WorldWideScience

Sample records for activity levels

  1. Activity-Level Externalities

    enrico, baffi

    2012-01-01

    In the literature we find unanimous consensus on the analysis of bilateral accident models. In bilateral accident models, indeed, it is usually held that both with the negligence rule and with strict liability with contributory negligence, the residual bearer adopts an efficient level of precaution and efficient activity levels; the party that is not the residual bearer, on the other hand, chooses an excessive activity level since once the due precautions have been taken, they do not answe...

  2. Global physical activity levels

    Hallal, Pedro C; Andersen, Lars Bo; Bull, Fiona C;

    2012-01-01

    To implement effective non-communicable disease prevention programmes, policy makers need data for physical activity levels and trends. In this report, we describe physical activity levels worldwide with data for adults (15 years or older) from 122 countries and for adolescents (13-15-years......-old) from 105 countries. Worldwide, 31·1% (95% CI 30·9-31·2) of adults are physically inactive, with proportions ranging from 17·0% (16·8-17·2) in southeast Asia to about 43% in the Americas and the eastern Mediterranean. Inactivity rises with age, is higher in women than in men, and is increased in high......-income countries. The proportion of 13-15-year-olds doing fewer than 60 min of physical activity of moderate to vigorous intensity per day is 80·3% (80·1-80·5); boys are more active than are girls. Continued improvement in monitoring of physical activity would help to guide development of policies and programmes...

  3. Birth Order and Activity Level in Children.

    Eaton, Warren O.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Studied 7,018 children between birth and 7 years and 81 children of 5-8 years to test the hypothesis that birth order is negatively related to motor activity level. Activity level declined linearly across birth position, so that early-borns were rated as more active than later-borns. (RJC)

  4. Linking Diverse Levels of Activity

    Sørensen, Brian Vejrum; Boer, Harry

    2006-01-01

    /or knowledge intensive companies (Starbuck 1992), which, due to their unsettled form and process, rely on the sense their members make of the change inputs and their creative enactment of these inputs. In such companies, change is a part of everyday practice that (re)produces organisational configurations and......Organisations start strategic renewal initiatives more often than ever before. Many initiatives, however, have little practical effect on the practices they are meant to change. They do not seem to submerge to the level where they become part of the actionable knowledge of the organisation....... Furthermore, the implementation of strategic organisational change, even if based on good arguments, solid analysis and the best intentions, tends to be fraught with unintended consequences. In this paper we aim to supply an explanation for this, based on a longitudinal study, and grounded in a social...

  5. Are Preschool Children Active Enough? Objectively Measured Physical Activity Levels

    Cardon, Greet M.; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse M. M.

    2008-01-01

    The present study aimed to describe accelerometer-based physical activity levels in 4- and 5-year-old children (N = 76) on 2 weekdays and 2 weekend days. The children were sedentary for 9.6 hr (85%) daily, while they engaged in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) for 34 min (5%). Only 7% of the children engaged in MVPA for 60 min per…

  6. Nestling activity levels during begging behaviour predicts activity level and body mass in adulthood

    Luke S.C. McCowan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Across a range of species including humans, personality traits, or differences in behaviour between individuals that are consistent over time, have been demonstrated. However, few studies have measured whether these consistent differences are evident in very young animals, and whether they persist over an individual’s entire lifespan. Here we investigated the begging behaviour of very young cross-fostered zebra finch nestlings and the relationship between that and adult activity levels. We found a link between the nestling activity behaviour head movements during begging, measured at just five and seven days after hatching, and adult activity levels, measured when individuals were between three and three and a half years old. Moreover, body mass was found to be negatively correlated with both nestling and adult activity levels, suggesting that individuals which carry less body fat as adults are less active both as adults and during begging as nestlings. Our work suggests that the personality traits identified here in both very young nestlings and adults may be linked to physiological factors such as metabolism or environmental sources of variation. Moreover, our work suggests it may be possible to predict an individual’s future adult personality at a very young age, opening up new avenues for future work to explore the relationship between personality and a number of aspects of individual life history and survival.

  7. Nestling activity levels during begging behaviour predicts activity level and body mass in adulthood.

    McCowan, Luke S C; Griffith, Simon C

    2014-01-01

    Across a range of species including humans, personality traits, or differences in behaviour between individuals that are consistent over time, have been demonstrated. However, few studies have measured whether these consistent differences are evident in very young animals, and whether they persist over an individual's entire lifespan. Here we investigated the begging behaviour of very young cross-fostered zebra finch nestlings and the relationship between that and adult activity levels. We found a link between the nestling activity behaviour head movements during begging, measured at just five and seven days after hatching, and adult activity levels, measured when individuals were between three and three and a half years old. Moreover, body mass was found to be negatively correlated with both nestling and adult activity levels, suggesting that individuals which carry less body fat as adults are less active both as adults and during begging as nestlings. Our work suggests that the personality traits identified here in both very young nestlings and adults may be linked to physiological factors such as metabolism or environmental sources of variation. Moreover, our work suggests it may be possible to predict an individual's future adult personality at a very young age, opening up new avenues for future work to explore the relationship between personality and a number of aspects of individual life history and survival. PMID:25279258

  8. PSA Level 2 activities for RBMK reactors

    Probabilistic safety analyses (PSAs) of the boiling water graphite moderated pressure tube reactors (RBMKs) have been developed only recently and they are limited to Level 1. Activities at the IAEA were first motivated because of the difficulties to characterize core damage for RBMK reactors. Core damage probability is used in documents of the IAEA as a convenient single valued measure, for example for probabilistic safety criteria. The limited number of PSAs that have been completed for the RBMK reactors have shown that several special features of these channel type reactors necessitate revisiting of the characterization of core damage for these reactors. Furthermore, it has become increasingly evident that detailed deterministic analysis of DBAs and beyond design basis accidents reveal considerable insights into RBMK response to various accident conditions. These analyses can also help in better characterizing the outstanding phenomenological uncertainties, improved EOPs and AM strategies, including potential risk-beneficial accident negative backfits. The deterministic efforts should be focused first on elucidating accident progression processes and phenomena, and second on finding, qualifying and implementing procedures to minimize the risk of severe accident states The IAEA PSA procedures were mainly developed in New of vessel type LWRs, and would therefore require extensions to make them directly applicable. to channel type reactors. (author) (author)

  9. Nestling activity levels during begging behaviour predicts activity level and body mass in adulthood

    McCowan, Luke S.C.; Griffith, Simon C

    2014-01-01

    Across a range of species including humans, personality traits, or differences in behaviour between individuals that are consistent over time, have been demonstrated. However, few studies have measured whether these consistent differences are evident in very young animals, and whether they persist over an individual’s entire lifespan. Here we investigated the begging behaviour of very young cross-fostered zebra finch nestlings and the relationship between that and adult activity levels. We fo...

  10. Study on the physical activity level of Turkish males

    Ramiz Arabacı

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate physical activity (PA level of the Turkish males who lived in BUrsa. A total of 365 subjects between 18 - 69 age participated to this study. To determine physical activity levels, International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ was applied. PA levels of subjects were categorized as inactive, minimum active and HEPA active by using MET method. The relations of parameters, such as their age, BMI, education, marital status, number of children, smoking and alcohol use were determined with PA level. The results were analyzed by using Chi - Square test. The participants have 1725 METmin/week average physical activity level, and 47.7 % of them were physically inactive, 30.4 % were physically minimum active and 21.9 % were physically hepa active. As a result, it can be said that the physical activity levels of Turkish males who lived in Bursa are not sufficient and the inactive people are very common.

  11. Entry-Level Activities in System Consultation

    Hylander, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    System-level consultation or organizational development in schools is an area in great need of theoretical models and definitions. The three articles in this special issue provide a unique learning opportunity not only for consultation across borders but also for consultation within the same nation. In my commentary, I limit my remarks to a few…

  12. Valuation of companies activity on sustainability level

    S. Nadolski

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Paper presents a possibilities of companies valuation due to their activity in accordance with sustainable development.Design/methodology/approach: The article describes best known methods of companies assessment (stock indices, non-financial reports and other indicators connected with sustainability. Also there is a history of indices methodology which comes from ethical, religious problems and sustainable development principles.Findings: There is still more companies interested in being (as a part of sustainability indices or other rankings. Research organizations should be concentrated on different type of rankings which contain summary report of best available techniques.Research limitations/implications: Every sustainability index or non-financial reports ranking should be important part of companies management thinking. It is important idea to create these indices for every local stock exchange. Also companies should publish true and clear non-financial reports.Originality/value: The paper concerns on existing indices and tries to make new look at sustainability problems. Important conclusions are connected with non-financial reports and possible connections between indices, rankings and best available techniques.

  13. Towards a new paradigm: Activity level balanced sustainability reporting.

    Samudhram, Ananda; Siew, Eu-Gene; Sinnakkannu, Jothee; Yeow, Paul H P

    2016-11-01

    Technoeconomic paradigms based economic growth theories suggest that waves of technological innovations drove the economic growth of advanced economies. Widespread economic degradation and pollution is an unintended consequence of such growth. Tackling environmental and social issues at firm levels would help us to overcome such issues at macro-levels. Consequently, the Triple Bottom Line (TBL) reporting approach promotes firm level economic, environmental and social performances. Incorporating Zink's (2014) 3-pillar presentation model, this paper indicates that economic, social and environmental performances tend to be reported at firm level. All three pillars are not covered evenly at the activity levels. Thus, a loophole is identified whereby excellent environmental performance at activity levels could potentially leave poor social performance undisclosed. A refinement of the TBL paradigm, whereby all three pillars are covered at the activity level, is suggested, to enhance sustainability reporting. PMID:27029522

  14. Solar Activity, Different Geomagnetic Activity Levels and Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Dimitrova, Svetla; Jordanova, Malina; Stoilova, Irina; Taseva, Tatiana; Maslarov, Dimitar

    Results on revealing a possible relationship between solar activity (SA) and geomagnetic activity (GMA) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) morbidity are presented. Studies were based on medical data covering the period from 1.12.1995 to 31.12.2004 and concerned daily distribution of patients with AMI diagnose (in total 1192 cases) from Sofia region on the day of admission at the hospital. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to check the significance of GMA intensity effect and the type of geomagnetic storms, those caused by Magnetic Clouds (MC) and by High Speed Solar Wind Streams (HSSWS), on AMI morbidity. Relevant correlation coefficients were calculated. Results revealed statistically significant positive correlation between considered GMA indices and AMI. ANOVA revealed that AMI number was signifi- cantly increased from the day before (-1st) till the day after (+1st) geomagnetic storms with different intensities. Geomagnetic storms caused by MC were related to significant increase of AMI number in comparison with the storms caused by HSSWS. There was a trend for such different effects even on -1st and +1st day.

  15. Study on the physical activity level of Turkish males

    Ramiz Arabacı

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate physical activity (PA level of the Turkish males who lived in BUrsa. A total of 365 subjects between 18 - 69 age participated to this study. To determine physical activity levels, International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ was applied. PA levels of subjects were categorized as inactive, minimum active and HEPA active by using MET method. The relations of parameters, such as their age, BMI, education, marital status, number of children, smoking and alcohol use were determined with PA level. The results were analyzed by using Chi - Square test. The participants have 1725 METmin/week average physical activity level, and 47.7 % of them were physically inactive, 30.4 % were physically minimum active and 21.9 % were physically hepa active. As a result, it can be said that the physical activity levels of Turkish males who lived in Bursa are not sufficient and the inactive people are very common.

  16. Ferromagnetic interaction model of activity level in workplace communication

    Akitomi, Tomoaki; Ara, Koji; Watanabe, Jun-ichiro; Yano, Kazuo

    2013-03-01

    The nature of human-human interaction, specifically, how people synchronize with each other in multiple-participant conversations, is described by a ferromagnetic interaction model of people’s activity levels. We found two microscopic human interaction characteristics from a real-environment face-to-face conversation. The first characteristic is that people quite regularly synchronize their activity level with that of the other participants in a conversation. The second characteristic is that the degree of synchronization increases as the number of participants increases. Based on these microscopic ferromagnetic characteristics, a “conversation activity level” was modeled according to the Ising model. The results of a simulation of activity level based on this model well reproduce macroscopic experimental measurements of activity level. This model will give a new insight into how people interact with each other in a conversation.

  17. Active Ageing Level of Older Persons: Regional Comparison in Thailand

    Haque, Md. Nuruzzaman

    2016-01-01

    Active ageing level and its discrepancy in different regions (Bangkok, Central, North, Northeast, and South) of Thailand have been examined for prioritizing the policy agenda to be implemented. Attempt has been made to test preliminary active ageing models for Thai older persons and hence active ageing index (AAI, ranges from 0 to 1) has been estimated. Using nationally representative data and confirmatory factor analysis approach, this study justified active ageing models for female and male older persons in Thailand. Results revealed that active ageing level of Thai older persons is not high (mean AAIs for female and male older persons are 0.64 and 0.61, resp., and those are significantly different (p health and economic security, to promote participation in social groups and longer working lives, and to arrange learning programs, would be helpful for increasing older persons' active ageing level in Thailand.

  18. Active Ageing Level of Older Persons: Regional Comparison in Thailand

    Md. Nuruzzaman Haque

    2016-01-01

    Active ageing level and its discrepancy in different regions (Bangkok, Central, North, Northeast, and South) of Thailand have been examined for prioritizing the policy agenda to be implemented. Attempt has been made to test preliminary active ageing models for Thai older persons and hence active ageing index (AAI, ranges from 0 to 1) has been estimated. Using nationally representative data and confirmatory factor analysis approach, this study justified active ageing models for female and male...

  19. Murine erythrocytes contain high levels of lysophospholipase activity

    Kamp, J.A.F. op den; Roelofsen, B.; Sanderink, G.; Middelkoop, E.; Hamer, R.

    1984-01-01

    Murine erythrocytes were found to be unique in the high levels of lysophospholipase activity in the cytosol of these cells. The specific activity of the enzyme in the cytosol of the murine cells is 10-times higher than in the cytosol of rabbit erythrocytes and approximately three orders of magnitude

  20. Active Ageing Level of Older Persons: Regional Comparison in Thailand

    Md. Nuruzzaman Haque

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Active ageing level and its discrepancy in different regions (Bangkok, Central, North, Northeast, and South of Thailand have been examined for prioritizing the policy agenda to be implemented. Attempt has been made to test preliminary active ageing models for Thai older persons and hence active ageing index (AAI, ranges from 0 to 1 has been estimated. Using nationally representative data and confirmatory factor analysis approach, this study justified active ageing models for female and male older persons in Thailand. Results revealed that active ageing level of Thai older persons is not high (mean AAIs for female and male older persons are 0.64 and 0.61, resp., and those are significantly different (p<0.001. Mean AAI in Central region is lower than North, Northeast, and South regions but there is no significant difference in the latter three regions of Thailand. Special emphasis should be given to Central region and policy should be undertaken for increasing active ageing level. Implementation of an Integrated Active Ageing Package (IAAP, containing policies for older persons to improve their health and economic security, to promote participation in social groups and longer working lives, and to arrange learning programs, would be helpful for increasing older persons’ active ageing level in Thailand.

  1. Active Crohn's disease is associated with low vitamin D levels

    Jørgensen, Søren Peter; Hvas, Christian Lodberg; Agnholt, Jørgen;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Crohn's disease prevalence increases with increasing latitude. Because most vitamin D comes from sunlight exposure and murine models of intestinal inflammation have demonstrated beneficial effects of 1,25-(OH)(2) vitamin D treatment, we hypothesised that Crohn's disease...... activity is associated with low vitamin D levels. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study of 182 CD patients and 62 healthy controls, we measured serum 25-OH vitamin D. Stratified analysis was used to compare 25-OH vitamin D levels with Crohn's disease activity index, C-reactive protein, smoking status, intake...... of oral vitamin D supplements and seasonal variation in CD patients and healthy controls. RESULTS: Serum 25-OH vitamin D was inversely associated with disease activity: Median 25-OH vitamin D levels of Crohn's disease in remission, mildly, and moderately active diseases evaluated by Crohn's disease...

  2. Serum Renalase Levels Correlate with Disease Activity in Lupus Nephritis.

    Chaojun Qi

    Full Text Available Lupus nephritis (LN is among the most serious complications of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, which causes significant morbidity and mortality. Renalase is a novel, kidney-secreted cytokine-like protein that promotes cell survival. Here, we aimed to investigate the relationship of serum renalase levels with LN and its role in the disease progression of LN.For this cross-sectional study, 67 LN patients and 35 healthy controls were enrolled. Seventeen active LN patients who received standard therapies were followed up for six months. Disease activity was determined by the SLE Disease Activity-2000 (SLEDAI-2K scoring system and serum renalase amounts were determined by ELISA. Predictive value of renalase for disease activity was assessed. Furthermore, the expression of renalase in the kidneys of patients and macrophage infiltration was assessed by immunohistochemistry.Serum renalase amounts were significantly higher in LN patients than in healthy controls. Moreover, patients with proliferative LN had more elevated serum renalase levels than Class V LN patients. In proliferative LN patients, serum renalase levels were significantly higher in patients with active LN than those with inactive LN. Serum renalase levels were positively correlated with SLEDAI-2K, 24-h urine protein excretion, ds-DNA and ESR but inversely correlated with serum albumin and C3. Renalase amounts decreased significantly after six-months of standard therapy. The performance of renalase as a marker for diagnosis of active LN was 0.906 with a cutoff value of 66.67 μg/ml. We also observed that the amount of renalase was significantly higher in glomerular of proliferative LN along with the co-expression of macrophages.Serum renalase levels were correlated with disease activity in LN. Serum renalase might serve as a potential indicator for disease activity in LN. The marked increase of glomerular renalase and its association with macrophages suggest that it might play an

  3. Magnetospheric impulse response for many levels of geomagnetic activity

    The temporal relationship between the solar wind and magnetospheric activity has been studied using 34 intervals of high time resolution IMP 8 solar wind data and the corresponding AL auroral activity index. The median value of the AL index for each interval were utilized to rank the intervals according to geomagnetic activity level. The linear prediction filtering technique was then applied to model magnetospheric response as measured by the AL index to the solar wind input function VB/sub s/. The linear prediction filtering routine produces a filter of time-lagged response coefficients which estimates the most general linear relationship between the chosen input and output parameters of the magnetospheric system. It is found that the filters are composed of two response pulses speaking at time lags of 20 and 60 min. The amplitude of the 60-min pulse is the larger for moderate activity levels, while the 20-min pulse is the larger for strong activity levels. A possible interpretation is that the 20-min pulse represents magnetospheric activity driven directly by solar wind coupling and that the 60-min pulse represents magnetospheric activity driven by the relase of energy previously stored in the magnetotal. If this interpretation is correct, the linear filtering results suggest that both the driven and the unloading models of magnetospheric response are important facets of a more comprehensive response model

  4. Extraction of Children's Friendship Relation from Activity Level

    Kono, Aki; Shintani, Kimio; Katsuki, Takuya; Kihara, Shin'ya; Ueda, Mari; Kaneda, Shigeo; Haga, Hirohide

    Children learn to fit into society through living in a group, and it's greatly influenced by their friend relations. Although preschool teachers need to observe them to assist in the growth of children's social progress and support the development each child's personality, only experienced teachers can watch over children while providing high-quality guidance. To resolve the problem, this paper proposes a mathematical and objective method that assists teachers with observation. It uses numerical data of activity level recorded by pedometers, and we make tree diagram called dendrogram based on hierarchical clustering with recorded activity level. Also, we calculate children's ``breadth'' and ``depth'' of friend relations by using more than one dendrogram. When we record children's activity level in a certain kindergarten for two months and evaluated the proposed method, the results usually coincide with remarks of teachers about the children.

  5. Effect of fluorozis on the erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity levels

    While the flourine level of (drinking) water was higher than normal ranges in the center of Isparta region before 1995 year, this problematic situation is solved in later years. (However) the individuals who are staying in Yenice district are still expose to high levels of fluorine because of the usage of Andik spring water (3.8 mg/L flour level) as drinking water. In this study we aimed to investigate the harmful effect of floride on human erythrocytes via antioxidant defence system and lipid peroxidation. Therefore, we studied the activities of erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes such as Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), Glutathione Peroxidase (GSH-Px) and Catalase (CAT), and the level of erythrocyte Glutathione (GSH), thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and the level of urine floride in high floride exposed people (children, adult and elderly). The activities of SOD, GSH-Px and CAT and the level of GSH, TBARS and urine floride were higher in 3.8 mg/L floride exposed children (Group II) than 0.8 mg/L floride exposed control children (Group I) (p0.05). The activities of SOD, GSH-Px and CAT were lower and the levels of TBARS and urine floride were higher in 3.8 mg/L floride exposed elderly people (Group VI) than 0.8 mg/L floride exposed control elderly people (Group V) (p0.05). As a result we thought that increased SOD, GSH-Px and CAT activities in floride exposed children and adult people, decreased activities of these enzymes in floride exposed elderly people, and increased TBARS in all groups may indicate floride caused oxidative damage in erythrocytes. (author)

  6. Play Equipment, Physical Activity Opportunities, and Children's Activity Levels at Childcare

    Jessica S. Gubbels

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the association between physical activity facilities at childcare (e.g., play equipment and physical activity of 2- and 3-year olds. Observations of physical activity intensity were performed among 175 children at 9 childcare centers in The Netherlands, using the OSRAC-P. The physical activity facilities were assessed for indoors and outdoors separately, using the EPAO instrument. Regular (single-level multivariate and multilevel linear regression analyses examined the association of the facilities and child characteristics (age and sex with children's activity levels. Various physical activity facilities were available in all childcare centers (e.g., balls. Riding toys and a small playing area were associated with lower indoor physical activity levels. Outdoor physical activity levels were positively associated with the availability of portable jumping equipment and the presence of a structured track on the playground. Portable slides, fixed swinging equipment, and sandboxes were negatively associated with outdoor activity levels. In addition, the 3-year old children were more active outdoors than the 2-year olds. In conclusion, not all physical activity facilities at childcare were indeed positively associated with children's activity levels. The current findings provide concrete leads for childcare providers regarding which factors they can improve in the physical environment to facilitate children's physical activity.

  7. Levels of erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity in Japanese people

    Ueda,Kazuko

    1978-12-01

    Full Text Available Levels of erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD activitiy in a sample of Japanese people were determined. Blood samples were taken from new-born infants, preschool children, young and old people who had no apparent diseases and also from three anemic patients. Erythrocyte SOD activities in different age groups had a nearly normal distribution. Females had slightly lower activities than males, although the difference was statistically insignificant. The distributions of SOD activities were 12.6 +/- 2.7 (m +/- SD unit/mg Hb in young people and 11.4 +/- 3.0 in old people, indicating that erythrocyte SOD activity falls with aging. Because of low concentration of hemoglobin, SOD activities of old people expressed as unit/ml blood were much lower than in young people. Three anemic patients had slightly lower SOD activity.

  8. Classroom Management to Support Active Middle Level Classrooms

    Bryan Lloyd McCoy

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    This article presents a discussion of connections between middle level concepts of teaching and learning and managing a classroom through creating opportunities for active and engaged learning. The article argues and concludes that classroom management is more about managing learning than managing behavior and that one effective way to manage student behavior is to create an environment where students continuously engage in active learning (Haydon, Borders, Embury, & Clarke, 2009.

  9. Classroom Management to Support Active Middle Level Classrooms

    Bryan Lloyd McCoy

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a discussion of connections between middle level concepts of teaching and learning and managing a classroom through creating opportunities for active and engaged learning. The article argues and concludes that classroom management is more about managing learning than managing behavior and that one effective way to manage student behavior is to create an environment where students continuously engage in active learning (Haydon, Borders, Embury, & Clarke, 2009.

  10. Classroom Management to Support Active Middle Level Classrooms

    Bryan Lloyd McCoy

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a discussion of connections between middle level concepts of teaching and learning and managing a classroom through creating opportunities for active and engaged learning. The article argues and concludes that classroom management is more about managing learning than managing behavior and that one effective way to manage student behavior is to create an environment where students continuously engage in active learning (Haydon, Borders, Embury, & Clarke, ...

  11. Default activity patterns at the neocortical microcircuit level

    Artur Luczak

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Even in absence of sensory stimuli cortical networks exhibit complex, self-organized activity patterns. While the function of those spontaneous patterns of activation remains poorly understood, recent studies both in vivo and in vitro have demonstrated that neocortical neurons activate in a surprisingly similar sequential order both spontaneously and following input into cortex. For example, neurons that tend to fire earlier within spontaneous bursts of activity also fire earlier than other neurons in response to sensory stimuli. These 'default patterns' can last hundreds of milliseconds and are strongly conserved under a variety of conditions. In this paper we will review recent evidence for these default patterns at the local cortical level. We speculate that cortical architecture imposes common constraints on spontaneous and evoked activity flow, which result in the similarity of the patterns.

  12. 34 CFR 300.814 - Other State-level activities.

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Other State-level activities. 300.814 Section 300.814 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION...

  13. Can nursing students' confidence levels increase with repeated simulation activities?

    Cummings, Cynthia L; Connelly, Linda K

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, nursing faculty conducted a study with undergraduate nursing students on their satisfaction, confidence, and educational practice levels, as it related to simulation activities throughout the curriculum. The study was a voluntary survey conducted on junior and senior year nursing students. It consisted of 30 items based on the Student Satisfaction and Self-Confidence in Learning and the Educational Practices Questionnaire (Jeffries, 2012). Mean averages were obtained for each of the 30 items from both groups and were compared using T scores for unpaired means. The results showed that 8 of the items had a 95% confidence level and when combined the items were significant for p confidence and active learning. Based on these findings, it can be assumed that repeated simulation experiences can lead to an increase in student confidence and active learning. PMID:26599594

  14. Low level laser therapy reduces inflammation in activated Achilles tendinitis

    Bjordal, Jan M.; Iversen, Vegard; Lopes-Martins, Rodrigo Alvaro B.

    2006-02-01

    Objective: Low level laser therapy (LLLT) has been forwarded as therapy for osteoarthritis and tendinopathy. Results in animal and cell studies suggest that LLLT may act through a biological mechanism of inflammatory modulation. The current study was designed to investigate if LLLT has an anti-inflammatory effect on activated tendinitis of the Achilles tendon. Methods: Seven patients with bilateral Achilles tendonitis (14 tendons) who had aggravated symptoms by pain-inducing activity immediately prior to the study. LLLT (1.8 Joules for each of three points along the Achilles tendon with 904nm infrared laser) and placebo LLLT were administered to either Achilles tendons in a random order to which patients and therapist were blinded. Inflammation was examined by 1) mini-invasive microdialysis for measuring the concentration of inflammatory marker PGE II in the peritendinous tissue, 2) ultrasound with Doppler measurement of peri- and intratendinous blood flow, 3) pressure pain algometry and 4) single hop test. Results: PGE 2- levels were significantly reduced at 75, 90 and 105 minutes after active LLLT compared both to pre-treatment levels (p=0.026) and to placebo LLLT (p=0.009). Changes in pressure pain threshold (PPT) were significantly different (P=0.012) between groups. PPT increased by a mean value of 0.19 kg/cm2 [95%CI:0.04 to 0.34] after treatment in the active LLLT group, while pressure pain threshold was reduced by -0.20 kg/cm2 [95%CI:-0.45 to 0.05] after placebo LLLT. Conclusion: LLLT can be used to reduce inflammatory musculskeletal pain as it reduces inflammation and increases pressure pain threshold levels in activity-induced pain episodes of Achilles tendinopathy.

  15. Physical activity level and sedentary time in Norwegian adolescents

    Sundgot-Borgen, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Background: Physical activity (PA) is necessary for children and adolescents to obtain a healthy development. The environment, however, facilitates the sedentary lifestyle. World health organization (WHO) defines physical inactivity as the fourth major risk factor for mortality. Still, adolescents in Europe and America are sedentary more than 50 % of their waking hours. Lack of comparability between studies investigating PA level and sedentary time in adolescents creates need f...

  16. The relationship between postnatal depression, sociodemographic factors, levels of partner support, and levels of physical activity

    Maryam eSaligeh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: postnatal depression (PND is defined as a psychological mood disorder that occurs in a mother within six weeks of her giving birth. It refers to an episode that causes mood disturbance and it could begin in, or extend into, the postpartum period. It is thought to have a high impact upon the mother’s health as well as the family’s functioning and the child’s development. Socio-demographic, psych-social, and physical activity factors may all contribute to postpartum mood and ability to cope with responsibilities. The primary aim of this study was to determine which of these factors predicted PND in postpartum women. A secondary aim was to identify the socio-demographic and psycho-social predictors of physical activity in postpartum women . Methods: The study used a cross-sectional correlational design. A sample of 150 postpartum women was sent a package of six standardised questionnaires. Results: There was no association between physical activity and PND; however, older mothers, mothers of younger children, mothers who are less reluctant to ask for help, and mothers who are more satisfied with the help they get experience lower levels of PND. Mothers of older babies, mothers with more children, and less educated mothers are more likely to engage in caregiving activities, whereas mothers with fewer children and higher levels of partner support are more likely to engage in occupational activities. None of the socio-demographic factors or any of the parenting factors predicted levels of sporting activity.

  17. Play Equipment, Physical Activity Opportunities, and Children's Activity Levels at Childcare

    Gubbels, Jessica S; Van Kann, Dave H. H.; Jansen, Maria W J

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the association between physical activity facilities at childcare (e.g., play equipment) and physical activity of 2- and 3-year olds. Observations of physical activity intensity were performed among 175 children at 9 childcare centers in The Netherlands, using the OSRAC-P. The physical activity facilities were assessed for indoors and outdoors separately, using the EPAO instrument. Regular (single-level) multivariate and multilevel linear regression analyses examined t...

  18. Secular trends in storm-level geomagnetic activity

    J. J. Love

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Analysis is made of K-index data from groups of ground-based geomagnetic observatories in Germany, Britain, and Australia, 1868.0–2009.0, solar cycles 11–23. Methods include nonparametric measures of trends and statistical significance used by the hydrological and climatological research communities. Among the three observatory groups, German K data systematically record the highest disturbance levels, followed by the British and, then, the Australian data. Signals consistently seen in K data from all three observatory groups can be reasonably interpreted as physically meaninginful: (1 geomagnetic activity has generally increased over the past 141 years. However, the detailed secular evolution of geomagnetic activity is not well characterized by either a linear trend nor, even, a monotonic trend. Therefore, simple, phenomenological extrapolations of past trends in solar and geomagnetic activity levels are unlikely to be useful for making quantitative predictions of future trends lasting longer than a solar cycle or so. (2 The well-known tendency for magnetic storms to occur during the declining phase of a sunspot-solar cycles is clearly seen for cycles 14–23; it is not, however, clearly seen for cycles 11–13. Therefore, in addition to an increase in geomagnetic activity, the nature of solar-terrestrial interaction has also apparently changed over the past 141 years.

  19. Acetylcholinesterase Modulates Presenilin-1 Levels and γ-Secretase Activity

    Campanari, María-Letizia; García Ayllón, María Salud; Belbin, Olivia; Galcerán, Joan; Lleó, Alberto; Sáez-Valero, Javier

    2014-01-01

    The cholinergic enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and the catalytic component of the ¿-secretase complex, presenilin-1 (PS1), are known to interact. In this study, we investigate the consequences of AChE-PS1 interactions, particularly the influence of AChE in PS1 levels and ¿-secretase activity. PS1 is able to co-immunoprecipitate all AChE variants (AChE-R and AChE-T) and molecular forms (tetramers and light subunits) present in the human brain. Overexpression of AChE-R or AChE-T, or their r...

  20. Human monoamine oxidase A gene determines levels of enzyme activity.

    Hotamisligil, G S; Breakefield, X O

    1991-01-01

    Monoamine oxidase (MAO) is a critical enzyme in the degradative deamination of biogenic amines throughout the body. Two biochemically distinct forms of the enzyme, A and B, are encoded in separate genes on the human X chromosome. In these studies we investigated the role of the structural gene for MAO-A in determining levels of activity in humans, as measured in cultured skin fibroblasts. The coding sequence of the mRNA for MAO-A was determined by first-strand cDNA synthesis, PCR amplificatio...

  1. Adhesion molecules levels in blood correlate with MRI activity and clinical activity in multiple sclerosis

    Research into pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) has prompted efforts to identify immunological markers associated with disease activity. Adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 are associated with inflammatory mediated blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction. In this study investigates the correlation between blood level of circulating ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) activity in different clinical phases of patients with MS. We show that RRMS and SPMS patients in clinically active phase with Gd-enhancing lesions in CNS had higher blood levels of cICAM-1 and cVCAM-1 compared these parameters levers of RRMS patients in remission stage. These results suggest that cICAM-1 and cVCAM-1 is a sensitive indicator of disease activity associated with BBB inflammatory dysfunction. Elevated blood level of cICAM-1 more strongly correlated with clinical activity and BBB damage, than cVCAM-1 and that could be used as biological marker of disease activity. Circulating VCAM-1 as an early indicator of BBB disturbance, may also serve as marker of beneficial activity in relapses phase of MS course. (authors)

  2. Idaho Senior Center Activities, Activity Participation Level, and Managers' Perceptions of Activity Success.

    Girvan, James T.; Harris, Frances

    A survey completed by managers of 77 senior centers in Idaho revealed that meals, blood pressure screening, and games and trips were the most successful activities offered. Alzheimer's support groups, library books for loan, and exercise classes were the least successful. Possible reasons for the success or failure of these activities were…

  3. Closure Plan for Active Low Level Burial Grounds

    SKELLY, W.A.

    2000-11-16

    This plan has been prepared in response to direction from the U.S. Department of Energy. The purpose of the plan is to define approaches that will be implemented to ensure protection of the public and the environment when active Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBGs) at the Hanford Site are closed. Performance assessments for active burial grounds in the 200 East and West 200 Areas provide current estimates of potential environmental contamination and doses to the ''maximum exposed individual'' from burial ground operation and closure and compare dose estimates to performance objective dose limits for the facilities. This is an Operational Closure Plan. The intent of the guidance in DOE Order 435.1 is that this plan will be a living document, like the facility performance assessments, and will be revised periodically through the operational life of the LLBGs to reflect updated information on waste inventory. management practices, facility transition planning, schedule dates, assessments of post-closure performance, and environmental consequences. Out year dates identified in this plan are tentative. A Final Closure Plan will be prepared in the future when the timing and extent of closure-related activities for LLBGs can be established with greater certainty. After current operations at the LLBGs are concluded, this plan proposes transitioning of these facilities to the Environmental Restoration Program. This action will enable the Environmental Restoration Program to design and implement consistent and coordinated final remedial actions for active and inactive LLBGs. Active and inactive burial grounds in the 200 West and 200 East Areas are commingled. This plan describes approaches that will be implemented during Interim Closure, Final Closure, and Institutional Control Periods to prepare LLBGs for surface barriers, and the construction of barriers, as well as the scope of inspection, monitoring and maintenance practices that will be performed during

  4. How much locomotive activity is needed for an active physical activity level: analysis of total step counts

    Ohkawara Kazunori

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although physical activity recommendations for public health have focused on locomotive activity such as walking and running, it is uncertain how much these activities contribute to overall physical activity level (PAL. The purpose of the present study was to determine the contribution of locomotive activity to PAL using total step counts measured in a calorimeter study. Methods PAL, calculated as total energy expenditure divided by basal metabolic rate, was evaluated in 11 adult men using three different conditions for 24-hour human calorimeter measurements: a low-activity day (L-day targeted at a low active level of PAL (1.45, and a high-frequency moderate activity day (M-day or a high-frequency vigorous activity day (V-day targeted at an active level of PAL (1.75. These subjects were permitted only light activities except prescribed activities. In a separate group of 41 adults, free-living PAL was evaluated using doubly-labeled water (DLW. In both experiments, step counts per day were also measured using an accelerometer. Results In the human calorimeter study, PAL and step counts were 1.42 ± 0.10 and 8,973 ± 543 steps/d (L-day, 1.82 ± 0.14 and 29,588 ± 1,126 steps/d (M-day, and 1.74 ± 0.15 and 23,755 ± 1,038 steps/d (V-day, respectively. In the DLW study, PAL and step counts were 1.73 ± 0.15 and 10,022 ± 2,605 steps/d, and there was no significant relationship between PAL and daily step counts. Conclusions These results indicate that an enormous number of steps are needed for an active level of PAL if individuals extend physical activity-induced energy expenditure by only locomotive activity. Therefore, non-locomotive activity such as household activity should also play a significant role in increasing PAL under free-living conditions.

  5. Energy requirements and physical activity level of active elderly people in rural areas of cuba

    Obesity and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) are common in the Third Age and increasing in Cuba. Among the life-style changes associated with increased prevalence of obesity and its related disorders, diet and activity patterns are prime candidates. The transition to this life-style model may induce a decrease in the energy needs. There is an urgent need for tools which have been validated for measuring diet and physical activity in nutritional studies in the developing world, but also a more urgent need for reference values for the total energy requirements of healthy elderly people. Regular physical activity reduces the likelihood to develop diseases that characterise the metabolic cardiovascular syndrome. Previous studies done in Havana showed values of physical activity level (PAL) which are lower than the reported for elderly subjects. Elderly people living in rural areas use to have physical activity levels which differ from the observed in urban areas. With the purpose of estimating the energy requirements, a group of 40 apparently healthy people older than 60 years of age living in a rural mountain community will be submitted to a medical, epidemiological, dietary, anthropometric and insulin resistance study. Physical activity will be determined by questionnaire and by the calculation of the PAL from the basal metabolic rate (BMR) and total energy expenditure (TEE) measured with the doubly-labelled water method (DLW). Associations with the prevalence of insulin resistance and obesity will be assessed. (author)

  6. Fire testing of fully active medium-level waste forms

    The effect of heat on packaged intermediate level waste (ILW) has been studied. This was done in order to be able to predict the behaviour of the ILW under accident conditions involving fire during transport or at the repository. In the study, experimental data were obtained and used in the development and validation of theoretical models to describe aspects of the behaviour of the waste form when subjected to heat. The prime objective was to be able to predict the amounts of radioactive materials released from a given incident. Four ILW streams were selected for experimental study. These four were chosen as the minimum that could be studied to provide a set of data that could be used in the prediction of the behaviour of the majority of ILW produced in the UK. Heating experiments were carried out on a small scale using packaged ILW samples made from active wastes or inactive simulants. Data were obtained on temperatures in the waste form, production of volatile materials, carry-forward of solid particulate materials and carry-forward of radionuclides. The results were used, together with data from full-scale experiments with inactive simulant ILW carried out at Winfrith, to develop and validate a theoretical model. This model calculates the temperature profiles within a package of immobilized ILW as a function of the applied heating conditions. The temperature of the waste form is used to predict the release of radioactive materials from the package. 4 refs., 65 figs., 13 tabs

  7. Paired galaxies with different activity levels and their supernovae

    Nazaryan, T A; Hakobyan, A A; Adibekyan, V Zh; Kunth, D; Mamon, G A; Turatto, M; Aramyan, L S

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the influence of close neighbor galaxies on the properties of supernovae (SNe) and their host galaxies using 56 SNe located in pairs of galaxies with different levels of star formation (SF) and nuclear activity. The statistical study of SN hosts shows that there is no significant difference between morphologies of hosts in our sample and the larger general sample of SN hosts in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 8 (DR8). The mean distance of type II SNe from nuclei of hosts is greater by about a factor of 2 than that of type Ibc SNe. The distributions and mean distances of SNe are consistent with previous results compiled with the larger sample. For the first time it is shown that SNe Ibc are located in pairs with significantly smaller difference of radial velocities between components than pairs containing SNe Ia and II. We consider this as a result of higher star formation rate (SFR) of these closer systems of galaxies. SN types are not correlated with the luminosity ratio of ho...

  8. Millimeter-Wave Measurements of High Level and Low Level Activity Glass Melts

    The primary objectives of the current research is to develop on-line sensors for characterizing molten glass in high-level and low-activity waste glass melters using millimeter-wave (MMW) technology and to use this technology to do novel research of melt dynamics. Existing and planned waste glass melters lack sophisticated diagnostics due to the hot, corrosive, and radioactive melter environments. Without process control diagnostics, the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) under construction at Hanford operate by a feed forward process control scheme that relies on predictive models with large uncertainties. This scheme severely limits production throughput and waste loading. Also operations at DWPF have shown susceptibility to anomalies such as pouring, foaming, and combustion gas build up, which can seriously disrupt operations. Future waste chemistries will be even more challenging. The scientific goals of this project are to develop new reliable on-line monitoring capability for important glass process parameters such as temperature profiles, emissivity, density, viscosity, and other characteristics using the unique advantages of millimeter wave electromagnetic radiation that can be eventually implemented in the operating melters. Once successfully developed and implemented, significant cost savings would be realized in melter operations by increasing production through put, reduced storage volumes (through higher waste loading), and reduced risks (prevention or mitigation of anomalies)

  9. Physical activity level of school children of age 10-13 years

    Ronghe, Dr. Rashmi N; Gotmare, Dr. Neha A; Kawishwar, Dr. Shraddha

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To assess physical activity level of school children of age 10-13 years.Objectives: To assess and grade physical activity level in children of age 10-13 years using Physical Activity Questionnaire for Children (PAQ-C) classified into: Light Physical activity; Moderate Physical activity; Moderate to vigorous Physical activity and High Physical activity.Methodology: This is Questionnaire based survey study which was conducted on 100 school going children of 10-13 years who were present on ...

  10. The contribution of the primary school setting and physical education lessons to children's physical activity levels

    Howells, K

    2014-01-01

    The thesis research explored children’s physical activity levels that occurred within the primary school setting. It examined the contribution that Physical Education lessons make to children’s overall measured physical activity levels within the school day. It investigated children’s perceived level of physical activity and compared this with children’s physical activity measured by accelerometers. For the purpose of the thesis research, physical activity was regarded as, “any bodily movemen...

  11. Low-level radioactive waste activities in Texas

    In September 1982, the Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority began the process for the selection, construction, and operation of a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility in Texas. The statute creating the Authority is a very comprehensive law which calls for the orderly completion of a step-by-step process in the development of the disposal facility. The organization of the Authority and its use of external resources, both professional organizations and citizens groups, are functioning extremely well in the performance of the Authority's objectives. Continued success will lead to the development and operation of a low-level radioactive waste disposal site in Texas prior to 1988

  12. The prediction of induced activity levels in and around NIMROD

    Hack, R C

    1973-01-01

    Comparisons are reported between measured and predicted levels of induced radioactivity for a number of irradiation conditions. Good agreement was found between experimental measurements and fairly simple methods of prediction developed at CERN.

  13. Liquid-phase adsorption of phenol onto activated carbons prepared with different activation levels

    Hsieh, C.T.; Teng, H.S.

    2000-07-01

    The paper investigates the influence of the pore size distribution of activated carbon on the adsorption of phenol from aqueous solutions. Activated carbons with different porous structures were prepared by gasifying a bituminous coal char to different extents of burn-off. The results of adsorption experiments show that the phenol capacity of these carbons does not proportionally increase with their BET surface area. This reflects the heterogeneity of the carbon surface for adsorption. The pore size distributions of these carbons were found to vary with the burn-off level. The paper demonstrates that the heterogeneity of carbon surface for the phenol adsorption can be attributed to the different energies required for adsorption in different-size micropores.

  14. USDOE activities in low-level radioactive waste treatment

    This paper describes current research, development and demonstration (R, D and D) programs sponsored by the US Department of Energy in the area of low-level radioactive waste treatment. The US Department of Energy Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program is directed toward a coordinated program covering the period from low-level radioactive waste generation through the decommissioning of the disposal site. This paper addresses the treatment portion of the program. The development efforts include: mechanical methods for metal and compactible waste volume reduction; incineration of trash or other combustibles through the use of controlled air, cyclone, or molten glass furnaces; ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, biological or chemical destruction of nitrates; adsorption treatment of low-concentration aqueous waste streams; combustion of organic liquids; and smelting of metal wastes to reduce their volume and conserve our natural resources. (author)

  15. Active Radiation Level Measurement on New Laboratory Instrument for Evaluating the Antibacterial Activity of Radioisotope

    Joh, Eunha; Park, Jang Guen [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    A disc method has been widely used to measure the antibacterial effect of chemical agents. However, it is difficult to measure the antibacterial effect of radioisotopes using a disc method. A disc method is a method for diffusing a drug by placing the drug containing disc on the medium. In this method, radioisotopes are diffused on the medium and it is difficult to measure the exact effect by radiation. Thus, new laboratory equipment needs to evaluate the antibacterial activity by the radioisotopes. In this study, we measured the radiation level of radioisotopes on a new laboratory instrument using a MCNP. A disc method has been widely used to measure the antibacterial effect of chemical agents. This method uses a drug diffusion system for the measurement of anti-bacterial antibiotics. To measure the antimicrobial activity of a radioisotope, a new type of laboratory instrument is necessary to prevent the drug from spreading. The radioisotopes are used to diagnose and treat cancer. However, studies for anti-biotical use have not progressed. The radiation of radioisotopes has the effect of killing bacteria. Before this study proceeds further, it is necessary to be able to measure the antimicrobial activity of the radioisotope easily in the laboratory. However, in this study, it was possible to measure the antimicrobial activity of the radioisotope in the laboratory using a new laboratory instrument. We intend to start evaluation studies of the antibacterial activity of specific radioisotopes. In addition, it will be possible to develop research to overcome diseases caused by bacteria in the future.

  16. Energy requirements and physical activity level of active elderly people in rural areas of Cuba

    Obesity and NIDDM are common in the Third Age and increasing in Cuba. Among the life-style changes associated with increased prevalence of obesity and its related disorders, diet and activity patterns are prime candidates. The transition to this life-style model may induce a decrease in the energy needs. There is an urgent need for tools which have been validated for measuring diet and physical activity in nutritional studies in the developing world, but also a more urgent need for reference values for the total energy requirements of healthy elderly people. Regular physical activity reduces the likelihood to develop diseases that characterise the metabolic cardiovascular syndrome. With the purpose of estimating the energy requirements, a group of 48 elderly people aged 61-74 years living in a rural mountain community was submitted to a medical, epidemiological, dietary and biochemical study of the nutritional status. Glucose intolerance was diagnosed in 40% and arterial hypertension was present in 23 % of them. Ten subjects without signs or symptoms of the metabolic cardiovascular syndrome were submitted to a measurement of the total energy expenditure by the doubly labelled water method. PAL values of 2.13 and 1.77 were measured for men and women, values which were significantly higher that the recommended value of 1.51 for elderly subjects. The total energy expenditure: The estimation of energy requirements by the energy intake or by the factorial method using the physical activity questionnaires generated values, which were 11 % and 30% lower than the values obtained by the DLW-method. The value of 1.51 x BMR for the estimation of the energy requirements of elderly subjects living in rural areas and submitted to higher levels of physical activity seems to be sub estimated

  17. Energy requirements and physical activity level of active elderly people in rural areas of China

    Obesity and NIDDM are common in the Third Age and increasing in Cuba. Among the life-style changes associated with increased prevalence of obesity and its related disorders, diet and activity patterns are prime candidates. The transition to this life-style model may induce a decrease in the energy needs. There is an urgent need for tools which have been validated for measuring diet and physical activity in nutritional studies in the developing world, but also a more urgent need for reference values for the total energy requirements of healthy elderly people. Regular physical activity reduces the likelihood to develop diseases that characterise the metabolic cardiovascular syndrome. With the purpose of estimating the energy requirements, a group of 48 elderly people aged 61-74 years living in a rural mountain community was submitted to a medical, epidemiological, dietary and biochemical study of the nutritional status. Glucose intolerance was diagnosed in 40% and arterial hypertension was present in 23 of them. Ten subjects without signs or symptoms of the metabolic cardiovascular syndrome were submitted to a measurement of the total energy expenditure by the doubly labelled water method. PAL values of 2.13 and 1. 77 were measured for men and women, values which were significantly higher that the recommended value of 1.51 for elderly subjects. The estimation of energy requirements by the energy intake or by the factorial method using the physical activity questionnaires generated values, which were 11% and 30% lower than the values obtained by the DLW-method The value of 1.51 x BMR for the estimation of the energy requirements of elderly subjects living in rural areas and submitted to higher levels of physical activity seems to be sub estimated. (author)

  18. Energy requirements and physical activity level of active elderly people in rural areas of Cuba

    Full text: Obesity and NIDDM are common in the Third Age and increasing in Cuba. Among the lifestyle changes associated with increased prevalence of obesity and its related disorders, diet and activity patterns are prime candidates. The transition to this lifestyle model may induce a decrease in the energy needs. There is an urgent need for tools which have been validated for measuring diet and physical activity in nutritional studies in the developing world, but also a more urgent need for reference values for the total energy requirements of healthy elderly people. Regular physical activity reduces the likelihood to develop diseases that characterize the metabolic cardiovascular syndrome. With the purpose of estimating the energy requirements, a group of 48 elderly people aged 61-74 years living in a rural mountain community was submitted to a medical, epidemiological, dietary and biochemical study of the nutritional status. Glucose intolerance was diagnosed in 40% and arterial hypertension was present in 23 % of them. Ten subjects without signs or symptoms of the metabolic cardiovascular syndrome were submitted to a measurement of the total energy expenditure by the doubly labelled water method. PAL values of 2.13 and 1.77 were measured for men and women, values which were significantly higher that the recommended value of 1.51 for elderly subjects. The total energy expenditure The estimation of energy requirements by the energy intake or by the factorial method using the physical activity questionnaires generated values, which were 11% and 30% lower than the values obtained by the DLW method. The value of 1.51xBMR for the estimation of the energy requirements of elderly subjects living in rural areas and submitted to higher levels of physical activity seems to be sub estimated. (author)

  19. Human hair neutron activation analysis: analysis on population level, mapping

    Neutron activation analysis is an outstanding analytical method having very wide applications in various fields. Analysis of human hair within last decades mostly based on neutron activation analysis is a very attractive illustration of the application of nuclear analytical techniques. Very interesting question is how the elemental composition differs in different areas or cities. In this connection the present paper gives average data and maps of various localities in the vicinity of drying-out Aral Sea and of various industrial cities in Central Asia. (author)

  20. Online Activity Levels Are Related to Caffeine Dependency.

    Phillips, James G; Landhuis, C Erik; Shepherd, Daniel; Ogeil, Rowan P

    2016-05-01

    Online activity could serve in the future as behavioral markers of emotional states for computer systems (i.e., affective computing). Hence, this study considered relationships between self-reported stimulant use and online study patterns. Sixty-two undergraduate psychology students estimated their daily caffeine use, and this was related to study patterns as tracked by their use of a Learning Management System (Blackboard). Caffeine dependency was associated with less time spent online, lower rates of file access, and fewer online activities completed. Reduced breadth or depth of processing during work/study could be used as a behavioral marker of stimulant use. PMID:27096737

  1. Use and activity levels on newly built bicycle playgrounds

    Schipperijn, Jasper; Hansen, Christine Kier; Rask, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Increasing the use of urban green space (UGS) as well as increasing cycling could potentially help address the growing inactivity problem. Three bicycle playgrounds were designed based on a participatory process and afterwards constructed in the UGS along a cycle-route on the historic outer defence...... close to one of the sites. A future study involving objective before and after measures when a new bicycle playground is build will be needed to reveal if bicycle playgrounds can provide additional activity to its users, or ‘just’ a different type of activity, in a different location....

  2. A coincidence counting system for detection of low level activities

    A system based on coincidence counting for measuring the absolute activity of isotopes in which a gamma ray is emitted by the nucleus following the capture of the orbital electron with a known half-life is described. If the half-life of the excited state is small compared to the resolving time of the coincidence circuit, the absolute activity of the source can be determined. The system consists of two NaI(Th) crystals, a high voltage supply, 2 preamplifiers, 2 amplifiers, two single channel analyzers, one coincident unit, and three sealers

  3. Motoneuron and sensory neuron plasticity to varying neuromuscular activity levels

    Ishihara, Akihiko; Roy, Roland R.; Ohira, Yoshinobu; Edgerton, V. Reggie

    2002-01-01

    The size and phenotypic properties of the neural and muscular elements of the neuromuscular unit are matched under normal conditions. When subjected to chronic decreases or increases in neuromuscular activity, however, the adaptations in these properties are much more limited in the neural compared with the muscular elements.

  4. Corruption and Economic Activity: Micro Level Evidence from Rural Liberia

    Beekman, G.; Bulte, E.H.; Nillesen, E.E.M.

    2013-01-01

    We study how corruption affects economic activities of households in rural Liberia. A proxy of corruption of community leaders is obtained by directly monitoring the diversion of inputs associated with a development project. We measure quantities of these inputs twice; before and after the chief sto

  5. Highlands County Energy Education Activities--High School Level.

    Allen, Rodney F., Ed.

    Presented are five instructional units, developed by the Tri-County Teacher Education Center, for the purpose of educating secondary school students on Florida's unique energy problems. Unit one provides a series of value clarification and awareness activities as an introduction to energy. Unit two uses mathematics exercises to examine energy…

  6. Okeechobee County Energy Education Activities--Middle School Level.

    Allen, Rodney F., Ed.

    Over 60 energy education activities related to mathematics, science, social studies, and English comprise this manual for middle school teachers. Included are issues for discussion, puzzles, science investigations, story writing exercises, and energy cost calculation problems. Among the topics covered in these lessons are energy consumption…

  7. Total daily energy expenditure and activity level in anorexia nervosa.

    Casper, R C; Schoeller, D A; Kushner, R; Hnilicka, J; Gold, S T

    1991-05-01

    Clinical reports consistently comment on high physical activity for anorexia nervosa patients but provide few quantitative measurements. To assess activity, total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) by doubly labeled water, basal metabolic rate (BMR), and thermic effect of meals (TEM) were measured in six female outpatients with anorexia nervosa (67% of ideal body weight) and age-, sex-, and height-matched to six control subjects. Anorexia nervosa patients expended more energy as physical activity than did control subjects [0.084 +/- 0.012 vs 0.044 +/- 0.008 MJ/kg body wt, respectively (20.1 +/- 3.0 vs 10.5 +/- 1.9 kcal/kg body wt, respectively), P less than 0.04], although they had a lower BMR [4.17 +/- 0.37 vs 5.52 +/- 0.15 MJ/d, respectively (997 +/- 89 vs 1319 +/- 37 kcal/d, respectively), P less than 0.01]. TDEE and TEM were similar in both groups. There was a reduction in serum triiodothyronine (T3; 1.20 +/- 0.15 vs 2.04 +/- 0.13 nmol/L, respectively; P less than 0.003) and a slight reduction in serum thyroxine (T4); reverse T3, thyrotropin, free T4, serum cortisol, and adrenocorticotropin values were normal. BMR correlated with total body weight and fat-free mass. These results provide quantitative evidence for increased physical activity in anorexia nervosa despite profound underweight and hypometabolism. PMID:1850575

  8. Stock market firm-level information and real economic activity

    di Mauro, Filippo; Fornari, Fabio; Mannucci, Dario

    2011-01-01

    We provide evidence that changes in the equity price and volatility of individual firms (measures that approximate the definition of 'granular shock' given in Gabaix, 2010) are key to improve the predictability of aggregate business cycle fluctuations in a number of countries. Specifically, adding the return and the volatility of firm-level equity prices to aggregate financial information leads to a significant improvement in forecasting business cycle developments in four economic areas, at ...

  9. PHYSICAL ACTIVITY LEVEL AMONG UNIVERSITY STUDENTS: A CROSS SECTIONAL SURVEY

    Roshini Rajappan; Karthikeyan Selvaganapathy; Lola Liew

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: Physical inactivity is the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality. Physical inactivity levels are rising in developing countries and Malaysia is of no exception. Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey 2003 reported that the prevalence of physical inactivity was 39.7% and the prevalence was higher for women (42.6%) than men (36.7%). In Malaysia, the National Health and Morbidity Survey 2006 reported that 43.7% (5.5 million) of Malaysian adults were physically inact...

  10. Catecholamine level and monoamino oxidase activity following irradiation

    Sheep were whole-body gamma irradiated for a period of 7 days to a total dose of 6.7 Gy. After the irradiation the sheep were destroyed the pituitary and the adrenal glands were separated as was brain tissue for the determination of catecholamines and monoamino oxidase. The results show that the reduced levels of catecholamines in the hypothalamus are probably the result of a reduced synthesis and increased degradation of catecholamines through monoaminooxidase. (M.D.)

  11. [Level of nitric oxide in the kidneys during apoptosis activation].

    Komarievtseva, I O; Orlova, O A; Blahodarenko, Ie A

    2002-01-01

    The content of nitric oxide stable metabolites in a tissue of kidneys of rats in conditions of activation of apoptosis was investigated. Research was carried out in two models: acute renal failure and a hypertrophy of a unique kidney after a unilateral nephrectomy. Detection of apoptosis was carried out by definition of DNA fragmentation. Substantial increase of the nitric oxide stable metabolites contents is revealed at activation of apoptosis in both models. Change of a ratio of the contents of nitrite--anions in relation to the general contents of NO2- + NO3- is revealed, indicating the role of peroxide processes in effect of nitric oxide and its metabolites on the cell. PMID:14964872

  12. Evaluating emergency services activity at the health district level.

    Milner, P

    2001-01-01

    We do not have good information on the incidence and prevalence of emergency conditions nor is there good research evidence on the best ways of meeting these. There are, however, some indicators for evaluating emergency services activities and we have a good framework from Donabedian for evaluation, and the important dimensions of quality specified by Maxwell. The range of emergency services covers primary care, community crisis care, ambulance services, hospital services (accident and emerge...

  13. Ecological concerns following Superstorm Sandy: stressor level and recreational activity levels affect perceptions of ecosystem

    Burger, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Coastal habitats are vulnerable to storms, and with increasing urbanization, sea level rise, and storm frequency, some urban populations are at risk. This study examined perceptions of respondents in coastal and central New Jersey to Superstorm Sandy, including: 1) concerns about ecological resources and effects (open-ended question), 2) information sources for ecology of the coast (open-ended), and 3) ratings of a list of ecological services as a function of demographics, location (coastal, ...

  14. Objectively-Measured Physical Activity Levels in Physical Education among Homeschool Children

    Swenson, Sarah; Pope, Zachary; Zeng, Nan

    2016-01-01

    Despite a growing population of homeschool children in the United States, little is known regarding their physical activity (PA) levels. Without access to physical education, homeschool children may engage in inadequate PA levels. The purpose of this study was to objectively examine the activity levels of homeschool students participating in a…

  15. The impact of sport and active recreation injuries on physical activity levels at 12 months post-injury.

    Andrew, N; Wolfe, R; Cameron, P; Richardson, M; Page, R; Bucknill, A; Gabbe, B

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of serious sport and active recreation injury on 12-month physical activity levels. Adults admitted to hospital with sport and active recreation-related injuries, and captured by the Victorian Orthopaedic Trauma Outcomes Registry were recruited to the study. Changes between preinjury and 12 month post-injury physical activity was assessed using the short International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Independent demographic, injury, and hospital variables were assessed for associations with changes in physical activity levels, using multivariate linear regression. A total of 324 patients were recruited, of which 98% were followed up at 12 months. Mean short IPAQ scores decreased from 7650 METS (95% CI: 7180, 8120) preinjury to 3880 METS; (95% CI: 3530, 4250) post-injury, independent of functional recovery. Education level and occupation group were the only variables independently associated with changes in physical activity levels post-injury. These results highlighted that sport and active recreation injuries lead to significant reductions in physical activity levels. Hence, the prevention of sport and active recreation injuries is important when considering promotion of activity at a population level. PMID:22937749

  16. The relationship between postnatal depression, sociodemographic factors, levels of partner support, and levels of physical activity

    Saligheh, Maryam; Rooney, Rosanna M.; McNamara, Beverley; Kane, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    Background: postnatal depression (PND) is defined as a psychological mood disorder that occurs in a mother within 6 weeks of her giving birth. It refers to an episode that causes mood disturbance and it could begin in, or extend into, the postpartum period. It is thought to have a high impact upon the mother's health as well as the family's functioning and the child's development. Socio-demographic, psych-social, and physical activity factors may all contribute to postpartum mood and ability ...

  17. Maxey Flats low-level waste disposal site closure activities

    The Maxey Flats Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility in Fleming County, Kentucky is in the process of being closed. The facility opened for commercial business in the spring of 1963 and received approximately 4.75 million cubic feet of radioactive waste by the time it was closed in December of 1977. During fourteen years of operation approximately 2.5 million curies of by-product material, 240,000 kilograms of source material, and 430 kilograms of special nuclear material were disposed. The Commonwealth purchased the lease hold estate and rights in May 1978 from the operating company. This action was taken to stabilize the facility and prepare it for closure consisting of passive care and monitoring. To prepare the site for closure, a number of remedial activities had to be performed. The remediation activities implemented have included erosion control, surface drainage modifications, installation of a temporary plastic surface cover, leachate removal, analysis, treatment and evaporation, US DOE funded evaporator concentrates solidification project and their on-site disposal in an improved disposal trench with enhanced cover for use in a humid environment situated in a fractured geology, performance evaluation of a grout injection demonstration, USGS subsurface geologic investigation, development of conceptual closure designs, and finally being added to the US EPA National Priority List for remediation and closure under Superfund. 13 references, 3 figures

  18. Challenge to high-activity-level water treatment by adsorbents

    There are over 280,000 tonnes of contaminated water in the damaged Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant site in various tanks and barges and a large amount of contaminated water is now producing at the rate of several tonnes/day owing to inevitable cooling of the reactor cores. SARRY (Simplified Active Water Retrieve and Recovery System) and ALPS (Advanced Liquid Processing System) are installed to remove Cs and multi-elements respectively utilizing ion exchangers (zeolite, crystalline silicon titanate, and metal ferrocyanides) from contaminated water. The author continues efforts to find effective and selective adsorbents for Cs and Sr by measuring partition data, adsorption isotherms and adsorption rate referring with chemical structure elucidated from X-ray diffraction and SEM techniques. The obtained data are presented. (S. Ohno)

  19. Does activity space size influence physical activity levels of adolescents?—A GPS study of an urban environment

    Lee, Nolan C.; Voss, Christine; Frazer, Amanda D.; Hirsch, Jana A.; McKay, Heather A; Winters, Meghan

    2015-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) is closely linked with child and youth health, and active travel may be a solution to enhancing PA levels. Activity spaces depict the geographic coverage of one's travel. Little is known about activity spaces and PA in adolescents. Objective To explore the relation between adolescent travel (using a spatial measure of activity space size) and daily moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), with a focus on school days. Methods We used Global Positioning Systems to manua...

  20. The relationship between postnatal depression, sociodemographic factors, levels of partner support, and levels of physical activity

    RosannaMaryRooney; BeverleyMcNamara

    2014-01-01

    Background: postnatal depression (PND) is defined as a psychological mood disorder that occurs in a mother within six weeks of her giving birth. It refers to an episode that causes mood disturbance and it could begin in, or extend into, the postpartum period. It is thought to have a high impact upon the mother’s health as well as the family’s functioning and the child’s development. Socio-demographic, psych-social, and physical activity factors may all contribute to postpartum mood and abilit...

  1. Levels for the specific activity at disposing low-level contaminated municipal wastes

    Using radioecological models, nuclide specific values were calculated for the specific activity of low contaminated radioactive waste, which is disposed in conventional waste deposits or burned in incineration plants. The calculation of these values is based on a limit of 10 μSv effective dose in one year, i.e. effective dose possibly resulting from waste disposal or burning should not exceed a 'de-minimis'-value of some 10 μSv per year. The applied radioecological models describe exposure of the public by direct radiation, inhalation and ingestion for the operational period of a deposit or an incineration plant, but also cover post-operational scenarios, collecting and sorting of waste and road accidents of the waste-truck. Referring to the dose limit of 10 μSv/a, a value for the specific activity of waste was calculated for each scenario and each radionuclide considered. The smallest of these values for a radionuclide, the 'basic value' was rounded to a 'reference value'. For about 600 radionuclides reference values were derived. About 90% of the reference values are ranging between 1 and 1 000 Bq/g. For about 90% of the radionuclides direct radiation or inhalation at the deposit proved to be the critical path of exposure. (orig.)

  2. Levels for the specific activity at disposing low-level contaminated municipal wastes

    Using radioecological models, nuclide-specific ''basic values'' were established for the specific activity of radioactive contaminated waste. These basic values were determined in order to avoid dose equivalents of more than 10 μSv/a (de minimis concept) when disposing the waste in conventional waste deposits or burning it in incineration plants. The basic values vary within 16 orders of magnitude, ranging between 4.3E-02 Bq/g for Cm-250 and 2.2E+14 Bq/g for Po-212. About 82% of the basic values are between 1 Bq/g und 1000 Bq/g. The critical exposure for most of the radionuclides is that from direct radiation or inhalation at the slag-deposit. For 54% of the radionuclides the basic value for the specific activity of waste is lower at least by a factor of 10 than the 10-4-fold value per gram of the release limit (German Radiation Protection Ordinance). Appropriate nuclide-specific and dose-related limits were derived from these basic values. The respective limits are ranging between 1E-01 Bq/g and 1E+07 Bq/g. About 95% of the limits are between 1 Bq/g and 1000 Bq/g. (orig./HP)

  3. Relationship of the disease activity between ferritin levels in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    ÇETİNKAYA, Ramazan; Ali Rıza ODABAŞ; SELÇUK, Yılmaz

    2001-01-01

    Ferritin is an acute phase reactant which indicates serum iron storage. Its serum levels increase 10 to 100 folds responding to inflammatory stimulation. In parallel to decreasing of active of disease, levels of ferritin decrease. To investigate the relationship between serum ferritin and disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), we enrolled 20 patients with SLE (16 female, 4 males and mean ages: 26.6 ± 7.8 (14-45) years). The serum ferritin levels were detected in active period...

  4. The contribution of former work-related activity levels to predict physical activity and sedentary time during early retirement: moderating role of educational level and physical functioning.

    Delfien Van Dyck

    Full Text Available The transition to retirement introduces a decline in total physical activity and an increase in TV viewing time. Nonetheless, as more time becomes available, early retirement is an ideal stage to implement health interventions. Therefore, knowledge on specific determinants of physical activity and sedentary time is needed. Former work-related physical activity has been proposed as a potential determinant, but concrete evidence is lacking. The aim of this study was to examine if former work-related sitting, standing, walking or vigorous activities predict physical activity and sedentary time during early retirement. Additionally, moderating effects of educational level and physical functioning were examined.In total, 392 recently retired Belgian adults (>6 months, <5 years completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, the SF-36 Health Survey and a questionnaire on sociodemographics and former work-related activities. Generalized linear regression analyses were conducted in R. Moderating effects were examined by adding cross-products to the models.More former work-related sitting was predictive of more screen time during retirement. Lower levels of former work-related vigorous activities and higher levels of former work-related walking were associated with respectively more cycling for transport and more walking for transport during retirement. None of the predictors significantly explained passive transportation, cycling and walking for recreation, and leisure-time moderate-to-vigorous physical activity during retirement. Several moderating effects were found, but the direction of the interactions was not univocal.Former-work related behaviors are of limited importance to explain physical activity during early retirement, so future studies should focus on other individual, social and environmental determinants. Nonetheless, adults who previously had a sedentary job had higher levels of screen time during retirement, so this is an

  5. The Contribution of Former Work-Related Activity Levels to Predict Physical Activity and Sedentary Time during Early Retirement: Moderating Role of Educational Level and Physical Functioning

    Van Dyck, Delfien; Cardon, Greet; Deforche, Benedicte; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2015-01-01

    Background The transition to retirement introduces a decline in total physical activity and an increase in TV viewing time. Nonetheless, as more time becomes available, early retirement is an ideal stage to implement health interventions. Therefore, knowledge on specific determinants of physical activity and sedentary time is needed. Former work-related physical activity has been proposed as a potential determinant, but concrete evidence is lacking. The aim of this study was to examine if former work-related sitting, standing, walking or vigorous activities predict physical activity and sedentary time during early retirement. Additionally, moderating effects of educational level and physical functioning were examined. Methods In total, 392 recently retired Belgian adults (>6 months, <5 years) completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, the SF-36 Health Survey and a questionnaire on sociodemographics and former work-related activities. Generalized linear regression analyses were conducted in R. Moderating effects were examined by adding cross-products to the models. Results More former work-related sitting was predictive of more screen time during retirement. Lower levels of former work-related vigorous activities and higher levels of former work-related walking were associated with respectively more cycling for transport and more walking for transport during retirement. None of the predictors significantly explained passive transportation, cycling and walking for recreation, and leisure-time moderate-to-vigorous physical activity during retirement. Several moderating effects were found, but the direction of the interactions was not univocal. Conclusions Former-work related behaviors are of limited importance to explain physical activity during early retirement, so future studies should focus on other individual, social and environmental determinants. Nonetheless, adults who previously had a sedentary job had higher levels of screen time during

  6. A 5-yr change in Norwegian 9-yr-olds' objectively assessed physical activity level

    Kolle, Elin; Steene-Johannessen, Jostein; Klasson-Heggebø, Lena;

    2009-01-01

    activity assessments that met all inclusion criteria. General linear models were used to assess the changes in physical activity between 1999-2000 and 2005. RESULTS: A significant increase in mean physical activity level and physical activity during weekends was observed between the two study periods (P...... = 0.02 and <0.001, respectively), with the patterns being similar for girls and boys. Interactions were found between change in physical activity and SES. Although the mean physical activity level and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) among children from low-SES groups showed no change...... over time, an increase was seen among children from middle-SES groups. Moreover, in high-SES groups, an increase was observed for mean physical activity level (girls only) between study periods, whereas no change was seen for MVPA participation. CONCLUSIONS: Nine-year-old children living in Oslo...

  7. Determination of activation level energy of nuclear isomers by calibration of microspectra of radioactive sources

    Nuclear isomers with unknown activation level were irradiated by calibrated radioactive sources. The integral cross sections were calculated for different energies of the sources. The activation energy was given by values coinciding with each other within the limits of error. The method made the determination of the unknown level of 1180+-10 keV of 195Pt nucleus possible. (author)

  8. Relationships among Physical Activity Levels, Psychomotor, Psychosocial, and Cognitive Development of Primary Education Students.

    Isler, Ayse Kin; Asci, F. Hulya; Kosar, S. Nazan

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the relationships of physical activity levels and psychomotor, psychosocial, and cognitive development among Turkish elementary school students. Student evaluations indicated that physical activity level was an important factor in determining student psychomotor development, but it was not important in determining psychosocial and…

  9. Level and determinants of physical activity among school adolescents in Poland

    Barbara Bergier

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The recognition of adolescents’ physical activity has become one of the serious challenges of the modern times, as a concern about the future health of societies. The major goal of the presented study was to discover the level of physical activity among Polish adolescents aged 16–18, and the factors which condition this level. The investigations were carried out in 2011, among 2,974 school adolescents from various locations in Poland – 1,790 girls (60.2%, and 1,184 boys (39.8%. As a study method, a short version of the IPAQ was applied. The results of the study indicated that a larger number of girls than boys show a low level of physical activity. With respect to activity among boys, higher values of intensive and moderate efforts are noted, while in girls, higher values of activities related to walking. It was confirmed that the level of physical activity does not depend on the place of residence. However, the number of physical exercise classes attended is a significant factor, both among boys and girls. It was also found that adolescents who more frequently lead a sedentary style of life are characterized by a lower level of total physical activity. Sedentary lifestyle (time spent sitting does not differ among the level of physical activity of girls and of boys, neither with respect to the scope of the total physical activity nor to its three levels (low, moderate, high.

  10. Levels and Rates of Physical Activity in Older Adults with Multiple Sclerosis

    Klaren, Rachel E; Sebastiao, Emerson; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Kinnett-Hopkins, Dominique; McAuley, Edward; Motl, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    There is much evidence supporting the safety and benefits of physical activity in adults with multiple sclerosis (MS) and recent evidence of beneficial effects on physical function in older adults with MS. However, there is very little known about physical activity participation in older adults with conditions such as MS. This study compared levels of physical activity (i.e., sedentary behavior, light physical activity (LPA), and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA)) and rates of mee...

  11. Union Activities to promote cooperative activities at enterprise level: workplace assesment

    Jensen, Per Langå; Høy, Jette

    1996-01-01

    An analysis of the information activities on workplace assessment from a major Danish confederation......An analysis of the information activities on workplace assessment from a major Danish confederation...

  12. Platelet activation determines angiopoietin-1 and VEGF levels in malaria: implications for their use as biomarkers.

    Judith Brouwers

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The angiogenic proteins angiopoietin (Ang-1, Ang-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF are regulators of endothelial inflammation and integrity. Since platelets store large amounts of Ang-1 and VEGF, measurement of circulation levels of these proteins is sensitive to platelet number, in vivo platelet activation and inadvertent platelet activation during blood processing. We studied plasma Ang-1, Ang-2 and VEGF levels in malaria patients, taking the necessary precautions to avoid ex vivo platelet activation, and related plasma levels to platelet count and the soluble platelet activation markers P-selectin and CXCL7. METHODS: Plasma levels of Ang-1, Ang-2, VEGF, P-selectin and CXCL7 were measured in CTAD plasma, minimizing ex vivo platelet activation, in 27 patients with febrile Plasmodium falciparum malaria at presentation and day 2 and 5 of treatment and in 25 healthy controls. RESULTS: Levels of Ang-1, Ang-2 and VEGF were higher at day 0 in malaria patients compared to healthy controls. Ang-2 levels, which is a marker of endothelial activation, decreased after start of antimalarial treatment. In contrast, Ang-1 and VEGF plasma levels increased and this corresponded with the increase in platelet number. Soluble P-selectin and CXCL7 levels followed the same trend as Ang-1 and VEGF levels. Plasma levels of these four proteins correlated strongly in malaria patients, but only moderately in controls. CONCLUSION: In contrast to previous studies, we found elevated plasma levels of Ang-1 and VEGF in patients with malaria resulting from in vivo platelet activation. Ang-1 release from platelets may be important to dampen the disturbing effects of Ang-2 on the endothelium. Evaluation of plasma levels of these angiogenic proteins requires close adherence to a stringent protocol to minimize ex vivo platelet activation.

  13. Self-reported activity level and knee function in amateur football players

    Frobell, R B; Svensson, E; Göthrick, M;

    2008-01-01

    ) amateur football players in 10 football clubs from each division below national level participated in the study. Self-reported Tegner Activity Scale, and the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) are the main outcome measures. Older age, female gender and lower level of competition (football...... recommended. We suggest that self-reported Tegner Activity Scale scores should be adjusted for age, gender and level of competition. In amateur football players, KOOS scores do not need adjustment for age and gender....

  14. Impact of physical activity and fitness on the level of kinesiophobia in women of perimenopausal age.

    Saulicz, Mariola; Saulicz, Edward; Knapik, Andrzej; Linek, Pawel; Rottermund, Jerzy; Myśliwiec, Andrzej; Wolny, Tomasz

    2016-06-01

    To determine the impact of physical activity and fitness on the level of physical activity barriers (kinesiophobia) in women of perimenopausal age, the study included 105 women between the ages of 48 and 58. A Baecke questionnaire was used to evaluate physical activity and a modified Fullerton test was used to evaluate the fitness level. The level of kinesiophobia was assessed using the Kinesiophobia Causes Scale questionnaire. A low level of habitual physical activity has a negative impact on the values of Biological Domain (r = -0.581), Psychological Domain (r = -0.451), and on the Kinesiophobia Cause Scale total score (r = -0.577). Lower physical activity expressed by a lower score in the Fullerton test also has a negative impact on the level of kinesiophobia. Upper body flexibility (r = -0.434) has the strongest influence on the Biological Domain, whereas upper body strength (r = -0.598) has the greatest impact on the Psychological Domain. A low level of upper body strength also has the greatest impact on the Kinesiophobia Cause Scale total score (r = -0.507). Low levels of physical activity and fitness in women of perimenopausal age favour kinesiophobic attitudes and thereby increase the level of barriers against undertaking physical activity. PMID:27582685

  15. Impact of physical activity and fitness on the level of kinesiophobia in women of perimenopausal age

    Saulicz, Mariola; Saulicz, Edward; Knapik, Andrzej; Rottermund, Jerzy; Myśliwiec, Andrzej; Wolny, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    To determine the impact of physical activity and fitness on the level of physical activity barriers (kinesiophobia) in women of perimenopausal age, the study included 105 women between the ages of 48 and 58. A Baecke questionnaire was used to evaluate physical activity and a modified Fullerton test was used to evaluate the fitness level. The level of kinesiophobia was assessed using the Kinesiophobia Causes Scale questionnaire. A low level of habitual physical activity has a negative impact on the values of Biological Domain (r = –0.581), Psychological Domain (r = –0.451), and on the Kinesiophobia Cause Scale total score (r = –0.577). Lower physical activity expressed by a lower score in the Fullerton test also has a negative impact on the level of kinesiophobia. Upper body flexibility (r = –0.434) has the strongest influence on the Biological Domain, whereas upper body strength (r = –0.598) has the greatest impact on the Psychological Domain. A low level of upper body strength also has the greatest impact on the Kinesiophobia Cause Scale total score (r = –0.507). Low levels of physical activity and fitness in women of perimenopausal age favour kinesiophobic attitudes and thereby increase the level of barriers against undertaking physical activity.

  16. Alternative complement pathway and factor B activities in rats with altered blood levels of thyroid hormone

    Bitencourt, C.S. [Departamento de Análises Clínicas, Toxicológicas e Bromatológicas, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Duarte, C.G.; Azzolini, A.E.C.S.; Assis-Pandochi, A.I. [Departamento de Física e Química, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2012-03-02

    Evaluating the activity of the complement system under conditions of altered thyroid hormone levels might help elucidate the role of complement in triggering autoimmune processes. Here, we investigated alternative pathway (AP) activity in male Wistar rats (180 ± 10 g) after altering their thyroid hormone levels by treatment with triiodothyronine (T3), propylthiouracil (PTU) or thyroidectomy. T3 and thyroxine (T4) levels were determined by chemiluminescence assays. Hemolytic assays were performed to evaluate the lytic activity of the AP. Factor B activity was evaluated using factor B-deficient serum. An anti-human factor B antibody was used to measure factor B levels in serum by radial immunodiffusion. T3 measurements in thyroidectomized animals or animals treated with PTU demonstrated a significant reduction in hormone levels compared to control. The results showed a reduction in AP lytic activity in rats treated with increasing amounts of T3 (1, 10, or 50 µg). Factor B activity was also decreased in the sera of hyperthyroid rats treated with 1 to 50 µg T3. Additionally, treating rats with 25 µg T3 significantly increased factor B levels in their sera (P < 0.01). In contrast, increased factor B concentration and activity (32%) were observed in hypothyroid rats. We conclude that alterations in thyroid hormone levels affect the activity of the AP and factor B, which may in turn affect the roles of AP and factor B in antibody production.

  17. Leisure activity associated with cognitive ability level, but not cognitive change

    Gow, Alan John; Avlund, Kirsten; Mortensen, Erik L

    2014-01-01

    Although activity participation is promoted as cognitively protective, critical questions of causality remain. In a cohort followed every 5 years from age 75 to 85 years, potential reciprocal associations between level and change in leisure activity participation and level and change in cognitive...... abilities were examined. Participants in the Glostrup 1914 Cohort, a longitudinal study of aging, completed standardized cognitive ability tests and reported their leisure activity participation (11 activities defined a leisure activity score) at ages 75, 80, and 85. Higher leisure activity was associated...... with higher cognitive ability (significant correlations ranged from 0.15 to 0.31, p < 0.05). Between ages 75 and 85, participation in leisure activities and cognitive ability declined significantly. Growth curve models, which provided latent variables for level of and 10-year change in both leisure...

  18. Marketing activities to promote the subjects of management of sports events of international level

    Попов [Aleksandr Popov], Олександр Вікторович

    2013-01-01

    Done identify the organizational and managerial conditions integrated marketing activities for the improvement of the sports events with international standards. Presents a comprehensive description of the conditions and management of marketing activities of entities conducting sports events of international level, which is the result of analysis of the literature, document analysis, systems analysis, survey. Established that a comprehensive marketing activities of sports organizations curren...

  19. Parent's Interests, Current Involvement and Level of Parental Involvement in School Activities.

    Gbadamosi, Tara; Lin, Huey-Ling

    This study examined what school activities parents were involved in and the relationship between parents' interests and level of participation. Parents completed self-report questionnaires examining activities they were currently involved in and activities they would like to do in their children's classrooms. Out of 208 surveys distributed, 114…

  20. The influence of active seating on car passengers' perceived comfort and activity levels.

    Hiemstra-van Mastrigt, S; Kamp, I; van Veen, S A T; Vink, P; Bosch, T

    2015-03-01

    New technologies have led to an increasingly sedentary lifestyle. Sedentary behaviour is characterised by physical inactivity and is associated with several health risks. This excessive sitting does not only take place in the office or at home, but also during daily commute. Therefore, BMW AG developed an active seating system for the back seat of a car, consisting of sensors in the back rest that register upper body movements of the passenger, with which the passenger controls a game. This study evaluated three different aspects of active seating compared to other tasks (reading, working on laptop, and gaming on tablet). First, discomfort and comfort perception were measured in a 30-minute driving test. Discomfort was very low for all activities and participants felt significantly more challenged, more fit and more refreshed during active seating. Second, heart rate was measured, indicating a light intensity, but nevertheless non-sedentary, activity. Third, average and variability in activity of six postural muscles was measured by electromyography (EMG), showing a higher muscle activity and higher muscle variability for active seating compared to other activities. Active seating might stimulate movements, thereby increasing comfort and well-being. PMID:25479990

  1. Distribution and activity levels of matrix metalloproteinase 2 and 9 in canine and feline osteosarcoma.

    Gebhard, Christiane; Fuchs-Baumgartinger, Andrea; Razzazi-Fazeli, Ebrahim; Miller, Ingrid; Walter, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    Overexpression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) has been associated with increased tumor aggressiveness and metastasis dissemination. We investigated whether the contrasting metastatic behavior of feline and canine osteosarcoma is related to levels and activities of MMP2 and MMP9. Zymography and immunohistochemistry were used to determine expression levels of MMP2 and MMP9 in canine and feline osteosarcoma. Using immunohistochemistry, increased MMP9 levels were identified in most canine osteosarcomas, whereas cat samples more often displayed moderate levels. High levels of pro-MMP9, pro-MMP2, and active MMP2 were detected by gelatin zymography in both species, with significantly higher values for active MMP2 in canine osteosarcoma. These findings indicate that MMP2 is probably involved in canine and feline osteosarcoma and their expression and activity could be associated with the different metastatic behavior of canine and feline osteosarcoma. PMID:26733734

  2. Attempting to be active: Self-efficacy and barrier limitation differentiate activity levels of working mothers.

    Gierc, Madelaine; Locke, Sean; Jung, Mary; Brawley, Lawrence

    2016-07-01

    Working mothers are less physically active than working women without children and mothers who do not work. The purpose of this study was to examine concurrent self-regulatory efficacy and barriers to physical activity in a sample of working mothers. Women completed a mixed-methods survey which included measures of physical activity, concurrent self-regulatory efficacy, and barriers. Sufficiently active women experienced significantly greater concurrent self-regulatory efficacy and significantly less barrier limitation and frequency. No significant group differences were found for age, domestic duties performed, and children's extracurricular activities. Thematic analysis of barriers revealed six themes of common and unique factors, including limited time and family activities. PMID:27357921

  3. Relationship between self-reported dietary intake and physical activity levels among adolescents: The HELENA study

    Le Donne Cinzia

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence suggests possible synergetic effects of multiple lifestyle behaviors on health risks like obesity and other health outcomes. Therefore it is important to investigate associations between dietary and physical activity behavior, the two most important lifestyle behaviors influencing our energy balance and body composition. The objective of the present study is to describe the relationship between energy, nutrient and food intake and the physical activity level among a large group of European adolescents. Methods The study comprised a total of 2176 adolescents (46.2% male from ten European cities participating in the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study. Dietary intake and physical activity were assessed using validated 24-h dietary recalls and self-reported questionnaires respectively. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVA were used to compare the energy and nutrient intake and the food consumption between groups of adolescents with different physical activity levels (1st to 3rd tertile. Results In both sexes no differences were found in energy intake between the levels of physical activity. The most active males showed a higher intake of polysaccharides, protein, water and vitamin C and a lower intake of saccharides compared to less active males. Females with the highest physical activity level consumed more polysaccharides compared to their least active peers. Male and female adolescents with the highest physical activity levels, consumed more fruit and milk products and less cheese compared to the least active adolescents. The most active males showed higher intakes of vegetables and meat, fish, eggs, meat substitutes and vegetarian products compared to the least active ones. The least active males reported the highest consumption of grain products and potatoes. Within the female group, significantly lower intakes of bread and cereal products and spreads were found for those reporting to

  4. Physical Activity Level of Urban Pregnant Women in Tianjin, China: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Zhang, Yan; Dong, Shengwen; Zuo, Jianhua; Hu, Xiangqin; Zhang, Hua; Zhao, Yue

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the physical activity level and factors influencing physical activity among pregnant urban Chinese women. Methods This prospective cross-sectional study enrolled 1056 pregnant women (18–44 years of age) in Tianjin, China. Their socio-demographic characteristics were recorded, and the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to assess their physical activity during pregnancy. The data were analyzed by multinomial logistic regression with adjustment for potentia...

  5. High IL-23 level is a marker of disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Abu Al Fadl, Esam M; Fattouh, Mona; Allam, Ahmed A

    2013-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune systemic disorder characterized by inflammatory responses mainly affecting the synovial joints. Interleukin-23 (IL-23) is a heterodimeric pro-inflammatory cytokine secreted by activated dendritic cells and activated macrophages. IL-23 is the key cytokine controlling inflammation in peripheral tissues leading to the development of autoimmune diseases. The objective of our study was to determine the relationship between the IL-23 level and disease activity in RA patients. Sixty RA patients were included in the study with mean age of 40 years; they included 44 (73.3 %) females and 16 males (26.7 %). The clinical parameters of disease activity were determined, including the 28-joint disease activity score (DAS28), serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), Anti-citrullinated peptide antibody (ACPA), rheumatoid factor (RF), and TNF-alpha and the degree of bony erosions based on X-rays. Patients were subdivided into active disease group (n = 30) with DAS28 score higher than 5.1 (Group I); and remission group (n = 30) with DAS28 score less than 2.6 (Group II). Thirty healthy individuals in the same age group of RA patients including 22 (73.3%) females and 8 males (26.7%) were randomly selected as the control group (Group III). The levels of IL-23 were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the correlations between the serum levels of IL-23 and disease activity parameters of patients with RA were determined. Serum levels of IL-23 were significantly higher in RA patients during active stage of the disease in comparison to the patients in remission and the control group. There was a significant positive correlation between serum IL-23 levels in RA patients and individual disease activity parameters. It is concluded that elevated serum IL-23 level may be a useful marker to detect active RA and disease progression in patients with RA. PMID:24617049

  6. A case control study of premorbid and currently reported physical activity levels in chronic fatigue syndrome

    Buchwald Dedra

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with chronic fatigue syndrome typically report high levels of physical activity before becoming ill. Few studies have examined premorbid and current activity levels in chronically fatigued patients. Methods In a case-control study, 33 patients with chronic, unexplained, disabling fatigue attending a university-based clinic specializing in fatigue were compared to 33 healthy, age- and sex-matched controls. Patients rated their activity levels before their illness and currently, using scales designed for this purpose. Controls reported their level of activity of 2 years previously and currently. Chi-square analyses, Student's t tests, and Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used in pair matched analyses. Results Compared to healthy controls, patients with chronic, unexplained fatigue rated themselves as more active before their illness (p ≤ 0.001 and less active currently (p ≤ 0.001. The patients also reported they currently stood or walked less than the controls (median [inter-quartile range] = 4 2345 versus 9 [7.5–12] hours, p ≤ 0.001, and spent more time reclining (median [inter-quartile range] = 12 10111213141516 versus 8 [8–9.5] hours, p ≤ 0.001. These differences remained significant for the subset of patients who met strict criteria for chronic fatigue syndrome or fibromyalgia. Conclusion Patients with chronic, unexplained, disabling fatigue reported being more active before becoming ill than healthy controls. This finding could be explained by greater premorbid activity levels that could predispose to illness, or by an overestimation of previous activity. Either possibility could influence patients' perceptions of their current activity levels and their judgments of recovery. Perceived activity should be addressed as part of management of the illness.

  7. Serum fucosyl transferase activity and serum fucose levels as diagnostic tools in malignancy.

    Sen,Umi

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Glycoproteins play a significant role in neoplastic transformations. Both the levels of fucose and the activity of fucosyl transferase, which mediates the assembly of the oligosaccharide moieties of the glycoprotein chains, have been found to be elevated in neoplastic conditions. Since these elevations are common features of a variety of neoplastic cells, these two have been designated as non-specific markers of malignancy. In the present study, the fucose level and fucosyl transferase activity were determined in the sera of cancer patients and an attempt was made to establish a relationship between the two. It was found that both the fucose levels and fucosyl transferase activities showed considerable elevation in the five cancer groups studied, establishing them as useful diagnostic parameters. However, it was also observed that the rate of increased fucosyl transferase activity was not fully reflected in the resulting serum fucose levels in a few cases.

  8. High source levels and small active space of high pitched song in bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus)

    Tervo, Outi Maria; Christoffersen, Mads F.; Simon, Malene;

    2012-01-01

    whales, estimate source levels and measure ambient noise. The song had a mean apparent source level of 185 ± 2 dB rms re 1µPa and a high mean centroid frequency of 444 ± 48 Hz. Using measured ambient noise levels in the area and Arctic sound spreading models, the estimated active space of these song...... attenuation. Here we evaluate the active space of high-pitched song notes of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) in Western Greenland using measurements of song source levels and ambient noise. Four independent GPS-synchronized hydrophones were deployed through holes in the ice to localize vocalizing bowhead...... notes is between 40 and 130 km, an order of magnitude smaller than the estimated active space of low frequency blue and fin whale songs produced at similar source levels and for similar noise conditions. We propose that bowhead whales spatially compensate for their smaller communication range through...

  9. Muscle activity, time to fatigue, and maximum task duration at different levels of production standard time

    Nur, Nurhayati Mohd; Dawal, Siti Zawiah Md; Dahari, Mahidzal; Sanusi, Junedah

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the variations in muscle fatigue, time to fatigue, and maximum task duration at different levels of production standard time. [Methods] Twenty subjects performed repetitive tasks at three different levels of production standard time corresponding to “normal”, “hard” and “very hard”. Surface electromyography was used to measure the muscle activity. [Results] The results showed that muscle activity was significantly affected by the production standard time leve...

  10. Physical activity level, musculoskeletal fitness,balance, strength and power performance in older adults

    Lohne-Seiler, Hilde

    2015-01-01

    The link between physical activity and prevention of disease, maintenance of independence, and improved quality of life in older adults is supported by strong evidence. However, there is a lack of data on population levels where physical activity level has been measured objectively in association with self-reported health, musculoskeletal fitness and balance variables in older men and women. Also, little is known about the functional adaptive responses of older adults to pow...

  11. Platelet Activation Determines Angiopoietin-1 and VEGF Levels in Malaria: Implications for Their Use as Biomarkers

    Judith Brouwers; Rintis Noviyanti; Rob Fijnheer; de Groot, Philip G.; Leily Trianty; Siti Mudaliana; Mark Roest; Din Syafruddin; Andre van der Ven; Quirijn de Mast

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The angiogenic proteins angiopoietin (Ang)-1, Ang-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are regulators of endothelial inflammation and integrity. Since platelets store large amounts of Ang-1 and VEGF, measurement of circulation levels of these proteins is sensitive to platelet number, in vivo platelet activation and inadvertent platelet activation during blood processing. We studied plasma Ang-1, Ang-2 and VEGF levels in malaria patients, taking the necessary precautio...

  12. Forecasting activity levels in the UK continental shelf. The role of perceptions

    The explicit treatment of the role of perceptions in modelling forecasts is uncommon. With respect to future activity levels in the UK Continental Shelf, using the flexibility of add factors in econometric forecasts, this article demonstrates that, in addition to price variations, forecasts are sensitive to perceptions about future resource discovery and recovery rates. A medium-sized multivariate system reflecting the feedback structure of the petroleum supply process was formulated, estimated, and used to forecast activity levels

  13. Do enhancements to the urban built environment improve physical activity levels among socially disadvantaged populations?

    Maddison Ralph; Pearce Jamie R

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background There is growing recognition that the urban built environment influences physical activity at the population level, although the effects on disadvantaged groups are less well understood. Using the examples of open/green space and street connectivity, this paper explores whether enhancements to the built environment have potential for addressing physical activity-related health inequalities among Māori, Pacific and low income communities in New Zealand. Method A high-level ...

  14. Objective assessment of levels and patterns of physical activity in preschool children

    Brasholt, Martin; Chawes, Bo; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil;

    2013-01-01

    Background:To study in detail levels and patterns of physical activity in preschool children and the effect of gender and body mass index on this activity.Methods:Two hundred and fifty-three children aged 5 years participating in the Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood (COPSAC2000......) wore an accelerometer day and night over a 4-weekperiod. The main outcome measure was level of physical activity using the raw data.A secondary measure was time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity. A Fourier series analysis was applied to study in detail patterns over time...... high body mass index tended to be associated with lower levels of physical activity.Pediatric Research (2013); doi:10.1038/pr.2013.99....

  15. An Evaluation of the Correlation between Hepcidin Serum Levels and Disease Activity in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Zehra Betül Paköz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. While there are many well-defined serological markers for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, there is limited evidence that they positively affect clinical outcomes. This study aimed to evaluate the correlation between hepcidin serum levels and disease activity in IBD. Materials and Methods. Eighty-five consecutive IBD patients were enrolled in the study. Hepcidin serum levels were assessed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and were compared with disease activity as well as the interleukin-6 (IL-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP levels. Results. The mean hepcidin serum levels in Crohn’s disease (CD patients in remission and in the active phase were 3837±1436 and 3752±1274 pg/mL, respectively P=0.613. The mean hepcidin serum levels in ulcerative colitis (UC patients in remission and in the active phase were 4285±8623 and 3727±1176 pg/mL, respectively P=0.241. Correlation analysis between inflammatory markers and hepcidin serum levels indicated that there was no correlation between hepcidin levels and IL-6 P=0.582 or CRP P=0.783. Conclusion. As an acute-phase protein, hepcidin seems to have a lower efficacy than other parameters in the detection of activation in IBD.

  16. Association between physical activity level and consumption of fruit and vegetables among adolescents in northeast Brazil

    Diego Augusto Santos Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between low levels of physical activity and consumption of fruits and vegetables among adolescents. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 2,057 adolescents aged 13 to 18 years from the city of Aracaju, Northeastern Brazil. We analyzed the level of physical activity, consumption of fruits and vegetables by standardized and validated questionnaires. The control variables were sex, age, socioeconomic status, maternal education, alcohol consumption and smoking. For data analysis, univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used, with a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: The prevalence of low levels of physical activity was 81.9%; the inadequate consumption of fruits ocurred in 79.1% and the inadequate consumption of vegetables in 90.6%. Adolescents who consumed few fruits daily had an increase in 40% of chance of being insufficiently active and, for those who consumed few vegetable's the likelihood of being insufficiently active was 50% higher, compared to those who had adequate intake of these foods. CONCLUSIONS: Low levels of physical activity were associated with inadequate fruit and vegetable intake among adolescents in a city in northeastern Brazil. These findings suggest that insufficiently active adolescents have other unhealthy behaviors that may increase the risk of chronic diseases in adulthood.

  17. Long-Term Exposure to High Corticosterone Levels Inducing a Decrease of Adenylate Kinase 1 Activity

    ZHAO Yu'nan; SHEN Jia; SU Hui; HUANG Yufang; XING Dongming; DU Lijun

    2009-01-01

    Corticosterone, a principal glucocorticoid synthesized in the rodent adrenal cortex, can be cumula-tively toxic to hippocampal neurons, the cause of which is not known. The present study determined whether the cytosol adenylate kinase (AK) system was involved in the neuronal damage induced by long-term exposure to high corticosterone levels. We investigated the effects of long-term exposure to high corticosterone levels on AK1 activity, AK1 mRNA expression, and energy levels in cultured hippocampal neurons. The results show that long-term exposure to high corticosterone levels induces a reduction of the cultured hippocampal neuron viability, significantly reduces energy levels, and causes a time-dependant re-duction of the AK1 activity. These findings indicate that changes in the AK system might be the mechanism underlying neuronal damage induced by long-term exposure to high corticosterone levels.

  18. Children's Physical Activity Levels during Indoor Recess Dance Videos

    Erwin, Heather; Koufoudakis, Ryann; Beighle, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    Background: Children's physical activity (PA) levels remain low, and schools are being asked to assume a leadership role in PA promotion. Research suggests outdoor recess contributes to children's overall PA levels. However, similar research is not available for indoor recess, which occurs frequently due to a variety of factors. The…

  19. Participatory development activities at local level: case studies in villages of Central Thailand.

    Pongquan, S.

    1992-01-01

    Participatory development activities at local level in a sub-district located in the Central Plain of Thailand were studied employing the theoretical concept of the "linking loops" to analyze the related interactions among target group members and between the local level and superordinated organizat

  20. Participation levels of physical activity programs for community-dwelling older adults: A systematic review

    M. Van Der Deijl (Marielle); A. Etman (Astrid); C.B.M. Kamphuis (Carlijn); F.J. van Lenthe (Frank)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Although many physical activity (PA) programs have been implemented and tested for effectiveness, high participation levels are needed in order to achieve public health impact. This study aimed to determine participation levels of PA programs aimed to improve PA among communi

  1. Presenting Theoretical Ideas Prior to Inquiry Activities Fosters Theory-Level Knowledge

    Wecker, Christof; Rachel, Alexander; Heran-Dörr, Eva; Waltner, Christine; Wiesner, Hartmut; Fischer, Frank

    2013-01-01

    In the course of inquiry activities similar to those of real scientists, learners are supposed to develop knowledge both on the level of observable phenomena and on the level of explanatory theories. However, some theories involve theoretical entities (e.g., "Weiss domains") that cannot be observed directly and therefore may be hard to…

  2. National level promotion of physical activity: results from England's ACTIVE for LIFE campaign

    Hillsdon, M; Cavill, N; Nanchahal, K.; Diamond, A; White, I.

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—To assess the impact of a national campaign on awareness of the campaign, change in knowledge of physical activity recommendations and self reported physical activity.
DESIGN—three year prospective longitudinal survey using a multi-stage, cluster random probability design to select participants.
SETTING—England.
PARTICIPANTS—A nationally representative sample of 3189 adults aged 16-74 years.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Awareness of the advertising element of the campaign, changes in...

  3. Distribution and activity levels of matrix metalloproteinase 2 and 9 in canine and feline osteosarcoma

    Gebhard, Christiane; Fuchs-Baumgartinger, Andrea; Razzazi-Fazeli, Ebrahim; Miller, Ingrid; Walter, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    Overexpression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) has been associated with increased tumor aggressiveness and metastasis dissemination. We investigated whether the contrasting metastatic behavior of feline and canine osteosarcoma is related to levels and activities of MMP2 and MMP9. Zymography and immunohistochemistry were used to determine expression levels of MMP2 and MMP9 in canine and feline osteosarcoma. Using immunohistochemistry, increased MMP9 levels were identified in most canine os...

  4. Mol- mutants of Klebsiella pneumoniae requiring high levels of molybdate for nitrogenase activity.

    Imperial, J; Ugalde, R A; Shah, V K; Brill, W J

    1985-01-01

    Mol- mutants of Klebsiella pneumoniae requiring high levels of molybdate for nitrogenase and nitrate reductase activity were characterized. The effects of mol mutations on nitrogenase activity were very similar to those caused by nifQ mutations. Mol- mutants of K. pneumoniae appear to be equivalent to ChlD- mutants of Escherichia coli.

  5. The Effect of Gambling Activities on Happiness Levels of Nursing Home Residents

    Dixon, Mark R.; Nastally, Becky L.; Waterman, Amber

    2010-01-01

    The current study evaluated the effect of participating in simulated gambling activities on happiness levels of 3 nursing home residents. A 4-component analysis was used to measure objective responses associated with happiness during baseline, varying durations of engagement in simulated gambling activities, and 2 follow-up periods. Results…

  6. Self-Rated Activity Levels and Longevity: Evidence from a 20 Year Longitudinal Study

    Mullee, Mark A.; Coleman, Peter G.; Briggs, Roger S. J.; Stevenson, James E.; Turnbull, Joanne C.

    2008-01-01

    The study reports on factors predicting the longevity of 328 people over the age of 65 drawn from an English city and followed over 20 years. Both the reported activities score and the individual's comparative evaluation of their own level of activity independently reduced the risk of death, even when health and cognitive status were taken into…

  7. How many days to monitor levels of physical activity in children? A generalizability approach

    MARQUES, A. T.; Maia, José A. R.; Garganta, Rui; Seabra, André; Prista, A.; Bustamante, Alcibíades; Vinagre, J.; Lopes, Vítor P.

    2006-01-01

    There has been some debate about the number of days to monitor physical activity (PA). This discussion is relevant to have reliable estimates (means and variances) of PA of children and adolescents. Still, the approach taken so far, has not dealt with different levels of daily physical activity in children.

  8. Promoting Higher Level Thinking in Psychology: Is Active Learning the Answer?

    Richmond, Aaron S.; Hagan, Lisa Kindelberger

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate which common instructional methods (active vs. direct) best promote higher level thinking in a psychology course. Over a 5-week period, 71 undergraduates were taught psychology using both active learning and direct instruction. Pre- and post-course assessments were coded as either higher or lower level…

  9. IL-18 Serum Level in Adult Onset Still’s Disease: A Marker of Disease Activity

    Serena Colafrancesco

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions. Higher levels of IL-18 are detected in active AODS patients and correlate with disease activity and inflammatory laboratory features. ROC-AUC analysis of the serum concentration of IL-18 suggests that it can be considered a diagnostic marker of AOSD. This paper supports the targeting of this cytokine as a possible therapeutic option in AOSD.

  10. Individual and School-Level Socioeconomic Gradients in Physical Activity in Australian School children

    Lewis, Lucy; Maher, Carol; Katzmarzyk, Peter; Olds, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Background: We attempted to determine whether there was a socioeconomic gradient in 9- to 11-year-old Australian children's moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and whether school facilities or policies supporting physical activity were associated with school-level socioeconomic status (SES) and MVPA. Methods: Children (N = 528) from 26…

  11. Students' Motivation, Physical Activity Levels, & Health-Related Physical Fitness in Middle School Physical Education

    Gao, Zan; Newton, Maria; Carson, Russell L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the predictive utility of students' motivation (self-efficacy and task values) to their physical activity levels and health-related physical fitness (cardiovascular fitness and muscular strength/endurance) in middle school fitness activity classes. Participants (N = 305) responded to questionnaires assessing their self-efficacy…

  12. The Strength of Motivation and Physical Activity Level during Leisure Time among Youth in South Korea

    Cho, Min-Haeng

    2004-01-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the relationship between the perceived strength of motivation and level of physical activity during their leisure time of youth. The randomly selected 1,097 (boys = 342, girls = 755) youth reported their duration, frequency, and intensity of physical activity and also indicated their strength of motivation in…

  13. Topoisomerase I as a Biomarker: Detection of Activity at the Single Molecule Level

    Proszek, Joanna; Roy, Amit; Jakobsen, Ann-Katrine;

    2014-01-01

    hTopI have been reported to result in CPT resistance. Therefore, hTOPI gene copy number, mRNA level, protein amount, and enzyme activity have been studied to explain differences in cellular response to CPT. We show that Rolling Circle Enhanced Enzyme Activity Detection (REEAD), allowing measurement...... of hTopI cleavage-religation activity at the single molecule level, may be used to detect posttranslational enzymatic differences influencing CPT response. These differences cannot be detected by analysis of hTopI gene copy number, mRNA amount, or protein amount, and only become apparent upon...... measuring the activity of hTopI in the presence of CPT. Furthermore, we detected differences in the activity of the repair enzyme tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 1, which is involved in repair of hTopI-induced DNA damage. Since increased TDP1 activity can reduce cellular CPT sensitivity we suggest that a...

  14. Elevated homocysteine levels in suction-induced blister fluid of active vitiligo lesions.

    Anbar, Tag; Zuel-Fakkar, Nehal Mohamed; Matta, Mary Fikry; Arbab, Mai Mohammed Ibrahim

    2016-02-01

    Vitiligo is the most prevalent acquired pigmentary disorder as a result of destruction of melanocytes. Several studies have reported increased serum levels of homocysteine (Hcy) in vitiligo patients which may be the result of decreased Vitamin B12 and folic acid levels. In addition, homocystinuria is associated with pigmentary dilution. On the other hand, other studies reported normal serum homocysteine levels. Our aim was to study the Hcy level in active vitiligo patients both in serum and in suction blister fluid obtained from the lesional skin. A total of 30 patients with active vitiligo of both sexes and 30 healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study. Sera from the blood and from lesional induced bullae were obtained from the patients and controls and were assayed for Hcy by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The collected data were analyzed by SPSS version 17. There were no significant differences in the serum levels of Hcy between patients and healthy controls, however, the increase in Hcy level was highly statistically significant in the patients' lesional induced bulla compared to the healthy controls. There was no significant difference in Hcy levels between males and females and between patients with negative or positive family histories of vitiligo. The presence of a high homocysteine level in active vitiligo lesions points to a local event occurring in this lesion, which is not reflected as an increase in the patient's serum level. PMID:26678812

  15. A College-Level Inquiry-Based Laboratory Activity on Transiting Planets

    McConnell, Nicholas J.; Medling, Anne M.; Strubbe, Linda E.; Moth, Pimol; Montgomery, Ryan M.; Raschke, Lynne M.; Hunter, Lisa; Goza, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    We have designed an inquiry-based laboratory activity on transiting extrasolar planets for an introductory college-level astronomy class. The activity was designed with the intent of simultaneously teaching science process skills and factual content about transits and light curves. In the activity, groups of two to four students each formulate a specific science question and design and carry out an investigation using a table-top model of a star and orbiting planet. Each group then presents t...

  16. Comparison of pre- and post-intervention levels of physical activity among sedentary Finnish mothers

    Green, Weldon T; Novoradovskaya, Elizaveta

    2010-01-01

    Weldon T. Green and Elizaveta Novoradovskaya, 2012. Comparison of pre- and post-intervention levels of physical activity among sedentary Finnish mothers. Master’s Thesis in Sport and Department of Sport Sciences. University of Jyvaskyla. 39 p. The 1990’s marked a shift in the academic understanding of health-enhancing physical activity that was different from the exercise-based physical fitness paradigm that ruled public health policy at the time. Since then, lifestyle physical activity ...

  17. Evidence that elevated CO2 levels can indirectly increase rhizosphere denitrifier activity

    Smart, D. R.; Ritchie, K.; Stark, J. M.; Bugbee, B.

    1997-01-01

    We examined the influence of elevated CO2 concentration on denitrifier enzyme activity in wheat rhizoplanes by using controlled environments and solution culture techniques. Potential denitrification activity was from 3 to 24 times higher on roots that were grown under an elevated CO2 concentration of 1,000 micromoles of CO2 mol-1 than on roots grown under ambient levels of CO2. Nitrogen loss, as determined by a nitrogen mass balance, increased with elevated CO2 levels in the shoot environment and with a high NO3- concentration in the rooting zone. These results indicated that aerial CO2 concentration can play a role in rhizosphere denitrifier activity.

  18. Low levels of physical activity in patients with severe mental illness

    Nyboe, Lene; Lund, H

    2013-01-01

    Background: Physical inactivity is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and Type 2 diabetes, both being highly prevalent in patients with severe mental illness. Though physical activity has become an important issue in psychiatric treatment and rehabilitation in the past decade......, systematic evaluations of physical activity level in psychiatric populations could be more disseminated. Aim: The primary aim of the study was to investigate the physical activity level of psychiatric patients in comparison with healthy controls. Methods: Patients with severe mental illness (n =47) and a...

  19. Year ahead prediction of US landfalling hurricane numbers: the optimal combination of multiple levels of activity since 1900

    Binter, R; Khare, S; O'Shay, A; Penzer, J; Binter, Roman; Jewson, Stephen; Khare, Shree; Shay, Adam O'; Penzer, Jeremy

    2006-01-01

    In earlier work we considered methods for predicting future levels of hurricane activity based on the assumption that historical mean activity was at one constant level from 1900 to 1994, and has been at another constant level since then. We now make this model a little more subtle, and account for the possibility of four different levels of mean hurricane activity since 1900.

  20. FDG-PET imaging of lower extremity muscular activity during level walking

    We analyzed muscular activity of the lower extremities during level walking using positron emission tomography (PET) with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG). We examined 17 healthy male subjects; 11 were assigned to a walking group and 6 to a resting group. After 18F-FDG injection, the walking group subjects walked at a free speed for 15 min. A whole-body image was then obtained by a PET camera, and the standardized uptake ratio (SUR) was computed for each muscle. The SUR for each muscle of the walking group was compared with that for the corresponding muscles in the resting group. The level of muscular activity of all the muscles we examined were higher during level walking than when resting. The activity of the lower leg muscles was higher than that of the thigh muscles during level walking. The muscular activity of the soleus was highest among all the muscles examined. Among the gluteal muscles, the muscular activity of the gluteus minimus was higher than that of the gluteus maximus and gluteus medius. The concurrent validity of measuring muscular activity of the lower extremity during level walking by the PET method using 18F-FDG was demonstrated. (author)

  1. Activity of Proteolytic Enzymes and Level of Cystatin C in the Peripartum Period.

    Cyganek, Anna; Wyczalkowska-Tomasik, Aleksandra; Jarmuzek, Patrycja; Grzechocinska, Barbara; Jabiry-Zieniewicz, Zoulikha; Paczek, Leszek; Wielgos, Miroslaw

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of the study was to evaluate the activity of cathepsin B, collagenases, trypsin, and plasmin and concentration of cystatin C in serum of healthy pregnant women in peripartum period. Study Design. The study group included 45 women in uncomplicated pregnancies. Blood samples were collected in four time points. Enzyme activity was measured by spectrofluorometric method. The level of cystatin C was measured using immunonephelometric method. Results. Mean activity of cathepsin B and the level of serum cystatin C were significantly higher in the study group. Collagenase activity was significantly lower in the study group than the control group. No differences in collagenase, plasmin, and trypsin activity on each day of the peripartum period were found. Conclusion. High activity of cathepsin B and increased level of cystatin C are typical for women in late pregnancy. Those levels significantly decrease after delivery which can be associated with potential role of those markers in placental separation. The insignificant changes of cystatin C level in the peripartum period seem to exclude the possibility of using cystatin C as a marker for renal insufficiency in the peripartum period but additional research is necessary to investigate the matter further. PMID:26904684

  2. Project Seavolc: sea-level change and the stability and activity of coastal and island volcanoes

    McGuire, W.J. [Cheltenham and Gloucester College of Higher Education, Cheltenham (United Kingdom)

    1994-12-31

    The entire eastern flank of Mount Etna has been unstable for much of its history, demonstrating seaward slumping of a 30 km wide segment of the edifice which borders the Ionian Sea. Project Seabolc aims to better constrain the temporaral history of instability and slope movement, and to correlate this behaviour with both sea-level change and eruptive activity during the late Quaternary. Results from the Etna study, together with evidence from volcanoes in the Canary Islands, Aeolian Islands, and Bay of Naples, will enable us to test a model relating slope instability and eruptive activity at coastal and island volcanoes, to the repeatedly changing sea levels which characterized the Quaternary. The disposition of tectonic plates constrains the locations of most volcanoes to marine settings or to adjacent continental margins, leading to their being strongly susceptible either to the direct effects of changing sea levels (e.g. edifice erosion or debuttressing) or to general crustal loading and unloading caused by changing ocean volumes. Temporal distribution of tephra horizons in eastern Mediterranean sediments supports a correlation between episodes of rising and falling sea level, and increased levels of explosive volcanic activity, which we attribute to the dynamic response of volcanic edifices to a wide range of primary and secondary effects induced by variations in sea level. Implications of the proposed model for climate change are profound and important, with explosive volcanic activity triggered by changing sea levels having the potential to modulate the Quaternary global temperature profile. 24 refs., 3 figs.

  3. THE RELATION BETWEEN PHAGOCYTIC ACTIVITY OF THE NEUTROPHILS (PMN AND THE GLICEMIC LEVEL AT THE SPORTSMAN

    D. Cotuna

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available We tried to find a relation between the phagocytes activity of the neutrophils and the level of glicemy in athletes applying the ANOVA test, taking into account the fact that hyperglicemy reduces the phagocytes activity of the neutrophils which becomes so more spherical and burden after the contact with foreign particles. The phagocyte activity of neutrophils (PMN had been established through NBT technique and the glicemy level was determined by Hagerdon – Jansen method. From these notices processed by ANOVA test applied on the values of phagocyte activity of PMN and on glicemy level we conclude that does not exist a tendency of association of these two parameters in a relationship.

  4. Levels of occupational stress and stressful activities for nurses working in emergency

    José Ricardo Ferreira da Fonseca

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to identify stress levels, areas and their activities identified as stressful by nurses working in the emergence in Manaus, AM, Brazil. It is an epidemiological, cross-sectional design, with 36 emergency nurses from December 2010 to January 2011. The Bianchi Stress Scale with 57 questions was used. The nurses were at risk for high levels of stress. The most stressful areas were the operation of the unit, conditions of work and personnel administration, and the most stressful activity was the request for equipment review and repair. The difference by Friedman test between the areas was significant (p <0.05, Dunn post-test significant (p <0.05 when compared by peers. The accumulation of management activities with the assistance activities can generate higher levels of stress, it is necessary to invest in improving the work environment and management support to minimize the stress experienced at work.

  5. Induction of antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation level in ion-beam-bombarded rice seeds

    Semsang, Nuananong, E-mail: nsemsang@gmail.com [Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Yu, LiangDeng [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: ► Ion beam bombarded rice seeds in vacuum. ► Studied seed survival from the ion bombardment. ► Determined various antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation level. ► Discussed vacuum, ion species and ion energy effects. ► Attributed the changes to free radical formation due to ion bombardment. -- Abstract: Low-energy ion beam bombardment has been used to mutate a wide variety of plant species. To explore the indirect effects of low-energy ion beam on biological damage due to the free radical production in plant cells, the increase in antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation level was investigated in ion-bombarded rice seeds. Local rice seeds were bombarded with nitrogen or argon ion beams at energies of 29–60 keV and ion fluences of 1 × 10{sup 16} ions cm{sup −2}. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and lipid peroxidation level were assayed in the germinated rice seeds after ion bombardment. The results showed most of the enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation levels in both the argon and nitrogen bombarded samples were higher than those in the natural control. N-ion bombardment could induce higher levels of antioxidant enzyme activities in the rice samples than the Ar-ion bombardment. Additional effects due to the vacuum condition were found to affect activities of some antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation level. This study demonstrates that ion beam bombardment and vacuum condition could induce the antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation level which might be due to free radical production in the bombarded rice seeds.

  6. Induction of antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation level in ion-beam-bombarded rice seeds

    Highlights: ► Ion beam bombarded rice seeds in vacuum. ► Studied seed survival from the ion bombardment. ► Determined various antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation level. ► Discussed vacuum, ion species and ion energy effects. ► Attributed the changes to free radical formation due to ion bombardment. -- Abstract: Low-energy ion beam bombardment has been used to mutate a wide variety of plant species. To explore the indirect effects of low-energy ion beam on biological damage due to the free radical production in plant cells, the increase in antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation level was investigated in ion-bombarded rice seeds. Local rice seeds were bombarded with nitrogen or argon ion beams at energies of 29–60 keV and ion fluences of 1 × 1016 ions cm−2. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and lipid peroxidation level were assayed in the germinated rice seeds after ion bombardment. The results showed most of the enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation levels in both the argon and nitrogen bombarded samples were higher than those in the natural control. N-ion bombardment could induce higher levels of antioxidant enzyme activities in the rice samples than the Ar-ion bombardment. Additional effects due to the vacuum condition were found to affect activities of some antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation level. This study demonstrates that ion beam bombardment and vacuum condition could induce the antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation level which might be due to free radical production in the bombarded rice seeds

  7. Do enhancements to the urban built environment improve physical activity levels among socially disadvantaged populations?

    Maddison Ralph

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing recognition that the urban built environment influences physical activity at the population level, although the effects on disadvantaged groups are less well understood. Using the examples of open/green space and street connectivity, this paper explores whether enhancements to the built environment have potential for addressing physical activity-related health inequalities among Māori, Pacific and low income communities in New Zealand. Method A high-level review of the international literature relating open space and street connectivity to physical activity and/or related health outcomes at a population level was completed. Consideration was given to whether these features of the built environment have a disproportionate effect on disadvantaged populations. Results Findings from international studies suggest that open space and street connectivity have a beneficial effect on physical activity. Enhancing the built environment may be particularly advantageous for improving physical activity levels among disadvantaged populations. Conclusion It is likely that open space and street connectivity have a positive effect on physical activity behaviour; however due to the cross-sectional nature of existing research and the paucity of research among disadvantaged populations definitive conclusions about the effect in these populations cannot be made. Further research is required (e.g. natural experiments or quasi experimental research designs to determine the effect of changing the environment on physical activity and obesity.

  8. Is the low level of physical activity a public policy issue?

    Kalman Michal

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many studies and scientific evidence confirm a positive effect of physical activity on the quality of life and human health. Physical activity, which is also one of the key factors preventing mass non-communicable diseases, is decreasing in Europe, including the Czech Republic, both in children and adults. Serious health consequences for the population and economy of the countries are a reason for a discussion about including the low level of physical activity among public policy issues and a higher allocation of public sources into the area of physical activity promotion. OBJECTIVES: The main objective of the paper is to determine whether the low level of physical activity is a public policy issue. An issue that should by systematically addressed by national, regional as well as local policy. METHODS: Through the policy analysis approach we conducted a content analysis of 25 systematically selected foreign national strategies aimed at the issue of physical activity promotion. The data source was an internal database of the World Health Organization - the International Inventory of Documents on Physical Activity Promotion. The content analysis of the strategies was performed using the Atlas.ti software tool. RESULTS: During a content analysis of 25 foreign strategies a total of 411 text segments (quotations relating to the low level of physical activity were selected. These text segments showed five basic features of a public policy issue according to a conceptual framework developed by Bardach (2000 and Patton and Sawicky (1993 - 1 affects the lives of a significant number of people of a society; 2 is analysable; 3 can be solved through public policy tools; 4 the primary cause or problem can be defined; 5 cannot be solved easily and quickly. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that the low level of physical activity is a public policy issue that must be systematically addressed at national level.

  9. Trapezius muscle activity increases during near work activity regardless of accommodation/vergence demand level

    Richter, H. O.; Zetterberg, Camilla; Forsman, M

    2015-01-01

    Aim To investigate if trapezius muscle activity increases over time during visually demanding near work. Methods The vision task consisted of sustained focusing on a contrast-varying black and white Gabor grating. Sixty-six participants with a median age of 38 (range 19–47) fixated the grating from a distance of 65 cm (1.5 D) during four counterbalanced 7-min periods: binocularly through −3.5 D lenses, and monocularly through −3.5 D, 0 D and +3.5 D. Accommodation, heart rate variability and t...

  10. Electromyography Activation Levels of the 3 Gluteus Medius Subdivisions During Manual Strength Testing

    Otten, Roald; Tol, Johannes L; Holmich, Per;

    2015-01-01

    deficits and guide specific rehabilitation programs. However, the optimal positions for assessing the strength and activation of these subdivisions are unknown. OBJECTIVE: The first aim was to establish which strength-testing positions produce the highest surface electromyography (sEMG) activation levels...... of the individual GM subdivisions. The second aim was to evaluate differences in sEMG activation levels between the tested and contralateral (stabilizing) leg. METHOD: Twenty healthy physically active male subjects participated in this study. Muscle activity using sEMG was recorded for the GM...... subdivisions (P < .01). The posterior GM subdivision showed no significant difference (P = .154). CONCLUSION: Side-lying in neutral and side-lying with hip internal rotation are the 2 positions recommended to evaluate GM function and guide specific GM rehabilitation....

  11. Physical activity levels of economically disadvantaged women living in the Olympic city of Rio de Janeiro.

    de Sousa-Mast, Fabiana R; Reis, Arianne C; Sperandei, Sandro; Gurgel, Luilma A; Vieira, Marcelo C; Pühse, Uwe

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the physical activity patterns of women living in a low-income community located in close proximity to the 2016 Rio de Janeiro Olympic Park. Data (N = 140) were collected in June and July 2012 using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Findings indicated that the majority (54.8%) of participants reported high levels of physical activity. The domains that contributed the most to this pattern were occupational and household physical activity. Significantly, 88.1% of participants reported low physical activity levels during their leisure-time. In the transport-related domain, participants were relatively more active, but more than half of them (57%) spent less than 600 MET-minutes/week in this domain. The results highlighted the discrepancies between different physical activity domains. In addition, the findings also suggested that low-income women in our study engaged little in physical activity during their leisure time. Therefore, the proposed commitments found in the Rio de Janeiro Candidature File to host the 2016 Olympic Games to increase sport/physical activity participation within low-income communities in Rio de Janeiro need to be implemented effectively if this physical activity behavior during self-directed time is to be changed. PMID:26496170

  12. Automatic procedure go keep updated the activity levels for each radionuclide existing in a radioactivity laboratory

    An automatic procedure to keep updated the activity levels each radionuclide existing in a radioactivity laboratory, and its classification according to the Spanish Regulations on Nuclear and Radioactive Establishments is described. This procedure takes into account the mixed composition of each source and whether it is sealed or the activity and mass variation due to extraction or evaporation in non-sealed sources. For a given date and time, the procedure prints out a complete listing of the activity of each radioactive source, the accumulated activity for each radionuclide, for each kind of radionuclide and the actual classification of the laboratory according to the legal regulations above mentioned. (Author)

  13. AN ASSOCIATION OF CYTOKINE LEVELS WITH DISEASE ACTIVITY, AUTOANTIBODY LEVELS, AND JOINT DESTRUCTIVE CHANGES IN EARLY RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

    A. S. Avdeeva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to assess the association of cytokine profile measures with disease activity, autoantibody levels, and joint destructive changes in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA.Subjects and methods. Forty-five patients, including 35 women, with early RA were examined. Their median age was 53.5 [46; 59.5] years; the duration of the disease – 7.0 [4.0; 11.5] months; DAS28 – 5.8 [4.9; 6.4]; 91 and 96% of the patents were positive for rheumatoid factor (RF and anticyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies, respectively. Serum cytokine concentrations were estimated using the xMAP multiplex technology. The modified Sharp method was employed to quantify radiographic changes.Results and discussion. A group of 30 patients with high disease activity (DAS28 >5.1 had higher levels of interleukin (IL-6 (62.3 [36.1; 127.5] pg/ml and IP-10 (6367.8 [3682.7; 10691.3] pg/ml than 15 patients with moderate/low disease activity (DAS28 ≤5.1 (35.8 [13.4; 64.2] and 3222.6 [1881.0; 5671.9] pg/ml, respectively, p < 0.05. The patients highly positive for IgM RF had higher levels (pg/ml of proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-12, IL-15, interferon-γ, and tumor necrosis factor-α; the chemokine monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and the growth factors IL-7 and vascular endothelial growth factor (4.8 [2.8; 19.3], 23.0 [7.1; 55.8], 64.2 [41.6; 170.5], 52.2 [30.9; 126.9], 2.4 [0.2; 11.2], 210.8 [119.9; 584.2], 90.7 [42.7; 307/9], 57.5 [26.1; 93.8], 54.9 [37.1; 123.7], and 143.3 [70.6; 249.6] pg/ml than those who were negative/lowly positive for IgM RF (2.3 [1.9; 3.1], 4.9 [2.9; 16.8], 24.9 [20.4; 45.4], 25.6 [19.9; 57.1], 0.2 [0.01; 1.65], 94.4 [86.3; 138.9], 37.3 [23.6; 47.7], 20.9 [12.3; 33.9], 32.6 [28.1; 37.8], 74.2 [53.5; 147.6], respectively (p < 0.05.Conclusion. There are significant differences in cytokine profile measures in patients with early RA in relation to disease activity and serum autoantibody levels.

  14. Serum Visfatin Levels in Behcet's Disease Patients and Their Correlation with Disease Activity

    Cemile Tuğba Altunel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and design: Behcet’s disease (BD is a chronic inflammatory disease. Genetic susceptibility, triggering infections and environmental factors that alter innate and acquired immunity are accused in its pathogenesis. Visfatin is a novel adipocytokine which exerts proinflammatory effects. In present study, by comparing serum visfatin levels of active Behcet patients with inactive patients and healthy controls, we investigated the role of visfatin in the inflammatory process of BD. Material and Methods: We enrolled 26 active, 26 inactive BD patients and 26 healthy controls in the study. Serum visfatin levels were analyzed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. White blood cell (WBC count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, C-reactive protein (CRP and interleukin-6 (IL-6 levels were measured simultaneously and their correlation with visfatin levels were examined. Results: Age and gender distributions did not differ between study groups (P=0.736 and P=1.00 respectively. Serum visfatin levels were significantly higher in active (17.80±5.70 ng/mL and inactive patients (12.80±2.90 ng/mL than in control group (8.90±4.20 ng/mL, (P=0.00 for both comparisons. Active BD patients had significantly higher visfatin levels when compared to inactive patients (P=0.00. In all study groups visfatin levels were positively correlated with WBC count, ESH, CRP and IL-6 levels. Conclusion: Our results support the idea that visfatin plays a role in the inflammatory process of BD and suggests that visfatin may be a novel activity marker in BD.

  15. Self-assessment analysis of health and physical activity level of military personnel

    Plavina L.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sport and physical activity is important and compulsory for military staff. They determine the execution of service duties and tasks. Respondents with low level of physical activity have difficulties achieving required fitness level and pass the annual physical tests. Staff officers aged 28 to 40 years completed questionnaires in 2009 (n=22, 2010 (n=30 and 2012 (n=39. Each questionnaire included twenty one questions which were then evaluated in points. The answers allowed us to collect information regarding their physical activity during service hours as well as after the working day. Questionnaires included also issues on harmful habits – sleep duration, smoking and use of alcohol; self-esteem of body mass as well. The respondents were divided into four groups according to the level of physical activity: low, moderate, good, high. The percentage of respondents with a high and good level of physical activity has increased from 22.7% to 68.9% during the analysed time period. Morning exercises and hardening (fitness procedures were not popular for military personnel. However, physical activities during the working hours have slightly increased: 31.8%, 43.3% and 48.9.3% respectively. In study years, it was found that respondents try to follow healthy eating habits and sleep regime. There is a slight decrease of respondents with obese and there is a slight increase of 22.7% to 27.6% of the respondents who are regular smokers .

  16. Raised serum level of APRIL in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: correlations with disease activity indices.

    Hegazy, M; Darwish, H; Darweesh, H; El-Shehaby, A; Emad, Y

    2010-04-01

    The aim of the present study is to assess serum APRIL levels in SLE patients versus rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and normal control and to correlate serum APRIL levels in SLE patients with disease activity indices. Serum APRIL levels was measured in 40 SLE patients, 20 patients with RA and 20 healthy volunteers who served as control group. Disease activity in SLE patients was assessed by the British Isles Lupus Assessment Group (BILAG) index and SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI), and results were correlated with serum APRIL levels. Significantly higher serum APRIL levels was observed in SLE patients compared to RA patients and normal controls (p=0.003 and p < or = 0.001, respectively). Positive correlations were found between serum APRIL levels and total BILAG index (r=0.486 and p=0.001), BILAG musculoskeletal score (r=0.848 and p < or = 0.001) and BILAG cardiorespiratory score (r=0.326 and 0.04). Serum APRIL was higher in SLE patients compared to RA patients and normal control subjects and positively correlates with BILAG index and higher levels may be associated with musculoskeletal manifestations of the disease. APRIL antagonism could be a potential therapeutic target in SLE. PMID:20116334

  17. Physical Activity Levels and Domains Assessed by Accelerometry in German Adolescents from GINIplus and LISAplus.

    Maia P Smith

    Full Text Available Physical activity (PA is a well-known and underused protective factor for numerous health outcomes, and interventions are hampered by lack of objective data. We combined accelerometers with diaries to estimate the contributions to total activity from different domains throughout the day and week in adolescents.Accelerometric and diary data from 1403 adolescents (45% male, mean age 15.6 ± 0.5 years were combined to evaluate daily levels and domains of sedentary, light, and moderate-to-vigorous activity (MVPA during a typical week. Freedson's cutoff points were applied to determine levels of activity. Total activity was broken down into school physical education (PE, school outside PE, transportation to school, sport, and other time.About 2/3 of adolescents' time was spent sedentary, 1/3 in light activity, and about 5% in MVPA. Boys and girls averaged 46 (SD 22 and 38 (23 minutes MVPA per day. Adolescents were most active during leisure sport, spending about 30% of it in MVPA, followed by PE (about 20% transport to school (14% and either school class time or other time (3%. PE provided 5% of total MVPA, while leisure sport provided 16% and transportation to school 8%. School was the most sedentary part of the day with over 75% of time outside PE spent sedentary.These German adolescents were typical of Europeans in showing low levels of physical activity, with significant contributions from leisure sport, transportation and school PE. Leisure sport was the most active part of the day, and participation did not vary significantly by sex, study center (region of Germany or BMI. Transportation to school was frequent and thus accounted for a significant fraction of total MVPA. This indicates that even in a population with good access to dedicated sporting activities, frequent active transportation can add significantly to total MVPA.

  18. A system for measuring thermal activation energy levels in silicon by thermally stimulated capacitance

    Cockrum, R. H.

    1982-01-01

    One method being used to determine energy level(s) and electrical activity of impurities in silicon is described. The method is called capacitance transient spectroscopy (CTS). It can be classified into three basic categories: the thermally stimulated capacitance method, the voltage-stimulated capacitance method, and the light-stimulated capacitance method; the first two categories are discussed. From the total change in capacitance and the time constant of the capacitance response, emission rates, energy levels, and trap concentrations can be determined. A major advantage of using CTS is its ability to detect the presence of electrically active impurities that are invisible to other techniques, such as Zeeman effect atomic absorption, and the ability to detect more than one electrically active impurity in a sample. Examples of detection of majority and minority carrier traps from gold donor and acceptor centers in silicon using the capacitance transient spectrometer are given to illustrate the method and its sensitivity.

  19. Low Amount of Salinomycin Greatly Increases Akt Activation, but Reduces Activated p70S6K Levels

    Sungpil Yoon

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study identified a novel salinomycin (Sal-sensitization mechanism in cancer cells. We analyzed the signal proteins Akt, Jnk, p38, Jak, and Erk1/2 in cancer cell lines that had arrested growth following low amounts of Sal treatment. We also tested the signal molecules PI3K, PDK1, GSK3β, p70S6K, mTOR, and PTEN to analyze the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. The results showed that Sal sensitization positively correlates with large reductions in p70S6K activation. Interestingly, Akt was the only signal protein to be significantly activated by Sal treatment. The Akt activation appeared to require the PI3K pathway as its activation was abolished by the PI3K inhibitors LY294002 and wortmannin. The Akt activation by Sal was conserved in the other cell lines analyzed, which originated from other organs. Both Akt activation and C-PARP production were proportionally increased with increased doses of Sal. In addition, the increased levels of pAkt were not reduced over the time course of the experiment. Co-treatment with Akt inhibitors sensitized the Sal-treated cancer cells. The results thereby suggest that Akt activation is increased in cells that survive Sal treatment and resist the cytotoxic effect of Sal. Taken together; these results indicate that Akt activation may promote the resistance of cancer cells to Sal.

  20. Decreased plasma levels of soluble CD18 link leukocyte infiltration with disease activity in spondyloarthritis

    Kragstrup, Tue Wenzel; Jalilian, Babak; Hvid, Malene;

    2014-01-01

    A patients compared with healthy volunteers (P < 0.001) with the lowest levels in the HLA-B27-positive subgroup (P < 0.05). In a multiple regression model the sCD18 levels exhibited an inverse correlation with the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI) (P < 0.05), the level of morning......INTRODUCTION: Spondyloarthritis (SpA) comprises a group of diseases often associated with HLA-B27 and characterized by inflammation of the entheses and joints of the axial skeleton. The inflammatory process in SpA is presumably driven by innate immune cells but still poorly understood. Thus, new...... of arthritis patients to have anti-inflammatory functions. Here, we study the mechanisms for these alterations and their association with SpA disease activity. METHODS: Plasma levels of sCD18 in a study population with 84 SpA patients and matched healthy controls were analyzed with a time resolved...

  1. Trainability of muscular activity level during maximal voluntary co-contraction: comparison between bodybuilders and nonathletes.

    Sumiaki Maeo

    Full Text Available Antagonistic muscle pairs cannot be fully activated simultaneously, even with maximal effort, under conditions of voluntary co-contraction, and their muscular activity levels are always below those during agonist contraction with maximal voluntary effort (MVE. Whether the muscular activity level during the task has trainability remains unclear. The present study examined this issue by comparing the muscular activity level during maximal voluntary co-contraction for highly experienced bodybuilders, who frequently perform voluntary co-contraction in their training programs, with that for untrained individuals (nonathletes. The electromyograms (EMGs of biceps brachii and triceps brachii muscles during maximal voluntary co-contraction of elbow flexors and extensors were recorded in 11 male bodybuilders and 10 nonathletes, and normalized to the values obtained during the MVE of agonist contraction for each of the corresponding muscles (% EMGMVE. The involuntary coactivation level in antagonist muscle during the MVE of agonist contraction was also calculated. In both muscles, % EMGMVE values during the co-contraction task for bodybuilders were significantly higher (P<0.01 than those for nonathletes (biceps brachii: 66±14% in bodybuilders vs. 46±13% in nonathletes, triceps brachii: 74±16% vs. 57±9%. There was a significant positive correlation between a length of bodybuilding experience and muscular activity level during the co-contraction task (r = 0.653, P = 0.03. Involuntary antagonist coactivation level during MVE of agonist contraction was not different between the two groups. The current result indicates that long-term participation in voluntary co-contraction training progressively enhances muscular activity during maximal voluntary co-contraction.

  2. Trainability of muscular activity level during maximal voluntary co-contraction: comparison between bodybuilders and nonathletes.

    Maeo, Sumiaki; Takahashi, Takumi; Takai, Yohei; Kanehisa, Hiroaki

    2013-01-01

    Antagonistic muscle pairs cannot be fully activated simultaneously, even with maximal effort, under conditions of voluntary co-contraction, and their muscular activity levels are always below those during agonist contraction with maximal voluntary effort (MVE). Whether the muscular activity level during the task has trainability remains unclear. The present study examined this issue by comparing the muscular activity level during maximal voluntary co-contraction for highly experienced bodybuilders, who frequently perform voluntary co-contraction in their training programs, with that for untrained individuals (nonathletes). The electromyograms (EMGs) of biceps brachii and triceps brachii muscles during maximal voluntary co-contraction of elbow flexors and extensors were recorded in 11 male bodybuilders and 10 nonathletes, and normalized to the values obtained during the MVE of agonist contraction for each of the corresponding muscles (% EMGMVE). The involuntary coactivation level in antagonist muscle during the MVE of agonist contraction was also calculated. In both muscles, % EMGMVE values during the co-contraction task for bodybuilders were significantly higher (Pbodybuilders vs. 46±13% in nonathletes, triceps brachii: 74±16% vs. 57±9%). There was a significant positive correlation between a length of bodybuilding experience and muscular activity level during the co-contraction task (r = 0.653, P = 0.03). Involuntary antagonist coactivation level during MVE of agonist contraction was not different between the two groups. The current result indicates that long-term participation in voluntary co-contraction training progressively enhances muscular activity during maximal voluntary co-contraction. PMID:24260233

  3. Cytotoxic activities of amentoflavone against human breast and cervical cancers are mediated by increasing of PTEN expression levels due to peroxisomes proliferate-activated receptor γ activation

    Human peroxisomes proliferate-activated receptor gamma (hPPARγ) has been implicated in numerous pathologies, including obesity, diabetes, and cancer. Previously, we verified that amentoflavone is an activator of hPPARγ and probed the molecular basis of its action. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of action of amentoflavone in cancer cells and demonstrated that amentoflavone showed strong cytotoxicity against MCF-7 and HeLa cancer cell lines. We showed that hPPARγ expression in MCF-7 and HeLa cells is specifically stimulated by amentoflavone, and suggested that amentoflavone-induced cytotoxic activities are mediated by activation of hPPARγ in these two cancer cell lines. Moreover, amentoflavone increased PTEN levels in these two cancer cell lines, indicating that the cytotoxic activities of amentoflavone are mediated by increasing of PTEN expression levels due to hPPARγ activation

  4. Cytotoxic activities of amentoflavone against human breast and cervical cancers are mediated by increasing of PTEN expression levels due to peroxisomes proliferate-activated receptor {gamma} activation

    Lee, Eunjung; Shin, Soyoung; Lee, Jeeyoung; Lee, So Jung; Kim, Jinkyoung; Yoon, Doyoung; Kim, Yangmee [Konkuk Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Eunrhan [Chosun Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-15

    Human peroxisomes proliferate-activated receptor gamma (hPPAR{gamma}) has been implicated in numerous pathologies, including obesity, diabetes, and cancer. Previously, we verified that amentoflavone is an activator of hPPAR{gamma} and probed the molecular basis of its action. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of action of amentoflavone in cancer cells and demonstrated that amentoflavone showed strong cytotoxicity against MCF-7 and HeLa cancer cell lines. We showed that hPPAR{gamma} expression in MCF-7 and HeLa cells is specifically stimulated by amentoflavone, and suggested that amentoflavone-induced cytotoxic activities are mediated by activation of hPPAR{gamma} in these two cancer cell lines. Moreover, amentoflavone increased PTEN levels in these two cancer cell lines, indicating that the cytotoxic activities of amentoflavone are mediated by increasing of PTEN expression levels due to hPPAR{gamma} activation.

  5. First results on enzymatic activities in two salt marsh soils under different hydromorphic level and vegetation

    Carmen Trasar-Cepeda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Salt-marsh soils are soils characterized by non-permanent hydric saturation that, depending on factors like duration of submersion periods, are dominated by different salt-tolerant plant species. The composition of microbial communities is an essential component in trophic dynamics and biogeochemical processes in salt marshes, and determines the level of enzymatic activities, which catalyze the conversion of complex molecules into simpler ones. Despite of this, the enzymatic activities in marsh-soils has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to analyze the enzymatic activities in two soil profiles of marsh-soils under different water saturation level and dominated by different plant species [Juncus maritimus Lam and Spartina maritima (Curtis Fernald (Sp]. In both soils, the enzymatic activities were much lower than the levels typically found in terrestrial ecosystems. The enzymatic activities were measured both in air-dried and in re-moistened and incubated soil samples. In air-dried samples, the enzymatic activities were higher in Juncus than in Spartina soil and tended to decrease with depth, being sharper the decrease in Juncus than in Spartina soil. Re-moistened and pre-incubated soils showed a general increase in all the enzymatic activities and throughout the whole soil profile, especially in Spartina soils. Hydrolase activities showed a strong and positive relationship with organic matter content both in air-dried and in re-moistened soil samples, higher in these latter. In general, oxidoreductase activities only showed this relationship in re-moistened soil samples. More studies, preferably using freshly collected soil samples, are needed to understand the relationship between enzymatic activities and these environmental conditions.

  6. Level and intensity of objectively assessed physical activity among pregnant women from urban Ethiopia

    Hjorth Mads F

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women in low-income countries are generally considered to have a high physical workload which is sustained during pregnancy. Although most previous studies have been based on questionnaires a recent meta-analysis of doubly labeled water data has raised questions about the actual amount of physical activity performed. In this study we report objectively assessed levels of physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular fitness among pregnant urban Ethiopian women, and their association with demographic characteristics and anthropometric measures. Methods Physical activity was measured for seven consecutive days in 304 women using a combined uniaxial accelerometer and heart rate sensor. Activity energy expenditure was determined using a group calibration in a branched equation model framework. Type and duration of activities were reported using a 24-hour physical activity recall and grip strength was assessed using a dynamometer. Results Median (interquartile-range, IQR activity energy expenditure was 31.1 (23.7-42.0 kJ/kg/day corresponding to a median (IQR physical activity level of 1.46 (1.39-1.58. Median (IQR time in sedentary, light, and moderate-to-vigorous intensity was 1100 (999–1175, 303 (223–374 and 40 (22–69 min/day, respectively. Mean (standard deviation sleeping heart rate was 73.6 (8.0 beats/min and grip strength was 21.6 (4.5 kg. Activity energy expenditure was 14% higher for every 10 cm2 difference in arm muscle area and 10% lower for every 10 cm2 difference in arm fat area and 10-week difference in gestational age. Conclusion The level and intensity of physical activity among pregnant women from urban Ethiopia is low compared to non-pregnant women from other low income countries as well as pregnant European women from high-income countries.

  7. Recruitment of rat diaphragm motor units across motor behaviors with different levels of diaphragm activation

    Seven, Yasin B.; Mantilla, Carlos B.; Sieck, Gary C.

    2014-01-01

    Phrenic motor neurons are recruited across a range of motor behaviors to generate varying levels of diaphragm muscle (DIAm) force. We hypothesized that DIAm motor units are recruited in a fixed order across a range of motor behaviors of varying force levels, consistent with the Henneman Size Principle. Single motor unit action potentials and compound DIAm EMG activities were recorded in anesthetized, neurally intact rats across different motor behaviors, i.e., eupnea, hypoxia-hypercapnia (10%...

  8. Serum fucosyl transferase activity and serum fucose levels as diagnostic tools in malignancy.

    Sen,Umi; Guha,Subhas; Chowdhury, J Roy

    1983-01-01

    Glycoproteins play a significant role in neoplastic transformations. Both the levels of fucose and the activity of fucosyl transferase, which mediates the assembly of the oligosaccharide moieties of the glycoprotein chains, have been found to be elevated in neoplastic conditions. Since these elevations are common features of a variety of neoplastic cells, these two have been designated as non-specific markers of malignancy. In the present study, the fucose level and fucosyl transferase activi...

  9. In vitro antibacterial activity of seven Indian spices against high level gentamicin resistant strains of enterococci

    Revati, Sharma; Bipin, Chapagain; Chitra, Pai (Bhat); Minakshi, Bhattacharjee

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to explore the in vitro antibacterial activity of seven ethanolic extracts of spices against high level gentamicin resistant (HLGR) enterococci isolated from human clinical samples. Material and methods Two hundred and fifteen enterococcal strains were isolated from clinical samples. High level gentamicin resistance in ethanolic extracts of cumin (Cuminum cyminum), cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum), ginger (Zingiber officinale), fenugreek (Trigonella foenu...

  10. The gut microbiome and degradation enzyme activity of wild freshwater fishes influenced by their trophic levels

    Liu, Han; Guo, Xianwu; Gooneratne, Ravi; Lai, Ruifang; Zeng, Cong; Zhan, Fanbin; Wang, Weimin

    2016-01-01

    Vertebrate gut microbiome often underpins the metabolic capability and provides many beneficial effects on their hosts. However, little was known about how host trophic level influences fish gut microbiota and metabolic activity. In this study, more than 985,000 quality-filtered sequences from 24 16S rRNA libraries were obtained and the results revealed distinct compositions and diversities of gut microbiota in four trophic categories. PCoA test showed that gut bacterial communities of carnivorous and herbivorous fishes formed distinctly different clusters in PCoA space. Although fish in different trophic levels shared a large size of OTUs comprising a core microbiota community, at the genus level a strong distinction existed. Cellulose-degrading bacteria Clostridium, Citrobacter and Leptotrichia were dominant in the herbivorous, while Cetobacterium and protease-producing bacteria Halomonas were dominant in the carnivorous. PICRUSt predictions of metagenome function revealed that fishes in different trophic levels affected the metabolic capacity of their gut microbiota. Moreover, cellulase and amylase activities in herbivorous fishes were significantly higher than in the carnivorous, while trypsin activity in the carnivorous was much higher than in the herbivorous. These results indicated that host trophic level influenced the structure and composition of gut microbiota, metabolic capacity and gut content enzyme activity. PMID:27072196

  11. The gut microbiome and degradation enzyme activity of wild freshwater fishes influenced by their trophic levels.

    Liu, Han; Guo, Xianwu; Gooneratne, Ravi; Lai, Ruifang; Zeng, Cong; Zhan, Fanbin; Wang, Weimin

    2016-01-01

    Vertebrate gut microbiome often underpins the metabolic capability and provides many beneficial effects on their hosts. However, little was known about how host trophic level influences fish gut microbiota and metabolic activity. In this study, more than 985,000 quality-filtered sequences from 24 16S rRNA libraries were obtained and the results revealed distinct compositions and diversities of gut microbiota in four trophic categories. PCoA test showed that gut bacterial communities of carnivorous and herbivorous fishes formed distinctly different clusters in PCoA space. Although fish in different trophic levels shared a large size of OTUs comprising a core microbiota community, at the genus level a strong distinction existed. Cellulose-degrading bacteria Clostridium, Citrobacter and Leptotrichia were dominant in the herbivorous, while Cetobacterium and protease-producing bacteria Halomonas were dominant in the carnivorous. PICRUSt predictions of metagenome function revealed that fishes in different trophic levels affected the metabolic capacity of their gut microbiota. Moreover, cellulase and amylase activities in herbivorous fishes were significantly higher than in the carnivorous, while trypsin activity in the carnivorous was much higher than in the herbivorous. These results indicated that host trophic level influenced the structure and composition of gut microbiota, metabolic capacity and gut content enzyme activity. PMID:27072196

  12. Activity of Follicular Fluid Phosphatases and Their Correlation with Levels of Serum Esteroidal Hormones and Gonadotropins

    Sh Byranvand

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between serum levels of ovarian and gonadotropin hormones, age and number of follicles with follicular alkaline and acid phosphatase activity in infertile women under controlled ovarian hyperstimulation. Methods: After collection of follicular fluid and calculation of the number of follicles, the specific activity of alkaline (ALP and acid phosphatase (ACP was determined according to the total protein in 19 women at the time of puncture. Also at that time, the levels of progesterone, estradiol, and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and leuteinizing hormone (LH of their sera were measured. The correlation of follicular ALP and ACP with each serum hormone levels, women age and number of follicles was calculated using non-parametric analysis. Results: The ALP has a correlation with progesterone (P=0.01 levels but doesn’t have any correlation with the other factors. However, the ACP activity has a correlation not only with follicular number but also with estradiol and progesterone levels (P=0.05. Conclusion: Thus ACP activity is more affected by ovarian hormone than ALP and it can affect the ovarian microenvironment and oocyte development.

  13. Adult total wellness: group differences based on sitting time and physical activity level

    Barwais, Faisal A; Cuddihy, Thomas F.; Tomson, L Michaud

    2014-01-01

    Background An increasing body of evidence associates a high level of sitting time with poor health outcomes. The benefits of moderate to vigorous-intensity physical activities to various aspects of health are now well documented; however, individuals may engage in moderate-intensity physical activity for at least 30 minutes on five or more days of the week and still exhibit a high level of sitting time. This purpose of this study was to examine differences in total wellness among adults relat...

  14. Low oil prices, prospective activity levels in the UKCS and the effects of cost savings

    The document from the Economics Department of Aberdeen University forms part of a series examining the economics of North Sea oil and gas production on the United Kingdom Continental Shelf (UKCS). UKCS activity levels are shown to be affected by recent falls in world oil prices. Prospects for oil production in OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) and other countries, which have a dominant influence on oil price behaviour worldwide, are studied, as are the consequences for UKCS activity levels of recently achieved cost savings. The study also examines the implications of such cost savings for Government tax revenues and industry cash flow. (U.K.)

  15. Digestive enzyme activity and mRNA level of trypsin in embryonic redclaw crayfish, Cherax quadricarnatus

    LUO Wen; ZHAO Yunlong; ZHOU Zhongliang; AN Chuanguang; MA Qiang

    2008-01-01

    The digestive enzyme activity and mRNA level of trypsin during the embryonic development of Cherax quadricarinatus were analyzed using biochemical and Fluorogenic Quantitative PCR (FQ-PCR) methods.The results show that the activities of trypsin and chymotrypsin had two different change patterns.Trypsin specific activity increased rapidly in the early stages of development and still remained high in preparation for the hatch stage.However,chymotrypsin activity peaked in stage 4 of embryonic development and decreased significantly in the last stage.The mRNA level of trypsin was elevated in all stages and two peak values were observed in stages 2 and 5 respectively.The results indicate that trypsin is very important for the utilization of the yolk during embryonic development and for the assimilation of dietary protein for larvae.The gene of trypsin is probably regulated at transcriptional level.The mRNA levels of trypsin can reflect not only trypsin activity,but also the regulatory mechanism for expression of trypsin gene to a certain degree.

  16. Comparison of doubly labeled water with respirometry at low- and high-activity levels

    In previous studies the doubly labeled water method for measuring energy expenditure in free-living humans has been validated against respirometry under sedentary conditions. In the present investigation, energy expenditure is measured simultaneously with doubly labeled water and respirometry at low- and high-activity levels. Over 6 days, five subjects were measured doing mainly sedentary activities like desk work; their average daily metabolic rate was 1.40 +/- 0.09 (SD) times sleeping metabolic rate. Four subjects were measured twice over 3.5 days, including 2 days with heavy bicycle ergometer work, resulting in an average daily metabolic rate of 2.61 +/- 0.25 (SD) times sleeping metabolic rate. At the low-activity level, energy expenditures from the doubly labeled water method were on the average 1.4 +/- 3.9% (SD) larger than those from respirometry. At the high-activity level, the doubly labeled water method yielded values that were 1.0 +/- 7.0% (SD) lower than those from respirometry. Results demonstrate the utility of the doubly labeled water method for the determination of energy expenditure in the range of activity levels in daily life

  17. Activation of coagulation system and d-dimer levels in children with acute leukemia

    Harun Wijaya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background D-dimer is a molecule as result of breaking down of excessive fibrin formation from the activation of coagulation system. There is evidence of increased activation of coagulation in patients with acute leukemia which was showed by the increment of d-dimer levels. Objective To evaluate the incidence of activation of coagulation system in children with acute leukemia before receiving chemotherapy. Method This cross-sectional study was performed at Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital. All newly-diagnosed children with acute leukemia were included in this study, prior to their receiving any chemotherapy treatment. Blast count, prothrombin time (PTT, activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT, and D-dimer levels were examined after the diagnosis was confirmed by morphology and immunophenotyping studies on bone marrow specimens. Results Out of 22 subjects, 13 subjects had increased D-dimer values. The median D-dimer level of this elevated group was 1,000 (range 500-14,700 ng/mL. In the acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML patients, activation of coagulation was found in 7 out of 8 subjects. The median D-dimer levels was 950 (range 100-14,700 ng/mL. In the acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL patients, 6 out of 14 subjects had increased activation of coagulation with median D-dimer level of 300 (range 100-3,800 ng/mL. Nine out of 10 subjects with blast cells on peripheral blood smear had a median D-dimer level of 1,000 (range 500-3,800 ng/mL. Both PT and APTT were found normal in all subjects. Conclusion Activation of coagulation system occurs at the time of diagnosis as shown by increased D-dimer levels. The characteristics of activation of coagulation system are different between ALL and AML subjects, as well as between subjects with positive and negative blast counts on peripheral blood smears. Despite the increased activation of coagulation, PT and APTT remain normal. [Paediatr Indones. 2014;54:227-31.].

  18. Disjoint Region Partitioning for Probabilistic Switching Activity Estimation at Register Transfer Level

    Machado Sánchez, Felipe; Riesgo Alcaide, Teresa; Torroja Fungairiño, Yago

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a partition method for probabilistic switching activity estimation of combinational circuits described at register transfer level (RTL). Probabilistic estimation of switching activity requires large and complex models that could be unfeasible for large circuits; therefore, circuit partitioning becomes a necessary step to address the analysis. Nevertheless, partition methods imply approximations that produce inaccurate results. We present a partition method based on disjoin...

  19. High school students’ situational interest and physical activity levels in exergaming

    Roure, Cedric; Pasco, Denis; Pope, Zachary; Gao, Zan

    2015-01-01

    The benefits and challenges of integrating exergames in schools to promote young children's physical activity and interest have been evident. Yet, such investigations remain unexplored among older adolescents. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between high schools students' situational interest and physical activity levels during exergame play, as well as investigate the gender and grade differences on the study variables. A total of 60 (32 girls; M = 16.17 year...

  20. First results on enzymatic activities in two salt marsh soils under different hydromorphic level and vegetation

    Carmen Trasar-Cepeda; Diana Bello; Chiara Ferronato; Livia Vittori Antisari

    2015-01-01

    Salt-marsh soils are soils characterized by non-permanent hydric saturation that, depending on factors like duration of submersion periods, are dominated by different salt-tolerant plant species. The composition of microbial communities is an essential component in trophic dynamics and biogeochemical processes in salt marshes, and determines the level of enzymatic activities, which catalyze the conversion of complex molecules into simpler ones. Despite of this, the enzymatic activities in mar...

  1. Relationship between self-reported dietary intake and physical activity levels among adolescents: The HELENA study

    Le Donne Cinzia; Kafatos Anthony; Hagströmer Maria; Gottrand Frederic; De Bourdeaudhuij Ilse; Cuenca-Garcia Magdalena; Béghin Laurent; Huybrechts Inge; Ottevaere Charlene; Moreno Luis A; Sjöström Michael; Widhalm Kurt; De Henauw Stefaan

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Evidence suggests possible synergetic effects of multiple lifestyle behaviors on health risks like obesity and other health outcomes. Therefore it is important to investigate associations between dietary and physical activity behavior, the two most important lifestyle behaviors influencing our energy balance and body composition. The objective of the present study is to describe the relationship between energy, nutrient and food intake and the physical activity level among...

  2. Relationship between self-reported dietary intake and physical activity levels among adolescents: the HELENA study

    Ottevaere, C.; Nova, Esther; Gómez Martínez, Sonia; L. E. Díaz; Romeo, J.; Veses, Ana M; Zapatera, Belén; Pozo Rubio, Tamara; Martínez, D.; Marcos, Ascensión

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests possible synergetic effects of multiple lifestyle behaviors on health risks like obesity and other health outcomes. Therefore it is important to investigate associations between dietary and physical activity behavior, the two most important lifestyle behaviors influencing our energy balance and body composition. The objective of the present study is to describe the relationship between energy, nutrient and food intake and the physical activity level among a large...

  3. Level and intensity of objectively assessed physical activity among pregnant women from urban Ethiopia

    Hjorth Mads F; Kloster Stine; Girma Tsinuel; Faurholt-Jepsen Daniel; Andersen Gregers; Kæstel Pernille; Brage Søren; Friis Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Women in low-income countries are generally considered to have a high physical workload which is sustained during pregnancy. Although most previous studies have been based on questionnaires a recent meta-analysis of doubly labeled water data has raised questions about the actual amount of physical activity performed. In this study we report objectively assessed levels of physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular fitness among pregnant urban Ethiopian women,...

  4. Patent rights and innovative activity: evidence from national and firm-level data

    Brent B Allred; Walter G Park

    2007-01-01

    Global standards of patent protection have been strengthened and harmonized in recent years. Despite the heated policy debates and theoretical controversies, empirical studies of the consequences for innovative activity are scant. This paper contributes to the debate by providing an empirical analysis of the effects of patent strength on different aspects of innovative activity, namely firm-level research and development (R&D), domestic patenting, and foreign patenting. The analysis employs a...

  5. Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand and osteoprotegerin levels in gingival crevicular fluid

    Fatemeh Sarlati; Mandana Sattari; Shilan Razzaghi; Malihe Nasiri

    2012-01-01

    Background: Osteoclastogenesis is coordinated by the interaction of three members of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily: Osteoprotegerin (OPG)/receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL)/receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B (RANK). The aim of this study was to investigate RANKL and OPG levels, and their relative ratio in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of patients with chronic and aggressive periodontitis, as well as healthy controls. Materials and Methods:...

  6. Irisin Levels are Not Affected by Physical Activity in Patients with Anorexia Nervosa

    Tobias eHofmann; Ulf eElbelt; Anne eAhnis; Peter eKobelt; Matthias eRose; Andreas eStengel

    2014-01-01

    Irisin was recently identified as muscle-derived hormone that increases energy expenditure. Studies in normal weight and obese subjects reported an increased irisin expression following physical activity, although inconsistent results were observed. Increased physical activity in a subgroup of patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) complicates the course of the disease. Since irisin could account for differences in clinical outcomes, we investigated irisin levels in anorexic patients with high a...

  7. Chronic hyperammonemia alters the circadian rhythms of corticosteroid hormone levels and of motor activity in rats.

    Ahabrach, Hanan; Piedrafita, Blanca; Ayad, Abdelmalik; El Mlili, Nisrin; Errami, Mohammed; Felipo, Vicente; Llansola, Marta

    2010-05-15

    Patients with liver cirrhosis may present hepatic encephalopathy with a wide range of neurological disturbances and alterations in sleep quality and in the sleep-wake circadian rhythm. Hyperammonemia is a main contributor to the neurological alterations in hepatic encephalopathy. We have assessed, in an animal model of chronic hyperammonemia without liver failure, the effects of hyperammonemia per se on the circadian rhythms of motor activity, temperature, and plasma levels of adrenal corticosteroid hormones. Chronic hyperammonemia alters the circadian rhythms of locomotor activity and of cortisol and corticosterone levels in blood. Different types of motor activity are affected differentially. Hyperammonemia significantly alters the rhythm of spontaneous ambulatory activity, reducing strongly ambulatory counts and slightly average velocity during the night (the active phase) but not during the day, resulting in altered circadian rhythms. In contrast, hyperammonemia did not affect wheel running at all, indicating that it affects spontaneous but not voluntary activity. Vertical activity was affected only very slightly, indicating that hyperammonemia does not induce anxiety. Hyperammonemia abolished completely the circadian rhythm of corticosteroid hormones in plasma, completely eliminating the peaks of cortisol and corticosterone present in control rats at the start of the dark period. The data reported show that chronic hyperammonemia, similar to that present in patients with liver cirrhosis, alters the circadian rhythms of corticosteroid hormones and of motor activity. This suggests that hyperammonemia would be a relevant contributor to the alterations in corticosteroid hormones and in circadian rhythms in patients with liver cirrhosis. PMID:19998493

  8. Potential low-level waste disposal limits for activation products from fusion

    Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) scientists are involved in studies considering alternative construction materials for the first wall of commercial fusion reactors. To permit a comparison of radioactivity levels, both the level of activation and an acceptable limit for the radionuclides present must be known. Generic material composition guidelines can be developed using the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations governing the near-surface disposal of low-level radioactive wastes. These regulations consider wastes defined as containing source, special nuclear, or by-product materials arising from research, industrial, medical, and nuclear fuel-cycle activities. However, not all of the activation products produced in low-level wastes from fusion reactors are considered by the NRC in their regulations. The purpose of this report is to present potential low-level waste-disposal limits for ten radionuclides resulting from fusion reactor operations that are not considered in the NRC low-level waste regulations. These potential limits will be used by HEDL scientists to complete their generic material composition guidelines for the first wall of commercial fusion reactors

  9. Is the activity level of HD 80606 influenced by its eccentric planet?

    Figueira, P; da Silva, J Gomes; Abe, L; Adibekyan, V Zh; Bendjoya, P; Correia, A C M; Delgado-Mena, E; Faria, J P; Hebrard, G; Lovis, C; Oshagh, M; Rivet, J -P; Santos, N C; Suarez, O; Vidotto, A A

    2016-01-01

    Aims: Several studies suggest that the activity level of a planet-host star can be influenced by the presence of a close-by orbiting planet. Moreover, the interaction mechanisms that have been proposed, magnetic interaction and tidal interaction, exhibit a very different dependence on orbital separation between the star and the planet. A detection of activity enhancement and characterization of its dependence on planetary orbital distance can, in principle, allow us to characterize the physical mechanism behind the activity enhancement. Methods: We used the HARPS-N spectrograph to measure the stellar activity level of HD 80606 during the planetary periastron passage and compared the activity measured to that close to apastron. Being characterized by an eccentricity of 0.93 and an orbital period of 111 days, the system's extreme variation in orbital separation makes it a perfect target to test our hypothesis. Results: We find no evidence for a variation in the activity level of the star as a function of planet...

  10. Social, environmental and psychological factors associated with objective physical activity levels in the over 65s.

    Marion E T McMurdo

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess physical activity levels objectively using accelerometers in community dwelling over 65 s and to examine associations with health, social, environmental and psychological factors. DESIGN: Cross sectional survey. SETTING: 17 general practices in Scotland, United Kingdom. PARTICIPANTS: Random sampling of over 65 s registered with the practices in four strata young-old (65-80 years, old-old (over 80 years, more affluent and less affluent groups. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Accelerometry counts of activity per day. Associations between activity and Theory of Planned Behaviour variables, the physical environment, health, wellbeing and demographic variables were examined with multiple regression analysis and multilevel modelling. RESULTS: 547 older people (mean (SD age 79(8 years, 54% female were analysed representing 94% of those surveyed. Accelerometry counts were highest in the affluent younger group, followed by the deprived younger group, with lowest levels in the deprived over 80 s group. Multiple regression analysis showed that lower age, higher perceived behavioural control, the physical function subscale of SF-36, and having someone nearby to turn to were all independently associated with higher physical activity levels (R(2 = 0.32. In addition, hours of sunshine were independently significantly associated with greater physical activity in a multilevel model. CONCLUSIONS: Other than age and hours of sunlight, the variables identified are modifiable, and provide a strong basis for the future development of novel multidimensional interventions aimed at increasing activity participation in later life.

  11. Investigation of the Relationship between Physical Activity Level and Healthy Life-Style Behaviors of Academic Staff

    Turkmen, Mutlu; Ozkan, Ali; Kul, Murat; Bozkus, Taner

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship of physical activity (PA) level and healthy life-style behaviors in academic staff in Bartin University, Turkey. The short form of International Physical Activity Questionnaire was administered for the determination of physical activity level of academic staff. Their PA levels were…

  12. Effectiveness of sensory processing strategies on activity level in inclusive preschool classrooms

    Lin CL

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Chien-Lin Lin,1,2 Yu-Fan Min,3 Li-Wei Chou,1,2,* Chin-Kai Lin,4,* 1Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan; 2School of Chinese Medicine, College of Chinese Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan; 3Faith, Hope and Love, Center for Children and Adults With Disabilities, Taichung, Taiwan; 4Program of Early Intervention, Department of Early Childhood Education, National Taichung University of Education, Taichung, Taiwan*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of sensory processing strategies in improving the activity level of children with sensory integration dysfunction.Methods: The study used a matching-only pretest–posttest control group design, which requires random matching of sensory integration dysfunction to the corresponding intervention group (n = 18 and control group (n = 18. The intervention group comprised 3–6-year-old children who received an 8-week school-day intervention during implementation of the theme curriculum.Results: The 8-week treatment significantly reduced the activity level and foot-swinging episodes in children with sensory integration dysfunction, and obtained a medium-effect size. However, the level of improvement in the control group did not show any statistically significant change.Conclusion: Sensory processing strategies could improve activity levels in children with sensory integration dysfunction. However, this study was unable to exclude a developmental effect. The social validity results show that sensory processing strategies can be integrated into the theme curriculum and improve activity levels in children.Keywords: activity level, preschool inclusive classroom, sensory integration dysfunction, sensory processing strategy

  13. Caries-free subjects have high levels of urease and arginine deiminase activity

    Evelyn REYES

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study investigated the relationship between urease and arginine deiminase system (ADS activities and dental caries through a cross-sectional study. Material and Methods: Urease and ADS activities were measured in saliva and plaque samples from 10 caries-free subjects and 13 caries-active. Urease activity was obtained from the ammonia produced by incubation of plaque and saliva samples in urea. ADS activity was obtained from the ammonia generated by the arginine-HCl and Tris-maleate buffer. Specific activity was defined as micromoles of ammonia per minute per milligram of protein. Shapiro-Wilk statistical test was used to analyze the distribution of the data, and Mann-Whitney test was used to determine the significance of the data. Results: The specific urease activity in saliva and plaque was significantly higher in individuals with low DMFT scores. ADS activity in saliva (6.050 vs 1.350, p=0.0154 and plaque (8.830 vs 1.210, p=0.025 was also higher in individuals with low DMFT scores. Conclusions: Caries-free subjects had a higher ammonia generation activity by urease and arginine deiminase system for both saliva and plaque samples than low caries-active subjects. High levels of alkali production in oral environment were related to caries-free subjects.

  14. Phone in the Pocket: Pervasive Self-Tracking of Physical Activity Levels

    Wac, Katarzyna; Hausmann, Jody; Bonjour, Julien

    2012-01-01

    Mobile (smart)phones prevail in our daily life activities, and in our research we aim for it to provide pervasive services for wellness. Therefore, we assess the phone's feasibility to unobtrusively, continuously and in real-time track its user's physical activity and the resulting energy expenditure (EE). Activity Level Estimator (ALE) is an Android OS application developed for that purpose.We have assessed the accuracy of ALE against the BodyMedia SenseWear (SW) device and the gold standard...

  15. Self-reported activity level and knee function in amateur football players: the influence of age, gender, history of knee injury and level of competition.

    Frobell, Richard; Svensson, E.; Göthrick, M; Roos, Ewa

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate if self-reported activity level or knee functions are influenced by subject characteristics, level of competition and history of knee injury. Cross-Sectional study using questionnaires distributed at a personal visit. One hundred and eighty-eight (65 women) amateur football players in 10 football clubs from each division below national level participated in the study. Self-reported Tegner Activity Scale, and the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Sc...

  16. The Relationship between Physical Activity Level and Healthy Life-Style Behaviors of Distance Education Students

    Özkan, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship between physical activity levels and healthy life-style behaviors in distance education students in Hoca Ahmet Yesevi University. In total, 526 distance education students in Hoca Ahmet Yesevi University participated in this study voluntarily. The short form of International Physical…

  17. Effects of Varying Team Sizes on Physical Activity Levels of College Students

    Gaudreault, Karen Lux; Cluphf, David; Russell, Jared; Lecheminant, James

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine physical activity levels among various team sizes for basketball and soccer in a C/UIPAP setting. Twenty-eight university physical education majors participated in the study. Participants engaged in three-on-three and five-on-five basketball and five-on-five and 11-on-11 soccer games. All games…

  18. Low and intermediate level radioactive waste. Waste characterization and activity measurements

    The report deals with waste categories in Finland and methods for determining or estimating the waste content. The study mainly focuses on long-lived low and intermediate level waste. Methods for the determination of activity content and chemical content are discussed. The report presents recommendations for the characterization of waste under treatment as well as recommendations for the characterization of waste packages

  19. Muscular activity level during pedalling is not affected by crank inertial load.

    Duc, S; Villerius, V; Bertucci, W; Pernin, J N; Grappe, F

    2005-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of gear ratio (GR) and thus crank inertial load (CIL), on the activity levels of lower limb muscles. Twelve competitive cyclists performed three randomised trials with their own bicycle equipped with a SRM crankset and mounted on an Axiom ergometer. The power output ( approximately 80% of maximal aerobic power) and the pedalling cadence were kept constant for each subject across all trials but three different GR (low, medium and high) were indirectly obtained for each trial by altering the electromagnetic brake of the ergometer. The low, medium and high GR (mean +/- SD) resulted in CIL of 44 +/- 3.7, 84 +/- 6.5 and 152 +/- 17.9 kg.m(2), respectively. Muscular activity levels of the gluteus maximus (GM), the vastus medialis (VM), the vastus lateralis (VL), the rectus femoris (RF), the medial hamstrings (MHAM), the gastrocnemius (GAS) and the soleus (SOL) muscles were quantified and analysed by mean root mean square (RMS(mean)). The muscular activity levels of the measured lower limb muscles were not significantly affected when the CIL was increased approximately four fold. This suggests that muscular activity levels measured on different cycling ergometers (with different GR and flywheel inertia) can be compared among each other, as they are not influenced by CIL. PMID:16032416

  20. Physical Activity Levels of Non-Overweight, Overweight, and Obese Children during Physical Education

    Pathare, Neeti; Piche, Kelly; Nicosia, Andrea; Haskvitz, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine physical activity (PA) levels of young children classified by body mass index (BMI) (non-overweight, overweight, and obese) during physical education classes. Method: Participants included 82 children (45 boys, 37 girls; 7.5 ± 1.2 years). PA was determined by the number of steps measured with…

  1. Determining Intensity Levels of Selected Wii Fit Activities in College Aged Individuals

    Grieser, Joshua D.; Gao, Yong; Ransdell, Lynda; Simonson, Shawn

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the intensity of Nintendo Wii Fit games using indirect calorimetry. Twenty-five college students completed Wii Fit activity sessions at two difficulty levels within aerobics, strength, and yoga categories. Resting metabolic rate and exercise oxygen uptake were measured, and metabolic equivalents were…

  2. Measuring Students' Physical Activity Levels: Validating SOFIT for Use with High-School Students

    van der Mars, Hans; Rowe, Paul J.; Schuldheisz, Joel M.; Fox, Susan

    2004-01-01

    This study was conducted to validate the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT) for measuring physical activity levels of high-school students. Thirty-five students (21 girls and 14 boys from grades 9-12) completed a standardized protocol including lying, sitting, standing, walking, running, curl-ups, and push-ups. Heart rates and…

  3. Functional level, physical activity and wellbeing in nursing home residents in three Nordic countries

    Grönstedt, Helena; Hellström, Karin; Bergland, Astrid;

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to describe physical and cognitive function and wellbeing among nursing home residents in three Nordic countries. A second aim was to compare groups of differing ages, levels of dependency in daily life activities (ADL), degree of fall-related self-efficacy, wellbeing...

  4. Persistent Organochlorine Pollutants with Endocrine Activity and Blood Steroid Hormone Levels in Middle- Aged Men

    Elise Emeville; Frank Giton; Arnaud Giusti; Alejandro Oliva; Jean Fiet; Jean-Pierre Thomé; Pascal Blanchet; Luc Multigner

    2013-01-01

    International audience BACKGROUND: Studies relating long-term exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) with endocrine activities (endocrine disrupting chemicals) on circulating levels of steroid hormones have been limited to a small number of hormones and reported conflicting results. OBJECTIVE: We examined the relationship between serum concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, androstenedione, androstenediol, testosterone, free and bioavail...

  5. Characteristics of monsoon low level jet (MLLJ) as an index of monsoon activity

    N V Sam; K P R Vittal Murty

    2002-12-01

    Temperature and wind data are used to describe variation in the strength of the Monsoon Low Level Jet (MLLJ) from an active phase of the monsoon to a break phase. Also estimated are the characteristics of turbulence above and below MLLJ.

  6. LEVEL OF PRESENCE IN TEAM-BUILDING ACTIVITIES: GAMING COMPONENT IN VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS

    Gianluca De Leo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Historically the training of teams has been implemented using a face-to-face approach. In the past decade, on-line multiuser virtual environments have offered a solution for training teams whose members are geographically dispersed. In order to develop on effective team training activity, a high sense of presence among the participant needs to be reached. Previous research studies reported being able to reach a high level of presence even when using inexpensive technology such as laptop and headset. This study evaluates the level of presence of ten subjects who have to perform a team-building activity in a multi-user virtual environment using a laptop computer and a headset. The authors are interested in determining which user characterizes, such as gender, age and knowledge of computers, have a strong correlation with the level of sense of presence. The results of this study showed that female participants were more likely to engage in the activity and perceived fewer negative effects. Participants who reported less negative effects such as feeling tired, dizzy, or experiencing eye strain during the team-building activity reached a higher level of sense of presence.

  7. Level of Presence in Team-Building Activities: Gaming Component in Virtual Environments

    Elena Radici

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Historically the training of teams has been implemented using a face-to-face approach. In the past decade, on-line multiuser virtual environments have offered a solution for training teams whose members are geographically dispersed. In order to develop on effective team training activity, a high sense ofpresence among the participant needs to be reached. Previous research studies reported being able to reach a high level of presence even when using inexpensive technology such as laptop and headset. Thisstudy evaluates the level of presence of ten subjects who have to perform a team-building activity in a multi-user virtual environment using a laptop computer and a headset. The authors are interested in determining which user characterizes, such as gender, age and knowledge of computers, have a strong correlation with the level of sense of presence. The results of this study showed that female participants were more likely to engage in the activity and perceived fewer negative effects. Participants who reported less negative effects such as feeling tired, dizzy, or experiencing eye strain during the team-building activity reached a higher level of sense of presence.

  8. The Influence of Activation Level on Belief Bias in Relational Reasoning

    Banks, Adrian P.

    2013-01-01

    A novel explanation of belief bias in relational reasoning is presented based on the role of working memory and retrieval in deductive reasoning, and the influence of prior knowledge on this process. It is proposed that belief bias is caused by the believability of a conclusion in working memory which influences its activation level, determining…

  9. Physical Activity Levels in Coeducational and Single-Gender High School Physical Education Settings

    Hannon, James; Ratliffe, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of coeducational (coed) and single-gender game-play settings on the activity levels of Caucasian and African American high school physical education students. Students participated in flag football, ultimate Frisbee, and soccer units. Classes were as follows: there were two coed classes, two…

  10. The "Saltin-Grimby Physical Activity Level Scale" and its application to health research

    Grimby, G; Börjesson, M; Jonsdottir, I H;

    2015-01-01

    The use of a four-level questionnaire to assess leisure time physical activity (PA) and its validation is reviewed in this paper. This questionnaire was first published in 1968 and has then been used by more than 600 000 subjects, especially in different population studies in the Nordic countries...

  11. MILLIMETER-WAVE MEASUREMENTS OF HIGH LEVEL AND LOW ACTIVITY GLASS MELTS

    The objectives of the proposed multi-organizational research are to develop new real-time sensors for characterizing glass melts in high level waste (HLW) and low activity waste (LAW) melters, and to understand the scientific basis and bridge the gap between glass melt model data...

  12. Physical Activity Levels of Overweight and Nonoverweight High School Students during Physical Education Classes

    Hannon, James C.

    2008-01-01

    Background: This study examined physical activity (PA) levels of overweight and nonoverweight African American and Caucasian students (n = 198) during game play in physical education classes. Methods: Body fat percentages (%BFs) were determined using the skinfold technique and Slaughter et al prediction equations. Girls were classified as…

  13. Environmental noise levels affect the activity budget of the Florida manatee

    Miksis-Olds, Jennifer L.; Donaghay, Percy L.; Miller, James H.; Tyack, Peter L.

    2005-09-01

    Manatees inhabit coastal bays, lagoons, and estuaries because they are dependent on the aquatic vegetation that grows in shallow waters. Food requirements force manatees to occupy the same areas in which human activities are the greatest. Noise produced from human activities has the potential to affect these animals by eliciting responses ranging from mild behavioral changes to extreme aversion. This study quantifies the behavioral responses of manatees to both changing levels of ambient noise and transient noise sources. Results indicate that elevated environmental noise levels do affect the overall activity budget of this species. The proportion of time manatees spend feeding, milling, and traveling in critical habitats changed as a function of noise level. More time was spent in the directed, goal-oriented behaviors of feeding and traveling, while less time was spent milling when noise levels were highest. The animals also responded to the transient noise of approaching vessels with changes in behavioral state and movements out of the geographical area. This suggests that manatees detect and respond to changes in environmental noise levels. Whether these changes legally constitute harassment and produce biologically significant effects need to be addressed with hypothesis-driven experiments and long-term monitoring. [For Animal Bioacoustics Best Student Paper Award.

  14. Effect of low-level laser therapy on the modulation of the mitochondrial activity of macrophages

    Nadhia H. C. Souza

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Macrophages play a major role among the inflammatory cells that invade muscle tissue following an injury. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT has long been used in clinical practice to accelerate the muscle repair process. However, little is known regarding its effect on macrophages. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the effect of LLLT on the mitochondrial activity (MA of macrophages. METHOD: J774 macrophages were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS and interferon - gamma (IFN-γ (activation for 24 h to simulate an inflammatory process, then irradiated with LLLT using two sets of parameters (780 nm; 70 mW; 3 J/cm2 and 660 nm; 15 mW; 7.5 J/cm2. Non-activated/non-irradiated cells composed the control group. MA was evaluated by the cell mitochondrial activity (MTT assay (after 1, 3 and 5 days in three independent experiments. The data were analyzed statistically. RESULTS: After 1 day of culture, activated and 780 nm irradiated macrophages showed lower MA than activated macrophages, but activated and 660 nm irradiated macrophages showed MA similar to activated cells. After 3 days, activated and irradiated (660 nm and 780 nm macrophages showed greater MA than activated macrophages, and after 5 days, the activated and irradiated (660 nm and 780 nm macrophages showed similar MA to the activated macrophages. CONCLUSIONS: These results show that 660 nm and 780 nm LLLT can modulate the cellular activation status of macrophages in inflammation, highlighting the importance of this resource and of the correct determination of its parameters in the repair process of skeletal muscle.

  15. Dietary selenium increases the antioxidant levels and ATPase activity in the arteries and veins of poultry.

    Cao, Changyu; Zhao, Xia; Fan, Ruifeng; Zhao, Jinxin; Luan, Yilin; Zhang, Ziwei; Xu, Shiwen

    2016-07-01

    Selenium (Se) deficiency is associated with the pathogenesis of vascular diseases. It has been shown that oxidative levels and ATPase activity were involved in Se deficiency diseases in humans and mammals; however, the mechanism by how Se influences the oxidative levels and ATPase activity in the poultry vasculature is unclear. We assessed the effects of dietary Se deficiency on the oxidative stress parameters (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and hydroxyl radical) and ATPase (Na(+)K(+)-ATPase, Ca(++)-ATPase, Mg(++)-ATPase, and Ca(++)Mg(++)-ATPase) activity in broiler poultry. A total of 40 broilers (1-day old) were randomly divided into a Se-deficient group (L group, fed a Se-deficient diet containing 0.08 mg/kg Se) and a control group (C group, fed a diet containing sodium selenite at 0.20 mg/kg Se). Then, arteries and veins were collected following euthanasia when typical symptoms of Se deficiency appeared. Antioxidant indexes and ATPase activity were evaluated using standard assays in arteries and veins. The results indicated that superoxide dismutase activity in the artery according to dietary Se deficiency was significantly lower (p < 0.05) compared with the C group. The catalase activity in the veins and hydroxyl radical inhibition in the arteries and veins by dietary Se deficiency were significantly higher (p < 0.05) compared with the C group. The Se-deficient group showed a significantly lower (p < 0.05) tendency in Na(+)K(+)-ATPase activity, Ca(++)-ATPase activity, and Ca(++)Mg(++)-ATPase activity. There were strong correlations between antioxidant indexes and Ca(++)-ATPase activity. Thus, these results indicate that antioxidant indexes and ATPases may have special roles in broiler artery and vein injuries under Se deficiency. PMID:26637493

  16. Cooking techniques improve the levels of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity in kale and red cabbage.

    Murador, Daniella Carisa; Mercadante, Adriana Zerlotti; de Rosso, Veridiana Vera

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of different home cooking techniques (boiling, steaming, and stir-frying) in kale and red cabbage, on the levels of bioactive compounds (carotenoids, anthocyanins and phenolic compounds) determined by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array and mass spectrometry detectors (HPLC-DAD-MS(n)), and on the antioxidant activity evaluated by ABTS, ORAC and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assays. The steaming technique resulted in a significant increase in phenolic content in kale (86.1%; p<0.001) whereas in red cabbage it was significantly reduced (34.6%; p<0.001). In the kale, steaming resulted in significant increases in antioxidant activity levels in all of the evaluation methods. In the red cabbage, boiling resulted in a significant increase in antioxidant activity using the ABTS assay but resulted in a significant decrease using the ORAC assay. According to the CAA assay, the stir-fried sample displayed the highest levels of antioxidant activity. PMID:26593594

  17. High Levels of Physical Activity in Anorexia Nervosa: A Systematic Review.

    Gümmer, Ricarda; Giel, Katrin Elisabeth; Schag, Kathrin; Resmark, Gaby; Junne, Florian Philipp; Becker, Sandra; Zipfel, Stephan; Teufel, Martin

    2015-09-01

    High level physical activity is a frequent symptom in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN), influencing the development, maintenance, complications, treatment success, relapse rate and severity of the disease. Accelerometry is assumed to be an objective method to assess physical activity (PA) in AN. We aimed to review objectively measured levels of PA in AN and to give an overview for clinical practice and future research. Data were searched in PubMed and PsychINFO until April 2015 following the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses statement. Twenty studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. A notable heterogeneity of measurements, outcomes, participants and settings was found. Overall, HLPA is not adressed enough by current evidence. A common valid terminology of HLPA is not available, and accurate criteria of different levels of PA must be defined to create comparability of future studies. Further objective PA assessments are needed to improve treatment outcome and relapse rate. PMID:26087044

  18. Influence of Different Genotypes on Trypsin Inhibitor Levels and Activity in Soybeans

    Viktor A. Nedovic

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the relationship between the two major trypsin inhibitors (TI in soybean, i.e., the Kunitz (KTI and Bowman-Birk (BBI trypsin inhibitors, as well as between them and the corresponding trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA. Twelve investigated soybean genotypes showed significant differences in TI levels and TIA. A very strong positive correlation was found between the levels of KTI and total BBI (r = 0.94, P < 0.05. No relationship was found between KTI, BBI or total TI and TIA. Based on this data, it appears that the levels of major TI in soybean are related. Understanding the relationship between trypsin inhibitors and their activities could be useful for further improvement of the health impacts of soy proteins.

  19. Investigation of environmental activity levels of bone-coal mining area in five provinces

    During 1991-1993, the activity levels of the bone-coal mines were investigated in Zhejiang, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi and Anhui Province, respectively, where the reserve of bone-coal is about 90% of our country's total reserve. The average of γ radiation dose rate level measured for bone-coal, bone-coal cinder (BCC) and bone-coal cinder brick (BCCB) in these provinces is about 500 nGy/h, 400 nGy/h and 700 nGy/h respectively, while that for fields, roads and houses made of BCCB in corresponding regions of these provinces is about 200 nGy/h, 260 nGy/h and 300 nGy/h respectively. It is shown that the environmental activity level of bone-coal mining area is about 3 times higher than the reference spots. (authors)

  20. Systems Biology Graphical Notation: Activity Flow language Level 1 Version 1.2.

    Mi, Huaiyu; Schreiber, Falk; Moodie, Stuart; Czauderna, Tobias; Demir, Emek; Haw, Robin; Luna, Augustin; Le Novère, Nicolas; Sorokin, Anatoly; Villéger, Alice

    2015-01-01

    The Systems Biological Graphical Notation (SBGN) is an international community effort for standardized graphical representations of biological pathways and networks. The goal of SBGN is to provide unambiguous pathway and network maps for readers with different scientific backgrounds as well as to support efficient and accurate exchange of biological knowledge between different research communities, industry, and other players in systems biology. Three SBGN languages, Process Description (PD), Entity Relationship (ER) and Activity Flow (AF), allow for the representation of different aspects of biological and biochemical systems at different levels of detail. The SBGN Activity Flow language represents the influences of activities among various entities within a network. Unlike SBGN PD and ER that focus on the entities and their relationships with others, SBGN AF puts the emphasis on the functions (or activities) performed by the entities, and their effects to the functions of the same or other entities. The nodes (elements) describe the biological activities of the entities, such as protein kinase activity, binding activity or receptor activity, which can be easily mapped to Gene Ontology molecular function terms. The edges (connections) provide descriptions of relationships (or influences) between the activities, e.g., positive influence and negative influence. Among all three languages of SBGN, AF is the closest to signaling pathways in biological literature and textbooks, but its well-defined semantics offer a superior precision in expressing biological knowledge. PMID:26528563

  1. Influence of anthropogenic activities on microbial and nutrient levels along the Mara River tributaries, Kenya

    Douglas Nyambane Anyona

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: A number of factors have a negative impact on natural surface water resources across the world. Although sources of surface water pollution are numerous, anthropogenic activities have been singled out as among the most important and of great concern. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of anthropogenic activities on nutrients and microbial levels along the Amala and Nyangores tributaries of the Mara River in Kenya. Materials and Methods: Four sampling sites along each tributary were specifically selected from which water samples were collected and analyzed for nutrients by use of spectrophotometric techniques, and coliform bacterial presence by a multiple tube fermentation technique. Results: Higher levels of total phosphorus were recorded along the Nyangores than the Amala tributary (P= 0.02. Significant differences in phosphorus levels were recorded between different sites along the Nyangores tributary (P=<0.001 and also along the Amala tributary (P= 0.0036. However, total nitrogen levels varied only within sites along the Nyangores tributary (P<0.0001 but not along the Amala tributary. Similarly, Escherichia coli and total coliform levels varied significantly within Nyangores tributary sites. Sites with frequent and direct human and livestock contact had higher microbial and nutrient levels, indicative of a localized pollution effect. Conclusion: The findings imply that the health of local communities who depend on this water for domestic use might be compromised. As such, regular monitoring, strict enforcement of environmental protection laws, public education and proper sewage disposal is recommended.

  2. Elevated Platelet Activating Factor Level in Ischemia-Related Arrhythmia and Its Electrophysiological Effect on Myocardium

    TAO Yong Kang; ZHAO Shui Ping; YU Pu Lin; SHI Jing; GU Cheng Dong; SUN Hong Tao; ZHANG Guo Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Objective The mechanism through which platelet activating factor (PAF) induces cardiac electrical activity and arrhythmia is not well understood and previous studies have suggested a potential involvement of ion channels in its action. The present study was aimed to clarify the role of PAF in fatal arrhythmias following acute myocardia infarction (AMI) and the underlying mechanism. Methods (1) Blood PAF levels were measured among 72 AMI patients at the time of diagnosis with AMI and 48 h later, and their electrocardiogram (ECG) was recorded continuously. (2) Ischemia simulation and surface electrocardiogram were conducted in 20 pigs and their PAF levels were measured. (3) PAF perfusion and standard microelectrode recording were performed on guinea pig papillary muscles. Results In both humans and pigs, elevated PAF levels were detected in AMI and simulated ischemia, respectively, and even higher PAF levels were found when fatal arrhythmias occurred. In guinea pig myocardium, PAF induced a shortening of action potential duration at 90% level of repolarization (APD90)under non-ischemic conditions and a more pronounced shortening under early simulated ischemic conditions. Conclusion AMI and ischemia are associated with increased PAF levels in humans and pigs, which are further raised when fatal arrhythmia follows. The effects of PAF on the myocardium may be mediated by multiple ion channels.

  3. Effect of hypoxic cell radiosensitizers on glutathione level and related enzyme activities in isolated rat hepatocytes

    A comparative study of the effect of misonidazole and novel radiosensitizers on glutathione (GSH) levels and related enzyme activities in isolated rat hepatocytes was performed. Incubation of hepatocytes with 5 mM radiosensitizers led to a decrease in the intracellular GSH level. The most pronounced decrease in cellular GSH was evoked by 2,4-dinitromidazole-1-ethanol (DNIE); after incubation for only 15 min, GSH was hardly detected. DNIE-mediated GSH loss was dependent upon its concentration. DNIE reacted with GSH nonenzymatically as well as with diethylmaleate, while misonidazole and 1-methyl-2-methyl-sulfinyl-5-methoxycarbonylimidazole (KIH-3) did not. Addition of partially purified glutathione S-transferase (GST) did not enhance DNIE-mediated GSH loss in a cell-free system. DNIE inhibited glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), GST, and glutathione reductase (GSSG-R) activities in hepatocytes, while misonidazole and KIH-3 did not. GSH-Px activity assayed with H2O2 as substrate was the most inhibited. Inhibition of GSH-Px activity assayed with cumene hydroperoxide as substrate and GST was less than that of GSH-Px assayed with H2O2 as substrate. GSSG-R activity was decreased by DNIE, but not significantly. Incubation of purified GSH-Px with DNIE resulted in a little change in the activity when assayed with H2O2 as substrate. 26 references, 2 figures, 4 tables

  4. Depression and physical activity in a sample of nigerian adolescents: levels, relationships and predictors

    Okafor Nkechi C

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical inactivity is related to many morbidities but the evidence of its link with depression in adolescents needs further investigation in view of the existing conflicting reports. Methods The data for this cross-sectional study were collected from 1,100 Nigerian adolescents aged 12-17 years. Depressive symptomatology and physical activity were assessed using the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI and the Physical Activity Questionnaire-Adolescent version (PAQ-A respectively. Independent t tests, Pearson's Moment Correlation and Multi-level logistic regression analyses for individual and school area influences were carried out on the data at p Results The mean age of the participants was 15.20 ± 1.435 years. The prevalence of mild to moderate depression was 23.8%, definite depression was 5.7% and low physical activity was 53.8%. More severe depressive symptoms were linked with lower levels of physical activity (r = -0.82, p Conclusions A sizable burden of depression and low physical activity existed among the studied adolescents and these were linked to both individual and school factors. Future studies should examine the effects of physical activity among clinical samples of adolescents with depression.

  5. Circulating ADAM17 Level Reflects Disease Activity in Proteinase-3 ANCA-Associated Vasculitis.

    Bertram, Anna; Lovric, Svjetlana; Engel, Alissa; Beese, Michaela; Wyss, Kristin; Hertel, Barbara; Park, Joon-Keun; Becker, Jan U; Kegel, Johanna; Haller, Hermann; Haubitz, Marion; Kirsch, Torsten

    2015-11-01

    ANCA-associated vasculitides are characterized by inflammatory destruction of small vessels accompanied by enhanced cleavage of membrane-bound proteins. One of the main proteases responsible for ectodomain shedding is disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 17 (ADAM17). Given its potential role in aggravating vascular dysfunction, we examined the role of ADAM17 in active proteinase-3 (PR3)-positive ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV). ADAM17 concentration was significantly increased in plasma samples from patients with active PR3-AAV compared with samples from patients in remission or from other controls with renal nonvascular diseases. Comparably, plasma levels of the ADAM17 substrate syndecan-1 were significantly enhanced in active AAV. We also observed that plasma-derived ADAM17 retained its specific proteolytic activity and was partly located on extracellular microparticles. Transcript levels of ADAM17 were increased in blood samples of patients with active AAV, but those of ADAM10 or tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 3, which inhibits ADAMs, were not. We also performed a microRNA (miR) screen and identified miR-634 as significantly upregulated in blood samples from patients with active AAV. In vitro, miR-634 mimics induced a proinflammatory phenotype in monocyte-derived macrophages, with enhanced expression and release of ADAM17 and IL-6. These data suggest that ADAM17 has a prominent role in AAV and might account for the vascular complications associated with this disease. PMID:25788529

  6. COMPARISON OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY LEVEL AMONG ADOLESCENTS OF ISFAHAN IN 1994 AND 2001

    R KELISHADI

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. It has been shown that regular physical activity (at least three days per week and at least 20 minutes per session has many benefits especially on morphologic and hemodynamic changes of cardiovascular system and on lipid profile. Regarding the increasing trend of atherosclerosis risk factors especially hyperlipidemia and obesity (both modifiable by physical activity among the children and adolescents of our society, their physical activity was evaluated in this study. Methods. This cross-sectional study has been performed in 1994 and 2001 on 2000 adolescent (1000 each year arid their parents. Students and their parents were invited to complete their special questionnaire. Data have been collected and analyzed with SPSS 10 using chi-square and t-test. Results. The physical activity level showed no significant improvement during the last 7 years. The rate of regular morning exercise was declining in high schools (4.2% vs. 1.5%, P < 0.05. During these years, some of parents agreed with participation of their children in sport activities out of school hours but their disagreement had significantly increased (4.8% vs. 13.7%, P < 0.05. About 60 percent of students watched television more than 4 hours per day and only 10 percent of parents disagreed about this matter. In general the physical activity of girls was significantly lower than boys (P < 0.05 and regular physical activity in high school students was lower than guidance school students. Discussion. Regarding the physical activity level of adolescents did not show significant improvement in recent years, interventional programs should be performed in schools and in population in order to supply adolescents with facilities for physical activity and to increase the knowledge of adolescents and their families.

  7. The Devon Active Villages Evaluation (DAVE) trial of a community-level physical activity intervention in rural south-west England: a stepped wedge cluster randomised controlled trial

    Solomon, Emma; Rees, Tim; Obioha C. Ukoumunne; Metcalf, Brad; Hillsdon, Melvyn

    2014-01-01

    Background The majority of adults are not meeting the guidelines for physical activity despite activity being linked with numerous improvements to long-term health. In light of this, researchers have called for more community-level interventions. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate whether a community-level physical activity intervention increased the activity levels of rural communities. Methods 128 rural villages (clusters) were randomised to receive the intervention in ...

  8. Neutron activation analysis of neonate and maternal hair sampled in areas with different levels of pollution

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis was performed on human head hair of newborns and mothers sampled in two areas with different levels of environmental exposure. The group of neonates from the exposed area (polluted by thermal power plants burning brown coal and by chemical industry) exhibited higher levels of several trace elements in hair, e.g. Se, Zn, Hg and Sb in comparison with the control group. Moreover, the mean concentrations of Se, Hg, Zn and Br in neonate hair were found to be higher than in mothers' hair. Although the study revealed statistically significant differences in the composition of neonate hair samples in areas with different levels of environmental exposure, the differences are relatively small. Only a thorough long-term study both with environmental and medical observations can prove a direct connection of the elevated levels of some trace elements in neonate hair with the higher incidence of mental diseaes of children living in the exposed area. (author)

  9. Environmental variation of arsenic levels in human blood determined by neutron activation analysis

    Heydorn, Kaj

    1970-01-01

    Arsenic levels in blood plasma and red cells from patients with Blackfoot disease, a peripheral arteriosclerosis endemic to a small area in Taiwan, were studied in relation to healthy individuals from the same and other parts of Taiwan and compared with arsenic levels in a control group from Denm...... in Denmark, which geochemically belongs to a soil zone with less arsenic than Taiwan.......Arsenic levels in blood plasma and red cells from patients with Blackfoot disease, a peripheral arteriosclerosis endemic to a small area in Taiwan, were studied in relation to healthy individuals from the same and other parts of Taiwan and compared with arsenic levels in a control group from...... Denmark. Arsenic was determined by neutron activation analysis with radiochemical separation and re-irradiation yield determination. The precision and accuracy of the results have been carefully evaluated in order to permit quantitative tests for the significance of the observed differences. The results...

  10. Activation of glucocorticoid receptors increases 5-HT2A receptor levels

    Trajkovska, Viktorija; Kirkegaard, Lisbeth; Krey, Gesa; Marcussen, Anders Bue; Thomsen, Morten Skøtt; Chourbaji, Sabine; Brandwein, Christiane; Ridder, Stephanie; Halldin, Christer; Gass, Peter; Knudsen, Gitte M; Aznar, Susana

    2009-01-01

    Major depression is associated with both dysregulation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis and serotonergic deficiency, not the least of the 5-HT2A receptor. However, how these phenomena are linked to each other, and whether a low 5-HT2A receptor level is a state or a trait marker of...... depression is unknown. In mice with altered glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression we investigated 5-HT2A receptor levels by Western blot and 3H-MDL100907 receptor binding. Serotonin fibre density was analyzed by stereological quantification of serotonin transporter immunopositive fibers. To establish an...... effect of GR activation on 5-HT2A levels, mature organotypic hippocampal cultures were exposed to corticosterone with or without GR antagonist mifepristone and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonist spironolactone. In GR under-expressing mice, hippocampal 5-HT2A receptor protein levels were decreased...

  11. Beta-Carotene, Vitamin E, MDA, Glutathione Reductase and Arylesterase Activity Levels in Patients with Active Rheumatoid Arthritis

    N Aryaeian

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Many studies have investigated the possible role of reactive oxygen species in the etiology and patho­gene­sis of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA. The aim of this study was to investigate the activities of some antioxidants in RA patients."nMethods: In this case-control study, 59 RA patients and 60 healthy sex and age-matched controls were selected. Vitamin E and Beta-carotene were determined using HPLC. Erythrocytes glutathione reductase (GR activity was meas­ured spec­trophotometrically, and malondialdehyde (MDA was determined by colorimetric method. Aryles­terase activity (AEA was measured by Phenylacetate. The clinical data were determined by a rheumatologist, medical history and filling the questionnaire by interview. Statistical analyses were carried out using the SPSS software."nResults: In patients with RA, serum MDA level was significantly higher and plasma concentration of vitamin E, Beta-carotene and GR activity, were significantly lower than healthy control (P<0.001. AEA activity differences between two groups were non-significant."nConclusions: Oxidative stress may play an important role in the inflammation and pathogenesis of RA.  

  12. Temporal aspects of increases in eye-neck activation levels during visually deficient near work.

    Richter, Hans O; Camilla, Lodin; Forsman, Mikael

    2012-01-01

    In an experimental study two levels of oculomotor load were induced via optical trial lenses. Trapezius muscle activity was measured with bipolar surface electromyography and normalized to a submaximal contraction. Sixty-six subjects with a median age of 36 (range 19-47, std 8) viewed a black and white Gabor grating (5 c/deg) for two 7-min periods monocularly through a 0 D lens or binocularly through -3.5 D lenses. The effect of time was separately regressed to EMG in two different subgroups of responders: a High-Oculomotor-Load (HOL) and a Low-Oculomotor-Load (LOL) group. A linear regression model was fitted on group level with exposure time on the x-axis and normalized trapezius muscle EMG (%RVE) on the y-axis. The slope coefficient was significantly positive in the -D blur condition for only the HOL subgroup of responders: 0.926 + Time(min 1-7) × 0.088 (p = 0.002, r(2)=0.865). There was no obvious sign of this activity to level off or to stabilize. These results suggest that professional information technology users that are exposed to a high level of oculomotor load, during extended times, are at an increased risk of exhibiting an increased trap.m. activity. PMID:22317234

  13. Some problems on measurements of low level activity close to clearance level in metal waste and the solutions

    Hattori, T

    2002-01-01

    On March 1999, Nuclear Safety Commission reported clearance levels, which can classify solid wastes in decommissioning and operation as a non-radioactive material and also represented a basic concept on confirmation of the clearance level on July 2001. In this paper, some problem to confirm the radioactivity level of metal wastes are arranged and a solution is described. (author)

  14. A survey of 90Sr and 137Cs activity levels of retail foods in Japan

    A comprehensive survey was conducted on 90Sr and 137Cs activity levels in retail foods purchased from retail markets all over Japan during the period 1989-1994, and the annual effective dose equivalent due to dietary ingestion was estimated. The concentrations of 90Sr and 137Cs in the food samples were determined using γ-ray spectrometry and the radiochemical method. The following were clarified by this study: (1) The 90Sr and 137Cs activity concentration levels were below 1 Bq kg-1 for almost all food samples except for the dried foods. (2) The activity concentration levels of 90Sr and 137Cs in foods of animal origin were different from those of plant origin. Generally, the former had higher 137Cs and lower 90Sr activity concentrations than the latter. (3) The mean and maximum values of the annual effective dose equivalent from a dietary intake of 90Sr and 137Cs by the consumption of retail foods were estimated to be as low as 1·3 and 4·1 μSv, respectively. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  15. Determination of plasma heparin level improves identification of systemic mast cell activation disease.

    Milda Vysniauskaite

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of mast cell activation disease (MCAD, i.e. systemic mastocytosis (SM and idiopathic systemic mast cell activation syndrome (MCAS, usually requires demonstration of increased mast cell (MC mediator release. Since only a few MC mediators are currently established as biomarkers of MCAD, the sensitivity of plasma heparin level (pHL as an indicator of increased MC activation was compared with that of serum tryptase, chromogranin A and urinary N-methylhistamine levels in 257 MCAD patients. Basal pHL had a sensitivity of 41% in MCAS patients and 27% in SM patients. Non-pharmacologic stimulation of MC degranulation by obstruction of venous flow for 10 minutes increased the sensitivity of pHL in MCAS patients to 59% and in SM patients to 47%. In MCAS patients tryptase, chromogranin A, and N-methylhistamine levels exhibited low sensitivities (10%, 12%, and 22%, respectively, whereas sensitivities for SM were higher (73%, 63%, and 43%, respectively. Taken together, these data suggest pHL appears more sensitive than the other mediators for detecting systemic MC activity in patients with MCAS. The simple, brief venous occlusion test appears to be a useful indicator of the presence of pathologically irritable MCs, at least in the obstructed compartment of the body.

  16. Density-matrix renormalization group algorithm with multi-level active space

    Ma, Yingjin; Wen, Jing; Ma, Haibo

    2015-07-01

    The density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG) method, which can deal with a large active space composed of tens of orbitals, is nowadays widely used as an efficient addition to traditional complete active space (CAS)-based approaches. In this paper, we present the DMRG algorithm with a multi-level (ML) control of the active space based on chemical intuition-based hierarchical orbital ordering, which is called as ML-DMRG with its self-consistent field (SCF) variant ML-DMRG-SCF. Ground and excited state calculations of H2O, N2, indole, and Cr2 with comparisons to DMRG references using fixed number of kept states (M) illustrate that ML-type DMRG calculations can obtain noticeable efficiency gains. It is also shown that the orbital re-ordering based on hierarchical multiple active subspaces may be beneficial for reducing computational time for not only ML-DMRG calculations but also DMRG ones with fixed M values.

  17. A low-level activation technique for monitoring thermonuclear fusion plasma conditions.

    Gasparro, Joël; Hult, Mikael; Bonheure, Georges; Johnston, Peter N

    2006-01-01

    Optimisation of the confinement and sustainability of a thermonuclear plasma requires methods to monitor processes in the plasma. In this work three materials were used as activation targets (Ti, MgF2 and a TiVAl compound). They were placed inside the joint European Torus (JET) vacuum chamber. Certain gamma-ray emitting radionuclides (7Be, 54Mn, 56Co, 57Co, 58Co and 46Sc) were measured using ultra low-level gamma-ray spectrometry in an underground laboratory 1-2 months after activation. They were found to arise from neutron activation of bulk sample material and surface contaminants sputtered from other Tokamak parts. Decision thresholds for some activation products were determined in order to aid in giving upper bounds for the flux of charged particles. PMID:16580838

  18. Computerised monitor for estimation of Pico-Curie level of activity in effluent

    Estimation of pico-curie levels of activity of 99Mo and 131I in effluents could be made using gamma ray spectrometric method. A special container was designed which can have large volume of liquid 500 to 1000 ml and also expose the sample to the entire available area of NaI crystal used. A 5 inches x 3 inches NaI (TI) detector and three single channel analysers were used to get the peak counts of the activities. Suitable calibration and striping constants are computed and are fed to the portable microprocessor which print out the estimated activities in the sample in μCi/ml. This set up which is being used by RHC Unit, Vashi Complex to monitor the effluent released from Radio-Pharmaceutical Operations can measure the activities as low as 10-7 μCi/ml. (author). 2 figs., 1 tab

  19. Effect ofwater level lfuctuations ontemporal-spatial patterns offoraging activities bythe wintering Hooded Crane (Grus monacha)

    Dongmei Zhang; Lizhi Zhou; Yunwei Song

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Yangtze River lfoodplain provides important wintering habitats for Hooded Cranes (Grus monacha) in China. Fluctuations in the water level change foraging habitat and food availability, affecting their temporal-spatial patterns of foraging activities. It is of considerable importance to investigate the effect of these lfuctuations on food availability for wintering Hooded Cranes and their foraging response to these changes. Understanding their behavior patterns is beneifcial in protecting the wintering crane population and restoring their wintering habitats. Methods: A ifeld survey of the winter behavior of cranes was carried out at Shengjin Lake from November in 2013 to April in 2014. Habitat variables, as well as the spatial distribution and behavior patterns of wintering cranes at their foraging sites during ifve stages of water level lfuctuation were collected. Based on this data we analyzed the relation-ship of foraging behavior relative to water level lfuctuations and habitat types. Results: The foraging habitats used by Hooded Cranes varied at the different water level stages. As the water level decreased, the use of meadows and mudlfats increased. When the water dropped to its lowest level, the use by the Hooded Crane in the mudlfats reached a peak. There were statistically signiifcant differences in time budget in the three types of habitats over the ifve stages of the water level. In the mudlfats, the foraging behavior and maintenance behavior varied signiifcantly with the water level, while the alert behavior showed little variation. Analysis of a general-ized linear model showed that the ifve water level stages and three habitat types had a signiifcant effect on forag-ing behavior, while the combined effect of these two variables was signiifcant on the foraging time budget and the length of foraging activity of the Hooded Crane. Conclusions: With the decrease in the water level, the use of mudlfats by Hooded Cranes increased

  20. Levels of active tyrosine kinase receptor determine the tumor response to Zalypsis

    Zalypsis® is a marine compound in phase II clinical trials for multiple myeloma, cervical and endometrial cancer, and Ewing’s sarcoma. However, the determinants of the response to Zalypsis are not well known. The identification of biomarkers for Zalypsis activity would also contribute to broaden the spectrum of tumors by selecting those patients more likely to respond to this therapy. Using in vitro drug sensitivity data coupled with a set of molecular data from a panel of sarcoma cell lines, we developed molecular signatures that predict sensitivity to Zalypsis. We verified these results in culture and in vivo xenograft studies. Zalypsis resistance was dependent on the expression levels of PDGFRα or constitutive phosphorylation of c-Kit, indicating that the activation of tyrosine kinase receptors (TKRs) may determine resistance to Zalypsis. To validate our observation, we measured the levels of total and active (phosphorylated) forms of the RTKs PDGFRα/β, c-Kit, and EGFR in a new panel of diverse solid tumor cell lines and found that the IC50 to the drug correlated with RTK activation in this new panel. We further tested our predictions about Zalypsis determinants for response in vivo in xenograft models. All cells lines expressing low levels of RTK signaling were sensitive to Zalypsis in vivo, whereas all cell lines except two with high levels of RTK signaling were resistant to the drug. RTK activation might provide important signals to overcome the cytotoxicity of Zalypsis and should be taken into consideration in current and future clinical trials

  1. Matrix Metalloproteinase Activities And Some Hormones Levels During Gestation Period In Cows

    Many factors including proteases, growth factors and hormones play important role in implantation and tissue remodelling of endometrium during different stages of gestation.Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) such as gelatinases mainly MMP-2 and MMP-9 are implicated in the degradation of extracellular matrix for tissue remodelling.The aim of the present study is to evaluate the role of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) and hormones including progesterone (P4) and estradiol (E2) in the gestation process. The enzyme activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in serum collected from 8 Brown Swiss cows during different periods of gestation using zymography technique were examined. Hormonal levels for both P4 and E2 were determined using radioimmunoassay and also total proteins were estimated. A significant increase in MMP-2 activity by about 98%, 115% and 110% in the 1st , 2nd and 3rd trimester of gestation were recorded, respectively, whereas it increased to be 185% in the pre-partum period as compared to non-pregnant cows (Pnd trimester was recorded where the activity elevated by about 85% of non-pregnant controls (Pst and 3rd trimesters, the enzyme activity was not detectable. P4 level was increased gradually until its maximum at the 2nd trimester then decreased until pre-partum.E2 level recorded too little increase at the beginning of the 1st and 2nd trimesters then sharply increased at the 3rd one reached its maximum at pre-partum. There were significant decreases in total protein concentrations in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters then reached the lowest level before parturition .It could be concluded that the high activity of MMP-2 but not MMP-9 enzyme has important role throughout the gestation period in cows and P4 has important role in the fetal growth and E2 in the placental loss.

  2. Impact of physical activity levels and diet on central obesity among civil servants in Tamale metropolis

    Amalba, A.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to assess the prevalence of central obesity using Waist to Hip ratio as well as establishing the relationship between physical activity, diet and central obesity among civil serv-ants in the Tamale metropolis. This cross-sectional study was conducted between January and Ju-ly, 2011. One hundred and eighty six (186 subjects were involved with 121 being males and 65 be-ing females. The study participants were recruited from an adult population between the ages of 20-59 years. Dietary pattern was assessed using food frequency questionnaires whilst physical activity was determined using the WHO Global physical activity levels questionnaire. The prevalence of central obesity was found to be 31.2%. The prevalence of central obesity was significantly higher (p=0.031 among females (41.5% compared to men (25.6% and also increased with age (p<0.0001. The prevalence of obesity significantly decreased (p = 0.018 from 70.7% via 25.6% to 3.4% as the level of physical activity increased from low through moderate to high. There were no significant associations between dietary pattern and central obesity from this study. Central obesity from this study is high and more common in females. The level of physical activity appears to be a key determinant of the prevalence of central obesity in this study. Preventive actions such as exer-cise and active lifestyles have to be implemented to reduce the tendency for central obesity in this population in particular and the general Ghanaian populace at large.

  3. Diet composition and activity level of at risk and metabolically healthy obese American adults

    Hankinson, Arlene L.; Daviglus, Martha L; Van Horn, Linda; Chan, Queenie; Brown, Ian; Holmes, Elaine; Elliott, Paul; Stamler, Jeremiah

    2013-01-01

    Obesity often clusters with other major cardiovascular disease risk factors, yet a subset of the obese appears to be protected from these risks. Two obesity phenotypes are described, 1) “metabolically healthy” obese, broadly defined as body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m2 and favorable levels of blood pressure, lipids, and glucose; and 2) “at risk” obese, BMI ≥ 30 with unfavorable levels of these risk factors. More than 30% of obese American adults are metabolically healthy. Diet and activity det...

  4. Influence of Different Genotypes on Trypsin Inhibitor Levels and Activity in Soybeans

    Nedovic, Viktor A.; Stanojevic, Sladjana P.; Barac, Miroljub B.; Vucelic-Radovic, Biljana V.; Pesic, Mirjana B.

    2007-01-01

    This study describes the relationship between the two major trypsin inhibitors (TI) in soybean, i.e., the Kunitz (KTI) and Bowman-Birk (BBI) trypsin inhibitors, as well as between them and the corresponding trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA). Twelve investigated soybean genotypes showed significant differences in TI levels and TIA. A very strong positive correlation was found between the levels of KTI and total BBI (r = 0.94, P < 0.05). No relationship was found between KTI, BBI or total TI and...

  5. Physical activity levels and cognition in women with type 2 diabetes.

    Devore, Elizabeth E; Kang, Jae Hee; Okereke, Olivia; Grodstein, Francine

    2009-10-15

    Persons with type 2 diabetes have a high risk of late-life cognitive impairment, and physical activity might be a potential target for modifying this risk. Therefore, the authors evaluated the association between physical activity level and cognition in women with type 2 diabetes. Beginning in 1995-2000, cognitive function was assessed in 1,550 Nurses' Health Study participants aged > or =70 years with type 2 diabetes. Follow-up assessments were completed twice thereafter, at 2-year intervals. Multivariate-adjusted linear regression models were used to obtain mean differences in baseline cognitive scores and cognitive decline across tertiles of long-term physical activity. Initial results from age- and education-adjusted models indicated that greater physical activity levels were associated with better baseline cognition (for a global score averaging scores from 6 cognitive tests, P-trend = 0.02). However, results were substantially attenuated after adjustment for multiple potential confounders, largely because of physical disability indicators (global score: P-trend = 0.06); for example, the mean difference for the global score was 0.07 standard units (95% confidence interval: -0.01, 0.15) when comparing extreme tertiles. Results were similar for cognitive decline. These findings indicate little overall association between physical activity and cognition after adjustment for disability factors in older women with type 2 diabetes. PMID:19729385

  6. Overestimation of physical activity level is associated with lower BMI: a cross-sectional analysis

    Corder Kirsten

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor recognition of physical inactivity may be an important barrier to healthy behaviour change, but little is known about this phenomenon. We aimed to characterize a high-risk population according to the discrepancies between objective and self-rated physical activity (PA, defined as awareness. Methods An exploratory cross-sectional analysis of PA awareness using baseline data collected from 365 ProActive participants between 2001 and 2003 in East Anglia, England. Self-rated PA was defined as 'active' or 'inactive' (assessed via questionnaire. Objective PA was defined according to achievement of guideline activity levels (≥30 minutes or Results 63.3% of participants (N = 231 were inactive according to objective measurement. Of these, 45.9% rated themselves as active ('Overestimators'. In a multiple logistic regression model adjusted for age and smoking, males (OR = 2.11, 95% CI = 1.12, 3.98, those with lower BMI (OR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.84, 0.95, younger age at completion of full-time education (OR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.74, 0.93 and higher general health perception (OR = 1.02 CI = 1.00, 1.04 were more likely to overestimate their PA. Conclusions Overestimation of PA is associated with favourable indicators of relative slimness and general health. Feedback about PA levels could help reverse misperceptions.

  7. Negative relationships between erythrocyte Ca-pump activity and lead levels in mothers and newborns.

    Campagna, D; Huel, G; Hellier, G; Girard, F; Sahuquillo, J; Fagot-Campagna, A; Godin, J; Blot, P

    2000-12-01

    Lead poisoning induces hematological, gastrointestinal and neurological dysfunctions. One of the potential mechanisms is the inhibition of calcium-pump (Ca-pump), a transport protein. We investigated the effects of an environmental low lead exposure on Ca-pump activity in 247 mothers and their newborns. Maternal and cord blood, and newborn and mother hair, were sampled at delivery. Geometric means for mother and cord blood lead (Pb-B), and for mother and newborn hair lead (Pb-H), were 6.3 and 4.8 microg/dl, and 1.7 and 1.1 microg/g. Means for mother and cord basal Ca-pump activities were 2,442 and 2,675 nM/mg/hr. Mother enzymatic activity was negatively related to her Pb-B and Pb-H and to the cord Pb-B and newborn Pb-H levels. Newborn enzymatic activity was negatively related to his Pb-H level only. Adjustment for gestational age, child's sex, mother's age at delivery, alcohol, coffee and tea consumption, and smoking habits during pregnancy did not modify these relationships. Our findings support the hypothesis that lead toxicity could be in part mediated by a reduction of Ca-pump activity. This effect could be observed at low environmental exposure, in mothers and newborns. PMID:11191638

  8. Determination of the activation level in the decommissioning inventory of the NPP Krsko

    In support of a plant specific preliminary decommissioning plan the MCNP 5 code system /1/ was used to model the Krsko-reactor core and its external components relevant for activation analysis and decommissioning in 3D-geometry. By MCNP neutron transport calculations transfer functions for the space-dependent total neutron flux and the space-dependent rates (1-group cross sections) of the most relevant nuclear reactions were generated. These transfer functions were combined with the reactor operational data, and ORIGEN-2.1 /2/ irradiation calculations were performed to provide the activation levels of the individual reactor components. The results are presented and the uncertainties are discussed. (orig.)

  9. Body dimensions, exercise capacity and physical activity level of adolescent Nandi boys in western Kenya

    Larsen, Henrik Bøgh; Christensen, Dirk Lund; Nolan, T;

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize untrained Nandi boys (mean age 16.6 years) from a town (n = 11) and from a rural area (n = 19) in western Kenya (altitude approximately 2000 m.a.s.l.) in regard to their body dimensions, oxygen uptake and physical activity level. The town boys had a mean...... body dimensions of adolescent Nandi town and village boys corresponds well with findings in Kenyan elite runners. They are very slender with relatively long legs. In addition, the VO(2 max) of the village boys was higher than that of the town boys, which is probably due to a higher physical activity...

  10. INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECT OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORTS ACTIVITIES ON PSYCHOLOGICAL ADAPTATION LEVELS OF CHILDREN

    Erkan; Eylem; Ekrem Levent

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine whether regular application of physical education and sports activities was effective on psychological adaptation levels of children or not. The research group was constituted of 80 students in the range of 10-11 years old who take education in Ankara Keçioren Hacı Sabancı Secondary School. The research was designed as a test-module with pretest-posttest control group. Physical education and sports activities were performed with application group as 2...