WorldWideScience

Sample records for activity levels observed

  1. Activity in superior parietal cortex during training by observation predicts asymmetric learning levels across hands.

    Ossmy, Ori; Mukamel, Roy

    2016-01-01

    A dominant concept in motor cognition associates action observation with motor control. Previous studies have shown that passive action observation can result in significant performance gains in humans. Nevertheless, it is unclear whether the neural mechanism subserving such learning codes abstract aspects of the action (e.g. goal) or low level aspects such as effector identity. Eighteen healthy subjects learned to perform sequences of finger movements by passively observing right or left hand performing the same sequences in egocentric view. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging we show that during passive observation, activity in the superior parietal lobule (SPL) contralateral to the identity of the observed hand (right\\left), predicts subsequent performance gains in individual subjects. Behaviorally, left hand observation resulted in positively correlated performance gains of the two hands. Conversely right hand observation yielded negative correlation - individuals with high performance gains in one hand exhibited low gains in the other. Such behavioral asymmetry is reflected by activity in contralateral SPL during short-term training in the absence of overt physical practice and demonstrates the role of observed hand identity in learning. These results shed new light on the coding level in SPL and have implications for optimizing motor skill learning. PMID:27535179

  2. Ionospheric trough observation probability dependence on the season, local time, longitude and magnetic activity level

    Probability of different ionospheric trough observation for Kosmos satellite data (about 3000 circuits) is analysed. Trough appearance probability variations with the season, longitude, local time and magnetic activity are discriminated and investigated. It is shown that trough production probability depends on the magnetic activity and background ionization. The last is determined by illumination variations and neutral wind

  3. Features and amenities of school playgrounds: A direct observation study of utilization and physical activity levels outside of school time

    Swayampakala Kamala; Maslow Andréa L; Colabianchi Natalie

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background A significant amount of research has examined whether park or playground availability is associated with physical activity. However, little research has examined whether specific features or amenities of parks or playgrounds, such as the number of unique types of playground equipment or the safety of the equipment is associated with utilization of the facility or physical activity levels while at the facility. There are no studies that use direct observation and a detailed...

  4. Direct observation of children’s preferences and activity levels during interactive and on-line electronic games

    McKenzie, TL; Sit, CHP; Lam, JWK

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Interactive electronic games have recently been popularized and are believed to help promote children's physical activity (PA). The purpose of the study was to examine preferences and PA levels during interactive and online electronic games among overweight and nonoverweight boys and girls. METHODS: Using a modification of the SOFIT, we systematically observed 70 Hong Kong Chinese children (35 boys, 35 girls; 50 nonoverweight, 20 overweight), age 9 to 12 years, during 2 60-minute ...

  5. Features and amenities of school playgrounds: A direct observation study of utilization and physical activity levels outside of school time

    Swayampakala Kamala

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A significant amount of research has examined whether park or playground availability is associated with physical activity. However, little research has examined whether specific features or amenities of parks or playgrounds, such as the number of unique types of playground equipment or the safety of the equipment is associated with utilization of the facility or physical activity levels while at the facility. There are no studies that use direct observation and a detailed park assessment to examine these associations. Methods Twenty urban schoolyards in the Midwest, ten of which were renovated, were included in this study. Using a detailed environmental assessment tool (i.e., Environmental Assessment of Public Recreation Spaces, information on a variety of playground attributes was collected. Using direct observation (i.e., System for Observing Play and Leisure Activity in Youth, the number of adults, girls and boys attending each schoolyard and their physical activity levels were recorded. Each schoolyard was observed ten times for 90 minutes each time outside of school hours. Clustered multivariable negative binomial regressions and linear regressions were completed to examine the association between playground attributes and utilization of the schoolyard and the proportion active on the playground, respectively. Effect modification by renovation status was also examined. Results At renovated schoolyards, the total number of play features was significantly associated with greater utilization in adults and girls; overall cleanliness was significantly associated with less utilization in girls and boys; and coverage/shade for resting features was significantly associated with greater utilization in adults and boys. At unrenovated schoolyards, overall safety was significantly associated with greater utilization in boys. No playground attribute was associated with the proportion active on the playground after adjusting for all

  6. Observation of Children's Physical Activity Levels in Primary School: Is the School an Ideal Setting for Meeting Government Activity Targets?

    Waring, Michael; Warburton, Peter; Coy, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Given the commitment (and funding) by the British government to promote physical activity among all ages, and despite the inevitable political manipulation of physical education (PE) and school sport, there is now an ideal opportunity to focus on primary schools as a key target group for the future. This study determined the physical activity…

  7. Dependence of the Sunspot-group Size on the Level of Solar Activity and its Influence on the Calibration of Solar Observers

    Usoskin, I G; Chatzistergos, T

    2016-01-01

    The distribution of the sunspot group size (area) and its dependence on the level of solar activity is studied. It is shown that the fraction of small groups is not constant but decreases with the level of solar activity so that high solar activity is largely defined by big groups. We study the possible influence of solar activity on the ability of a realistic observer to see and report the daily number of sunspot groups. It is shown that the relation between the number of sunspot groups as seen by different observers with different observational acuity thresholds is strongly non-linear and cannot be approximated by the traditionally used linear scaling ($k-$factors). The observational acuity threshold [$A_{\\rm th}$] is considered to quantify the quality of each observer, instead of the traditional relative $k-$factor. A nonlinear $c-$factor based on $A_{\\rm th}$ is proposed, which can be used to correct each observer to the reference conditions. The method is tested on a pair of principal solar observers, Wo...

  8. Activity-Level Externalities

    enrico, baffi

    2012-01-01

    In the literature we find unanimous consensus on the analysis of bilateral accident models. In bilateral accident models, indeed, it is usually held that both with the negligence rule and with strict liability with contributory negligence, the residual bearer adopts an efficient level of precaution and efficient activity levels; the party that is not the residual bearer, on the other hand, chooses an excessive activity level since once the due precautions have been taken, they do not answe...

  9. Dopamine D1 receptor activity is involved in the increased anxiety levels observed in STZ-induced diabetes in rats.

    Rebolledo-Solleiro, Daniela; Araiza, Luis Fernando Ontiveros; Broccoli, Laura; Hansson, Anita C; Rocha-Arrieta, Luisa Lilia; Aguilar-Roblero, Raúl; Crespo-Ramírez, Minerva; Fuxe, Kjell; Pérez de la Mora, Miguel

    2016-10-15

    Epidemiological surveys have indicated that anxiety disorders are more frequent in diabetic patients than in the general population. Similar results have been shown in animal studies using the streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes model. The mechanisms underlying this relationship are not clearly understood, but it has been suggested that alterations in the dopaminergic neurotransmission, which plays an important role in the amygdaloid modulation of fear and anxiety, may be involved. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether or not the amygdaloid DA D1 receptors are involved in the increase of anxiety-like behavior observed in "diabetic" animals. Adult Wistar male rats were injected with STZ (50mg/kg, i.p.) in two consecutive days and subjected to the Shock-Probe Burying Test 10days after the beginning of treatment. STZ-treated rats showed a significant increase in immobility/freezing behavior whereas no effects were elicited in latency to bury, burying behavior itself and the number of shocks received during testing as compared with non-diabetic controls. These results suggest the triggering of a passive coping response in the STZ-treated rats. Interestingly, immobility/freezing behavior was reversed following the intra-amygdaloid dopamine D1 receptor blockade by the local microinfusion of SCH23390 (100ng/side). Autoradiographic experiments showed a selective increase of [(3)H]-SCH23390 binding in the ventral intercalated paracapsular islands of STZ-treated rats when compared to the non-treated control group. Our results suggest that a hyperdopaminergic state involving DA D1 receptors within the amygdala may have a role in the increase of anxiety observed in diabetic rats. PMID:27374159

  10. Global physical activity levels

    Hallal, Pedro C; Andersen, Lars Bo; Bull, Fiona C;

    2012-01-01

    To implement effective non-communicable disease prevention programmes, policy makers need data for physical activity levels and trends. In this report, we describe physical activity levels worldwide with data for adults (15 years or older) from 122 countries and for adolescents (13-15-years......-old) from 105 countries. Worldwide, 31·1% (95% CI 30·9-31·2) of adults are physically inactive, with proportions ranging from 17·0% (16·8-17·2) in southeast Asia to about 43% in the Americas and the eastern Mediterranean. Inactivity rises with age, is higher in women than in men, and is increased in high......-income countries. The proportion of 13-15-year-olds doing fewer than 60 min of physical activity of moderate to vigorous intensity per day is 80·3% (80·1-80·5); boys are more active than are girls. Continued improvement in monitoring of physical activity would help to guide development of policies and programmes...

  11. Observed confidence levels theory and application

    Polansky, Alan M

    2007-01-01

    Illustrating a simple, novel method for solving an array of statistical problems, Observed Confidence Levels: Theory and Application describes the basic development of observed confidence levels, a methodology that can be applied to a variety of common multiple testing problems in statistical inference. It focuses on the modern nonparametric framework of bootstrap-based estimates, allowing for substantial theoretical development and for relatively simple solutions to numerous interesting problems. After an introduction, the book develops the theory and application of observed confidence levels for general scalar parameters, vector parameters, and linear models. It then examines nonparametric problems often associated with smoothing methods, including nonparametric density estimation and regression. The author also describes applications in generalized linear models, classical nonparametric statistics, multivariate analysis, and survival analysis as well as compares the method of observed confidence levels to...

  12. Laboratory observation of quantum control level sets

    In controlled quantum dynamics, a level set is defined as the collection of control fields that produce a specific value for a particular observable. This paper explores the relationship between individual solutions to a control problem, and presents the first experimentally observed quantum control level sets, which are found to be continuous submanifolds. Level sets are observed for two photon transitions where the control is the spectral phase function, which is expressed as a fourth-order polynomial. For the systems studied here, the level sets are shown to be closed surfaces in the spectral phase control space. A perturbation analysis provides insight into the observed topology of the level set, which is shown to be preserved by the low-order polynomial phase representation. Each of the multiple control fields forming a level set preserves the observable value by its own distinct manipulation of constructive and destructive quantum interferences. Thus, the richness of quantum control fields meeting a particular observable value is accompanied by an equally diverse family of control mechanisms

  13. Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor levels in patients with burn injuries and inhalation trauma requiring mechanical ventilation: an observational cohort study

    Backes, Yara; van der Sluijs, Koenraad F; Tuip de Boer, Anita M; Hofstra, Jorrit Jan; Vlaar, Alexander PJ; Determann, Rogier M; Knape, Paul; David P Mackie; Schultz, Marcus J.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) has been proposed as a biologic marker of fibrinolysis and inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic and prognostic value of systemic and pulmonary levels of suPAR in burn patients with inhalation trauma who need mechanical ventilation. Methods suPAR was measured in plasma and nondirected lung-lavage fluid of mechanically ventilated burn patients with inhalation trauma. The samples were obta...

  14. [Observation of autoionization levels in uranium I].

    Jin, C; Wang, X

    1999-02-01

    A number of Rydberg and autoionization levels of U I have been studied using three-step resonant ionization methods with three pulsed tunable dye lasers. Energy levels of uranium atom have been measured, which were located in the 49898-50880 cm(-1) energy interval. PMID:15818900

  15. Wii mote as hydrological sensor: observation of water level fluctuations

    Luxemburg, W.; Hut, R.; Weijs, S.; Hegnauer, M.

    2009-12-01

    The input device of the Nintendo Wii, the Wii-mote offers scientist a multitude of cheap, high quality sensors; ideal for proof of concept testing. For a specific application, i.e. the water level fluctuation in a floating evaporation pan the Wii-mote was tested as the observing device. It is shown that the controller can observe movements with high enough temporal and spatial resolution of up to 4 infrared LED’s to describe water level movements. Floating pans positioned in lakes and reservoirs better represent open water evaporation than evaporation pans installed on land. On the other hand performing water level measurements in a floating pan is more complicated due to movement of the pan and wave activities in the pan. The Wii-mote was mounted on the side of a standard class A-pan and a float was placed in the middle of the pan, with 4 LED’s on top moving along a fixed bar. The information that the Wii-mote wirelessly sends by blue tooth was captured on a laptop. With a MATLAB routine this data was converted into movement of the LED’s relatively to the controller. The observations show that wave activities are nicely captured with a typical spatial resolution smaller than 0.1 mm in our set-up and a temporal resolution of maximum 100 Hz. A frequency domain filter was applied to the observed datasets to obtain average water levels. In our laboratory setting the pan was placed in a large basin with a wave generator. A constant, but small, rate of water was added to the evaporation pan. The average pan levels from the filtered datasets showed systematically lower levels compared to the level without any wave activities. This is a typical effect of waves that occur in shallow basins. However, the added water with rates up to 5 mm/hour were clearly recognized in the filtered datasets which indicates that the Wii-mote is very well capable as a sensor for water level observations.

  16. Observations: Oceanic climate change and sea level

    Bindoff, N.L.; Willebrand, J.; Artale, V.; Cazenave, A.; Gregory, J.; Gulev, S.; Hanawa, K.; LeQuere, C.; Levitus, S.; Nojiri, Y.; Shum, C.K.; Talley, L.D.; Unnikrishnan, A.S.

    of ocean salinity cause the ocean to expand or contract and hence change the sea level both regionally and globally. The ocean varies over a broad range of time scales, from seasonal (e.g., in the surface mixed layer) to decadal (e.g., circulation... Change Climate Change 2007 The Physical Science Basis CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, São Paolo, Delhi Cambridge University Press 32 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10013-2473, USA www...

  17. Variations observed in environmental radiation at ground level

    To investigate and monitor environmental radiation at ground level, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) has installed several dosemeters and particle detectors at the new Ambient Radiation Dosimetry Site. The separation of the total ambient dose equivalent rate H*(10)env of environmental radiation into the different contributions is achieved by comparing the data of different detectors: the muon detector MUDOS, a modified neutron dosemeter, proportional counters and ionisation chambers. The response of the latter two dosemeter systems to cosmic radiation was determined at the Cosmic Radiation Dosimetry Site on a lake near PTB. Besides the increase of the ambient dose equivalent rate during rainfall, variations owing to air pressure, solar activity and temperature changes in the upper atmosphere are observed. Without rain and solar effects, smooth variations of the cosmic component at ground level of ±6.9 nSv h-1 should be treated as naturally occurring variations during an entire year. (authors)

  18. 3-D reconstructions of active stars - observations

    Korhonen, Heidi

    2012-01-01

    Stars are usually faint point sources and investigating their surfaces and interiors observationally is very demanding. Here I give a review on the state-of-the-art observing techniques and recent results on studying interiors and surface features of active stars.

  19. CORAL: model for no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL).

    Toropov, Andrey A; Toropova, Alla P; Pizzo, Fabiola; Lombardo, Anna; Gadaleta, Domenico; Benfenati, Emilio

    2015-08-01

    The in vivo repeated dose toxicity (RDT) test is intended to provide information on the possible risk caused by repeated exposure to a substance over a limited period of time. The measure of the RDT is the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) that is the dose at which no effects are observed, i.e., this endpoint indicates the safety level for a substance. The need to replace in vivo tests, as required by some European Regulations (registration, evaluation authorization and restriction of chemicals) is leading to the searching for reliable alternative methods such as quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR). Considering the complexity of the RDT endpoint, for which data quality is limited and depends anyway on the study design, the development of QSAR for this endpoint is an attractive task. Starting from a dataset of 140 organic compounds with NOAEL values related to oral short term toxicity in rats, we developed a QSAR model based on optimal descriptors calculated with simplified molecular input-line entry systems and the graph of atomic orbitals by the Monte Carlo method, using CORAL software. Three different splits into the training, calibration, and validation sets are studied. The mechanistic interpretation of these models in terms of molecular fragment with positive or negative contributions to the endpoint is discussed. The probabilistic definition for the domain of applicability is suggested. PMID:25850638

  20. The Built Environment Predicts Observed Physical Activity

    Kelly, Cheryl; Wilson, Jeffrey S.; Schootman, Mario; Clennin, Morgan; Baker, Elizabeth A.; Miller, Douglas K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In order to improve our understanding of the relationship between the built environment and physical activity, it is important to identify associations between specific geographic characteristics and physical activity behaviors. Purpose: Examine relationships between observed physical activity behavior and measures of the built environment collected on 291 street segments in Indianapolis and St. Louis. Methods: Street segments were selected using a stratified geographic samp...

  1. Birth Order and Activity Level in Children.

    Eaton, Warren O.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Studied 7,018 children between birth and 7 years and 81 children of 5-8 years to test the hypothesis that birth order is negatively related to motor activity level. Activity level declined linearly across birth position, so that early-borns were rated as more active than later-borns. (RJC)

  2. Present day sea level changes: observation and causes

    Whereas sea level has changed little over the last 2000 years, it has risen at a rate of about 2 mm/year during the 20. century. This unexpected sea level rise has been attributed to the anthropogenic global warming, recorded over several decades. Sea level variations have been measured globally and precisely for about 12 years due to satellite altimeter missions Topex/Poseidon and Jason-1. These observations indicate a global mean sea level rise of about 3 mm/year since 1993, a value significantly larger than observed during previous decades. Recent observations have allowed us to quantify the various climatic factors contributing to observed sea level change: thermal expansion of sea water due to ocean warming, melting of mountain glaciers and ice sheets, and changes in the land water reservoirs. A water budget based on these new observations allows us to partly explain the observed sea level rise. In particular, we show that the thermal expansion explains only 25% of the secular sea level rise as recorded by tide-gauges over the last 50 years, while it contributes about 50% of sea level rise observed over the last decade. Meanwhile, recent studies show that glacier and ice sheet melting could contribute the equivalent of 1 mm/year in sea level rise over the last decade. In addition, the high regional variability of sea level trends revealed by satellite altimetry is mainly due to thermal expansion. There is also an important decadal spatio-temporal variability in the ocean thermal expansion over the last 50 years, which seems to be controlled by natural climate fluctuations. We question for the first time the link between the decadal fluctuations in the ocean thermal expansion and in the land reservoirs, and indeed their climatic contribution to sea level change. Finally a preliminary analysis of GRACE spatial gravimetric observations over the oceans allows us to estimate the seasonal variations in mean sea level due to ocean water mass balance variations

  3. Linking Diverse Levels of Activity

    Sørensen, Brian Vejrum; Boer, Harry

    2006-01-01

    /or knowledge intensive companies (Starbuck 1992), which, due to their unsettled form and process, rely on the sense their members make of the change inputs and their creative enactment of these inputs. In such companies, change is a part of everyday practice that (re)produces organisational configurations and......Organisations start strategic renewal initiatives more often than ever before. Many initiatives, however, have little practical effect on the practices they are meant to change. They do not seem to submerge to the level where they become part of the actionable knowledge of the organisation....... Furthermore, the implementation of strategic organisational change, even if based on good arguments, solid analysis and the best intentions, tends to be fraught with unintended consequences. In this paper we aim to supply an explanation for this, based on a longitudinal study, and grounded in a social...

  4. The future for the Global Sea Level Observing System (GLOSS) Sea Level Data Rescue

    Bradshaw, Elizabeth; Matthews, Andrew; Rickards, Lesley; Aarup, Thorkild

    2016-04-01

    Historical sea level data are rare and unrepeatable measurements with a number of applications in climate studies (sea level rise), oceanography (ocean currents, tides, surges), geodesy (national datum), geophysics and geology (coastal land movements) and other disciplines. However, long-term time series are concentrated in the northern hemisphere and there are no records at the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL) global data bank longer than 100 years in the Arctic, Africa, South America or Antarctica. Data archaeology activities will help fill in the gaps in the global dataset and improve global sea level reconstruction. The Global Sea Level Observing System (GLOSS) is an international programme conducted under the auspices of the WMO-IOC Joint Technical Commission for Oceanography and Marine Meteorology. It was set up in 1985 to collect long-term tide gauge observations and to develop systems and standards "for ocean monitoring and flood warning purposes". At the GLOSS-GE-XIV Meeting in 2015, GLOSS agreed on a number of action items to be developed in the next two years. These were: 1. To explore mareogram digitisation applications, including NUNIEAU (more information available at: http://www.mediterranee.cerema.fr/logiciel-de-numerisation-des-enregistrements-r57.html) and other recent developments in scanning/digitisation software, such as IEDRO's Weather Wizards program, to see if they could be used via a browser. 2. To publicise sea level data archaeology and rescue by: • maintaining and regularly updating the Sea Level Data Archaeology page on the GLOSS website • strengthening links to the GLOSS data centres and data rescue organisations e.g. linking to IEDRO, ACRE, RDA • restarting the sea level data rescue blog with monthly posts. 3. Investigate sources of funding for data archaeology and rescue projects. 4. Propose "Guidelines" for rescuing sea level data. These action items will aid the discovery, scanning, digitising and quality control

  5. Observational Study of Solar Magnetic Active Phenomena

    Hongqi Zhang

    2006-06-01

    The electric current separated into two parts reflected the quantative properties of heterogeneity and chirality of magnetic field, and defined them as the shear and twist components of current. We analyze the basic configuration and evolution of superactive region NOAA 6580-6619-6659. It is found that the contribution of the twist component of current cannot be reflected in the normal analysis of the magnetic shear and gradient of the active regions. The observational evidence of kink magnetic ropes generated from the subatmosphere cannot be found completely in some super delta active regions.

  6. Dynamic Observation of Interlukin 17 Levels in AIDS Patients Received Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy%白细胞介素17在接受抗病毒治疗的艾滋病人中的动态观察

    李鎏勋; 郑力文; 郑煜煌; 李靖; 何艳

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the dynamic changes of interlukin 17 (IL-17) in HIV/AIDS patients with or without highly active antiretrovival therapy (HAART). Methods Peripheral blood samples were collected from 30 normal volunteers and 33 HIV/AIDS patients received HAART. ELISA was used to determine IL -17 levels in sera and the results were compared. At the time points of ore - therapy, 6th month and 12th month of therapy, IL - 17 levels in sera were tested by ELISA, and the dynamic changes of IL -17 levels were compared and analyzed. The flow cytometer was used to count CD4* T- cells and quantitative real-time RT-PCR was used to determine HIV RNA in blood. Results The levels of IL-17 in HIV/AIDS patients at the time points of pre - therapy, 6th month and 12th month of therapy and in the normal volunteers were (5.3±2.5) pg/ml, (7.7±2.4) pg/ml, (10.4±3.1) pg/ml and (17.7±6.6) pg/ml, respectively. The levels of IL -17 were positively correlated with CO4+ T - cell counts, but negatively correlated with HIV viral load. Conclusions The results indicate that IL-17 may play an important role in the pathogenesis of AIDS, and likely to be one of the effective indexes for observing AIDS progress and efficacy of HAART.%目的 观察HIV感染者和AIDS患者(HIV/AIDS)的血清白细胞介素-17(IL-17)水平与正常入水平的区别,及其在接受抗病毒治疗一年中的动态变化. 方法 采集33例HIV/AIDS和30例健康志愿者的静脉血清,以酶联免疫吸附法(ELISA)分别检测其IL- 17水平并对比分析,并在33例HIV/AIDS接受高效抗反转录病毒治疗(HAART)的0、6、12月时分别采集静脉血,同法检测血清IL- 17动态水平并对比分析.以流式细胞计数法检测CD4+细胞数,以real- time RT - PCR法定量检测HIVRNA. 结果 HIV/AIDS在接受HAART治疗前、治疗6月、12月及正常人静脉血IL- 17水平分别为(5.3±2.5)、(7.7±2.4)、(10.4±3.1)和(17.7±6.60)pg/ml; IL-17水平与CD4+T细胞计数正

  7. Observations. Oceanic Climate Change and Sea Level. Chapter 5

    Bindoff, N.L.; Willebrand, J.; Artale, V.; Cazenave, A.; Gregory, J.; Gulev, S.; Hanawa, K.; Le Quere, C.; Levitus, S.; Nojiri, Y.; Shum, C.K.; Talley, L.D.; Unnikrishnan, A.

    2007-09-15

    The ocean has an important role in climate variability and change. The ocean's heat capacity is about 1,000 times larger than that of the atmosphere, and the oceans net heat uptake since 1960 is around 20 times greater than that of the atmosphere. This large amount of heat, which has been mainly stored in the upper layers of the ocean, plays a crucial role in climate change, in particular variations on seasonal to decadal time scales. The transport of heat and freshwater by ocean currents can have an important effect on regional climates, and the large-scale Meridional Overturning Circulation (MOC; also referred to as thermohaline circulation) influences the climate on a global scale. Life in the sea is dependent on the biogeochemical status of the ocean and is influenced by changes in the physical state and circulation. Changes in ocean biogeochemistry can directly feed back to the climate system, for example, through changes in the uptake or release of radiatively active gases such as carbon dioxide. Changes in sea level are also important for human society, and are linked to changes in ocean circulation. Finally, oceanic parameters can be useful for detecting climate change, in particular temperature and salinity changes in the deeper layers and in different regions where the short-term variability is smaller and the signal-to-noise ratio is higher. The large-scale, three-dimensional ocean circulation and the formation of water masses that ventilate the main thermocline together create pathways for the transport of heat, freshwater and dissolved gases such as carbon dioxide from the surface ocean into the density-stratified deeper ocean, thereby isolating them from further interaction with the atmosphere. These pathways are also important for the transport of anomalies in these parameters caused by changes in the surface conditions. Furthermore, changes in the storage of heat and in the distribution of ocean salinity cause the ocean to expand or contract

  8. Suzaku observations of 'bare' active galactic nuclei

    Walton, D J; Fabian, A C; Gallo, L C; Reis, R C

    2012-01-01

    We present a X-ray spectral analysis of a large sample of 25 'bare' active galactic nuclei, sources with little or no complicating intrinsic absorption, observed with Suzaku. Our work focuses on studying the potential contribution from relativistic disc reflection, and examining the implications of this interpretation for the intrinsic spectral complexities frequently displayed by AGN in the X-ray bandpass. During the analysis, we take the unique approach of attempting to simultaneously undertake a systematic analysis of the whole sample, as well as a detailed treatment of each individual source, and find that disc reflection has the required flexibility to successfully reproduce the broadband spectrum observed for all of the sources considered. Where possible, we use the reflected emission to place constraints on the black hole spin for this sample of sources. Our analysis suggests a general preference for rapidly rotating black holes, which if taken at face value is most consistent with the scenario in whic...

  9. Sea level data archaeology and the Global Sea Level Observing System (GLOSS)

    Elizabeth Bradshaw; Lesley Rickards; Thorkild Aarup

    2015-01-01

    The Global Sea Level Observing System (GLOSS) Group of Experts (GE) data archaeology group is collating tools and producing guidelines for historic sea level data. They aim to aid the discovery, scanning, digitising and quality control of analogue tide gauge charts and sea level ledgers. Their goal is to improve the quality, quantity and availability of long-term sea level data series. This paper examines different tools for the automatic digitisation of tide gauge charts, the methods availab...

  10. MESSENGER Observations of Substorm Activity at Mercury

    Sun, W. J.; Slavin, J. A.; Fu, S.; Raines, J. M.; Zong, Q. G.; Poh, G.; Jia, X.; Sundberg, T.; Gershman, D. J.; Pu, Z.; Zurbuchen, T.; Shi, Q.

    2015-12-01

    MErcury Surface, Space ENviroment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) magnetic field and plasma measurements taken during crossings of Mercury's magnetotail from 2011 to 2014 have been investigated for substorms. A number of events with clear Earth-like growth phase and expansion phase signatures were found. The thinning of the plasma sheet and the increase of magnetic field intensity in the lobe were observed during the growth phase and plasma sheet was observed to thicken during the expansion phase, which are similar to the observations at Earth. But the time scale of Mercury's substorm is only several minutes comparing with the several hours at Earth [Sun et al., 2015a]. Detailed analysis of magnetic field fluctuations during the substorm expansion phase have revealed low frequency plasma waves, e.g. Pi2-like pulsations. The By fluctuations accompanying substorm dipolarizations are consistent with pulses of field-aligned currents near the high latitude edge of the plasma sheet. Further study shows that they are near-circularly polarized electromagnetic waves, most likely Alfvén waves. Soon afterwards the plasma sheet thickened and MESSENGER detected a series of compressional waves. We have also discussed their possible sources [Sun et al., 2015b]. Sun, W.-J., J. A. Slavin, S. Y. Fu, et al. (2015a), MESSENGER observations of magnetospheric substorm activity in Mercury's near magnetotail. Geophys. Res. Lett., 42, 3692-3699. doi: 10.1002/2015GL064052.Sun, W.-J., J. A. Slavin, S. Y. Fu, et al. (2015b), MESSENGER observations of Alfvénic and compressional waves during Mercury's substorms. Geophys. Res. Lett., 42, in press. doi: 10.1002/ 2015GL065452.

  11. Measuring progress of the global sea level observing system

    Woodworth, Philip L.; Aarup, Thorkild; Merrifield, Mark; Mitchum, Gary T.; Le Provost, Christian

    Sea level is such a fundamental parameter in the sciences of oceanography geophysics, and climate change, that in the mid-1980s, the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) established the Global Sea Level Observing System (GLOSS). GLOSS was to improve the quantity and quality of data provided to the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL), and thereby, data for input to studies of long-term sea level change by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). It would also provide the key data needed for international programs, such as the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) and later, the Climate Variability and Predictability Programme (CLIVAR).GLOSS is now one of the main observation components of the Joint Technical Commission for Oceanography and Marine Meteorology (JCOMM) of IOC and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). Progress and deficiencies in GLOSS were presented in July to the 22nd IOC Assembly at UNESCO in Paris and are contained in the GLOSS Assessment Report (GAR) [IOC, 2003a].

  12. Observation of Low Level Heating in an Erupting Prominence

    Kucera, Therese A.

    2007-01-01

    We present multi-wavelength observations of low level heating in an erupting prominence observed in the UV and EUV over a wide range of temperatures and wavelengths by SOHO's SUMER instrument, TRACE and also in H-alpha by the Yunnan Astronomical Observatory. The eruption occurred on 2004 April 30. The heating is relatively mild, leading only to the ionization of neutral hydrogen and probably helium. It is also localized, occurring along the bottom edge of the erupting prominence and in a kink-like feature in the prominence. The heating is revealed as a decrease in the Lyman absorption. This decrease results in an apparent increase in emission in all the lines observed by SUMER, especially those formed at temperatures -1 0A5. However, this is due to the disappearance of cooler absorbing material in the prominence rather than an increase in these higher temperature species.

  13. Sea Level Data Archaeology for the Global Sea Level Observing System (GLOSS)

    Bradshaw, Elizabeth; Matthews, Andy; Rickards, Lesley; Jevrejeva, Svetlana

    2015-04-01

    The Global Sea Level Observing System (GLOSS) was set up in 1985 to collect long term tide gauge observations and has carried out a number of data archaeology activities over the past decade, including sending member organisations questionnaires to report on their repositories. The GLOSS Group of Experts (GLOSS GE) is looking to future developments in sea level data archaeology and will provide its user community with guidance on finding, digitising, quality controlling and distributing historic records. Many records may not be held in organisational archives and may instead by in national libraries, archives and other collections. GLOSS will promote a Citizen Science approach to discovering long term records by providing tools for volunteers to report data. Tide gauge data come in two different formats, charts and hand-written ledgers. Charts are paper analogue records generated by the mechanical instrument driving a pen trace. Several GLOSS members have developed software to automatically digitise these charts and the various methods were reported in a paper on automated techniques for the digitization of archived mareograms, delivered to the GLOSS GE 13th meeting. GLOSS is creating a repository of software for scanning analogue charts. NUNIEAU is the only publically available software for digitising tide gauge charts but other organisations have developed their own tide gauge digitising software that is available internally. There are several other freely available software packages that convert image data to numerical values. GLOSS could coordinate a comparison study of the various different digitising software programs by: Sending the same charts to each organisation and asking everyone to digitise them using their own procedures Comparing the digitised data Providing recommendations to the GLOSS community The other major form of analogue sea level data is handwritten ledgers, which are usually observations of high and low waters, but sometimes contain higher

  14. Sea level changes along the Indian coast: Observations and projections

    Unnikrishnan, A.S.; Kumar, K.R.; Fernandes, S.E.; Michael, G.S.; Patwardhan, S.K.

    : CLIMATE CHANGE AND INDIA CURRE NT SCIENCE, VOL. 90, NO. 3, 10 FEBRUARY 2006 *For correspondence. (e - mail: unni@darya.nio.org ) Sea level changes along the Indian coast: Observ a tions and projections A. S. Unnikrishnan 1, *, K. Rupa Kumar... with the occu r rence of tropical cyclones in the Bay of Bengal and associated storm surges in a future climate scenario. Projections for the future are needed for decision making by planners and policy makers. Future pr o jecti ons are made for different...

  15. Extraction of Children's Friendship Relation from Activity Level

    Kono, Aki; Shintani, Kimio; Katsuki, Takuya; Kihara, Shin'ya; Ueda, Mari; Kaneda, Shigeo; Haga, Hirohide

    Children learn to fit into society through living in a group, and it's greatly influenced by their friend relations. Although preschool teachers need to observe them to assist in the growth of children's social progress and support the development each child's personality, only experienced teachers can watch over children while providing high-quality guidance. To resolve the problem, this paper proposes a mathematical and objective method that assists teachers with observation. It uses numerical data of activity level recorded by pedometers, and we make tree diagram called dendrogram based on hierarchical clustering with recorded activity level. Also, we calculate children's ``breadth'' and ``depth'' of friend relations by using more than one dendrogram. When we record children's activity level in a certain kindergarten for two months and evaluated the proposed method, the results usually coincide with remarks of teachers about the children.

  16. Observational evidence for enhanced magnetic activity of superflare stars.

    Karoff, Christoffer; Knudsen, Mads Faurschou; De Cat, Peter; Bonanno, Alfio; Fogtmann-Schulz, Alexandra; Fu, Jianning; Frasca, Antonio; Inceoglu, Fadil; Olsen, Jesper; Zhang, Yong; Hou, Yonghui; Wang, Yuefei; Shi, Jianrong; Zhang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Superflares are large explosive events on stellar surfaces one to six orders-of-magnitude larger than the largest flares observed on the Sun throughout the space age. Due to the huge amount of energy released in these superflares, it has been speculated if the underlying mechanism is the same as for solar flares, which are caused by magnetic reconnection in the solar corona. Here, we analyse observations made with the LAMOST telescope of 5,648 solar-like stars, including 48 superflare stars. These observations show that superflare stars are generally characterized by larger chromospheric emissions than other stars, including the Sun. However, superflare stars with activity levels lower than, or comparable to, the Sun do exist, suggesting that solar flares and superflares most likely share the same origin. The very large ensemble of solar-like stars included in this study enables detailed and robust estimates of the relation between chromospheric activity and the occurrence of superflares. PMID:27009381

  17. Are Preschool Children Active Enough? Objectively Measured Physical Activity Levels

    Cardon, Greet M.; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse M. M.

    2008-01-01

    The present study aimed to describe accelerometer-based physical activity levels in 4- and 5-year-old children (N = 76) on 2 weekdays and 2 weekend days. The children were sedentary for 9.6 hr (85%) daily, while they engaged in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) for 34 min (5%). Only 7% of the children engaged in MVPA for 60 min per…

  18. 12 Years of Stellar Activity Observations in Argentina

    Mauas, Pablo J D; Diaz, R; Vieytes, M; Petrucci, R; Jofre, E; Abrevaya, X; Luoni, M L; Valenzuela, P

    2012-01-01

    We present an observational program we started in 1999, to systematically obtain mid-resolution spectra of late-type stars, to study in particular chromospheric activity. In particular, we found cyclic activity in four dM stars, including Prox-Cen. We directly derived the conversion factor that translates the known S index to flux in the Ca II cores, and extend its calibration to a wider spectral range. We investigated the relation between the activity measurements in the calcium and hydrogen lines, and found that the usual correlation observed is the product of the dependence of each flux on stellar color, and it is not always preserved when simultaneous observations of a particular star are considered. We also used our observations to model the chromospheres of stars of different spectral types and activity levels, and found that the integrated chromospheric radiative losses, normalized to the surface luminosity, show a unique trend for G and K dwarfs when plotted against the S index.

  19. Play Equipment, Physical Activity Opportunities, and Children's Activity Levels at Childcare

    Jessica S. Gubbels

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the association between physical activity facilities at childcare (e.g., play equipment and physical activity of 2- and 3-year olds. Observations of physical activity intensity were performed among 175 children at 9 childcare centers in The Netherlands, using the OSRAC-P. The physical activity facilities were assessed for indoors and outdoors separately, using the EPAO instrument. Regular (single-level multivariate and multilevel linear regression analyses examined the association of the facilities and child characteristics (age and sex with children's activity levels. Various physical activity facilities were available in all childcare centers (e.g., balls. Riding toys and a small playing area were associated with lower indoor physical activity levels. Outdoor physical activity levels were positively associated with the availability of portable jumping equipment and the presence of a structured track on the playground. Portable slides, fixed swinging equipment, and sandboxes were negatively associated with outdoor activity levels. In addition, the 3-year old children were more active outdoors than the 2-year olds. In conclusion, not all physical activity facilities at childcare were indeed positively associated with children's activity levels. The current findings provide concrete leads for childcare providers regarding which factors they can improve in the physical environment to facilitate children's physical activity.

  20. Play Equipment, Physical Activity Opportunities, and Children's Activity Levels at Childcare

    Gubbels, Jessica S; Van Kann, Dave H. H.; Jansen, Maria W J

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the association between physical activity facilities at childcare (e.g., play equipment) and physical activity of 2- and 3-year olds. Observations of physical activity intensity were performed among 175 children at 9 childcare centers in The Netherlands, using the OSRAC-P. The physical activity facilities were assessed for indoors and outdoors separately, using the EPAO instrument. Regular (single-level) multivariate and multilevel linear regression analyses examined t...

  1. OBSERVING CORONAL NANOFLARES IN ACTIVE REGION MOSS

    The High-resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) has provided Fe XII 193Å images of the upper transition region moss at an unprecedented spatial (∼0.''3-0.''4) and temporal (5.5 s) resolution. The Hi-C observations show in some moss regions variability on timescales down to ∼15 s, significantly shorter than the minute-scale variability typically found in previous observations of moss, therefore challenging the conclusion of moss being heated in a mostly steady manner. These rapid variability moss regions are located at the footpoints of bright hot coronal loops observed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly in the 94 Å channel, and by the Hinode/X-Ray Telescope. The configuration of these loops is highly dynamic, and suggestive of slipping reconnection. We interpret these events as signatures of heating events associated with reconnection occurring in the overlying hot coronal loops, i.e., coronal nanoflares. We estimate the order of magnitude of the energy in these events to be of at least a few 1023 erg, also supporting the nanoflare scenario. These Hi-C observations suggest that future observations at comparable high spatial and temporal resolution, with more extensive temperature coverage, are required to determine the exact characteristics of the heating mechanism(s).

  2. General considerations about the tritium activity levels observed in France and about the sampling and measurement techniques used by IRSN in the framework of the environment monitoring of the 2M Process site at Saint-Maur-des-Fosses

    A building of 2M Process company at Saint-Maur-des-Fosses (France) has been accidentally contaminated after the handling of a tritium contaminated device. The consequence has been a tritium release inside and in the close environment of the building. Since November 5, on request of the French nuclear safety authority (ASN), the French institute of radiation protection and nuclear safety (IRSN) has performed tritium measurements in water, air and plants sampled in the vicinity of the building in order to delimit the contaminated area and to follow its decay during and after the cleansing of the building. In order to give help to the interpretation of the results of this monitoring action, this note supplies some general information about tritium and its activity levels usually encountered in France (air, rainwater, surface waters, plants, drinking water, foodstuff), and about the sampling and measurement techniques used by IRSN in the framework of the periodical environment monitoring of the 2M Process site. (J.S.)

  3. Active Latitude Oscillations Observed on the Sun

    Kilcik, A.; Yurchyshyn, V.; Clette, F.; Ozguc, A.; Rozelot, J.-P.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate periodicities in the mean heliographic latitudes of sunspot groups, called active latitudes, for the past six complete solar cycles (1945 - 2008). For this purpose, the multitaper method and Morlet wavelet analysis were used. We found that solar rotation periodicities (26 - 38 days) are present in active latitudes of both hemispheres for all the investigated cycles (18 to 23). Both in the northern and southern hemispheres, active latitudes drifted toward the equator from the beginning to the end of each cycle and followed an oscillating path. These motions are well described by a second-order polynomial. There are no meaningful periods of between 55 and about 300 days in either hemisphere for all cycles. A periodicity of 300 to 370 days appears in both hemispheres for Cycle 23, in the northern hemisphere for Cycle 20, and in the southern hemisphere for Cycle 18.

  4. Active Latitude Oscillations Observed on the Sun

    Kilcik, A; Clette, F; Ozguc, A; Rozelot, J -P

    2016-01-01

    We investigate periodicities in mean heliographic latitudes of sunspot groups, called active latitudes, for the last six complete solar cycles (1945-2008). For this purpose, the Multi Taper Method and Morlet Wavelet analysis methods were used. We found the following: 1) Solar rotation periodicities (26-38 days) are present in active latitudes of both hemispheres for all the investigated cycles (18 to 23). 2) Both in the northern and southern hemispheres, active latitudes drifted towards the equator starting from the beginning to the end of each cycle by following an oscillating path. These motions are well described by a second order polynomial. 3) There are no meaningful periods between 55 and about 300 days in either hemisphere for all cycles. 4) A 300 to 370 day periodicity appears in both hemispheres for Cycle 23, in the northern hemisphere for Cycle 20, and in the southern hemisphere for Cycle 18.

  5. Observing coronal nanoflares in active region moss

    Testa, Paola; Martinez-Sykora, Juan; DeLuca, Ed; Hansteen, Viggo; Cirtain, Jonathan; Winebarger, Amy; Golub, Leon; Kobayashi, Ken; Korreck, Kelly; Kuzin, Sergey; Walsh, Robert; DeForest, Craig; Title, Alan; Weber, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The High-resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) has provided Fe XII 193A images of the upper transition region moss at an unprecedented spatial (~0.3-0.4 arcsec) and temporal (5.5s) resolution. The Hi-C observations show in some moss regions variability on timescales down to ~15s, significantly shorter than the minute scale variability typically found in previous observations of moss, therefore challenging the conclusion of moss being heated in a mostly steady manner. These rapid variability moss regions are located at the footpoints of bright hot coronal loops observed by SDO/AIA in the 94A channel, and by Hinode/XRT. The configuration of these loops is highly dynamic, and suggestive of slipping reconnection. We interpret these events as signatures of heating events associated with reconnection occurring in the overlying hot coronal loops, i.e., coronal nanoflares. We estimate the order of magnitude of the energy in these events to be of at least a few $10^{23}rg, also supporting the nanoflare scenario. These Hi-C...

  6. Development and Testing of the Observational System for Recording Physical Activity in Children: Elementary School

    McIver, Kerry L.; Brown, William H.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study describes the development and pilot testing of the Observational System for Recording Physical Activity-Elementary School (OSRAC-E) Version. Method: This system was developed to observe and document the levels and types of physical activity and physical and social contexts of physical activity in elementary school students…

  7. Serum Renalase Levels Correlate with Disease Activity in Lupus Nephritis.

    Chaojun Qi

    Full Text Available Lupus nephritis (LN is among the most serious complications of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, which causes significant morbidity and mortality. Renalase is a novel, kidney-secreted cytokine-like protein that promotes cell survival. Here, we aimed to investigate the relationship of serum renalase levels with LN and its role in the disease progression of LN.For this cross-sectional study, 67 LN patients and 35 healthy controls were enrolled. Seventeen active LN patients who received standard therapies were followed up for six months. Disease activity was determined by the SLE Disease Activity-2000 (SLEDAI-2K scoring system and serum renalase amounts were determined by ELISA. Predictive value of renalase for disease activity was assessed. Furthermore, the expression of renalase in the kidneys of patients and macrophage infiltration was assessed by immunohistochemistry.Serum renalase amounts were significantly higher in LN patients than in healthy controls. Moreover, patients with proliferative LN had more elevated serum renalase levels than Class V LN patients. In proliferative LN patients, serum renalase levels were significantly higher in patients with active LN than those with inactive LN. Serum renalase levels were positively correlated with SLEDAI-2K, 24-h urine protein excretion, ds-DNA and ESR but inversely correlated with serum albumin and C3. Renalase amounts decreased significantly after six-months of standard therapy. The performance of renalase as a marker for diagnosis of active LN was 0.906 with a cutoff value of 66.67 μg/ml. We also observed that the amount of renalase was significantly higher in glomerular of proliferative LN along with the co-expression of macrophages.Serum renalase levels were correlated with disease activity in LN. Serum renalase might serve as a potential indicator for disease activity in LN. The marked increase of glomerular renalase and its association with macrophages suggest that it might play an

  8. Multi-wavelength Observations of Solar Active Region NOAA 7154

    Bruner, M. E.; Nitta, N. V.; Frank. Z. A.; Dame, L.; Suematsu, Y.

    2000-01-01

    We report on observations of a solar active region in May 1992 by the Solar Plasma Diagnostic Experiment (SPDE) in coordination with the Yohkoh satellite (producing soft X-ray images) and ground-based observatories (producing photospheric magnetograms and various filtergrams including those at the CN 3883 A line). The main focus is a study of the physical conditions of hot (T is approximately greater than 3 MK) coronal loops at their foot-points. The coronal part of the loops is fuzzy but what appear to be their footpoints in the transition region down to the photosphere are compact. Despite the morphological similarities, the footpoint emission at 10(exp 5) K is not quantitatively correlated with that at approximately 300 km above the tau (sub 5000) = 1 level, suggesting that the heat transport and therefore magnetic field topology in the intermediate layer is complicated. High resolution imaging observations with continuous temperature coverage are crucially needed.

  9. The observation of serum CG levels in pregnant women

    The authors determined the levels of the CG contained in serum by RIA in 83 normal pregnant women and in 53 pregnant patients with ICP. The result showed that CG levels of ICP patients increased significantly as compared with that of normal middle and late pregnancy (P < 0.01). The routine examination of the serum CG levels in pregnant women is of great value of the earlier diagnosis to ICP and treatment as well as health care of perinatal period

  10. Rotational modes contribution to the observed level density

    Attempt is made to apply the level density systematics within the framework of the generalized superfluid model to the A<150 region. The analysis of some properties of these nuclei (e.g. deformation energy, neutron resonance density, neutron evaporation spectra) shows the existence of large groups of nuclei, for which the contribution of rotational modes to their level density is considerable (in spite of the traditional classification according to low-lying discrete level spectra). (author)

  11. Solar Activity Studies using Microwave Imaging Observations

    Gopalswamy, N.

    2016-01-01

    We report on the status of solar cycle 24 based on polar prominence eruptions (PEs) and microwave brightness enhancement (MBE) information obtained by the Nobeyama radioheliograph. The north polar region of the Sun had near-zero field strength for more than three years (2012-2015) and ended only in September 2015 as indicated by the presence of polar PEs and the lack of MBE. The zero-polar-field condition in the south started only around 2013, but it ended by June 2014. Thus the asymmetry in the times of polarity reversal switched between cycle 23 and 24. The polar MBE is a good proxy for the polar magnetic field strength as indicated by the high degree of correlation between the two. The cross-correlation between the high- and low-latitude MBEs is significant for a lag of approximately 5.5 to 7.3 years, suggesting that the polar field of one cycle indicates the sunspot number of the next cycle in agreement with the Babcock-Leighton mechanism of solar cycles. The extended period of near-zero field in the north-polar region should result in a weak and delayed sunspot activity in the northern hemisphere in cycle 25.

  12. Nestling activity levels during begging behaviour predicts activity level and body mass in adulthood

    Luke S.C. McCowan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Across a range of species including humans, personality traits, or differences in behaviour between individuals that are consistent over time, have been demonstrated. However, few studies have measured whether these consistent differences are evident in very young animals, and whether they persist over an individual’s entire lifespan. Here we investigated the begging behaviour of very young cross-fostered zebra finch nestlings and the relationship between that and adult activity levels. We found a link between the nestling activity behaviour head movements during begging, measured at just five and seven days after hatching, and adult activity levels, measured when individuals were between three and three and a half years old. Moreover, body mass was found to be negatively correlated with both nestling and adult activity levels, suggesting that individuals which carry less body fat as adults are less active both as adults and during begging as nestlings. Our work suggests that the personality traits identified here in both very young nestlings and adults may be linked to physiological factors such as metabolism or environmental sources of variation. Moreover, our work suggests it may be possible to predict an individual’s future adult personality at a very young age, opening up new avenues for future work to explore the relationship between personality and a number of aspects of individual life history and survival.

  13. Nestling activity levels during begging behaviour predicts activity level and body mass in adulthood.

    McCowan, Luke S C; Griffith, Simon C

    2014-01-01

    Across a range of species including humans, personality traits, or differences in behaviour between individuals that are consistent over time, have been demonstrated. However, few studies have measured whether these consistent differences are evident in very young animals, and whether they persist over an individual's entire lifespan. Here we investigated the begging behaviour of very young cross-fostered zebra finch nestlings and the relationship between that and adult activity levels. We found a link between the nestling activity behaviour head movements during begging, measured at just five and seven days after hatching, and adult activity levels, measured when individuals were between three and three and a half years old. Moreover, body mass was found to be negatively correlated with both nestling and adult activity levels, suggesting that individuals which carry less body fat as adults are less active both as adults and during begging as nestlings. Our work suggests that the personality traits identified here in both very young nestlings and adults may be linked to physiological factors such as metabolism or environmental sources of variation. Moreover, our work suggests it may be possible to predict an individual's future adult personality at a very young age, opening up new avenues for future work to explore the relationship between personality and a number of aspects of individual life history and survival. PMID:25279258

  14. PSA Level 2 activities for RBMK reactors

    Probabilistic safety analyses (PSAs) of the boiling water graphite moderated pressure tube reactors (RBMKs) have been developed only recently and they are limited to Level 1. Activities at the IAEA were first motivated because of the difficulties to characterize core damage for RBMK reactors. Core damage probability is used in documents of the IAEA as a convenient single valued measure, for example for probabilistic safety criteria. The limited number of PSAs that have been completed for the RBMK reactors have shown that several special features of these channel type reactors necessitate revisiting of the characterization of core damage for these reactors. Furthermore, it has become increasingly evident that detailed deterministic analysis of DBAs and beyond design basis accidents reveal considerable insights into RBMK response to various accident conditions. These analyses can also help in better characterizing the outstanding phenomenological uncertainties, improved EOPs and AM strategies, including potential risk-beneficial accident negative backfits. The deterministic efforts should be focused first on elucidating accident progression processes and phenomena, and second on finding, qualifying and implementing procedures to minimize the risk of severe accident states The IAEA PSA procedures were mainly developed in New of vessel type LWRs, and would therefore require extensions to make them directly applicable. to channel type reactors. (author) (author)

  15. Wind profiler observations of a monsoon low-level jet over a tropical Indian station

    M. C. R. Kalapureddy

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Three-year high-resolution wind observations of the wind profiler have been utilized to characterize the diurnal and seasonal features of the monsoon Low-Level Jet (LLJ over a tropical station, Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E, with a focus on the diurnal variability of low-level winds. The Boreal summer monsoon winds show a conspicuously strong westerly LLJ with average wind speed exceeding 20 m s−1. The L-band wind profiler measurements have shown an advantage of better height and time resolutions over the conventional radiosonde method for diurnal wind measurements. An interesting diurnal oscillation of LLJ core has been observed. It is varying in the height range of 1.8±0.6 km with the maximum and minimum intensity noticed during the early morning and afternoon hours, respectively. The jet core (wind maxima height is observed to coincide with the inversion height. Strong wind shears are normally located beneath the LLJ core. The sole wind profiler observations are capable of identifying the monsoon phases, such as onset, break and active spells, etc. The mutual influence between the LLJ and the boundary layer has been discussed. One notices that the observed LLJ diurnal structures depend on the local convective activity, wind shears and turbulence activity associated with boundary layer winds. The day-to-day change in the LLJ structure depends on the latitudinal position of the LLJ core.

  16. TRMM/LIS and PR Observations and Thunderstorm Activity

    Ohita, S.; Morimoto, T.; Kawasaki, Z. I.; Ushio, T.

    2005-12-01

    Thunderstorms observed by TRMM/PR and LIS have been investigating, and Lightning Research Group of Osaka University (LRG-OU) has unveiled several interesting features. Correlation between lightning activities and the snow depth of convective clouds may follow the power-five law. The power five law means that the flash density is a function of the snow-depth to power five. The definition of snow depth is the height of detectable cloud tops by TRMM/PR from the climatological freezing level, and it may be equivalent to the length of the portion where the solid phase precipitation particles exist. This is given by examining more than one million convective clouds, and we conclude that the power five law should be universal from the aspect of the statistic. Three thunderstorm active areas are well known as "Three World Chimneys", and those are the Central Africa, Amazon of the South America, and South East Asia. Thunderstorm activities in these areas are expected to contribute to the distribution of thermal energy around the equator to middle latitude regions. Moreover thunderstorm activity in the tropical region is believed to be related with the average temperature of our planet earth. That is why long term monitoring of lightning activity is required. After launching TRMM we have accumulated seven-year LIS observations, and statistics for three world chimneys are obtained. We have recognized the additional lightning active area, and that is around the Maracaibo lake in Venezuera. We conclude that this is because of geographical features of the Maracaibo lake and the continuous easterly trade wind. Lightning Activity during El Niño period is another interesting subject. LRGOU studies thunderstorm occurrences over west Indonesia and south China, and investigates the influence of El Nino on lightning . We compare the statistics between El Nino and non El Nino periods. We learn that the lightning activity during El Niño period is higher than non El Nino period instead

  17. Observation on serum testosterone level cycles in a reared male chinese river dolphin (BAIJI)

    Objective: To study the biological significance of androgenic hormone level cycles in a reared male BAIJI dolphin. Methods: Serum testosterone levels were monthly determined with RIA in a reared BAIJI dolphin for 2 consecutive three years period(1996-98 and 2000-02). Blood samples were taken from the dorsal aspect of the tail between 10:00 to 11:00 a. m. around the 10th of each month. Results: Serum content of testosterone showed periodic changes with peaks yearly. In 1997, 1998, 1999, 2001, 2002 the peak was observed in April or May. In 2000 the peak were observed on July. Conclusion: The sexual glands of BAIJI dolphin were active from spring through autumn with a peak around April but inactive in winter. Our results suggested the BAIJI dolphin was a seasonally reproductively active animal. (authors)

  18. Nestling activity levels during begging behaviour predicts activity level and body mass in adulthood

    McCowan, Luke S.C.; Griffith, Simon C

    2014-01-01

    Across a range of species including humans, personality traits, or differences in behaviour between individuals that are consistent over time, have been demonstrated. However, few studies have measured whether these consistent differences are evident in very young animals, and whether they persist over an individual’s entire lifespan. Here we investigated the begging behaviour of very young cross-fostered zebra finch nestlings and the relationship between that and adult activity levels. We fo...

  19. SOBA: Secrecy-preserving Observable Ballot-level Audit

    Benaloh, Josh; Lazarus, Eric; Lindeman, Mark; Stark, Philip B

    2011-01-01

    SOBA is an approach to election verification that provides observers with justifiably high confidence that the reported results of an election are consistent with an audit trail ("ballots"), which can be paper or electronic. SOBA combines three ideas: (1) publishing cast vote records (CVRs) separately for each contest, so that anyone can verify that each reported contest outcome is correct, if the CVRs reflect voters' intentions with sufficient accuracy; (2) shrouding a mapping between ballots and the CVRs for those ballots to prevent the loss of privacy that could occur otherwise; (3) assessing the accuracy with which the CVRs reflect voters' intentions for a collection of contests while simultaneously assessing the integrity of the shrouded mapping between ballots and CVRs by comparing randomly selected ballots to the CVRs that purport to represent them. Step (1) is related to work by the Humboldt County Election Transparency Project, but publishing CVRs separately for individual contests rather than images...

  20. Study on the physical activity level of Turkish males

    Ramiz Arabacı

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate physical activity (PA level of the Turkish males who lived in BUrsa. A total of 365 subjects between 18 - 69 age participated to this study. To determine physical activity levels, International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ was applied. PA levels of subjects were categorized as inactive, minimum active and HEPA active by using MET method. The relations of parameters, such as their age, BMI, education, marital status, number of children, smoking and alcohol use were determined with PA level. The results were analyzed by using Chi - Square test. The participants have 1725 METmin/week average physical activity level, and 47.7 % of them were physically inactive, 30.4 % were physically minimum active and 21.9 % were physically hepa active. As a result, it can be said that the physical activity levels of Turkish males who lived in Bursa are not sufficient and the inactive people are very common.

  1. Present day sea level changes: observation and causes; Les variations actuelles du niveau de la mer: observations et causes

    Lombard, A

    2005-11-15

    Whereas sea level has changed little over the last 2000 years, it has risen at a rate of about 2 mm/year during the 20. century. This unexpected sea level rise has been attributed to the anthropogenic global warming, recorded over several decades. Sea level variations have been measured globally and precisely for about 12 years due to satellite altimeter missions Topex/Poseidon and Jason-1. These observations indicate a global mean sea level rise of about 3 mm/year since 1993, a value significantly larger than observed during previous decades. Recent observations have allowed us to quantify the various climatic factors contributing to observed sea level change: thermal expansion of sea water due to ocean warming, melting of mountain glaciers and ice sheets, and changes in the land water reservoirs. A water budget based on these new observations allows us to partly explain the observed sea level rise. In particular, we show that the thermal expansion explains only 25% of the secular sea level rise as recorded by tide-gauges over the last 50 years, while it contributes about 50% of sea level rise observed over the last decade. Meanwhile, recent studies show that glacier and ice sheet melting could contribute the equivalent of 1 mm/year in sea level rise over the last decade. In addition, the high regional variability of sea level trends revealed by satellite altimetry is mainly due to thermal expansion. There is also an important decadal spatio-temporal variability in the ocean thermal expansion over the last 50 years, which seems to be controlled by natural climate fluctuations. We question for the first time the link between the decadal fluctuations in the ocean thermal expansion and in the land reservoirs, and indeed their climatic contribution to sea level change. Finally a preliminary analysis of GRACE spatial gravimetric observations over the oceans allows us to estimate the seasonal variations in mean sea level due to ocean water mass balance variations

  2. Constraints on interseismic locking along the southern Cascadia subduction zone from historic and recent leveling and sea level observations

    Burgette, R. J.; Weldon, R. J.; Schmidt, D. A.; Williams, T. B.

    2012-12-01

    . We will also present our analysis of the existing NGS historical dataset on the southern edge of the subduction domain. Preliminary analysis of the major north-south and east-west leveling routes through northwestern California suggest that the Humboldt Bay area is experiencing tectonic subsidence at rates of up to 2 mm/yr. This is consistent with the rapid (~ 4 mm/yr) rate of relative sea level rise observed at the North Spit tide gauge. The northern California leveling data show a peak in uplift inland, in contrast to central and northern Cascadia, where the peak in uplift is near the coast or offshore. Interseismic subsidence of the coast in the Humboldt area is consistent with the locked zone extending east of the coastline, in contrast to what is observed in Oregon where the locked zone is offshore, and corresponds to an area of active onshore thrust faults. With a complete archive of the NGS data for this area, we will present refined estimates of vertical deformation rates tied to an absolute sea level reference at the North Spit tide gauge. These improved datasets will better resolve the distribution of locking along the Cascadia margin as we integrate the vertical observations with GPS-derived constraints of horizontal strain rates in an elastic model of interseismic subduction deformation.

  3. Entry-Level Activities in System Consultation

    Hylander, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    System-level consultation or organizational development in schools is an area in great need of theoretical models and definitions. The three articles in this special issue provide a unique learning opportunity not only for consultation across borders but also for consultation within the same nation. In my commentary, I limit my remarks to a few…

  4. DEMETER observations of bursty MF emissions and their relation to ground-level auroral MF burst

    Broughton, M. C.; LaBelle, J.; Parrot, M.

    2014-12-01

    A survey of medium frequency (MF) electric field data from selected orbits of the Detection of Electro-Magnetic Emissions Transmitted from Earthquakes (DEMETER) spacecraft reveals 68 examples of a new type of bursty MF emissions occurring at high latitudes associated with auroral phenomena. These resemble auroral MF burst, a natural radio emission observed at ground level near local substorm onsets. Similar to MF burst, the bursty MF waves observed by DEMETER have broadband, impulsive frequency structure covering 1.5-3.0 MHz, amplitudes of 50-100 μV/m, an overall occurrence rate of ˜0.76% with higher occurrence during active times, and strong correlation with auroral hiss. The magnetic local time distribution of the MF waves observed by DEMETER shows peak occurrence rate near 18 MLT, somewhat earlier than the equivalent peak in the occurrence rate of ground level MF burst, though propagation effects and differences in the latitudes sampled by the two techniques may explain this discrepancy. Analysis of solar wind and SuperMAG data suggests that while the bursty MF waves observed by DEMETER are associated with enhanced auroral activity, their coincidence with substorm onset may not be as exact as that of ground level MF burst. One conjunction occurs in which MF burst is observed at Churchill, Manitoba, within 8 min of MF emissions detected by DEMETER on field lines approximately 1000 km southeast of Churchill. These observations may plausibly be associated with the same auroral event detected by ground level magnetometers at several Canadian observatories. Although it is uncertain, the balance of the evidence suggests that the bursty MF waves observed with DEMETER are the same phenomenon as the ground level MF burst. Hence, theories of MF burst generation in the ionosphere, such as beam-generated Langmuir waves excited over a range of altitudes or strong Langmuir turbulence generating a range of frequencies within a narrow altitude range, need to be revisited to

  5. InSAR observations of active volcanoes in Latin America

    Morales Rivera, A. M.; Chaussard, E.; Amelung, F.

    2012-12-01

    Over the last decade satellite-based interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) has developed into a well-known technique to gauge the status of active volcanoes. The InSAR technique can detect the ascent of magma to shallow levels of the volcanic plumbing system because new arriving magma pressurizes the system. This is likely associated with the inflation of the volcanic edifice and the surroundings. Although the potential of InSAR to detect magma migration is well known, the principal limitation was that only for few volcanoes frequent observations were acquired. The ALOS-1 satellite of the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) acquired a global L-band data set of 15-20 acquisitions during 2006-2011. Here we use ALOS InSAR and Small Baseline (SB) time-series methods for a ground deformation survey of Latin America with emphasis on the northern Andes. We present time-dependent ground deformation data for the volcanoes in Colombia, Ecuador and Peru and interpret the observations in terms of the dynamics of the volcanic systems.

  6. Multiple wavelength observations of a solar active region

    The Solar Maximum Mission Satellite, the Sacramento Peak Vacuum Tower Telescope, the Very Large Array and the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope have been used to observe active region AR 2490 on two consecutive days at soft X-ray, ultraviolet, optical and radio wavelengths (2, 6, and 20 cm), with comparable angular resolution (2'' to 15'') and field of view (4' x 4'). The radio emissions at lambda = 6 cm and 20 cm show a double structure in which one component is associated with bright Hα plage, C IV and soft X-ray emission, and the other component is associated only with sunspots. No radiation at lambda = 2 cm is detected in this latter component. Coronal temperature and emission measure derived from X-ray lines indicate that the dominant radiation mechanism of the plage-associated component is due to thermal bremsstrahlung while the gyroresonance absorption coefficient must be invoked to account for the high brightness temperature (Tsub(b) approx. equal to 2 x 106 K) observed in the sunspot associated component. The high magnetic field strength needed (600 G at a level where T approx. equal to 2 x 106 K) is explained assuming a thin transition zone, in order to reach a high electron temperature close to the sunspot, where the magnetic fields are stronger. A higher temperature gradient above sunspots is also consistent with the absence of detectable C IV emission. (orig.)

  7. Sea Levels Online: Sea Level Variations of the United States Derived from National Water Level Observation Network Stations

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water level records are a combination of the fluctuations of the ocean and the vertical land motion at the location of the station. Monthly mean sea level (MSL)...

  8. Valuation of companies activity on sustainability level

    S. Nadolski

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Paper presents a possibilities of companies valuation due to their activity in accordance with sustainable development.Design/methodology/approach: The article describes best known methods of companies assessment (stock indices, non-financial reports and other indicators connected with sustainability. Also there is a history of indices methodology which comes from ethical, religious problems and sustainable development principles.Findings: There is still more companies interested in being (as a part of sustainability indices or other rankings. Research organizations should be concentrated on different type of rankings which contain summary report of best available techniques.Research limitations/implications: Every sustainability index or non-financial reports ranking should be important part of companies management thinking. It is important idea to create these indices for every local stock exchange. Also companies should publish true and clear non-financial reports.Originality/value: The paper concerns on existing indices and tries to make new look at sustainability problems. Important conclusions are connected with non-financial reports and possible connections between indices, rankings and best available techniques.

  9. Presenting Theoretical Ideas Prior to Inquiry Activities Fosters Theory-Level Knowledge

    Wecker, Christof; Rachel, Alexander; Heran-Dörr, Eva; Waltner, Christine; Wiesner, Hartmut; Fischer, Frank

    2013-01-01

    In the course of inquiry activities similar to those of real scientists, learners are supposed to develop knowledge both on the level of observable phenomena and on the level of explanatory theories. However, some theories involve theoretical entities (e.g., "Weiss domains") that cannot be observed directly and therefore may be hard to…

  10. Dissociation between active and observational learning from positive and negative feedback in Parkinsonism

    Kobza, Stefan; Ferrea, Stefano; Schnitzler, Alfons; Pollok, Bettina; Südmeyer, Martin; Bellebaum, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Feedback to both actively performed and observed behaviour allows adaptation of future actions. Positive feedback leads to increased activity of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra, whereas dopamine neuron activity is decreased following negative feedback. Dopamine level reduction in unmedicated Parkinson’s Disease patients has been shown to lead to a negative learning bias, i.e. enhanced learning from negative feedback. Recent findings suggest that the neural mechanisms of active and ob...

  11. Galileo SSI Observations of Volcanic Activity at Tvashtar Catena, Io

    Milazzo, M. P.; Keszthely, L. P.; Radebaugh, J.; Davies, A. G.; Turtle, E. P.; Geissler, P.; Klaasen, K. P.; McEwen, A. S.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: We report on the analysis of the Galileo SSI's observations of the volcanic activity at Tvashtar Catena, Io as discussed by Milazzo et al. Galileo's Solid State Imager (SSI) observed Tvashtar Catena (63 deg N, 120 deg W) four times between November 1999 and October 2001, providing a unique look at the distinctive high latitude volcanism on Io. The November 1999 observation spatially resolved, for the first time, an active extraterrestrial fissure eruption. The brightness temperature of the lavas at the November 1999 fissure eruption was 1300 K. The second observation (orbit I27, February 2000) showed a large (approx. 500 sq km) region with many, small spots of hot, active lava. The third observation was taken in conjunction with a Cassini observation in December 2000 and showed a Pele-like plume deposition ring, while the Cassini images revealed a 400 km high Pele-type plume above the Catena. The final Galileo SSI observation of Tvashtar was acquired in October 2001, and all obvious (to SSI) activity had ceased, although data from Galileo's Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) indicated that there was still significant thermal emission from the Tvashtar region. We have concentrated on analyzing the style of eruption during orbit I27 (February 2000). Comparison with a lava flow cooling model indicates that the behavior of the Tvashtar eruption during I27 does not match that of "simple" advancing lava flows. Instead, it may be an active lava lake or a complex set of lava flows with episodic, overlapping (in time and space) eruptions.

  12. A 5-yr change in Norwegian 9-yr-olds' objectively assessed physical activity level

    Kolle, Elin; Steene-Johannessen, Jostein; Klasson-Heggebø, Lena;

    2009-01-01

    activity assessments that met all inclusion criteria. General linear models were used to assess the changes in physical activity between 1999-2000 and 2005. RESULTS: A significant increase in mean physical activity level and physical activity during weekends was observed between the two study periods (P...... = 0.02 and <0.001, respectively), with the patterns being similar for girls and boys. Interactions were found between change in physical activity and SES. Although the mean physical activity level and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) among children from low-SES groups showed no change...... over time, an increase was seen among children from middle-SES groups. Moreover, in high-SES groups, an increase was observed for mean physical activity level (girls only) between study periods, whereas no change was seen for MVPA participation. CONCLUSIONS: Nine-year-old children living in Oslo...

  13. Energy requirements and physical activity level of active elderly people in rural areas of cuba

    Obesity and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) are common in the Third Age and increasing in Cuba. Among the life-style changes associated with increased prevalence of obesity and its related disorders, diet and activity patterns are prime candidates. The transition to this life-style model may induce a decrease in the energy needs. There is an urgent need for tools which have been validated for measuring diet and physical activity in nutritional studies in the developing world, but also a more urgent need for reference values for the total energy requirements of healthy elderly people. Regular physical activity reduces the likelihood to develop diseases that characterise the metabolic cardiovascular syndrome. Previous studies done in Havana showed values of physical activity level (PAL) which are lower than the reported for elderly subjects. Elderly people living in rural areas use to have physical activity levels which differ from the observed in urban areas. With the purpose of estimating the energy requirements, a group of 40 apparently healthy people older than 60 years of age living in a rural mountain community will be submitted to a medical, epidemiological, dietary, anthropometric and insulin resistance study. Physical activity will be determined by questionnaire and by the calculation of the PAL from the basal metabolic rate (BMR) and total energy expenditure (TEE) measured with the doubly-labelled water method (DLW). Associations with the prevalence of insulin resistance and obesity will be assessed. (author)

  14. Towards a new paradigm: Activity level balanced sustainability reporting.

    Samudhram, Ananda; Siew, Eu-Gene; Sinnakkannu, Jothee; Yeow, Paul H P

    2016-11-01

    Technoeconomic paradigms based economic growth theories suggest that waves of technological innovations drove the economic growth of advanced economies. Widespread economic degradation and pollution is an unintended consequence of such growth. Tackling environmental and social issues at firm levels would help us to overcome such issues at macro-levels. Consequently, the Triple Bottom Line (TBL) reporting approach promotes firm level economic, environmental and social performances. Incorporating Zink's (2014) 3-pillar presentation model, this paper indicates that economic, social and environmental performances tend to be reported at firm level. All three pillars are not covered evenly at the activity levels. Thus, a loophole is identified whereby excellent environmental performance at activity levels could potentially leave poor social performance undisclosed. A refinement of the TBL paradigm, whereby all three pillars are covered at the activity level, is suggested, to enhance sustainability reporting. PMID:27029522

  15. Solar Activity, Different Geomagnetic Activity Levels and Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Dimitrova, Svetla; Jordanova, Malina; Stoilova, Irina; Taseva, Tatiana; Maslarov, Dimitar

    Results on revealing a possible relationship between solar activity (SA) and geomagnetic activity (GMA) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) morbidity are presented. Studies were based on medical data covering the period from 1.12.1995 to 31.12.2004 and concerned daily distribution of patients with AMI diagnose (in total 1192 cases) from Sofia region on the day of admission at the hospital. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to check the significance of GMA intensity effect and the type of geomagnetic storms, those caused by Magnetic Clouds (MC) and by High Speed Solar Wind Streams (HSSWS), on AMI morbidity. Relevant correlation coefficients were calculated. Results revealed statistically significant positive correlation between considered GMA indices and AMI. ANOVA revealed that AMI number was signifi- cantly increased from the day before (-1st) till the day after (+1st) geomagnetic storms with different intensities. Geomagnetic storms caused by MC were related to significant increase of AMI number in comparison with the storms caused by HSSWS. There was a trend for such different effects even on -1st and +1st day.

  16. Study on the physical activity level of Turkish males

    Ramiz Arabacı

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate physical activity (PA level of the Turkish males who lived in BUrsa. A total of 365 subjects between 18 - 69 age participated to this study. To determine physical activity levels, International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ was applied. PA levels of subjects were categorized as inactive, minimum active and HEPA active by using MET method. The relations of parameters, such as their age, BMI, education, marital status, number of children, smoking and alcohol use were determined with PA level. The results were analyzed by using Chi - Square test. The participants have 1725 METmin/week average physical activity level, and 47.7 % of them were physically inactive, 30.4 % were physically minimum active and 21.9 % were physically hepa active. As a result, it can be said that the physical activity levels of Turkish males who lived in Bursa are not sufficient and the inactive people are very common.

  17. First observation of nonyrast levels in 103Zr and level systematics of N = 63 Sr, Zr, and Mo isotones

    The β decay of the very-neutron-rich nucleus 103Y has been studied at the isotope separator IGISOL, allowing for the first time the observation of nonyrast levels in its daughter 40103Zr63. The level structure is similar to that of its isotones 101Sr and 105Mo, suggesting a large ground-state deformation of β≅ 0.4. Level systematics allows for new level assignments in both 103Zr and 105Mo. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  18. Radio Imaging Observations of Solar Activity Cycle and Its Anomaly

    Shibasaki, K.

    2011-12-01

    The 24th solar activity cycle has started and relative sunspot numbers are increasing. However, their rate of increase is rather slow compared to previous cycles. Active region sizes are small, lifetime is short, and big (X-class) flares are rare so far. We study this anomalous situation using data from Nobeyama Radioheliograph (NoRH). Radio imaging observations have been done by NoRH since 1992. Nearly 20 years of daily radio images of the Sun at 17 GHz are used to synthesize a radio butterfly diagram. Due to stable operation of the instrument and a robust calibration method, uniform datasets are available covering the whole period of observation. The radio butterfly diagram shows bright features corresponding to active region belts and their migration toward low latitude as the solar cycle progresses. In the present solar activity cycle (24), increase of radio brightness is delayed and slow. There are also bright features around both poles (polar brightening). Their brightness show solar cycle dependence but peaks around solar minimum. Comparison between the last minimum and the previous one shows decrease of its brightness. This corresponds to weakening of polar magnetic field activity between them. In the northern pole, polar brightening is already weakened in 2011, which means it is close to solar maximum in the northern hemisphere. Southern pole does not show such feature yet. Slow rise of activity in active region belt, weakening of polar activity during the minimum, and large north-south asymmetry in polar activity imply that global solar activity and its synchronization are weakening.

  19. Ferromagnetic interaction model of activity level in workplace communication

    Akitomi, Tomoaki; Ara, Koji; Watanabe, Jun-ichiro; Yano, Kazuo

    2013-03-01

    The nature of human-human interaction, specifically, how people synchronize with each other in multiple-participant conversations, is described by a ferromagnetic interaction model of people’s activity levels. We found two microscopic human interaction characteristics from a real-environment face-to-face conversation. The first characteristic is that people quite regularly synchronize their activity level with that of the other participants in a conversation. The second characteristic is that the degree of synchronization increases as the number of participants increases. Based on these microscopic ferromagnetic characteristics, a “conversation activity level” was modeled according to the Ising model. The results of a simulation of activity level based on this model well reproduce macroscopic experimental measurements of activity level. This model will give a new insight into how people interact with each other in a conversation.

  20. Active listening in medical consultations: development of the Active Listening Observation Scale (ALOS-global).

    Fassaert, T.; van Dulmen, S.; Schellevis, F.; BENSING, J

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Active listening is a prerequisite for a successful healthcare encounter, bearing potential therapeutic value especially in clinical situations that require no specific medical intervention. Although generally acknowledged as such, active listening has not been studied in depth. This paper describes the development of the Active Listening Observation Scale (ALOS-global), an observation instrument measuring active listening and its validation in a sample of general practice consulta...

  1. Dissociation between active and observational learning from positive and negative feedback in Parkinsonism.

    Stefan Kobza

    Full Text Available Feedback to both actively performed and observed behaviour allows adaptation of future actions. Positive feedback leads to increased activity of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra, whereas dopamine neuron activity is decreased following negative feedback. Dopamine level reduction in unmedicated Parkinson's Disease patients has been shown to lead to a negative learning bias, i.e. enhanced learning from negative feedback. Recent findings suggest that the neural mechanisms of active and observational learning from feedback might differ, with the striatum playing a less prominent role in observational learning. Therefore, it was hypothesized that unmedicated Parkinson's Disease patients would show a negative learning bias only in active but not in observational learning. In a between-group design, 19 Parkinson's Disease patients and 40 healthy controls engaged in either an active or an observational probabilistic feedback-learning task. For both tasks, transfer phases aimed to assess the bias to learn better from positive or negative feedback. As expected, actively learning patients showed a negative learning bias, whereas controls learned better from positive feedback. In contrast, no difference between patients and controls emerged for observational learning, with both groups showing better learning from positive feedback. These findings add to neural models of reinforcement-learning by suggesting that dopamine-modulated input to the striatum plays a minor role in observational learning from feedback. Future research will have to elucidate the specific neural underpinnings of observational learning.

  2. Active Ageing Level of Older Persons: Regional Comparison in Thailand

    Haque, Md. Nuruzzaman

    2016-01-01

    Active ageing level and its discrepancy in different regions (Bangkok, Central, North, Northeast, and South) of Thailand have been examined for prioritizing the policy agenda to be implemented. Attempt has been made to test preliminary active ageing models for Thai older persons and hence active ageing index (AAI, ranges from 0 to 1) has been estimated. Using nationally representative data and confirmatory factor analysis approach, this study justified active ageing models for female and male older persons in Thailand. Results revealed that active ageing level of Thai older persons is not high (mean AAIs for female and male older persons are 0.64 and 0.61, resp., and those are significantly different (p health and economic security, to promote participation in social groups and longer working lives, and to arrange learning programs, would be helpful for increasing older persons' active ageing level in Thailand.

  3. Active Ageing Level of Older Persons: Regional Comparison in Thailand

    Md. Nuruzzaman Haque

    2016-01-01

    Active ageing level and its discrepancy in different regions (Bangkok, Central, North, Northeast, and South) of Thailand have been examined for prioritizing the policy agenda to be implemented. Attempt has been made to test preliminary active ageing models for Thai older persons and hence active ageing index (AAI, ranges from 0 to 1) has been estimated. Using nationally representative data and confirmatory factor analysis approach, this study justified active ageing models for female and male...

  4. Testing lifting capacity : Validity of determining effort level by means of observation

    Reneman, M.F; Fokkens, A.S.; Dijkstra, P.U.; Geertzen, J.H.B.; Groothoff, J.W.

    2005-01-01

    Study Design. Video observation study. Objectives. To establish the validity of determining effort level by visual observation of a lifting test. Summary of Background Data. Determining effort level during a lifting test is critical for interpretation of test performance, yet the validity of these d

  5. Observations of ice multiplication in a weakly convective cell embedded in supercooled mid-level stratus

    J. Crosier

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous observations of cloud microphysical properties were obtained by in-situ aircraft measurements and ground based Radar/Lidar. Widespread mid-level stratus cloud was present below a temperature inversion (~5 °C magnitude at 3.6 km altitude. Localised convection (peak updraft 1.5 m s−1 was observed 20 km west of the Radar station. This was associated with convergence at 2.5 km altitude. The convection was unable to penetrate the inversion capping the mid-level stratus.

    The mid-level stratus cloud was vertically thin (~400 m, horizontally extensive (covering 100 s of km and persisted for more than 24 h. The cloud consisted of supercooled water droplets and small concentrations of large (~1 mm stellar/plate like ice which slowly precipitated out. This ice was nucleated at temperatures greater than −12.2 °C and less than −10.0 °C, (cloud top and cloud base temperatures, respectively. No ice seeding from above the cloud layer was observed. This ice was formed by primary nucleation, either through the entrainment of efficient ice nuclei from above/below cloud, or by the slow stochastic activation of immersion freezing ice nuclei contained within the supercooled drops. Above cloud top significant concentrations of sub-micron aerosol were observed and consisted of a mixture of sulphate and carbonaceous material, a potential source of ice nuclei. Particle number concentrations (in the size range 0.1<D<3.0 μm were measured above and below cloud in concentrations of ~25 cm−3. Ice crystal concentrations in the cloud were constant at around 0.2 L−1. It is estimated that entrainment of aerosol particles into cloud cannot replenish the loss of ice nuclei from the cloud layer via precipitation.

    Precipitation from the mid-level stratus evaporated before reaching the surface, whereas rates of up to 1 mm h−1 were observed below the convective feature. There is strong

  6. Observation of low frequency electromagnetic activity at 1000 km altitude

    N. Ivchenko

    Full Text Available We present a statistical study of low frequency fluctuations of electric and magnetic fields, commonly interpreted as Alfvénic activity. The data base consists of six months of electric and magnetic field measurements by the Astrid-2 microsatellite. The occurrence of the events is studied with respect to the location and general activity. Large regions of broadband Alfvénic activity are persistently observed in the cusp/cleft and, during the periods of high geo-magnetic activity, also in the pre-midnight sector of the auroral oval.

    Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere – Space plasma physics (waves and instabilities – Magnetospheric physics (magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions

  7. Observation of optical-fiber Kerr nonlinearity at the single-photon level

    Matsuda, Nobuyuki; Mitsumori, Yasuyoshi; Kosaka, Hideo; Edamatsu, Keiichi; 10.1038/nphoton.2008.292

    2012-01-01

    Optical fibers have been enabling numerous distinguished applications involving the operation and generation of light, such as soliton transmission, light amplification, all-optical switching and supercontinuum generation. The active function of optical fibers in the quantum regime is expected to be applicable to ultralow-power all-optical signal processing and quantum information processing. Here we demonstrate the first experimental observation of optical nonlinearity at the single-photon level in an optical fiber. Taking advantage of large nonlinearity and managed dispersion of a photonic crystal fiber, we have successfully measured very small (10^(-7) ~ 10^(-8)) conditional phase shifts induced by weak coherent pulses that contain one or less than one photon per pulse on average. In spite of its tininess, the phase shift was measurable using much (~10^6 times) stronger coherent probe pulses than the pump pulses. We discuss the feasibility of quantum information processing using optical fibers, taking into...

  8. CORONAS-F observations of active phenomena on the sun

    Oraevsky, V. N.; Sobelman, I. I.; Zitnik, I. A.; Kuznetsov, V. D.; Stepanov, A. I.; Polishuk, G. M.; Kovilin, P. N.; Negoda, A. A.; Dranovsky, V. I.; Yatskiv, Ya. S.

    Complex observations in the framework of the CORONAS-F Mission aimed at the study of active phenomena inthe solar corona are described. The main features are given for the following experiments: (1) XUV-imaging spectroscopy with high temporal and spatial resolution, (2) X-ray spectroscopy, (3) X-ray and gamma-ray photometer/spectrometer, and (4) solar cosmic rays. Some new observational data on the structure and dynamics of flares and transient events are discussed along with their analysis.

  9. A Direct Coupling Coherent Quantum Observer for a Single Qubit Finite Level Quantum System

    Petersen, Ian R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of constructing a direct coupling quantum observer for a single qubit finite level quantum system plant. The proposed observer is a single mode linear quantum system which is shown to be able to estimate one of the plant variables in a time averaged sense. A numerical example and simulations are included to illustrate the properties of the observer.

  10. Global estimation of burned area using MODIS active fire observations

    GIGLIO, L.; G. R. van der Werf; J. T. Randerson; Collatz, G. J.; Kasibhatla, P.

    2006-01-01

    We present a method for estimating monthly burned area globally at 1° spatial resolution using Terra MODIS data and ancillary vegetation cover information. Using regression trees constructed for 14 different global regions, MODIS active fire observations were calibrated to ''true'' burned area estimates derived from 500-m MODIS imagery based on the conventional assumption that burned area is proportional to counts of fire pixels. Unlike earlier methods, we...

  11. Cooling Active Region Loops Observed With SXT and TRACE

    Winebarger, A R; Winebarger, Amy R.; Warren, Harry P.

    2005-01-01

    An Impulsive Heating Multiple Strand (IHMS) Model is able to reproduce the observational characteristics of EUV (~ 1 MK) active region loops. This model implies that some of the loops must reach temperatures where X-ray filters are sensitive (> 2.5 MK) before they cool to EUV temperatures. Hence, some bright EUV loops must be preceded by bright X-ray loops. Previous analysis of X-ray and EUV active region observations, however, have concluded that EUV loops are not preceded by X-ray loops. In this paper, we examine two active regions observed in both X-ray and EUV filters and analyze the evolution of five loops over several hours. These loops first appear bright in the X-ray images and later appear bright in the EUV images. The delay between the appearance of the loops in the X-ray and EUV filters is as little as 1 hour and as much as 3 hours. All five loops appear as single ``monolithic'' structures in the X-ray images, but are resolved into many smaller structures in the (higher resolution) EUV images. The ...

  12. Murine erythrocytes contain high levels of lysophospholipase activity

    Kamp, J.A.F. op den; Roelofsen, B.; Sanderink, G.; Middelkoop, E.; Hamer, R.

    1984-01-01

    Murine erythrocytes were found to be unique in the high levels of lysophospholipase activity in the cytosol of these cells. The specific activity of the enzyme in the cytosol of the murine cells is 10-times higher than in the cytosol of rabbit erythrocytes and approximately three orders of magnitude

  13. Active Ageing Level of Older Persons: Regional Comparison in Thailand

    Md. Nuruzzaman Haque

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Active ageing level and its discrepancy in different regions (Bangkok, Central, North, Northeast, and South of Thailand have been examined for prioritizing the policy agenda to be implemented. Attempt has been made to test preliminary active ageing models for Thai older persons and hence active ageing index (AAI, ranges from 0 to 1 has been estimated. Using nationally representative data and confirmatory factor analysis approach, this study justified active ageing models for female and male older persons in Thailand. Results revealed that active ageing level of Thai older persons is not high (mean AAIs for female and male older persons are 0.64 and 0.61, resp., and those are significantly different (p<0.001. Mean AAI in Central region is lower than North, Northeast, and South regions but there is no significant difference in the latter three regions of Thailand. Special emphasis should be given to Central region and policy should be undertaken for increasing active ageing level. Implementation of an Integrated Active Ageing Package (IAAP, containing policies for older persons to improve their health and economic security, to promote participation in social groups and longer working lives, and to arrange learning programs, would be helpful for increasing older persons’ active ageing level in Thailand.

  14. Continuous gravity observations at active volcanoes through superconducting gravimeters

    Carbone, Daniele; Greco, Filippo

    2016-04-01

    Continuous gravity measurements at active volcanoes are usually taken through spring gravimeters that are easily portable and do not require much power to work. However, intrinsic limitations dictate that, when used in continuous, these instruments do not provide high-quality data over periods longer than some days. Superconducting gravimeters (SG), that feature a superconducting sphere in a magnetic field as the proof mass, provide better-quality data than spring gravimeters, but are bigger and need mains electricity to work, implying that they cannot be installed close to the active structures of high volcanoes. An iGrav SG was installed on Mt. Etna (Italy) in September 2014 and has worked almost continuously since then. It was installed about 6km from the active craters in the summit zone of the volcano. Such distance is normally too much to observe gravity changes due to relatively fast (minutes to days) volcanic processes. Indeed, mass redistributions in the shallowest part of the plumbing system induce short-wavelength gravity anomalies, centered below the summit craters. Nevertheless, thanks to the high precision and long-term stability of SGs, it was possible to observe low-amplitude changes over a wide range of timescales (minutes to months), likely driven by volcanic activity. Plans are in place for the implementation of a mini-array of SGs at Etna.

  15. Active Crohn's disease is associated with low vitamin D levels

    Jørgensen, Søren Peter; Hvas, Christian Lodberg; Agnholt, Jørgen;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Crohn's disease prevalence increases with increasing latitude. Because most vitamin D comes from sunlight exposure and murine models of intestinal inflammation have demonstrated beneficial effects of 1,25-(OH)(2) vitamin D treatment, we hypothesised that Crohn's disease...... activity is associated with low vitamin D levels. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study of 182 CD patients and 62 healthy controls, we measured serum 25-OH vitamin D. Stratified analysis was used to compare 25-OH vitamin D levels with Crohn's disease activity index, C-reactive protein, smoking status, intake...... of oral vitamin D supplements and seasonal variation in CD patients and healthy controls. RESULTS: Serum 25-OH vitamin D was inversely associated with disease activity: Median 25-OH vitamin D levels of Crohn's disease in remission, mildly, and moderately active diseases evaluated by Crohn's disease...

  16. Algorithmic recognition of anomalous time intervals in sea-level observations

    Getmanov, V. G.; Gvishiani, A. D.; Kamaev, D. A.; Kornilov, A. S.

    2016-03-01

    The problem of the algorithmic recognition of anomalous time intervals in the time series of the sea-level observations conducted by the Russian Tsunami Warning Survey (RTWS) is considered. The normal and anomalous sea-level observations are described. The polyharmonic models describing the sea-level fluctuations on the short time intervals are constructed, and sea-level forecasting based on these models is suggested. The algorithm for the recognition of anomalous time intervals is developed and its work is tested on the real RTWS data.

  17. Geodetic observation of sea-level change and crustal deformation in the Baltic Sea region

    Richter, A.; Groh, A.; Dietrich, R.

    Based on tide gauge observations spanning almost 200 years, homogeneous time series of the mean relative sea level were derived for nine sites at the southern coast of the Baltic Sea. Our regionally concentrated data were complemented by long-term relative sea-level records retrieved from the data base of the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL). From these records relative sea-level change rates were derived at 51 tide gauge stations for the period between 1908 and 2007. A minimum observation time of 60 years is required for the determination of reliable sea-level rates. At present, no anthropogenic acceleration in sea-level rise is detected in the tide gauge observations in the southern Baltic. The spatial variation of the relative sea-level rates reflects the fingerprint of GIA-induced crustal uplift. Time series of extreme sea levels were also inferred from the tide gauge records. They were complemented by water level information from historic storm surge marks preserved along the German Baltic coast. Based on this combined dataset the incidence and spatial variation of extreme sea levels induced by storm surges were analysed yielding important information for hazard assessments. Permanent GPS observations were used to determine recent crustal deformation rates for 44 stations in the Baltic Sea region. The GPS derived height change rates were applied to reduce the relative sea-level changes observed by tide gauges yielding an estimate for the eustatic sea-level change. For 13 tide gauge-GPS colocation sites a mean eustatic sea-level trend of 1.3 mm/a was derived for the last 100 years.

  18. Both novelty and expertise increase action observation network activity

    Sook-Lei eLiew

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Our experiences with others affect how we perceive their actions. In particular, activity in bilateral premotor and parietal cortices during action observation, collectively known as the action observation network (AON, is modulated by one’s expertise with the observed actions or individuals. However, conflicting reports suggest that AON activity is greatest both for familiar and unfamiliar actions. The current study examines the effects of different types and amounts of experience (e.g., visual, interpersonal, personal on AON activation. fMRI was used to scan 16 healthy participants without prior experience with individuals with amputations (novices, 11 experienced occupational therapists (OTs who had varying amounts of experience with individuals with amputations, and one individual born with below-elbow residual limbs (participant CJ, as they viewed video clips of goal-matched actions performed by an individual with residual limbs and by an individual with hands. Participants were given increased visual exposure to actions performed by both effectors midway through the scanning procedure. Novices demonstrated a large AON response to the initial viewing of an individual with residual limbs compared to one with hands, but this signal was attenuated after they received visual exposure to both effectors. In contrast, OTs, who had moderate familiarity with residual limbs, demonstrated a lower AON response upon initial viewing—similar to novices after they received visual exposure. At the other extreme, CJ, who has extreme familiarity with residual limbs both visually and motorically, shows a largely increased left-lateralized AON response, exceeding that of novices and experienced OTs, when viewing the residual limb compared to hand actions. These results suggest that a nuanced model of AON engagement is needed to explain how cases of both extreme experience (CJ and extreme novelty (novices can result in the greatest AON activity.

  19. Relationship between level of neutral buoyancy and dual-Doppler observed mass detrainment levels in deep convection

    G. L. Mullendore

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although it is generally accepted that the level of neutral buoyancy (LNB is only a coarse estimate of updraft depth, the LNB is still used to understand and predict storm structure in both observations and modeling. This study uses case studies to quantify the variability associated with using environmental soundings to predict detrainment levels. Nine dual-Doppler convective cases were used to determine the observed level of maximum detrainment (LMD to compare with the LNB. The LNB for each case was calculated with a variety of methods and with a variety of sources (including both observed and simulated soundings. The most representative LNB was chosen as the proximity sounding from NARR using the most unstable parcel and including ice processes.

    The observed cases were a mix of storm morphologies, including both supercell and multicell storms. As expected, the LMD was generally below the LNB, the mean offset for all cases being 2.2 km. However, there was a marked difference between the supercell and non-supercell cases. The two supercell cases had LMDs of 0.3 km and 0.0 km below the LNB. The remaining cases had LMDs that ranged from 4.0 km below to 1.6 km below the LNB, with a mean offset of 2.8 km below. Observations also showed that evolution of the LMD over the lifetime of the storm can be significant (e.g., >2 km altitude change in 30 min, and this time evolution is lacking from models with coarse time steps, missing significant changes in detrainment levels that may strongly impact the amount of boundary layer mass transported to the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere.

  20. Spectroscopic Observations of Fe XVIII in Solar Active Regions

    Teriaca, Luca; Curdt, Werner

    2012-01-01

    The large uncertainties associated with measuring the amount of high temperature emission in solar active regions represents a significant impediment to making progress on the coronal heating problem. Most current observations at temperatures of 3 MK and above are taken with broad band soft X-ray instruments. Such measurements have proven difficult to interpret unambiguously. Here we present the first spectroscopic observations of the Fe XVIII 974.86 AA emission line in an on-disk active region taken with then SUMER instrument on SOHO. Fe XVIII has a peak formation temperature of 7.1 MK and provides important constraints on the amount of impulsive heating in the corona. Detailed evaluation of the spectra and comparison of the SUMER data with soft X-ray images from the XRT on Hinode confirm that this line is unblended. We also compare the spectroscopic data with observations from the AIA 94 AA channel on SDO. The AIA 94 AA channel also contains Fe XVIII, but is blended with emission formed at lower temperature...

  1. Great Lakes Daily Ice Observations at NOAA Water Level Gauge Sites

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains daily visual ice observations taken yearly from 1 November to 30 April at NOAA/National Ocean Service water level gauge sites in the Great...

  2. SPECTROSCOPIC OBSERVATIONS OF Fe XVIII IN SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS

    Teriaca, Luca; Curdt, Werner [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Sonnensystemforschung, Max-Planck-Str. 2, 37191 Katlenburg-Lindau (Germany); Warren, Harry P. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2012-08-01

    The large uncertainties associated with measuring the amount of high temperature emission in solar active regions (ARs) represents a significant impediment to making progress on the coronal heating problem. Most current observations at temperatures of 3 MK and above are taken with broadband soft X-ray instruments. Such measurements have proven difficult to interpret unambiguously. Here, we present the first spectroscopic observations of the Fe XVIII 974.86 A emission line in an on-disk AR taken with the SUMER instrument on SOHO. Fe XVIII has a peak formation temperature of 7.1 MK and provides important constraints on the amount of impulsive heating in the corona. Detailed evaluation of the spectra and comparison of the SUMER data with soft X-ray images from the X-Ray Telescope on Hinode confirm that this line is unblended. We also compare the spectroscopic data with observations from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) 94 A channel on the Solar Dynamics Observatory. The AIA 94 A channel also contains Fe XVIII, but is blended with emission formed at lower temperatures. We find that it is possible to remove the contaminating blends and form relatively pure Fe XVIII images that are consistent with the spectroscopic observations from SUMER. The observed spectra also contain the Ca XIV 943.63 A line that, although a factor 2-6 weaker than the Fe XVIII 974.86 A line, allows us to probe the plasma around 3.5 MK. The observed ratio between the two lines indicates (isothermal approximation) that most of the plasma in the brighter Fe XVIII AR loops is at temperatures between 3.5 and 4 MK.

  3. Spectroscopic Observations of Fe XVIII in Solar Active Regions

    Teriaca, Luca; Warren, Harry P.; Curdt, Werner

    2012-08-01

    The large uncertainties associated with measuring the amount of high temperature emission in solar active regions (ARs) represents a significant impediment to making progress on the coronal heating problem. Most current observations at temperatures of 3 MK and above are taken with broadband soft X-ray instruments. Such measurements have proven difficult to interpret unambiguously. Here, we present the first spectroscopic observations of the Fe XVIII 974.86 Å emission line in an on-disk AR taken with the SUMER instrument on SOHO. Fe XVIII has a peak formation temperature of 7.1 MK and provides important constraints on the amount of impulsive heating in the corona. Detailed evaluation of the spectra and comparison of the SUMER data with soft X-ray images from the X-Ray Telescope on Hinode confirm that this line is unblended. We also compare the spectroscopic data with observations from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) 94 Å channel on the Solar Dynamics Observatory. The AIA 94 Å channel also contains Fe XVIII, but is blended with emission formed at lower temperatures. We find that it is possible to remove the contaminating blends and form relatively pure Fe XVIII images that are consistent with the spectroscopic observations from SUMER. The observed spectra also contain the Ca XIV 943.63 Å line that, although a factor 2-6 weaker than the Fe XVIII 974.86 Å line, allows us to probe the plasma around 3.5 MK. The observed ratio between the two lines indicates (isothermal approximation) that most of the plasma in the brighter Fe XVIII AR loops is at temperatures between 3.5 and 4 MK.

  4. Active region upflows. I. Multi-instrument observations

    Vanninathan, K.; Madjarska, M. S.; Galsgaard, K.; Huang, Z.; Doyle, J. G.

    2015-12-01

    Context. We study upflows at the edges of active regions, called AR outflows, using multi-instrument observations. Aims: This study intends to provide the first direct observational evidence of whether chromospheric jets play an important role in furnishing mass that could sustain coronal upflows. The evolution of the photospheric magnetic field, associated with the footpoints of the upflow region and the plasma properties of active region upflows is investigated with the aim of providing information for benchmarking data-driven modelling of this solar feature. Methods: We spatially and temporally combine multi-instrument observations obtained with the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer on board the Hinode, the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly and the Helioseismic Magnetic Imager instruments on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory and the Interferometric BI-dimensional Spectro-polarimeter installed at the National Solar Observatory, Sac Peak, to study the plasma parameters of the upflows and the impact of the chromosphere on active region upflows. Results: Our analysis shows that the studied active region upflow presents similarly to those studied previously, i.e. it displays blueshifted emission of 5-20 kms-1 in Fe xii and Fe xiii and its average electron density is 1.8 × 109 cm-3 at 1 MK. The time variation of the density is obtained showing no significant change (in a 3σ error). The plasma density along a single loop is calculated revealing a drop of 50% over a distance of ~20 000 km along the loop. We find a second velocity component in the blue wing of the Fe xii and Fe xiii lines at 105 kms-1 reported only once before. For the first time we study the time evolution of this component at high cadence and find that it is persistent during the whole observing period of 3.5 h with variations of only ±15 kms-1. We also, for the first time, study the evolution of the photospheric magnetic field at high cadence and find that magnetic flux diffusion is

  5. Observation of Andreev bound states at spin-active interfaces

    Beckmann, Detlef; Wolf, Michael Johannes [KIT, Institut fuer Nanotechnologie (Germany); Huebler, Florian [KIT, Institut fuer Nanotechnologie (Germany); KIT, Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik (Germany); Loehneysen, Hilbert von [KIT, Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik (Germany); KIT, Physikalisches Institut (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    We report on high-resolution differential conductance experiments on nanoscale superconductor/ferromagnet tunnel junctions with ultra-thin oxide tunnel barriers. We observe subgap conductance features which are symmetric with respect to bias, and shift according to the Zeeman energy with an applied magnetic field. These features can be explained by resonant transport via Andreev bound states induced by spin-active scattering at the interface. From the energy and the Zeeman shift of the bound states, both the magnitude and sign of the spin-dependent interfacial phase shifts between spin-up and spin-down electrons can be determined. These results contribute to the microscopic insight into the triplet proximity effect at spin-active interfaces.

  6. ACTIVE OBSERVATION TACTICS IN PATIENTS WITH KIDNEY NEOPLASMS

    B. Ya. Alekseev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As of now, about 40-60% of the first detected kidney tumors are accidentally diagnosed. These are most often asymptomatic small kidney tumors (SKT without distant metastases; 15–20% of them are benign. A number of studies have revealed that kidney malignant tumors grow slowly and spread extremely rarely, as evidenced by a histological study. These and other data formed the basis for the active observation tactic that became possible and acceptable in well-selected patients, in elderly patients with SKT and severe comorbidity in particular.

  7. Active region upflows: 1. Multi-instrument observations

    Vanninathan, K.; Madjarska, M. S.; Galsgaard, K.; Huang, Z; Doyle, J. G.

    2015-01-01

    Upflows at the edges of active regions (ARs) are studied by spatially and temporally combining multi-instrument observations obtained with EIS/Hinode, AIA and HMI/SDO and IBIS/NSO, to derive their plasma parameters. This information is used for benchmarking data-driven modelling of the upflows (Galsgaard et al., 2015). The studied AR upflow displays blueshifted emission of 5-20 km/s in Fe XII and Fe XIII and its average electron density is 1.8x10^9 cm^3 at 1 MK. The time variation of the dens...

  8. Magnetospheric impulse response for many levels of geomagnetic activity

    The temporal relationship between the solar wind and magnetospheric activity has been studied using 34 intervals of high time resolution IMP 8 solar wind data and the corresponding AL auroral activity index. The median value of the AL index for each interval were utilized to rank the intervals according to geomagnetic activity level. The linear prediction filtering technique was then applied to model magnetospheric response as measured by the AL index to the solar wind input function VB/sub s/. The linear prediction filtering routine produces a filter of time-lagged response coefficients which estimates the most general linear relationship between the chosen input and output parameters of the magnetospheric system. It is found that the filters are composed of two response pulses speaking at time lags of 20 and 60 min. The amplitude of the 60-min pulse is the larger for moderate activity levels, while the 20-min pulse is the larger for strong activity levels. A possible interpretation is that the 20-min pulse represents magnetospheric activity driven directly by solar wind coupling and that the 60-min pulse represents magnetospheric activity driven by the relase of energy previously stored in the magnetotal. If this interpretation is correct, the linear filtering results suggest that both the driven and the unloading models of magnetospheric response are important facets of a more comprehensive response model

  9. Effect of fluorozis on the erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity levels

    While the flourine level of (drinking) water was higher than normal ranges in the center of Isparta region before 1995 year, this problematic situation is solved in later years. (However) the individuals who are staying in Yenice district are still expose to high levels of fluorine because of the usage of Andik spring water (3.8 mg/L flour level) as drinking water. In this study we aimed to investigate the harmful effect of floride on human erythrocytes via antioxidant defence system and lipid peroxidation. Therefore, we studied the activities of erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes such as Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), Glutathione Peroxidase (GSH-Px) and Catalase (CAT), and the level of erythrocyte Glutathione (GSH), thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and the level of urine floride in high floride exposed people (children, adult and elderly). The activities of SOD, GSH-Px and CAT and the level of GSH, TBARS and urine floride were higher in 3.8 mg/L floride exposed children (Group II) than 0.8 mg/L floride exposed control children (Group I) (p0.05). The activities of SOD, GSH-Px and CAT were lower and the levels of TBARS and urine floride were higher in 3.8 mg/L floride exposed elderly people (Group VI) than 0.8 mg/L floride exposed control elderly people (Group V) (p0.05). As a result we thought that increased SOD, GSH-Px and CAT activities in floride exposed children and adult people, decreased activities of these enzymes in floride exposed elderly people, and increased TBARS in all groups may indicate floride caused oxidative damage in erythrocytes. (author)

  10. Levels of erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity in Japanese people

    Ueda,Kazuko

    1978-12-01

    Full Text Available Levels of erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD activitiy in a sample of Japanese people were determined. Blood samples were taken from new-born infants, preschool children, young and old people who had no apparent diseases and also from three anemic patients. Erythrocyte SOD activities in different age groups had a nearly normal distribution. Females had slightly lower activities than males, although the difference was statistically insignificant. The distributions of SOD activities were 12.6 +/- 2.7 (m +/- SD unit/mg Hb in young people and 11.4 +/- 3.0 in old people, indicating that erythrocyte SOD activity falls with aging. Because of low concentration of hemoglobin, SOD activities of old people expressed as unit/ml blood were much lower than in young people. Three anemic patients had slightly lower SOD activity.

  11. Classroom Management to Support Active Middle Level Classrooms

    Bryan Lloyd McCoy

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    This article presents a discussion of connections between middle level concepts of teaching and learning and managing a classroom through creating opportunities for active and engaged learning. The article argues and concludes that classroom management is more about managing learning than managing behavior and that one effective way to manage student behavior is to create an environment where students continuously engage in active learning (Haydon, Borders, Embury, & Clarke, 2009.

  12. Classroom Management to Support Active Middle Level Classrooms

    Bryan Lloyd McCoy

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a discussion of connections between middle level concepts of teaching and learning and managing a classroom through creating opportunities for active and engaged learning. The article argues and concludes that classroom management is more about managing learning than managing behavior and that one effective way to manage student behavior is to create an environment where students continuously engage in active learning (Haydon, Borders, Embury, & Clarke, 2009.

  13. Classroom Management to Support Active Middle Level Classrooms

    Bryan Lloyd McCoy

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a discussion of connections between middle level concepts of teaching and learning and managing a classroom through creating opportunities for active and engaged learning. The article argues and concludes that classroom management is more about managing learning than managing behavior and that one effective way to manage student behavior is to create an environment where students continuously engage in active learning (Haydon, Borders, Embury, & Clarke, ...

  14. Alternative complement pathway and factor B activities in rats with altered blood levels of thyroid hormone

    Bitencourt, C.S. [Departamento de Análises Clínicas, Toxicológicas e Bromatológicas, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Duarte, C.G.; Azzolini, A.E.C.S.; Assis-Pandochi, A.I. [Departamento de Física e Química, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2012-03-02

    Evaluating the activity of the complement system under conditions of altered thyroid hormone levels might help elucidate the role of complement in triggering autoimmune processes. Here, we investigated alternative pathway (AP) activity in male Wistar rats (180 ± 10 g) after altering their thyroid hormone levels by treatment with triiodothyronine (T3), propylthiouracil (PTU) or thyroidectomy. T3 and thyroxine (T4) levels were determined by chemiluminescence assays. Hemolytic assays were performed to evaluate the lytic activity of the AP. Factor B activity was evaluated using factor B-deficient serum. An anti-human factor B antibody was used to measure factor B levels in serum by radial immunodiffusion. T3 measurements in thyroidectomized animals or animals treated with PTU demonstrated a significant reduction in hormone levels compared to control. The results showed a reduction in AP lytic activity in rats treated with increasing amounts of T3 (1, 10, or 50 µg). Factor B activity was also decreased in the sera of hyperthyroid rats treated with 1 to 50 µg T3. Additionally, treating rats with 25 µg T3 significantly increased factor B levels in their sera (P < 0.01). In contrast, increased factor B concentration and activity (32%) were observed in hypothyroid rats. We conclude that alterations in thyroid hormone levels affect the activity of the AP and factor B, which may in turn affect the roles of AP and factor B in antibody production.

  15. FERMI OBSERVATIONS OF TeV-SELECTED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    We report on observations of TeV-selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs) made during the first 5.5 months of observations with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on-board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi). In total, 96 AGNs were selected for study, each being either (1) a source detected at TeV energies (28 sources) or (2) an object that has been studied with TeV instruments and for which an upper limit has been reported (68 objects). The Fermi observations show clear detections of 38 of these TeV-selected objects, of which 21 are joint GeV-TeV sources, and 29 were not in the third EGRET catalog. For each of the 38 Fermi-detected sources, spectra and light curves are presented. Most can be described with a power law of spectral index harder than 2.0, with a spectral break generally required to accommodate the TeV measurements. Based on an extrapolation of the Fermi spectrum, we identify sources, not previously detected at TeV energies, which are promising targets for TeV instruments. Evidence for systematic evolution of the γ-ray spectrum with redshift is presented and discussed in the context of interaction with the extragalactic background light.

  16. Observation of high spin levels in 131Cs from 131Ba decay

    M Sainath; Dwaraka Rani Rao; K Venkataramaniah; P C Sood

    2003-12-01

    The - and conversion electron spectra following 131Ba -decay are investigated, using HPGe detector and mini-orange electron spectrometer. Attention is particularly focussed on identifying weak transitions associated with low energy high spin levels in 131Cs level scheme earlier inferred in reaction studies but not yet observed in 131Ba decay. Our experiment identifies 15 new gammas and 6 new conversion lines in this decay. Internal conversion coefficients and multipolarities of several transitions are determined. Five new levels (3 with =7/2+ and one each with =9/2+ and 11/2-) are introduced in the 131Cs level scheme based on our observations taken together with the results from reaction studies. Spin-parity assignments to a few other levels are also suggested.

  17. Tides and lake-level variations in the great Patagonian lakes: Observations, modelling and geophysical implications.

    Marderwald, Eric; Richter, Andreas; Horwath, Martin; Hormaechea, Jose Luis; Groh, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    time series from Lagos Argentino and Viedma yields the amplitudes and phases of the lake tides for the four major tidal constituents M2, S2, O1 and K1. The maximum amplitude, corresponding to the semi-diurnal moon tide M2 in Lago Argentino, amounts to 3 mm. For the four lakes under investigation the theoretical amplitudes and phases of seven constituents (Q1, O1, P1, K1, N2, M2 and S2) are modelled accounting for the contributions of both the solid earth's body tides and the ocean tidal loading (Marderwald 2014). Both contributions involve a deformation of the earth surface and of the equipotential surfaces of the gravity field. For the load tide computation the global ocean tide model EOT11a (Savcenko and Bosch, 2012) and the Gutenberg-Bullen A earth model (Farrell, 1972) was applied and the conservation of water volume is taken into account. The comparison of the tidal signal extracted from the lake-level observations in Lagos Argentino and Viedma with the lake tide models indicates a phase shift which is most likely explained by an 1 hour phase lag of the employed global ocean tide model in the region of the highly fragmented Pacific coast. REFERENCES: Farrell, W. E., (1972). Deformation of the Earth by Surface Loads. Rev. Geophy. Space Phy., 10(3):761-797. Ivins, E., James, T., 2004. Bedrock response to Llanquihue Holocene and present-day glaciation in southernmost South America. Geophys. Res. Lett. 31 (L24613). Doi:10.1029/2004GL021500. Klemann, V., E. R. Ivins, Z. Martinec, and D. Wolf (2007), Models of active glacial isostasy roofing warm subduction: Case of the South Patagonian Ice Field, J. Geophys. Res., 112, B09405, doi: 10.1029/2006JB004818. Lange, H., Casassa, G., Ivins, E. R., Schröder, L., Fritsche, M., Richter, A., Groh, A., Dietrich, R., (2014). Observed crustal uplift near the Southern Patagonian Icefield constrains improved viscoelastic Earth models. Geophysical Research Letters, DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058419. Marderwald ER, 2014. Modelado de las mareas

  18. Default activity patterns at the neocortical microcircuit level

    Artur Luczak

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Even in absence of sensory stimuli cortical networks exhibit complex, self-organized activity patterns. While the function of those spontaneous patterns of activation remains poorly understood, recent studies both in vivo and in vitro have demonstrated that neocortical neurons activate in a surprisingly similar sequential order both spontaneously and following input into cortex. For example, neurons that tend to fire earlier within spontaneous bursts of activity also fire earlier than other neurons in response to sensory stimuli. These 'default patterns' can last hundreds of milliseconds and are strongly conserved under a variety of conditions. In this paper we will review recent evidence for these default patterns at the local cortical level. We speculate that cortical architecture imposes common constraints on spontaneous and evoked activity flow, which result in the similarity of the patterns.

  19. 34 CFR 300.814 - Other State-level activities.

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Other State-level activities. 300.814 Section 300.814 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION...

  20. The Arctic Observing Viewer: A Web-mapping Application for U.S. Arctic Observing Activities

    Cody, R. P.; Manley, W. F.; Gaylord, A. G.; Kassin, A.; Villarreal, S.; Barba, M.; Dover, M.; Escarzaga, S. M.; Habermann, T.; Kozimor, J.; Score, R.; Tweedie, C. E.

    2015-12-01

    interoperable resources in this way will help to ensure improved capacities for conducting activities such as assessing the status of arctic observing efforts, optimizing logistic operations, and for quickly accessing external and project-focused web resources for more detailed information and access to scientific data and derived products.

  1. Neural substrates underlying the passive observation and active control of translational egomotion.

    Huang, Ruey-Song; Chen, Ching-Fu; Sereno, Martin I

    2015-03-11

    Moving or static obstacles often get in the way while walking in daily life. Avoiding obstacles involves both perceptual processing of motion information and controlling appropriate defensive movements. Several higher-level motion areas, including the ventral intraparietal area (VIP), medial superior temporal area, parieto-insular vestibular cortex (PIVC), areas V6 and V6A, and cingulate sulcus visual area, have been identified in humans by passive viewing of optic flow patterns that simulate egomotion and object motion. However, the roles of these areas in the active control of egomotion in the real world remain unclear. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to map the neural substrates underlying the passive observation and active control of translational egomotion in humans. A wide-field virtual reality environment simulated a daily scenario where doors randomly swing outward while walking in a hallway. The stimuli of door-dodging events were essentially the same in two event-related fMRI experiments, which compared passive and active dodges in response to swinging doors. Passive dodges were controlled by a computer program, while active dodges were controlled by the subject. Passive dodges activated several higher-level areas distributed across three dorsal motion streams in the temporal, parietal, and cingulate cortex. Active dodges most strongly activated the temporal-vestibular stream, with peak activation located in the right PIVC. Other higher-level motion areas including VIP showed weaker to no activation in active dodges. These results suggest that PIVC plays an active role in sensing and guiding translational egomotion that moves an observer aside from impending obstacles. PMID:25762672

  2. Tropical Pacific spatial trend patterns in observed sea level: internal variability and/or anthropogenic signature?

    B. Meyssignac

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the spatio-temporal variability of sea level trend patterns observed by satellite altimetry since 1993, focusing on the Tropical Pacific. The objective of this study is two fold. On the basis of a 2-D past sea level reconstruction (over 1950–2009 – based on a combination of observations and ocean modelling – and multi-century control runs (i.e. with constant, preindustrial external forcing from eight coupled climate models, we investigate how these sea level trend patterns evolved during the last decades and centuries, and what their characteristic time scales are. Using 20th century coupled climate model runs, we also examine whether observed trend patterns are driven by external forcing factors (i.e. solar plus volcanic variability and changes in anthropogenic forcing or if they essentially result from natural climate variability. For this analysis, we computed sea level trend patterns over successive 17 yr windows (i.e. the length of the altimetry record both for the reconstructed sea level and model runs. We compared them to altimetry-based observed trends. The 2-D sea level reconstruction shows similar spatial trend patterns to those observed during the altimetry era. The patterns appear to have fluctuated with time with a characteristic time scale of the order of 25–30 yr. Similar behaviour is found in multi-centennial control runs of the coupled climate models. The same analysis, performed on 20th century model runs does not display significant differences. This suggests that Tropical Pacific sea level trend fluctuations are still dominated by the internal natural variability of the ocean-atmosphere coupled system. While our analysis cannot rule out any influence of anthropogenic forcing, it concludes that the latter effects on the regional sea level patterns are still hardly detectable.

  3. Can nursing students' confidence levels increase with repeated simulation activities?

    Cummings, Cynthia L; Connelly, Linda K

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, nursing faculty conducted a study with undergraduate nursing students on their satisfaction, confidence, and educational practice levels, as it related to simulation activities throughout the curriculum. The study was a voluntary survey conducted on junior and senior year nursing students. It consisted of 30 items based on the Student Satisfaction and Self-Confidence in Learning and the Educational Practices Questionnaire (Jeffries, 2012). Mean averages were obtained for each of the 30 items from both groups and were compared using T scores for unpaired means. The results showed that 8 of the items had a 95% confidence level and when combined the items were significant for p confidence and active learning. Based on these findings, it can be assumed that repeated simulation experiences can lead to an increase in student confidence and active learning. PMID:26599594

  4. Observer agreement on pen level prevalence of clinical signs in finishing pigs.

    Petersen, Henrik Hagbard; Enøe, Claes; Nielsen, Elisabeth Okholm

    2004-07-16

    Four observers performed a standard clinical examination of finisher pigs in two commercial finisher herds. In herd 1,600 finisher pigs in 44 pens were examined. The observers assessed clinical signs of lameness, umbilical hernia and tail bite according to a standardized procedure. The prevalence of the clinical signs was estimated at the pen level. The procedure was repeated after 3 months in another herd, where 730 finisher pigs in 69 pens were examined. The agreement between observer pairs was assessed using prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted kappa (PABAK) and proportionate-agreement estimates (Ppo) and Pneg). Observer bias was present despite training and standardization of the participating observers. The highest pen level agreement for the observer pairs was found for pens that had one or more pigs with tail bite (PABAK = 0.82-1.00) and umbilical hernia (PABAK = 0.77-1.00). The agreement was fair-to-moderate for identification of pens holding one or more lame pigs (PABAK = 0.27-0.7). In general, the average agreement of observer pairs on absence of clinical signs (Pneg) was higher than for presence (Ppos). The observer bias varied between observer pairs and with the clinical signs. PMID:15325769

  5. Observing Sea Level Change and its Causes with Satellite Remote Sensing

    Boening, Carmen; Fu, Lee-Lueng; Landerer, Felix; Willis, Josh

    2016-07-01

    Sea level rise as a response to a changing climate is an imminent threat for coastal communities in the near future. Coastal zone management relies on most accurate predictions of sea level change over the coming decades for planning potential mitigation efforts. Hence, it is of high importance to accurately measure changes and understand physical processes behind them in great detail on a variety of time scales. Satellite observations of sea level height from altimetry have provided an unprecedented understanding of global changes and regional patterns for over two decades. With more and more missions providing now also observations of causes such as water mass changes due to ice melt and land hydrology as well as the ocean heat and salinity budget and local and regional wind patterns, we can now get a comprehensive understanding of the physical processes causing the short to long term changes in sea level. Here, we present an overview of sea level observations in combination with a suite of measurements looking at sea level contributions to provide insight into current and future challenges to understand the sea level budget and its impact on the accuracy of future projections.

  6. Serum fucosyl transferase activity and serum fucose levels as diagnostic tools in malignancy.

    Sen,Umi

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Glycoproteins play a significant role in neoplastic transformations. Both the levels of fucose and the activity of fucosyl transferase, which mediates the assembly of the oligosaccharide moieties of the glycoprotein chains, have been found to be elevated in neoplastic conditions. Since these elevations are common features of a variety of neoplastic cells, these two have been designated as non-specific markers of malignancy. In the present study, the fucose level and fucosyl transferase activity were determined in the sera of cancer patients and an attempt was made to establish a relationship between the two. It was found that both the fucose levels and fucosyl transferase activities showed considerable elevation in the five cancer groups studied, establishing them as useful diagnostic parameters. However, it was also observed that the rate of increased fucosyl transferase activity was not fully reflected in the resulting serum fucose levels in a few cases.

  7. The Arctic Observing Viewer: A Web-mapping Application for U.S. Arctic Observing Activities

    Kassin, A.; Gaylord, A. G.; Manley, W. F.; Villarreal, S.; Tweedie, C. E.; Cody, R. P.; Copenhaver, W.; Dover, M.; Score, R.; Habermann, T.

    2014-12-01

    way will help to ensure improved capacities for conducting activities such as assessing the status of arctic observing efforts, optimizing logistic operations, and for quickly accessing external and project-focused web resources for more detailed information and data.

  8. Observational and model evidence for positive low-level cloud feedback.

    Clement, Amy C; Burgman, Robert; Norris, Joel R

    2009-07-24

    Feedbacks involving low-level clouds remain a primary cause of uncertainty in global climate model projections. This issue was addressed by examining changes in low-level clouds over the Northeast Pacific in observations and climate models. Decadal fluctuations were identified in multiple, independent cloud data sets, and changes in cloud cover appeared to be linked to changes in both local temperature structure and large-scale circulation. This observational analysis further indicated that clouds act as a positive feedback in this region on decadal time scales. The observed relationships between cloud cover and regional meteorological conditions provide a more complete way of testing the realism of the cloud simulation in current-generation climate models. The only model that passed this test simulated a reduction in cloud cover over much of the Pacific when greenhouse gases were increased, providing modeling evidence for a positive low-level cloud feedback. PMID:19628865

  9. Estimation of the neuronal activation using fMRI data: An observer-based approach

    Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem

    2013-06-01

    This paper deals with the estimation of the neuronal activation and some unmeasured physiological information using the Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) signal measured using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). We propose to use an observer-based approach applied to the balloon hemodynamic model. The latter describes the relation between the neural activity and the BOLD signal. The balloon model can be expressed in a nonlinear state-space representation where the states, the parameters and the input (neuronal activation), are unknown. This study focuses only on the estimation of the hidden states and the neuronal activation. The model is first linearized around the equilibrium and an observer is applied to this linearized version. Numerical results performed on synthetic data are presented.

  10. Active region upflows: 1. Multi-instrument observations

    Vanninathan, K; Galsgaard, K; Huang, Z; Doyle, J G

    2015-01-01

    Upflows at the edges of active regions (ARs) are studied by spatially and temporally combining multi-instrument observations obtained with EIS/Hinode, AIA and HMI/SDO and IBIS/NSO, to derive their plasma parameters. This information is used for benchmarking data-driven modelling of the upflows (Galsgaard et al., 2015). The studied AR upflow displays blueshifted emission of 5-20 km/s in Fe XII and Fe XIII and its average electron density is 1.8x10^9 cm^3 at 1 MK. The time variation of the density shows no significant change (in a 3sigma error). The plasma density along a single loop drops by 50% over a distance of 20000 km. We find a second velocity component in the blue wing of the Fe XII and Fe XIII lines at 105 km/s. This component is persistent during the whole observing period of 3.5 hours with variations of only 15 km/s. We also study the evolution of the photospheric magnetic field and find that magnetic flux diffusion is responsible for the formation of the upflow region. High cadence Halpha observatio...

  11. Observation of energetic radiation associated with winter thunderstorm activity

    The dose rate of the gamma-rays increases in association with the activities of the thunderstorm. They were observed on the ground in the winter season of Japan. To investigate the time profile of the radiations during the winter thunderstorms, the radiation detectors were prepared which consist of the long proportional counters. These detectors have different characteristics of the response for the energy of the incident particles by mounting different thick shielding covers. Those results were compared with the results measured at the same time by the environmental radiation monitors set up around a nuclear facility. Electric field was also measured by using a field mill. As a result, the following two types of the radiation enhancements have been found during the winter thunderstorm activities; the gradual variation of photon intensity with energy of a few MeV, and the burst type of the radiation that is attributed to the injection of high energy photons with the energy over 10 MeV. (author)

  12. Sea level variability in the Arctic Ocean observed by satellite altimetry

    P. Prandi; Ablain, M.; A. Cazenave; Picot, N.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate sea level variability in the Arctic Ocean from observations. Variability estimates are derived both at the basin scale and on smaller local spatial scales. The periods of the signals studied vary from high frequency (intra-annual) to long term trends. We also investigate the mechanisms responsible for the observed variability. Different data types are used, the main one being a recent reprocessing of satellite altimetry data...

  13. Sea Level Change for Norway: Past and Present Observations and Projections to 2100

    Simpson, Matthew; Øie Nilsen, Jan Even; Ravndal, Oda; Breili, Kristian; Sande, Hilde; Kierulf, Halfdan; Steffen, Holger; Jansen, Eystein; Carson, Mark; Vestol, Olav

    2016-04-01

    Changes to mean sea level and/or sea level extremes (e.g., storm surges) will lead to changes in coastal impacts. These changes represent a changing exposure or risk to our society. Here we try to synthesize our understanding of past and present observed sea level changes for Norway, as well as providing sea level projections up until 2100. Our primary focus is changes to mean sea level but we also give updated return heights for each coastal municipality in Norway. We first analyse observed sea level changes from the Norwegian tide gauge network and from satellite altimetry. After the tide gauge data have been corrected for the effects of glacial isostatic adjustment, we show that 20th century sea level rise in Norwegian waters is broadly similar to the global average rise. Contributions to the observed sea level change and variability are discussed. We find that rate of sea level rise along the Norwegian coast is significantly higher for the period 1993-2014 than for the period 1960-2010. It is unclear, however, to what extent this higher rate represents natural variability rather than a sustained increase owing to global warming. Our regional sea level projections are based on findings from the Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) of the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC), and the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) output. Average projected 21st century relative sea level change in Norway is -0.10-0.35 m (5 to 95% model ranges which is the likely range in AR5; P>66%) for RCP2.6, -0.05-0.45 m for RCP4.5, and 0.10-0.65 m for RCP8.5. The relative sea level projections can differ as much as 0.50 m from place to place. This pattern is governed by the vertical uplift rates. Quantifying the probability of levels above the likely range (i.e., the upper tail of the probability distribution) remains difficult because information is lacking. And of particular concern is that the ice sheet contribution might have a skewed distribution, which would

  14. Low level laser therapy reduces inflammation in activated Achilles tendinitis

    Bjordal, Jan M.; Iversen, Vegard; Lopes-Martins, Rodrigo Alvaro B.

    2006-02-01

    Objective: Low level laser therapy (LLLT) has been forwarded as therapy for osteoarthritis and tendinopathy. Results in animal and cell studies suggest that LLLT may act through a biological mechanism of inflammatory modulation. The current study was designed to investigate if LLLT has an anti-inflammatory effect on activated tendinitis of the Achilles tendon. Methods: Seven patients with bilateral Achilles tendonitis (14 tendons) who had aggravated symptoms by pain-inducing activity immediately prior to the study. LLLT (1.8 Joules for each of three points along the Achilles tendon with 904nm infrared laser) and placebo LLLT were administered to either Achilles tendons in a random order to which patients and therapist were blinded. Inflammation was examined by 1) mini-invasive microdialysis for measuring the concentration of inflammatory marker PGE II in the peritendinous tissue, 2) ultrasound with Doppler measurement of peri- and intratendinous blood flow, 3) pressure pain algometry and 4) single hop test. Results: PGE 2- levels were significantly reduced at 75, 90 and 105 minutes after active LLLT compared both to pre-treatment levels (p=0.026) and to placebo LLLT (p=0.009). Changes in pressure pain threshold (PPT) were significantly different (P=0.012) between groups. PPT increased by a mean value of 0.19 kg/cm2 [95%CI:0.04 to 0.34] after treatment in the active LLLT group, while pressure pain threshold was reduced by -0.20 kg/cm2 [95%CI:-0.45 to 0.05] after placebo LLLT. Conclusion: LLLT can be used to reduce inflammatory musculskeletal pain as it reduces inflammation and increases pressure pain threshold levels in activity-induced pain episodes of Achilles tendinopathy.

  15. Physical activity level and sedentary time in Norwegian adolescents

    Sundgot-Borgen, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Background: Physical activity (PA) is necessary for children and adolescents to obtain a healthy development. The environment, however, facilitates the sedentary lifestyle. World health organization (WHO) defines physical inactivity as the fourth major risk factor for mortality. Still, adolescents in Europe and America are sedentary more than 50 % of their waking hours. Lack of comparability between studies investigating PA level and sedentary time in adolescents creates need f...

  16. Estimation of nonfluctuating reservoir inflow from water level observations using methods based on flow continuity

    Deng, Chao; Liu, Pan; Guo, Shenglian; Wang, Hao; Wang, Dingbao

    2015-10-01

    The accurate estimation of "true" reservoir inflow is important for hydrological forecasting and efficient operation of reservoirs. However, reservoir inflow estimated using the conventional simple water balance method is not always accurate because the estimation is very sensitive to errors in reservoir water level observations and uncertainty in the stage-storage relationship. An analytical method (AM) and a method using the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) are proposed to determine nonfluctuating reservoir inflow based on the concept of inflow continuity; that is, that inflow should not change much within a short time period. The AM is developed based on the simultaneous minimization of both the estimated reservoir water level error and the inflow variation. The EnKF, which is built on state equations (inflow continuity and water balance equations) and an observation equation (the reservoir stage-storage relationship), is used to update inflow states by assimilating water level observations. The two proposed methods are evaluated using a synthetic experiment with various conditions including water level observation error, reservoir stage-storage relationship error, and the influence of water surface slope. The AM outperforms the EnKF under all conditions. Case studies of the Gaobazhou and Danjiangkou Reservoirs in China demonstrate that both of the proposed methods can derive an hourly inflow without fluctuations. The results indicate that the AM and the EnKF method can improve reservoir inflow estimation compared with conventional methods.

  17. The relationship between postnatal depression, sociodemographic factors, levels of partner support, and levels of physical activity

    Maryam eSaligeh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: postnatal depression (PND is defined as a psychological mood disorder that occurs in a mother within six weeks of her giving birth. It refers to an episode that causes mood disturbance and it could begin in, or extend into, the postpartum period. It is thought to have a high impact upon the mother’s health as well as the family’s functioning and the child’s development. Socio-demographic, psych-social, and physical activity factors may all contribute to postpartum mood and ability to cope with responsibilities. The primary aim of this study was to determine which of these factors predicted PND in postpartum women. A secondary aim was to identify the socio-demographic and psycho-social predictors of physical activity in postpartum women . Methods: The study used a cross-sectional correlational design. A sample of 150 postpartum women was sent a package of six standardised questionnaires. Results: There was no association between physical activity and PND; however, older mothers, mothers of younger children, mothers who are less reluctant to ask for help, and mothers who are more satisfied with the help they get experience lower levels of PND. Mothers of older babies, mothers with more children, and less educated mothers are more likely to engage in caregiving activities, whereas mothers with fewer children and higher levels of partner support are more likely to engage in occupational activities. None of the socio-demographic factors or any of the parenting factors predicted levels of sporting activity.

  18. Measuring Students' Physical Activity Levels: Validating SOFIT for Use with High-School Students

    van der Mars, Hans; Rowe, Paul J.; Schuldheisz, Joel M.; Fox, Susan

    2004-01-01

    This study was conducted to validate the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT) for measuring physical activity levels of high-school students. Thirty-five students (21 girls and 14 boys from grades 9-12) completed a standardized protocol including lying, sitting, standing, walking, running, curl-ups, and push-ups. Heart rates and…

  19. Real-time Observational Water Level Data Stream Online Filtering Method with Hydrological Changes Semantic Constraints

    DING Yulin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Irregular environmental changes and occasional instrument malfunctions have made noises and exceptions in observational data prominence. Therefore, before processing real-time water level data online, data cleaning is urgently needed to ensure data quality. Since traditional data filtering methods didn't take the data change pattern into consideration, these methods have encountered some severe problems, including the poor adaptability of filter model, the low estimation precision and prohibitively high calculation cost. To overcome these shortcomings, this paper presents a hydrological change semantics constrained online Kalman filtering method: creating dynamic semantic mapping between real-time data changing pattern and the rules of spatial-temporal hydrological process evolution; implementing the change semantic constrained Kalman filtering method to support the adaptive parameter optimization. Observational water level data streams of different precipitation scenarios are selected for testing. Experimental results prove that by means of this method, more accurate and reliable water level information can be available.

  20. TETRA Observation of Gamma Rays at Ground Level Associated with Nearby Thunderstorms

    Ringuette, Rebecca; Cherry, Michael L; Granger, Douglas; Guzik, T Gregory; Stewart, Michael; Wefel, John P

    2013-01-01

    Terrestrial Gamma ray Flashes (TGFs) -- very short, intense bursts of electrons, positrons, and energetic photons originating from terrestrial thunderstorms -- have been detected with satellite instruments. TETRA, an array of NaI(Tl) scintillators at Louisiana State University, has now been used to detect similar bursts of 50 keV to over 2 MeV gamma rays at ground level. After 2.6 years of observation, twenty-four events with durations 0.02- 4.2 msec have been detected associated with nearby lightning, three of them coincident events observed by detectors separated by ~1000 m. Nine of the events occurred within 6 msec and 3 miles of negative polarity cloud-to-ground lightning strokes with measured currents in excess of 20 kA. The events reported here constitute the first catalog of TGFs observed at ground level in close proximity to the acceleration site.

  1. Observation level combination of SLR and VLBI with c5++: A case study for TIGO

    Hobiger, Thomas; Otsubo, Toshimichi; Sekido, Mamoru

    2014-01-01

    A multi-technique space geodetic analysis software named c5++ has been developed and allows one to combine data on the observation level. With SLR and VLBI modules being ready and tested, this software has been used to compute coordinate time series of the geodetic fundamental station TIGO, located near Concepción, Chile. It can be shown that the combination of space geodetic data on the observation level leads to a significant improvement of station position repeatability, which is an important measure for the stability of a station in the terrestrial reference frame. Moreover, it could be demonstrated that the geophysical signal of the post-seismic tectonic plate movement is usually more complete than detected by any of the two single-technique solutions. In addition, it has been confirmed that so-called nuisance parameters, which are relying on data from a single technique, are not biased when combing observations from different space geodetic techniques.

  2. Irisin Levels are Not Affected by Physical Activity in Patients with Anorexia Nervosa

    Tobias eHofmann; Ulf eElbelt; Anne eAhnis; Peter eKobelt; Matthias eRose; Andreas eStengel

    2014-01-01

    Irisin was recently identified as muscle-derived hormone that increases energy expenditure. Studies in normal weight and obese subjects reported an increased irisin expression following physical activity, although inconsistent results were observed. Increased physical activity in a subgroup of patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) complicates the course of the disease. Since irisin could account for differences in clinical outcomes, we investigated irisin levels in anorexic patients with high a...

  3. Secular trends in storm-level geomagnetic activity

    J. J. Love

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Analysis is made of K-index data from groups of ground-based geomagnetic observatories in Germany, Britain, and Australia, 1868.0–2009.0, solar cycles 11–23. Methods include nonparametric measures of trends and statistical significance used by the hydrological and climatological research communities. Among the three observatory groups, German K data systematically record the highest disturbance levels, followed by the British and, then, the Australian data. Signals consistently seen in K data from all three observatory groups can be reasonably interpreted as physically meaninginful: (1 geomagnetic activity has generally increased over the past 141 years. However, the detailed secular evolution of geomagnetic activity is not well characterized by either a linear trend nor, even, a monotonic trend. Therefore, simple, phenomenological extrapolations of past trends in solar and geomagnetic activity levels are unlikely to be useful for making quantitative predictions of future trends lasting longer than a solar cycle or so. (2 The well-known tendency for magnetic storms to occur during the declining phase of a sunspot-solar cycles is clearly seen for cycles 14–23; it is not, however, clearly seen for cycles 11–13. Therefore, in addition to an increase in geomagnetic activity, the nature of solar-terrestrial interaction has also apparently changed over the past 141 years.

  4. Using observation-level random effects to model overdispersion in count data in ecology and evolution

    Xavier A. Harrison

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Overdispersion is common in models of count data in ecology and evolutionary biology, and can occur due to missing covariates, non-independent (aggregated data, or an excess frequency of zeroes (zero-inflation. Accounting for overdispersion in such models is vital, as failing to do so can lead to biased parameter estimates, and false conclusions regarding hypotheses of interest. Observation-level random effects (OLRE, where each data point receives a unique level of a random effect that models the extra-Poisson variation present in the data, are commonly employed to cope with overdispersion in count data. However studies investigating the efficacy of observation-level random effects as a means to deal with overdispersion are scarce. Here I use simulations to show that in cases where overdispersion is caused by random extra-Poisson noise, or aggregation in the count data, observation-level random effects yield more accurate parameter estimates compared to when overdispersion is simply ignored. Conversely, OLRE fail to reduce bias in zero-inflated data, and in some cases increase bias at high levels of overdispersion. There was a positive relationship between the magnitude of overdispersion and the degree of bias in parameter estimates. Critically, the simulations reveal that failing to account for overdispersion in mixed models can erroneously inflate measures of explained variance (r2, which may lead to researchers overestimating the predictive power of variables of interest. This work suggests use of observation-level random effects provides a simple and robust means to account for overdispersion in count data, but also that their ability to minimise bias is not uniform across all types of overdispersion and must be applied judiciously.

  5. Altered cortical activation during action observation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients: a parametric functional MRI study

    Li, Haiqing; Li, Yuxin; Yin, Bo; Tang, Weijun; Yu, Xiangrong; Geng, Daoying [Huashan Hospital, Department of Radiology, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Chen, Yan [Fudan University, Department of Neurology, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai (China); Huang, Weiyuan [People' s Hospital of Hainan Province, Department of Radiology, Haikou, Hainan Province (China); Zhang, Biyun [Nanjing University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Department of radiotherapy, Affiliated Jiangsu Province Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanjing (China)

    2015-09-15

    To investigate functional cerebral abnormalities in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during action observation. Thirty patients with ALS and 30 matched healthy controls underwent fMRI with an experimental paradigm while observing a video of repetitive flexion-extension of the fingers at three frequency levels or three complexity levels, alternated with periods of a static hand. A parametric analysis was applied to determine the effects of each of the two factors. Action observation activated similar neural networks as the research on execution of action in the ALS patients and healthy subjects in several brain regions related to the mirror-neuron system (MNS). In the ALS patients, in particular, the dorsal lateral premotor cortex (dPMC), inferior parietal gyrus (IPG), and SMA, were more activated compared with the activation in the controls. Increased activation within the primary motor cortex (M1), dPMC, inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), and superior parietal gyrus (SPG) mainly correlated with hand movement frequency/complexity in the videos in the patients compared with controls. The findings indicated an ongoing compensatory process occurring within the higher order motor-processing system of ALS patients, likely to overcome the loss of function. (orig.)

  6. Altered cortical activation during action observation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients: a parametric functional MRI study

    To investigate functional cerebral abnormalities in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during action observation. Thirty patients with ALS and 30 matched healthy controls underwent fMRI with an experimental paradigm while observing a video of repetitive flexion-extension of the fingers at three frequency levels or three complexity levels, alternated with periods of a static hand. A parametric analysis was applied to determine the effects of each of the two factors. Action observation activated similar neural networks as the research on execution of action in the ALS patients and healthy subjects in several brain regions related to the mirror-neuron system (MNS). In the ALS patients, in particular, the dorsal lateral premotor cortex (dPMC), inferior parietal gyrus (IPG), and SMA, were more activated compared with the activation in the controls. Increased activation within the primary motor cortex (M1), dPMC, inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), and superior parietal gyrus (SPG) mainly correlated with hand movement frequency/complexity in the videos in the patients compared with controls. The findings indicated an ongoing compensatory process occurring within the higher order motor-processing system of ALS patients, likely to overcome the loss of function. (orig.)

  7. Estimation of Missing Observations in Two-Level Split-Plot Designs

    Almimi, Ashraf A.; Kulahci, Murat; Montgomery, Douglas C.

    2008-01-01

    Inserting estimates for the missing observations from split-plot designs restores their balanced or orthogonal structure and alleviates the difficulties in the statistical analysis. In this article, we extend a method due to Draper and Stoneman to estimate the missing observations from unreplicated...... two-level factorial and fractional factorial split-plot (FSP and FFSP) designs. The missing observations, which can either be from the same whole plot, from different whole plots, or comprise entire whole plots, are estimated by equating to zero a number of specific contrast columns equal to the...... number of the missing observations. These estimates are inserted into the design table and the estimates for the remaining effects (or alias chains of effects as the case with FFSP designs) are plotted on two half-normal plots: one for the whole-plot effects and the other for the subplot effects. If the...

  8. Research Note: Physical Activity Levels in Elementary-School Physical Education: A Comparison of Swimming and Nonswimming Classes

    Cardon, Greet; Verstraete, Stefanie; De Clercq, Dirk; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2004-01-01

    The main goal of the current study was to compare physical activity levels during swimming and nonswimming elementary physical education classes. We conducted a preliminary study and found that the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT) could be used to register physical activity engagement levels in swimming classes. Thirty-nine…

  9. Magnetoseismology of Active Regions using Multi-wavelength Observations from GONG and SDO

    Tripathy, Sushanta; Jain, Kiran; Kholikov, Shukur; Hill, Frank; Cally, Paul

    2016-05-01

    The structure and dynamics of active regions beneath the surface show significant uncertainties due to our limited understanding of the wave interaction with magnetic field. Recent numerical simulations further demonstrate that the atmosphere above the photospheric levels also modifies the seismic observables at the surface. Thus the key to improve helioseismic interpretation beneath the active regions requires a synergy between models and helioseismic inferences from observations. In this context, using data from Global Oscillation Network Group and from Helioseismic Magnetic Imager and Atmospheric Imaging Assembly onboard Solar Dynamics Observatory, we characterize the spatio-temporal power distribution in and around active regions. Specifically, we focus on the power enhancements seen around active regions as a function of wave frequencies, strength, inclination of magnetic field and observation height as well as the relative phases of the observables and their cross-coherence functions. It is expected that these effects will help us to comprehend the interaction of acoustic waves with magnetic field in the solar photosphere.

  10. Contamination levels observed on the Belgian territory subsequent to the Chernobyl accident

    A summary of the data from different laboratories concerning the fallout on the Belgian territory following the Chernobyl emissions is presented. The evolution of the particulate air activity at ground level, the integrated fallout captured in water, the deposition on soil surface directly for different localities in Belgium are given. The grass contamination, the milk contamination from individual farms, the concentration levels on leafy vegetables, surface waters and water basins and the contamination of meat during the month of May are presented. (A.F.)

  11. Acetylcholinesterase Modulates Presenilin-1 Levels and γ-Secretase Activity

    Campanari, María-Letizia; García Ayllón, María Salud; Belbin, Olivia; Galcerán, Joan; Lleó, Alberto; Sáez-Valero, Javier

    2014-01-01

    The cholinergic enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and the catalytic component of the ¿-secretase complex, presenilin-1 (PS1), are known to interact. In this study, we investigate the consequences of AChE-PS1 interactions, particularly the influence of AChE in PS1 levels and ¿-secretase activity. PS1 is able to co-immunoprecipitate all AChE variants (AChE-R and AChE-T) and molecular forms (tetramers and light subunits) present in the human brain. Overexpression of AChE-R or AChE-T, or their r...

  12. Human monoamine oxidase A gene determines levels of enzyme activity.

    Hotamisligil, G S; Breakefield, X O

    1991-01-01

    Monoamine oxidase (MAO) is a critical enzyme in the degradative deamination of biogenic amines throughout the body. Two biochemically distinct forms of the enzyme, A and B, are encoded in separate genes on the human X chromosome. In these studies we investigated the role of the structural gene for MAO-A in determining levels of activity in humans, as measured in cultured skin fibroblasts. The coding sequence of the mRNA for MAO-A was determined by first-strand cDNA synthesis, PCR amplificatio...

  13. Scheduling satellite-based SAR acquisition for sequential assimilation of water level observations into flood modelling

    Garcia-Pintado, Javier; Neal, Jeff; Mason, David,; Dance, Sarah; Bates, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Satellite-based Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) has proved useful for obtaining information on flood extent, which, when intersected with a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of the floodplain, provides water level observations that can be assimilated into a hydrodynamic model to decrease forecast uncertainty. With an increasing number of operational satellites with SAR capability, information on the relationship between satellite first visit and revisit times and forecast performance is required t...

  14. Observation of a single spin by transferring its coherence to a high level macroscopic pure state

    Kawamura, Minaru [Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Okayama University of Science, 1-1 Ridai-cho, kita-ku, Okayama, 700-0005 (Japan)

    2014-12-04

    We discuss about quantum measurement of a single spin in a superconducting RF resonator, where amplification of coherence of the spin is enabled by transferring its coherence to the harmonic oscillator in an non-coherent state with high energy level. This quantum amplification allows that a single spin can induce macroscopic current to permits observation of a single spin state in the number and phase uncertainty relation.

  15. Tropical Pacific spatial trend patterns in observed sea level: internal variability and/or anthropogenic signature?

    B. Meyssignac

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study we focus on the sea level trend pattern observed by satellite altimetry in the tropical Pacific over the 1993–2009 time span (i.e. 17 yr. Our objective is to investigate whether this 17-yr-long trend pattern was different before the altimetry era, what was its spatio-temporal variability and what have been its main drivers. We try to discriminate the respective roles of the internal variability of the climate system and of external forcing factors, in particular anthropogenic emissions (greenhouse gases and aerosols. On the basis of a 2-D past sea level reconstruction over 1950–2009 (based on a combination of observations and ocean modelling and multi-century control runs (i.e. with constant, preindustrial external forcing from eight coupled climate models, we have investigated how the observed 17-yr sea level trend pattern evolved during the last decades and centuries, and try to estimate the characteristic time scales of its variability. For that purpose, we have computed sea level trend patterns over successive 17-yr windows (i.e. the length of the altimetry record, both for the 60-yr long reconstructed sea level and the model runs. We find that the 2-D sea level reconstruction shows spatial trend patterns similar to the one observed during the altimetry era. The pattern appears to have fluctuated with time with a characteristic time scale of the order of 25–30 yr. The same behaviour is found in multi-centennial control runs of the coupled climate models. A similar analysis is performed with 20th century coupled climate model runs with complete external forcing (i.e. solar plus volcanic variability and changes in anthropogenic forcing. Results suggest that in the tropical Pacific, sea level trend fluctuations are dominated by the internal variability of the ocean–atmosphere coupled system. While our analysis cannot rule out any influence of anthropogenic forcing, it concludes that the latter effect in that particular

  16. Greenland uplift and regional sea level changes from ICESat observations and GIA modelling

    Spada, G.; Ruggieri, G.; Sørensen, Louise Sandberg;

    2012-01-01

    response to current ice mass loss, which is not resolved by satellite gravity observations, we have specifically developed a high‐resolution regional elastic rebound (ER) model. The elastic component of vertical uplift is combined with estimates of the viscoelastic displacement fields associated with the......‐resolution GrIS mass balance, we study the time‐variations of various geophysical quantities in response to the current mass loss. They include vertical uplift and subsidence, geoid height variations, global patterns of sea level change (or fingerprints), and regional sea level variations along the coasts of...... Greenland. Long‐wavelength uplifts and gravity variations in response to current or past ice thickness variations are obtained solving the sea level equation, which accounts for both the elastic and the viscoelastic components of deformation. To capture the short‐wavelength components of vertical uplift in...

  17. Evaluation of high-level clouds in cloud resolving model simulations with ARM and KWAJEX observations

    Liu, Zheng; Muhlbauer, Andreas; Ackerman, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we evaluate high-level clouds in a cloud resolving model during two convective cases, ARM9707 and KWAJEX. The simulated joint histograms of cloud occurrence and radar reflectivity compare well with cloud radar and satellite observations when using a two-moment microphysics scheme. However, simulations performed with a single moment microphysical scheme exhibit low biases of approximately 20 dB. During convective events, two-moment microphysical overestimate the amount of high-level cloud and one-moment microphysics precipitate too readily and underestimate the amount and height of high-level cloud. For ARM9707, persistent large positive biases in high-level cloud are found, which are not sensitive to changes in ice particle fall velocity and ice nuclei number concentration in the two-moment microphysics. These biases are caused by biases in large-scale forcing and maintained by the periodic lateral boundary conditions. The combined effects include significant biases in high-level cloud amount, radiation, and high sensitivity of cloud amount to nudging time scale in both convective cases. The high sensitivity of high-level cloud amount to the thermodynamic nudging time scale suggests that thermodynamic nudging can be a powerful "tuning" parameter for the simulated cloud and radiation but should be applied with caution. The role of the periodic lateral boundary conditions in reinforcing the biases in cloud and radiation suggests that reducing the uncertainty in the large-scale forcing in high levels is important for similar convective cases and has far reaching implications for simulating high-level clouds in super-parameterized global climate models such as the multiscale modeling framework.

  18. Observation of deep levels and their hole capture behavior in p-type 4H-SiC epilayers with and without electron irradiation

    To design SiC bipolar devices, information on deep levels acting as recombination centers is essential. In this paper, we report on the observation of deep levels in p-type 4H-SiC epilayers with and without electron irradiation before and after annealing at 1000 °C. We performed current deep level transient spectroscopy (I-DLTS) for the samples, and the observed deep levels were located near the valence band (with the activation energies less than 0.35 eV) in all the samples. Based on the change of I-DLTS spectra by the electron irradiation or the annealing, we discussed the origins of the deep levels. Then we estimated the time constants of hole capture by the deep levels and discussed the possibility that the observed deep levels behave as recombination centers. (author)

  19. Modeling hyperspectral observations of vegetation fluorescence from photosystem level to top-of-atmosphere radiance spectra

    Verhoef, W.

    2011-12-01

    In support of the candidate ESA mission FLEX, models have been developed to simulate vegetation chlorophyll fluorescence and its observation on the level of single leaves, the canopy and from space. The Fluspect model is based on the PROSPECT leaf model and includes an additional module which calculates the excitation-fluorescence matrix for both sides of the leaf by means of an efficient doubling algorithm. Fluorescence spectra for white incident light, and of course the spectra of reflectance and transmittance, are computed as well. The FluorSAIL model is a numerical variant of SAIL which calculates top-of-canopy fluorescent radiance in the direction of viewing for given incident radiation spectra from the sun and the sky, obtained from the MODTRAN radiative transfer code. In a recent version called FluorSAIL3, high spectral resolution data (0.1 nm) from MODTRAN5 (beta) are used by the model to simulate observations by the candidate FLEX mission. The model computes the directional canopy reflectance with and without fluorescence for the given incident radiation spectra obtained from MODTRAN and the results have been used to evaluate several algorithms for the retrieval of fluorescence from the apparent reflectance signal. In this contribution emphasis will be on the detection of the fluorescence signal, the dependence of fluorescence observations on leaf chlorophyll content and other PROSPECT parameters, canopy structure, and observational conditions, including the properties of the atmosphere. In addition, some attention is paid to the definition of fluorescence quantum efficiencies at photosystem level, leaf level, and canopy level. This is important for the study of the relation between canopy fluorescence and actual photosynthesis. From the simulations it can be concluded that the interpretation of the fluorescence signal is complex, and probably the comparison of actual observations of spectra of fluorescence and reflectance with spectra simulated by a

  20. Global Night-Time Lights for Observing Human Activity

    Hipskind, Stephen R.; Elvidge, Chris; Gurney, K.; Imhoff, Mark; Bounoua, Lahouari; Sheffner, Edwin; Nemani, Ramakrishna R.; Pettit, Donald R.; Fischer, Marc

    2011-01-01

    We present a concept for a small satellite mission to make systematic, global observations of night-time lights with spatial resolution suitable for discerning the extent, type and density of human settlements. The observations will also allow better understanding of fine scale fossil fuel CO2 emission distribution. The NASA Earth Science Decadal Survey recommends more focus on direct observations of human influence on the Earth system. The most dramatic and compelling observations of human presence on the Earth are the night light observations taken by the Defence Meteorological System Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS). Beyond delineating the footprint of human presence, night light data, when assembled and evaluated with complementary data sets, can determine the fine scale spatial distribution of global fossil fuel CO2 emissions. Understanding fossil fuel carbon emissions is critical to understanding the entire carbon cycle, and especially the carbon exchange between terrestrial and oceanic systems.

  1. Magnetic field structures of solar active regions obtained by polarization mapping observation at 32 GHz

    Solar radio polarization mapping observation was made at 32 GHz with an angular resolution of 3.' 6 on February 2 and 4, 1981. The polarization map represents the distribution of the difference between right-handed (R) and left-handed (L) circular polarization components on the sun (R-L). The polarization maps of two days showed that four active regions on the sun had clear bipolar structures, which were consistent with those observed on the magnetograms. The peak value of the circular polarization degree in the active regions lay between 0.4 % and 2.5 %, which suggests that the longitudinal magnetic field strength at the chromospheric level was between 20 G and 140 G. (author)

  2. Observed mean sea level changes around the North Sea coastline from 1800 to present

    Wahl, T.; Haigh, I. D.; Woodworth, P. L.; Albrecht, F.; Dillingh, D.; Jensen, J.; Nicholls, R. J.; Weisse, R.; Wöppelmann, G.

    2013-09-01

    This paper assesses historic changes in mean sea level around the coastline of the North Sea, one of the most densely populated coasts in the world. Typically, such analyses have been conducted at a national level, and detailed geographically wider analyses have not been undertaken for about 20 years. We analyse long records (up to 200 years) from 30 tide gauge sites, which are reasonably uniformly distributed along the coastline, and: (1) calculate relative sea level trends; (2) examine the inter-annual and decadal variations; (3) estimate regional geocentric (sometimes also referred to as 'absolute') sea level rise throughout the 20th century; and (4) assess the evidence for regional acceleration of sea-level rise. Relative sea level changes are broadly consistent with known vertical land movement patterns. The inter-annual and decadal variability is partly coherent across the region, but with some differences between the Inner North Sea and the English Channel. Data sets from various sources are used to provide estimates of the geocentric sea level changes. The long-term geocentric mean sea level trend for the 1900 to 2011 period is estimated to be 1.5 ± 0.1 mm/yr for the entire North Sea region. The trend is slightly higher for the Inner North Sea (i.e. 1.6 ± 0.1 mm/yr), and smaller but not significantly different on the 95% confidence level for the English Channel (i.e. 1.2 ± 0.1 mm/yr). The uncertainties in the estimates of vertical land movement rates are still large, and the results from a broad range of approaches for determining these rates are not consistent. Periods of sea level rise acceleration are detected at different times throughout the last 200 years and are to some extent related to air pressure variations. The recent rates of sea level rise (i.e. over the last two to three decades) are high compared to the long-term average, but are comparable to those which have been observed at other times in the late 19th and 20th century.

  3. WD 1145+017 Photometric Observations During 8 Months of High Activity

    Gary, B L; Kaye, T G; Alonso, R; Hambsch, F -J

    2016-01-01

    WD 1145+017 was observed from 2015 November to 2016 July for the purpose of characterizing transit behavior of the white dwarf by dust clouds thought to be produced by fragments of an asteroid in close orbit with the star. Fortuitously, most of these observations were carried out during a time when the overall "dip" activity was dramatically enhanced over that during its discovery with K2. By the end of our reported observations the dip activity had declined to a level close to its original state. Three notable events were observed. In 2016 January a large number of dust clouds appeared that had an orbital period of 4.4912 hours, and this event also marked the end of a 3-month interval of individual dip appearances that were dominated by short-lived activity producing an apparent 4.5004-hour periodicity that previous studies associated with the Kepler K2 "A" period. The second event was a 2016 April 21 appearance of four dip features with drift lines in a waterfall (date vs. phase) diagram that diverged from ...

  4. Using Aoristic Analysis to Link Remote and Ground-Level Phenological Observations

    Henebry, G. M.

    2013-12-01

    Phenology is about observing events in time and space. With the advent of publically accessible geospatial datastreams and easy to use mapping software, specifying where an event occurs is much less of a challenge than it was just two decades ago. In contrast, specifying when an event occurs remains a nontrivial function of a population of organismal responses, sampling interval, compositing period, and reporting precision. I explore how aoristic analysis can be used to analyzing spatiotemporal events for which the location is known to acceptable levels of precision but for which temporal coordinates are poorly specified or only partially bounded. Aoristic analysis was developed in the late 1990s in the field of quantitative criminology to leverage temporally imprecise geospatial data of crime reports. Here I demonstrate how aoristic analysis can be used to link remotely sensed observations of land surface phenology to ground-level observations of organismal phenophase transitions. Explicit representation of the windows of temporal uncertainty with aoristic weights enables cross-validation exercises and forecasting efforts to avoid false precision.

  5. Oxidative DNA damage levels and catalase activity in the clam Ruditapes decussatus as pollution biomarkers of Tunisian marine environment.

    Jebali, Jamel; Banni, Mohamed; de Almeida, Eduardo Alves; Boussetta, Hamadi

    2007-01-01

    Levels of the oxidative DNA damage 7, 8-dihydro-8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) and catalase (CAT) activity were measured in the digestive gland and gills of clams Ruditapes decussatus, related to the presence of pollutants along Tunisian marine environment. Increased levels of CAT were observed in tissues of clams from all the sites studied, compared to control values, and elevated 8-oxodG levels were observed at specific sites. Results obtained in this work indicate that the measurement of 8-oxodG levels and CAT activity in tissues of R. decussatus is promising in pollution monitoring studies of the Tunisian marine environment. PMID:16897518

  6. Adhesion molecules levels in blood correlate with MRI activity and clinical activity in multiple sclerosis

    Research into pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) has prompted efforts to identify immunological markers associated with disease activity. Adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 are associated with inflammatory mediated blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction. In this study investigates the correlation between blood level of circulating ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) activity in different clinical phases of patients with MS. We show that RRMS and SPMS patients in clinically active phase with Gd-enhancing lesions in CNS had higher blood levels of cICAM-1 and cVCAM-1 compared these parameters levers of RRMS patients in remission stage. These results suggest that cICAM-1 and cVCAM-1 is a sensitive indicator of disease activity associated with BBB inflammatory dysfunction. Elevated blood level of cICAM-1 more strongly correlated with clinical activity and BBB damage, than cVCAM-1 and that could be used as biological marker of disease activity. Circulating VCAM-1 as an early indicator of BBB disturbance, may also serve as marker of beneficial activity in relapses phase of MS course. (authors)

  7. Cassini Observes the Active South Pole of Enceladus

    Porco, C. C.; Helfenstein P.; Thomas, P. C.; Ingersoll, A. P.; Wisdom, J.; West, R.; Neukum, G.; Denk, T.; Wagner, R.; Roatsch, T.; Kieffer, S.; Turtle, E.; McEwen, A.; Johnson, T. V.; Rathbun, J.; Veverka, J.; Wilson, D.; Perry, J.; Spitale, J.; Brahic, A.; Burns, J. A.; DelGenio, A. D.; Dones, L.; Murray, C. D.; Squyres, S.

    2007-01-01

    Cassini has identified a geologically active province a the south pole of Saturn's moon Enceladus. The shape of Enceladus suggests a possible intense heating epoch in the past by capture into a 1:4 secondary spin/orbit resonance.

  8. Raised serum level of APRIL in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: correlations with disease activity indices.

    Hegazy, M; Darwish, H; Darweesh, H; El-Shehaby, A; Emad, Y

    2010-04-01

    The aim of the present study is to assess serum APRIL levels in SLE patients versus rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and normal control and to correlate serum APRIL levels in SLE patients with disease activity indices. Serum APRIL levels was measured in 40 SLE patients, 20 patients with RA and 20 healthy volunteers who served as control group. Disease activity in SLE patients was assessed by the British Isles Lupus Assessment Group (BILAG) index and SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI), and results were correlated with serum APRIL levels. Significantly higher serum APRIL levels was observed in SLE patients compared to RA patients and normal controls (p=0.003 and p < or = 0.001, respectively). Positive correlations were found between serum APRIL levels and total BILAG index (r=0.486 and p=0.001), BILAG musculoskeletal score (r=0.848 and p < or = 0.001) and BILAG cardiorespiratory score (r=0.326 and 0.04). Serum APRIL was higher in SLE patients compared to RA patients and normal control subjects and positively correlates with BILAG index and higher levels may be associated with musculoskeletal manifestations of the disease. APRIL antagonism could be a potential therapeutic target in SLE. PMID:20116334

  9. Idaho Senior Center Activities, Activity Participation Level, and Managers' Perceptions of Activity Success.

    Girvan, James T.; Harris, Frances

    A survey completed by managers of 77 senior centers in Idaho revealed that meals, blood pressure screening, and games and trips were the most successful activities offered. Alzheimer's support groups, library books for loan, and exercise classes were the least successful. Possible reasons for the success or failure of these activities were…

  10. Levels of black carbon and their relationship with particle number levels-observation at an urban roadside in Taipei City.

    Cheng, Yu-Hsiang; Shiu, Ben-Tzung; Lin, Meng-Hsien; Yan, Jhih-Wei

    2013-03-01

    Information on the relationship between black carbon (BC) and particle number levels in urban areas is limited. Therefore, investigating the relationship between BC and particle number levels in different particle size ranges at an urban area is worthwhile. This study used an aethalometer and scanning mobility particle sizer to measure the levels of BC and particle number simultaneously at an urban roadside in Taipei City. Measurement results show that hourly BC levels are 0.62-8.80 μg m(-3) (mean=3.50 μg m(-3)) and hourly particle number levels are 4.21 × 10(3)-4.64 × 10(4) particles cm(-3) (mean=2.00 × 10(4) particles cm(-3)) in Taipei urban area. The BC and particle number levels peak during morning (7:00-9:00) and evening (16:00-18:00) rush hours on weekdays. Low BC and particle number levels exist in the early morning hours. Time variations in BC levels are the same as those of particle number levels in this study, clearly indicating that BC and particles are likely released from the same emission source. Additionally, BC levels in the urban area are more strongly associated with ultrafine particle levels than with total particle number levels, particularly in the size range of 56-180 nm. According to measurement results, most BC in aerosols in urban areas can be in the ultrafine size range. PMID:22798147

  11. Observation of Deeply-Bound 85 Rb2 Vibrational Levels Using Feshbach Optimized Photoassociation

    Krzyzewski, Sean; Akin, Tom; Dizikes, James; Morrison, Michael; Abraham, Eric

    2016-05-01

    We demonstrate Feshbach optimized photoassociation (FOPA) into the 0g-(5 S1/2 + 5 P1/2) state in 85 Rb2. FOPA uses the enhancement of the amplitude of the initial atomic scattering wave function due to a Feshbach resonance to increase the molecular formation rate from photoassociation. We observe three vibrational levels, v = 127 , 140, and 150, with previously unmeasured binding energies of 256, 154, and 96 cm-1. We measure the frequency, central magnetic field position, and magnetic field width of each Feshbach resonance. Our findings experimentally confirm that this technique can measure vibrational levels lower than those accessible to traditional photoassociative spectroscopy. We present theory concerning the polarization dependence of FOPA for this system, and discuss implications of using this system to measure the time-variation of the electron/proton mass ratio.

  12. Experimental observation of surface states and Landau levels bending in bilayer graphene

    Yin, Long-Jing; Zhang, Yu; Qiao, Jia-Bin; Li, Si-Yu; He, Lin

    2016-03-01

    We report on microscopic measurements of the low-energy electronic structures both at the zigzag and armchair edges of bilayer graphene using scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy (STM and STS). We have found that, both in the absence and in the presence of a magnetic field, an almost zero-energy peak in the density of states was localized at the zigzag edges, as expected for the surface states at the zigzag edges of bilayer graphene. In the quantum Hall regime, we have clearly observed Landau levels bending away from the charge neutrality point near both the zigzag and armchair edges. Such a result is direct evidence for the evolution of Landau levels into quantum Hall edge states in graphene bilayers. Our experiment indicates that it is possible to explore rich quantum Hall physics in graphene systems using STM and STS.

  13. Observation of Ground Level Muon at Bangi In 2008-2009

    Zain, N. M.; Gopir, G.; Yatim, B.; Sanusi, H.; Husain, N. H.

    2010-07-01

    This study is carried out to observe muons coming from the zenith direction at ground level using a muon telescope based on Geiger-Muller (GM) tubes. Measurements were made for 16 sampling days from November 2008 to January 2009; simultaneously outside and inside the Physics Building of Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia in Bangi (3.05edeg N, 101.68° E and 50 m asl), Malaysia. Daily sampling sessions of 30 minutes are sub-divided into six consecutive sub-sampling periods of five minutes and descriptive statistics is used to summarise the observed muon counts. Then, applying the inferential statistical methods of ANOVA and t-test indicate that the time variation of the muon count is not significant and the building roof does not significantly affect the muon count rate.

  14. Associations of group level popularity with observed behavior and influence in a dyadic context.

    Lansu, Tessa A M; Cillessen, Antonius H N

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the association between popularity in the peer group and adolescents' behavior in a dyadic context. After collecting peer nominations for popularity, 218 early adolescents (M(age) = 11.0 years) in 109 randomly composed same-sex dyads participated in a discussion task where they planned a party for their classroom. From digital recordings of the sessions, each participant's influence, involvement, skillful leadership, coercive resource control, submissiveness, positivity, and negativity were observed. Analyses with the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) demonstrated that for girls high group level popularity was associated with a socially sensitive interaction style and influence in the dyadic context. For both boys and girls, the interaction partner's group level popularity negatively predicted their use of coercive resource control strategies and negative behavior in the dyad. For girls, in addition, the interaction partner's group level popularity also positively predicted their submissiveness and negatively predicted their task influence. These results indicate that, in particular for girls, adolescents' group level popularity plays an important role in the behavior of both peers in a cooperative dyadic context. PMID:26232593

  15. Analytical approach for predicting fresh water discharge in an estuary based on tidal water level observations

    H. Cai

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As the tidal wave propagates into an estuary, the tidally averaged water level tends to rise in landward direction due to the density difference between saline and fresh water and the asymmetry of the friction. The effect of friction on the residual slope is even more remarkable when accounting for fresh water discharge. In this study, we investigate the influence of river discharge on tidal wave propagation in the Yangtze estuary with specific attention to residual water level slope. This is done by using a one-dimensional analytical model for tidal hydrodynamics accounting for the residual water level. We demonstrate the importance of the residual slope on tidal dynamics and use it to improve the prediction of the tidal propagation in estuaries (i.e., tidal damping, velocity amplitude, wave celerity and phase lag, especially when the influence of river discharge is significant. Finally, we develop a new inverse analytical approach for estimating fresh water discharge on the basis of tidal water level observations along the estuary, which can be used as a tool to obtain information on the river discharge that is otherwise difficult to measure in the tidal region.

  16. TSUNAMI HAZARD MITIGATION AND THE NOAA NATIONAL WATER LEVEL OBSERVATION NETWORK

    James R. Hubbard

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available With the renewed interest in regional Tsunami Warning Systems and the potential tsunami threats throughout the Caribbean and West coast of the United States, the National Ocean Service (NOS, National Water Level Observation Network (NWLON consisting of 175 primary stations, is well situated to play a role in the National Hazard Mitigation effort. In addition, information regarding local mean sea level trends and GPS derived geodetic datum relationships at numerous coastal locations is readily available for tsunami hazard assessment and mapping applications.Tsunami inundation maps and modeling are just two of the more important products which may be derived from NWLON data. In addition to the seven water level gauges that are hardwired into the West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WClATWC, NOS has a significant number of gauges with real-time satellite telemetry capabilities located along the Pacific Northwest coastline, the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean. These gauges, in concert with near shore buoy systems, have the potential for increasing the effectiveness of the existing tsunami warning system.The recent expansion of the Caribbean Sea Level Gauge Network through the NOS regional partnerships with Central American and Caribbean countries have opened an opportunity for a basin-wide tsunami warning network in a region which is ill prepared for a major tsunami event.

  17. Activity Analyses for Solar-Type Stars Observed With Kepler. I. Proxies of Magnetic Activity

    He, Han; Yun, Duo

    2016-01-01

    Light curves of solar-type stars often show gradual fluctuations due to rotational modulation by magnetic features (starspots and faculae) on stellar surfaces. Two quantitative measures of modulated light curves are employed as the proxies of magnetic activity for solar-type stars observed with Kepler telescope. The first is named autocorrelation index $i_{AC}$, which describes the degree of periodicity of the light curve, the second is the effective fluctuation range of the light curve $R_{eff}$, which reflects the depth of rotational modulation. The two measures are complementary and depict different aspects of magnetic activities on solar-type stars. By using the two proxies $i_{AC}$ and $R_{eff}$, we analyzed activity properties of two carefully selected solar-type stars observed with Kepler (Kepler ID: 9766237 and 10864581), which have distinct rotational periods (14.7 vs. 6.0 days). We also applied the two measures to the Sun for a comparative study. The result shows that both the measures can reveal cy...

  18. A statistical method to get surface level air-temperature from satellite observations of precipitable water

    Pankajakshan, T.; Shikauchi, A.; Sugimori, Y.; Kubota, M.

    humidity within the first 50 meters of the air-sea boundary layer (Friehe and Schmitt, 1976; Liu et al., 1979). Sea surface temperature derived from NOAA-AVHRR infrared channels, using MCSST/CPSST algorithms, has an attainable accuracy of ±0.5°C (McClain et... al., 1985; Walton, 1988; Sakaida and Kawamura, 1992). The operational U.S. DMSP-SSMI provide the surface level wind speed and integrated column water vapor (precipitable water) within an accuracy comparable to in situ observations (Wentz et al., 1986...

  19. Mapping Air Pollution Concentrations and Sources in China from Ground-Level Observations

    Rohde, R. A.; Muller, R. A.

    2014-12-01

    China has recently established an extensive air quality monitoring system with over 1500 sites providing hourly data on airborne particulate matter (PM2.5 / PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), and carbon monoxide (CO). Based on Kriging interpolation of these surface data, we derive a detailed map of air pollution across the eastern half of China. In northern and central China, the pollution is widespread; contrary to popular belief, pollution is not simply localized to major cities such as Beijing, Shanghai, or Chongqing, or in geologic basins. Pollution levels are lower in southern China, in part due to frequent rains. By incorporating wind measurements and estimating pollution transport, we also infer source distributions for key pollutants. Sources are widespread, but many of the largest sources are often situated in or near major population centers. A northeast corridor extending from near Shanghai to north of Beijing includes many of the most significant pollution sources in China. Roughly 5% of the study region accounts for 25% of observed particulate matter emissions. During the analysis period, roughly half of the population of China was subjected to a long-term average pollution level in the unhealthy range, according to standards used by the US Environmental Protection Agency. In addition, nearly all of China's population (>90%) was exposed to unhealthy levels of air pollution at least some of the time. Based on health impact estimates from the Huai River Study, we estimate that the observed levels of particulate matter pollution contribute to about 1.4 million deaths every year in China, about 3500 per day, in agreement with prior estimates. Identification of sources from pollution data was facilitated by the reporting of hourly measurements, and we encourage other nations around the world to follow China's example and provide such time-resolved data.

  20. Assimilation of Smos Observations to Generate a Prototype SMAP Level 4 Surface and Root-Zone Soil Moisture Product

    Reichle, Rolf H.; De Lannoy, Gabrielle J. M.; Crow, Wade T.; Koster, Randal D.; Kimball, John

    2012-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP; [1]) mission is being implemented by NASA for launch in October 2014. The primary science objectives of SMAP are to enhance understanding of land surface controls on the water, energy and carbon cycles, and to determine their linkages. Moreover, the high-resolution soil moisture mapping provided by SMAP has practical applications in weather and seasonal climate prediction, agriculture, human health, drought and flood decision support. The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS; [2]) mission was launched by ESA in November 2009 and has since been observing L-band (1.4 GHz) upwelling passive microwaves. In this paper we describe our use of SMOS brightness temperature observations to generate a prototype of the planned SMAP Level 4 Surface and Root-zone Soil Moisture (L4_SM) product [5].

  1. Very Large Array (VLA) observations of solar active regions

    Very Large Array (VLA) synthesis maps of the total intensity and the circular polarization of three active regions at 6 cm wavelength are presented. The radiation from each active region is dominated by a few intense cores with angular sizes of approximately 0.5', brightness temperatures of approximately 106 K, and degrees of circular polarization of 30 to 90%. Some of the core sources within a given active region exhibit opposite senses of circular polarization, suggesting the feet of magnetic dipoles, and the high brightness temperatures suggest that these magnetic structures belong to the low solar corona. Comparisons between the VLA maps of circular polarization and Zeeman effect magnetograms of the lower lying photosphere are presented. There is an excellent correlation between the magnetic structures inferred by the two methods, indicating that synthesis maps of circular polarization at 6 cm can be used to delineate magnetic structures in the low solar corona. (Auth.)

  2. Closure Plan for Active Low Level Burial Grounds

    SKELLY, W.A.

    2000-11-16

    This plan has been prepared in response to direction from the U.S. Department of Energy. The purpose of the plan is to define approaches that will be implemented to ensure protection of the public and the environment when active Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBGs) at the Hanford Site are closed. Performance assessments for active burial grounds in the 200 East and West 200 Areas provide current estimates of potential environmental contamination and doses to the ''maximum exposed individual'' from burial ground operation and closure and compare dose estimates to performance objective dose limits for the facilities. This is an Operational Closure Plan. The intent of the guidance in DOE Order 435.1 is that this plan will be a living document, like the facility performance assessments, and will be revised periodically through the operational life of the LLBGs to reflect updated information on waste inventory. management practices, facility transition planning, schedule dates, assessments of post-closure performance, and environmental consequences. Out year dates identified in this plan are tentative. A Final Closure Plan will be prepared in the future when the timing and extent of closure-related activities for LLBGs can be established with greater certainty. After current operations at the LLBGs are concluded, this plan proposes transitioning of these facilities to the Environmental Restoration Program. This action will enable the Environmental Restoration Program to design and implement consistent and coordinated final remedial actions for active and inactive LLBGs. Active and inactive burial grounds in the 200 West and 200 East Areas are commingled. This plan describes approaches that will be implemented during Interim Closure, Final Closure, and Institutional Control Periods to prepare LLBGs for surface barriers, and the construction of barriers, as well as the scope of inspection, monitoring and maintenance practices that will be performed during

  3. Sources of Continuity and Change in Activity Level in Early Childhood

    Saudino, Kimberly J.

    2011-01-01

    Actigraphs and parent and observer ratings were used to explore genetic influences on continuity and change in activity level (AL) in early childhood. Over 300 pairs of twins wore actigraphs for a 48-hour period in the home and laboratory at ages 2 and 3. AL was genetically influenced at both ages with little evidence of differential heritability across age. For all measures, genetic influences contributed to phenotypic continuity. With the exception of the actigraph measure of AL in the home...

  4. Digestive enzyme activity and mRNA level of trypsin in embryonic redclaw crayfish, Cherax quadricarnatus

    LUO Wen; ZHAO Yunlong; ZHOU Zhongliang; AN Chuanguang; MA Qiang

    2008-01-01

    The digestive enzyme activity and mRNA level of trypsin during the embryonic development of Cherax quadricarinatus were analyzed using biochemical and Fluorogenic Quantitative PCR (FQ-PCR) methods.The results show that the activities of trypsin and chymotrypsin had two different change patterns.Trypsin specific activity increased rapidly in the early stages of development and still remained high in preparation for the hatch stage.However,chymotrypsin activity peaked in stage 4 of embryonic development and decreased significantly in the last stage.The mRNA level of trypsin was elevated in all stages and two peak values were observed in stages 2 and 5 respectively.The results indicate that trypsin is very important for the utilization of the yolk during embryonic development and for the assimilation of dietary protein for larvae.The gene of trypsin is probably regulated at transcriptional level.The mRNA levels of trypsin can reflect not only trypsin activity,but also the regulatory mechanism for expression of trypsin gene to a certain degree.

  5. Geographical and Temporal Differences in NOAA Observed Ground-Level Ozone in the Arctic

    McClure-Begley, Audra; Petropavlovskikh, Irina; Andrews, Betsy; Hageman, Derek; Oltmans, Samuel; Uttal, Taneil

    2016-04-01

    The Arctic region is rapidly gaining interest and support for scientific studies to help understand and characterize the processes, sources, and chemical composition of the Arctic environment. In order to understand the Arctic climate system and the changes that are occurring, it is imperative to know the behavior and impact of atmospheric constituents. Surface level ozone in the Arctic is variable in both time and space and plays an essential role on the oxidation capacity of the atmosphere. NOAA Global Monitoring Division (NOAA/GMD) maintains continuous measurements and long-term records of ground-level ozone from Barrow, Alaska (since 1973) and Summit, Greenland (since 2000). Measurements taken by Thermo-Scientific ozone monitors are collected and examined with the NOAA/GMD Aerosol LiveCPD acquisition and software. These quality controlled data are used to develop seasonal climatologies, understand diurnal variation, and analyze differences in stations specifics by addressing spatial variability in the Arctic. Once typical ozone behavior is characterized, anomalies in the record are defined and investigated. Increased ozone events associated with transported pollution and photochemical production of ozone, and ozone depletion episodes related to sea-ice halogen release and chemical destruction of ozone are the primary processes which lead to deviations from typical ground-level ozone conditions. The measurements taken from Barrow and Summit are a critical portion of the IASOA network of observations of ground-level ozone and are investigated to ensure proper data management and quality control, as well as provide the fundamental understanding of ground-level ozone behavior in the Arctic.

  6. Direct observation of atomic-level nucleation and growth processes from an ultrathin metallic glass films

    Huang, K. Q.; Cao, C. R.; Sun, Y. T.; Li, J.; Bai, H. Y.; Zheng, D. N., E-mail: l.gu@iphy.ac.cn, E-mail: dzheng@iphy.ac.cn, E-mail: whw@iphy.ac.cn; Wang, W. H., E-mail: l.gu@iphy.ac.cn, E-mail: dzheng@iphy.ac.cn, E-mail: whw@iphy.ac.cn [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Gu, L., E-mail: l.gu@iphy.ac.cn, E-mail: dzheng@iphy.ac.cn, E-mail: whw@iphy.ac.cn [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2016-01-07

    Till date, there have been no direct atomic-level experimental observations of the earliest stages of the nucleation and growth processes of nanocrystals formed by thermally induced crystallization in ultrathin metallic glasses (MGs). Here, we present a study of the crystallization process in atomically thin and highly stable MG films using double spherical aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (Cs-TEM). Taking advantage of the stability of MG films with a slow crystallization process and the atomic-level high resolution of Cs-TEM, we observe the formation of the nucleus precursor of nanocrystals formed by atom aggregation followed by concomitant coalescence and stepwise evolution of the shape of the nanocrystals with a monodispersed and separated bimodal size distribution. Molecular dynamics simulation of the atomic motion in the glass film on a rigid amorphous substrate confirms the stepwise evolution processes of atom aggregation, cluster formation, cluster movement on the substrate, and cluster coalescence into larger crystalline particles. Our results might provide a better fundamental understanding of the nucleation and growth processes of nanocrystals in thin MG films.

  7. Direct observation of atomic-level nucleation and growth processes from an ultrathin metallic glass films

    Till date, there have been no direct atomic-level experimental observations of the earliest stages of the nucleation and growth processes of nanocrystals formed by thermally induced crystallization in ultrathin metallic glasses (MGs). Here, we present a study of the crystallization process in atomically thin and highly stable MG films using double spherical aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (Cs-TEM). Taking advantage of the stability of MG films with a slow crystallization process and the atomic-level high resolution of Cs-TEM, we observe the formation of the nucleus precursor of nanocrystals formed by atom aggregation followed by concomitant coalescence and stepwise evolution of the shape of the nanocrystals with a monodispersed and separated bimodal size distribution. Molecular dynamics simulation of the atomic motion in the glass film on a rigid amorphous substrate confirms the stepwise evolution processes of atom aggregation, cluster formation, cluster movement on the substrate, and cluster coalescence into larger crystalline particles. Our results might provide a better fundamental understanding of the nucleation and growth processes of nanocrystals in thin MG films

  8. A Very Active Sprite-Producing Storm Observed Over Argentina

    Thomas, J.N.; Taylor, Michael J.; Pautet, D.; Bailey, M.; Solorzano, N. N.; R. H. Holzworth; McCarthy, M.P.; Kokorowski, M.; Sao Sabbas, F.; Pinto Jr., O.; Cummer, S. A.; Jaugey, N.; Li, J.; Schuch, N. J.

    2007-01-01

    During the night of 22–23 February 2006, more than 400 middle- atmospheric optical discharges were observed above one large thunderstorm system over northeastern Argentina. These transient luminous events (TLEs) were imaged during the Southern Brazil Sprite Campaign, the first campaign to focus on TLEs over southern Brazil, northeastern Argentina, and Uruguay. All of the TLEs were imaged from the Brazilian Southern Space Observatory (SSO) near Santa Maria, which is nearly in the center of the...

  9. Scheduling satellite imagery acquisition for sequential assimilation of water level observation into flood modelling

    García-Pintado, Javier; Neal, Jeff C.; Mason, David C.; Dance, Sarah L.; Bates, Paul D.

    2013-04-01

    Satellite-based imagery has proved useful for obtaining information on water levels in flood events. Microwave frequencies are generally more useful for flood detection than visible-band sensors because of its all-weather day-night capability. Specifically, the future SWOT mission, with Ka-band interferometry, will be able to provide direct Water Level Observations (WLOs), and current and future Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) sensors can provide information of flood extent, which, when intersected with a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of the floodplain, provides indirect WLOs. By either means, satellite-based WLOs can be assimilated into a hydrodynamic model to decrease forecast uncertainty and further to estimate river discharge into the flooded domain. Operational scenarios can even make a combined use of imagery from different uncoordinated missions to sequentially estimate river discharge. Thus, with an increasing number of operational satellites with WLO capability, information on the relationship between satellite first visit, revisit times, and forecast performance is required to optimise the operational scheduling of satellite imagery. By using an Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter (ETKF) and a synthetic analysis with the 2D hydrodynamic model LISFLOOD-FP based on a real flooding case affecting an urban area (summer 2007, Tewkesbury, Southwest UK), we evaluate the sensitivity of the forecast performance to visit parameters. As an example, we use different scenarios of revisit times and observational errors expected from the current COSMO-Skymed (CSK) constellation, with X-band SAR. We emulate a generic hydrologic-hydrodynamic modelling cascade by imposing a bias and spatiotemporal correlations to the inflow error ensemble into the hydrodynamic domain. First, in agreement with previous research, estimation and correction for this bias leads to a clear improvement in keeping the forecast on track. Second, imagery obtained early in the flood is shown to have a

  10. Observational evidence of temperature trends at two levels in the surface layer

    Lin, X.; Pielke, R. A., Sr.; Mahmood, R.; Fiebrich, C. A.; Aiken, R.

    2015-09-01

    Long-term surface air temperatures at 1.5 m screen level over land are used in calculating a global average surface temperature trend. This global trend is used by the IPCC and others to monitor, assess, and describe global warming or warming hiatus. Current knowledge of near-surface temperature trends with respect to height, however, is limited and inadequately understood because surface temperature observations at different heights in the surface layer in the world are rare especially from a high-quality and long-term climate monitoring network. Here we use high-quality two-height Oklahoma Mesonet observations, synchronized in time, fixed in height, and situated in relatively flat terrain, to assess temperature trends and differentiating temperature trends with respect to heights (i.e., near-surface lapse rate trend) over the period 1997 to 2013. We show that the near-surface lapse rate has significantly decreased with a trend of -0.18 ± 0.03 °C (10 m)-1 decade-1 indicating that the 9 m height temperatures increased faster than temperatures at the 1.5 m screen level and conditions at the 1.5 m height cooled faster than at the 9 m height. However, neither of the two individual height temperature trends by themselves were statistically significant. The magnitude of lapse rate trend is greatest under lighter winds at night. Nighttime lapse rate trends were significantly more negative than daytime lapse rate trends and the average lapse rate trend was three times more negative under calm conditions than under windy conditions. Our results provide the first observational evidence of near-surface temperature changes with respect to height that could enhance the assessment of climate model predictions.

  11. Observations of cold magnetospheric ions at geosynchronous orbit during times of high activity

    Flowing, cold magnetospheric ions have been observed in conjunction with geosynchronous orbit magnetopause crossings since the earliest ATS and OGO missions. The authors have reported on the occurrence and convection of low-energy (10-100 eV) ions seen by multiple satellites in association with geosynchronous orbit magnetopause and low-latitude boundary layer (LLBL) encounters. More generally, Los Alamos 3-D plasma instruments observe these ions following storm sudden commencements (SSCs), when activity levels are high. The ions appear to be convecting radially outward and usually westward at speeds of a few to several tens of kilometers per second. Often the energy spectra reveal peaks at energies appropriate for cold convecting H+, He+ and O+. The occurrence frequency distribution of these dense cold ions is peaked near 1400 LT, with an overall range from 1000 to beyond 1800 LT. This local time distribution is greatly skewed from the overall plasmaspheric distribution, which peaks closer to 1800 LT. Multisatellite observations show that the ions are seen first at late afternoon local times and then at progressively earlier and earlier local times (though usually no earlier than 1000 LT). This apparent evolution in local time suggests that the late-afternoon plasmaspheric plasma moves out and dawnward during times of increased magnetospheric activity. The three-satellite observations also allow the authors to track cold plasma convection at multiple points in the magnetosphere, and potentially provide a glimpse of the large-scale convection pattern

  12. Long-term Behaviour Of Venus Winds At Cloud Level From Virtis/vex Observations

    Hueso, Ricardo; Peralta, J.; Sánchez-Lavega, A.; Pérez-Hoyos, S.; Piccioni, G.; Drossart, P.

    2009-09-01

    The Venus Express (VEX) mission has been in orbit to Venus for more than three years now. The VIRTIS instrument onboard VEX observes Venus in two channels (visible and infrared) obtaining spectra and multi-wavelength images of the planet. Images in the ultraviolet range are used to study the upper cloud at 66 km while images in the infrared (1.74 μm) map the opacity of the lower cloud deck at 48 km. Here we present an analysis of the overall dynamics of Venus’ atmosphere at both levels using observations that cover a large fraction of the VIRTIS dataset. We will present our latest results concerning the zonal winds, the overall stability in the lower cloud deck motions and the variability in the upper cloud. Meridional winds are also observed in the upper and lower cloud in the UV and IR images obtained with VIRTIS. While the upper clouds present a net meridional motion consistent with the upper branch of a Hadley cell the lower cloud present more irregular, variable and less intense motions in the meridional direction. Acknowledgements This work has been funded by Spanish MEC AYA2006-07735 with FEDER support and Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT-464-07. RH acknowledges a "Ramón y Cajal” contract from MEC.

  13. Kepler Observations of Rapid Optical Variability in Active Galactic Nuclei

    Mushotzky, R. F.; Edelson, R.; Baumgartner, W. H.; Gandhi, P.

    2012-01-01

    Over three quarters in 2010 - 2011, Kepler monitored optical emission from four active galactic nuclei (AGN) with approx 30 min sampling, > 90% duty cycle and approx AGN optical fluctuation power spectral density functions (PSDs) over a wide range in temporal frequency. Fits to these PSDs yielded power law slopes of -2.6 to -3.3, much steeper than typically seen in the X-rays. We find evidence that individual AGN exhibit intrinsically different PSD slopes. The steep PSD fits are a challenge to recent AGN variability models but seem consistent with first order MRI theoretical calculations of accretion disk fluctuations.

  14. Observation of Paramagnetic Raman Optical Activity of Nitrogen Dioxide

    Šebestík, Jaroslav; Bouř, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 35 (2014), s. 9236-9239. ISSN 1433-7851 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP208/11/0105; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-00431S; GA MŠk(CZ) LH11033 Grant ostatní: GA AV ČR(CZ) M200550902 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : angular momentum theory * nitrogen dioxide * paramagnetic gases * Raman optical activity * spectral simulations Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 11.261, year: 2014

  15. Flarelike brightenings of active region loops observed with SUMER

    Wang, T J; Solanki, S K; Curdt, W

    2015-01-01

    Coronal loops on the east limb of the Sun were observed by SUMER on SOHO for several days. Small flare-like brightenings are detected very frequently in the hot flare line Fe~{\\small XIX}. We find that the relatively intense events are in good coincidence with the transient brightenings seen by Yohkoh/SXT. A statistical analysis shows that these brightenings have durations of 5-84 min and extensions along the slit of 2-67 Mm. The integrated energy observed in Fe~{\\small XIX} for each event is in the range of $3\\times10^{18}-5\\times10^{23}$ ergs, and the estimated thermal energy ranges from $10^{26}-10^{29}$ ergs. Application of the statistical method proposed by Parnell \\& Jupp (2000) yields a value of 1.5 to 1.8 for the index of a power law relation between the frequency of the events and the radiated energy in Fe~{\\small XIX}, and a value of 1.7 to 1.8 for the index of the frequency distribution of the thermal energy in the energy range $>10^{27}$ ergs. We examine the possibility that these small bright...

  16. How much locomotive activity is needed for an active physical activity level: analysis of total step counts

    Ohkawara Kazunori

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although physical activity recommendations for public health have focused on locomotive activity such as walking and running, it is uncertain how much these activities contribute to overall physical activity level (PAL. The purpose of the present study was to determine the contribution of locomotive activity to PAL using total step counts measured in a calorimeter study. Methods PAL, calculated as total energy expenditure divided by basal metabolic rate, was evaluated in 11 adult men using three different conditions for 24-hour human calorimeter measurements: a low-activity day (L-day targeted at a low active level of PAL (1.45, and a high-frequency moderate activity day (M-day or a high-frequency vigorous activity day (V-day targeted at an active level of PAL (1.75. These subjects were permitted only light activities except prescribed activities. In a separate group of 41 adults, free-living PAL was evaluated using doubly-labeled water (DLW. In both experiments, step counts per day were also measured using an accelerometer. Results In the human calorimeter study, PAL and step counts were 1.42 ± 0.10 and 8,973 ± 543 steps/d (L-day, 1.82 ± 0.14 and 29,588 ± 1,126 steps/d (M-day, and 1.74 ± 0.15 and 23,755 ± 1,038 steps/d (V-day, respectively. In the DLW study, PAL and step counts were 1.73 ± 0.15 and 10,022 ± 2,605 steps/d, and there was no significant relationship between PAL and daily step counts. Conclusions These results indicate that an enormous number of steps are needed for an active level of PAL if individuals extend physical activity-induced energy expenditure by only locomotive activity. Therefore, non-locomotive activity such as household activity should also play a significant role in increasing PAL under free-living conditions.

  17. Two Decades of Global and Regional Sea Level Observations from the ESA Climate Change Initiative Sea Level Project

    Legeais, JeanFrancois; Larnicol, Gilles; Cazenave, Anny; Ablain, Michael; Benveniste, Jérôme; Lucas, BrunoManuel; Timms, Gary; Johannessen, Johnny; Knudsen, Per; Cipollini, Paolo; Roca, Monica; Rudenko, Sergei; Fernandes, Joana; Balmaseda, Magdalena; Quartly, Graham; Fenoglio-Marc, Luciana; Scharfennberg, Martin; Meyssignac, Benoit; Guinle, Thierry; Andersen, Ole

    2015-04-01

    Sea level is a very sensitive index of climate change and variability. Sea level integrates the ocean warming, mountain glaciers and ice sheet melting. Understanding the sea level variability and changes implies an accurate monitoring of the sea level variable at climate scales, in addition to understanding the ocean variability and the exchanges between ocean, land, cryosphere, and atmosphere. That is why Sea Level is one of the Essential Climate Variables (ECV) selected in the frame of the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI) program. It aims at providing long-term monitoring of the sea level ECV with regular updates, as required for climate studies. After a first phase (2011-2013), the program has started in 2014 a second phase of 3 years. The objectives of this second phase are to involve the climate research community, to refine their needs and collect their feedbacks on product quality, to develop, test and select the best algorithms and standards to generate an updated climate time series and to produce and validate the Sea Level ECV product. This will better answer the climate user needs by improving the quality of the Sea Level products and maintain a sustain service for an up-to-date production. To this extent, the ECV time series has been extended and it now covers the period 1993-2013. We will firstly present the main achievements of the ESA CCI Sea Level Project. On the one hand, the major steps required to produce the 21 years climate time series are briefly described: collect and refine the user requirements, development of adapted algorithms for climate applications and specification of the production system. On the other hand, the product characteristics are described as well as the results from product validation, performed by several groups of the ocean and climate modeling community. At last, the work plan and key challenges of the second phase of the project are described.

  18. Neutron activation analysis of neonate and maternal hair sampled in areas with different levels of pollution

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis was performed on human head hair of newborns and mothers sampled in two areas with different levels of environmental exposure. The group of neonates from the exposed area (polluted by thermal power plants burning brown coal and by chemical industry) exhibited higher levels of several trace elements in hair, e.g. Se, Zn, Hg and Sb in comparison with the control group. Moreover, the mean concentrations of Se, Hg, Zn and Br in neonate hair were found to be higher than in mothers' hair. Although the study revealed statistically significant differences in the composition of neonate hair samples in areas with different levels of environmental exposure, the differences are relatively small. Only a thorough long-term study both with environmental and medical observations can prove a direct connection of the elevated levels of some trace elements in neonate hair with the higher incidence of mental diseaes of children living in the exposed area. (author)

  19. Environmental variation of arsenic levels in human blood determined by neutron activation analysis

    Heydorn, Kaj

    1970-01-01

    Arsenic levels in blood plasma and red cells from patients with Blackfoot disease, a peripheral arteriosclerosis endemic to a small area in Taiwan, were studied in relation to healthy individuals from the same and other parts of Taiwan and compared with arsenic levels in a control group from Denm...... in Denmark, which geochemically belongs to a soil zone with less arsenic than Taiwan.......Arsenic levels in blood plasma and red cells from patients with Blackfoot disease, a peripheral arteriosclerosis endemic to a small area in Taiwan, were studied in relation to healthy individuals from the same and other parts of Taiwan and compared with arsenic levels in a control group from...... Denmark. Arsenic was determined by neutron activation analysis with radiochemical separation and re-irradiation yield determination. The precision and accuracy of the results have been carefully evaluated in order to permit quantitative tests for the significance of the observed differences. The results...

  20. Low-Level Cloud Variability over the Equatorial Cold Tongue in Observations and Models

    Mansbach, David K.; Norris, Joel R.

    2007-01-01

    A fourth paper now in press is, Low-level cloud variability over the equatorial cold tongue in observations and models, by D. K. Mansbach and J. R. Norris (2007, J. Climate). This study examined cloud and meteorological observations from satellite, surface, and reanalysis datasets and fount that monthly anomalies in low-level cloud amount and near-surface temperature advection are strongly negatively correlated on the southern side of the equatorial Pacific cold tongue. This inverse correlation occurs independently of relationships between cloud amount and sea surface temperature (SST) or lower tropospheric static stability (LTS) and the combination of advection plus SST or LTS explains significantly more interannual cloud variability in a multilinear regression than does SST or LTS alone. Warm anomalous advection occurs when the equatorial cold tongue is well defined and the southeastern Pacific trade winds bring relatively warm air over colder water. Ship meteorological reports and soundings show that the atmospheric surface layer becomes stratified under these conditions, thus inhibiting the upward mixing of moisture needed to sustain cloudiness against subsidence and entrainment drying. Cold anomalous advection primarily occurs when the equatorial cold tongue is weak or absent and the air-sea temperature difference is substantially negative. These conditions favor a more convective atmospheric boundary layer, greater cloud amount, and less frequent occurrence of clear sky. Examination of output from global climate models developed by the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) indicates that both models generally fail to simulate the cloud-advection relationships observed on the northern and southern sides of the equatorial cold tongue. Although the GFDL atmosphere model does reproduce the expected signs of cloud-advection correlations when forced with prescribed historical SST variations, it does not

  1. Fire testing of fully active medium-level waste forms

    The effect of heat on packaged intermediate level waste (ILW) has been studied. This was done in order to be able to predict the behaviour of the ILW under accident conditions involving fire during transport or at the repository. In the study, experimental data were obtained and used in the development and validation of theoretical models to describe aspects of the behaviour of the waste form when subjected to heat. The prime objective was to be able to predict the amounts of radioactive materials released from a given incident. Four ILW streams were selected for experimental study. These four were chosen as the minimum that could be studied to provide a set of data that could be used in the prediction of the behaviour of the majority of ILW produced in the UK. Heating experiments were carried out on a small scale using packaged ILW samples made from active wastes or inactive simulants. Data were obtained on temperatures in the waste form, production of volatile materials, carry-forward of solid particulate materials and carry-forward of radionuclides. The results were used, together with data from full-scale experiments with inactive simulant ILW carried out at Winfrith, to develop and validate a theoretical model. This model calculates the temperature profiles within a package of immobilized ILW as a function of the applied heating conditions. The temperature of the waste form is used to predict the release of radioactive materials from the package. 4 refs., 65 figs., 13 tabs

  2. Paired galaxies with different activity levels and their supernovae

    Nazaryan, T A; Hakobyan, A A; Adibekyan, V Zh; Kunth, D; Mamon, G A; Turatto, M; Aramyan, L S

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the influence of close neighbor galaxies on the properties of supernovae (SNe) and their host galaxies using 56 SNe located in pairs of galaxies with different levels of star formation (SF) and nuclear activity. The statistical study of SN hosts shows that there is no significant difference between morphologies of hosts in our sample and the larger general sample of SN hosts in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 8 (DR8). The mean distance of type II SNe from nuclei of hosts is greater by about a factor of 2 than that of type Ibc SNe. The distributions and mean distances of SNe are consistent with previous results compiled with the larger sample. For the first time it is shown that SNe Ibc are located in pairs with significantly smaller difference of radial velocities between components than pairs containing SNe Ia and II. We consider this as a result of higher star formation rate (SFR) of these closer systems of galaxies. SN types are not correlated with the luminosity ratio of ho...

  3. Two Decades of Global and Regional Sea Level Observation from the ESA Climate Change Initiative Sea Level Project

    Larnicol, Gilles; Cazenave, Anny; Ablain, Michael; Legeais, JeanFrancois; Faugere, Yannice; Benveniste, Jerome; Lucas, Bruno; Dinardo, Salvatore; Johannessen, Johnny; Stammer, Detlef; Timms, Gary; Knudsen, Per; Cipollini, Paolo; Roca, Monica; Rudenko, Sergei; Fernandes, Joana; Balmaseda, Magdalena; Guinle, Thierry

    2014-05-01

    Sea level is a very sensitive index of climate change and variability. Sea level integrates the ocean warming, mountain glaciers and ice sheet melting. Understanding the sea level variability and changes implies an accurate monitoring of the sea level variable at climate scales, in addition to understanding the ocean variability and the exchanges between ocean, land, cryosphere, and atmosphere. That is why Sea Level is one of the Essential Climate Variables (ECV) selected in the frame of the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI) program. This program aims at providing long-term satellite-based products for climate (ECV products), that should be used by the climate research community. This program has just completed its first phase (Oct. 2010 to Dec. 2013) and will start in February 2014 the second phase of 3 years. The objective of the second phase are similar: to involve the climate research community to refine their needs and collect their feedbacks on product quality, to develop, test and select the best algorithms and standards to generate an updated climate time series and to produce and validate the Sea Level ECV product. This will better answer the climate user needs by improving the quality of the Sea Level products and maintain a sustain service for an up-to-date production. We will firstly present the main achievements of the ESA CCI Sea Level Project. On the one hand, the major steps required to produce the 18 years climate time series (delivered in Sept. 2012) are briefly described: collect and refine the user requirements, development of adapted algorithms for climate applications and specification of the production system. On the other hand, the product characteristics are described as well as the results from product validation, performed by several groups of the ocean and climate modeling community. At last, the work plan and key challenges of the second phase of the project are described.

  4. KEPLER OBSERVATIONS OF RAPID OPTICAL VARIABILITY IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    Over three quarters in 2010-2011, Kepler monitored optical emission from four active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with ∼30 minute sampling, >90% duty cycle, and ∼<0.1% repeatability. These data determined the AGN optical fluctuation power spectral density (PSD) functions over a wide range in temporal frequency. Fits to these PSDs yielded power-law slopes of –2.6 to –3.3, much steeper than typically seen in the X-rays. We find evidence that individual AGNs exhibit intrinsically different PSD slopes. The steep PSD fits are a challenge to recent AGN variability models but seem consistent with first-order magnetorotational instability theoretical calculations of accretion disk fluctuations.

  5. Observable Lepton Number Violation with Predominantly Dirac Nature of Active Neutrinos

    Borah, Debasish

    2016-01-01

    We study a specific version of $SU(2)_R \\times SU(2)_L \\times U(1)_{B-L}$ models extended by discrete symmetries where the new physics sector responsible for tiny neutrino masses at leading order remains decoupled from the new physics sector that can give rise to observable signatures of lepton number violation such as neutrinoless double beta decay. More specifically, the dominant contribution to light neutrino masses comes from a one-loop Dirac mass. At higher loop level, a tiny Majorana mass also appears which remains suppressed by many order of magnitudes in comparison to the Dirac mass. Such a model where the active neutrinos are predominantly of Dirac type, also predicts observable charged lepton flavour violation like $\\mu \\rightarrow 3e, \\mu \\rightarrow e \\gamma$ and multi-component dark matter.

  6. Ocean impact on decadal Atlantic climate variability revealed by sea-level observations

    McCarthy, Gerard D.; Haigh, Ivan D.; Hirschi, Joël J.-M.; Grist, Jeremy P.; Smeed, David A.

    2015-05-01

    Decadal variability is a notable feature of the Atlantic Ocean and the climate of the regions it influences. Prominently, this is manifested in the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) in sea surface temperatures. Positive (negative) phases of the AMO coincide with warmer (colder) North Atlantic sea surface temperatures. The AMO is linked with decadal climate fluctuations, such as Indian and Sahel rainfall, European summer precipitation, Atlantic hurricanes and variations in global temperatures. It is widely believed that ocean circulation drives the phase changes of the AMO by controlling ocean heat content. However, there are no direct observations of ocean circulation of sufficient length to support this, leading to questions about whether the AMO is controlled from another source. Here we provide observational evidence of the widely hypothesized link between ocean circulation and the AMO. We take a new approach, using sea level along the east coast of the United States to estimate ocean circulation on decadal timescales. We show that ocean circulation responds to the first mode of Atlantic atmospheric forcing, the North Atlantic Oscillation, through circulation changes between the subtropical and subpolar gyres--the intergyre region. These circulation changes affect the decadal evolution of North Atlantic heat content and, consequently, the phases of the AMO. The Atlantic overturning circulation is declining and the AMO is moving to a negative phase. This may offer a brief respite from the persistent rise of global temperatures, but in the coupled system we describe, there are compensating effects. In this case, the negative AMO is associated with a continued acceleration of sea-level rise along the northeast coast of the United States.

  7. Synchronous behaviour of cetaceans observed with active acoustics

    Godø, Olav Rune; Sivle, Lise Doksæter; Patel, Ruben; Torkelsen, Terje

    2013-12-01

    Scientific split-beam echosounders are sensitive instruments for observing biomass densities and individual behaviour. Earlier studies have demonstrated that these instruments can be used to study diving behaviour of cetaceans. In this paper, we go into more detail about the recorded signal to see if and how acoustic split-beam data can be used to extract information about synchronous behaviour and other species related characteristics. Data of several cetacean individuals were collected by a moored echosounder pinging upwards from about 900 m in the Charlie Gibbs Fracture Zone. In this paper, we discuss methodological issues associated with using split-beam tracking of large marine animals. Further we demonstrate that target tracking of cetaceans can be used to study solo dives as well as behavioural synchrony. We also show that paired signals can easily be interpreted as false synchrony due to the size of the animals. In such cases a rough estimate of the diameter, and hence size, of the animals can be estimated. We emphasise on four examples that clarify methodological challenges including synchronous swimmers as well as large single cetaceans that might be interpreted as two synchronous swimmers. The applied technology requires that the animals remain in a narrow acoustic beam for long enough time to extract behavioural information. The technology can be improved by developing automatic tracking of cetaceans with a steerable transducer. This will substantially increase the search volume and enable tracking of cetaceans over longer periods and thus, produce more realistic information about the whale behaviour.

  8. ALMA Observations of the Active Nucleus of NGC 7469

    Izumi, Takuma; Aalto, Susanne; Doi, Akihiro; Espada, Daniel; Fathi, Kambiz; Harada, Nanase; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Hattori, Takashi; Hsieh, Pei-Ying; Ikarashi, Soh; Imanishi, Masatoshi; Iono, Daisuke; Ishizuki, Sumio; Krips, Melanie; Martín, Sergio; Matsushita, Satoki; Meier, David S; Nagai, Hiroshi; Nakai, Naomasa; Nakajima, Taku; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Nomura, Hideko; Regan, Michael W; Schinnerer, Eva; Sheth, Kartik; Takano, Shuro; Tamura, Yoichi; Terashima, Yuichi; Tosaki, Tomoka; Turner, Jean L; Umehata, Hideki; Wiklind, Tommy

    2015-01-01

    We present ALMA Cycle 1 observations of the central kpc region of the luminous type-1 Seyfert galaxy NGC 7469 with unprecedented high resolution (0.5$"$ $\\times$ 0.4$"$ = 165 pc $\\times$ 132 pc) at submillimeter wavelengths. Utilizing the wide-bandwidth of ALMA, we simultaneously obtained HCN(4-3), HCO$^+$(4-3), CS(7-6), and partially CO(3-2) line maps, as well as the 860 $\\mu$m continuum. The region consists of the central $\\sim$ 1$"$ component and the surrounding starburst ring with a radius of $\\sim$ 1.5$"$-2.5$"$. Several structures connect these components. Except for CO(3-2), these dense gas tracers are significantly concentrated towards the central $\\sim$ 1$"$, suggesting their suitability to probe the nuclear regions of galaxies. Their spatial distribution resembles well those of centimeter and mid-infrared continuum emissions, but it is anti-correlated with the optical one, indicating the existence of dust obscured star formation. The integrated intensity ratios of HCN(4-3)/HCO$^+$(4-3) and HCN(4-3)/...

  9. Upgrading InSAR observations by combination with leveling data to understand small scale deformation processes

    Schenk, A.; Westerhaus, M.

    2012-04-01

    Estimation of surface displacements by InSAR methods has been steadily improved in recent years, mainly by innovative SAR sensors like TerraSAR-X, but also through constantly enhanced processing techniques like persistent scatterer interferometry. Despite its high accuracy plus favorable spatial resolution and coverage, InSAR observation is merely the one dimensional line of sight mapping of the true surface displacement. Thus a combination of InSAR with additional geodetic methods or a precise geodynamic model is inevitable to obtain the full displacement vector. We use leveling data in combination with TerraSAR-X persistent scatterer stacks observed in ascending and descending mode to retrieve the full surface displacement vector. A thin plate spline approximation is modeled for each scalar displacement field to allow for a continuous description of the discrete scattered data set. The thin plate spline model is advantageous as it makes use of general physical properties of deformation processes, like minimum bending energy, without the need for specific deformation geometries and processes. We apply the proposed method to the anthropogenic deformation phenomenon in the city of Staufen (Germany). The city is strongly affected by small scale surface movements with comparably large displacement rates up to 14 mm per month. Well drillings in late 2008 caused mineral conversion of anhydrite layers in depths between 60 and 130 m. The concurrent volume increase causes vertical surface uplift but also horizontal displacements in radial direction. The latter is significant as the inflation source is in comparably shallow depth. With the proposed method we determine the full displacement vector of the Staufen deformation without the use of a geodynamic model. The results of horizontal displacement rates are largely consistent with independent terrestrial observations, whereas some points reveal an overestimation of the westward component due to the glancing intersection

  10. Empathy levels among first year Malaysian medical students: an observational study

    Williams B

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Brett Williams,1 Sivalal Sadasivan,2 Amudha Kadirvelu,2 Alexander Olaussen11Department of Community Emergency Health and Paramedic Practice, Melbourne, Australia; 2Jeffrey Cheah School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sunway Campus, Selangor, MalaysiaBackground: The literature indicates that medical practitioners experience declining empathy levels in clinical practice. This highlights the need to educate medical students about empathy as an attribute early in the academic curriculum. The objective of this study was to evaluate year one students' self-reported empathy levels following a 2-hour empathy workshop at a large medical school in Malaysia.Methods: Changes in empathy scores were examined using a paired repeated-measures t-test in this prospective before and after study.Results: Analyzing the matched data, there was a statistically significant difference and moderate effect size between mean empathy scores before and 5 weeks after the workshop (112.08±10.67 versus 117.93±13.13, P<0.0001, d=0.48 using the Jefferson Scale Physician Empathy (Student Version.Conclusion: The results of this observational study indicate improved mean self-reported empathy scores following an empathy workshop.Keywords: empathy, medical students, Malaysia

  11. Point source influence on observed extreme pollution levels in a monitoring network

    Ensor, Katherine B.; Ray, Bonnie K.; Charlton, Sarah J.

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents a strategy to quantify the influence major point sources in a region have on extreme pollution values observed at each of the monitors in the network. We focus on the number of hours in a day the levels at a monitor exceed a specified health threshold. The number of daily exceedances are modeled using observation-driven negative binomial time series regression models, allowing for a zero-inflation component to characterize the probability of no exceedances in a particular day. The spatial nature of the problem is addressed through the use of a Gaussian plume model for atmospheric dispersion computed at locations of known emissions, creating covariates that impact exceedances. In order to isolate the influence of emitters at individual monitors, we fit separate regression models to the series of counts from each monitor. We apply a final model clustering step to group monitor series that exhibit similar behavior with respect to mean, variability, and common contributors to support policy decision making. The methodology is applied to eight benzene pollution series measured at air quality monitors around the Houston ship channel, a major industrial port.

  12. Millimeter-Wave Measurements of High Level and Low Level Activity Glass Melts

    The primary objectives of the current research is to develop on-line sensors for characterizing molten glass in high-level and low-activity waste glass melters using millimeter-wave (MMW) technology and to use this technology to do novel research of melt dynamics. Existing and planned waste glass melters lack sophisticated diagnostics due to the hot, corrosive, and radioactive melter environments. Without process control diagnostics, the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) under construction at Hanford operate by a feed forward process control scheme that relies on predictive models with large uncertainties. This scheme severely limits production throughput and waste loading. Also operations at DWPF have shown susceptibility to anomalies such as pouring, foaming, and combustion gas build up, which can seriously disrupt operations. Future waste chemistries will be even more challenging. The scientific goals of this project are to develop new reliable on-line monitoring capability for important glass process parameters such as temperature profiles, emissivity, density, viscosity, and other characteristics using the unique advantages of millimeter wave electromagnetic radiation that can be eventually implemented in the operating melters. Once successfully developed and implemented, significant cost savings would be realized in melter operations by increasing production through put, reduced storage volumes (through higher waste loading), and reduced risks (prevention or mitigation of anomalies)

  13. Potential sea-level rise from Antarctic ice-sheet instability constrained by observations

    Ritz, Catherine; Edwards, Tamsin L.; Durand, Gaël; Payne, Antony J.; Peyaud, Vincent; Hindmarsh, Richard C. A.

    2015-12-01

    Large parts of the Antarctic ice sheet lying on bedrock below sea level may be vulnerable to marine-ice-sheet instability (MISI), a self-sustaining retreat of the grounding line triggered by oceanic or atmospheric changes. There is growing evidence that MISI may be underway throughout the Amundsen Sea embayment (ASE), which contains ice equivalent to more than a metre of global sea-level rise. If triggered in other regions, the centennial to millennial contribution could be several metres. Physically plausible projections are challenging: numerical models with sufficient spatial resolution to simulate grounding-line processes have been too computationally expensive to generate large ensembles for uncertainty assessment, and lower-resolution model projections rely on parameterizations that are only loosely constrained by present day changes. Here we project that the Antarctic ice sheet will contribute up to 30 cm sea-level equivalent by 2100 and 72 cm by 2200 (95% quantiles) where the ASE dominates. Our process-based, statistical approach gives skewed and complex probability distributions (single mode, 10 cm, at 2100; two modes, 49 cm and 6 cm, at 2200). The dependence of sliding on basal friction is a key unknown: nonlinear relationships favour higher contributions. Results are conditional on assessments of MISI risk on the basis of projected triggers under the climate scenario A1B (ref. 9), although sensitivity to these is limited by theoretical and topographical constraints on the rate and extent of ice loss. We find that contributions are restricted by a combination of these constraints, calibration with success in simulating observed ASE losses, and low assessed risk in some basins. Our assessment suggests that upper-bound estimates from low-resolution models and physical arguments (up to a metre by 2100 and around one and a half by 2200) are implausible under current understanding of physical mechanisms and potential triggers.

  14. Asian dust storm influence on North American ambient PM levels: observational evidence and controlling factors

    T. L. Zhao

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available New observational evidence of the trans-Pacific transport of Asian dust and its contribution to the ambient particulate matter (PM levels in North America was revealed, based on the interannual variations between Asian dust storms and the ambient PM levels in western North America from year 2000 to 2006. A high correlation was found between them with an R2 value of 0.83. From analysis of the differences in the correlation between 2005 and 2006, three factors explain the variation of trans-Pacific transport and influences of Asian dust storms on PM levels in western North America. These were identified by modeling results and the re-analysis data. They were 1 Strength of frontal cyclones from Mongolia to north eastern China: The frontal cyclones in East Asia not only bring strong cold air outbreaks, generating dust storms in East Asia, but also lift Asian dust into westerly winds of the free troposphere for trans-Pacific transport; 2 Pattern of transport pathway over the North Pacific: The circulation patterns of westerlies over the North Pacific govern the trans-Pacific transport pattern. Strong zonal airflow of the westerly jet in the free troposphere over the North Pacific favor significant trans-Pacific transport of Asian dust; 3 Variation of precipitation in the North Pacific: The scavenging of Asian dust particles by precipitation is a major process of dust removal on the trans-Pacific transport pathway. Therefore, variation of precipitation in the North Pacific could affect trans-Pacific transport of Asian dust.

  15. Asian dust storm influence on North American ambient PM levels: observational evidence and controlling factors

    T. L. Zhao

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available New observational evidence of the trans-Pacific transport of Asian dust and its contribution to the ambient particulate matter (PM levels in North America was revealed, based on the interannual variations between Asian dust storms and the ambient PM levels in western North America from year 2000 to 2006. A high correlation was found between them with an R2 value of 0.83. From analysis of the differences in the correlation between 2005 and 2006, three factors explain the variation of trans-Pacific transport and influences of Asian dust storms on PM levels in western North America. These were identified by modeling results and the re-analysis data. They were 1 Strength of frontal cyclones from Mongolia to north eastern China: The frontal cyclones in East Asia not only bring strong cold air outbreaks, generating dust storms in East Asia, but also lift Asian dust into westerly winds of the free troposphere for trans-Pacific transport; 2 Pattern of transport pathway over the North Pacific: The circulation patterns of westerlies over the North Pacific govern the trans-Pacific transport pattern. Strong zonal airflow of the westerly jet in the free troposphere over the North Pacific favor significant trans-Pacific transport of Asian dust; 3 Variation of precipitation in the North Pacific: The scavenging of Asian dust particles by precipitation is a major process of dust removal on the trans-Pacific transport pathway; therefore, variation of precipitation in the North Pacific could affect trans-Pacific transport of Asian dust.

  16. 137Cs airborne levels in the vertical plane from observations taken at high altitude European locations, after the arrival of the Fukushima-labeled air masses

    The Fukushima-labeled air masses reached Europe at different times according to the location. Airborne levels of the released radionuclides also exhibited some discrepancies at local or regional scales, with a corridor of higher activity levels that extended along a NW to SE axis from Scandinavia, across eastern Germany, Poland, the Czech Republic and Belarus. These observations were mostly based on lowlands air samplings, We compare here the variations in the vertical plane by using the maximum airborne 137Cs levels registered at high altitude European locations with what was observed at the closest lowland location. 137Cs levels were systematically lower in altitude. The relation [137Cs]max vs. altitude shows a linear relationship and thus the concentration of activity in the vertical plane was not homogenous even after a long travel time and that Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  17. Circulating ADAM17 Level Reflects Disease Activity in Proteinase-3 ANCA-Associated Vasculitis.

    Bertram, Anna; Lovric, Svjetlana; Engel, Alissa; Beese, Michaela; Wyss, Kristin; Hertel, Barbara; Park, Joon-Keun; Becker, Jan U; Kegel, Johanna; Haller, Hermann; Haubitz, Marion; Kirsch, Torsten

    2015-11-01

    ANCA-associated vasculitides are characterized by inflammatory destruction of small vessels accompanied by enhanced cleavage of membrane-bound proteins. One of the main proteases responsible for ectodomain shedding is disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 17 (ADAM17). Given its potential role in aggravating vascular dysfunction, we examined the role of ADAM17 in active proteinase-3 (PR3)-positive ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV). ADAM17 concentration was significantly increased in plasma samples from patients with active PR3-AAV compared with samples from patients in remission or from other controls with renal nonvascular diseases. Comparably, plasma levels of the ADAM17 substrate syndecan-1 were significantly enhanced in active AAV. We also observed that plasma-derived ADAM17 retained its specific proteolytic activity and was partly located on extracellular microparticles. Transcript levels of ADAM17 were increased in blood samples of patients with active AAV, but those of ADAM10 or tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 3, which inhibits ADAMs, were not. We also performed a microRNA (miR) screen and identified miR-634 as significantly upregulated in blood samples from patients with active AAV. In vitro, miR-634 mimics induced a proinflammatory phenotype in monocyte-derived macrophages, with enhanced expression and release of ADAM17 and IL-6. These data suggest that ADAM17 has a prominent role in AAV and might account for the vascular complications associated with this disease. PMID:25788529

  18. Family’s presence associated with increased physical activity in patients with acute stroke: an observational study

    V. Prakash

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Inherent differences in organization of stroke care and rehabilitation practices in various settings influence the activity levels of patients in the hospital. The majority of published studies have been carried out in developed countries such as the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Switzerland and Belgium; however, data from developing countries are scarce. Objective: To measure the amount and nature of physical activity of patients admitted to medical wards of Indian hospitals and to assess the association between family presence and the patient and between the patient’s functional status and their physical activity level. Method: This is an observational behavioral mapping study. A trained physical therapist recorded the patients’ (N=47 physical activity level through direct observation in the ward using a predetermined observation scheme. Results: Participants were found inactive and alone for 19% (inter quartile range [IQR] 12-36% and 15% (IQR 10-19% of the time during the day, respectively. They spent 46% (IQR 31-55% of the time in therapeutic activities and 31% (IQR 22-34% of the time in non-therapeutic activities. The family was present with patients 50% of the time during the day. Family presence with the patient and the patient’s moderate dependence in daily activities are positively associated with their activity levels. Conclusion: Patients with stroke admitted to Indian hospitals spent less time being inactive and alone and more time with family participating in therapeutic activities. The presence of family members with the patients during hospital stay may be a significant resource for encouraging patients to be more active.

  19. Serum Adenosine deaminase activity and C-reactive protein levels in unstable angina

    Rani Surekha

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In unstable angina (USA patients, immunological responses contributing to inflammation play a vital role in plaque rupture and thrombosis causing stroke. In the present study an attempt is made to estimate the levels of adenosine deaminase activity, an immunoenzyme marker and C-reactive protein, a marker of inflammation in USA patients. 45 patients presenting USA and 50 age and sex matched healthy controls were included in the study. Serum ADA activity was measured spectrophotometrically at 630nm and serum C-reactive protein was detected using Avitex CRP kit, which is a rapid latex agglutination test. The Mean ADA levels were 41.15 ± 11.04 in patients and 20.71±5.63 in controls and 66.6% of patients and none of the controls were positive to CRP. The present study observed the importance of ADA as a serum marker in addition to CRP for assessing the immune response in USA patients.

  20. Observation of b2 symmetry vibrational levels of the SO2 C ˜ 1B2 state: Vibrational level staggering, Coriolis interactions, and rotation-vibration constants

    Park, G. Barratt; Jiang, Jun; Saladrigas, Catherine A.; Field, Robert W.

    2016-04-01

    The C ˜ 1B2 state of SO2 has a double-minimum potential in the antisymmetric stretch coordinate, such that the minimum energy geometry has nonequivalent SO bond lengths. However, low-lying levels with odd quanta of antisymmetric stretch (b2 vibrational symmetry) have not previously been observed because transitions into these levels from the zero-point level of the X ˜ state are vibronically forbidden. We use IR-UV double resonance to observe the b2 vibrational levels of the C ˜ state below 1600 cm-1 of vibrational excitation. This enables a direct characterization of the vibrational level staggering that results from the double-minimum potential. In addition, it allows us to deperturb the strong c-axis Coriolis interactions between levels of a1 and b2 vibrational symmetry and to determine accurately the vibrational dependence of the rotational constants in the distorted C ˜ electronic state.

  1. Observation of b2 symmetry vibrational levels of the SO2 C̃ (1)B2 state: Vibrational level staggering, Coriolis interactions, and rotation-vibration constants.

    Park, G Barratt; Jiang, Jun; Saladrigas, Catherine A; Field, Robert W

    2016-04-14

    The C̃ (1)B2 state of SO2 has a double-minimum potential in the antisymmetric stretch coordinate, such that the minimum energy geometry has nonequivalent SO bond lengths. However, low-lying levels with odd quanta of antisymmetric stretch (b2 vibrational symmetry) have not previously been observed because transitions into these levels from the zero-point level of the X̃ state are vibronically forbidden. We use IR-UV double resonance to observe the b2 vibrational levels of the C̃ state below 1600 cm(-1) of vibrational excitation. This enables a direct characterization of the vibrational level staggering that results from the double-minimum potential. In addition, it allows us to deperturb the strong c-axis Coriolis interactions between levels of a1 and b2 vibrational symmetry and to determine accurately the vibrational dependence of the rotational constants in the distorted C̃ electronic state. PMID:27083725

  2. Liparid and macrourid fishes of the hadal zone: in situ observations of activity and feeding behaviour.

    Jamieson, A J; Fujii, T; Solan, M; Matsumoto, A K; Bagley, P M; Priede, I G

    2009-03-22

    Using baited camera landers, the first images of living fishes were recorded in the hadal zone (6000-11000 m) in the Pacific Ocean. The widespread abyssal macrourid Coryphaenoides yaquinae was observed at a new depth record of approximately 7000 m in the Japan Trench. Two endemic species of liparid were observed at similar depths: Pseudoliparis amblystomopsis in the Japan Trench and Notoliparis kermadecensis in the Kermadec Trench. From these observations, we have documented swimming and feeding behaviour of these species and derived the first estimates of hadal fish abundance. The liparids intercepted bait within 100-200 min but were observed to preferentially feed on scavenging amphipods. Notoliparis kermadecensis act as top predators in the hadal food web, exhibiting up to nine suction-feeding events per minute. Both species showed distinctive swimming gaits: P. amblystomopsis (mean length 22.5 cm) displayed a mean tail-beat frequency of 0.47 Hz and mean caudal:pectoral frequency ratio of 0.76, whereas N. kermadecensis (mean length 31.5 cm) displayed respective values of 1.04 and 2.08 Hz. Despite living at extreme depths, these endemic liparids exhibit similar activity levels compared with shallow-water liparids. PMID:19129104

  3. GIANT GROUND LEVEL ENHANCEMENT OF RELATIVISTIC SOLAR PROTONS ON 2005 JANUARY 20. I. SPACESHIP EARTH OBSERVATIONS

    Bieber, J. W.; Clem, J.; Evenson, P.; Pyle, R. [Bartol Research Institute and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Saiz, A.; Ruffolo, D., E-mail: jwbieber@bartol.udel.edu, E-mail: clem@bartol.udel.edu, E-mail: evenson@udel.edu, E-mail: pyle@bartol.udel.edu, E-mail: alejandro.sai@mahidol.ac.th, E-mail: david.ruf@mahidol.ac.th [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science Mahidol University, Rama VI Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)

    2013-07-10

    A ground level enhancement (GLE) is a solar event that accelerates ions (mostly protons) to GeV range energies in such great numbers that ground-based detectors, such as neutron monitors, observe their showers in Earth's atmosphere above the Galactic cosmic ray background. GLEs are of practical interest because an enhanced relativistic ion flux poses a hazard to astronauts, air crews, and aircraft electronics, and provides the earliest direct indication of an impending space radiation storm. The giant GLE of 2005 January 20 was the second largest on record (and largest since 1956), with up to 4200% count rate enhancement at sea level. We analyzed data from the Spaceship Earth network, supplemented to comprise 13 polar neutron monitor stations with distinct asymptotic viewing directions and Polar Bare neutron counters at South Pole, to determine the time evolution of the relativistic proton density, energy spectrum, and three-dimensional directional distribution. We identify two energy-dispersive peaks, indicating two solar injections. The relativistic solar protons were initially strongly beamed, with a peak maximum-to-minimum anisotropy ratio over 1000:1. The directional distribution is characterized by an axis of symmetry, determined independently for each minute of data, whose angle from the magnetic field slowly varied from about 60 Degree-Sign to low values and then rose to about 90 Degree-Sign . The extremely high relativistic proton flux from certain directions allowed 10 s tracking of count rates, revealing fluctuations of period {approx}> 2 minutes with up to 50% fractional changes, which we attribute to fluctuations in the axis of symmetry.

  4. Climatic and anthropogenic stress on water levels: basin-scale observations with seismic noise

    Lecocq, Thomas; Pedersen, Helle; Brenguier, Florent; Stammler, Klaus

    2016-04-01

    Monitoring changes in shear wave velocities within the crust have become possible through recently developed techniques based on seismic noise analysis. In the present work we address the challenge of using these techniques for environmental monitoring at upper crustal level. Our work is based on data from the broadband Gräfenberg array (Germany) which was installed in 1976 and for which the continuous data acquired has been preserved until today. Using state of the art pre-processing and cross-correlation techniques (MSNoise), we computed daily cross-correlation functions (CCF) between 4 stations (6 pairs) of the Gräfenberg array over the period 1977-2007. The daily CCFs are then stacked to form an average CCF per month. Instead of doing classic "one versus reference" comparisons, the monthly CCFs are compared pairwise using Moving Window Cross-Spectral analysis (MWCS). In total, 387 720 MWCS have been computed between 20 s and 80 s lapse time to obtain relative velocity changes (dv/v). All dv/v are then inverted using a Bayesian weighted least square procedure. Depending on the smoothing weight used during the inversion, seasonal to long term trends can be evidenced. The results show clear and stable trends in the data. We present possible causes explaining these trends and abrupt changes of dv/v by showing modelled (GLDAS) and observed climatic data together with anthropogenic observables. A combination of climatic (warmer surface temperatures, less rainfall) and anthropogenic (more population, more irrigated land) factors are the most probable causes of the progressive relative increase of seismic velocities under the Gräfenberg array. We interpret these results as a progressive depletion of the water resources in the large karstified Malm reservoir (Late Jurassic) below the array.

  5. Effect of action observation therapy on daily activities and motor recovery in stroke patients

    Mei-Hong Zhu

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: Action observation therapy significantly improves upper extremity motor function and performance of activities of daily living, and alleviates upper limb spasticity in patients with stroke.

  6. Improved GIA Correction and Antarctic Contribution to Sea-level Rise Observed by GRACE

    Ivins, Erik; James, Thomas; Wahr, John; Schrama, Ernst; Landerer, Felix; Simon, Karen

    2013-04-01

    -65 Gt/yr. The new correction increases the solved-for ice mass imbalance of Antarctica to -57 ± 34 Gt/yr. The revised GIA correction is smaller than past GRACE estimates by about 50 to 90 Gt/yr. The new upper bound to sea-level rise from AIS mass loss averaged over the time span 2003.0 - 2012.0 is about 0.16 ± 0.09 mm/yr. We discuss the differences in spatio-temporal character of the gain-loss regimes of Antarctica over the observing period.

  7. High levels of ultraviolet radiation observed by ground-based instruments below the 2011 Arctic ozone hole

    G. Bernhard

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Greatly increased levels of ultraviolet (UV radiation were observed at thirteen Arctic and sub-Arctic ground stations in the spring of 2011 when the ozone abundance in the Arctic stratosphere dropped to the lowest amounts on record. Measurements of the noontime UV Index (UVI during the low-ozone episode exceeded the climatological mean by up to 77% at locations in the western Arctic (Alaska, Canada, Greenland and by up to 161% in Scandinavia. The UVI measured at the end of March at the Scandinavian sites was comparable to that typically observed 15–60 days later in the year when solar elevations are much higher. The cumulative UV dose measured during the period of the ozone anomaly exceeded the climatological mean by more than two standard deviations at 11 sites. Enhancements beyond three standard deviations were observed at seven sites and increases beyond four standard deviations at two sites. At the western sites, the episode occurred in March when the Sun was still low in the sky, limiting absolute UVI anomalies to less than 0.5 UVI units. At the Scandinavian sites, absolute UVI anomalies ranged between 1.0 and 2.2 UVI units. For example, at Finse, Norway, the noontime UVI on 30 March was 4.7 while the climatological UVI is 2.5. Although a UVI of 4.7 is still considered moderate, UV levels of this amount can lead to sunburn and photokeratitis during outdoor activity when radiation is reflected upward by snow towards the face of a person or animal. At the western sites, UV anomalies can be well explained with ozone anomalies of up to 41% below the climatological mean. At the Scandinavian sites, low ozone can only explain a UVI increase by 50–60%. The remaining enhancement was mainly caused by the absence of clouds during the low-ozone period.

  8. ECOLES: a Citizen Observers network engaging communities to map climate change at the local level

    Thejll, Peter; Walker, Nicholas; Sandholt, Inge; Brown, Ian; Solberg, Rune; Suwala, Jason; Kelly, Richard; Tangen, Helge; Berglund, Robin; Dean, Andy; Engset, Rune; Siewertsen, Bjarne

    2016-04-01

    Engaging people in environmental studies is an important way to bring across awareness of expected future climate changes, and also a way to measure environmental change in ways that are better or complementary to remote sensing methods. With a hands-on approach, people are more likely to embrace the idea that climate change is occurring, and with modern technologies it is possible to collect quite stunning amounts of relevant data. We suggest several national activities tailored to conditions in each of the participating countries and also to existing national CO-projects. The project focuses on gathering data on biological changes, on weather, and on snow-pack information in Nordic countries as well as Greenland and Canada. Data will be gathered with existing equipment (mobile phones and internet-connected weather stations) and the project provides the means for collation of data into a database for dissemination and quality control. Numerical data collected by small non-professional weather stations or mobile phones with sensors are not directly useful quantitatively for e.g. numerical weather prediction without validation of data quality, but with validation there is a huge untapped potential due to the number of observers. Students are a central part of the project, which also seeks to engage people out and about in nature, and people with their own weather stations or other environmental data-collection activities, as well as passive data collection from mobile phone data sensors in people's bags and pockets. Appropriate software, educational and training materials will be designed with end-users in mind; school-age materials will be produced in the appropriate languages (e.g. Kalaallisut for COs of school age in Greenland).

  9. Physical activity level of school children of age 10-13 years

    Ronghe, Dr. Rashmi N; Gotmare, Dr. Neha A; Kawishwar, Dr. Shraddha

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To assess physical activity level of school children of age 10-13 years.Objectives: To assess and grade physical activity level in children of age 10-13 years using Physical Activity Questionnaire for Children (PAQ-C) classified into: Light Physical activity; Moderate Physical activity; Moderate to vigorous Physical activity and High Physical activity.Methodology: This is Questionnaire based survey study which was conducted on 100 school going children of 10-13 years who were present on ...

  10. Relationships of sexual activities in estrous cows to different frequencies of observation and pedometer measurements.

    Pennington, J A; Albright, J L; Callahan, C J

    1986-11-01

    Sexual activities were observed continuously for 120 h in Holstein dairy cows during moderate climate. Pedometer measurements of motor activity were correlated with total activities initiated, total activities received, mounts received, and time in estrus. Twelve of 14 individual sexual activities also were correlated on a within-cow basis with pedometer-measured increases in motor activity; disoriented mounts and licking front were not correlated to pedometer increases. Although observations of four 1-h and four or six 30-min observations accounted for greater variation, pedometer increases in activity accounted for as much variation in total sexual activities as periodic observations of 30 min or 1 h for 1 to 3 X /d. Combining periodic observations with pedometer measurements resulted in greater coefficients of determination for analyses of sexual activities than with each individual factor. Sexual activities and pedometer increases also were correlated positively with body condition score and day postpartum, and they were correlated negatively with milk production and body weight change since calving. Although mounting and total sexual activities were shifted significantly from expected on a quartile basis, shifts were probably not of practical significance and provided little evidence for more frequent occurrence of estrous activity during nocturnal periods. Rather, the most marked decrease in mounting and total sexual activities occurred at milking and feeding times, indicating that dairy farmers should be more concerned with disruptions of activities by management practices rather than nocturnal occurrence of estrus. PMID:3805464

  11. Observed sea-level rise in the north Indian Ocean coasts during the past century

    Unnikrishnan, A.S.

    -level rise is one of the good indicators of global warming. Rise in sea level occurs mainly through melting of glaciers, thermal expansion due to ocean warming and some other processes of relatively smaller magnitudes. Sea level rise is a global... or by remote forcing, cause changes in sea level. Besides, interannual events such as El Nino also show their signatures on sea level. Measurement of sea level Measurement of sea level started since 1870’s by using instruments known as tide gauges...

  12. Photocatalytically Active Oligomeric Graphitic Carbon Nitride: Conformational Flexibility, Electronic Levels, Carrier Localization

    Blum, Volker; Lau, Vincent; Botari, Tiago; Huhn, William; Lotsch, Bettina V.

    2015-03-01

    Polymers consisting of bridged heptazine units (often called ``graphitic carbon nitride'' or ``g-C3N4'') show considerable promise as photocatalysts for solar hydrogen evolution. Recent experimental evidence suggests that oligomeric rather than fully polymerized ``g-C3N4'' exhibits increased intrinsic photocatalytic activity. Using density-functional theory (DFT; van der Waals corrected PBE functional for conformers, hybrid DFT and GW for electronic levels), we show that considerable conformational flexibility exists for the heptazine trimers and tetramers. Analysis of HOMO and LUMO locations as well as trends in photocatalytic activity among heptazine oligomers and polymers reveals the NH2 groups of the oligomers as potential charge-transfer sites. We show that conformational variations of the oligomers can lead to significant, electrostatically motivated carrier localization effects. We suggest that NH2 side groups and the intrinsic conformational variations of the oligomeric species lead to the observed enhanced catalytic activity.

  13. Negative relationships between erythrocyte Ca-pump activity and lead levels in mothers and newborns.

    Campagna, D; Huel, G; Hellier, G; Girard, F; Sahuquillo, J; Fagot-Campagna, A; Godin, J; Blot, P

    2000-12-01

    Lead poisoning induces hematological, gastrointestinal and neurological dysfunctions. One of the potential mechanisms is the inhibition of calcium-pump (Ca-pump), a transport protein. We investigated the effects of an environmental low lead exposure on Ca-pump activity in 247 mothers and their newborns. Maternal and cord blood, and newborn and mother hair, were sampled at delivery. Geometric means for mother and cord blood lead (Pb-B), and for mother and newborn hair lead (Pb-H), were 6.3 and 4.8 microg/dl, and 1.7 and 1.1 microg/g. Means for mother and cord basal Ca-pump activities were 2,442 and 2,675 nM/mg/hr. Mother enzymatic activity was negatively related to her Pb-B and Pb-H and to the cord Pb-B and newborn Pb-H levels. Newborn enzymatic activity was negatively related to his Pb-H level only. Adjustment for gestational age, child's sex, mother's age at delivery, alcohol, coffee and tea consumption, and smoking habits during pregnancy did not modify these relationships. Our findings support the hypothesis that lead toxicity could be in part mediated by a reduction of Ca-pump activity. This effect could be observed at low environmental exposure, in mothers and newborns. PMID:11191638

  14. Modeling interseismic deformation field of North Tehran Fault extracted from precise leveling observation

    Amighpey, Masoome; Voosoghi, Behzad; Arabi, Siyavash

    2016-06-01

    The North Tehran Fault (NTF) stands out as a major active thrust fault running for approximately 110 km north of Tehran, the capital province of Iran. It has been the source of several major historical earthquakes in the past, including those in 958, 1665, and 1830. In this paper, interseismic strain accumulation on the NFT was investigated using precise leveling measurements obtained over the time frame 1997-2005. The relationship between surface deformation field and interseismic deformation models was evaluated using simulated annealing optimization in a Bayesian framework. The results show that the NTF fault follows an elastic dislocation model creep at a rate of 2.5 ± 0.06 mm/year in the eastern part and 6.2 ± 0.04 mm/year in the western part. Moreover, the locking depth of the fault was evaluated to be ± 1.1 km in the eastern part and 1.3 ± 0.2 km in the western part.

  15. The contribution of the primary school setting and physical education lessons to children's physical activity levels

    Howells, K

    2014-01-01

    The thesis research explored children’s physical activity levels that occurred within the primary school setting. It examined the contribution that Physical Education lessons make to children’s overall measured physical activity levels within the school day. It investigated children’s perceived level of physical activity and compared this with children’s physical activity measured by accelerometers. For the purpose of the thesis research, physical activity was regarded as, “any bodily movemen...

  16. Low-level radioactive waste activities in Texas

    In September 1982, the Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority began the process for the selection, construction, and operation of a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility in Texas. The statute creating the Authority is a very comprehensive law which calls for the orderly completion of a step-by-step process in the development of the disposal facility. The organization of the Authority and its use of external resources, both professional organizations and citizens groups, are functioning extremely well in the performance of the Authority's objectives. Continued success will lead to the development and operation of a low-level radioactive waste disposal site in Texas prior to 1988

  17. Levels of active tyrosine kinase receptor determine the tumor response to Zalypsis

    Zalypsis® is a marine compound in phase II clinical trials for multiple myeloma, cervical and endometrial cancer, and Ewing’s sarcoma. However, the determinants of the response to Zalypsis are not well known. The identification of biomarkers for Zalypsis activity would also contribute to broaden the spectrum of tumors by selecting those patients more likely to respond to this therapy. Using in vitro drug sensitivity data coupled with a set of molecular data from a panel of sarcoma cell lines, we developed molecular signatures that predict sensitivity to Zalypsis. We verified these results in culture and in vivo xenograft studies. Zalypsis resistance was dependent on the expression levels of PDGFRα or constitutive phosphorylation of c-Kit, indicating that the activation of tyrosine kinase receptors (TKRs) may determine resistance to Zalypsis. To validate our observation, we measured the levels of total and active (phosphorylated) forms of the RTKs PDGFRα/β, c-Kit, and EGFR in a new panel of diverse solid tumor cell lines and found that the IC50 to the drug correlated with RTK activation in this new panel. We further tested our predictions about Zalypsis determinants for response in vivo in xenograft models. All cells lines expressing low levels of RTK signaling were sensitive to Zalypsis in vivo, whereas all cell lines except two with high levels of RTK signaling were resistant to the drug. RTK activation might provide important signals to overcome the cytotoxicity of Zalypsis and should be taken into consideration in current and future clinical trials

  18. Microearthquake Observations in a 7-level Vertical Seismic Array in the TCDP Borehole, Taiwan

    Lin, Y.; Wu, H.; Ma, K.; Oye, V.; Tanaka, H.

    2007-12-01

    In order to obtain in-situ information on slip zones of the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake, the Taiwan Chelungpu-fault drilling project (TCDP) drilled two vertical boreholes (A, B) and a branch hole (C) through the fault where a displacement of 12 m had occurred. The TCDP hole A is 2 km deep, and a slip zone was identified at a depth of 1111 m. Hole B (with side track, hole C) is 1.3 km deep with an identified slip zone at 1138 m. In July 2006, a 7- level vertical borehole seismic array (TCDP BHS) was installed in hole A covering a depth from 946 m to 1274 m with 50- 60 m depth intervals. For this layout, three seismometers were placed in the hanging wall and footwall, respectively. The forth one is located at the depth of 1110.28 m, close to the identified slip zone. Microearthquakes with magnitude down to -0.5 were detected by the TCDP BHS. A temporary seismic array with 10 short period seismometers around the TCDP drill site was also installed to incorporate with the TCDP BHS for the precise locations of the microearthquakes. A real-time location software (MIMO) (Oye and Roth, 2003) was used to automatically determine P- and S-wave onset times, incidence and azimuth angles and locations of the microearthquakes. Regardless of the large co-seismic slip of 12 m at the drill site during the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake, our preliminary studies do not show any close-by seismicity near the drill site after almost 8 years since the large earthquake happened. The microearthquakes clustered at a depth of 8-10 km, where the 30 degree dipping of the Chelungpu thrust fault becomes flat to a decollement of the Taiwan fold-and-thrust tectonic structure. As a continuous GPS survey did not observe post-slip at the large slip region, and as no seismicity was observed near the drill site, we suggest that the thrust belt above the decollement during the interseismic period seems to be locked. A Fluid Injection Test (FIT), pumping high pressure fluid into hole B and C with hole A as

  19. Spirulina maxima and its effect on antioxidant activity in fructose induced oxidative stress with histopathological observations

    Jarouliya Urmila

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterised by hyperglycemia and oxidative stress. The aim of the present study is to explore the antioxidant effect of Spirulina maxima in rat model along with the histopathological observations. Diabetes was induced by feeding 10% fructose solution orally to Wistar rats (n = 6 for 30 days, analysed for plasma blood glucose and the markers of the oxidative stress [catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, reduced glutathione (GSH and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS]. These biochemical studies were associated with histopathological examination of liver and kidney sections. The microalga Spirulina maxima being rich in proteins and other essential nutrients is widely used as a food supplement. S. maxima at a dose of 5 and 10% per kg and the metformin (500 mg/kg as reference drug were given orally for 30 days to the diabetic rats. Diabetic rats showed significant (p < 0.001 elevations in plasma blood glucose, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and significant reduction in catalase, superoxide dismutase and reduced glutathione activity. Oral administration of 5 and 10% aqueous extract of S. maxima for 30 days restored not only of blood glucose levels but also markers of oxidative stress. Histopathological observations of tissues manifested that the S. maxima administration had the protective and therapeutic effects against fructose-induced abnormalities in diabetic rats. It is concluded that S. maxima is effective in reinstating the antioxidant activity in addition to its antidiabetic effect in type 2 diabetic rats.

  20. The prediction of induced activity levels in and around NIMROD

    Hack, R C

    1973-01-01

    Comparisons are reported between measured and predicted levels of induced radioactivity for a number of irradiation conditions. Good agreement was found between experimental measurements and fairly simple methods of prediction developed at CERN.

  1. The higher level of complexity of K-Ras4B activation at the membrane.

    Jang, Hyunbum; Banerjee, Avik; Chavan, Tanmay S; Lu, Shaoyong; Zhang, Jian; Gaponenko, Vadim; Nussinov, Ruth

    2016-04-01

    Is nucleotide exchange sufficient to activate K-Ras4B? To signal, oncogenic rat sarcoma (Ras) anchors in the membrane and recruits effectors by exposing its effector lobe. With the use of NMR and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we observed that in solution, farnesylated guanosine 5'-diphosphate (GDP)-bound K-Ras4B is predominantly autoinhibited by its hypervariable region (HVR), whereas the GTP-bound state favors an activated, HVR-released state. On the anionic membrane, the catalytic domain adopts multiple orientations, including parallel (∼180°) and perpendicular (∼90°) alignments of the allosteric helices, with respect to the membrane surface direction. In the autoinhibited state, the HVR is sandwiched between the effector lobe and the membrane; in the active state, with membrane-anchored farnesyl and unrestrained HVR, the catalytic domain fluctuates reinlessly, exposing its effector-binding site. Dimerization and clustering can reduce the fluctuations. This achieves preorganized, productive conformations. Notably, we also observe HVR-autoinhibited K-Ras4B-GTP states, with GDP-bound-like orientations of the helices. Thus, we propose that the GDP/GTP exchange may not be sufficient for activation; instead, our results suggest that the GDP/GTP exchange, HVR sequestration, farnesyl insertion, and orientation/localization of the catalytic domain at the membrane conjointly determine the active or inactive state of K-Ras4B. Importantly, K-Ras4B-GTP can exist in active and inactive states; on its own, GTP binding may not compel K-Ras4B activation.-Jang, H., Banerjee, A., Chavan, T. S, Lu, S., Zhang, J., Gaponenko, V., Nussinov, R. The higher level of complexity of K-Ras4B activation at the membrane. PMID:26718888

  2. Liquid-phase adsorption of phenol onto activated carbons prepared with different activation levels

    Hsieh, C.T.; Teng, H.S.

    2000-07-01

    The paper investigates the influence of the pore size distribution of activated carbon on the adsorption of phenol from aqueous solutions. Activated carbons with different porous structures were prepared by gasifying a bituminous coal char to different extents of burn-off. The results of adsorption experiments show that the phenol capacity of these carbons does not proportionally increase with their BET surface area. This reflects the heterogeneity of the carbon surface for adsorption. The pore size distributions of these carbons were found to vary with the burn-off level. The paper demonstrates that the heterogeneity of carbon surface for the phenol adsorption can be attributed to the different energies required for adsorption in different-size micropores.

  3. Coronal upflows from edges of an active region observed with EUV Imaging Spectrometer onboard Hinode

    Kitagawa, Naomasa

    2014-01-01

    In order to better understand the plasma supply and leakage at active regions, we investigated physical properties of the upflows from edges of active region NOAA AR10978 observed with the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) onboard Hinode. Our observational aim is to measure two quantities of the outflows: Doppler velocity and electron density.

  4. Irisin levels are not affected by physical activity in patients with anorexia nervosa

    TobiasHofmann

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Irisin was recently identified as muscle-derived hormone that increases energy expenditure. Studies in normal weight and obese subjects reported an increased irisin expression following physical activity, although inconsistent results were observed. Increased physical activity in a subgroup of patients with anorexia nervosa (AN complicates the course of the disease. Since irisin could account for differences in clinical outcomes, we investigated irisin levels in anorexic patients with high and moderate physical activity to evaluate whether irisin differs with increasing physical activity. Hospitalized female anorexic patients (n=39 were included. Plasma irisin measured by ELISA and locomotor activity were assessed at the same time. Patients were separated into two groups (n=19/group; median excluded: moderate and high activity (6331±423 vs. 13743±1047 steps/day, p0.05, whereas body weight-adjusted total energy expenditure (46.0±1.4 vs. 41.1±1.1 kcal/kg/d, metabolic equivalents (METs, 1.9±0.1 vs. 1.7±0.1 METs/d, body weight-adjusted exercise activity thermogenesis (EAT, 1.8±0.5 vs. 0.6±0.3 kcal/kg/d, duration of exercise (18.6±4.7 vs. 6.2±3.1 min/d and body weight-adjusted non-exercise activity thermogenesis (21.6±1.0 vs. 18.8±0.8 kcal/kg/d were higher in the high activity compared to the moderate activity group (p0.05. In conclusion, the current data do not support the concept of irisin being induced by exercise, at least not under conditions of severely reduced body weight like AN.

  5. Decoupling of ground level pressures observed in Italian volcanoes: are they driven by space weather geo-effectiveness?

    Paolo Madonia

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Investigations on correlation drops between near-ground atmospheric pressures measured at sea level and at higher altitudes on Italian volcanoes have been carried out. We looked for perturbations of the atmospheric pressure field driven by volcanic activity, but not excluding possible external triggers for the observed anomalies. Decorrelations between atmospheric pressures measured at Stromboli Island in stations located at different altitudes (years 2002-10 have been analysed and compared with data from other volcanic (Vesuvius and non volcanic (Mt. Soro orographic structures. We investigated as their possible triggers volcanic, meteorological and space weather parameters, with particular attention to Total Solar Irradiance (TSI, Kp index and Forbush decreases. Pressure decorrelations seems to be driven by astronomic cycles, with maxima in summer and minima in winter. A further contribution was found, seemingly assignable to TSI anomalies, with correlation minima occurring 12 hours after these but only during phases of high Sun activity. Moreover, during the same phases a main periodicity of about 27 days in pressure decorrelations was revealed by FFT analysis. This period is the same of the Sun Carrington rotation, expressing the periodic reappearance of sunspot groups on Sun’s surface. The strong similarity between recurrences of sunspot number and atmospheric pressure anomalies further supports the role of the former as a possible trigger for the latter.

  6. USDOE activities in low-level radioactive waste treatment

    This paper describes current research, development and demonstration (R, D and D) programs sponsored by the US Department of Energy in the area of low-level radioactive waste treatment. The US Department of Energy Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program is directed toward a coordinated program covering the period from low-level radioactive waste generation through the decommissioning of the disposal site. This paper addresses the treatment portion of the program. The development efforts include: mechanical methods for metal and compactible waste volume reduction; incineration of trash or other combustibles through the use of controlled air, cyclone, or molten glass furnaces; ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, biological or chemical destruction of nitrates; adsorption treatment of low-concentration aqueous waste streams; combustion of organic liquids; and smelting of metal wastes to reduce their volume and conserve our natural resources. (author)

  7. Evolution of the Level of Sunspot Activity in Solar CyclesⅠ. Evolution in the Descending Phase

    Jia-Long Wang

    2006-01-01

    Taking the 13-point smoothed monthly sunspot number, Ri, and the deviation of the 13 associated monthly sunspot numbers from the smoothed one, Di, as a number-pair describing the global level of sunspot activity, the evolution of the level is statistically studied for the period from the month which is just 48 months before the minimum to the minimum in the descending phase, using the observed data of Solar Cycles 10 to 22. Our results show (1) for 46 months (94%) of the studied 49 months it is found that for a given month, the distribution of the 13 pairs which come from the 13 solar cycles on a log Ri~Di plane may be fitted by a straight line with a correlation coefficient larger than the critical one at confidence levelα=5%, and for 36 months (73%) the fitting is even better, forα=1%;(2) time variations of these two parameters and their correlations in the studied period can be described respectively by functions of time, whose main trends may be expressed by a linear or simple curvilinear function; (3) the evolutionary path of the level of sunspot activity may be represented by a logarithmic function as log Ri=0.704 ln Di-0.291.

  8. Studies on levels and interactions of contact activation factors in plasma

    Summary of findings and conclusions of relevance: A part of the thesis concerns the effects of intravenous contrast media on the blood pressure and on factors of the contact activation system in the rat. The intravenous injection of dextran induced a profound and lasting fall in blood pressure, preceded by significant lowering in prekallikrein and activation factor 12. The non-ionic radiographic contrast media iohexol caused no significant alterations, neither in blood pressure, nor in levels of contact factors, whereas the ionic radiographic contrast media iodipamide had effects. It induced a rapid, but short-lived, fall in blood pressure and a small, but statistically significant reduction in the measurable amount of activation factor 12a. An observation of significance was that pretreatment of the rats with iodipamide almost blocked the dextran-induced blood pressure fall, and abolished the reduction in prekallikrein and activation factor 12a. It is concluded that the ionic radiographic contrast media used was capable of blocking dextran shock in the rat by preventing an activation of contact activation system. 130 refs., 5 figs

  9. Magnetic cycles of Sun-like stars with different levels of coronal and chromospheric activity -- comparison with the Sun

    Bruevich, E A; Shimanovskaya, E V

    2016-01-01

    The atmospheric activity of the Sun and Sun-like stars is analyzed involving observations from HK-project at the Mount Wilson Observatory, the California and Carnegie Planet Search Program at the Keck and Lick Observatories and the Magellan Planet Search Program at the Las Campanas Observatory. We show that for stars of F, G and K spectral classes, the cyclic activity, similar to the 11-yr solar cycles, is different: it becomes more prominent in K-stars. Comparative study of Sun-like stars with different levels of the chromospheric and coronal activity confirms that the Sun belongs to stars with the low level of the chromospheric activity and stands apart among these stars by the minimum level of its coronal radiation and the minimum level of its variations of the photospheric flux.

  10. Smelling lavender and rosemary increases free radical scavenging activity and decreases cortisol level in saliva.

    Atsumi, Toshiko; Tonosaki, Keiichi

    2007-02-28

    Free radicals/reactive oxygen species are related to many biological phenomena such as inflammation, aging, and carcinogenesis. The body possesses various antioxidative systems (free radical scavenging activity, FRSA) for preventing oxidative stress, and saliva contains such activity. In the present study, we measured the total salivary FRSA induced after the smelling of lavender and rosemary essential oils that are widely used in aromatherapy. Various physiologically active substances in saliva such as cortisol, secretory IgA, and alpha-amylase activity were found to be correlated with aroma-induced FRSA. The subjects (22 healthy volunteers) sniffed aroma for 5 min, and each subject's saliva was collected immediately. FRSA was measured using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. The FRSA values were increased by stimulation with low concentrations (1000 times dilution) of lavender or by high-concentrations (10 times dilution) of rosemary. In contrast, both lavender and rosemary stimulations decreased cortisol levels. A significant inverse correlation was observed between the FRSA values and the cortisol levels with each concentration of rosemary stimulation. No significant changes were noted in sIgA or alpha-amylase. These findings clarify that lavender and rosemary enhance FRSA and decrease the stress hormone, cortisol, which protects the body from oxidative stress. PMID:17291597