WorldWideScience

Sample records for activity levels

  1. Activity-Level Externalities

    enrico, baffi

    2012-01-01

    In the literature we find unanimous consensus on the analysis of bilateral accident models. In bilateral accident models, indeed, it is usually held that both with the negligence rule and with strict liability with contributory negligence, the residual bearer adopts an efficient level of precaution and efficient activity levels; the party that is not the residual bearer, on the other hand, chooses an excessive activity level since once the due precautions have been taken, they do not answe...

  2. Global physical activity levels

    Hallal, Pedro C; Andersen, Lars Bo; Bull, Fiona C;

    2012-01-01

    To implement effective non-communicable disease prevention programmes, policy makers need data for physical activity levels and trends. In this report, we describe physical activity levels worldwide with data for adults (15 years or older) from 122 countries and for adolescents (13-15-years......-old) from 105 countries. Worldwide, 31·1% (95% CI 30·9-31·2) of adults are physically inactive, with proportions ranging from 17·0% (16·8-17·2) in southeast Asia to about 43% in the Americas and the eastern Mediterranean. Inactivity rises with age, is higher in women than in men, and is increased in high......-income countries. The proportion of 13-15-year-olds doing fewer than 60 min of physical activity of moderate to vigorous intensity per day is 80·3% (80·1-80·5); boys are more active than are girls. Continued improvement in monitoring of physical activity would help to guide development of policies and programmes...

  3. Birth Order and Activity Level in Children.

    Eaton, Warren O.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Studied 7,018 children between birth and 7 years and 81 children of 5-8 years to test the hypothesis that birth order is negatively related to motor activity level. Activity level declined linearly across birth position, so that early-borns were rated as more active than later-borns. (RJC)

  4. Linking Diverse Levels of Activity

    Sørensen, Brian Vejrum; Boer, Harry

    2006-01-01

    /or knowledge intensive companies (Starbuck 1992), which, due to their unsettled form and process, rely on the sense their members make of the change inputs and their creative enactment of these inputs. In such companies, change is a part of everyday practice that (re)produces organisational configurations and......Organisations start strategic renewal initiatives more often than ever before. Many initiatives, however, have little practical effect on the practices they are meant to change. They do not seem to submerge to the level where they become part of the actionable knowledge of the organisation....... Furthermore, the implementation of strategic organisational change, even if based on good arguments, solid analysis and the best intentions, tends to be fraught with unintended consequences. In this paper we aim to supply an explanation for this, based on a longitudinal study, and grounded in a social...

  5. Are Preschool Children Active Enough? Objectively Measured Physical Activity Levels

    Cardon, Greet M.; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse M. M.

    2008-01-01

    The present study aimed to describe accelerometer-based physical activity levels in 4- and 5-year-old children (N = 76) on 2 weekdays and 2 weekend days. The children were sedentary for 9.6 hr (85%) daily, while they engaged in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) for 34 min (5%). Only 7% of the children engaged in MVPA for 60 min per…

  6. Nestling activity levels during begging behaviour predicts activity level and body mass in adulthood

    Luke S.C. McCowan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Across a range of species including humans, personality traits, or differences in behaviour between individuals that are consistent over time, have been demonstrated. However, few studies have measured whether these consistent differences are evident in very young animals, and whether they persist over an individual’s entire lifespan. Here we investigated the begging behaviour of very young cross-fostered zebra finch nestlings and the relationship between that and adult activity levels. We found a link between the nestling activity behaviour head movements during begging, measured at just five and seven days after hatching, and adult activity levels, measured when individuals were between three and three and a half years old. Moreover, body mass was found to be negatively correlated with both nestling and adult activity levels, suggesting that individuals which carry less body fat as adults are less active both as adults and during begging as nestlings. Our work suggests that the personality traits identified here in both very young nestlings and adults may be linked to physiological factors such as metabolism or environmental sources of variation. Moreover, our work suggests it may be possible to predict an individual’s future adult personality at a very young age, opening up new avenues for future work to explore the relationship between personality and a number of aspects of individual life history and survival.

  7. Nestling activity levels during begging behaviour predicts activity level and body mass in adulthood.

    McCowan, Luke S C; Griffith, Simon C

    2014-01-01

    Across a range of species including humans, personality traits, or differences in behaviour between individuals that are consistent over time, have been demonstrated. However, few studies have measured whether these consistent differences are evident in very young animals, and whether they persist over an individual's entire lifespan. Here we investigated the begging behaviour of very young cross-fostered zebra finch nestlings and the relationship between that and adult activity levels. We found a link between the nestling activity behaviour head movements during begging, measured at just five and seven days after hatching, and adult activity levels, measured when individuals were between three and three and a half years old. Moreover, body mass was found to be negatively correlated with both nestling and adult activity levels, suggesting that individuals which carry less body fat as adults are less active both as adults and during begging as nestlings. Our work suggests that the personality traits identified here in both very young nestlings and adults may be linked to physiological factors such as metabolism or environmental sources of variation. Moreover, our work suggests it may be possible to predict an individual's future adult personality at a very young age, opening up new avenues for future work to explore the relationship between personality and a number of aspects of individual life history and survival. PMID:25279258

  8. PSA Level 2 activities for RBMK reactors

    Probabilistic safety analyses (PSAs) of the boiling water graphite moderated pressure tube reactors (RBMKs) have been developed only recently and they are limited to Level 1. Activities at the IAEA were first motivated because of the difficulties to characterize core damage for RBMK reactors. Core damage probability is used in documents of the IAEA as a convenient single valued measure, for example for probabilistic safety criteria. The limited number of PSAs that have been completed for the RBMK reactors have shown that several special features of these channel type reactors necessitate revisiting of the characterization of core damage for these reactors. Furthermore, it has become increasingly evident that detailed deterministic analysis of DBAs and beyond design basis accidents reveal considerable insights into RBMK response to various accident conditions. These analyses can also help in better characterizing the outstanding phenomenological uncertainties, improved EOPs and AM strategies, including potential risk-beneficial accident negative backfits. The deterministic efforts should be focused first on elucidating accident progression processes and phenomena, and second on finding, qualifying and implementing procedures to minimize the risk of severe accident states The IAEA PSA procedures were mainly developed in New of vessel type LWRs, and would therefore require extensions to make them directly applicable. to channel type reactors. (author) (author)

  9. Nestling activity levels during begging behaviour predicts activity level and body mass in adulthood

    McCowan, Luke S.C.; Griffith, Simon C

    2014-01-01

    Across a range of species including humans, personality traits, or differences in behaviour between individuals that are consistent over time, have been demonstrated. However, few studies have measured whether these consistent differences are evident in very young animals, and whether they persist over an individual’s entire lifespan. Here we investigated the begging behaviour of very young cross-fostered zebra finch nestlings and the relationship between that and adult activity levels. We fo...

  10. Study on the physical activity level of Turkish males

    Ramiz Arabacı

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate physical activity (PA level of the Turkish males who lived in BUrsa. A total of 365 subjects between 18 - 69 age participated to this study. To determine physical activity levels, International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ was applied. PA levels of subjects were categorized as inactive, minimum active and HEPA active by using MET method. The relations of parameters, such as their age, BMI, education, marital status, number of children, smoking and alcohol use were determined with PA level. The results were analyzed by using Chi - Square test. The participants have 1725 METmin/week average physical activity level, and 47.7 % of them were physically inactive, 30.4 % were physically minimum active and 21.9 % were physically hepa active. As a result, it can be said that the physical activity levels of Turkish males who lived in Bursa are not sufficient and the inactive people are very common.

  11. Entry-Level Activities in System Consultation

    Hylander, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    System-level consultation or organizational development in schools is an area in great need of theoretical models and definitions. The three articles in this special issue provide a unique learning opportunity not only for consultation across borders but also for consultation within the same nation. In my commentary, I limit my remarks to a few…

  12. Valuation of companies activity on sustainability level

    S. Nadolski

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Paper presents a possibilities of companies valuation due to their activity in accordance with sustainable development.Design/methodology/approach: The article describes best known methods of companies assessment (stock indices, non-financial reports and other indicators connected with sustainability. Also there is a history of indices methodology which comes from ethical, religious problems and sustainable development principles.Findings: There is still more companies interested in being (as a part of sustainability indices or other rankings. Research organizations should be concentrated on different type of rankings which contain summary report of best available techniques.Research limitations/implications: Every sustainability index or non-financial reports ranking should be important part of companies management thinking. It is important idea to create these indices for every local stock exchange. Also companies should publish true and clear non-financial reports.Originality/value: The paper concerns on existing indices and tries to make new look at sustainability problems. Important conclusions are connected with non-financial reports and possible connections between indices, rankings and best available techniques.

  13. Towards a new paradigm: Activity level balanced sustainability reporting.

    Samudhram, Ananda; Siew, Eu-Gene; Sinnakkannu, Jothee; Yeow, Paul H P

    2016-11-01

    Technoeconomic paradigms based economic growth theories suggest that waves of technological innovations drove the economic growth of advanced economies. Widespread economic degradation and pollution is an unintended consequence of such growth. Tackling environmental and social issues at firm levels would help us to overcome such issues at macro-levels. Consequently, the Triple Bottom Line (TBL) reporting approach promotes firm level economic, environmental and social performances. Incorporating Zink's (2014) 3-pillar presentation model, this paper indicates that economic, social and environmental performances tend to be reported at firm level. All three pillars are not covered evenly at the activity levels. Thus, a loophole is identified whereby excellent environmental performance at activity levels could potentially leave poor social performance undisclosed. A refinement of the TBL paradigm, whereby all three pillars are covered at the activity level, is suggested, to enhance sustainability reporting. PMID:27029522

  14. Solar Activity, Different Geomagnetic Activity Levels and Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Dimitrova, Svetla; Jordanova, Malina; Stoilova, Irina; Taseva, Tatiana; Maslarov, Dimitar

    Results on revealing a possible relationship between solar activity (SA) and geomagnetic activity (GMA) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) morbidity are presented. Studies were based on medical data covering the period from 1.12.1995 to 31.12.2004 and concerned daily distribution of patients with AMI diagnose (in total 1192 cases) from Sofia region on the day of admission at the hospital. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to check the significance of GMA intensity effect and the type of geomagnetic storms, those caused by Magnetic Clouds (MC) and by High Speed Solar Wind Streams (HSSWS), on AMI morbidity. Relevant correlation coefficients were calculated. Results revealed statistically significant positive correlation between considered GMA indices and AMI. ANOVA revealed that AMI number was signifi- cantly increased from the day before (-1st) till the day after (+1st) geomagnetic storms with different intensities. Geomagnetic storms caused by MC were related to significant increase of AMI number in comparison with the storms caused by HSSWS. There was a trend for such different effects even on -1st and +1st day.

  15. Study on the physical activity level of Turkish males

    Ramiz Arabacı

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate physical activity (PA level of the Turkish males who lived in BUrsa. A total of 365 subjects between 18 - 69 age participated to this study. To determine physical activity levels, International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ was applied. PA levels of subjects were categorized as inactive, minimum active and HEPA active by using MET method. The relations of parameters, such as their age, BMI, education, marital status, number of children, smoking and alcohol use were determined with PA level. The results were analyzed by using Chi - Square test. The participants have 1725 METmin/week average physical activity level, and 47.7 % of them were physically inactive, 30.4 % were physically minimum active and 21.9 % were physically hepa active. As a result, it can be said that the physical activity levels of Turkish males who lived in Bursa are not sufficient and the inactive people are very common.

  16. Ferromagnetic interaction model of activity level in workplace communication

    Akitomi, Tomoaki; Ara, Koji; Watanabe, Jun-ichiro; Yano, Kazuo

    2013-03-01

    The nature of human-human interaction, specifically, how people synchronize with each other in multiple-participant conversations, is described by a ferromagnetic interaction model of people’s activity levels. We found two microscopic human interaction characteristics from a real-environment face-to-face conversation. The first characteristic is that people quite regularly synchronize their activity level with that of the other participants in a conversation. The second characteristic is that the degree of synchronization increases as the number of participants increases. Based on these microscopic ferromagnetic characteristics, a “conversation activity level” was modeled according to the Ising model. The results of a simulation of activity level based on this model well reproduce macroscopic experimental measurements of activity level. This model will give a new insight into how people interact with each other in a conversation.

  17. Active Ageing Level of Older Persons: Regional Comparison in Thailand

    Haque, Md. Nuruzzaman

    2016-01-01

    Active ageing level and its discrepancy in different regions (Bangkok, Central, North, Northeast, and South) of Thailand have been examined for prioritizing the policy agenda to be implemented. Attempt has been made to test preliminary active ageing models for Thai older persons and hence active ageing index (AAI, ranges from 0 to 1) has been estimated. Using nationally representative data and confirmatory factor analysis approach, this study justified active ageing models for female and male older persons in Thailand. Results revealed that active ageing level of Thai older persons is not high (mean AAIs for female and male older persons are 0.64 and 0.61, resp., and those are significantly different (p health and economic security, to promote participation in social groups and longer working lives, and to arrange learning programs, would be helpful for increasing older persons' active ageing level in Thailand.

  18. Active Ageing Level of Older Persons: Regional Comparison in Thailand

    Md. Nuruzzaman Haque

    2016-01-01

    Active ageing level and its discrepancy in different regions (Bangkok, Central, North, Northeast, and South) of Thailand have been examined for prioritizing the policy agenda to be implemented. Attempt has been made to test preliminary active ageing models for Thai older persons and hence active ageing index (AAI, ranges from 0 to 1) has been estimated. Using nationally representative data and confirmatory factor analysis approach, this study justified active ageing models for female and male...

  19. Murine erythrocytes contain high levels of lysophospholipase activity

    Kamp, J.A.F. op den; Roelofsen, B.; Sanderink, G.; Middelkoop, E.; Hamer, R.

    1984-01-01

    Murine erythrocytes were found to be unique in the high levels of lysophospholipase activity in the cytosol of these cells. The specific activity of the enzyme in the cytosol of the murine cells is 10-times higher than in the cytosol of rabbit erythrocytes and approximately three orders of magnitude

  20. Active Ageing Level of Older Persons: Regional Comparison in Thailand

    Md. Nuruzzaman Haque

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Active ageing level and its discrepancy in different regions (Bangkok, Central, North, Northeast, and South of Thailand have been examined for prioritizing the policy agenda to be implemented. Attempt has been made to test preliminary active ageing models for Thai older persons and hence active ageing index (AAI, ranges from 0 to 1 has been estimated. Using nationally representative data and confirmatory factor analysis approach, this study justified active ageing models for female and male older persons in Thailand. Results revealed that active ageing level of Thai older persons is not high (mean AAIs for female and male older persons are 0.64 and 0.61, resp., and those are significantly different (p<0.001. Mean AAI in Central region is lower than North, Northeast, and South regions but there is no significant difference in the latter three regions of Thailand. Special emphasis should be given to Central region and policy should be undertaken for increasing active ageing level. Implementation of an Integrated Active Ageing Package (IAAP, containing policies for older persons to improve their health and economic security, to promote participation in social groups and longer working lives, and to arrange learning programs, would be helpful for increasing older persons’ active ageing level in Thailand.

  1. Active Crohn's disease is associated with low vitamin D levels

    Jørgensen, Søren Peter; Hvas, Christian Lodberg; Agnholt, Jørgen;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Crohn's disease prevalence increases with increasing latitude. Because most vitamin D comes from sunlight exposure and murine models of intestinal inflammation have demonstrated beneficial effects of 1,25-(OH)(2) vitamin D treatment, we hypothesised that Crohn's disease...... activity is associated with low vitamin D levels. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study of 182 CD patients and 62 healthy controls, we measured serum 25-OH vitamin D. Stratified analysis was used to compare 25-OH vitamin D levels with Crohn's disease activity index, C-reactive protein, smoking status, intake...... of oral vitamin D supplements and seasonal variation in CD patients and healthy controls. RESULTS: Serum 25-OH vitamin D was inversely associated with disease activity: Median 25-OH vitamin D levels of Crohn's disease in remission, mildly, and moderately active diseases evaluated by Crohn's disease...

  2. Serum Renalase Levels Correlate with Disease Activity in Lupus Nephritis.

    Chaojun Qi

    Full Text Available Lupus nephritis (LN is among the most serious complications of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, which causes significant morbidity and mortality. Renalase is a novel, kidney-secreted cytokine-like protein that promotes cell survival. Here, we aimed to investigate the relationship of serum renalase levels with LN and its role in the disease progression of LN.For this cross-sectional study, 67 LN patients and 35 healthy controls were enrolled. Seventeen active LN patients who received standard therapies were followed up for six months. Disease activity was determined by the SLE Disease Activity-2000 (SLEDAI-2K scoring system and serum renalase amounts were determined by ELISA. Predictive value of renalase for disease activity was assessed. Furthermore, the expression of renalase in the kidneys of patients and macrophage infiltration was assessed by immunohistochemistry.Serum renalase amounts were significantly higher in LN patients than in healthy controls. Moreover, patients with proliferative LN had more elevated serum renalase levels than Class V LN patients. In proliferative LN patients, serum renalase levels were significantly higher in patients with active LN than those with inactive LN. Serum renalase levels were positively correlated with SLEDAI-2K, 24-h urine protein excretion, ds-DNA and ESR but inversely correlated with serum albumin and C3. Renalase amounts decreased significantly after six-months of standard therapy. The performance of renalase as a marker for diagnosis of active LN was 0.906 with a cutoff value of 66.67 μg/ml. We also observed that the amount of renalase was significantly higher in glomerular of proliferative LN along with the co-expression of macrophages.Serum renalase levels were correlated with disease activity in LN. Serum renalase might serve as a potential indicator for disease activity in LN. The marked increase of glomerular renalase and its association with macrophages suggest that it might play an

  3. Magnetospheric impulse response for many levels of geomagnetic activity

    The temporal relationship between the solar wind and magnetospheric activity has been studied using 34 intervals of high time resolution IMP 8 solar wind data and the corresponding AL auroral activity index. The median value of the AL index for each interval were utilized to rank the intervals according to geomagnetic activity level. The linear prediction filtering technique was then applied to model magnetospheric response as measured by the AL index to the solar wind input function VB/sub s/. The linear prediction filtering routine produces a filter of time-lagged response coefficients which estimates the most general linear relationship between the chosen input and output parameters of the magnetospheric system. It is found that the filters are composed of two response pulses speaking at time lags of 20 and 60 min. The amplitude of the 60-min pulse is the larger for moderate activity levels, while the 20-min pulse is the larger for strong activity levels. A possible interpretation is that the 20-min pulse represents magnetospheric activity driven directly by solar wind coupling and that the 60-min pulse represents magnetospheric activity driven by the relase of energy previously stored in the magnetotal. If this interpretation is correct, the linear filtering results suggest that both the driven and the unloading models of magnetospheric response are important facets of a more comprehensive response model

  4. Extraction of Children's Friendship Relation from Activity Level

    Kono, Aki; Shintani, Kimio; Katsuki, Takuya; Kihara, Shin'ya; Ueda, Mari; Kaneda, Shigeo; Haga, Hirohide

    Children learn to fit into society through living in a group, and it's greatly influenced by their friend relations. Although preschool teachers need to observe them to assist in the growth of children's social progress and support the development each child's personality, only experienced teachers can watch over children while providing high-quality guidance. To resolve the problem, this paper proposes a mathematical and objective method that assists teachers with observation. It uses numerical data of activity level recorded by pedometers, and we make tree diagram called dendrogram based on hierarchical clustering with recorded activity level. Also, we calculate children's ``breadth'' and ``depth'' of friend relations by using more than one dendrogram. When we record children's activity level in a certain kindergarten for two months and evaluated the proposed method, the results usually coincide with remarks of teachers about the children.

  5. Effect of fluorozis on the erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity levels

    While the flourine level of (drinking) water was higher than normal ranges in the center of Isparta region before 1995 year, this problematic situation is solved in later years. (However) the individuals who are staying in Yenice district are still expose to high levels of fluorine because of the usage of Andik spring water (3.8 mg/L flour level) as drinking water. In this study we aimed to investigate the harmful effect of floride on human erythrocytes via antioxidant defence system and lipid peroxidation. Therefore, we studied the activities of erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes such as Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), Glutathione Peroxidase (GSH-Px) and Catalase (CAT), and the level of erythrocyte Glutathione (GSH), thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and the level of urine floride in high floride exposed people (children, adult and elderly). The activities of SOD, GSH-Px and CAT and the level of GSH, TBARS and urine floride were higher in 3.8 mg/L floride exposed children (Group II) than 0.8 mg/L floride exposed control children (Group I) (p0.05). The activities of SOD, GSH-Px and CAT were lower and the levels of TBARS and urine floride were higher in 3.8 mg/L floride exposed elderly people (Group VI) than 0.8 mg/L floride exposed control elderly people (Group V) (p0.05). As a result we thought that increased SOD, GSH-Px and CAT activities in floride exposed children and adult people, decreased activities of these enzymes in floride exposed elderly people, and increased TBARS in all groups may indicate floride caused oxidative damage in erythrocytes. (author)

  6. Play Equipment, Physical Activity Opportunities, and Children's Activity Levels at Childcare

    Jessica S. Gubbels

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the association between physical activity facilities at childcare (e.g., play equipment and physical activity of 2- and 3-year olds. Observations of physical activity intensity were performed among 175 children at 9 childcare centers in The Netherlands, using the OSRAC-P. The physical activity facilities were assessed for indoors and outdoors separately, using the EPAO instrument. Regular (single-level multivariate and multilevel linear regression analyses examined the association of the facilities and child characteristics (age and sex with children's activity levels. Various physical activity facilities were available in all childcare centers (e.g., balls. Riding toys and a small playing area were associated with lower indoor physical activity levels. Outdoor physical activity levels were positively associated with the availability of portable jumping equipment and the presence of a structured track on the playground. Portable slides, fixed swinging equipment, and sandboxes were negatively associated with outdoor activity levels. In addition, the 3-year old children were more active outdoors than the 2-year olds. In conclusion, not all physical activity facilities at childcare were indeed positively associated with children's activity levels. The current findings provide concrete leads for childcare providers regarding which factors they can improve in the physical environment to facilitate children's physical activity.

  7. Levels of erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity in Japanese people

    Ueda,Kazuko

    1978-12-01

    Full Text Available Levels of erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD activitiy in a sample of Japanese people were determined. Blood samples were taken from new-born infants, preschool children, young and old people who had no apparent diseases and also from three anemic patients. Erythrocyte SOD activities in different age groups had a nearly normal distribution. Females had slightly lower activities than males, although the difference was statistically insignificant. The distributions of SOD activities were 12.6 +/- 2.7 (m +/- SD unit/mg Hb in young people and 11.4 +/- 3.0 in old people, indicating that erythrocyte SOD activity falls with aging. Because of low concentration of hemoglobin, SOD activities of old people expressed as unit/ml blood were much lower than in young people. Three anemic patients had slightly lower SOD activity.

  8. Classroom Management to Support Active Middle Level Classrooms

    Bryan Lloyd McCoy

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a discussion of connections between middle level concepts of teaching and learning and managing a classroom through creating opportunities for active and engaged learning. The article argues and concludes that classroom management is more about managing learning than managing behavior and that one effective way to manage student behavior is to create an environment where students continuously engage in active learning (Haydon, Borders, Embury, & Clarke, ...

  9. Classroom Management to Support Active Middle Level Classrooms

    Bryan Lloyd McCoy

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    This article presents a discussion of connections between middle level concepts of teaching and learning and managing a classroom through creating opportunities for active and engaged learning. The article argues and concludes that classroom management is more about managing learning than managing behavior and that one effective way to manage student behavior is to create an environment where students continuously engage in active learning (Haydon, Borders, Embury, & Clarke, 2009.

  10. Classroom Management to Support Active Middle Level Classrooms

    Bryan Lloyd McCoy

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a discussion of connections between middle level concepts of teaching and learning and managing a classroom through creating opportunities for active and engaged learning. The article argues and concludes that classroom management is more about managing learning than managing behavior and that one effective way to manage student behavior is to create an environment where students continuously engage in active learning (Haydon, Borders, Embury, & Clarke, 2009.

  11. Default activity patterns at the neocortical microcircuit level

    Artur Luczak

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Even in absence of sensory stimuli cortical networks exhibit complex, self-organized activity patterns. While the function of those spontaneous patterns of activation remains poorly understood, recent studies both in vivo and in vitro have demonstrated that neocortical neurons activate in a surprisingly similar sequential order both spontaneously and following input into cortex. For example, neurons that tend to fire earlier within spontaneous bursts of activity also fire earlier than other neurons in response to sensory stimuli. These 'default patterns' can last hundreds of milliseconds and are strongly conserved under a variety of conditions. In this paper we will review recent evidence for these default patterns at the local cortical level. We speculate that cortical architecture imposes common constraints on spontaneous and evoked activity flow, which result in the similarity of the patterns.

  12. 34 CFR 300.814 - Other State-level activities.

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Other State-level activities. 300.814 Section 300.814 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION...

  13. Can nursing students' confidence levels increase with repeated simulation activities?

    Cummings, Cynthia L; Connelly, Linda K

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, nursing faculty conducted a study with undergraduate nursing students on their satisfaction, confidence, and educational practice levels, as it related to simulation activities throughout the curriculum. The study was a voluntary survey conducted on junior and senior year nursing students. It consisted of 30 items based on the Student Satisfaction and Self-Confidence in Learning and the Educational Practices Questionnaire (Jeffries, 2012). Mean averages were obtained for each of the 30 items from both groups and were compared using T scores for unpaired means. The results showed that 8 of the items had a 95% confidence level and when combined the items were significant for p confidence and active learning. Based on these findings, it can be assumed that repeated simulation experiences can lead to an increase in student confidence and active learning. PMID:26599594

  14. Low level laser therapy reduces inflammation in activated Achilles tendinitis

    Bjordal, Jan M.; Iversen, Vegard; Lopes-Martins, Rodrigo Alvaro B.

    2006-02-01

    Objective: Low level laser therapy (LLLT) has been forwarded as therapy for osteoarthritis and tendinopathy. Results in animal and cell studies suggest that LLLT may act through a biological mechanism of inflammatory modulation. The current study was designed to investigate if LLLT has an anti-inflammatory effect on activated tendinitis of the Achilles tendon. Methods: Seven patients with bilateral Achilles tendonitis (14 tendons) who had aggravated symptoms by pain-inducing activity immediately prior to the study. LLLT (1.8 Joules for each of three points along the Achilles tendon with 904nm infrared laser) and placebo LLLT were administered to either Achilles tendons in a random order to which patients and therapist were blinded. Inflammation was examined by 1) mini-invasive microdialysis for measuring the concentration of inflammatory marker PGE II in the peritendinous tissue, 2) ultrasound with Doppler measurement of peri- and intratendinous blood flow, 3) pressure pain algometry and 4) single hop test. Results: PGE 2- levels were significantly reduced at 75, 90 and 105 minutes after active LLLT compared both to pre-treatment levels (p=0.026) and to placebo LLLT (p=0.009). Changes in pressure pain threshold (PPT) were significantly different (P=0.012) between groups. PPT increased by a mean value of 0.19 kg/cm2 [95%CI:0.04 to 0.34] after treatment in the active LLLT group, while pressure pain threshold was reduced by -0.20 kg/cm2 [95%CI:-0.45 to 0.05] after placebo LLLT. Conclusion: LLLT can be used to reduce inflammatory musculskeletal pain as it reduces inflammation and increases pressure pain threshold levels in activity-induced pain episodes of Achilles tendinopathy.

  15. Physical activity level and sedentary time in Norwegian adolescents

    Sundgot-Borgen, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Background: Physical activity (PA) is necessary for children and adolescents to obtain a healthy development. The environment, however, facilitates the sedentary lifestyle. World health organization (WHO) defines physical inactivity as the fourth major risk factor for mortality. Still, adolescents in Europe and America are sedentary more than 50 % of their waking hours. Lack of comparability between studies investigating PA level and sedentary time in adolescents creates need f...

  16. The relationship between postnatal depression, sociodemographic factors, levels of partner support, and levels of physical activity

    Maryam eSaligeh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: postnatal depression (PND is defined as a psychological mood disorder that occurs in a mother within six weeks of her giving birth. It refers to an episode that causes mood disturbance and it could begin in, or extend into, the postpartum period. It is thought to have a high impact upon the mother’s health as well as the family’s functioning and the child’s development. Socio-demographic, psych-social, and physical activity factors may all contribute to postpartum mood and ability to cope with responsibilities. The primary aim of this study was to determine which of these factors predicted PND in postpartum women. A secondary aim was to identify the socio-demographic and psycho-social predictors of physical activity in postpartum women . Methods: The study used a cross-sectional correlational design. A sample of 150 postpartum women was sent a package of six standardised questionnaires. Results: There was no association between physical activity and PND; however, older mothers, mothers of younger children, mothers who are less reluctant to ask for help, and mothers who are more satisfied with the help they get experience lower levels of PND. Mothers of older babies, mothers with more children, and less educated mothers are more likely to engage in caregiving activities, whereas mothers with fewer children and higher levels of partner support are more likely to engage in occupational activities. None of the socio-demographic factors or any of the parenting factors predicted levels of sporting activity.

  17. Play Equipment, Physical Activity Opportunities, and Children's Activity Levels at Childcare

    Gubbels, Jessica S; Van Kann, Dave H. H.; Jansen, Maria W J

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the association between physical activity facilities at childcare (e.g., play equipment) and physical activity of 2- and 3-year olds. Observations of physical activity intensity were performed among 175 children at 9 childcare centers in The Netherlands, using the OSRAC-P. The physical activity facilities were assessed for indoors and outdoors separately, using the EPAO instrument. Regular (single-level) multivariate and multilevel linear regression analyses examined t...

  18. Secular trends in storm-level geomagnetic activity

    J. J. Love

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Analysis is made of K-index data from groups of ground-based geomagnetic observatories in Germany, Britain, and Australia, 1868.0–2009.0, solar cycles 11–23. Methods include nonparametric measures of trends and statistical significance used by the hydrological and climatological research communities. Among the three observatory groups, German K data systematically record the highest disturbance levels, followed by the British and, then, the Australian data. Signals consistently seen in K data from all three observatory groups can be reasonably interpreted as physically meaninginful: (1 geomagnetic activity has generally increased over the past 141 years. However, the detailed secular evolution of geomagnetic activity is not well characterized by either a linear trend nor, even, a monotonic trend. Therefore, simple, phenomenological extrapolations of past trends in solar and geomagnetic activity levels are unlikely to be useful for making quantitative predictions of future trends lasting longer than a solar cycle or so. (2 The well-known tendency for magnetic storms to occur during the declining phase of a sunspot-solar cycles is clearly seen for cycles 14–23; it is not, however, clearly seen for cycles 11–13. Therefore, in addition to an increase in geomagnetic activity, the nature of solar-terrestrial interaction has also apparently changed over the past 141 years.

  19. Acetylcholinesterase Modulates Presenilin-1 Levels and γ-Secretase Activity

    Campanari, María-Letizia; García Ayllón, María Salud; Belbin, Olivia; Galcerán, Joan; Lleó, Alberto; Sáez-Valero, Javier

    2014-01-01

    The cholinergic enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and the catalytic component of the ¿-secretase complex, presenilin-1 (PS1), are known to interact. In this study, we investigate the consequences of AChE-PS1 interactions, particularly the influence of AChE in PS1 levels and ¿-secretase activity. PS1 is able to co-immunoprecipitate all AChE variants (AChE-R and AChE-T) and molecular forms (tetramers and light subunits) present in the human brain. Overexpression of AChE-R or AChE-T, or their r...

  20. Human monoamine oxidase A gene determines levels of enzyme activity.

    Hotamisligil, G S; Breakefield, X O

    1991-01-01

    Monoamine oxidase (MAO) is a critical enzyme in the degradative deamination of biogenic amines throughout the body. Two biochemically distinct forms of the enzyme, A and B, are encoded in separate genes on the human X chromosome. In these studies we investigated the role of the structural gene for MAO-A in determining levels of activity in humans, as measured in cultured skin fibroblasts. The coding sequence of the mRNA for MAO-A was determined by first-strand cDNA synthesis, PCR amplificatio...

  1. Adhesion molecules levels in blood correlate with MRI activity and clinical activity in multiple sclerosis

    Research into pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) has prompted efforts to identify immunological markers associated with disease activity. Adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 are associated with inflammatory mediated blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction. In this study investigates the correlation between blood level of circulating ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) activity in different clinical phases of patients with MS. We show that RRMS and SPMS patients in clinically active phase with Gd-enhancing lesions in CNS had higher blood levels of cICAM-1 and cVCAM-1 compared these parameters levers of RRMS patients in remission stage. These results suggest that cICAM-1 and cVCAM-1 is a sensitive indicator of disease activity associated with BBB inflammatory dysfunction. Elevated blood level of cICAM-1 more strongly correlated with clinical activity and BBB damage, than cVCAM-1 and that could be used as biological marker of disease activity. Circulating VCAM-1 as an early indicator of BBB disturbance, may also serve as marker of beneficial activity in relapses phase of MS course. (authors)

  2. Idaho Senior Center Activities, Activity Participation Level, and Managers' Perceptions of Activity Success.

    Girvan, James T.; Harris, Frances

    A survey completed by managers of 77 senior centers in Idaho revealed that meals, blood pressure screening, and games and trips were the most successful activities offered. Alzheimer's support groups, library books for loan, and exercise classes were the least successful. Possible reasons for the success or failure of these activities were…

  3. Closure Plan for Active Low Level Burial Grounds

    SKELLY, W.A.

    2000-11-16

    This plan has been prepared in response to direction from the U.S. Department of Energy. The purpose of the plan is to define approaches that will be implemented to ensure protection of the public and the environment when active Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBGs) at the Hanford Site are closed. Performance assessments for active burial grounds in the 200 East and West 200 Areas provide current estimates of potential environmental contamination and doses to the ''maximum exposed individual'' from burial ground operation and closure and compare dose estimates to performance objective dose limits for the facilities. This is an Operational Closure Plan. The intent of the guidance in DOE Order 435.1 is that this plan will be a living document, like the facility performance assessments, and will be revised periodically through the operational life of the LLBGs to reflect updated information on waste inventory. management practices, facility transition planning, schedule dates, assessments of post-closure performance, and environmental consequences. Out year dates identified in this plan are tentative. A Final Closure Plan will be prepared in the future when the timing and extent of closure-related activities for LLBGs can be established with greater certainty. After current operations at the LLBGs are concluded, this plan proposes transitioning of these facilities to the Environmental Restoration Program. This action will enable the Environmental Restoration Program to design and implement consistent and coordinated final remedial actions for active and inactive LLBGs. Active and inactive burial grounds in the 200 West and 200 East Areas are commingled. This plan describes approaches that will be implemented during Interim Closure, Final Closure, and Institutional Control Periods to prepare LLBGs for surface barriers, and the construction of barriers, as well as the scope of inspection, monitoring and maintenance practices that will be performed during

  4. How much locomotive activity is needed for an active physical activity level: analysis of total step counts

    Ohkawara Kazunori

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although physical activity recommendations for public health have focused on locomotive activity such as walking and running, it is uncertain how much these activities contribute to overall physical activity level (PAL. The purpose of the present study was to determine the contribution of locomotive activity to PAL using total step counts measured in a calorimeter study. Methods PAL, calculated as total energy expenditure divided by basal metabolic rate, was evaluated in 11 adult men using three different conditions for 24-hour human calorimeter measurements: a low-activity day (L-day targeted at a low active level of PAL (1.45, and a high-frequency moderate activity day (M-day or a high-frequency vigorous activity day (V-day targeted at an active level of PAL (1.75. These subjects were permitted only light activities except prescribed activities. In a separate group of 41 adults, free-living PAL was evaluated using doubly-labeled water (DLW. In both experiments, step counts per day were also measured using an accelerometer. Results In the human calorimeter study, PAL and step counts were 1.42 ± 0.10 and 8,973 ± 543 steps/d (L-day, 1.82 ± 0.14 and 29,588 ± 1,126 steps/d (M-day, and 1.74 ± 0.15 and 23,755 ± 1,038 steps/d (V-day, respectively. In the DLW study, PAL and step counts were 1.73 ± 0.15 and 10,022 ± 2,605 steps/d, and there was no significant relationship between PAL and daily step counts. Conclusions These results indicate that an enormous number of steps are needed for an active level of PAL if individuals extend physical activity-induced energy expenditure by only locomotive activity. Therefore, non-locomotive activity such as household activity should also play a significant role in increasing PAL under free-living conditions.

  5. Energy requirements and physical activity level of active elderly people in rural areas of cuba

    Obesity and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) are common in the Third Age and increasing in Cuba. Among the life-style changes associated with increased prevalence of obesity and its related disorders, diet and activity patterns are prime candidates. The transition to this life-style model may induce a decrease in the energy needs. There is an urgent need for tools which have been validated for measuring diet and physical activity in nutritional studies in the developing world, but also a more urgent need for reference values for the total energy requirements of healthy elderly people. Regular physical activity reduces the likelihood to develop diseases that characterise the metabolic cardiovascular syndrome. Previous studies done in Havana showed values of physical activity level (PAL) which are lower than the reported for elderly subjects. Elderly people living in rural areas use to have physical activity levels which differ from the observed in urban areas. With the purpose of estimating the energy requirements, a group of 40 apparently healthy people older than 60 years of age living in a rural mountain community will be submitted to a medical, epidemiological, dietary, anthropometric and insulin resistance study. Physical activity will be determined by questionnaire and by the calculation of the PAL from the basal metabolic rate (BMR) and total energy expenditure (TEE) measured with the doubly-labelled water method (DLW). Associations with the prevalence of insulin resistance and obesity will be assessed. (author)

  6. Fire testing of fully active medium-level waste forms

    The effect of heat on packaged intermediate level waste (ILW) has been studied. This was done in order to be able to predict the behaviour of the ILW under accident conditions involving fire during transport or at the repository. In the study, experimental data were obtained and used in the development and validation of theoretical models to describe aspects of the behaviour of the waste form when subjected to heat. The prime objective was to be able to predict the amounts of radioactive materials released from a given incident. Four ILW streams were selected for experimental study. These four were chosen as the minimum that could be studied to provide a set of data that could be used in the prediction of the behaviour of the majority of ILW produced in the UK. Heating experiments were carried out on a small scale using packaged ILW samples made from active wastes or inactive simulants. Data were obtained on temperatures in the waste form, production of volatile materials, carry-forward of solid particulate materials and carry-forward of radionuclides. The results were used, together with data from full-scale experiments with inactive simulant ILW carried out at Winfrith, to develop and validate a theoretical model. This model calculates the temperature profiles within a package of immobilized ILW as a function of the applied heating conditions. The temperature of the waste form is used to predict the release of radioactive materials from the package. 4 refs., 65 figs., 13 tabs

  7. Paired galaxies with different activity levels and their supernovae

    Nazaryan, T A; Hakobyan, A A; Adibekyan, V Zh; Kunth, D; Mamon, G A; Turatto, M; Aramyan, L S

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the influence of close neighbor galaxies on the properties of supernovae (SNe) and their host galaxies using 56 SNe located in pairs of galaxies with different levels of star formation (SF) and nuclear activity. The statistical study of SN hosts shows that there is no significant difference between morphologies of hosts in our sample and the larger general sample of SN hosts in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 8 (DR8). The mean distance of type II SNe from nuclei of hosts is greater by about a factor of 2 than that of type Ibc SNe. The distributions and mean distances of SNe are consistent with previous results compiled with the larger sample. For the first time it is shown that SNe Ibc are located in pairs with significantly smaller difference of radial velocities between components than pairs containing SNe Ia and II. We consider this as a result of higher star formation rate (SFR) of these closer systems of galaxies. SN types are not correlated with the luminosity ratio of ho...

  8. Millimeter-Wave Measurements of High Level and Low Level Activity Glass Melts

    The primary objectives of the current research is to develop on-line sensors for characterizing molten glass in high-level and low-activity waste glass melters using millimeter-wave (MMW) technology and to use this technology to do novel research of melt dynamics. Existing and planned waste glass melters lack sophisticated diagnostics due to the hot, corrosive, and radioactive melter environments. Without process control diagnostics, the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) under construction at Hanford operate by a feed forward process control scheme that relies on predictive models with large uncertainties. This scheme severely limits production throughput and waste loading. Also operations at DWPF have shown susceptibility to anomalies such as pouring, foaming, and combustion gas build up, which can seriously disrupt operations. Future waste chemistries will be even more challenging. The scientific goals of this project are to develop new reliable on-line monitoring capability for important glass process parameters such as temperature profiles, emissivity, density, viscosity, and other characteristics using the unique advantages of millimeter wave electromagnetic radiation that can be eventually implemented in the operating melters. Once successfully developed and implemented, significant cost savings would be realized in melter operations by increasing production through put, reduced storage volumes (through higher waste loading), and reduced risks (prevention or mitigation of anomalies)

  9. Physical activity level of school children of age 10-13 years

    Ronghe, Dr. Rashmi N; Gotmare, Dr. Neha A; Kawishwar, Dr. Shraddha

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To assess physical activity level of school children of age 10-13 years.Objectives: To assess and grade physical activity level in children of age 10-13 years using Physical Activity Questionnaire for Children (PAQ-C) classified into: Light Physical activity; Moderate Physical activity; Moderate to vigorous Physical activity and High Physical activity.Methodology: This is Questionnaire based survey study which was conducted on 100 school going children of 10-13 years who were present on ...

  10. The contribution of the primary school setting and physical education lessons to children's physical activity levels

    Howells, K

    2014-01-01

    The thesis research explored children’s physical activity levels that occurred within the primary school setting. It examined the contribution that Physical Education lessons make to children’s overall measured physical activity levels within the school day. It investigated children’s perceived level of physical activity and compared this with children’s physical activity measured by accelerometers. For the purpose of the thesis research, physical activity was regarded as, “any bodily movemen...

  11. Low-level radioactive waste activities in Texas

    In September 1982, the Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority began the process for the selection, construction, and operation of a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility in Texas. The statute creating the Authority is a very comprehensive law which calls for the orderly completion of a step-by-step process in the development of the disposal facility. The organization of the Authority and its use of external resources, both professional organizations and citizens groups, are functioning extremely well in the performance of the Authority's objectives. Continued success will lead to the development and operation of a low-level radioactive waste disposal site in Texas prior to 1988

  12. The prediction of induced activity levels in and around NIMROD

    Hack, R C

    1973-01-01

    Comparisons are reported between measured and predicted levels of induced radioactivity for a number of irradiation conditions. Good agreement was found between experimental measurements and fairly simple methods of prediction developed at CERN.

  13. Liquid-phase adsorption of phenol onto activated carbons prepared with different activation levels

    Hsieh, C.T.; Teng, H.S.

    2000-07-01

    The paper investigates the influence of the pore size distribution of activated carbon on the adsorption of phenol from aqueous solutions. Activated carbons with different porous structures were prepared by gasifying a bituminous coal char to different extents of burn-off. The results of adsorption experiments show that the phenol capacity of these carbons does not proportionally increase with their BET surface area. This reflects the heterogeneity of the carbon surface for adsorption. The pore size distributions of these carbons were found to vary with the burn-off level. The paper demonstrates that the heterogeneity of carbon surface for the phenol adsorption can be attributed to the different energies required for adsorption in different-size micropores.

  14. USDOE activities in low-level radioactive waste treatment

    This paper describes current research, development and demonstration (R, D and D) programs sponsored by the US Department of Energy in the area of low-level radioactive waste treatment. The US Department of Energy Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program is directed toward a coordinated program covering the period from low-level radioactive waste generation through the decommissioning of the disposal site. This paper addresses the treatment portion of the program. The development efforts include: mechanical methods for metal and compactible waste volume reduction; incineration of trash or other combustibles through the use of controlled air, cyclone, or molten glass furnaces; ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, biological or chemical destruction of nitrates; adsorption treatment of low-concentration aqueous waste streams; combustion of organic liquids; and smelting of metal wastes to reduce their volume and conserve our natural resources. (author)

  15. Energy requirements and physical activity level of active elderly people in rural areas of Cuba

    Obesity and NIDDM are common in the Third Age and increasing in Cuba. Among the life-style changes associated with increased prevalence of obesity and its related disorders, diet and activity patterns are prime candidates. The transition to this life-style model may induce a decrease in the energy needs. There is an urgent need for tools which have been validated for measuring diet and physical activity in nutritional studies in the developing world, but also a more urgent need for reference values for the total energy requirements of healthy elderly people. Regular physical activity reduces the likelihood to develop diseases that characterise the metabolic cardiovascular syndrome. With the purpose of estimating the energy requirements, a group of 48 elderly people aged 61-74 years living in a rural mountain community was submitted to a medical, epidemiological, dietary and biochemical study of the nutritional status. Glucose intolerance was diagnosed in 40% and arterial hypertension was present in 23 % of them. Ten subjects without signs or symptoms of the metabolic cardiovascular syndrome were submitted to a measurement of the total energy expenditure by the doubly labelled water method. PAL values of 2.13 and 1.77 were measured for men and women, values which were significantly higher that the recommended value of 1.51 for elderly subjects. The total energy expenditure: The estimation of energy requirements by the energy intake or by the factorial method using the physical activity questionnaires generated values, which were 11 % and 30% lower than the values obtained by the DLW-method. The value of 1.51 x BMR for the estimation of the energy requirements of elderly subjects living in rural areas and submitted to higher levels of physical activity seems to be sub estimated

  16. Energy requirements and physical activity level of active elderly people in rural areas of China

    Obesity and NIDDM are common in the Third Age and increasing in Cuba. Among the life-style changes associated with increased prevalence of obesity and its related disorders, diet and activity patterns are prime candidates. The transition to this life-style model may induce a decrease in the energy needs. There is an urgent need for tools which have been validated for measuring diet and physical activity in nutritional studies in the developing world, but also a more urgent need for reference values for the total energy requirements of healthy elderly people. Regular physical activity reduces the likelihood to develop diseases that characterise the metabolic cardiovascular syndrome. With the purpose of estimating the energy requirements, a group of 48 elderly people aged 61-74 years living in a rural mountain community was submitted to a medical, epidemiological, dietary and biochemical study of the nutritional status. Glucose intolerance was diagnosed in 40% and arterial hypertension was present in 23 of them. Ten subjects without signs or symptoms of the metabolic cardiovascular syndrome were submitted to a measurement of the total energy expenditure by the doubly labelled water method. PAL values of 2.13 and 1. 77 were measured for men and women, values which were significantly higher that the recommended value of 1.51 for elderly subjects. The estimation of energy requirements by the energy intake or by the factorial method using the physical activity questionnaires generated values, which were 11% and 30% lower than the values obtained by the DLW-method The value of 1.51 x BMR for the estimation of the energy requirements of elderly subjects living in rural areas and submitted to higher levels of physical activity seems to be sub estimated. (author)

  17. Active Radiation Level Measurement on New Laboratory Instrument for Evaluating the Antibacterial Activity of Radioisotope

    Joh, Eunha; Park, Jang Guen [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    A disc method has been widely used to measure the antibacterial effect of chemical agents. However, it is difficult to measure the antibacterial effect of radioisotopes using a disc method. A disc method is a method for diffusing a drug by placing the drug containing disc on the medium. In this method, radioisotopes are diffused on the medium and it is difficult to measure the exact effect by radiation. Thus, new laboratory equipment needs to evaluate the antibacterial activity by the radioisotopes. In this study, we measured the radiation level of radioisotopes on a new laboratory instrument using a MCNP. A disc method has been widely used to measure the antibacterial effect of chemical agents. This method uses a drug diffusion system for the measurement of anti-bacterial antibiotics. To measure the antimicrobial activity of a radioisotope, a new type of laboratory instrument is necessary to prevent the drug from spreading. The radioisotopes are used to diagnose and treat cancer. However, studies for anti-biotical use have not progressed. The radiation of radioisotopes has the effect of killing bacteria. Before this study proceeds further, it is necessary to be able to measure the antimicrobial activity of the radioisotope easily in the laboratory. However, in this study, it was possible to measure the antimicrobial activity of the radioisotope in the laboratory using a new laboratory instrument. We intend to start evaluation studies of the antibacterial activity of specific radioisotopes. In addition, it will be possible to develop research to overcome diseases caused by bacteria in the future.

  18. Energy requirements and physical activity level of active elderly people in rural areas of Cuba

    Full text: Obesity and NIDDM are common in the Third Age and increasing in Cuba. Among the lifestyle changes associated with increased prevalence of obesity and its related disorders, diet and activity patterns are prime candidates. The transition to this lifestyle model may induce a decrease in the energy needs. There is an urgent need for tools which have been validated for measuring diet and physical activity in nutritional studies in the developing world, but also a more urgent need for reference values for the total energy requirements of healthy elderly people. Regular physical activity reduces the likelihood to develop diseases that characterize the metabolic cardiovascular syndrome. With the purpose of estimating the energy requirements, a group of 48 elderly people aged 61-74 years living in a rural mountain community was submitted to a medical, epidemiological, dietary and biochemical study of the nutritional status. Glucose intolerance was diagnosed in 40% and arterial hypertension was present in 23 % of them. Ten subjects without signs or symptoms of the metabolic cardiovascular syndrome were submitted to a measurement of the total energy expenditure by the doubly labelled water method. PAL values of 2.13 and 1.77 were measured for men and women, values which were significantly higher that the recommended value of 1.51 for elderly subjects. The total energy expenditure The estimation of energy requirements by the energy intake or by the factorial method using the physical activity questionnaires generated values, which were 11% and 30% lower than the values obtained by the DLW method. The value of 1.51xBMR for the estimation of the energy requirements of elderly subjects living in rural areas and submitted to higher levels of physical activity seems to be sub estimated. (author)

  19. Online Activity Levels Are Related to Caffeine Dependency.

    Phillips, James G; Landhuis, C Erik; Shepherd, Daniel; Ogeil, Rowan P

    2016-05-01

    Online activity could serve in the future as behavioral markers of emotional states for computer systems (i.e., affective computing). Hence, this study considered relationships between self-reported stimulant use and online study patterns. Sixty-two undergraduate psychology students estimated their daily caffeine use, and this was related to study patterns as tracked by their use of a Learning Management System (Blackboard). Caffeine dependency was associated with less time spent online, lower rates of file access, and fewer online activities completed. Reduced breadth or depth of processing during work/study could be used as a behavioral marker of stimulant use. PMID:27096737

  20. Use and activity levels on newly built bicycle playgrounds

    Schipperijn, Jasper; Hansen, Christine Kier; Rask, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Increasing the use of urban green space (UGS) as well as increasing cycling could potentially help address the growing inactivity problem. Three bicycle playgrounds were designed based on a participatory process and afterwards constructed in the UGS along a cycle-route on the historic outer defence...... close to one of the sites. A future study involving objective before and after measures when a new bicycle playground is build will be needed to reveal if bicycle playgrounds can provide additional activity to its users, or ‘just’ a different type of activity, in a different location....

  1. A coincidence counting system for detection of low level activities

    A system based on coincidence counting for measuring the absolute activity of isotopes in which a gamma ray is emitted by the nucleus following the capture of the orbital electron with a known half-life is described. If the half-life of the excited state is small compared to the resolving time of the coincidence circuit, the absolute activity of the source can be determined. The system consists of two NaI(Th) crystals, a high voltage supply, 2 preamplifiers, 2 amplifiers, two single channel analyzers, one coincident unit, and three sealers

  2. Human hair neutron activation analysis: analysis on population level, mapping

    Neutron activation analysis is an outstanding analytical method having very wide applications in various fields. Analysis of human hair within last decades mostly based on neutron activation analysis is a very attractive illustration of the application of nuclear analytical techniques. Very interesting question is how the elemental composition differs in different areas or cities. In this connection the present paper gives average data and maps of various localities in the vicinity of drying-out Aral Sea and of various industrial cities in Central Asia. (author)

  3. Motoneuron and sensory neuron plasticity to varying neuromuscular activity levels

    Ishihara, Akihiko; Roy, Roland R.; Ohira, Yoshinobu; Edgerton, V. Reggie

    2002-01-01

    The size and phenotypic properties of the neural and muscular elements of the neuromuscular unit are matched under normal conditions. When subjected to chronic decreases or increases in neuromuscular activity, however, the adaptations in these properties are much more limited in the neural compared with the muscular elements.

  4. Corruption and Economic Activity: Micro Level Evidence from Rural Liberia

    Beekman, G.; Bulte, E.H.; Nillesen, E.E.M.

    2013-01-01

    We study how corruption affects economic activities of households in rural Liberia. A proxy of corruption of community leaders is obtained by directly monitoring the diversion of inputs associated with a development project. We measure quantities of these inputs twice; before and after the chief sto

  5. Total daily energy expenditure and activity level in anorexia nervosa.

    Casper, R C; Schoeller, D A; Kushner, R; Hnilicka, J; Gold, S T

    1991-05-01

    Clinical reports consistently comment on high physical activity for anorexia nervosa patients but provide few quantitative measurements. To assess activity, total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) by doubly labeled water, basal metabolic rate (BMR), and thermic effect of meals (TEM) were measured in six female outpatients with anorexia nervosa (67% of ideal body weight) and age-, sex-, and height-matched to six control subjects. Anorexia nervosa patients expended more energy as physical activity than did control subjects [0.084 +/- 0.012 vs 0.044 +/- 0.008 MJ/kg body wt, respectively (20.1 +/- 3.0 vs 10.5 +/- 1.9 kcal/kg body wt, respectively), P less than 0.04], although they had a lower BMR [4.17 +/- 0.37 vs 5.52 +/- 0.15 MJ/d, respectively (997 +/- 89 vs 1319 +/- 37 kcal/d, respectively), P less than 0.01]. TDEE and TEM were similar in both groups. There was a reduction in serum triiodothyronine (T3; 1.20 +/- 0.15 vs 2.04 +/- 0.13 nmol/L, respectively; P less than 0.003) and a slight reduction in serum thyroxine (T4); reverse T3, thyrotropin, free T4, serum cortisol, and adrenocorticotropin values were normal. BMR correlated with total body weight and fat-free mass. These results provide quantitative evidence for increased physical activity in anorexia nervosa despite profound underweight and hypometabolism. PMID:1850575

  6. Highlands County Energy Education Activities--High School Level.

    Allen, Rodney F., Ed.

    Presented are five instructional units, developed by the Tri-County Teacher Education Center, for the purpose of educating secondary school students on Florida's unique energy problems. Unit one provides a series of value clarification and awareness activities as an introduction to energy. Unit two uses mathematics exercises to examine energy…

  7. Okeechobee County Energy Education Activities--Middle School Level.

    Allen, Rodney F., Ed.

    Over 60 energy education activities related to mathematics, science, social studies, and English comprise this manual for middle school teachers. Included are issues for discussion, puzzles, science investigations, story writing exercises, and energy cost calculation problems. Among the topics covered in these lessons are energy consumption…

  8. Stock market firm-level information and real economic activity

    di Mauro, Filippo; Fornari, Fabio; Mannucci, Dario

    2011-01-01

    We provide evidence that changes in the equity price and volatility of individual firms (measures that approximate the definition of 'granular shock' given in Gabaix, 2010) are key to improve the predictability of aggregate business cycle fluctuations in a number of countries. Specifically, adding the return and the volatility of firm-level equity prices to aggregate financial information leads to a significant improvement in forecasting business cycle developments in four economic areas, at ...

  9. PHYSICAL ACTIVITY LEVEL AMONG UNIVERSITY STUDENTS: A CROSS SECTIONAL SURVEY

    Roshini Rajappan; Karthikeyan Selvaganapathy; Lola Liew

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: Physical inactivity is the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality. Physical inactivity levels are rising in developing countries and Malaysia is of no exception. Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey 2003 reported that the prevalence of physical inactivity was 39.7% and the prevalence was higher for women (42.6%) than men (36.7%). In Malaysia, the National Health and Morbidity Survey 2006 reported that 43.7% (5.5 million) of Malaysian adults were physically inact...

  10. Catecholamine level and monoamino oxidase activity following irradiation

    Sheep were whole-body gamma irradiated for a period of 7 days to a total dose of 6.7 Gy. After the irradiation the sheep were destroyed the pituitary and the adrenal glands were separated as was brain tissue for the determination of catecholamines and monoamino oxidase. The results show that the reduced levels of catecholamines in the hypothalamus are probably the result of a reduced synthesis and increased degradation of catecholamines through monoaminooxidase. (M.D.)

  11. [Level of nitric oxide in the kidneys during apoptosis activation].

    Komarievtseva, I O; Orlova, O A; Blahodarenko, Ie A

    2002-01-01

    The content of nitric oxide stable metabolites in a tissue of kidneys of rats in conditions of activation of apoptosis was investigated. Research was carried out in two models: acute renal failure and a hypertrophy of a unique kidney after a unilateral nephrectomy. Detection of apoptosis was carried out by definition of DNA fragmentation. Substantial increase of the nitric oxide stable metabolites contents is revealed at activation of apoptosis in both models. Change of a ratio of the contents of nitrite--anions in relation to the general contents of NO2- + NO3- is revealed, indicating the role of peroxide processes in effect of nitric oxide and its metabolites on the cell. PMID:14964872

  12. Evaluating emergency services activity at the health district level.

    Milner, P

    2001-01-01

    We do not have good information on the incidence and prevalence of emergency conditions nor is there good research evidence on the best ways of meeting these. There are, however, some indicators for evaluating emergency services activities and we have a good framework from Donabedian for evaluation, and the important dimensions of quality specified by Maxwell. The range of emergency services covers primary care, community crisis care, ambulance services, hospital services (accident and emerge...

  13. Ecological concerns following Superstorm Sandy: stressor level and recreational activity levels affect perceptions of ecosystem

    Burger, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Coastal habitats are vulnerable to storms, and with increasing urbanization, sea level rise, and storm frequency, some urban populations are at risk. This study examined perceptions of respondents in coastal and central New Jersey to Superstorm Sandy, including: 1) concerns about ecological resources and effects (open-ended question), 2) information sources for ecology of the coast (open-ended), and 3) ratings of a list of ecological services as a function of demographics, location (coastal, ...

  14. Objectively-Measured Physical Activity Levels in Physical Education among Homeschool Children

    Swenson, Sarah; Pope, Zachary; Zeng, Nan

    2016-01-01

    Despite a growing population of homeschool children in the United States, little is known regarding their physical activity (PA) levels. Without access to physical education, homeschool children may engage in inadequate PA levels. The purpose of this study was to objectively examine the activity levels of homeschool students participating in a…

  15. The impact of sport and active recreation injuries on physical activity levels at 12 months post-injury.

    Andrew, N; Wolfe, R; Cameron, P; Richardson, M; Page, R; Bucknill, A; Gabbe, B

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of serious sport and active recreation injury on 12-month physical activity levels. Adults admitted to hospital with sport and active recreation-related injuries, and captured by the Victorian Orthopaedic Trauma Outcomes Registry were recruited to the study. Changes between preinjury and 12 month post-injury physical activity was assessed using the short International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Independent demographic, injury, and hospital variables were assessed for associations with changes in physical activity levels, using multivariate linear regression. A total of 324 patients were recruited, of which 98% were followed up at 12 months. Mean short IPAQ scores decreased from 7650 METS (95% CI: 7180, 8120) preinjury to 3880 METS; (95% CI: 3530, 4250) post-injury, independent of functional recovery. Education level and occupation group were the only variables independently associated with changes in physical activity levels post-injury. These results highlighted that sport and active recreation injuries lead to significant reductions in physical activity levels. Hence, the prevention of sport and active recreation injuries is important when considering promotion of activity at a population level. PMID:22937749

  16. The relationship between postnatal depression, sociodemographic factors, levels of partner support, and levels of physical activity

    Saligheh, Maryam; Rooney, Rosanna M.; McNamara, Beverley; Kane, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    Background: postnatal depression (PND) is defined as a psychological mood disorder that occurs in a mother within 6 weeks of her giving birth. It refers to an episode that causes mood disturbance and it could begin in, or extend into, the postpartum period. It is thought to have a high impact upon the mother's health as well as the family's functioning and the child's development. Socio-demographic, psych-social, and physical activity factors may all contribute to postpartum mood and ability ...

  17. Maxey Flats low-level waste disposal site closure activities

    The Maxey Flats Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility in Fleming County, Kentucky is in the process of being closed. The facility opened for commercial business in the spring of 1963 and received approximately 4.75 million cubic feet of radioactive waste by the time it was closed in December of 1977. During fourteen years of operation approximately 2.5 million curies of by-product material, 240,000 kilograms of source material, and 430 kilograms of special nuclear material were disposed. The Commonwealth purchased the lease hold estate and rights in May 1978 from the operating company. This action was taken to stabilize the facility and prepare it for closure consisting of passive care and monitoring. To prepare the site for closure, a number of remedial activities had to be performed. The remediation activities implemented have included erosion control, surface drainage modifications, installation of a temporary plastic surface cover, leachate removal, analysis, treatment and evaporation, US DOE funded evaporator concentrates solidification project and their on-site disposal in an improved disposal trench with enhanced cover for use in a humid environment situated in a fractured geology, performance evaluation of a grout injection demonstration, USGS subsurface geologic investigation, development of conceptual closure designs, and finally being added to the US EPA National Priority List for remediation and closure under Superfund. 13 references, 3 figures

  18. Challenge to high-activity-level water treatment by adsorbents

    There are over 280,000 tonnes of contaminated water in the damaged Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant site in various tanks and barges and a large amount of contaminated water is now producing at the rate of several tonnes/day owing to inevitable cooling of the reactor cores. SARRY (Simplified Active Water Retrieve and Recovery System) and ALPS (Advanced Liquid Processing System) are installed to remove Cs and multi-elements respectively utilizing ion exchangers (zeolite, crystalline silicon titanate, and metal ferrocyanides) from contaminated water. The author continues efforts to find effective and selective adsorbents for Cs and Sr by measuring partition data, adsorption isotherms and adsorption rate referring with chemical structure elucidated from X-ray diffraction and SEM techniques. The obtained data are presented. (S. Ohno)

  19. The relationship between postnatal depression, sociodemographic factors, levels of partner support, and levels of physical activity

    RosannaMaryRooney; BeverleyMcNamara

    2014-01-01

    Background: postnatal depression (PND) is defined as a psychological mood disorder that occurs in a mother within six weeks of her giving birth. It refers to an episode that causes mood disturbance and it could begin in, or extend into, the postpartum period. It is thought to have a high impact upon the mother’s health as well as the family’s functioning and the child’s development. Socio-demographic, psych-social, and physical activity factors may all contribute to postpartum mood and abilit...

  20. Does activity space size influence physical activity levels of adolescents?—A GPS study of an urban environment

    Lee, Nolan C.; Voss, Christine; Frazer, Amanda D.; Hirsch, Jana A.; McKay, Heather A; Winters, Meghan

    2015-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) is closely linked with child and youth health, and active travel may be a solution to enhancing PA levels. Activity spaces depict the geographic coverage of one's travel. Little is known about activity spaces and PA in adolescents. Objective To explore the relation between adolescent travel (using a spatial measure of activity space size) and daily moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), with a focus on school days. Methods We used Global Positioning Systems to manua...

  1. Levels for the specific activity at disposing low-level contaminated municipal wastes

    Using radioecological models, nuclide specific values were calculated for the specific activity of low contaminated radioactive waste, which is disposed in conventional waste deposits or burned in incineration plants. The calculation of these values is based on a limit of 10 μSv effective dose in one year, i.e. effective dose possibly resulting from waste disposal or burning should not exceed a 'de-minimis'-value of some 10 μSv per year. The applied radioecological models describe exposure of the public by direct radiation, inhalation and ingestion for the operational period of a deposit or an incineration plant, but also cover post-operational scenarios, collecting and sorting of waste and road accidents of the waste-truck. Referring to the dose limit of 10 μSv/a, a value for the specific activity of waste was calculated for each scenario and each radionuclide considered. The smallest of these values for a radionuclide, the 'basic value' was rounded to a 'reference value'. For about 600 radionuclides reference values were derived. About 90% of the reference values are ranging between 1 and 1 000 Bq/g. For about 90% of the radionuclides direct radiation or inhalation at the deposit proved to be the critical path of exposure. (orig.)

  2. Levels for the specific activity at disposing low-level contaminated municipal wastes

    Using radioecological models, nuclide-specific ''basic values'' were established for the specific activity of radioactive contaminated waste. These basic values were determined in order to avoid dose equivalents of more than 10 μSv/a (de minimis concept) when disposing the waste in conventional waste deposits or burning it in incineration plants. The basic values vary within 16 orders of magnitude, ranging between 4.3E-02 Bq/g for Cm-250 and 2.2E+14 Bq/g for Po-212. About 82% of the basic values are between 1 Bq/g und 1000 Bq/g. The critical exposure for most of the radionuclides is that from direct radiation or inhalation at the slag-deposit. For 54% of the radionuclides the basic value for the specific activity of waste is lower at least by a factor of 10 than the 10-4-fold value per gram of the release limit (German Radiation Protection Ordinance). Appropriate nuclide-specific and dose-related limits were derived from these basic values. The respective limits are ranging between 1E-01 Bq/g and 1E+07 Bq/g. About 95% of the limits are between 1 Bq/g and 1000 Bq/g. (orig./HP)

  3. Relationship of the disease activity between ferritin levels in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    ÇETİNKAYA, Ramazan; Ali Rıza ODABAŞ; SELÇUK, Yılmaz

    2001-01-01

    Ferritin is an acute phase reactant which indicates serum iron storage. Its serum levels increase 10 to 100 folds responding to inflammatory stimulation. In parallel to decreasing of active of disease, levels of ferritin decrease. To investigate the relationship between serum ferritin and disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), we enrolled 20 patients with SLE (16 female, 4 males and mean ages: 26.6 ± 7.8 (14-45) years). The serum ferritin levels were detected in active period...

  4. The contribution of former work-related activity levels to predict physical activity and sedentary time during early retirement: moderating role of educational level and physical functioning.

    Delfien Van Dyck

    Full Text Available The transition to retirement introduces a decline in total physical activity and an increase in TV viewing time. Nonetheless, as more time becomes available, early retirement is an ideal stage to implement health interventions. Therefore, knowledge on specific determinants of physical activity and sedentary time is needed. Former work-related physical activity has been proposed as a potential determinant, but concrete evidence is lacking. The aim of this study was to examine if former work-related sitting, standing, walking or vigorous activities predict physical activity and sedentary time during early retirement. Additionally, moderating effects of educational level and physical functioning were examined.In total, 392 recently retired Belgian adults (>6 months, <5 years completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, the SF-36 Health Survey and a questionnaire on sociodemographics and former work-related activities. Generalized linear regression analyses were conducted in R. Moderating effects were examined by adding cross-products to the models.More former work-related sitting was predictive of more screen time during retirement. Lower levels of former work-related vigorous activities and higher levels of former work-related walking were associated with respectively more cycling for transport and more walking for transport during retirement. None of the predictors significantly explained passive transportation, cycling and walking for recreation, and leisure-time moderate-to-vigorous physical activity during retirement. Several moderating effects were found, but the direction of the interactions was not univocal.Former-work related behaviors are of limited importance to explain physical activity during early retirement, so future studies should focus on other individual, social and environmental determinants. Nonetheless, adults who previously had a sedentary job had higher levels of screen time during retirement, so this is an

  5. The Contribution of Former Work-Related Activity Levels to Predict Physical Activity and Sedentary Time during Early Retirement: Moderating Role of Educational Level and Physical Functioning

    Van Dyck, Delfien; Cardon, Greet; Deforche, Benedicte; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2015-01-01

    Background The transition to retirement introduces a decline in total physical activity and an increase in TV viewing time. Nonetheless, as more time becomes available, early retirement is an ideal stage to implement health interventions. Therefore, knowledge on specific determinants of physical activity and sedentary time is needed. Former work-related physical activity has been proposed as a potential determinant, but concrete evidence is lacking. The aim of this study was to examine if former work-related sitting, standing, walking or vigorous activities predict physical activity and sedentary time during early retirement. Additionally, moderating effects of educational level and physical functioning were examined. Methods In total, 392 recently retired Belgian adults (>6 months, <5 years) completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, the SF-36 Health Survey and a questionnaire on sociodemographics and former work-related activities. Generalized linear regression analyses were conducted in R. Moderating effects were examined by adding cross-products to the models. Results More former work-related sitting was predictive of more screen time during retirement. Lower levels of former work-related vigorous activities and higher levels of former work-related walking were associated with respectively more cycling for transport and more walking for transport during retirement. None of the predictors significantly explained passive transportation, cycling and walking for recreation, and leisure-time moderate-to-vigorous physical activity during retirement. Several moderating effects were found, but the direction of the interactions was not univocal. Conclusions Former-work related behaviors are of limited importance to explain physical activity during early retirement, so future studies should focus on other individual, social and environmental determinants. Nonetheless, adults who previously had a sedentary job had higher levels of screen time during

  6. A 5-yr change in Norwegian 9-yr-olds' objectively assessed physical activity level

    Kolle, Elin; Steene-Johannessen, Jostein; Klasson-Heggebø, Lena;

    2009-01-01

    activity assessments that met all inclusion criteria. General linear models were used to assess the changes in physical activity between 1999-2000 and 2005. RESULTS: A significant increase in mean physical activity level and physical activity during weekends was observed between the two study periods (P...... = 0.02 and <0.001, respectively), with the patterns being similar for girls and boys. Interactions were found between change in physical activity and SES. Although the mean physical activity level and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) among children from low-SES groups showed no change...... over time, an increase was seen among children from middle-SES groups. Moreover, in high-SES groups, an increase was observed for mean physical activity level (girls only) between study periods, whereas no change was seen for MVPA participation. CONCLUSIONS: Nine-year-old children living in Oslo...

  7. Relationships among Physical Activity Levels, Psychomotor, Psychosocial, and Cognitive Development of Primary Education Students.

    Isler, Ayse Kin; Asci, F. Hulya; Kosar, S. Nazan

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the relationships of physical activity levels and psychomotor, psychosocial, and cognitive development among Turkish elementary school students. Student evaluations indicated that physical activity level was an important factor in determining student psychomotor development, but it was not important in determining psychosocial and…

  8. Determination of activation level energy of nuclear isomers by calibration of microspectra of radioactive sources

    Nuclear isomers with unknown activation level were irradiated by calibrated radioactive sources. The integral cross sections were calculated for different energies of the sources. The activation energy was given by values coinciding with each other within the limits of error. The method made the determination of the unknown level of 1180+-10 keV of 195Pt nucleus possible. (author)

  9. Level and determinants of physical activity among school adolescents in Poland

    Barbara Bergier

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The recognition of adolescents’ physical activity has become one of the serious challenges of the modern times, as a concern about the future health of societies. The major goal of the presented study was to discover the level of physical activity among Polish adolescents aged 16–18, and the factors which condition this level. The investigations were carried out in 2011, among 2,974 school adolescents from various locations in Poland – 1,790 girls (60.2%, and 1,184 boys (39.8%. As a study method, a short version of the IPAQ was applied. The results of the study indicated that a larger number of girls than boys show a low level of physical activity. With respect to activity among boys, higher values of intensive and moderate efforts are noted, while in girls, higher values of activities related to walking. It was confirmed that the level of physical activity does not depend on the place of residence. However, the number of physical exercise classes attended is a significant factor, both among boys and girls. It was also found that adolescents who more frequently lead a sedentary style of life are characterized by a lower level of total physical activity. Sedentary lifestyle (time spent sitting does not differ among the level of physical activity of girls and of boys, neither with respect to the scope of the total physical activity nor to its three levels (low, moderate, high.

  10. Levels and Rates of Physical Activity in Older Adults with Multiple Sclerosis

    Klaren, Rachel E; Sebastiao, Emerson; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Kinnett-Hopkins, Dominique; McAuley, Edward; Motl, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    There is much evidence supporting the safety and benefits of physical activity in adults with multiple sclerosis (MS) and recent evidence of beneficial effects on physical function in older adults with MS. However, there is very little known about physical activity participation in older adults with conditions such as MS. This study compared levels of physical activity (i.e., sedentary behavior, light physical activity (LPA), and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA)) and rates of mee...

  11. Union Activities to promote cooperative activities at enterprise level: workplace assesment

    Jensen, Per Langå; Høy, Jette

    1996-01-01

    An analysis of the information activities on workplace assessment from a major Danish confederation......An analysis of the information activities on workplace assessment from a major Danish confederation...

  12. Self-reported activity level and knee function in amateur football players

    Frobell, R B; Svensson, E; Göthrick, M;

    2008-01-01

    ) amateur football players in 10 football clubs from each division below national level participated in the study. Self-reported Tegner Activity Scale, and the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) are the main outcome measures. Older age, female gender and lower level of competition (football...... recommended. We suggest that self-reported Tegner Activity Scale scores should be adjusted for age, gender and level of competition. In amateur football players, KOOS scores do not need adjustment for age and gender....

  13. Platelet activation determines angiopoietin-1 and VEGF levels in malaria: implications for their use as biomarkers.

    Judith Brouwers

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The angiogenic proteins angiopoietin (Ang-1, Ang-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF are regulators of endothelial inflammation and integrity. Since platelets store large amounts of Ang-1 and VEGF, measurement of circulation levels of these proteins is sensitive to platelet number, in vivo platelet activation and inadvertent platelet activation during blood processing. We studied plasma Ang-1, Ang-2 and VEGF levels in malaria patients, taking the necessary precautions to avoid ex vivo platelet activation, and related plasma levels to platelet count and the soluble platelet activation markers P-selectin and CXCL7. METHODS: Plasma levels of Ang-1, Ang-2, VEGF, P-selectin and CXCL7 were measured in CTAD plasma, minimizing ex vivo platelet activation, in 27 patients with febrile Plasmodium falciparum malaria at presentation and day 2 and 5 of treatment and in 25 healthy controls. RESULTS: Levels of Ang-1, Ang-2 and VEGF were higher at day 0 in malaria patients compared to healthy controls. Ang-2 levels, which is a marker of endothelial activation, decreased after start of antimalarial treatment. In contrast, Ang-1 and VEGF plasma levels increased and this corresponded with the increase in platelet number. Soluble P-selectin and CXCL7 levels followed the same trend as Ang-1 and VEGF levels. Plasma levels of these four proteins correlated strongly in malaria patients, but only moderately in controls. CONCLUSION: In contrast to previous studies, we found elevated plasma levels of Ang-1 and VEGF in patients with malaria resulting from in vivo platelet activation. Ang-1 release from platelets may be important to dampen the disturbing effects of Ang-2 on the endothelium. Evaluation of plasma levels of these angiogenic proteins requires close adherence to a stringent protocol to minimize ex vivo platelet activation.

  14. Impact of physical activity and fitness on the level of kinesiophobia in women of perimenopausal age

    Saulicz, Mariola; Saulicz, Edward; Knapik, Andrzej; Rottermund, Jerzy; Myśliwiec, Andrzej; Wolny, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    To determine the impact of physical activity and fitness on the level of physical activity barriers (kinesiophobia) in women of perimenopausal age, the study included 105 women between the ages of 48 and 58. A Baecke questionnaire was used to evaluate physical activity and a modified Fullerton test was used to evaluate the fitness level. The level of kinesiophobia was assessed using the Kinesiophobia Causes Scale questionnaire. A low level of habitual physical activity has a negative impact on the values of Biological Domain (r = –0.581), Psychological Domain (r = –0.451), and on the Kinesiophobia Cause Scale total score (r = –0.577). Lower physical activity expressed by a lower score in the Fullerton test also has a negative impact on the level of kinesiophobia. Upper body flexibility (r = –0.434) has the strongest influence on the Biological Domain, whereas upper body strength (r = –0.598) has the greatest impact on the Psychological Domain. A low level of upper body strength also has the greatest impact on the Kinesiophobia Cause Scale total score (r = –0.507). Low levels of physical activity and fitness in women of perimenopausal age favour kinesiophobic attitudes and thereby increase the level of barriers against undertaking physical activity.

  15. Impact of physical activity and fitness on the level of kinesiophobia in women of perimenopausal age.

    Saulicz, Mariola; Saulicz, Edward; Knapik, Andrzej; Linek, Pawel; Rottermund, Jerzy; Myśliwiec, Andrzej; Wolny, Tomasz

    2016-06-01

    To determine the impact of physical activity and fitness on the level of physical activity barriers (kinesiophobia) in women of perimenopausal age, the study included 105 women between the ages of 48 and 58. A Baecke questionnaire was used to evaluate physical activity and a modified Fullerton test was used to evaluate the fitness level. The level of kinesiophobia was assessed using the Kinesiophobia Causes Scale questionnaire. A low level of habitual physical activity has a negative impact on the values of Biological Domain (r = -0.581), Psychological Domain (r = -0.451), and on the Kinesiophobia Cause Scale total score (r = -0.577). Lower physical activity expressed by a lower score in the Fullerton test also has a negative impact on the level of kinesiophobia. Upper body flexibility (r = -0.434) has the strongest influence on the Biological Domain, whereas upper body strength (r = -0.598) has the greatest impact on the Psychological Domain. A low level of upper body strength also has the greatest impact on the Kinesiophobia Cause Scale total score (r = -0.507). Low levels of physical activity and fitness in women of perimenopausal age favour kinesiophobic attitudes and thereby increase the level of barriers against undertaking physical activity. PMID:27582685

  16. Alternative complement pathway and factor B activities in rats with altered blood levels of thyroid hormone

    Bitencourt, C.S. [Departamento de Análises Clínicas, Toxicológicas e Bromatológicas, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Duarte, C.G.; Azzolini, A.E.C.S.; Assis-Pandochi, A.I. [Departamento de Física e Química, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2012-03-02

    Evaluating the activity of the complement system under conditions of altered thyroid hormone levels might help elucidate the role of complement in triggering autoimmune processes. Here, we investigated alternative pathway (AP) activity in male Wistar rats (180 ± 10 g) after altering their thyroid hormone levels by treatment with triiodothyronine (T3), propylthiouracil (PTU) or thyroidectomy. T3 and thyroxine (T4) levels were determined by chemiluminescence assays. Hemolytic assays were performed to evaluate the lytic activity of the AP. Factor B activity was evaluated using factor B-deficient serum. An anti-human factor B antibody was used to measure factor B levels in serum by radial immunodiffusion. T3 measurements in thyroidectomized animals or animals treated with PTU demonstrated a significant reduction in hormone levels compared to control. The results showed a reduction in AP lytic activity in rats treated with increasing amounts of T3 (1, 10, or 50 µg). Factor B activity was also decreased in the sera of hyperthyroid rats treated with 1 to 50 µg T3. Additionally, treating rats with 25 µg T3 significantly increased factor B levels in their sera (P < 0.01). In contrast, increased factor B concentration and activity (32%) were observed in hypothyroid rats. We conclude that alterations in thyroid hormone levels affect the activity of the AP and factor B, which may in turn affect the roles of AP and factor B in antibody production.

  17. Leisure activity associated with cognitive ability level, but not cognitive change

    Gow, Alan John; Avlund, Kirsten; Mortensen, Erik L

    2014-01-01

    Although activity participation is promoted as cognitively protective, critical questions of causality remain. In a cohort followed every 5 years from age 75 to 85 years, potential reciprocal associations between level and change in leisure activity participation and level and change in cognitive...... abilities were examined. Participants in the Glostrup 1914 Cohort, a longitudinal study of aging, completed standardized cognitive ability tests and reported their leisure activity participation (11 activities defined a leisure activity score) at ages 75, 80, and 85. Higher leisure activity was associated...... with higher cognitive ability (significant correlations ranged from 0.15 to 0.31, p < 0.05). Between ages 75 and 85, participation in leisure activities and cognitive ability declined significantly. Growth curve models, which provided latent variables for level of and 10-year change in both leisure...

  18. Marketing activities to promote the subjects of management of sports events of international level

    Попов [Aleksandr Popov], Олександр Вікторович

    2013-01-01

    Done identify the organizational and managerial conditions integrated marketing activities for the improvement of the sports events with international standards. Presents a comprehensive description of the conditions and management of marketing activities of entities conducting sports events of international level, which is the result of analysis of the literature, document analysis, systems analysis, survey. Established that a comprehensive marketing activities of sports organizations curren...

  19. Parent's Interests, Current Involvement and Level of Parental Involvement in School Activities.

    Gbadamosi, Tara; Lin, Huey-Ling

    This study examined what school activities parents were involved in and the relationship between parents' interests and level of participation. Parents completed self-report questionnaires examining activities they were currently involved in and activities they would like to do in their children's classrooms. Out of 208 surveys distributed, 114…

  20. The influence of active seating on car passengers' perceived comfort and activity levels.

    Hiemstra-van Mastrigt, S; Kamp, I; van Veen, S A T; Vink, P; Bosch, T

    2015-03-01

    New technologies have led to an increasingly sedentary lifestyle. Sedentary behaviour is characterised by physical inactivity and is associated with several health risks. This excessive sitting does not only take place in the office or at home, but also during daily commute. Therefore, BMW AG developed an active seating system for the back seat of a car, consisting of sensors in the back rest that register upper body movements of the passenger, with which the passenger controls a game. This study evaluated three different aspects of active seating compared to other tasks (reading, working on laptop, and gaming on tablet). First, discomfort and comfort perception were measured in a 30-minute driving test. Discomfort was very low for all activities and participants felt significantly more challenged, more fit and more refreshed during active seating. Second, heart rate was measured, indicating a light intensity, but nevertheless non-sedentary, activity. Third, average and variability in activity of six postural muscles was measured by electromyography (EMG), showing a higher muscle activity and higher muscle variability for active seating compared to other activities. Active seating might stimulate movements, thereby increasing comfort and well-being. PMID:25479990

  1. Attempting to be active: Self-efficacy and barrier limitation differentiate activity levels of working mothers.

    Gierc, Madelaine; Locke, Sean; Jung, Mary; Brawley, Lawrence

    2016-07-01

    Working mothers are less physically active than working women without children and mothers who do not work. The purpose of this study was to examine concurrent self-regulatory efficacy and barriers to physical activity in a sample of working mothers. Women completed a mixed-methods survey which included measures of physical activity, concurrent self-regulatory efficacy, and barriers. Sufficiently active women experienced significantly greater concurrent self-regulatory efficacy and significantly less barrier limitation and frequency. No significant group differences were found for age, domestic duties performed, and children's extracurricular activities. Thematic analysis of barriers revealed six themes of common and unique factors, including limited time and family activities. PMID:27357921

  2. Distribution and activity levels of matrix metalloproteinase 2 and 9 in canine and feline osteosarcoma.

    Gebhard, Christiane; Fuchs-Baumgartinger, Andrea; Razzazi-Fazeli, Ebrahim; Miller, Ingrid; Walter, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    Overexpression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) has been associated with increased tumor aggressiveness and metastasis dissemination. We investigated whether the contrasting metastatic behavior of feline and canine osteosarcoma is related to levels and activities of MMP2 and MMP9. Zymography and immunohistochemistry were used to determine expression levels of MMP2 and MMP9 in canine and feline osteosarcoma. Using immunohistochemistry, increased MMP9 levels were identified in most canine osteosarcomas, whereas cat samples more often displayed moderate levels. High levels of pro-MMP9, pro-MMP2, and active MMP2 were detected by gelatin zymography in both species, with significantly higher values for active MMP2 in canine osteosarcoma. These findings indicate that MMP2 is probably involved in canine and feline osteosarcoma and their expression and activity could be associated with the different metastatic behavior of canine and feline osteosarcoma. PMID:26733734

  3. Relationship between self-reported dietary intake and physical activity levels among adolescents: The HELENA study

    Le Donne Cinzia

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence suggests possible synergetic effects of multiple lifestyle behaviors on health risks like obesity and other health outcomes. Therefore it is important to investigate associations between dietary and physical activity behavior, the two most important lifestyle behaviors influencing our energy balance and body composition. The objective of the present study is to describe the relationship between energy, nutrient and food intake and the physical activity level among a large group of European adolescents. Methods The study comprised a total of 2176 adolescents (46.2% male from ten European cities participating in the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study. Dietary intake and physical activity were assessed using validated 24-h dietary recalls and self-reported questionnaires respectively. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVA were used to compare the energy and nutrient intake and the food consumption between groups of adolescents with different physical activity levels (1st to 3rd tertile. Results In both sexes no differences were found in energy intake between the levels of physical activity. The most active males showed a higher intake of polysaccharides, protein, water and vitamin C and a lower intake of saccharides compared to less active males. Females with the highest physical activity level consumed more polysaccharides compared to their least active peers. Male and female adolescents with the highest physical activity levels, consumed more fruit and milk products and less cheese compared to the least active adolescents. The most active males showed higher intakes of vegetables and meat, fish, eggs, meat substitutes and vegetarian products compared to the least active ones. The least active males reported the highest consumption of grain products and potatoes. Within the female group, significantly lower intakes of bread and cereal products and spreads were found for those reporting to

  4. Physical Activity Level of Urban Pregnant Women in Tianjin, China: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Zhang, Yan; Dong, Shengwen; Zuo, Jianhua; Hu, Xiangqin; Zhang, Hua; Zhao, Yue

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the physical activity level and factors influencing physical activity among pregnant urban Chinese women. Methods This prospective cross-sectional study enrolled 1056 pregnant women (18–44 years of age) in Tianjin, China. Their socio-demographic characteristics were recorded, and the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to assess their physical activity during pregnancy. The data were analyzed by multinomial logistic regression with adjustment for potentia...

  5. High IL-23 level is a marker of disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Abu Al Fadl, Esam M; Fattouh, Mona; Allam, Ahmed A

    2013-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune systemic disorder characterized by inflammatory responses mainly affecting the synovial joints. Interleukin-23 (IL-23) is a heterodimeric pro-inflammatory cytokine secreted by activated dendritic cells and activated macrophages. IL-23 is the key cytokine controlling inflammation in peripheral tissues leading to the development of autoimmune diseases. The objective of our study was to determine the relationship between the IL-23 level and disease activity in RA patients. Sixty RA patients were included in the study with mean age of 40 years; they included 44 (73.3 %) females and 16 males (26.7 %). The clinical parameters of disease activity were determined, including the 28-joint disease activity score (DAS28), serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), Anti-citrullinated peptide antibody (ACPA), rheumatoid factor (RF), and TNF-alpha and the degree of bony erosions based on X-rays. Patients were subdivided into active disease group (n = 30) with DAS28 score higher than 5.1 (Group I); and remission group (n = 30) with DAS28 score less than 2.6 (Group II). Thirty healthy individuals in the same age group of RA patients including 22 (73.3%) females and 8 males (26.7%) were randomly selected as the control group (Group III). The levels of IL-23 were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the correlations between the serum levels of IL-23 and disease activity parameters of patients with RA were determined. Serum levels of IL-23 were significantly higher in RA patients during active stage of the disease in comparison to the patients in remission and the control group. There was a significant positive correlation between serum IL-23 levels in RA patients and individual disease activity parameters. It is concluded that elevated serum IL-23 level may be a useful marker to detect active RA and disease progression in patients with RA. PMID:24617049

  6. A case control study of premorbid and currently reported physical activity levels in chronic fatigue syndrome

    Buchwald Dedra

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with chronic fatigue syndrome typically report high levels of physical activity before becoming ill. Few studies have examined premorbid and current activity levels in chronically fatigued patients. Methods In a case-control study, 33 patients with chronic, unexplained, disabling fatigue attending a university-based clinic specializing in fatigue were compared to 33 healthy, age- and sex-matched controls. Patients rated their activity levels before their illness and currently, using scales designed for this purpose. Controls reported their level of activity of 2 years previously and currently. Chi-square analyses, Student's t tests, and Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used in pair matched analyses. Results Compared to healthy controls, patients with chronic, unexplained fatigue rated themselves as more active before their illness (p ≤ 0.001 and less active currently (p ≤ 0.001. The patients also reported they currently stood or walked less than the controls (median [inter-quartile range] = 4 2345 versus 9 [7.5–12] hours, p ≤ 0.001, and spent more time reclining (median [inter-quartile range] = 12 10111213141516 versus 8 [8–9.5] hours, p ≤ 0.001. These differences remained significant for the subset of patients who met strict criteria for chronic fatigue syndrome or fibromyalgia. Conclusion Patients with chronic, unexplained, disabling fatigue reported being more active before becoming ill than healthy controls. This finding could be explained by greater premorbid activity levels that could predispose to illness, or by an overestimation of previous activity. Either possibility could influence patients' perceptions of their current activity levels and their judgments of recovery. Perceived activity should be addressed as part of management of the illness.

  7. Serum fucosyl transferase activity and serum fucose levels as diagnostic tools in malignancy.

    Sen,Umi

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Glycoproteins play a significant role in neoplastic transformations. Both the levels of fucose and the activity of fucosyl transferase, which mediates the assembly of the oligosaccharide moieties of the glycoprotein chains, have been found to be elevated in neoplastic conditions. Since these elevations are common features of a variety of neoplastic cells, these two have been designated as non-specific markers of malignancy. In the present study, the fucose level and fucosyl transferase activity were determined in the sera of cancer patients and an attempt was made to establish a relationship between the two. It was found that both the fucose levels and fucosyl transferase activities showed considerable elevation in the five cancer groups studied, establishing them as useful diagnostic parameters. However, it was also observed that the rate of increased fucosyl transferase activity was not fully reflected in the resulting serum fucose levels in a few cases.

  8. High source levels and small active space of high pitched song in bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus)

    Tervo, Outi Maria; Christoffersen, Mads F.; Simon, Malene;

    2012-01-01

    whales, estimate source levels and measure ambient noise. The song had a mean apparent source level of 185 ± 2 dB rms re 1µPa and a high mean centroid frequency of 444 ± 48 Hz. Using measured ambient noise levels in the area and Arctic sound spreading models, the estimated active space of these song...... attenuation. Here we evaluate the active space of high-pitched song notes of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) in Western Greenland using measurements of song source levels and ambient noise. Four independent GPS-synchronized hydrophones were deployed through holes in the ice to localize vocalizing bowhead...... notes is between 40 and 130 km, an order of magnitude smaller than the estimated active space of low frequency blue and fin whale songs produced at similar source levels and for similar noise conditions. We propose that bowhead whales spatially compensate for their smaller communication range through...

  9. Muscle activity, time to fatigue, and maximum task duration at different levels of production standard time

    Nur, Nurhayati Mohd; Dawal, Siti Zawiah Md; Dahari, Mahidzal; Sanusi, Junedah

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the variations in muscle fatigue, time to fatigue, and maximum task duration at different levels of production standard time. [Methods] Twenty subjects performed repetitive tasks at three different levels of production standard time corresponding to “normal”, “hard” and “very hard”. Surface electromyography was used to measure the muscle activity. [Results] The results showed that muscle activity was significantly affected by the production standard time leve...

  10. Physical activity level, musculoskeletal fitness,balance, strength and power performance in older adults

    Lohne-Seiler, Hilde

    2015-01-01

    The link between physical activity and prevention of disease, maintenance of independence, and improved quality of life in older adults is supported by strong evidence. However, there is a lack of data on population levels where physical activity level has been measured objectively in association with self-reported health, musculoskeletal fitness and balance variables in older men and women. Also, little is known about the functional adaptive responses of older adults to pow...

  11. Forecasting activity levels in the UK continental shelf. The role of perceptions

    The explicit treatment of the role of perceptions in modelling forecasts is uncommon. With respect to future activity levels in the UK Continental Shelf, using the flexibility of add factors in econometric forecasts, this article demonstrates that, in addition to price variations, forecasts are sensitive to perceptions about future resource discovery and recovery rates. A medium-sized multivariate system reflecting the feedback structure of the petroleum supply process was formulated, estimated, and used to forecast activity levels

  12. Do enhancements to the urban built environment improve physical activity levels among socially disadvantaged populations?

    Maddison Ralph; Pearce Jamie R

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background There is growing recognition that the urban built environment influences physical activity at the population level, although the effects on disadvantaged groups are less well understood. Using the examples of open/green space and street connectivity, this paper explores whether enhancements to the built environment have potential for addressing physical activity-related health inequalities among Māori, Pacific and low income communities in New Zealand. Method A high-level ...

  13. Platelet Activation Determines Angiopoietin-1 and VEGF Levels in Malaria: Implications for Their Use as Biomarkers

    Judith Brouwers; Rintis Noviyanti; Rob Fijnheer; de Groot, Philip G.; Leily Trianty; Siti Mudaliana; Mark Roest; Din Syafruddin; Andre van der Ven; Quirijn de Mast

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The angiogenic proteins angiopoietin (Ang)-1, Ang-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are regulators of endothelial inflammation and integrity. Since platelets store large amounts of Ang-1 and VEGF, measurement of circulation levels of these proteins is sensitive to platelet number, in vivo platelet activation and inadvertent platelet activation during blood processing. We studied plasma Ang-1, Ang-2 and VEGF levels in malaria patients, taking the necessary precautio...

  14. Objective assessment of levels and patterns of physical activity in preschool children

    Brasholt, Martin; Chawes, Bo; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil;

    2013-01-01

    Background:To study in detail levels and patterns of physical activity in preschool children and the effect of gender and body mass index on this activity.Methods:Two hundred and fifty-three children aged 5 years participating in the Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood (COPSAC2000......) wore an accelerometer day and night over a 4-weekperiod. The main outcome measure was level of physical activity using the raw data.A secondary measure was time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity. A Fourier series analysis was applied to study in detail patterns over time...... high body mass index tended to be associated with lower levels of physical activity.Pediatric Research (2013); doi:10.1038/pr.2013.99....

  15. An Evaluation of the Correlation between Hepcidin Serum Levels and Disease Activity in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Zehra Betül Paköz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. While there are many well-defined serological markers for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, there is limited evidence that they positively affect clinical outcomes. This study aimed to evaluate the correlation between hepcidin serum levels and disease activity in IBD. Materials and Methods. Eighty-five consecutive IBD patients were enrolled in the study. Hepcidin serum levels were assessed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and were compared with disease activity as well as the interleukin-6 (IL-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP levels. Results. The mean hepcidin serum levels in Crohn’s disease (CD patients in remission and in the active phase were 3837±1436 and 3752±1274 pg/mL, respectively P=0.613. The mean hepcidin serum levels in ulcerative colitis (UC patients in remission and in the active phase were 4285±8623 and 3727±1176 pg/mL, respectively P=0.241. Correlation analysis between inflammatory markers and hepcidin serum levels indicated that there was no correlation between hepcidin levels and IL-6 P=0.582 or CRP P=0.783. Conclusion. As an acute-phase protein, hepcidin seems to have a lower efficacy than other parameters in the detection of activation in IBD.

  16. Association between physical activity level and consumption of fruit and vegetables among adolescents in northeast Brazil

    Diego Augusto Santos Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between low levels of physical activity and consumption of fruits and vegetables among adolescents. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 2,057 adolescents aged 13 to 18 years from the city of Aracaju, Northeastern Brazil. We analyzed the level of physical activity, consumption of fruits and vegetables by standardized and validated questionnaires. The control variables were sex, age, socioeconomic status, maternal education, alcohol consumption and smoking. For data analysis, univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used, with a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: The prevalence of low levels of physical activity was 81.9%; the inadequate consumption of fruits ocurred in 79.1% and the inadequate consumption of vegetables in 90.6%. Adolescents who consumed few fruits daily had an increase in 40% of chance of being insufficiently active and, for those who consumed few vegetable's the likelihood of being insufficiently active was 50% higher, compared to those who had adequate intake of these foods. CONCLUSIONS: Low levels of physical activity were associated with inadequate fruit and vegetable intake among adolescents in a city in northeastern Brazil. These findings suggest that insufficiently active adolescents have other unhealthy behaviors that may increase the risk of chronic diseases in adulthood.

  17. Long-Term Exposure to High Corticosterone Levels Inducing a Decrease of Adenylate Kinase 1 Activity

    ZHAO Yu'nan; SHEN Jia; SU Hui; HUANG Yufang; XING Dongming; DU Lijun

    2009-01-01

    Corticosterone, a principal glucocorticoid synthesized in the rodent adrenal cortex, can be cumula-tively toxic to hippocampal neurons, the cause of which is not known. The present study determined whether the cytosol adenylate kinase (AK) system was involved in the neuronal damage induced by long-term exposure to high corticosterone levels. We investigated the effects of long-term exposure to high corticosterone levels on AK1 activity, AK1 mRNA expression, and energy levels in cultured hippocampal neurons. The results show that long-term exposure to high corticosterone levels induces a reduction of the cultured hippocampal neuron viability, significantly reduces energy levels, and causes a time-dependant re-duction of the AK1 activity. These findings indicate that changes in the AK system might be the mechanism underlying neuronal damage induced by long-term exposure to high corticosterone levels.

  18. Participation levels of physical activity programs for community-dwelling older adults: A systematic review

    M. Van Der Deijl (Marielle); A. Etman (Astrid); C.B.M. Kamphuis (Carlijn); F.J. van Lenthe (Frank)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Although many physical activity (PA) programs have been implemented and tested for effectiveness, high participation levels are needed in order to achieve public health impact. This study aimed to determine participation levels of PA programs aimed to improve PA among communi

  19. Presenting Theoretical Ideas Prior to Inquiry Activities Fosters Theory-Level Knowledge

    Wecker, Christof; Rachel, Alexander; Heran-Dörr, Eva; Waltner, Christine; Wiesner, Hartmut; Fischer, Frank

    2013-01-01

    In the course of inquiry activities similar to those of real scientists, learners are supposed to develop knowledge both on the level of observable phenomena and on the level of explanatory theories. However, some theories involve theoretical entities (e.g., "Weiss domains") that cannot be observed directly and therefore may be hard to…

  20. Children's Physical Activity Levels during Indoor Recess Dance Videos

    Erwin, Heather; Koufoudakis, Ryann; Beighle, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    Background: Children's physical activity (PA) levels remain low, and schools are being asked to assume a leadership role in PA promotion. Research suggests outdoor recess contributes to children's overall PA levels. However, similar research is not available for indoor recess, which occurs frequently due to a variety of factors. The…

  1. Participatory development activities at local level: case studies in villages of Central Thailand.

    Pongquan, S.

    1992-01-01

    Participatory development activities at local level in a sub-district located in the Central Plain of Thailand were studied employing the theoretical concept of the "linking loops" to analyze the related interactions among target group members and between the local level and superordinated organizat

  2. National level promotion of physical activity: results from England's ACTIVE for LIFE campaign

    Hillsdon, M; Cavill, N; Nanchahal, K.; Diamond, A; White, I.

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—To assess the impact of a national campaign on awareness of the campaign, change in knowledge of physical activity recommendations and self reported physical activity.
DESIGN—three year prospective longitudinal survey using a multi-stage, cluster random probability design to select participants.
SETTING—England.
PARTICIPANTS—A nationally representative sample of 3189 adults aged 16-74 years.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Awareness of the advertising element of the campaign, changes in...

  3. Distribution and activity levels of matrix metalloproteinase 2 and 9 in canine and feline osteosarcoma

    Gebhard, Christiane; Fuchs-Baumgartinger, Andrea; Razzazi-Fazeli, Ebrahim; Miller, Ingrid; Walter, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    Overexpression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) has been associated with increased tumor aggressiveness and metastasis dissemination. We investigated whether the contrasting metastatic behavior of feline and canine osteosarcoma is related to levels and activities of MMP2 and MMP9. Zymography and immunohistochemistry were used to determine expression levels of MMP2 and MMP9 in canine and feline osteosarcoma. Using immunohistochemistry, increased MMP9 levels were identified in most canine os...

  4. How many days to monitor levels of physical activity in children? A generalizability approach

    MARQUES, A. T.; Maia, José A. R.; Garganta, Rui; Seabra, André; Prista, A.; Bustamante, Alcibíades; Vinagre, J.; Lopes, Vítor P.

    2006-01-01

    There has been some debate about the number of days to monitor physical activity (PA). This discussion is relevant to have reliable estimates (means and variances) of PA of children and adolescents. Still, the approach taken so far, has not dealt with different levels of daily physical activity in children.

  5. Self-Rated Activity Levels and Longevity: Evidence from a 20 Year Longitudinal Study

    Mullee, Mark A.; Coleman, Peter G.; Briggs, Roger S. J.; Stevenson, James E.; Turnbull, Joanne C.

    2008-01-01

    The study reports on factors predicting the longevity of 328 people over the age of 65 drawn from an English city and followed over 20 years. Both the reported activities score and the individual's comparative evaluation of their own level of activity independently reduced the risk of death, even when health and cognitive status were taken into…

  6. Individual and School-Level Socioeconomic Gradients in Physical Activity in Australian School children

    Lewis, Lucy; Maher, Carol; Katzmarzyk, Peter; Olds, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Background: We attempted to determine whether there was a socioeconomic gradient in 9- to 11-year-old Australian children's moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and whether school facilities or policies supporting physical activity were associated with school-level socioeconomic status (SES) and MVPA. Methods: Children (N = 528) from 26…

  7. Students' Motivation, Physical Activity Levels, & Health-Related Physical Fitness in Middle School Physical Education

    Gao, Zan; Newton, Maria; Carson, Russell L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the predictive utility of students' motivation (self-efficacy and task values) to their physical activity levels and health-related physical fitness (cardiovascular fitness and muscular strength/endurance) in middle school fitness activity classes. Participants (N = 305) responded to questionnaires assessing their self-efficacy…

  8. The Strength of Motivation and Physical Activity Level during Leisure Time among Youth in South Korea

    Cho, Min-Haeng

    2004-01-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the relationship between the perceived strength of motivation and level of physical activity during their leisure time of youth. The randomly selected 1,097 (boys = 342, girls = 755) youth reported their duration, frequency, and intensity of physical activity and also indicated their strength of motivation in…

  9. Promoting Higher Level Thinking in Psychology: Is Active Learning the Answer?

    Richmond, Aaron S.; Hagan, Lisa Kindelberger

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate which common instructional methods (active vs. direct) best promote higher level thinking in a psychology course. Over a 5-week period, 71 undergraduates were taught psychology using both active learning and direct instruction. Pre- and post-course assessments were coded as either higher or lower level…

  10. Mol- mutants of Klebsiella pneumoniae requiring high levels of molybdate for nitrogenase activity.

    Imperial, J; Ugalde, R A; Shah, V K; Brill, W J

    1985-01-01

    Mol- mutants of Klebsiella pneumoniae requiring high levels of molybdate for nitrogenase and nitrate reductase activity were characterized. The effects of mol mutations on nitrogenase activity were very similar to those caused by nifQ mutations. Mol- mutants of K. pneumoniae appear to be equivalent to ChlD- mutants of Escherichia coli.

  11. IL-18 Serum Level in Adult Onset Still’s Disease: A Marker of Disease Activity

    Serena Colafrancesco

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions. Higher levels of IL-18 are detected in active AODS patients and correlate with disease activity and inflammatory laboratory features. ROC-AUC analysis of the serum concentration of IL-18 suggests that it can be considered a diagnostic marker of AOSD. This paper supports the targeting of this cytokine as a possible therapeutic option in AOSD.

  12. The Effect of Gambling Activities on Happiness Levels of Nursing Home Residents

    Dixon, Mark R.; Nastally, Becky L.; Waterman, Amber

    2010-01-01

    The current study evaluated the effect of participating in simulated gambling activities on happiness levels of 3 nursing home residents. A 4-component analysis was used to measure objective responses associated with happiness during baseline, varying durations of engagement in simulated gambling activities, and 2 follow-up periods. Results…

  13. Topoisomerase I as a Biomarker: Detection of Activity at the Single Molecule Level

    Proszek, Joanna; Roy, Amit; Jakobsen, Ann-Katrine;

    2014-01-01

    hTopI have been reported to result in CPT resistance. Therefore, hTOPI gene copy number, mRNA level, protein amount, and enzyme activity have been studied to explain differences in cellular response to CPT. We show that Rolling Circle Enhanced Enzyme Activity Detection (REEAD), allowing measurement...... of hTopI cleavage-religation activity at the single molecule level, may be used to detect posttranslational enzymatic differences influencing CPT response. These differences cannot be detected by analysis of hTopI gene copy number, mRNA amount, or protein amount, and only become apparent upon...... measuring the activity of hTopI in the presence of CPT. Furthermore, we detected differences in the activity of the repair enzyme tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 1, which is involved in repair of hTopI-induced DNA damage. Since increased TDP1 activity can reduce cellular CPT sensitivity we suggest that a...

  14. Elevated homocysteine levels in suction-induced blister fluid of active vitiligo lesions.

    Anbar, Tag; Zuel-Fakkar, Nehal Mohamed; Matta, Mary Fikry; Arbab, Mai Mohammed Ibrahim

    2016-02-01

    Vitiligo is the most prevalent acquired pigmentary disorder as a result of destruction of melanocytes. Several studies have reported increased serum levels of homocysteine (Hcy) in vitiligo patients which may be the result of decreased Vitamin B12 and folic acid levels. In addition, homocystinuria is associated with pigmentary dilution. On the other hand, other studies reported normal serum homocysteine levels. Our aim was to study the Hcy level in active vitiligo patients both in serum and in suction blister fluid obtained from the lesional skin. A total of 30 patients with active vitiligo of both sexes and 30 healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study. Sera from the blood and from lesional induced bullae were obtained from the patients and controls and were assayed for Hcy by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The collected data were analyzed by SPSS version 17. There were no significant differences in the serum levels of Hcy between patients and healthy controls, however, the increase in Hcy level was highly statistically significant in the patients' lesional induced bulla compared to the healthy controls. There was no significant difference in Hcy levels between males and females and between patients with negative or positive family histories of vitiligo. The presence of a high homocysteine level in active vitiligo lesions points to a local event occurring in this lesion, which is not reflected as an increase in the patient's serum level. PMID:26678812

  15. A College-Level Inquiry-Based Laboratory Activity on Transiting Planets

    McConnell, Nicholas J.; Medling, Anne M.; Strubbe, Linda E.; Moth, Pimol; Montgomery, Ryan M.; Raschke, Lynne M.; Hunter, Lisa; Goza, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    We have designed an inquiry-based laboratory activity on transiting extrasolar planets for an introductory college-level astronomy class. The activity was designed with the intent of simultaneously teaching science process skills and factual content about transits and light curves. In the activity, groups of two to four students each formulate a specific science question and design and carry out an investigation using a table-top model of a star and orbiting planet. Each group then presents t...

  16. Comparison of pre- and post-intervention levels of physical activity among sedentary Finnish mothers

    Green, Weldon T; Novoradovskaya, Elizaveta

    2010-01-01

    Weldon T. Green and Elizaveta Novoradovskaya, 2012. Comparison of pre- and post-intervention levels of physical activity among sedentary Finnish mothers. Master’s Thesis in Sport and Department of Sport Sciences. University of Jyvaskyla. 39 p. The 1990’s marked a shift in the academic understanding of health-enhancing physical activity that was different from the exercise-based physical fitness paradigm that ruled public health policy at the time. Since then, lifestyle physical activity ...

  17. Low levels of physical activity in patients with severe mental illness

    Nyboe, Lene; Lund, H

    2013-01-01

    Background: Physical inactivity is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and Type 2 diabetes, both being highly prevalent in patients with severe mental illness. Though physical activity has become an important issue in psychiatric treatment and rehabilitation in the past decade......, systematic evaluations of physical activity level in psychiatric populations could be more disseminated. Aim: The primary aim of the study was to investigate the physical activity level of psychiatric patients in comparison with healthy controls. Methods: Patients with severe mental illness (n =47) and a...

  18. Evidence that elevated CO2 levels can indirectly increase rhizosphere denitrifier activity

    Smart, D. R.; Ritchie, K.; Stark, J. M.; Bugbee, B.

    1997-01-01

    We examined the influence of elevated CO2 concentration on denitrifier enzyme activity in wheat rhizoplanes by using controlled environments and solution culture techniques. Potential denitrification activity was from 3 to 24 times higher on roots that were grown under an elevated CO2 concentration of 1,000 micromoles of CO2 mol-1 than on roots grown under ambient levels of CO2. Nitrogen loss, as determined by a nitrogen mass balance, increased with elevated CO2 levels in the shoot environment and with a high NO3- concentration in the rooting zone. These results indicated that aerial CO2 concentration can play a role in rhizosphere denitrifier activity.

  19. Year ahead prediction of US landfalling hurricane numbers: the optimal combination of multiple levels of activity since 1900

    Binter, R; Khare, S; O'Shay, A; Penzer, J; Binter, Roman; Jewson, Stephen; Khare, Shree; Shay, Adam O'; Penzer, Jeremy

    2006-01-01

    In earlier work we considered methods for predicting future levels of hurricane activity based on the assumption that historical mean activity was at one constant level from 1900 to 1994, and has been at another constant level since then. We now make this model a little more subtle, and account for the possibility of four different levels of mean hurricane activity since 1900.

  20. FDG-PET imaging of lower extremity muscular activity during level walking

    We analyzed muscular activity of the lower extremities during level walking using positron emission tomography (PET) with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG). We examined 17 healthy male subjects; 11 were assigned to a walking group and 6 to a resting group. After 18F-FDG injection, the walking group subjects walked at a free speed for 15 min. A whole-body image was then obtained by a PET camera, and the standardized uptake ratio (SUR) was computed for each muscle. The SUR for each muscle of the walking group was compared with that for the corresponding muscles in the resting group. The level of muscular activity of all the muscles we examined were higher during level walking than when resting. The activity of the lower leg muscles was higher than that of the thigh muscles during level walking. The muscular activity of the soleus was highest among all the muscles examined. Among the gluteal muscles, the muscular activity of the gluteus minimus was higher than that of the gluteus maximus and gluteus medius. The concurrent validity of measuring muscular activity of the lower extremity during level walking by the PET method using 18F-FDG was demonstrated. (author)

  1. Activity of Proteolytic Enzymes and Level of Cystatin C in the Peripartum Period.

    Cyganek, Anna; Wyczalkowska-Tomasik, Aleksandra; Jarmuzek, Patrycja; Grzechocinska, Barbara; Jabiry-Zieniewicz, Zoulikha; Paczek, Leszek; Wielgos, Miroslaw

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of the study was to evaluate the activity of cathepsin B, collagenases, trypsin, and plasmin and concentration of cystatin C in serum of healthy pregnant women in peripartum period. Study Design. The study group included 45 women in uncomplicated pregnancies. Blood samples were collected in four time points. Enzyme activity was measured by spectrofluorometric method. The level of cystatin C was measured using immunonephelometric method. Results. Mean activity of cathepsin B and the level of serum cystatin C were significantly higher in the study group. Collagenase activity was significantly lower in the study group than the control group. No differences in collagenase, plasmin, and trypsin activity on each day of the peripartum period were found. Conclusion. High activity of cathepsin B and increased level of cystatin C are typical for women in late pregnancy. Those levels significantly decrease after delivery which can be associated with potential role of those markers in placental separation. The insignificant changes of cystatin C level in the peripartum period seem to exclude the possibility of using cystatin C as a marker for renal insufficiency in the peripartum period but additional research is necessary to investigate the matter further. PMID:26904684

  2. Project Seavolc: sea-level change and the stability and activity of coastal and island volcanoes

    McGuire, W.J. [Cheltenham and Gloucester College of Higher Education, Cheltenham (United Kingdom)

    1994-12-31

    The entire eastern flank of Mount Etna has been unstable for much of its history, demonstrating seaward slumping of a 30 km wide segment of the edifice which borders the Ionian Sea. Project Seabolc aims to better constrain the temporaral history of instability and slope movement, and to correlate this behaviour with both sea-level change and eruptive activity during the late Quaternary. Results from the Etna study, together with evidence from volcanoes in the Canary Islands, Aeolian Islands, and Bay of Naples, will enable us to test a model relating slope instability and eruptive activity at coastal and island volcanoes, to the repeatedly changing sea levels which characterized the Quaternary. The disposition of tectonic plates constrains the locations of most volcanoes to marine settings or to adjacent continental margins, leading to their being strongly susceptible either to the direct effects of changing sea levels (e.g. edifice erosion or debuttressing) or to general crustal loading and unloading caused by changing ocean volumes. Temporal distribution of tephra horizons in eastern Mediterranean sediments supports a correlation between episodes of rising and falling sea level, and increased levels of explosive volcanic activity, which we attribute to the dynamic response of volcanic edifices to a wide range of primary and secondary effects induced by variations in sea level. Implications of the proposed model for climate change are profound and important, with explosive volcanic activity triggered by changing sea levels having the potential to modulate the Quaternary global temperature profile. 24 refs., 3 figs.

  3. THE RELATION BETWEEN PHAGOCYTIC ACTIVITY OF THE NEUTROPHILS (PMN AND THE GLICEMIC LEVEL AT THE SPORTSMAN

    D. Cotuna

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available We tried to find a relation between the phagocytes activity of the neutrophils and the level of glicemy in athletes applying the ANOVA test, taking into account the fact that hyperglicemy reduces the phagocytes activity of the neutrophils which becomes so more spherical and burden after the contact with foreign particles. The phagocyte activity of neutrophils (PMN had been established through NBT technique and the glicemy level was determined by Hagerdon – Jansen method. From these notices processed by ANOVA test applied on the values of phagocyte activity of PMN and on glicemy level we conclude that does not exist a tendency of association of these two parameters in a relationship.

  4. Levels of occupational stress and stressful activities for nurses working in emergency

    José Ricardo Ferreira da Fonseca

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to identify stress levels, areas and their activities identified as stressful by nurses working in the emergence in Manaus, AM, Brazil. It is an epidemiological, cross-sectional design, with 36 emergency nurses from December 2010 to January 2011. The Bianchi Stress Scale with 57 questions was used. The nurses were at risk for high levels of stress. The most stressful areas were the operation of the unit, conditions of work and personnel administration, and the most stressful activity was the request for equipment review and repair. The difference by Friedman test between the areas was significant (p <0.05, Dunn post-test significant (p <0.05 when compared by peers. The accumulation of management activities with the assistance activities can generate higher levels of stress, it is necessary to invest in improving the work environment and management support to minimize the stress experienced at work.

  5. Induction of antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation level in ion-beam-bombarded rice seeds

    Highlights: ► Ion beam bombarded rice seeds in vacuum. ► Studied seed survival from the ion bombardment. ► Determined various antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation level. ► Discussed vacuum, ion species and ion energy effects. ► Attributed the changes to free radical formation due to ion bombardment. -- Abstract: Low-energy ion beam bombardment has been used to mutate a wide variety of plant species. To explore the indirect effects of low-energy ion beam on biological damage due to the free radical production in plant cells, the increase in antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation level was investigated in ion-bombarded rice seeds. Local rice seeds were bombarded with nitrogen or argon ion beams at energies of 29–60 keV and ion fluences of 1 × 1016 ions cm−2. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and lipid peroxidation level were assayed in the germinated rice seeds after ion bombardment. The results showed most of the enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation levels in both the argon and nitrogen bombarded samples were higher than those in the natural control. N-ion bombardment could induce higher levels of antioxidant enzyme activities in the rice samples than the Ar-ion bombardment. Additional effects due to the vacuum condition were found to affect activities of some antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation level. This study demonstrates that ion beam bombardment and vacuum condition could induce the antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation level which might be due to free radical production in the bombarded rice seeds

  6. Induction of antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation level in ion-beam-bombarded rice seeds

    Semsang, Nuananong, E-mail: nsemsang@gmail.com [Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Yu, LiangDeng [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: ► Ion beam bombarded rice seeds in vacuum. ► Studied seed survival from the ion bombardment. ► Determined various antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation level. ► Discussed vacuum, ion species and ion energy effects. ► Attributed the changes to free radical formation due to ion bombardment. -- Abstract: Low-energy ion beam bombardment has been used to mutate a wide variety of plant species. To explore the indirect effects of low-energy ion beam on biological damage due to the free radical production in plant cells, the increase in antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation level was investigated in ion-bombarded rice seeds. Local rice seeds were bombarded with nitrogen or argon ion beams at energies of 29–60 keV and ion fluences of 1 × 10{sup 16} ions cm{sup −2}. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and lipid peroxidation level were assayed in the germinated rice seeds after ion bombardment. The results showed most of the enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation levels in both the argon and nitrogen bombarded samples were higher than those in the natural control. N-ion bombardment could induce higher levels of antioxidant enzyme activities in the rice samples than the Ar-ion bombardment. Additional effects due to the vacuum condition were found to affect activities of some antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation level. This study demonstrates that ion beam bombardment and vacuum condition could induce the antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation level which might be due to free radical production in the bombarded rice seeds.

  7. Do enhancements to the urban built environment improve physical activity levels among socially disadvantaged populations?

    Maddison Ralph

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing recognition that the urban built environment influences physical activity at the population level, although the effects on disadvantaged groups are less well understood. Using the examples of open/green space and street connectivity, this paper explores whether enhancements to the built environment have potential for addressing physical activity-related health inequalities among Māori, Pacific and low income communities in New Zealand. Method A high-level review of the international literature relating open space and street connectivity to physical activity and/or related health outcomes at a population level was completed. Consideration was given to whether these features of the built environment have a disproportionate effect on disadvantaged populations. Results Findings from international studies suggest that open space and street connectivity have a beneficial effect on physical activity. Enhancing the built environment may be particularly advantageous for improving physical activity levels among disadvantaged populations. Conclusion It is likely that open space and street connectivity have a positive effect on physical activity behaviour; however due to the cross-sectional nature of existing research and the paucity of research among disadvantaged populations definitive conclusions about the effect in these populations cannot be made. Further research is required (e.g. natural experiments or quasi experimental research designs to determine the effect of changing the environment on physical activity and obesity.

  8. Is the low level of physical activity a public policy issue?

    Kalman Michal

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many studies and scientific evidence confirm a positive effect of physical activity on the quality of life and human health. Physical activity, which is also one of the key factors preventing mass non-communicable diseases, is decreasing in Europe, including the Czech Republic, both in children and adults. Serious health consequences for the population and economy of the countries are a reason for a discussion about including the low level of physical activity among public policy issues and a higher allocation of public sources into the area of physical activity promotion. OBJECTIVES: The main objective of the paper is to determine whether the low level of physical activity is a public policy issue. An issue that should by systematically addressed by national, regional as well as local policy. METHODS: Through the policy analysis approach we conducted a content analysis of 25 systematically selected foreign national strategies aimed at the issue of physical activity promotion. The data source was an internal database of the World Health Organization - the International Inventory of Documents on Physical Activity Promotion. The content analysis of the strategies was performed using the Atlas.ti software tool. RESULTS: During a content analysis of 25 foreign strategies a total of 411 text segments (quotations relating to the low level of physical activity were selected. These text segments showed five basic features of a public policy issue according to a conceptual framework developed by Bardach (2000 and Patton and Sawicky (1993 - 1 affects the lives of a significant number of people of a society; 2 is analysable; 3 can be solved through public policy tools; 4 the primary cause or problem can be defined; 5 cannot be solved easily and quickly. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that the low level of physical activity is a public policy issue that must be systematically addressed at national level.

  9. Trapezius muscle activity increases during near work activity regardless of accommodation/vergence demand level

    Richter, H. O.; Zetterberg, Camilla; Forsman, M

    2015-01-01

    Aim To investigate if trapezius muscle activity increases over time during visually demanding near work. Methods The vision task consisted of sustained focusing on a contrast-varying black and white Gabor grating. Sixty-six participants with a median age of 38 (range 19–47) fixated the grating from a distance of 65 cm (1.5 D) during four counterbalanced 7-min periods: binocularly through −3.5 D lenses, and monocularly through −3.5 D, 0 D and +3.5 D. Accommodation, heart rate variability and t...

  10. Electromyography Activation Levels of the 3 Gluteus Medius Subdivisions During Manual Strength Testing

    Otten, Roald; Tol, Johannes L; Holmich, Per;

    2015-01-01

    deficits and guide specific rehabilitation programs. However, the optimal positions for assessing the strength and activation of these subdivisions are unknown. OBJECTIVE: The first aim was to establish which strength-testing positions produce the highest surface electromyography (sEMG) activation levels...... of the individual GM subdivisions. The second aim was to evaluate differences in sEMG activation levels between the tested and contralateral (stabilizing) leg. METHOD: Twenty healthy physically active male subjects participated in this study. Muscle activity using sEMG was recorded for the GM...... subdivisions (P < .01). The posterior GM subdivision showed no significant difference (P = .154). CONCLUSION: Side-lying in neutral and side-lying with hip internal rotation are the 2 positions recommended to evaluate GM function and guide specific GM rehabilitation....

  11. Physical activity levels of economically disadvantaged women living in the Olympic city of Rio de Janeiro.

    de Sousa-Mast, Fabiana R; Reis, Arianne C; Sperandei, Sandro; Gurgel, Luilma A; Vieira, Marcelo C; Pühse, Uwe

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the physical activity patterns of women living in a low-income community located in close proximity to the 2016 Rio de Janeiro Olympic Park. Data (N = 140) were collected in June and July 2012 using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Findings indicated that the majority (54.8%) of participants reported high levels of physical activity. The domains that contributed the most to this pattern were occupational and household physical activity. Significantly, 88.1% of participants reported low physical activity levels during their leisure-time. In the transport-related domain, participants were relatively more active, but more than half of them (57%) spent less than 600 MET-minutes/week in this domain. The results highlighted the discrepancies between different physical activity domains. In addition, the findings also suggested that low-income women in our study engaged little in physical activity during their leisure time. Therefore, the proposed commitments found in the Rio de Janeiro Candidature File to host the 2016 Olympic Games to increase sport/physical activity participation within low-income communities in Rio de Janeiro need to be implemented effectively if this physical activity behavior during self-directed time is to be changed. PMID:26496170

  12. AN ASSOCIATION OF CYTOKINE LEVELS WITH DISEASE ACTIVITY, AUTOANTIBODY LEVELS, AND JOINT DESTRUCTIVE CHANGES IN EARLY RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

    A. S. Avdeeva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to assess the association of cytokine profile measures with disease activity, autoantibody levels, and joint destructive changes in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA.Subjects and methods. Forty-five patients, including 35 women, with early RA were examined. Their median age was 53.5 [46; 59.5] years; the duration of the disease – 7.0 [4.0; 11.5] months; DAS28 – 5.8 [4.9; 6.4]; 91 and 96% of the patents were positive for rheumatoid factor (RF and anticyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies, respectively. Serum cytokine concentrations were estimated using the xMAP multiplex technology. The modified Sharp method was employed to quantify radiographic changes.Results and discussion. A group of 30 patients with high disease activity (DAS28 >5.1 had higher levels of interleukin (IL-6 (62.3 [36.1; 127.5] pg/ml and IP-10 (6367.8 [3682.7; 10691.3] pg/ml than 15 patients with moderate/low disease activity (DAS28 ≤5.1 (35.8 [13.4; 64.2] and 3222.6 [1881.0; 5671.9] pg/ml, respectively, p < 0.05. The patients highly positive for IgM RF had higher levels (pg/ml of proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-12, IL-15, interferon-γ, and tumor necrosis factor-α; the chemokine monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and the growth factors IL-7 and vascular endothelial growth factor (4.8 [2.8; 19.3], 23.0 [7.1; 55.8], 64.2 [41.6; 170.5], 52.2 [30.9; 126.9], 2.4 [0.2; 11.2], 210.8 [119.9; 584.2], 90.7 [42.7; 307/9], 57.5 [26.1; 93.8], 54.9 [37.1; 123.7], and 143.3 [70.6; 249.6] pg/ml than those who were negative/lowly positive for IgM RF (2.3 [1.9; 3.1], 4.9 [2.9; 16.8], 24.9 [20.4; 45.4], 25.6 [19.9; 57.1], 0.2 [0.01; 1.65], 94.4 [86.3; 138.9], 37.3 [23.6; 47.7], 20.9 [12.3; 33.9], 32.6 [28.1; 37.8], 74.2 [53.5; 147.6], respectively (p < 0.05.Conclusion. There are significant differences in cytokine profile measures in patients with early RA in relation to disease activity and serum autoantibody levels.

  13. Automatic procedure go keep updated the activity levels for each radionuclide existing in a radioactivity laboratory

    An automatic procedure to keep updated the activity levels each radionuclide existing in a radioactivity laboratory, and its classification according to the Spanish Regulations on Nuclear and Radioactive Establishments is described. This procedure takes into account the mixed composition of each source and whether it is sealed or the activity and mass variation due to extraction or evaporation in non-sealed sources. For a given date and time, the procedure prints out a complete listing of the activity of each radioactive source, the accumulated activity for each radionuclide, for each kind of radionuclide and the actual classification of the laboratory according to the legal regulations above mentioned. (Author)

  14. Serum Visfatin Levels in Behcet's Disease Patients and Their Correlation with Disease Activity

    Cemile Tuğba Altunel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and design: Behcet’s disease (BD is a chronic inflammatory disease. Genetic susceptibility, triggering infections and environmental factors that alter innate and acquired immunity are accused in its pathogenesis. Visfatin is a novel adipocytokine which exerts proinflammatory effects. In present study, by comparing serum visfatin levels of active Behcet patients with inactive patients and healthy controls, we investigated the role of visfatin in the inflammatory process of BD. Material and Methods: We enrolled 26 active, 26 inactive BD patients and 26 healthy controls in the study. Serum visfatin levels were analyzed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. White blood cell (WBC count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, C-reactive protein (CRP and interleukin-6 (IL-6 levels were measured simultaneously and their correlation with visfatin levels were examined. Results: Age and gender distributions did not differ between study groups (P=0.736 and P=1.00 respectively. Serum visfatin levels were significantly higher in active (17.80±5.70 ng/mL and inactive patients (12.80±2.90 ng/mL than in control group (8.90±4.20 ng/mL, (P=0.00 for both comparisons. Active BD patients had significantly higher visfatin levels when compared to inactive patients (P=0.00. In all study groups visfatin levels were positively correlated with WBC count, ESH, CRP and IL-6 levels. Conclusion: Our results support the idea that visfatin plays a role in the inflammatory process of BD and suggests that visfatin may be a novel activity marker in BD.

  15. Self-assessment analysis of health and physical activity level of military personnel

    Plavina L.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sport and physical activity is important and compulsory for military staff. They determine the execution of service duties and tasks. Respondents with low level of physical activity have difficulties achieving required fitness level and pass the annual physical tests. Staff officers aged 28 to 40 years completed questionnaires in 2009 (n=22, 2010 (n=30 and 2012 (n=39. Each questionnaire included twenty one questions which were then evaluated in points. The answers allowed us to collect information regarding their physical activity during service hours as well as after the working day. Questionnaires included also issues on harmful habits – sleep duration, smoking and use of alcohol; self-esteem of body mass as well. The respondents were divided into four groups according to the level of physical activity: low, moderate, good, high. The percentage of respondents with a high and good level of physical activity has increased from 22.7% to 68.9% during the analysed time period. Morning exercises and hardening (fitness procedures were not popular for military personnel. However, physical activities during the working hours have slightly increased: 31.8%, 43.3% and 48.9.3% respectively. In study years, it was found that respondents try to follow healthy eating habits and sleep regime. There is a slight decrease of respondents with obese and there is a slight increase of 22.7% to 27.6% of the respondents who are regular smokers .

  16. Raised serum level of APRIL in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: correlations with disease activity indices.

    Hegazy, M; Darwish, H; Darweesh, H; El-Shehaby, A; Emad, Y

    2010-04-01

    The aim of the present study is to assess serum APRIL levels in SLE patients versus rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and normal control and to correlate serum APRIL levels in SLE patients with disease activity indices. Serum APRIL levels was measured in 40 SLE patients, 20 patients with RA and 20 healthy volunteers who served as control group. Disease activity in SLE patients was assessed by the British Isles Lupus Assessment Group (BILAG) index and SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI), and results were correlated with serum APRIL levels. Significantly higher serum APRIL levels was observed in SLE patients compared to RA patients and normal controls (p=0.003 and p < or = 0.001, respectively). Positive correlations were found between serum APRIL levels and total BILAG index (r=0.486 and p=0.001), BILAG musculoskeletal score (r=0.848 and p < or = 0.001) and BILAG cardiorespiratory score (r=0.326 and 0.04). Serum APRIL was higher in SLE patients compared to RA patients and normal control subjects and positively correlates with BILAG index and higher levels may be associated with musculoskeletal manifestations of the disease. APRIL antagonism could be a potential therapeutic target in SLE. PMID:20116334

  17. Physical Activity Levels and Domains Assessed by Accelerometry in German Adolescents from GINIplus and LISAplus.

    Maia P Smith

    Full Text Available Physical activity (PA is a well-known and underused protective factor for numerous health outcomes, and interventions are hampered by lack of objective data. We combined accelerometers with diaries to estimate the contributions to total activity from different domains throughout the day and week in adolescents.Accelerometric and diary data from 1403 adolescents (45% male, mean age 15.6 ± 0.5 years were combined to evaluate daily levels and domains of sedentary, light, and moderate-to-vigorous activity (MVPA during a typical week. Freedson's cutoff points were applied to determine levels of activity. Total activity was broken down into school physical education (PE, school outside PE, transportation to school, sport, and other time.About 2/3 of adolescents' time was spent sedentary, 1/3 in light activity, and about 5% in MVPA. Boys and girls averaged 46 (SD 22 and 38 (23 minutes MVPA per day. Adolescents were most active during leisure sport, spending about 30% of it in MVPA, followed by PE (about 20% transport to school (14% and either school class time or other time (3%. PE provided 5% of total MVPA, while leisure sport provided 16% and transportation to school 8%. School was the most sedentary part of the day with over 75% of time outside PE spent sedentary.These German adolescents were typical of Europeans in showing low levels of physical activity, with significant contributions from leisure sport, transportation and school PE. Leisure sport was the most active part of the day, and participation did not vary significantly by sex, study center (region of Germany or BMI. Transportation to school was frequent and thus accounted for a significant fraction of total MVPA. This indicates that even in a population with good access to dedicated sporting activities, frequent active transportation can add significantly to total MVPA.

  18. A system for measuring thermal activation energy levels in silicon by thermally stimulated capacitance

    Cockrum, R. H.

    1982-01-01

    One method being used to determine energy level(s) and electrical activity of impurities in silicon is described. The method is called capacitance transient spectroscopy (CTS). It can be classified into three basic categories: the thermally stimulated capacitance method, the voltage-stimulated capacitance method, and the light-stimulated capacitance method; the first two categories are discussed. From the total change in capacitance and the time constant of the capacitance response, emission rates, energy levels, and trap concentrations can be determined. A major advantage of using CTS is its ability to detect the presence of electrically active impurities that are invisible to other techniques, such as Zeeman effect atomic absorption, and the ability to detect more than one electrically active impurity in a sample. Examples of detection of majority and minority carrier traps from gold donor and acceptor centers in silicon using the capacitance transient spectrometer are given to illustrate the method and its sensitivity.

  19. Low Amount of Salinomycin Greatly Increases Akt Activation, but Reduces Activated p70S6K Levels

    Sungpil Yoon

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study identified a novel salinomycin (Sal-sensitization mechanism in cancer cells. We analyzed the signal proteins Akt, Jnk, p38, Jak, and Erk1/2 in cancer cell lines that had arrested growth following low amounts of Sal treatment. We also tested the signal molecules PI3K, PDK1, GSK3β, p70S6K, mTOR, and PTEN to analyze the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. The results showed that Sal sensitization positively correlates with large reductions in p70S6K activation. Interestingly, Akt was the only signal protein to be significantly activated by Sal treatment. The Akt activation appeared to require the PI3K pathway as its activation was abolished by the PI3K inhibitors LY294002 and wortmannin. The Akt activation by Sal was conserved in the other cell lines analyzed, which originated from other organs. Both Akt activation and C-PARP production were proportionally increased with increased doses of Sal. In addition, the increased levels of pAkt were not reduced over the time course of the experiment. Co-treatment with Akt inhibitors sensitized the Sal-treated cancer cells. The results thereby suggest that Akt activation is increased in cells that survive Sal treatment and resist the cytotoxic effect of Sal. Taken together; these results indicate that Akt activation may promote the resistance of cancer cells to Sal.

  20. Decreased plasma levels of soluble CD18 link leukocyte infiltration with disease activity in spondyloarthritis

    Kragstrup, Tue Wenzel; Jalilian, Babak; Hvid, Malene;

    2014-01-01

    A patients compared with healthy volunteers (P < 0.001) with the lowest levels in the HLA-B27-positive subgroup (P < 0.05). In a multiple regression model the sCD18 levels exhibited an inverse correlation with the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI) (P < 0.05), the level of morning......INTRODUCTION: Spondyloarthritis (SpA) comprises a group of diseases often associated with HLA-B27 and characterized by inflammation of the entheses and joints of the axial skeleton. The inflammatory process in SpA is presumably driven by innate immune cells but still poorly understood. Thus, new...... of arthritis patients to have anti-inflammatory functions. Here, we study the mechanisms for these alterations and their association with SpA disease activity. METHODS: Plasma levels of sCD18 in a study population with 84 SpA patients and matched healthy controls were analyzed with a time resolved...

  1. Trainability of muscular activity level during maximal voluntary co-contraction: comparison between bodybuilders and nonathletes.

    Sumiaki Maeo

    Full Text Available Antagonistic muscle pairs cannot be fully activated simultaneously, even with maximal effort, under conditions of voluntary co-contraction, and their muscular activity levels are always below those during agonist contraction with maximal voluntary effort (MVE. Whether the muscular activity level during the task has trainability remains unclear. The present study examined this issue by comparing the muscular activity level during maximal voluntary co-contraction for highly experienced bodybuilders, who frequently perform voluntary co-contraction in their training programs, with that for untrained individuals (nonathletes. The electromyograms (EMGs of biceps brachii and triceps brachii muscles during maximal voluntary co-contraction of elbow flexors and extensors were recorded in 11 male bodybuilders and 10 nonathletes, and normalized to the values obtained during the MVE of agonist contraction for each of the corresponding muscles (% EMGMVE. The involuntary coactivation level in antagonist muscle during the MVE of agonist contraction was also calculated. In both muscles, % EMGMVE values during the co-contraction task for bodybuilders were significantly higher (P<0.01 than those for nonathletes (biceps brachii: 66±14% in bodybuilders vs. 46±13% in nonathletes, triceps brachii: 74±16% vs. 57±9%. There was a significant positive correlation between a length of bodybuilding experience and muscular activity level during the co-contraction task (r = 0.653, P = 0.03. Involuntary antagonist coactivation level during MVE of agonist contraction was not different between the two groups. The current result indicates that long-term participation in voluntary co-contraction training progressively enhances muscular activity during maximal voluntary co-contraction.

  2. Trainability of muscular activity level during maximal voluntary co-contraction: comparison between bodybuilders and nonathletes.

    Maeo, Sumiaki; Takahashi, Takumi; Takai, Yohei; Kanehisa, Hiroaki

    2013-01-01

    Antagonistic muscle pairs cannot be fully activated simultaneously, even with maximal effort, under conditions of voluntary co-contraction, and their muscular activity levels are always below those during agonist contraction with maximal voluntary effort (MVE). Whether the muscular activity level during the task has trainability remains unclear. The present study examined this issue by comparing the muscular activity level during maximal voluntary co-contraction for highly experienced bodybuilders, who frequently perform voluntary co-contraction in their training programs, with that for untrained individuals (nonathletes). The electromyograms (EMGs) of biceps brachii and triceps brachii muscles during maximal voluntary co-contraction of elbow flexors and extensors were recorded in 11 male bodybuilders and 10 nonathletes, and normalized to the values obtained during the MVE of agonist contraction for each of the corresponding muscles (% EMGMVE). The involuntary coactivation level in antagonist muscle during the MVE of agonist contraction was also calculated. In both muscles, % EMGMVE values during the co-contraction task for bodybuilders were significantly higher (Pbodybuilders vs. 46±13% in nonathletes, triceps brachii: 74±16% vs. 57±9%). There was a significant positive correlation between a length of bodybuilding experience and muscular activity level during the co-contraction task (r = 0.653, P = 0.03). Involuntary antagonist coactivation level during MVE of agonist contraction was not different between the two groups. The current result indicates that long-term participation in voluntary co-contraction training progressively enhances muscular activity during maximal voluntary co-contraction. PMID:24260233

  3. Cytotoxic activities of amentoflavone against human breast and cervical cancers are mediated by increasing of PTEN expression levels due to peroxisomes proliferate-activated receptor {gamma} activation

    Lee, Eunjung; Shin, Soyoung; Lee, Jeeyoung; Lee, So Jung; Kim, Jinkyoung; Yoon, Doyoung; Kim, Yangmee [Konkuk Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Eunrhan [Chosun Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-15

    Human peroxisomes proliferate-activated receptor gamma (hPPAR{gamma}) has been implicated in numerous pathologies, including obesity, diabetes, and cancer. Previously, we verified that amentoflavone is an activator of hPPAR{gamma} and probed the molecular basis of its action. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of action of amentoflavone in cancer cells and demonstrated that amentoflavone showed strong cytotoxicity against MCF-7 and HeLa cancer cell lines. We showed that hPPAR{gamma} expression in MCF-7 and HeLa cells is specifically stimulated by amentoflavone, and suggested that amentoflavone-induced cytotoxic activities are mediated by activation of hPPAR{gamma} in these two cancer cell lines. Moreover, amentoflavone increased PTEN levels in these two cancer cell lines, indicating that the cytotoxic activities of amentoflavone are mediated by increasing of PTEN expression levels due to hPPAR{gamma} activation.

  4. Cytotoxic activities of amentoflavone against human breast and cervical cancers are mediated by increasing of PTEN expression levels due to peroxisomes proliferate-activated receptor γ activation

    Human peroxisomes proliferate-activated receptor gamma (hPPARγ) has been implicated in numerous pathologies, including obesity, diabetes, and cancer. Previously, we verified that amentoflavone is an activator of hPPARγ and probed the molecular basis of its action. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of action of amentoflavone in cancer cells and demonstrated that amentoflavone showed strong cytotoxicity against MCF-7 and HeLa cancer cell lines. We showed that hPPARγ expression in MCF-7 and HeLa cells is specifically stimulated by amentoflavone, and suggested that amentoflavone-induced cytotoxic activities are mediated by activation of hPPARγ in these two cancer cell lines. Moreover, amentoflavone increased PTEN levels in these two cancer cell lines, indicating that the cytotoxic activities of amentoflavone are mediated by increasing of PTEN expression levels due to hPPARγ activation

  5. Level and intensity of objectively assessed physical activity among pregnant women from urban Ethiopia

    Hjorth Mads F

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women in low-income countries are generally considered to have a high physical workload which is sustained during pregnancy. Although most previous studies have been based on questionnaires a recent meta-analysis of doubly labeled water data has raised questions about the actual amount of physical activity performed. In this study we report objectively assessed levels of physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular fitness among pregnant urban Ethiopian women, and their association with demographic characteristics and anthropometric measures. Methods Physical activity was measured for seven consecutive days in 304 women using a combined uniaxial accelerometer and heart rate sensor. Activity energy expenditure was determined using a group calibration in a branched equation model framework. Type and duration of activities were reported using a 24-hour physical activity recall and grip strength was assessed using a dynamometer. Results Median (interquartile-range, IQR activity energy expenditure was 31.1 (23.7-42.0 kJ/kg/day corresponding to a median (IQR physical activity level of 1.46 (1.39-1.58. Median (IQR time in sedentary, light, and moderate-to-vigorous intensity was 1100 (999–1175, 303 (223–374 and 40 (22–69 min/day, respectively. Mean (standard deviation sleeping heart rate was 73.6 (8.0 beats/min and grip strength was 21.6 (4.5 kg. Activity energy expenditure was 14% higher for every 10 cm2 difference in arm muscle area and 10% lower for every 10 cm2 difference in arm fat area and 10-week difference in gestational age. Conclusion The level and intensity of physical activity among pregnant women from urban Ethiopia is low compared to non-pregnant women from other low income countries as well as pregnant European women from high-income countries.

  6. First results on enzymatic activities in two salt marsh soils under different hydromorphic level and vegetation

    Carmen Trasar-Cepeda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Salt-marsh soils are soils characterized by non-permanent hydric saturation that, depending on factors like duration of submersion periods, are dominated by different salt-tolerant plant species. The composition of microbial communities is an essential component in trophic dynamics and biogeochemical processes in salt marshes, and determines the level of enzymatic activities, which catalyze the conversion of complex molecules into simpler ones. Despite of this, the enzymatic activities in marsh-soils has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to analyze the enzymatic activities in two soil profiles of marsh-soils under different water saturation level and dominated by different plant species [Juncus maritimus Lam and Spartina maritima (Curtis Fernald (Sp]. In both soils, the enzymatic activities were much lower than the levels typically found in terrestrial ecosystems. The enzymatic activities were measured both in air-dried and in re-moistened and incubated soil samples. In air-dried samples, the enzymatic activities were higher in Juncus than in Spartina soil and tended to decrease with depth, being sharper the decrease in Juncus than in Spartina soil. Re-moistened and pre-incubated soils showed a general increase in all the enzymatic activities and throughout the whole soil profile, especially in Spartina soils. Hydrolase activities showed a strong and positive relationship with organic matter content both in air-dried and in re-moistened soil samples, higher in these latter. In general, oxidoreductase activities only showed this relationship in re-moistened soil samples. More studies, preferably using freshly collected soil samples, are needed to understand the relationship between enzymatic activities and these environmental conditions.

  7. Recruitment of rat diaphragm motor units across motor behaviors with different levels of diaphragm activation

    Seven, Yasin B.; Mantilla, Carlos B.; Sieck, Gary C.

    2014-01-01

    Phrenic motor neurons are recruited across a range of motor behaviors to generate varying levels of diaphragm muscle (DIAm) force. We hypothesized that DIAm motor units are recruited in a fixed order across a range of motor behaviors of varying force levels, consistent with the Henneman Size Principle. Single motor unit action potentials and compound DIAm EMG activities were recorded in anesthetized, neurally intact rats across different motor behaviors, i.e., eupnea, hypoxia-hypercapnia (10%...

  8. Serum fucosyl transferase activity and serum fucose levels as diagnostic tools in malignancy.

    Sen,Umi; Guha,Subhas; Chowdhury, J Roy

    1983-01-01

    Glycoproteins play a significant role in neoplastic transformations. Both the levels of fucose and the activity of fucosyl transferase, which mediates the assembly of the oligosaccharide moieties of the glycoprotein chains, have been found to be elevated in neoplastic conditions. Since these elevations are common features of a variety of neoplastic cells, these two have been designated as non-specific markers of malignancy. In the present study, the fucose level and fucosyl transferase activi...

  9. In vitro antibacterial activity of seven Indian spices against high level gentamicin resistant strains of enterococci

    Revati, Sharma; Bipin, Chapagain; Chitra, Pai (Bhat); Minakshi, Bhattacharjee

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to explore the in vitro antibacterial activity of seven ethanolic extracts of spices against high level gentamicin resistant (HLGR) enterococci isolated from human clinical samples. Material and methods Two hundred and fifteen enterococcal strains were isolated from clinical samples. High level gentamicin resistance in ethanolic extracts of cumin (Cuminum cyminum), cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum), ginger (Zingiber officinale), fenugreek (Trigonella foenu...

  10. Activity of Follicular Fluid Phosphatases and Their Correlation with Levels of Serum Esteroidal Hormones and Gonadotropins

    Sh Byranvand

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between serum levels of ovarian and gonadotropin hormones, age and number of follicles with follicular alkaline and acid phosphatase activity in infertile women under controlled ovarian hyperstimulation. Methods: After collection of follicular fluid and calculation of the number of follicles, the specific activity of alkaline (ALP and acid phosphatase (ACP was determined according to the total protein in 19 women at the time of puncture. Also at that time, the levels of progesterone, estradiol, and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and leuteinizing hormone (LH of their sera were measured. The correlation of follicular ALP and ACP with each serum hormone levels, women age and number of follicles was calculated using non-parametric analysis. Results: The ALP has a correlation with progesterone (P=0.01 levels but doesn’t have any correlation with the other factors. However, the ACP activity has a correlation not only with follicular number but also with estradiol and progesterone levels (P=0.05. Conclusion: Thus ACP activity is more affected by ovarian hormone than ALP and it can affect the ovarian microenvironment and oocyte development.

  11. The gut microbiome and degradation enzyme activity of wild freshwater fishes influenced by their trophic levels

    Liu, Han; Guo, Xianwu; Gooneratne, Ravi; Lai, Ruifang; Zeng, Cong; Zhan, Fanbin; Wang, Weimin

    2016-01-01

    Vertebrate gut microbiome often underpins the metabolic capability and provides many beneficial effects on their hosts. However, little was known about how host trophic level influences fish gut microbiota and metabolic activity. In this study, more than 985,000 quality-filtered sequences from 24 16S rRNA libraries were obtained and the results revealed distinct compositions and diversities of gut microbiota in four trophic categories. PCoA test showed that gut bacterial communities of carnivorous and herbivorous fishes formed distinctly different clusters in PCoA space. Although fish in different trophic levels shared a large size of OTUs comprising a core microbiota community, at the genus level a strong distinction existed. Cellulose-degrading bacteria Clostridium, Citrobacter and Leptotrichia were dominant in the herbivorous, while Cetobacterium and protease-producing bacteria Halomonas were dominant in the carnivorous. PICRUSt predictions of metagenome function revealed that fishes in different trophic levels affected the metabolic capacity of their gut microbiota. Moreover, cellulase and amylase activities in herbivorous fishes were significantly higher than in the carnivorous, while trypsin activity in the carnivorous was much higher than in the herbivorous. These results indicated that host trophic level influenced the structure and composition of gut microbiota, metabolic capacity and gut content enzyme activity. PMID:27072196

  12. The gut microbiome and degradation enzyme activity of wild freshwater fishes influenced by their trophic levels.

    Liu, Han; Guo, Xianwu; Gooneratne, Ravi; Lai, Ruifang; Zeng, Cong; Zhan, Fanbin; Wang, Weimin

    2016-01-01

    Vertebrate gut microbiome often underpins the metabolic capability and provides many beneficial effects on their hosts. However, little was known about how host trophic level influences fish gut microbiota and metabolic activity. In this study, more than 985,000 quality-filtered sequences from 24 16S rRNA libraries were obtained and the results revealed distinct compositions and diversities of gut microbiota in four trophic categories. PCoA test showed that gut bacterial communities of carnivorous and herbivorous fishes formed distinctly different clusters in PCoA space. Although fish in different trophic levels shared a large size of OTUs comprising a core microbiota community, at the genus level a strong distinction existed. Cellulose-degrading bacteria Clostridium, Citrobacter and Leptotrichia were dominant in the herbivorous, while Cetobacterium and protease-producing bacteria Halomonas were dominant in the carnivorous. PICRUSt predictions of metagenome function revealed that fishes in different trophic levels affected the metabolic capacity of their gut microbiota. Moreover, cellulase and amylase activities in herbivorous fishes were significantly higher than in the carnivorous, while trypsin activity in the carnivorous was much higher than in the herbivorous. These results indicated that host trophic level influenced the structure and composition of gut microbiota, metabolic capacity and gut content enzyme activity. PMID:27072196

  13. Adult total wellness: group differences based on sitting time and physical activity level

    Barwais, Faisal A; Cuddihy, Thomas F.; Tomson, L Michaud

    2014-01-01

    Background An increasing body of evidence associates a high level of sitting time with poor health outcomes. The benefits of moderate to vigorous-intensity physical activities to various aspects of health are now well documented; however, individuals may engage in moderate-intensity physical activity for at least 30 minutes on five or more days of the week and still exhibit a high level of sitting time. This purpose of this study was to examine differences in total wellness among adults relat...

  14. Low oil prices, prospective activity levels in the UKCS and the effects of cost savings

    The document from the Economics Department of Aberdeen University forms part of a series examining the economics of North Sea oil and gas production on the United Kingdom Continental Shelf (UKCS). UKCS activity levels are shown to be affected by recent falls in world oil prices. Prospects for oil production in OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) and other countries, which have a dominant influence on oil price behaviour worldwide, are studied, as are the consequences for UKCS activity levels of recently achieved cost savings. The study also examines the implications of such cost savings for Government tax revenues and industry cash flow. (U.K.)

  15. Comparison of doubly labeled water with respirometry at low- and high-activity levels

    In previous studies the doubly labeled water method for measuring energy expenditure in free-living humans has been validated against respirometry under sedentary conditions. In the present investigation, energy expenditure is measured simultaneously with doubly labeled water and respirometry at low- and high-activity levels. Over 6 days, five subjects were measured doing mainly sedentary activities like desk work; their average daily metabolic rate was 1.40 +/- 0.09 (SD) times sleeping metabolic rate. Four subjects were measured twice over 3.5 days, including 2 days with heavy bicycle ergometer work, resulting in an average daily metabolic rate of 2.61 +/- 0.25 (SD) times sleeping metabolic rate. At the low-activity level, energy expenditures from the doubly labeled water method were on the average 1.4 +/- 3.9% (SD) larger than those from respirometry. At the high-activity level, the doubly labeled water method yielded values that were 1.0 +/- 7.0% (SD) lower than those from respirometry. Results demonstrate the utility of the doubly labeled water method for the determination of energy expenditure in the range of activity levels in daily life

  16. Digestive enzyme activity and mRNA level of trypsin in embryonic redclaw crayfish, Cherax quadricarnatus

    LUO Wen; ZHAO Yunlong; ZHOU Zhongliang; AN Chuanguang; MA Qiang

    2008-01-01

    The digestive enzyme activity and mRNA level of trypsin during the embryonic development of Cherax quadricarinatus were analyzed using biochemical and Fluorogenic Quantitative PCR (FQ-PCR) methods.The results show that the activities of trypsin and chymotrypsin had two different change patterns.Trypsin specific activity increased rapidly in the early stages of development and still remained high in preparation for the hatch stage.However,chymotrypsin activity peaked in stage 4 of embryonic development and decreased significantly in the last stage.The mRNA level of trypsin was elevated in all stages and two peak values were observed in stages 2 and 5 respectively.The results indicate that trypsin is very important for the utilization of the yolk during embryonic development and for the assimilation of dietary protein for larvae.The gene of trypsin is probably regulated at transcriptional level.The mRNA levels of trypsin can reflect not only trypsin activity,but also the regulatory mechanism for expression of trypsin gene to a certain degree.

  17. Activation of coagulation system and d-dimer levels in children with acute leukemia

    Harun Wijaya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background D-dimer is a molecule as result of breaking down of excessive fibrin formation from the activation of coagulation system. There is evidence of increased activation of coagulation in patients with acute leukemia which was showed by the increment of d-dimer levels. Objective To evaluate the incidence of activation of coagulation system in children with acute leukemia before receiving chemotherapy. Method This cross-sectional study was performed at Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital. All newly-diagnosed children with acute leukemia were included in this study, prior to their receiving any chemotherapy treatment. Blast count, prothrombin time (PTT, activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT, and D-dimer levels were examined after the diagnosis was confirmed by morphology and immunophenotyping studies on bone marrow specimens. Results Out of 22 subjects, 13 subjects had increased D-dimer values. The median D-dimer level of this elevated group was 1,000 (range 500-14,700 ng/mL. In the acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML patients, activation of coagulation was found in 7 out of 8 subjects. The median D-dimer levels was 950 (range 100-14,700 ng/mL. In the acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL patients, 6 out of 14 subjects had increased activation of coagulation with median D-dimer level of 300 (range 100-3,800 ng/mL. Nine out of 10 subjects with blast cells on peripheral blood smear had a median D-dimer level of 1,000 (range 500-3,800 ng/mL. Both PT and APTT were found normal in all subjects. Conclusion Activation of coagulation system occurs at the time of diagnosis as shown by increased D-dimer levels. The characteristics of activation of coagulation system are different between ALL and AML subjects, as well as between subjects with positive and negative blast counts on peripheral blood smears. Despite the increased activation of coagulation, PT and APTT remain normal. [Paediatr Indones. 2014;54:227-31.].

  18. Patent rights and innovative activity: evidence from national and firm-level data

    Brent B Allred; Walter G Park

    2007-01-01

    Global standards of patent protection have been strengthened and harmonized in recent years. Despite the heated policy debates and theoretical controversies, empirical studies of the consequences for innovative activity are scant. This paper contributes to the debate by providing an empirical analysis of the effects of patent strength on different aspects of innovative activity, namely firm-level research and development (R&D), domestic patenting, and foreign patenting. The analysis employs a...

  19. Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand and osteoprotegerin levels in gingival crevicular fluid

    Fatemeh Sarlati; Mandana Sattari; Shilan Razzaghi; Malihe Nasiri

    2012-01-01

    Background: Osteoclastogenesis is coordinated by the interaction of three members of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily: Osteoprotegerin (OPG)/receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL)/receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B (RANK). The aim of this study was to investigate RANKL and OPG levels, and their relative ratio in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of patients with chronic and aggressive periodontitis, as well as healthy controls. Materials and Methods:...

  20. Irisin Levels are Not Affected by Physical Activity in Patients with Anorexia Nervosa

    Tobias eHofmann; Ulf eElbelt; Anne eAhnis; Peter eKobelt; Matthias eRose; Andreas eStengel

    2014-01-01

    Irisin was recently identified as muscle-derived hormone that increases energy expenditure. Studies in normal weight and obese subjects reported an increased irisin expression following physical activity, although inconsistent results were observed. Increased physical activity in a subgroup of patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) complicates the course of the disease. Since irisin could account for differences in clinical outcomes, we investigated irisin levels in anorexic patients with high a...

  1. Disjoint Region Partitioning for Probabilistic Switching Activity Estimation at Register Transfer Level

    Machado Sánchez, Felipe; Riesgo Alcaide, Teresa; Torroja Fungairiño, Yago

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a partition method for probabilistic switching activity estimation of combinational circuits described at register transfer level (RTL). Probabilistic estimation of switching activity requires large and complex models that could be unfeasible for large circuits; therefore, circuit partitioning becomes a necessary step to address the analysis. Nevertheless, partition methods imply approximations that produce inaccurate results. We present a partition method based on disjoin...

  2. High school students’ situational interest and physical activity levels in exergaming

    Roure, Cedric; Pasco, Denis; Pope, Zachary; Gao, Zan

    2015-01-01

    The benefits and challenges of integrating exergames in schools to promote young children's physical activity and interest have been evident. Yet, such investigations remain unexplored among older adolescents. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between high schools students' situational interest and physical activity levels during exergame play, as well as investigate the gender and grade differences on the study variables. A total of 60 (32 girls; M = 16.17 year...

  3. First results on enzymatic activities in two salt marsh soils under different hydromorphic level and vegetation

    Carmen Trasar-Cepeda; Diana Bello; Chiara Ferronato; Livia Vittori Antisari

    2015-01-01

    Salt-marsh soils are soils characterized by non-permanent hydric saturation that, depending on factors like duration of submersion periods, are dominated by different salt-tolerant plant species. The composition of microbial communities is an essential component in trophic dynamics and biogeochemical processes in salt marshes, and determines the level of enzymatic activities, which catalyze the conversion of complex molecules into simpler ones. Despite of this, the enzymatic activities in mar...

  4. Relationship between self-reported dietary intake and physical activity levels among adolescents: The HELENA study

    Le Donne Cinzia; Kafatos Anthony; Hagströmer Maria; Gottrand Frederic; De Bourdeaudhuij Ilse; Cuenca-Garcia Magdalena; Béghin Laurent; Huybrechts Inge; Ottevaere Charlene; Moreno Luis A; Sjöström Michael; Widhalm Kurt; De Henauw Stefaan

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Evidence suggests possible synergetic effects of multiple lifestyle behaviors on health risks like obesity and other health outcomes. Therefore it is important to investigate associations between dietary and physical activity behavior, the two most important lifestyle behaviors influencing our energy balance and body composition. The objective of the present study is to describe the relationship between energy, nutrient and food intake and the physical activity level among...

  5. Relationship between self-reported dietary intake and physical activity levels among adolescents: the HELENA study

    Ottevaere, C.; Nova, Esther; Gómez Martínez, Sonia; L. E. Díaz; Romeo, J.; Veses, Ana M; Zapatera, Belén; Pozo Rubio, Tamara; Martínez, D.; Marcos, Ascensión

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests possible synergetic effects of multiple lifestyle behaviors on health risks like obesity and other health outcomes. Therefore it is important to investigate associations between dietary and physical activity behavior, the two most important lifestyle behaviors influencing our energy balance and body composition. The objective of the present study is to describe the relationship between energy, nutrient and food intake and the physical activity level among a large...

  6. Level and intensity of objectively assessed physical activity among pregnant women from urban Ethiopia

    Hjorth Mads F; Kloster Stine; Girma Tsinuel; Faurholt-Jepsen Daniel; Andersen Gregers; Kæstel Pernille; Brage Søren; Friis Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Women in low-income countries are generally considered to have a high physical workload which is sustained during pregnancy. Although most previous studies have been based on questionnaires a recent meta-analysis of doubly labeled water data has raised questions about the actual amount of physical activity performed. In this study we report objectively assessed levels of physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular fitness among pregnant urban Ethiopian women,...

  7. Chronic hyperammonemia alters the circadian rhythms of corticosteroid hormone levels and of motor activity in rats.

    Ahabrach, Hanan; Piedrafita, Blanca; Ayad, Abdelmalik; El Mlili, Nisrin; Errami, Mohammed; Felipo, Vicente; Llansola, Marta

    2010-05-15

    Patients with liver cirrhosis may present hepatic encephalopathy with a wide range of neurological disturbances and alterations in sleep quality and in the sleep-wake circadian rhythm. Hyperammonemia is a main contributor to the neurological alterations in hepatic encephalopathy. We have assessed, in an animal model of chronic hyperammonemia without liver failure, the effects of hyperammonemia per se on the circadian rhythms of motor activity, temperature, and plasma levels of adrenal corticosteroid hormones. Chronic hyperammonemia alters the circadian rhythms of locomotor activity and of cortisol and corticosterone levels in blood. Different types of motor activity are affected differentially. Hyperammonemia significantly alters the rhythm of spontaneous ambulatory activity, reducing strongly ambulatory counts and slightly average velocity during the night (the active phase) but not during the day, resulting in altered circadian rhythms. In contrast, hyperammonemia did not affect wheel running at all, indicating that it affects spontaneous but not voluntary activity. Vertical activity was affected only very slightly, indicating that hyperammonemia does not induce anxiety. Hyperammonemia abolished completely the circadian rhythm of corticosteroid hormones in plasma, completely eliminating the peaks of cortisol and corticosterone present in control rats at the start of the dark period. The data reported show that chronic hyperammonemia, similar to that present in patients with liver cirrhosis, alters the circadian rhythms of corticosteroid hormones and of motor activity. This suggests that hyperammonemia would be a relevant contributor to the alterations in corticosteroid hormones and in circadian rhythms in patients with liver cirrhosis. PMID:19998493

  8. Potential low-level waste disposal limits for activation products from fusion

    Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) scientists are involved in studies considering alternative construction materials for the first wall of commercial fusion reactors. To permit a comparison of radioactivity levels, both the level of activation and an acceptable limit for the radionuclides present must be known. Generic material composition guidelines can be developed using the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations governing the near-surface disposal of low-level radioactive wastes. These regulations consider wastes defined as containing source, special nuclear, or by-product materials arising from research, industrial, medical, and nuclear fuel-cycle activities. However, not all of the activation products produced in low-level wastes from fusion reactors are considered by the NRC in their regulations. The purpose of this report is to present potential low-level waste-disposal limits for ten radionuclides resulting from fusion reactor operations that are not considered in the NRC low-level waste regulations. These potential limits will be used by HEDL scientists to complete their generic material composition guidelines for the first wall of commercial fusion reactors

  9. Is the activity level of HD 80606 influenced by its eccentric planet?

    Figueira, P; da Silva, J Gomes; Abe, L; Adibekyan, V Zh; Bendjoya, P; Correia, A C M; Delgado-Mena, E; Faria, J P; Hebrard, G; Lovis, C; Oshagh, M; Rivet, J -P; Santos, N C; Suarez, O; Vidotto, A A

    2016-01-01

    Aims: Several studies suggest that the activity level of a planet-host star can be influenced by the presence of a close-by orbiting planet. Moreover, the interaction mechanisms that have been proposed, magnetic interaction and tidal interaction, exhibit a very different dependence on orbital separation between the star and the planet. A detection of activity enhancement and characterization of its dependence on planetary orbital distance can, in principle, allow us to characterize the physical mechanism behind the activity enhancement. Methods: We used the HARPS-N spectrograph to measure the stellar activity level of HD 80606 during the planetary periastron passage and compared the activity measured to that close to apastron. Being characterized by an eccentricity of 0.93 and an orbital period of 111 days, the system's extreme variation in orbital separation makes it a perfect target to test our hypothesis. Results: We find no evidence for a variation in the activity level of the star as a function of planet...

  10. Social, environmental and psychological factors associated with objective physical activity levels in the over 65s.

    Marion E T McMurdo

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess physical activity levels objectively using accelerometers in community dwelling over 65 s and to examine associations with health, social, environmental and psychological factors. DESIGN: Cross sectional survey. SETTING: 17 general practices in Scotland, United Kingdom. PARTICIPANTS: Random sampling of over 65 s registered with the practices in four strata young-old (65-80 years, old-old (over 80 years, more affluent and less affluent groups. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Accelerometry counts of activity per day. Associations between activity and Theory of Planned Behaviour variables, the physical environment, health, wellbeing and demographic variables were examined with multiple regression analysis and multilevel modelling. RESULTS: 547 older people (mean (SD age 79(8 years, 54% female were analysed representing 94% of those surveyed. Accelerometry counts were highest in the affluent younger group, followed by the deprived younger group, with lowest levels in the deprived over 80 s group. Multiple regression analysis showed that lower age, higher perceived behavioural control, the physical function subscale of SF-36, and having someone nearby to turn to were all independently associated with higher physical activity levels (R(2 = 0.32. In addition, hours of sunshine were independently significantly associated with greater physical activity in a multilevel model. CONCLUSIONS: Other than age and hours of sunlight, the variables identified are modifiable, and provide a strong basis for the future development of novel multidimensional interventions aimed at increasing activity participation in later life.

  11. Investigation of the Relationship between Physical Activity Level and Healthy Life-Style Behaviors of Academic Staff

    Turkmen, Mutlu; Ozkan, Ali; Kul, Murat; Bozkus, Taner

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship of physical activity (PA) level and healthy life-style behaviors in academic staff in Bartin University, Turkey. The short form of International Physical Activity Questionnaire was administered for the determination of physical activity level of academic staff. Their PA levels were…

  12. Effectiveness of sensory processing strategies on activity level in inclusive preschool classrooms

    Lin CL

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Chien-Lin Lin,1,2 Yu-Fan Min,3 Li-Wei Chou,1,2,* Chin-Kai Lin,4,* 1Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan; 2School of Chinese Medicine, College of Chinese Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan; 3Faith, Hope and Love, Center for Children and Adults With Disabilities, Taichung, Taiwan; 4Program of Early Intervention, Department of Early Childhood Education, National Taichung University of Education, Taichung, Taiwan*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of sensory processing strategies in improving the activity level of children with sensory integration dysfunction.Methods: The study used a matching-only pretest–posttest control group design, which requires random matching of sensory integration dysfunction to the corresponding intervention group (n = 18 and control group (n = 18. The intervention group comprised 3–6-year-old children who received an 8-week school-day intervention during implementation of the theme curriculum.Results: The 8-week treatment significantly reduced the activity level and foot-swinging episodes in children with sensory integration dysfunction, and obtained a medium-effect size. However, the level of improvement in the control group did not show any statistically significant change.Conclusion: Sensory processing strategies could improve activity levels in children with sensory integration dysfunction. However, this study was unable to exclude a developmental effect. The social validity results show that sensory processing strategies can be integrated into the theme curriculum and improve activity levels in children.Keywords: activity level, preschool inclusive classroom, sensory integration dysfunction, sensory processing strategy

  13. Caries-free subjects have high levels of urease and arginine deiminase activity

    Evelyn REYES

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study investigated the relationship between urease and arginine deiminase system (ADS activities and dental caries through a cross-sectional study. Material and Methods: Urease and ADS activities were measured in saliva and plaque samples from 10 caries-free subjects and 13 caries-active. Urease activity was obtained from the ammonia produced by incubation of plaque and saliva samples in urea. ADS activity was obtained from the ammonia generated by the arginine-HCl and Tris-maleate buffer. Specific activity was defined as micromoles of ammonia per minute per milligram of protein. Shapiro-Wilk statistical test was used to analyze the distribution of the data, and Mann-Whitney test was used to determine the significance of the data. Results: The specific urease activity in saliva and plaque was significantly higher in individuals with low DMFT scores. ADS activity in saliva (6.050 vs 1.350, p=0.0154 and plaque (8.830 vs 1.210, p=0.025 was also higher in individuals with low DMFT scores. Conclusions: Caries-free subjects had a higher ammonia generation activity by urease and arginine deiminase system for both saliva and plaque samples than low caries-active subjects. High levels of alkali production in oral environment were related to caries-free subjects.

  14. Phone in the Pocket: Pervasive Self-Tracking of Physical Activity Levels

    Wac, Katarzyna; Hausmann, Jody; Bonjour, Julien

    2012-01-01

    Mobile (smart)phones prevail in our daily life activities, and in our research we aim for it to provide pervasive services for wellness. Therefore, we assess the phone's feasibility to unobtrusively, continuously and in real-time track its user's physical activity and the resulting energy expenditure (EE). Activity Level Estimator (ALE) is an Android OS application developed for that purpose.We have assessed the accuracy of ALE against the BodyMedia SenseWear (SW) device and the gold standard...

  15. Self-reported activity level and knee function in amateur football players: the influence of age, gender, history of knee injury and level of competition.

    Frobell, Richard; Svensson, E.; Göthrick, M; Roos, Ewa

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate if self-reported activity level or knee functions are influenced by subject characteristics, level of competition and history of knee injury. Cross-Sectional study using questionnaires distributed at a personal visit. One hundred and eighty-eight (65 women) amateur football players in 10 football clubs from each division below national level participated in the study. Self-reported Tegner Activity Scale, and the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Sc...

  16. Persistent Organochlorine Pollutants with Endocrine Activity and Blood Steroid Hormone Levels in Middle- Aged Men

    Elise Emeville; Frank Giton; Arnaud Giusti; Alejandro Oliva; Jean Fiet; Jean-Pierre Thomé; Pascal Blanchet; Luc Multigner

    2013-01-01

    International audience BACKGROUND: Studies relating long-term exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) with endocrine activities (endocrine disrupting chemicals) on circulating levels of steroid hormones have been limited to a small number of hormones and reported conflicting results. OBJECTIVE: We examined the relationship between serum concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, androstenedione, androstenediol, testosterone, free and bioavail...

  17. Characteristics of monsoon low level jet (MLLJ) as an index of monsoon activity

    N V Sam; K P R Vittal Murty

    2002-12-01

    Temperature and wind data are used to describe variation in the strength of the Monsoon Low Level Jet (MLLJ) from an active phase of the monsoon to a break phase. Also estimated are the characteristics of turbulence above and below MLLJ.

  18. LEVEL OF PRESENCE IN TEAM-BUILDING ACTIVITIES: GAMING COMPONENT IN VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS

    Gianluca De Leo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Historically the training of teams has been implemented using a face-to-face approach. In the past decade, on-line multiuser virtual environments have offered a solution for training teams whose members are geographically dispersed. In order to develop on effective team training activity, a high sense of presence among the participant needs to be reached. Previous research studies reported being able to reach a high level of presence even when using inexpensive technology such as laptop and headset. This study evaluates the level of presence of ten subjects who have to perform a team-building activity in a multi-user virtual environment using a laptop computer and a headset. The authors are interested in determining which user characterizes, such as gender, age and knowledge of computers, have a strong correlation with the level of sense of presence. The results of this study showed that female participants were more likely to engage in the activity and perceived fewer negative effects. Participants who reported less negative effects such as feeling tired, dizzy, or experiencing eye strain during the team-building activity reached a higher level of sense of presence.

  19. Level of Presence in Team-Building Activities: Gaming Component in Virtual Environments

    Elena Radici

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Historically the training of teams has been implemented using a face-to-face approach. In the past decade, on-line multiuser virtual environments have offered a solution for training teams whose members are geographically dispersed. In order to develop on effective team training activity, a high sense ofpresence among the participant needs to be reached. Previous research studies reported being able to reach a high level of presence even when using inexpensive technology such as laptop and headset. Thisstudy evaluates the level of presence of ten subjects who have to perform a team-building activity in a multi-user virtual environment using a laptop computer and a headset. The authors are interested in determining which user characterizes, such as gender, age and knowledge of computers, have a strong correlation with the level of sense of presence. The results of this study showed that female participants were more likely to engage in the activity and perceived fewer negative effects. Participants who reported less negative effects such as feeling tired, dizzy, or experiencing eye strain during the team-building activity reached a higher level of sense of presence.

  20. The Influence of Activation Level on Belief Bias in Relational Reasoning

    Banks, Adrian P.

    2013-01-01

    A novel explanation of belief bias in relational reasoning is presented based on the role of working memory and retrieval in deductive reasoning, and the influence of prior knowledge on this process. It is proposed that belief bias is caused by the believability of a conclusion in working memory which influences its activation level, determining…

  1. The Relationship between Physical Activity Level and Healthy Life-Style Behaviors of Distance Education Students

    Özkan, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship between physical activity levels and healthy life-style behaviors in distance education students in Hoca Ahmet Yesevi University. In total, 526 distance education students in Hoca Ahmet Yesevi University participated in this study voluntarily. The short form of International Physical…

  2. Effects of Varying Team Sizes on Physical Activity Levels of College Students

    Gaudreault, Karen Lux; Cluphf, David; Russell, Jared; Lecheminant, James

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine physical activity levels among various team sizes for basketball and soccer in a C/UIPAP setting. Twenty-eight university physical education majors participated in the study. Participants engaged in three-on-three and five-on-five basketball and five-on-five and 11-on-11 soccer games. All games…

  3. Low and intermediate level radioactive waste. Waste characterization and activity measurements

    The report deals with waste categories in Finland and methods for determining or estimating the waste content. The study mainly focuses on long-lived low and intermediate level waste. Methods for the determination of activity content and chemical content are discussed. The report presents recommendations for the characterization of waste under treatment as well as recommendations for the characterization of waste packages

  4. Muscular activity level during pedalling is not affected by crank inertial load.

    Duc, S; Villerius, V; Bertucci, W; Pernin, J N; Grappe, F

    2005-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of gear ratio (GR) and thus crank inertial load (CIL), on the activity levels of lower limb muscles. Twelve competitive cyclists performed three randomised trials with their own bicycle equipped with a SRM crankset and mounted on an Axiom ergometer. The power output ( approximately 80% of maximal aerobic power) and the pedalling cadence were kept constant for each subject across all trials but three different GR (low, medium and high) were indirectly obtained for each trial by altering the electromagnetic brake of the ergometer. The low, medium and high GR (mean +/- SD) resulted in CIL of 44 +/- 3.7, 84 +/- 6.5 and 152 +/- 17.9 kg.m(2), respectively. Muscular activity levels of the gluteus maximus (GM), the vastus medialis (VM), the vastus lateralis (VL), the rectus femoris (RF), the medial hamstrings (MHAM), the gastrocnemius (GAS) and the soleus (SOL) muscles were quantified and analysed by mean root mean square (RMS(mean)). The muscular activity levels of the measured lower limb muscles were not significantly affected when the CIL was increased approximately four fold. This suggests that muscular activity levels measured on different cycling ergometers (with different GR and flywheel inertia) can be compared among each other, as they are not influenced by CIL. PMID:16032416

  5. Physical Activity Levels of Non-Overweight, Overweight, and Obese Children during Physical Education

    Pathare, Neeti; Piche, Kelly; Nicosia, Andrea; Haskvitz, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine physical activity (PA) levels of young children classified by body mass index (BMI) (non-overweight, overweight, and obese) during physical education classes. Method: Participants included 82 children (45 boys, 37 girls; 7.5 ± 1.2 years). PA was determined by the number of steps measured with…

  6. The "Saltin-Grimby Physical Activity Level Scale" and its application to health research

    Grimby, G; Börjesson, M; Jonsdottir, I H;

    2015-01-01

    The use of a four-level questionnaire to assess leisure time physical activity (PA) and its validation is reviewed in this paper. This questionnaire was first published in 1968 and has then been used by more than 600 000 subjects, especially in different population studies in the Nordic countries...

  7. MILLIMETER-WAVE MEASUREMENTS OF HIGH LEVEL AND LOW ACTIVITY GLASS MELTS

    The objectives of the proposed multi-organizational research are to develop new real-time sensors for characterizing glass melts in high level waste (HLW) and low activity waste (LAW) melters, and to understand the scientific basis and bridge the gap between glass melt model data...

  8. Physical Activity Levels in Coeducational and Single-Gender High School Physical Education Settings

    Hannon, James; Ratliffe, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of coeducational (coed) and single-gender game-play settings on the activity levels of Caucasian and African American high school physical education students. Students participated in flag football, ultimate Frisbee, and soccer units. Classes were as follows: there were two coed classes, two…

  9. Determining Intensity Levels of Selected Wii Fit Activities in College Aged Individuals

    Grieser, Joshua D.; Gao, Yong; Ransdell, Lynda; Simonson, Shawn

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the intensity of Nintendo Wii Fit games using indirect calorimetry. Twenty-five college students completed Wii Fit activity sessions at two difficulty levels within aerobics, strength, and yoga categories. Resting metabolic rate and exercise oxygen uptake were measured, and metabolic equivalents were…

  10. Measuring Students' Physical Activity Levels: Validating SOFIT for Use with High-School Students

    van der Mars, Hans; Rowe, Paul J.; Schuldheisz, Joel M.; Fox, Susan

    2004-01-01

    This study was conducted to validate the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT) for measuring physical activity levels of high-school students. Thirty-five students (21 girls and 14 boys from grades 9-12) completed a standardized protocol including lying, sitting, standing, walking, running, curl-ups, and push-ups. Heart rates and…

  11. Functional level, physical activity and wellbeing in nursing home residents in three Nordic countries

    Grönstedt, Helena; Hellström, Karin; Bergland, Astrid;

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to describe physical and cognitive function and wellbeing among nursing home residents in three Nordic countries. A second aim was to compare groups of differing ages, levels of dependency in daily life activities (ADL), degree of fall-related self-efficacy, wellbeing...

  12. Physical Activity Levels of Overweight and Nonoverweight High School Students during Physical Education Classes

    Hannon, James C.

    2008-01-01

    Background: This study examined physical activity (PA) levels of overweight and nonoverweight African American and Caucasian students (n = 198) during game play in physical education classes. Methods: Body fat percentages (%BFs) were determined using the skinfold technique and Slaughter et al prediction equations. Girls were classified as…

  13. Environmental noise levels affect the activity budget of the Florida manatee

    Miksis-Olds, Jennifer L.; Donaghay, Percy L.; Miller, James H.; Tyack, Peter L.

    2005-09-01

    Manatees inhabit coastal bays, lagoons, and estuaries because they are dependent on the aquatic vegetation that grows in shallow waters. Food requirements force manatees to occupy the same areas in which human activities are the greatest. Noise produced from human activities has the potential to affect these animals by eliciting responses ranging from mild behavioral changes to extreme aversion. This study quantifies the behavioral responses of manatees to both changing levels of ambient noise and transient noise sources. Results indicate that elevated environmental noise levels do affect the overall activity budget of this species. The proportion of time manatees spend feeding, milling, and traveling in critical habitats changed as a function of noise level. More time was spent in the directed, goal-oriented behaviors of feeding and traveling, while less time was spent milling when noise levels were highest. The animals also responded to the transient noise of approaching vessels with changes in behavioral state and movements out of the geographical area. This suggests that manatees detect and respond to changes in environmental noise levels. Whether these changes legally constitute harassment and produce biologically significant effects need to be addressed with hypothesis-driven experiments and long-term monitoring. [For Animal Bioacoustics Best Student Paper Award.

  14. Effect of low-level laser therapy on the modulation of the mitochondrial activity of macrophages

    Nadhia H. C. Souza

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Macrophages play a major role among the inflammatory cells that invade muscle tissue following an injury. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT has long been used in clinical practice to accelerate the muscle repair process. However, little is known regarding its effect on macrophages. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the effect of LLLT on the mitochondrial activity (MA of macrophages. METHOD: J774 macrophages were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS and interferon - gamma (IFN-γ (activation for 24 h to simulate an inflammatory process, then irradiated with LLLT using two sets of parameters (780 nm; 70 mW; 3 J/cm2 and 660 nm; 15 mW; 7.5 J/cm2. Non-activated/non-irradiated cells composed the control group. MA was evaluated by the cell mitochondrial activity (MTT assay (after 1, 3 and 5 days in three independent experiments. The data were analyzed statistically. RESULTS: After 1 day of culture, activated and 780 nm irradiated macrophages showed lower MA than activated macrophages, but activated and 660 nm irradiated macrophages showed MA similar to activated cells. After 3 days, activated and irradiated (660 nm and 780 nm macrophages showed greater MA than activated macrophages, and after 5 days, the activated and irradiated (660 nm and 780 nm macrophages showed similar MA to the activated macrophages. CONCLUSIONS: These results show that 660 nm and 780 nm LLLT can modulate the cellular activation status of macrophages in inflammation, highlighting the importance of this resource and of the correct determination of its parameters in the repair process of skeletal muscle.

  15. Dietary selenium increases the antioxidant levels and ATPase activity in the arteries and veins of poultry.

    Cao, Changyu; Zhao, Xia; Fan, Ruifeng; Zhao, Jinxin; Luan, Yilin; Zhang, Ziwei; Xu, Shiwen

    2016-07-01

    Selenium (Se) deficiency is associated with the pathogenesis of vascular diseases. It has been shown that oxidative levels and ATPase activity were involved in Se deficiency diseases in humans and mammals; however, the mechanism by how Se influences the oxidative levels and ATPase activity in the poultry vasculature is unclear. We assessed the effects of dietary Se deficiency on the oxidative stress parameters (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and hydroxyl radical) and ATPase (Na(+)K(+)-ATPase, Ca(++)-ATPase, Mg(++)-ATPase, and Ca(++)Mg(++)-ATPase) activity in broiler poultry. A total of 40 broilers (1-day old) were randomly divided into a Se-deficient group (L group, fed a Se-deficient diet containing 0.08 mg/kg Se) and a control group (C group, fed a diet containing sodium selenite at 0.20 mg/kg Se). Then, arteries and veins were collected following euthanasia when typical symptoms of Se deficiency appeared. Antioxidant indexes and ATPase activity were evaluated using standard assays in arteries and veins. The results indicated that superoxide dismutase activity in the artery according to dietary Se deficiency was significantly lower (p < 0.05) compared with the C group. The catalase activity in the veins and hydroxyl radical inhibition in the arteries and veins by dietary Se deficiency were significantly higher (p < 0.05) compared with the C group. The Se-deficient group showed a significantly lower (p < 0.05) tendency in Na(+)K(+)-ATPase activity, Ca(++)-ATPase activity, and Ca(++)Mg(++)-ATPase activity. There were strong correlations between antioxidant indexes and Ca(++)-ATPase activity. Thus, these results indicate that antioxidant indexes and ATPases may have special roles in broiler artery and vein injuries under Se deficiency. PMID:26637493

  16. Cooking techniques improve the levels of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity in kale and red cabbage.

    Murador, Daniella Carisa; Mercadante, Adriana Zerlotti; de Rosso, Veridiana Vera

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of different home cooking techniques (boiling, steaming, and stir-frying) in kale and red cabbage, on the levels of bioactive compounds (carotenoids, anthocyanins and phenolic compounds) determined by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array and mass spectrometry detectors (HPLC-DAD-MS(n)), and on the antioxidant activity evaluated by ABTS, ORAC and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assays. The steaming technique resulted in a significant increase in phenolic content in kale (86.1%; p<0.001) whereas in red cabbage it was significantly reduced (34.6%; p<0.001). In the kale, steaming resulted in significant increases in antioxidant activity levels in all of the evaluation methods. In the red cabbage, boiling resulted in a significant increase in antioxidant activity using the ABTS assay but resulted in a significant decrease using the ORAC assay. According to the CAA assay, the stir-fried sample displayed the highest levels of antioxidant activity. PMID:26593594

  17. Investigation of environmental activity levels of bone-coal mining area in five provinces

    During 1991-1993, the activity levels of the bone-coal mines were investigated in Zhejiang, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi and Anhui Province, respectively, where the reserve of bone-coal is about 90% of our country's total reserve. The average of γ radiation dose rate level measured for bone-coal, bone-coal cinder (BCC) and bone-coal cinder brick (BCCB) in these provinces is about 500 nGy/h, 400 nGy/h and 700 nGy/h respectively, while that for fields, roads and houses made of BCCB in corresponding regions of these provinces is about 200 nGy/h, 260 nGy/h and 300 nGy/h respectively. It is shown that the environmental activity level of bone-coal mining area is about 3 times higher than the reference spots. (authors)

  18. High Levels of Physical Activity in Anorexia Nervosa: A Systematic Review.

    Gümmer, Ricarda; Giel, Katrin Elisabeth; Schag, Kathrin; Resmark, Gaby; Junne, Florian Philipp; Becker, Sandra; Zipfel, Stephan; Teufel, Martin

    2015-09-01

    High level physical activity is a frequent symptom in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN), influencing the development, maintenance, complications, treatment success, relapse rate and severity of the disease. Accelerometry is assumed to be an objective method to assess physical activity (PA) in AN. We aimed to review objectively measured levels of PA in AN and to give an overview for clinical practice and future research. Data were searched in PubMed and PsychINFO until April 2015 following the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses statement. Twenty studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. A notable heterogeneity of measurements, outcomes, participants and settings was found. Overall, HLPA is not adressed enough by current evidence. A common valid terminology of HLPA is not available, and accurate criteria of different levels of PA must be defined to create comparability of future studies. Further objective PA assessments are needed to improve treatment outcome and relapse rate. PMID:26087044

  19. Influence of Different Genotypes on Trypsin Inhibitor Levels and Activity in Soybeans

    Viktor A. Nedovic

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the relationship between the two major trypsin inhibitors (TI in soybean, i.e., the Kunitz (KTI and Bowman-Birk (BBI trypsin inhibitors, as well as between them and the corresponding trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA. Twelve investigated soybean genotypes showed significant differences in TI levels and TIA. A very strong positive correlation was found between the levels of KTI and total BBI (r = 0.94, P < 0.05. No relationship was found between KTI, BBI or total TI and TIA. Based on this data, it appears that the levels of major TI in soybean are related. Understanding the relationship between trypsin inhibitors and their activities could be useful for further improvement of the health impacts of soy proteins.

  20. Systems Biology Graphical Notation: Activity Flow language Level 1 Version 1.2.

    Mi, Huaiyu; Schreiber, Falk; Moodie, Stuart; Czauderna, Tobias; Demir, Emek; Haw, Robin; Luna, Augustin; Le Novère, Nicolas; Sorokin, Anatoly; Villéger, Alice

    2015-01-01

    The Systems Biological Graphical Notation (SBGN) is an international community effort for standardized graphical representations of biological pathways and networks. The goal of SBGN is to provide unambiguous pathway and network maps for readers with different scientific backgrounds as well as to support efficient and accurate exchange of biological knowledge between different research communities, industry, and other players in systems biology. Three SBGN languages, Process Description (PD), Entity Relationship (ER) and Activity Flow (AF), allow for the representation of different aspects of biological and biochemical systems at different levels of detail. The SBGN Activity Flow language represents the influences of activities among various entities within a network. Unlike SBGN PD and ER that focus on the entities and their relationships with others, SBGN AF puts the emphasis on the functions (or activities) performed by the entities, and their effects to the functions of the same or other entities. The nodes (elements) describe the biological activities of the entities, such as protein kinase activity, binding activity or receptor activity, which can be easily mapped to Gene Ontology molecular function terms. The edges (connections) provide descriptions of relationships (or influences) between the activities, e.g., positive influence and negative influence. Among all three languages of SBGN, AF is the closest to signaling pathways in biological literature and textbooks, but its well-defined semantics offer a superior precision in expressing biological knowledge. PMID:26528563

  1. Influence of anthropogenic activities on microbial and nutrient levels along the Mara River tributaries, Kenya

    Douglas Nyambane Anyona

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: A number of factors have a negative impact on natural surface water resources across the world. Although sources of surface water pollution are numerous, anthropogenic activities have been singled out as among the most important and of great concern. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of anthropogenic activities on nutrients and microbial levels along the Amala and Nyangores tributaries of the Mara River in Kenya. Materials and Methods: Four sampling sites along each tributary were specifically selected from which water samples were collected and analyzed for nutrients by use of spectrophotometric techniques, and coliform bacterial presence by a multiple tube fermentation technique. Results: Higher levels of total phosphorus were recorded along the Nyangores than the Amala tributary (P= 0.02. Significant differences in phosphorus levels were recorded between different sites along the Nyangores tributary (P=<0.001 and also along the Amala tributary (P= 0.0036. However, total nitrogen levels varied only within sites along the Nyangores tributary (P<0.0001 but not along the Amala tributary. Similarly, Escherichia coli and total coliform levels varied significantly within Nyangores tributary sites. Sites with frequent and direct human and livestock contact had higher microbial and nutrient levels, indicative of a localized pollution effect. Conclusion: The findings imply that the health of local communities who depend on this water for domestic use might be compromised. As such, regular monitoring, strict enforcement of environmental protection laws, public education and proper sewage disposal is recommended.

  2. Elevated Platelet Activating Factor Level in Ischemia-Related Arrhythmia and Its Electrophysiological Effect on Myocardium

    TAO Yong Kang; ZHAO Shui Ping; YU Pu Lin; SHI Jing; GU Cheng Dong; SUN Hong Tao; ZHANG Guo Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Objective The mechanism through which platelet activating factor (PAF) induces cardiac electrical activity and arrhythmia is not well understood and previous studies have suggested a potential involvement of ion channels in its action. The present study was aimed to clarify the role of PAF in fatal arrhythmias following acute myocardia infarction (AMI) and the underlying mechanism. Methods (1) Blood PAF levels were measured among 72 AMI patients at the time of diagnosis with AMI and 48 h later, and their electrocardiogram (ECG) was recorded continuously. (2) Ischemia simulation and surface electrocardiogram were conducted in 20 pigs and their PAF levels were measured. (3) PAF perfusion and standard microelectrode recording were performed on guinea pig papillary muscles. Results In both humans and pigs, elevated PAF levels were detected in AMI and simulated ischemia, respectively, and even higher PAF levels were found when fatal arrhythmias occurred. In guinea pig myocardium, PAF induced a shortening of action potential duration at 90% level of repolarization (APD90)under non-ischemic conditions and a more pronounced shortening under early simulated ischemic conditions. Conclusion AMI and ischemia are associated with increased PAF levels in humans and pigs, which are further raised when fatal arrhythmia follows. The effects of PAF on the myocardium may be mediated by multiple ion channels.

  3. Circulating ADAM17 Level Reflects Disease Activity in Proteinase-3 ANCA-Associated Vasculitis.

    Bertram, Anna; Lovric, Svjetlana; Engel, Alissa; Beese, Michaela; Wyss, Kristin; Hertel, Barbara; Park, Joon-Keun; Becker, Jan U; Kegel, Johanna; Haller, Hermann; Haubitz, Marion; Kirsch, Torsten

    2015-11-01

    ANCA-associated vasculitides are characterized by inflammatory destruction of small vessels accompanied by enhanced cleavage of membrane-bound proteins. One of the main proteases responsible for ectodomain shedding is disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 17 (ADAM17). Given its potential role in aggravating vascular dysfunction, we examined the role of ADAM17 in active proteinase-3 (PR3)-positive ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV). ADAM17 concentration was significantly increased in plasma samples from patients with active PR3-AAV compared with samples from patients in remission or from other controls with renal nonvascular diseases. Comparably, plasma levels of the ADAM17 substrate syndecan-1 were significantly enhanced in active AAV. We also observed that plasma-derived ADAM17 retained its specific proteolytic activity and was partly located on extracellular microparticles. Transcript levels of ADAM17 were increased in blood samples of patients with active AAV, but those of ADAM10 or tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 3, which inhibits ADAMs, were not. We also performed a microRNA (miR) screen and identified miR-634 as significantly upregulated in blood samples from patients with active AAV. In vitro, miR-634 mimics induced a proinflammatory phenotype in monocyte-derived macrophages, with enhanced expression and release of ADAM17 and IL-6. These data suggest that ADAM17 has a prominent role in AAV and might account for the vascular complications associated with this disease. PMID:25788529

  4. Depression and physical activity in a sample of nigerian adolescents: levels, relationships and predictors

    Okafor Nkechi C

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical inactivity is related to many morbidities but the evidence of its link with depression in adolescents needs further investigation in view of the existing conflicting reports. Methods The data for this cross-sectional study were collected from 1,100 Nigerian adolescents aged 12-17 years. Depressive symptomatology and physical activity were assessed using the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI and the Physical Activity Questionnaire-Adolescent version (PAQ-A respectively. Independent t tests, Pearson's Moment Correlation and Multi-level logistic regression analyses for individual and school area influences were carried out on the data at p Results The mean age of the participants was 15.20 ± 1.435 years. The prevalence of mild to moderate depression was 23.8%, definite depression was 5.7% and low physical activity was 53.8%. More severe depressive symptoms were linked with lower levels of physical activity (r = -0.82, p Conclusions A sizable burden of depression and low physical activity existed among the studied adolescents and these were linked to both individual and school factors. Future studies should examine the effects of physical activity among clinical samples of adolescents with depression.

  5. Effect of hypoxic cell radiosensitizers on glutathione level and related enzyme activities in isolated rat hepatocytes

    A comparative study of the effect of misonidazole and novel radiosensitizers on glutathione (GSH) levels and related enzyme activities in isolated rat hepatocytes was performed. Incubation of hepatocytes with 5 mM radiosensitizers led to a decrease in the intracellular GSH level. The most pronounced decrease in cellular GSH was evoked by 2,4-dinitromidazole-1-ethanol (DNIE); after incubation for only 15 min, GSH was hardly detected. DNIE-mediated GSH loss was dependent upon its concentration. DNIE reacted with GSH nonenzymatically as well as with diethylmaleate, while misonidazole and 1-methyl-2-methyl-sulfinyl-5-methoxycarbonylimidazole (KIH-3) did not. Addition of partially purified glutathione S-transferase (GST) did not enhance DNIE-mediated GSH loss in a cell-free system. DNIE inhibited glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), GST, and glutathione reductase (GSSG-R) activities in hepatocytes, while misonidazole and KIH-3 did not. GSH-Px activity assayed with H2O2 as substrate was the most inhibited. Inhibition of GSH-Px activity assayed with cumene hydroperoxide as substrate and GST was less than that of GSH-Px assayed with H2O2 as substrate. GSSG-R activity was decreased by DNIE, but not significantly. Incubation of purified GSH-Px with DNIE resulted in a little change in the activity when assayed with H2O2 as substrate. 26 references, 2 figures, 4 tables

  6. COMPARISON OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY LEVEL AMONG ADOLESCENTS OF ISFAHAN IN 1994 AND 2001

    R KELISHADI

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. It has been shown that regular physical activity (at least three days per week and at least 20 minutes per session has many benefits especially on morphologic and hemodynamic changes of cardiovascular system and on lipid profile. Regarding the increasing trend of atherosclerosis risk factors especially hyperlipidemia and obesity (both modifiable by physical activity among the children and adolescents of our society, their physical activity was evaluated in this study. Methods. This cross-sectional study has been performed in 1994 and 2001 on 2000 adolescent (1000 each year arid their parents. Students and their parents were invited to complete their special questionnaire. Data have been collected and analyzed with SPSS 10 using chi-square and t-test. Results. The physical activity level showed no significant improvement during the last 7 years. The rate of regular morning exercise was declining in high schools (4.2% vs. 1.5%, P < 0.05. During these years, some of parents agreed with participation of their children in sport activities out of school hours but their disagreement had significantly increased (4.8% vs. 13.7%, P < 0.05. About 60 percent of students watched television more than 4 hours per day and only 10 percent of parents disagreed about this matter. In general the physical activity of girls was significantly lower than boys (P < 0.05 and regular physical activity in high school students was lower than guidance school students. Discussion. Regarding the physical activity level of adolescents did not show significant improvement in recent years, interventional programs should be performed in schools and in population in order to supply adolescents with facilities for physical activity and to increase the knowledge of adolescents and their families.

  7. The Devon Active Villages Evaluation (DAVE) trial of a community-level physical activity intervention in rural south-west England: a stepped wedge cluster randomised controlled trial

    Solomon, Emma; Rees, Tim; Obioha C. Ukoumunne; Metcalf, Brad; Hillsdon, Melvyn

    2014-01-01

    Background The majority of adults are not meeting the guidelines for physical activity despite activity being linked with numerous improvements to long-term health. In light of this, researchers have called for more community-level interventions. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate whether a community-level physical activity intervention increased the activity levels of rural communities. Methods 128 rural villages (clusters) were randomised to receive the intervention in ...

  8. Activation of glucocorticoid receptors increases 5-HT2A receptor levels

    Trajkovska, Viktorija; Kirkegaard, Lisbeth; Krey, Gesa; Marcussen, Anders Bue; Thomsen, Morten Skøtt; Chourbaji, Sabine; Brandwein, Christiane; Ridder, Stephanie; Halldin, Christer; Gass, Peter; Knudsen, Gitte M; Aznar, Susana

    2009-01-01

    Major depression is associated with both dysregulation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis and serotonergic deficiency, not the least of the 5-HT2A receptor. However, how these phenomena are linked to each other, and whether a low 5-HT2A receptor level is a state or a trait marker of...... depression is unknown. In mice with altered glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression we investigated 5-HT2A receptor levels by Western blot and 3H-MDL100907 receptor binding. Serotonin fibre density was analyzed by stereological quantification of serotonin transporter immunopositive fibers. To establish an...... effect of GR activation on 5-HT2A levels, mature organotypic hippocampal cultures were exposed to corticosterone with or without GR antagonist mifepristone and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonist spironolactone. In GR under-expressing mice, hippocampal 5-HT2A receptor protein levels were decreased...

  9. Environmental variation of arsenic levels in human blood determined by neutron activation analysis

    Heydorn, Kaj

    1970-01-01

    Arsenic levels in blood plasma and red cells from patients with Blackfoot disease, a peripheral arteriosclerosis endemic to a small area in Taiwan, were studied in relation to healthy individuals from the same and other parts of Taiwan and compared with arsenic levels in a control group from Denm...... in Denmark, which geochemically belongs to a soil zone with less arsenic than Taiwan.......Arsenic levels in blood plasma and red cells from patients with Blackfoot disease, a peripheral arteriosclerosis endemic to a small area in Taiwan, were studied in relation to healthy individuals from the same and other parts of Taiwan and compared with arsenic levels in a control group from...... Denmark. Arsenic was determined by neutron activation analysis with radiochemical separation and re-irradiation yield determination. The precision and accuracy of the results have been carefully evaluated in order to permit quantitative tests for the significance of the observed differences. The results...

  10. Neutron activation analysis of neonate and maternal hair sampled in areas with different levels of pollution

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis was performed on human head hair of newborns and mothers sampled in two areas with different levels of environmental exposure. The group of neonates from the exposed area (polluted by thermal power plants burning brown coal and by chemical industry) exhibited higher levels of several trace elements in hair, e.g. Se, Zn, Hg and Sb in comparison with the control group. Moreover, the mean concentrations of Se, Hg, Zn and Br in neonate hair were found to be higher than in mothers' hair. Although the study revealed statistically significant differences in the composition of neonate hair samples in areas with different levels of environmental exposure, the differences are relatively small. Only a thorough long-term study both with environmental and medical observations can prove a direct connection of the elevated levels of some trace elements in neonate hair with the higher incidence of mental diseaes of children living in the exposed area. (author)

  11. Beta-Carotene, Vitamin E, MDA, Glutathione Reductase and Arylesterase Activity Levels in Patients with Active Rheumatoid Arthritis

    N Aryaeian

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Many studies have investigated the possible role of reactive oxygen species in the etiology and patho­gene­sis of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA. The aim of this study was to investigate the activities of some antioxidants in RA patients."nMethods: In this case-control study, 59 RA patients and 60 healthy sex and age-matched controls were selected. Vitamin E and Beta-carotene were determined using HPLC. Erythrocytes glutathione reductase (GR activity was meas­ured spec­trophotometrically, and malondialdehyde (MDA was determined by colorimetric method. Aryles­terase activity (AEA was measured by Phenylacetate. The clinical data were determined by a rheumatologist, medical history and filling the questionnaire by interview. Statistical analyses were carried out using the SPSS software."nResults: In patients with RA, serum MDA level was significantly higher and plasma concentration of vitamin E, Beta-carotene and GR activity, were significantly lower than healthy control (P<0.001. AEA activity differences between two groups were non-significant."nConclusions: Oxidative stress may play an important role in the inflammation and pathogenesis of RA.  

  12. Temporal aspects of increases in eye-neck activation levels during visually deficient near work.

    Richter, Hans O; Camilla, Lodin; Forsman, Mikael

    2012-01-01

    In an experimental study two levels of oculomotor load were induced via optical trial lenses. Trapezius muscle activity was measured with bipolar surface electromyography and normalized to a submaximal contraction. Sixty-six subjects with a median age of 36 (range 19-47, std 8) viewed a black and white Gabor grating (5 c/deg) for two 7-min periods monocularly through a 0 D lens or binocularly through -3.5 D lenses. The effect of time was separately regressed to EMG in two different subgroups of responders: a High-Oculomotor-Load (HOL) and a Low-Oculomotor-Load (LOL) group. A linear regression model was fitted on group level with exposure time on the x-axis and normalized trapezius muscle EMG (%RVE) on the y-axis. The slope coefficient was significantly positive in the -D blur condition for only the HOL subgroup of responders: 0.926 + Time(min 1-7) × 0.088 (p = 0.002, r(2)=0.865). There was no obvious sign of this activity to level off or to stabilize. These results suggest that professional information technology users that are exposed to a high level of oculomotor load, during extended times, are at an increased risk of exhibiting an increased trap.m. activity. PMID:22317234

  13. Some problems on measurements of low level activity close to clearance level in metal waste and the solutions

    Hattori, T

    2002-01-01

    On March 1999, Nuclear Safety Commission reported clearance levels, which can classify solid wastes in decommissioning and operation as a non-radioactive material and also represented a basic concept on confirmation of the clearance level on July 2001. In this paper, some problem to confirm the radioactivity level of metal wastes are arranged and a solution is described. (author)

  14. A survey of 90Sr and 137Cs activity levels of retail foods in Japan

    A comprehensive survey was conducted on 90Sr and 137Cs activity levels in retail foods purchased from retail markets all over Japan during the period 1989-1994, and the annual effective dose equivalent due to dietary ingestion was estimated. The concentrations of 90Sr and 137Cs in the food samples were determined using γ-ray spectrometry and the radiochemical method. The following were clarified by this study: (1) The 90Sr and 137Cs activity concentration levels were below 1 Bq kg-1 for almost all food samples except for the dried foods. (2) The activity concentration levels of 90Sr and 137Cs in foods of animal origin were different from those of plant origin. Generally, the former had higher 137Cs and lower 90Sr activity concentrations than the latter. (3) The mean and maximum values of the annual effective dose equivalent from a dietary intake of 90Sr and 137Cs by the consumption of retail foods were estimated to be as low as 1·3 and 4·1 μSv, respectively. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  15. Determination of plasma heparin level improves identification of systemic mast cell activation disease.

    Milda Vysniauskaite

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of mast cell activation disease (MCAD, i.e. systemic mastocytosis (SM and idiopathic systemic mast cell activation syndrome (MCAS, usually requires demonstration of increased mast cell (MC mediator release. Since only a few MC mediators are currently established as biomarkers of MCAD, the sensitivity of plasma heparin level (pHL as an indicator of increased MC activation was compared with that of serum tryptase, chromogranin A and urinary N-methylhistamine levels in 257 MCAD patients. Basal pHL had a sensitivity of 41% in MCAS patients and 27% in SM patients. Non-pharmacologic stimulation of MC degranulation by obstruction of venous flow for 10 minutes increased the sensitivity of pHL in MCAS patients to 59% and in SM patients to 47%. In MCAS patients tryptase, chromogranin A, and N-methylhistamine levels exhibited low sensitivities (10%, 12%, and 22%, respectively, whereas sensitivities for SM were higher (73%, 63%, and 43%, respectively. Taken together, these data suggest pHL appears more sensitive than the other mediators for detecting systemic MC activity in patients with MCAS. The simple, brief venous occlusion test appears to be a useful indicator of the presence of pathologically irritable MCs, at least in the obstructed compartment of the body.

  16. Computerised monitor for estimation of Pico-Curie level of activity in effluent

    Estimation of pico-curie levels of activity of 99Mo and 131I in effluents could be made using gamma ray spectrometric method. A special container was designed which can have large volume of liquid 500 to 1000 ml and also expose the sample to the entire available area of NaI crystal used. A 5 inches x 3 inches NaI (TI) detector and three single channel analysers were used to get the peak counts of the activities. Suitable calibration and striping constants are computed and are fed to the portable microprocessor which print out the estimated activities in the sample in μCi/ml. This set up which is being used by RHC Unit, Vashi Complex to monitor the effluent released from Radio-Pharmaceutical Operations can measure the activities as low as 10-7 μCi/ml. (author). 2 figs., 1 tab

  17. Density-matrix renormalization group algorithm with multi-level active space

    Ma, Yingjin; Wen, Jing; Ma, Haibo

    2015-07-01

    The density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG) method, which can deal with a large active space composed of tens of orbitals, is nowadays widely used as an efficient addition to traditional complete active space (CAS)-based approaches. In this paper, we present the DMRG algorithm with a multi-level (ML) control of the active space based on chemical intuition-based hierarchical orbital ordering, which is called as ML-DMRG with its self-consistent field (SCF) variant ML-DMRG-SCF. Ground and excited state calculations of H2O, N2, indole, and Cr2 with comparisons to DMRG references using fixed number of kept states (M) illustrate that ML-type DMRG calculations can obtain noticeable efficiency gains. It is also shown that the orbital re-ordering based on hierarchical multiple active subspaces may be beneficial for reducing computational time for not only ML-DMRG calculations but also DMRG ones with fixed M values.

  18. A low-level activation technique for monitoring thermonuclear fusion plasma conditions.

    Gasparro, Joël; Hult, Mikael; Bonheure, Georges; Johnston, Peter N

    2006-01-01

    Optimisation of the confinement and sustainability of a thermonuclear plasma requires methods to monitor processes in the plasma. In this work three materials were used as activation targets (Ti, MgF2 and a TiVAl compound). They were placed inside the joint European Torus (JET) vacuum chamber. Certain gamma-ray emitting radionuclides (7Be, 54Mn, 56Co, 57Co, 58Co and 46Sc) were measured using ultra low-level gamma-ray spectrometry in an underground laboratory 1-2 months after activation. They were found to arise from neutron activation of bulk sample material and surface contaminants sputtered from other Tokamak parts. Decision thresholds for some activation products were determined in order to aid in giving upper bounds for the flux of charged particles. PMID:16580838

  19. Effect ofwater level lfuctuations ontemporal-spatial patterns offoraging activities bythe wintering Hooded Crane (Grus monacha)

    Dongmei Zhang; Lizhi Zhou; Yunwei Song

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Yangtze River lfoodplain provides important wintering habitats for Hooded Cranes (Grus monacha) in China. Fluctuations in the water level change foraging habitat and food availability, affecting their temporal-spatial patterns of foraging activities. It is of considerable importance to investigate the effect of these lfuctuations on food availability for wintering Hooded Cranes and their foraging response to these changes. Understanding their behavior patterns is beneifcial in protecting the wintering crane population and restoring their wintering habitats. Methods: A ifeld survey of the winter behavior of cranes was carried out at Shengjin Lake from November in 2013 to April in 2014. Habitat variables, as well as the spatial distribution and behavior patterns of wintering cranes at their foraging sites during ifve stages of water level lfuctuation were collected. Based on this data we analyzed the relation-ship of foraging behavior relative to water level lfuctuations and habitat types. Results: The foraging habitats used by Hooded Cranes varied at the different water level stages. As the water level decreased, the use of meadows and mudlfats increased. When the water dropped to its lowest level, the use by the Hooded Crane in the mudlfats reached a peak. There were statistically signiifcant differences in time budget in the three types of habitats over the ifve stages of the water level. In the mudlfats, the foraging behavior and maintenance behavior varied signiifcantly with the water level, while the alert behavior showed little variation. Analysis of a general-ized linear model showed that the ifve water level stages and three habitat types had a signiifcant effect on forag-ing behavior, while the combined effect of these two variables was signiifcant on the foraging time budget and the length of foraging activity of the Hooded Crane. Conclusions: With the decrease in the water level, the use of mudlfats by Hooded Cranes increased

  20. Levels of active tyrosine kinase receptor determine the tumor response to Zalypsis

    Zalypsis® is a marine compound in phase II clinical trials for multiple myeloma, cervical and endometrial cancer, and Ewing’s sarcoma. However, the determinants of the response to Zalypsis are not well known. The identification of biomarkers for Zalypsis activity would also contribute to broaden the spectrum of tumors by selecting those patients more likely to respond to this therapy. Using in vitro drug sensitivity data coupled with a set of molecular data from a panel of sarcoma cell lines, we developed molecular signatures that predict sensitivity to Zalypsis. We verified these results in culture and in vivo xenograft studies. Zalypsis resistance was dependent on the expression levels of PDGFRα or constitutive phosphorylation of c-Kit, indicating that the activation of tyrosine kinase receptors (TKRs) may determine resistance to Zalypsis. To validate our observation, we measured the levels of total and active (phosphorylated) forms of the RTKs PDGFRα/β, c-Kit, and EGFR in a new panel of diverse solid tumor cell lines and found that the IC50 to the drug correlated with RTK activation in this new panel. We further tested our predictions about Zalypsis determinants for response in vivo in xenograft models. All cells lines expressing low levels of RTK signaling were sensitive to Zalypsis in vivo, whereas all cell lines except two with high levels of RTK signaling were resistant to the drug. RTK activation might provide important signals to overcome the cytotoxicity of Zalypsis and should be taken into consideration in current and future clinical trials

  1. Matrix Metalloproteinase Activities And Some Hormones Levels During Gestation Period In Cows

    Many factors including proteases, growth factors and hormones play important role in implantation and tissue remodelling of endometrium during different stages of gestation.Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) such as gelatinases mainly MMP-2 and MMP-9 are implicated in the degradation of extracellular matrix for tissue remodelling.The aim of the present study is to evaluate the role of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) and hormones including progesterone (P4) and estradiol (E2) in the gestation process. The enzyme activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in serum collected from 8 Brown Swiss cows during different periods of gestation using zymography technique were examined. Hormonal levels for both P4 and E2 were determined using radioimmunoassay and also total proteins were estimated. A significant increase in MMP-2 activity by about 98%, 115% and 110% in the 1st , 2nd and 3rd trimester of gestation were recorded, respectively, whereas it increased to be 185% in the pre-partum period as compared to non-pregnant cows (Pnd trimester was recorded where the activity elevated by about 85% of non-pregnant controls (Pst and 3rd trimesters, the enzyme activity was not detectable. P4 level was increased gradually until its maximum at the 2nd trimester then decreased until pre-partum.E2 level recorded too little increase at the beginning of the 1st and 2nd trimesters then sharply increased at the 3rd one reached its maximum at pre-partum. There were significant decreases in total protein concentrations in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters then reached the lowest level before parturition .It could be concluded that the high activity of MMP-2 but not MMP-9 enzyme has important role throughout the gestation period in cows and P4 has important role in the fetal growth and E2 in the placental loss.

  2. Impact of physical activity levels and diet on central obesity among civil servants in Tamale metropolis

    Amalba, A.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to assess the prevalence of central obesity using Waist to Hip ratio as well as establishing the relationship between physical activity, diet and central obesity among civil serv-ants in the Tamale metropolis. This cross-sectional study was conducted between January and Ju-ly, 2011. One hundred and eighty six (186 subjects were involved with 121 being males and 65 be-ing females. The study participants were recruited from an adult population between the ages of 20-59 years. Dietary pattern was assessed using food frequency questionnaires whilst physical activity was determined using the WHO Global physical activity levels questionnaire. The prevalence of central obesity was found to be 31.2%. The prevalence of central obesity was significantly higher (p=0.031 among females (41.5% compared to men (25.6% and also increased with age (p<0.0001. The prevalence of obesity significantly decreased (p = 0.018 from 70.7% via 25.6% to 3.4% as the level of physical activity increased from low through moderate to high. There were no significant associations between dietary pattern and central obesity from this study. Central obesity from this study is high and more common in females. The level of physical activity appears to be a key determinant of the prevalence of central obesity in this study. Preventive actions such as exer-cise and active lifestyles have to be implemented to reduce the tendency for central obesity in this population in particular and the general Ghanaian populace at large.

  3. Diet composition and activity level of at risk and metabolically healthy obese American adults

    Hankinson, Arlene L.; Daviglus, Martha L; Van Horn, Linda; Chan, Queenie; Brown, Ian; Holmes, Elaine; Elliott, Paul; Stamler, Jeremiah

    2013-01-01

    Obesity often clusters with other major cardiovascular disease risk factors, yet a subset of the obese appears to be protected from these risks. Two obesity phenotypes are described, 1) “metabolically healthy” obese, broadly defined as body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m2 and favorable levels of blood pressure, lipids, and glucose; and 2) “at risk” obese, BMI ≥ 30 with unfavorable levels of these risk factors. More than 30% of obese American adults are metabolically healthy. Diet and activity det...

  4. Influence of Different Genotypes on Trypsin Inhibitor Levels and Activity in Soybeans

    Nedovic, Viktor A.; Stanojevic, Sladjana P.; Barac, Miroljub B.; Vucelic-Radovic, Biljana V.; Pesic, Mirjana B.

    2007-01-01

    This study describes the relationship between the two major trypsin inhibitors (TI) in soybean, i.e., the Kunitz (KTI) and Bowman-Birk (BBI) trypsin inhibitors, as well as between them and the corresponding trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA). Twelve investigated soybean genotypes showed significant differences in TI levels and TIA. A very strong positive correlation was found between the levels of KTI and total BBI (r = 0.94, P < 0.05). No relationship was found between KTI, BBI or total TI and...

  5. Physical activity levels and cognition in women with type 2 diabetes.

    Devore, Elizabeth E; Kang, Jae Hee; Okereke, Olivia; Grodstein, Francine

    2009-10-15

    Persons with type 2 diabetes have a high risk of late-life cognitive impairment, and physical activity might be a potential target for modifying this risk. Therefore, the authors evaluated the association between physical activity level and cognition in women with type 2 diabetes. Beginning in 1995-2000, cognitive function was assessed in 1,550 Nurses' Health Study participants aged > or =70 years with type 2 diabetes. Follow-up assessments were completed twice thereafter, at 2-year intervals. Multivariate-adjusted linear regression models were used to obtain mean differences in baseline cognitive scores and cognitive decline across tertiles of long-term physical activity. Initial results from age- and education-adjusted models indicated that greater physical activity levels were associated with better baseline cognition (for a global score averaging scores from 6 cognitive tests, P-trend = 0.02). However, results were substantially attenuated after adjustment for multiple potential confounders, largely because of physical disability indicators (global score: P-trend = 0.06); for example, the mean difference for the global score was 0.07 standard units (95% confidence interval: -0.01, 0.15) when comparing extreme tertiles. Results were similar for cognitive decline. These findings indicate little overall association between physical activity and cognition after adjustment for disability factors in older women with type 2 diabetes. PMID:19729385

  6. Negative relationships between erythrocyte Ca-pump activity and lead levels in mothers and newborns.

    Campagna, D; Huel, G; Hellier, G; Girard, F; Sahuquillo, J; Fagot-Campagna, A; Godin, J; Blot, P

    2000-12-01

    Lead poisoning induces hematological, gastrointestinal and neurological dysfunctions. One of the potential mechanisms is the inhibition of calcium-pump (Ca-pump), a transport protein. We investigated the effects of an environmental low lead exposure on Ca-pump activity in 247 mothers and their newborns. Maternal and cord blood, and newborn and mother hair, were sampled at delivery. Geometric means for mother and cord blood lead (Pb-B), and for mother and newborn hair lead (Pb-H), were 6.3 and 4.8 microg/dl, and 1.7 and 1.1 microg/g. Means for mother and cord basal Ca-pump activities were 2,442 and 2,675 nM/mg/hr. Mother enzymatic activity was negatively related to her Pb-B and Pb-H and to the cord Pb-B and newborn Pb-H levels. Newborn enzymatic activity was negatively related to his Pb-H level only. Adjustment for gestational age, child's sex, mother's age at delivery, alcohol, coffee and tea consumption, and smoking habits during pregnancy did not modify these relationships. Our findings support the hypothesis that lead toxicity could be in part mediated by a reduction of Ca-pump activity. This effect could be observed at low environmental exposure, in mothers and newborns. PMID:11191638

  7. Overestimation of physical activity level is associated with lower BMI: a cross-sectional analysis

    Corder Kirsten

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor recognition of physical inactivity may be an important barrier to healthy behaviour change, but little is known about this phenomenon. We aimed to characterize a high-risk population according to the discrepancies between objective and self-rated physical activity (PA, defined as awareness. Methods An exploratory cross-sectional analysis of PA awareness using baseline data collected from 365 ProActive participants between 2001 and 2003 in East Anglia, England. Self-rated PA was defined as 'active' or 'inactive' (assessed via questionnaire. Objective PA was defined according to achievement of guideline activity levels (≥30 minutes or Results 63.3% of participants (N = 231 were inactive according to objective measurement. Of these, 45.9% rated themselves as active ('Overestimators'. In a multiple logistic regression model adjusted for age and smoking, males (OR = 2.11, 95% CI = 1.12, 3.98, those with lower BMI (OR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.84, 0.95, younger age at completion of full-time education (OR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.74, 0.93 and higher general health perception (OR = 1.02 CI = 1.00, 1.04 were more likely to overestimate their PA. Conclusions Overestimation of PA is associated with favourable indicators of relative slimness and general health. Feedback about PA levels could help reverse misperceptions.

  8. Long-term variations in the geomagnetic activity level Part II: Ascending phases of sunspot cycles

    H. Nevanlinna

    Full Text Available Monthly averages of the Helsinki Ak-values have been reduced to the equivalent aa-indices to extend the aa-data set back to 1844. A periodicity of about five cycles was found for the correlation coefficient (r between geomagnetic indices and sunspot numbers for the ascending phases of sunspot cycles 9 to 22, confirming previous findings based on a minor number of sunspot cycles. The result is useful to researchers in topics related to solar-terrestrial physics, particularly for the interpretation of long-term trends in geomagnetic activity during the past, and to forecast geomagnetic activity levels in the future.

  9. Determination of the activation level in the decommissioning inventory of the NPP Krsko

    In support of a plant specific preliminary decommissioning plan the MCNP 5 code system /1/ was used to model the Krsko-reactor core and its external components relevant for activation analysis and decommissioning in 3D-geometry. By MCNP neutron transport calculations transfer functions for the space-dependent total neutron flux and the space-dependent rates (1-group cross sections) of the most relevant nuclear reactions were generated. These transfer functions were combined with the reactor operational data, and ORIGEN-2.1 /2/ irradiation calculations were performed to provide the activation levels of the individual reactor components. The results are presented and the uncertainties are discussed. (orig.)

  10. Body dimensions, exercise capacity and physical activity level of adolescent Nandi boys in western Kenya

    Larsen, Henrik Bøgh; Christensen, Dirk Lund; Nolan, T;

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize untrained Nandi boys (mean age 16.6 years) from a town (n = 11) and from a rural area (n = 19) in western Kenya (altitude approximately 2000 m.a.s.l.) in regard to their body dimensions, oxygen uptake and physical activity level. The town boys had a mean...... body dimensions of adolescent Nandi town and village boys corresponds well with findings in Kenyan elite runners. They are very slender with relatively long legs. In addition, the VO(2 max) of the village boys was higher than that of the town boys, which is probably due to a higher physical activity...

  11. INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECT OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORTS ACTIVITIES ON PSYCHOLOGICAL ADAPTATION LEVELS OF CHILDREN

    Erkan; Eylem; Ekrem Levent

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine whether regular application of physical education and sports activities was effective on psychological adaptation levels of children or not. The research group was constituted of 80 students in the range of 10-11 years old who take education in Ankara Keçioren Hacı Sabancı Secondary School. The research was designed as a test-module with pretest-posttest control group. Physical education and sports activities were performed with application group as 2...

  12. Is the activity level of HD 80606 influenced by its eccentric planet?

    Figueira, P.; Santerne, A.; Suárez Mascareño, A.; Gomes da Silva, J.; Abe, L.; Adibekyan, V. Zh.; Bendjoya, P.; Correia, A. C. M.; Delgado-Mena, E.; Faria, J. P.; Hebrard, G.; Lovis, C.; Oshagh, M.; Rivet, J.-P.; Santos, N. C.; Suarez, O.; Vidotto, A. A.

    2016-08-01

    Aims: Several studies suggest that the activity level of a planet-host star can be influenced by the presence of a close-by orbiting planet. Moreover, the interaction mechanisms that have been proposed, magnetic interaction and tidal interaction, exhibit a very different dependence on the orbital separation between the star and the planet. A detection of activity enhancement and characterization of its dependence on planetary orbital distance can, in principle, allow us to characterize the physical mechanism behind the activity enhancement. Methods: We used the HARPS-N spectrograph to measure the stellar activity level of HD 80606 during the planetary periastron passage and compared the activity measured to that close to apastron. Being characterized by an eccentricity of 0.93 and an orbital period of 111 days, the system's extreme variation in orbital separation makes it a perfect target to test our hypothesis. Results: We find no evidence for a variation in the activity level of the star as a function of planetary orbital distance, as measured by all activity indicators employed: log(R'HK), Hα, NaI, and HeI. None of the models employed, whether magnetic interaction or tidal interaction, provides a good description of the data. The photometry revealed no variation either, but it was strongly affected by poor weather conditions. Conclusions: We find no evidence for star-planet interaction in HD 80606 at the moment of the periastron passage of its very eccentric planet. The straightforward explanation for the non-detection is the absence of interaction as a result of a low magnetic field strength on either the planet or the star and of the low level of tidal interaction between the two. However, we cannot exclude two scenarios: i) the interaction can be instantaneous and of magnetic origin, being concentrated on the substellar point and its surrounding area; and ii) the interaction can lead to a delayed activity enhancement. In either scenario, a star

  13. Irisin levels are not affected by physical activity in patients with anorexia nervosa

    TobiasHofmann

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Irisin was recently identified as muscle-derived hormone that increases energy expenditure. Studies in normal weight and obese subjects reported an increased irisin expression following physical activity, although inconsistent results were observed. Increased physical activity in a subgroup of patients with anorexia nervosa (AN complicates the course of the disease. Since irisin could account for differences in clinical outcomes, we investigated irisin levels in anorexic patients with high and moderate physical activity to evaluate whether irisin differs with increasing physical activity. Hospitalized female anorexic patients (n=39 were included. Plasma irisin measured by ELISA and locomotor activity were assessed at the same time. Patients were separated into two groups (n=19/group; median excluded: moderate and high activity (6331±423 vs. 13743±1047 steps/day, p0.05, whereas body weight-adjusted total energy expenditure (46.0±1.4 vs. 41.1±1.1 kcal/kg/d, metabolic equivalents (METs, 1.9±0.1 vs. 1.7±0.1 METs/d, body weight-adjusted exercise activity thermogenesis (EAT, 1.8±0.5 vs. 0.6±0.3 kcal/kg/d, duration of exercise (18.6±4.7 vs. 6.2±3.1 min/d and body weight-adjusted non-exercise activity thermogenesis (21.6±1.0 vs. 18.8±0.8 kcal/kg/d were higher in the high activity compared to the moderate activity group (p0.05. In conclusion, the current data do not support the concept of irisin being induced by exercise, at least not under conditions of severely reduced body weight like AN.

  14. Association of day length and weather conditions with physical activity levels in older community dwelling people.

    Miles D Witham

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Weather is a potentially important determinant of physical activity. Little work has been done examining the relationship between weather and physical activity, and potential modifiers of any relationship in older people. We therefore examined the relationship between weather and physical activity in a cohort of older community-dwelling people. METHODS: We analysed prospectively collected cross-sectional activity data from community-dwelling people aged 65 and over in the Physical Activity Cohort Scotland. We correlated seven day triaxial accelerometry data with daily weather data (temperature, day length, sunshine, snow, rain, and a series of potential effect modifiers were tested in mixed models: environmental variables (urban vs rural dwelling, percentage of green space, psychological variables (anxiety, depression, perceived behavioural control, social variables (number of close contacts and health status measured using the SF-36 questionnaire. RESULTS: 547 participants, mean age 78.5 years, were included in this analysis. Higher minimum daily temperature and longer day length were associated with higher activity levels; these associations remained robust to adjustment for other significant associates of activity: age, perceived behavioural control, number of social contacts and physical function. Of the potential effect modifier variables, only urban vs rural dwelling and the SF-36 measure of social functioning enhanced the association between day length and activity; no variable modified the association between minimum temperature and activity. CONCLUSIONS: In older community dwelling people, minimum temperature and day length were associated with objectively measured activity. There was little evidence for moderation of these associations through potentially modifiable health, environmental, social or psychological variables.

  15. Magic Wavelengths for a Lattice Trapped Rubidium Four-Level Active Optical Clock

    After being pumped from the 5s1/2 ground state to the 6p1/2 state, the population inversion between 6s1/2 and 5p1/2,3/2 can be established for a rubidium four-level active optical clock. We calculate the ac Stark shift due to lattice trapping laser which dominates the frequency shift of clock transition in a lattice trapped rubidium four-level active optical clock. Several magic wavelengths are found, which can form desired optical lattice trapping potential. By choosing a proper intensity and linewidth of the trapping laser, the fractional frequency uncertainty of clock transition due to the ac Stark shift of the trapping laser, is estimated to be below 10−18

  16. Expression levels of microRNAs are not associated with their regulatory activities

    Wu Jiarui

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract MicroRNAs (miRNAs regulate their targets by triggering mRNA degradation or translational repression. The negative relationship between miRNAs and their targets suggests that the regulatory effect of a miRNA could be determined from the expression levels of its targets. Here, we investigated the relationship between miRNA activities determined by computational programs and miRNA expression levels by using data in which both mRNA and miRNA expression from the same samples were measured. We found that different from the intuitive expectation one might have, miRNA activity shows very weak correlation with miRNA expression, which indicates complex regulating mechanisms between miRNAs and their target genes. Reviewers This manuscript was reviewed by an anonymous reviewer and Dr Yuriy Gusev.

  17. An investigation into the relationship between political activity levels and political market orientation

    Ormrod, Robert P.; Henneberg, Stephan C.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose - The key objective of this research is to investigate the relationship between party member activity-levels and perceptions of their party's political market orientation. Specifically, it aims to scrutinise the differences in the interplay of attitudinal and behavioural aspects of...... political market orientation. Design/methodology/approach - Using a wide variety of respondent groups within the party, the research draws on an existing conceptualisation of political market orientation and empirically test its relationship with party member activity levels. Three models, plus a baseline....... Originality/value - This is one of a few studies empirically investigating the concept of political market orientation. Especially the focus on a wide range of respondents, in line with recent development in the literature on commercial market....

  18. Serum Adenosine deaminase activity and C-reactive protein levels in unstable angina

    Rani Surekha

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In unstable angina (USA patients, immunological responses contributing to inflammation play a vital role in plaque rupture and thrombosis causing stroke. In the present study an attempt is made to estimate the levels of adenosine deaminase activity, an immunoenzyme marker and C-reactive protein, a marker of inflammation in USA patients. 45 patients presenting USA and 50 age and sex matched healthy controls were included in the study. Serum ADA activity was measured spectrophotometrically at 630nm and serum C-reactive protein was detected using Avitex CRP kit, which is a rapid latex agglutination test. The Mean ADA levels were 41.15 ± 11.04 in patients and 20.71±5.63 in controls and 66.6% of patients and none of the controls were positive to CRP. The present study observed the importance of ADA as a serum marker in addition to CRP for assessing the immune response in USA patients.

  19. Fidelity of frequency and phase entrainment of circuit-level spike activity during DBS.

    Agnesi, Filippo; Muralidharan, Abirami; Baker, Kenneth B; Vitek, Jerrold L; Johnson, Matthew D

    2015-08-01

    High-frequency stimulation is known to entrain spike activity downstream and upstream of several clinical deep brain stimulation (DBS) targets, including the cerebellar-receiving area of thalamus (VPLo), subthalamic nucleus (STN), and globus pallidus (GP). Less understood are the fidelity of entrainment to each stimulus pulse, whether entrainment patterns are stationary over time, and how responses differ among DBS targets. In this study, three rhesus macaques were implanted with a single DBS lead in VPLo, STN, or GP. Single-unit spike activity was recorded in the resting state in motor cortex during VPLo DBS, in GP during STN DBS, and in STN and pallidal-receiving area of motor thalamus (VLo) during GP DBS. VPLo DBS induced time-locked spike activity in 25% (n = 15/61) of motor cortex cells, with entrained cells following 7.5 ± 7.4% of delivered pulses. STN DBS entrained spike activity in 26% (n = 8/27) of GP cells, which yielded time-locked spike activity for 8.7 ± 8.4% of stimulus pulses. GP DBS entrained 67% (n = 14/21) of STN cells and 32% (n = 19/59) of VLo cells, which showed a higher fraction of pulses effectively inhibiting spike activity (82.0 ± 9.6% and 86.1 ± 16.6%, respectively). Latency of phase-locked spike activity increased over time in motor cortex (58%, VPLo DBS) and to a lesser extent in GP (25%, STN DBS). In contrast, the initial inhibitory phase observed in VLo and STN during GP DBS remained stable following stimulation onset. Together, these data suggest that circuit-level entrainment is low-pass filtered during high-frequency stimulation, most notably for glutamatergic pathways. Moreover, phase entrainment is not stationary or consistent at the circuit level for all DBS targets. PMID:26084905

  20. Adult total wellness: group differences based on sitting time and physical activity level

    2014-01-01

    Background An increasing body of evidence associates a high level of sitting time with poor health outcomes. The benefits of moderate to vigorous-intensity physical activities to various aspects of health are now well documented; however, individuals may engage in moderate-intensity physical activity for at least 30 minutes on five or more days of the week and still exhibit a high level of sitting time. This purpose of this study was to examine differences in total wellness among adults relative to high/low levels of sitting time combined with insufficient/sufficient physical activity (PA). The construct of total wellness incorporates a holistic approach to the body, mind and spirit components of life, an approach which may be more encompassing than some definitions of health. Methods Data were obtained from 226 adult respondents (27 ± 6 years), including 116 (51%) males and 110 (49%) females. Total PA and total sitting time were assessed with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) (short-version). The Wellness Evaluation of Lifestyle Inventory was used to assess total wellness. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was utilised to assess the effects of the sitting time/physical activity group on total wellness. A covariate was included to partial out the effects of age, sex and work status (student or employed). Cross-tabulations were used to show associations between the IPAQ derived high/low levels of sitting time with insufficient/sufficient PA and the three total wellness groups (i.e. high level of wellness, moderate wellness and wellness development needed). Results The majority of the participants were located in the high total sitting time and sufficient PA group. There were statistical differences among the IPAQ groups for total wellness [F (2,220) = 32.5 (p <0.001)]. A Chi-square test revealed a significant difference in the distribution of the IPAQ categories within the classification of wellness [χ2 (N = 226) = 54.5, p < .001

  1. LEVEL OF PRESENCE IN TEAM-BUILDING ACTIVITIES: GAMING COMPONENT IN VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS

    Elena Radici; Goodman, Koren S.; Gianluca De Leo; Scott R. Secrhist; Mastaglio, Thomas W.

    2011-01-01

    Historically the training of teams has been implemented using a face-to-face approach. In the past decade, on-line multiuser virtual environments have offered a solution for training teams whose members are geographically dispersed. In order to develop on effective team training activity, a high sense ofpresence among the participant needs to be reached. Previous research studies reported being able to reach a high level of presence even when using inexpensive technology such as laptop and he...

  2. Activity level, emission intensity, and optimal GHG abatement policy: An application to Norwegian agriculture

    Blandford, David; Gaasland, Ivar; Vardal, Erling

    2011-01-01

    Despite the failure of the U.N. Copenhagen climate conference in December 2009 efforts are continuing to reach agreement on binding global commitments on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. At the same time, efforts are still underway to conclude the Doha Round of trade negotiations through the World Trade Organization (WTO). Both of these agreements could have a significant impact on the level of activity in agriculture and the GHG emissions that it generates. In this paper we explore strategies...

  3. Intake of honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa) leaves by lambs using different levels of activated charcoal

    A 24-day feeding trial was conducted to assess the effect of feeding four levels of activated charcoal (0.0, 0.33, 0.67 and 1.00 g/kg of body weight) on intake of honey mesquite leaves (Prosopis glandulosa Torr.) by 20 wether lambs (36.6 ± 0.6 kg) that were randomly assigned to treatments. Lambs wer...

  4. Social, Environmental and Psychological Factors Associated with Objective Physical Activity Levels in the Over 65s

    McMurdo, Marion E. T.; Ishbel Argo; Iain K Crombie; Zhiqiang Feng; Sniehotta, Falko F.; Thenmalar Vadiveloo; Witham, Miles D.; Donnan, Peter T

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess physical activity levels objectively using accelerometers in community dwelling over 65 s and to examine associations with health, social, environmental and psychological factors. Design: Cross sectional survey. Setting: 17 general practices in Scotland, United Kingdom. Participants: Random sampling of over 65 s registered with the practices in four strata young-old (65–80 years), old-old (over 80 years), more affluent and less affluent groups. Main Outcome Measures: Acce...

  5. Sources of Continuity and Change in Activity Level in Early Childhood

    Saudino, Kimberly J.

    2011-01-01

    Actigraphs and parent and observer ratings were used to explore genetic influences on continuity and change in activity level (AL) in early childhood. Over 300 pairs of twins wore actigraphs for a 48-hour period in the home and laboratory at ages 2 and 3. AL was genetically influenced at both ages with little evidence of differential heritability across age. For all measures, genetic influences contributed to phenotypic continuity. With the exception of the actigraph measure of AL in the home...

  6. ANALYZING THE PHYSICAL ACTIVITY LEVELS AND HEALTHY LIFE STYLE BEHAVIORS OF UNIVERSITY STUDENTS

    Aykut DÜNDAR; Aktuğ, Zait Burak; YETİŞ, Ümit; Talha MURATHAN; Fatih MURATHAN

    2013-01-01

    Students can develop a life style that will negatively affect their health due to their leaving from the family environment they have been accustomed to, their being open to external effects and their making their own choices significantly in university years concurrent with their youth. It is also possible for the young to carry this life style into their life after their education at university. In the research, it was aimed to analyze the physical activity levels and healthy life style beh...

  7. In patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration, physical activity may influence C-reactive protein levels

    Subhi, Yousif; Singh, Amardeep; Falk, Mads Krüger;

    2014-01-01

    Association of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) with C-reactive protein (CRP) was previously reported, indicating a relation to systemic low-grade inflammation. However, visual impairment limits physical activity, and physical activity modulates CRP levels. Here, we investigated...... the impact of physical activity on CRP levels in patients with neovascular AMD and control individuals....

  8. Public acceptance activities and tasks in Japan's high-level waste management programme

    In Japan, the current 'Long-Term Programme for Research, Development and Utilisation of Nuclear Energy', that was revised in June 1994, states that the treatment and disposal of high-level radioactive waste remain the most important issues to be resolved in the nuclear power programme of the country. Research and development activities have aimed at establishing geological disposal technologies, with the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) as a core organisation. By comparison, an implementing organisation for the disposal business is planned to be set up by the year 2000. For this purpose, the Steering Committee on the High-Level Radioactive Waste Project (SHP) was set up in 1993 to initiate full-scale preparation in collaboration with the government and the authorities concerned. The Long-Term Programme provides for enhanced transparency of measures for radioactive waste treatment and disposal for the sake of increasing understanding on the part of the Japanese public. For this and other reasons, it is intended to publish and report widely to the public on the status of R and D and its findings, at appropriate times. The paper discusses the current status of high-level waste disposal in Japan, as well as that of the promotion of public relations activities. The Horonobe-cho and Rokkasho-mura public relations activities are also discussed, as well as the particularity of the disposal business and the requirements for acquiring public understanding, and future challenges in this area. (author)

  9. Level of Presence in Team-Building Activities: Gaming Component in Virtual Environments

    De Leo, Gianluca; Radici, Elena; Secrhist, Scott R; Mastaglio, Thomas W

    2011-01-01

    Historically the training of teams has been implemented using a face-to-face approach. In the past decade, on-line multiuser virtual environments have offered a solution for training teams whose members are geographically dispersed. In order to develop on effective team training activity, a high sense of presence among the participant needs to be reached. Previous research studies reported being able to reach a high level of presence even when using inexpensive technology such as laptop and headset. This study evaluates the level of presence of ten subjects who have to perform a team-building activity in a multi-user virtual environment using a laptop computer and a headset. The authors are interested in determining which user characterizes, such as gender, age and knowledge of computers, have a strong correlation with the level of sense of presence. The results of this study showed that female participants were more likely to engage in the activity and perceived fewer negative effects. Participants who repor...

  10. Impact of varying physical activity levels on airway sensitivity and bronchodilation in healthy humans.

    Smith, Joshua R; Kurti, Stephanie P; Johnson, Ariel M; Kolmer, Sarah A; Harms, Craig

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the amount of physical activity influences airway sensitivity and bronchodilation in healthy subjects across a range of physical activity levels. Thirty healthy subjects (age, 21.9 ± 2.6 years; 13 men/17 women) with normal pulmonary function reported to the laboratory on 2 separate occasions where they were randomized to breathe either hypertonic saline (HS) (nebulized hypertonic saline (25%) for 20 min) or HS followed by 5 deep inspirations (DIs), which has been reported to bronchodilate the airways. Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) were performed prior to both conditions and following the HS breathing or 5 DIs. Moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) level was measured via accelerometer worn for 7 days. Following the HS breathing, forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) significantly decreased from baseline by -11.8% ± 8.4% and -9.3% ± 6.7%, respectively. A 2-segment linear model determined significant relationships between MVPA and percent change in FEV1 (r = 0.50) and FVC (r = 0.55). MVPA above ∼497 and ∼500 min/week for FEV1 and FVC, respectively, resulted in minor additional improvements (p > 0.05) in PFTs following the HS breathing. Following the DIs, FEV1 and FVC decreased (p 0.05) to MVPA. In conclusion, these data demonstrate that higher MVPA levels attenuated airway sensitivity but not bronchodilation in healthy subjects. PMID:26575101

  11. Lactic acid bacteria affect serum cholesterol levels, harmful fecal enzyme activity, and fecal water content

    Chung Myung

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are beneficial probiotic organisms that contribute to improved nutrition, microbial balance, and immuno-enhancement of the intestinal tract, as well as lower cholesterol. Although present in many foods, most trials have been in spreads or dairy products. Here we tested whether Bifidobacteria isolates could lower cholesterol, inhibit harmful enzyme activities, and control fecal water content. Methods In vitro culture experiments were performed to evaluate the ability of Bifidobacterium spp. isolated from healthy Koreans (20~30 years old to reduce cholesterol-levels in MRS broth containing polyoxyethanylcholesterol sebacate. Animal experiments were performed to investigate the effects on lowering cholesterol, inhibiting harmful enzyme activities, and controlling fecal water content. For animal studies, 0.2 ml of the selected strain cultures (108~109 CFU/ml were orally administered to SD rats (fed a high-cholesterol diet every day for 2 weeks. Results B. longum SPM1207 reduced serum total cholesterol and LDL levels significantly (p B. longum SPM1207 also increased fecal LAB levels and fecal water content, and reduced body weight and harmful intestinal enzyme activities. Conclusion Daily consumption of B. longum SPM1207 can help in managing mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia, with potential to improve human health by helping to prevent colon cancer and constipation.

  12. MUSCLE ACTIVATION DURING LOW-INTENSITY MUSCLE CONTRACTIONS WITH VARYING LEVELS OF EXTERNAL LIMB COMPRESSION

    Tomohiro Yasuda

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose was to investigate muscle activation during low- intensity muscle contractions with various levels of external limb compression to reduce muscle perfusion/outflow. A series of unilateral elbow flexion muscle contractions (30 repetitive contractions followed by 3 sets x 15 contractions was performed at 20% of 1RM with varying levels of external compression (0 (without compression, 98, 121, and 147 mmHg external compression around the upper arm. Electromyography (EMG signals were recorded from surface electrodes placed on the biceps brachii muscle and analyzed for integrated EMG (iEMG. Maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC decreased similarly during the control (0 mmHg and 98 mmHg external compression bout (~18%; the decline in MVC with 121 and 147 mmHg external compression was significantly greater (~37%. Muscle activation increased progressively throughout the contraction bout with each level of external compression, but iEMG was significantly greater during 147 mmHg external compression. In conclusion, low-intensity muscle contractions performed with external compression of 147 mmHg appears to alter muscle perfusion/outflow leading to increased muscle activation without decrements in work performed during the contraction bout

  13. Influence Determination of Social Responsibility to the Productivity Enterprise Activity Level

    Sergii Kavun

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to develop a scientific and methodical approach for determination of the comprehensive social responsibility indicator in this paper based on estimation of influence degree for the economical, ecological, social and labour, standard and legal components. There is allowance for determining of some level of enterprise social responsibility. In addition, there is a basis for development some ways of their increasing. The essence of the used approach is clotting of the individual indicators set to four intermediate indicators of the economic, ecological, social and labor, standard and legal components, which can be boiled down to the generalizing activity productivity indicator based on the matrix and range approach. An economical and mathematical model of the social responsibility influence level to the enterprise activity productivity level, which is based on enterprise propose harmonization with the participants’ interests, was being built. The paper proposes the mathematical model, which allows detecting a necessary time period for enterprise activity productivity ensuring due to social responsibility implementation.

  14. Decreased glycogen synthase kinase-3 levels and activity contribute to Huntington's disease.

    Fernández-Nogales, Marta; Hernández, Félix; Miguez, Andrés; Alberch, Jordi; Ginés, Silvia; Pérez-Navarro, Esther; Lucas, José J

    2015-09-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a hereditary neurodegenerative disorder characterized by brain atrophy particularly in striatum leading to personality changes, chorea and dementia. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a serine/threonine kinase in the crossroad of many signaling pathways that is highly pleiotropic as it phosphorylates more than hundred substrates including structural, metabolic, and signaling proteins. Increased GSK-3 activity is believed to contribute to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's disease and GSK-3 inhibitors have been postulated as therapeutic agents for neurodegeneration. Regarding HD, GSK-3 inhibitors have shown beneficial effects in cell and invertebrate animal models but no evident efficacy in mouse models. Intriguingly, those studies were performed without interrogating GSK-3 level and activity in HD brain. Here we aim to explore the level and also the enzymatic activity of GSK-3 in the striatum and other less affected brain regions of HD patients and of the R6/1 mouse model to then elucidate the possible contribution of its alteration to HD pathogenesis by genetic manipulation in mice. We report a dramatic decrease in GSK-3 levels and activity in striatum and cortex of HD patients with similar results in the mouse model. Correction of the GSK-3 deficit in HD mice, by combining with transgenic mice with conditional GSK-3 expression, resulted in amelioration of their brain atrophy and behavioral motor and learning deficits. Thus, our results demonstrate that decreased brain GSK-3 contributes to HD neurological phenotype and open new therapeutic opportunities based on increasing GSK-3 activity or attenuating the harmful consequences of its decrease. PMID:26082469

  15. Impact assessment of climate change and human activities on annual highest water level of Taihu Lake

    Qing-fang HU; Yin-tang WANG

    2009-01-01

    The annual highest water level of Taihu Lake (Zm) is very significant for flood management in the Taihu Basin. This paper first describes the inter-annual and intra-annual traits of Zm from 1956 to 2000. Then, using the Mann-Kenall (MK) and Spearman (SP) nonparametric tests, the long-term change trends of area precipitation and pan evaporation in the Taihu Basin are determined. Meanwhile, using the Morlet wavelet transformation, the fluctuation patterns and change points of precipitation and pan evaporation are analyzed. Also, human activities in the Taihu Basin are described, including land use change and hydraulic project construction. Finally, the relationship between Zm, the water level of Taihu Lake 30 days prior to the day of Zm (Z0), and the 30-day total precipitation and pan evaporation prior to the day of Zm (P and E0, respectively) is described based on multi-linear regression equations. The relative influence of climate change and human activities on the change of Zm is quantitatively ascertained. The results demonstrate that: (1) Zm was distinctly higher during the 1980-2000 period than during the 1956-1979 period, and the 30 days prior to the day of Zm are the key phase influencing Zm every year; (2) P increased significantly at a confidence level of 95% during the 1956-2000 period, while the reverse was true for E0; (3) The relationship between Zm, P and E0 distinctly changed after 1980; (4) Climate change and human activities together caused frequent occurrences of high Zm after 1980; (5) Climate change caused a substantially greater Zm difference between the 1956-1979 and 1980-2000 periods than human activities. Climate change, as represented by P and E0, was the dominant factor raising Zm, with a relative influence ratio of 83.6%, while human activities had a smaller influence ratio of 16.4%.

  16. Match activities of elite women soccer players at different performance levels

    Mohr, Magni; Krustrup, Peter; Andersson, Helena; Kirkendal, Donald; Bangsbo, Jens

    2008-01-01

    We sought to study the physical demands and match performance of women soccer players. Nineteen top-class and 15 high-level players were individually videotaped in competitive matches, and time-motion analysis were performed. The players changed locomotor activity >1,300 times in a game...... fewer (P < 0.05) intervals of high-intensity running than midfielders and attackers, as well as fewer (P < 0.05) sprints than the attackers. In conclusion, for women soccer players (1) top-class international players perform more intervals of high-intensity running than elite players at a lower level......, (2) fatigue develops temporarily during and towards the end of a game, and (3) defenders have lower work rates than midfielders and attackers. The difference in high-intensity running between the 2 levels demonstrates the importance of intense intermittent exercise for match performance in women...

  17. Small Area and Individual Level Predictors of Physical Activity in Urban Communities: A Multi-Level Study in Stoke on Trent, England

    Hilde Stephansen; Armitage, Christopher J.; Jon Fairburn; Smith, Graham R.; Chris Gidlow; Davey, Rachel C; Thomas Cochrane; Svetlana Speight

    2009-01-01

    Reducing population physical inactivity has been declared a global public health priority. We report a detailed multi-level analysis of small area indices and individual factors as correlates of physical activity in deprived urban areas. Multi-level regression analysis was used to investigate environmental and individual correlates of physical activity. Nine individual factors were retained in the overall model, two related to individual intentions or beliefs, three to access to shops, work o...

  18. The Impact of Different Degrees of Feedback on Physical Activity Levels: A 4-Week Intervention Study

    Karen Van Hoye

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Assessing levels of physical activity (PA and providing feedback about these levels might have an effect on participant’s PA behavior. This study discusses the effect of different levels of feedback—from minimal to use of a feedback display and coach—on PA over a 4-week intervention period. PA was measured at baseline, during and immediately after the intervention. Participants (n = 227 were randomly assigned to a Minimal Intervention Group (MIG-no feedback, Pedometer Group (PG-feedback on steps taken, Display Group (DG-feedback on steps, minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity and energy expenditure or Coaching Group (CoachG-same as DG with need-supportive coaching. Two-way ANCOVA showed no significant Group × Time interaction effect for the different PA variables between the MIG and PG. Also no differences emerged between PG and DG. As hypothesized, CoachG had higher PA values throughout the intervention compared with DG. Self-monitoring using a pedometer resulted in more steps compared with a no-feedback condition at the start of the intervention. However, adding individualized coaching seems necessary to increase the PA level until the end of the intervention.

  19. Activity levels of polonium-210 in tobacco and cigarette in Iran

    Polonium-210 (210Po) is a natural contaminant of tobacco and its products. Due to its volatility and inherent adsorption properties, 210Po is one of the major potential sources of human exposure through smoking. This paper reports measurements on 210Po and 210Pb levels in domestic as well as imported tobacco to Iran through α-spectrometry technique. The fate of 210Po radionuclide has been also followed from tobacco farm through curing procedure in factory. The activity levels of 210Po in Iranian domestic and imported cigarettes is found to be on the average as 38.4±0.8 mBq/g with a range of 30.3-51.3 mBq/g and 20.0±0.6 mBq/g with a range of 18.6-21.7 mBq/g, respectively. These levels are considerably higher than those reported in many other parts of the world. In the case of tobacco produced in Iranian northern province of Guilan, drying in closed compartments by fossil fuel and elevated inventories of 210Po in soil due to over application of phosphate-rich fertilizers seems to be the main causes of these elevated activity levels.

  20. Evolution of the Level of Sunspot Activity in Solar CyclesⅠ. Evolution in the Descending Phase

    Jia-Long Wang

    2006-01-01

    Taking the 13-point smoothed monthly sunspot number, Ri, and the deviation of the 13 associated monthly sunspot numbers from the smoothed one, Di, as a number-pair describing the global level of sunspot activity, the evolution of the level is statistically studied for the period from the month which is just 48 months before the minimum to the minimum in the descending phase, using the observed data of Solar Cycles 10 to 22. Our results show (1) for 46 months (94%) of the studied 49 months it is found that for a given month, the distribution of the 13 pairs which come from the 13 solar cycles on a log Ri~Di plane may be fitted by a straight line with a correlation coefficient larger than the critical one at confidence levelα=5%, and for 36 months (73%) the fitting is even better, forα=1%;(2) time variations of these two parameters and their correlations in the studied period can be described respectively by functions of time, whose main trends may be expressed by a linear or simple curvilinear function; (3) the evolutionary path of the level of sunspot activity may be represented by a logarithmic function as log Ri=0.704 ln Di-0.291.

  1. Plasma levels of M-CSF are increased in ANCA-associated vasculitides with active nephritis

    Giuseppe A. Ramirez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibodies (ANCA-associated vasculitides (AAV are characterized by small vessel injury and in some cases granulomatous lesions and glomerular inflammation. The pathogenic bases of these clinical phenotypes are incompletely understood, but evidence from patients with AAV and other inflammatory diseases suggest a role for monocyte/macrophages in the perpetuation of tissue injury. Macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF is a promoter of monocyte recruitment and macrophage proliferation, involved in mesangial cell proliferation and experimental nephritis development. Serum concentrations of M-CSF mark and herald the onset of lupus nephritis. Plasma samples from 29 patients with AAV (18 granulomatosis with polyangiitis, GPA, 6 eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis, EGPA, and 5 microscopic polyangiitis, MPA and from 10 healthy controls were collected together with clinical data. Patients with AAV had higher levels of M-CSF when compared to controls. M-CSF levels correlated positively with the BVAS, serum C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate, while haemoglobin correlated inversely with M-CSF. Patients with active renal disease had significantly higher levels of M-CSF when compared to the other subgroups. M-CSF levels did not differ between ANCA subserotypes and were not associated with the involvement of other organs. In conclusion, M-CSF is higher in patients with AAV and active nephritis and could contribute to the pathogenesis of these diseases. In addition, M-CSF could behave as a useful marker of renal involvement in AAV.

  2. Pentraxin 3 Plasma Levels and Disease Activity in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Roberto Assandri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available SLE is an autoimmune disorder that involves polyclonal autoimmunity against multiple autoantigens. PTX3, a marker of the acute-phase inflammatory response, plays an important role in innate immunity and in modulation of the adaptive immune response. Our study tried to resolve some rather controversial aspects of the use of PTX3 as a biomarker of disease activity in SLE patients. We demonstrated that plasma PTX3 concentration of the SLE patients was significantly higher than the healthy control groups and reflected disease activity. ROC curve analysis was used to determine best cut-off point (2.8 ng/mL with a good sensitivity and specificity. In patients with SLE, PTX3 concentrations were correlated with SLEDAI. Trend to remission (TTR curve was created by plotting PTX3 levels and SLEDAI and we applied the curve as a model for the analysis of two patients with different follow-up. PTX3 plasma levels declined significantly and this decline occurred parallel to the clinical improvement with a complete remission of disease. In patients who experienced a clinical relapse, an increase in PTX3 levels followed the lupus flare. The proposal of PTX3 cut-off associated with TTR and monitoring of PTX3 plasma levels could be an innovative approach to follow-up of SLE patients.

  3. Studies on levels and interactions of contact activation factors in plasma

    Summary of findings and conclusions of relevance: A part of the thesis concerns the effects of intravenous contrast media on the blood pressure and on factors of the contact activation system in the rat. The intravenous injection of dextran induced a profound and lasting fall in blood pressure, preceded by significant lowering in prekallikrein and activation factor 12. The non-ionic radiographic contrast media iohexol caused no significant alterations, neither in blood pressure, nor in levels of contact factors, whereas the ionic radiographic contrast media iodipamide had effects. It induced a rapid, but short-lived, fall in blood pressure and a small, but statistically significant reduction in the measurable amount of activation factor 12a. An observation of significance was that pretreatment of the rats with iodipamide almost blocked the dextran-induced blood pressure fall, and abolished the reduction in prekallikrein and activation factor 12a. It is concluded that the ionic radiographic contrast media used was capable of blocking dextran shock in the rat by preventing an activation of contact activation system. 130 refs., 5 figs

  4. Levels and Rates of Physical Activity in Older Adults with Multiple Sclerosis.

    Klaren, Rachel E; Sebastiao, Emerson; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Kinnett-Hopkins, Dominique; McAuley, Edward; Motl, Robert W

    2016-05-01

    There is much evidence supporting the safety and benefits of physical activity in adults with multiple sclerosis (MS) and recent evidence of beneficial effects on physical function in older adults with MS. However, there is very little known about physical activity participation in older adults with conditions such as MS. This study compared levels of physical activity (i.e., sedentary behavior, light physical activity (LPA), and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA)) and rates of meeting public health guidelines for MVPA (i.e., ≥30 min/day) among young (i.e., ages 20-39 years), middle-aged (i.e., ages 40-59 years) and older adults (i.e., ages ≥60 years) with MS. The sample included 963 persons with MS who provided demographic and clinical information and wore an accelerometer for a 7-day period. The primary analysis involved a between-subjects ANOVA on accelerometer variables (i.e., accelerometer wear time; number of valid days; sedentary behavior in min/day; LPA in min/day; and MVPA in min/day). Collectively, our data indicated that older adults with MS engaged in less MVPA and more sedentary behavior than middle-aged and young adults with MS. Such results highlight the importance of developing physical activity interventions as an effective means for managing the progression and consequences of MS in older adults. PMID:27330842

  5. Levels and Rates of Physical Activity in Older Adults with Multiple Sclerosis

    Klaren, Rachel E.; Sebastiao, Emerson; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Kinnett-Hopkins, Dominique; McAuley, Edward; Motl, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    There is much evidence supporting the safety and benefits of physical activity in adults with multiple sclerosis (MS) and recent evidence of beneficial effects on physical function in older adults with MS. However, there is very little known about physical activity participation in older adults with conditions such as MS. This study compared levels of physical activity (i.e., sedentary behavior, light physical activity (LPA), and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA)) and rates of meeting public health guidelines for MVPA (i.e., ≥30 min/day) among young (i.e., ages 20-39 years), middle-aged (i.e., ages 40-59 years) and older adults (i.e., ages ≥60 years) with MS. The sample included 963 persons with MS who provided demographic and clinical information and wore an accelerometer for a 7-day period. The primary analysis involved a between-subjects ANOVA on accelerometer variables (i.e., accelerometer wear time; number of valid days; sedentary behavior in min/day; LPA in min/day; and MVPA in min/day). Collectively, our data indicated that older adults with MS engaged in less MVPA and more sedentary behavior than middle-aged and young adults with MS. Such results highlight the importance of developing physical activity interventions as an effective means for managing the progression and consequences of MS in older adults. PMID:27330842

  6. Knowledge, attitude, and level of physical activity among medical undergraduate students in Delhi

    Tanu Anand

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Physical inactivity has been implicated as a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. The healthy lifestyle of medical students could facilitate the formation of healthy physicians who is more likely to give effective preventive counseling to their patients. Therefore, this study was undertaken to assess the knowledge, attitude, and pattern of the physical activity among the medical students. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted amongst 161 eligible sixth semester medical undergraduate students. A pretested questionnaire was used to collect the data. Anthropometric measurements were also taken. The data were fed and coded in Microsoft Excel 2007 and analyzed using SPSS 17.0 and Epi Info software of World Health Organization. Results: Knowledge regarding different types of exercise and anthropometric variables was fairly low among the study participants. Only 9.3% of the students were aware of the recommended level of the physical activity but nearly all (96.27% were aware of the benefits of it. The attitude of the participants toward the physical activity was favorable, yet only one-third (32.3% subjects adhered to recommended guidelines. Boys (39.8% were found to be significantly more active than girls (20.6% (P = 0.01. Conclusion: The knowledge and practices regarding the physical activity was found to be low amongst the medical students. There is a need to provide an enabling environment for promoting the physical activity amongst them so that can inculcate the same in their patients.

  7. Catalytic decomposition of low level ozone with gold nanoparticles supported on activated carbon

    Pengyi ZHANG; Bo ZHANG; Rui SHI

    2009-01-01

    Highly dispersed gold nanoparticles were supported on coal-based activated carbon (AC) by a sol immobilization method and were used to investigate their catalytic activity for low-level ozone decomposition at ambient temperature. Nitrogen adsorption-desorption,scanning electron microscope (SEM), and X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to characterize the catalysts before and after ozone decomposition. The results showed that the supported gold nanoparticles prepared with microwave heating were much smaller and more uniformly dispersed on the activated carbon than those prepared with traditional conduction heating, exhibiting higher catalytic activity for ozone decomposition. The pH values of gold precursor solution significantly influenced the catalytic activity of supported gold for ozone decomposition, and the best pH value was 8. In the case of space velocity of 120000 h-1, inlet ozone concentration of 50mg/m3, and relative humidity of 45%, the Au/AC catalyst maintained the ozone removal ratio at 90.7% after 2500 min. After being used for ozone decomposition, the surface carbon of the catalyst was partly oxidized and the oxygen content increased accordingly, while its specific surface area and pore volume only decreased a little.Ozone was mainly catalytically decomposed by the gold nanoparticles supported on the activated carbon.

  8. Dueling Volcanoes: How Activity Levels At Kilauea Influence Eruptions At Mauna Loa

    Trusdell, F.

    2011-12-01

    Loa inflates its flank is not buttressed on the southeast. Consequently, asymmetrical spreading occurs resulting in dilation of the shallow magma storage centers, which ultimately culminates in decreased magma pressure and therefore lessened ability to erupt. Whether or not this hypothesis is accurate, there is growing geologic evidence for inverse activity levels at both volcanoes. This hypothesis is readily testable and can have profound implications on how we monitor shield volcanoes, which impacts our ability to forecast eruptions, conduct hazard assessments, and risk analysis.

  9. Significance of determination of serum cytidine deaminase (CD) levels for diagnosis of active rheumatoid arthritis (RA)

    Objective: To determine the clinical value of measurement of serum cytidine deaminase (CD) levels in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods: Serum levels of CD were detected with spectrophotometry, in 33 patients with active RA and 60 controls. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and CRP content were also determined in both groups. Results: The ser- um CD contents in patients with active RA(14.80 ± 2.11U/ml) were significantly higher than those in controls(4.86±1.86 U/ml,P<0.01). The CRP contents (51.46 ± 20.43mg/L) and ESR readings(85.03 ± 27.6mm/h) in the patients were also significantly higher than those in the controls(3.40 ± 2.21mg/L and 13.04 ± 4.89mm/h respectively, all P<0.01). In the patients, the serum CD contents were linearly positively correlated with the ESR contents and CRP readings (r=0.6324 and 0.8013 respectively, P <0.01). Conclusion: Serum CD is an early biochemical marker for diagnosis of active rheumatoid arthritis and is also of prognostic value. (authors)

  10. Main determinants of physical activity levels in individuals with Parkinson’s disease

    Raquel de Carvalho Lana

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study analyzed the relationship between patient characteristics, factors associated with Parkinson’s disease (PD, and physical activity level of individuals affected by the disease. Forty-six volunteers with mild-to-moderate idiopathic PD were assessed using sections II/III of the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale and their motor functions were classified according to the modified Hoehn and Yahr (HY scale. Data such as age, disease duration, the Human Activity Profile (HAP, the Fatigue Severity Scale were collected. Lower limb bradykinesia and clinical subtypes of PD were defined. Two models that explained 76% of the variance of the HAP were used. The first comprised age, ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL, and the HY scale; the second comprised age, ability to perform ADL, and lower limb bradykinesia. Possible modifiable factors such as the ability to perform ADL and lower limb bradykinesia were identified as predictors of physical activity level of individuals with PD.

  11. Smelling lavender and rosemary increases free radical scavenging activity and decreases cortisol level in saliva.

    Atsumi, Toshiko; Tonosaki, Keiichi

    2007-02-28

    Free radicals/reactive oxygen species are related to many biological phenomena such as inflammation, aging, and carcinogenesis. The body possesses various antioxidative systems (free radical scavenging activity, FRSA) for preventing oxidative stress, and saliva contains such activity. In the present study, we measured the total salivary FRSA induced after the smelling of lavender and rosemary essential oils that are widely used in aromatherapy. Various physiologically active substances in saliva such as cortisol, secretory IgA, and alpha-amylase activity were found to be correlated with aroma-induced FRSA. The subjects (22 healthy volunteers) sniffed aroma for 5 min, and each subject's saliva was collected immediately. FRSA was measured using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. The FRSA values were increased by stimulation with low concentrations (1000 times dilution) of lavender or by high-concentrations (10 times dilution) of rosemary. In contrast, both lavender and rosemary stimulations decreased cortisol levels. A significant inverse correlation was observed between the FRSA values and the cortisol levels with each concentration of rosemary stimulation. No significant changes were noted in sIgA or alpha-amylase. These findings clarify that lavender and rosemary enhance FRSA and decrease the stress hormone, cortisol, which protects the body from oxidative stress. PMID:17291597

  12. Photocatalytically Active Oligomeric Graphitic Carbon Nitride: Conformational Flexibility, Electronic Levels, Carrier Localization

    Blum, Volker; Lau, Vincent; Botari, Tiago; Huhn, William; Lotsch, Bettina V.

    2015-03-01

    Polymers consisting of bridged heptazine units (often called ``graphitic carbon nitride'' or ``g-C3N4'') show considerable promise as photocatalysts for solar hydrogen evolution. Recent experimental evidence suggests that oligomeric rather than fully polymerized ``g-C3N4'' exhibits increased intrinsic photocatalytic activity. Using density-functional theory (DFT; van der Waals corrected PBE functional for conformers, hybrid DFT and GW for electronic levels), we show that considerable conformational flexibility exists for the heptazine trimers and tetramers. Analysis of HOMO and LUMO locations as well as trends in photocatalytic activity among heptazine oligomers and polymers reveals the NH2 groups of the oligomers as potential charge-transfer sites. We show that conformational variations of the oligomers can lead to significant, electrostatically motivated carrier localization effects. We suggest that NH2 side groups and the intrinsic conformational variations of the oligomeric species lead to the observed enhanced catalytic activity.

  13. Platelet sulphotransferase activity, plasma sulphate levels and sulphation capacity in patients with migraine and tension headache.

    Alam, Z; Coombes, N; Waring, R H; Williams, A C; Steventon, G B

    1997-11-01

    Activity of both the M- and P-forms of sulphotransferase (ST) was measured in platelets from patients with migraine, tension headache and controls. Mean PST values were 0.065 +/- 0.023 and 0.057 +/- 0.052 nmol/mg protein/min for migraine patients with and without aura. The corresponding values for tension headache and controls were 0.122 +/- 0.059 and 0.127 +/- 0.093 nmol/mg protein/min respectively (p < 0.05). Mean MST values were not different for any of the groups, and MST and PST activities measured in two patients during a migraine attack were not significantly altered from baseline levels. Mean plasma inorganic sulphate concentrations and paracetamol metabolites were not significantly different in any of the groups studied. The results suggest that PST activity may be a factor in the aetiology of migraine. PMID:9399006

  14. Liability coverage for high-level radioactive waste management activities: An update

    A continuing concern surrounding development of facilities for management of high-level radioactive waste is the scope of liability coverage that might have to be called upon to compensate the public. The Price-Anderson Act, which now establishes an exemplary system of private insurance or government indemnity for various nuclear activities, expires on August 1, 1987. Thus, Congress has been considering whether to extend the Act; and, if so, what provisions it should contain and whether it should be amended to apply more explicitly to waste management activities. Additional Congressional activities are expected in the coming months. This paper explores the current status of Congressional consideration of this important matter, which is taking place at the same time growing attention is being devoted to the overall liability crisis in this country

  15. Determination of the Timing and Level of Activities of Lumbopelvic Muscles in Response to Postural Perturbations

    S Ebrahimi Takamjani

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the most important concerns in orthopedic medicine is the low back. Considering the importance of muscle function in preventing LBT by controlling too much load and stress applied on the spinal joints and ligaments. Materials and Methods: The aim of this research was to determine the timing and level of activities of lumbopelvic muscles in response to postural perturbations caused by unexpected loading of the upper limbs in standing on three different supporting surfaces (neutral, positive slope, negative slope in 20 healthy females 18 to 30 years old ( = 23.20 SD = 2.55 . The electromyographic signals were recorded from the deltoid, gluteus maximus, internal oblique abdominis and lumbar paraspinal muscles of the dominant side of the body to evaluate the onset time, end time, level of muscle activity (RMS and duration of different muscles in one task and one muscle in different tasks. Results: The results showed that the agonists (posterior muscles activated at first to compensate the flexor torque caused by loading and then the antagonists (anterior muscles switched-on to compensate the reaction forces caused by agonist activities. With regards to continuous activity of internal oblique and its attachments via thoracalumbar fascia to the transverse processes of the lumbar vertebrae, it can be considered as one of the major stabilizer muscles of the trunk . Conclusion: Finally the results indicated that supporting surface type didn’t have any effect on timing and scaling of muscle activities in different tasks suggesting that probably spinal and trunk priprioceptors are just responsible for triggering postural responses and they don’t have any role in determining timing and scaling.

  16. The higher level of complexity of K-Ras4B activation at the membrane.

    Jang, Hyunbum; Banerjee, Avik; Chavan, Tanmay S; Lu, Shaoyong; Zhang, Jian; Gaponenko, Vadim; Nussinov, Ruth

    2016-04-01

    Is nucleotide exchange sufficient to activate K-Ras4B? To signal, oncogenic rat sarcoma (Ras) anchors in the membrane and recruits effectors by exposing its effector lobe. With the use of NMR and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we observed that in solution, farnesylated guanosine 5'-diphosphate (GDP)-bound K-Ras4B is predominantly autoinhibited by its hypervariable region (HVR), whereas the GTP-bound state favors an activated, HVR-released state. On the anionic membrane, the catalytic domain adopts multiple orientations, including parallel (∼180°) and perpendicular (∼90°) alignments of the allosteric helices, with respect to the membrane surface direction. In the autoinhibited state, the HVR is sandwiched between the effector lobe and the membrane; in the active state, with membrane-anchored farnesyl and unrestrained HVR, the catalytic domain fluctuates reinlessly, exposing its effector-binding site. Dimerization and clustering can reduce the fluctuations. This achieves preorganized, productive conformations. Notably, we also observe HVR-autoinhibited K-Ras4B-GTP states, with GDP-bound-like orientations of the helices. Thus, we propose that the GDP/GTP exchange may not be sufficient for activation; instead, our results suggest that the GDP/GTP exchange, HVR sequestration, farnesyl insertion, and orientation/localization of the catalytic domain at the membrane conjointly determine the active or inactive state of K-Ras4B. Importantly, K-Ras4B-GTP can exist in active and inactive states; on its own, GTP binding may not compel K-Ras4B activation.-Jang, H., Banerjee, A., Chavan, T. S, Lu, S., Zhang, J., Gaponenko, V., Nussinov, R. The higher level of complexity of K-Ras4B activation at the membrane. PMID:26718888

  17. The role of level of functioning, life satisfaction and leisure activities in elderly depressive symptomatology

    George Kleftaras

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Today's elderly people make up a large part of the population and depressive symptoms they show requires specialized intervention health professionals. Purpose: The purpose of the present research was to study the phenomenon of elderly depressive symptomatology and its relationship with their quality of life as judged by the performance of daily life activities, perceived life satisfaction and leisure activities. Method and material: The studied sample consisted of107 elderly, 62 men and 45 women, who lived in the community, members of Open Care Centres for the Elderly (K.A.P.I. and the Friendship Club of the wider area of Attica. They completed the Questionnaire of Depressive Symptomatology, the Life Satisfaction Index, the Satisfaction with Performance Scale Questionnaire and the Leisure Time Activities Questionnaire. The statistical analysis of the results was done with SPSS-v. 20,and more specifically with the method of correlation. Results: The results showed that there is a statistically significant negative correlation between the level of life satisfaction of the elderly and depressive symptomatology. They also showed a statistically significant negative correlation between the ability to solve social problems and depressive symptomatology. Not statistically significant relationship between the capacity to manage the home and depressive symptomatology was recorded. Of the areas related to leisure, only activities relaxing the person, social and personal hobbiesrelated negatively with depressive symptomatology but not the physical activities, a finding which supports previous results regarding the efficiency in managing the home. Conclusions: Thus, according to the results of the present study the health professionals working with older people with depressive symptomatology should, in their interventions initially encourage activities that give life satisfaction and then focus their program on strengthening the individual to perform

  18. Comparing the Effect of Fasting and Physical Activity on Active and Non-active Males’ Body Composition, Serum Osmolarity Levels and Some Parameters of Electrolytes

    M Nematy

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ever since there is insufficient and incoherent information about the effect of the Ramadan Fasting together with regular exercise on levels of serum osmolarity, and electrolytes concentration. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of fasting and physical activity on active and non-active males’ body composition, serum osmolarity levels and some parameters of electrolytes. Methods: Twenty six healthy males, who were selected by convenience sampling method, were divided into two (active and non-active groups. The Active group participated in football training for three sessions per week during the fasting month. All measurements were repeated on the first and last day of fasting month and were used to analyze the test results. Results: The average differences were significantly decreased in weight, BMI, WHR, mineral, total water in two groups (P≤0.05. There was a significant difference in average of BMI, WHR, body fat, mineral and total water between two groups (P≤0.05. Within-group mean differences in glucose, potassium, urine and albumin in both groups were significant (P≤0.05. Differences of serum osmolarity in between- and within-groups were not significant in both groups. While, glucose decreased significantly, the levels of the protein decreased, and urea increased significantly only in non active fasting group. Conclusion: According to these results, regular exercise together with the Ramadan fasting result in change in some serum osmolarity index, electrolytes and water. Therefore, it is necessary to protect the athletics against the malnutrition in Ramadan fasting by using the diet schedule and enough water.

  19. High levels of LDL-C combined with low levels of HDL-C further increase platelet activation in hypercholesterolemic patients

    L.W. Chan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available High levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C enhance platelet activation, whereas high levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C exert a cardioprotective effect. However, the effects on platelet activation of high levels of LDL-C combined with low levels of HDL-C (HLC have not yet been reported. We aimed to evaluate the platelet activation marker of HLC patients and investigate the antiplatelet effect of atorvastatin on this population. Forty-eight patients with high levels of LDL-C were enrolled. Among these, 23 had HLC and the other 25 had high levels of LDL-C combined with normal levels of HDL-C (HNC. A total of 35 normocholesterolemic (NOMC volunteers were included as controls. Whole blood flow cytometry and platelet aggregation measurements were performed on all participants to detect the following platelet activation markers: CD62p (P-selectin, PAC-1 (GPIIb/IIIa, and maximal platelet aggregation (MPAG. A daily dose of 20 mg atorvastatin was administered to patients with high levels of LDL-C, and the above assessments were obtained at baseline and after 1 and 2 months of treatment. The expression of platelets CD62p and PAC-1 was increased in HNC patients compared to NOMC volunteers (P<0.01 and P<0.05. Furthermore, the surface expression of platelets CD62p and PAC-1 was greater among HLC patients than among HNC patients (P<0.01 and P<0.05. Although the expression of CD62p and PAC-1 decreased significantly after atorvastatin treatment, it remained higher in the HLC group than in the HNC group (P<0.05 and P=0.116. The reduction of HDL-C further increased platelet activation in patients with high levels of LDL-C. Platelet activation remained higher among HLC patients regardless of atorvastatin treatment.

  20. Ways of experiencing participation and factors affecting the current activity level after non-reconstructed ACL injury

    Österberg, Annika; Kvist, Joanna; Abrandt Dahlgren, Madeleine

    2011-01-01

    Current assessment methods after an ACL injury do not consider how the individuals themselves experience their participation in activities or what factors they think have affected their current activity level.

  1. The Determination of Physical Activity Levels of Trainers in Kastamonu, Turkey

    Mehmet Günay

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out with the aim of determining the PA levels of the trainers working in Kastamonu in terms of gender and marital status variables. This study was applied to trainers from 15 different branches in the competitions organized by Kastamonu Directorate of Youth and Sports and Kastamonu Directorate of National Education. A total of 51 trainers participated in the study voluntarily; 19 of them were female; their mean age was 26.53±9.08 years, their mean height was 167.37±5.37 m and their mean weight was 60.37±7.30 kg. 32 of the trainers were male; their mean age was 35.41±8.10, their mean height was 179.69±6.25 m and their mean weight was 83.94±12.11 kg. Since the PA levels of the trainers working in the city center of Kastamonu were studied, the number of subjects was 51. In this study, in order to determine the physical activity level of the trainers, Physical Activity Evaluation Survey (PAAQ has been used. SPSS 15.0 was used to analyze the data in the dual comparisons, the nonparametric Mann-Whitney U Test has been applied. According to gender, there was no significant difference in met/week values of all indexes (p>0.05; also according to marital status, there was significant difference in met/week value of work index (p0.05, U=230,500 and sport indexes (p>0.05, U=282,000, PA levels of female trainers were found higher in home index. On the other hand, it was also determined that according to marital status, PA levels of single trainers were higher than married trainers in work index.

  2. Physical activity level and stress among the students in Satakunta University of Applied Sciences - a quantitative study

    Koskinen, Hanna

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to compare the stress levels to physical activity levels with the students in Satakunta University of Applied Sciences. The studied period was autumn 2012. Other goals were to find out how the students experience their stress level, and what causes them stress. Also the physical activity level and the attitudes towards physical exercising were to be studied. An additional purpose was to find out if there is a need for further education and promotion of physical ...

  3. Activity levels of some radionuclides in Mariout and Brullus lakes, Egypt.

    Dar, Mahmoud A; El Saharty, Abeer A

    2013-11-01

    Mariout and Brullus are two of the highly fish-productive lakes in the northern coast of Egypt along the Mediterranean Sea. They are widely used to drain industrial wastes, sewage and agriculture drainage. The activities of (238)U, (232)Th, (40)K and (137)Cs were measured in the uppermost part of the surface sediments of the two lakes, using gamma-ray spectrophotometry. Brullus Lake recorded significantly higher (238)U and (232)Th and lower (40)K (17.22±2.49, 10.03±0.56 and 299.70±17.78 Bq kg(-1)) than Mariout Lake (12.65±1.53, 7.24±0.76 and 518.75±46.24 Bq kg(-1), respectively). Cesium-137 shows nearly equal activities in both lakes (3.33±0.46 and 3.68±0.70 Bq kg(-1), respectively). Activity distributions of (238)U and (232)Th in the sediments of Mariout Lake show a significant increase to the west, southwest and northeast, (40)K activity increased westwards, while the (137)Cs level was increased to the east and northeast, indicating agriculture drainage, industrial wastes and lands reclamation around the lake. At Brullus Lake, the activity trends of (238)U, (232)Th, (40)K and(137)Cs were increasing to the west and south towards the agriculture and industrial waste-water-feeding drains. PMID:23630385

  4. A College-Level Inquiry-Based Laboratory Activity on Transiting Planets

    McConnell, Nicholas J; Strubbe, Linda E; Moth, Pimol; Montgomery, Ryan M; Raschke, Lynne M; Hunter, Lisa; Goza, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    We have designed an inquiry-based laboratory activity on transiting extrasolar planets for an introductory college-level astronomy class. The activity was designed with the intent of simultaneously teaching science process skills and factual content about transits and light curves. In the activity, groups of two to four students each formulate a specific science question and design and carry out an investigation using a table-top model of a star and orbiting planet. Each group then presents their findings to other students in their class. In a final presentation, the instructors integrate students' findings with a summary of how measured light curves indicate properties of planetary systems. The activity debuted at Hartnell College in November 2009 and has also been adapted for a lecture-based astronomy course at U.C. Santa Cruz. We present the results of student surveys before and after the astronomy course at Hartnell and discuss how well our activity promotes students' confidence and identity as scientists...

  5. Effects of individually tailored physical and daily activities in nursing home residents on activities of daily living, physical performance and physical activity level

    Andresen, Mette; Frändin, Kerstin; Bergland, Astrid;

    2012-01-01

    Background: Nursing home residents are extremely inactive and deterioration in health and an increasing dependence in activities of daily living (ADL) are common. Physical activity and exercise play a major role in the preservation of physical function and quality of life late in life. However......, evidence for the benefit of rehabilitation in nursing home residents is conflicting and inconclusive. Objective: To evaluate the effect of an individually tailored intervention program of 3 months, for nursing home residents, on ADL, balance, physical activity level, mobility and muscle strength. Methods......: In this single-blind randomized clinical trial with parallel groups, nursing home residents 1 64 years of age from three Nordic countries were included. The intervention group (IG) was assigned to individually tailored physical and daily activities, while the control group (CG) received ordinary care...

  6. Irisin Levels are Not Affected by Physical Activity in Patients with Anorexia Nervosa.

    Hofmann, Tobias; Elbelt, Ulf; Ahnis, Anne; Kobelt, Peter; Rose, Matthias; Stengel, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Irisin was recently identified as muscle-derived hormone that increases energy expenditure. Studies in normal weight and obese subjects reported an increased irisin expression following physical activity, although inconsistent results were observed. Increased physical activity in a subgroup of patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) complicates the course of the disease. Since irisin could account for differences in clinical outcomes, we investigated irisin levels in anorexic patients with high and moderate physical activity to evaluate whether irisin differs with increasing physical activity. Hospitalized female anorexic patients (n = 39) were included. Plasma irisin measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and locomotor activity were assessed at the same time. Patients were separated into two groups (n = 19/group; median excluded): moderate and high activity (6331 ± 423 vs. 13743 ± 1047 steps/day, p  0.05), whereas body weight-adjusted total energy expenditure (46.0 ± 1.4 vs. 41.1 ± 1.1 kcal/kg/day), metabolic equivalents (METs, 1.9 ± 0.1 vs. 1.7 ± 0.1 METs/day), body weight-adjusted exercise activity thermogenesis (1.8 ± 0.5 vs. 0.6 ± 0.3 kcal/kg/day), duration of exercise (18.6 ± 4.7 vs. 6.2 ± 3.1 min/day), and body weight-adjusted non-exercise activity thermogenesis (21.6 ± 1.0 vs. 18.8 ± 0.8 kcal/kg/day) were higher in the high activity compared to the moderate activity group (p activity parameters in the whole sample (p > 0.05). In conclusion, the current data do not support the concept of irisin being induced by exercise, at least not under conditions of severely reduced body weight like AN. PMID:24432013

  7. Low levels of physical activity increase metabolic responsiveness to cold in a rat (Rattus fuscipes.

    Frank Seebacher

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Physical activity modulates expression of metabolic genes and may therefore be a prerequisite for metabolic responses to environmental stimuli. However, the extent to which exercise interacts with environmental conditions to modulate metabolism is unresolved. Hence, we tested the hypothesis that even low levels of physical activity are beneficial by improving metabolic responsiveness to temperatures below the thermal neutral zone, thereby increasing the capacity for substrate oxidation and energy expenditure. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used wild rats (Rattus fuscipes to avoid potential effects of breeding on physiological phenotypes. Exercise acclimation (for 30 min/day on 5 days/week for 30 days at 60% of maximal performance at 22°C increased mRNA concentrations of PGC1α, PPARδ, and NRF-1 in skeletal muscle and brown adipose tissue compared to sedentary animals. Lowering ambient temperature to 12°C caused further increases in relative expression of NRF-1 in skeletal muscle, and of PPARδ of brown adipose tissue. Surprisingly, relative expression of UCP1 increased only when both exercise and cold stimuli were present. Importantly, in sedentary animals cold acclimation (12°C alone did not change any of the above variables. Similarly, cold alone did not increase maximum capacity for substrate oxidation in mitochondria (cytochrome c oxidase and citrate synthase activities of either muscle or brown adipose tissue. Animals that exercised regularly had higher exercise induced metabolic rates in colder environments than sedentary rats, and temperature induced metabolic scope was greater in exercised rats. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Physical activity is a necessary prerequisite for the expression of transcriptional regulators that influence a broad range of physiological functions from energy metabolism to cardiovascular function and nutrient uptake. A sedentary lifestyle leads to decreased daily energy expenditure because of a

  8. Can the provision of games equipment at school break time increase the physical activity levels of adolescents?

    Carter, Alice; Evans, Adam

    2013-01-01

    The promotion of physical activity to young people is currently a public health priority due to growing concerns that this group is not sufficiently physically active. Adolescence in particular is characterised with a decline in physical activity levels (Verstraete, et al 2006, Journal of Public Health, 16: 415-419). There exists an increased concern that Physical Education lessons within the National School Curriculum do not assist with this downward trend in activity levels, thus the notion...

  9. The Determination Of Trace Element Levels In Diet By Neutron Activation Analysis

    Trace element levels in foodstuff are normally low. Although the levels are low, certain trace elements which are called essential trace elements have an important role in metabolism process. Deficiency or intoxication of essential trace elements may lead to abnormal health. In this study the levels of Zn, Fe, AI, Mn, and Co in diet samples were determined by neutron activation analysis, and then the daily intakes of these elements were estimated. The samples were prepared by duplicate diet method, representing those that were consumed by population from West, Central and East Java. Following the collection the respective samples were blended, then were freeze dried at-54oc. The elemental quantification were performed by neutron activation analysis. The traceability of the determination was ensured using standard reference material NIST-SRM-1548a. The results show that the daily intake for Zn were 2.8-22.8 mg/day (reference value were 5- 40 mg/day), Fe were 3.1-26.5 mg/day (reference value were 6-40 mg/day), AI were 4,2-32.9 mg/day (reference value were 2-45 mg/day), Mn were 1.0-5,6 mg/day (reference value were 0.4-10,0 mg/day), and Co were 0,005-0,074 mg/day (reference value were 0.005 -1.8 mg/day

  10. Alterations of T cell activation signalling and cytokine production by postmenopausal estrogen levels

    Taylor Douglas D

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immunosenescence is an age-associated disorder occurring primarily in T cell compartments, including altered subset composition, functions, and activation. In women, evidence implicates diminished estrogen in the postmenopausal period as a contributing factor to diminished T cell responsiveness. Since hypoestrogenism is present in postmenopausal women, our objective focused on whether T cell activation, defined as signalling molecule expressions and activation, and function, identified as IL-2 production, were affected by low estrogen. Methods Using Jurkat 6.1 T cells, consequences of 4 pg/ml (corresponding to postmenopausal levels or 40 pg/ml (premenopausal levels of estradiol (E2 were analyzed on signalling proteins, CD3-zeta, JAK2, and JAK3, determined by Western immunoblotting. These consequences were correlated with corresponding gene expressions, quantified by real time-polymerase chain reaction. Tyrosine phosphorylation of CD3-zeta was defined by immunoprecipitation and western immunoblotting following activation by T cell receptor (TcR cross-linking. CD3-zeta expression and modulation was also confirmed in T cells from pre- and postmenopausal women. To assess functional consequences, IL-2 production, induced by PMA and ionomycin, was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay (ELISpot. Results At 40 pg/ml E2, the level of signalling protein CD3-zeta was elevated 1.57-fold, compared with cells exposed to 4 pg/ml E2. The CD3-zeta proteins also exhibited altered levels of activation-induced phosphorylation in the presence of 40 pg/ml E2 versus 4 pg/ml: 23 kD phosphorylated form increased 2.64-fold and the 21 kD form was elevated 2.95-fold. Examination of kinases associated with activation signalling also demonstrated that, in the presence of 40 pg/ml E2, JAK2 protein expression was increased 1.64-fold (p 2 (2.39, 2.01, and 2.21 fold, respectively versus 4 pg/ml. These findings were confirmed in vivo, since T

  11. Meta-analysis of internet-delivered interventions to increase physical activity levels

    Davies Cally A

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many internet-delivered physical activity behaviour change programs have been developed and evaluated. However, further evidence is required to ascertain the overall effectiveness of such interventions. The objective of the present review was to evaluate the effectiveness of internet-delivered interventions to increase physical activity, whilst also examining the effect of intervention moderators. A systematic search strategy identified relevant studies published in the English-language from Pubmed, Proquest, Scopus, PsychINFO, CINHAL, and Sport Discuss (January 1990 – June 2011. Eligible studies were required to include an internet-delivered intervention, target an adult population, measure and target physical activity as an outcome variable, and include a comparison group that did not receive internet-delivered materials. Studies were coded independently by two investigators. Overall effect sizes were combined based on the fixed effect model. Homogeneity and subsequent exploratory moderator analysis was undertaken. A total of 34 articles were identified for inclusion. The overall mean effect of internet-delivered interventions on physical activity was d = 0.14 (p = 0.00. Fixed-effect analysis revealed significant heterogeneity across studies (Q = 73.75; p = 0.00. Moderating variables such as larger sample size, screening for baseline physical activity levels and the inclusion of educational components significantly increased intervention effectiveness. Results of the meta-analysis support the delivery of internet-delivered interventions in producing positive changes in physical activity, however effect sizes were small. The ability of internet-delivered interventions to produce meaningful change in long-term physical activity remains unclear.

  12. National Study on the Physical Activity Level as a Means of Preserving Health

    Dan GAIŢĂ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the factors acting as a burden to health, physical inactivity ranks fourth as a risk factor for all-cause mortality and sixth among the risk factor for loss of disability in adjusted life years. Unhealthy diets and physical inactivity are key risk factors for the major noncommunicable diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer and diabetes. It were investigated a sample of 1106 Romanian subjects, aged 18 and over. 53% of the questioned population is informed regarding the benefits of daily physical activities, but only 35% of Romanians declare that they find it easy to apply what they know about maintaining health. Their main sources of information are: television (56% and Internet (17%. 49% perform appropriate physical activity; walking (51% and household activities (32% are the main physical activities performed by Romanians, while sports are performed by few of those interviewed (running – 12%, fitness – 7%, cycling – 6%, football – 6%, gymnastics – 4%, while all the other did not score over 2%. Half of respondents practice physical activities rarely or not at all, and the main reasons for the sedentary behaviour are the lack of time (42%, lack of money (16% or convenience (15%. Nearly half of Romanians are sedentary. Although the level of information regarding the benefits of physical activities is satisfactory, the degree of putting this information into practice is very small; the population is not sufficiently aware of the necessity to perform physical activities, in spite of the fact that the effects of a sedentary lifestyle are evident.

  13. Energy Conservation Analysis and Control of Hybrid Active Semiactive Suspension with Three Regulating Damping Levels

    Long Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Active suspension has not been popularized for high energy consumption. To address this issue, this paper introduces the concept of a new kind of suspension. The linear motor is considered to be integrated into an adjustable shock absorber to form the hybrid active semiactive suspension (HASAS. To realize the superiority of HASAS, its energy consumption and regeneration mechanisms are revealed. And the system controller which is composed of linear quadratic regulator (LQR controller, mode decision and switch controller, and the sliding mode control based thrust controller is developed. LQR controller is designed to maintain the suspension control objectives, while mode decision and switch controller decides the optimal damping level to tune motor thrust. The thrust controller ensures motor thrust tracking. An adjustable shock absorber with three regulating levels to be used in HASAS is trial produced and tested to obtain its working characteristics. Finally, simulation analysis is made with the experimental three damping characteristics. The impacts of adjustable damping on the motor force and energy consumption are investigated. Simulation results demonstrate the advantages of HASAS in energy conservation with various suspension control objectives. Even self-powered active control and energy regenerated to the power source can be realized.

  14. The role of galactic cold gas in low-level supermassive black hole activity

    Alfvin, Erik D; Haynes, Martha P; Gallo, Elena; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Koopmann, Rebecca A; Hodges-Kluck, Edmund; Cannon, John M

    2016-01-01

    The nature of the relationship between low-level supermassive black hole (SMBH) activity and galactic cold gas, if any, is currently unclear. Here, we test whether central black holes may feed at higher rates in gas-rich galaxies, probing SMBH activity well below the active regime down to Eddington ratios of ~1e-7. We use a combination of radio data from the ALFALFA survey and from the literature, along with archival X-ray flux measurements from the Chandra X-ray observatory, to investigate this potential relationship. We construct a sample of 129 late-type galaxies, with MB<-18 out to 50 Mpc, that have both HI masses and sensitive X-ray coverage. Of these, 75 host a nuclear X-ray source, a 58% detection fraction. There is a highly significant correlation between nuclear X-ray luminosity LX and galaxy stellar mass Mstar with a slope of 1.7+/-0.3, and a tentative correlation (significant at the 2.8 sigma level) between LX and HI gas mass MHI. However, a joint fit to LX as a function of both Mstar and MHI fi...

  15. Business trends report 2006. High oil prices ensure high activity level; What are the challenges?

    The first in a series of annual business trends reports which The Norwegian Oil Industry Association (OLF) has decided to publish. The report highlights features in the development of the global economy and the energy markets, and presents an analysis of the level of activity on the Norwegian Shelf through to 2010. It also gives a status report and outlines the challenges that lie within three important areas for the oil industry: the relationship with the external environment, health, safety and working environment, and personnel and competence requirements within the industry. The main message contained in the report is summarised as follows: 'While prospects for the immediate future look good, we foresee a lack of new, important and technically challenging projects in the longer term. Discoveries made on the Norwegian Shelf during recent years have been small. Exploration activity must be intensified and its results must be improved. The most important and effective stimulus in this connection is new prospective exploration acreage. The Comprehensive Management Plan for Lofoten and the Barents Sea will be revised in 2010. By that time the knowledge gaps in the plan have to be filled so that the decision-making basis is as good as possible. Even though the level of activity looks as if it will continue to be high in the medium term, we have no time to lose.' Environmental status and challenges are briefly reviewed, as well as the industry's future recruitment challenges (author) (ml)

  16. In vitro antibacterial activity of seven Indian spices against high level gentamicin resistant strains of enterococci

    Bipin, Chapagain; Chitra, Pai (Bhat); Minakshi, Bhattacharjee

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to explore the in vitro antibacterial activity of seven ethanolic extracts of spices against high level gentamicin resistant (HLGR) enterococci isolated from human clinical samples. Material and methods Two hundred and fifteen enterococcal strains were isolated from clinical samples. High level gentamicin resistance in ethanolic extracts of cumin (Cuminum cyminum), cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum), ginger (Zingiber officinale), fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum), cloves (Syzygium aromaticum), cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum Maton) and black pepper (Piper nigrum) were prepared using Soxhlet apparatus. The antibacterial effect of the extracts was studied using the well diffusion method. Statistical analysis was carried out by χ2 test using SPSS 17 software. Results Only cinnamon and ginger were found to have activity against all the isolates, whereas cumin and cloves had a variable effect on the strains. Fenugreek, black pepper and cardamom did not show any effect on the isolates. The zone diameter of inhibition obtained for cinnamon, ginger, cloves and cumin was in the range 31–34 mm, 27–30 mm, 25–26 mm and 19–20 mm respectively. Conclusions Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Z. officinale showed the maximum antibacterial activity against the enterococcal isolates followed by S. aromaticum and C. cyminum. The findings of the study show that spices used in the study can contribute to the development of potential antimicrobial agents for inclusion in the anti-enterococcal treatment regimen. PMID:26322099

  17. Entropy Generation and Human Aging: Lifespan Entropy and Effect of Physical Activity Level

    Silva, Carlos; Annamalai, Kalyan

    2008-06-01

    The first and second laws of thermodynamics were applied to biochemical reactions typical of human metabolism. An open-system model was used for a human body. Energy conservation, availability and entropy balances were performed to obtain the entropy generated for the main food components. Quantitative results for entropy generation were obtained as a function of age using the databases from the U.S. Food and Nutrition Board (FNB) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), which provide energy requirements and food intake composition as a function of age, weight and stature. Numerical integration was performed through human lifespan for different levels of physical activity. Results were presented and analyzed. Entropy generated over the lifespan of average individuals (natural death) was found to be 11,404 kJ/ºK per kg of body mass with a rate of generation three times higher on infants than on the elderly. The entropy generated predicts a life span of 73.78 and 81.61 years for the average U.S. male and female individuals respectively, which are values that closely match the average lifespan from statistics (74.63 and 80.36 years). From the analysis of the effect of different activity levels, it is shown that entropy generated increases with physical activity, suggesting that exercise should be kept to a “healthy minimum” if entropy generation is to be minimized.

  18. Energy levels of the Ce activator relative to the YAP(Ce) scintillator host

    The electronic structure of the cerium-activated yttrium aluminum perovskite [YAP(Ce)] scintillator has been studied by core level x-ray spectroscopy and first-principles calculations. X-ray absorption and emission spectra at the oxygen K-edge of YAP(Ce) and CeO2 have been measured and compared with the calculated partial density of states. With the known band gap of CeO2, the measured oxygen K-edge absorption and emission spectra are used to construct a fixed relation between the valence and conduction bands of YAP and CeO2. This allows us to determine the fundamental band gap of YAP to be 8.1 ± 0.3 eV. A comparison between the cerium M4,5-edges x-ray absorption spectra of the YAP(Ce) and Ce model compounds (CeO2, CeF3, and Ce foils) then shows that the Ce activator is in the desired Ce3+, with a small fraction of Ce4+ due to oxidization at the surface. Finally, we determine that the ground state 4f1 energy level of the Ce3+ activator lies 1.8 ± 0.5 eV above the top of the valence band of the host YAP. (paper)

  19. Persistent organochlorine pollutants with endocrine activity and blood steroid hormone levels in middle-aged men.

    Elise Emeville

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies relating long-term exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs with endocrine activities (endocrine disrupting chemicals on circulating levels of steroid hormones have been limited to a small number of hormones and reported conflicting results. OBJECTIVE: We examined the relationship between serum concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, androstenedione, androstenediol, testosterone, free and bioavailable testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estrone, estrone sulphate, estradiol, sex-hormone binding globulin, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone as a function of level of exposure to three POPs known to interfere with hormone-regulated processes in different way: dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene (DDE, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB congener 153, and chlordecone. METHODS: We collected fasting, morning serum samples from 277 healthy, non obese, middle-aged men from the French West Indies. Steroid hormones were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, except for dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, which was determined by immunological assay, as were the concentrations of sex-hormone binding globulin, follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone. Associations were assessed by multiple linear regression analysis, controlling for confounding factors, in a backward elimination procedure, in multiple bootstrap samples. RESULTS: DDE exposure was negatively associated to dihydrotestosterone level and positively associated to luteinizing hormone level. PCB 153 was positively associated to androstenedione and estrone levels. No association was found for chlordecone. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggested that the endocrine response pattern, estimated by determining blood levels of steroid hormones, varies depending on the POPs studied, possibly reflecting differences in the modes of action generally attributed to these compounds. It remains to be investigated whether

  20. Design of LCL-Filter Based Three-level Active Power Filter

    Shilan Chen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an improved design of LCL-Filters for Three-Level Shunt Active power filters (APF. Available design principles are presented to achieve high compensation bandwidth and low switching frequency current. Then, affecitons of different parameters are taken into consideration of constraints on LCL-Filter design with detail analysis of ripple current. A simple and practical design procedure of LCL-Filter for Three-Level APF is subsequently proposed. The first step is to choose the resonant frequency of LCL-Filter according to the highest order harmonic needed to be compensated. Then it is aim to optimize the parameters of the LCL-Filter based on the design principles and constraints. The simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  1. Embedded Real-Time Architecture for Level-Set-Based Active Contours

    Dejnožková Eva

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Methods described by partial differential equations have gained a considerable interest because of undoubtful advantages such as an easy mathematical description of the underlying physics phenomena, subpixel precision, isotropy, or direct extension to higher dimensions. Though their implementation within the level set framework offers other interesting advantages, their vast industrial deployment on embedded systems is slowed down by their considerable computational effort. This paper exploits the high parallelization potential of the operators from the level set framework and proposes a scalable, asynchronous, multiprocessor platform suitable for system-on-chip solutions. We concentrate on obtaining real-time execution capabilities. The performance is evaluated on a continuous watershed and an object-tracking application based on a simple gradient-based attraction force driving the active countour. The proposed architecture can be realized on commercially available FPGAs. It is built around general-purpose processor cores, and can run code developed with usual tools.

  2. Sleep Quality and Recommended Levels of Physical Activity in Older People.

    Hartescu, Iuliana; Morgan, Kevin; Stevinson, Clare D

    2016-04-01

    A minimum level of activity likely to improve sleep outcomes among older people has not previously been explored. In a representative UK sample aged 65+ (n = 926), cross-sectional regressions controlling for appropriate confounders showed that walking at or above the internationally recommended threshold of ≥ 150 min per week was significantly associated with a lower likelihood of reporting insomnia symptoms (OR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.45-0.91, p walking levels at baseline significantly predicted a lower likelihood of reporting sleep onset (OR = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.42-0.97, p sleep maintenance (OR = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.41-0.95, p sleep quality in older adults. PMID:26291553

  3. Optimization of sorption technology processing of liquid radioactive waste of low and middle activity level

    A substantial amount of liquid radioactive wastes (LRW) is formed during the regeneration of irradiated nuclear fuel (INF). Liquid wastes of low activity level (LAL) include: wash water and leakages; water for hydrotransport; water in storage basins; water from special laundries and disinfestation posts; and waste deactivation solutions. The radioactivity of these LRWs is equal to 1 x 10-7 1 x 10-5 Ci/l. Depending on the sources of the water supply for processing of INF, as well as technology and time (seasons) of processing, productivity and other factors, variations exist in the chemical and radiochemical compositions of LAL. This article discusses various processing treatments for low and intermediate level radioactive wastes

  4. Loneliness in elderly individuals, level of dependence in activities of daily living (ADL) and influential factors.

    Hacihasanoğlu, Rabia; Yildirim, Arzu; Karakurt, Papatya

    2012-01-01

    This study has been carried out to investigate the level of loneliness, determine the level of dependence in the ADL and influential factors in the elderly people. This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in 5 Family Healthcare Centers (FHC) located in central Erzincan, Turkey between March and June 2010. The data of the research was collected using a questionnaire that determined the descriptive and UCLA Loneliness Scale (UCLA-LS). Mean score of the UCLA-LS was determined as 51.59 ± 4.44. It was determined that 2% of the elderly ADL were completely dependent, 14.5% were semi-dependent. Factors such as being old, a widow/divorced, having a lower level of education and/or income, living alone, having a chronic disease, poor self-perceived health, lack of visits by relatives or acquaintances, dissatisfaction with the place of living, and being fully dependent while performing daily activities were determined as factors which increased the level of loneliness. Furthermore, factors such as being old, a female, a widow/divorced, living together with a daughter/son, having a chronic disease and poor self-perceived health were found to be influential in dependency. Elderly people who are alone and dependent in fulfilling their ADL should be monitored more closely. PMID:21514680

  5. Analysis of impurities at trace levels in metallic niobium by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    The interest in obtaining niobium of high purity has increased due to the recent applications of this material in both vacuum and high temperature technologies and to its potential uses in the aeronautic and aerospacial industries and in the nuclear energy field. In the present work, a procedure of analysis of impurities in the parts per million level, in eletrolitic and non-eletrolitic niobium samples has been established. The method of neutron activation analysis followed by high resolution gamma ray spectrometry has been used. The elements Al, Na, Mn, Cl and In, in ppm level and Y, in the percentage level, were determined after irradiation from 1 to 20 minutes, under a thermal neutron flux of 1011 n.cm-2.s-1 at the IEA-Rl reactor of the IPEN-CNEN/SP. The γ-rays from the radioactive products were measured with a Ge(Li) detector coupled to a 4096 channel analyzer. The elements Ta, Cr and W, in the parts per million level, were determined with irradiation of 8 hours under a thermal neutron flux of 1012 n.cm-2.s-1. (autor)

  6. Quality of life and physical activity levels in outpatients with schizophrenia

    Eluana Gomes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess quality of life (QoL and physical activity (PA levels of outpatients with schizophrenia and healthy controls matched for age, gender, body mass index (BMI, hip circumference, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio. Additionally, the present study investigated associations between PA levels, QoL, and anthropometric and behavioral measures among outpatients with schizophrenia. Methods: Thirty-two outpatients with schizophrenia and 32 individuals without mental illness were included in the study. QoL and PA levels were assessed by the World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument - Abbreviated version (WHOQOL-Bref and by GT3X triaxial accelerometers, respectively. Results: Outpatients with schizophrenia had poorer QoL and lower vigorous PA levels compared with healthy controls (p < 0.05. The group with schizophrenia showed a significant association between higher weight and lower scores in the mental health domain of the WHOQOL-Bref. A higher BMI was also significantly associated with lower scores in the physical health domain of the WHOQOL-Bref. Schizophrenic patients with smoking behaviors were associated with fewer steps per day and with less moderate to vigorous PA. Conclusions: This study seeks to shed some light upon the lifestyle of patients with schizophrenia. New psychosocial approaches should focus on PA, weight, and smoking management, thereby helping these patients to improve their QoL.

  7. Knowledge Level Assessment in e-Learning Systems Using Machine Learning and User Activity Analysis

    Nazeeh Ghatasheh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Electronic Learning has been one of the foremost trends in education so far. Such importance draws the attention to an important shift in the educational paradigm. Due to the complexity of the evolving paradigm, the prospective dynamics of learning require an evolution of knowledge delivery and evaluation. This research work tries to put in hand a futuristic design of an autonomous and intelligent e-Learning system. In which machine learning and user activity analysis play the role of an automatic evaluator for the knowledge level. It is important to assess the knowledge level in order to adapt content presentation and to have more realistic evaluation of online learners. Several classification algorithms are applied to predict the knowledge level of the learners and the corresponding results are reported. Furthermore, this research proposes a modern design of a dynamic learning environment that goes along the most recent trends in e-Learning. The experimental results illustrate an overall performance superiority of a support vector machine model in evaluating the knowledge levels; having 98.6%of correctly classified instances with 0.0069 mean absolute error.

  8. Availability verification of information for human system interface in automatic SG level control using activity diagram

    Steam Generator (SG) level control system in OPR 1000 is one of representative automatic systems that falls under the Supervisory Control level in Endsley's taxonomy. Supervisory control of automated systems is classified as a form of out of the loop (OOTL) performance due to passive involvement in the systems operation, which could lead to loss of situation awareness (SA). There was a reported event, which was caused by inadequate human automation communication that contributed to an unexpected reactor trip in July 2005. A high SG level trip occurred in Yeonggwang (YGN) Unit 6 Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) due to human operator failure to recognize the need to change the control mode of the economizer valve controller (EVC) to manual mode during swap over (the transition from low power mode to high power mode) after the loss of offsite power (LOOP) event was recovered. This paper models the human system interaction in NPP SG level control system using Unified Modeling Language (UML) Activity Diagram. Then, it identifies the missing information for operators in the OPR1000 Main Control Room (MCR) and suggests some means of improving the human system interaction

  9. Selenium levels and Glutathione peroxidase activity in the plasma of patients with type II diabetes mellitus.

    González de Vega, Raquel; Fernández-Sánchez, María Luisa; Fernández, Juan Carlos; Álvarez Menéndez, Francisco Vicente; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo

    2016-09-01

    Selenium, an essential trace element, is involved in the complex system of defense against oxidative stress through selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidases (GPx) and other selenoproteins. Because of its antioxidant properties, selenium or its selenospecies at appropriate levels could hinder oxidative stress and so development of diabetes. In this vein, quantitative speciation of selenium in human plasma samples from healthy and diabetic patients (controlled and non-controlled) was carried out by affinity chromatography (AF) coupled on-line to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and isotope dilution analysis (IDA). Similarly, it is well known that patients with diabetes who exhibit poor control of blood glucose show a decreased total antioxidant activity. Thus, we evaluated the enzymatic activity of GPx in diabetic and healthy individuals, using the Paglia and Valentine enzymatic method, observing a significant difference (ptype II diabetes mellitus patients. PMID:27473831

  10. Provisional shielding for laboratory measurements of low level activities with semiconductor detectors

    The application of semiconductor spectrometry in low level counting requires the use of detector shielding to weaken the effect of ambient sources of ionizing radiation. The design is described of provisional shields of lead bricks for three different types of high-purity Ge detectors by Canberra. In the configuration of six polyethylene vessels around the detector with a total sample volume of 1200 ml, minimal detectable activities were determined of selected radionuclides. The experiment showed that the determination of minimal detectable activity in this configuration shows sufficient values for determining the content of natural and artificial radionuclides for monitoring samples from the environment of nuclear power plants. (Z.M.). 5 figs., 3 tabs., 2 refs

  11. Systems model for evaluating population dose from low-level waste activities

    This paper briefly describes a computer code developed to evaluate population dose or maximum individual dose from the various activities associated with shallow land burial of low-level wastes. The code, called BURYIT, treats a wide variety of scenarios to determine the effects of various parameters associated with siting, packaging and burial procedures on potential public exposure. In the analysis of radionuclide dispersal, BURYIT treats unsaturated zone seepage, aquifer transport, wind erosion and atmospheric transport. Population exposure pathways considered include direct exposure to undispersed wastes, direct exposure to contaminated air, direct exposure to contaminated ground, inhalation of contaminated air, and ingestion of contaminated food, water and milk

  12. On the apparent clustering of clonal albumin production and enzyme activity levels.

    Thaler, H T; Braun, H I

    1984-12-01

    This communication is a critique of a novel, but inappropriate, use of the correlation coefficient to demonstrate the clustering of biological activity levels about a purported geometric progression. The data are re-examined by using a Fourier analysis approach to test for periodicity on a logarithmic scale; this approach follows from the methods of Kendall (1974, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Series A 276, 231-266) and Fisher (1929, Proceedings of the Royal Statistical Society, Series A 125, 54-59). PMID:6534411

  13. Is HOMO Energy Level a Good Parameter to Characterize Antioxidant Activity

    2000-01-01

    Semiempirical quantum chemical method AM1 was employed to calculate the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy levels (EHOMO) for various types of antioxidants. It was verified that the correlation between logarithm of free radical scavenging rate constants (lgks) and EHOMO substantially arises from the correlation between EHOMO and O-H bond dissociation energies (BDE) of antioxidants. Furthermore, EHOMO were poorly correlated with the logarithm of relative free radical scavenging rate constants (lgk3/k1) for various types of antioxidants that possess complex structures (r = 0.5602). So in a broad sense, EHOMO was not an appropriate parameter to characterize the free radical scavenging activity of antioxidants.

  14. Development of the flowsheet used for decontaminating high-activity-level water at TMI-2. Draft

    Using a few small samples of high-activity-level water from TMI-2, a chemical processing flowsheet was developed for decontamination of the water and concentration of the radioactive contaminants in a form suitable for disposal. The initially selected process was evaluated and significantly improved. The improved process included sorption of the bulk radioactive materials, cesium and strontium, onto a mixture of inorganic zeolites and sorption of the anionic contaminants, antimony and ruthenium, plus the remaining traces of cesium and strontium onto standard organic ion exchange resins. The latter step was accomplished by means of a special deionization/sorption technique

  15. Soluble Urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor Levels in Tuberculosis Patients at High Risk for Multidrug Resistance

    Tri Yudani Mardining Raras; Triwahju Astuti; Iin Noor Chozin

    2012-01-01

    The soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) has been shown to be a strong prognostic biomarker for tuberculosis (TB). In the present study, the profiles of plasma suPAR levels in pulmonary TB patients at high risk for multidrug resistance were analyzed and compared with those in multidrug resistant (MDR)-TB patients. Forty patients were prospectively included, consisting of 10 MDR-TB patients and 30 TB patients at high risk for MDR, underwent clinical assesment. Plasma suPAR ...

  16. The central electricity generating board approach to low level waste activity assessment

    Assessment of the activity of low level waste (LLW) within Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) has historically been achieved by a combination of dose rate measurements and empirical isotopic composition data. Because of changes in regulatory requirements and the increased costs of disposal, it became clear in 1986/87 that fundamental changes in the method of assay of LLW were needed. This paper describes the approach adopted by CEGB to introduce these changes. Details of the philosophy of 'area fingerprints' and the programme of work for their determination are outlined together with a description of an on-site monitoring system which represents a practical implementation of the approach

  17. Stress hormone levels in a freshwater turtle from sites differing in human activity

    Polich, Rebecca L.

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoids, such as corticosterone (CORT), commonly serve as a measure of stress levels in vertebrate populations. These hormones have been implicated in regulation of feeding behaviour, locomotor activity, body mass, lipid metabolism and other crucial behaviours and physiological processes. Thus, understanding how glucocorticoids fluctuate seasonally and in response to specific stressors can yield insight into organismal health and the overall health of populations. I compared circulating CORT concentrations between two similar populations of painted turtle, Chrysemys picta, which differed primarily in the level of exposure to human recreational activities. I measured basal CORT concentrations as well as the CORT stress response and did not find any substantive difference between the two populations. This similarity may indicate that painted turtles are not stressed by the presence of humans during the nesting season. The results of this study contribute to our understanding of CORT concentrations in freshwater reptiles, a group that is historically under-represented in studies of circulating hormone concentrations; specifically, studies that seek to use circulating concentrations of stress hormones, such as CORT, as a measure of the effect of human activities on wild populations. They also give insight into how these species as a whole may respond to human recreational activities during crucial life-history stages, such as the nesting season. Although there was no discernable difference between circulating CORT concentrations between the urban and rural populations studied, I did find a significant difference in circulating CORT concentrations between male and female C. picta. This important finding provides better understanding of the sex differences between male and female painted turtles and adds to our understanding of this species and other species of freshwater turtle. PMID:27293763

  18. The twilight zone: ambient light levels trigger activity in primitive ants.

    Narendra, Ajay; Reid, Samuel F; Hemmi, Jan M

    2010-05-22

    Many animals become active during twilight, a narrow time window where the properties of the visual environment are dramatically different from both day and night. Despite the fact that many animals including mammals, reptiles, birds and insects become active in this specific temporal niche, we do not know what cues trigger this activity. To identify the onset of specific temporal niches, animals could anticipate the timing of regular events or directly measure environmental variables. We show that the Australian bull ant, Myrmecia pyriformis, starts foraging only during evening twilight throughout the year. The onset occurs neither at a specific temperature nor at a specific time relative to sunset, but at a specific ambient light intensity. Foraging onset occurs later when light intensities at sunset are brighter than normal or earlier when light intensities at sunset are darker than normal. By modifying ambient light intensity experimentally, we provide clear evidence that ants indeed measure light levels and do not rely on an internal rhythm to begin foraging. We suggest that the reason for restricting the foraging onset to twilight and measuring light intensity to trigger activity is to optimize the trade-off between predation risk and ease of navigation. PMID:20129978

  19. Comparative study of different types of granular activated carbon in removing medium level radon from water

    Granular activated carbon (GAC) has proven its effectiveness in removing radon from water supplies. Laboratory and pilot plant studies were carried out using three different types of activated carbons (F-300, F-400, and HD-4000) to remove radon from water supply. From the experimental kinetic study, the data indicated that at least 6 h are needed to attain equilibrium between radon activity adsorbed onto carbon and its concentration in the aqueous phase. Also, it showed that HD-4000 has higher capacity for removing radon than the other two investigated carbons F-300 and F-400. The adsorption isotherms were satisfactorily explained by Freundlich equation. In the pilot plant study, the performance of the three activated carbons in removing radon at medium concentration (∼111 Bq dm-3) was evaluated over 60 days of continuous water flow. Four empty-bed contact times (EBCTs) corresponding to four bed depths were continuously monitored and the corresponding steady state adsorption-decay constant values were calculated and the efficiency of each carbon was used to provide a facet for comparison. The γ-radiation exposure rate distribution throughout each GAC bed was measured and compared. This study, despite paucity of literature in this field, is useful for designing a GAC adsorption system for the removal of medium level radon concentration from water supplies. (author)

  20. Optimization of effectiveness of competition activity of sportsmen on the basis of increase of level of their psychological stability

    Muntian V.S.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article is chosen particularities to psychological preparedness athletes in single combat, is determined their role in optimization scholastic-burn-in process and competition to activity. Psychology test athlete is realized on Spilberger questionnaire is revealed level larval and situational state of anxiety. The motivated influence to psychological stability on increasing level athletics competitive result, and applied activity fighter.

  1. Two discrete components of the 20 Hz steady-state response are distinguished through the modulation of activation level

    Griskova, Inga; Mørup, Morten; Parnas, Josef; Ruksenas, Osvaldas; Arnfred, Sidse Marie

    2009-01-01

    interest (high activation level) and while subjects were sitting in a reclined position with eyes closed and the lights turned off (low activation level). Sixty-one channel EEG data was wavelet transformed, the amplitude and phase precision measures extracted and decomposed by the multi-subject non...

  2. Research Note: Physical Activity Levels in Elementary-School Physical Education: A Comparison of Swimming and Nonswimming Classes

    Cardon, Greet; Verstraete, Stefanie; De Clercq, Dirk; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2004-01-01

    The main goal of the current study was to compare physical activity levels during swimming and nonswimming elementary physical education classes. We conducted a preliminary study and found that the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT) could be used to register physical activity engagement levels in swimming classes. Thirty-nine…

  3. Physical activity levels in adults with intellectual disabilities: A systematic review.

    Dairo, Yetunde Marion; Collett, Johnny; Dawes, Helen; Oskrochi, G Reza

    2016-12-01

    Despite evidence that inactivity is a major factor causing ill health in people with intellectual disabilities (pwID) there are gaps in our knowledge of their physical activity (PA). To date, there is no published systematic review of their PA levels. Therefore, we performed a systematic review from January-October 2015, comprising studies from across the globe to establish PA levels, determine how they were measured, and what factors influenced PA in adults with intellectual disabilities (awID). Five databases were searched. Studies were included if written in English, peer-reviewed, had primary research data, and measured PA levels of awID. Quality was assessed using a 19-item checklist. Meta-summary of the findings was performed and a meta-analysis of factors influencing PA using multiple regression. Fifteen studies were included consisting of 3159 awID, aged 16-81 years, 54% male and 46% female. Only 9% of participants achieved minimum PA guidelines. PA levels were measured using objective and subjective methods. ID severity, living in care, gender, and age were independently significantly correlated with the number of participants achieving PA guidelines with the strongest predictor being ID severity (Beta 0.631, p < 0.001). Findings should be in the context that most of the participants were in the mild/moderate range of ID severity and none of the studies objectively measured PA in people with profound ID. To inform measurement and intervention design for improved PA, we recommend that there is an urgent need for future PA studies in awID population to include all disability severity levels. PROSPERO registration number CRD42015016675. PMID:27413684

  4. Levels of Matrix Metalloproteinases in Arthroplasty Patients and Their Correlation With Inflammatory and Thrombotic Activation Processes.

    Alexander, Kyle; Banos, Andrew; Abro, Schuharazad; Hoppensteadt, Debra; Fareed, Jawed; Rees, Harold; Hopkinson, William

    2016-07-01

    An imbalance of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their inhibitors is thought to play a major role in the pathophysiology of joint diseases. The aim of this study is to provide additional insights into the relevance of MMP levels in arthroplasty patients in relation to inflammation and thrombosis. Deidentified plasma samples from 100 patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty or total knee arthroplasty were collected preoperatively, on postoperative day 1, and on postoperative day 3. Tissue inhibitor of MMP 4, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), pro-MMP1, MMP3, MMP9, MMP13, and d-dimer were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. A biochip array was used to profile interleukin (IL) 2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interferon gamma, TNF-α, IL-1α, IL-1β, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, and endothelial growth factor (EGF) levels. The levels of MMP1, MMP9, MMP13, and TNF-α were elevated preoperatively in arthroplasty patients when compared to healthy individuals. The concentrations of MMP1 and MMP9 increased slightly in postsurgical samples. d-Dimer levels were elevated preoperatively, increased postoperatively, and started decreasing on postoperative day 3. Significant correlations between MMP9 with TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, VEGF, and EGF were identified. Elevated preoperative MMP1, MMP9, and MMP13 concentrations suggest that they may play a role in the pathogenesis of arthritis. There is also evidence of increased coagulation activity and possible upregulation of several MMPs postsurgically. Correlation analysis indicates that MMP9 levels may potentially be related to inflammation and thrombosis in arthroplasty patients. PMID:27052781

  5. [Effect of fertilization levels on soil microorganism amount and soil enzyme activities].

    Wang, Wei-Ling; Du, Jun-Bo; Xu, Fu-Li; Zhang, Xiao-Hu

    2013-11-01

    Field experiments were conducted in Shangluo pharmaceutical base in Shaanxi province to study the effect of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in different fertilization levels on Platycodon grandiflorum soil microorganism and activities of soil enzyme, using three-factor D-saturation optimal design with random block design. The results showed that N0P2K2, N2P2K0, N3P1K3 and N3P3K1 increased the amount of bacteria in 0-20 cm of soil compared with N0P0K0 by 144.34%, 39.25%, 37.17%, 53.58%, respectively. The amount of bacteria in 2040 cm of soil of N3P1K3 increased by 163.77%, N0P0K3 increased the amount of soil actinomycetes significantly by 192.11%, while other treatments had no significant effect. N2P0K2 and N3P1K3 increased the amounts of fungus significantly in 0-20 cm of soil compared with N0P0K0, increased by 35.27% and 92.21%, respectively. N3P0K0 increased the amounts of fungus significantly in 20-40 cm of soil by 165.35%, while other treatments had no significant effect. All treatments decrease soil catalase activity significantly in 0-20 cm of soil except for N2P0K2, and while N2P2K0 and NPK increased catalase activity significantly in 2040 cm of soil. Fertilization regime increased invertase activity significantly in 2040 cm of soil, and decreased phosphatase activity inordinately in 0-20 cm of soil, while increased phosphatase activity in 2040 cm of soil other than N1P3K3. N3P0K0, N0P0K3, N2P0K2, N2P2K0 and NPK increased soil urease activity significantly in 0-20 cm of soil compared with N0P0K0 by 18.22%, 14.87%,17.84%, 27.88%, 24.54%, respectively. Fertilization regime increased soil urease activity significantly in 2040 cm of soil other than N0P2K2. PMID:24558863

  6. The association of levels of physical activity with metabolic syndrome in rural Australian adults

    Laatikainen Tiina

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity (PA reduces risk factors related to metabolic syndrome. Rurality influences the way people incorporate physical activity into daily life. The aim of this study is to determine the association of PA level with metabolic syndrome in a rural Australian population. The influence of adiposity on these associations is also investigated. Methods Three cross-sectional population health surveys were conducted in south-east Australia during 2004–2006 using a random population sample (n = 1563, participation rate 49% aged 25–74 years. PA was assessed via a self-administered questionnaire, and components of the metabolic syndrome via anthropometric measurements taken by specially trained nurses and laboratory tests. Results Approximately one-fifth of participants were inactive in leisure-time and over one-third had metabolic syndrome (men 39%, women 33%; p = 0.022. There was an inverse association between level of PA and metabolic syndrome (p Conclusion Some PA is better than none if adults, particularly women, are to reduce their risk of metabolic syndrome and associated vascular diseases. Specialised interventions that take rurality into consideration are recommended for adults who are inactive.

  7. Effects of simvastatin on lipid levels and platelet activation in elderly patients with hypercholesterolemia

    Zhe Chen; Yuanping Hou; Miaobin Liu

    2007-01-01

    Background and Objective To investigate the effects of simvastatin on lipid lowering therapy and platelet activation in elderly patients with hypercholesterolemia. Methods Fasting serum lipids, CD63, CD41a, serum glucose, hepatic and renal function, routine urine analysis (UA) were measured in 50 healthy subjects, and in 50 elderly patients with hypercholesterolemia before and after 4 weeks treatment with simvastatin (20mg daily for 4 weeks). Results 1. After simvastatin treatment for 4 weeks, the fasting serum level of lipids in elderly patients with hypercholesterolemia was significantly lower than before treatment (P<0.01). 2. CD63 and CD41a were decreased after treatment compared with before, respectively (1.36 0.34) vs (4.26 1.06), (P<0.01) and (123.54 19.73) vs (253.78 16.75), (P<0.01).3. Changes in serum lipid level tended to be positively correlated with the declines in CD63 and CD41a, but there was no statistical significance (P>0.05). Conclusions The results suggested that lipid lowering therapy with simvastatin inhibit platelet activity.

  8. Generic conditional clearance for very low level active charcoal generated in nuclear power plant operation

    This report proposes a generic conditional exemption to the very low level active charcoal generated in the operation of a NPP. The project has been developed in two parts: a common one (applied to the stream to be exempted) and a specific one (specific to the NPP that fulfills already the common part requirements). The common project specifies the methodology and the disposal options. It provides derived exemption levels and maximum amount of activity the exemption of which be feasible, demonstrating the viability of their conventional management. The specific project of each NPP will develop the amount of waste to be managed and other details that supplement the previous project, adjusting to the methodology and disposal options in the common project. The proposed management suggestion consists in burning the waste in a coal-burning plant and disposing of the scum in a controlled landfill. The resultant radiological dose is considered negligible according to the document Safety Series N 89 of the IAEA. The calculation of the radiological dose associated to several stages has been carried out using the IMPACTS-BRC code, contained in NUREG/CR-3585 and NUREG/5517. The methodology used in the radiological dose evaluation is as recommended in the Safety Guide n. 7.8 of the Spanish Nuclear Safety Council. (Author)

  9. Public acceptance activities for final disposal of high-level radioactive waste in Japan

    In Japan, the Specified Radioactive Waste Final Disposal Act (hereafter the Act) was promulgated in June 2000, with a view to ensuring systematic and safe disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The Act calls for the establishment of an implementing body responsible for disposal of high-level waste (HLW). The body specified under the Act, the Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan (NUMO), was established in October 2000. In order to initiate the disposal project for HLW in Japan, NUMO selected an open solicitation approach for finding candidate sites and sent an information package to all municipalities in Japan in December 2002. For successful implementation of the HLW project, it is essential to gain public understanding of the need for HLW disposal in Japan, the disposal system planned by NUMO and NUMO's activities, with the focus on the following: the development of repository concepts in Japan, the site selection process, the open solicitation approach and the public outreach scheme. NUMO has organized fact-to-face forums and conducted information campaigns in leading newspapers, on TV and in magazines to raise awareness of its mission and activities. As a result of these actions, some municipalities have expressed an interested in the project, but this has not yet led to the first step of conducting literature surveys. Experience with municipalities that expressed an interest indicates the need to step up efforts towards improving the understanding of the final disposal project by the general public and local residents. (author)

  10. Interevent time distributions of human multi-level activity in a virtual world

    Mryglod, O.; Fuchs, B.; Szell, M.; Holovatch, Yu.; Thurner, S.

    2015-02-01

    Studying human behavior in virtual environments provides extraordinary opportunities for a quantitative analysis of social phenomena with levels of accuracy that approach those of the natural sciences. In this paper we use records of player activities in the massive multiplayer online game Pardus over 1238 consecutive days, and analyze dynamical features of sequences of actions of players. We build on previous work where temporal structures of human actions of the same type were quantified, and provide an empirical understanding of human actions of different types. This study of multi-level human activity can be seen as a dynamic counterpart of static multiplex network analysis. We show that the interevent time distributions of actions in the Pardus universe follow highly non-trivial distribution functions, from which we extract action-type specific characteristic 'decay constants'. We discuss characteristic features of interevent time distributions, including periodic patterns on different time scales, bursty dynamics, and various functional forms on different time scales. We comment on gender differences of players in emotional actions, and find that while males and females act similarly when performing some positive actions, females are slightly faster for negative actions. We also observe effects on the age of players: more experienced players are generally faster in making decisions about engaging in and terminating enmity and friendship, respectively.

  11. Activity in superior parietal cortex during training by observation predicts asymmetric learning levels across hands.

    Ossmy, Ori; Mukamel, Roy

    2016-01-01

    A dominant concept in motor cognition associates action observation with motor control. Previous studies have shown that passive action observation can result in significant performance gains in humans. Nevertheless, it is unclear whether the neural mechanism subserving such learning codes abstract aspects of the action (e.g. goal) or low level aspects such as effector identity. Eighteen healthy subjects learned to perform sequences of finger movements by passively observing right or left hand performing the same sequences in egocentric view. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging we show that during passive observation, activity in the superior parietal lobule (SPL) contralateral to the identity of the observed hand (right\\left), predicts subsequent performance gains in individual subjects. Behaviorally, left hand observation resulted in positively correlated performance gains of the two hands. Conversely right hand observation yielded negative correlation - individuals with high performance gains in one hand exhibited low gains in the other. Such behavioral asymmetry is reflected by activity in contralateral SPL during short-term training in the absence of overt physical practice and demonstrates the role of observed hand identity in learning. These results shed new light on the coding level in SPL and have implications for optimizing motor skill learning. PMID:27535179

  12. Recruitment of rat diaphragm motor units across motor behaviors with different levels of diaphragm activation.

    Seven, Yasin B; Mantilla, Carlos B; Sieck, Gary C

    2014-12-01

    Phrenic motor neurons are recruited across a range of motor behaviors to generate varying levels of diaphragm muscle (DIAm) force. We hypothesized that DIAm motor units are recruited in a fixed order across a range of motor behaviors of varying force levels, consistent with the Henneman Size Principle. Single motor unit action potentials and compound DIAm EMG activities were recorded in anesthetized, neurally intact rats across different motor behaviors, i.e., eupnea, hypoxia-hypercapnia (10% O2 and 5% CO2), deep breaths, sustained airway occlusion, and sneezing. Central drive [estimated by root-mean-squared (RMS) EMG value 75 ms after the onset of EMG activity (RMS75)], recruitment delay, and onset discharge frequencies were similar during eupnea and hypoxia-hypercapnia. Compared with eupnea, central drive increased (∼25%) during deep breaths, and motor units were recruited ∼12 ms earlier (P hypoxia-hypercapnia, deep breaths, and airway occlusion, respectively. Reversals in motor unit recruitment order were observed primarily if motor unit pairs were recruited <20 ms apart. These results are consistent with DIAm motor unit recruitment order being determined primarily by the intrinsic size-dependent electrophysiological properties of phrenic motor neurons. PMID:25257864

  13. The Contribution of Former Work-Related Activity Levels to Predict Physical Activity and Sedentary Time during Early Retirement: Moderating Role of Educational Level and Physical Functioning

    Delfien Van Dyck; Greet Cardon; Benedicte Deforche; Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The transition to retirement introduces a decline in total physical activity and an increase in TV viewing time. Nonetheless, as more time becomes available, early retirement is an ideal stage to implement health interventions. Therefore, knowledge on specific determinants of physical activity and sedentary time is needed. Former work-related physical activity has been proposed as a potential determinant, but concrete evidence is lacking. The aim of this study was to examine if fo...

  14. Small Area and Individual Level Predictors of Physical Activity in Urban Communities: A Multi-Level Study in Stoke on Trent, England

    Hilde Stephansen

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Reducing population physical inactivity has been declared a global public health priority. We report a detailed multi-level analysis of small area indices and individual factors as correlates of physical activity in deprived urban areas. Multi-level regression analysis was used to investigate environmental and individual correlates of physical activity. Nine individual factors were retained in the overall model, two related to individual intentions or beliefs, three to access to shops, work or fast food outlets and two to weather; age and gender being the other two. Four area level indices related to: traffic, road casualties, criminal damage and access to green space were important in explaining variation in physical activity.

  15. The Treatment of Low Level Radioactive Liquid Waste Containing Detergent by Biological Activated Sludge Process

    The treatment of low level radioactive liquid waste containing persil detergent from laundry operation of contaminated clothes by activated sludge process has been done, for alternative process replacing the existing treatment by evaporation. The detergent concentration in water solution from laundry operation is 14.96 g/l. After rinsing operation of clothes and mixing of laundry water solution with another liquid waste, the waste water solution contains about ≤ 1.496 g/l of detergent and 10-3 Ci/m3 of Cs-137 activity. The simulation waste having equivalent activity of Cs-137 10-3 Ci/m3, detergent content (X) 1.496, 0.748, 0.374, 0.187, 0.1496 and 0.094 g/l on BOD value respectively 186, 115, 71, 48, 19, and 16 ppm was processed by activated sludge in reactor of 18.6 l capacity on ambient temperature. It is used Super Growth Bacteria (SGB) 102 and SGB 104, nitrogen and phosphor nutrition, and aeration. The result show that bacteria of SGB 102 and SGB 104 were able to degrade the persil detergent for attaining standard quality of water release category B in which BOD values 6 ppm. It was need 30 hours for X ≤ 0.187 g/l, 50 hours for 0.187 < X ≤ 0.374 g/l, 75 hours for 0.374 < X ≤ 0.748, and 100 hours for 0.748 < X ≤ 1.496 g/l. On the initial period the bacteria of SGB 104 interact most quickly to degrade the detergent comparing SGB 102. Biochemical oxidation process decontaminate the solution on the decontamination factor of 350, Cs-137 be concentrate in sludge by complexing with the bacteria wall until the activity of solution be become very low. (author)

  16. The Physical Activity Levels and Sedentary Behaviors of Latino Children in London (Ontario, Canada

    Gillian Mandich

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the physical activity and sedentary behaviors of a sample of Latino children in London, Ontario, Canada. Methods: Seventy-four Latino children (54.1% male; mean age = 11.4 completed self-report questionnaires related to physical activity and sedentary behaviors. A subset of children (n = 64 wore Actical (Mini Mitter, Respironics accelerometers for a maximum of four days. Results: Latino children self-reported moderate levels of physical activity (i.e., mean score of 2.8 on 5-point scale. Accelerometer data revealed that children spent an average of 50.0 min in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA; 59.2 min on weekdays and 50.6 min on weekend days and were sedentary for an average of 8.4 h (508.0 min per day (533.5 min on weekdays and 497.7 min on weekend days. Children reported spending an average of 3.8 h (228 min daily in front of screens—1.7 h (102 min watching television, 1.2 h (72 min on the computer, and 0.9 h (54 min playing video games. Conclusions: This feasibility project provided a preliminary account of objectively measured daily physical activity and sedentary time among a sample of Latino children in Canada, as well as insight into the challenge of measuring these behaviors. Sedentary behavior reduction techniques should be explored and implemented in this young population, along with strategies to promote adherence to accelerometer protocols.

  17. STUDY OF SERUM HAPTOGLOBIN LEVEL AND ITS RELATION TO ERYTHROPOIETIC ACTIVITY IN BETA THALASSEMIA CHILDREN .

    Seham Ragab

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background  :Serum haptoglobin (Hp is a reliable marker for hemolysis regardless the inflammatory state.  Objective: We investigated the possible relation between Hp depletion and hemolysis severity, hepatitis C virus (HCV infection and iron load in β-thalassemia children. Methods: Twenty  two β-thalassemia major (TM ,20 β-thalassemia  intermedia (TI children with 20 age and sex matched healthy controls were involved. Pre-transfusion hemoglobin level was considered . Serum ferritin , Hp  and transferrin receptor  levels (sTfR  (by ELISA , alanine aminotransferase (ALT and  aspartate aminotransferase (AST  (by colorimetric method were assayed. Markers of hepatitis C virus  (HCV  were done by PCR. Results:  The mean Hp levels among the studied groups were as follows; 8.02 ± 0.93 (mg/dl , 8.6 ±0.72 (mg/dl  and 122  ± 18.5(mg/dl   for TM ,TI and the controls respectively . Both patient groups had significantly lower Hp level compared to the controls (P<0.0001  with significant lower level in TM compared to TI  children ( P= 0.034  .Significant inverse correlations were  found between serum Hp and sTfR levels in thalassemia children combined and in each group (TM and TI as well as among HCV infected children. STfR   was the only significant independent predictor for  serum Hp level (t= -5.585 , P<0.0001 . Among  HCV infected patients , no significant correlation was found between serum Hp and serum transaminases  .Conclusion:  Serum Hp depletion in thalassemia had significant relation to disease severity and correlated   well with their erythropoietic activity, as assessed by the measurement of  sTfR without significant relation  HCV infection . Large sample  multicenter studies are  recommended.

  18. Association of higher resistin levels with inflammatory activation and endothelial dysfunction in patients with essential hypertension

    FANG Chang; LEI Juan; ZHOU Shu-xian; ZHANG Yu-ling; YUAN Gui-yi; WANG Jing-feng

    2013-01-01

    Background Some studies have shown that serum resistin levels increase in hypertensive patients.Whether the increase of resistin is related to inflammatory or vascular endothelial function is still unknown.We investigated the relationship of increased resistin levels to inflammatory factors and circulating biomarkers of vascular endothelial function in hypertensive patients.Methods One hundred and forty-four nondiabetic patients with new onset,hypertension were recruited.Blood pressure,blood glucose,insulin,resistin,tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α),interleukin-6 (IL-6),von Willebrand factor (vWF),endothelin-1 (ET-1) and nitric oxide (NO)were measured.The homeostasis model assessment,insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) was calculated.Patients were divided into two groups according to the median level of resistin.Cytokine levels and indicators of vascular endothelial function were compared.Multiple linear regression was used to determine factors influencing resistin.Results Serum resistin ranged from 2.57 ng/ml to 20.18 ng/ml in hypertensive patients.High resistin group (>8.36 ng/ml) had higher levels of TNF-α,IL-6,vWF and ET-1 but lower level of NO compared with low resistin group (P <0.01).Resistin was positively correlated with body mass index,systolic blood pressure,HOMA-IR,low-density lipoprotein cholesterol,TNF-α and ET-1 but negatively correlated with NO (all P <0.05).Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that HOMA-IR,TNF-α,NO and ET-1 are independent predictors of resistin with standardized regression coefficients of 0.625,0.368,-0.260 and 0.222,respectively (all P <0.01).Conclusions We conclude that higher resistin levels are associated with inflammatory activation and endothelial dysfunction,because patients with essential hypertension have increased TNF-α,IL-6,vWF and ET-1 and decreased NO.Moreover,the statistical association of resistin with TNF-α,NO and ET-1 suggests involvement of resistin in the progression of hypertension by

  19. Investigation of PON1 activity and MDA levels in patients with epilepsy not receiving antiepileptic treatment

    Dönmezdil N

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Nilüfer Dönmezdil, Mehmet Uğur Çevik, Hasan Hüseyin Özdemir, Muhterem Taşin Department of Neurology, Dicle University, Diyarbakır, Turkey Purpose: There are many studies dedicated to researching the etiopathogenesis of epilepsy. In such research, oxidative and antioxidant indicators of etiopathogenesis have also been examined under the scope. Drawing on a group of patients with epilepsy who were receiving no treatment, we have tried to evaluate whether or not an increase in oxidative indicators is linked directly with the disorder, independent of epileptic medicaments.Methods: Thirty people in good health and 30 newly diagnosed with epilepsy and who received ambulatory treatment in the polyclinic of the Neurology Department took part in the study. The tests relating to serum malondialdehyde (MDA levels and paraoxonase 1 (PON1 activity were carried out in the biochemistry laboratory.Results: Even though the levels of MDA in the patient group (14.34±3.59 nmol/mL were found to be high compared to those of the control group, which consisted of people in good health (13.53±3.56 nmol/mL, there was no statistically significant difference. PON1 activity in the serum taken from people in the patient group (0.65±0.17 was lower in comparison to that observed in the serum of the control group (0.71±0.17 U/L. Nonetheless, it was not so low as to have significance from a statistical point of view.Conclusion: We conclude that such a high level of oxidative parameters should have been related to the disease and that statistically significant findings that emerged in some other studies could have been related to an antiepileptic treatment. Keywords: epilepsy, paraoxonase 1, malondialdehyde, oxidative stress, epilepsy, biochemical marker

  20. Perception of emotional valences and activity levels from vowel segments of continuous speech.

    Waaramaa, Teija; Laukkanen, Anne-Maria; Airas, Matti; Alku, Paavo

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the role of voice source and formant frequencies in the perception of emotional valence and psychophysiological activity level from short vowel samples (approximately 150 milliseconds). Nine professional actors (five males and four females) read a prose passage simulating joy, tenderness, sadness, anger, and a neutral emotional state. The stress carrying vowel [a:] was extracted from continuous speech during the Finnish word [ta:k:ahan] and analyzed for duration, fundamental frequency (F0), equivalent sound level (L(eq)), alpha ratio, and formant frequencies F1-F4. Alpha ratio was calculated by subtracting the L(eq) (dB) in the range 50 Hz-1 kHz from the L(eq) in the range 1-5 kHz. The samples were inverse filtered by Iterative Adaptive Inverse Filtering and the estimates of the glottal flow obtained were parameterized with the normalized amplitude quotient (NAQ = f(AC)/(d(peak)T)). Fifty listeners (mean age 28.5 years) identified the emotional valences from the randomized samples. Multinomial Logistic Regression Analysis was used to study the interrelations of the parameters for perception. It appeared to be possible to identify valences from vowel samples of short duration ( approximately 150 milliseconds). NAQ tended to differentiate between the valences and activity levels perceived in both genders. Voice source may not only reflect variations of F0 and L(eq), but may also have an independent role in expression, reflecting phonation types. To some extent, formant frequencies appeared to be related to valence perception but no clear patterns could be identified. Coding of valence tends to be a complicated multiparameter phenomenon with wide individual variation. PMID:19111438

  1. Measurement of PET Tracers Low Activity Levels During Plasma Samples Analysis

    Plasma metabolite analysis in the PET (Positron Emission Tomography) studies requires quantification of very low levels of radioactive materials during a rapid and sequential passage of plasma samples. Quantification is necessary for deriving a kinetic model that describes the transport and metabolism of the administered radiotracer in the body. Using kinetic models, information about a particular biological process in the human body can be determined from the concentration of the PET tracer in the blood plasma and tissues, during the PET scan. To estimate the kinetic model parameters, the amount of the parent compound in plasma at a given time point is needed. The plasma contains the original drug (parent compound) and its metabolite that was produced by enzymatic activity; therefore, metabolism of the radio-labeled tracer results in radioactive metabolites that cannot be differentiated from the parent compound, because both, the metabolite and the parent compound, carry the same radioactive isotope and emit photons with the same energy (511 keV). The total plasma radioactivity and the radiotracer decay time are known, but in order to define the kinetic model, an adjustment for the actual un metabolized (parent) radiotracer requires correction at each time point. Metabolite analysis of the radiotracer includes blood sample collection with a known time stamp, separation of the plasma by centrifugation, separation of the plasma into its compounds (parent and metabolite) by High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), and analysis by a radiation detector (radio- HPLC) to determine the percentage of the unchanged drug (parent compound). The detector system records the activity levels in the HPLC output line for each compound during the plasma analysis procedure (the metabolites as well as the original un metabolized radiotracer). Our goal was to design a high sensitivity measuring system to improve the detection level of the positron-emitting isotope and enhance

  2. Serum activities of liver enzymes in workers exposed to sub-TLV levels of dimethylformamide

    Jinjiang He

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study has been to investigate serum activities of liver enzymes in workers exposed to sub-TLV levels of dimethylformamide (DMF. Material and Methods: Seventy-two workers and 72 healthy controls participated in the study. All subjects underwent complete physical examinations and abdominal ultrasound examination. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, and c-glutamyl transpeptidase (c-GT were determined by an auto-chemistry analyzer. The data of airborne concentrations of DMF was obtained from the local Center of Disease Control and Prevention. The level of urine N-acetyl-S-(N-methylcarbamoylcysteine (AMCC was measured by means of high-performance liquid chromatography. Results: Time weighted average (TWA concentration of the DMF in workplace was 18.6 (range: 9.8–36.2 mg/m3. The concentration of the AMCC in workers’ urine was 28.32 (range: 1.8–58.6 mg/l and 9 workers’ AMCC exceeded the biological exposure index (40 mg/l. Thirty-one workers reported gastrointestinal symptoms (abdominal pain, nausea, anorexia and 10 workers reported headache, dizziness and/or palpitation in the exposed group. Serum analysis revealed that both the mean of serum activities of liver enzymes (ALT, AST and c-GT and the percentage of workers with abnormal liver function were significantly higher in the exposed group as compared to the controls. Conclusions: Dimethylformamide can cause liver damage even if air concentration is in the sub-threshold limit value (sub-TLV level. The protection of skin contact against the exposure to the DMF might be a critical issue as far as the occupational health is concerned.

  3. Body condition loss and increased serum levels of nonesterified fatty acids enhance progesterone levels at estrus and reduce estrous activity and insemination rates in postpartum dairy cows.

    Lüttgenau, J; Purschke, S; Tsousis, G; Bruckmaier, R M; Bollwein, H

    2016-03-01

    Data from 96 Holstein Friesian cows on a commercial dairy farm were used to investigate whether body condition and serum levels of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) postpartum (pp) affect progesterone (P4) levels, estrous activity, and fertility in dairy cows. The examination period started 14 days before the expected calving date and ended either when a cow was inseminated or at a maximum of 90 days pp. Body condition score (BCS; 1-5 scale) and backfat thickness (BFT) were determined every 2 weeks. Blood for analysis of NEFA and P4 concentrations was sampled weekly during the first 35 days pp and then every 48 hours until an ovulation was observed. Transrectal ultrasonography of the ovaries started at 21 days pp and was performed after blood sampling. If cows were not inseminated because of silent ovulation, sampling and ultrasonography continued on Days 7, 14, and 18 after ovulation and again every 48 hours until the next ovulation. Estrous activity was continuously measured with the Heatime estrus detection system. Pregnancy controls were performed ultrasonographically 28 and 42 days after AI. Cows with increased NEFA levels at 28 days pp had an increased risk of maintaining minimum P4 levels above 0.4 ng/mL at first recognized estrus (P = 0.03). Higher NEFA levels at Day 7 were associated with lower probability for a cow to have elevated P4 levels (≥2 ng/mL) by Day 35 pp, indicating delayed commencement of luteal activity (C-LA). Estrous activity was not influenced (P > 0.10) by minimum P4 concentrations at estrus, but more animals with C-LA until Day 35 pp showed estrous activity compared to cows without C-LA throughout this period (P = 0.006). Estrous activity was lower in cows with a low BCS 14 days pp (P = 0.02) and with a low BFT 42 days pp (P = 0.03). Moreover, the probability to exhibit estrus was reduced with higher NEFA levels at 21 days pp (P = 0.01). Eighty-five cows were inseminated and 37 (44%) got pregnant after insemination. Higher NEFA levels

  4. Vitamin D Levels Are Associated with Cardiac Autonomic Activity in Healthy Humans

    Linda Ellis

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency (≤50nmol/L 25-hydroxy vitamin D is a cardiovascular (CV risk factor that affects approximately one billion people worldwide, particularly those affected by chronic kidney disease (CKD. Individuals with CKD demonstrate abnormal cardiac autonomic nervous system activity, which has been linked to the significant rates of CV-related mortality in this population. Whether vitamin D deficiency has a direct association with regulation of cardiac autonomic activity has never been explored in humans. Methods: Thirty-four (34 healthy, normotensive subjects were studied and categorized based on 25-hydroxy vitamin D deficiency (deficient vs. non-deficient, n = 7 vs. 27, as well as 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D levels (above vs. below 25th percentile, n = 8 vs. 26. Power spectral analysis of electrocardiogram recordings provided measures of cardiac autonomic activity across low frequency (LF and high frequency (HF, representative of vagal contribution bands, representative of the sympathetic and vagal limbs of the autonomic nervous system when transformed to normalized units (nu, respectively, as well as overall cardiosympathovagal balance (LF:HF during graded angiotensin II (AngII challenge (3 ng/kg/min × 30 min, 6 ng/kg/min × 30 min. Results: At baseline, significant suppression of sympathovagal balance was observed in the 25-hydroxy vitamin D-deficient participants (LF:HF, p = 0.02 vs. non-deficient, although no other differences were observed throughout AngII challenge. Participants in the lowest 1,25-dihydroxy VD quartile experienced significant withdrawal of inhibitory vagal control, as well as altered overall sympathovagal balance throughout AngII challenge (HF, mean difference = −6.98 ± 3 nu, p = 0.05; LF:HF, mean difference = 0.34 ± 0.1, p = 0.043 vs. above 25th percentile. Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency is associated with suppression of resting cardiac autonomic activity, while low 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D levels are

  5. Physical Activity Level of Post-menopausal Women with Low Bone Mineral Density.

    Dallanezi, Glauber; Freire, Beatriz Funayama Alvarenga; Nahás, Eliana Aguiar Petri; Nahás-Neto, Jorge; Corrente, José Eduardo; Mazeto, Gláucia Maria Ferreira da Silva

    2016-05-01

    Introduction Proper physical activity is related to the prevention and the treatment of osteoporosis. Purpose To assess the level of physical activity (PA) in post-menopausal women with low bone mineral density (BMD). Methods This cross-sectional clinical study included 123 post-menopausal women. The inclusion criteria were: age of ≥ 45 years with last menses at least 12 months prior to the initiation of the study, and bone density scan (BDS) values measured over the preceding 12 months. Women with severe osteoarthritis were excluded. Women were allocated into three groups, according to BMD measured by BDS [osteoporosis (OP; 54 women), osteopenia (35 women), and normal bone density (NBD; 35 women)], and compared for general, clinical, and anthropometric data, and for PA level. The latter was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), in metabolic equivalent of task (MET) units. Participants were classified as sedentary, active or very active. Quantitative variables were compared using ANOVA followed by Tukey's test. Associations between qualitative variables were tested by Chi-square (χ2) or Fisher's exact test. In order to check for differences among groups and IPAQ domains, a generalized linear model with Gamma distribution was adjusted for values in METs. Results The OP group differed from the NBD group regarding age (61.8 ± 10.1 and 52.9 ± 5.4 years), percentage of participants with self-declared white ethnicity (43.9 and 28.0%), body mass index (BMI - 25.7 ± 5.4 and 30.9 ± 5.1 kg/m(2)), and time since menopause (15.5 ± 7.5 and 5.8 ± 4.5 years). Smoking rates were higher in the OP (55.6%) and NBD groups (33.3%) than in the osteopenia group (11.1%). Within the OP group, the rate of subjects with sedentary lifestyles was higher (42.6%), and time spent sitting was greater (344.3 ± 204.8 METs) than in the groups with osteopenia (20.0% and 300.9 ± 230.6 METs) and NBD (17.7% and 303

  6. Association between cognitive performance, physical fitness, and physical activity level in women with chronic fatigue syndrome

    Kelly Ickmans, PT, MSc

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Limited scientific evidence suggests that physical activity is directly related to cognitive performance in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS. To date, no other study has examined the direct relationship between cognitive performance and physical fitness in these patients. This study examined whether cognitive performance and physical fitness are associated in female patients with CFS and investigated the association between cognitive performance and physical activity level (PAL in the same study sample. We hypothesized that patients who performed better on cognitive tasks would show increased PALs and better performance on physical tests. The study included 31 women with CFS and 13 healthy inactive women. Participants first completed three cognitive tests. Afterward, they undertook a test to determine their maximal handgrip strength, performed a bicycle ergometer test, and were provided with an activity monitor. In patients with CFS, lower peak oxygen uptake and peak heart rate were associated with slower psychomotor speed (p < 0.05. Maximal handgrip strength was correlated with working memory performance (p < 0.05. Both choice and simple reaction time were lower in patients with CFS relative to healthy controls (p < 0.05 and p < 0.001, respectively. In conclusion, physical fitness, but not PAL, is associated with cognitive performance in female patients with CFS.

  7. Therapeutic control of complement activation at the level of the central component C3.

    Ricklin, Daniel; Lambris, John D

    2016-06-01

    The increasing recognition of the complement system's association with diseases of the inflammatory spectrum and with biomaterial and transplant-related complications has generated growing interest in the therapeutic modulation of this innate immune cascade. As a central functional hub that largely drives the activation, amplification, and effector generation of the complement response, the plasma protein C3 has long been recognized as an attractive target. While pharmacological modulation of C3 activation may offer a powerful opportunity to interfere with or even prevent complement-driven pathologies, the development of C3 inhibitors has often been accompanied by concerns regarding the safety and feasibility of this approach. Although no C3-targeted inhibitors have thus far been approved for clinical use, several promising concepts and candidates have emerged in recent years. At the same time, experiences from preclinical development and clinical trials are slowly providing a more detailed picture of therapeutic complement inhibition at the level of C3. This review highlights the current therapeutic strategies to control C3 activation and discusses the possibilities and challenges on the road to bringing C3-targeted therapeutics to the clinic. PMID:26101137

  8. Is there any relationship between physical activity level and patterns, and physical performance in children?

    Blaes Aurélie

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is often assumed that physical activity (PA and physical performance during childhood and adolescence are beneficial for health during adulthood, but a positive relationship between PA and physical performance has not been precisely clarified in children. The lack or the weakness of the relationships between PA and physical performance could be due to the measure of PA. If the use of accelerometry is considered as an objective and common measure of PA, the real patterns of children's habitual PA must be reflected. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the levels and patterns of PA assessed with high frequency accelerometry and physical performance in young children. Methods Eighty-six boys and 101 girls aged 6-12 years participated in this study. Physical activity was measured over a 7-day period, using a 5-s epoch. Physical performance was assessed by means of EUROFIT tests (anthropometrics, standing broad jump, the 10 × 5 meter shuttle run, the sit-and-reach, the handgrip, the number of sit-ups in 30 seconds, the 20-meter shuttle run. Results No relationship was found between PA and physical performance. In boys only, body fatness was negatively associated with vigorous PA (r = -0.38, p Conclusion In 6- to- 12 year- old children, the more active children were not the fittest. Our results also underline the need for uniformity in approach to measurement of PA, body composition and health-related fitness between studies.

  9. Activity concentrations of natural radionuclide levels in well waters of Ago Iwoye, Nigeria

    Natural Radioactivity, though natural requires concentration monitoring, especially for the health/ environmental checks of the populace. Materials and Methods; The activity concentrations of 40K, 238U and 232Th in the waters from wells with depths ranging between 141.0 214.0 feet were randomly sampled and determined from 20 locations in Ago-Iwoye town in South Western, Nigeria. Results: The activity concentrations obtained were in the ranges of (9.9-50.9)Bq/kg with mean value of (25.1±10.7) Bq/kg for 40K, (BDL-15.0) Bq/kg with mean value of (1.2±3.2) Bq/kg for 238U and (BDL-6.2) Bq/kg with mean value of (1.6±1.7) Bq/kg for 232Th. Conclusion: According to the results obtained for the activity concentrations from 20 well water samples in Ago Iwoye, Southwestern, Nigeria it was observed that the V40K, 238U and 232Th values were still within the tolerance level indicating minimal radiological health burden on the human populace and the environment.

  10. The Relationship between Physical Activity Level, Body Mass Index, and Body Fat Percentages in Urban and Rural Elementary School Students

    Orhan, Özlem

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the physical activity levels, physical activity types, Body Mass Index (BMI) and body fat percentage (BF%) values of elementary school students living in rural and urban. Body height (BH), body weight (BW), BF% and BMI data were measured. Physical activity questionnaire was conducted to determine the…

  11. Physical activity levels and determinants of change in young adults: a longitudinal panel study

    Zimmermann Erwin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing concern about physical inactivity in adolescents and young adults. Identifying determinants that are associated with low levels of physical activity and with changes in physical activity levels will help to develop specific prevention strategies. The present study describes the prevalence and potential determinants of physical activity behavior and behavior changes of young adults. The study is based on the Swiss Household Panel (SHP, a longitudinal study assessing social changes in a representative sample of Swiss households since 1999. Methods Data is collected yearly using computer-assisted telephone interviews. Information is obtained from each household member over 14 years of age. Participants between 14 and 24 years entering the SHP between 1999 and 2006 were included (N = 3,068. "Inactive" was defined as less than 1 day/week of at least 30 minutes of moderate physical activity, "no sport" as exercising less than once a week. Age, gender, nationality, linguistic region, household income, education, membership in a sport club, reading, and Internet use were included as potential determinants of physical activity behavior and behavior change. Results In both young men and young women, the prevalence of inactivity, "no sport", and non-membership in a sport club was increasing with age. Women were less active than men of the same age. From one wave to the following, 11.1% of young men and 12.1% of young women became active, and 11.9% of men and 13.7% of women became inactive, respectively (pooled data over all eight waves. Non-membership in a sport club was the strongest predictor for "no sport" (ORmen 6.7 [4.9-8.9]; ORwomen 8.1 [5.7-11.4], but also for being inactive (OR 4.6 [3.5-6.0]; 4.6 [3.3-6.4]. Leaving a sport club (OR 7.8 [4.4-14.0]; 11.9 [5.9-24.1] and remaining non-member (OR 7.8 [4.7-12.9]; 12.4 [6.4-24.1] were the strongest predictors of becoming "no sport". Effects for becoming inactive were

  12. Nitrate reducing bacterial activity under alkaline conditions found in intermediate-level nuclear waste repositories

    This study focuses on the bituminous waste, a mixture of bitumen and insoluble salts, mainly of nitrate and sulphate carrying low and intermediate level radioactivity. The re-saturation of the disposal cells after closure will likely lead to the development of microbial activity. One of the most critical aspects limiting bacterial activity is the high alkalinity prevailing in the barrier concrete system and at the concrete-clay rock interface (pH = 11-13.5). The objective of this work is to evaluate the possible activity of nitrate reducing bacteria under these alkaline conditions, building on knowledge for alkaliphilic bacteria gained from similar conditions. Alkaliphilic bacteria develop optimally at pH values above 9, often between 10 and 12, in some cases above 12. They are likely to be predominant under alkaline conditions, but they will be replaced by neutrophilic bacteria as soon as local zones of near-neutral pH develop. In the case of a waste cell this could be at the interface to the clay rock or in the vicinity of organic matter releasing bituminous waste. Two sets of experiments have been carried out, bringing nitrate in contact with a solution containing organic matter (acetate) and a culture of alkaliphilic microbes, one focuses on the influence of nitrate concentrations, the other on the impact of changes in pH (10.0 and 12.4). The results indicate a low microbial activity at pH 12.4 whereas a significant nitrate reduction is obtained at pH 10.0. Furthermore, nitrite is the main product of nitrate reduction; traces of ammonium have also been measured. (authors)

  13. A new classification paradigm of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in activated sludge: separation and characterization of exopolymers between floc level and microcolony level.

    Wang, Bin-Bin; Chang, Qing; Peng, Dang-Cong; Hou, Yin-Ping; Li, Hui-Juan; Pei, Li-Ying

    2014-11-01

    Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) play a crucial role in the formation of activated sludge flocs. However, until now, the EPS are rather classified by the method used for extraction than by a theoretical consideration of their function and composition. In this paper, a new classification paradigm of EPS was proposed, which offered a novel approach to identify the role of EPS in the formation of activated sludge flocs. The current study gave an exploration to distinguish the EPS in the floc level (extra-microcolony polymers, EMPS) and in the microcolony level (extra-cellular polymers, ECPS). It was found that cation exchange resin treatment is efficient to disintegrate the flocs for EMPS extraction, however, inefficient to disaggregate the microcolonies for ECPS harvesting. A two-steps extraction strategy (cation exchange resin treatment followed by ultrasonication-high speed centrifugation treatment) was suggested to separate these two types of EPS in activated sludge flocs and the physicochemical characteristics of EMPS and ECPS were compared. The protein/polysaccharide ratio of ECPS was higher than that of EMPS and the molecular weight of proteins in EMPS and ECPS were found to be different. The ECPS contained higher molecular weight proteins and more hydrophobic substances than the EMPS contained. The result of excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy analysis also showed that the EMPS and the ECPS have different fluorescent expressions and the components of EMPS were more diverse than that of ECPS. All results reported herein demonstrated that two different types of exopolymers exist in the activated sludge flocs and the inter-particle forces for aggregation of activated sludge flocs are not identical between the floc level and the microcolony level. It suggested that cation bridging interactions are more crucial in floc level flocculation, while the entanglement and hydrophobic interactions are more important in microcolony level cohesion

  14. Development of Data Base on Radioactive Discharges and Environmental Activity Levels in Slovenia

    Radioactivity monitoring in the environment in Slovenia has been currently performed on a regular basis as a monitoring of global radioactive contamination and as operational monitoring in the surroundings of facilities with radioactive discharges. Environmental radioactivity monitoring due to atmospheric nuclear bomb tests in Slovenia started in 1961, while monitoring of radioactive discharges from nuclear facilities in Slovenia started in early 1980s with the extent programmes: in the Krsko nuclear power plant in 1981, in the uranium mining and milling facility at Zirovski vrh (1985) and in the research reactor at Brinje near Ljubljana (1986). Both categories of the results are documented in written reports and sent to the competent authorities, mostly on annual basis. According to the requirements of the European Commission (Commission Recommendation of 8. June 2000 on the application of Article 36 of the Euratom Treaty concerning the monitoring of the levels of the radioactivity in the environment for the purpose of assessing the exposure of the population as a whole (2000/473/Euratom) and Commission Recommendation of 6. December 1999 on the application of Article 37 of the Euratom Treaty (1999/829/Euratom)) and on initiative of the IAEA (IAEA Document International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Project International Data base on Discharges of Radioactive Material to the Environment, 2000) the Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration (SNSA) started in 2002 with development of the computerised data base on environmental data and radioactive discharges data for the most facilities, specially for the nuclear fuel cycle. At present the environmental database contains the data on global contamination of air, surface waters, tap water sources and food chain (137Cs, 90Sr) and also on levels of major natural radionuclides (7Be, 210Pb, 226Ra, 40K). Data base on radioactive discharges for the recent years comprises the activities of fission and activation products (Nuclear

  15. SU-E-T-534: Level of Residual Radioactivity of Activated Parts of a Decommissioned Cyclotron

    Choi, HHF; Leung, TM; Chiu, TL; Yang, B; Wu, PM; Cheung, KY; Yu, SK [Hong Kong Sanatorium and Hospital, Happy Valley (Hong Kong)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: CTI cyclotron RDS-111 was used at the Hong Kong Sanatorium and Hospital (HKSH) to produce radiopharmaceuticals and radioactive tracers for diagnostic scans between 1999 and 2007. During the operation, some machine components became radioactive by activation. For the safety of staff, decommissioning took place in 2009, two years after the cyclotron had stopped operation. This study investigates the residual radioactivity and radionuclides found in different cyclotron components in 2014 in compliance with the local regulations in Hong Kong for transfer of radioactive waste. Methods: A representative sample of each part was counted using a high-purity germanium detector (manufacturer: ORTECT) for at least four hours. GammaVision, a multichannel analyzer software, was used to identify the radionuclides found in the cyclotron components, as well as the associated activities. A standard library and a Mariscotti peak search algorithm were used to identify the present radionuclides. Only radionuclides with half-life greater than 180 days were considered. Results: Among the components, the Havar target foil has the highest specific activity ((4.6±0.6)×10{sup 2} Bq/g), with Co-60 being the most prominent ((3.8±0.5)×10{sup 2} Bq/g). The total activity of the target foil, however, is still low due to its small mass of 0.04 g. Radioisotopes Mn-54 (46±6 Bq/g), Na-22 (6.8±0.8 Bq/g), Co-57 (7.3±0.9 Bq/g), and Fe-59 (6.0±0.9 Bq/g) have also been detected in the target foil. The target window holder and the vacuum window register a specific activity of 88.3±0.6 Bq/g and 48.6±0.1 Bq/g, respectively. Other components, such as the collimator, the target tube, the valve body and the beamline, are also found with trace amounts of radionuclides. Conclusion: Even seven years after the cyclotron had stopped operation, some components still exhibited residual radioactivity from activation exceeding the IAEA clearance levels. Special consideration for radiological

  16. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Status and Physical Activity Level in Children Admitted with Severe Acute Malnutrition

    Babirekere-Iriso, Esther

    numbers of blood cells. Despite advances in the management of SAM, current therapeutic feeds do not correct whole-blood LCPUFA composition, particularly n-3 LCPUFA, in children with SAM. The level of physical activity at discharge among children with SAM is very low perhaps indicating inadequate recovery...... modulation, growth and development as well as maintenance of skin water barrier among others. The reduced relative contribution of PUFA may be linked to some of the clinical presentations in children with SAM. Treatment of SAM may be improved by better understanding of most of the nutritional deficiencies...... with the aim of achieving optimal nutritional status. The purpose of this thesis was to investigate whole blood PUFA composition and its correlates in children admitted with SAM and describe changes in the PUFA composition in these children during treatment and to determine predictors of change...

  17. Influence of physical education on the level of adaptation of students to educational activity.

    Korolinska S.V.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Examined and summarized problems of adaptation of students to educational activity. 100 students took part in research. Found out a row socially psychological factors which determine efficiency of process of adaptation of students to the scientific process. Practical recommendations are developed on organization of educational process of students. It is recommended widely to utillize a physical culture as mean of reduction of adaptation period and increase of level of physical and mental capacity. It is marked that almost 90% students have rejections in a health. Also over 50% - unsatisfactory physical preparedness. It is set that for the students of the II course the indexes of low situation anxiety prevail as compared to the I course. It is set that the characteristic feature of the psychological state during an examination session is emotionally volitional instability.

  18. Arsenic, gold and mercury concentration levels in freshwater fish by neutron activation analysis

    Elemental concentrations of arsenic, gold and mercury have been determined in flesh tissues of freshwater fish species from some Nigerian rivers. The technique of neutron activation followed by radiochemical separation of the isotopes of interest has been applied. The concentrations of 0.04 to 0.87 μg g-1 and 0.4 to 1.33 μg g-1 obtained for gold and mercury, respectively, in the samples are much higher than the values reported in the literature for freshwater fish. The arsenic concentration range of 0.07 to 0.42 μg g-1 is within the reported range. The high concentration levels of these heavy metals can be attributed to local contamination of the rivers. (author)

  19. Low- and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Environmental and Safety Assessment Activities in Slovenia

    The protection of the environment is one of the main concerns in the management of radioactive waste, especially in repository planning. In different stages of repository lifetime the environmental assessment has different functions: it can be used as a decision making process and as a planning, communication and management tool. Safety assessment as a procedure for evaluating the performance of a disposal system, and its potential radiological impact on human health and environment, is also required. Following the international recommendations and Slovene legislation, a presentation is given of the role and importance of the environmental and safety assessment activities in the early stages following concept development and site selection for a low- and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILW) repository in Slovenia. As a case study, a short overview is also given of the preliminary safety assessment that has been carried out in the analysis of possibilities for long-lived LILW disposal in Slovenia. (author)

  20. Glucose level determines excitatory or inhibitory effects of adiponectin on arcuate POMC neuron activity and feeding

    Suyama, Shigetomo; Maekawa, Fumihiko; Maejima, Yuko; Kubota, Naoto; Kadowaki, Takashi; Yada, Toshihiko

    2016-01-01

    Adiponectin regulates glucose and lipid metabolism, acting against metabolic syndrome and atherosclerosis. Accumulating evidence suggest that adiponectin acts on the brain including hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC), where proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons play key roles in feeding regulation. Several studies have examined intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of adiponectin and reported opposite effects, increase or decrease of food intake. These reports used different nutritional states. The present study aimed to clarify whether adiponectin exerts distinct effects on food intake and ARC POMC neurons depending on the glucose concentration. Adiponectin was ICV injected with or without glucose for feeding experiments and administered to ARC slices with high or low glucose for patch clamp experiments. We found that adiponectin at high glucose inhibited POMC neurons and increased food intake while at low glucose it exerted opposite effects. The results demonstrate that glucose level determines excitatory or inhibitory effects of adiponectin on arcuate POMC neuron activity and feeding. PMID:27503800

  1. A simple neutron activation method for the determination of mercury at ppb level in wheat flour

    A new method for the determination of ppb levels of mercury in biological materials, based on neutron activation and selective separation of Hg on anion-exchange resin in H3PO4 medium is suggested. The reliability of the method was ascertained by comparing the results got for commercial wheat flour with those obtained by two other independent NAA methods, and also by analyzing IAEA's reference material. The limit of detection amounted to 0.5 ppb Hg. Samples of 0.3 g were irradiated in the EWA reactor at Swierk at a thermal neutron flux of 1013m cm-2s-1 for 24 hrs. The samples were processed after 24 hrs cooling. (T.I.)

  2. Glucose level determines excitatory or inhibitory effects of adiponectin on arcuate POMC neuron activity and feeding.

    Suyama, Shigetomo; Maekawa, Fumihiko; Maejima, Yuko; Kubota, Naoto; Kadowaki, Takashi; Yada, Toshihiko

    2016-01-01

    Adiponectin regulates glucose and lipid metabolism, acting against metabolic syndrome and atherosclerosis. Accumulating evidence suggest that adiponectin acts on the brain including hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC), where proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons play key roles in feeding regulation. Several studies have examined intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of adiponectin and reported opposite effects, increase or decrease of food intake. These reports used different nutritional states. The present study aimed to clarify whether adiponectin exerts distinct effects on food intake and ARC POMC neurons depending on the glucose concentration. Adiponectin was ICV injected with or without glucose for feeding experiments and administered to ARC slices with high or low glucose for patch clamp experiments. We found that adiponectin at high glucose inhibited POMC neurons and increased food intake while at low glucose it exerted opposite effects. The results demonstrate that glucose level determines excitatory or inhibitory effects of adiponectin on arcuate POMC neuron activity and feeding. PMID:27503800

  3. Increased levels of deleted in malignant brain tumours 1 (DMBT1) in active bacteria-related appendicitis

    Kaemmerer, Elke; Schneider, Ursula; Klaus, Christina; Plum, Patrick; Reinartz, Andrea; Adolf, Maximilian; Renner, Marcus; Wolfs, Tim G A M; Kramer, Boris W; Wagner, Norbert; Mollenhauer, Jan; Gassler, Nikolaus

    2012-01-01

    Kaemmerer E, Schneider U, Klaus C, Plum P, Reinartz A, Adolf M, Renner M, Wolfs T G A M, Kramer B W, Wagner N, Mollenhauer J & Gassler N (2012) Histopathology Increased levels of deleted in malignant brain tumours 1 (DMBT1) in active bacteria-related appendicitis Aims:  Deleted in malignant brain...... bacteria-related active intestinal inflammation such as appendicitis. Methods and results:  mRNA and protein levels of DMBT1 were analysed in surgical resections of 50 appendices (active inflammation: n = 25). In non-actively inflamed appendices, inter-individual differences in basal DMBT1 levels of...... enterocytes and some non-epithelial cells were found. In active appendicitis, enterocytic DMBT1 mRNA expression was increased approximately fivefold, which was paralleled by a corresponding increase of cytoplasmic and secreted DMBT1 protein levels. Increased DMBT1 expression was predominant in enterocytes...

  4. ASTATINE-211 RADIOCHEMISTRY: THE DEVELOPMENT OF METHODOLOGIES FOR HIGH ACTIVITY LEVEL RADIOSYNTHESIS

    MICHAEL R. ZALUTSKY

    2012-08-08

    -labeled targeted radiotherapeutics currently is a daunting task. Our central hypothesis is that improvements in 211At radiochemistry are critically dependent on gaining an understanding of and compensating for the effects of radiolysis induced by 211At {alpha}-particles. Because of the widespread interest in labeling antibodies, antibody fragments and peptides with 211At, our proposed work plan will initially focus on reagents that we have developed for this purpose. Part of our strategy is the use of synthetic precursors immobilized on polymeric resins or perfluorous and triarylphosphonium supports. Their use could eliminate the need for a purification step to separate unreacted tin precursor from labeled product and hopefully provide a simple kit technology that could be utilized at other institutions. The specific aims of this project are: (1) To optimze methods for 211At production and isolation of 211At from cyclotron targets; (2) To develop convenient and reproducible methodologies for high activity level and high specific activity radiohalogenation of biomolecules with 211At; (3) to develop a procedure for extending the shelf-life of 211At beyond a few hours so that this radionuclide can be utilized at centers remote from its site of production; and (4) to work out high activity level synthesis methods for utilizing support immobilized tin precursors for 211At labeling. If we are successful in achieving our goals, the radiochemical methodologies that are developed could greatly facilitate the use of 211At-labeled targeted cancer therapeutics in patients, even at institutions that are distant from the few sites currently available for 211At production.

  5. Integration of complex-wide mixed low-level waste activities for program acceleration and optimization

    In July 1996, the US Department of Energy (DOE) chartered a contractor-led effort to develop a suite of technically defensible, integrated alternatives which would allow the Environmental Management program to accomplish its mission objectives in an accelerated fashion and at a reduced cost. These alternatives, or opportunities, could then be evaluated by DOE and stakeholders for possible implementation, given precursor requirements (regulatory changes, etc.) could be met and benefits to the Complex realized. This contractor effort initially focused on six waste types, one of which was Mixed Low-Level Waste (MLLW). Many opportunities were identified by the contractor team for integrating MLLW activities across the DOE Complex. These opportunities were further narrowed to six that had the most promise for implementation and savings to the DOE Complex. The opportunities include six items: (1) the consolidation of individual site analytical services procurement efforts, (2) the consolidation of individual site MLLW treatment services procurement efforts, (3) establishment of ''de minimus'' radioactivity levels, (4) standardization of characterization requirements, (5) increased utilization of existing DOE treatment facilities, and (6) using a combination of DOE and commercial MLLW disposal capacity. The results of the integration effort showed that by managing MLLW activities across the DOE Complex as a cohesive unit rather than as independent site efforts, the DOE could improve the rate of progress toward meeting its objectives and reduce its overall MLLW program costs. Savings potential for MLLW, if the identified opportunities could be implemented, could total $224 million or more. Implementation of the opportunities also could result in the acceleration of the MLLW ''work off schedule'' across the DOE Complex by five years

  6. Using the decision ladder to understand road user decision making at actively controlled rail level crossings.

    Mulvihill, Christine M; Salmon, Paul M; Beanland, Vanessa; Lenné, Michael G; Read, Gemma J M; Walker, Guy H; Stanton, Neville A

    2016-09-01

    Rail level crossings (RLXs) represent a key strategic risk for railways worldwide. Despite enforcement and engineering countermeasures, user behaviour at RLXs can often confound expectations and erode safety. Research in this area is limited by a relative absence of insights into actual decision making processes and a focus on only a subset of road user types. One-hundred and sixty-six road users (drivers, motorcyclists, cyclists and pedestrians) completed a diary entry for each of 457 naturalistic encounters with RLXs when a train was approaching. The final eligible sample comprised 94 participants and 248 encounters at actively controlled crossings where a violation of the active warnings was possible. The diary incorporated Critical Decision Method probe questions, which enabled user responses to be mapped onto Rasmussen's decision ladder. Twelve percent of crossing events were non-compliant. The underlying decision making was compared to compliant events and a reference decision model to reveal important differences in the structure and type of decision making within and between road user groups. The findings show that engineering countermeasures intended to improve decision making (e.g. flashing lights), may have the opposite effect for some users because the system permits a high level of flexibility for circumvention. Non-motorised users were more likely to access information outside of the warning signals because of their ability to achieve greater proximity to the train tracks and the train itself. The major conundrum in resolving these issues is whether to restrict the amount of time and information available to users so that it cannot be used for circumventing the system or provide more information to help users make safe decisions. PMID:27184305

  7. Analysis of Time Dependent Low Level Exposure to Gallium Arsenide on Blood ALAD activity, Glutathione and Lipid per oxidation levels in Rat Blood, Liver and Kidney

    Braham Deo Gupta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Gallium arsenide (GaAs, an intermetallic semiconductor has widespread applications in the electronic industry. GaAs has the ability to dissociate into its constitutive moieties, arsenic and gallium which might be responsible for the oxidative stress. The present study was aimed at evaluating, effect of gallium arsenide on blood ALAD activity, glutathione and lipid per oxidation levels in rat blood, liver and kidney on exposure of 1, 2 and 6 months. Result indicated that arsenic moiety in GaAs was mainly responsible for causing oxidative stress via increased TBARS levels, decreased glutathione levels in blood and tissues. We also noted the decreased activity of ALAD in rat blood on exposure to gallium arsenide. The study demonstrates that the time dependent exposure to low level gallium arsenide led to increased in lipid per oxidation, decrease glutathione level and ALAD activity which concludes that the slow release of arsenic moiety from GaAs is mainly responsible for oxidative stress in rats and exerts its toxicity in time dependent manner related to its dissolution and maximum toxicity by increasing the time period of exposure.

  8. Survey of plutonium and uranium atom ratios and activity levels in Mortandad Canyon

    Gallaher, B.M.; Benjamin, T.M.; Rokop, D.J.; Stoker, A.K.

    1997-09-22

    For more than three decades Mortandad Canyon has been the primary release area of treated liquid radioactive waste from the Los Alamos National Laboratory (Laboratory). In this survey, six water samples and seven stream sediment samples collected in Mortandad Canyon were analyzed by thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) to determine the plutonium and uranium activity levels and atom ratios. Be measuring the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios, the Laboratory plutonium component was evaluated relative to that from global fallout. Measurements of the relative abundance of {sup 235}U and {sup 236}U were also used to identify non-natural components. The survey results indicate the Laboratory plutonium and uranium concentrations in waters and sediments decrease relatively rapidly with distance downstream from the major industrial sources. Plutonium concentrations in shallow alluvial groundwater decrease by approximately 1000 fold along a 3000 ft distance. At the Laboratory downstream boundary, total plutonium and uranium concentrations were generally within regional background ranges previously reported. Laboratory derived plutonium is readily distinguished from global fallout in on-site waters and sediments. The isotopic ratio data indicates off-site migration of trace levels of Laboratory plutonium in stream sediments to distances approximately two miles downstream of the Laboratory boundary.

  9. 137Cs activity concentration in wild boar meat may still exceed the permitted levels

    Rachubik J.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The radiocaesium activity concentration may still remain high in natural products such as game meat, wild mushrooms, and forest berries even more than two decades after the Chernobyl accident. The results of regular control studies of game meat conducted in Poland showed wild boars as the most contaminated game animals. It is well documented that some mushrooms, readily consumed by animals, show high ability to accumulate caesium radioisotopes. Bay bolete, one of the most wide-spread mushroom species in Poland, reveals a unique radiocaesium accumulation feature. Moreover, deer truffle, containing also particularly high levels of radiocaesium, could be another radionu-clide source for wild boars. Furthermore, animals consuming deer truffles could digest contaminated soil components. Among 94 wild boar meat samples analysed in 2008–2009, two exceeded the permitted level. Hence, some precautions should be taken in the population with an elevated intake of wild boar meat. Moreover, since each hunted wild boar is examined for the presence of Trichinella larvae, regular measurements of radiocaesium concentrations in these animals may be advisable for enhancing consumer safety.

  10. Test Plan for Measuring Ventilation Rates and Combustible Gas Levels in TWRS Active Catch Tanks

    NGUYEN, D.M.

    2000-03-01

    The purpose of this data collection activity is to obtain data for a screening of combustible gases in catch tanks that are currently operated by the River Protection Project (RPP). The results will be used to support closure of the flammable gas unreviewed safety question for these facilities. The data collection will be conducted in accordance with the ''Tank Safety Screening Data Quality Objective'' (Dukelow et al. 1995). Combustible gas, ammonia, and organic vapor levels in the headspace of the catch tanks will be field-measured using hand-held instruments. If a combustible gas level measurement in a tank exceeds an established threshold, vapor grab samples (i.e., Hoke and SUMMA) will be collected for laboratory analysis. In addition, ventilation rates of some catch tanks will be determine using the tracer gas injection method to evaluate removal of flammable gas by air flowing through the tanks. This test plan identifies the field tests, sample collection, laboratory analysis, quality assurance, and reporting objectives for this data collection effort. The plan also provides step-by-step direction for field measurement of combustible gas concentrations and determination of ventilation rates.

  11. Test Plan for Measuring Ventilation Rates and Combustible Gas Levels in TWRS Active Catch Tanks

    The purpose of this data collection activity is to obtain data for a screening of combustible gases in catch tanks that are currently operated by the River Protection Project (RPP). The results will be used to support closure of the flammable gas unreviewed safety question for these facilities. The data collection will be conducted in accordance with the ''Tank Safety Screening Data Quality Objective'' (Dukelow et al. 1995). Combustible gas, ammonia, and organic vapor levels in the headspace of the catch tanks will be field-measured using hand-held instruments. If a combustible gas level measurement in a tank exceeds an established threshold, vapor grab samples (i.e., Hoke and SUMMA) will be collected for laboratory analysis. In addition, ventilation rates of some catch tanks will be determine using the tracer gas injection method to evaluate removal of flammable gas by air flowing through the tanks. This test plan identifies the field tests, sample collection, laboratory analysis, quality assurance, and reporting objectives for this data collection effort. The plan also provides step-by-step direction for field measurement of combustible gas concentrations and determination of ventilation rates

  12. Test Plan for Measuring Ventilation Rates and Combustible Gas Levels in TWRS Active Catch Tanks

    The purpose of this data collection activity is to obtain data for a screening of combustible gases in catch tanks that are currently operated by the River Protection Project (RPP). The results will be used to support closure of the flammable gas unreviewed safety question for these facilities. The data collection will be conducted in accordance with the ''Tank Safety Screening Data Quality Objective'' (Dukelow et a1 1995). Combustible gas, ammonia, and organic vapor levels in the headspace of the catch tanks will be field-measured using hand-held instruments. If a combustible gas level measurement in a tank exceeds an established threshold, vapor grab samples will be collected for laboratory analysis. In addition, ventilation rates of some catch tanks will be determined using the tracer gas injection method to evaluate removal of flammable gas by air flowing through the tanks. This test plan identifies the field tests, sample collection, laboratory analysis, quality assurance, and reporting objectives for this data collection effort. The plan also provides step by-step direction for field measurement of combustible gas concentrations and determination of ventilation rates

  13. Test Plan for Measuring Ventilation Rates and Combustible Gas Levels in RPP Active Catch Tanks

    The purpose of this sampling activity is to obtain data to support an initial evaluation of potential hazards due to the presence of combustible gas in catch tanks that are currently operated by the River Protection Project (RPP). Results of the hazard analysis will be used to support closure of the flammable gas unreviewed safety question for these facilities. The data collection will be conducted in accordance with the Tank Safety Screening Data Quality Objective (Dukelow et al. 1995). Combustible gas, ammonia, and organic vapor levels in the headspace of the catch tanks will be field-measured using hand-held instruments. If a combustible gas level measurement in a tank exceeds an established threshold, gas samples will he collected in SUMMA' canisters for more extensive laboratory analysis. In addition, ventilation rates of some catch tanks will be measured to evaluate removal of flammable gas by air flowing through the tanks. This test plan identifies the sample collection, laboratory analysis, quality assurance, and reporting objectives for this data collection effort. The plan also provides the procedures for field measurement of combustible gas concentrations and ventilation rates

  14. Wireless multi-level terahertz amplitude modulator using active metamaterial-based spatial light modulation.

    Rout, Saroj; Sonkusale, Sameer

    2016-06-27

    The ever increasing demand for bandwidth in wireless communication systems will inevitably lead to the extension of operating frequencies toward the terahertz (THz) band known as the 'THz gap'. Towards closing this gap, we present a multi-level amplitude shift keying (ASK) terahertz wireless communication system using terahertz spatial light modulators (SLM) instead of traditional voltage mode modulation, achieving higher spectral efficiency for high speed communication. The fundamental principle behind this higher efficiency is the conversion of a noisy voltage domain signal to a noise-free binary spatial pattern for effective amplitude modulation of a free-space THz carrier wave. Spatial modulation is achieved using an an active metamaterial array embedded with pseudomorphic high-electron mobility (pHEMT) designed in a consumer-grade galium-arsenide (GaAs) integrated circuit process which enables electronic control of its THz transmissivity. Each array is assembled as individually controllable tiles for transmissive terahertz spatial modulation. Using the experimental data from our metamaterial based modulator, we show that a four-level ASK digital communication system has two orders of magnitude improvement in symbol error rate (SER) for a degradation of 20 dB in transmit signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) using spatial light modulation compared to voltage controlled modulation. PMID:27410614

  15. QR-codes as a tool to increase physical activity level among school children during class hours

    Christensen, Jeanette Reffstrup; Kristensen, Allan; Bredahl, Thomas Viskum Gjelstrup

    QR-codes as a tool to increase physical activity level among school children during class hours Introduction: Danish students are no longer fulfilling recommendations for everyday physical activity. Since August 2014, Danish students in public schools are therefore required to be physically active...... for 45 minutes a day during school hours. An experiment implementing QR-codes as a method to increase physical activity during school hours has been tried. The purpose of this study was to examine if the use of QR-codes as a tool for teaching older classes in Danish public schools could increase the...... students physical activity level during class hours. Methods: A before-after study was used to examine 12 students physical activity level, measured with pedometers for six lessons. Three lessons of traditional teaching and three lessons, where QR-codes were used to make orienteering in school area. The...

  16. Investigation of electrically-active deep levels in single-crystalline diamond by particle-induced charge transient spectroscopy

    Kada, W.; Kambayashi, Y.; Ando, Y.; Onoda, S.; Umezawa, H.; Mokuno, Y.; Shikata, S.; Makino, T.; Koka, M.; Hanaizumi, O.; Kamiya, T.; Ohshima, T.

    2016-04-01

    To investigate electrically-active deep levels in high-resistivity single-crystalline diamond, particle-induced charge transient spectroscopy (QTS) techniques were performed using 5.5 MeV alpha particles and 9 MeV carbon focused microprobes. For unintentionally-doped (UID) chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond, deep levels with activation energies of 0.35 eV and 0.43 eV were detected which correspond to the activation energy of boron acceptors in diamond. The results suggested that alpha particle and heavy ion induced QTS techniques are the promising candidate for in-situ investigation of deep levels in high-resistivity semiconductors.

  17. Upgrade activities for the Criticality Safety Program of Hanford High-Level Radioactive Waste Tank Farm

    This document describes the plan for implementing the findings and recommendations made by a team of experts for the US Department of Energy in their Nuclear Criticality Safety Review Of Hanford High-Level Radioactive Waste Tank Farms. The team was chartered to review the nuclear criticality safety of the tank farms and recommend programmatic changes where appropriate, including the specific incident leading to an Unusual Occurrence Report filed in June 1991 on the 241-C-104 specification violation. Although no imminent risks of criticality were found, the review team identified several problems with respect to nuclear criticality safety. Primary among the problems is the Tack of dofinitive knowledge of the fissile material inventory and distribution within the tanks. The lack of good characterization data prompted Westinghouse Hanford Company to declare an Unreviewed Safety Question with respect to criticality safety. Activities by the responsible Hanford Site contractor that address each of the findings, recommendations, and activities required to resolve the Unreviewed Safety Question are described. Schedules and estimated costs are also included with the plan

  18. Low-level beta activity measurements by simultaneous anticoincidence and difference counting

    The variable background is an important disturbing factor for low-level activity measurements by beta counting. In order to overcome this difficulty in a simple manner, a software-aided technique of simultaneous beta counting in anticoincidence and difference has been established. The technique is based on a programmable multichannel scaler provided with appropriate software for data analysis. Using a counting system containing a sandwich of two large area GM detectors, a Tl-204 source having the emission rate of 30.5 s-1 has been measured. A gamma background was simulated by two point gamma sources (Cs-37, Co-60). An exposure rate of 2.58x10 Ci/Kg · s (50 times higher than the natural background) was obtained at the detector walls with the sources unshielded. The variation of the gamma background was produced by shielding intermittently both sources. The counting time was 1000 s. The experimental results showed that the emission rate was accurately measured (a relative standard uncertainty of 10 was obtained) although the measurement was strongly disturbed by the variation of the gamma background. In conclusion, a software-aided counting technique has been developed for activity measurements in varying backgrounds. For routine radioactivity measurements it has the advantage of evidencing random variations of the background and seems suitable for emergency radioactivity measurements. (authors)

  19. Patient satisfaction´s level with the nursing activities timetable.

    Laura Carretero Cortes

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of patient satisfaction allows one the one hand to identify deficient areas from the point of view of the patient and on the other hand to evaluate the care outcomes.Patient´s opinion is an essential component in the assessment of the service. If patients are dissatisfied, care is far away from what it should be, no matter how high quality can be assesed through clinical indicators.The objective was to determine the patient satisfaction´s level with the schedule established in the hospital. Thus, a descriptive study that using simple random sampling the elements of the random sample were chosen directly in one step, assign each person hospitalized in a hospital in Toledo BZH a number and through a mechanical means (balls in a bag we get random items that will be part of the sample (50 patients in the Hospital of Toledo BZH, so that each element in the population had an equal chance of being selected. The survey provides a closed, compilation, anonymous and voluntary.Results points to a certain degree of dissatisfaction among users, strict schedules and adapted to the "rotation" of health personnel, not patients.Analyzing the results in the development of activity schedules nursing activities: hygiene, feeding, etc ... we can see a big difference being a high percentage of patients who would prefer to change some schedules.

  20. Are Parental Perceptions of Child Activity Levels and Overall Health More Important than Perceptions of Weight?

    Vangeepuram, Nita; Ramos, Michelle A.; Fei, Kezhen; Fox, Ashley M.; Horowitz, Carol R.; Kleinman, Lawrence C.; Galvez, Maida P.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine relationships between parental perceptions of child weight and overall health, reported lifestyle behaviors and measured body mass index (BMI). Methods Using community-partnered methods, we surveyed families residing in a two census tract area identified for targeted interventions to decrease diabetes related disparities. The survey included demographics, child dietary and physical activity behaviors, and parental perception of child’s health and weight. We measured child BMI using a standardized protocol. Results We surveyed parents of 116 children with a mean age of 7 years (range 3–15) with 51 % boys, 74 % Hispanic, and 26 % Black. Over half of the children (55 %) were overweight or obese. Half (50 %) of the parents underestimated their children’s weight. Reported daily hours of walking and/or running trended higher (3.6 vs. 2.6 h, p = 0.08) for children perceived to be of normal weight. Parents who correctly estimated their child’s weight status reported more hours of daily walking/running than parents who underestimated child weight status, 4.5 versus 2.4 h, p = 0.0002. Parents of healthy weight children were more likely to report that children were in excellent or very good health compared to parents of overweight/obese children, 75 versus 56 % respectively (p = 0.04). We found significant racial/ethnic differences in reported diet and physical activity behaviors and perception of overall health. Conclusions for Practice Parental perceptions of child health and physical activity level may be related to perceptions of their child’s weight status. Study findings informed community-based initiatives for reducing diabetes risk among children. PMID:27010551

  1. Congruent and Incongruent Corticospinal Activations at the Level of Multiple Effectors.

    Sartori, Luisa; Betti, Sonia; Perrone, Chiara; Castiello, Umberto

    2015-10-01

    Motor resonance is defined as the subliminal activation of the motor system while observing actions performed by others. However, resonating with another person's actions is not always an appropriate response: In real life, people do not just imitate but rather respond in a suitable fashion. A growing body of neurophysiologic studies has demonstrated that motor resonance can be overridden by complementary motor responses (such as preparing a precision grip on a small object when seeing an open hand in sign of request). In this study, we investigated the relationship between congruent and incongruent corticospinal activations at the level of multiple effectors. The modulation of motor evoked potentials evoked by single-pulse TMS over the motor cortex was assessed in upper and lower limb muscles of participants observing a soccer player performing a penalty kick straight in their direction. Study results revealed a double dissociation: Seeing the soccer player kicking the ball triggered a motor resonance in the observer's lower limb, whereas the upper limb response afforded by the object was overridden. On the other hand, seeing the ball approaching the observers elicited a complementary motor activation in upper limbs while motor resonance in lower limbs disappeared. Control conditions showing lateral kicks, mimicked kicks, and a ball in penalty area were also included to test the motor coding of object affordances. Results point to a modulation of motor responses in different limbs over the course of action and in function of their relevance in different contexts. We contend that ecologically valid paradigms are now needed to shed light on the motor system functioning in complex forms of interaction. PMID:26102231

  2. Are Parental Perceptions of Child Activity Levels and Overall Health More Important than Perceptions of Weight?

    Vangeepuram, Nita; Ramos, Michelle A; Fei, Kezhen; Fox, Ashley M; Horowitz, Carol R; Kleinman, Lawrence C; Galvez, Maida P

    2016-07-01

    Objectives To examine relationships between parental perceptions of child weight and overall health, reported lifestyle behaviors and measured body mass index (BMI). Methods Using community-partnered methods, we surveyed families residing in a two census tract area identified for targeted interventions to decrease diabetes related disparities. The survey included demographics, child dietary and physical activity behaviors, and parental perception of child's health and weight. We measured child BMI using a standardized protocol. Results We surveyed parents of 116 children with a mean age of 7 years (range 3-15) with 51 % boys, 74 % Hispanic, and 26 % Black. Over half of the children (55 %) were overweight or obese. Half (50 %) of the parents underestimated their children's weight. Reported daily hours of walking and/or running trended higher (3.6 vs. 2.6 h, p = 0.08) for children perceived to be of normal weight. Parents who correctly estimated their child's weight status reported more hours of daily walking/running than parents who underestimated child weight status, 4.5 versus 2.4 h, p = 0.0002. Parents of healthy weight children were more likely to report that children were in excellent or very good health compared to parents of overweight/obese children, 75 versus 56 % respectively (p = 0.04). We found significant racial/ethnic differences in reported diet and physical activity behaviors and perception of overall health. Conclusions for Practice Parental perceptions of child health and physical activity level may be related to perceptions of their child's weight status. Study findings informed community-based initiatives for reducing diabetes risk among children. PMID:27010551

  3. Long-term transportation noise annoyance is associated with subsequent lower levels of physical activity.

    Foraster, Maria; Eze, Ikenna C; Vienneau, Danielle; Brink, Mark; Cajochen, Christian; Caviezel, Seraina; Héritier, Harris; Schaffner, Emmanuel; Schindler, Christian; Wanner, Miriam; Wunderli, Jean-Marc; Röösli, Martin; Probst-Hensch, Nicole

    2016-05-01

    Noise annoyance (NA) might lead to behavioral patterns not captured by noise levels, which could reduce physical activity (PA) either directly or through impaired sleep and constitute a noise pathway towards cardiometabolic diseases. We investigated the association of long-term transportation NA and its main sources (aircraft, road, and railway) at home with PA levels. We assessed 3842 participants (aged 37-81) that attended the three examinations (SAP 1, 2, and 3 in years 1991, 2001 and 2011, respectively) of the population-based Swiss cohort on Air Pollution and Lung and Heart Diseases in Adults (SAPALDIA). Participants reported general 24-h transportation NA (in all examinations) and source-specific NA at night (only SAP 3) on an ICBEN-type 11-point scale. We assessed moderate, vigorous, and total PA from a short-questionnaire (SAP 3). The main outcome was moderate PA (active/inactive: cut-off≥150min/week). We used logistic regression including random effects by area and adjusting for age, sex, socioeconomic status, and lifestyles (main model) and evaluated potential effect modifiers. We analyzed associations with PA at SAP 3 a) cross-sectionally: for source-specific and transportation NA in the last year (SAP 3), and b) longitudinally: for 10-y transportation NA (mean of SAP 1+2), adjusting for prior PA (SAP 2) and changes in NA (SAP 3-2). Reported NA (score≥5) was 16.4%, 7.5%, 3%, and 1.1% for 1-year transportation, road, aircraft, and railway at SAP 3, respectively. NA was greater in the past, reaching 28.5% for 10-y transportation NA (SAP 1+2). The 10-y transportation NA was associated with a 3.2% (95% CI: 6%-0.2%) decrease in moderate PA per 1-NA rating point and was related to road and aircraft NA at night in cross-sectional analyses. The longitudinal association was stronger for women, reported daytime sleepiness or chronic diseases and it was not explained by objectively modeled levels of road traffic noise at SAP 3. In conclusion, long-term NA

  4. CORRELATION BETWEEN SERUM PARAOXONASE ACTIVITY AND HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN LEVELS IN TYPE2 DIABETES PREDISPOSING TO ATEROSCLEROSIS

    SK.Deepthi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Human serum paraoxonase is physically associated with HDL and has been implicated in the detoxification of organophosphates and possibly in the prevention of LDL lipid peroxidation and therefore retards atherosclerosis. HDL levels are inversely related to the risk of developing atherosclerosis. We investigated the serum activity and concentration of paraoxonase and HDL levels in 104 subjects (42 diabetic patients without complications, 42 controls, 20 diabetic patients with complications.. Paraoxonase activity was found to be lower in diabetic patients than in controls. Similarly there was reduction in HDL levels in cases suggesting a positive correlation between HDL and paraoxonase levels.

  5. Oxidative DNA damage levels and catalase activity in the clam Ruditapes decussatus as pollution biomarkers of Tunisian marine environment.

    Jebali, Jamel; Banni, Mohamed; de Almeida, Eduardo Alves; Boussetta, Hamadi

    2007-01-01

    Levels of the oxidative DNA damage 7, 8-dihydro-8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) and catalase (CAT) activity were measured in the digestive gland and gills of clams Ruditapes decussatus, related to the presence of pollutants along Tunisian marine environment. Increased levels of CAT were observed in tissues of clams from all the sites studied, compared to control values, and elevated 8-oxodG levels were observed at specific sites. Results obtained in this work indicate that the measurement of 8-oxodG levels and CAT activity in tissues of R. decussatus is promising in pollution monitoring studies of the Tunisian marine environment. PMID:16897518

  6. Level of daily physical activity in individuals with COPD compared with healthy controls

    Troosters Thierry

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Persons with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD, performing some level of regular physical activity, have a lower risk of both COPD-related hospital admissions and mortality. COPD patients of all stages seem to benefit from exercise training programs, thereby improving with respect to both exercise tolerance and symptoms of dyspnea and fatigue. Physical inactivity, which becomes more severe with increasing age, is a point of concern in healthy older adults. COPD might worsen this scenario, but it is unclear to what degree. This literature review aims to present the extent of the impact of COPD on objectively-measured daily physical activity (DPA. The focus is on the extent of the impact that COPD has on duration, intensity, and counts of DPA, as well as whether the severity of the disease has an additional influence on DPA. Results A literature review was performed in the databases PubMed [MEDLINE], Picarta, PEDRO, ISI Web of Knowledge and Google scholar. After screening, 11 studies were identified as being relevant for comparison between COPD patients and healthy controls with respect to duration, intensity, and counts of DPA. Four more studies were found to be relevant to address the subject of the influence the severity of the disease may have on DPA. The average percentage of DPA of COPD patients vs. healthy control subjects for duration was 57%, for intensity 75%, and for activity counts 56%. Correlations of DPA and severity of the disease were low and/or not significant. Conclusions From the results of this review, it appears that patients with COPD have a significantly reduced duration, intensity, and counts of DPA when compared to healthy control subjects. The intensity of DPA seems to be less affected by COPD than duration and counts. Judging from the results, it seems that severity of COPD is not strongly correlated with level of DPA. Future research should focus in more detail on the relation between COPD

  7. 76 FR 52672 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request, Level 1...

    2011-08-23

    ... Review; Comment Request, Level 1 Assessment and Level 3 Evaluations for the Center for Domestic...@dhs.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Collection of Information Title: Level 1 Assessment and Level 3... collection. OMB Number: OMB No. 1660-NEW. Form Titles and Numbers: FEMA Form 092-0-2, Level 1 Assessment...

  8. 76 FR 24038 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request, 1660-NEW; Level 1...

    2011-04-29

    ...; Comment Request, 1660-NEW; Level 1 Assessment and Level III Evaluations for the Center for Domestic... for comments; new information collection; OMB No. 1660-NEW; FEMA Form 092-0-2, Level 1 Assessment Form; FEMA Form 092-0-2A, Level 3 Evaluation Form for Students; FEMA Form 092-0-2B, Level 3 Evaluation...

  9. Evidences of late quaternary neotectonic activity and sea-level changes along the western continental margin of India

    Rao, V.P.; Veerayya, M.; Thamban, M.; Wagle, B.G.

    The offshore data on sea-level changes along the western margin of India have been reviewed and evidences of Late Quaternary neotectonic activity and subsidence are documented, based on the diagenetic textures of limestones from deeper submarine...

  10. Magnetic cycles of Sun-like stars with different levels of coronal and chromospheric activity -- comparison with the Sun

    Bruevich, E A; Shimanovskaya, E V

    2016-01-01

    The atmospheric activity of the Sun and Sun-like stars is analyzed involving observations from HK-project at the Mount Wilson Observatory, the California and Carnegie Planet Search Program at the Keck and Lick Observatories and the Magellan Planet Search Program at the Las Campanas Observatory. We show that for stars of F, G and K spectral classes, the cyclic activity, similar to the 11-yr solar cycles, is different: it becomes more prominent in K-stars. Comparative study of Sun-like stars with different levels of the chromospheric and coronal activity confirms that the Sun belongs to stars with the low level of the chromospheric activity and stands apart among these stars by the minimum level of its coronal radiation and the minimum level of its variations of the photospheric flux.

  11. Circulating interferon-α2 levels are increased in the majority of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and are associated with disease activity and multiple cytokine activation.

    Becker-Merok, A; Østli-Eilersten, G; Lester, S; Nossent, Jc

    2013-02-01

    Mutations in interferon (IFN) regulatory factor genes and the biological activity of type I IFN on expression of specific genes that are induced by IFN have been associated with various aspects of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Circulating levels of IFN-α in SLE has not been extensively studied because of limited sensitivity of available ELISA assays. We performed a cross-sectional case-control study where circulating levels of IFN-α2 were measured by a highly sensitive, solution phase multiplex magnetized bead assay and investigated the relation of IFN-α2 with autoantibody profiles, clinical disease activity and levels of inflammatory cytokines in SLE patients (n = 87). Cytokine levels were determined on stored sera aliquots with cut-off levels determined by the geometric mean + 2SD in healthy controls (n = 27). IFN-α2 levels were increased in 64% of SLE patients, who displayed more renal disease and higher disease activity (p = 0.06) and had a significantly higher sum of activated cytokines (median 4.5, range 7) compared to patients with normal IFN-α2 (median one, range 3; p phase micro-bead assay thus identified increased IFN-α2 levels in two-thirds of SLE patients with longstanding disease. The association with clinical disease and activation of multiple inflammatory cytokines supports a role for IFN-α2 in disease perpetuation in a large subset of SLE patients. PMID:23213068

  12. Participation in Complex and Social Everyday Activities Six Years after Stroke: Predictors for Return to Pre-Stroke Level

    Singam, Avvai; Ytterberg, Charlotte; Tham, Kerstin; von Koch, Lena

    2015-01-01

    Background Long-term disability following stroke can lead to participation restrictions in complex and social everyday activities, yet information is lacking on to what extent stroke survivors return to their pre-stroke levels of participation. Objectives The objectives of this study were to investigate the level of participation in complex and social everyday activities 6 years after stroke, to compare this with pre-stroke participation and to identify predictors of returning to pre-stroke l...

  13. Serum interleukin-18 and interleukin-10 levels in systemic lupus erythematosus: correlation with SLEDAI score and disease activity parameters

    Sahar Abou El-Fetouh; Mohammed, Reem Hamdy A.; Hanan S Mohmad Abozaid

    2014-01-01

    Aim The aim of the study was to assess serum levels of interleukin (IL)-18 and IL-10 in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients and their relationship with disease activity. Patients and methods Thirty patients with SLE and 20 healthy controls were investigated in this study. The serum IL-18 and IL-10 levels were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and their correlations with the disease activity were measured using the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activi...

  14. Holocene relative sea levels and related prehistoric activity in the Forth lowland, Scotland, United Kingdom

    Smith, D. E.; Davies, M. H.; Brooks, C. L.; Mighall, T. M.; Dawson, S.; Rea, B. R.; Jordan, J. T.; Holloway, L. K.

    2010-08-01

    Changes in relative sea level (RSL) and their effect on the distribution of human activity in the Forth lowland, Scotland, UK between ca 11,700 and ca 2000 calibrated years before present (BP) are examined. Block uplift of shorelines occurred over a longer period than previously thought, continuing to at least around 4700 BP. New graphs of RSL change, based upon an analysis of previous work and evidence from new sites using standard morphological and stratigraphical analyses, support a fall in RSL in the early Holocene during which buried estuarine surfaces were formed, followed by a marked reversal on a centennial, perhaps even decadal, scale sometime around 9900-9500 BP from a falling sequence to a rising one. There may have been a short-lived fluctuation in the rising RSL ca 8300 BP, and the Holocene Storegga Slide tsunami of ca 8100 BP was widespread in the lowland. The rising RSL culminated at the Main Postglacial Shoreline, reached ca 7800 BP, when Mean High Water Spring Tides (MHWS) lay within the range 14.6-16.5 m British Ordnance Datum (OD) in the western lowland. This is the highest published Holocene RSL in Britain and Ireland. The subsequent fall in RSL stabilised at a second shoreline, the Blairdrummond Shoreline, from which regression was occurring at ca 4700 BP. RSL later fell to a lower shoreline at ca 3900 BP before reaching present levels within the last three millennia. Comparison between the empirical evidence for RSL change in this area and glacial isostatic adjustment models indicates both similarities and differences. Records of archaeological sites and artefacts in the lowland and surrounding areas are discussed. Maps showing the evolution of the estuary are compared with the distribution of Mesolithic, Neolithic, Bronze Age and Iron Age activity. Evidence for Mesolithic people indicates the opportunistic use of available resources as RSL rose and the estuary expanded to its maximum extent. Neolithic people were also attracted to the estuary

  15. Quality of life perception of basketball master athletes: association with physical activity level and sports injuries.

    Moreira, Natália Boneti; Mazzardo, Oldemar; Vagetti, Gislaine Cristina; De Oliveira, Valdomiro; De Campos, Wagner

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to verify the prevalence and characteristics of sports injuries (SI) and determine the association between the physical activity level (PA) and SI with perception of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Brazilian basketball master athletes. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 410 male master athletes, between 35 and 85 years of age (mean 52.26, SD ±11.83). The HRQoL was assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study - Short Form-36. The PA was evaluated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Information regarding SI was collected using the Reported Morbidity Survey. Poisson regression, as estimated by the prevalence ratio (PR), was used as a measure of the association of PA and SI with HRQoL. The majority of athletes showed a high SI prevalence (58.3%) and reported one injury (67.8%) that occurred during training (61.1%) and primarily affected a lower limb (74.6%). The adjusted regression models showed a positive association of PA with the Functional Capacity (PR = 1.46, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.12-1.90) and Physical Component (PR = 1.32, 95% CI = 1.03-1.70) of HRQoL. Furthermore, the SI were negatively associated with HRQoL in Functional Capacity (PR = 1.85, 95% CI = 1.51-2.27), Physical Aspects (PR = 3.99, 95% CI = 3.08-5.18), Pain (PR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.26-2.16), Social Functioning (PR = 1.79, 95% CI = 1.41-2.27), Emotional Aspects (PR = 4.40, 95% CI = 3.35-5.78), Mental Health domains (PR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.06-1.68), Physical Component (PR = 2.35, 95% CI = 1.90-2.90) and Mental Component (PR = 2.65, 95% CI = 2.14-3.29). These results highlighted that master athletes showed a high SI prevalence, primarily in the lower limbs. PA positively correlates with the physical HRQoL domain, whereas SI may decrease the HRQoL levels of both physical and mental domains. PMID:26323316

  16. Evaluation of Activity Concentration Values and Doses due to the Transport of Low Level Radioactive Material

    Rawl, Richard R [ORNL; Scofield, Patricia A [ORNL; Leggett, Richard Wayne [ORNL; Eckerman, Keith F [ORNL

    2010-04-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) initiated an international Coordinated Research Project (CRP) to evaluate the safety of transport of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). This report presents the United States contribution to that IAEA research program. The focus of this report is on the analysis of the potential doses resulting from the transport of low level radioactive material. Specific areas of research included: (1) an examination of the technical approach used in the derivation of exempt activity concentration values and a comparison of the doses associated with the transport of materials included or not included in the provisions of Paragraph 107(e) of the IAEA Safety Standards, Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, Safety Requirements No. TS-R-1; (2) determination of the doses resulting from different treatment of progeny for exempt values versus the A{sub 1}/A{sub 2} values; and (3) evaluation of the dose justifications for the provisions applicable to exempt materials and low specific activity materials (LSA-I). It was found that the 'previous or intended use' (PIU) provision in Paragraph 107(e) is not risk informed since doses to the most highly exposed persons (e.g., truck drivers) are comparable regardless of intended use of the transported material. The PIU clause can also have important economic implications for co-mined ores and products that are not intended for the fuel cycle but that have uranium extracted as part of their industrial processing. In examination of the footnotes in Table 2 of TS-R-1, which identifies the progeny included in the exempt or A1/A2 values, there is no explanation of how the progeny were selected. It is recommended that the progeny for both the exemption and A{sub 1}/A{sub 2} values should be similar regardless of application, and that the same physical information should be used in deriving the limits. Based on the evaluation of doses due to the transport of low-level

  17. Trace element landscape of resting and activated human neutrophils on the sub-micrometer level.

    Niemiec, M J; De Samber, B; Garrevoet, J; Vergucht, E; Vekemans, B; De Rycke, R; Björn, E; Sandblad, L; Wellenreuther, G; Falkenberg, G; Cloetens, P; Vincze, L; Urban, C F

    2015-06-01

    Every infection is a battle for trace elements. Neutrophils migrate first to the infection site and accumulate quickly to high numbers. They fight pathogens by phagocytosis and intracellular toxication. Additionally, neutrophils form neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) to inhibit extracellular microbes. Yet, neutrophil trace element characteristics are largely unexplored. We investigated unstimulated and phorbol myristate acetate-stimulated neutrophils using synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SR-XRF) on the sub-micron spatial resolution level. PMA activates pinocytosis, cytoskeletal rearrangements and the release of NETs, all mechanisms deployed by neutrophils to combat infection. By analyzing Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn, P, S, and Ca, not only the nucleus but also vesicular granules were identifiable in the elemental maps. Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) revealed a neutrophil-specific composition of Zn, Fe, Cu, and Mn in comparison with J774 and HeLa cells, indicating a neutrophil-specific metallome complying with their designated functions. When investigating PMA-activated neutrophils, the SR-XRF analysis depicted typical subcellular morphological changes: the transformation of nucleus and granules and the emergence of void vacuoles. Mature NETs were evenly composed of Fe, P, S, and Ca with occasional hot spots containing Zn, Fe, and Ca. An ICP-MS-based quantification of NET supernatants revealed a NETosis-induced decrease of soluble Zn, whereas Fe, Cu, and Mn concentrations were only slightly affected. In summary, we present a combination of SR-XRF and ICP-MS as a powerful tool to analyze trace elements in human neutrophils. The approach will be applicable and valuable to numerous aspects of nutritional immunity. PMID:25832493

  18. Low-level beta activity measurements by simultaneous anticoincidence and difference counting

    Low-level beta activity measurements are extensively performed for environmental radioactivity surveillance and radiation protection. The measurement is affected by a large number of external influences. The varying background due to changes in natural or man-made radiation is an important disturbing factor. In order to overcome this difficulty in a simple manner the capabilities offered by the simultaneous anticoincidence and difference counting have been investigated. A comparative study of these techniques has been developed and a measuring system has been constructed. The main components of the system are: a programmable multi-scaler which can perform a wide range of operations, an anticoincidence circuit and a sandwich of two large-area G-M detectors. The multi-scaler is endowed with an appropriate software which allows all operations to be performed via keyboard in an interactive fashion. The detectors were selected in order to have the same background (∼6 cps) and the same gamma response, within 10%, in the energy range from 60 keV to 1.3 MeV. From the theoretical and experimental results the following conclusions can be drawn: anticoincidence technique gives comparable or more accurate results than difference technique when background is stable; for varying backgrounds, difference-mode counting gives much more accurate results than anticoincidence counting, provided that the difference in response between detectors and the nonuniformity of the radiation field are small. Based on these conclusions an analysis program has been developed in order to decide on the best option. In conclusion, a software-aided counting technique has been implemented for low beta activity measurements both in normal conditions and in emergency situations. (author)

  19. Comparison of 9th grade students’ physical activity levels during recess and regular class periods using objective measurement

    Kretschmann Rolf

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to assess and compare secondary school students’ physical activity levels during recess and regular class periods using objective measurement. Material: The study sample consisted of 26 9th grade school students (M = 15.28 years, SD = 0.47 of a German secondary school. They wore the Actiheart the whole school day for one week. All students followed the same school schedule and participated in the same classes. 9th grade school students’ physical activity levels during recess and regular class periods were assessed using the physical activity monitoring device Actiheart, which validly and objectively measures physical activity. Results: total recess time physical activity levels accounted for M = 2.38 METs, whereas total class period time physical activity levels only reached M = 1.58 METs. This difference could be proven statistically significant. Conclusions: Total recess time accounts for significantly higher physical activity levels compared to total class period time and the overall time students spend in school, respectively.

  20. Risk Factors Associated with Serum Levels of the Inflammatory Biomarker Soluble Urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor in a General Population

    Haupt, Thomas H; Kallemose, Thomas; Ladelund, Steen;

    2014-01-01

    .001). An unhealthy diet and alcohol abstinence in men were also associated with higher suPAR levels. Physical activity in leisure time had a modest impact on suPAR levels in univariate analysis, but not in the final adjusted model. In conclusion, smoking and morbid obesity were strongly associated with higher serum...... suPAR levels in this general population. Diet and alcohol consumption also seemed to impact suPAR levels. Lifestyle changes are likely to affect suPAR since ex-smokers had suPAR levels comparable to those of never-smokers.......The soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a biomarker of mortality risk in various patient populations. However, little is known about the implications of lifestyle for suPAR levels in the general population. Lifestyle, demographic, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor...

  1. Severe accident analyses for shutdown modes and spent fuel pools to support PSA level 2 activities

    In the field of Level 2 PSA at GRS two projects are being performed in order to investigate both shutdown modes and severe accident sequences following from external hazards of nuclear power plants as well as spent fuel pool behavior under severe accident conditions. These works are being done for both PWR and BWR respectively. For both projects, deterministic severe accident analyses using the MELCOR code are a main part of the activities in order to support the probabilistic part of these projects. The German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU) and the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) financially support a project regarding deterministic analyses of severe accident sequences during shutdown modes and external hazards (flooding, aircraft crash, earthquakes and explosions pressure wave). These results can be used for supporting future Level 2 PSA studies. Within a research project financially supported by the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (BMWi) an extension of probabilistic analyses of spent fuel pools is being performed. Appropriate methods for the consideration to spent fuel pools inside a PSA Level 2 will be developed. The main goals are the identification of the impact of severe accidents inside spent fuel pools onto the plant behavior and the quantification of related releases of radionuclides into the environment. Results of MELCOR analyses done for the two projects mentioned above are presented. First, preliminary results of a severe accident sequence initiated by a loss of decay heat removal of a PWR shutdown mode are discussed. Following, preliminary results of the PWR spent fuel pool behavior after a 'Station Black-out' are shown. It could be shown that the integral code MELCOR is able to calculate the accident progression of an event starting from a shutdown mode of a PWR and the severe accident sequence inside of a PWR spent fuel pool. The results seem to be realistic

  2. Severe accident analyses for shutdown modes and spent fuel pools to support PSA level 2 activities

    Kowalik, M.; Mildenberger, O.; Loeffler, H.; Steinroetter, T. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Koeln (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    In the field of Level 2 PSA at GRS two projects are being performed in order to investigate both shutdown modes and severe accident sequences following from external hazards of nuclear power plants as well as spent fuel pool behavior under severe accident conditions. These works are being done for both PWR and BWR respectively. For both projects, deterministic severe accident analyses using the MELCOR code are a main part of the activities in order to support the probabilistic part of these projects. The German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU) and the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) financially support a project regarding deterministic analyses of severe accident sequences during shutdown modes and external hazards (flooding, aircraft crash, earthquakes and explosions pressure wave). These results can be used for supporting future Level 2 PSA studies. Within a research project financially supported by the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (BMWi) an extension of probabilistic analyses of spent fuel pools is being performed. Appropriate methods for the consideration to spent fuel pools inside a PSA Level 2 will be developed. The main goals are the identification of the impact of severe accidents inside spent fuel pools onto the plant behavior and the quantification of related releases of radionuclides into the environment. Results of MELCOR analyses done for the two projects mentioned above are presented. First, preliminary results of a severe accident sequence initiated by a loss of decay heat removal of a PWR shutdown mode are discussed. Following, preliminary results of the PWR spent fuel pool behavior after a 'Station Black-out' are shown. It could be shown that the integral code MELCOR is able to calculate the accident progression of an event starting from a shutdown mode of a PWR and the severe accident sequence inside of a PWR spent fuel pool. The results seem to be

  3. The Role of Motor Competence and Body Mass Index in Children's Activity Levels in Physical Education Classes

    Spessato, Barbara Coiro; Gabbard, Carl; Valentini, Nadia C.

    2013-01-01

    Our goal was to investigate the role of body mass index (BMI) and motor competence (MC) in children's physical activity (PA) levels during physical education (PE) classes. We assessed PA levels of 5-to-10-year old children ("n" = 264) with pedometers in four PE classes. MC was assessed using the TGMD-2 and BMI values were classified according to…

  4. Physical Education Lesson Content and Teacher Style and Elementary Students' Motivation and Physical Activity Levels

    Erwin, Heather E.; Stellino, Megan Babkes; Beets, Michael W.; Beighle, Aaron; Johnson, Christine E.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity levels among American children are increasing at an alarming rate, due in part to a lack of regular physical activity (PA). Physical education (PE) is one way to facilitate student PA. The overarching PA goal for physical educators is 50% PA for students. Self-determination theory suggests that PA levels in PE and a variety of other…

  5. A Comparison of the Fitness, Obesity, and Physical Activity Levels of High School Physical Education Students across Race and Gender

    Davis, Kathryn L.; Wojcik, Janet R.; DeWaele, Christi S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Little is known about the physical fitness, obesity, and physical activity (PA) levels of high school students in physical education classes when comparing racial and gender groups. Purpose: To compare the fitness, obesity, and PA levels of female and male students of different racial groups in 6 high schools in the southeastern…

  6. Presenilin 2 influences miR146 level and activity in microglia.

    Jayadev, Suman; Case, Amanda; Alajajian, Betty; Eastman, Alison J; Möller, Thomas; Garden, Gwenn A

    2013-12-01

    Microglia, the resident innate immune cells of the CNS, are the primary defenders against microbes and critical to CNS remodeling. Dysregulation of microglial behavior can lead to unchecked pro-inflammatory activity and subsequent neurodegeneration. The molecular mechanisms leading to chronic inflammation and microglial dysfunction in neurodegenerative diseases are not well-understood. It is known that patients with Presenilin 2 (PS2) mutations develop autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease. We have shown that a lack of normal PS2 function is associated with exaggerated microglia pro-inflammatory responses in vitro. To identify pathways by which PS2 regulates microglia and determine how PS2 dysfunction may lead to altered inflammatory pathways, we pursued an unbiased array approach to assess differential expression of microRNAs between murine PS2 knockout (KO) and wild-type microglia. We identified miR146, a negative regulator of monocyte pro-inflammatory response, as constitutively down-regulated in PS2 KO microglia. Consistent with a state of miR146 suppression, we found that PS2 KO microglia express higher levels of the miR146 target protein interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase-1, and have increased NFκB transcriptional activity. We hypothesize that PS2 impacts microglial responses through modulation of miR146a. PS2 dysfunction, through aging or mutation, may contribute to neurodegeneration by influencing the pro-inflammatory behavior of microglia. Presenilin 2 (PS2), a membrane associated protease, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease. We have previously shown that PS2 plays an important role in curbing the proinflammatory response in microglia. Here, we report the novel finding that PS2 participates in maintaining the basal and cytokine induced expression of the innate immunity regulating microRNA, miR146. These data suggest one mechanism by which PS2 works to reign in proinflammatory microglial behavior and that PS2 dysfunction or

  7. Involvement of Noradrenergic Transmission in the PVN on CREB Activation, TORC1 Levels, and Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Activity during Morphine Withdrawal

    Mart??n, F??tima; N????ez, Cristina; Mar??n Bosc??, Mar??a Teresa; Laorden, Mar??a Luisa; Kov??cs, Krisztina J.; Milan??s, M. Victoria

    2012-01-01

    Experimental and clinical findings have shown that administration of adrenoceptor antagonists alleviated different aspects of drug withdrawal and dependence. The present study tested the hypothesis that changes in CREB activation and phosphorylated TORC1 levels in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) after naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal as well as the HPA axis activity arises from ??1- and/or ??-adrenoceptor activation. The effects of morphine dependence and withdrawal on...

  8. Active Learning Applications in the History of Chemistry: Pre-Service Chemistry Teachers' Level of Knowledge and Views

    Sendur, Gülten; Polat, Merve; Toku, Abdullah; Kazanci, Coskun

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of a History and Philosophy of Chemistry-I course based on active learning applications on the level of knowledge of pre-service chemistry teachers about the history of chemistry. The views of pre-service chemistry teachers about these activities were also investigated. The study was carried out with 38…

  9. Accelerometer Measured Level of Physical Activity Indoors and Outdoors During Preschool Time in Sweden and the United States

    Raustorp, A.; Pagels, P.; Boldemann, C.;

    2012-01-01

    boys and girls indoor and outdoor physical activity regarding different intensity levels and sedentary behaviour. METHODS: Accelerometer determined physical activity in 50 children with mean age 52 months, (range 40-67) was recorded during preschool time for 5 consecutive weekdays at four sites. The......BACKGROUND: It is important to understand the correlates of physical activity in order to influence policy and create environments that promote physical activity among preschool children. We compared preschoolers' physical activity in Swedish and in US settings and objectively examined differences...

  10. Anthropometric measurements, dietary intake and physical activity level in medicine students from Santa Fe (Argentina

    Cecilia Monsted

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD are increasing in the world and in Argentina too. Lifestyles, especially diet and physical activity (PA, are presented as key in preventing these diseases. The aim of the study was to assess anthropometric measurements, dietary intake and physical activity level in medical students, and evaluate the possible association between these variables.Material and methods: a cross-sectional study was performed in 141 students from the last three years of the career (21-31 years old. Body Mass Index (BMI, % Body Fat (%BF and Waist Circumference (WC were assessed and subjects were classified according to their cardiovascular risk (CVR from the WC. Dietary intake was assessed by a 24-hours register, a food frequency questionnaire and the pattern of consumption was compared with the Food Guide for Argentinean population. “Argenfoods” Table of Food Composition was used for nutritional assessment and compared with WHO goals for the Prevention of Non-communicable Chronic Diseases. Diet was evaluated by the International Dietary Quality Index (DQI-I and the compliance of the WHO goals for the Prevention of Non-communicable Chronic Diseases. Exercise was assessed by International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ. The possible association between different anthropometric variables, anthropometry and intake, and anthropometry and physical activity was assessed.Results: 3.5% of the students were obese (31.7 ± 0.7 kg/m2 and 25.5% were overweight (26.8 ± 1.6 kg/m2, 27.7% showed increased BF (women: 36.8 ± 3.4 %; men: 29.1 ± 3.4 % and 14.9% had limit BF (women: 31.7 ± 0,7%, men: 23.6 ± 3.4%, 23.4% had CVR per WC (women: 85.8 ± 5.6 cm; men: 101.4 ± 2.3 cm. 27.8% of normal weight individuals (women showed increased and limit BF (35.0 ± 0.9 %. CVR by WC was associated to BMI in both sexes (p=0.001, OR=6.24 and with BF (p=0.003, OR=4.57 in women. Dietary quality was good only in a 5% and poor in a 49

  11. Assessment of Arsenic Level in Boreholes from the Wassa West District using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis

    J.K. Asane

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Surveillance of drinking water is a necessary action intended to prevent the general public from contaminating water borne diseases. In this study, arsenic concentrations in 22 borehole water samples from various locations in the Wassa West district have been studied using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. The samples were irradiated using a 30 kW tank-in-pool Ghana Research Reactor-1 operating at a thermal neutron flux of 5×10 n/s.cm2. Elevated levels of arsenic were found in virtually all the 22 samples. Arsenic concentration in the samples ranged from 0.06 ppm to 9.43 ppm. (Mean-2.23,Standard Error of Mean-0.57 with minimum concentration of 0.06 ppm occurring at Ayensukrom No.1 and the maximum occurring at Tamsu-9.43 ppm. These values far exceed the World Health Organization’s recommended value of 0.01 ppm for arsenic in drinking water. The occurrence of arsenic in the area is traced to the existence of sulphide minerals such as arsenopyrites (FeAsS2 present in the underlying Birimian Basement rocks in the area.

  12. Elevation of the level and activity of acid ceramidase in Alzheimer's disease brain.

    Huang, Yu; Tanimukai, Hitoshi; Liu, Fei; Iqbal, Khalid; Grundke-Iqbal, Inge; Gong, Cheng-Xin

    2004-12-01

    Protein glycosylation modifies the processing of several key proteins involved in the molecular pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aberrant glycosylation of tau and down-regulation of sialyltransferase in AD brain suggest a possible dysregulation of protein glycosylation that may play a role in AD. We therefore isolated major glycoproteins from AD brain by using lectin-affinity chromatographies and ion-exchange chromatography and further separated them using SDS-polyacylamide gel electrophoresis. Mass spectrometry analysis of 11 isolated glycoproteins led to their identification as: neuronal cell adhesion molecule, beta-globin, IgM heavy chain VH1 region precursor, contactin precursor, dipeptidylpeptidase VI, CD81 partner 3, prenylcysteine lyase, adipocyte plasma-associated protein, acid ceramidase and two novel proteins. We found that the level and activity of acid ceramidase (AC), one of the major identified human brain glycoproteins, were significantly elevated in AD brain. Immunohistochemical staining indicated that AC was located mainly in the cell bodies of neurons and colocalized with neurofibrillary tangles. Our findings suggest that AC might play a role in controlling neuronal apoptosis and that AC-mediated signalling pathways might be involved in the molecular mechanism of AD. PMID:15610181

  13. Hair-zinc levels determination in Algerian psoriatics using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA)

    Psoriasis is a multifactorial skin disease with an unknown etiology. Zinc has a positive impact on psoriasis. The aim of this study is to determine hair-zinc concentration in Algerian psoriatics. 58 psoriatics and 31 normal controls of both genders were selected. Hair zinc levels were determined using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis technique (INAA). Student's t-test and One-Way ANOVA were applied. The average zinc concentration for controls and patients were 152±53 μg/g and 167±52 μg/g respectively. They are not significantly different (p>0.05). Zn concentration for males and females controls and patients were 171±27 μg/g, 151±37 μg/g and 145±59 μg/g, 178±58 μg/g respectively. However, for females we have observed a significant difference (p<0.05). - Highlights: ► Psoriasis is a multifactorial skin disease with an unknown etiology. ► About 2–5% of global population in the world suffers from psoriasis. ► The aim of this study is to determine hair-zinc concentration in Algerian psoriatics. ► The average zinc concentration for controls and patients were 152±53 μg/g and 167±52 μg/g respectively.

  14. Removal of cesium and strontium from high-activity-level water by zeolities

    The selective removal of Cs and Sr from high-activity-level water (HALW) has been studied by the use of various zeolites. The rate of adsorption of Cs and Sr increased with a decrease in size of zeolite particles, and the adsorption reached almost 100 % after 5 h and 10 h of shaking for Cs and Sr, respectively. High distribution coefficients of Cs (KCs = 104 ∼ 105) were obtained in the solution/zeolite ratio (V/m) region of about 300 to 1000. The presence of sodium ion fairly affected the distribution of Cs+ and Sr2+, and Kd values decreased with increasing concentration of Na+. While the presence of boron almost had no effect on the distribution of Cs; high KCs values (KCs ≥ 105) were obtained below 5000 ppm of boron. Distribution coefficients of Cs and Sr were also independent of the equilibrium pH in neutral and alkaline regions at the ionic strength of 0.1. The removal of Cs and Sr from simulated HALW was effectively achieved by the use of mixed zeolites, and the Kd value was 7.0 x 103 ml/g at the mixing ratio of 48/52 of X/chabazite. (author)

  15. Study on immobilization of high level waste with alkali-activated slag cement

    A new solidification process using AASC (alkali-activated slag cement) to immobilize HLW (high level waste) is introduced in the article. The AASC incorporated with zeolite and condensed silica fume is used as the matrix of solidified product. High temperature and pressure are not necessary in this process. Under a confined volume the pressure caused by hydrolysis of still explosion to density the matrix of cement. It has high compressive strength, high density, low leachability and high resistance to heat. When the salt loading of HLW in the product is equal to 25 wt% the compressive strength of waste product is 65 ∼ 100 MPa, the porosity is less than 10%, the leachability for Cs is 10-5 g · d-1 and for Sr is 10-7 g · cm-2 · d-1. The performance of this kind cement is comparable with the vitrifying of HLW, but the process is simpler than vitrifying of waste method. The mechanism of the immobilization and the forms of nuclides in AASC waste product are also discussed

  16. Changes in Plasma Lipid Levels and Antioxidant Activities in Rats after Supplementation of Obtusifolin.

    Zhuang, Si-Yi; Wu, Miao-Li; Wei, Peng-Jv; Cao, Zhi-Ping; Xiao, Peng; Li, Chu-Hua

    2016-04-01

    Obtusifolin, an anthraquinone from Cassia obtusifolia seeds, has been reported to reduce blood lipid levels in diabetic rats induced by streptozocin. However, it remains unclear whether obtusifolin possesses a lipid-lowering effect on hyperlipidemia caused by a high-fat diet. Moreover, hyperlipidemia is known to impair the endothelial function by causing oxidative stress. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the antidyslipidemic and antioxidant effects of obtusifolin in hyperlipidemic rats induced by a high-fat diet. Rats with oral fat emulsion were used as our hyperlipidemic model. We measured the body weight of the rats, serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, as well as nitric oxide, malondialdehyde, and superoxide dismutase. Our results showed that oral obtusifolin application significantly reversed the changes induced by hyperlipidemia in body weight, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Furthermore, obtusifolin treatment increased serum superoxide dismutase and nitric oxide, but reduced malondialdehyde. Collectively, our findings suggest that obtusifolin may improve hyperlipidemia by enhancing antioxidant activity. This study indicates a potential therapeutic importance of obtusifolin for ameliorating lipid dysfunction induced by a high-fat diet. PMID:27002399

  17. CT liver volumetry using geodesic active contour segmentation with a level-set algorithm

    Suzuki, Kenji; Epstein, Mark L.; Kohlbrenner, Ryan; Obajuluwa, Ademola; Xu, Jianwu; Hori, Masatoshi; Baron, Richard

    2010-03-01

    Automatic liver segmentation on CT images is challenging because the liver often abuts other organs of a similar density. Our purpose was to develop an accurate automated liver segmentation scheme for measuring liver volumes. We developed an automated volumetry scheme for the liver in CT based on a 5 step schema. First, an anisotropic smoothing filter was applied to portal-venous phase CT images to remove noise while preserving the liver structure, followed by an edge enhancer to enhance the liver boundary. By using the boundary-enhanced image as a speed function, a fastmarching algorithm generated an initial surface that roughly estimated the liver shape. A geodesic-active-contour segmentation algorithm coupled with level-set contour-evolution refined the initial surface so as to more precisely fit the liver boundary. The liver volume was calculated based on the refined liver surface. Hepatic CT scans of eighteen prospective liver donors were obtained under a liver transplant protocol with a multi-detector CT system. Automated liver volumes obtained were compared with those manually traced by a radiologist, used as "gold standard." The mean liver volume obtained with our scheme was 1,520 cc, whereas the mean manual volume was 1,486 cc, with the mean absolute difference of 104 cc (7.0%). CT liver volumetrics based on an automated scheme agreed excellently with "goldstandard" manual volumetrics (intra-class correlation coefficient was 0.95) with no statistically significant difference (p(Fliver volumes.

  18. Measurement of the carbon 14 activity at natural level in air samples

    The aim of the study was to measure the carbon 14 activity at natural level in air samples using classical methods of radiochemistry and beta counting. Three different methods have been tested in order to minimise the detection limit. In the three methods, the first step consists in trapping the atmospheric carbon 14 into NaOH (1N) using a bubbling chamber. The atmospheric carbon dioxide reacts with NaOH to form Na2CO3. In the first method the Na2CO3 solution is mixed with a liquid scintillate and is directly analysed by liquid scintillation counting (LSC). The detection limit is approximately 1 Bq/m3 of air samples. The second method consists in evaporating the carbonate solution and then counting the solid residue with a proportional gas circulation counter. The detection limit obtained is lower than the first method (0.4 Bq/m3 of air samples). In the third method, Na2CO3 is precipitated into CaCO3 in presence of CaCl2. CaCO3 is then analysed by LSC. This method appear to be the most appropriate, the detection limit is 0.05 Bq/m3 of air samples. (author)

  19. The effect of physical activity on serum IL-6 and vaspin levels in late elementary school children

    Hong, Hye-Ryun; Ha, Chang-Duk; Jin, Young-Yun; Kang, Hyun-Sik

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigates the effects of physical activity on serum IL-6 and vaspin in late elementary school children. [Methods] Those who (n = 220) completed the 7-day physical activity monitoring underwent a second round of measurements including body fat, serum glucose and insulin, and serum IL-6 and vaspin. One way ANOVAs followed by LSD post hoc tests were used to test for significant differences in dependent variables across incremental physical activity levels at p=0.05. Multivariate stepwise linear regression analyses were used to determine significant predictors for serum IL-6 and vaspin levels at p=0.05. [Results] The results showed significant inverse linear trends for body fat parameters across incremental physical activity levels (from low to high); the lower the body fat, the higher the physical activity levels. On the other hand, there were no significant linear trends for insulin resistance markers or dietary intake across incremental physical activity levels. Multiple stepwise linear regression analyses were used to determine significant predictors for individual variations in serum IL-6 and vaspin in the study population. We found that body mass index (p=0.002) and low- and moderate-intensity physical activities (p=0.002 and p=0.0045, respectively) were significant determinants of serum IL-6. In addition, low- and moderate-intensity physical activities (p=0.01 & p=0.022, respectively) were significant determinants of serum vaspin levels in this study population. [Conclusion] In summary, the findings of the current study suggest that promotion of physical activity along with a healthy diet should be key components of lifestyle interventions to improve serum cytokine profiles associated with insulin resistance syndrome in late elementary school children. PMID:26244128

  20. Level of physical activity of health professionals in a district hospital in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Siyabonga H. Kunene

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health professionals have a role to play in the promotion of physical activity in order to prevent the ever-increasing burden of diseases associated with physical inactivity. Determination of the level of physical activity amongst health professionals managing patients presenting with various lifestyle-related conditions is most pertinent.Object: The purpose of the present study was to ascertain the level of physical activity of health professionals at Estcourt Hospital in KwaZulu-Natal Province.Method: A cross-sectional survey of 109 health professionals was conducted over a period of three consecutive weeks in 2012. The Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ and other related data such as socio-demographic characteristics was used to collect data. Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics to determine relationships between variables. An analysis guide was used to determine the level of physical activity with reference to the GPAQ guidelines recommended by the Word Health Organization using the metabolic equivalent of task (MET-minutes per week indicators.Results: The overall level of physical activity was: 31% of participants were high, with METminutes/week ≥ 3000; 29% were moderate, with MET-minutes/week ≥ 600; and 40% were low, with MET-minutes/week < 600. Although black women predominantly reported low levels of physical activity, age was found to be significantly related to the level of physical activity (p = 0.000, r = -0.637.Conclusion: An intervention to promote physical activity amongst health professionals is essential to promote healthy living.

  1. GC protein-derived macrophage-activating factor decreases α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase levels in advanced cancer patients

    Thyer, Lynda; Ward, Emma; Smith, Rodney; Branca, Jacopo JV; Morucci, Gabriele; Gulisano, Massimo; Noakes, David; Eslinger, Robert; Pacini, Stefania

    2013-01-01

    α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (nagalase) accumulates in the serum of cancer patients and its activity correlates with tumor burden, aggressiveness and clinical disease progression. The administration of GC protein-derived macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF) to cancer patients with elevated levels of nagalase has been associated with a decrease of serum nagalase activity and with significant clinical benefits. Here, we report the results of the administration of GcMAF to a heterogeneous cohort ...

  2. Gc protein-derived macrophage-activating factor decreases alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase levels in advanced cancer patients

    L. Thyer; Ward, E.; Smith, R; J.J.V. Branca; G.Morucci; Gulisano, M; Noakes, D.; R. Eslinger; S. Pacini

    2013-01-01

    Abstract α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (nagalase) accumulates in the serum of cancer patients and its activity correlates with tumor burden, aggressiveness and clinical disease progression. The administration of GC protein-derived macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF) to cancer patients with elevated levels of nagalase has been associated with a decrease of serum nagalase activity and with significant clinical benefits. Here, we report the results of the administration of GcMAF to a heterogen...

  3. Association between the physical activity level and the quality of life of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Çolak, Tuğba Kuru; Acar, Gönül; Dereli, E. Elçin; Özgül, Bahar; Demirbüken, İlkşan; Alkaç, Çiğdem; Polat, M. Gülden

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Physical activity and regular exercise play an important role in glycemic control, which is considered an important part of the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study evaluated physical activity level and its relationship with quality of life in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. [Subjects and Methods] We evaluated 129 subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus through a face-to-face interview using the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire a...

  4. On jointly analyzing the physical activity participation levels of individuals in a family unit using a multivariate copula framework

    Ipek N Sener; Eluru, Naveen; Bhat, Chandra R.

    2010-01-01

    The current paper focuses on analyzing and modeling the physical activity participation levels (in terms of the number of daily bouts or episodes of physical activity during a weekend day) of all members of a family jointly. Essentially, we consider a family as a cluster of individuals whose physical activity propensities may be affected by common household attributes (such as household income and household structure) as well as unobserved family-related factors (such as family life-style and...

  5. [Dynamics of lysozyme levels in the blood serum and milk of puerperae with various functional activities of the breasts].

    Safronov, O V; Bakuleva, L P; Nesterova, A A; Babaian, S S

    1991-05-01

    The morbidity rates, ++features of lactation formation, and serum and breast milk lysozyme levels were studied in 91 parturients who showed various breast functional activity in the early postpartum period. The highest frequency of postpartum ++pyo-septic diseases was found in females with hyperlactation. There was earlier appearance of foremilk and milk in these females. Healthy mothers with higher breast functional activity exhibited the greatest levels of lysozyme in the milk and marked decreases in its levels in the blood within the first 3 days as compared to those observed in females who had normal or insufficient quantities of milk. PMID:1897671

  6. Flowsheet development studies for the decontamination of high-activity-level water at Three Mile Island Unit 2

    Several chemical processing flowsheets were considered for the decontamination of high-activity-level water at the Three Mile Island (TMI) Unit 2. A zeolite ion exchange process was evaluated and recommended for absorption of the bulk of the highly radioactive cesium and strontium. Standard organic ion-exchange resins were selected to remove the remaining traces of radioactive nuclides (except tritium which cannot be removed by any practical process). Process conditions were evaluated using both synthetic, tracer-level solutions and samples of actual, high-activity level water from TMI Unit 2

  7. Pedometer-Based Physical Activity Level and Body Composition among Minority Children in a Physical Activity Setting

    Agbuga, Bulent

    2011-01-01

    Most studies focusing on the relationship between physical activity and obesity have been conducted in middle class Caucasian adults and children and few such studies are available concerning minority children in physical activity settings (Johnson, Kulinna, Tudor-Locke, Darst, & Pangrazi, 2007; Rowlands et al., 1999; Tudor-Locke, Lee, Morgan,…

  8. Price, cost and exploration sensitivities of prospective activity levels in the UKCS: an application of the Monte Carlo technique

    Building on previous work this paper develops a probabilistic economic model using the Monte Carlo technique to project activity levels in the UK Continental Shelf. The modelling emphasises the importance of oil and gas prices, the investor's hurdle rate of return, changing prospectively, and the exploration effort. Activity in the medium term is found to be highly sensitive to oil and gas prices, development costs and exploration effort. Field investment may fall very substantially and the oil production decline rate could be fast from 2000. To sustain higher activity levels further technological advances and their widespread adoption are essential. (Author)

  9. Low-level and high-level modulations of fixational saccades and high frequency oscillatory brain activity in a visual object classification task.

    Kosilo, Maciej; Wuerger, Sophie M; Craddock, Matt; Jennings, Ben J; Hunt, Amelia R; Martinovic, Jasna

    2013-01-01

    Until recently induced gamma-band activity (GBA) was considered a neural marker of cortical object representation. However, induced GBA in the electroencephalogram (EEG) is susceptible to artifacts caused by miniature fixational saccades. Recent studies have demonstrated that fixational saccades also reflect high-level representational processes. Do high-level as opposed to low-level factors influence fixational saccades? What is the effect of these factors on artifact-free GBA? To investigate this, we conducted separate eye tracking and EEG experiments using identical designs. Participants classified line drawings as objects or non-objects. To introduce low-level differences, contours were defined along different directions in cardinal color space: S-cone-isolating, intermediate isoluminant, or a full-color stimulus, the latter containing an additional achromatic component. Prior to the classification task, object discrimination thresholds were measured and stimuli were scaled to matching suprathreshold levels for each participant. In both experiments, behavioral performance was best for full-color stimuli and worst for S-cone isolating stimuli. Saccade rates 200-700 ms after stimulus onset were modulated independently by low and high-level factors, being higher for full-color stimuli than for S-cone isolating stimuli and higher for objects. Low-amplitude evoked GBA and total GBA were observed in very few conditions, showing that paradigms with isoluminant stimuli may not be ideal for eliciting such responses. We conclude that cortical loops involved in the processing of objects are preferentially excited by stimuli that contain achromatic information. Their activation can lead to relatively early exploratory eye movements even for foveally-presented stimuli. PMID:24391611

  10. Low-level and high-level modulations of fixational saccades and high frequency oscillatory brain activity in a visual object classification task

    JasnaMartinovic

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Until recently induced gamma-band activity (GBA was considered a neural marker of cortical object representation. However induced GBA in the electroencephalogram (EEG is susceptible to artifacts caused by miniature fixational saccades. Recent studies have demonstrated that fixational saccades also reflect high-level representational processes. Do high-level as opposed to low-level factors influence fixational saccades? What is the effect of these factors on artifact-free GBA? To investigate this, we conducted separate eye tracking and EEG experiments using identical designs. Participants classified line drawings as objects or non-objects. To introduce low-level differences, contours were defined along different directions in cardinal colour space: S-cone-isolating, intermediate isoluminant, or a full-colour stimulus, the latter containing an additional achromatic component. Prior to the classification task, object discrimination thresholds were measured and stimuli were scaled to matching suprathreshold levels for each participant. In both experiments, behavioural performance was best for full-colour stimuli and worst for S-cone isolating stimuli. Saccade rates 200-700 ms after stimulus onset were modulated independently by low and high-level factors, being higher for full-colour stimuli than for S-cone isolating stimuli and higher for objects. Low-amplitude evoked GBA and total GBA were observed in very few conditions, showing that paradigms with isoluminant stimuli may not be ideal for eliciting such responses. We conclude that cortical loops involved in the processing of objects are preferentially excited by stimuli that contain achromatic information. Their activation can lead to relatively early exploratory eye movements even for foveally-presented stimuli.

  11. National Low-Level Waste Management Program final summary report of key activities and accomplishments for fiscal year 1997

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has responsibilities under the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 to assist states and compacts in their siting and licensing efforts for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The National Low-Level Waste Management Program (NLLWMP) is the element of the DOE that performs the key support activities under the Act. The NLLWMP's activities are driven by the needs of the states and compacts as they prepare to manage their low-level waste under the Act. Other work is added during the fiscal year as necessary to accommodate new requests brought on by status changes in states' and compacts' siting and licensing efforts. This report summarizes the activities and accomplishments of the NLLWMP during FY 1997

  12. Influence of cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity levels on cardiometabolic risk factors during menopause transition: A MONET study.

    Abdulnour, Joseph; Razmjou, Sahar; Doucet, Éric; Boulay, Pierre; Brochu, Martin; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi; Lavoie, Jean-Marc; Prud'homme, Denis

    2016-12-01

    To determine the influence of cardiorespiratory fitness (hereafter "fitness") and physical activity levels on cardiometabolic risk factors in premenopausal women going through the menopause transition. An ancillary study including 66 premenopausal women who participated to a 5-year observational, longitudinal study (2004 to 2009 in Ottawa) on the effects of menopause transition on body composition and cardiometabolic risk factors. Women underwent a graded exercise test on treadmill to measure peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) at year 1 and 5 and physical activity levels were measured using accelerometers. Cardiometabolic risk factors included: waist circumference, fasting plasma lipids, glucose and insulin levels, HOMA-IR score, c-reactive protein, apolipoprotein B (apoB) and resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Change in fitness was not associated with changes in cardiometabolic risk factors. The changes in total physical activity levels on the other hand showed a significant negative association with apoB levels. Three-way linear mixed model repeated measures, showed lower values of waist circumference, fasting triglycerides, insulin levels, HOMA-IR score, apoB and diastolic blood pressure in women with a fitness ≥ 30.0 mlO2 kg(- 1) min(- 1) compared to women with a fitness fitness and physical activity levels, fitness was associated with more favorable values of cardiometabolic risk factors in women followed for 5 years during the menopause transition. PMID:27453812

  13. Relationship between serum adiponectin level and ATPase activity of erythrocyte membrance in patients with 2-type diabetes

    Objective: To explore the possible mechanism of development nephrosis as related to changes of serum adiponectin levels and alteration of activities of Na+·K+-ATPase and Ca+2·Mg+2-ATPase of erythrocyte membrance in patients with 2-type diabetes. Methods: Serum adiponectin levels (with RIA) and erythrocyte membrance (prepared with Reilnila method) Na+·K+- ATPase and Ca+2·Mg+2-ATPase activity were determined in 45 DM2 patients without nephropathy, 31 DM2 patients with nephropathy and 30 controls. Results: Serum adiponectin levels in the diabetic patients were significantly lower than those in controls (P+·K+-ATPase and Ca+2·Mg+2-ATPase activities were also significantly lower than those in controls (P+·K+-ATPase and Ca+2·Mg+2-ATPase activities of erythrocyte membrance. (authors)

  14. Correlation between vitamin D levels and muscle fatigue risk factors based on physical activity in healthy older adults

    Al-Eisa, Einas S; Alghadir, Ahmad H; Gabr, Sami A

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of serum vitamin D levels with physical activity, obesity, muscle fatigue biomarkers, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in healthy older adults. Methods A total of 85 healthy older subjects aged 64–96 years were recruited in this study. Based on estimated energy expenditure scores, the participants were classified into three groups: inactive (n=25), moderate (n=20), and physically active (n=35). Serum 25(OH)D (25-hydroxy vitamin D) levels, metabolic syndrome parameters, TAC activity, muscle fatigue biomarkers (Ca, creatine kinase, lactic acid dehydrogenase, troponin I, hydroxyproline), physical activity, body fatness, and fatigue score (visual analog scale) were estimated using immunoassay techniques and prevalidated questionnaires, respectively. Results Physical activity was estimated in 64.6% of the participants. Males showed higher physical activity (42.5%) compared to females (26.25%). Compared to participants with lower activity, significant reduction in body mass index, waist circumference, hips, fasting blood sugar, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol were observed in moderate and physically active participants. Also, significant increase in the levels of serum 25(OH)D concentrations, calcium, and TAC activity along with reduction in the levels of muscle fatigue biomarkers: creatine kinase, lactic acid dehydrogenase, troponin I, hydroxyproline, and fatigue scores (visual analog scale) were reported in physically active participants compared to those of lower physical activity. In all participants, serum 25(OH)D concentrations correlated positively with Ca, TAC, physical activity scores, and negatively with body mass index, lipid profile, fatigue scores (visual analog scale), and muscle fatigue biomarkers. Stepwise regression analysis showed that serum 25(OH)D concentrations, physical activity, Ca, TAC, and demographic parameters explained

  15. Participation in Complex and Social Everyday Activities Six Years after Stroke: Predictors for Return to Pre-Stroke Level.

    Avvai Singam

    Full Text Available Long-term disability following stroke can lead to participation restrictions in complex and social everyday activities, yet information is lacking on to what extent stroke survivors return to their pre-stroke levels of participation.The objectives of this study were to investigate the level of participation in complex and social everyday activities 6 years after stroke, to compare this with pre-stroke participation and to identify predictors of returning to pre-stroke levels of participation.All patients admitted to Karolinska University Hospital's stroke units during a 1-year period were eligible to participate and 349 patients were recruited. Assessments were made at base-line, 3 months and 6 years using self-reported outcome measures. Participation was assessed using the Frenchay Activities Index (FAI. The 6-year score for each participant was compared to the pre-stroke score, both for the total score and for each domain (domestic chores, leisure/work and outdoor activities. Predictors of having the same or better level of participation at 6 years were identified using logistic regression.At 6 years, 121 participants were followed up, 166 were deceased, 44 declined to take part and 18 could not be traced. At 6 years 84% could be described as active (FAI≥15. The same level of participation or better than pre-stroke was found in 35% of participants, in 65% the level was lower. Similar predictors were identified for achieving the same or better level of participation at 6 years for FAI total and the three domains; ability to walk without aids and a lower age at stroke onset, and perceived mobility, participation and recovery at 3 months.Six years after stroke, 35% of participants had the same or better level of participation as pre-stroke. Rehabilitation after stroke to improve walking ability and participation might improve long-term participation in complex and social everyday activities.

  16. Influence of different levels of sports activities on the quality of life after the reconstruction of anterior cruciate ligament

    Ninković Srđan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The goal of this study was to examine the nature and presence of influence of different levels of sports activity on the life quality of the patients a year after the reconstruction of anterior cruciate ligament. Material and Methods. The study included 185 patients operated at the Department of Orthopedic Surgery and Traumatology of the Clinical Centre of Vojvodina, who were followed for twelve months. Data were collected using the modified Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score questionnaire which included the Lysholm scale. Results. This study included 146 male and 39 female subjects. The reconstruction of anterior cruciate ligament was equally successful in both gender groups. In relation to different types of sports activity, there were no differences in the overall life quality measured by the questionnaire and its subscales, regardless of the level (professional or recreational. However, regarding the level of sports activities, there were differences among the subjects engaged in sports activities at the national level as compared with those going in for sports activities at the recreational level, and particularly in comparison with physically inactive population. A significant correlation was not found by examining the aforementioned relationship between sports activities. Conclusions. This study has shown that the overall life quality a year after the reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament does not differ in relation to either the gender of the subjects or the type of sports activity, while the level of sports activity does have some influence on the quality of life. Professional athletes have proved to train significantly more intensively after this reconstruction than those going in for sports recreationally.

  17. Changes in Plasma Copeptin Levels during Hemodialysis : Are the Physiological Stimuli Active in Hemodialysis Patients?

    Ettema, Esmee M.; Kuipers, Johanna; Assa, Solmaz; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Groen, Henk; Westerhuis, Ralf; Gaillard, Carlo A. J. M.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Franssen, Casper F. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Plasma levels of copeptin, a surrogate marker for the vasoconstrictor hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP), are increased in hemodialysis patients. Presently, it is unknown what drives copeptin levels in hemodialysis patients. We investigated whether the established physiological stimuli fo

  18. Recovery of physical activity levels in adolescents after lower limb fractures: a longitudinal, accelerometry-based activity monitor study

    Ceroni Dimitri

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In adolescents, loss of bone mineral mass usually occurs during phases of reduced physical activity (PA, such as when an injured extremity spends several weeks in a cast. We recorded the PA of adolescents with lower limb fractures during the cast immobilization, at 6 and at 18 months after the fracture, and we compared these values with those of healthy controls. Methods Fifty adolescents with a first episode of limb fracture and a control group of 50 healthy cases were recruited for the study through an advertisement placed at the University Children’s Hospital of Geneva, Switzerland. PA was assessed during cast immobilization and at 6- and 18-month follow-up by accelerometer measurement (Actigraph® 7164, MTI, Fort Walton Beach, FL, USA. Patients and their healthy peers were matched for gender and age. Time spent in PA at each level of intensity was determined for each participant and expressed in minutes and as a percentage of total valid time. Results From the 50 initial teenagers with fractures, 44 sustained functional evaluations at 6 months follow-up, whereas only 38 patients were studied at 18 months. The total PA count (total number of counts/min was lower in patients with lower limb fractures (-62.4% compared with healthy controls (ppp Importantly, we observed that time spent in vigorous PA, which reflects high-intensity forces beneficial to skeletal health, returned to similar values between both groups from the six month follow-up in adolescents who sustained a fracture. However, a definitive reduction in time spent in moderate PA was observed among patients with a lower limb fracture at 18 months, when comparing with healthy controls values (p = 0.0174. Conclusions As cast immobilization and reduced PA are known to induce bone mineral loss, this study provides important information to quantify the decrease of skeletal loading in adolescents with limb fractures. The results of this study demonstrate

  19. Introducing B2B Service Level Measures via a Poker-Card Activity

    Chen, Chun-Miin; Bailey, Matthew D.

    2016-01-01

    To determine the appropriate level of product availability, most operations management textbooks introduce and define service level measures in a Business-to-Customer context. In other words, a retailer that wants to measure product availability in their store calculates the fill rate (FR) or cycle service level over an infinite review horizon.…

  20. No interactions between previously associated 2-hour glucose gene variants and physical activity or BMI on 2-hour glucose levels

    Scott, Robert A; Chu, Audrey Y; Grarup, Niels;

    2012-01-01

    Gene-lifestyle interactions have been suggested to contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes. Glucose levels 2 h after a standard 75-g glucose challenge are used to diagnose diabetes and are associated with both genetic and lifestyle factors. However, whether these factors interact...... to determine 2-h glucose levels is unknown. We meta-analyzed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) × BMI and SNP × physical activity (PA) interaction regression models for five SNPs previously associated with 2-h glucose levels from up to 22 studies comprising 54,884 individuals without diabetes. PA levels were...

  1. Vegetative and reproductive plasticity of broccoli at three levels of incident photosynthetically active radiation

    To study the effects of shading on the growth, development, dry matter partitioning, and plant architecture of broccoli, ‘Legacy’ hybrid plants were grown in pots in a greenhouse under black shading meshes to generate different levels of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). The average incident PAR was 23 mol PPF m–2 d–1 under control conditions, 15.2 under a 35% mesh, and 6.7 under a 70% mesh. The air temperature was within the range 15-22°C. As shading increased so did the duration of the growth cycle and the leaf area (LA). Shading did not affect the number of leaves, although the upper ones were more erect. The stem length and the accumulated intercepted PAR (IPAR) were negatively related. Inflorescence diameter and commercial fresh weight decreased only with the 70% mesh. Shading did not affect stem dry weight (DW) but altered dry matter allocation in the root and spear. The DW of the leaves maintained an average 45.7% of the total DW despite the greater LA developed under shade. The net assimilation rate diminished with the reduction of IPAR, and the LA increased; the plant relative growth rate was therefore practically constant. With increased shading, the leaves and the stem became the dominant photosynthate sinks. The commercial fresh weight achieved with 15.2 mol photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) m–2 d–1 was equivalent to that obtained with 23 mol PPF m–2 d–1, but the cycle was extended for 4.5 days. With 6.7 mol PPF m–2 d–1, yield diminished because of the lower DW produced in a cycle extended by 15 days, and because more dry matter was allocated to the stem than to the spear. Based on these results, broccoli could be considered a shade-tolerant plant. (author)

  2. HLA-G expression levels influence the tolerogenic activity of human DC-10.

    Amodio, Giada; Comi, Michela; Tomasoni, Daniela; Gianolini, Monica Emma; Rizzo, Roberta; LeMaoult, Joël; Roncarolo, Maria-Grazia; Gregori, Silvia

    2015-04-01

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G is a non-classical HLA class I molecule with known immune-modulatory functions. Our group identified a subset of human dendritic cells, named DC-10, that induce adaptive interleukin-10-producing T regulatory type 1 (Tr1) cells via the interleukin-10-dependent HLA-G/ILT4 pathway. In this study we aimed at defining the role of HLA-G in DC-10-mediated Tr1 cell differentiation. We analyzed phenotype, functions, and genetic variations in the 3' untranslated region of the HLA-G locus of in vitro-differentiated DC-10 from 67 healthy donors. We showed that HLA-G expression on DC-10 is donor-dependent. Functional studies demonstrated that DC-10, independently of HLA-G expression, secrete interleukin-10 and negligible levels of interleukin-12. Interestingly, DC-10 with high HLA-G promote allo-specific anergic T cells that contain a significantly higher frequency of Tr1 cells, defined as interleukin-10-producing (P=0.0121) or CD49b(+)LAG-3(+) (P=0.0031) T cells, compared to DC-10 with low HLA-G. We found that the HLA-G expression on DC-10 is genetically imprinted, being associated with specific variations in the 3' untranslated region of the gene, and it may be finely tuned by microRNA-mediated post-transcriptional regulation. These data highlight the important role of HLA-G in boosting DC-10 tolerogenic activity and confirm that interleukin-10 production by DC-10 is necessary but not sufficient to promote Tr1 cells at high frequency. These new insights into the role of HLA-G in DC-10-mediated induction of Tr1 cells provide additional information for clinical use in Tr1- or DC-10-based cell therapy approaches. PMID:25661445

  3. A survey of core and support activities of communicable disease surveillance systems at operating-level CDCs in China

    Li Liming

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, problems like insufficient coordination, low efficiency, and heavy working load in national communicable disease surveillance systems in China have been pointed out by many researchers. To strengthen the national communicable disease surveillance systems becomes an immediate concern. Since the World Health Organization has recommended that a structured approach to strengthen national communicable disease surveillance must include an evaluation to existing systems which usually begins with a systematic description, we conducted the first survey for communicable disease surveillance systems in China, in order to understand the situation of core and support surveillance activities at province-level and county-level centers for disease control and prevention (CDCs. Methods A nationwide survey was conducted by mail between May and October 2006 to investigate the implementation of core and support activities of the Notifiable Disease Reporting System (NDRS and disease-specific surveillance systems in all of the 31 province-level and selected 14 county-level CDCs in Mainland China The comments on the performance of communicable disease surveillance systems were also collected from the directors of CDCs in this survey. Results The core activities of NDRS such as confirmation, reporting and analysis and some support activities such as supervision and staff training were found sufficient in both province-level and county-level surveyed CDCs, but other support activities including information feedback, equipment and financial support need to be strengthened in most of the investigated CDCs. A total of 47 communicable diseases or syndromes were under surveillance at province level, and 20 diseases or syndromes at county level. The activities among different disease-specific surveillance systems varied widely. Acute flaccid paralysis (AFP, measles and tuberculosis (TB surveillance systems got relatively high recognition

  4. Integrating Cooperative Learning Activities to Instruction at Tertiary Education Level: A Qualitative Portrayal of the Experience

    Irshad Hussain; Dr. Hafiz Muhammad Athar Khan; Shazia Ramzan

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a qualitative portrayal of personal experience of the author in which he engaged tertiary education students in cooperative learning activities in the classroom. It is based on his observational notes taken during instructional process, involvement of learners in cooperative learning activities, and their reflection on these activities. The experience focused on assessing the effectiveness of cooperative learning activities. It is described that the researcher taught a course on...

  5. Race, Age, and Obesity Disparities in Adult Physical Activity Levels in Breast Cancer Patients And Controls

    Thompson, Cheryl L.; Owusu, Cynthia; Nock, Nora L.; Li LI; Berger, Nathan A.

    2014-01-01

    Physical activity has been shown to be inversely associated with breast cancer recurrence and survival. Although physical activity is known to decline with age, rates of change in physical activity have not been well characterized in breast cancer patients and subgroups with known disparities in breast cancer survival, especially in minorities, the elderly, and the obese. We evaluated moderate and strenuous physical activity from high school through diagnosis in 1,220 breast cancer patients, ...

  6. Association of day length and weather conditions with physical activity levels in older community dwelling people

    Witham, Miles D; Donnan, Peter T.; Thenmalar Vadiveloo; Sniehotta, Falko F.; Crombie, Iain K; Zhiqiang Feng; McMurdo, Marion E. T.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Weather is a potentially important determinant of physical activity. Little work has been done examining the relationship between weather and physical activity, and potential modifiers of any relationship in older people. We therefore examined the relationship between weather and physical activity in a cohort of older community-dwelling people. METHODS: We analysed prospectively collected cross-sectional activity data from community-dwelling people aged 65 and over in the Physical...

  7. Exercise Level and Energy Expenditure in the Take 10![R] In-Class Physical Activity Program.

    Stewart, James A.; Dennison, David A.; Kohl, Harold W., III; Doyle, J. Andrew

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of an innovative, classroom-based physical activity prevention program designed to integrate academic curriculum elements along with a physical activity program in providing moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity. A convenience sample of three public school classrooms (one first, third, and fifth…

  8. Behaviors of extreme water level in the Pearl River Delta and possible impacts from human activities

    Y. D. Chen

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Trends and variations of the extreme water levels defined as exceeding/falling below certain thresholds (mean ± std across the Pearl River Delta (PRD are systematically explored using the linear regression method. Research results indicate that: 1 The upper PRD is dominated by the significant decreasing low water level, and significant increasing low water level can be identified in the lower PRD. The variations of the relative frequency of the high water level are characterized by the decreasing variability in the middle PRD. However more stations show significant changes of the relative frequency of the low water level across the PRD. No confirmative changing patterns of the relative frequency of the low water level can be detected in the middle PRD; 2 When it comes to the seasonal variations of the high/low water level in JJA (high flow periods in the PRD, stations located closer to the estuary tend to exhibit increasing high/low water level. However stations located closer to the upper PRD tend to show decreasing high/low water level. Similar patterns can be identified in the high/low water level in DJF (low flow periods in the PRD; 3 The changes of the water level in the PRD are heavily affected by human interferences, e.g. in-channel dredging, sand mining and the construction of levees. The stations dominated by decreasing water level are mostly located along the river channels featured by highly-intensive dredging. The stations along the coastal regions show significant increasing extreme high/low water level. The coastal regions are not influenced by in-channel dredging, and furthermore, sediment loads from upper and middle PRD are deposited in the river mouths and which will tend to raise the water level in the estuary of the PRD. The findings of this paper may be helpful for local water resource management.

  9. Recurrent Selection for Transgene Activity Levels in Maize Results in Proxy Selection for a Native Gene with the Same Promoter.

    Anastasia L Bodnar

    Full Text Available High activity levels of a transgene can be very useful, making a transgene easier to evaluate for safety and efficacy. High activity levels can also increase the economic benefit of the production of high value proteins in transgenic plants. The goal of this research is to determine if recurrent selection for activity of a transgene will result in higher activity, and if selection for activity of a transgene controlled by a native promoter will also increase protein levels of the native gene with the same promoter. To accomplish this goal we used transgenic maize containing a construct encoding green fluorescent protein controlled by the promoter for the maize endosperm-specific 27 kDa gamma zein seed storage protein. We carried out recurrent selection for fluorescence intensity in two breeding populations. After three generations of selection, both selected populations were significantly more fluorescent and had significantly higher levels of 27 kDa gamma zein than the unselected control populations. These higher levels of the 27 kDa gamma zein occurred independently of the presence of the transgene. The results show that recurrent selection can be used to increase activity of a transgene and that selection for a transgene controlled by a native promoter can increase protein levels of the native gene with the same promoter via proxy selection. Moreover, the increase in native gene protein level is maintained in the absence of the transgene, demonstrating that proxy selection can be used to produce non-transgenic plants with desired changes in gene expression.

  10. Neuropeptide Y level in paraventricular nucleus of experimental diabetic rats: correlation with sympathetic activity and body weight

    Pallab K Ganguly

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Pallab K GangulyCollege of Medicine, Alfaisal University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaAbstract: Neuropeptide Y (NPY, colocalized with norepinephrine neuron, is known to modulate sympathetic activity and feeding behavior. Although experimental type 1 diabetes has increased sympathetic activity at the early part of the disease process, little effort was made so far to understand the correlation between NPY level in the hypothalamus and sympathetic activity in diabetes. Male Sprague Dawley rats were made diabetic by a single injection of streptozotocin (65 mg/kg body weight, IV. The animals were then studied after 2, 4, and 8 weeks. Control animals received only citrate vehicle. In an effort to clarify the modulatory effect of NPY at the early stage of diabetes, the paraventricular nucleus (PVN of hypothalamus was sampled by microdialysis for NPY and norepinephrine level. While NPY level was increased immediately within 2 weeks (along with feeding behavior, norepinephrine level was increased only after 8 weeks following injection of streptozotocin. The animals lost significant weight. These results are interpreted to mean that a strong correlation exists between the feeding behavior and NPY level in PVN. Since NPY is known to inhibit sympathetic activity it is possible that NPY receptors are down-regulated following diabetes. The higher level of norepinephrine indicating higher sympathetic activity did not allow the animals to gain weight. In addition, controversy exists regarding pleiotropic activities of NPY related to the feeding behavior of these animals.Keywords: streptozotocin-induced diabetes, increased sympathetic activity, feeding behavior, down-regulation of NPY receptors

  11. Decreased modulation by the risk level on the brain activation during decision making in adolescents with internet gaming disorder

    Yongxin Yang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Greater impulse and risk-taking and reduced decision-making ability were reported as the main behavioral impairments in individuals with Internet gaming disorder (IGD, which has become a serious mental health issue worldwide. However, it is not clear to date how the risk level modulates brain activity during the decision-making process in IGD individuals. In this study, 23 adolescents with IGD and 24 healthy controls (HCs without IGD were recruited, and the Balloon Analog Risk Task (BART was used in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI experiment to evaluate the modulation of the risk level (the probability of balloon explosion on brain activity during risky decisionmaking in IGD adolescents. Reduced modulation of the risk level on the activation of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC during the active BART was found in IGD group compared to the HCs. In the IGD group, there was a significant negative correlation between the risk-related DLPFC activation during the active BART and the Barratt impulsivity scale (BIS-11 scores, which were significantly higher in IGD group compared with the HCs. Our study demonstrated that, as a critical decision-making-related brain region, the right DLPFC is less sensitive to risk in IGD adolescents compared with the HCs, which may contribute to the higher impulsivity level in IGD adolescents.

  12. Cardiorespiratory fitness is a stronger indicator of cardiometabolic risk factors and risk prediction than self-reported physical activity levels.

    Gray, Benjamin J; Stephens, Jeffrey W; Williams, Sally P; Davies, Christine A; Turner, Daniel; Bracken, Richard M

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated the relationships of self-reported physical activity levels and cardiorespiratory fitness in 81 males to assess which measurement is the greatest indicator of cardiometabolic risk. Physical activity levels were determined by the General Practice Physical Activity Questionnaire tool and cardiorespiratory fitness assessed using the Chester Step Test. Cardiovascular disease risk was estimated using the QRISK2, Framingham Lipids, Framingham body mass index and Joint British Societies' Guidelines-2 equations, and type 2 diabetes mellitus risk calculated using QDiabetes, Leicester Risk Assessment, Finnish Diabetes Risk Score and Cambridge Risk Score models. Categorising employees by cardiorespiratory fitness categories ('Excellent/Good' vs 'Average/Below Average') identified more differences in cardiometabolic risk factor (body mass index, waist circumference, total cholesterol, total cholesterol:high-density lipoprotein ratio, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, HbA(1c)) scores than physical activity (waist circumference only). Cardiorespiratory fitness levels also demonstrated differences in all four type 2 diabetes mellitus risk prediction models and both the QRISK2 and Joint British Societies' Guidelines-2 cardiovascular disease equations. Furthermore, significant negative correlations (p < 0.001) were observed between individual cardiorespiratory fitness values and estimated risk in all prediction models. In conclusion, from this preliminary observational study, cardiorespiratory fitness levels reveal a greater number of associations with markers of cardiovascular disease or type 2 diabetes mellitus compared to physical activity determined by the General Practice Physical Activity Questionnaire tool. PMID:26361778

  13. Histone deacetylase activity and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF levels in a pharmacological model of mania

    Laura Stertz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In the present study, we aimed to examine the effects of repeated D-amphetamine (AMPH exposure, a well-accepted animal model of acute mania in bipolar disorder (BD, and histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors on locomotor behavior and HDAC activity in the prefrontal cortex (PFC and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs of rats. Moreover, we aimed to assess brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF protein and mRNA levels in these samples. Methods: We treated adult male Wistar rats with 2 mg/kg AMPH or saline intraperitoneally for 14 days. Between the 8th and 14th days, rats also received 47.5 mg/kg lithium (Li, 200 mg/kg sodium valproate (VPT, 2 mg/kg sodium butyrate (SB, or saline. We evaluated locomotor activity in the open-field task and assessed HDAC activity in the PFC and PBMCs, and BDNF levels in the PFC and plasma. Results: AMPH significantly increased locomotor activity, which was reversed by all drugs. This hyperactivity was associated with increased HDAC activity in the PFC, which was partially reversed by Li, VPT, and SB. No differences were found in BDNF levels. Conclusion: Repeated AMPH administration increases HDAC activity in the PFC without altering BDNF levels. The partial reversal of HDAC increase by Li, VPT, and SB may account for their ability to reverse AMPH-induced hyperactivity.

  14. Grape pomace extract exerts antioxidant effects through an increase in GCS levels and GST activity in muscle and endothelial cells.

    Goutzourelas, Nikolaos; Stagos, Dimitrios; Housmekeridou, Anastasia; Karapouliou, Christina; Kerasioti, Efthalia; Aligiannis, Nektarios; Skaltsounis, Alexios L; Spandidos, Demetrios A; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Kouretas, Demetrios

    2015-08-01

    In a previous study, we demonstrated that a grape pomace extract (GPE) exerted antioxidant activity in endothelial (EA.hy926) and muscle (C2C12) cells through an increase in glutathione (GSH) levels. In the present study, in order to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for the antioxidant activity of GPE, its effects on the expression of critical antioxidant enzymes, such as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD)1, heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (GCS) were assessed in EA.hy926 and C2C12 cells. Moreover, the effects of GPE on CAT, SOD and glutathione S-transferase (GST) enzymatic activity were evaluated. For this purpose, the C2C12 and EA.hy926 cells were treated with GPE at low and non-cytotoxic concentrations (2.5 and 10 µg/ml for the C2C12 cells; 0.068 and 0.250 µg/ml for the EA.hy926 cells) for 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 h. Following incubation, enzymatic expression and activity were assessed. The results revealed that treatment with GPE significantly increased GCS levels and GST activity in both the C2C12 and EA.hy926 cells. However, GPE significantly decreased CAT levels and activity, but only in the muscle cells, while it had no effect on CAT levels and activity in the endothelial cells. Moreover, treatment with GPE had no effect on HO-1 and SOD expression and activity in both cell lines. Therefore, the present results provide further evidence of the crucial role of GSH systems in the antioxidant effects exerted by GPE. Thus, GPE may prove to be effective for use as a food supplement for the treatment of oxidative stress-induced pathological conditions of the cardiovascular and skeletal muscle systems, particularly those associated with low GSH levels. PMID:26082074

  15. Dark/light transition and vigilance states modulate jaw-closing muscle activity level in mice.

    Katayama, Keisuke; Mochizuki, Ayako; Kato, Takafumi; Ikeda, Minako; Ikawa, Yasuha; Nakamura, Shiro; Nakayama, Kiyomi; Wakabayashi, Noriyuki; Baba, Kazuyoshi; Inoue, Tomio

    2015-12-01

    Bruxism is associated with an increase in the activity of the jaw-closing muscles during sleep and wakefulness. However, the changes in jaw-closing muscle activity across states of vigilance over a 24-h period are unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of dark/light transition and sleep/wake state on EMG activity of the masseter (jaw-closing) muscle in comparison with the activity of the upper trapezius muscle (a neck muscle) over a 24-h period in mice. The activities of the masseter and neck muscles during wakefulness were much greater than during non-REM and REM sleep. In contrast, the activities of both muscles slightly, but significantly, decreased during the transition period from dark to light. Histograms of masseter activity during wakefulness and non-REM sleep showed bimodal distributions, whereas the neck muscle showed unimodal activation in all states. These results suggest that the activities of jaw-closing and neck muscles are modulated by both sleep/wake state and dark/light transition, with the latter being to a lesser degree. Furthermore, even during non-REM sleep, jaw-closing muscles display bimodal activation, which may contribute to the occurrence of exaggerated aberrant muscle activity, such as sleep bruxism. PMID:26188127

  16. Inter-level Scaffolding and Sequences of Representational Activities in Teaching a Chemical System with Graphical Simulations

    Li, Na; Black, John B.

    2016-05-01

    Chemistry knowledge can be represented at macro-, micro- and symbolic levels, and learning a chemistry topic requires students to engage in multiple representational activities. This study focused on scaffolding for inter-level connection-making in learning chemistry knowledge with graphical simulations. We also tested whether different sequences of representational activities produced different student learning outcomes in learning a chemistry topic. A sample of 129 seventh graders participated in this study. In a simulation-based environment, participants completed three representational activities to learn several ideal gas law concepts. We conducted a 2 × 3 factorial design experiment. We compared two scaffolding conditions: (1) the inter-level scaffolding condition in which participants received inter-level questions and experienced the dynamic link function in the simulation-based environment and (2) the intra-level scaffolding condition in which participants received intra-level questions and did not experience the dynamic link function. We also compared three different sequences of representational activities: macro-symbolic-micro, micro-symbolic-macro and symbolic-micro-macro. For the scaffolding variable, we found that the inter-level scaffolding condition produced significantly better performance in both knowledge comprehension and application, compared to the intra-level scaffolding condition. For the sequence variable, we found that the macro-symbolic-micro sequence produced significantly better knowledge comprehension performance than the other two sequences; however, it did not benefit knowledge application performance. There was a trend that the treatment group who experienced inter-level scaffolding and the micro-symbolic-macro sequence achieved the best knowledge application performance.

  17. The Influence of Centre-Based Childcare on Preschoolers’ Physical Activity Levels: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Leigh M. Vanderloo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The childcare environment represents an appropriate avenue to support physical activity among preschoolers. The aim of this study was two-fold: (1 to measure the physical activity levels of a sample of preschoolers during childcare hours; and (2 to assess which attributes (e.g., space, equipment, policies within centre-based childcare environments influenced physical activity. Thirty-one preschoolers from 5 childcare centres across London, Canada participated. Actical accelerometers were worn by participants for one day during childcare hours to assess activity levels using a 15 second epoch length. The Environment and Policy Assessment and Observation instrument was used to conduct a full-day evaluation of the childcare environment. On average, participants engaged in 1.54 min/h of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and 17.42 min/h of total physical activity. Sedentary opportunities, portable and fixed play equipment, and staff behaviour accounted for 49.3% of the variability in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and 14.1% of the variability in total physical activity, with sedentary opportunities, fixed play equipment, and staff behaviours displaying an inverse relationship. Results emphasize the critical role the childcare environment plays in supporting physical activity among preschoolers.

  18. A survey of engagement and competence levels in interventions and activities in a community mental health workforce in England

    Lang Linda

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background National Health Service (NHS mental health workforce configuration is at the heart of successful delivery, and providers are advised to produce professional development strategies. Recent policy changes in England have sharpened the focus on competency based role development. We determined levels of intervention activities, engagement and competence and their influencing factors in a community-setting mental health workforce. Methods Using a modified questionnaire based on the Yorkshire Care Pathways Model we investigated 153 mental health staff working in Coventry and Warwickshire NHS Trust. A median score of competence was computed across 10 cluster activities. Low engagement and competence levels were examined in a logistic regression model. Results In 220 activities, Monitoring risk was the highest rate of engagement (97.6% and Group psychological therapy/Art/Drama therapy was the lowest engagement (3.6%. The median competence level based on all activities was 3.95 (proficient. There were significant differences in the competence level among professional groups; non-qualified support group (3.00 for competent, Counsellor/Psychologist/Therapist (3.38, Occupational therapists (3.76, Nurses (4.01, Medical staff (4.05, Social workers (4.25 and Psychologists (4.62 for proficient/expert. These levels varied with activity clusters; the lowest level was for Counsellor/Psychologist/Therapist in the accommodation activity (1.44 novice/advance beginner and the highest for Occupational therapists in personal activity (4.94 expert. In a multivariate analysis, low competence was significantly related to non-qualified community support professions, late time of obtaining first qualification, more frequencies of clinical training, and training of cognitive behavioural therapy. The associations were similar in the analysis for 10 activity clusters respectively. Conclusions There was a reasonable competence level in the community

  19. EFFECTS OF CHRONIC STRESS ON THE ACTIVITIES OF SOD, GSH-Px AND MDA LEVEL IN FEMALE RATS' BRAIN

    王莹; 杨东伟; 谢雯; 庞炜; 蒋马莉; 韩太真

    2002-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of chronic emotional stress on the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and malonialdehyde (MDA) level in female rats' brain. Methods The rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: normal control group (group N), emotional stress group (group E), emotional stress + pregnancy group (group E+P) and regularly drinking group (group R). Emotional stress in rats was induced by training rats with empty drinking bottles. Having been finished the stress procedure, the brain was taken out and homogenized. Then the activities of SOD, GSH-Px and MDA level were measured. Results Compared to group N, both the activities of SOD in brain tissues of group E and group E+P were significantly decreased (P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively) while the MDA level increased (P<0.05). However, the extent of changes in group E+P was more obvious than that in E. GSH-Px activities in E+P and E were significantly changed. However, the GSH-Px activity in E+P was decreased (P<0.05) while the activity in E increased (P<0.05).Conclusion The chronic emotional stress can reduce the antioxidative system by decreasing the antioxidative enzyme activity and potentiating the lipid peroxidation in the brain. It is also suggested that the combination of emotional stress and pregnancy can augment the oxidative damage in rats' brain.

  20. A Consensus-Based Criterion Standard Definition for Pediatric Patients Who Needed the Highest-Level Trauma Team Activation

    Lerner, E. Brooke; Drendel, Amy L.; Falcone, Richard A.; Weitze, Keith C.; Badawy, Mohamed K.; Cooper, Arthur; Cushman, Jeremy T.; Drayna, Patrick C.; Gourlay, David M.; Gray, Matthew P.; Shah, Manish I.; Shah, Manish N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Verbal prehospital reports on an injured patient’s condition are typically used by trauma centers to determine if a trauma team should be present in the emergency department prior to patient arrival (i.e., trauma team activation). Efficacy studies of trauma team activation protocols cannot be conducted without a criterion standard definition for which pediatric patients need a trauma team activation. Objective To develop a consensus-based criterion standard definition for pediatric patients who needed the highest-level trauma team activation. Methods Ten local and national experts in emergency medicine, emergency medical services, and trauma were recruited to participate in a Modified Delphi survey process. The initial survey was populated based on outcomes that had been used in previously published literature on trauma team activation. The criterion standard definition for trauma team activation was refined iteratively based on survey responses until at least 80% agreement was achieved for each criterion. Results After five voting rounds a consensus-based definition for pediatric trauma team activation was developed. Twelve criteria were identified along with a corresponding time interval in which each criterion had to occur. The criteria include receiving specific surgery types, interventional radiology, advanced airway management, thoracostomy, blood products, spinal injury, emergency cesarean section, vasopressors, burr hole or other procedure to relieve intracranial pressure, pericardiocentesis, thoracotomy, and death in the emergency department. All expert panel members voted in all 5 voting rounds, except 1 member missed rounds 1 and 2. Each criterion had greater than 80% agreement from the panel. Conclusion A criterion standard definition for the highest-level pediatric trauma team activation was developed. This criterion standard definition will advance trauma research by allowing investigators to determine the accuracy and effectiveness of

  1. Laminin increases both levels and activity of tyrosine hydroxylase in calf adrenal chromaffin cells

    1986-01-01

    We have investigated the effects of substrate-bound laminin on levels of enzymes of the catecholamine biosynthetic pathway in primary cultures of calf adrenal chromaffin cells. Laminin increases the levels of the enzymes tyrosine hydroxylase, dopamine-beta-hydroxylase, and phenylethanolamine-N-methyl-transferase. This effect is selective, in that levels of other enzymes (lactate dehydrogenase, aromatic amino acid decarboxylase, and acetylcholinesterase) are not increased. The effect of lamini...

  2. [Preference for behavior conducive to physical activity and physical activity levels of children from a southern Brazil city].

    Bielemann, Renata Moraes; Xavier, Mariana Otero; Gigante, Denise Petrucci

    2014-07-01

    This article aims to describe preferences for behavior conducive to physical activity (PA) and to evaluate the influence of these preferences on physical activity of children from Pelotas in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. It involved a cross-sectional study with children aged 4 to 11. Behavior conducive to PA was evaluated using the Netherlands Physical Activity Questionnaire (NPAQ). Time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was measured by accelerometry. Variance analysis and linear regression were performed to evaluate associations between questions from the NPAQ and independent variables and between each form of behavior and time spent in MVPA, respectively. Children in the higher economic bracket liked to draw more and preferred less vigorous games and playing outside than poorer children. Older children were less extrovert and liked to draw less than younger children. Enjoying sports, disliking drawing and liking to play outside were positively associated with daily time spent in MVPA. Some characteristics studied were associated with behavior conducive to PA, and economic status proved to be the most important influence. Preferences like enjoying sports positively influenced the time spent in MVPA. PMID:25014307

  3. Observation of Children's Physical Activity Levels in Primary School: Is the School an Ideal Setting for Meeting Government Activity Targets?

    Waring, Michael; Warburton, Peter; Coy, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Given the commitment (and funding) by the British government to promote physical activity among all ages, and despite the inevitable political manipulation of physical education (PE) and school sport, there is now an ideal opportunity to focus on primary schools as a key target group for the future. This study determined the physical activity…

  4. Children's physical activity levels during school recess: a quasi-experimental intervention study

    Fairclough Stuart J; Stratton Gareth; Ridgers Nicola D; Twisk Jos WR

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Recess provides a daily opportunity for children to engage in moderate-to-vigorous (MVPA) and vigorous physical activity (VPA). Limited research has investigated the effects of recess-based interventions on physical activity using large sample sizes whilst investigating variables that may influence the intervention effect. The aim of the study was to investigate the short-term effects of a playground markings and physical structures intervention on recess physical activity...

  5. The twilight zone: ambient light levels trigger activity in primitive ants

    Narendra, Ajay; Reid, Samuel F.; Hemmi, Jan M.

    2010-01-01

    Many animals become active during twilight, a narrow time window where the properties of the visual environment are dramatically different from both day and night. Despite the fact that many animals including mammals, reptiles, birds and insects become active in this specific temporal niche, we do not know what cues trigger this activity. To identify the onset of specific temporal niches, animals could anticipate the timing of regular events or directly measure environmental variables. We sho...

  6. Serum levels of KL-6 reflect disease activity of interstitial pneumonia associated with ANCA-related vasculitis

    Iwata, Yasunori; Wada, Takashi; Furuichi, Kengo; Kitagawa, Kiyoki; Kokubo, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Motoo; Sakai, Norihiko; Yoshimoto, Keiichi; Shimizu, Miho; Kobayashi, Kenichi; Yokoyama, Hitoshi

    2001-01-01

    Objective. KL-6 is reported to be excreted from the lung alveolar and bronchial epithelial cells and may be a good marker for monitoring disease activity of interstitial pneumonia. This study was designed to ascertain the clinical significance of serum KL-6 levels in interstitial pneumonia associated with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-related vasculitis. Methods. Serum KL-6 levels were determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Patients. We examined 20 healthy subjects,...

  7. Low-Level Laser Therapy Activates NF-kB via Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species in Mouse Embryonic Fibroblasts

    Aaron C-H Chen; Arany, Praveen R.; Ying-Ying Huang; Tomkinson, Elizabeth M.; Sharma, Sulbha K.; Kharkwal, Gitika B.; Taimur Saleem; David Mooney; Yull, Fiona E.; Timothy S Blackwell; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite over forty years of investigation on low-level light therapy (LLLT), the fundamental mechanisms underlying photobiomodulation at a cellular level remain unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we isolated murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) from transgenic NF-kB luciferase reporter mice and studied their response to 810 nm laser radiation. Significant activation of NF-kB was observed at fluences higher than 0.003 J/cm(2) and was confirmed by Western blot ana...

  8. The Effect of Trans-Chalcone on Amylase Activity, Blood Glucose and Lipid Levels in Diabetic and Non Diabetic Rats

    Najafian, M.; Ebrahim-Habibi, A.; P Yaghmaei; Parivar, K.; Larijani, B.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction & Objective: Alpha amylase is the most important decomposing enzyme in starch. Digestion and absorption of starch in the intestine can be prevented and also the blood sugar levels can be controlled by restrain and control of alpha amylase. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of trans-chalcone on amylase activity, blood glucose and lipid levels in diabetic and non diabetic rats. Materials & Methods: This experimental study was conducted in 1388 at Tehran Universit...

  9. University-level practical activities in bioinformatics benefit voluntary groups of pupils in the last 2 years of school

    Barker, Daniel; Alderson, Rosanna Grace; McDonagh, James L.; Plaisier, Heleen; Comrie, Muriel Margaret; Duncan, Leigh; Muirhead, Gavin T.P.; Sweeney, Stuart D.

    2015-01-01

    This work was supported in part by the Science and Technology Facilities Council under grant ST/M000435/1 to Daniel Barker. Background Bioinformatics—the use of computers in biology—is of major and increasing importance to biological sciences and medicine. We conducted a preliminary investigation of the value of bringing practical, university-level bioinformatics education to the school level. We conducted voluntary activities for pupils at two schools in Scotland (years S5 and S6; pupils ...

  10. Optimization of Muscle Activity for Task-Level Goals Predicts Complex Changes in Limb Forces across Biomechanical Contexts

    McKay, J. Lucas; Ting, Lena H.

    2012-01-01

    Optimality principles have been proposed as a general framework for understanding motor control in animals and humans largely based on their ability to predict general features movement in idealized motor tasks. However, generalizing these concepts past proof-of-principle to understand the neuromechanical transformation from task-level control to detailed execution-level muscle activity and forces during behaviorally-relevant motor tasks has proved difficult. In an unrestrained balance task i...

  11. Noise levels in the learning-teaching activities in a dental medicine school

    Matos, Andreia; Carvalho, Antonio P. O.; Fernandes, Joao C. S.

    2002-11-01

    The noise levels made by different clinical handpieces and laboratory engines are considered to be the main descriptors of acoustical comfort in learning spaces in a dental medicine school. Sound levels were measured in five types of classrooms and teaching laboratories at the University of Porto Dental Medicine School. Handpiece noise measurements were made while instruments were running free and during operations with cutting tools (tooth, metal, and acrylic). Noise levels were determined using a precision sound level meter, which was positioned at ear level and also at one-meter distance from the operator. Some of the handpieces were brand new and the others had a few years of use. The sound levels encountered were between 60 and 99 dB(A) and were compared with the noise limits in A-weighted sound pressure level for mechanical equipments installed in educational buildings included in the Portuguese Noise Code and in other European countries codes. The daily personal noise exposure levels (LEP,d) of the students and professors were calculated to be between 85 and 90 dB(A) and were compared with the European legal limits. Some noise limits for this type of environment are proposed and suggestions for the improvement of the acoustical environment are given.

  12. Environmental variation of arsenic levels in human blood determined by neutron activation analysis

    Heydorn, Kaj

    1970-01-01

    from Taiwan followed a logarithmic normal distribution, and no difference was found between Blackfoot patients and their healthy family members. However, their overall arsenic levels were higher than the Taiwan average, presumably because of arsenic in their drinking water. Much lower levels were found...

  13. Potential for population-level disturbance by active sonar in herring

    Sivle, L.D.; Kvadsheim, P.H.; Ainslie, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    For conservation purposes, it is important to evaluate potential population consequences of noise disturbance. Based on maximum reported sound levels of no response to sonar, a mathematical model is used to predict the potential risk to the population of herring (Clupea harengus) when these levels a

  14. Effects of Managers’ Work Motivation and Networking Activity on Their Reported Levels of External Red Tape

    Torenvlied, R.; Akkerman, A.

    2012-01-01

    This study brings together two perspectives on managers’ reported levels of red tape. The work motivation perspective explains how managers’ characteristics, such as work engagement (alienation) or commitment, affect their reported levels of red tape. The external control perspective explains how ma

  15. Relationship between serum leptin levels, ATPase activity of erythrocyte membrance and development of diabetic nephropathy in patients with DM2

    Objective: To study the possible mechanism of development of nephrosis affected by changes of serum leptin levels and alteration of activities of Na+K+-ATPase and Ca2+Mg2+-ATPase of erythrocyte membrane in patients with type 2 diabetes(DM2). Methods: Serum leptin levels (with RIA) and erythrocyte membrane Na+K+-ATPase and Ca2+Mg2+-ATPase activitities (with Reinila method) were determined in 40 DM2 patients without nephropathy, 32 DM2 patients with nephropathy and 35 controls. Results Serum leptin levels were significantly higher in the diabetics as a whole than those in controls (P+K+-ATPase and Ca2+Mg2+-ATPase activities were significantly lower (P<0.01). Among the diabetic patients, the serum leptin levels in patients without nephrosis (P<0.05), but the RBC membrance ATPase activities were significantly lower(P<0.05). Conclusion: Development of type 2 diabetes nephrosis might be correlated with the high serum leptin level and decreased ATPase activities of erythrocite membrane. (authors)

  16. Investigation on Paraoxonase Enzyme Activity and Malondialdehyde Level in Liver of Oreochromis niloticus Fed with MOS Supplemented Diet

    Ferbal Özkan-Yılmaz; Arzu Özlüer-Hunt; Mehmet Berköz

    2015-01-01

    In this study, it was evaluated paraoxonase activity (PON) and malondialdehyde (MDA) level in liver tissue of Oreochromis niloticus fed with mannan oligosaccharide (MOS) supplemented diet. For this purpose, fish were fed commercial diet supplemented with 0.25%, 0.35% and 0.45% dietary MOS for 60 days. At the end of experiment, PON activity of liver tissue was increased in MOS groups when compared to control group. It was determined that MDA level of tissue was decreased significantly in MOS g...

  17. Projected near-future CO2 levels increase activity and alter defensive behaviours in the tropical squid Idiosepius pygmaeus

    Blake L. Spady; Sue-Ann Watson; Chase, Tory J.; Munday, Philip L.

    2014-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) levels projected to occur in the oceans by the end of this century cause a range of behavioural effects in fish, but whether other highly active marine organisms, such as cephalopods, are similarly affected is unknown. We tested the effects of projected future CO2 levels (626 and 956 µatm) on the behaviour of male two-toned pygmy squid, Idiosepius pygmaeus. Exposure to elevated CO2 increased the number of active individuals by 19–25% and increased movement (number of line...

  18. Projected near-future CO2 levels increase activity and alter defensive behaviours in the tropical squid Idiosepius pygmaeus

    Blake L. Spady; Watson, Sue-Ann; Chase, Tory J.; Munday, Philip L.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Carbon dioxide (CO2) levels projected to occur in the oceans by the end of this century cause a range of behavioural effects in fish, but whether other highly active marine organisms, such as cephalopods, are similarly affected is unknown. We tested the effects of projected future CO2 levels (626 and 956 µatm) on the behaviour of male two-toned pygmy squid, Idiosepius pygmaeus. Exposure to elevated CO2 increased the number of active individuals by 19–25% and increased movement (numbe...

  19. Investigating diet and physical activity in Malaysia: education and family history of diabetes relate to lower levels of physical activity

    Tam, Cai Lian; Bonn, Gregory; Yeoh, Si Han; Wong, Chee Piau

    2014-01-01

    The National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS, 2011), estimates that the number of Malaysian adults suffering from type 2 diabetes has increased from 8.3 to 31.2% since 1996. This study is a preliminary investigation of possible factors contributing to this epidemic. Knowledge of diabetes, health locus of control, diet and exercise habits, as well as family history, education level and other demographic factors to better understand the correlates of risky and healthy behaviors. This was done...

  20. A Novel Complotype Combination Associates with Age-Related Macular Degeneration and High Complement Activation Levels in vivo.

    Paun, Constantin C; Lechanteur, Yara T E; Groenewoud, Joannes M M; Altay, Lebriz; Schick, Tina; Daha, Mohamed R; Fauser, Sascha; Hoyng, Carel B; den Hollander, Anneke I; de Jong, Eiko K

    2016-01-01

    The complement system is the first line of defense against foreign intruders, and deregulation of this system has been described in multiple diseases. In age-related macular degeneration (AMD), patients have higher complement activation levels compared to controls. Recently, a combination of three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes of the complement system, referred to as a complotype, has been described to increase complement activation in vitro. Here we describe a novel complotype composed of CFB (rs4151667)-CFB (rs641153)-CFH (rs800292), which is strongly associated with both AMD disease status (p = 5.84*10(-13)) and complement activation levels in vivo (p = 8.31*10(-9)). The most frequent genotype combination of this complotype was associated with the highest complement activation levels in both patients and controls. These findings are relevant in the context of complement-lowering treatments for AMD that are currently under development. Patients with a genetic predisposition to higher complement activation levels will potentially benefit the most of such treatments. PMID:27241480