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Sample records for activity dueto self-selection

  1. Exaggerated Health Benefits of Physical Fitness and Activity dueto Self-selection.

    Williams, Paul T.

    2006-01-17

    Background: The predicted health benefits of becomingphysically active or fit will be exaggerated if health outcomes causefitness and activity rather than the converse in prospective andcross-sectional epidemiological studies. Objective: Assess whether therelationships of adiposity to fitness and activity are explained byadiposity prior to exercising. Design: Cross-sectional study of physicalfitness (running speed during 10km foot race) and physical activity(weekly running distance) to current BMI (BMIcurrent) and BMI at thestart of running (BMIstarting) in 44,370 male and 25,252 femaleparticipants of the National Runners' Health Study. Results: BMIstartingexplained all of the association between fitness and BMIcurrent in bothsexes, but less than a third of the association between physical activityand BMIcurrent in men. In women, BMIstarting accounted for 58 percent ofthe association between BMIcurrent and activity levels. The 95thpercentile of BMIcurrent showed substantially greater declines withfitness and activity levels than the 5th percentile of BMIcurrent in men(i.e., the negative slope for 95th percentile was 2.6-fold greater thanthe 5th percentile for fitness and 3-fold greater for activity) and women(6-fold and 3.4-fold greater, respectively). At all percentiles, theregression slopes relating BMIstarting to fitness were comparable orgreater (more negative) than the slopes relating BMIcurrent to fitness,whereas the converse was true for activity. Conclusion: Self-selectionbias accounts for all of the association between fitness and adiposityand probably a portion of other health outcomes, but has less affect onassociations involving physical activity

  2. Can Programmed or Self-Selected Physical Activity Affect Physical Fitness of Adolescents?

    Neto Cláudio F.; Neto Gabriel R.; Araújo Adenilson T.; Sousa Maria S. C.; Sousa Juliana B. C.; Batista Gilmário R.; Reis Victor M. M. R.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the effects of programmed and self-selected physical activities on the physical fitness of adolescents. High school adolescents, aged between 15 and 17 years, were divided into two experimental groups: a) a self-selected physical activity group (PAS) with 55 students (aged 15.7 ± 0.7 years), who performed physical activities with self-selected rhythm at the following sports: basketball, volleyball, handball, futsal and swimming; and b) a physical fitness tr...

  3. Can Programmed or Self-Selected Physical Activity Affect Physical Fitness of Adolescents?

    Neto Cláudio F.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify the effects of programmed and self-selected physical activities on the physical fitness of adolescents. High school adolescents, aged between 15 and 17 years, were divided into two experimental groups: a a self-selected physical activity group (PAS with 55 students (aged 15.7 ± 0.7 years, who performed physical activities with self-selected rhythm at the following sports: basketball, volleyball, handball, futsal and swimming; and b a physical fitness training group (PFT with 53 students (aged 16.0 ± 0.7 years, who performed programmed physical fitness exercises. Both types of activity were developed during 60 min classes. To assess physical fitness the PROESP-BR protocol was used. The statistical analysis was performed by repeated measures ANOVA. The measurements of pre and post-tests showed significantly different values after PFT in: 9 minute running test, medicine ball throw, horizontal jump, abdominal endurance, running speed and flexibility. After PAS differences were detected in abdominal endurance, agility, running speed and flexibility. The intervention with programmed physical activity promoted more changes in the physical abilities; however, in the self-selected program, agility was improved probably because of the practice of sports. Therefore, physical education teachers can use PFT to improve cardiorespiratory fitness and power of lower and upper limbs and PAS to improve agility of high school adolescents.

  4. Most Common Types of Physical Activity Self-Selected by People with Multiple Sclerosis

    Weikert, Madeline; Dlugonski, Deirdre; Balantrapu, Swathi; Motl, Robert W.

    2011-01-01

    The promotion of physical activity for people with multiple sclerosis (MS) would benefit from information about the common types of physical activity self-selected by this population. This study examined the most frequent types of physical activity self-reported by a large sample of people with MS. The data were collected as part of the baseline assessment of a longitudinal investigation of physical activity in relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS). The participants (N = 272) were sent a battery of q...

  5. Self-Selected Walking Speed is Predictive of Daily Ambulatory Activity in Older Adults.

    Middleton, Addie; Fulk, George D; Beets, Michael W; Herter, Troy M; Fritz, Stacy L

    2016-04-01

    Daily ambulatory activity is associated with health and functional status in older adults; however, assessment requires multiple days of activity monitoring. The objective of this study was to determine the relative capabilities of self-selected walking speed (SSWS), maximal walking speed (MWS), and walking speed reserve (WSR) to provide insight into daily ambulatory activity (steps per day) in community-dwelling older adults. Sixty-seven older adults completed testing and activity monitoring (age 80.39 [6.73] years). SSWS (R2 = .51), MWS (R2 = .35), and WSR calculated as a ratio (R2 = .06) were significant predictors of daily ambulatory activity in unadjusted linear regression. Cutpoints for participants achieving steps/day were identified for SSWS (≤ 0.97 m/s, 44.2% sensitivity, 95.7% specificity, 10.28 +LR, 0.58 -LR) and MWS (≤ 1.39 m/s, 60.5% sensitivity, 78.3% specificity, 2.79 +LR, 0.50 -LR). SSWS may be a feasible proxy for assessing and monitoring daily ambulatory activity in older adults. PMID:26371593

  6. Exaggerated Health Benefits of Physical Fitness and Activity due to Self-selection.

    Williams, Paul T.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The predicted health benefits of becoming physically active or fit will be exaggerated if health outcomes cause fitness and activity rather than the converse in prospective and cross-sectional epidemiological studies. Objective: Assess whether the relationships of adiposity to fitness and activity are explained by adiposity prior to exercising. Design: Cross-sectional study of physical fitness (running speed during 10km foot race) and physical activity (weekly running distanc...

  7. Residential self-selection bias in the estimation of built environment effects on physical activity between adolescence and young adulthood

    Gordon-Larsen Penny; Evenson Kelly R; Guilkey David K; Boone-Heinonen Janne

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Built environment research is dominated by cross-sectional designs, which are particularly vulnerable to residential self-selection bias resulting from health-related attitudes, neighborhood preferences, or other unmeasured characteristics related to both neighborhood choice and health-related outcomes. Methods We used cohort data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (United States; Wave I, 1994-95; Wave III, 2001-02; n = 12,701) and a time-varying geo...

  8. Os duelos (duetos identificados por ocasião do processo sucessório

    Nilda Maria de Clodoaldo Pinto Guerra Leone

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O estudo tem como objetivo a identificação dos níveis de duelos existentes nas empresas familiares no momento do processo sucesório. Para tanto, realizou‐se uma pesquisa bibliográfica e, por meio dela, foram identificados três níveis de duelos: o primeiro nível é o duelo do sucedido com ele mesmo. O segundo trata do duelo do sucedido na escolha do sucessor. O duelo entre os sucessores, causado por intrigas e disputas pelo poder, identifica o terceiro nível.  Quanto aos fins, esta investigação se caracteriza como exploratória e descritiva. Exploratória porque permite ao pesquisador, como afirma Triviños (1987, p.109, “aumentar sua experiência em torno de determinado problema”. Em relação à caracterização de pesquisa descritiva, ainda de acordo com Triviños (1987, o foco essencial destes estudos reside na intenção de conhecer a realidade do objeto. Os resultados dessas leituras apontam três níveis de duelos: o primeiro nível é o duelo do sucedido com ele mesmo. O segundo trata do duelo do sucedido na escolha do sucessor. O duelo entre os sucessores, causado por intrigas e disputas pelo poder identifica o terceiro nível. As conclusões apontam para mecanismos jurídicos, mudanças nos modelos de gestão e ajuda psicológica que podem transformar os duelos em duetos.

  9. Immigration policy and self-selecting migrants

    Milo Bianchi

    2008-01-01

    I build a simple theory of self-selection into migration and immigration policy formation. I show that any immigration policy affects immigrants skill composition, and this effect may drive the policy outcome in the receiving country. For example, restricting immigration when it is low skilled may worsen immigrants' self-selection and thus the receiving country skill distribution. Hence, understanding the migration decision becomes crucial for analyzing the political economy of immigration. B...

  10. Immigration Policy and Self-Selecting Migrants.

    BIANCHI, MILO

    2013-01-01

    I build a simple theory of self-selection into migration and immigration policy formation. I show that any immigration policy affects immigrants skill composition, and this effect may drive the policy outcome in the receiving country. For example, restricting immigration when it is low skilled may worsen immigrants' self-selection and thus the receiving country skill distribution. Hence, understanding the migration decision becomes crucial for analyzing the political economy of immigration. B...

  11. Immigration Policy and Self-Selecting Migrants

    BIANCHI, MILO

    2013-01-01

    We build a simple model of self-selection into migration and immigration policy determination. We first show that the effect of any immigration policy can be decomposed into a size and a composition effect. We then explore how the optimal policy may change once the latter effect is considered.

  12. Immigration Policy and Self-Selecting Migrants

    Milo Bianchi

    2012-01-01

    We build a simple model of self-selection into migration and immigration policy determination. We first show that the effect of any immigration policy can be decomposed into a size and a composition effect. We then explore how the optimal policy may change once the latter effect is considered.

  13. Self-selection into teamwork: A theoretical and experimental analysis

    Stribeck, Agnes; Pull, Kerstin

    2010-01-01

    We analyze self-selection decisions regarding teamwork both theoretically and empirically. While we focus on individual talent, we also investigate the effects of team tasks, individual teamwork skills, and expectations concerning the talent and teamwork skills of potential teammates as further determinants in the self-selection process. Putting our hypotheses derived from a basic self-selection model in dialogue with original data from a real-task laboratory experiment, we are able to show t...

  14. Serial Entrepreneurship, Learning by Doing and Self-selection

    Rocha, Vera; Carneiro, Anabela; Varum, Celeste

    2015-01-01

    evaluate whether entrepreneurial experience acquired in the previous business improves serial entrepreneurs’ survival, after taking into account self-selection issues. Our results show that serial entrepreneurs are not a random sample of ex-business owners. Robustness tests based on the estimation of the...... person-specific effect, using information on individuals’ past histories in paid employment, confirm that serial entrepreneurs exhibit, on average, a larger person-specific effect than non-serial business owners. Moreover, ignoring serial entrepreneurs’ self-selection overestimates learning by doing...

  15. Asymmetric Information, Self-selection, and Pricing of Insurance Contracts

    Donnelly, Catherine; Englund, Martin Kristian; Nielsen, Jens Perch;

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an optional bonus-malus contract based on a priori risk classification of the underlying insurance contract. By inducing self-selection, the purchase of the bonus-malus contract can be used as a screening device. This gives an even better pricing performance than both an exp...... experience rating scheme and a classical no-claims bonus system. An application to the Danish automobile insurance market is considered....

  16. On Self Selection of the Corrupt into the Public Sector

    Banerjee, Ritwik; Baul, Tushi; Rosenblat, Tanya

    Do corrupt people self select themselves in professions where the scope of corruption is high? We conduct a corruption experiment with private sector job aspirants and aspirants of Indian bureaucracy. The game models embezzlement of resources in which “supervisors” evaluate the performance of...... “workers” and then pay them. We find that aspirant bureaucrats indulge in more corruption than private sector aspirants but the likelihood of being corrupt is same across two sectors....

  17. Managerial Talent, Motivation, and Self-Selection into Public Management

    2008-01-01

    This discussion paper has led to a publication in the 'Journal of Public Economics'. The quality of public management is a recurrent concern in many countries. Calls to attract the economy's best and brightest managers to the public sector abound. This paper studies self-selection into managerial and non-managerial positions in the public and private sector, using a model of a perfectly competitive economy where people differ in managerial ability and in public service motivation. We find tha...

  18. Migration policy, illegal migrants, self-selection and brain drain

    Pires, Armando José Garcia

    2008-01-01

    We compare two migration policies: an open migration policy, where all migrants can migrate legally; and a selective migration policy, where migrants are selected according to skills. We show that since the selective migration policy can create illegal migration, it has the following effects relatively to the open migration policy: (1) it weakens the chances of a positive self-selection of skilled migrants; (2) it reduces the possibility of a beneficial brain gain; and (3) it dampens the effe...

  19. Race, Self-Selection, and the Job Search Process

    Pedulla, David; Pager, Devah

    2015-01-01

    While existing research has documented persistent barriers facing African-American job seekers, far less research has questioned how job seekers respond to this reality. Do minorities self-select into particular segments of the labor market to avoid discrimination? Such questions have remained unanswered due to the lack of data available on the positions to which job seekers apply. Drawing on two original data sets with application-specific information,we find little evidence that blacks ...

  20. Return Migration, Self-Selection and Entrepreneurship in Mozambique

    Batista, Catia; McIndoe-Calder, Tara; Vicente, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Does return migration affect entrepreneurship? This question has important implications for the debate on the economic development effects of migration for origin countries. The existing literature has, however, not addressed how the estimation of the impact of return migration on entrepreneurship is affected by double unobservable migrant self-selection, both at the initial outward migration and at the final inward return migration stages. This paper uses a representative household survey co...

  1. Deception detection and the role of self-selection

    Konrad, Kai A.; Lohse, Tim; Qari, Salmai

    2013-01-01

    We consider a lie-catching experiment with 9240 judgements. A set of videotapes shows subjects participating in a tax compliance experiment. The subjects chose whether or not to misreport. Subjects knew that underreporters were chosen for an audit with some probability. An audit led to detection and to a punishment fee. This compliance framework induced only persons with high deceptive abilities to underreport and, so, caused self-selection. Among the students who judged these videos, we find...

  2. Self-Selection and Advise in Venture Capital Finance

    Keuschnigg, Christian; Bo Nielsen, Søren

    2008-01-01

    In financing start-up firms, venture capitalists carefully select among alternative projects, design incentive compatible financial contracts and support portfolio companies with value enhancing managerial advice. This paper considers how venture capitalists can induce self-selection among entrepreneurial firms with different qualities by designing appropriate contracts and offering commercial support. We study the efficiency of the competitive market equilibrium with respect to the level and...

  3. Self-Selection and Advice in Venture Capital Finance

    Keuschnigg, Christian; Nielsen, Søren Bo

    2007-01-01

    In financing start-up firms, venture capitalists carefully select among alternative projects, design incentive compatible financial contracts and support portfolio companies with value enhancing managerial advice. This paper considers how venture capitalists can induce self-selection among entrepreneurial firms with different qualities by designing appropriate contracts and offering commercial support. We study the efficiency of the competitive market equilibrium with respect to the level and...

  4. FENOMENA, FEMINISME DAN POLITICAL SELF SELECTION BAGI PEREMPUAN

    Nurwani Idris - -

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Democracy needs all participation people in the country, women and men.  The political right for women, as we know was feminism hard and long time struggled, therefore now the women have the high quality live in politic, the economic and social.  All the country in the world have ratificated the PBB of law for political freedom for women as the same as men. Especially in Indonesia now there’s no formal barriers for women leadership, if they select to participate in politics but it was the phenomenon for the women among self selection in politics, the freedom to be participating and children, husband, housing, that still stronger; from which one barrier “self selection” or “culture and religion” responsibility where significantly. Minangkabau women, forward analysis we can aim self selection or children, husband and family responsibility.  It is indisputable that the women’s awareness and struggle in the politics are debt to the feminists’ endless efforts. The feminists have fostered the women to empower themselves by which they reach equal position compared with their counterparts, in nearly all aspects of the social life.   Keywords:  phenomenon, feminism, and political self selection.

  5. 76 FR 58018 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Self-Selection Studies for Nonprescription Drug Products...

    2011-09-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Self-Selection Studies for... entitled ``Self-Selection Studies for Nonprescription Drug Products.'' The draft guidance is intended to provide recommendations to industry on the design of self- selection studies for nonprescription...

  6. 78 FR 21611 - Guidance for Industry on Self-Selection Studies for Nonprescription Drug Products; Availability

    2013-04-11

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance for industry entitled ``Self-Selection Studies for Nonprescription Drug Products.'' This guidance is intended to provide recommendations to industry involved in developing and conducting self-selection studies to support an application for nonprescription drug products. A self-selection study assesses the......

  7. Neighborhood Self-Selection: The Role of Pre-Move Health Factors on the Built and Socioeconomic Environment

    Peter James

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Residential self-selection bias is a concern in studies of neighborhoods and health. This bias results from health behaviors predicting neighborhood choice. To quantify this bias, we examined associations between pre-move health factors (body mass index, walking, and total physical activity and post-move neighborhood factors (County Sprawl Index, Census tract socioeconomic status (SES in the Nurses’ Health Study (n = 14,159 moves from 1986–2008. Individuals in the highest quartile of pre-move BMI (BMI > 28.4 compared to the lowest quartile (BMI < 22.5 moved to counties that averaged 2.57 points lower on the sprawl index (95% confidence interval −3.55, −1.59 indicating that individuals moved to less dense counties; however, no associations were observed for pre-move walking nor total physical activity. Individuals with higher pre-move BMI tended to move to Census tracts with lower median income and home values and higher levels of poverty. Analyses examining the change in neighborhood environments after a move demonstrated that healthy pre-move behaviors were associated with moves to worse socioeconomic environments. This type of self-selection would bias results downward, underestimating the true relationship between SES and physical activity. Generally, the magnitudes of associations between pre-move health factors and neighborhood measures were small and indicated that residential self-selection was not a major source of bias in analyses in this population.

  8. Neighborhood Self-Selection: The Role of Pre-Move Health Factors on the Built and Socioeconomic Environment.

    James, Peter; Hart, Jaime E; Arcaya, Mariana C; Feskanich, Diane; Laden, Francine; Subramanian, S V

    2015-10-01

    Residential self-selection bias is a concern in studies of neighborhoods and health. This bias results from health behaviors predicting neighborhood choice. To quantify this bias, we examined associations between pre-move health factors (body mass index, walking, and total physical activity) and post-move neighborhood factors (County Sprawl Index, Census tract socioeconomic status (SES)) in the Nurses' Health Study (n = 14,159 moves from 1986-2008). Individuals in the highest quartile of pre-move BMI (BMI > 28.4) compared to the lowest quartile (BMI physical activity. Individuals with higher pre-move BMI tended to move to Census tracts with lower median income and home values and higher levels of poverty. Analyses examining the change in neighborhood environments after a move demonstrated that healthy pre-move behaviors were associated with moves to worse socioeconomic environments. This type of self-selection would bias results downward, underestimating the true relationship between SES and physical activity. Generally, the magnitudes of associations between pre-move health factors and neighborhood measures were small and indicated that residential self-selection was not a major source of bias in analyses in this population. PMID:26457712

  9. Self-selection contributes significantly to the lower adiposity offaster, longer-distanced, male and female walkers

    Williams, Paul T.

    2006-01-06

    Although cross-sectional studies show active individuals areleaner than their sedentary counterparts, it remains to be determined towhat extent this is due to initially leaner men and women choosing toexercise longer and more intensely (self-selection bias). In this reportwalking volume (weekly distance) and intensity (speed) were compared tocurrent BMI (BMIcurrent) and BMI at the start of walking (BMIstarting) in20,353 women and 5,174 men who had walked regularly for exercise for 7.2and 10.6 years,respectively. The relationships of BMIcurrent andBMIstarting with distance and intensity were nonlinear (convex). Onaverage, BMIstarting explained>70 percent of the association betweenBMIcurrent and intensity, and 40 percent and 17 percent of theassociation between BMIcurrent and distance in women and men,respectively. Although the declines in BMIcurrent with distance andintensity were greater among fatter than leaner individuals, the portionsattributable to BMIstarting remained relatively constant regardless offatness. Thus self-selection bias accounts for most of the decline in BMIwith walking intensity and smaller albeit significant proportions of thedecline with distance. This demonstration of self-selection is germane toother cross-sectional comparisons in epidemiological research, givenself-selection is unlikely to be limited to weight or peculiar tophysical activity.

  10. Self-Selection and Learning-by-Exporting Hypotheses: Micro Level Evidence

    Rehman, Naqeeb Ur

    2016-01-01

    This aim of this empirical paper is to investigate the self-selection and learning-by-exporting hypotheses. This study addresses the reverse causality between innovation, productivity and exporting using micro level data on 29 countries from Eurasia and Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). CDM estimation results suggest that innovation and productivity positively influence the firm’s exporting and vice versa. This study has supported the self-selection and learning-by-exporting hy...

  11. Self-Selection Patterns in Mexico-U.S. Migration: The Role of Migration Networks

    McKenzie, David; Rapoport, Hillel

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the role of migration networks in determining self-selection patterns of Mexico-U.S. migration. A simple theoretical framework shows the impact of networks on migration incentives at different education levels and how this affects the composition of migrant skills. Empirically, we find positive or education-neutral selection in communities with weak migrant networks but negative self-selection in communities with stronger networks. This is consistent with high migration co...

  12. Between-mode-differences in the value of travel time: Self-selection or strategic behaviour?

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Hjorth, Katrine; Lyk-Jensen, Stéphanie Vincent

    2010-01-01

    causes for the observed differences: Comfort effects, self-selection and strategic behaviour of respondents. Using experiments with both the current and an alternative mode we find that the differences in the value of travel time are consistent with self-selection and comfort effects. Moreover......Using stated preference survey data, we measure the value of travel time for several transport modes. We find, like many before us, that the value of travel time varies across modes in the opposite direction of what would be the consequence of differences in comfort. We examine three candidate...

  13. Estimation and adjustment of self-selection bias in volunteer panel web surveys

    Niu, Chengying

    2016-06-01

    By using propensity score matching method of random sample, we matched simple random sample units and volunteer panel Web survey sample units based on the equal or similar propensity score. The unbiased estimators of the population parameters are constructed by using the matching simple random sample, and the self-selection bias is estimated. We propose propensity score weighted and matching sample post stratification weighted methods to estimate the population parameters, and the self-selection bias in volunteer panel Web Surveys are adjusted.

  14. Exploring the influential factors in incident clearance time: Disentangling causation from self-selection bias.

    Ding, Chuan; Ma, Xiaolei; Wang, Yinhai; Wang, Yunpeng

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the relationships between influential factors and incident clearance time is crucial to make effective countermeasures for incident management agencies. Although there have been a certain number of achievements on incident clearance time modeling, limited effort is made to investigate the relative role of incident response time and its self-selection in influencing the clearance time. To fill this gap, this study uses the endogenous switching model to explore the influential factors in incident clearance time, and aims to disentangle causation from self-selection bias caused by response process. Under the joint two-stage model framework, the binary probit model and switching regression model are formulated for both incident response time and clearance time, respectively. Based on the freeway incident data collected in Washington State, full information maximum likelihood (FIML) method is utilized to estimate the endogenous switching model parameters. Significant factors affecting incident response time and clearance time can be identified, including incident, temporal, geographical, environmental, traffic and operational attributes. The estimate results reveal the influential effects of incident, temporal, geographical, environmental, traffic and operational factors on incident response time and clearance time. In addition, the causality of incident response time itself and its self-selection correction on incident clearance time are found to be indispensable. These findings suggest that the causal effect of response time on incident clearance time will be overestimated if the self-selection bias is not considered. PMID:26373988

  15. Attenders versus Slackers: A Classroom Demonstration of Quasi-Experimentation and Self-Selecting Samples

    Stellmack, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of the effects of class attendance on class performance typically are quasi-experimental because students choose whether or not to attend class; that is, the samples are self-selecting. The lack of random assignment prevents one from establishing a causal relationship between attendance and performance. Relating attendance to performance…

  16. Self-selection patterns in Mexico-U.S. migration : the role of migration networks

    McKenzie, David; Rapoport, Hillel

    2007-01-01

    The authors examine the role of migration networks in determining self-selection patterns of Mexico-U.S. migration. They first present a simple theoretical framework showing how such networks impact on migration incentives at different education levels and, consequently, how they are likely to affect the expected skill composition of migration. Using survey data from Mexico, the authors th...

  17. On the emergence of new growers' associations: self-selection versus countervailing power

    Hendrikse, G.; Bijman, J.

    2002-01-01

    Increasing differentiation on the supply side of agricultural and horticultural markets has resulted in the emergence of new growers' associations (GAs). These GAs face a trade-off between self-selection and countervailing power, which is analysed with an incomplete contracting model. Heterogeneous

  18. Imperfect information, self-selection and the market for higher education

    Tali Regev

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores how the steady trends in increasing tuition costs, college enrollment, and the college wage gap might be related to the quality of college graduates. The model shows that the signaling role of education might be an important yet largely neglected ingredient in these recent changes. I develop a special signaling model in which workers of heterogeneous abilities face the same costs, yet a larger proportion of able individuals self-select to attend college since they are more...

  19. Performance of Family and Non-family Firms with Self-Selection: Evidence from Dubai

    Belaid Rettab; Azzeddine Azzam

    2011-01-01

    This paper contributes to the literature on comparative performance of family and non-family businesses by accounting for self-selection and by comparing performance within and across sectors. Using an extensive data set of Dubai businesses in the four different major sectors in the Dubai economy (construction, manufacturing, services, and trading); we find that the sector matters. Family businesses outperform nonfamily businesses in trading, followed by construction as a far second. Performa...

  20. Self-selection into laboratory experiments: pro-social motives versus monetary incentives

    Abeler, Johannes; Nosenzo, Daniele

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory experiments have become a wide-spread tool in economic research. Yet, there is still doubt about how well the results from lab experiments generalize to other settings. In this paper, we investigate the self-selection process of potential subjects into the subject pool. We alter the recruitment email sent to first year students, either mentioning the monetary reward associated with participation in experiments; or appealing to the importance of helping research; or both. We find th...

  1. Did we overestimate the role of social preferences? The case of self-selected student samples

    Falk, Armin; Meier, Stephan; Zehnder, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Social preference research has fundamentally changed the way economists think about many important economic and social phenomena. However, the empirical foundation of social preferences is largely based on laboratory experiments with self-selected students as participants. This is potentially problematic as students participating in experiments may behave systematically diff erent than non-participating students or non-students. In this paper we empirically investigate whether laboratory expe...

  2. Self-Selection and Selection. Transition from Secondary to Tertiary Education in Hungary

    Robert, Peter

    2003-01-01

    By law, students in Hungary, if they wish to study at the tertiary level, must submit a formal application (every year in Feb) & then must take an entrance exam (in Jun/Jul). When they pass this exam they are eligible to begin their studies (in Sept). This procedure divides the transition to tertiary education into two stages: self-selection (applying) & selection (passing the exam). Some of the recent literature in educational mobility claims that students make calculations before deciding o...

  3. Residential self-selection in travel behavior: Towards an integration into mobility biographies

    Scheiner, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    The debate on residential self-selection (RSS) in the travel field seeks to answer the question of whether and to what extent spatial differences in traveling may be explained in spatial terms or to what extent, rather, they are explained by the unequal spatial distribution of people’s social and personal characteristics, particularly their neighborhood and travel preferences. Arguing primarily from a European—specifically, German— perspective, this paper makes a case for integrating the RSS-...

  4. Self-selection patterns among return migrants: Mexico 1990-2010

    Campos-Vazquez, Raymundo M.; Lara, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the self-selection patterns among Mexican return migrants during the period from 1990 to 2010. Using census data, we can identify return migrants who have lived in the United States within the previous 5 years but who currently live in Mexico. To calculate the selection patterns, we non parametrically estimate the counterfactual wages that the return migrants would have experienced had they never migrated by using the wage structure of non migrants. We find evidence that t...

  5. Self-selecting Entrepreneurial Students: Reflecting on a University Selection Event

    Hatt, Lucy; Blackwood, Tony; Robson, Angus; Fowle, Michael; Pugalis, Lee

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This case study examines the development, design and staff perspectives of selection events for an undergraduate degree in Entrepreneurial Business Management. Aspects of design and delivery promoting student self-selection and individual assessment of fit are described which are intended to have a positive impact on recruitment and retention. Prior Work: This work-based programme is based on the Finnish ‘Team Academy’ model (Tiimiakatemia, 2013) where participants work in tea...

  6. On the Dynamics of Interstate Migration: Migration Costs and Self-Selection

    Bayer, Christian; Juessen, Falko

    2008-01-01

    This paper develops a tractable dynamic microeconomic model of migration decisions that is aggregated to describe the behavior of interregional migration. Our structural approach allows us to deal with dynamic self-selection problems that arise from the endogeneity of location choice and the persistency of migration incentives. Keeping track of the distribution of migration incentives over time has important consequences for the econometrical treatment, because the dynamics of this distributi...

  7. Not looking yourself: The cost of self-selecting photographs for identity verification.

    White, David; Burton, Amy L; Kemp, Richard I

    2016-05-01

    Photo-identification is based on the premise that photographs are representative of facial appearance. However, previous studies show that ratings of likeness vary across different photographs of the same face, suggesting that some images capture identity better than others. Two experiments were designed to examine the relationship between likeness judgments and face matching accuracy. In Experiment 1, we compared unfamiliar face matching accuracy for self-selected and other-selected high-likeness images. Surprisingly, images selected by previously unfamiliar viewers - after very limited exposure to a target face - were more accurately matched than self-selected images chosen by the target identity themselves. Results also revealed extremely low inter-rater agreement in ratings of likeness across participants, suggesting that perceptions of image resemblance are inherently unstable. In Experiment 2, we test whether the cost of self-selection can be explained by this general disagreement in likeness judgments between individual raters. We find that averaging across rankings by multiple raters produces image selections that provide superior identification accuracy. However, benefit of other-selection persisted for single raters, suggesting that inaccurate representations of self interfere with our ability to judge which images faithfully represent our current appearance. PMID:26105729

  8. How creative are you? An experimental study on self-selection in a competitive incentive scheme for creative performance

    Bradler, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    Economic theory suggests that performance pay may serve as an effective screening device to attract productive agents. The existing evidence on the self-selection of agents is largely limited to job tasks where performance is driven by routine, well-defined procedures. This study presents evidence for a creative task and studies how agents self-select into a tournament-based scheme vs. a fixed pay scheme. The experiment allows for the measurement of creative productivity, risk ...

  9. The role of sense of effort on self-selected cycling power output

    RyanJamesChristian; DavidBishop; FrancoisBillaut

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: We explored the effects of the sense of effort and accompanying perceptions of peripheral discomfort on self-selected cycle power output under two different inspired O2 fractions.Methods: On separate days, eight trained males cycled for 5 minutes at a constant subjective effort (sense of effort of ‘3’ on a modified Borg CR10 scale), immediately followed by five 4-s progressive submaximal (sense of effort of “4, 5, 6, 7 and 8”; 40 s between bouts) and two 4-s maximal (sense of effort ...

  10. Relationship of Different Perceived Exertion Scales in Walking or Running with Self-Selected and Imposed Intensity

    Dias Marcelo Ricardo Cabral

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to: (1 compare the Heart Rate (HR and Rating Perceived Exertion (RPE in training with self-selected and imposed loads, and (2 associate the OMNI-Walk/Run and Borg scales with self-selected and imposed loads, both on a treadmill. Ten trained men (20.3 ± 2.0 years, 75.6 ± 9.8 kg, 175.1 ± 5.1 cm participated in a training program with self-selected load (time and speed individually preferred and another with imposed load (even self-selected time and speed 10% higher. The HR and RPE were measured, every minute of training, by the OMNIWalk/ Run and Borg scales. No significant differences were found in the HR and RPE between training sessions. The correlation between the OMNI-Walk/Run and Borg scales showed a moderate association (r = 0.55 in training with self-selected load and a strong association in imposed load (r = 0.79. In this study, self-selected load induced a suboptimal stimulus to elicit favorable organic adaptations. Moreover, high correlation of OMNI Walk/Run and Borg scales with the imposed load showed that the greater the load of training the best were answers of RPE.

  11. Nutrient Self Selection by the Armyworm, Spodoptera exempta WALKER (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae Larvae

    I. Ahmad

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Last instar larvae of the armyworm, Spodoptera exempta WALKER were given the opportunity to self-select from two defined diets, both complete except that one contained protein (casein but no digestible carbohydrate (sucrose and the other contained carbohydrate but no protein. The larvae ate the protein and carbohydrate diets in a ratio of 80:20. In general, the growth and efficiency of food use of the larvae were not significantly different between the self-selectors and that of the controls. When the larvae were provided with a nutritionally complete diet with a protein:carbohydrate (casein:sucrose ratio of 80:20, 50:50 , or 20:80, they performed best in 80:20 diet, "the self-selected ratio" as compared with the 50:50 diet. The larvae grew very poorly in 20:80 diet, with all nutritional indices significantly inferior as compared to those of 80:20, or 50:50 diets.

  12. Evaluation and analysis of the vitamin levels in the self-selected diets of senile diabetics

    黄素霞; 王青青; 林晓霞

    2002-01-01

    This study was aimed at evaluating the daily vitamin intakes of senile diabetics whose diets were self-selected in order to apply the data obtained to prevent and treat senile Type 2 diabetics effectively. The daily vitamin intakes of 43 Type 2 diabetics (group A) and 43 healthy non-diabetics (group B) as revealed by their answer to a questionnaire were evaluated by computer analysis and compared with the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA). The data obtained in this study showed that the daily vitamin B1 and B2 intakes in both groups were obviously low, less the 50% of RDA; and that in group A was lower than that in group B. The daily intakes of vitamin E and A were significantly different between group A and group B (P<0.01 for vitamin E and P<0.05 for vitamin A). So the vitamin intakes of the senile diabetics with their self-selected diets were inadequate. The author suggests that it is necessary to give a scientific guide for the diets of senile diabetics. If the vitamin intake from foods is inadequate, vitamin supplements should be given to prevent complications.

  13. Catalytic activity of CuO-Gd0.1Ti0.1Zr0.1Ce0.7O2 in CO oxidation

    IGOR V ZAGAYNOV; ELENA YU LIBERMAN

    2016-06-01

    (1-10wt.%) CuO-Gd0.1Ti0.1Zr0.1Ce0.7O2 mesoporous catalysts were prepared by simple coprecipitationmethod with sonication and tested for CO oxidation. The catalysts show the highest activity dueto better dispersion of CuO species as well as enhanced interaction between CuO and the developed support. Itwas shown that these systems have full conversion at temperature of 60–65◦C.

  14. Variability in prefrontal hemodynamic response during exposure to repeated self-selected music excerpts, a near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    Saba Moghimi

    Full Text Available Music-induced brain activity modulations in areas involved in emotion regulation may be useful in achieving therapeutic outcomes. Clinical applications of music may involve prolonged or repeated exposures to music. However, the variability of the observed brain activity patterns in repeated exposures to music is not well understood. We hypothesized that multiple exposures to the same music would elicit more consistent activity patterns than exposure to different music. In this study, the temporal and spatial variability of cerebral prefrontal hemodynamic response was investigated across multiple exposures to self-selected musical excerpts in 10 healthy adults. The hemodynamic changes were measured using prefrontal cortex near infrared spectroscopy and represented by instantaneous phase values. Based on spatial and temporal characteristics of these observed hemodynamic changes, we defined a consistency index to represent variability across these domains. The consistency index across repeated exposures to the same piece of music was compared to the consistency index corresponding to prefrontal activity from randomly matched non-identical musical excerpts. Consistency indexes were significantly different for identical versus non-identical musical excerpts when comparing a subset of repetitions. When all four exposures were compared, no significant difference was observed between the consistency indexes of randomly matched non-identical musical excerpts and the consistency index corresponding to repetitions of the same musical excerpts. This observation suggests the existence of only partial consistency between repeated exposures to the same musical excerpt, which may stem from the role of the prefrontal cortex in regulating other cognitive and emotional processes.

  15. Is self-selection the main driver of positive interpretations of general health checks?

    Bender, Anne Mette; Jørgensen, Torben; Pisinger, Charlotta

    2015-01-01

    controlled for socio-demography and mental and physical health. RESULTS: Mortality rates were highest among non-participants and lowest among participants in the intervention group, whereas mortality rates of controls were approximately the average of those of participants and non-participants. In adjusted......OBJECTIVE: To investigate if the lower mortality among participants of a health check followed by lifestyle intervention of high risk persons is explained by self-selection. METHODS: All persons residing in the study area (Copenhagen; Denmark) were randomized to intervention (n=11,629) or control...... group (n=47,987). Persons in the intervention group were invited for a health check and individual lifestyle counselling. At baseline, 52.5% participated. Differences between participants and control group in 10-year all-cause and disease specific mortality was assessed. In survival analyses we...

  16. Analysis of the residential location choice and household energy consumption behavior by incorporating multiple self-selection effects

    It is expected that the residential location choice and household energy consumption behavior might correlate with each other. Besides, due to the existence of self-selection effects, the observed inter-relationship between them might be the spurious result of the fact that some unobserved variables are causing both. These concerns motivate us to (1) consider residential location choice and household energy consumption behavior (for both in-home appliances and out-of-home cars) simultaneously and, (2) explicitly control self-selection effects so as to capture a relatively true effect of land-use policy on household energy consumption behavior. An integrated model termed as joint mixed Multinomial Logit-Multiple Discrete-Continuous Extreme Value model is presented here to identify the sensitivity of household energy consumption to land use policy by considering multiple self-selection effects. The model results indicate that land-use policy do play a great role in changing Beijing residents’ energy consumption pattern, while the self-selection effects cannot be ignored when evaluating the effect of land-use policy. Based on the policy scenario design, it is found that increasing recreational facilities and bus lines in the neighborhood can greatly promote household's energy-saving behavior. Additionally, the importance of “soft policy” and package policy is also emphasized in the context of Beijing. - Highlights: ► Representing residential choice and household energy consumption behavior jointly. ► Land use policy is found effective to control the household energy use in Beijing. ► Multiple self-selection effects are posed to get the true effect of land use policy. ► Significant self-selection effects call an attention to the soft policy in Beijing. ► The necessity of package policy on saving Beijing residents’ energy use is confirmed.

  17. ACUTE EFFECTS OF SELF-SELECTED REGIMEN OF RAPID BODY MASS LOSS IN COMBAT SPORTS ATHLETES

    Jaan Ereline

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to assess the acute effects of the self-selected regimen of rapid body mass loss (RBML on muscle performance and metabolic response to exercise in combat sports athletes. Seventeen male athletes (20.8 ± 1.0 years; mean ± SD reduced their body mass by 5.1 ± 1.1% within 3 days. The RBML was achieved by a gradual reduction of energy and fluid intake and mild sauna procedures. A battery of tests was performed before (Test 1 and immediately after (Test 2 RBML. The test battery included the measurement of the peak torque of knee extensors for three different speeds, assessment of total work (Wtot performed during a 3-min intermittent intensity knee extension exercise and measurements of blood metabolites (ammonia, lactate, glucose and urea. Absolute peak torque was lower in Test 2 compared with Test 1 at angular velocities of 1.57 rad·s-1 (218.6 ± 40.9 vs. 234.4 ± 42.2 N·m; p = 0.013 and 3.14 rad·s-1 (100.3 ± 27.8 vs. 111.7 ± 26.2 N·m; p = 0.008. The peak torque in relation to body mass remained unchanged for any speed. Absolute Wtot was lower in Test 2 compared with Test 1 (6359 ± 2326 vs. 7452 ± 3080 J; p = 0.003 as well as Wtot in relation to body mass (89.1 ± 29.9 vs. 98.6 ± 36.4 J·kg-1; p = 0.034, respectively. As a result of RBML, plasma urea concentration increased from 4.9 to 5.9 mmol·l-1 (p = 0.003. The concentration of ammonia in a post-test sample in Test 2 tended to be higher in comparison with Test 1 (80.9 ± 29.1 vs. 67.6 ± 26.5 mmol·l-1; p = 0.082. The plasma lactate and glucose responses to exercise were similar in Test 1 and Test 2. We conclude that the self-selected regimen of RBML impairs muscle performance in 3-min intermittent intensity exercise and induces an increase in blood urea concentration in experienced male combat sports athletes

  18. Effects of musical tempo on physiological, affective, and perceptual variables and performance of self-selected walking pace.

    Almeida, Flávia Angélica Martins; Nunes, Renan Felipe Hartmann; Ferreira, Sandro Dos Santos; Krinski, Kleverton; Elsangedy, Hassan Mohamed; Buzzachera, Cosme Franklin; Alves, Ragami Chaves; Gregorio da Silva, Sergio

    2015-06-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of musical tempo on physiological, affective, and perceptual responses as well as the performance of self-selected walking pace. [Subjects] The study included 28 adult women between 29 and 51 years old. [Methods] The subjects were divided into three groups: no musical stimulation group (control), and 90 and 140 beats per minute musical tempo groups. Each subject underwent three experimental sessions: involved familiarization with the equipment, an incremental test to exhaustion, and a 30-min walk on a treadmill at a self-selected pace, respectively. During the self-selected walking session, physiological, perceptual, and affective variables were evaluated, and walking performance was evaluated at the end. [Results] There were no significant differences in physiological variables or affective response among groups. However, there were significant differences in perceptual response and walking performance among groups. [Conclusion] Fast music (140 beats per minute) promotes a higher rating of perceived exertion and greater performance in self-selected walking pace without significantly altering physiological variables or affective response. PMID:26180303

  19. A comparison of methods to separate treatment from self-selection effects in an online banking setting

    Gensler, S.; Leeflang, P.S.H.; Skiera, B.

    2013-01-01

    The literature discusses several methods to control for self-selection effects but provides little guidance on which method to use in a setting with a limited number of variables. The authors theoretically compare and empirically assess the performance of different matching methods and instrumental

  20. Self-selection of two diet components by Tennebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) larvae and its impact on fitness

    We studied the ability of Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) to self-select optimal ratios of two dietary components to approach nutritional balance and maximum fitness. Life table analysis was used to determine the fitness of T. molitor developing in diet mixtures comprised of four dif...

  1. Does Personality Matter? Applying Holland's Typology to Analyze Students' Self-Selection into Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Majors

    Chen, P. Daniel; Simpson, Patricia A.

    2015-01-01

    This study utilized John Holland's personality typology and the Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT) to examine the factors that may affect students' self-selection into science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors. Results indicated that gender, race/ethnicity, high school achievement, and personality type were statistically…

  2. Use of self-selected postures to regulate multi-joint stiffness during unconstrained tasks.

    Randy D Trumbower

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The human motor system is highly redundant, having more kinematic degrees of freedom than necessary to complete a given task. Understanding how kinematic redundancies are utilized in different tasks remains a fundamental question in motor control. One possibility is that they can be used to tune the mechanical properties of a limb to the specific requirements of a task. For example, many tasks such as tool usage compromise arm stability along specific directions. These tasks only can be completed if the nervous system adapts the mechanical properties of the arm such that the arm, coupled to the tool, remains stable. The purpose of this study was to determine if posture selection is a critical component of endpoint stiffness regulation during unconstrained tasks. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Three-dimensional (3D estimates of endpoint stiffness were used to quantify limb mechanics. Most previous studies examining endpoint stiffness adaptation were completed in 2D using constrained postures to maintain a non-redundant mapping between joint angles and hand location. Our hypothesis was that during unconstrained conditions, subjects would select arm postures that matched endpoint stiffness to the functional requirements of the task. The hypothesis was tested during endpoint tracking tasks in which subjects interacted with unstable haptic environments, simulated using a 3D robotic manipulator. We found that arm posture had a significant effect on endpoint tracking accuracy and that subjects selected postures that improved tracking performance. For environments in which arm posture had a large effect on tracking accuracy, the self-selected postures oriented the direction of maximal endpoint stiffness towards the direction of the unstable haptic environment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results demonstrate how changes in arm posture can have a dramatic effect on task performance and suggest that postural selection is a fundamental

  3. Sit-to-Stand 3 months after Unilateral Total Knee Arthroplasty: Comparison of Self-Selected and Constrained Conditions

    Farquhar, Sara J.; Kaufman, Kenton R.; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

    2009-01-01

    After unilateral total knee arthroplasty (TKA), rehabilitation specialists often constrain knee angles or foot positions during sit-to-stand, to encourage increased weight bearing through the operated limb. Biomechanical studies often constrain limb position during sit-to-stand in an effort to reduce variability. Differences between self-selecting or constraining position are unknown in persons after TKA. Twenty-six subjects with unilateral TKA participated in motion analysis. Subjects perfor...

  4. Effects of self-selected music on strength, explosiveness, and mood.

    Biagini, Matthew S; Brown, Lee E; Coburn, Jared W; Judelson, Daniel A; Statler, Traci A; Bottaro, Martim; Tran, Tai T; Longo, Nick A

    2012-07-01

    There has been much investigation into the use of music as an ergogenic aid to facilitate physical performance. However, previous studies have primarily focused on predetermined music and aerobic exercise. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of self-selected music (SSM) vs. those of no music (NM) on the mood and performance of the athletes performing bench press and squat jump. Twenty resistance trained collegiate men completed 2 experimental conditions, one while listening to SSM and the other with NM. The subjects reported their profile of mood states (POMS) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) before and after performing 3 sets to failure of the bench press at 75% 1 repetition maximum (1RM) and 3 reps of the squat jump at 30% 1RM. Statistical analyses revealed no differences in squat jump height or relative ground reaction force, but the takeoff velocity (SSM-2.06 ± 0.17 m·s(-1); NM-1.99 ± 0.18 m·s(-1)), rate of velocity development (SSM-5.92 ± 1.46 m·s(-2); NM-5.63 ± 1.70 m·s(-2)), and rate of force development (SSM-3175.61 ± 1792.37 N·s(-1); NM-2519.12 ± 1470.32 N·s(-1)) were greater with SSM, whereas RPE (SSM-5.71 ± 1.37; NM-6.36 ± 1.61) was greater with NM. Bench press reps to failure and RPE were not different between conditions. The POMS scores of vigor (SSM-20.15 ± 5.58; NM-17.45 ± 5.84), tension (SSM-8.40 ± 3.99; NM-6.07 ± 3.26), and fatigue (SSM-8.65 ± 4.49; NM-7.40 ± 4.38) were greater with SSM. This study demonstrated increased performance during an explosive exercise and an altered mood state when listening to SSM. Therefore, listening to SSM might be beneficial for acute power performance. PMID:22033366

  5. Heart rate and perceived exertion during self-selected intensities for exergaming compared to traditional exercise in college-age participants.

    Kraft, Justin A; Russell, William D; Bowman, Tracy A; Selsor, Clifford W; Foster, Grant D

    2011-06-01

    Exergames may be useful for promoting physical activity in younger populations. Heart rate (HRs) responses and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) at self-selected intensities were compared in college-age participants during 2 modes of exergame activity vs. traditional exercise. Thirty-seven participants (men: 20, women: 17) completed 3 30-minute self-selected intensity trials: (a) video game interactive bicycle ergometer (GB) (CatEye GB300), (b) interactive video dance game (Dance Dance Revolution [DDR]), and (c) traditional cycle ergometer (CE) while watching television. Mean HR, peak HR (PkHR), and minutes above target HR (THR) were significantly higher for GB (144 ± 22 b · min(-1) [57% HR reserve (HRR)], 161 ± 23 b · min(-1), and 22.5 ± 11.1 minutes) than for DDR (119 ± 16 b · min(-1) [37% HRR], 138 ± 20 b · min(-1), and 11.2 ± 11.9 minutes) or for CE (126 ± 20 b · min(-1) [42% HRR], 144 ± 24 b · min(-1), and 14.2 ± 12.6 minutes). The RPE was significantly higher for GB (4.2 ± 1.5) and CE (3.8 ± 1.2) than for DDR (2.7 ± 1.3). Recovery HR (RecHR) (15 minutes postexercise) was significantly higher for GB (91 ± 14 b · min(-1)) than for DDR (80 ± 11 b · min(-1)) and neared significance vs. CE (84 ± 14 b · min(-1), p = 0.059). No difference in PkHR, RecHR, or minutes above THR was observed between DDR and CE. Session RPE was significantly higher for GB (4.6 ± 1.7) and CE (4.1 ± 1.6) than for DDR (2.8 ± 1.5). All modes elicited extended proportions of time above THR; GB: 75%, DDR: 37%, and CE: 47%. Results support that exergames are capable of eliciting physiological responses necessary for fitness improvements. Practitioners might consider exergames as periodic activity options for clients needing motivation to be regularly active. PMID:21386720

  6. EFFECT OF SELF-SELECTED AND INDUCED SLOW AND FAST PADDLING ON STROKE KINEMATICS DURING 1000 M OUTRIGGER CANOEING ERGOMETRY

    Rebecca M. Sealey

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the effect of different stroke rates on various kinematic parameters during 1000 m outrigger canoeing. Sixteen, experienced female outrigger canoeists completed three 1000 m outrigger ergometer time trials, one trial each using a self-selected, a Hawaiian ( 65 strokes·min-1 stroke rate. Stroke rate, stroke length, stroke time, proportion of time spent in propulsion and recovery, torso flexion angle and 'twist' were measured and compared with repeated measures ANOVAs. Stroke rate, stroke length and stroke time were significantly different across all interventions (p < 0.05 despite no difference in the percentage of time spent in the propulsive and recovery phases of the stroke. Stroke length and stroke time were negatively correlated to stroke rate for all interventions (r = -0.79 and -0.99, respectively. Female outrigger canoeists maintain consistent stroke kinematics throughout a 1000 m time trial, most likely as a learned skill to maximize crew paddling synchrony when paddling on-water. While the Hawaiian stroke rate resulted in the greatest trunk flexion movement and 'twist' action, this potential increased back injury risk may be offset by the slow stroke rate and long stroke length and hence slow rate of force development.

  7. Affective Responses to Acute Resistance Exercise Performed at Self-Selected and Imposed Loads in Trained Women.

    Focht, Brian C; Garver, Matthew J; Cotter, Joshua A; Devor, Steven T; Lucas, Alexander R; Fairman, Ciaran M

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the affective responses to acute resistance exercise (RE) performed at self-selected (SS) and imposed loads in recreationally trained women. Secondary purposes were to (a) examine differences in correlates of motivation for future participation in RE and (b) determine whether affective responses to RE were related to these select motivational correlates of RE participation. Twenty recreationally trained young women (mean age = 23 years) completed 3 RE sessions involving 3 sets of 10 repetitions using loads of 40% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM), 70% 1RM, and an SS load. Affective responses were assessed before, during, and after each RE session using the Feeling Scale. Self-efficacy and intention for using the imposed and SS loads for their regular RE participation during the next month were also assessed postexercise. Results revealed that although the SS and imposed load RE sessions yielded different trajectories of change in affect during exercise (p motivational correlates of resistance training. PMID:26506060

  8. The Oslo Health Study: The impact of self-selection in a large, population-based survey

    Bjertness Espen

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research on health equity which mainly utilises population-based surveys, may be hampered by serious selection bias due to a considerable number of invitees declining to participate. Sufficient information from all the non-responders is rarely available to quantify this bias. Predictors of attendance, magnitude and direction of non-response bias in prevalence estimates and association measures, are investigated based on information from all 40 888 invitees to the Oslo Health Study. Methods The analyses were based on linkage between public registers in Statistics Norway and the Oslo Health Study, a population-based survey conducted in 2000/2001 inviting all citizens aged 30, 40, 45, 59–60 and 75–76 years. Attendance was 46%. Weighted analyses, logistic regression and sensitivity analyses are performed to evaluate possible selection bias. Results The response rate was positively associated with age, educational attendance, total income, female gender, married, born in a Western county, living in the outer city residential regions and not receiving disability benefit. However, self-rated health, smoking, BMI and mental health (HCSL in the attendees differed only slightly from estimated prevalence values in the target population when weighted by the inverse of the probability of attendance. Observed values differed only moderately provided that the non-attending individuals differed from those attending by no more than 50%. Even though persons receiving disability benefit had lower attendance, the associations between disability and education, residential region and marital status were found to be unbiased. The association between country of birth and disability benefit was somewhat more evident among attendees. Conclusions Self-selection according to sociodemographic variables had little impact on prevalence estimates. As indicated by disability benefit, unhealthy persons attended to a lesser degree than healthy individuals

  9. Comparison of energy cost between genders during treadmill walking at a self-selected pace - doi 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v34i2.9333

    Sergio Gregorio da Silva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the energy cost between genders during treadmill walking at self-selected pace; and to verify if the energy cost achieve the values recommended for weight maintenance or loss proposed by the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM. Seventeen men and seventeen women, mean age of 23.32 ± 3.06 years, undertaken two experimental sessions: (I anthropometric measurements and a load-incremental maximum test; and, (II a 20-min walking test at self-selected pace on treadmill. Men showed a greater energy cost than women (146.18 ± 47.66 and 100.86 ± 17.04 kcal, respectively. This difference was maintained after adjust by body weight (2.2 ± 0.5 and 1.7 ± 0.2 kcal kg-1, respectively. The greater energy cost found in men can be explained by the self-selected treadmill speed that lead to a greater O2 in men. However, the exercise intensity selected by both genders did not elicit an effective energy cost that can promote weight maintenance or loss. Nonetheless, if participants performed a longer walking (> 20 minutes, they probably would achieve the energy cost recommended by the ACSM guidelines.  

  10. Self-selection effects and modulation of TaOx resistive switching random access memory with bottom electrode of highly doped Si

    Yu, Muxi; Fang, Yichen; Wang, Zongwei; Pan, Yue; Li, Ming; Cai, Yimao; Huang, Ru

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a TaOx resistive switching random access memory (RRAM) device with operation-polarity-dependent self-selection effect by introducing highly doped silicon (Si) electrode, which is promising for large-scale integration. It is observed that with highly doped Si as the bottom electrode (BE), the RRAM devices show non-linear (>103) I-V characteristic during negative Forming/Set operation and linear behavior during positive Forming/Set operation. The underling mechanisms for the linear and non-linear behaviors at low resistance states of the proposed device are extensively investigated by varying operation modes, different metal electrodes, and Si doping type. Experimental data and theoretical analysis demonstrate that the operation-polarity-dependent self-selection effect in our devices originates from the Schottky barrier between the TaOx layer and the interfacial SiOx formed by reaction between highly doped Si BE and immigrated oxygen ions in the conductive filament area.

  11. The Production of Pear Wine by Self-selected Yeast%利用自选酵母酿造鸭梨酒

    袁丽; 高瑞昌; 郭雪霞

    2011-01-01

    Self-selected yeast GY was used to produce pear wine, and the optimum fermentation conditions were determined by orthogonal test as follows: the addition of 50 mg/L SO2 could not only inhibit the growth of sundry bacteria but also prevent the browning of pear juice, fermentation temperature was at 25 ℃, yeast inoculating quantity was 1 ×10^7cell/mL, and the initial pH value was 4.0. Under the above conditions, the produced pear wine had full wine body and good taste and enjoyable aroma.%利用自选产香酵母GY酿造鸭梨酒,应用正交试验对其酿造工艺进行了优化。结果表明,在鸭梨汁中添加50mg/L的S02既能抑制杂菌生长,又可以防止鸭梨汁的褐变;正交试验优化发酵条件为:温度25℃,接种量为1×10^7cell/mL,初始pH值为4.0,该条件下酵的鸭梨酒香气较突出,酒体较丰满,风味较好。

  12. Beyond self-selection in video game play: an experimental examination of the consequences of massively multiplayer online role-playing game play.

    Smyth, Joshua M

    2007-10-01

    There is burgeoning interest in the study of video games. Existing work is limited by the use of correlational designs and is thus unable to make causal inferences or remove self-selection biases from observed results. The recent development of online, socially integrated video games (massively multiplayer online role-playing games [MMORPGs]) has created a new experience for gamers. This randomized, longitudinal study examined the effects of being assigned to play different video game types on game usage, health, well-being, sleep, socializing, and academics. One hundred 18- to 20-year-old participants (73% male; 68% Caucasian) were randomly assigned to play arcade, console, solo computer, or MMORPG games for 1 month. The MMORPG group differed significantly from other groups after 1 month, reporting more hours spent playing, worse health, worse sleep quality, and greater interference in "real-life" socializing and academic work. In contrast, this group also reported greater enjoyment in playing, greater interest in continuing to play, and greater acquisition of new friendships. MMORPGs represent a different gaming experience with different consequences than other types of video games and appear to pose both unique risks and benefits from their use. PMID:17927543

  13. In search of causality: a systematic review of the relationship between the built environment and physical activity among adults

    McCormack Gavin R; Shiell Alan

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Empirical evidence suggests that an association between the built environment and physical activity exists. This evidence is mostly derived from cross-sectional studies that do not account for other causal explanations such as neighborhood self-selection. Experimental and quasi-experimental designs can be used to isolate the effect of the built environment on physical activity, but in their absence, statistical techniques that adjust for neighborhood self-selection can be ...

  14. Weight loss is coupled with improvements to affective state in obese participants engaged in behavior change therapy based on incremental, self-selected "small changes".

    Paxman, Jenny R; Hall, Anna C; Harden, Charlotte J; O'Keeffe, Jean; Simper, Trevor N

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a group behavior change intervention involving self-selected, contextualized, and mediated goal setting on anthropometric, affective, and dietary markers of health. It was hypothesized that the intervention would elicit changes consistent with accepted health recommendations for obese individuals. A rolling program of 12-week "Small Changes" interventions during 24 months recruited 71 participants; each program accommodated 10 to 13 adults (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 30 kg/m²). Fifty-eight participants completed Small Changes. Repeated measures were made at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks. Anthropometric measures included height and weight (to calculate BMI), body composition, waist circumference, and blood pressure. Affective state was monitored using relevant validated questionnaires. Dietary assessment used 3-day household measures food diaries with Schofield equations to monitor underreporting. Relevant blood measures were recorded throughout. Across the measurement period, Small Changes elicited a significant reduction in body weight (baseline, 102.95 ± 15.47 vs 12 weeks 100.09 ± 16.01 kg, P affective state including general well-being (baseline, 58.92 ± 21.22 vs 12 weeks 78.04 ± 14.60, P < .0005) and total mood disturbance (baseline, 31.19 ± 34.03 vs 12 weeks 2.67 ± 24.96, P < .0005). Dietary changes that occurred were largely consistent with evidenced-based recommendations for weight management and included significant reductions in total energy intake and in fat and saturated fat as a proportion of energy. The Small Changes approach can elicit a range of health-orientated benefits for obese participants, and although further work is needed to ascertain the longevity of such effects, the outcomes from Small Changes are likely to help inform health professionals when framing the future of weight management. Long-term follow-up of Small Changes is warranted. PMID:21636010

  15. Diet quality and physical activity outcome improvements resulting from a church-based diet and supervised physical activity intervention for rural, southern, Africian American adults: Delta Body and Soul III

    We assessed the effects of a 6-month, church¬-based, diet and supervised physical activity intervention, conducted between 2011 and ¬2012, on improving diet quality and increasing physical activity of southern, African American adults. Using a quasi¬-experimental design, 8 self-selected, eligible c...

  16. Comparison of energy cost between genders during treadmill walking at a self-selected pace = Comparação do gasto energético entre os gêneros durante a caminhada na esteira em ritmo autosselecionado

    Sergio Gregorio da Silva

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the energy cost between genders during treadmill walking at self-selected pace; and to verify if the energy cost achieve the values recommended for weight maintenance or loss proposed by the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM. Seventeen men and seventeen women, mean age of 23.32 ± 3.06 years, undertaken two experimental sessions: (I anthropometric measurements and a load-incremental maximum test; and, (II a 20-min walking test at self-selected pace on treadmill. Men showed a greater energy cost than women (146.18 ± 47.66 and 100.86 ± 17.04 kcal, respectively. This difference was maintained after adjust by body weight (2.2 ± 0.5 and 1.7 ± 0.2 kcal kg-1, respectively. The greater energy cost found in men can be explained by the self-selected treadmill speed that lead to a greater O2 in men. However, the exercise intensity selected by both genders did not elicit an effective energy cost that can promote weight maintenance or loss. Nonetheless, if participants performed a longer walking (> 20 minutes, they probably would achieve the energy cost recommended by the ACSM guidelines.O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar o gasto energético entre os gêneros durante a caminhada na esteira em ritmo auto-selecionado e verificar se a intensidade que os sujeitos buscam caminhar promove um dispêndio energético dentro do recomendado para a manutenção e/ou redução do peso corporal conforme proposto pelas diretrizes do ACSM. Participaram 17 homens e 17 mulheres com média de idade de 23,32 ± 3,06 anos, submetidos a duas sessões experimentais: (I avaliação antropométrica e teste incremental máximo, e (II um teste de 20 minutos de caminhada na esteira em ritmo auto-selecionado. Os homens apresentaram um gasto energético superior ao das mulheres (146,18 ± 47,66 e 100,86 ± 17,04 kcal, respectivamente. Essas diferenças persistiram após correção da massa corporal (2,2 ± 0,5 e 1,7 ± 0,2 kcal

  17. 购房:制度变迁下的住房分层与自我选择性流动%House Purchasing:Housing Stratification and Self-Selected Mobility in Institutional Transition

    毛小平

    2014-01-01

    The literature on housing stratification has ignored the effect of self-selection on housing stratification when residents face changes in the opportunity structure triggered by the housing reform .An analysis of the data from a questionnaire survey of over 1 ,000 households conducted in Guangzhou in2010 using the Endogeneity Switching Regression Model found the effect of self-selection in the housing stratification mechanisms during the process of market-oriented reform:Capable people within the state system before 1998 tended not to buy houses , and if they did , their housing class status was actually lowered;capable people outside the state system before 1998 and all capable people after 1998 tended to buy houses ,and if they didn’ t , their housing class status slipped .That is to say ,after 1998 ,the housing class status of those with human or political capital would rise only if they did purchase houses;if not , their housing class status would not improve significantly . Thus ,the study concluded that the power and market mechanisms were the structural factors which influenced housing stratification ,and that people’ s human and political capitals were necessary but not sufficient conditions for house purchasing .To some extent ,the judgment that “the higher a person’s human capital and/or political capital is ,the higher his/her housing class status is” ignored the role of the person’ s self-selection .Of course , the decision making of whether to purchase a house or not might be a very complex selective process .In order to study the selective function in the process in-depth , dynamic data including the buyer’s purchasing behaviors and the end results in different social contexts are needed .Because of the flaws in the real estate market and system ,residents’freedom to make purchasing decisions is quite limited .These constraints for the current study were beyond the author ’ s means to overcome .%本文基于2010年广州市的千户

  18. Do Neighborhoods Make People Active, or Do People Make Active Neighborhoods? Evidence from a Planned Community in Austin, Texas

    Calise, Tamara Vehige; Heeren, Timothy; DeJong, William; Dumith, Samuel C; Kohl, Harold W.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Whether patterns of physical activity in different communities can be attributed to the built environment or instead reflect self-selection is not well understood. The objective of this study was to examine neighborhood preferences and behavior-specific physical activity among residents who moved to a new urbanist-designed community. Methods We used data from a 2009 survey (n = 424) that was designed and administered to evaluate neighborhood preferences and behavior-specific phys...

  19. Self-Selection and Student Achievement

    Honggao Cao

    2005-01-01

    Students in any schools are not a random collection from the population. They become schoolmates because of their parents' selections of school quality that are contingent on their genetic abilities and family background. Even specified correctly, the conventional educational production functions cannot be used to find the effects of school inputs or quality. Therefore, the weak or zero relationship between school inputs and student achievement widely documented in the literature by no means ...

  20. Activities.

    Moody, Mally

    1992-01-01

    A series of four activities are presented to enhance students' abilities to appreciate and use trigonometry as a tool in problem solving. Activities cover problems applying the law of sines, the law of cosines, and matching equivalent trigonometric expressions. A teacher's guide, worksheets, and answers are provided. (MDH)

  1. Exercise Motivation of College Students in Online, Face-to-Face, and Blended Basic Studies Physical Activity and Wellness Course Delivery Formats

    Sidman, Cara Lynn; Fiala, Kelly Ann; D'Abundo, Michelle Lee

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess exercise motivation among college students self-selected into 4 online (OL) and face-to-face (F2F) basic studies' physical activity and wellness course delivery formats. Participants/Methods: Out of 1,037 enrolled students during the Spring 2009 semester, 602 responded online to demographic…

  2. Motivations for active commuting: a qualitative investigation of the period of home or work relocation

    Jones Caroline HD; Ogilvie David

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Promoting walking or cycling to work (active commuting) could help to increase population physical activity levels. According to the habit discontinuity and residential self-selection hypotheses, moving home or workplace is a period when people (re)assess, and may be more likely to change, their travel behavior. Research in this area is dominated by the use of quantitative research methods, but qualitative approaches can provide in-depth insight into the experiences and pr...

  3. Development of student self-study activities

    Kvols, Anja Madsen; Kim, Won-Chung; Christensen, Dorthe Ansine;

    2015-01-01

    This paper is based on research that both identifies student teachers' understanding of selfinitiated study activities and intervenes through testing a design based prototype for teacher education practices. The prototype produced will be put simultaneously into play in several context of the...... teacher education and will aim at strengthening students' motivation for choosing self-initiated activities. The motivation should for example be based on students´ perception of relevance and quality of their own initiatives and the possibility of guidance in self-selected activities. This paper will...... describe the production process and results of the intervention and will also refer to the paper “Student teachers’ interpretation of their independent learning activities”, which the design of the prototype is based on. The interpretation of data from the prototype study will aim to evaluate the...

  4. Activation timing patterns of the abdominal and leg muscles during the sit-to-stand movement in individuals with chronic hemiparetic stroke

    Lee, Tae-Heon; Choi, Jong-Duk; Lee, Nam-Gi

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the activation timing patterns of abdominal and leg muscles during the sit-to-stand movement in individuals with chronic hemiparetic stroke. [Subjects] Twenty adults with chronic hemiparetic stroke participated in this study. [Methods] Subjects performed five sit-to-stand movements at a self-selected velocity without using their hands. Surface electromyography was used to measure the reaction time of the bilateral transverse abdominis/inter...

  5. FENOMENA, FEMINISME DAN POLITICAL SELF SELECTION BAGI PEREMPUAN

    Nurwani Idris - -

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Democracy needs all participation people in the country, women and men.  The political right for women, as we know was feminism hard and long time struggled, therefore now the women have the high quality live in politic, the economic and social.  All the country in the world have ratificated the PBB of law for political freedom for women as the same as men. Especially in Indonesia now there’s no formal barriers for women leadership, if they select to participate in politics but it ...

  6. Induction from Self-Selected Concordances and Self-Correction.

    Todd, Richard Watson

    2001-01-01

    Investigates three growing areas in language teaching: induction, the use of concordances, and self-correction. For a class of Thai university students, lexical items causing writing errors were identified. Students made concordances of the lexical items from the Internet and than induced patters from the concordance to apply in self correction of…

  7. Developing a strategic approach to self-selecting graded readers

    RICK, ROMANKO

    2008-01-01

    As the annals of literature delineate and Janzen and Stoller (1998) concisely summarize, to be able to read at a high ability level involves competencies such as decoding, automatic word recognition, knowledge of vocabulary and grammar, and familiarity with the topic being read. For a more in -depth discussion on theories and models of reading see, Adams, 1990; Perfetti, 1985; for first language reading (Ll) Aebersold & Field, 1997; and Grabe & Stoller, 2002 for insights into second language ...

  8. Self-Selection, Optimal Income Taxation, and Redistribution

    Amegashie, J. Atsu

    2009-01-01

    The author makes a pedagogical contribution to optimal income taxation. Using a very simple model adapted from George A. Akerlof (1978), he demonstrates a key result in the approach to public economics and welfare economics pioneered by Nobel laureate James Mirrlees. He shows how incomplete information, in addition to the need to preserve…

  9. Self-selection for personality variables among healthy volunteers.

    Pieters, M S; Jennekens-Schinkel, A; Schoemaker, H C; Cohen, A F

    1992-01-01

    1. Healthy student volunteers (n = 103) participating in ongoing clinical pharmacological research completed the Dutch Personality Inventory (DPI), the Dutch version of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-DY) and the Dutch version of the Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS). 2. The volunteers were more extrovert (P less than 0.001), more flexible (P less than 0.001), more tolerant or less impulsive (P less than 0.001), had more self-confidence and initiative (P less than 0.001), and ...

  10. Self-selection for personality variables among healthy volunteers.

    Pieters, M S; Jennekens-Schinkel, A; Schoemaker, H C; Cohen, A F

    1992-01-01

    1. Healthy student volunteers (n = 103) participating in ongoing clinical pharmacological research completed the Dutch Personality Inventory (DPI), the Dutch version of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-DY) and the Dutch version of the Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS). 2. The volunteers were more extrovert (P less than 0.001), more flexible (P less than 0.001), more tolerant or less impulsive (P less than 0.001), had more self-confidence and initiative (P less than 0.001), and were more satisfied and optimistic (P less than 0.01) when compared with the general norm. When compared with a student norm, volunteers had lower levels of state (P less than 0.001) and trait (P less than 0.05) anxiety. The general sensation seeking tendency of volunteers was higher than in the student norm group (P less than 0.001). The volunteers had a greater tendency to thrill-and-adventure-seeking (P less than 0.001) and to disinhibition (P less than 0.01). 3. Hence, volunteers were a selected sample of the total population of students. This may influence the interpretation of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters. 4. Personality screening should be added to the screening procedures for volunteers. PMID:1540478

  11. Alignment of Hands-on STEM Engagement Activities with Positive STEM Dispositions in Secondary School Students

    Christensen, Rhonda; Knezek, Gerald; Tyler-Wood, Tandra

    2015-12-01

    This study examines positive dispositions reported by middle school and high school students participating in programs that feature STEM-related activities. Middle school students participating in school-to-home hands-on energy monitoring activities are compared to middle school and high school students in a different project taking part in activities such as an after-school robotics program. Both groups are compared and contrasted with a third group of high school students admitted at the eleventh grade to an academy of mathematics and science. All students were assessed using the same science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) dispositions instrument. Findings indicate that the after-school group whose participants self-selected STEM engagement activities, and the self-selected academy of mathematics and science group, each had highly positive STEM dispositions comparable to those of STEM professionals, while a subset of the middle school whole-classroom energy monitoring group that reported high interest in STEM as a career, also possessed highly positive STEM dispositions comparable to the STEM Professionals group. The authors conclude that several different kinds of hands-on STEM engagement activities are likely to foster or maintain positive STEM dispositions at the middle school and high school levels, and that these highly positive levels of dispositions can be viewed as a target toward which projects seeking to interest mainstream secondary students in STEM majors in college and STEM careers, can hope to aspire. Gender findings regarding STEM dispositions are also reported for these groups.

  12. "Çok Eski Düş" İsimli Küçürek Öykü Bağlamında Bireyin Kendini ve İnsanlığı Seçme Sorunu The Problem of Self-Selection and Selective Sense of Humanity in the Short Short Story of "A Very Ancient Dream"

    Fatih KESKİN

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The first examples of short stories can be traced back to ancienttimes. Since then mankind has been creating various sorts of shortshort stories. Nevertheless, the discovery of this genre in both Turkishand World Literature by wide audiences has been relatively new. Thegenre owes its increasing popularity as a narrative style to the moderntimes. The weariness and boredom of the modern man in themechanical functioning of everyday life and the anxiety of mankind onthe existential level has found its voice in the genre of short short story,and short short stories have become a medium of narrative thatreflected the zeitgeist of the modern times.Imbued with a sensitivity on a philosophical level, “A Very AncientDream”, a short short story written by Michel Leiris, reveals thedilemma of the modern man who has gradually been selfish, isolatedand emotionally suffocated. The story touches upon several elements ofthe existentialist philosophy such as prioritizing individual choicesbased on innate and environmental factors, assigning social roles to theindividual, and promoting actions directed towards good in the face ofeternal evils. Therefore, this article aims to analyse the short story of “AVery Ancient Dream” in the context of existentialist philosophy.In the existentialist philosophy, the individual selects himself(self-selection and decides upon what kind of a man he will be with hisown willpower. The individual who realizes this self-selection forms hisconduct and stance, and thus declares his will to see all humanitychoosing this self-defined construct. The short short story subjected toour analysis, on the contrary, traces the course of the masses whocannot make their own choices in the process of becoming victims ofthe massacres that they quietly watch. This counter-approach aims toshow that by not reacting against the evils of life and the evil people,mankind helps evils to accumulate and cover the whole universe in thefinal analysis

  13. Should implementation intentions interventions be implemented in obesity prevention: the impact of if-then plans on daily physical activity in Dutch adults

    Sheeran Paschal

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Forming implementation intentions (specifying when, where and how to act has been proposed as a potentially effective and inexpensive intervention, but has mainly been studied in controlled settings for straightforward behaviors. Purpose To examine if forming implementation intentions (II could be used in large-scale, population-based interventions that aim to promote more complex and clinically relevant behavior change, we tested the impact of different II on increasing daily physical activity (PA aimed at weight maintenance among 709 Dutch adults. Methods At T0, participants were randomly allocated to a control group or to form II for 1 a prescribed action (walking, 2 self-selected activities, 3 self-selected activities and repeat making these II two times. All participants were asked to increase PA by at least two hours a week (15–20 minutes per day. Post-tests took place two weeks (response 85%, three months (response 78% and six months (response 79% post-intervention. Results No main effects of II formation on BMI or physical activity were found. Intention to increase physical activity moderated the effects of repeated II, but not of the other II conditions. Forming repeated II had a positive effect on total PA and number of active days for respondents with strong intentions. Conclusion Implementation intention interventions may not yet be ready for implementation on its own for large-scale obesity prevention in the general public. Future research should test strategies for optimal II formation in both initiating and maintaining behavioral change. Trial registration ISRCTN81041724

  14. FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION METHODS TO CONSERVE THE ENVIRONMENT

    H.Bridjanian; A Dehghani

    2010-01-01

    After the observation of serious environmental damages resulting from industrial activities, air pollutionreduction has become globally very important.Fuels and flue gas desulfurization methods in power plants are applicable for petroleum derived fuelsconsuming units. But in coal fuel power plants, only Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) can be used.Therefore, the substitution of (natural) gas for power plants fuels has become a common way, dueto its low sulfur content and lower excess air requir...

  15. Motivations for active commuting: a qualitative investigation of the period of home or work relocation

    Jones Caroline HD

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Promoting walking or cycling to work (active commuting could help to increase population physical activity levels. According to the habit discontinuity and residential self-selection hypotheses, moving home or workplace is a period when people (reassess, and may be more likely to change, their travel behavior. Research in this area is dominated by the use of quantitative research methods, but qualitative approaches can provide in-depth insight into the experiences and processes of travel behavior change. This qualitative study aimed to explore experiences and motivations regarding travel behavior around the period of relocation, in an effort to understand how active commuting might be promoted more effectively. Methods Participants were recruited from the Commuting and Health in Cambridge study cohort in the UK. Commuters who had moved home, workplace or both between 2009 and 2010 were identified, and a purposive sample was invited to participate in semi-structured interviews regarding their experiences of, and travel behavior before and after, relocating. A grounded theory approach was taken to analysis. Results Twenty-six commuters participated. Participants were motivated by convenience, speed, cost and reliability when selecting modes of travel for commuting. Physical activity was not a primary motivation, but incidental increases in physical activity were described and valued in association with active commuting, the use of public transport and the use of park-and-ride facilities. Conclusions Emphasizing and improving the relative convenience, cost, speed and reliability of active commuting may be a more promising approach to promoting its uptake than emphasizing the health benefits, at least around the time of relocation. Providing good quality public transport and free car parking within walking or cycling distance of major employment sites may encourage the inclusion of active travel in the journey to work

  16. Physical activity

    Physical activity -- which includes an active lifestyle and routine exercise -- plus eating well, is the best way to ... shortness of breath when you are active Build physical activity into your regular routine Simple lifestyle changes can ...

  17. Test Scores and Self-Selection of Higher Education: College Attendance versus College Completion

    Steven F. Venti; David A. Wise

    1981-01-01

    As a companion paper to our work on students' application and colleges' admission decisions, we have estimated a joint discrete-continuous utility maximization model of college attendance and college completion. The paper is motivated by the possibility that test scores are poor predictors of who will succeed in college and thus may not promote optimal investment decisions and may indeed unjustly limit the educational opportunities of some youth. We find that: (1) College attendance decisions...

  18. Switching Models with Self-Selection: Self-Employment in Hungary

    Ira N. Gang; Co, Catherine Y.; Yun, Myeong-Su

    1999-01-01

    We estimate the determinants of earnings for both the self-employed and wage/salary sectors in an economy undergoing transition from socialism to greater market orientation. We adopt a (full information) MLE methodology in addition to Heckman's two-step method, while taking both participation and self-employment decisions into account. We use the Hungarian Household Panel Survey for 1994. We find that the return to characteristics are not significantly different between self-employed and wage...

  19. Nonmaternal Care's Association With Mother's Parenting Sensitivity: A Case of Self-Selection Bias?

    Nomaguchi, Kei M; Demaris, Alfred

    2013-06-01

    Although attachment theory posits that the use of nonmaternal care undermines quality of mothers' parenting, empirical evidence for this link is inconclusive. Using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 1,233), the authors examined the associations between nonmaternal care characteristics and maternal sensitivity during the first 3 years of children's lives, with special attention to selection effects and moderation by resource levels. Findings from fixed-effects regression models suggested that, on average, there is little relationship between nonmaternal care characteristics and maternal sensitivity, once selection factors are held constant. Some evidence of moderation effects was found, however. Excellent-quality care is related to more sensitivity for mothers with lower family income. Poor-quality care is related to lower sensitivity for single mothers, but not partnered mothers. In sum, nonmaternal care characteristics do not seem to have as much influence on mothers' parenting as attachment theory claims. PMID:23772093

  20. Heterogeneous Treatment and Self-Selection in a Wage Subsidy Experiment

    Brouillette, Dany; Lacroix, Guy

    2008-01-01

    The Self-Sufficiency Project (SSP) is a research and demonstration project that offered a generous time-limited income supplement to randomly selected welfare applicants under two conditions. The first, the eligibility condition, required that they remain on welfare for at least twelve months. The second, the qualification condition, required that they find a full-time job within twelve months after establishing eligibility. In this paper we focus on a neglected and important feature of the p...

  1. Acute Psychological Benefits of Exercise Performed at Self-Selected Workloads: Implications for Theory and Practice

    Attila Szabo

    2003-01-01

    Given that most studies to date examined the connection between exercise and affect without considering the participants’ preferred exercise workload, in this research the affective-benefits of jogging or running at a participant-selected pace were investigated in a pilot field and a laboratory experiment. Ninety-six male and female students (19.5 yrs) took part in the pilot field experiment whereas 32 women (20.3 yrs) completed the laboratory experiment. In both experiments, the participants...

  2. Resource use efficiency under self-selectivity: the case of Bangladeshi rice producers

    Rahman, Sanzidur

    2011-01-01

    The paper jointly evaluates the determinants of switching to modern rice and its productivity while allowing for production inefficiency at the level of individual producers. Model diagnostics reveal that serious selection bias exists, justifying the use of a sample selection framework in stochastic frontier models. Results revealed that modern variety selection decisions are influenced positively by the availability of irrigation and gross return from rice and negatively by a rise in the rel...

  3. A comprehensive comparison of the Sun to other stars: searching for self-selection effects

    Robles, Jose A; Grether, Daniel; Flynn, Chris; Egan, Chas A; Pracy, Michael B; Holmberg, Johan; Gardner, Esko

    2008-01-01

    If the origin of life and the evolution of observers on a planet is favoured by atypical properties of a planet's host star, we would expect our Sun to be atypical with respect to such properties. The Sun has been described by previous studies as both typical and atypical. In an effort to reduce this ambiguity and quantify how typical the Sun is, we identify eleven maximally-independent properties that have plausible correlations with habitability, and that have been observed by, or can be derived from, sufficiently large, currently available and representative stellar surveys. By comparing solar values for the eleven properties, to the resultant stellar distributions, we make the most comprehensive comparison of the Sun to other stars. The two most atypical properties of the Sun are its mass and orbit. The Sun is more massive than 95 -/+ 2% of nearby stars and its orbit around the Galaxy is less eccentric than 93 +/- 1% of FGK stars within 40 parsecs. Despite these apparently atypical properties, a chi^2 -an...

  4. Self-Selection, Earnings, and Out-Migration: A Longitudinal Study of Immigrants to Germany

    Amelie F. Constant; Massey, Douglas S.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we seek to deepen understanding of out-migration as a social and economic process and to investigate whether cross-sectional earnings assimilation results suffer from selection bias. To model the process of out-migration we conduct a detailed event history analysis of men and women immigrants in Germany. Our 14-year longitudinal study reveals that emigrants are negatively selected with respect to occupational prestige and to stable full time employment. Our results show no selec...

  5. Are Immigrants Positively or Negatively Selected? The Role of Immigrant Selection Criteria and Self-Selection

    Abdurrahman Aydemir

    2003-01-01

    This paper specifies and estimates a structural model of international migration using micro data. This provides a direct test of human capital theory that suggests that individuals respond to the earnings differentials across countries while making their migration decisions. The paper specifies migration as a joint outcome of two decision makers, i.e. the individual who decides to apply for migration and the host country that reviews applications, and identifies the factors determining the d...

  6. Do loyalty programs really enhance behavioral loyalty? An empirical analysis accounting for self-selecting members

    Leenheer, Jorna; van Heerde, Harald J.; Bijmolt, Tammo H. A.; Smidts, Ale

    2007-01-01

    One of the pressing issues in marketing is whether loyalty programs really enhance behavioral loyalty. Loyalty program members may have a much higher share-of-wallet at the firm with the loyalty program than non-members have, but this does not necessarily imply that loyalty programs are effective. L

  7. Do Loyalty Programs Really Enhance Behavioral Loyalty? An Empirical Analysis Accounting for Self-Selecting Members

    J. Leenheer (Jorna); H.J. van Heerde (Harald); T.H.A. Bijmolt (Tammo); A. Smidts (Ale)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractOne of the pressing issues in marketing is whether loyalty programs really enhance behavioral loyalty. Loyalty program members may have a much higher share-of-wallet at the firm with the loyalty program than non-members have, but this does not necessarily imply that loyalty programs are

  8. Self-Selection, Earnings and Chicano Migration: Differences between Return and Onward Migrants.

    Shumway, J. Matthew; Hall, Greg

    1996-01-01

    Examines Chicano return migration and earnings differentials between return and onward Chicano migrants by reviewing 1990 Public Use Microdata Sample of the U.S. census. Results indicate that Chicano return migrants have smaller earnings largely due to living in areas with higher concentrations of co-ethnics. Apparently, return migrants are…

  9. Individual or team decision-making - Causes and consequences of self-selection

    M. Kocher; S. Strauß; M. Sutter

    2006-01-01

    Even though decision-making in small teams is pervasive in business and private life, little is known about subjects' preferences with respect to individual and team decision-making and about the consequences of respecting these preferences. We report the results from an experimental beauty-contest

  10. Research Notes ~ The Effect of Self-selection on Student Satisfaction and Performance in Online Classes

    Pan G. Yatrakis

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines student performance, satisfaction, and retention of information in online classes as a function of student choice as to the format of instruction. Student outcomes are studied for two groups enrolled in online classes: those who were allowed to choose between an online and a ground-based format and who chose the online format voluntarily; and those who were obliged to take classes in the online format without being afforded the opportunity to choose.

  11. Physical activity

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001941.htm Physical activity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Physical activity -- which includes an active lifestyle and routine exercise -- ...

  12. Assessment of the variability of vastii myoelectric activity in young healthy females during walking: a statistical gait analysis.

    Di Nardo, Francesco; Maranesi, Elvira; Mengarelli, Alessandro; Ghetti, Giacomo; Burattini, Laura; Fioretti, Sandro

    2015-10-01

    The study was designed to assess the natural variability of the activation modalities of vastus medialis (VM) and vastus lateralis (VL) during walking at a self-selected speed and cadence of 30 young, healthy, females. This was achieved by conducting statistical gait analysis on the surface electromyographic signals from hundreds of strides for each subject. Results revealed variability in the number of activations, occurrence frequency, and onset-offset instants across the thousands of strides analyzed. However, despite the variability, there was one activation occurrence which remained consistent across subjects for both VM and VL. This occurred from terminal swing to the following loading response (observed in 100% of strides). A second, less frequent, activation occurred between mid-stance up to pre-swing (observed in 39.3±22.4% of strides for VM and in 35.1±20.6% for VL). No significant differences (p>0.05) were observed in the onset-offset instants or in the occurrence frequency, which suggest a simultaneous recruitment of VM and VL. This "normality" pattern represents the first attempt at developing a reference frame for vastii sEMG activity during walking, that is able to include the physiological variability of the phenomenon and control the confounding effects of age and gender. PMID:26198265

  13. Get Active

    ... feeling the benefits of getting active, such as sleeping better or getting toned. Here are 2 ways to add more activity to your life. Be active for longer each time. If you are walking 3 days a week for 30 minutes, try ...

  14. Activation analysis

    The neutron activation analysis, which appears to be in limits for further advance, is the most suitable for providing information on the principal as well as the microcomponents in any sample of solid form. Then, instrumental activation analysis is capable of determination of far many elements in various samples. Principally on the neutron activation analysis, the following are described in literature survey from 1982 to middle 1984: bibliography, review, data collection, etc.; problems in spectral analysis and measurement; activation analysis with neutrons; charged particle and photo-nucleus reactions; chemical separation, isotopic dilution activation analysis; molecular activation analysis; standard materials; life and its relation samples; environmental, food, court trial and archaeological samples; space and earth sciences. (Mori, K.)

  15. Active ratchets

    Angelani, L.; Costanzo, A.; Di Leonardo, R.

    2011-12-01

    We analyze self-propelling organisms, or active particles, in a periodic asymmetric potential. Unlike standard ratchet effect for Brownian particles requiring external forcing, in the case of active particles asymmetric potential alone produces a net drift speed (active ratchet effect). By using theoretical models and numerical simulations we demonstrate the emergence of the rectification process in the presence of an asymmetric piecewise periodic potential. The broken spatial symmetry (external potential) and time symmetry (active particles) are sufficient ingredients to sustain unidirectional transport. Our findings open the way to new mechanisms to move in directional manner motile organisms by using external periodic static fields.

  16. Physical Activity

    Andersen, Lars Bo; Anderssen, Sigmund Alfred; Wisløff, Ulrik;

    2014-01-01

    Andersen LB, Anderssen SA, Wisløff U, Hellénius M-L, Fogelholm M, Ekelund U. (Expert Group) Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012. Integrating nutrition and physical activity. Chapter: Physical Activity p. 195-217.Nordic Counsil of Ministers.......Andersen LB, Anderssen SA, Wisløff U, Hellénius M-L, Fogelholm M, Ekelund U. (Expert Group) Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012. Integrating nutrition and physical activity. Chapter: Physical Activity p. 195-217.Nordic Counsil of Ministers....

  17. Emerging technologies for assessing physical activity behaviors in space and time.

    Hurvitz, Philip M; Moudon, Anne Vernez; Kang, Bumjoon; Saelens, Brian E; Duncan, Glen E

    2014-01-01

    Precise measurement of physical activity is important for health research, providing a better understanding of activity location, type, duration, and intensity. This article describes a novel suite of tools to measure and analyze physical activity behaviors in spatial epidemiology research. We use individual-level, high-resolution, objective data collected in a space-time framework to investigate built and social environment influences on activity. First, we collect data with accelerometers, global positioning system units, and smartphone-based digital travel and photo diaries to overcome many limitations inherent in self-reported data. Behaviors are measured continuously over the full spectrum of environmental exposures in daily life, instead of focusing exclusively on the home neighborhood. Second, data streams are integrated using common timestamps into a single data structure, the "LifeLog." A graphic interface tool, "LifeLog View," enables simultaneous visualization of all LifeLog data streams. Finally, we use geographic information system SmartMap rasters to measure spatially continuous environmental variables to capture exposures at the same spatial and temporal scale as in the LifeLog. These technologies enable precise measurement of behaviors in their spatial and temporal settings but also generate very large datasets; we discuss current limitations and promising methods for processing and analyzing such large datasets. Finally, we provide applications of these methods in spatially oriented research, including a natural experiment to evaluate the effects of new transportation infrastructure on activity levels, and a study of neighborhood environmental effects on activity using twins as quasi-causal controls to overcome self-selection and reverse causation problems. In summary, the integrative characteristics of large datasets contained in LifeLogs and SmartMaps hold great promise for advancing spatial epidemiologic research to promote healthy behaviors

  18. Emerging technologies for assessing physical activity behaviors in space and time

    Philip M Hurvitz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Precise measurement of physical activity is important for health research, providing a better understanding of activity location, type, duration, and intensity. This article describes a novel suite of tools to measure and analyze physical activity behaviors in spatial epidemiology research. We use individual-level, high-resolution, objective data collected in a space-time framework to investigate built and social environment influences on activity. First, we collect data with accelerometers, global positioning system units, and smartphone-based digital travel and photo diaries to overcome many limitations inherent in self-reported data. Behaviors are measured continuously over the full spectrum of environmental exposures in daily life, instead of focusing exclusively on the home neighborhood. Next, data streams are integrated using common timestamps into a single data structure, the LifeLog. A graphic interface tool, LifeLog View, enables simultaneous visualization of all LifeLog data streams. Finally, we use geographic information system SmartMap rasters to measure spatially continuous environmental variables to capture exposures at the same spatial and temporal scale as in the LifeLog. These technologies enable precise measurement of behaviors in their spatial and temporal settings but also generate very large datasets; we discuss current limitations and promising methods for processing and analyzing such large datasets. Finally, we provide applications of these methods in spatially-oriented research, including a natural experiment to evaluate the effects of new transportation infrastructure on activity levels, and a study of neighborhood environmental effects on activity using twins as quasi-causal controls to overcome self-selection and reverse causation problems. In summary, the integrative characteristics of large datasets contained in LifeLogs and SmartMaps hold great promise for advancing spatial epidemiologic research to promote healthy

  19. Activity report

    The Department of Physics and Measurement Technology, Biology and Chemistry (IFM) presents every year a progress report containing a brief description of activities in research and education within the department. The report is intended as an information for colleagues and institutions. The present report contains activities for the academic year July 1989 to June 1990

  20. Indoor Activities

    ... so you can do some lifting while you watch TV. Walk around the house when you talk on the phone. Make an extra trip up and down the stairs when you do the laundry. Download the Tip Sheet Indoor Activities (PDF, 739.53 KB) You Might Also Like Sun Safety Have Fun. Be Active with Your Dog! ...

  1. Activated Charcoal

    ... reduce intestinal gas (flatulence), lower cholesterol levels, prevent hangover, and treat bile flow problems (cholestasis) during pregnancy. ... pregnancy, according to some early research reports. Preventing hangover. Activated charcoal is included in some hangover remedies, ...

  2. Active Galaxies

    Kilerci Eser, Ece

    Galaxy formation and evolution is one of the main research themes of modern astronomy. Active galaxies such as Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) and Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIRGs) are important evolutionary stages of galaxies. The ULIRG stage is mostly associated with galaxy mergers and...... interactions. During the interactions of gas-rich galaxies, the gas inflows towards the centers of the galaxies and can trigger both star formation and AGN activity. The ULIRG stage includes rapid star formation activity and fast black hole growth that is enshrouded by dust. Once the AGN emission is...... one is related to the mass estimates of supermassive black holes (SMBHs). Mass estimates of SMBHs are important to understand the formation and evolution of SMBHs and their host galaxies. Black hole masses in Type 1 AGN are measured with the reverberation mapping (RM) technique. Reverberation mapping...

  3. Active colloids

    Aranson, Igor S.

    2013-01-01

    A colloidal suspension is a heterogeneous fluid containing solid microscopic particles. Colloids play an important role in our everyday life, from food and pharmaceutical industries to medicine and nanotechnology. It is useful to distinguish two major classes of colloidal suspensions: equilibrium and active, i.e., maintained out of thermodynamic equilibrium by external electric or magnetic fields, light, chemical reactions, or hydrodynamic shear flow. While the properties of equilibrium colloidal suspensions are fairly well understood, active colloids pose a formidable challenge, and the research is in its early exploratory stage. One of the most remarkable properties of active colloids is the possibility of dynamic self-assembly, a natural tendency of simple building blocks to organize into complex functional architectures. Examples range from tunable, self-healing colloidal crystals and membranes to self-assembled microswimmers and robots. Active colloidal suspensions may exhibit material properties not present in their equilibrium counterparts, e.g., reduced viscosity and enhanced self-diffusivity, etc. This study surveys the most recent developments in the physics of active colloids, both in synthetic and living systems, with the aim of elucidation of the fundamental physical mechanisms governing self-assembly and collective behavior.

  4. Physics activities

    As we move into the 21st Century, nuclear technology is on the verge of rejuvenation in advanced Member States and of expansion in developing Member States. The principal responsibilities of the IAEA are transferring technologies, co-ordinating scientific research, managing specialized projects and maintaining analytical quality control. The IAEA physics activities provide assistance with nuclear instrumentation, promote more effective utilization of research reactors and accelerators, and facilitate global co-operation in nuclear fusion research. These activities will help Member States improve their standards of living through the benefits of nuclear technology. This booklet presents a brief profile on the physics activities and involvement in these fields of the Physics Section, IAEA

  5. Regulatory activities

    This publication, compiled in 8 chapters, presents the regulatory system developed by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) of the Argentine Republic. The following activities and developed topics in this document describe: the evolution of the nuclear regulatory activity in Argentina; the Argentine regulatory system; the nuclear regulatory laws and standards; the inspection and safeguards of nuclear facilities; the emergency systems; the environmental systems; the environmental monitoring; the analysis laboratories on physical and biological dosimetry, prenatal irradiation, internal irradiation, radiation measurements, detection techniques on nuclear testing, medical program on radiation protection; the institutional relations with national and international organization; the training courses and meeting; the technical information

  6. Activated Sludge.

    Saunders, F. Michael

    1978-01-01

    Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. This review covers: (1) activated sludge process; (2) process control; (3) oxygen uptake and transfer; (4) phosphorus removal; (5) nitrification; (6) industrial wastewater; and (7) aerobic digestion. A list of 136 references is also presented. (HM)

  7. Active house

    Eriksen, Kurt Emil; Olesen, Gitte Gylling Hammershøj

    2010-01-01

    Formålet med dette abstrakt er at illustrere, at huse kan være konstrueret til at basere sig udelukkende på vedvarende energikilder og samtidig være CO2-neutrale og producere mere energi end de forbruger. Active House Visionen undersøger disse muligheder i otte demonstration huse i fem forskellige...

  8. Digital Activism

    Skovgaard Jørgensen, Emma; Debiteh Dimma Nielsen, Cecilie

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the phenomenon of digital activism an how it challenges political systems in transition to democracy. As theoretical framework we will use concepts within sociology and political science as analytical tools to our case studies of China and Egypt, in order to find out which role the different concepts play in each case and how these interrelate with one and other. The project was analyzed from a structuralist interpretive approach, viewing social reality as a practice ...

  9. Activity report

    Yu, S W

    2008-08-11

    This report is aimed to show the author's activities to support the LDRD. The title is 'Investigation of the Double-C Behavior in the Pu-Ga Time-Temperature-Transformation Diagram' The sections are: (1) Sample Holder Test; (2) Calculation of x-ray diffraction patterns; (3) Literature search and preparing publications; (4) Tasks Required for APS Experiments; and (5) Communications.

  10. Hepatoprotective Activity.

    2016-01-01

    The liver performs a vital role in metabolism, secretion, storage, and detoxification of endogenous and exogenous substances. Oxidative stress and free radicals enhance the severity of hepatic damage, which can be overcome by the antioxidant mechanism. Plant extracts can be the best source of such antioxidants and mediate hepatoprotective activity. In this chapter, high-dose paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in rat model is discussed with explanations of biochemical and histopathological studies. PMID:26939279

  11. Halal Activism

    Fischer, Johan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to further our understanding of contemporary Muslim consumer activism in Malaysia with a particular focus on halal (in Arabic, literally “permissible” or “lawful”) products and services. Muslim activists and organisations promote halal on a big scale in the interface...... particular historical/national settings and that these issues should be explored in the interfaces between Islam, the state and market. More specifically, this article examines the above issues building on ethnography from fieldwork with three Muslim organisations in Malaysia....

  12. Chocolate active

    There is a table of current radioactivity values for various foods and mushrooms. A special accent is on milk and chocolate. Chocolate sorts with more powdered milk are more active. Finally there is a chapter on radionucleides contained in the Chernobyl fallout, other than cesium 137, cesium 134 and strontium 90. The amounts of ruthenium 106, antimony 125, cerium 144, silver 110 m, cesium 134, strontium 90 and plutonium 239 relative to cesium 137 in soil samples in autumn 1987 are given. Special emphasis is on ruthenium 'hot particles' and on plutonium. (qui)

  13. Activating schoolyards

    Andersen, Henriette Bondo; Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Scheller, Hanne Bebendorf;

    2015-01-01

    objectively determine where and how active the students are in the schoolyard, before and after the intervention. This provides a type of data that, to our knowledge, has not been used before in schoolyard interventions. Exploring the change in behavior in relation to specific intervention elements in the...... accelerometer, GPS and GIS; 3) a process evaluation facilitating the intervention development process and identifying barriers and facilitators in the implementation process; 4) a post-intervention end-user evaluation aimed at exploring who uses the schoolyards and how the schoolyards are used. The seven...

  14. Active packaging with antifungal activities.

    Nguyen Van Long, N; Joly, Catherine; Dantigny, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    There have been many reviews concerned with antimicrobial food packaging, and with the use of antifungal compounds, but none provided an exhaustive picture of the applications of active packaging to control fungal spoilage. Very recently, many studies have been done in these fields, therefore it is timely to review this topic. This article examines the effects of essential oils, preservatives, natural products, chemical fungicides, nanoparticles coated to different films, and chitosan in vitro on the growth of moulds, but also in vivo on the mould free shelf-life of bread, cheese, and fresh fruits and vegetables. A short section is also dedicated to yeasts. All the applications are described from a microbiological point of view, and these were sorted depending on the name of the species. Methods and results obtained are discussed. Essential oils and preservatives were ranked by increased efficacy on mould growth. For all the tested molecules, Penicillium species were shown more sensitive than Aspergillus species. However, comparison between the results was difficult because it appeared that the efficiency of active packaging depended greatly on the environmental factors of food such as water activity, pH, temperature, NaCl concentration, the nature, the size, and the mode of application of the films, in addition to the fact that the amount of released antifungal compounds was not constant with time. PMID:26803804

  15. Variations in active transport behavior among different neighborhoods and across adult life stages

    Christiansen, Lars Breum; Madsen, Thomas; Schipperijn, Jasper; Ersbøll, Annette K; Troelsen, Jens

    2014-01-01

    getting around easily on foot and by bicycle. Three self-selection factors were detected, and varied across the life stages. In the multivariable models high neighborhood walkability was associated with less motorized transport (OR 0.33 95%CI 0.18-0.58), more walking (OR 1.65 95%CI 1.03-2.65) and cycling...... between neighborhood walkability and walking for transport. Getting around easily by bicycle and on foot was the highest rated self-selection factor second only to perceived neighborhood safety....

  16. A Pilot Study: Dietary Energy Density is Similar between Active Women with and without Exercise-Associated Menstrual Dysfunction

    Hand, Taryn M.; Howe, Stephanie; Cialdella-Kam, Lynn; Hoffman, Charlotte P. Guebels; Manore, Melinda

    2016-01-01

    Low energy availability (EA) (e.g., insufficient energy intake (EI) to match energy needs, including exercise energy expenditure) has been identified as a primary contributor to exercise-associated menstrual dysfunction (ExMD) in active women. For health reasons, active women may self-select diets lower in energy density (ED, kcal/g), which can inadvertently contribute to inadequate EI. Using data from two studies, we compared the ED of active women with ExMD (n = 9; 24 ± 6 years) to eumenorrheic (EU) active controls (EU: n = 18, 27 ± 6 years). ED was calculated from 6 to 7 days weighted food records using two methods: with/without beverages. ANOVA and Wilcoxon Rank-Sum were used to test group differences. ED was not different between groups, but there was a trend toward a lower median ED (10%) (p = 0.049 unadjusted; p = 0.098 adjusted) in the ExMD-group (Method 1—all beverages: ExMD = 1.01 kcal/g (range = 0.52–1.41), EU = 1.22 kcal/g (range = 0.72–1.72); Method 2—without beverages: ExMD = 1.51 kcal/g (range = 1.26–2.06), EU = 1.69 kcal/g (range = 1.42–2.54)). This lower ED represents a 9% decrease (~219 kcal/day) in EI (ExMD = 2237 ± 378 kcal/day; EU = 2456 ± 470 kcal/day; p > 0.05). EI and macro/micronutrient intakes were similar for groups. In the ExMD-group, low ED could contribute to lower EI and EA. Future research should examine the interaction of ED and exercise on appetite, EI, and EA in active women, especially those with ExMD. PMID:27104560

  17. Objective measures of meal variety lacking association with consumers' perception of variety with self-selected buffet meals at work

    Haugaard, Pernille; Brockhoff, Per B.; Lahteenmaki, Liisa

    2016-01-01

    variety, and second to explore the associations between subjective meal variety and decision-making rules and individual eating styles. Data consist of 510 meals compiled from workplace lunch buffets by 71 respondents over 31 optional days. Meals were photographed and coded according to the number of...... other objective measures, such as the number of components or any of the visual cues of the meal. Subjective meal variety was linked with the decision-making rule of having many dishes when compiling buffet lunches. Participants with higher scores on uncontrolled eating and food neophobia were found to......Food variety has been linked to higher diet quality and increased food intake, but what constitutes variety for consumers is underexposed. The aim of the study was twofold: first to explore the relationship between objective measures of meal variety and subjective post-meal ratings of perceived...

  18. Inventors and Imposters : An Analysis of Patent Examination with Self-Selection of Firms into R&D

    Schuett, F.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: I present a model in which firms differing in R&D productivity choose between ambitious research projects, which are socially desirable, and unambitious ones, which are socially undesirable. The patent office must decide how rigorously to examine applications, which affects the probability

  19. Nonmaternal Care’s Association With Mother’s Parenting Sensitivity: A Case of Self-Selection Bias?

    Nomaguchi, Kei M.; DeMaris, Alfred

    2013-01-01

    Although attachment theory posits that the use of nonmaternal care undermines quality of mothers’ parenting, empirical evidence for this link is inconclusive. Using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 1,233), the authors examined the associations between nonmaternal care characteristics and maternal sensitivity during the first 3 years of children’s lives, with special attention to selection effects and mo...

  20. Pro-social preferences and self-selection into the public health sector: evidence from an economic experiment.

    Kolstad, Julie Riise; Lindkvist, Ida

    2013-05-01

    Motivational crowding-out theory establishes that the effectiveness of financial incentive schemes, like pay-for-performance, crucially depends on the underlying social preferences of health workers. In this paper we study the extent to which heterogeneity in the strength and structure of social preferences is related to career choices by testing whether preferences vary systematically between Tanzanian health worker students who prefer to work in the private for-profit health sector and those who prefer to work in the public health sector. Despite its important policy implications, this issue has received little attention to date. By combining data from a questionnaire and an economic experiment, we find that students who prefer to work in the public health sector have stronger pro-social preferences than those who prefer to work in the private for-profit sector. PMID:22763126

  1. PATTERNS OF FOOD INTAKE AND SELF-SELECTION OF MACRONUTRIENTS IN RATS DURING SHORT-TERM DEPRIVATION OF DIETARY ZINC

    Although it has been known for more than 50 years that zinc (Zn) deficiency regularly and consistently causes anorexia in many animal species, the basic mechanism(s) that causes this phenomenon still remains an enigma. The following studies describe feeding behavior in the early stages of zinc defic...

  2. The influences of the built environment and residential self-selection on pedestrian behavior: Evidence from Austin, TX

    Cao, Xinyu; S L Handy; Mokhtarian, Patricia L.

    2006-01-01

    Pedestrian travel offers a wide range of benefits to both individuals and society. Planners and public health officials alike have been promoting policies that improve the quality of the built environment for pedestrians: mixed land uses, interconnected street networks, sidewalks and other facilities. Whether such policies will prove effective remains open to debate. Two issues in particular need further attention. First, the impact of the built environment on pedestrian behavior may depend ...

  3. Impact of online channel use on customer revenues and costs to serve : Considering product portfolios and self-selection

    Gensler, S.; Leeflang, P.S.H.; Skiera, B.

    2012-01-01

    Developing a strategy for online channels requires knowledge of the effects of customers' online use on their revenue and cost to serve, which ultimately influence customer profitability. The authors theoretically discuss and empirically examine these effects. An empirical study of retail banking cu

  4. International Migration, Self-Selection, and the Distribution of Wages: Evidence from Mexico and the United States.

    Chiquiar, Daniel; Hanson, Gordon H.

    2005-01-01

    We use the 1990 and 2000 Mexican and U.S. population censuses to test Borjas's negative-selection hypothesis that the less skilled are those most likely to migrate from countries with high skill premia/earnings inequality to countries with low skill premia/earnings inequality. We find that Mexican immigrants in the United States are more educated…

  5. Satisfaction with travel and residential self-selection: How do preferences moderate the impact of the hiawatha light rail

    Cao, X. J.; Ettema, D. F.

    2014-01-01

    Policies in urban and transportation planning increasingly aim at improving residents’ wellbeing. Satisfaction with travel (SWT) is a relevant component of well-being. Insight into the effect of the built environment on SWT is limited and therefore the focus of this paper. To assess this effect, a c

  6. Productive efficiency of specialty and conventional coffee farmers in Costa Rica: Accounting for technological heterogeneity and self-selection

    Meike Wollni; Bernhard Brümmer

    2009-01-01

    A steep decline in coffee prices at the producer level led to considerable pressure for farmers in Costa Rica and producer countries all over the world. One possible reaction was moving to specialty markets, where price pressure was perceived to be lower. We use original survey data from 2002/03 and 2003/04 to analyze the factors influencing efficiency levels of conventional and specialty coffee farmers. Controlling for selectivity bias, we find that technical efficiency in the two subsamples...

  7. Effects of self-selected dehydration and meaningful rehydration on anaerobic power and heart rate recovery of elite wrestlers

    Cengiz, Asim

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to verify the effects of self-directed weight loss on lower- and upper-body power, fatigue index, and heart rate recovery immediately before a meaningful competition (12 hours of recovery). In addition, this study tested the hypothesis that weight loss provides advantages in strength and power, as the relative power of the wrestlers is higher than that of opponents in the same weight class who do not reduce weight. [Subjects and Methods] Eleven well-trained wrestler...

  8. Differences in plantar loading between training shoes and racing flats at a self-selected running speed

    J.I. Wiegerinck; J. Boyd; J.C. Yoder; A.N. Abbey; J.A. Nunley; R.M. Queen

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the difference in plantar loading between two different running shoe types. We hypothesized that a higher maximum force, peak pressure, and contact area would exist beneath the entire foot while running in a racing flat when compared to a training shoe. 37 at

  9. Self-Selection and the Returns to Geographic Mobility: What Can Be Learned from the German Reunification "Experiment"

    Zaiceva, Anzelika

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the causal effect of geographic labour mobility on income. The returns to German East-West migration and commuting are estimated exploiting the structure of centrally planned economies and a "natural experiment" of German reunification for identification. I find that migration premium is insignificantly different from zero, the returns for commuters equal to four percent of the mean of the total income, and the local average treatment effects for compliers are insignif...

  10. Physiotherapy or self-selected exercise in multiple sclerosis: a comparative evaluation of community-based interventions

    Davis, Cindy

    2008-01-01

    Multiple Sclerosis is a major cause of neurological disability in the population of the UK with an incidence of 2,500 new cases diagnosed each year. The estimated number of people affected with MS in the UK is currently believed to be 85,000. (MS Trust 2006). The disease affects those in the prime of their lives as well as those more advanced in years. The reality of living with a progressive neurological condition requires self-management strategies as well as professional involvement. One m...

  11. Active sharing

    2012-01-01

    The big news this week is, of course, the conclusions from the LHC performance workshop held in Chamonix from 6 to 10 February . The main recommendation, endorsed by CERN’s Machine Advisory Committee and adopted by the Management, is that the LHC will run at 4 TeV per beam this year. You can find all the details from Chamonix in the slides presented on Wednesday at the summary session, which leaves me free to talk about another important development coming up soon.   In ten days time, a new kind of gathering will be taking place in Geneva, bringing together two previously separate conferences, one driven by physics, the other by the medical community, but both looking to apply physics to the advancement of health. The merger of the International Conference for Translational Research in Radio-Oncology and CERN’s workshop on Physics for Health in Europe (ICTR-PHE) makes for a very eclectic mix. Presentations range from active shielding for interplanetary flight to the rather...

  12. The Short French Internet Addiction Test Adapted to Online Sexual Activities: Validation and Links With Online Sexual Preferences and Addiction Symptoms.

    Wéry, Aline; Burnay, Jonathan; Karila, Laurent; Billieux, Joël

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of a French version of the short Internet Addiction Test adapted to online sexual activities (s-IAT-sex). The French version of the s-IAT-sex was administered to a sample of 401 men. The participants also completed a questionnaire that screened for sexual addiction (PATHOS). The relationships of s-IAT-sex scores with time spent online for online sexual activities (OSAs) and the types of OSAs favored were also considered. Confirmatory analyses supported a two-factor model of s-IAT-sex, corresponding to the factorial structure found in earlier studies that used the short IAT. The first factor regroups loss of control and time management, whereas the second factor regroups craving and social problems. Internal consistency for each factor was evaluated with Cronbach's α coefficient, resulting in .87 for Factor 1, .76 for Factor 2, and .88 for the global scale. Concurrent validity was supported by relationships with symptoms of sexual addiction, types of OSAs practiced, and time spent online for OSAs. The prevalence of sexual addiction (measured by PATHOS) was 28.1% in the current sample of self-selected male OSA users. The French version of the s-IAT-sex presents good psychometric properties and constitutes a useful tool for researchers and practitioners. PMID:26422118

  13. IASS Activity

    Hojaev, Alisher S.; Ibragimova, Elvira M.

    2015-08-01

    It’s well known, astronomy in Uzbekistan has ancient roots and traditions (e.g., Mirzo Ulugh Beg, Abū al-Rayhān al-Bīrūnī, Abū ‘Abdallāh al-Khwārizmī) and astronomical heritage carefully preserved. Nowadays uzbek astronomers play a key role in scientific research but also in OAD and Decadal Plan activity in the Central Asia region. International Aerospace School (IASS) is an amazing and wonderful event held annually about 30 years. IASS is unique project in the region, and at the beginning we spent the Summer and Winter Schools. At present in the summer camp we gather about 50 teenage and undergraduate students over the country and abroad (France, Malaysia, Turkey, Azerbaijan, Pakistan, Russia, etc.). They are selected on the basis of tests of astronomy and space issues. During two weeks of IASS camp the invited scientists, cosmonauts and astronauts as well as other specialists give lectures and engage in practical exercises with IASS students in astronomy, including daily observations of the Sun and night sky observations with meniscus telescope, space research and exploration, aerospace modelling, preparation and presentation of original projects. This is important that IASS gives not theoretical grounds only but also practically train the students and the hands-on training is the major aims of IASS. Lectures and practice in the field of astronomy carried out with the direct involvement and generous assistance of Uranoscope Association (Paris, France). The current 26-th IASS is planned to held in July 2015.

  14. Physical Activity (Exercise)

    ... Our ePublications > Physical activity (exercise) fact sheet ePublications Physical activity (exercise) fact sheet How can physical activity improve ... Have had recent hip surgery More information on physical activity (exercise) For more information about physical activity (exercise), ...

  15. Foot posture influences the electromyographic activity of selected lower limb muscles during gait

    Menz Hylton B

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some studies have found that flat-arched foot posture is related to altered lower limb muscle function compared to normal- or high-arched feet. However, the results from these studies were based on highly selected populations such as those with rheumatoid arthritis. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare lower limb muscle function of normal and flat-arched feet in people without pain or disease. Methods Sixty adults aged 18 to 47 years were recruited to this study. Of these, 30 had normal-arched feet (15 male and 15 female and 30 had flat-arched feet (15 male and 15 female. Foot posture was classified using two clinical measurements (the arch index and navicular height and four skeletal alignment measurements from weightbearing foot x-rays. Intramuscular fine-wire electrodes were inserted into tibialis posterior and peroneus longus under ultrasound guidance, and surface EMG activity was recorded from tibialis anterior and medial gastrocnemius while participants walked barefoot at their self-selected comfortable walking speed. Time of peak amplitude, peak and root mean square (RMS amplitude were assessed from stance phase EMG data. Independent samples t-tests were performed to assess for significant differences between the normal- and flat-arched foot posture groups. Results During contact phase, the flat-arched group exhibited increased activity of tibialis anterior (peak amplitude; 65 versus 46% of maximum voluntary isometric contraction and decreased activity of peroneus longus (peak amplitude; 24 versus 37% of maximum voluntary isometric contraction. During midstance/propulsion, the flat-arched group exhibited increased activity of tibialis posterior (peak amplitude; 86 versus 60% of maximum voluntary isometric contraction and decreased activity of peroneus longus (RMS amplitude; 25 versus 39% of maximum voluntary isometric contraction. Effect sizes for these significant findings ranged from 0.48 to 1

  16. Activation Energy

    Gadeken, Owen

    2002-01-01

    Teaming is so common in today's project management environment that most of us assume it comes naturally. We further assume that when presented with meaningful and challenging work, project teams will naturally engage in productive activity to complete their tasks. This assumption is expressed in the simple (but false) equation: Team + Work = Teamwork. Although this equation appears simple and straightforward, it is far from true for most project organizations whose reality is a complex web of institutional norms based on individual achievement and rewards. This is illustrated by the very first successful team experience from my early Air Force career. As a young lieutenant, I was sent to Squadron Officer School, which was the first in the series of Air Force professional military education courses I was required to complete during my career. We were immediately formed into teams of twelve officers. Much of the course featured competition between these teams. As the most junior member of my team, I quickly observed the tremendous pressure to show individual leadership capability. At one point early in the course, almost everyone in our group was vying to become the team leader. This conflict was so intense that it caused us to fail miserably in our first outdoor team building exercise. We spent so much time fighting over leadership that we were unable to complete any of the events on the outdoor obstacle course. This complete lack of success was so disheartening to me that I gave our team little hope for future success. What followed was a very intense period of bickering, conflict, and even shouting matches as our dysfunctional team tried to cope with our early failures and find some way to succeed. British physician and researcher Wilfred Bion (Experiences in Groups, 1961) discovered that there are powerful psychological forces inherent in all groups that divert from accomplishing their primary tasks. To overcome these restraining forces and use the potential

  17. Engagement in activities revealing the body and psychosocial adjustment in adults with a trans-tibial prosthesis.

    Donovan-Hall, M K; Yardley, L; Watts, R J

    2002-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the appearance of a prosthesis on social behaviour, social discomfort and psychological well-being in eleven amputees taking delivery of a prosthesis with a silicone cover. Two new scales were developed: the 'Engagement in everyday activities involving revealing the body' (EEARB); and the 'Discomfort-Engagement in everyday activities involving revealing the body' (Discomfort-EEARB) scales. The psychometric properties of these scales were determined using a sample of 101 able-bodied adults. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale were also used to measure psychological well-being in the amputee sample. The EEARB and Discomfort-EEARB proved to have good reliability and validity. Comparison of amputees' scores prior to receiving the silicone cosmesis with those of the able-bodied adults revealed significant behavioural limitations and social discomfort, associated with low self-esteem, anxiety and depression. There was a significant increase in amputees' scores three months afier taking delivery of their prosthesis, indicating that amputees reported engaging in more activities which involved revealing their body, and that they would feel more comfortable in situations which involved revealing the body. As the amputee sample available was small and self-selected, it is not possible to generalise these findings to the amputee population as a whole. However, since there is little previous research investigating the effects of the appearance of the prosthesis, these findings demonstrate the need for further research in this area. PMID:12043922

  18. 78 FR 32657 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    2013-05-31

    ... social marketing and consumer research using samples of self-selected customers, as well as convenience... initiatives using a mixture of qualitative and quantitative consumer research strategies (including formative...) amended section 1861(t)(2)(B) of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 1395x(t)(2)(B)) by adding at the...

  19. 78 FR 3899 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    2013-01-17

    ... collection; Title of Information Collection: Generic Social Marketing & Consumer Testing Research; Use: The... involve social marketing and consumer research using samples of self-selected customers, as well as... items referred to as the Social Marketing and Consumer Testing Item Bank. This item bank is designed...

  20. ACTIVITY MINING: FROM ACTIVITIES TO ACTIONS

    LONGBING CAO; YANCHANG ZHAO; CHENGQI ZHANG; HUAIFENG ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    Activity data accumulated in real life, such as terrorist activities and governmental customer contacts, present special structural and semantic complexities. Activity data may lead to or be associated with significant business impacts, and result in important actions and decision making leading to business advantage. For instance, a series of terrorist activities may trigger a disaster to society, and large amounts of fraudulent activities in social security programs may result in huge gover...

  1. Understanding modal choices for leisure activities. Is it just objectively determined ? Het begrijpen van de vervoerswijzekeuze voor vrijetijdsactiviteiten. Wordt dit enkel beïnvloed door objectief meetbare variabelen ?

    Kobe Boussauw

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Most studies on the link between the built environment and modal choice characterize and model this relationship by objectively measureable characteristics such as density and diversity. Recently, within the debate on residential self-selection, attention has also been paid to the importance of subjective influences such as the individual’s perception of the built environment and his/her residential attitudes and preferences. Expanding the analysis to also include both objective and subjective characteristics at other model levels (i.e., not only stage of life characteristics but also personal lifestyles ; not only car availability but also travel attitudes, not only modal choice but also mode specific attitudes is the purpose of this paper. To this end, a modal choice model for active leisure activities is developed using data on personal lifestyles and attitudes, collected via an Internet survey, and estimated using a path model consisting of a set of simultaneous estimated equations between observed variables. While controlling for subjective lifestyles and attitudes, the effects of the built environment and car availability on modal choice can be determined correctly and thus insights in self-selection mechanisms can be gained.De meeste studies over de interactie tussen de bebouwde omgeving en vervoerswijzekeuze gebruiken objectief meetbare eigenschappen zoals dichtheid en diversiteit om deze relatie te modelleren en analyseren. Recent wordt tevens aandacht besteed aan het belang van subjectieve invloeden zoals de percepties en voorkeuren van het individu met betrekking tot de bebouwde omgeving. Dit gebeurde vooral binnen het debat over residentiële zelfselectie, maar zelfselectie kan ook op andere punten optreden. Daarom wordt in dit artikel de analyse uitgebreid zodat subjectieve kenmerken ook op andere niveaus van het model voorkomen (bijvoorbeeld, niet alleen levensfase maar ook leefstijl, niet alleen autobezit maar ook algemene

  2. Guide to Physical Activity

    ... Families ( We Can! ) Health Professional Resources Guide to Physical Activity Physical activity is an important part of your ... to injury. Examples of moderate-intensity amounts of physical activity Common Chores Washing and waxing a car for ...

  3. Charitable activities in Azerbaijan

    Ismailova Sevil Aydin

    2015-01-01

    In this article, found its proper reflection questions related to the issue of charitable activities in Azerbaijan. Briefly described the history of charitable activities in Azerbaijan. Also shown is the legal framework of charitable activities in Azerbaijan.

  4. Physical Activity Assessment

    Current evidence convincingly indicates that physical activity reduces the risk of colon and breast cancer. Physical activity may also reduce risk of prostate cancer. Scientists are also evaluating potential relationships between physical activity and other cancers.

  5. Bounded Active Perception

    KETENCI, Uktu Gorkem; Bremond, Roland; Auberlet, Jean Michel; GRISLIN, Emmanuelle

    2010-01-01

    There are two kinds of perception : active and passive. This paper is an attempt to take advantage of active perception to improve the agent's perception of relevant information. Through the data filtering capacity, active perception is a useful tool for modeling human-like bounded perception. Using such filters, either the agent or the environment take an active role. We determine several unsolved issues in active perception and do several proposals to implement our concept on the active per...

  6. Political activity for physical activity: health advocacy for active transport

    Amun Qa-t-a; Reeder Anthony I; Murdoch Linda; Richards Rosalina

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Effective health advocacy is a priority for efforts to increase population participation in physical activity. Local councils are an important audience for this advocacy. The aim of the current study was to describe features of advocacy for active transport via submissions to city council annual plans in New Zealand, and the impact of an information sheet to encourage the health sector to be involved in this process. Written submissions to city council's annual consultation process w...

  7. Political activity for physical activity: health advocacy for active transport

    Amun Qa-t-a

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Effective health advocacy is a priority for efforts to increase population participation in physical activity. Local councils are an important audience for this advocacy. The aim of the current study was to describe features of advocacy for active transport via submissions to city council annual plans in New Zealand, and the impact of an information sheet to encourage the health sector to be involved in this process. Written submissions to city council's annual consultation process were requested for 16 city councils over the period of three years (2007/08, 2008/09, and 2009/10. Submissions were reviewed and categories of responses were created. An advocacy information sheet encouraging health sector participation and summarising some of the evidence-base related to physical activity, active transport and health was released just prior to the 2009/10 submission time. Over the period of the study, city councils received 47,392 submissions, 17% of which were related to active transport. Most submissions came from city residents, with a small proportion (2% from the health sector. The largest category of submissions was in support of pedestrian and cycling infrastructure, design and maintenance of facilities and additional features to support use of these transport modes. Health arguments featured prominently in justifications for active transport initiatives, including concerns about injury risk, obesity, physical inactivity, personal safety and facilities for people with disabilities. There was evidence that the information sheet was utilised by some health sector submitters (12.5%, providing tentative support for initiatives of this nature. In conclusion, the study provides novel information about the current nature of health advocacy for active transport and informs future advocacy efforts about areas for emphasis, such as health benefits of active transport, and potential alliances with other sectors such as environmental

  8. Persistent active longitudes in sunspot activity

    Berdyugina, S.; Usoskin, I.

    It has been recently shown that spot activity of cool stars including solar analogues, is grouped in two clearly distinguished active longitudes which are persistent within at least one starspot cycle. Solar data including positional information of individual sunspots / groups extends back for about 130 years covering 12 solar cycles. Here we present the results of our research of longitudinal distribution of sunspot activity using an analysis similar to that applied to the stars. First, we synthesized, from the actual sunspot data, the sun's light curve as if it was defined only by spots. Then solar images were calculated from this light curve, giving a natural smoothing of the spot pattern. For each Carrington rotation, longitudinal position of these smoothed spot regions was calculated. The analysis reveals the following main features: - Sunspot activity is grouped in two active longitudes (with the differential rotation taken into account) 180o apart from each other which are persistent through the entire studied period of 12 cycles, similarly to stars. - The longitude migration is determined by changing the mean latitude of sunspot activity (the Maunder butterfly) and differential rotation. - The two longitudes periodically alternate the dominant activity with about 3.7 year period implying for the existence of the Sflip-flopT phenomenon known in - starspot activity.

  9. Increasing Youth Physical Activity with Activity Calendars

    Eckler, Seth

    2016-01-01

    Physical educators often struggle with ways to get their students to be active beyond the school day. One strategy to accomplish this is the use of physical activity calendars (PACs). The purpose of this article is to support the use of PACs and give practical advice for creating effective PACs.

  10. Neutron Activation Analysis

    Corliss, William R.

    1968-01-01

    In activation analysis, a sample of an unknown material is first irradiated (activated) with nuclear particles. In practice these nuclear particles are almost always neutrons. The success of activation analysis depends upon nuclear reactions which are completely independent of an atom's chemical associations. The value of activation analysis as a research tool was recognized almost immediately upon the discovery of artificial radioactivity. This book discusses activation analysis experiments, applications and technical considerations.

  11. Active Player Modelling

    Togelius, Julian; Shaker, Noor; Yannakakis, Georgios N.

    2013-01-01

    We argue for the use of active learning methods for player modelling. In active learning, the learning algorithm chooses where to sample the search space so as to optimise learning progress. We hypothesise that player modelling based on active learning could result in vastly more efficient learning, but will require big changes in how data is collected. Some example active player modelling scenarios are described. A particular form of active learning is also equivalent to an influential forma...

  12. Informal Economic Activities

    Bühn, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    The dissertation “Informal Economic Activities” takes a comprehensive approach to the informal economy by studying traditional shadow economic activities, household DIY activities, and the smuggling of illegal and legal goods. Chapter 2 analyzes shadow economic and DIY activities and presents a dual estimation for the development of both types of informal economic activities in Germany from 1970 to 2005. It also considers the impact of German reunification on shadow economic and DIY activ...

  13. What do athletes drink during competitive sporting activities?

    Garth, Alison K; Burke, Louise M

    2013-07-01

    Although expert groups have developed guidelines for fluid intake during sports, there is debate about their real-world application. We reviewed the literature on self-selected hydration strategies during sporting competitions to determine what is apparently practical and valued by athletes. We found few studies of drinking practices involving elite or highly competitive athletes, even in popular sports. The available literature revealed wide variability in fluid intake and sweat losses across and within different events with varied strategies to allow fluid intake. Typical drinking practices appear to limit body mass (BM) losses to ~2 % in non-elite competitors. There are events, however, in which mean losses are greater, particularly among elite competitors and in hot weather, and evidence that individual participants fail to meet current guidelines by gaining BM or losing >2 % BM over the competition activity. Substantial (>5 %) BM loss is noted in the few studies of elite competitors in endurance and ultra-endurance events; while this may be consistent with winning outcomes, such observations cannot judge whether performance was optimal for that individual. A complex array of factors influence opportunities to drink during continuous competitive activities, many of which are outside the athlete's control: these include event rules and tactics, regulated availability of fluid, need to maintain optimal technique or speed, and gastrointestinal comfort. Therefore, it is questionable, particularly for top competitors, whether drinking can be truly ad libitum (defined as "whenever and in whatever volumes chosen by the athlete"). While there are variable relationships between fluid intake, fluid balance across races, and finishing times, in many situations it appears that top athletes take calculated risks in emphasizing the costs of drinking against the benefits. However, some non-elite competitors may need to be mindful of the disadvantages of drinking beyond

  14. Energy expenditure prediction via a footwear-based physical activity monitor: Accuracy and comparison to other devices

    Dannecker, Kathryn

    2011-12-01

    Accurately estimating free-living energy expenditure (EE) is important for monitoring or altering energy balance and quantifying levels of physical activity. The use of accelerometers to monitor physical activity and estimate physical activity EE is common in both research and consumer settings. Recent advances in physical activity monitors include the ability to identify specific activities (e.g. stand vs. walk) which has resulted in improved EE estimation accuracy. Recently, a multi-sensor footwear-based physical activity monitor that is capable of achieving 98% activity identification accuracy has been developed. However, no study has compared the EE estimation accuracy for this monitor and compared this accuracy to other similar devices. Purpose . To determine the accuracy of physical activity EE estimation of a footwear-based physical activity monitor that uses an embedded accelerometer and insole pressure sensors and to compare this accuracy against a variety of research and consumer physical activity monitors. Methods. Nineteen adults (10 male, 9 female), mass: 75.14 (17.1) kg, BMI: 25.07(4.6) kg/m2 (mean (SD)), completed a four hour stay in a room calorimeter. Participants wore a footwear-based physical activity monitor, as well as three physical activity monitoring devices used in research: hip-mounted Actical and Actigraph accelerometers and a multi-accelerometer IDEEA device with sensors secured to the limb and chest. In addition, participants wore two consumer devices: Philips DirectLife and Fitbit. Each individual performed a series of randomly assigned and ordered postures/activities including lying, sitting (quietly and using a computer), standing, walking, stepping, cycling, sweeping, as well as a period of self-selected activities. We developed branched (i.e. activity specific) linear regression models to estimate EE from the footwear-based device, and we used the manufacturer's software to estimate EE for all other devices. Results. The shoe

  15. Lectures Abandoned: Active Learning by Active Seminars

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Corry, Aino Vonge

    2012-01-01

    Traditional lecture-based courses are widely criticised for be- ing less eective in teaching. The question is of course what should replace the lectures and various active learning tech- niques have been suggested and studied. In this paper, we report on our experiences of redesigning a software ......- tive seminars as a replacement of traditional lectures, an activity template for the contents of active seminars, an ac- count on how storytelling supported the seminars, as well as reports on our and the students' experiences....

  16. Antifeedant activity of quassinoids.

    Leskinen, V; Polonsky, J; Bhatnagar, S

    1984-10-01

    The antifeedant activity of 13 quassinoids of different structural types has been studied against the Mexican bean beetle (Epilachna varivestis Mulsant) 4th instar larvae and the southern armyworm (Spodoptera eridania Crawer) 5th instar larvae. All quassinoids tested displayed significant activity against the Mexican bean beetle and, thus, do not reveal a simple structure-activity relationship. Five quassinoids were active against the southern armyworm. Interestingly, four of these-bruceantin (I), glaucarubinone (VI), isobruceine A (VIII), and simalikalactone D (XI)-possess the required structural features for antineoplastic activity. The noncytotoxic quassin (X) is an exception; it is active against both pests. PMID:24318349

  17. Immunizations: Active vs. Passive

    ... in Action Medical Editor & Editorial Advisory Board Sponsors Sponsorship Opporunities Spread the Word Shop AAP ... Active vs. Passive Page Content Article Body Pediatricians can protect your child by administering not only active immunizations , but sometimes ...

  18. Italian active volcanoes

    RobertoSantacroce; RenawCristofolini; LuigiLaVolpe; GiovanniOrsi; MauroRosi

    2003-01-01

    The eruptive histories, styles of activity and general modes of operation of the main active Italian volcanoes,Etna, Vulcano, Stromboli, Vesuvio, Campi Flegrei and Ischia, are described in a short summary.

  19. Major operations and activities

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the major operations and activities on the site. These operations and activities include site management, waste management, environmental restoration and corrective actions, and research and technology development

  20. Physical Activity and Children

    ... Food and Beverage Toolkit The AHA's Recommendations for Physical Activity in Children Updated:Jul 21,2016 Click image ... Inactive children are likely to become inactive adults. Physical activity helps with: controlling weight reducing blood pressure raising ...

  1. Active Marine Station Metadata

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Active Marine Station Metadata is a daily metadata report for active marine bouy and C-MAN (Coastal Marine Automated Network) platforms from the National Data...

  2. Forensic activation analysis

    Basic principles of neutron activation analysis are outlined. Examples of its use in police science include analysis for gunshot residues, toxic element determinations and multielement comparisons. Advantages of neutron activation analysis over other techniques are described. (R.L.)

  3. Family Activities for Fitness

    Grosse, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses how families can increase family togetherness and improve physical fitness. The author provides easy ways to implement family friendly activities for improving and maintaining physical health. These activities include: walking, backyard games, and fitness challenges.

  4. USAID Activity Locatons

    US Agency for International Development — The USAID Activities dataset is a snapshot of activities supported by USAID including their geographical locations within countries at the time of the snapshot. The...

  5. Preschoolers’ Physical Activity Behaviours

    Irwin, Jennifer D.; He, Meizi; Bouck, L. Michelle Sangster; Tucker, Patricia; Pollett, Graham L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To understand parents’ perspectives of their preschoolers’ physical activity behaviours. Methods A maximum variation sample of 71 parents explored their preschoolers’ physical activity behaviours through 10 semi-structured focus group discussions. Results Parents perceived Canada’s Physical Activity Guidelines for Children as inadequate; that their preschoolers get and need more than 30–90 minutes of activity daily; and that physical activity habits must be established during the preschool years. Nine barriers against and facilitators toward adequate physical activity were proposed: child’s age, weather, daycare, siblings, finances, time, society and safety, parents’ impact, and child’s activity preferences. Discussion The need for education and interventions that address current barriers are essential for establishing physical activity as a lifestyle behaviour during early childhood and, consequently, helping to prevent both childhood and adulthood obesity. PMID:16625802

  6. Major operations and activities

    Black, D.G.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the major operations and activities on the site. These operations and activities include site management, waste management, environmental restoration and corrective actions, and research and technology development.

  7. Activity-based design

    Andersen, Peter Bøgh

    2006-01-01

      In many types of activities communicative and material activities are so intertwined that the one cannot be understood without taking the other into account. This is true of maritime and hospital work that are used as examples in the paper. The spatial context of the activity is also important:...... and automatic machinery can replace one another in an activity. It also gives an example of how to use the framework for design....

  8. Canonical active Brownian motion

    Gluck, Alexander; Huffel, Helmuth; Ilijic, Sasa

    2008-01-01

    Active Brownian motion is the complex motion of active Brownian particles. They are active in the sense that they can transform their internal energy into energy of motion and thus create complex motion patterns. Theories of active Brownian motion so far imposed couplings between the internal energy and the kinetic energy of the system. We investigate how this idea can be naturally taken further to include also couplings to the potential energy, which finally leads to a general theory of cano...

  9. Woodsy Owl Activity Guide.

    Forest Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This guide offers teachers and after-school group leaders 12 fun and engaging activities. Activities feature lessons on trees, water, wind, the earth, food, and waste. The activities are designed to help children aged 5-8 become more aware of the natural environment and fundamental conservation principles. Titles of children's books are embedded…

  10. Activity Theory and Ontology

    Peim, Nick

    2009-01-01

    This paper seeks to re-examine Yrio Engestrom's activity theory as a technology of knowledge designed to enable positive transformations of specific practices. The paper focuses on a key paper where Engestrom defines the nature and present state of activity theory. Beginning with a brief account of the relations between activity theory and…

  11. Recurrent Activity in Active Galactic Nuclei

    Saikia, D J

    2010-01-01

    There has been a growing body of evidence to suggest that AGN activity, which is powered by mass accretion on to a supermasive black hole, could be episodic, although the range of time scales involved needs to be explored further. The structure and spectra of radio emission from radio galaxies, whose sizes range up to $\\sim$5 Mpc, contain information on the history of AGN activity in the source. They thus provide a unique opportunity to study the time scales of recurrent AGN activity. The most striking examples of recurrent activity in radio galaxies and quasars are the double-double or triple-double radio sources which contain two or three pairs of distinct lobes on opposite sides of the parent optical object. Spectral and dynamical ages of these lobes could be used to constrain time scales of episodic activity. Inverse-Compton scattered cosmic microwave background radiation could in principle probe lower Lorentz-factor particles than radio observations of synchrotron emission, and thereby reveal an older po...

  12. Accessibility, activity participation and location of activities

    Næss, Petter

    2006-01-01

    location and the amount of daily-life travel in an urban region. The empirical data are from a comprehensive study of residential location and travel in Copenhagen Metropolitan Area. Differences between inner- and outer-area residents in activity frequencies and trip frequencies are modest and partly......By investigating relationships between residential location and the availability of facilities, location of activities, trip distances, activity participation and trip frequencies, this paper seeks to contribute to a more detailed and nuanced understanding of the relationships between residential...... outweigh each other. However, differences in trip distances due to the location of the dwelling relative to concentrations of facilities translate into substantially longer total travelling distances among suburbanites than among inner-city residents....

  13. Active ageing technologies

    Lassen, Aske Juul

    physical and productive activity; e.g. that a game of billiards is a technology of active aging. Thus, active aging is enacted in the socio-material practices of the technologies in this paper. The paper contributes with a strengthening of the concept of active aging, by focusing on entangled practices and...... elderly. As part of this rearticulation of old age, many new technologies take form. This paper uses a wide concept of technologies (devices, regimes, strategies and ways of doing) and argues that technologies form active aging subjectivities, and on the other hand, that these subjectivities in their...... socio-material practices form active aging. Hence, active aging is a mutual entanglement (Callon and Rabeharisoa 2004) between technologies, practices and subjectivities. The paper is based on four months of participant observations and 17 in-depth interviews with elderly persons conducted at three...

  14. Outreach activities in JAEA

    Under the slogan of 'each staff member is a spokesperson', Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) holds lectures and science experiment classes at schools, as well as science cafes and open lectures for the general public. Especially at Sector of Fusion Research and Development, 'Katte ni Outreach (voluntary outreach)' activity group, a voluntary group consists of its staff members, plays the central role in its outreach activities. This article describes the system of this outreach activity and the tools for the activity, namely pocketbook, DVD, 3D model of JT-60SA, and so on. Showing the examples of outreach activities conducted nationwide and locally in collaboration with the local communities, the results of the survey conducted in these activities are introduced, also mentioning the future direction of the activity. (S.K.)

  15. Changes in vigorous physical activity and incident diabetes inmale runners

    Williams, Paul T.

    2007-04-30

    Health Study [11-19] is unique among population cohorts in its focus on the health impact of higher doses of vigorously intense physical activity (i.e., {ge} 6-fold metabolic rate). The study was specifically designed to evaluate the dose-response relationship between vigorous physical activity and health for intensities and durations that exceed current physical activity recommendations [20-22]. One specific hypothesis is whether changes in vigorous physical activity affect the risk for becoming diabetic. Although women were surveyed and followed-up, only 23 developed diabetes so there is limited statistical power to establish their significance. Our analyses of diabetes and vigorous exercise are therefore restricted to men. This paper relates running distance at baseline and at the end of follow-up to self-reported, physician diagnosed diabetes in vigorously active men who were generally lean and ostensibly at low diabetic risk The benefits of greater doses of more vigorous exercise are relevant to the 27% of U.S. women and 34% of U.S. men meet or exceed the more general exercise recommendations for health benefits [23]. Specific issues to be addressed are: (1) whether maintenance of the same level of vigorous exercise over time reduces the risk of incident diabetes in relation to the exercise dose; (2) whether men who decrease their activity increase their risk for becoming diabetic; and (3) whether end of follow-up running distances are more predictive of diabetes than baseline distances, suggesting a causal, acute effect. Elsewhere we have shown that greater body weight is related to a lack of vigorous exercise [12-14] and increases the risk for diabetes even among generally lean vigorously active men [11]. In runners, leanness may be due to the exercise or due to initially lean men choosing to run further [17]. Therefore we also test whether body weight mediates the effects of vigorous exercise on diabetes, and whether this may be due to self-selection.

  16. The Active Reader: What Is Active?

    van Woerkum, Cees

    2012-01-01

    How writers can adapt to their readers is an important issue in effective communication strategies, and certainly crucial in the case of functional texts. Therefore, it is necessary to look at how readers are constructed as partners in a communication co-production. This article explores the concept of the "active reader," which is getting more…

  17. NEA activities in 1980. 9. Activity Report

    This report describes the main features of the Agency's work during 1980 and discusses the state and prospects of the nuclear industry in OECD countries. Trends in nuclear power, radiological and environmental impacts of nuclear fuel cycle activities, nuclear safety research and licensing, nuclear law, nuclear development and fuel cycle studies technical co-operation, nuclear science organisation and administration are reviewed

  18. Active knee joint flexibility and sports activity

    Hahn, Thomas; Foldspang, Anders; Vestergaard, E;

    1999-01-01

    significantly higher in women than in men and significantly positively associated with weekly hours of swimming and weekly hours of competitive gymnastics. Active knee flexion was significantly positively associated with participation in basketball, and significantly negatively associated with age and weekly...

  19. Poverty And Civic Activism

    William R. DiPietro

    2013-01-01

    This paper hypothesizes that country poverty is negatively associated with the civic activism of its citizens. It employs cross country regression analysis to test the proposition. In general, the findings of the paper lend support to the contention that greater civic activism leads to reduced poverty.Poverty is a worldwide problem. One of the possible ways that pressure can be brought to bear to change a countrys policies, institutions, attitudes, and beliefs is through civic activism and pr...

  20. Active Travel - Healthy Lives

    Institute of Public Health in Ireland

    2011-01-01

    Across Ireland, there is considerable scope to replace many short car journeys with walking and cycling which would bring about a range of benefits to health as well as saving money for individuals and society.'Active travel, healthy lives' presents a summary of international evidence on the health and economic benefits of active travel and makes recommendations on how active travel can become a viable, safe and attractive alternative to car use.

  1. Confinement for Active Objects

    Florian Kammuller

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we provide a formal framework for the security of distributed active objects. Active objects com-municate asynchronously implementing method calls via futures. We base the formal framework on a security model that uses a semi-lattice to enable multi-lateral security crucial for distributed architectures. We further provide a security type system for the programming model ASPfun of functional active objects. Type safety and a confinement property are presented. ASPfun thus reali...

  2. Lupus Activity in Pregnancy

    Clowse, Megan E. B.

    2007-01-01

    Pregnancy in a woman with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) can be complicated by both lupus activity and pregnancy mishaps. The majority of recent studies demonstrate an increase in lupus activity during pregnancy, perhaps exacerbated by hormonal shifts required to maintain pregnancy. Increased lupus activity, in turn, prompts an elevated risk for poor pregnancy outcomes, including stillbirth, preterm birth, low birth weight, and preeclamspsia. Fortunately, the majority of pregnancies in wo...

  3. Activated carbons and gold

    The literature on activated carbon is reviewed so as to provide a general background with respect to the effect of source material and activation procedure on carbon properties, the structure and chemical nature of the surface of the activated carbon, and the nature of absorption processes on carbon. The various theories on the absorption of gold and silver from cyanide solutions are then reviewed, followed by a discussion of processes for the recovery of gold and silver from cyanide solutions using activated carbon, including a comparison with zinc precipitation

  4. CDBG Public Improvements Activity

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — CDBG activity related to public improvements, including senior centers, youth centers, parks, street improvements, water/sewer improvements, child care centers,...

  5. CDBG Housing Activity

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — CDBG activity related to housing, including multifamily rehab, housing services, code enforcement, operation and repair of foreclosed property and public housing...

  6. CDBG Economic Development Activity

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — CDBG activity related to economic development, including commercial or industrial rehab, commercial or industrial land acquisition, commercial or industrial...

  7. Vibrational optical activity

    Recent vibrational activity (VOA) research is discussed. The vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) experiments were carried out with a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. One of the major anticipations from VOA spectroscopy is to be able to derive new pathways for determining the molecular structure. Shown is Fourier transform infrared absorption and VCD spectra of lyxopyranose in pyradine-d5 solvent. Raman optical activity measurements are discussed, and depolarized Raman and Raman optical activity spectra for (+)-alpha-pinene are presented. It was concluded that at present Raman optical activity can be measured in the entire vibrational spectral region, where as VCD has not been measured below 600 cm-1

  8. CDBG Public Services Activity

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — CDBG activity related to public services, including senior services, legal services, youth services, employment training, health services, homebuyer counseling,...

  9. Exercise and activity - children

    ... child's preferences and abilities. Individual activities include swimming, running, skiing, or biking. Group sports are another option, such as soccer, football, basketball, karate, or tennis. Choose an exercise ...

  10. Who is actively denitrifying in activated sludge?

    Hansen, Aviaja Anna; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund

    -scale wastewater treatment plant the transcripts (mRNA) of the nirS, nirK and nosZ denitrification genes expressed under acetate or amino acid consumption were amplified, sequenced and identified. This revealed that the majority of the denitrifiers belonged to Alpha- and Betaproteobacteria, while only few...... genetic diversity was observed from the nirS transcripts and not the nosZ transcripts. Likewise, denitrifying cultures obtained from the activated sludge affiliated with the same Alpha- and Betaproteobacteria as detected with the denitrification genes, except one culture, which affiliated with...... Bacteroidetes. Furthermore, potential denitrifying genera of Alpha- and Betaproteobacteria were quantified in the activated sludge with 16S rRNA gene probes for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). This revealed that Aquaspirillum-related bacteria were dominant followed by bacteria related to Azoarcus...

  11. NEA activities in 1983. 12. Activity report

    This report describes the main features of the Agency's work during 1983 and discusses the state and prospects of the nuclear industry in OECD countries. Trends in nuclear power, nuclear development and the fuel cycles nuclear safety technology and licensing, radiological and environmental impacts of nuclear fuel cycle activities, legal affairs, nuclear science, joint undertakings and other NEA joint projects, organisation and administration are reviewed

  12. HYDRATION AND ENZYME ACTIVITY

    Poole, P.

    1984-01-01

    Hydration induced conformation and dynamic changes are followed using a variety of experimental techniques applied to hen egg white lysozyme. These changes are completed just before the onset of enzyme activity, which occurs before all polar groups are hydrated, and before monolayer coverage is attained. We suggest that these hydration induced changes are necessary for the return of enzyme activity.

  13. Plasminogen activation in cancer

    Reijerkerk, Arie

    2004-01-01

    The subject of this thesis focusses on the role of the plasminogen activation system in angiogenesis and cancer. The plasminogen activation system regulates fibrinolysis and controls cell migration and invasion by plasmin-mediated matrix proteolysis. Plasmin is formed upon cleavage of the zymogen pl

  14. NEA activities in 1982

    This report presents an account of the activities of the Nuclear Energy Agency. It deals with current nuclear trends, nuclear development and the fuel cycle, nuclear safety research and licensing, radiological and environmental impacts of nuclear fuel cycle activities, legal affairs, nuclear science, joint undertakings, and, organization and administration

  15. RTE activity report 2005

    The RTE (electric power transport network) is the french manger of the electric power transport. This activity report provides information on the company results for the year 2005: panorama of the year, management and organization, the place of RTE in the european market, the customers, the industrial tool, the environment the human resources, the international activity and the management report. (A.L.B.)

  16. Warm-Up Activities.

    Mingguang, Yang

    1999-01-01

    Discusses how warm-up activities can help to make the English-as-a-foreign-language classroom a lively and interesting place. Warm-up activities are games carried out at the beginning of each class to motivate students to make good use of class time. (Author/VWL)

  17. Activity report 2002

    This annual report deals with the activities, the program management and the financial aspects of the ANDRA (National Agency for the radioactive wastes management) during 2002. After a presentation of the activities during the year 2002, it provides the financial accounting, data on company cash, the ANDRA missions and publications. (A.L.B.)

  18. Reflections on Activity Theory

    Bakhurst, David

    2009-01-01

    It is sometimes suggested that activity theory represents the most important legacy of Soviet philosophy and psychology. But what exactly "is" activity theory? The canonical account in the West is given by Engestrom, who identifies three stages in the theory's development: from Vygotsky's insights, through Leontiev's articulation of the…

  19. Laboratory Activities in Israel

    Mamlok-Naaman, Rachel; Barnea, Nitza

    2012-01-01

    Laboratory activities have long had a distinctive and central role in the science curriculum, and science educators have suggested that many benefits accrue from engaging students in science laboratory activities. Many research studies have been conducted to investigate the educational effectiveness of laboratory work in science education in…

  20. [Field Learning Activities].

    Nolde Forest Environmental Education Center, Reading, PA.

    Seventy field activities, pertinent to outdoor, environmental studies, are described in this compilation. Designed for elementary and junior high school students, the activities cover many discipline areas--science, social studies, language arts, health, history, mathematics, and art--and many are multidisciplinary in use. Topics range from soil…

  1. Rainy Day Activities.

    Texas Child Care, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Experienced caregivers plan ahead for rainy days. This article describes specific rainy day activities for young children, such as books and crafts to learn about rain (rain in a jar, making a rainbow), simple cooking activities (taffy pull, cinnamon candy tea), and games (mummy wrap, hunt the thimble, rain lotto). (EV)

  2. Peak Longevity Physical Activity

    People who engage in three to five times the recommended minimum level of leisure-time physical activity derive the greatest benefit in terms of mortality reduction when compared with people who do not engage in leisure-time physical activity.

  3. Habitats, activities, and signs

    Andersen, Peter Bøgh; Brynskov, Martin

    2004-01-01

    Digital habitats is a framework for designing and modeling environments for activities that involve mobile and embedded computing systems. This paper 1) introduces the basic concepts of the framework, i.e. activity, thematic role, and the three ‘dimensions’ of a habitat: physical, informational, ...

  4. The Activity of Trypsin

    Russo, Salvatore F.; Holzman, Tom

    1977-01-01

    Describes an experiment that illustrates the following points concerning the experimental determination of trypsin activity: (1) there is a difference in basing enzyme concentration on weight, absorbance, or active sites; and (2) the method of expressing enzyme concentration determines the value of specific, molecular, and catalytic center…

  5. Physical activity among adolescents

    Henriksen, P W; Ingholt, L; Rasmussen, M;

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were (a) to examine the association between various kinds of parental social support and adolescents' physical activity (PA) and (b) to examine whether various kinds of social support from mothers and fathers were differently associated with boys' and girls' PA. Data...... understand why some adolescents are physically active and others are not....

  6. ANDRA, 2006 activity report

    The French national agency of radioactive waste management (ANDRA) was marked in 2006 by two outstanding events: the publication of the national inventory of radioactive wastes and valorisable materials, and the vote of the law from June 28, 2006 relative to the sustainable management of radioactive wastes and materials. This road-map law has an impact on ANDRA's activities for the coming years. This activity report presents several 2006 highlights of ANDRA's missions as well: the public service mission, the by-law about the effluents of the Aube plant for the storage of low-medium activity wastes, the building of the first 'double-cell' at the very-low activity waste storage plant of Aube, the research studies about the project of deep underground disposal of high-medium activity, long-living wastes, and the public information about ANDRA's technical and scientific know-how. The management and financial reports are attached in appendix. (J.S.)

  7. Risk informed maintenance activity

    In recent years, risk informed activities are being investigated as scientifically rational measures. Some Risk informed activities using Core Damage Frequency (CDF) have been already employed. Examples are extraction of accident management strategies, risk informed maintenance importance and such. This paper describes risk information such as CDF, risk profile, risk importance of equipments' contribution to risk, gained from Probabilistic Analysis (PSA). Furthermore, risk informed activities conducted and/or considered are also introduced. The examples are investigation of accident management strategies, on-line maintenance and risk informed In Service Inspection (ISI). In the end, open issues for further employment of risk information in the NPP activities are summarized. Technical quality of PSA methodology is one of these issues and it should be continuously addressed, however, the risk information as it is still useful for better activities in NPP. (author)

  8. Determinants of Physical Activity in Active and Low-Active, Sixth Grade African-American Youth.

    Trost, Stewart G.; Pate, Russell R.; Ward, Dianne S.; Saunders, Ruth; Riner, William

    1999-01-01

    Compared determinants of physical activity in active and low-active African-American sixth graders, surveying students and making objective assessments of physical activity over seven days. Results indicated that physical activity self-efficacy, beliefs about physical activity outcomes, involvement in community-based physical activity, perception…

  9. GOVERNOR ORGANIZATIONS ACTIVITY LICENSING

    Maslennikova L. V.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The author analyses the licensing of governor organizations activity in connection with amendments to the Housing Code of the Russian Federation by adoption of a Federal law of 21.07.2014 N 255-FZ «On amendments to the Housing Code of the Russian Federation, some legislative acts of the Russian Federation and on declare force Certain Provisions of Legislative Acts of the Russian Federation void » and the Government Resolution adoption of the of 28.10.2014г. N 1110 «On entrepreneur activity in apartment buildings’ government licensing». The urgency of the issue of the apartment buildings licensing activity is associated with the modernization of housing and communal services and legal regulation in this area. Introduction of the governor organizations activity licensing without securing in law the concept of "governor organizations" is a significant flaw of the legislator. As a result, the author gives the concept of governor organizations based on the analysis of scientific papers and current legislation. In addition, the article analyzes the introduction of licensing control, assesses the established order of the three registers on the governor organizations activity. The presented paper examines the experience of foreign countries associated with the activities on the apartment building common property management as well, and the state control over such activity. The authors examine violations of housing legislation that may cause the governor organizations and their officials’ administrative responsibility

  10. Mental activity during sleep.

    Fagioli, Igino

    2002-08-01

    Since remote antiquity humankind has believed in the supernatural origin of dreaming. The scientific approach to mental activity during sleep dates back to the eighteenth century. One hundred years ago, psychoanalysis introduced dream analysis for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Only 50 years ago psychophysiology made it possible to collect mental sleep activity by means of experimental awakenings while monitoring physiological variables; this approach encouraged investigation into the relationship between the features of sleep activity and sleep state (REM versus NREM). Advances in neurophysiology, in neurochemistry, and recently in brain imaging techniques, have shed light on the roles played by the different cerebral structures in determining specific characteristics of mental activity during sleep. The development of cognitive psychology has enabled investigation of dream generation in terms of output from a complex multilevel system of information processing. In addition to sleep state, other factors, such as the time of the night and the sequence of the NREM-REM cycles, have been shown to influence the characteristics of mental activity. The usefulness of investigation of mental sleep activity as a clinical tool is controversial. The psychophysiological approach to mental sleep activity in clinical contexts has enabled the exploration of adaptation processes and contributed to neuropsychological studies on focal and systemic brain pathology. PMID:12531134

  11. Emotionally Intense Science Activities

    King, Donna; Ritchie, Stephen; Sandhu, Maryam; Henderson, Senka

    2015-08-01

    Science activities that evoke positive emotional responses make a difference to students' emotional experience of science. In this study, we explored 8th Grade students' discrete emotions expressed during science activities in a unit on Energy. Multiple data sources including classroom videos, interviews and emotion diaries completed at the end of each lesson were analysed to identify individual student's emotions. Results from two representative students are presented as case studies. Using a theoretical perspective drawn from theories of emotions founded in sociology, two assertions emerged. First, during the demonstration activity, students experienced the emotions of wonder and surprise; second, during a laboratory activity, students experienced the intense positive emotions of happiness/joy. Characteristics of these activities that contributed to students' positive experiences are highlighted. The study found that choosing activities that evoked strong positive emotional experiences, focused students' attention on the phenomenon they were learning, and the activities were recalled positively. Furthermore, such positive experiences may contribute to students' interest and engagement in science and longer term memorability. Finally, implications for science teachers and pre-service teacher education are suggested.

  12. Activity report 1977

    The Research and Development (R and D) activities of the Reactor Research Centre, Kalpakkam, during the year 1977 are reported. The report is presented in the form of individual summaries of R and D activities most of which are connected with the FBTR project. These R and D activities deal with various aspects of the FBTR project such as reactor physics, reactor design, reactor engineering, fabrication, testing and quality assurance of reactor materials and components, reactor chemistry, reactor safety, reprocessing, systems analysis and instrumentation. (M.G.B.)

  13. Activation Force Splines

    Engell-Nørregård, Morten Pol; Erleben, Kenny

    dimensional 2D/3D deformable model. Our activation splines are easy to set up and can be used for physics based animation of deformable models such as snake motion and locomotion of characters. Our approach generalises easily to both 2D and 3D simulations and is applicable in physics based games or animations......We present a method for simulating the active contraction of deformable models, usable for interactive animation of soft deformable objects. We present a novel physical principle as the governing equation for the coupling between the low dimensional 1D activation force model and the higher...... due to its simplicity and very low computational cost....

  14. Active Directory cookbook

    Hunter, Laura

    2008-01-01

    When you need practical hands-on support for Active Directory, the updated edition of this extremely popular Cookbook provides quick solutions to more than 300 common (and uncommon) problems you might encounter when deploying, administering, and automating Microsoft's network directory service. For the third edition, Active Directory expert Laura E. Hunter offers troubleshooting recipes based on valuable input from Windows administrators, in addition to her own experience. You'll find solutions for the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP), ADAM (Active Directory Application Mode), m

  15. Inspector measurement verification activities

    e most difficult and complex activity facing a safeguards inspector involves the verification of measurements and the performance of the measurement system. Remeasurement is the key to measurement verification activities. Remeasurerements using the facility's measurement system provide the bulk of the data needed for determining the performance of the measurement system. Remeasurements by reference laboratories are also important for evaluation of the measurement system and determination of systematic errors. The use of these measurement verification activities in conjunction with accepted inventory verification practices provides a better basis for accepting or rejecting an inventory. (U.S.)

  16. Scientific activities 1979

    The scientific activities and achievements of the Nuclear Research Center Democritus for the year 1979 are presented in the form of a list of 78 projects giving title, objectives, commencement year, responsible of each project, developed activities and the pertaining lists of publications. The 15 chapters of this work cover the activities of the main Divisions of the Democritus NRC: Electronics, Biology, Physics, Chemistry, Health Physics, Reactor, Radioisotopes, Environmental Radioactivity, Soil Science, Computer Center, Uranium Exploration, Medical Service, Technological Applications and Training. (T.A.)

  17. 1985. Activity progress report

    The research program of the Laboratory of nuclear and high energy physics (LPNHE) of the Institute of nuclear and particle physics (IN2P3) presents the research activities of its groups: principally, the Delphi group which constructs the outer detector of Delphi at LEP, the neutrino group which studies the neutrino mass, the Hera group whose work is collaboration to the construction of a detector for Hera collisioner; in parallel to these activities, other more little groups continue analysis of activities which are going to be finished: they are the CELLO group, the EHS group, the omega prime group and the nuclear emulsion group

  18. Creative activity and inclusion

    Shemanov A.Yu.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article was to analyze the inclusion potential of art creative activity, namely of theatre performance, in people with disabilities. The article provides examples of disagreements in understanding the significance of these art activities for exercising the rights of people with disabilities to contribute to culture and art and some problems arising here. The conclusion is made that theatre art performed by people with disabilities is gradually changing its function: from being a means of self-affirmation to the determination of its specific place in overall theatre process. These changes confirm the inclusion potential of theatre art activity.

  19. Encapsulation of active ingredients

    Soest, van, A.J.; Schijndel, van, AWM Jos; Gotlieb, K.F.

    2002-01-01

    Microspheres having a particle size of 50 nm to 1 nm and a polydispersity of less than 40%, consisting of a chemically cross-linked starch shell containing an active ingredient, are obtained by preparing an oil-in-water emulsion of the active ingredient in a hydrophobic phase and starch or a dispersion of a solid active ingredient and starch in water, incorporating the oil-in-water emulsion or solid dispersion in an outer hydrophobic phase, particles of the oil-in-water emulsion or solid disp...

  20. Encapsulation of active ingredients

    Gotlieb, K.F.; Schijndel, van, AWM Jos; Soest, van, A.J.

    1999-01-01

    Microspheres having a particle size of 50 nm to 1 nm and a polydispersity of less than 40%, consisting of a chemically cross-linked starch shell containing an active ingredient, are obtained by preparing an oil-in-water emulsion of the active ingredient in a hydrophobic phase and starch or a dispersion of a solid active ingredient and starch in water, incorporating the oil-in-water emulsion or solid dispersion in an outer hydrophobic phase, particles of the oil-in-water emulsion or solid disp...

  1. Encapsulation of active ingredients

    Soest, van, A.J.; Schijndel, van, AWM Jos; Gotlieb, K.F.

    2000-01-01

    Microspheres having a particle size of 50 nm to 1 nm and a polydispersity of less than 40%, consisting of a chemically cross-linked starch shell containing an active ingredient, are obtained by preparing an oil-in-water emulsion of the active ingredient in a hydrophobic phase and starch or a dispersion of a solid active ingredient and starch in water, incorporating the oil-in-water emulsion or solid dispersion in an outer hydrophobic phase, particles of the oil-in-water emulsion or solid disp...

  2. Forecast of auroral activity

    A new technique is developed to predict auroral activity based on a sample of over 9000 auroral sites identified in global auroral images obtained by an ultraviolet imager on the NASA Polar satellite during a 6-month period. Four attributes of auroral activity sites are utilized in forecasting, namely, the area, the power, and the rates of change in area and power. This new technique is quite accurate, as indicated by the high true skill scores for forecasting three different levels of auroral dissipation during the activity lifetime. The corresponding advanced warning time ranges from 22 to 79 min from low to high dissipation levels

  3. γ activity in struverite

    The five different struverite samples collected from Southern Thailand were analysed for the 214Pb, 214Bi, 228Ac and 208Tl gamma activities. The concentrations of 226Ra for each of the samples were subsequently deduced from the activities of its daughter nuclides 214Pb and 214Bi on the assumption that secular equilibrium exists between them. Similarly the concentrations of 232Th for each of the samples were also deduced from the activities of its daughter nuclides 228Ac and 208Tl

  4. Physical activation of molecules

    A brief review of processes of physical activation of molecules on the basis of phenomena of electronic and vibrational excitation, electron polarization is presented. Consideration is given to activation by electron impact, photo-, magneto- and mechanoactivation, as well as to radiation activation, proceeding under the effect of high-power radiations (102-107 eV). The character of disturbance of molecules, participating in chemical reactions, under the effect of different types of ionizing radiation (α-particles, electrons, γ-quanta etc.) is discussed

  5. China's Space Activities

    China National Space Administration

    2004-01-01

    @@ Currently, space activities are very active around the world. Space technologies continuously expand to various areas of human activities, and space technology and applications are becoming an indispensable part of modern information society,while the development of space science brings a brand-new view to the development of science and technology. The development of space law is not only an important approach to improving people' s quality of lives, expanding the living space of human being, and exploiting new resources, but also an important symbol of the comprehensive strength and civilization of a nation.

  6. Physics of solar activity

    Sturrock, Peter A.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the research activity was to increase our understanding of solar activity through data analysis, theoretical analysis, and computer modeling. Because the research subjects were diverse and many researchers were supported by this grant, a select few key areas of research are described in detail. Areas of research include: (1) energy storage and force-free magnetic field; (2) energy release and particle acceleration; (3) radiation by nonthermal electrons; (4) coronal loops; (5) flare classification; (6) longitude distributions of flares; (7) periodicities detected in the solar activity; (8) coronal heating and related problems; and (9) plasma processes.

  7. IPSN's 2001 activity report

    This report summarizes the 2001 activities and operation of the French institute of nuclear protection and safety (IPSN) which has become the institute of radioprotection and nuclear safety (IRSN) after its merging with the office of protection against ionizing radiations (OPRI). IPSN's activities cover: the safety of nuclear facilities, the safety of nuclear wastes, the management of emergencies, the management of sensible materials, the protection of the environment and of the public health, some research activities with foreign partners (central and eastern Europe, Asia..), and a partnership with the GRS, the German homologue of IPSN. (J.S.)

  8. Mnemonic activation by SPECT

    Data of literature show that SPECT is able to detect cerebral activations induced by sensory-motor stimuli. The facts are not clearly established in what concerns the cognitive activations the amplitude of which is lower. We have studied an activation paradigm such as the Grober and Bruschke test which implies the long term explicit memory. It comprises a visual presentation of words followed by their indexed recall. By using a two-day protocol, 2 SPECTs were achieved in 4 healthy right-handed voluntaries as follows: one of activation (A) and one of control (B). The fifth subject benefited by a SPECT B and of an MRI. The injection for the examination A has been done during the indexed recall stage and for the examination B at the moment when the patient repeated several times the same 3 words. The SPECT data were collected 1 hour after the injection of 370 MBq of ECD making use of a 3-head camera equipped with UHR fan collimators and ending by a LMH on the reconstructed images of 8 mm. The MRI has been achieved by means of a Signa 1.5 Tesla magnet. The SPECT A and B of the subjects 1 to 4 were matched elastically to that of the subject 5 and that of the subject 5 was rigidly matched on its MRI. In this way the individual activation cards of the 4 subjects could be averaged and superimposed on the MRI of the 5. subject. One observes an internal temporal activation (maximal activation of left tonsil, +25% and right uncus, +23%) and a right cingulum activation (maximal activation, +25%), in agreement with the neuro-physiological data. The elastic matching makes possible the inter-subject averaging, what increases the signal-to-noise ratio of activation. The inter-modality rigid matching facilitates the anatomical localisation of the activation site. With these adapted tools, the cognitive activation is thus possible by SPECT and opens perspectives for early diagnosis of neurological troubles, namely of Alzheimer's disease

  9. OTI Activity Database

    US Agency for International Development — OTI's worldwide activity database is a simple and effective information system that serves as a program management, tracking, and reporting tool. In each country,...

  10. Active flows on trees

    Forrow, Aden; Dunkel, Jörn

    2016-01-01

    Coherent, large scale dynamics in many nonequilibrium physical, biological, or information transport networks are driven by small-scale local energy input. We introduce and explore a generic model for compressible active flows on tree networks. In contrast to thermally-driven systems, active friction selects discrete states with only a small number of oscillation modes activated at distinct fixed amplitudes. This state selection interacts with graph topology to produce different localized dynamical time scales in separate regions of large networks. Using perturbation theory, we systematically predict the stationary states of noisy networks and find good agreement with a Bayesian state estimation based on a hidden Markov model applied to simulated time series data on binary trees. While the number of stable states per tree scales exponentially with the number of edges, the mean number of activated modes in each state averages $\\sim 1/4$ the number of edges. More broadly, these results suggest that the macrosco...