domestic violence. Their age, years lived in the U.S., amount of pastoral counseling education, adherence to Asian cultural values, gender role beliefs, and degree of religious fundamentalism (n = 72) were assessed using an anonymous questionnaire consisting of multiple-choice items and short-answers. Multiple regression analyses determined that individual...

  14. Attachment avoidance predicts inflammatory responses to marital conflict.

    Gouin, Jean-Philippe; Glaser, Ronald; Loving, Timothy J; Malarkey, William B; Stowell, Jeffrey; Houts, Carrie; Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K

    2009-10-01

    Marital stress has been associated with immune dysregulation, including increased production of interleukin-6 (IL-6). Attachment style, one's expectations about the availability and responsiveness of others in intimate relationships, appears to influence physiological stress reactivity and thus could influence inflammatory responses to marital conflict. Thirty-five couples were invited for two 24-h admissions to a hospital research unit. The first visit included a structured social support interaction, while the second visit comprised the discussion of a marital disagreement. A mixed effect within-subject repeated measure model indicated that attachment avoidance significantly influenced IL-6 production during the conflict visit but not during the social support visit. Individuals with higher attachment avoidance had on average an 11% increase in total IL-6 production during the conflict visit as compared to the social support visit, while individuals with lower attachment avoidance had, on average, a 6% decrease in IL-6 production during the conflict visit as compared to the social support visit. Furthermore, greater attachment avoidance was associated with a higher frequency of negative behaviors and a lower frequency of positive behaviors during the marital interaction, providing a mechanism by which attachment avoidance may influence inflammatory responses to marital conflict. In sum, these results suggest that attachment avoidance modulates marital behavior and stress-induced immune dysregulation. PMID:18952163

  15. Global genetic variations predict brain response to faces

    Dickie, Erin W; Tahmasebi, Amir; French, Leon;

    2014-01-01

    Face expressions are a rich source of social signals. Here we estimated the proportion of phenotypic variance in the brain response to facial expressions explained by common genetic variance captured by ∼ 500,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms. Using genomic-relationship-matrix restricted maximu...... of connections with other network nodes, suggesting that the genetic model captures variations across the adolescent brains in co-opting these regions into the face network.......Face expressions are a rich source of social signals. Here we estimated the proportion of phenotypic variance in the brain response to facial expressions explained by common genetic variance captured by ∼ 500,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms. Using genomic-relationship-matrix restricted maximum...... face network, as defined previously. In 9 out of these 25 regions, common genetic variance explained a significant proportion of phenotypic variance (40-50%) in their response to ambiguous facial expressions; this was not the case for angry facial expressions. Across the network, the strength of the...

  16. Recent and Past Musical Activity Predicts Cognitive Aging Variability: Direct Comparison with Leisure Activities

    Brenda eHanna-Pladdy

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies evaluating the impact of modifiable lifestyle factors on cognition offer potential insights into sources of cognitive aging variability. Recently, we reported an association between extent of musical instrumental practice throughout the life span (greater than 10 years on preserved cognitive functioning in advanced age . These findings raise the question of whether there are training-induced brain changes in musicians that can transfer to nonmusical cognitive abilities to allow for compensation of age-related cognitive declines. However, because of the relationship between engagement in lifestyle activities and preserved cognition, it remains unclear whether these findings are specifically driven by musical training or the types of individuals likely to engage in greater activities in general. The current study examined the type of leisure activity (musical versus other as well as the timing of engagement (age of acquisition, past versus recent in predictive models of successful cognitive aging. Seventy age and education matched older musicians (> 10 years and nonmusicians (ages 59-80 were evaluated on neuropsychological tests and life-style activities (AAP. Partition analyses were conducted on significant cognitive measures to explain performance variance in musicians. Musicians scored higher on tests of phonemic fluency, verbal immediate recall, judgment of line orientation (JLO, and Letter Number Sequencing (LNS, but not the AAP. The first partition analysis revealed education best predicted JLO in musicians, followed by recent musical engagement which offset low education. In the second partition analysis, early age of musical acquisition (< 9 years predicted enhanced LNS in musicians, while analyses for AAP, verbal recall and fluency were not predictive. Recent and past musical activity, but not leisure activity, predicted variability across verbal and visuospatial domains in aging. Early musical acquisition predicted auditory

  17. A Coupled Probabilistic Wake Vortex and Aircraft Response Prediction Model

    Gloudemans, Thijs; Van Lochem, Sander; Ras, Eelco; Malissa, Joel; Ahmad, Nashat N.; Lewis, Timothy A.

    2016-01-01

    Wake vortex spacing standards along with weather and runway occupancy time, restrict terminal area throughput and impose major constraints on the overall capacity and efficiency of the National Airspace System (NAS). For more than two decades, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been conducting research on characterizing wake vortex behavior in order to develop fast-time wake transport and decay prediction models. It is expected that the models can be used in the systems level design of advanced air traffic management (ATM) concepts that safely increase the capacity of the NAS. It is also envisioned that at a later stage of maturity, these models could potentially be used operationally, in groundbased spacing and scheduling systems as well as on the flight deck.

  18. Western Mountain Initiative: predicting ecosystem responses to climate change

    Baron, Jill S.; Peterson, David L.; Wilson, J.T.

    2008-01-01

    Mountain ecosystems of the western United States provide irreplaceable goods and services such as water, timber, biodiversity, and recreational opportunities, but their responses to climatic changes are complex and not well understood. The Western Mountain Initiative (WMI), a collaboration between USGS and U.S. Forest Service scientists, catalyzes assessment and synthesis of the effects of disturbance and climate change across western mountain areas, focusing on national parks and surrounding national forests. The WMI takes an ecosystem approach to science, integrating research across science disciplines at scales ranging from field studies to global trends.

  19. Self-responsibility predicts the successful outcome of coronary artery bypass surgery

    C. J. Eales

    2004-02-01

    .04, stop their sporting activities for a shorter period of time  prior to the operation (p<0.01 and are taller (p<0.01. Twelve months after the operation their sexual performance has improved (p<0.01 and they are not depressed (p<0.01. Patients who accept self-responsibility for their recovery after CABGsurgery have the following characteristics:  married (p<0.01, have a level of education > grade 12 (p=0.01, have  anannual income > R50 000 (p=0.05. They differ from the group who did not accept personal responsibility in that theyand their spouses/care-givers had a greater knowledge about the disease and the risk factor modification (p=0.01; p<0.01, and twelve months after the operation the patients are satisfied with the outcome of the operation (p<0.01.Conclusions: A stepwise logistic regression established that the acceptance of self-responsibility was the strongest  factor predicting an improved quality of life after CABG surgery. Patients who did not accept responsibility did not have an improved quality of life irrespective of the impact of all other parameters. Patients' satisfaction with the outcome of the operative procedure is an important predictor of the acceptance of self-responsibility. Realistic expectations of the outcome of CABG surgery will improve patients' satisfaction with the outcome. The knowledge of the spouse is a significant factor in the patients' acceptance of self-responsibility. Knowledge of the chronic nature of their disease as well as risk factor modification and realistic expectations of the outcome of CABG surgery influences patientsacceptance of self-responsibility.

  20. Improving models to predict phenological responses to global change

    Richardson, Andrew D. [Harvard College, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2015-11-25

    The term phenology describes both the seasonal rhythms of plants and animals, and the study of these rhythms. Plant phenological processes, including, for example, when leaves emerge in the spring and change color in the autumn, are highly responsive to variation in weather (e.g. a warm vs. cold spring) as well as longer-term changes in climate (e.g. warming trends and changes in the timing and amount of rainfall). We conducted a study to investigate the phenological response of northern peatland communities to global change. Field work was conducted at the SPRUCE experiment in northern Minnesota, where we installed 10 digital cameras. Imagery from the cameras is being used to track shifts in plant phenology driven by elevated carbon dioxide and elevated temperature in the different SPRUCE experimental treatments. Camera imagery and derived products (“greenness”) is being posted in near-real time on a publicly available web page (http://phenocam.sr.unh.edu/webcam/gallery/). The images will provide a permanent visual record of the progression of the experiment over the next 10 years. Integrated with other measurements collected as part of the SPRUCE program, this study is providing insight into the degree to which phenology may mediate future shifts in carbon uptake and storage by peatland ecosystems. In the future, these data will be used to develop improved models of vegetation phenology, which will be tested against ground observations collected by a local collaborator.

  1. Statistical estimations for predicting the detection limit of low activities

    When extremely low activities are measured, the statistics of the observed decay events may be insufficient for a justified application of statistical assessments based on the Gaussian distribution. Student's t-distribution and the theory of the interval estimation are used as the basis for a statistical model for predicting the detection limit and the signal-to-noise ratio which could be reached under the conditions of the measurement. The derived statistical estimations are applicable in cases when a small number of decay events is expected to be recorded. The minimum detectable activity characterizing the detection limit under the conditions of the measurement, is determined at the given confidence limits and assumed permissible relative statistical errors during the measurement of the sample and the background (within the available time limits). The derived statistical estimations can be used for comparing the possibilities offered by the different measuring methods applied for determination of extremely low activities. These evaluations can also be used as a criterion for discussing the reliability of the measurement results. (author). 6 refs

  2. Solubility Prediction of Active Pharmaceutical Compounds with the UNIFAC Model

    Nouar, Abderrahim; Benmessaoud, Ibtissem; Koutchoukali, Ouahiba; Koutchoukali, Mohamed Salah

    2016-03-01

    The crystallization from solution of an active pharmaceutical ingredient requires the knowledge of the solubility in the entire temperature range investigated during the process. However, during the development of a new active ingredient, these data are missing. Its experimental determination is possible, but tedious. UNIFAC Group contribution method Fredenslund et al. (Vapor-liquid equilibria using UNIFAC: a group contribution method, 1977; AIChE J 21:1086, 1975) can be used to predict this physical property. Several modifications on this model have been proposed since its development in 1977, modified UNIFAC of Dortmund Weidlich et al. (Ind Eng Chem Res 26:1372, 1987), Gmehling et al. (Ind Eng Chem Res 32:178, 1993), Pharma-modified UNIFAC Diedrichs et al. (Evaluation und Erweiterung thermodynamischer Modelle zur Vorhersage von Wirkstofflöslichkeiten, PhD Thesis, 2010), KT-UNIFAC Kang et al. (Ind Eng Chem Res 41:3260, 2002), ldots In this study, we used UNIFAC model by considering the linear temperature dependence of interaction parameters as in Pharma-modified UNIFAC and structural groups as defined by KT-UNIFAC first-order model. More than 100 binary datasets were involved in the estimation of interaction parameters. These new parameters were then used to calculate activity coefficient and solubility of some molecules in various solvents at different temperatures. The model gives better results than those from the original UNIFAC and shows good agreement between the experimental solubility and the calculated one.

  3. Decreased dopamine activity predicts relapse in methamphetamine abusers

    Studies in methamphetamine (METH) abusers showed that the decreases in brain dopamine (DA) function might recover with protracted detoxification. However, the extent to which striatal DA function in METH predicts recovery has not been evaluated. Here we assessed whether striatal DA activity in METH abusers is associated with clinical outcomes. Brain DA D2 receptor (D2R) availability was measured with positron emission tomography and (11C)raclopride in 16 METH abusers, both after placebo and after challenge with 60 mg oral methylphenidate (MPH) (to measure DA release) to assess whether it predicted clinical outcomes. For this purpose, METH abusers were tested within 6 months of last METH use and then followed up for 9 months of abstinence. In parallel, 15 healthy controls were tested. METH abusers had lower D2R availability in caudate than in controls. Both METH abusers and controls showed decreased striatal D2R availability after MPH and these decreases were smaller in METH than in controls in left putamen. The six METH abusers who relapsed during the follow-up period had lower D2R availability in dorsal striatum than in controls, and had no D2R changes after MPH challenge. The 10 METH abusers who completed detoxification did not differ from controls neither in striatal D2R availability nor in MPH-induced striatal DA changes. These results provide preliminary evidence that low striatal DA function in METH abusers is associated with a greater likelihood of relapse during treatment. Detection of the extent of DA dysfunction may be helpful in predicting therapeutic outcomes.

  4. Decreased dopamine activity predicts relapse in methamphetamine abusers

    Wang G. J.; Wang, G.-J.; Smith, L.; Volkow, N.D.; Telang, F.; Logan, J.; Tomasi, D.; Wong, C.T.; Hoffman, W.; Jayne, M.; Alia-Klein, N.; Thanos, P.; Fowler, J.S.

    2011-01-20

    Studies in methamphetamine (METH) abusers showed that the decreases in brain dopamine (DA) function might recover with protracted detoxification. However, the extent to which striatal DA function in METH predicts recovery has not been evaluated. Here we assessed whether striatal DA activity in METH abusers is associated with clinical outcomes. Brain DA D2 receptor (D2R) availability was measured with positron emission tomography and [{sup 11}C]raclopride in 16 METH abusers, both after placebo and after challenge with 60 mg oral methylphenidate (MPH) (to measure DA release) to assess whether it predicted clinical outcomes. For this purpose, METH abusers were tested within 6 months of last METH use and then followed up for 9 months of abstinence. In parallel, 15 healthy controls were tested. METH abusers had lower D2R availability in caudate than in controls. Both METH abusers and controls showed decreased striatal D2R availability after MPH and these decreases were smaller in METH than in controls in left putamen. The six METH abusers who relapsed during the follow-up period had lower D2R availability in dorsal striatum than in controls, and had no D2R changes after MPH challenge. The 10 METH abusers who completed detoxification did not differ from controls neither in striatal D2R availability nor in MPH-induced striatal DA changes. These results provide preliminary evidence that low striatal DA function in METH abusers is associated with a greater likelihood of relapse during treatment. Detection of the extent of DA dysfunction may be helpful in predicting therapeutic outcomes.

  5. Camera response prediction for various capture settings using the spectral sensitivity and crosstalk model.

    Qiu, Jueqin; Xu, Haisong

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, a camera response formation model is proposed to accurately predict the responses of images captured under various exposure settings. Differing from earlier works that estimated the camera relative spectral sensitivity, our model constructs the physical spectral sensitivity curves and device-dependent parameters that convert the absolute spectral radiances of target surfaces to the camera readout responses. With this model, the camera responses to miscellaneous combinations of surfaces and illuminants could be accurately predicted. Thus, creating an "imaging simulator" by using the colorimetric and photometric research based on the cameras would be of great convenience. PMID:27607275

  6. A combined clinical and biomarker approach to predict diuretic response in acute heart failure

    Ter Maaten, Jozine M; Valente, Mattia A E; Metra, Marco; Bruno, Noemi; O'Connor, Christopher M; Ponikowski, Piotr; Teerlink, John R; Cotter, Gad; Davison, Beth; Cleland, John G; Givertz, Michael M; Bloomfield, Daniel M; Dittrich, Howard C; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J; Hillege, Hans L; Damman, Kevin; Voors, Adriaan A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Poor diuretic response in acute heart failure is related to poor clinical outcome. The underlying mechanisms and pathophysiology behind diuretic resistance are incompletely understood. We evaluated a combined approach using clinical characteristics and biomarkers to predict diuretic resp

  7. Temporal coupling between stimulus-evoked neural activity and hemodynamic responses from individual cortical columns

    Using previously published data from the whisker barrel cortex of anesthetized rodents (Berwick et al 2008 J. Neurophysiol. 99 787-98) we investigated whether highly spatially localized stimulus-evoked cortical hemodynamics responses displayed a linear time-invariant (LTI) relationship with neural activity. Presentation of stimuli to individual whiskers of 2 s and 16 s durations produced hemodynamics and neural activity spatially localized to individual cortical columns. Two-dimensional optical imaging spectroscopy (2D-OIS) measured hemoglobin responses, while multi-laminar electrophysiology recorded neural activity. Hemoglobin responses to 2 s stimuli were deconvolved with underlying evoked neural activity to estimate impulse response functions which were then convolved with neural activity evoked by 16 s stimuli to generate predictions of hemodynamic responses. An LTI system more adequately described the temporal neuro-hemodynamics coupling relationship for these spatially localized sensory stimuli than in previous studies that activated the entire whisker cortex. An inability to predict the magnitude of an initial 'peak' in the total and oxy- hemoglobin responses was alleviated when excluding responses influenced by overlying arterial components. However, this did not improve estimation of the hemodynamic responses return to baseline post-stimulus cessation.

  8. Predicting the Response of Electricity Load to Climate Change

    Sullivan, Patrick [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Colman, Jesse [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kalendra, Eric [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-07-28

    Our purpose is to develop a methodology to quantify the impact of climate change on electric loads in the United States. We perform simple linear regression, assisted by geospatial smoothing, on paired temperature and load time-series to estimate the heating- and coolinginduced sensitivity to temperature across 300 transmission zones and 16 seasonal and diurnal time periods. The estimated load sensitivities can be coupled with climate scenarios to quantify the potential impact of climate change on load, with a primary application being long-term electricity scenarios. The method allows regional and seasonal differences in climate and load response to be reflected in the electricity scenarios. While the immediate product of this analysis was designed to mesh with the spatial and temporal resolution of a specific electricity model to enable climate change scenarios and analysis with that model, we also propose that the process could be applied for other models and purposes.

  9. Response to methotrexate predicts long-term patient-related outcomes in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Krause, Dietmar; Gabriel, Bernadette; Herborn, Gertraud; Braun, Juergen; Rau, Rolf

    2016-05-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the predictive value of the initial response to methotrexate (MTX) on long-term patient-related outcomes (PROs) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). All RA patients starting MTX treatment between 1980 and 1987 in our department were enrolled in a prospective observational study. After an average of 18 years, patient-related outcomes were assessed in three dimensions according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Statistical analyses employed multivariable models with baseline values for age, gender, disease duration, rheumatoid factor positivity, disease activity, response to MTX after 1 year and continuous use of MTX as covariates. The 271 patients enrolled had a mean disease duration of 8.5 years, a mean number of swollen joints of 18 (out of 32), and a mean erythrocyte sedimentation rate of 55 mm/h. After 18 years, PRO was available in 89 patients (33 %). A clinical improvement of at least 20 % 1 year after the initiation of MTX was associated with a favourable outcome in all three dimensions of the ICF, independent of continuation of MTX (p < 0.05). The initial response to MTX is an independent predictor of PRO in RA as assessed after an average of 18 years. PMID:26920753

  10. Immune response genes and pathogen presence predict migration survival in wild salmon smolts.

    Jeffries, Ken M; Hinch, Scott G; Gale, Marika Kirstin; Clark, Timothy D; Lotto, Andrew G; Casselman, Matthew T; Li, Shaorong; Rechisky, Erin L; Porter, Aswea D; Welch, David W; Miller, Kristina M

    2014-12-01

    We present the first data to link physiological responses and pathogen presence with subsequent fate during migration of wild salmonid smolts. We tagged and non-lethally sampled gill tissue from sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) smolts as they left their nursery lake (Chilko Lake, BC, Canada) to compare gene expression profiles and freshwater pathogen loads with migration success over the first ~1150 km of their migration to the North Pacific Ocean using acoustic telemetry. Fifteen per cent of smolts were never detected again after release, and these fish had gene expression profiles consistent with an immune response to one or more viral pathogens compared with fish that survived their freshwater migration. Among the significantly upregulated genes of the fish that were never detected postrelease were MX (interferon-induced GTP-binding protein Mx) and STAT1 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 1-alpha/beta), which are characteristic of a type I interferon response to viral pathogens. The most commonly detected pathogen in the smolts leaving the nursery lake was infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV). Collectively, these data show that some of the fish assumed to have died after leaving the nursery lake appeared to be responding to one or more viral pathogens and had elevated stress levels that could have contributed to some of the mortality shortly after release. We present the first evidence that changes in gene expression may be predictive of some of the freshwater migration mortality in wild salmonid smolts. PMID:25354752

  11. Infrared spectra of primary melanomas can predict response to chemotherapy: The example of dacarbazine.

    Wald, N; Le Corre, Y; Martin, L; Mathieu, V; Goormaghtigh, E

    2016-02-01

    Metastatic melanomas are highly aggressive and median survival is 6-9months for stage IV patients in the absence of treatment with anti-tumor activity. Dacarbazine is an alkylating agent that has been widely used in the treatment of metastatic melanomas and that could be still used in combination with targeted or immune therapies. Indeed, therapeutic benefits of these treatments in monotherapy are poor and one option to improve them is to combine drugs and/or to better anticipate the individual response to a defined treatment. To our best knowledge and to date, there is no test available to predict the response of a patient to dacarbazine. We show here that examination of melanoma histological sections by infrared micro-spectroscopy reveals the sensitivity of the cancer to dacarbazine. Unsupervised analysis of the FTIR spectra evidences spontaneous and significant clustering of infrared spectra into two groups that match the clinical responsiveness of the patients to dacarbazine used as a first-line treatment. A supervised model resulted in 83% of the patient status (responder/non-responder) being correctly identified. The spectra revealed a key modification in the nature and quantity of lipids in the cells of both groups. PMID:26577766

  12. Assays for predicting and monitoring responses to lung cancer immunotherapy

    Teixidó, Cristina; Karachaliou, Niki; González-Cao, Maria; Morales-Espinosa, Daniela; Rosell, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Immunotherapy has become a key strategy for cancer treatment, and two immune checkpoints, namely, programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) and its ligand (PD-L1), have recently emerged as important targets. The interaction blockade of PD-1 and PD-L1 demonstrated promising activity and antitumor efficacy in early phase clinical trials for advanced solid tumors such as non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Many cell types in multiple tissues express PD-L1 as well as several tumor types, thereby suggesting ...

  13. Predicting eruptions from precursory activity using remote sensing data hybridization

    Reath, K. A.; Ramsey, M. S.; Dehn, J.; Webley, P. W.

    2016-07-01

    Many volcanoes produce some level of precursory activity prior to an eruption. This activity may or may not be detected depending on the available monitoring technology. In certain cases, precursors such as thermal output can be interpreted to make forecasts about the time and magnitude of the impending eruption. Kamchatka (Russia) provides an ideal natural laboratory to study a wide variety of eruption styles and precursory activity prior to an eruption. At Bezymianny volcano for example, a clear increase in thermal activity commonly occurs before an eruption, which has allowed predictions to be made months ahead of time. Conversely, the eruption of Tolbachik volcano in 2012 produced no discernable thermal precursors before the large scale effusive eruption. However, most volcanoes fall between the extremes of consistently behaved and completely undetectable, which is the case with neighboring Kliuchevskoi volcano. This study tests the effectiveness of using thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing to track volcanic thermal precursors using data from both the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) sensors. It focuses on three large eruptions that produced different levels and durations of effusive and explosive behavior at Kliuchevskoi. Before each of these eruptions, TIR spaceborne sensors detected thermal anomalies (i.e., pixels with brightness temperatures > 2 °C above the background temperature). High-temporal, low-spatial resolution (i.e., ~ hours and 1 km) AVHRR data are ideal for detecting large thermal events occurring over shorter time scales, such as the hot material ejected following strombolian eruptions. In contrast, high-spatial, low-temporal resolution (i.e., days to weeks and 90 m) ASTER data enables the detection of much lower thermal activity; however, activity with a shorter duration will commonly be missed. ASTER and AVHRR data are combined to track low

  14. Auditory Brainstem Response to Complex Sounds Predicts Self-Reported Speech-in-Noise Performance

    Anderson, Samira; Parbery-Clark, Alexandra; White-Schwoch, Travis; Kraus, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the ability of the auditory brainstem response to complex sounds (cABR) to predict subjective ratings of speech understanding in noise on the Speech, Spatial, and Qualities of Hearing Scale (SSQ; Gatehouse & Noble, 2004) relative to the predictive ability of the Quick Speech-in-Noise test (QuickSIN; Killion, Niquette,…

  15. Radiological mapping for impact prediction and response during emergency

    In case of large area contamination following any severe nuclear accidents, fast and accurate assessment of radiological impact is essential to enable quick decision making on the implementation of the optimum countermeasures. Physical monitoring of the affected area and generating contour maps showing spatial distribution of the contamination can facilitate immediate emergency response as well as long-term management of affected area. Considering the statistical nature of radioactivity, first, the mesh point values at the nodes of an imposed regular grid are estimated from N distinct irregularly spaced sampled data points Pi = (xi, yi) with sampling values zi by using Distance Weighted Moving Average Technique. A weighting factor w (di2) = exp (-di2/davg2 )/ di2 (davg: average distance of the all considered data points from the mesh point and di: distance of considered data point from mesh point) of general nature has been considered. A maximum of 12 sectors around each mesh point have been considered to minimize the anisotropy. The nearest data point within the radius of influence of each sector is considered for estimation of mesh point value. Various distance weighting factors, sectors and radius of influence have been tested. Utilizing these mesh point values, Bicubic Spline is evaluated for each cell of the imposed grid in the second step automatically. The Bicubic Spline of respective cell of the grid is used for contouring and mapping purposes. This paper is presenting the results obtained from two sets of data. These radiological maps are continuous in value, slope and curvature for whole surveyed area. With control over the weighting factors, mesh size, number of sectors and the radius of influence, better results are achieved for a given data set range and pattern at the cost of computation. The inverse distance square weighting factors give comparatively better results than the inverse distance weighting factor for both the data set. The choice of no

  16. Measures of endothelial dysfunction predict response to cardiac resynchronisation therapy

    Warriner, David R; Lawford, Patricia; Sheridan, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Cardiac resynchronisation therapy (CRT) improves morbidity and mortality in heart failure (HF). Impaired endothelial function, as measured by flow-mediated dilation (FMD) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in HF and may help to differentiate responders from non-responders. Methods 19 patients were recruited, comprising 94% men, mean age 69±8 years, New York Heart Association functional classes II–IV, QRSd 161±21 ms and mean left ventricular ejection fraction 26±8%. Markers of response and FMD were measured at baseline, 6 and 12 months following CRT. Results 14 patients were responders to CRT. Responders had significant improvements in VO2 (12.6±1.7 to 14.7±1.5 mL/kg/min, pFMD in responders was 2.9±1.9% and 7.4±3.73% in non-responders (pFMD. This study confirms that FMD identifies responders to CRT, due to endothelium-dependent mechanisms alone. PMID:27335654

  17. Pharmacogenetic approaches to the prediction of drug response

    The following review of pharmacogenetic progress and methodology is offered to stimulate and suggest analogous studies on drugs of abuse. It is readily acknowledged that formidable methodological problems are posed by adapting to drugs of abuse these pharmacogenetic approaches based on the administration of single safe doses of various prescription drugs to normal subjects under carefully controlled environmental conditions. Results of similarly designed studies on drugs of abuse in addicts might be uninterpretable because of confounding by numerous environmental perturbations, including the smoking of cigarettes and/or marijuana, nutritional variations, and intake of other drugs such as ethanol. Ethical considerations render objectionable the administration to unaddicted subjects of drugs at dosage levels usually ingested by drug abusers. Other approaches would have to be taken in such normal subjects. Possibilities include administration of tracer doses of /sup 14/C- or /sup 13/C- labeled drugs or growth of normal cells in culture to investigate their pharmacokinetic and/or pharmacodynamic responses to various drugs of abuse

  18. Predicting the response of a submillimeter bolometer to cosmic rays.

    Woodcraft, Adam L; Sudiwala, Rashmi V; Ade, Peter A R; Griffin, Matthew J; Wakui, Elley; Bhatia, Ravinder S; Lange, Andrew E; Bock, James J; Turner, Anthony D; Yun, Minhee H; Beeman, Jeffrey W

    2003-09-01

    Bolometers designed to detect submillimeter radiation also respond to cosmic, gamma, and x rays. Because detectors cannot be fully shielded from such energy sources, it is necessary to understand the effect of a photon or cosmic-ray particle being absorbed. The resulting signal (known as a glitch) can then be removed from raw data. We present measurements using an Americium-241 gamma radiation source to irradiate a prototype bolometer for the High Frequency Instrument in the Planck Surveyor satellite. Our measurements showed no variation in response depending on where the radiation was absorbed, demonstrating that the bolometer absorber and thermistor thermalize quickly. The bolometer has previously been fully characterized both electrically and optically. We find that using optically measured time constants underestimates the time taken for the detector to recover from a radiation absorption event. However, a full thermal model for the bolometer, with parameters taken from electrical and optical measurements, provides accurate time constants. Slight deviations from the model were seen at high energies; these can be accounted for by use of an extended model. PMID:12962375

  19. Can Nutritional Assessment Tools Predict Response to Nutritional Therapy?

    Patel, Chirag; Omer, Endashaw; Diamond, Sarah J; McClave, Stephen A

    2016-04-01

    Traditional tools and scoring systems for nutritional assessment have focused solely on parameters of poor nutritional status in the past, in an effort to define the elusive concept of malnutrition. Such tools fail to account for the contribution of disease severity to overall nutritional risk. High nutritional risk, caused by either deterioration of nutritional status or greater disease severity (or a combination of both factors), puts the patient in a metabolic stress state characterized by adverse outcome and increased complications. Newer scoring systems for determining nutritional risk, such as the Nutric Score and the Nutritional Risk Score-2002 have created a paradigm shift connecting assessment and treatment with quality outcome measures of success. Clinicians now have the opportunity to identify high risk patients through their initial assessment, provide adequate or sufficient nutrition therapy, and expect improved patient outcomes as a result. These concepts are supported by observational and prospective interventional trials. Greater clinical experience and refinement in these scoring systems are needed in the future to optimize patient response to nutrition therapy. PMID:26936031

  20. PASS-predicted Vitex negundo activity: antioxidant and antiproliferative properties on human hepatoma cells-an in vitro study

    Kadir, Farkaad A; Kassim, Normadiah M.; Mahmood A. Abdulla; Wageeh A. Yehye

    2013-01-01

    Background Hepatocellular carcinoma is a common type of tumour worldwide with a high mortality rate and with low response to current cytotoxic and chemotherapeutic drugs. The prediction of activity spectra for the substances (PASS) software, which predicted that more than 300 pharmacological effects, biological and biochemical mechanisms based on the structural formula of the substance was efficiently used in this study to reveal new multitalented actions for Vitex negundo (VN) constituents. ...

  1. Brain monoamine oxidase A activity predicts trait aggression.

    Alia-Klein, Nelly; Goldstein, Rita Z; Kriplani, Aarti; Logan, Jean; Tomasi, Dardo; Williams, Benjamin; Telang, Frank; Shumay, Elena; Biegon, Anat; Craig, Ian W; Henn, Fritz; Wang, Gene-Jack; Volkow, Nora D; Fowler, Joanna S

    2008-05-01

    The genetic deletion of monoamine oxidase A (MAO A), an enzyme that breaks down the monoamine neurotransmitters norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine, produces aggressive phenotypes across species. Therefore, a common polymorphism in the MAO A gene (MAOA, Mendelian Inheritance in Men database number 309850, referred to as high or low based on transcription in non-neuronal cells) has been investigated in a number of externalizing behavioral and clinical phenotypes. These studies provide evidence linking the low MAOA genotype and violent behavior but only through interaction with severe environmental stressors during childhood. Here, we hypothesized that in healthy adult males the gene product of MAO A in the brain, rather than the gene per se, would be associated with regulating the concentration of brain amines involved in trait aggression. Brain MAO A activity was measured in vivo in healthy nonsmoking men with positron emission tomography using a radioligand specific for MAO A (clorgyline labeled with carbon 11). Trait aggression was measured with the multidimensional personality questionnaire (MPQ). Here we report for the first time that brain MAO A correlates inversely with the MPQ trait measure of aggression (but not with other personality traits) such that the lower the MAO A activity in cortical and subcortical brain regions, the higher the self-reported aggression (in both MAOA genotype groups) contributing to more than one-third of the variability. Because trait aggression is a measure used to predict antisocial behavior, these results underscore the relevance of MAO A as a neurochemical substrate of aberrant aggression. PMID:18463263

  2. Low and High Locomotor Responsiveness to Cocaine Predicts Intravenous Cocaine Conditioned Place Preference in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Allen, Richard M.; Everett, Carson V.; Nelson, Anna M.; Gulley, Joshua M.; Zahniser, Nancy R

    2006-01-01

    Outbred, male Sprague-Dawley rats can be classified as either low or high cocaine responders (LCRs or HCRs, respectively) based on cocaine-induced locomotor activity in an open-field arena. This difference reflects cocaine’s ability to inhibit the striatal dopamine transporter and predicts development of sensitization. To investigate the relationship between initial cocaine locomotor responsiveness and cocaine reward, here we first classified rats as either LCRs or HCRs in a conditioned place...

  3. Hazards Response of Energetic Materials - Developing a Predictive Capability for Initiation and Reaction under Multiple Stimuli

    Nichols III, A L; Wallin, B K; Maienschein, J L; Reaugh, J E; Yoh, J J; McClelland, M E

    2005-04-15

    We present our approach to develop a predictive capability for hazards--thermal and nonshock impact--response of energetic material systems based on: (A) identification of relevant processes; (B) characterization of the relevant properties; (C) application of property data to predictive models; and (D) application of the models into predictive simulation. This paper focuses on the last two elements above, while a companion paper by Maienschein et al focuses on the first two elements. We outline models to describe the both the microscopic evolution of hot spots for detonation response and thermal kinetic models used to model slow heat environments. We show examples of application to both types of environments.

  4. Can personality traits predict pathological responses to audiovisual stimulation?

    Yambe, Tomoyuki; Yoshizawa, Makoto; Fukudo, Shin; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Kawashima, Ryuta; Shizuka, Kazuhiko; Nanka, Shunsuke; Tanaka, Akira; Abe, Ken-ichi; Shouji, Tomonori; Hongo, Michio; Tabayashi, Kouichi; Nitta, Shin-ichi

    2003-10-01

    pathophysiological reaction to the audiovisual stimulations. As for the photo sensitive epilepsy, it was reported to be only 5-10% for all patients. Therefore, 90% or more of the cause could not be determined in patients who started a morbid response. The results in this study suggest that the autonomic function was connected to the mental tendency of the objects. By examining such directivity, it is expected that subjects, which show morbid reaction to an audiovisual stimulation, can be screened beforehand. PMID:14572681

  5. Linear filters as a method of real-time prediction of geomagnetic activity

    Important factors controlling geomagnetic activity include the solar wind velocity, the strength of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), and the field orientation. Because these quantities change so much in transit through the solar wind, real-time monitoring immediately upstream of the earth provides the best input for any technique of real-time prediction. One such technique is linear prediction filtering which utilizes past histories of the input and output of a linear system to create a time-invariant filter characterizing the system. Problems of nonlinearity or temporal changes of the system can be handled by appropriate choice of input parameters and piecewise approximation in various ranges of the input. We have created prediction filters for all the standard magnetic indices and tested their efficiency. The filters show that the initial response of the magnetosphere to a southward turning of the IMF peaks in 20 minutes and then again in 55 minutes. After a northward turning, auroral zone indices and the midlatitude ASYM index return to background within 2 hours, while Dst decays exponentially with a time constant of about 8 hours. This paper describes a simple, real-time system utilizing these filters which could predict a substantial fraction of the variation in magnetic activity indices 20 to 50 minutes in advance

  6. Postchemoradiotherapy Positron Emission Tomography Predicts Pathologic Response and Survival in Patients With Esophageal Cancer

    Jayachandran, Priya [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Pai, Reetesh K. [Department of Pathology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Quon, Andrew [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Graves, Edward; Krakow, Trevor E.; La, Trang; Loo, Billy W.; Koong, Albert C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Chang, Daniel T., E-mail: dtchang@stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: To correlate the prechemoradiotherapy (CRT) and post-CRT metabolic tumor volume (MTV) on positron emission tomography (PET) scanning with the pathologic response and survival in patients receiving preoperative CRT for esophageal cancer. Materials and Methods: The medical records of 37 patients with histologically confirmed Stage I-IVA esophageal cancer treated with CRT with or without surgical resection were reviewed. Of the 37 patients, 21 received preoperative CRT (57%) and 16 received definitive CRT (43%). All patients had a pre-CRT and 32 had a post-CRT PET scan. The MTV was measured on the pre-CRT PET and post-CRT PET scan, respectively, using a minimum standardized uptake value (SUV) threshold x, where x = 2, 2.5, 3, or the SUV maximum Multiplication-Sign 50%. The total glycolytic activity (TGA{sub x}) was defined as the mean SUV Multiplication-Sign MTV{sub x}. The MTV ratio was defined as the pre-CRT PET MTV/post-CRT MTV. The SUV ratio was defined similarly. A single pathologist scored the pathologic response using a tumor regression grade (TRG) scale. Results: The median follow-up was 1.5 years (range, 0.4-4.9). No significant correlation was found between any parameters on the pre-CRT PET scan and the TRG or overall survival (OS). Multiple post-CRT MTV values and post-TGA values correlated with the TRG and OS; however, the MTV{sub 2.5Post} and TGA{sub 2.5Post} had the greatest correlation. The MTV{sub 2} ratio correlated with OS. The maximum SUV on either the pre-CRT and post-CRT PET scans or the maximum SUV ratio did not correlate with the TRG or OS. Patients treated preoperatively had survival similar compared with those treated definitively with a good PET response (p = 0.97) and significantly better than that of patients treated definitively with a poor PET response (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: The maximum SUV was not a predictive or prognostic parameter. The MTV{sub 2.5} and TGA{sub 2.5} were useful markers for predicting the response and

  7. The prediction of induced activity levels in and around NIMROD

    Hack, R C

    1973-01-01

    Comparisons are reported between measured and predicted levels of induced radioactivity for a number of irradiation conditions. Good agreement was found between experimental measurements and fairly simple methods of prediction developed at CERN.

  8. Prediction of hearing thresholds: Comparison of cortical evoked response audiometry and auditory steady state response audiometry techniques

    Wong, LLN; Yeung, KNK

    2007-01-01

    The present study evaluated how well auditory steady state response (ASSR) and tone burst cortical evoked response audiometry (CERA) thresholds predict behavioral thresholds in the same participants. A total of 63 ears were evaluated. For ASSR testing, 100% amplitude modulated and 10% frequency modulated tone stimuli at a modulation frequency of 40Hz were used. Behavioral thresholds were closer to CERA thresholds than ASSR thresholds. ASSR and CERA thresholds were closer to behavioral thresho...

  9. Posterior Predictive Checks for Conditional Independence between Response Time and Accuracy

    Bolsinova, Maria; Tijmstra, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    Conditional independence (CI) between response time and response accuracy is a fundamental assumption of many joint models for time and accuracy used in educational measurement. In this study, posterior predictive checks (PPCs) are proposed for testing this assumption. These PPCs are based on three discrepancy measures reflecting different…

  10. Prediction of lung function response for populations exposed to a wide range of ozone conditions

    Abstract Context: A human exposure-response (E-R) model that has previously been demonstrated to accurately predict population mean FEV1 response to ozone exposure has been proposed as the foundation for future risk assessments for ambient ozone. Objective: Fit the origi...

  11. Prediction models for platinum-based chemotherapy response and toxicity in advanced NSCLC patients.

    Yin, Ji-Ye; Li, Xi; Li, Xiang-Ping; Xiao, Ling; Zheng, Wei; Chen, Juan; Mao, Chen-Xue; Fang, Chao; Cui, Jia-Jia; Guo, Cheng-Xian; Zhang, Wei; Gao, Yang; Zhang, Chun-Fang; Chen, Zi-Hua; Zhou, Hui; Zhou, Hong-Hao; Liu, Zhao-Qian

    2016-07-10

    In this study, we aimed to establish a platinum-based chemotherapy response and toxicity prediction model in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. 416 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 185 genes were genotyped, and their association with drug response and toxicity were estimated using logistic regression. Nine data mining techniques were employed to establish the prediction model; the sensitivity, specificity, overall accuracy and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were used to assess the models' performance. Finally, selected models were validated in an independent cohort. The models established by naïve Bayesian algorithm had the best performance. The response prediction model achieved a sensitivity of 0.90 and a specificity of 0.47 with the ROC area under curve (AUC) of 0.80. The overall toxicity prediction model achieved a sensitivity of 0.86 and a specificity of 0.46 with the ROC AUC of 0.73. The hematological toxicity prediction model achieved a sensitivity of 0.89 and a specificity of 0.39 with the ROC AUC of 0.76. The gastrointestinal toxicity prediction model achieved a sensitivity of 0.93 and a specificity of 0.35 with the ROC AUC of 0.80. In conclusion, we provided platinum-based chemotherapy response and toxicity prediction models for advanced NSCLC patients. PMID:27126360

  12. Acceleration response spectrum for predicting floor vibration due to occupant walking

    Chen, Jun; Xu, Ruotian; Zhang, Mengshi

    2014-07-01

    Annoying vibrations caused by occupant walking is an important serviceability problem for long-span floors. At the design stage the floor's structural arrangement may frequently change to cater for the owner's varying requirements. An efficient and accurate approach for predicting a floor's acceleration response is thus of great significance. This paper presents a design-oriented acceleration response spectrum for calculating a floor's response given the floor's modal characteristics and a specified confidence level. 2204 measured footfall traces from 61 test subjects were used to generate 10 s peak root-mean-square acceleration response spectra, on which a piecewise mathematical representation is based. The proposed response spectrum consists of three main parts: the first harmonic plateau ranging from 1.5 to 2.5 Hz, the second harmonic plateau ranging from 3.0 to 5.0 Hz and the descending part going with frequencies from 5.0 to 10.0 Hz. The representative value of each plateau and the mathematical representation for the descending curve were determined statistically for different confidence levels. Furthermore, the effects of factors, such as floor span, occupant stride length, higher modes of vibration, boundary conditions and peak acceleration response, on the proposed spectrum have been investigated and a modification measure for each factor is suggested. A detailed application procedure for the proposed spectrum approach is presented and has been applied to four existing floors to predict their acceleration responses. Comparison between predicted and field measured responses shows that the measured accelerations of the four floors are generally close to or slightly higher than the predicted values for the 75 percent confidence level, but are all lower than the predicted values for the 95 percent confidence level. Therefore the suggested spectrum-based approach can be used for predicting a floor's response subject to a single person walking.

  13. Performance on indirect measures of race evaluation predicts amygdala activation.

    Phelps, E A; O'Connor, K J; Cunningham, W A; Funayama, E S; Gatenby, J C; Gore, J C; Banaji, M R

    2000-09-01

    We used fMRI to explore the neural substrates involved in the unconscious evaluation of Black and White social groups. Specifically, we focused on the amygdala, a subcortical structure known to play a role in emotional learning and evaluation. In Experiment 1, White American subjects observed faces of unfamiliar Black and White males. The strength of amygdala activation to Black-versus-White faces was correlated with two indirect (unconscious) measures of race evaluation (Implicit Association Test [IAT] and potentiated startle), but not with the direct (conscious) expression of race attitudes. In Experiment 2, these patterns were not obtained when the stimulus faces belonged to familiar and positively regarded Black and White individuals. Together, these results suggest that amygdala and behavioral responses to Black-versus-White faces in White subjects reflect cultural evaluations of social groups modified by individual experience. PMID:11054916

  14. Active load management in an intelligent building using model predictive control strategy

    Zong, Yi; Kullmann, Daniel; Thavlov, Anders;

    2011-01-01

    shifting in PowerFlexHouse heaters' power consumption scheme. With this demand side control study, it is expected that this method of demand response can dramatically raise energy efficiencies and improve grid reliability, when there is a high penetration of intermittent energy resources in the power......This paper introduces PowerFlexHouse, a research facility for exploring the technical potential of active load management in a distributed power system (SYSLAB) with a high penetration of renewable energy and presents in detail on how to implement a thermal model predictive controller for load...

  15. Challenges of using model predictive control for active demand side management

    Zong, Yi; You, Shi; Hu, Junjie;

    2015-01-01

    When there is a high penetration of renewables in the power system, it requires coordinated management of large numbers of distributed and demand response resources, intermittent resources to maintain the grid reliability and improve operational economics. This paper presents a hierarchical...... architecture design for Model Predictive Controller (MPC), and discusses the challenges encountered during the implementation of MPC for active demand side management. The two different pilot case studies show that energy savings and load shifting can be achieved by applying MPC with weather forecast and...

  16. Predicting trace organic compound attenuation with spectroscopic parameters in powdered activated carbon processes.

    Ziska, Austin D; Park, Minkyu; Anumol, Tarun; Snyder, Shane A

    2016-08-01

    The removal of trace organic compounds (TOrCs) is of growing interest in water research and society. Powdered activated carbon (PAC) has been proven to be an effective method of removal for TOrCs in water, with the degree of effectiveness depending on dosage, contact time, and activated carbon type. In this study, the attenuation of TOrCs in three different secondary wastewater effluents using four PAC materials was studied in order to elucidate the effectiveness and efficacy of PAC for TOrC removal. With the notable exception of hydrochlorothiazide, all 14 TOrC indicators tested in this study exhibited a positive correlation of removal rate with their log Dow values, demonstrating that the main adsorption mechanism was hydrophobic interaction. As a predictive model, the modified Chick-Watson model, often used for the prediction of microorganism inactivation by disinfectants, was applied. The applied model exhibited good predictive power for TOrC attenuation by PAC in wastewater. In addition, surrogate models based upon spectroscopic measurements including UV absorbance at 254 nm and total fluorescence were applied to predict TOrC removal by PAC. The surrogate model was found to provide an excellent prediction of TOrC attenuation for all combinations of water quality and PAC type included in this study. The success of spectrometric parameters as surrogates in predicting TOrC attenuation by PAC are particularly useful because of their potential application in real-time on-line sensor monitoring and process control at full-scale water treatment plants, which could lead to significantly reduced operator response times and PAC operational optimization. PMID:27174829

  17. Methods and kits for predicting a response to an erythropoietic agent

    Merchant, Michael L.; Klein, Jon B.; Brier, Michael E.; Gaweda, Adam E.

    2015-06-16

    Methods for predicting a response to an erythropoietic agent in a subject include providing a biological sample from the subject, and determining an amount in the sample of at least one peptide selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NOS: 1-17. If there is a measurable difference in the amount of the at least one peptide in the sample, when compared to a control level of the same peptide, the subject is then predicted to have a good response or a poor response to the erythropoietic agent. Kits for predicting a response to an erythropoietic agent are further provided and include one or more antibodies, or fragments thereof, that specifically recognize a peptide of SEQ ID NOS: 1-17.

  18. Direct-to-consumer advertising of predictive genetic tests: a health belief model based examination of consumer response.

    Rollins, Brent L; Ramakrishnan, Shravanan; Perri, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising of predictive genetic tests (PGTs) has added a new dimension to health advertising. This study used an online survey based on the health belief model framework to examine and more fully understand consumers' responses and behavioral intentions in response to a PGT DTC advertisement. Overall, consumers reported moderate intentions to talk with their doctor and seek more information about PGTs after advertisement exposure, though consumers did not seem ready to take the advertised test or engage in active information search. Those who perceived greater threat from the disease, however, had significantly greater behavioral intentions and information search behavior. PMID:25120046

  19. Multi-scale simulations predict responses to non-invasive nerve root stimulation

    Laakso, Ilkka; Matsumoto, Hideyuki; Hirata, Akimasa; Terao, Yasuo; Hanajima, Ritsuko; Ugawa, Yoshikazu

    2014-10-01

    Objective. Established biophysical neurone models have achieved limited success in reproducing electrophysiological responses to non-invasive stimulation of the human nervous system. This is related to our insufficient knowledge of the induced electric currents inside the human body. Despite the numerous research and clinical applications of non-invasive stimulation, it is still unclear which internal sites are actually affected by it. Approach. We performed multi-scale computer simulations that, by making use of advances in computing power and numerical algorithms, combine a microscopic model of electrical excitation of neurones with a macroscopic electromagnetic model of the realistic whole-body anatomy. Main results. The simulations yield responses consistent with those experimentally recorded following magnetic and electrical motor root stimulation in human subjects, and reproduce the observed amplitudes and latencies for a wide variety of stimulation parameters. Significance. Our findings demonstrate that modern computational techniques can produce detailed predictions about which and where neurones are activated, leading to improved understanding of the physics and basic mechanisms of non-invasive stimulation and enabling potential new applications that make use of improved targeting of stimulation.

  20. Reading a suspenseful literary text activates brain areas related to social cognition and predictive inference.

    Lehne, Moritz; Engel, Philipp; Rohrmeier, Martin; Menninghaus, Winfried; Jacobs, Arthur M; Koelsch, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Stories can elicit powerful emotions. A key emotional response to narrative plots (e.g., novels, movies, etc.) is suspense. Suspense appears to build on basic aspects of human cognition such as processes of expectation, anticipation, and prediction. However, the neural processes underlying emotional experiences of suspense have not been previously investigated. We acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data while participants read a suspenseful literary text (E.T.A. Hoffmann's "The Sandman") subdivided into short text passages. Individual ratings of experienced suspense obtained after each text passage were found to be related to activation in the medial frontal cortex, bilateral frontal regions (along the inferior frontal sulcus), lateral premotor cortex, as well as posterior temporal and temporo-parietal areas. The results indicate that the emotional experience of suspense depends on brain areas associated with social cognition and predictive inference. PMID:25946306

  1. Reading a suspenseful literary text activates brain areas related to social cognition and predictive inference.

    Moritz Lehne

    Full Text Available Stories can elicit powerful emotions. A key emotional response to narrative plots (e.g., novels, movies, etc. is suspense. Suspense appears to build on basic aspects of human cognition such as processes of expectation, anticipation, and prediction. However, the neural processes underlying emotional experiences of suspense have not been previously investigated. We acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data while participants read a suspenseful literary text (E.T.A. Hoffmann's "The Sandman" subdivided into short text passages. Individual ratings of experienced suspense obtained after each text passage were found to be related to activation in the medial frontal cortex, bilateral frontal regions (along the inferior frontal sulcus, lateral premotor cortex, as well as posterior temporal and temporo-parietal areas. The results indicate that the emotional experience of suspense depends on brain areas associated with social cognition and predictive inference.

  2. Factors predictive of a beneficial response to therapy of hepatitis C.

    Davis, G L; Lau, J Y

    1997-09-01

    Alpha interferon is the only drug that has been shown to be effective in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C, but only half of patients respond, either transiently or permanently. Pretreatment features that are associated with a greater likelihood of response to short courses of interferon include low hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA levels, viral genotypes 2 or 3, and the absence of fibrosis or cirrhosis on liver biopsy. Each of these features is more predictive of sustained response (SR) than the end-of-treatment response (ETR). However, the accuracy of these features in predicting response in individual patients is poor. Furthermore, there are several limitations to using these factors in the clinical management of patients. Most importantly, they were identified in 6-month treatment trials. Longer treatment or combination of interferon with ribavirin reduces relapses and will therefore lessen the association of these factors with long-term response. In addition, changes in the definition of treatment end points and the technology used to measure HCV RNA might change the association between these predictive factors and response. The best predictor of a treatment response is the early normalization of the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level during interferon treatment. HCV RNA loss during treatment may also be helpful in predicting response, but it is probably no better than serum ALT levels and is expensive. In summary, several clinical and virological features are associated with higher response rates to interferon treatment. Although pretreatment factors do not accurately predict treatment outcome in individuals, they may be helpful in counseling patients and making treatment decisions. PMID:9305676

  3. Real-time regression schemes for integrating measurements with emergency response predictions

    If real-time radiological measurements are available, current computer technology provides an opportunity for improving hazard predictions during an emergency. The potential for substantially reducing prediction uncertainties by integrating real-time observations and predictions into an automated emergency response system exists. In developing such a system, great care must be taken to properly balance prediction-model sophistication, data quality and timing, response time, and a data/model integration scheme. The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) of the U.S. Department of Energy has initiated a program to establish the feasibility of incorporating an automated, real-time method of correcting predictions using radiological measurements acquired during an emergency. This Predictor/Corrector (P/C) Model is predicated on (1) being able to obtain real-time measurements, (2) having a sophisticated prediction model capable of running many times during an emergency response and, (3) using an appropriately designed non-linear regression scheme. Model sophistication will be designed as a function of available response time. The current plan is to use ARAC's MATHEW/ADPIC model as the P/C predictor, but with the model restructured with multiple loops to provide differing degrees of sophistication, to be invoked as response time allows. We study different regression schemes potentially appropriate for the Predictor/Corrector Model. We use the ARAC Instantaneous Point Source (IPS) model to predict observations that were made at the Savannah River Plant for SF6 tracer releases during 1983. The number of IPS runs and the range of the initial parameter guesses that result in acceptable predictions are determined. Recommendations are made of the best candidates for implementation in the MATHEW/ADPIC model

  4. Predicting Ovarian Cancer Patients' Clinical Response to Platinum-Based Chemotherapy by Their Tumor Proteomic Signatures.

    Yu, Kun-Hsing; Levine, Douglas A; Zhang, Hui; Chan, Daniel W; Zhang, Zhen; Snyder, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Ovarian cancer is the deadliest gynecologic malignancy in the United States with most patients diagnosed in the advanced stage of the disease. Platinum-based antineoplastic therapeutics is indispensable to treating advanced ovarian serous carcinoma. However, patients have heterogeneous responses to platinum drugs, and it is difficult to predict these interindividual differences before administering medication. In this study, we investigated the tumor proteomic profiles and clinical characteristics of 130 ovarian serous carcinoma patients analyzed by the Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC), predicted the platinum drug response using supervised machine learning methods, and evaluated our prediction models through leave-one-out cross-validation. Our data-driven feature selection approach indicated that tumor proteomics profiles contain information for predicting binarized platinum response (P drug responses as well as provided insights into the biological processes influencing the efficacy of platinum-based therapeutics. Our analytical approach is also extensible to predicting response to other antineoplastic agents or treatment modalities for both ovarian and other cancers. PMID:27312948

  5. Molecular markers predicting radiotherapy response: Report and recommendations from an International Atomic Energy Agency technical meeting

    Purpose: There is increasing interest in radiogenomics and the characterization of molecular profiles that predict normal tissue and tumor radioresponse. A meeting in Amsterdam was organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency to discuss this topic on an international basis. Methods and Materials: This report is not completely exhaustive, but highlights some of the ongoing studies and new initiatives being carried out worldwide in the banking of tumor and normal tissue samples underpinning the development of molecular marker profiles for predicting patient response to radiotherapy. It is generally considered that these profiles will more accurately define individual or group radiosensitivities compared with the nondefinitive findings from the previous era of cellular-based techniques. However, so far there are only a few robust reports of molecular markers predicting normal tissue or tumor response. Results: Many centers in different countries have initiated tissue and tumor banks to store samples from clinical trials for future molecular profiling analysis, to identify profiles that predict for radiotherapy response. The European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology GENEtic pathways for the Prediction of the effects of Irradiation (GENEPI) project, to store, document, and analyze sample characteristics vs. response, is the most comprehensive in this regard. Conclusions: The next 5-10 years are likely to see the results of these and other correlative studies, and promising associations of profiles with response should be validated in larger definitive trials

  6. Predictive value of brain perfusion SPECT for rTMS response in pharmacoresistant depression

    The aim of this study was to determine the predictive value of whole-brain voxel-based regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) for repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) response in patients with pharmacoresistant depression. Thirty-three right-handed patients who met DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder (unipolar or bipolar depression) were included before rTMS. rTMS response was defined as at least 50% reduction in the baseline Beck Depression Inventory scores. The predictive value of 99mTc-ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) for rTMS response was studied before treatment by comparing rTMS responders to non-responders at voxel level using Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) (p 0.10). In comparison to responders, non-responders showed significant hypoperfusions (p < 0.001, uncorrected) in the left medial and bilateral superior frontal cortices (BA10), the left uncus/parahippocampal cortex (BA20/BA35) and the right thalamus. The area under the curve for the combination of SPECT clusters to predict rTMS response was 0.89 (p < 0.001). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for the combination of clusters were: 94, 73, 81 and 92%, respectively. This study shows that, in pharmacoresistant depression, pretreatment rCBF of specific brain regions is a strong predictor for response to rTMS in patients with homogeneous demographic/clinical features. (orig.)

  7. Active teaching methods, studying responses and learning

    Christensen, Hans Peter; Vigild, Martin Etchells; Thomsen, Erik Vilain;

    Students’ study strategies when exposed to activating teaching methods are measured, analysed and compared to study strategies in more traditional lecture-based teaching.......Students’ study strategies when exposed to activating teaching methods are measured, analysed and compared to study strategies in more traditional lecture-based teaching....

  8. Active teaching methods, studying responses and learning

    Christensen, Hans Peter; Vigild, Martin Etchells; Thomsen, Erik Vilain;

    2010-01-01

    Students’ study strategies when exposed to activating teaching methods are measured, analysed and compared to study strategies in more traditional lecture-based teaching. The resulting learning outcome is discussed.......Students’ study strategies when exposed to activating teaching methods are measured, analysed and compared to study strategies in more traditional lecture-based teaching. The resulting learning outcome is discussed....

  9. Predicting the Responses of Soil Nitrite-Oxidizers to Multi-Factorial Global Change: A Trait-Based Approach

    Le Roux, Xavier; Bouskill, Nicholas J.; Niboyet, Audrey; Barthes, Laure; Dijkstra, Paul; Field, Chris B.; Hungate, Bruce A.; Lerondelle, Catherine; Pommier, Thomas; Tang, Jinyun; Terada, Akihiko; Tourna, Maria; Poly, Franck

    2016-01-01

    Soil microbial diversity is huge and a few grams of soil contain more bacterial taxa than there are bird species on Earth. This high diversity often makes predicting the responses of soil bacteria to environmental change intractable and restricts our capacity to predict the responses of soil functions to global change. Here, using a long-term field experiment in a California grassland, we studied the main and interactive effects of three global change factors (increased atmospheric CO2 concentration, precipitation and nitrogen addition, and all their factorial combinations, based on global change scenarios for central California) on the potential activity, abundance and dominant taxa of soil nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB). Using a trait-based model, we then tested whether categorizing NOB into a few functional groups unified by physiological traits enables understanding and predicting how soil NOB respond to global environmental change. Contrasted responses to global change treatments were observed between three main NOB functional types. In particular, putatively mixotrophic Nitrobacter, rare under most treatments, became dominant under the ‘High CO2+Nitrogen+Precipitation’ treatment. The mechanistic trait-based model, which simulated ecological niches of NOB types consistent with previous ecophysiological reports, helped predicting the observed effects of global change on NOB and elucidating the underlying biotic and abiotic controls. Our results are a starting point for representing the overwhelming diversity of soil bacteria by a few functional types that can be incorporated into models of terrestrial ecosystems and biogeochemical processes.

  10. Response to induction chemotherapy as predictive marker of tumor response to radiotherapy and survival in oral cavity cancer

    Surendra Kumar Saini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trials have shown some statistically nonsignificant survival advantage of taxane, platin and 5-FU (TPF induction chemotherapy before definitive chemoradiation. We tried to find the role of induction chemotherapy in the prediction of tumor response to radiotherapy and survival in the treatment of oral cavity cancers. Patients and Methods: Patients of stage III and IV (M0 unresectable oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma were assigned to receive two cycles of TPF. On the basis of response to chemotherapy, two groups were made. Those who had partial or more than partial response and another group who had stable disease or disease progression during chemotherapy. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy was given to all patients after induction chemotherapy. Results: A total of 128 patients who received TPF, 29 (22.6% had complete response, 57 (44.5% had partial response, 38 (29.7% had stable disease and 4 (3.1% had progressive disease. Definitive chemoradiotherapy lead to complete response in 48 (55.8% patients who had partial or more than partial response (total 86 to chemotherapy and 10 (23.8% patients among those who had stable disease or disease progression during chemotherapy (total 42. This difference in response is statistically significant (P = 0.001. Three years survival was significantly better after treatment in patients who responded more than partial (hazard ratio 0.463, 95% confidence interval 0.2789-0.7689, with an estimated 3-year survival of 35% in patients in group 1 and 14% in group 2. Conclusion: Response to induction chemotherapy can be a predictive marker for response to subsequent chemoradiotherapy and survival, with acceptable toxicities.