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Sample records for activity combined models

  1. Modelling of the Secondary Clarifier Combined with the Activated Sludge Model no. 1

    Dupont, René; Henze, Mogens

    1992-01-01

    Modelling of activated sludge wastewater treatment plants is today generally based on the Activated Sludge Model No. 1 combined with a very simple model for the secondary settler. This paper describes the development of a model for the secondary clarifier based on the general flux theory for zone...... model is a purely empirical model, which connects the effluent quality with the hydraulic load, suspended solids load and the nitrate load. The paper describes the model and gives some basic examples on computer simulations and verification of the model....

  2. Modelling Cr(VI) removal by a combined carbon-activated sludge system

    The combined carbon-activated sludge process has been proposed as an alternative to protect the biomass against toxic substances in wastewaters; however, the information about the effect of powdered-activated carbon (PAC) addition in activated sludge reactors for the treatment of wastewaters containing Cr(VI) is limited. The objectives of the present study were: (a) to evaluate the removal of hexavalent chromium by (i) activated sludge microorganisms in aerobic batch reactors, (ii) powdered-activated carbon, and (iii) the combined action of powdered-activated carbon and biomass; (b) to propose mathematical models that interpret the experimental results. Different Cr(VI) removal systems were tested: (S1) biomass (activated sludge), (S2) PAC, and (S3) the combined activated carbon-biomass system. A Monod-based mathematical model was used to describe the kinetics of Cr(VI) removal in the system S1. A first-order kinetics with respect to Cr(VI) and PAC respectively, was proposed to model the removal of Cr(VI) in the system S2. Cr(VI) removal in the combined carbon-biomass system (S3) was faster than both Cr(VI) removal using PAC or activated sludge individually. Results showed that the removal of Cr(VI) using the activated carbon-biomass system (S3) was adequately described by combining the kinetic equations proposed for the systems S1 and S2

  3. A WKYMVm-containing combination elicits potent anti-tumor activity in heterotopic cancer animal model.

    Sang Doo Kim

    Full Text Available The development of efficient anti-cancer therapy has been a topic of intense interest for several decades. Combined administration of certain molecules and immune cells has been shown to be an effective form of anti-cancer therapy. Here, we examined the effects of administering an immune stimulating peptide (WKYMVm, 5-fluoro-uracil (5-FU, and mature dendritic cells (mDCs against heterotopic cancer animal model. Administration of the triple combination strongly reduced tumor volume in CT-26-inoculated heterotopic cancer animal model. The induced anti-tumor activity was well correlated with FAS expression, caspase-3 activation, and cancer cell apoptosis. The triple combination treatment caused recruitment of CD8 T lymphocytes and natural killer (NK cells into the tumor. The production of two cytokines, IFN-γ and IL-12, were strongly stimulated by administration of the triple combination. Depletion of CD8 T lymphocytes or NK cells by administration of anti-CD8 or anti-asialoGM1 antibody inhibited the anti-tumor activity and cytokine production of the triple combination. The triple combination strongly inhibited metastasis of colon cancer cells in a heterotopic cancer animal model as well as in a metastatic cancer animal model, and enhanced the survival rate of the mice model. Adoptive transfer of CD8 T lymphocytes and NK cells further increased the survival rate. Taken together, we suggest that the use of triple combination therapy of WKYMVm, 5-FU, and mDCs may have implications in solid tumor and metastasis treatment.

  4. RESEARCH ON ACTIVE VIBRATION CONTROL BASED ON COMBINED MODEL FOR COUPLED SYSTEMS

    Niu Junchuan; Zhao Guoqun; Song Kongjie

    2004-01-01

    A novel combined model of the vibration control for the coupled flexible system and its general mathematic description are developed. In presented model, active and passive controls as well as force and moment controls are combined into a single unit to achieve the efficient vibration control of the flexible structures by multi-approaches. Considering the complexity of the energy transmission in the vibrating system, the transmission channels of the power flow transmitted into the foundation are discussed, and the general forces and the corresponding velocities are combined into a single function, respectively. Under the control strategy of the minimum power flow, the transmission characteristics of the power flow are investigated. From the presented numerical examples, it is obvious that the analytical model is effective, and both force and moment controls are able to depress vibration energy substantially.

  5. Computational modeling of epileptiform activities in medial temporal lobe epilepsy combined with in vitro experiments.

    Ahn, Sora; Jun, Sang Beom; Lee, Hyang Woon; Lee, Seungjun

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a comprehensive computational model that is able to reproduce three epileptiform activities. The model targets a hippocampal formation that is known to be an important lesion in medial temporal lobe epilepsy. It consists of four sub-networks consisting of excitatory and inhibitory neurons and well-known signal pathways, with consideration of propagation delay. The three epileptiform activities involve fast and slow interictal discharge and ictal discharge, and those activities can be induced in vitro by application of 4-Aminopyridine in entorhinal cortex combined hippocampal slices. We model the three epileptiform activities upon previously reported biological mechanisms and verify the simulation results by comparing them with in vitro experimental data obtained using a microelectrode array. We use the results of Granger causality analysis of recorded data to set input gains of signal pathways in the model, so that the compatibility between the computational and experimental models can be improved. The proposed model can be expanded to evaluate the suppression effect of epileptiform activities due to new treatment methods. PMID:27416961

  6. Combined tomographic forward and inverse modeling of active seismic refraction profiling data

    Koulakov, I.; Kopp, H.

    2008-12-01

    We present a new code for combined forward and inverse tomographic modeling based on first-arrival travel times of active seismic refraction profiling data (PROFIT - Profile Forward and Inverse Tomographic modeling). The main features of the algorithm involve the original version of bending ray tracing, parameterization based on nodes, variable grid size definition determined by the ray density, and regularization of the inversion. The key purpose of applying the PROFIT code is rather not in solely producing the tomographic image of a continuous velocity field, but in creating a geologically reasonable synthetic model. This model then includes first-order velocity changes representing petrophysical boundaries and is thus better suited for a geological-tectonic interpretation than its smoothed tomographic counterpart. After performing forward and inverse modeling, the synthetic model will reproduce a congeneric model to the tomographic inversion result of the observed data. We demonstrate the working ability of the code using two marine datasets acquired in the Musicians Seamount Province (Pacific Ocean). The results of the tomographic inversion clearly resolve the dominating extrusive volcanism. In addition, the combined forward and inverse approach tests a large variety of synthetic models to fit the observed data tomography. Along both profiles, the preferred structural model includes a strong positive velocity anomaly extending into the seamount edifice. We suggest that this anomaly pattern represents secondary intrusive processes, which are only revealed by the combined tomographic forward and inverse modeling and could not be resolved by exclusively applying a tomographic inversion. In addition, we present examples of imaging salt domes in the Precaspian oil province as well as a higher-resolution field study that was conducted as a preinvestigative study for tunnel construction to demonstrate the capability of the code in different regimes and on different

  7. The role of ECL2 in CGRP receptor activation: a combined modelling and experimental approach

    Woolley, Michael. J.; Watkins, Harriet A.; Taddese, Bruck; Karakullukcu, Z. Gamze; Barwell, James; Smith, Kevin J.; Hay, Debbie L.; Poyner, David R.; Reynolds, Christopher A.; Conner, Alex C.

    2013-01-01

    The calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor is a complex of a calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR), which is a family B G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) and receptor activity modifying protein 1. The role of the second extracellular loop (ECL2) of CLR in binding CGRP and coupling to Gs was investigated using a combination of mutagenesis and modelling. An alanine scan of residues 271–294 of CLR showed that the ability of CGRP to produce cAMP was impaired by point mutations at 13 residues; most of these also impaired the response to adrenomedullin (AM). These data were used to select probable ECL2-modelled conformations that are involved in agonist binding, allowing the identification of the likely contacts between the peptide and receptor. The implications of the most likely structures for receptor activation are discussed. PMID:24047872

  8. Sterilizing Activities of Novel Combinations Lacking First- and Second-Line Drugs in a Murine Model of Tuberculosis

    Williams, Kathy; Minkowski, Austin; Amoabeng, Opokua; Peloquin, Charles A.; Taylor, Dinesh; Andries, Koen; Wallis, Robert S.; Mdluli, Khisimuzi E.; Eric L Nuermberger

    2012-01-01

    Novel oral regimens composed of new drugs with potent activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and no cross-resistance with existing agents are needed to shorten and simplify treatment for both drug-susceptible and drug-resistant tuberculosis. As part of a continuing effort to evaluate novel drug combinations for treatment-shortening potential in a murine model, we performed two long-term, relapse-based experiments. In the first experiment, several 3- and 4-drug combinations containing new...

  9. The combination of sorafenib and everolimus shows antitumor activity in preclinical models of malignant pleural mesothelioma

    Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive tumor arising from mesothelial cells lining the pleural cavities characterized by resistance to standard therapies. Most of the molecular steps responsible for pleural transformation remain unclear; however, several growth factor signaling cascades are known to be altered during MPM onset and progression. Transducers of these pathways, such as PIK3CA-mTOR-AKT, MAPK, and ezrin/radixin/moesin (ERM) could therefore be exploited as possible targets for pharmacological intervention. This study aimed to identify ‘druggable’ pathways in MPM and to formulate a targeted approach based on the use of commercially available molecules, such as the multikinase inhibitor sorafenib and the mTOR inhibitor everolimus. We planned a triple approach based on: i) analysis of immunophenotypes and mutational profiles in a cohort of thoracoscopic MPM samples, ii) in vitro pharmacological assays, ii) in vivo therapeutic approaches on MPM xenografts. No mutations were found in ‘hot spot’ regions of the mTOR upstream genes (e.g. EGFR, KRAS and PIK3CA). Phosphorylated mTOR and ERM were specifically overexpressed in the analyzed MPM samples. Sorafenib and everolimus combination was effective in mTOR and ERM blockade; exerted synergistic effects on the inhibition of MPM cell proliferation; triggered ROS production and consequent AMPK-p38 mediated-apoptosis. The antitumor activity was displayed when orally administered to MPM-bearing NOD/SCID mice. ERM and mTOR pathways are activated in MPM and ‘druggable’ by a combination of sorafenib and everolimus. Combination therapy is a promising therapeutic strategy against MPM. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1363-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  10. Learning Activities That Combine Science Magic Activities with the 5E Instructional Model to Influence Secondary-School Students' Attitudes to Science

    Lin, Jang-Long; Cheng, Meng-Fei; Chang, Ying-Chi; Li, Hsiao-Wen; Chang, Jih-Yuan; Lin, Deng-Min

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how learning materials based on Science Magic activities affect student attitudes to science. A quasi-experimental design was conducted to explore the combination of Science Magic with the 5E Instructional Model to develop learning materials for teaching a science unit about friction. The participants…

  11. Combining Cattle Activity and Progesterone Measurements Using Hidden Semi-Markov Models

    O'Connell, Jared Michael; Tøgersen, Frede Aakmann; Friggens, Nic;

    2011-01-01

    ability to identify oestrus is investigated as this is of great importance to farm management. Progesterone concentration is a more accurate but more expensive method than pedometer counts, and we evaluate the added benefits of a model that includes this variable. The resulting model is biologically...

  12. Extracellular neural microstimulation may activate much larger regions than expected by simulations: a combined experimental and modeling study.

    Sébastien Joucla

    Full Text Available Electrical stimulation of the central nervous system has been widely used for decades for either fundamental research purposes or clinical treatment applications. Yet, very little is known regarding the spatial extent of an electrical stimulation. If pioneering experimental studies reported that activation threshold currents (TCs increase with the square of the neuron-to-electrode distance over a few hundreds of microns, there is no evidence that this quadratic law remains valid for larger distances. Moreover, nowadays, numerical simulation approaches have supplanted experimental studies for estimating TCs. However, model predictions have not yet been validated directly with experiments within a common paradigm. Here, we present a direct comparison between experimental determination and modeling prediction of TCs up to distances of several millimeters. First, we combined patch-clamp recording and microelectrode array stimulation in whole embryonic mouse spinal cords to determine TCs. Experimental thresholds did not follow a quadratic law beyond 1 millimeter, but rather tended to remain constant for distances larger than 1 millimeter. We next built a combined finite element--compartment model of the same experimental paradigm to predict TCs. While theoretical TCs closely matched experimental TCs for distances <250 microns, they were highly overestimated for larger distances. This discrepancy remained even after modifications of the finite element model of the potential field, taking into account anisotropic, heterogeneous or dielectric properties of the tissue. In conclusion, these results show that quadratic evolution of TCs does not always hold for large distances between the electrode and the neuron and that classical models may underestimate volumes of tissue activated by electrical stimulation.

  13. The Combined Strength of Thermodynamics and Comparative Planetology: Application of Activity Models to Core Formation in Terrestrial Bodies

    Righter, K.; Pando, K. M.; Danielson, L. R.

    2015-01-01

    how large the effect of Si can be, these epsilon values correspond to activity coefficients (gamma) for As of 0.01 when XSi = 0, and up to gamma = 23 when XSi = 0.2. Combining these new results with previous determinations [5,6] of epsilon parameters for S and C for these elements allows us calculate activity of Ge, In, As, and Sb in Fe-Ni-Si-S-C-O metallic liquids. We apply this new model to sever-al terrestrial bodies such as Earth (Si-rich core), Mars (S-rich core), Moon (S-, C-, and Si-poor core), and Vesta, and examine the resulting core and mantle concentrations of these elements. Mantle concentrations of these four elements are well explained for Earth and Mars in models that call for mid-mantle equilibration between Si-bearing and S-bearing FeNi cores, respectively. Modeling results for the Moon and Vesta will also be presented.

  14. Interventions for healthy eating and physical activity among obese elementary schoolchildren : observing changes of the combined effects of behavioral models

    Duangchan, Patcharee; Yoelao, Dusadee; Macaskill, Ann; Intarakamhang, Ungsinun; Suprasonsin, Chittiwat

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this experimental research was to examine the effectiveness of the SSII-Healthy Eating Intervention and Physical Activity intervention programs at the end of intervention implementation in term of combined effects. The sample of this study was 21 students in Sawadeewittaya School, aged 9-11 years, who met the inclusion criteria and consented to participate in the study. The dependent variables included knowledge about obesity-related Type 2 diabetes, healthy eating behavior, health...

  15. Combining activity and economic efficiency

    Fersch, Barbara

    “hot” concepts in Danish long-term care is (everyday-) rehabilitation of the frail elderly, which several municipalities have tried out in pilot projects and otherwise introduced over the last couple of years. The paper draws upon qualitative interviews with administrative leaders and local politicians...... in three Danish municipalities and discusses their understandings and expectations of the concept. A lot of the interviewees in the study, especially those from administration, refer to rehabilitation as a very promising concept within the field of elderly care. Rehabilitation is thereby presented as....... The paper provides a discourse analysis of the interviewees’ accounts, that shows how discourses on activity and economic efficiency have been combined in the Danish context....

  16. Combined control effects of brake and active suspension control on the global safety of a full-car nonlinear model

    Tchamna, Rodrigue; Youn, Edward; Youn, Iljoong

    2014-05-01

    This paper focuses on the active safety of a full-vehicle nonlinear model during cornering. At first, a previously developed electronic stability controller (ESC) based on vehicle simplified model is applied to the full-car nonlinear model in order to control the vehicle yaw rate and side-slip angle. The ESC system was shown beneficial not only in tracking the vehicle path as close as possible, but it also helped in reducing the vehicle roll angle and influences ride comfort and road-holding capability; to tackle that issue and also to have better attitude motion, making use of optimal control theory the active suspension control gain is developed from a vehicle linear model and used to compute the active suspension control force of the vehicle nonlinear model. The active suspension control algorithm used in this paper includes the integral action of the suspension deflection in order to make zero the suspension deflection steady state and keep the vehicle chassis flat. Keeping the chassis flat reduces the vehicle load transfer and that is helpful for road holding and yaw rate tracking. The effects of the two controllers when they work together are analysed using various computer simulations with different steering wheel manoeuvres.

  17. Semianalytic Models of Two-Phase Disk Winds in Active Galactic Nuclei with Combined Hydromagnetic and Radiative Driving

    Everett, John E.

    2002-01-01

    (abridged) We present a semianalytic model of steady-state magnetically and radiatively driven disk outflows in Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) consisting of a continuous wind with embedded clouds. The continuous outflow is launched from the disk surface as a centrifugally driven wind, whereas the clouds are uplifted from the disk by the ram pressure of the continuous outflow. In addition, the continuous wind and clouds are subject to both line and continuum radiative acceleration. We describe ...

  18. Decision-tree-model identification of nitrate pollution activities in groundwater: A combination of a dual isotope approach and chemical ions

    Xue, Dongmei; Pang, Fengmei; Meng, Fanqiao; Wang, Zhongliang; Wu, Wenliang

    2015-09-01

    To develop management practices for agricultural crops to protect against NO3- contamination in groundwater, dominant pollution activities require reliable classification. In this study, we (1) classified potential NO3- pollution activities via an unsupervised learning algorithm based on δ15N- and δ18O-NO3- and physico-chemical properties of groundwater at 55 sampling locations; and (2) determined which water quality parameters could be used to identify the sources of NO3- contamination via a decision tree model. When a combination of δ15N-, δ18O-NO3- and physico-chemical properties of groundwater was used as an input for the k-means clustering algorithm, it allowed for a reliable clustering of the 55 sampling locations into 4 corresponding agricultural activities: well irrigated agriculture (28 sampling locations), sewage irrigated agriculture (16 sampling locations), a combination of sewage irrigated agriculture, farm and industry (5 sampling locations) and a combination of well irrigated agriculture and farm (6 sampling locations). A decision tree model with 97.5% classification success was developed based on SO42 - and Cl- variables. The NO3- and the δ15N- and δ18O-NO3- variables demonstrated limitation in developing a decision tree model as multiple N sources and fractionation processes both resulted in difficulties of discriminating NO3- concentrations and isotopic values. Although only the SO42 - and Cl- were selected as important discriminating variables, concentration data alone could not identify the specific NO3- sources responsible for groundwater contamination. This is a result of comprehensive analysis. To further reduce NO3- contamination, an integrated approach should be set-up by combining N and O isotopes of NO3- with land-uses and physico-chemical properties, especially in areas with complex agricultural activities.

  19. Activity of Colistin in Combination with Meropenem, Tigecycline, Fosfomycin, Fusidic Acid, Rifampin or Sulbactam against Extensively Drug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in a Murine Thigh-Infection Model.

    Bing Fan

    Full Text Available Few effective therapeutic options are available for treating severe infections caused by extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (XDR-AB. Using a murine thigh-infection model, we examined the in vivo efficacy of colistin in combination with meropenem, tigecycline, fosfomycin, fusidic acid, rifampin, or sulbactam against 12 XDR-AB strains. Colistin, tigecycline, rifampin, and sulbactam monotherapy significantly decreased bacterial counts in murine thigh infections compared with those observed in control mice receiving no treatment. Colistin was the most effective agent tested, displaying bactericidal activity against 91.7% of strains at 48 h post-treatment. With strains showing a relatively low minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC for meropenem (MIC ≤ 32 mg/L, combination therapy with colistin plus meropenem caused synergistic inhibition at both 24 h and 48 h post-treatment. However, when the meropenem MIC was ≥64 mg/L, meropenem did not significantly alter the efficacy of colistin. The addition of rifampin and fusidic acid significantly improved the efficacy of colistin, showing a synergistic effect in 100% and 58.3% of strains after 24 h of treatment, respectively, while the addition of tigecycline, fosfomycin, or sulbactam did not show obvious synergistic activity. No clear differences in activities were observed between colistin-rifampin and colistin-fusidic acid combination therapy with most strains. Overall, our in vivo study showed that administering colistin in combination with rifampin or fusidic acid is more efficacious in treating XDR-AB infections than other combinations. The colistin-meropenem combination may be another appropriate option if the MIC is ≤32 mg/L. Further clinical studies are urgently needed to confirm the relevance of these findings.

  20. Activity of Colistin in Combination with Meropenem, Tigecycline, Fosfomycin, Fusidic Acid, Rifampin or Sulbactam against Extensively Drug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in a Murine Thigh-Infection Model

    Wang, Xiumei; Cong, Yulong

    2016-01-01

    Few effective therapeutic options are available for treating severe infections caused by extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (XDR-AB). Using a murine thigh-infection model, we examined the in vivo efficacy of colistin in combination with meropenem, tigecycline, fosfomycin, fusidic acid, rifampin, or sulbactam against 12 XDR-AB strains. Colistin, tigecycline, rifampin, and sulbactam monotherapy significantly decreased bacterial counts in murine thigh infections compared with those observed in control mice receiving no treatment. Colistin was the most effective agent tested, displaying bactericidal activity against 91.7% of strains at 48 h post-treatment. With strains showing a relatively low minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for meropenem (MIC ≤ 32 mg/L), combination therapy with colistin plus meropenem caused synergistic inhibition at both 24 h and 48 h post-treatment. However, when the meropenem MIC was ≥64 mg/L, meropenem did not significantly alter the efficacy of colistin. The addition of rifampin and fusidic acid significantly improved the efficacy of colistin, showing a synergistic effect in 100% and 58.3% of strains after 24 h of treatment, respectively, while the addition of tigecycline, fosfomycin, or sulbactam did not show obvious synergistic activity. No clear differences in activities were observed between colistin-rifampin and colistin-fusidic acid combination therapy with most strains. Overall, our in vivo study showed that administering colistin in combination with rifampin or fusidic acid is more efficacious in treating XDR-AB infections than other combinations. The colistin-meropenem combination may be another appropriate option if the MIC is ≤32 mg/L. Further clinical studies are urgently needed to confirm the relevance of these findings. PMID:27315107

  1. Comparing nonsynergy gamma models and interaction models to predict growth of emetic Bacillus cereus for combinations of pH and water activity values

    Biesta-Peters, E.G.; Reij, M.W.; Zwietering, M.H.; Gorris, L.G.M.

    2011-01-01

    This research aims to test the absence (gamma hypothesis) or occurrence of synergy between two growth-limiting factors, i.e., pH and water activity (aw), using a systematic approach for model selection. In this approach, preset criteria were used to evaluate the performance of models. Such a systema

  2. Allosteric MEK1/2 Inhibitor Refametinib (BAY 86-9766 in Combination with Sorafenib Exhibits Antitumor Activity in Preclinical Murine and Rat Models of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Roberta Schmieder

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objectives of the study were to evaluate the allosteric mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK inhibitor BAY 86-9766 in monotherapy and in combination with sorafenib in orthotopic and subcutaneous hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC models with different underlying etiologies in two species. DESIGN: Antiproliferative potential of BAY 86-9766 and synergistic effects with sorafenib were studied in several HCC cell lines. Relevant pathway signaling was studied in MH3924a cells. For in vivo testing, the HCC cells were implanted subcutaneously or orthotopically. Survival and mode of action (MoA were analyzed. RESULTS: BAY 86-9766 exhibited potent antiproliferative activity in HCC cell lines with half-maximal inhibitory concentration values ranging from 33 to 762 nM. BAY 86-9766 was strongly synergistic with sorafenib in suppressing tumor cell proliferation and inhibiting phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK. BAY 86-9766 prolonged survival in Hep3B xenografts, murine Hepa129 allografts, and MH3924A rat allografts. Additionally, tumor growth, ascites formation, and serum alpha-fetoprotein levels were reduced. Synergistic effects in combination with sorafenib were shown in Huh-7, Hep3B xenografts, and MH3924A allografts. On the signaling pathway level, the combination of BAY 86-9766 and sorafenib led to inhibition of the upregulatory feedback loop toward MEK phosphorylation observed after BAY 86-9766 monotreatment. With regard to the underlying MoA, inhibition of ERK phosphorylation, tumor cell proliferation, and microvessel density was observed in vivo. CONCLUSION: BAY 86-9766 shows potent single-agent antitumor activity and acts synergistically in combination with sorafenib in preclinical HCC models. These results support the ongoing clinical development of BAY 86-9766 and sorafenib in advanced HCC.

  3. Phyloclimatic modeling: combining phylogenetics and bioclimatic modeling.

    Yesson, C; Culham, A

    2006-10-01

    We investigate the impact of past climates on plant diversification by tracking the "footprint" of climate change on a phylogenetic tree. Diversity within the cosmopolitan carnivorous plant genus Drosera (Droseraceae) is focused within Mediterranean climate regions. We explore whether this diversity is temporally linked to Mediterranean-type climatic shifts of the mid-Miocene and whether climate preferences are conservative over phylogenetic timescales. Phyloclimatic modeling combines environmental niche (bioclimatic) modeling with phylogenetics in order to study evolutionary patterns in relation to climate change. We present the largest and most complete such example to date using Drosera. The bioclimatic models of extant species demonstrate clear phylogenetic patterns; this is particularly evident for the tuberous sundews from southwestern Australia (subgenus Ergaleium). We employ a method for establishing confidence intervals of node ages on a phylogeny using replicates from a Bayesian phylogenetic analysis. This chronogram shows that many clades, including subgenus Ergaleium and section Bryastrum, diversified during the establishment of the Mediterranean-type climate. Ancestral reconstructions of bioclimatic models demonstrate a pattern of preference for this climate type within these groups. Ancestral bioclimatic models are projected into palaeo-climate reconstructions for the time periods indicated by the chronogram. We present two such examples that each generate plausible estimates of ancestral lineage distribution, which are similar to their current distributions. This is the first study to attempt bioclimatic projections on evolutionary time scales. The sundews appear to have diversified in response to local climate development. Some groups are specialized for Mediterranean climates, others show wide-ranging generalism. This demonstrates that Phyloclimatic modeling could be repeated for other plant groups and is fundamental to the understanding of

  4. Synergistic Activity of Colistin and Rifampin Combination against Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in an In Vitro Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Model

    Lee, Hee Ji; Bergen, Phillip J.; Bulitta, Jurgen B.; Tsuji, Brian; Forrest, Alan; Nation, Roger L; Jian LI

    2013-01-01

    Combination therapy may be required for multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii. This study systematically investigated bacterial killing and emergence of colistin resistance with colistin and rifampin combinations against MDR A. baumannii. Studies were conducted over 72 h in an in vitro pharmacokinetic (PK)/pharmacodynamic (PD) model at inocula of ∼106 and ∼108 CFU/ml using two MDR clinical isolates of A. baumannii, FADDI-AB030 (colistin susceptible) and FADDI-AB156 (colistin resis...

  5. Wake modelling combining mesoscale and microscale models

    Badger, Jake; Volker, Patrick; Prospathospoulos, J.; Sieros, G.; Ott, Søren; Réthoré, Pierre-Elouan; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Hasager, Charlotte Bay

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the basis for introducing thrust information from microscale wake models into mesocale model wake parameterizations will be described. A classification system for the different types of mesoscale wake parameterizations is suggested and outlined. Four different mesoscale wake...

  6. Predictive modelling of the combined effect of temperature and water activity on the in vitro growth of Erwinia spp. infecting potato tubers in Belgium

    Moh, AA.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Erwinia carotovora ssp. atroseptica (Eca, Erwinia carotovora ssp. carotovora (Ecc and Erwinia chrysanthemi (Ech, are the main cause of potato tuber decay (soft rot in storage and stem rot in the field (blackleg. The bacteria are characterized by the production of several extracellular pectic enzymes among them Pectate Lyase (PEL activity is the most important key of pathogenesis. It has been reported that ecological parameters such as humidity and temperature, greatly influence the disease development. The objective of this work was to determine the in vitro effect of water activity (0.960, 0.980, 0.997 and temperature (10, 15 and 20°C and their interactions on the growth parameters of Eca, Ecc and Ech using optical density (OD measurement. The maximum specific growth rate (µmax was calculated under each aw-temperature combinations for the three Erwinia species. Statistical analysis showed a significant effect of aw and temperature on µmax. We noticed that Eca and Ecc grow faster than Ech in our condition. A second aim of this work was to monitor the PEL specific activity under the combined effect of these two factors (aw-temperature. Our results showed an increase of PEL specific activity with the temperature whatever are the bacterial strains. But contrary to growth, this research did not show an increase of PEL specific activity with aw except the treatment at 15 and 20°C for all bacteria strains. According to our obtained results on growth and PEL production we concluded that Eca 03034/1 and Ecc 030033 had the same ecological behavior comparatively to Ech 03/016/1 in the range of the values of the two factors (aw and temperature investigated here. To our knowledge, this research is the first publication which pointed out the combined in vitro effect of aw and temperature on the growth of Erwinia genius according to literature data.

  7. Combining structure-based pharmacophore modeling, virtual screening, and in silico ADMET analysis to discover novel tetrahydro-quinoline based pyruvate kinase isozyme M2 activators with antitumor activity

    Chen C

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Can Chen,1,2,* Ting Wang,1,3,* Fengbo Wu,1,* Wei Huang,4 Gu He,1 Liang Ouyang,1 Mingli Xiang,1 Cheng Peng,4 Qinglin Jiang1,2 1State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Department of Pharmacy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 2College of Pharmacy and the First Affiliated Hospital, Chengdu Medical College, Chengdu, 3Department of Cardiology, Genenal Hospital of Chengdu Military Command, Chengdu, 4State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Systematic Research, Development and Utilization of Chinese Medicine, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Compared with normal differentiated cells, cancer cells upregulate the expression of pyruvate kinase isozyme M2 (PKM2 to support glycolytic intermediates for anabolic processes, including the synthesis of nucleic acids, amino acids, and lipids. In this study, a combination of the structure-based pharmacophore modeling and a hybrid protocol of virtual screening methods comprised of pharmacophore model-based virtual screening, docking-based virtual screening, and in silico ADMET (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity analysis were used to retrieve novel PKM2 activators from commercially available chemical databases. Tetrahydroquinoline derivatives were identified as potential scaffolds of PKM2 activators. Thus, the hybrid virtual screening approach was applied to screen the focused tetrahydroquinoline derivatives embedded in the ZINC database. Six hit compounds were selected from the final hits and experimental studies were then performed. Compound 8 displayed a potent inhibitory effect on human lung cancer cells. Following treatment with Compound 8, cell viability, apoptosis, and reactive oxygen species (ROS production were examined in A549 cells. Finally, we evaluated the effects of Compound 8 on mice xenograft tumor models in vivo. These results may provide important

  8. Active Player Modelling

    Togelius, Julian; Shaker, Noor; Yannakakis, Georgios N.

    2013-01-01

    We argue for the use of active learning methods for player modelling. In active learning, the learning algorithm chooses where to sample the search space so as to optimise learning progress. We hypothesise that player modelling based on active learning could result in vastly more efficient learning, but will require big changes in how data is collected. Some example active player modelling scenarios are described. A particular form of active learning is also equivalent to an influential forma...

  9. Combination immunotherapy and active-specific tumor cell vaccination augments anti-cancer immunity in a mouse model of gastric cancer

    van den Engel Natasja K

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Active-specific immunotherapy used as an adjuvant therapeutic strategy is rather unexplored for cancers with poorly characterized tumor antigens like gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to augment a therapeutic immune response to a low immunogenic tumor cell line derived from a spontaneous gastric tumor of a CEA424-SV40 large T antigen (CEA424-SV40 TAg transgenic mouse. Methods Mice were treated with a lymphodepleting dose of cyclophosphamide prior to reconstitution with syngeneic spleen cells and vaccination with a whole tumor cell vaccine combined with GM-CSF (a treatment strategy abbreviated as LRAST. Anti-tumor activity to subcutaneous tumor challenge was examined in a prophylactic as well as a therapeutic setting and compared to corresponding controls. Results LRAST enhances tumor-specific T cell responses and efficiently inhibits growth of subsequent transplanted tumor cells. In addition, LRAST tended to slow down growth of established tumors. The improved anti-tumor immune response was accompanied by a transient decrease in the frequency and absolute number of CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ T cells (Tregs. Conclusions Our data support the concept that whole tumor cell vaccination in a lymphodepleted and reconstituted host in combination with GM-CSF induces therapeutic tumor-specific T cells. However, the long-term efficacy of the treatment may be dampened by the recurrence of Tregs. Strategies to counteract suppressive immune mechanisms are required to further evaluate this therapeutic vaccination protocol.

  10. IVS Combination Center at BKG - Recent Activities

    Bachmann, S.; Lösler, M.

    2012-12-01

    In addition to the routine rapid combination, the IVS Combination Center at BKG is working on various other projects based on VLBI combination. The generation of a quarterly solution (long term combination of VLBI sessions) is one of the main projects. This solution includes the computation of a VTRF and the analysis of station coordinates and velocities. Mainly the changes in station position and station motion caused by recent significant earthquakes are being investigated. Results of all projects are published on the Combination Center's Web site, including features to perform Web-based data analysis.

  11. Pharmacological and anti-oxidant evaluation of Aspirin, nimodipine and its combination for anti-Parkinson′s activity in MPTP induced rat model

    Nilesh S Ambhore

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mitochondrial damage and oxidative stress plays important role in Parkinson′s disease (PD. Mitochondria are very crucial part in the cell and have many cellular functions including the generation of ATP and intracellular calcium (Ca 2+ homeostasis. Mitochondria also contribute in the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and activating the programmed cell death response, apoptosis. Usually ROS is eliminated by antioxidants present in body, but in case of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP induction all the antioxidants become ineffective. Aim: The present study investigated the effects of the non selective cyclooxygenase (COX inhibitor aspirin and L-type calcium channel inhibitor nimodipine in the prevention of motor impairments and observed anti-oxidant effects in rats after induction of early phase of Parkinson′s disease by using neurotoxin MPTP. Materials and Methods: The PD was induced in animals by single injection of MPTP. After 48 hrs of induction animals were treated with aspirin and nimodipine for 60 days, then behavioral, biochemical and antioxidant parameters were evaluated to examine the effectiveness of treatment. Statistical analysis was carried out by using one-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni multiple comparisons test. Results: The treatment with combination (Aspirin 50mg/kg, Nimodipine 30mg/kg showed significant (P < 0.001 increase in brain dopamine level, improves the complex I activity and also ameliorate the amount of antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione reductase (GSH, catalase (CAT and decrease in lipid peroxidation. Conclusions : These results strongly suggest that combination shows a good neuroprotective effect compared to single treatment on motor, biochemical and antioxidant parameters in early phase of Parkinson′s disease.

  12. Activity in the fronto-parietal network indicates numerical inductive reasoning beyond calculation: An fMRI study combined with a cognitive model

    Liang, Peipeng; Jia, Xiuqin; Taatgen, Niels A.; Borst, Jelmer P.; Li, Kuncheng

    2016-01-01

    Numerical inductive reasoning refers to the process of identifying and extrapolating the rule involved in numeric materials. It is associated with calculation, and shares the common activation of the fronto-parietal regions with calculation, which suggests that numerical inductive reasoning may correspond to a general calculation process. However, compared with calculation, rule identification is critical and unique to reasoning. Previous studies have established the central role of the fronto-parietal network for relational integration during rule identification in numerical inductive reasoning. The current question of interest is whether numerical inductive reasoning exclusively corresponds to calculation or operates beyond calculation, and whether it is possible to distinguish between them based on the activity pattern in the fronto-parietal network. To directly address this issue, three types of problems were created: numerical inductive reasoning, calculation, and perceptual judgment. Our results showed that the fronto-parietal network was more active in numerical inductive reasoning which requires more exchanges between intermediate representations and long-term declarative knowledge during rule identification. These results survived even after controlling for the covariates of response time and error rate. A computational cognitive model was developed using the cognitive architecture ACT-R to account for the behavioral results and brain activity in the fronto-parietal network. PMID:27193284

  13. Activity in the fronto-parietal network indicates numerical inductive reasoning beyond calculation: An fMRI study combined with a cognitive model.

    Liang, Peipeng; Jia, Xiuqin; Taatgen, Niels A; Borst, Jelmer P; Li, Kuncheng

    2016-01-01

    Numerical inductive reasoning refers to the process of identifying and extrapolating the rule involved in numeric materials. It is associated with calculation, and shares the common activation of the fronto-parietal regions with calculation, which suggests that numerical inductive reasoning may correspond to a general calculation process. However, compared with calculation, rule identification is critical and unique to reasoning. Previous studies have established the central role of the fronto-parietal network for relational integration during rule identification in numerical inductive reasoning. The current question of interest is whether numerical inductive reasoning exclusively corresponds to calculation or operates beyond calculation, and whether it is possible to distinguish between them based on the activity pattern in the fronto-parietal network. To directly address this issue, three types of problems were created: numerical inductive reasoning, calculation, and perceptual judgment. Our results showed that the fronto-parietal network was more active in numerical inductive reasoning which requires more exchanges between intermediate representations and long-term declarative knowledge during rule identification. These results survived even after controlling for the covariates of response time and error rate. A computational cognitive model was developed using the cognitive architecture ACT-R to account for the behavioral results and brain activity in the fronto-parietal network. PMID:27193284

  14. Deterministic combination of numerical and physical coastal wave models

    Zhang, H.W.; Schäffer, Hemming Andreas; Jakobsen, K.P.

    2007-01-01

    the interface between the numerical and physical models. The link between numerical and physical models is given by an ad hoc unified wave generation theory which is devised in the study. This wave generation theory accounts for linear dispersion and shallow water non-linearity. Local wave phenomena......A deterministic combination of numerical and physical models for coastal waves is developed. In the combined model, a Boussinesq model MIKE 21 BW is applied for the numerical wave computations. A piston-type 2D or 3D wavemaker and the associated control system with active wave absorption provides...... (evanescent modes) near the wavemaker are taken into account. With this approach, the data transfer between the two models is thus on a deterministic level with detailed wave information transmitted along the wavemaker....

  15. Combining registration and active shape models for the automatic segmentation of the lymph node regions in head and neck CT images

    Purpose: Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is the state of the art technique for head and neck cancer treatment. It requires precise delineation of the target to be treated and structures to be spared, which is currently done manually. The process is a time-consuming task of which the delineation of lymph node regions is often the longest step. Atlas-based delineation has been proposed as an alternative, but, in the authors' experience, this approach is not accurate enough for routine clinical use. Here, the authors improve atlas-based segmentation results obtained for level II-IV lymph node regions using an active shape model (ASM) approach. Methods: An average image volume was first created from a set of head and neck patient images with minimally enlarged nodes. The average image volume was then registered using affine, global, and local nonrigid transformations to the other volumes to establish a correspondence between surface points in the atlas and surface points in each of the other volumes. Once the correspondence was established, the ASMs were created for each node level. The models were then used to first constrain the results obtained with an atlas-based approach and then to iteratively refine the solution. Results: The method was evaluated through a leave-one-out experiment. The ASM- and atlas-based segmentations were compared to manual delineations via the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) for volume overlap and the Euclidean distance between manual and automatic 3D surfaces. The mean DSC value obtained with the ASM-based approach is 10.7% higher than with the atlas-based approach; the mean and median surface errors were decreased by 13.6% and 12.0%, respectively. Conclusions: The ASM approach is effective in reducing segmentation errors in areas of low CT contrast where purely atlas-based methods are challenged. Statistical analysis shows that the improvements brought by this approach are significant.

  16. Balanced activity scorecard – combination of activity based costing and activity based management with balanced scorecard

    Dorota Kuchta; Radoslaw Rynca

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents a proposal of the Activity Balance Scorecard (ABSC). It is a combination of Activity Based Costing and a modification of Activity Based Management. Contrary to the traditional cascading of the Balanced Scorecard to organisational structures, ABSC is constructed directly for activities or tasks. These activities or tasks should be selected on the basis of ABC results – as it is them which give the information the share of which tasks in the cost structure is high. The ABSC w...

  17. Synergistic antiarrhythmic effect of combining inhibition of Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (SK) channels and voltage-gated Na(+) channels in an isolated heart model of atrial fibrillation

    Kirchhoff, Jeppe Egedal; Goldin Diness, Jonas; Sheykhzade, Majid;

    2015-01-01

    would be subefficacious as monotherapy, may prevent atrial fibrillation (AF) and have reduced proarrhythmic potential in the ventricles. METHODS: Subefficacious concentrations of ranolazine, flecainide, and lidocaine were tested alone or in combination with the SK channel blocker N-(pyridin-2-yl)-4...

  18. Combined experimental and modeling studies of microwave activated CH4/H2/Ar plasmas for microcrystalline, nanocrystalline, and ultrananocrystalline diamond deposition

    Richley, James C.; Fox, Oliver J. L.; Ashfold, Michael N. R.; Mankelevich, Yuri A.

    2011-03-01

    A comprehensive study of microwave (MW) activated CH4/H2/Ar plasmas used for diamond chemical vapor deposition is reported, focusing particularly on the effects of gross variations in the H2/Ar ratio in the input gas mixture (from H2/Ar mole fraction ratios of > 10:1, through to ˜1:99). Absolute column densities of C2(a) and CH(X) radicals and of H(n = 2) atoms have been determined by cavity ringdown spectroscopy, as functions of height (z) above a substrate and of process conditions (CH4, H2, and Ar input mole fractions, total pressure, p, and input microwave power, P). Optical emission spectroscopy has also been used to explore the relative densities of electronically excited H atoms, and CH, C2, and C3 radicals, as functions of these same process conditions. These experimental data are complemented by extensive 2D (r, z) modeling of the plasma chemistry, which provides a quantitative rationale for all of the experimental observations. Progressive replacement of H2 by Ar (at constant p and P) leads to an expanded plasma volume. Under H2-rich conditions, > 90% of the input MW power is absorbed through rovibrational excitation of H2. Reducing the H2 content (as in an Ar-rich plasma) leads to a reduction in the absorbed power density; the plasma necessarily expands in order to accommodate a given input power. The average power density in an Ar-rich plasma is much lower than that in an H2-rich plasma operating at the same p and P. Progressive replacement of H2 by Ar is shown also to result in an increased electron temperature, an increased [H]/[H2] number density ratio, but little change in the maximum gas temperature in the plasma core (which is consistently ˜3000 K). Given the increased [H]/[H2] ratio, the fast H-shifting (CyHx + H ↔ CyHx-1 + H2; y = 1-3) reactions ensure that the core of Ar-rich plasma contains much higher relative abundances of "product" species like C atoms, and C2, and C3 radicals. The effects of Ar dilution on the absorbed power

  19. Combined experimental and modeling studies of microwave activated CH4/H2/Ar plasmas for microcrystalline, nanocrystalline, and ultrananocrystalline diamond deposition

    A comprehensive study of microwave (MW) activated CH4/H2/Ar plasmas used for diamond chemical vapor deposition is reported, focusing particularly on the effects of gross variations in the H2/Ar ratio in the input gas mixture (from H2/Ar mole fraction ratios of > 10:1, through to ∼1:99). Absolute column densities of C2(a) and CH(X) radicals and of H(n = 2) atoms have been determined by cavity ringdown spectroscopy, as functions of height (z) above a substrate and of process conditions (CH4, H2, and Ar input mole fractions, total pressure, p, and input microwave power, P). Optical emission spectroscopy has also been used to explore the relative densities of electronically excited H atoms, and CH, C2, and C3 radicals, as functions of these same process conditions. These experimental data are complemented by extensive 2D (r, z) modeling of the plasma chemistry, which provides a quantitative rationale for all of the experimental observations. Progressive replacement of H2 by Ar (at constant p and P) leads to an expanded plasma volume. Under H2-rich conditions, > 90% of the input MW power is absorbed through rovibrational excitation of H2. Reducing the H2 content (as in an Ar-rich plasma) leads to a reduction in the absorbed power density; the plasma necessarily expands in order to accommodate a given input power. The average power density in an Ar-rich plasma is much lower than that in an H2-rich plasma operating at the same p and P. Progressive replacement of H2 by Ar is shown also to result in an increased electron temperature, an increased [H]/[H2] number density ratio, but little change in the maximum gas temperature in the plasma core (which is consistently ∼3000 K). Given the increased [H]/[H2] ratio, the fast H-shifting (CyHx + H ↔ CyHx-1 + H2; y = 1-3) reactions ensure that the core of Ar-rich plasma contains much higher relative abundances of ''product'' species like C atoms, and C2, and C3 radicals. The effects of Ar dilution on the absorbed power

  20. Technological Forecasting---Model Selection, Model Stability, and Combining Models

    Nigel Meade; Towhidul Islam

    1998-01-01

    The paper identifies 29 models that the literature suggests are appropriate for technological forecasting. These models are divided into three classes according to the timing of the point of inflexion in the innovation or substitution process. Faced with a given data set and such a choice, the issue of model selection needs to be addressed. Evidence used to aid model selection is drawn from measures of model fit and model stability. An analysis of the forecasting performance of these models u...

  1. Teaching physiology by combined passive (pedagogical) and active (andragogical) methods.

    Richardson, D; Birge, B

    1995-06-01

    Pedagogy and andragogy are models of education based, respectively, on passive and active learning. This project compared two balanced sections of an undergraduate course in physiology. Both sections used the pedagogical method of didactic lectures to present basic material. Students in section 01 were given multiple-choice examinations, a pedagogical procedure, over the lecture content for the purpose of performance evaluation. In section 02 the lectures were used as an information source, which students combined with other information researched in the library to draft essays on assigned topics, i.e., an andragogical approach. Grading of the essays constituted 75% of a student's performance evaluation, with participation in class discussions making up the remaining 25%. There was no significant difference in overall performance outcome between the two sections (P > 0.47). Students from both sections valued the lectures, even though they served a different purpose in each section. However, overall the student rating of section 02 was significantly higher than that of section 01 (P 0.98). These results suggest that a combined pedagogical and andragogical approach is an acceptable model for teaching introductory physiology. PMID:7598176

  2. Activity in the fronto-parietal network indicates numerical inductive reasoning beyond calculation : An fMRI study combined with a cognitive model

    Liang, Peipeng; Jia, Xiuqin; Taatgen, Niels A; Borst, Jelmer P; Li, Kuncheng

    2016-01-01

    Numerical inductive reasoning refers to the process of identifying and extrapolating the rule involved in numeric materials. It is associated with calculation, and shares the common activation of the fronto-parietal regions with calculation, which suggests that numerical inductive reasoning may corr

  3. Anoxic Activated Sludge Monitoring with Combined Nitrate and Titrimetric Measurements

    Petersen, B.; Gernaey, Krist; Vanrolleghem, P.A.

    2002-01-01

    An experimental procedure for anoxic activated sludge monitoring with combined nitrate and titrimetric measurements is proposed and evaluated successfully with two known carbon sources, (-)acetate and dextrose. For nitrate measurements an ion-selective nitrate electrode is applied to allow for...... frequent measurements, and thereby the possibility for detailed determination of the denitrification biokinetics. An internal nitrate electrode calibration is implemented in the experiments to avoid the often-encountered electrode drift problem. It was observed that the best experimental design was with...... the carbon source in excess, since excess nitrate provoked nitrite build-up thereby complicating the data interpretation. A conceptual model could quantitatively describe the experimental observations and thus link the experimentally measured proton production with the consumption of electron acceptor...

  4. Evaluation of antidepressant activity of ondansetron alone and in combination with fluoxetine-an experimental study

    Sonal M. Parekar

    2016-02-01

    Conclusions: Our study concludes that ondansetron alone and in combination with fluoxetine possesses significant antidepressant activity in animal models of depression. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(1.000: 90-97

  5. Cancer stem/progenitor cell active compound 8-quinolinol in combination with paclitaxel achieves an improved cure of breast cancer in the mouse model

    Zhou, Jiangbing; Zhang, Hao; Gu, Peihua; Margolick, Joseph B.; Yin, Deling; Zhang, Ying

    2008-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that breast cancer is caused by cancer stem cells and the cure of breast cancer requires eradication of breast cancer stem cells. In this study, we established and characterized a sphere culture model derived from side population cells from the human breast cancer cell line MCF7. The sphere culture could be maintained long term and was enriched in cells expressing known breast cancer stem cell marker CD44+CD24−. These sphere cells showed higher colony formation ab...

  6. Antioxidant activity of dorzolamide/timolol fixed combination in neuroprotective therapy in glaucoma

    N. I. Kurysheva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to study the antioxidant activity of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors and timolol fixed combinations and to compare it with other fixed combinations.Methods: Antioxidant activity (AOA of dorzolamide/timolol (Cosopt, dorzolamide/timolol (Dorzopt Plus, latanoprost/timolol, brimonidine/timolol, travoprost/timolol and bimatoprost/timolol fixed combinations was measured in vitro using the model of oxida- tive hemolysis.Results: Dorzolamide/timolol (Cosopt AOA was higher than that of other fixed combinations and increased with the quantity of the drugs added to the model system: 40%, 52% and 75% in 30 μl, 60 μl and 90 μl respectively.Conclusion: these findings suggest that dorzolamide/timolol fixed combination has potential advantages over the other fixed combinations due to its high antioxidant activity and might be used as the neuroptotective agent for glaucoma treatment.

  7. Combined cycle plants: models and in situ reliability test

    Agüero, Jorge Luis; Beroqui, Mario César; Molina Milyus, Roberto D.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents models of Boiler and Steam Turbine of combined cycle plants that can be used with any type of Gas Turbine models for grid dynamics studies. These models were obtained through a review of characteristics of large steam turbine and heat recovery boilers that define the behavior of combined cycle plants. Also is presented a Gas Turbine model of a combined cycle plant that was validated by tests developed and applied to evaluate reliability of combined cycle plants that are be...

  8. Therapeutic benefits of combined treatment with tissue plasminogen activator and 2-(4-methoxyphenyl)ethyl-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-β-d-pyranoside in an animal model of ischemic stroke.

    Yu, Shu; Liu, Xin; Shen, Yuntian; Xu, Hui; Yang, Yumin; Ding, Fei

    2016-07-01

    Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is the only approved therapy for acute ischemic stroke, but tPA therapy is limited by a short therapeutic window and some adverse side effects. 2-(4-Methoxyphenyl)ethyl-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-β-d-pyranoside, a salidroside analog (code-named SalA-4g), has shown potent neuroprotective effects. In this study, a rat model of embolic middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was used to mimic ischemic stroke. The embolic MCAO rats were intravenously (iv) injected with tPA alone, SalA-4g alone, or a combination of tPA and SalA-4g. Compared to treatment with tPA alone at 4h post MCAO, combined treatment with tPA at 4h post MCAO and SalA-4g starting at 4h post MCAO and continuing for 3days at an interval of 24h significantly reduced neurological deficits and infarct volume, and significantly inhibited the intracerebral bleeding, edema formation, neuronal loss, and cellular apoptosis in the ischemic brain. Our results suggested that additive neuroprotective actions of SalA-4g contributed to widening the therapeutic window of tPA therapy and ameliorating its side effects in treating MCAO rats. The therapeutic benefits of combined treatment with tPA and SalA-4g for ischemic stroke might be associated with its effects on cerebral glucose metabolism. PMID:27060484

  9. Synergistic anti-tumor activity of acadesine (AICAR) in combination with the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab in in vivo and in vitro models of mantle cell lymphoma.

    Montraveta, Arnau; Xargay-Torrent, Sílvia; López-Guerra, Mónica; Rosich, Laia; Pérez-Galán, Patricia; Salaverria, Itziar; Beà, Silvia; Kalko, Susana G; de Frias, Mercè; Campàs, Clara; Roué, Gaël; Colomer, Dolors

    2014-02-15

    Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is considered one of the most challenging lymphoma, with limited responses to current therapies. Acadesine, a nucleoside analogue has shown antitumoral effects in different preclinical cancer models as well as in a recent phase I/II clinical trial conducted in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Here we observed that acadesine exerted a selective antitumoral activity in the majority of MCL cell lines and primary MCL samples, independently of adverse cytogenetic factors. Moreover, acadesine was highly synergistic, both in vitro and in vivo, with the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab, commonly used in combination therapy for MCL. Gene expression profiling analysis in harvested tumors suggested that acadesine modulates immune response, actin cytoskeleton organization and metal binding, pointing out a substantial impact on metabolic processes by the nucleoside analog. Rituximab also induced changes on metal binding and immune responses.The combination of both drugs enhanced the gene signature corresponding to each single agent, showing an enrichment of genes involved in inflammation, metabolic stress, apoptosis and proliferation. These effects could be important as aberrant apoptotic and proinflammatory pathways play a significant role in the pathogenesis of MCL. In summary, our results suggest that acadesine exerts a cytotoxic effect in MCL in combination with rituximab, by decreasing the proliferative and survival signatures of the disease, thus supporting the clinical examination of this strategy in MCL patients. PMID:24519895

  10. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF COMBINATION DRUGS FOR TREATING VAGINOSIS DIFFERENT ETIOLOGIES

    Bobritskaya L. A.,

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigated the antimicrobial activity of the combination preparation in capsules "Meraflam" clinical of microbial strains isolated from patients with bacterial vaginosis . Experimentally proved the therapeutic dose of 0.3 g ornidazole in combination with Flamini 0.05 g, improve tolerability and expand the range of antibacterial action of the drug. In view of the antimicrobial capacity of diclofenac sodium from the combination of ofloxacin proposed for use in an integrated circuit - inflammatory treatment of infectious diseases , including bacterial vaginosis.

  11. FORCASCOMB: MATLAB function to combine forecasts of various models

    Shapour Mohammadi

    2009-01-01

    The code combines forecasts of various models based on minimization variance of combined forecast. This algorithm uses a logic similar to portfolio optimization. In Hendry and Clements(1998, p. 229) this method titled as Variance-Covariance method.

  12. Study of the combined effect of temperature, pH and water activity on the radial growth rate of the white-rot basidiomycete Physisporinus vitreus by using a hyphal growth model

    Fuhr, M J; Schubert, M; Schwarze, F W M R; Herrmann, H J

    2011-01-01

    The present work investigates environmental effects on the growth of fungal colonies of P. vitreus by using a lattice-free discrete modelling approach called FGM (Fuhr et al. (2010), arXiv:1101.1747), in which hyphae and nutrients are considered as discrete structures. A discrete modelling approach allows studying the underlying mechanistic rule concerning the basic architecture and dynamic of fungal networks on the scale of a single colony. By comparing simulations of the FGM with laboratory experiments of growing fungal colonies on malt extract agar we show that combined effect of temperature, pH and water activity on the radial growth rate of a fungal colony on a macroscopic scale may be explained by a power law for the growth costs of hyphal expansion on a microscopic scale. The information about the response of the fungal mycelium on a microscopic scale to environmental conditions is essential to simulate its behavior in complex structure substrates such as wood, where the impact of the fungus to the woo...

  13. Combined optimization model for sustainable energization strategy

    Abtew, Mohammed Seid

    Access to energy is a foundation to establish a positive impact on multiple aspects of human development. Both developed and developing countries have a common concern of achieving a sustainable energy supply to fuel economic growth and improve the quality of life with minimal environmental impacts. The Least Developing Countries (LDCs), however, have different economic, social, and energy systems. Prevalence of power outage, lack of access to electricity, structural dissimilarity between rural and urban regions, and traditional fuel dominance for cooking and the resultant health and environmental hazards are some of the distinguishing characteristics of these nations. Most energy planning models have been designed for developed countries' socio-economic demographics and have missed the opportunity to address special features of the poor countries. An improved mixed-integer programming energy-source optimization model is developed to address limitations associated with using current energy optimization models for LDCs, tackle development of the sustainable energization strategies, and ensure diversification and risk management provisions in the selected energy mix. The Model predicted a shift from traditional fuels reliant and weather vulnerable energy source mix to a least cost and reliable modern clean energy sources portfolio, a climb on the energy ladder, and scored multifaceted economic, social, and environmental benefits. At the same time, it represented a transition strategy that evolves to increasingly cleaner energy technologies with growth as opposed to an expensive solution that leapfrogs immediately to the cleanest possible, overreaching technologies.

  14. Antibiofilm Activity of Manuka Honey in Combination with Antibiotics

    Campeau, Michelle E. M.; Robin Patel

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the in vitro activity of Manuka honey against biofilm bacteria in combination with antibiotics and visualized the effect of Manuka honey on bacterial biofilms using scanning electron microscopy. The fractional biofilm eradication concentration (∑FBEC ) index for vancomycin plus Manuka honey against S. aureus IDRL-4284 biofilms was 0.34, indicating a synergistic interaction. The ∑FBEC  index for gentamicin plus Manuka honey against P. aeruginosa PAO1 biofilms was 0.78–0.82, indicat...

  15. The bivariate combined model for spatial data analysis.

    Neyens, Thomas; Lawson, Andrew B; Kirby, Russell S; Faes, Christel

    2016-08-15

    To describe the spatial distribution of diseases, a number of methods have been proposed to model relative risks within areas. Most models use Bayesian hierarchical methods, in which one models both spatially structured and unstructured extra-Poisson variance present in the data. For modelling a single disease, the conditional autoregressive (CAR) convolution model has been very popular. More recently, a combined model was proposed that 'combines' ideas from the CAR convolution model and the well-known Poisson-gamma model. The combined model was shown to be a good alternative to the CAR convolution model when there was a large amount of uncorrelated extra-variance in the data. Less solutions exist for modelling two diseases simultaneously or modelling a disease in two sub-populations simultaneously. Furthermore, existing models are typically based on the CAR convolution model. In this paper, a bivariate version of the combined model is proposed in which the unstructured heterogeneity term is split up into terms that are shared and terms that are specific to the disease or subpopulation, while spatial dependency is introduced via a univariate or multivariate Markov random field. The proposed method is illustrated by analysis of disease data in Georgia (USA) and Limburg (Belgium) and in a simulation study. We conclude that the bivariate combined model constitutes an interesting model when two diseases are possibly correlated. As the choice of the preferred model differs between data sets, we suggest to use the new and existing modelling approaches together and to choose the best model via goodness-of-fit statistics. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26928309

  16. Combining GPS measurements and IRI model predictions

    The free electrons distributed in the ionosphere (between one hundred and thousands of km in height) produce a frequency-dependent effect on Global Positioning System (GPS) signals: a delay in the pseudo-orange and an advance in the carrier phase. These effects are proportional to the columnar electron density between the satellite and receiver, i.e. the integrated electron density along the ray path. Global ionospheric TEC (total electron content) maps can be obtained with GPS data from a network of ground IGS (international GPS service) reference stations with an accuracy of few TEC units. The comparison with the TOPEX TEC, mainly measured over the oceans far from the IGS stations, shows a mean bias and standard deviation of about 2 and 5 TECUs respectively. The discrepancies between the STEC predictions and the observed values show an RMS typically below 5 TECUs (which also includes the alignment code noise). he existence of a growing database 2-hourly global TEC maps and with resolution of 5x2.5 degrees in longitude and latitude can be used to improve the IRI prediction capability of the TEC. When the IRI predictions and the GPS estimations are compared for a three month period around the Solar Maximum, they are in good agreement for middle latitudes. An over-determination of IRI TEC has been found at the extreme latitudes, the IRI predictions being, typically two times higher than the GPS estimations. Finally, local fits of the IRI model can be done by tuning the SSN from STEC GPS observations

  17. Event-Based Activity Modeling

    Bækgaard, Lars

    2004-01-01

    We present and discuss a modeling approach that supports event-based modeling of information and activity in information systems. Interacting human actors and IT-actors may carry out such activity. We use events to create meaningful relations between information structures and the related...

  18. A Probabilistic Power Estimation Method for Combinational Circuits Under Real Gate Delay Model

    Theodoridis, G.; S. Theoharis; Soudris, D.; C. Goutis

    2001-01-01

    Our aim is the development of a novel probabilistic method to estimate the power consumption of a combinational circuit under real gate delay model handling temporal, structural and input pattern dependencies. The chosen gate delay model allows handling both the functional and spurious transitions. It is proved that the switching activity evaluation problem assuming real gate delay model is reduced to the zero delay switching activity evaluation problem at specific time instances. A modified ...

  19. Patterns of Adolescents' Participation in Organized Activities: Are Sports Best when Combined with Other Activities?

    Linver, Miriam R.; Roth, Jodie L.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2009-01-01

    Although many adolescents participate in sports and other types of organized activities, little extant research explores how youth development outcomes may vary for youth involved in different combinations of activities. The present study uses the Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, a large, nationally…

  20. COMBINING LONG MEMORY AND NONLINEAR MODEL OUTPUTS FOR INFLATION FORECAST

    Heri Kuswanto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Long memory and nonlinearity have been proven as two models that are easily to be mistaken. In other words, nonlinearity is a strong candidate of spurious long memory by introducing a certain degree of fractional integration that lies in the region of long memory. Indeed, nonlinear process belongs to short memory with zero integration order. The idea of the forecast is to obtain the future condition with minimum error. Some researches argued that no matter what the model is, the important thing is we can generate a reliable forecast. Several tests have been proposed to solve the problem of distinguishing long memory and nonlinearity appears in a series. The power of the tests is somehow questionable in the sense that there is still a probability to obtain spurious result. To overcome this, model combination will be one of the solutions dealing with uncertainty in the model selection. In this case, it is assumed that both processes are candidates of best models with certain power to generate a good forecast. This research investigates the performance three model combination approaches to forecast the Indonesia inflation i.e., simple combination using balance weight as well as inverse Mean Prediction Error (MSPE weight and Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA. These methods are capable to generate a reliable forecast in very short lead time. Combination using BMA outperforms the simple averaging for 1 ahead forecast, while MSPE performs best for long lead forecasts.

  1. Capstone Teaching Models: Combining Simulation, Analytical Intuitive Learning Processes, History and Effectiveness

    Reid, Maurice; Brown, Steve; Tabibzadeh, Kambiz

    2012-01-01

    For the past decade teaching models have been changing, reflecting the dynamics, complexities, and uncertainties of today's organizations. The traditional and the more current active models of learning have disadvantages. Simulation provides a platform to combine the best aspects of both types of teaching practices. This research explores the…

  2. Combination treatment with doxorubicin and gamitrinib synergistically augments anticancer activity through enhanced activation of Bim

    Park, Hye-Kyung; Lee, Ji-Eun; Lim, Jaehwa; Jo, Da-Eun; Park, Soo-Ah; Suh, Pann-Ghill; Kang, Byoung Heon

    2014-01-01

    Background A common approach to cancer therapy in clinical practice is the combination of several drugs to boost the anticancer activity of available drugs while suppressing their unwanted side effects. In this regard, we examined the efficacy of combination treatment with the widely-used genotoxic drug doxorubicin and the mitochondriotoxic Hsp90 inhibitor gamitrinib to exploit disparate stress signaling pathways for cancer therapy. Methods The cytotoxicity of the drugs as single agents or in...

  3. Mixed Models: Combining Incompatible Scalar Models in Any Spacetime Dimension

    Klauder, John R

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, covariant scalar field theory models are either super renormalizable, strictly renormalizable, or nonrenormalizable. The goal of `Mixed Models' is to make sense of sums of these distinct examples, e.g., $g\\varphi^4_3+g'\\varphi^6_3+g''\\varphi^8_3$, which includes an example of each kind for spacetime dimension $n=3$. We show how the several interactions such mixed models have may be turned on and off in any order without any difficulties. Analogous results are shown for $g\\varphi^4_n+g'\\varphi^{138}_n$, etc., for all $n\\ge3$. Different categories hold for $n=2$ such as, e.g., ${g P(\\varphi)_2+g' N\\!P}(\\varphi)_2$, that involve polynomial ($P$) and suitable nonpolynomial ($N\\!P$) interactions, etc. Analogous situations for $n=1$ (time alone) offer simple `toy' examples of how such mixed models may be constructed.

  4. Active control: Wind turbine model

    Bindner, H.

    1999-01-01

    This report is a part of the reporting of the work done in the project 'Active Control of Wind Turbines'. This project aim is to develop a simulation model for design of control systems for turbines with pitch control and to use that model to designcontrollers. This report describes the model...... developed for controller design and analysis. Emphasis has been put on establishment of simple models describing the dynamic behavior of the wind turbine in adequate details for controller design. This hasbeen done with extensive use of measurements as the basis for selection of model complexity and model....... The models are all formulated as linear differential equations. The models are validated throughcomparisons with measurements performed on a Vestas WD 34 400 kW wind turbine. It is shown from a control point of view simple linear models can be used to describe the dynamic behavior of a pitch...

  5. Activated by Combined Magnrtic Field Gravitropic Reaction Reply on Nanodose of Biologicaly Active Compounds

    Sheykina, Nadezhda; Bogatina, Nina

    The new science direction nanotechnologies initiated a big jump in the pharmacology and medicine. This leads to the big development of homeopathy. The most interest appeared while investigating of the reaction of biological object on the nano dose of iologically substances. The changing of concentration (in nmol/l) of biologically active material is also possible during weak energy action. For instance, weak combined magnetic field may change a little the concentration of ions that are oriented parallel to the external magnetic field and, by the analogy with said above, lead to the similar effects. Simple estimations give the value for the threshold to the magnetic field by two orders smaller than the geomagnetic field. By this investigation we wanted to understand whether the analogy in the action of nano dose of biologically active substances and weak combined magnetic field presents and whether the action of one of these factors may be replaced by other one. The effect of one of biologically active substances NPA (Naphtyl-Phtalame Acid) solution with the concentration 0.01 mol/l on the gravitropic reaction of cress roots was investigated. It was shown that its effect was the inhibition of cress roots gravitropic reaction. The same inhibition was achieved by the combined magnetic field action on the cress roots, germinated in water. The alternative component of the combined magnetic field coincided formally with the cyclotron frequency of NPA ions. So the analogy in the action of nano dose of biologically active substances and weak combined magnetic field was shown. The combined magnetic field using allows to decrease sufficiently the dose of biologically active substances. This fact can be of great importance in pharmacy and medicine.

  6. TIME SERIES FORECASTING WITH MULTIPLE CANDIDATE MODELS: SELECTING OR COMBINING?

    YU Lean; WANG Shouyang; K. K. Lai; Y.Nakamori

    2005-01-01

    Various mathematical models have been commonly used in time series analysis and forecasting. In these processes, academic researchers and business practitioners often come up against two important problems. One is whether to select an appropriate modeling approach for prediction purposes or to combine these different individual approaches into a single forecast for the different/dissimilar modeling approaches. Another is whether to select the best candidate model for forecasting or to mix the various candidate models with different parameters into a new forecast for the same/similar modeling approaches. In this study, we propose a set of computational procedures to solve the above two issues via two judgmental criteria. Meanwhile, in view of the problems presented in the literature, a novel modeling technique is also proposed to overcome the drawbacks of existing combined forecasting methods. To verify the efficiency and reliability of the proposed procedure and modeling technique, the simulations and real data examples are conducted in this study.The results obtained reveal that the proposed procedure and modeling technique can be used as a feasible solution for time series forecasting with multiple candidate models.

  7. Inhibitory activity of Bifidobacterium adolescent combined with cisplatin on melanoma in mice and its mechanism

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore inhibitory activity of Bifidobacterium adolescent combined with cisplatin on the growth of melanoma(B16)in mice and the underlying mechanism.C57 mice were inoculated with B16 cancer cells to construct mouse model of melanoma and treated with bifidobacterium adolescent combined with cisplatin.Ratios of inhibitory activity on the growth of melanoma(B 16)were calculated.Pathology changes of the tumor were observed by HE staining.B 16 cell cycles were examined on a flow cytometer.Lymphocyte proliferation was measured with MTT assay and the T-cell subset was measured by double marked fluorescence.When bifidobacterium of 1010 cfu/L was injected,the ratio of inhibitory activity on the growth of melanoma(B16)reached 54%,which was similar to that of cisplatin group.The ratio of inhibitory activity reached 74.45% when the mice were treated by bifidobacterium combined with cisplatin,HE staining shows that bifidobacterium inhibited B16 cell proliferation and enhanced the cisplati(n)s killing activity on B16 cells.The results of flow cytometry demonstrated that B16 cell proliferation was arrested at G1 stage after treatment with bifidobacterium.The B16 cell proliferation was arrested at S stage after treatment with cisplatin.The CD4+ percentage increased and the difference was significant compared with the normal group after treatment with bifidobacterium,indicating that T-cell immune activity was enhanced.Treatment with bifidobacterium combined with cisplatin can enhance the inhibitory activity on the growth of melanoma(B16)of cisplatin.The mechanism of the inhibitory activity on B 16 cell proliferation is correlated with the enhanced immune activity in mice.

  8. Two-band combined model of a resonant tunneling diode

    A two-band combined model of a resonant tunneling diode, based on the semiclassical and quantum mechanical (the wave function formalism) approaches is proposed. The main specific feature of this model is the possibility of taking into account the interaction between different classical or quantum mechanical device regions with simultaneous consideration of the Γ-X intervalley scattering. It is shown that this model gives satisfactory agreement with the experimental data on the current-voltage characteristics and allows explanation of the plateau region in these characteristics within the stationary model

  9. Synergistic anti-tumor activity of acadesine (AICAR) in combination with the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab in in vivo and in vitro models of mantle cell lymphoma

    Montraveta, Arnau; Xargay-Torrent, Sílvia; López-Guerra, Mónica; Rosich, Laia; Pérez-Galán, Patricia; Salaverria, Itziar; Beà, Silvia; Kalko, Susana G.; de Frias, Mercè; Campàs, Clara; Roué, Gaël; Colomer, Dolors

    2014-01-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is considered one of the most challenging lymphoma, with limited responses to current therapies. Acadesine, a nucleoside analogue has shown antitumoral effects in different preclinical cancer models as well as in a recent phase I/II clinical trial conducted in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Here we observed that acadesine exerted a selective antitumoral activity in the majority of MCL cell lines and primary MCL samples, independently of adverse cytogene...

  10. Combined Estimation of Hydrogeologic Conceptual Model and Parameter Uncertainty

    Meyer, Philip D.; Ye, Ming; Neuman, Shlomo P.; Cantrell, Kirk J.

    2004-03-01

    The objective of the research described in this report is the development and application of a methodology for comprehensively assessing the hydrogeologic uncertainties involved in dose assessment, including uncertainties associated with conceptual models, parameters, and scenarios. This report describes and applies a statistical method to quantitatively estimate the combined uncertainty in model predictions arising from conceptual model and parameter uncertainties. The method relies on model averaging to combine the predictions of a set of alternative models. Implementation is driven by the available data. When there is minimal site-specific data the method can be carried out with prior parameter estimates based on generic data and subjective prior model probabilities. For sites with observations of system behavior (and optionally data characterizing model parameters), the method uses model calibration to update the prior parameter estimates and model probabilities based on the correspondence between model predictions and site observations. The set of model alternatives can contain both simplified and complex models, with the requirement that all models be based on the same set of data. The method was applied to the geostatistical modeling of air permeability at a fractured rock site. Seven alternative variogram models of log air permeability were considered to represent data from single-hole pneumatic injection tests in six boreholes at the site. Unbiased maximum likelihood estimates of variogram and drift parameters were obtained for each model. Standard information criteria provided an ambiguous ranking of the models, which would not justify selecting one of them and discarding all others as is commonly done in practice. Instead, some of the models were eliminated based on their negligibly small updated probabilities and the rest were used to project the measured log permeabilities by kriging onto a rock volume containing the six boreholes. These four

  11. Antibiofilm Activity of Manuka Honey in Combination with Antibiotics.

    Campeau, Michelle E M; Patel, Robin

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the in vitro activity of Manuka honey against biofilm bacteria in combination with antibiotics and visualized the effect of Manuka honey on bacterial biofilms using scanning electron microscopy. The fractional biofilm eradication concentration (∑FBEC) index for vancomycin plus Manuka honey against S. aureus IDRL-4284 biofilms was 0.34, indicating a synergistic interaction. The ∑FBEC index for gentamicin plus Manuka honey against P. aeruginosa PAO1 biofilms was 0.78-0.82, indicating an additive interaction. Scanning electron microscopy of S. aureus IDRL-4284 and P. aeruginosa PAO1 biofilms exposed to Manuka honey and artificial honey containing the same sugar composition as Manuka honey showed that the former had more pronounced effects than the latter on both S. aureus and P. aeruginosa biofilms. Visualized effects included distorted cell morphologies for both bacteria and a decrease in P. aeruginosa extracellular matrix. In conclusion, Manuka honey has a synergistic interaction with vancomycin against S. aureus biofilms and an additive interaction with gentamicin against P. aeruginosa biofilms. PMID:26904740

  12. Combined paracetamol and amitriptyline adsorption to activated charcoal

    Hoegberg, Lotte Christine Groth; Groenlykke, Thor Buch; Abildtrup, Ulla;

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. High-gram drug doses seen in multiple-drug poisonings might be close to the adsorption capacity of activated charcoal (AC). The aim was to determine the maximum adsorption capacities (Q(m)) of amitriptyline and paracetamol, separately and in combination, to AC. Methods. ACs (Carbomix......® and Norit Ready-To-Use) were tested in vitro. At pH 1.2 and pH 7.2, 0.250 g AC and paracetamol and/or amitriptyline were mixed and incubated. The AC: drug ratios were 10:1, 5:1, 3:1, 2:1, and 1:1. The mixed-drug adsorption vials contained the same AC: paracetamol ratios, but amitriptyline was added as...... fixed dose (0.080 g) to all samples. Drug concentrations in the liquid phase were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)/UV-detection. Results. Q(m), amitriptyline, were 0.49 g/g Carbomix® and 0.70 g/g Norit Ready-To-Use, and Q(m), paracetamol, were 0.63 g/g Carbomix® and 0.72 g...

  13. Combined paracetamol and amitriptyline adsorption to activated charcoal

    Hoegberg, Lotte Christine Groth; Groenlykke, Thor Buch; Abildtrup, Ulla;

    2010-01-01

    ® and Norit Ready-To-Use) were tested in vitro. At pH 1.2 and pH 7.2, 0.250 g AC and paracetamol and/or amitriptyline were mixed and incubated. The AC: drug ratios were 10:1, 5:1, 3:1, 2:1, and 1:1. The mixed-drug adsorption vials contained the same AC: paracetamol ratios, but amitriptyline was added as......Objectives. High-gram drug doses seen in multiple-drug poisonings might be close to the adsorption capacity of activated charcoal (AC). The aim was to determine the maximum adsorption capacities (Q(m)) of amitriptyline and paracetamol, separately and in combination, to AC. Methods. ACs (Carbomix...... fixed dose (0.080 g) to all samples. Drug concentrations in the liquid phase were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)/UV-detection. Results. Q(m), amitriptyline, were 0.49 g/g Carbomix® and 0.70 g/g Norit Ready-To-Use, and Q(m), paracetamol, were 0.63 g/g Carbomix® and 0.72 g...

  14. Single and Combined Effects of As (III) and Acetochlor on Phosphatase Activity in Soil

    ZHANG Yun; ZHANG Feng; ZHANG Guan-cai; GUAN Lian-zhu

    2013-01-01

    The actions and interactions of acetochlor and As on the soil phosphatase activity were investigated after 1, 3, 6, 10, 15, 30 and 60 d of exposure under control conditions. The soils were exposed to various concentrations of acetochlor and As individually and simultaneously. The results showed that acetochlor, As only, and combined pollution all clearly inhibited soil phosphatase activity. The maximum inhibition ratios of soil phosphatase activity by acetochlor, As only and combined pollution were 36.44, 74.12 and 61.29%, respectively. Two kinetic models,ν=c/(1+bi) (model 1) andν=c(1+ai)/(l+bi) (model 2), were used to describe the relationship between the concentrations of As and acetochlor and the activity of soil phosphatase. The semi-effect dose (ED50) values induced by As and acetochlor stress based on the inhibition of soil phosphatase were 18.1 and 33.11 mg kg-1, respectively, according to calculation by model 1. The interactive effect of acetochlor with As on soil phosphatase primarily consisted of significant antagonism effects at the higher concentrations tested. The step regression results show that the toxicity order was As (III)>acetochlor>As (III)×acetochlor throughout the incubation period.

  15. A combined model for tsunami generation and propagation

    Lima, Vania; Baptista, Maria Ana; Avilez-Valente, Paulo; Miranda, Miguel

    2016-04-01

    Several tsunami models apply different wave models and numerical schemes with the aim of modelling the wide variety of wave phenomena, as its generation, propagation, transformation and run-up. However, models are limited by mathematical and numerical formulations which constrain their scope of applications. Combined models are an interesting option as they allow merging the advantages of different existent models into a single one. In this work a tsunami combined model which couples the GeoClaw code, an extension of the Clawpack software for geophysical flows using adaptive finite volume methods, with the fully non-linear, phase-resolving, time-stepping Boussinesq wave model FUNWAVE-TVD for near-shore water wave propagation is presented. GeoClaw is used for the seismic tsunami generation of the 1969 Portugal tsunami and with FUNWAVE-TVD we study the propagation of the tsunami and near-shore surface elevations. Both codes have been individually benchmarked with some mandatory established benchmark problems. The results obtained from the numerical simulation are compared with existent observational data along the Portuguese coast for this historical event. This work received funding from FCT (SFRH/BD/96725/2013) and project ASTARTE - Assessment Strategy and risk Reduction For Tsunamis in Europe - Grant 603839 - FP7.

  16. Effect of combined function of temperature and water activity on the growth of Vibrio harveyi.

    Zhou, Kang; Gui, Meng; Li, Pinglan; Xing, Shaohua; Cui, Tingting; Peng, Zhaohui

    2012-10-01

    Vibrio harveyi is considered as a causative agent of the systemic disease, vibriosis, which occurs in many biological fields. The effects of temperatures (12.9-27.1 °C) and water activity (NaCl% 0.6%-3.4%) on V. harveyi were investigated. The behavior and growth characteristics of V. harveyi was studied and modeled. Growth curves were fitted by using Gompertz and Baranyi models, and the Baranyi model showed a better fittness. Then, the maximum growth rates (μmax) and lag phase durations (LPD, λ) obtained from both Gompertz and Baranyi model were modeled as a combination function of temperature and water activity using the response surface and Arrhenius-Davey models for secondary model. The value of r(2), MSE, bias and accuracy factor suggest Baranyi model has better fitness than Gompertz model. Furthermore, validation of the developed models with independent data from ComBase also shown better interrelationship between observed and predicted growth parameter when using Baranyi model. PMID:24031965

  17. Effect of combined function of temperature and water activity on the growth of Vibrio harveyi

    Kang Zhou

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio harveyi is considered as a causative agent of the systemic disease, vibriosis, which occurs in many biological fields. The effects of temperatures (12.9-27.1 ºC and water activity (NaCl% 0.6%-3.4% on V. harveyi were investigated. The behavior and growth characteristics of V. harveyi was studied and modeled. Growth curves were fitted by using Gompertz and Baranyi models, and the Baranyi model showed a better fittness. Then, the maximum growth rates (µmax and lag phase durations (LPD, λ obtained from both Gompertz and Baranyi model were modeled as a combination function of temperature and water activity using the response surface and Arrhenius-Davey models for secondary model. The value of r², MSE, bias and accuracy factor suggest Baranyi model has better fitness than Gompertz model. Furthermore, validation of the developed models with independent data from ComBase also shown better interrelationship between observed and predicted growth parameter when using Baranyi model.

  18. The combined gravity field model GOCO05c

    Fecher, Thomas; Pail, Roland; Gruber, Thomas; GOCO Project Team

    2016-04-01

    Knowledge of the static gravity field is of importance for various scientific disciplines, such as geodesy, geophysics and oceanography. While for geophysics the gravity field provides insight into the Earth's interior, the geoid serves as an important reference surface for oceanographic applications. Moreover this reference surface is a key parameter on the way to a globally unified height system. In order to exploit the full potential of gravity measurements and to achieve the best gravity field solution, all kinds of complementary gravity field information have to be combined. By combining GRACE and GOCE information, a state of the art satellite-only gravity field is available, which is highly accurate at the very long to medium wavelengths (80-100 km). By adding information from terrestrial/airborne gravimetry and satellite altimetry, which both are measurement techniques providing short wavelength gravity information beyond the resolution of GOCE, the full gravity field spectrum can be obtained. This paper focuses on the presentation of the combined gravity field model GOCO05c, a global gravity field model up to degree and order 720 based on full normal equation systems (more than 500,000 parameters). During the calculation of GOCO05c we put emphasis on the question how the complementary data types can be combined in a global gravity field model in the way that all data types keep their specific strengths and are not degraded by the combination with other information in certain wavelengths. Realistic stochastic modelling and a tailored weighting scheme among all available data results in different regional relative weighting of satellite and terrestrial data in the combined solution, mainly depending on the quality of the available terrestrial gravity information. From this procedure, as complementary product realistic error estimates are available in terms of a full-covariance matrix, which can be mapped in a spatial error grid reflecting regionally specific

  19. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells combined with minocycline improve spinal cord injury in a rat model

    Chen, Dayong; Zeng, Wei; Fu, Yunfeng; Gao, Meng; Lv, Guohua

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess that the effects of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) combination with minocycline improve spinal cord injury (SCI) in rat model. In the present study, the Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups: control group, SCI group, BMSCs group, Minocycline group and BMSCs + minocycline group. Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) test and MPO activity were used to assess the effect of combination therapy on locomotion and neutrophil infiltration. ...

  20. Adaptive Digital Image Watermarking Based on Combination of HVS Models

    P. Foris

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper two new blind adaptive digital watermarking methods of color images are presented. The adaptability is based on perceptual watermarking which exploits Human Visual System (HVS models. The first method performs watermark embedding in transform domain of DCT and the second method is based on DWT. Watermark is embedded into transform domain of a chosen color image component in a selected color space. Both methods use a combination of HVS models to select perceptually significant transform coefficients and at the same time to determine the bounds of modification of selected coefficients. The final HVS model consists of three parts. The first part is the HVS model in DCT (DWT domain. The second part is the HVS model based on Region of Interest and finally the third part is the HVS model based on Noise Visibility Function. Watermark has a form of a real number sequence with normal distribution.

  1. Computational models of epileptiform activity.

    Wendling, Fabrice; Benquet, Pascal; Bartolomei, Fabrice; Jirsa, Viktor

    2016-02-15

    We reviewed computer models that have been developed to reproduce and explain epileptiform activity. Unlike other already-published reviews on computer models of epilepsy, the proposed overview starts from the various types of epileptiform activity encountered during both interictal and ictal periods. Computational models proposed so far in the context of partial and generalized epilepsies are classified according to the following taxonomy: neural mass, neural field, detailed network and formal mathematical models. Insights gained about interictal epileptic spikes and high-frequency oscillations, about fast oscillations at seizure onset, about seizure initiation and propagation, about spike-wave discharges and about status epilepticus are described. This review shows the richness and complementarity of the various modeling approaches as well as the fruitful contribution of the computational neuroscience community in the field of epilepsy research. It shows that models have progressively gained acceptance and are now considered as an efficient way of integrating structural, functional and pathophysiological data about neural systems into "coherent and interpretable views". The advantages, limitations and future of modeling approaches are discussed. Perspectives in epilepsy research and clinical epileptology indicate that very promising directions are foreseen, like model-guided experiments or model-guided therapeutic strategy, among others. PMID:25843066

  2. Finite element models applied in active structural acoustic control

    Oude Nijhuis, Marco H.H.; de Boer; Rao, Vittal S.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the modeling of systems for active structural acoustic control. The finite element method is applied to model structures including the dynamics of piezoelectric sensors and actuators. A model reduction technique is presented to make the finite element model suitable for controller design. The reduced structural model is combined with an acoustic model which uses the radiation mode concept. For a test case consisting of a rectangular plate with one piezo patch the model re...

  3. Modeling Of Combinational Circuits Based On Ternary Multiplexer Using VHDL

    A.Sathish kumar,

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel method for defining, analyzing, testing and implementing the basic combinational circuitry with VHDL Simulator. This paper shows the potential of VHDL modeling and simulation that can be applied to Ternary switching circuits to verify its functionality and timing specifications. A novel method is brought out for implementing the basic combinational circuitry with minimum number of multiplexers. It also includes 1-bit and 2-bit position shifter and Barrel shifter. Method of coding is illustrated with respect to block diagram. An intention is to show how proposed simulator can be used to simulate MVL circuits and to evaluate systemperformance.

  4. Optimized diagnostic model combination for improving diagnostic accuracy

    Kunche, S.; Chen, C.; Pecht, M. G.

    Identifying the most suitable classifier for diagnostics is a challenging task. In addition to using domain expertise, a trial and error method has been widely used to identify the most suitable classifier. Classifier fusion can be used to overcome this challenge and it has been widely known to perform better than single classifier. Classifier fusion helps in overcoming the error due to inductive bias of various classifiers. The combination rule also plays a vital role in classifier fusion, and it has not been well studied which combination rules provide the best performance during classifier fusion. Good combination rules will achieve good generalizability while taking advantage of the diversity of the classifiers. In this work, we develop an approach for ensemble learning consisting of an optimized combination rule. The generalizability has been acknowledged to be a challenge for training a diverse set of classifiers, but it can be achieved by an optimal balance between bias and variance errors using the combination rule in this paper. Generalizability implies the ability of a classifier to learn the underlying model from the training data and to predict the unseen observations. In this paper, cross validation has been employed during performance evaluation of each classifier to get an unbiased performance estimate. An objective function is constructed and optimized based on the performance evaluation to achieve the optimal bias-variance balance. This function can be solved as a constrained nonlinear optimization problem. Sequential Quadratic Programming based optimization with better convergence property has been employed for the optimization. We have demonstrated the applicability of the algorithm by using support vector machine and neural networks as classifiers, but the methodology can be broadly applicable for combining other classifier algorithms as well. The method has been applied to the fault diagnosis of analog circuits. The performance of the proposed

  5. 21 CFR 347.20 - Permitted combinations of active ingredients.

    2010-04-01

    ... ingredients to prepare an aluminum acetate solution. Aluminum sulfate tetradecahydrate may be combined with calcium acetate monohydrate in powder or tablet form to provide a 0.13 to 0.5 percent aluminum acetate..., antihistamines, or any permitted combination of these ingredients, but not with hydrocortisone, provided...

  6. Hydraulic Modeling of Novel Combined Nozzle for Pool Scrubbing System

    The particles are collected in the scrubbing liquid. Knowing that the particle is removed from the gas stream mainly by scrubbing phenomena, the filtration efficiency can be enhanced by enlarging the contact area between the scrubbing water and the gas/particle mixture (e.g. break the bulk of gas flow into fine bubbles) or by enlarging the contact time of them (e. g. increase the water pool depth). In this study, the novel design of the combined nozzle has been developed to minimize the size of the filtration system and to ensure the filtration efficiency over the wide range of operating conditions. The hydraulic simulation has been conducted to investigate the flow behavior inside of the nozzle prior to evaluate the filtering efficiency. The proto-typical combined nozzle has been modeling in CFD and simulated for different conditions. Preliminary CFD simulation is conducted to examine the effects of key features and the flow behaviors inside the combined nozzle

  7. Experimental Models Combining TBI, Hemorrhagic Shock, and Hypoxemia.

    Leung, Lai Yee; Deng-Bryant, Ying; Shear, Deborah; Tortella, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Animal models of traumatic brain injury (TBI) provide important tools for studying the pathobiology of brain trauma and for evaluating therapeutic or diagnostic targets. Incorporation of additional insults such as hemorrhagic shock (HS) and/or hypoxemia (HX) into these models more closely recreates clinical scenarios as TBI often occurs in conjunction with these systemic insults (i.e., polytrauma). We have developed a rat model of polytrauma that combines penetrating TBI, HS and HX. Following brain trauma, HX was induced by reducing the inspired oxygen while HS was induced by withdrawing blood to lower the mean arterial pressure. The physiological, histological, and behavioral aspects of this animal model have been characterized and have demonstrated exacerbating effects of systemic insults on penetrating TBI. As such, this model may facilitate the use of simultaneous assessments of multiple mechanisms and provide a platform for testing novel diagnostic and therapeutic targets. PMID:27604733

  8. Combining Spatial and Telemetric Features for Learning Animal Movement Models

    Kapicioglu, Berk; Wikelski, Martin; Broderick, Tamara

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a new graphical model for tracking radio-tagged animals and learning their movement patterns. The model provides a principled way to combine radio telemetry data with an arbitrary set of userdefined, spatial features. We describe an efficient stochastic gradient algorithm for fitting model parameters to data and demonstrate its effectiveness via asymptotic analysis and synthetic experiments. We also apply our model to real datasets, and show that it outperforms the most popular radio telemetry software package used in ecology. We conclude that integration of different data sources under a single statistical framework, coupled with appropriate parameter and state estimation procedures, produces both accurate location estimates and an interpretable statistical model of animal movement.

  9. Evaluating the additivity of perfluoroalkyl acids in binary combinations on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α activation

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are found globally in the environment, detected in humans and wildlife, and are typically present as mixtures of PFAA congeners. Mechanistic studies have found that responses to PFAAs are mediated in part by PPARα. Our previous studies showed that individual PFAAs activate PPARα transfected into COS-1 cells. The goal of the current study was to determine if binary combinations of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and another PFAA act in an additive fashion to activate PPARα in the mouse one-hybrid in vitro model. COS-1 cells were transiently transfected with mouse PPARα luciferase reporter construct and exposed to either vehicle control (0.1% DMSO or water), PPARα agonist (WY14643, 10 μM), PFOA at 1–128 μM, perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) at 1–128 μM, perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) at 8–1024 μM, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) at 4–384 μM or perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) at 8–2048 μM to generate sigmoidal concentration–response curves. In addition, cells were exposed to binary combinations of PFOA + either PFNA, PFHxA, PFOS or PFHxS in an 8 × 8 factorial design. The concentration–response data for individual chemicals were fit to sigmoidal curves and analyzed with nonlinear regression to generate EC50s and Hillslopes, which were used in response-addition and concentration–addition models to calculate predicted responses for mixtures in the same plate. All PFOA + PFAA combinations produced concentration–response curves that were closely aligned with the predicted curves for both response addition and concentration addition at low concentrations. However, at higher concentrations of all chemicals, the observed response curves deviated from the predicted models of additivity. We conclude that binary combinations of PFAAs behave additively at the lower concentration ranges in activating PPARα in this in vitro system

  10. Integrated Turbine-Based Combined Cycle Dynamic Simulation Model

    Haid, Daniel A.; Gamble, Eric J.

    2011-01-01

    A Turbine-Based Combined Cycle (TBCC) dynamic simulation model has been developed to demonstrate all modes of operation, including mode transition, for a turbine-based combined cycle propulsion system. The High Mach Transient Engine Cycle Code (HiTECC) is a highly integrated tool comprised of modules for modeling each of the TBCC systems whose interactions and controllability affect the TBCC propulsion system thrust and operability during its modes of operation. By structuring the simulation modeling tools around the major TBCC functional modes of operation (Dry Turbojet, Afterburning Turbojet, Transition, and Dual Mode Scramjet) the TBCC mode transition and all necessary intermediate events over its entire mission may be developed, modeled, and validated. The reported work details the use of the completed model to simulate a TBCC propulsion system as it accelerates from Mach 2.5, through mode transition, to Mach 7. The completion of this model and its subsequent use to simulate TBCC mode transition significantly extends the state-of-the-art for all TBCC modes of operation by providing a numerical simulation of the systems, interactions, and transient responses affecting the ability of the propulsion system to transition from turbine-based to ramjet/scramjet-based propulsion while maintaining constant thrust.

  11. Diffusion models and neural activity

    Ricciardi, L. M.; Lánský, Petr

    London : Nature publishing group, 2003 - (Nadel, L.), s. 968-972 ISBN 0-333-79261-0 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA309/02/0168 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : Neuronal activity, Diffusion model Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  12. Hierarchical modeling of active materials

    Intelligent (or smart) materials are increasingly becoming key materials for use in actuators and sensors. If an intelligent material is used as a sensor, it can be embedded in a variety of structure functioning as a health monitoring system to make their life longer with high reliability. If an intelligent material is used as an active material in an actuator, it plays a key role of making dynamic movement of the actuator under a set of stimuli. This talk intends to cover two different active materials in actuators, (1) piezoelectric laminate with FGM microstructure, (2) ferromagnetic shape memory alloy (FSMA). The advantage of using the FGM piezo laminate is to enhance its fatigue life while maintaining large bending displacement, while that of use in FSMA is its fast actuation while providing a large force and stroke capability. Use of hierarchical modeling of the above active materials is a key design step in optimizing its microstructure for enhancement of their performance. I will discuss briefly hierarchical modeling of the above two active materials. For FGM piezo laminate, we will use both micromechanical model and laminate theory, while for FSMA, the modeling interfacing nano-structure, microstructure and macro-behavior is discussed. (author)

  13. Evaluation of active hexose correlated compound (AHCC) in combination with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin for treatment of ovarian cancer

    R J Hunter; Fujii, H; K Wakame; Gaikwad, A; J K Wolf; Smith, J A

    2011-01-01

    Summary: The objective was to define the mechanism of the growth inhibition of active hexose correlated compound (AHCC) alone and evaluate its activity in combination with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD). Scientific Methods: In vitro growth inhibition assays were completed with AHCC alone and in combination with PLD in panel of human cancer cell lines  and findings confirmed in vivo in an ovarian cancer xenograft mouse model.  AHCC mechanism of action was evaluated with immunoblotting a...

  14. User Modeling Combining Access Logs, Page Content and Semantics

    Fortuna, Blaz; Grobelnik, Marko

    2011-01-01

    The paper proposes an approach to modeling users of large Web sites based on combining different data sources: access logs and content of the accessed pages are combined with semantic information about the Web pages, the users and the accesses of the users to the Web site. The assumption is that we are dealing with a large Web site providing content to a large number of users accessing the site. The proposed approach represents each user by a set of features derived from the different data sources, where some feature values may be missing for some users. It further enables user modeling based on the provided characteristics of the targeted user subset. The approach is evaluated on real-world data where we compare performance of the automatic assignment of a user to a predefined user segment when different data sources are used to represent the users.

  15. Demand Model Combining Stated And Revealed Preference Data

    Luciana Londero Brandli

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The revealed and stated preference methods have been contributing a lot for the development of the econometric literature in the attempt of determining the variables that influence the individual decision in a choice process. This article combines preference data, with the objective of obtaining the advantages of the complementarity of the forces and frankness of both types of data. The approach involves the estimate of a model only with RP data, only with SP data and combining RP and SP data. The application is in the housing market, where it is observed, through the literature, that most of the papers of the consumer's choice has restricted the only one approaches. The utility functions obtained show the relative importance of the attributes, the tendency of behavior through the signs and its significance statistical. The results analysis of the models indicates differences and similarities about the attribute’s behavior.

  16. Crack arrest saturation model under combined electrical and mechanical loadings

    R.R. Bhargava; A. Setia

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The investigation aims at proposing a model for cracked piezoelectric strip which is capable to arrest the crack.Design/methodology/approach: Under the combined effect of electrical and mechanical loadings applied at the edges of the strip, the developed saturation zone is produced at each tip of the crack. To arrest further opening of the crack, the rims of the developed saturation zones are subjected to in-plane cohesive, normal uniform constant saturation point electrical displace...

  17. Combined Use of Gene Expression Modeling and siRNA Screening Identifies Genes and Pathways Which Enhance the Activity of Cisplatin When Added at No Effect Levels to Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells In Vitro.

    Leung, Ada W Y; Hung, Stacy S; Backstrom, Ian; Ricaurte, Daniel; Kwok, Brian; Poon, Steven; McKinney, Steven; Segovia, Romulo; Rawji, Jenna; Qadir, Mohammed A; Aparicio, Samuel; Stirling, Peter C; Steidl, Christian; Bally, Marcel B

    2016-01-01

    Platinum-based combination chemotherapy is the standard treatment for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). While cisplatin is effective, its use is not curative and resistance often emerges. As a consequence of microenvironmental heterogeneity, many tumour cells are exposed to sub-lethal doses of cisplatin. Further, genomic heterogeneity and unique tumor cell sub-populations with reduced sensitivities to cisplatin play a role in its effectiveness within a site of tumor growth. Being exposed to sub-lethal doses will induce changes in gene expression that contribute to the tumour cell's ability to survive and eventually contribute to the selective pressures leading to cisplatin resistance. Such changes in gene expression, therefore, may contribute to cytoprotective mechanisms. Here, we report on studies designed to uncover how tumour cells respond to sub-lethal doses of cisplatin. A microarray study revealed changes in gene expressions that occurred when A549 cells were exposed to a no-observed-effect level (NOEL) of cisplatin (e.g. the IC10). These data were integrated with results from a genome-wide siRNA screen looking for novel therapeutic targets that when inhibited transformed a NOEL of cisplatin into one that induced significant increases in lethality. Pathway analyses were performed to identify pathways that could be targeted to enhance cisplatin activity. We found that over 100 genes were differentially expressed when A549 cells were exposed to a NOEL of cisplatin. Pathways associated with apoptosis and DNA repair were activated. The siRNA screen revealed the importance of the hedgehog, cell cycle regulation, and insulin action pathways in A549 cell survival and response to cisplatin treatment. Results from both datasets suggest that RRM2B, CABYR, ALDH3A1, and FHL2 could be further explored as cisplatin-enhancing gene targets. Finally, pathways involved in repairing double-strand DNA breaks and INO80 chromatin remodeling were enriched in both

  18. Combined Use of Gene Expression Modeling and siRNA Screening Identifies Genes and Pathways Which Enhance the Activity of Cisplatin When Added at No Effect Levels to Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells In Vitro.

    Ada W Y Leung

    Full Text Available Platinum-based combination chemotherapy is the standard treatment for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. While cisplatin is effective, its use is not curative and resistance often emerges. As a consequence of microenvironmental heterogeneity, many tumour cells are exposed to sub-lethal doses of cisplatin. Further, genomic heterogeneity and unique tumor cell sub-populations with reduced sensitivities to cisplatin play a role in its effectiveness within a site of tumor growth. Being exposed to sub-lethal doses will induce changes in gene expression that contribute to the tumour cell's ability to survive and eventually contribute to the selective pressures leading to cisplatin resistance. Such changes in gene expression, therefore, may contribute to cytoprotective mechanisms. Here, we report on studies designed to uncover how tumour cells respond to sub-lethal doses of cisplatin. A microarray study revealed changes in gene expressions that occurred when A549 cells were exposed to a no-observed-effect level (NOEL of cisplatin (e.g. the IC10. These data were integrated with results from a genome-wide siRNA screen looking for novel therapeutic targets that when inhibited transformed a NOEL of cisplatin into one that induced significant increases in lethality. Pathway analyses were performed to identify pathways that could be targeted to enhance cisplatin activity. We found that over 100 genes were differentially expressed when A549 cells were exposed to a NOEL of cisplatin. Pathways associated with apoptosis and DNA repair were activated. The siRNA screen revealed the importance of the hedgehog, cell cycle regulation, and insulin action pathways in A549 cell survival and response to cisplatin treatment. Results from both datasets suggest that RRM2B, CABYR, ALDH3A1, and FHL2 could be further explored as cisplatin-enhancing gene targets. Finally, pathways involved in repairing double-strand DNA breaks and INO80 chromatin remodeling were

  19. Language Model Combination and Adaptation Using Weighted Finite State Transducers

    Liu, X.; Gales, M. J. F.; Hieronymus, J. L.; Woodland, P. C.

    2010-01-01

    In speech recognition systems language model (LMs) are often constructed by training and combining multiple n-gram models. They can be either used to represent different genres or tasks found in diverse text sources, or capture stochastic properties of different linguistic symbol sequences, for example, syllables and words. Unsupervised LM adaption may also be used to further improve robustness to varying styles or tasks. When using these techniques, extensive software changes are often required. In this paper an alternative and more general approach based on weighted finite state transducers (WFSTs) is investigated for LM combination and adaptation. As it is entirely based on well-defined WFST operations, minimum change to decoding tools is needed. A wide range of LM combination configurations can be flexibly supported. An efficient on-the-fly WFST decoding algorithm is also proposed. Significant error rate gains of 7.3% relative were obtained on a state-of-the-art broadcast audio recognition task using a history dependently adapted multi-level LM modelling both syllable and word sequences

  20. Combating Combination of Hypertension and Diabetes in Different Rat Models

    Talma Rosenthal

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Rat experimental models are used extensively for studying physiological mechanisms and treatments of hypertension and diabetes co-existence. Each one of these conditions is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD, and the combination of the two conditions is a potent enhancer of CVD. Five major animal models that advanced our understanding of the mechanisms and therapeutic approaches in humans are discussed in this review: Zucker, Goto-Kakizaki, SHROB, SHR/NDmcr-cp and Cohen Rosenthal diabetic hypertensive (CRDH rats. The use of various drugs, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors (ACEIs, various angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs, and calcium channel blockers (CCBs, to combat the effects of concomitant pathologies on the combination of diabetes and hypertension, as well as the non-pharmacological approach are reviewed in detail for each rat model. Results from experiments on these models indicate that classical factors contributing to the pathology of hypertension and diabetes combination—Including hypertension, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and hyperlipidemia—can now be treated, although these treatments do not completely prevent renal complications. Animal studies have focused on several mechanisms involved in hypertension/diabetes that remain to be translated into clinical medicine, including hypoxia, oxidative stress, and advanced glycation. Several target molecules have been identified that need to be incorporated into a treatment modality. The challenge continues to be the identification and interpretation of the clinical evidence from the animal models and their application to human treatment.

  1. Combined analysis of effective Higgs portal dark matter models

    Beniwal, Ankit; Savage, Christopher; Scott, Pat; Weniger, Christoph; White, Martin; Williams, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    We combine and extend the analyses of effective scalar, vector, Majorana and Dirac fermion Higgs portal models of Dark Matter (DM), in which DM couples to the Standard Model (SM) Higgs boson via an operator of the form $\\mathcal{O}_{\\textrm{DM}}\\, H^\\dagger H$. For the fermion models, we take an admixture of scalar $\\overline{\\psi} \\psi$ and pseudoscalar $\\overline{\\psi} i\\gamma_5 \\psi$ interaction terms. For each model, we apply constraints on the parameter space based on the Planck measured DM relic density and the LHC limits on the Higgs invisible branching ratio. For the first time, we perform a consistent study of the indirect detection prospects for these models based on the WMAP7/Planck observations of the CMB, a combined analysis of 15 dwarf spheroidal galaxies by Fermi-LAT and the upcoming Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). We also perform a correct treatment of the momentum-dependent direct search cross-section that arises from the pseudoscalar interaction term in the fermionic DM theories. We find, i...

  2. Discovery of structural characteristics of RIP1K for activity control using the combination method

    Song, Eun Ju; Do, Yun-Ju; Lee, Myoung Hwi; Kim, Eunhee; Kang, Nam Sook

    2015-11-01

    Receptor-interacting protein kinases 1 (RIPK1) plays an important role in necroptotic disease; it is therefore useful to identify structural characteristics controlling RIPK1 activity. Serine residues such as Ser89 and Ser161 have been reported to be important for RIPK1 activity. ATP binding to the RIPK1 hinge region occurs prior to the transfer of the phosphate group to serine residues. We therefore investigated the regulatory function of residues in the RIPK1 hinge region using a combination of molecular modeling and protein stability experiments. We analyzed the structure and evaluated the kinetic activity and stability of RIPK1 hinge region mutants. In this way, we identified Glu93 and Glu96 as key residues that regulate RIP1K activity, suggesting that mutation of these residues might be related to necroptotic diseases. The presence of a clinical mutation in RIPK1 Glu93 in endometritis patients is consistent with our data.

  3. A multi-model ensemble method that combines imperfect models through learning

    Berge, L.A.; F. M. Selten; Wiegerinck, W.; Duane, G. S.

    2010-01-01

    In the current multi-model ensemble approach climate model simulations are combined a posteriori. In the method of this study the models in the ensemble exchange information during simulations and learn from historical observations to combine their strengths into a best representation of the observed climate. The method is developed and tested in the context of small chaotic dynamical systems, like the Lorenz 63 system. Imperfect models are created by perturbing the standard parameter ...

  4. Test Case Generation For Concurrent Object-Oriented Systems Using Combinational Uml Models

    Swagatika Dalai, Arup Abhinna Acharya, Durga Prasad Mohapatra

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Software testing is an important phase of software development to ensure the quality and reliability of the software. Due to some limitations of code based testing method, the researcher has been taken a new method to work upon UML model based testing. It is found that different UML model is having different coverage and capable of detecting different kinds of faults. Here we have taken combinational UML models to have better coverage and fault detection capability. Testing concurrent system is difficult task because due to concurrent interaction among the threads and the system results in test case explosion. In this paper we have presented an approach of generating test cases for concurrent systems using combinational UML models i.e. sequence diagram and activity diagram .Then a Sequence-Activity Graph (SAG is constructed from these two diagrams. Then that graph is traversed to generate test cases which are able to minimize test case explosion.

  5. Emphasis: an active management model

    The Institute of Nuclear Materials Management was founded and has grown on the basis of promoting professionalism in the nuclear industry. This paper is concerned with professional management of nuclear material. The paper introduces the reader to Emphasis, an active management model. The management model provides the framework to assist a manager in directing his available resources. Emphasis provides for establishing goals, identifying and selecting objectives, matching objectives to specific personnel, preparing and monitoring action plans, and evaluating results. The model stresses crisis prevention by systematically administering and controlling resources. A critical requirement for implementation of the model is the desire to manage, to be in charge of the situation. The nuclear industry does need managers - people who realize the sensitive nature of the industry, professionals who insist on improved performance

  6. Symbolic Processing Combined with Model-Based Reasoning

    James, Mark

    2009-01-01

    A computer program for the detection of present and prediction of future discrete states of a complex, real-time engineering system utilizes a combination of symbolic processing and numerical model-based reasoning. One of the biggest weaknesses of a purely symbolic approach is that it enables prediction of only future discrete states while missing all unmodeled states or leading to incorrect identification of an unmodeled state as a modeled one. A purely numerical approach is based on a combination of statistical methods and mathematical models of the applicable physics and necessitates development of a complete model to the level of fidelity required for prediction. In addition, a purely numerical approach does not afford the ability to qualify its results without some form of symbolic processing. The present software implements numerical algorithms to detect unmodeled events and symbolic algorithms to predict expected behavior, correlate the expected behavior with the unmodeled events, and interpret the results in order to predict future discrete states. The approach embodied in this software differs from that of the BEAM methodology (aspects of which have been discussed in several prior NASA Tech Briefs articles), which provides for prediction of future measurements in the continuous-data domain.

  7. A joint calibration model for combining predictive distributions

    Patrizia Agati

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In many research fields, as for example in probabilistic weather forecasting, valuable predictive information about a future random phenomenon may come from several, possibly heterogeneous, sources. Forecast combining methods have been developed over the years in order to deal with ensembles of sources: the aim is to combine several predictions in such a way to improve forecast accuracy and reduce risk of bad forecasts.In this context, we propose the use of a Bayesian approach to information combining, which consists in treating the predictive probability density functions (pdfs from the individual ensemble members as data in a Bayesian updating problem. The likelihood function is shown to be proportional to the product of the pdfs, adjusted by a joint “calibration function” describing the predicting skill of the sources (Morris, 1977. In this paper, after rephrasing Morris’ algorithm in a predictive context, we propose to model the calibration function in terms of bias, scale and correlation and to estimate its parameters according to the least squares criterion. The performance of our method is investigated and compared with that of Bayesian Model Averaging (Raftery, 2005 on simulated data.

  8. 78 FR 64428 - Draft Qualitative Risk Assessment of Risk of Activity/Animal Food Combinations for Activities...

    2013-10-29

    ... Definition) Conducted in a Facility Co-Located on a Farm,'' 2013. Available at http://www.fda.gov/Science... Activity/Animal Food Combinations for Activities (Outside the Farm Definition) Conducted in a Facility Co... Food Combinations for Activities (Outside the Farm Definition) Conducted in a Facility Co-Located on...

  9. Modified version of the combined model of photonucleon reactions

    A refined version of the combined photonucleon-reaction model is described. This version makes it possible to take into account the effect of structural features of the doorway dipole state on photonucleon reactions in the energy range of Eγ ≤ 30 MeV. In relation to the previous version of the model, the treatment of isospin effects at the preequilibrium and evaporation reaction stages is refined; in addition, the description of the semidirect effect caused by nucleon emission from the doorway dipole state is improved. The model in question is used to study photonucleon reactions on the isotopes 35-56Ca and 102-134Sn in the energy range indicated above

  10. Combining microsimulation and spatial interaction models for retail location analysis

    Nakaya, Tomoki; Fotheringham, A. Stewart; Hanaoka, Kazumasa; Clarke, Graham; Ballas, Dimitris; Yano, Keiji

    2007-12-01

    Although the disaggregation of consumers is crucial in understanding the fragmented markets that are dominant in many developed countries, it is not always straightforward to carry out such disaggregation within conventional retail modelling frameworks due to the limitations of data. In particular, consumer grouping based on sampled data is not assured to link with the other statistics that are vital in estimating sampling biases and missing variables in the sampling survey. To overcome this difficulty, we propose a useful combination of spatial interaction modelling and microsimulation approaches for the reliable estimation of retail interactions based on a sample survey of consumer behaviour being linked with other areal statistics. We demonstrate this approach by building an operational retail interaction model to estimate expenditure flows from households to retail stores in a local city in Japan, Kusatsu City.

  11. Active Flutter Suppression Combining the Receptance Method and Flutter Margin

    Wu, Zhigang; Cooper, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Active flutter suppression is used to prevent flutter throughout the flight envelope by supplying active control forces in response to vehicle motions. In recent years, studies have been conducted on active flutter suppression using the receptance method. The advantage of the receptance method is that the feedback control gains are purely based upon measured receptances, without any need to evaluate or know the mass, damping, and stiffness matrices of the system. However, determination of the...

  12. Combining Wavelet Transform and Hidden Markov Models for ECG Segmentation

    Jérôme Boudy

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aims at providing new insights on the electrocardiogram (ECG segmentation problem using wavelets. The wavelet transform has been originally combined with a hidden Markov models (HMMs framework in order to carry out beat segmentation and classification. A group of five continuous wavelet functions commonly used in ECG analysis has been implemented and compared using the same framework. All experiments were realized on the QT database, which is composed of a representative number of ambulatory recordings of several individuals and is supplied with manual labels made by a physician. Our main contribution relies on the consistent set of experiments performed. Moreover, the results obtained in terms of beat segmentation and premature ventricular beat (PVC detection are comparable to others works reported in the literature, independently of the type of the wavelet. Finally, through an original concept of combining two wavelet functions in the segmentation stage, we achieve our best performances.

  13. Combining Wavelet Transform and Hidden Markov Models for ECG Segmentation

    Andreão, Rodrigo Varejão; Boudy, Jérôme

    2006-12-01

    This work aims at providing new insights on the electrocardiogram (ECG) segmentation problem using wavelets. The wavelet transform has been originally combined with a hidden Markov models (HMMs) framework in order to carry out beat segmentation and classification. A group of five continuous wavelet functions commonly used in ECG analysis has been implemented and compared using the same framework. All experiments were realized on the QT database, which is composed of a representative number of ambulatory recordings of several individuals and is supplied with manual labels made by a physician. Our main contribution relies on the consistent set of experiments performed. Moreover, the results obtained in terms of beat segmentation and premature ventricular beat (PVC) detection are comparable to others works reported in the literature, independently of the type of the wavelet. Finally, through an original concept of combining two wavelet functions in the segmentation stage, we achieve our best performances.

  14. Modeling Combinations of Pre-erythrocytic Plasmodium falciparum Malaria Vaccines.

    Walker, Andrew S; Lourenço, José; Hill, Adrian V S; Gupta, Sunetra

    2015-12-01

    Despite substantial progress in the control of Plasmodium falciparum infection due to the widespread deployment of insecticide-treated bed nets and artemisinin combination therapies, malaria remains a prolific killer, with over half a million deaths estimated to have occurred in 2013 alone. Recent evidence of the development of resistance to treatments in both parasites and their mosquito vectors has underscored the need for a vaccine. Here, we use a mathematical model of the within-host dynamics of P. falciparum infection, fit to data from controlled human malaria infection clinical trials, to predict the efficacy of co-administering the two most promising subunit vaccines, RTS,S/AS01 and ChAd63-MVA ME-TRAP. We conclude that currently available technologies could be combined to induce very high levels of sterile efficacy, even in immune-naive individuals. PMID:26503278

  15. Cost effectiveness of etanercept (Enbrel) in combination with methotrexate in the treatment of active rheumatoid arthritis based on the TEMPO trial

    Kobelt, G; Lindgren, P.; Singh, A.; Klareskog, L

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the cost effectiveness of combination treatment with etanercept plus methotrexate in comparison with monotherapies in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) using a new model that incorporates both functional status and disease activity.

  16. Activity of colistin in combination with tigecycline or rifampicin against multidrug-resistant Stenotrophomonas maltophilia.

    Betts, J W; Phee, L M; Woodford, N; Wareham, D W

    2014-09-01

    The antimicrobial treatment of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia infections is complicated by intrinsic multidrug resistance and a lack of reliable susceptibility data. We assessed the activity of colistin (COL), rifampicin (RIF) and tigecycline (TGC) alone and in combination using a range of in vitro susceptibility testing methodologies and a simple invertebrate model of S. maltophilia infection (Galleria mellonella). Synergy [fractional inhibitory concentration indices (FICIs) ≤0.5] between COL and either RIF or TGC was observed against 92 % and 88 % of 25 S. maltophilia isolates, respectively, despite resistance to one or another of the single agents alone. In time-kill assays, COL combined with either RIF or TGC was superior to single agents, but only the COL/RIF regimen was reliably bactericidal. The in vitro findings correlated with treatment outcomes in G. mellonella, with heightened survival observed for larvae treated with COL/RIF or COL/TGC compared with COL, RIF or TGC alone. COL combined with RIF was the most effective combination overall in both in vitro and in vivo (p maltophilia infections, regimens consisting of COL combined with RIF or TGC could be considered for clinical use. PMID:24781003

  17. Combination of Thermal Subsystems Modelled by Rapid Circuit Transformation

    Gerstenmaier, Y C; Wachutka, G

    2008-01-01

    This paper will deal with the modeling-problem of combining thermal subsystems (e.g. a semiconductor module or package with a cooling radiator) making use of reduced models. The subsystem models consist of a set of Foster-type thermal equivalent circuits, which are only behavioral models. A fast al-gorithm is presented for transforming the Foster-type circuits in Cauer-circuits which have physical behavior and therefore allow for the construction of the thermal model of the complete system. Then the set of Cauer-circuits for the complete system is transformed back into Foster-circuits to give a simple mathematical representation and applicability. The transfor-mation algorithms are derived in concise form by use of recur-sive relations. The method is exemplified by modeling and measurements on a single chip IGBT package mounted on a closed water cooled radiator. The thermal impedance of the complete system is constructed from the impedances of the sub-systems, IGBT-package and radiator, and also the impedance...

  18. A New Segmentation Model--Combined Mumford-Shah Model with Narrow Band

    Wang Zheng(王峥); Yang Xin; Shi Pengfei

    2004-01-01

    A segmentation model that combines the Mumford-Shah (M-S) model and narrow band scheme of level set is presented. The M-S model is a desirable model for image segmentation, but computationally time-consuming. This paper introduces a fast segmentation model, which combines the M-S model and narrow band scheme using new initialization method. The new initialization method is based on fast marching method, and the computing time is O(n). In each iteration step, the new segmentation model only deals with the data in narrow band instead of the whole image. Comparing M-S model and new narrow band M-S, experiments show that the two models can obtain almost the same segmentation result, but the computing time of new narrow band M-S model is much less than M-S model.

  19. Acceleration/vibration combined environment activities. Interim report

    The combining of two environments, i.e., linear acceleration and vibration, for use in laboratory testing to determine the damage to some mechanical devices when simultaneously subjected to these two environments, is discussed. The use of a Genisco centrifuge with an Unholtz-Dickie vibration machine mounted on it is described. Initial efforts at operating a shaker on the centrifuge have not been completely successful, so modifications to the system are being made

  20. Combined pharmacological activation of AMPK and PPAR δ potentiates the effects of exercise in trained mice

    Manio, Mark Christian C.; Inoue, Kazuo; Fujitani, Mina; Matsumura, Shigenobu; Fushiki, Tohru

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The combined activation of the cellular energy sensor AMP‐activated protein kinase (AMPK) and the nuclear transcription factor peroxisome proliferator‐activated receptor delta (PPAR δ) has been demonstrated to improve endurance and muscle function by mimicking the effects of exercise training. However, their combined pharmacological activation with exercise training has not been explored. Balb/c mice were trained on a treadmill and administered both the AMPK activator AICAR and the P...

  1. Microbial decomposition in aquatic environments: combined process of extracellular enzyme activity and substrate uptake

    The aim of this study was to define a model for the coupling between extracellular enzyme activity and substrate uptake by bacterial populations in natural waters. The balance between uptake of leucine and extracellular hydrolytic production of leucine from a peptide model substrate was investigated in a combined fluorescence-radiotracer experiment with [3H] leucine as a marker for the leucine pool and L-leucine-4-methyl-7-coumarinylamide (Leu-MCA) as a marker for the pool of dissolved peptide substrates. Results show that at low concentrations of the model substrate the input and uptake processes of leucine are nearly balanced, whereas at high concentrations of the model substrate much more leucine is liberated than taken up. In addition, samples from one polluted and one less polluted station in the Kiel Fjord were investigated for their extracellular enzymatic and uptake properties in an annual cycle. Calculated on an annual average basis, turnover rates were ca. nine times higher than hydrolysis rates at the polluted station and ca., five times higher at the less polluted station. From the described model, this would mean that the relative fraction of polymers within the total dissolved organic carbon pool (with regard to the substrate combination dissolved protein-leucine) is about twice that at the polluted than at the less polluted station

  2. Combined discriminative global and generative local models for visual tracking

    Zhao, Liujun; Zhao, Qingjie; Chen, Yanming; Lv, Peng

    2016-03-01

    It is a challenging task to develop an effective visual tracking algorithm due to factors such as pose variation, rotation, and so on. Combined discriminative global and generative local appearance models are proposed to address this problem. Specifically, we develop a compact global object representation by extracting the low-frequency coefficients of the color and texture of the object based on two-dimensional discrete cosine transform. Then, with the global appearance representation, we learn a discriminative metric classifier in an online fashion to differentiate the target object from its background, which is very important to robustly indicate the changes in appearance. Second, we develop a new generative local model that exploits the scale invariant feature transform and its spatial geometric information. To make use of the advantages of the global discriminative model and the generative local model, we incorporate them into Bayesian inference framework. In this framework, the complementary models help the tracker locate the target more accurately. Furthermore, we use different mechanisms to update global and local templates to capture appearance changes. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed approach performs favorably against state-of-the-art methods in terms of accuracy.

  3. Toward Computational Cumulative Biology by Combining Models of Biological Datasets

    Faisal, Ali; Peltonen, Jaakko; Georgii, Elisabeth; Rung, Johan; Kaski, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    A main challenge of data-driven sciences is how to make maximal use of the progressively expanding databases of experimental datasets in order to keep research cumulative. We introduce the idea of a modeling-based dataset retrieval engine designed for relating a researcher's experimental dataset to earlier work in the field. The search is (i) data-driven to enable new findings, going beyond the state of the art of keyword searches in annotations, (ii) modeling-driven, to include both biological knowledge and insights learned from data, and (iii) scalable, as it is accomplished without building one unified grand model of all data. Assuming each dataset has been modeled beforehand, by the researchers or automatically by database managers, we apply a rapidly computable and optimizable combination model to decompose a new dataset into contributions from earlier relevant models. By using the data-driven decomposition, we identify a network of interrelated datasets from a large annotated human gene expression atlas. While tissue type and disease were major driving forces for determining relevant datasets, the found relationships were richer, and the model-based search was more accurate than the keyword search; moreover, it recovered biologically meaningful relationships that are not straightforwardly visible from annotations—for instance, between cells in different developmental stages such as thymocytes and T-cells. Data-driven links and citations matched to a large extent; the data-driven links even uncovered corrections to the publication data, as two of the most linked datasets were not highly cited and turned out to have wrong publication entries in the database. PMID:25427176

  4. Combining segmentation and attention: a new foveal attention model

    Rebeca eMarfil

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Artificial vision systems cannot process all the information that they receive from the world in real time because it is highly expensive and inefficient in terms of computational cost. Inspired by biological perception systems, articial attention models pursuit to select only the relevant part of the scene. Besides, it is well established that the units of attention on human vision are not merely spatial but closely related to perceptual objects (proto-objects. This implies a strong bidirectional relationship between segmentation and attention processes. Therefore, while the segmentation process is the responsible to extract the proto-objects from the scene, attention can guide segmentation, arising the concept of foveal attention. When the focus of attention is deployed from one visual unit to another, the rest of the scene is perceived but at a lower resolution that the focused object. The result is a multi-resolution visual perception in which the fovea, a dimple on the central retina, provides the highest resolution vision. In this paper, a bottom-up foveal attention model is presented. In this model the input image is a foveal image represented using a Cartesian Foveal Geometry (CFG, which encodes the field of view of the sensor as a fovea (placed in the focus of attention surrounded by a set of concentric rings with decreasing resolution. Then multirresolution perceptual segmentation is performed by building a foveal polygon using the Bounded Irregular Pyramid (BIP. Bottom-up attention is enclosed in the same structure, allowing to set the fovea over the most salient image proto-object. Saliency is computed as a linear combination of multiple low level features such us colour and intensity contrast, symmetry, orientation and roundness. Obtained results from natural images show that the performance of the combination of hierarchical foveal segmentation and saliency estimation is good in terms of accuracy and speed.

  5. Combined Analysis and Validation of Earth Rotation Models and Observations

    Kutterer, Hansjoerg; Göttl, Franziska; Heiker, Andrea; Kirschner, Stephanie; Schmidt, Michael; Seitz, Florian

    2010-05-01

    Global dynamic processes cause changes in the Earth's rotation, gravity field and geometry. Thus, they can be traced in geodetic observations of these quantities. However, the sensitivity of the various geodetic observation techniques to specific processes in the Earth system differs. More meaningful conclusions with respect to contributions from individual Earth subsystems can be drawn from the combined analysis of highly precise and consistent parameter time series from heterogeneous observation types which carry partially redundant and partially complementary information. For the sake of a coordinated research in this field, the Research Unit FOR 584 "Earth Rotation and Global Dynamic Processes" is funded at present by the German Research Foundation (DFG). It is concerned with the refined and consistent modeling and data analysis. One of the projects (P9) within this Research Unit addresses the combined analysis and validation of Earth rotation models and observations. In P9 three main topics are addressed: (1) the determination and mutual validation of reliable consistent time series for Earth rotation parameters and gravity field coefficients due to the consideration of their physical connection by the Earth's tensor of inertia, (2) the separation of individual Earth rotation excitation mechanisms by merging all available relevant data from recent satellite missions (GRACE, Jason-1, …) and geodetic space techniques (GNSS, SLR, VLBI, …) in a highly consistent way, (3) the estimation of fundamental physical Earth parameters (Love numbers, …) by an inverse model using the improved geodetic observation time series as constraints. Hence, this project provides significant and unique contributions to the field of Earth system science in general; it corresponds with the goals of the Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS). In this paper project P9 is introduced, the goals are summarized and a status report including a presentation and discussion of intermediate

  6. Comparative Evaluation of Polyherbal Combination for Hypolipidemic Activity

    Shrivastava R.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Hyperlipidemia is defined as increase in the lipid content (group of fat or fat like substances along with their lipoprotein counterpart in blood. The present study was undertaken to explore the antihyperlipidemic effect of ethanolic extract from Fenugreek and Gymnema sylvestre and hydro-alcoholic extract from Curcuma longa in cholesterol diet induced hyperlipidemia in rats. Oral administration of various extracts once in a day for two weeks significantly lowered the total cholesterol phospholipid, triglycerides, low density lipoproteins and increase the high density lipoprotein level. Present investigation shows that Curcumin caused more significant decrease in the total cholesterol level (1.36 %, serum level of triglyceride (1.32 %, and serum level of LDL (1.39 % as compared to other groups in cholesterol diet induced hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. The study exhibited that elevated blood cholesterol; triglycerides, LDL, and decrease HDL which occur in Hyperlipidemia were significantly reduced by the administration of combination of Curcumin, Gymnema sylvestre and Fenugreek.

  7. 40 CFR 35.6260 - Combining Cooperative Agreement sites and activities.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Combining Cooperative Agreement sites and activities. 35.6260 Section 35.6260 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Contracts for Superfund Response Actions Combining Cooperative Agreements § 35.6260 Combining...

  8. Soil moisture estimation under a vegetation cover: combined active passive microwave remote sensing approach

    Data gathered during the NASA sponsored Multisensor Aircraft Campaign Hydrology (MACHYDRO) experiment in central Pennsylvania (U.S.A.) in July, 1990 have been analysed to study the combined use of active and passive microwave sensors for estimating soil moisture from vegetated areas. These data sets were obtained during an eleven-day period with NASA's Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR), and Push-Broom Microwave Radiometer (PBMR) over an instrumented watershed, which included agricultural fields with a number of different crop covers. Simultaneous ground truth measurements were also made in order to characterize the state of vegetation and soil moisture under a variety of meteorological conditions. Various multi-sensor techniques are currently under investigation to improve the accuracy of remote sensing estimates of the soil moisture in the presence of vegetation and surface roughness conditions using these data sets. One such algorithm involving combination of active and passive microwave sensors is presented here, and is applied to representative corn fields in the Mahantango watershed that was the focus of study during the MACHYDRO experiment. In this algorithm, a simple emission model is inverted to obtain Fresnel reflectivity in terms of ground and vegetation parameters. Since Fresnel reflectivity depends on soil dielectric constant, soil moisture is determined from reflectivity using dielectric-soil moisture relations. The algorithm requires brightness temperature, vegetation and ground parameters as the input parameters. The former is measured by a passive microwave technique and the later two are estimated by using active microwave techniques. The soil moisture estimates obtained by this combined use of active and passive microwave remote sensing techniques, show an excellent agreement with the in situ soil moisture measurements made during the MACHYDRO experiment. (author)

  9. Model Predictive Control of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Power Plants

    B. Wayne Bequette; Priyadarshi Mahapatra

    2010-08-31

    The primary project objectives were to understand how the process design of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant affects the dynamic operability and controllability of the process. Steady-state and dynamic simulation models were developed to predict the process behavior during typical transients that occur in plant operation. Advanced control strategies were developed to improve the ability of the process to follow changes in the power load demand, and to improve performance during transitions between power levels. Another objective of the proposed work was to educate graduate and undergraduate students in the application of process systems and control to coal technology. Educational materials were developed for use in engineering courses to further broaden this exposure to many students. ASPENTECH software was used to perform steady-state and dynamic simulations of an IGCC power plant. Linear systems analysis techniques were used to assess the steady-state and dynamic operability of the power plant under various plant operating conditions. Model predictive control (MPC) strategies were developed to improve the dynamic operation of the power plants. MATLAB and SIMULINK software were used for systems analysis and control system design, and the SIMULINK functionality in ASPEN DYNAMICS was used to test the control strategies on the simulated process. Project funds were used to support a Ph.D. student to receive education and training in coal technology and the application of modeling and simulation techniques.

  10. Combining catchment and instream modelling to assess physical habitat quality

    Olsen, Martin

    attention in past studies of run-off impact on the quality of stream physical habitats. This study combined catchment and instream models with instream habitat observations to assess the ecological impacts from groundwater exploitation on a small stream. The main objectives of this study was; • to assess...... the physical habitat quality of stream Ledreborg using af habitat hydraulic model • to assess the present and potential physical habitat quality of stream Ledreborg • to evaluate the suitability and applicability of habitat hydraulic models to Danish stream management Results • Precipitation and evaporation...... were 6.4-11.2 l/s and 21.7-78.3 l/s. Simulating a 'no-abstraction'-scenario the summer minimum and mean flow increased to 30-96 l/s and 60.1-151.5 l/s - assumed to be the summer run-off reference condition. On a yearly basis the scenario simulated a 25.4-82 l/s increase in mean flow. • Habitat...

  11. Radio Frequency-Activated Nanoliposomes for Controlled Combination Drug Delivery.

    Malekar, Swapnil A; Sarode, Ashish L; Bach, Alvin C; Bose, Arijit; Bothun, Geoffrey; Worthen, David R

    2015-12-01

    This work was conducted in order to design, characterize, and evaluate stable liposomes containing the hydrophobic drug raloxifene HCl (RAL) and hydrophilic doxycycline HCl (DOX), two potentially synergistic agents for treating osteoporosis and other bone lesions, in conjunction with a radio frequency-induced, hydrophobic magnetic nanoparticle-dependent triggering mechanism for drug release. Both drugs were successfully incorporated into liposomes by lipid film hydration, although combination drug loading compromised liposome stability. Liposome stability was improved by reducing the drug load and by including Pluronics® (PL) in the formulations. DOX did not appear to interact with the phospholipid membranes comprising the liposomes, and its release was maximized in the presence of radio frequency (RF) heating. In contrast, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance ((31)P-NMR) analysis revealed that RAL developed strong interactions with the phospholipid membranes, most notably with lipid phosphate head groups, resulting in significant changes in membrane thermodynamics. Likewise, RAL release from liposomes was minimal, even in the presence of RF heating. These studies may offer useful insights into the design and optimization of multidrug containing liposomes. The effects of RAL on liposome characteristics and drug release performance underscore the importance of appropriate physical-chemical analysis in order to identify and characterize drug-lipid interactions that may profoundly affect liposome properties and performance early in the formulation development process. PMID:25899799

  12. Estimating Sea Surface Salinity and Wind Using Combined Passive and Active L-Band Microwave Observations

    Yueh, Simon H.; Chaubell, Mario J.

    2012-01-01

    Several L-band microwave radiometer and radar missions have been, or will be, operating in space for land and ocean observations. These include the NASA Aquarius mission and the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission, both of which use combined passive/ active L-band instruments. Aquarius s passive/active L-band microwave sensor has been designed to map the salinity field at the surface of the ocean from space. SMAP s primary objectives are for soil moisture and freeze/thaw detection, but it will operate continuously over the ocean, and hence will have significant potential for ocean surface research. In this innovation, an algorithm has been developed to retrieve simultaneously ocean surface salinity and wind from combined passive/active L-band microwave observations of sea surfaces. The algorithm takes advantage of the differing response of brightness temperatures and radar backscatter to salinity, wind speed, and direction, thus minimizing the least squares error (LSE) measure, which signifies the difference between measurements and model functions of brightness temperatures and radar backscatter. The algorithm uses the conjugate gradient method to search for the local minima of the LSE. Three LSE measures with different measurement combinations have been tested. The first LSE measure uses passive microwave data only with retrieval errors reaching 1 to 2 psu (practical salinity units) for salinity, and 1 to 2 m/s for wind speed. The second LSE measure uses both passive and active microwave data for vertical and horizontal polarizations. The addition of active microwave data significantly improves the retrieval accuracy by about a factor of five. To mitigate the impact of Faraday rotation on satellite observations, the third LSE measure uses measurement combinations invariant under the Faraday rotation. For Aquarius, the expected RMS SSS (sea surface salinity) error will be less than about 0.2 psu for low winds, and increases to 0.3 psu at 25 m/s wind speed

  13. Education Knowledge System Combination Model Based on the Components

    CHEN Lei; LI Dehua; LI Xiaojian; WU Chunxiang

    2007-01-01

    Resources are the base and core of education information, but current web education resources have no structure and it is still difficult to reuse them and make them can be self assembled and developed continually. According to the knowledge structure of course and text, the relation among knowledge points, knowledge units from three levels of media material, we can build education resource components, and build TKCM (Teaching Knowledge Combination Model) based on resource components. Builders can build and assemble knowledge system structure and make knowledge units can be self assembled, thus we can develop and consummate them continually. Users can make knowledge units can be self assembled and renewed, and build education knowledge system to satisfy users' demand under the form of education knowledge system.

  14. Combining multiple nondestructive inspection images with a generalized additive model

    In this paper, multiple nondestructive inspection (NDI) images are combined with a generalized additive model to achieve a more precise and reliable assessment of hidden corrosion in aircraft lap joints. Two inspection techniques are considered in this study. One is the conventional multi-frequency eddy current testing technique and the other is the pulsed eddy current technique. To characterize the thickness loss or equivalently to achieve a quantitative measure of corrosion, multiple NDI images are fused to produce a thickness map that reflected the amount of corrosion damage. These results are further compared with corresponding digital x-ray thickness maps, which are obtained by mapping the remaining thickness after the specimen is dissembled and all the corrosion products are cleaned. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithms outperform the traditional calibration method aligned with a single testing approach

  15. On the combined gravity gradient modeling for applied geophysics

    Veryaskin, Alexey

    2007-01-01

    Gravity gradiometry research and development has intensified in recent years to the extent that technologies providing a resolution of about 1 Eotvos per 1 sec average shall likely soon be available for multiple critical applications such as natural resources exploration, oil reservoir monitoring and defence establishment. Much of the content of this paper was composed a decade ago, and only minor modifications were required for the conclusions to be just as applicable today. In this paper we demonstrate how gravity gradient data can be modeled, and show some examples of how gravity gradient data can be combined in order to extract valuable information. In particular, this study demonstrates the importance of two gravity gradient components, Txz and Tyz which, when processed together, can provide more information on subsurface density contrasts than that derived solely from the vertical gravity gradient (Tzz).

  16. Music-induced emotions can be predicted from a combination of brain activity and acoustic features.

    Daly, Ian; Williams, Duncan; Hallowell, James; Hwang, Faustina; Kirke, Alexis; Malik, Asad; Weaver, James; Miranda, Eduardo; Nasuto, Slawomir J

    2015-12-01

    It is widely acknowledged that music can communicate and induce a wide range of emotions in the listener. However, music is a highly-complex audio signal composed of a wide range of complex time- and frequency-varying components. Additionally, music-induced emotions are known to differ greatly between listeners. Therefore, it is not immediately clear what emotions will be induced in a given individual by a piece of music. We attempt to predict the music-induced emotional response in a listener by measuring the activity in the listeners electroencephalogram (EEG). We combine these measures with acoustic descriptors of the music, an approach that allows us to consider music as a complex set of time-varying acoustic features, independently of any specific music theory. Regression models are found which allow us to predict the music-induced emotions of our participants with a correlation between the actual and predicted responses of up to r=0.234,pmusic induced emotions can be predicted by their neural activity and the properties of the music. Given the large amount of noise, non-stationarity, and non-linearity in both EEG and music, this is an encouraging result. Additionally, the combination of measures of brain activity and acoustic features describing the music played to our participants allows us to predict music-induced emotions with significantly higher accuracies than either feature type alone (p<0.01). PMID:26544602

  17. Comparison of analgesic effects of nimesulide, paracetamol, and their combination in animal models

    Ahmed Mushtaq

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare the analgesic activity of nimesulide and paracetamol alone and their combination in animal models for the degree of analgesia and the time course of action. Materials and Methods: Analgesia was studied in albino rats using formalin test and in albino mice using writhing test and the radiant heat method. For each test, four groups of six animals each were orally fed with a single dose of nimesulide, paracetamol, and combination of nimesulide + paracetamol and gum acacia as control, respectively. Results: In all the three test models, all three drug treatments showed significant analgesia (P < 0.001 as compared to control, but there was no significant difference in the analgesia produced by either drugs alone or in combination. The radiant heat method demonstrated a quicker onset and longer duration of action with nimesulide, whereas writhing test showed a quicker onset of action with paracetamol. In formalin test, greater degree of analgesia was seen with individual drugs than that of the combination, though this difference was not statistically significant. Conclusions: Nimesulide and paracetamol combination offers no advantage over nimesulide alone or paracetamol alone, either in terms of degree of analgesia or onset of action. Therefore, our study supports the reports claiming irrationality of the fixed dose combination of nimesulide and paracetamol.

  18. Activity of Picolinic Acid in Combination with the Antiprotozoal Drug Quinacrine against Mycobacterium avium Complex

    Shimizu, Toshiaki; Tomioka, Haruaki

    2006-01-01

    We studied the in vitro and in vivo antimicrobial activities of picolinic acid (PA) in combination with the antiprotozoal drug quinacrine against intramacrophage Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). Quinacrine significantly potentiated the anti-MAC activity of PA, suggesting the usefulness of this combination in the clinical control of MAC infection.

  19. Activity of trovafloxacin in combination with other drugs for treatment of acute murine toxoplasmosis.

    Khan, A. A.; Slifer, T; Araujo, F G; Polzer, R J; Remington, J S

    1997-01-01

    Current therapy for toxoplasmosis with a synergistic combination of pyrimethamine plus sulfadiazine or pyrimethamine plus clindamycin is not always efficacious and is frequently discontinued due to intolerable toxic effects in immunocompromised individuals, particularly those with AIDS. Trovafloxacin, a new fluoroquinolone with potent activity against Toxoplasma gondii, was examined for potential synergistic activity when combined with other drugs used for treatment of human toxoplasmosis. Co...

  20. Cognitive Virtualization: Combining Cognitive Models and Virtual Environments

    Tuan Q. Tran; David I. Gertman; Donald D. Dudenhoeffer; Ronald L. Boring; Alan R. Mecham

    2007-08-01

    3D manikins are often used in visualizations to model human activity in complex settings. Manikins assist in developing understanding of human actions, movements and routines in a variety of different environments representing new conceptual designs. One such environment is a nuclear power plant control room, here they have the potential to be used to simulate more precise ergonomic assessments of human work stations. Next generation control rooms will pose numerous challenges for system designers. The manikin modeling approach by itself, however, may be insufficient for dealing with the desired technical advancements and challenges of next generation automated systems. Uncertainty regarding effective staffing levels; and the potential for negative human performance consequences in the presence of advanced automated systems (e.g., reduced vigilance, poor situation awareness, mistrust or blind faith in automation, higher information load and increased complexity) call for further research. Baseline assessment of novel control room equipment(s) and configurations needs to be conducted. These design uncertainties can be reduced through complementary analysis that merges ergonomic manikin models with models of higher cognitive functions, such as attention, memory, decision-making, and problem-solving. This paper will discuss recent advancements in merging a theoretical-driven cognitive modeling framework within a 3D visualization modeling tool to evaluate of next generation control room human factors and ergonomic assessment. Though this discussion primary focuses on control room design, the application for such a merger between 3D visualization and cognitive modeling can be extended to various areas of focus such as training and scenario planning.

  1. Cognitive Virtualization: Combining Cognitive Models and Virtual Environments

    3D manikins are often used in visualizations to model human activity in complex settings. Manikins assist in developing understanding of human actions, movements and routines in a variety of different environments representing new conceptual designs. One such environment is a nuclear power plant control room, here they have the potential to be used to simulate more precise ergonomic assessments of human work stations. Next generation control rooms will pose numerous challenges for system designers. The manikin modeling approach by itself, however, may be insufficient for dealing with the desired technical advancements and challenges of next generation automated systems. Uncertainty regarding effective staffing levels; and the potential for negative human performance consequences in the presence of advanced automated systems (e.g., reduced vigilance, poor situation awareness, mistrust or blind faith in automation, higher information load and increased complexity) call for further research. Baseline assessment of novel control room equipment(s) and configurations needs to be conducted. These design uncertainties can be reduced through complementary analysis that merges ergonomic manikin models with models of higher cognitive functions, such as attention, memory, decision-making, and problem-solving. This paper will discuss recent advancements in merging a theoretical-driven cognitive modeling framework within a 3D visualization modeling tool to evaluate of next generation control room human factors and ergonomic assessment. Though this discussion primary focuses on control room design, the application for such a merger between 3D visualization and cognitive modeling can be extended to various areas of focus such as training and scenario planning

  2. On a combined adaptive tetrahedral tracing and edge diffraction model

    Hart, Carl R.

    A major challenge in architectural acoustics is the unification of diffraction models and geometric acoustics. For example, geometric acoustics is insufficient to quantify the scattering characteristics of acoustic diffusors. Typically the time-independent boundary element method (BEM) is the method of choice. In contrast, time-domain computations are of interest for characterizing both the spatial and temporal scattering characteristics of acoustic diffusors. Hence, a method is sought that predicts acoustic scattering in the time-domain. A prediction method, which combines an advanced image source method and an edge diffraction model, is investigated for the prediction of time-domain scattering. Adaptive tetrahedral tracing is an advanced image source method that generates image sources through an adaptive process. Propagating tetrahedral beams adapt to ensonified geometry mapping the geometric sound field in space and along boundaries. The edge diffraction model interfaces with the adaptive tetrahedral tracing process by the transfer of edge geometry and visibility information. Scattering is quantified as the contribution of secondary sources along a single or multiple interacting edges. Accounting for a finite number of diffraction permutations approximates the scattered sound field. Superposition of the geometric and scattered sound fields results in a synthesized impulse response between a source and a receiver. Evaluation of the prediction technique involves numerical verification and numerical validation. Numerical verification is based upon a comparison with analytic and numerical (BEM) solutions for scattering geometries. Good agreement is shown for the selected scattering geometries. Numerical validation is based upon experimentally determined scattered impulse responses of acoustic diffusors. Experimental data suggests that the predictive model is appropriate for high-frequency predictions. For the experimental determination of the scattered impulse

  3. Combining interviewing and modeling for end-user energy conservation

    Studying energy consumption through the lens of households is an increasingly popular research avenue. This paper focuses on residential end-user energy conservation. It describes an approach that combines energy modeling and in-depth interviews for communicating about energy use and revealing consumer preferences for change at different levels and intervention points. Expert knowledge was embodied in a computer model for householders that calculates an individual's current energy consumption and helps assess personal savings potentials, while also bringing in socio-technical and economic elements beyond the user's direct control. The paper gives a detailed account of this computer information tool developed for interviewing purposes. It then describes the interview guidelines, data analysis, and main results. In general, interview subjects overestimated the environmental friendliness of their lifestyles. After experience with the program, they tended to rate external (technological, societal) factors as somewhat stronger determinants of their consumption levels than personal (behavioral and household investment) factors, with the notable exception of mobility. Concerning long-term energy perspectives, the majority of subjects felt that society has the ability to make a collective choice towards significantly lower energy consumption levels. Interviewees confirmed that the software and interactive sessions helped them think more holistically about the personal, social, and technological dimensions of energy conservation. Lessons can be applied to the development of future energy communication tools

  4. MCNP modelling of a combined neutron/gamma counter

    Bourva, L C A; Ottmar, H; Weaver, D R

    1999-01-01

    A series of Monte Carlo neutron calculations for a combined gamma/passive neutron coincidence counter has been performed. This type of device, part of a suite of non-destructive assay instruments utilised for the enforcement of the Euratom nuclear safeguards within the European Union, is to be used for high accuracy measurements of the plutonium content of small samples of nuclear materials. The multi-purpose Monte Carlo N-particle (MCNP) code version 4B has been used to model in detail the neutron coincidence detector and to investigate the leakage self-multiplication of PuO sub 2 and mixed U-Pu oxide (MOX) reference samples used to calibrate the instrument. The MCNP calculations have been used together with a neutron coincidence counting interpretative model to determine characteristic parameters of the detector. A comparative study to both experimental and previous numerical results has been performed. Sensitivity curves of the variation of the detector's efficiency, epsilon, to, alpha, the ratio of (alpha...

  5. Combining multimedia models with integrated urban water system models for micropollutants

    De Keyser, W.; Gevaert, V.; Verdonck, F.;

    2010-01-01

    Integrated urban water system (IUWS) modeling aims at assessing the quality of the surface water receiving the urban emissions through sewage treatment plants, combined sewer overflows (CSOS) and stormwater drainage systems However, some micropollutants tend to appear in more than one environmental...... on the one hand a reference scenario with a combined sewerage system and on the other hand a stormwater infiltration pond scenario, as an example of a sustainable urban drainage system (SUDS) A case for Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was simulated and resulted in reduced surface water...... medium (air, water, sediment, soil, groundwater, etc) In this work, a multimedia fate and transport model (MFTM) is "wrapped around" a dynamic IUWS model for organic micropollutants to enable integrated environmental assessment The combined model was tested on a hypothetical catchment using two scenarios...

  6. Crack arrest saturation model under combined electrical and mechanical loadings

    R.R. Bhargava

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The investigation aims at proposing a model for cracked piezoelectric strip which is capable to arrest the crack.Design/methodology/approach: Under the combined effect of electrical and mechanical loadings applied at the edges of the strip, the developed saturation zone is produced at each tip of the crack. To arrest further opening of the crack, the rims of the developed saturation zones are subjected to in-plane cohesive, normal uniform constant saturation point electrical displacement. The problem is solved using Fourier integral transform method which reduces the problem to the solution of Fredholm integral equation of the second kind. This integral equation in turn is solved numerically.Findings: The expressions are derived for different intensity factors and energy release rate. A qualitative analysis of the parameters affecting the arrest of opening of the crack and fatigue crack growth with respect to strip thickness and material constants are presented graphically.Research limitations/implications: The investigations are carried out by considering the material electrical brittle. Consequently, the zones protrude along the straight lines ahead of the crack tips. And further, the small scale electrical yielding conditions are used.Practical implications: Piezoelectric materials are widely getting used nowadays, even in day to day life like piezoelectric cigarette lighter, children toys etc. And, its advance used in technology like transducers, actuators has been already in progress. So, the aspect of cracking of piezoelectric materials are of great practical importance.Originality/value: The piezoelectric material under the combined effect of electrical and mechanical loadings gives the assessment of electrical displacement which is required to arrest the crack. The various useful interpretations are also drawn from the graphs.

  7. Active illumination and appearance model for face alignment

    Kahraman, Fatih; Gokmen, M.; Darkner, Sune;

    2010-01-01

    , integrating face identity and illumination models in order to reach acceptable and stable face recognition rates. For this purpose, Active Appearance Model (A AM) and illumination model of faces are combined in order to obtain an illumination invariant face localization. The proposed method is an integrated...... sufficient. There is no need to build complex models for illumination. As a result, this paper has presented a simple and efficient method for face modeling and face alignment in order to increase the performance of face localization by means of the proposed illumination invariant AIA method for face...... alignment, such as the Active Appearance Models, invariant to changes in, illumination. From the experimental results, we showed that the proposed AIA model provides higher accuracy than classical Active Appearance Model for face alignment in a point-to-point error sense....

  8. Combining multimedia models with integrated urban water system models for micropollutants.

    De Keyser, W; Gevaert, V; Verdonck, F; Nopens, I; De Baets, B; Vanrolleghem, P A; Mikkelsen, P S; Benedetti, L

    2010-01-01

    Integrated urban water system (IUWS) modeling aims at assessing the quality of the surface water receiving the urban emissions through sewage treatment plants, combined sewer overflows (CSOs) and stormwater drainage systems. However, some micropollutants tend to appear in more than one environmental medium (air, water, sediment, soil, groundwater, etc.). In this work, a multimedia fate and transport model (MFTM) is "wrapped around" a dynamic IUWS model for organic micropollutants to enable integrated environmental assessment. The combined model was tested on a hypothetical catchment using two scenarios: on the one hand a reference scenario with a combined sewerage system and on the other hand a stormwater infiltration pond scenario, as an example of a sustainable urban drainage system (SUDS). A case for Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was simulated and resulted in reduced surface water concentrations for the latter scenario. However, the model also showed that this was at the expense of increased fluxes to air, groundwater and infiltration pond soil. The latter effects are generally not included in IUWS models, whereas MTFMs usually do not consider dynamic surface water concentrations,; hence the combined model approach provides a better basis for integrated environmental assessment of micropollutants' fate in urban environments. PMID:20935380

  9. Combining Aspect and Model-Driven Engineering Approaches for Software Process Modeling and Simulation

    Bendraou, Reda; Jézéquel, Jean-Marc; Fleurey, Franck

    2009-01-01

    One major advantage of executable software process models is that once defined, they can be simulated, checked and validated in short incremental and iterative cycles. This also makes them a powerful asset for important process improvement decisions such as resource allocation, deadlock identification and process management. In this paper, we propose a framework that combines Aspect and Model-Driven Engineering approaches in order to ensure process modeling, simulation and execution. This fra...

  10. Achieving Process modeling and Execution through the Combination of Aspect and Model-Driven Engineering Approaches

    Bendraou, Reda; Jézéquel, Jean-Marc; Fleurey, Franck

    2012-01-01

    One major advantage of executable software process models is that once defined, they can be simulated, checked and validated in short incremental and iterative cycles. This also makes them a powerful asset for important process improvement decisions such as resource allocation, deadlock identification and process management. In this paper, we propose a framework that combines Aspect and Model-Driven Engineering approaches in order to ensure process modeling, simulation and execution. This fra...

  11. Modelling of Activated Sludge Wastewater Treatment

    Kurtanjeka, Ž.

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Activated sludge wastewater treatment is a highly complex physical, chemical and biological process, and variations in wastewater flow rate and its composition, combined with time-varying reactions in a mixed culture of microorganisms, make this process non-linear and unsteady. The efficiency of the process is established by measuring the quantities that indicate quality of the treated wastewater, but they can only be determined at the end of the process, which is when the water has already been processed and is at the outlet of the plant and released into the environment.If the water quality is not acceptable, it is already too late for its improvement, which indicates the need for a feed forward process control based on a mathematical model. Since there is no possibility of retracing the process steps back, all the mistakes in the control of the process could induce an ecological disaster of a smaller or bigger extent. Therefore, models that describe this process well may be used as a basis for monitoring and optimal control of the process development. This work analyzes the process of biological treatment of wastewater in the Velika Gorica plant. Two empirical models for the description of the process were established, multiple linear regression model (MLR with 16 predictor variables and piecewise linear regression model (PLR with 17 predictor variables. These models were developed with the aim to predict COD value of the effluent wastewater at the outlet, after treatment. The development of the models is based on the statistical analysis of experimental data, which are used to determine the relations among individual variables. In this work are applied linear models based on multiple linear regression (MLR and partial least squares (PLR methods. The used data were obtained by everyday measurements of the quantities that indicate the quality of the input and output water, working conditions of the plant and the quality of the activated sludge

  12. SPR imaging combined with cyclic voltammetry for the detection of neural activity

    Hui Li

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Surface plasmon resonance (SPR detects changes in refractive index at a metal-dielectric interface. In this study, SPR imaging (SPRi combined with cyclic voltammetry (CV was applied to detect neural activity in isolated bullfrog sciatic nerves. The neural activities induced by chemical and electrical stimulation led to an SPR response, and the activities were recorded in real time. The activities of different parts of the sciatic nerve were recorded and compared. The results demonstrated that SPR imaging combined with CV is a powerful tool for the investigation of neural activity.

  13. Novel qsar combination forecast model for insect repellent coupling support vector regression and k-nearest-neighbor

    To improve the precision of quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) modeling for aromatic carboxylic acid derivatives insect repellent, a novel nonlinear combination forecast model was proposed integrating support vector regression (SVR) and K-nearest neighbor (KNN): Firstly, search optimal kernel function and nonlinearly select molecular descriptors by the rule of minimum MSE value using SVR. Secondly, illuminate the effects of all descriptors on biological activity by multi-round enforcement resistance-selection. Thirdly, construct the sub-models with predicted values of different KNN. Then, get the optimal kernel and corresponding retained sub-models through subtle selection. Finally, make prediction with leave-one-out (LOO) method in the basis of reserved sub-models. Compared with previous widely used models, our work shows significant improvement in modeling performance, which demonstrates the superiority of the present combination forecast model. (author)

  14. Improving global fire carbon emissions estimates by combining moderate resolution burned area and active fire observations

    Randerson, J. T.; Chen, Y.; Giglio, L.; Rogers, B. M.; van der Werf, G.

    2011-12-01

    In several important biomes, including croplands and tropical forests, many small fires exist that have sizes that are well below the detection limit for the current generation of burned area products derived from moderate resolution spectroradiometers. These fires likely have important effects on greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions and regional air quality. Here we developed an approach for combining 1km thermal anomalies (active fires; MOD14A2) and 500m burned area observations (MCD64A1) to estimate the prevalence of these fires and their likely contribution to burned area and carbon emissions. We first estimated active fires within and outside of 500m burn scars in 0.5 degree grid cells during 2001-2010 for which MCD64A1 burned area observations were available. For these two sets of active fires we then examined mean fire radiative power (FRP) and changes in enhanced vegetation index (EVI) derived from 16-day intervals immediately before and after each active fire observation. To estimate the burned area associated with sub-500m fires, we first applied burned area to active fire ratios derived solely from within burned area perimeters to active fires outside of burn perimeters. In a second step, we further modified our sub-500m burned area estimates using EVI changes from active fires outside and within of burned areas (after subtracting EVI changes derived from control regions). We found that in northern and southern Africa savanna regions and in Central and South America dry forest regions, the number of active fires outside of MCD64A1 burned areas increased considerably towards the end of the fire season. EVI changes for active fires outside of burn perimeters were, on average, considerably smaller than EVI changes associated with active fires inside burn scars, providing evidence for burn scars that were substantially smaller than the 25 ha area of a single 500m pixel. FRP estimates also were lower for active fires outside of burn perimeters. In our

  15. New Mouse Models to Investigate the Efficacy of Drug Combinations in Human Chronic Myeloid Leukemia.

    Lin, Hanyang; Woolfson, Adrian; Jiang, Xiaoyan

    2016-01-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) comprises a simple and effective paradigm for generating new insights into the cellular origin, pathogenesis, and treatment of many types of human cancer. In particular, mouse models of CML have greatly facilitated the understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms and pathogenesis of this disease and have led to the identification of new drug targets that in some cases offer the possibility of functional cure. There are currently three established CML mouse models: the BCR-ABL transgenic model, the BCR-ABL retroviral transduction/transplantation model, and the xenotransplant immunodeficient model. Each has its own unique advantages and disadvantages. Depending on the question of interest, some models may be more appropriate than others. In this chapter, we describe a newly developed xenotransplant mouse model to determine the efficacy of novel therapeutic agents, either alone or in combination. The model facilitates the evaluation of the frequency of leukemic stem cells with long-term leukemia-initiating activity, a critical subcellular population that causes disease relapse and progression, through the utilization of primary CD34(+) CML stem/progenitor cells obtained from CML patients at diagnosis and prior to drug treatment. We have also investigated the effectiveness of new combination treatment strategies designed to prevent the development of leukemia in vivo using BCR-ABL (+) blast crisis cells as a model system. These types of in vivo studies are important for the prediction of individual patient responses to drug therapy, and have the potential to facilitate the design of personalized combination therapy strategies. PMID:27581149

  16. SYSTEMATIC SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY TECHNIQUE FOR EVALUATING COMBINED BIOLOIGCAL/GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON TREATMENT PROCESSES

    A systematic scanning election microscope analytical technique has been developed to examine granular activated carbon used a a medium for biomass attachment in liquid waste treatment. The procedure allows for the objective monitoring, comparing, and trouble shooting of combined ...

  17. Nonlinearly combined impacts of initial perturbation from human activities and parameter perturbation from climate change on the grassland ecosystem

    G. Sun

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Human activities and climate change are important factors that affect grassland ecosystems. A new optimization approach, the approach of conditional nonlinear optimal perturbation (CNOP related to initial and parameter perturbations, is employed to explore the nonlinearly combined impacts of human activities and climate change on a grassland ecosystem using a theoretical grassland model. In our study, it is assumed that the initial perturbations and parameter perturbations are regarded as human activities and climate change, respectively. Numerical results indicate that the climate changes causing the maximum effect in the grassland ecosystem are different under disparate intensities of human activities. This implies the pattern of climate change is very critical to the maintenance or degradation of grassland ecosystem in light of high intensity of human activities and that the grassland ecosystem should be rationally managed when the moisture index decreases. The grassland ecosystem influenced by the nonlinear combination of human activities and climate change undergoes abrupt change, while the grassland ecosystem affected by other types of human activities and climate change fails to show the abrupt change under a certain range of perturbations with the theoretical model. The further numerical analyses also indicate that the growth of living biomass and the evaporation from soil surface shaded by the wilted biomass may be crucial factors contributing to the abrupt change of the grassland equilibrium state within the theoretical model.

  18. Effects of chemical combinations on the parthenogenetic activation of mouse oocytes

    HAN, BAO-SHENG; GAO, JUN-LING

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify an optimal method for the parthenogenetic activation of mouse oocytes. Ethanol (EH), strontium chloride (SrCl2) and ionomycin calcium salt were each combined with cytochalasin B to induce the parthenogenetic activation of CD-1® mouse oocytes. Among the EH combination groups, the blastocyst formation and hatching rates of the group that was activated with EH and CB for 5 min were significantly higher compared with those of the groups that were activated fo...

  19. Combining an Optical Resonance Biosensor with Enzyme Activity Kinetics to Understand Protein Adsorption and Denaturation

    Wilson, Kerry A.; Finch, Craig A.; Anderson, Phillip; Vollmer, Frank; Hickman, James J.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding protein adsorption and resultant conformation changes on modified and unmodified silicon dioxide surfaces is a subject of keen interest in biosensors, microfluidic systems and for medical diagnostics. However, it has been proven difficult to investigate the kinetics of the adsorption process on these surfaces as well as understand the topic of the denaturation of proteins and its effect on enzyme activity. A highly sensitive optical whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonator was used to study a catalytic enzyme’s adsorption processes on different silane modified glass substrates (plain glass control, DETA, 13F, and SiPEG). The WGM sensor was able to obtain high resolution kinetic data of glucose oxidase (GO) adsorption with sensitivity of adsorption better than that possible with SPR. The kinetic data, in combination with a functional assay of the enzyme activity, was used to test hypotheses on adsorption mechanisms. By fitting numerical models to the WGM sensograms for protein adsorption, and by confirming numerical predictions of enzyme activity in a separate assay, we were able to identify mechanisms for GO adsorption on different alkylsilanes and infer information about the adsorption of protein on nanostructured surfaces. PMID:25453976

  20. Modeling and optimization of multimode fused fiber combiners

    Liu, Yu; Yu, Hao; Califano, Alessio; Braglia, Andrea; Perrone, Guido

    2016-03-01

    An effective method to predict the performance of multimode fused fiber combiners is presented. The realization of high power devices is strongly affected by the specific application, for instance whether used in fiber or in direct-diode lasers, and thus usually requires costly and time-consuming trial-and-error procedures. The proposed approach, which is based on ray tracing and statistical analysis, allows analyzing a-priori the impact of fiber dimensions, combiner geometry, glass material properties and laser beam quality on the coupling efficiency, therefore reducing the fabrication runs. Examples of application to 7-to-1 and 19-to-1 combiners are given and compared with experimental results.

  1. A Constraint Satisfaction Neural Network and Heuristic Combined Approach for Concurrent Activities Scheduling

    YAN JiHong(闫纪红); WU Cheng(吴澄)

    2003-01-01

    Scheduling activities in concurrent product development process is of great sig-nificance to shorten development lead time and minimize the cost. Moreover, it can eliminate theunnecessary redesign periods and guarantee that serial activities can be executed as concurrently aspossible. This paper presents a constraint satisfaction neural network and heuristic combined ap-proach for concurrent activities scheduling. In the combined approach, the neural network is usedto obtain a feasible starting time of all the activities based on sequence constraints, the heuris-tic algorithm is used to obtain a feasible solution of the scheduling problem based on resourceconstraints. The feasible scheduling solution is obtained by a gradient optimization function. Sim-ulations have shown that the proposed combined approach is efficient and feasible with respect toconcurrent activities scheduling.

  2. Antibacterial activity of Thymus vulgaris essential oil alone and in combination with other essential oils

    MAHENDRA RAI

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Kon K, Rai M. 2012. Antibacterial activity of Thymus vulgaris essential oil alone and in combination with other essential oils. Nusantara Bioscience 4: 50-56. Essential oils (EOs from plants represent an alternative approach in combating antibiotic-resistant bacteria. One of the EOs with proven antibacterial properties is Thymus vulgaris EO. The purpose of the present work was to investigate in vitro antibacterial activity of T. vulgaris EO alone and in combination with other EOs. The activity of T. vulgaris EO was screened in combination with 34 EOs against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli by disk diffusion method; then the most effective combinations were evaluated by broth microdilution method. Against S. aureus the synergistic effect was found in combination of T. vulgaris and Cinnamomum zeylonicum EOs with fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC index of 0.26; Juniperus communis and Picea abies EOs showed additive effect (FIC indexes were 0.74 and 0.78, respectively. Combination of T. vulgaris EO with Aniba rosaeodora and Melissa officinalis EOs demonstrated synergistic effect against E. coli (FIC indexes were 0.23 and 0.34, respectively; combination of T. vulgaris and Mentha piperita EOs was additive (FIC index 0.55. Therefore, combining T. vulgaris EO with other EOs has potential in further enhancing its antibacterial properties.

  3. Antimalarial activity of Ageratum conyzoides in combination with chloroquine and artesunate

    Ukwe Chinwe V; Ekwunife Obinna I; Epueke Ebele A; Ubaka Chukwuemeka M

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine the suppressive and curative activity of aqueous leaf extract of Ageratum conyzoides (A. conyzoides) in combination with chloroquine and artesunate, respectively against Plasmodium berghei infection in mice. Methods: Using malaria (Plasmodium berghei) infected albino mice of both sexes, aqueous extracts of A. conyzoides in combination with chloroquine and artesunate were tested for antimalarial activity, respectively. Four-day suppressive test and Rane's curative test were carried out. Results: Suppressive tests showed significant dose dependent reduction in parasitemia level produced by the extract-chloroquine and extract-artesunate combinations. Suppressive activities of both extract-drug combinations were greater than the individual drugs alone. Extract-chloroquine (100:5) produced the highest suppressive effect (98% suppression). Curative tests showed absolute survival in two extract-drug combinations. Two extract-drug combinations produced higher curative effects than the individual drugs alone. The highest dose combinations of extract-chloroquine (100:5) and extract-artesunate (100:5) produced absolute parasitemia clearance (cure) in the infected mice. Conclusions: The study indicated that aqueous extract of A. conyzoides had the ability to potentiate the antimalarial activity of chloroquine and artesunate against induced plasmodiasis in mice. It contributes a lot in the malaria endemic and poverty stricken tropics.

  4. Numerical Modelling of Sediment Transport in Combined Sewer Systems

    Schlütter, Flemming

    A conceptual sediment transport model has been developed. Through a case study a comparison with other numerical models is performed.......A conceptual sediment transport model has been developed. Through a case study a comparison with other numerical models is performed....

  5. Modeling Students' Units Coordinating Activity

    Boyce, Steven James

    2014-01-01

    Primarily via constructivist teaching experiment methodology, units coordination (Steffe, 1992) has emerged as a useful construct for modeling students' psychological constructions pertaining to several mathematical domains, including counting sequences, whole number multiplicative conceptions, and fractions schemes. I describe how consideration of units coordination as a Piagetian (1970b) structure is useful for modeling units coordination across contexts. In this study, I extend teaching ...

  6. SOFOMORE: Combined EEG source and forward model reconstruction

    Stahlhut, Carsten; Mørup, Morten; Winther, Ole;

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new EEG source localization method that simultaneously performs source and forward model reconstruction (SOFOMORE) in a hierarchical Bayesian framework. Reconstruction of the forward model is motivated by the many uncertainties involved in the forward model, including the representat......We propose a new EEG source localization method that simultaneously performs source and forward model reconstruction (SOFOMORE) in a hierarchical Bayesian framework. Reconstruction of the forward model is motivated by the many uncertainties involved in the forward model, including...... the representation of the cortical surface, conductivity distribution, and electrode positions. We demonstrate in both simulated and real EEG data that reconstruction of the forward model improves localization of the underlying sources....

  7. Modeling Workflow Using UML Activity Diagram

    Wei Yinxing(韦银星); Zhang Shensheng

    2004-01-01

    An enterprise can improve its adaptability in the changing market by means of workflow technologies. In the build time, the main function of Workflow Management System (WFMS) is to model business process. Workflow model is an abstract representation of the real-world business process. The Unified Modeling Language (UML) activity diagram is an important visual process modeling language proposed by the Object Management Group (OMG). The novelty of this paper is representing workflow model by means of UML activity diagram. A translation from UML activity diagram to π-calculus is established. Using π-calculus, the deadlock property of workflow is analyzed.

  8. Biological models for active vision: Towards a unified architecture

    Terzic K.; Lobato D.; Saleiro M.; Martins J; Farrajota M.; Rodrigues J.M.F.; Du Buf J.M.H.

    2013-01-01

    Building a general-purpose, real-time active vision system completely based on biological models is a great challenge. We apply a number of biologically plausible algorithms which address different aspects of vision, such as edge and keypoint detection, feature extraction,optical flow and disparity, shape detection, object recognition and scene modelling into a complete system. We present some of the experiments from our ongoing work, where our system leverages a combination of algorithms to ...

  9. Development of a Pressure-Dependent Constitutive Model with Combined Multilinear Kinematic and Isotropic Hardening

    Allen Phillip A.; Wilson, Christopher D.

    2003-01-01

    The development of a pressure-dependent constitutive model with combined multilinear kinematic and isotropic hardening is presented. The constitutive model is developed using the ABAQUS user material subroutine (UMAT). First the pressure-dependent plasticity model is derived. Following this, the combined bilinear and combined multilinear hardening equations are developed for von Mises plasticity theory. The hardening rule equations are then modified to include pressure dependency. The method for implementing the new constitutive model into ABAQUS is given.

  10. Performance analysis and modeling of energy from waste combined cycles

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) is produced in a substantial amount with minimal fluctuations throughout the year. The analysis of carbon neutrality of MSW on a life cycle basis shows that MSW is about 67% carbon-neutral, suggesting that only 33% of the CO2 emissions from incinerating MSW are of fossil origin. The waste constitutes a 'renewable biofuel' energy resource and energy from waste (EfW) can result in a net reduction in CO2 emissions. In this paper, we explore an approach to extracting energy from MSW efficiently - EfW/gas turbine hybrid combined cycles. This approach innovates by delivering better performance with respect to energy efficiency and CO2 mitigation. In the combined cycles, the topping cycle consists of a gas turbine, while the bottoming cycle is a steam cycle where the low quality fuel - waste is utilized. This paper assesses the viability of the hybrid combined cycles and analyses their thermodynamic advantages with the help of computer simulations. It was shown that the combined cycles could offer significantly higher energy conversion efficiency and a practical solution to handling MSW. Also, the potential for a net reduction in CO2 emissions resulting from the hybrid combined cycles was evaluated.

  11. A model combining oscillations and attractor dynamics for generation of grid cell firing

    Michael E Hasselmo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Different models have been able to account for different features of the data on grid cell firing properties, including the relationship of grid cells to cellular properties and network oscillations. This paper describes a model that combines elements of two major classes of models of grid cells: models using interference of oscillations and models using attractor dynamics. This model includes a population of units with oscillatory input representing input from the medial septum. These units are termed heading angle cells because their connectivity depends upon heading angle in the environment as well as the spatial phase coded by the cell. These cells project to a population of grid cells. The sum of the heading angle input results in standing waves of circularly symmetric input to the grid cell population. Feedback from the grid cell population increases the activity of subsets of the heading angle cells, resulting in the network settling into activity patterns that resemble the patterns of firing fields in a population of grid cells. The properties of heading angle cells firing as conjunctive grid-by-head-direction cells can shift the grid cell firing according to movement velocity. The pattern of interaction of oscillations requires use of separate populations that fire on alternate cycles of the net theta rhythmic input to grid cells, similar to recent neurophysiological data on theta cycle skipping in medial entorhinal cortex.

  12. Science Letters:Synergetic effects for p-nitrophenol abatement using a combined activated carbon adsorption-electrooxidation process

    周明华; 戴启洲; 雷乐成; 汪大翚

    2004-01-01

    A novel fluidized electrochemical reactor that integrated advanced electrochemical oxidation with activated carbon (AC) fluidization in a single cell was developed to model pollutant p-nitrophenol (PNP) abatement. AC fluidization could enhance COD removal by 22%-30%. In such a combined process, synergetic effects on PNP and COD removal was found, with their removal rate being enhanced by 137.8% and 97.8%, respectively. AC could be electrochemically regenerated and reused, indicating the combined process would be promising for treatment of biorefractory organic pollutants.

  13. Spatiotemporally synchronized cancer combination therapy using photo-activated nanoparticle drug delivery systems (Conference Presentation)

    Hasan, Tayyaba

    2016-03-01

    This talk will introduce a new nanotechnology platform for cancer combination therapy that utilizes near infrared light activation not only for photodynamic damage but also as an extrinsic mechanism to initiate release of complimentary drugs to suppress dynamic bursts in molecular signaling networks that promote tumor cell survival and treatment escape. The goal is to achieve co-delivery with concomitant activity of photodynamic, molecular inhibitor and chemotherapeutic agents, selectively within the tumor. This approach overcomes challenges in achieving synergistic interactions using sequential drug delivery. Conventional drug delivery is compromised by the differential pharmacokinetics of individual agents and potentially antagonistic effects—such as vascular shutdown by one agent that limits delivery of the second. Here, photodynamic damage—which efficiently kills drug-resistant cells via damage of common proteins involved in drug-resistance (such as anti-apoptosis factors and drug-efflux transporters)—is synchronized spatially and temporally with the photo-initiated release of complimentary agents—to enable full interaction amongst the individual therapies. This spatiotemporal synchronization offers new prospects for exploiting time-sensitive synergistic interactions. Specific implementations of these concepts will be presented in preclinical models of cancer. Strategies to enable molecular-targeting of cancer cells via site-specific attachment of targeting moieties to the outer lipid shell of these nanovehicles will also be discussed. If successful in humans, this new paradigm for synchronized, tumor-focused combination therapy will ultimately supersede the present use of chronic drug injection by increasing efficacy per cycle whilst reducing systemic exposure to toxic drugs.

  14. Activity of glycopeptides in combination with amikacin or rifampin against Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms on plastic catheters.

    Pascual, A; Ramirez de Arellano, E; Perea, E J

    1994-06-01

    The in vitro activity of vancomycin and teicoplanin (fourfold the MBC), alone and in combination with amikacin (16 mg/l) or rifampin (1 mg/l), against Staphylococcus epidermidis (slime-producing and non slime-producing strains) biofilms on different plastic catheters was evaluated. The addition of amikacin or rifampin significantly increased the activity of glycopeptides against sessile bacteria. With the slime-producing strain, these combinations were able to sterilize the surface of Vialon and polyvinylchloride catheters. It is concluded that the in vitro activity of glycopeptides against Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms on plastic catheters can be increased by the addition of amikacin or rifampin. PMID:7957277

  15. Monthly water balance modeling: Probabilistic, possibilistic and hybrid methods for model combination and ensemble simulation

    Nasseri, M.; Zahraie, B.; Ajami, N. K.; Solomatine, D. P.

    2014-04-01

    Multi-model (ensemble, or committee) techniques have shown to be an effective way to improve hydrological prediction performance and provide uncertainty information. This paper presents two novel multi-model ensemble techniques, one probabilistic, Modified Bootstrap Ensemble Model (MBEM), and one possibilistic, FUzzy C-means Ensemble based on data Pattern (FUCEP). The paper also explores utilization of the Ordinary Kriging (OK) method as a multi-model combination scheme for hydrological simulation/prediction. These techniques are compared against Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA) and Weighted Average (WA) methods to demonstrate their effectiveness. The mentioned techniques are applied to the three monthly water balance models used to generate stream flow simulations for two mountainous basins in the South-West of Iran. For both basins, the results demonstrate that MBEM and FUCEP generate more skillful and reliable probabilistic predictions, outperforming all the other techniques. We have also found that OK did not demonstrate any improved skill as a simple combination method over WA scheme for neither of the basins.

  16. Infectious diseases among animals : combining models with data

    de Koeijer, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    To eradicate or control the spread of infectious diseases, knowledge on the spread of the infection between (groups of) animals is necessary. Models can include such information and can subsequently be used to observe the efficacy of various control measures in fighting the infection. However, the availability of information and data to build and quantify these models is essential for applying such models in real life. In this thesis, models on the spread of infectious diseases in animals are...

  17. Combining Model-Driven Engineering and Cloud Computing

    Brunelière, Hugo; Cabot, Jordi; Jouault, Frédéric

    2010-01-01

    Service-orientation and model-driven engineering are two of the most dominant software engineering paradigms nowadays. This position paper explores the synergies between them and show how they can benefit from each other. In particular, the paper introduces the notion of Modeling as a Service (MaaS) as a way to provide modeling and model-driven engineering services from the cloud.

  18. Modelling of mass transfer in combination with radical reactions

    Hoorn, J. A. A.; Versteeg, G. F.

    2006-01-01

    The diffusion-reaction equations for different model versions have been solved using a finite-differencing technique. In all models a reactant A is transferred from the gas to the liquid phase and reacts in the liquid with B to form P. The calculations comprised a simple stoichiometric model, a syst

  19. Reservoir Modeling Combining Geostatistics with Markov Chain Monte Carlo Inversion

    Zunino, Andrea; Lange, Katrine; Melnikova, Yulia;

    2014-01-01

    geostatistics. The geostatistical algorithm learns the multiple-point statistics from prototype models, then generates proposal models which are tested by a Metropolis sampler. The solution of the inverse problem is finally represented by a collection of reservoir models in terms of facies and porosity, which...

  20. Modeling of active beam units with Modelica

    Maccarini, Alessandro; Hultmark, Göran; Vorre, Anders; Afshari, Alireza; Bergsøe, Niels Christian

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes an active beam model suitable for building energy simulations with the programming language Modelica. The model encapsulates empirical equations derived by a novel active beam terminal unit that operates with low-temperature heating and high-temperature cooling systems...

  1. Discursive Positionings and Emotions in Modelling Activities

    Daher, Wajeeh

    2015-01-01

    Mathematical modelling is suggested as an activity through which students engage in meaningful mathematics. In the current research, the modelling activity of a group of four seventh-grade students was analysed using the discursive analysis framework. The research findings show that the positionings and emotions of the group members during their…

  2. Threat Modelling for Active Directory

    Chadwick, David W

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyses the security threats that can arise against an Active Directory server when it is included in a Web application. The approach is based on the STRIDE classification methodology. The paper also provides outline descriptions of countermeasures that can be deployed to protect against the different threats and vulnerabilities identified here.

  3. Students’ mathematical learning in modelling activities

    Kjeldsen, Tinne Hoff; Blomhøj, Morten

    2013-01-01

    involved. We argue that progress in students’ conceptual learning needs to be conceptualised separately from that of progress in their modelling competency. Findings are that modelling activities open a window to the students’ images of the mathematical concepts involved; that modelling activities can......Ten years of experience with analyses of students’ learning in a modelling course for first year university students, led us to see modelling as a didactical activity with the dual goal of developing students’ modelling competency and enhancing their conceptual learning of mathematical concepts...... create and help overcome hidden cognitive conflicts in students’ understanding; that reflections within modelling can play an important role for the students’ learning of mathematics. These findings are illustrated with a modelling project concerning the world population....

  4. Modelling Typical Online Language Learning Activity

    Montoro, Carlos; Hampel, Regine; Stickler, Ursula

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the methods and results of a four-year-long research project focusing on the language learning activity of individual learners using online tasks conducted at the University of Guanajuato (Mexico) in 2009-2013. An activity-theoretical model (Blin, 2010; Engeström, 1987) of the typical language learning activity was used to…

  5. Evaluating a Model of Youth Physical Activity

    Heitzler, Carrie D.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Erickson, Darin J.; Barr-Anderson, Daheia; Sirard, John R.; Story, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between social influences, self-efficacy, enjoyment, and barriers and physical activity. Methods: Structural equation modeling examined relationships between parent and peer support, parent physical activity, individual perceptions, and objectively measured physical activity using accelerometers among a…

  6. Learning a Combined Model of Visual Saliency for Fixation Prediction.

    Wang, Jingwei; Borji, Ali; Jay Kuo, C-C; Itti, Laurent

    2016-04-01

    A large number of saliency models, each based on a different hypothesis, have been proposed over the past 20 years. In practice, while subscribing to one hypothesis or computational principle makes a model that performs well on some types of images, it hinders the general performance of a model on arbitrary images and large-scale data sets. One natural approach to improve overall saliency detection accuracy would then be fusing different types of models. In this paper, inspired by the success of late-fusion strategies in semantic analysis and multi-modal biometrics, we propose to fuse the state-of-the-art saliency models at the score level in a para-boosting learning fashion. First, saliency maps generated by several models are used as confidence scores. Then, these scores are fed into our para-boosting learner (i.e., support vector machine, adaptive boosting, or probability density estimator) to generate the final saliency map. In order to explore the strength of para-boosting learners, traditional transformation-based fusion strategies, such as Sum, Min, and Max, are also explored and compared in this paper. To further reduce the computation cost of fusing too many models, only a few of them are considered in the next step. Experimental results show that score-level fusion outperforms each individual model and can further reduce the performance gap between the current models and the human inter-observer model. PMID:26829792

  7. Combining multimedia models with integrated urban water system models for micropollutants

    De Keyser, W.; Gevaert, V.; Verdonck, F.;

    2009-01-01

    Integrated urban water system (IUWS) modelling aims at assessing the quality of the surface water receiving the urban emissions through sewage treatment plants, combined sewer overflows (CSOs) and stormwater drainage systems. However, some micropollutants have the tendency to occur in more than one...... stormwater infiltration pond scenario, as an example of a sustainable urban drainage system (SUDS). A case for Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was simulated and resulted in a reduced surface water concentration for the latter scenario. However, the model also showed that this was at the expense of...

  8. Model heterogeneous acid catalysts and metal-support interactions: A combined surface science and catalysis study

    Boszormenyi, I.

    1991-05-01

    This (<100 {Angstrom}) silica-alumina layers were tested as potential model heterogeneous acid catalysts for combined surface science and catalysis studies. Three preparation methods were used: oxidation of r3 {times} r3 R30 Al/Si(111) structure in UHV; deposition on Si(lll) from aqueous solution; and argon ion beam sputter deposition in UHV. The homogeneous thin layers are amorphous, and the chemical environment of surface atoms is similar to that of Si, Al and oxygen atoms on high surface area acid catalysts. Since the ion beam-deposited thin layer of silica-alumina has the same composition as the target zeolite this deposition method is a promising tool to prepare model catalysts using practical catalyst targets. The silica-alumina layers are active in cumene cracking, a typical acid catalyzed reaction. In order to clearly distinguish background reactions and the acid catalyzed reaction at least 20 cm{sup 2} catalyst surface area is needed. Two series of model platinum-alumina catalysts were prepared in a combined UHV -- high pressure reactor cell apparatus by depositing alumina on polycrystalline Pt foil and by vapor depositing Pt on a thin alumina layer on Au. Both model surfaces have been prepared with and without chlorine. AES, CO desorption as well as methyl cyclopentane (MCP) hydrogenolysis studies indicate that the Pt surface area is always higher if a chlorination step is involved. Selectivity patterns in MCP ring opening on ``Pt-on-alumina`` and on ``alumina-on-Pt`` are different; only the former is a linear combination of selective and statistical ring opening. Product distribution, however, changes with coverage and reaction time. The properties of the two model catalyst systems and role of chlorine in MCP hydrogenolysis are also discussed.

  9. Model heterogeneous acid catalysts and metal-support interactions: A combined surface science and catalysis study

    Boszormenyi, I.

    1991-05-01

    This (<100 [Angstrom]) silica-alumina layers were tested as potential model heterogeneous acid catalysts for combined surface science and catalysis studies. Three preparation methods were used: oxidation of r3 [times] r3 R30 Al/Si(111) structure in UHV; deposition on Si(lll) from aqueous solution; and argon ion beam sputter deposition in UHV. The homogeneous thin layers are amorphous, and the chemical environment of surface atoms is similar to that of Si, Al and oxygen atoms on high surface area acid catalysts. Since the ion beam-deposited thin layer of silica-alumina has the same composition as the target zeolite this deposition method is a promising tool to prepare model catalysts using practical catalyst targets. The silica-alumina layers are active in cumene cracking, a typical acid catalyzed reaction. In order to clearly distinguish background reactions and the acid catalyzed reaction at least 20 cm[sup 2] catalyst surface area is needed. Two series of model platinum-alumina catalysts were prepared in a combined UHV -- high pressure reactor cell apparatus by depositing alumina on polycrystalline Pt foil and by vapor depositing Pt on a thin alumina layer on Au. Both model surfaces have been prepared with and without chlorine. AES, CO desorption as well as methyl cyclopentane (MCP) hydrogenolysis studies indicate that the Pt surface area is always higher if a chlorination step is involved. Selectivity patterns in MCP ring opening on Pt-on-alumina'' and on alumina-on-Pt'' are different; only the former is a linear combination of selective and statistical ring opening. Product distribution, however, changes with coverage and reaction time. The properties of the two model catalyst systems and role of chlorine in MCP hydrogenolysis are also discussed.

  10. An empirical movement model for sixgill sharks in Puget Sound: Combining observed and unobserved behavior

    Phillip S. LEVIN; Peter HORNE; Kelly S. ANDREWS; Greg WILLIAMS

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the movement of animals is fundamental to population and community ecology.Historically,it has been difficult to quantify movement patterns of most fishes,but technological advances in acoustic telemetry have increased our abilities to monitor their movement.In this study,we combined small-scale active acoustic tracking with large-scale passive acoustic monitoring to develop an empirical movement model for sixgill sharks in Puget Sound,WA,USA.We began by testing whether a correlated random walk model described the daily movement of sixgills; however,the model failed to capture home-ranging behavior.We added this behavior and used the resultant model (a biased random walk model) to determine whether daily movement patterns are able to explain large-scale seasonal movement.The daily model did not explain the larger-scale patterns of movement observed in the passive monitoring data.In order to create the large-scale patterns,sixgills must have performed behaviors (large,fast directed movements) that were unobserved during small-scale active tracking.In addition,seasonal shifts in location were not captured by the daily model.We added these ‘unobserved' behaviors to the model and were able to capture large-scale seasonal movement of sixgill sharks over 150 days.The development of empirical models of movement allows researchers to develop hypotheses and test mechanisms responsible for a species movement behavior and spatial distribution.This knowledge will increase our ability to successfully manage species of concern [Current Zoology 58 (1):103-115,2012].

  11. Combining Bayesian Networks and Agent Based Modeling to develop a decision-support model in Vietnam

    Nong, Bao Anh; Ertsen, Maurits; Schoups, Gerrit

    2016-04-01

    Complexity and uncertainty in natural resources management have been focus themes in recent years. Within these debates, with the aim to define an approach feasible for water management practice, we are developing an integrated conceptual modeling framework for simulating decision-making processes of citizens, in our case in the Day river area, Vietnam. The model combines Bayesian Networks (BNs) and Agent-Based Modeling (ABM). BNs are able to combine both qualitative data from consultants / experts / stakeholders, and quantitative data from observations on different phenomena or outcomes from other models. Further strengths of BNs are that the relationship between variables in the system is presented in a graphical interface, and that components of uncertainty are explicitly related to their probabilistic dependencies. A disadvantage is that BNs cannot easily identify the feedback of agents in the system once changes appear. Hence, ABM was adopted to represent the reaction among stakeholders under changes. The modeling framework is developed as an attempt to gain better understanding about citizen's behavior and factors influencing their decisions in order to reduce uncertainty in the implementation of water management policy.

  12. Functional copmponents produced by multi-jet modelling combined with electroforming and machining

    Baier, Oliver

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In fuel cell technology, certain components are used that are responsible for guiding liquid media. When these components are produced by conventional manufacturing, there are often sealing issues, and trouble- and maintenance-free deployment cannot be ensured. Against this background, a new process combination has been developed in a joint project between the University of Duisburg-Essen, the Center for Fuel Cell Technology (ZBT, and the company Galvano-T electroplating forming GmbH. The approach is to combine multi-jet modelling (MJM, electroforming and milling in order to produce a defined external geometry. The wax models are generated on copper base plates and copper-coated to a desirable thickness. Following this, the undefined electroplated surfaces are machined to achieve the desired measurement, and the wax is melted out. This paper presents, first, how this process is technically feasible, then describes how the MJM on a 3-D Systems ThermoJet was adapted to stabilise the process.In the AiF-sponsored ZIM project, existing limits and possibilities are shown and different approaches of electroplating are investigated. This paper explores whether or not activation of the wax structure by a conductive initial layer is required. Using the described process chain, different parts were built: a heat exchanger, a vaporiser, and a reformer (in which pellets were integrated in an intermediate step. In addition, multiple-layer parts with different functions were built by repeating the process combination several times.

  13. Combination of multispectral remote sensing, variable rate technology and environmental modeling for citrus pest management.

    Du, Qian; Chang, Ni-Bin; Yang, Chenghai; Srilakshmi, Kanth R

    2008-01-01

    The Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) of south Texas is an agriculturally rich area supporting intensive production of vegetables, fruits, grain sorghum, and cotton. Modern agricultural practices involve the combined use of irrigation with the application of large amounts of agrochemicals to maximize crop yields. Intensive agricultural activities in past decades might have caused potential contamination of soil, surface water, and groundwater due to leaching of pesticides in the vadose zone. In an effort to promote precision farming in citrus production, this paper aims at developing an airborne multispectral technique for identifying tree health problems in a citrus grove that can be combined with variable rate technology (VRT) for required pesticide application and environmental modeling for assessment of pollution prevention. An unsupervised linear unmixing method was applied to classify the image for the grove and quantify the symptom severity for appropriate infection control. The PRZM-3 model was used to estimate environmental impacts that contribute to nonpoint source pollution with and without the use of multispectral remote sensing and VRT. Research findings using site-specific environmental assessment clearly indicate that combination of remote sensing and VRT may result in benefit to the environment by reducing the nonpoint source pollution by 92.15%. Overall, this study demonstrates the potential of precision farming for citrus production in the nexus of industrial ecology and agricultural sustainability. PMID:17222960

  14. In vitro activity of amoxicillin in combination with clavulanic acid against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Cynamon, M H; Palmer, G S

    1983-01-01

    The comparative in vitro activity of amoxicillin alone and in combination with clavulanic acid against 15 isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was evaluated by broth dilution susceptibility testing. Amoxicillin inhibited 4 of 15 isolates at 8 micrograms/ml or less but was not bactericidal against any of the isolates at that concentration. Amoxicillin in combination with clavulanic acid was bactericidal for 14 of 15 isolates tested at an amoxicillin concentration of 4 micrograms/ml or less a...

  15. Active Learning for Player Modeling

    Shaker, Noor; Abou-Zleikha, Mohamed; Shaker, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    the full dataset) is necessary for the construction of accu- rate models that are as accurate as those constructed from the full dataset. This indicates the potential of the method and its benefits in cases when obtaining the data is expensive or time, storage or effort consuming. The results also...... indicate that the method can be used online during the content generation process where the mod- els can improve and better content can be presented as the game is being played....

  16. Triple combination of amantadine, ribavirin, and oseltamivir is highly active and synergistic against drug resistant influenza virus strains in vitro.

    Jack T Nguyen

    Full Text Available The rapid emergence and subsequent spread of the novel 2009 Influenza A/H1N1 virus (2009 H1N1 has prompted the World Health Organization to declare the first pandemic of the 21st century, highlighting the threat of influenza to public health and healthcare systems. Widespread resistance to both classes of influenza antivirals (adamantanes and neuraminidase inhibitors occurs in both pandemic and seasonal viruses, rendering these drugs to be of marginal utility in the treatment modality. Worldwide, virtually all 2009 H1N1 and seasonal H3N2 strains are resistant to the adamantanes (rimantadine and amantadine, and the majority of seasonal H1N1 strains are resistant to oseltamivir, the most widely prescribed neuraminidase inhibitor (NAI. To address the need for more effective therapy, we evaluated the in vitro activity of a triple combination antiviral drug (TCAD regimen composed of drugs with different mechanisms of action against drug-resistant seasonal and 2009 H1N1 influenza viruses. Amantadine, ribavirin, and oseltamivir, alone and in combination, were tested against amantadine- and oseltamivir-resistant influenza A viruses using an in vitro infection model in MDCK cells. Our data show that the triple combination was highly synergistic against drug-resistant viruses, and the synergy of the triple combination was significantly greater than the synergy of any double combination tested (P<0.05, including the combination of two NAIs. Surprisingly, amantadine and oseltamivir contributed to the antiviral activity of the TCAD regimen against amantadine- and oseltamivir-resistant viruses, respectively, at concentrations where they had no activity as single agents, and at concentrations that were clinically achievable. Our data demonstrate that the TCAD regimen composed of amantadine, ribavirin, and oseltamivir is highly synergistic against resistant viruses, including 2009 H1N1. The TCAD regimen overcomes baseline drug resistance to both classes of

  17. Activity and interactions of antibiotic and phytochemical combinations against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in vitro

    Premkumar Jayaraman, Meena K Sakharkar, Chu Sing Lim, Thean Hock Tang, Kishore R. Sakharkar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the in vitro activities of seven antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, ceftazidime, tetracycline, trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, polymyxin B and piperacillin and six phytochemicals (protocatechuic acid, gallic acid, ellagic acid, rutin, berberine and myricetin against five P. aeruginosa isolates, alone and in combination are evaluated. All the phytochemicals under investigation demonstrate potential inhibitory activity against P. aeruginosa. The combinations of sulfamethoxazole plus protocatechuic acid, sulfamethoxazole plus ellagic acid, sulfamethoxazole plus gallic acid and tetracycline plus gallic acid show synergistic mode of interaction. However, the combinations of sulfamethoxazole plus myricetin shows synergism for three strains (PA01, DB5218 and DR3062. The synergistic combinations are further evaluated for their bactericidal activity against P. aeruginosa ATCC strain using time-kill method. Sub-inhibitory dose responses of antibiotics and phytochemicals individually and in combination are presented along with their interaction network to suggest on the mechanism of action and potential targets for the phytochemicals under investigation. The identified synergistic combinations can be of potent therapeutic value against P. aeruginosa infections. These findings have potential implications in delaying the development of resistance as the antibacterial effect is achieved with lower concentrations of both drugs (antibiotics and phytochemicals.

  18. Forecasting Annual Power Generation Using a Harmony Search Algorithm-Based Joint Parameters Optimization Combination Model

    Hong Chang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Accurate power generation forecasting provides the basis of decision making for electric power industry development plans, energy conservation and environmental protection. Since the power generation time series are rarely purely linear or nonlinear, no single forecasting model can identify the true data trends exactly in all situations. To combine forecasts from different models can reduce the model selection risk and effectively improve accuracy. In this paper, we propose a novel technique called the Harmony Search (HS algorithm-based joint parameters optimization combination model. In this model, the single forecasting model adopts power function form with unfixed exponential parameters. The exponential parameters of the single model and the combination weights are called joint parameters which are optimized by the HS algorithm by optimizing the objective function. Real power generation time series data sets of China, Japan, Russian Federation and India were used as samples to examine the forecasting accuracy of the presented model. The forecasting performance was compared with four single models and four combination models, respectively. The MAPE of our presented model is the lowest, which shows that the proposed model outperforms other comparative ones. Especially, the proposed combination model could better fit significant turning points of power generation time series. We can conclude that the proposed model can obviously improve forecasting accuracy and it can treat nonlinear time series with fluctuations better than other single models or combination models.

  19. Multilayer pieozoelectric transducer models combined with Field II

    Bæk, David; Willatzen, Morten

    2009-01-01

    boundary with a polymer ring, and submerged into water. The transducer models are developed to account for any external electrical loading impedance in the driving circuit. The models are adapted to calculate the impulse surface acceleration needed by the Field II software in predicting pressure pulses at...

  20. The activity model of legal psychologist

    N.V. Bogdanovich,; V.A. Chernushevich

    2014-01-01

    We propose an activity model of legal psychologist work. As a basis for the construction of the system of legal psychologist activity, we use trajectory of teenager living in the legal field. As the main activities within their respective specializations, we highlighted prevention, maintenance and rehabilitation. We define the main activities necessary for the development within the FGOSIII specialization 050407 “Pedagogy and Psychology of deviant behavior”: general and pathopsychologic diagn...

  1. Multiscale Combination of Physically-Based Registration and Deformation Modeling

    Tsap, L.; Goldgof, D.B.; Sarkar, S.

    1999-11-08

    In this paper the authors present a novel multiscale approach to recovery of nonrigid motion from sequences of registered intensity and range images. The main idea of the approach is that a finite element (FEM) model can naturally handle both registration and deformation modeling using a single model-driving strategy. The method includes a multiscale iterative algorithm based on analysis of the undirected Hausdorff distance to recover correspondences. The method is evaluated with respect to speed, accuracy, and noise sensitivity. Advantages of the proposed approach are demonstrated using man-made elastic materials and human skin motion. Experiments with regular grid features are used for performance comparison with a conventional approach (separate snakes and FEM models). It is shown that the new method does not require a grid and can adapt the model to available object features.

  2. Mechanism of Sporicidal Activity for the Synergistic Combination of Peracetic Acid and Hydrogen Peroxide.

    Leggett, Mark J; Schwarz, J Spencer; Burke, Peter A; McDonnell, Gerald; Denyer, Stephen P; Maillard, Jean-Yves

    2016-02-01

    There is still great interest in controlling bacterial endospores. The use of chemical disinfectants and, notably, oxidizing agents to sterilize medical devices is increasing. With this in mind, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and peracetic acid (PAA) have been used in combination, but until now there has been no explanation for the observed increase in sporicidal activity. This study provides information on the mechanism of synergistic interaction of PAA and H2O2 against bacterial spores. We performed investigations of the efficacies of different combinations, including pretreatments with the two oxidizers, against wild-type spores and a range of spore mutants deficient in the spore coat or small acid-soluble spore proteins. The concentrations of the two biocides were also measured in the reaction vessels, enabling the assessment of any shift from H2O2 to PAA formation. This study confirmed the synergistic activity of the combination of H2O2 and PAA. However, we observed that the sporicidal activity of the combination is largely due to PAA and not H2O2. Furthermore, we observed that the synergistic combination was based on H2O2 compromising the spore coat, which was the main spore resistance factor, likely allowing better penetration of PAA and resulting in the increased sporicidal activity. PMID:26637595

  3. Modelling activity transport behavior in PWR plant

    The activation and transport of corrosion products around a PWR circuit is a major concern to PWR plant operators as these may give rise to high personnel doses. The understanding of what controls dose rates on ex-core surfaces and shutdown releases has improved over the years but still several questions remain unanswered. For example the relative importance of particle and soluble deposition in the core to activity levels in the plant is not clear. Wide plant to plant and cycle to cycle variations are noted with no apparent explanations why such variations are observed. Over the past few years this group have been developing models to simulate corrosion product transport around a PWR circuit. These models form the basis for the latest version of the BOA code and simulate the movement of Fe and Ni around the primary circuit. Part of this development is to include the activation and subsequent transport of radioactive species around the circuit and this paper describes some initial modelling work in this area. A simple model of activation, release and deposition is described and then applied to explain the plant behaviour at Sizewell B and Vandellos II. This model accounts for activation in the core, soluble and particulate activity movement around the circuit and for activity capture ex-core on both the inner and outer oxides. The model gives a reasonable comparison with plant observations and highlights what controls activity transport in these plants and importantly what factors can be ignored. (authors)

  4. Comparison of high-latitude thermospheric meridionalwinds II: combined FPI, radar and model Climatologies

    E. M. Griffin

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The climatological behaviour of the thermospheric meridional wind above Kiruna, Sweden (67.4°N, 20.4°E has been investigated for seasonal and solar cycle dependence using six different techniques, comprising both model and experimental sources. Model output from both the empirical Horizontal Wind Model (HWM (Hedin et al., 1988 and the numerical Coupled Thermosphere and Ionosphere Model (CTIM are compared to the measured behaviour at Kiruna, as a single site example. The empirical International Reference Ionosphere (IRI model is used as input to an implementation of servo theory, to provide another climatology combining empirical input with a theoretical framework. The experimental techniques have been introduced in a companion paper in this issue and provide climatologies from direct measurements, using Fabry-Perot Interferometers (FPI, together with 2 separate techniques applied to the European Incoherent Scatter radar (EISCAT database to derive neutral winds. One of these techniques uses the same implementation of servo theory as has been used with the IRI model. Detailed comparisons for each season and solar activity category allow for conclusions to be drawn as to the major influences on the climatological behaviour of the wind at this latitude. Comparison of the incoherent scatter radar (ISR derived neutral winds with FPI, empirical model and numerical model winds is important to our understanding and judgement of the validity of the techniques used to derive thermospheric wind databases. The comparisons also test model performance and indicate possible reasons for differences found between the models. In turn, the conclusions point to possible improvements in their formulation. In particular it is found that the empirical models are over-reliant on mid-latitude data in their formulation, and fail to provide accurate estimates of the winds at high-latitudes.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (thermospheric dynamics

  5. Computational Models for Analysis of Illicit Activities

    Nizamani, Sarwat

    devise policies to minimize them. These activities include cybercrimes, terrorist attacks or violent actions in response to certain world issues. Beside such activities, there are several other related activities worth analyzing, for which computational models have been presented in this thesis....... These models include a model for analyzing evolution of terrorist networks; a text classification model for detecting suspicious text and identification of suspected authors of anonymous emails; and a semantic analysis model for news reports, which may help analyze the illicit activities in certain area...... with location and temporal information. For the network evolution, the hierarchical agglomerative clustering approach has been applied to terrorist networks as case studies. The networks' evolutions show that how individual actors who are initially isolated from each other are converted in small groups, which...

  6. Combining the pan-aurora kinase inhibitor AMG 900 with histone deacetylase inhibitors enhances antitumor activity in prostate cancer

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) are being tested in clinical trials for the treatment of solid tumors. While most studies have focused on the reexpression of silenced tumor suppressor genes, a number of genes/pathways are downregulated by HDACIs. This provides opportunities for combination therapy: agents that further disable these pathways through inhibition of residual gene function are speculated to enhance cell death in combination with HDACIs. A previous study from our group indicated that mitotic checkpoint kinases such as PLK1 and Aurora A are downregulated by HDACIs. We used in vitro and in vivo xenograft models of prostate cancer (PCA) to test whether combination of HDACIs with the pan-aurora kinase inhibitor AMG 900 can synergistically or additively kill PCA cells. AMG 900 and HDACIs synergistically decreased cell proliferation activity and clonogenic survival in DU-145, LNCaP, and PC3 PCA cell lines compared to single-agent treatment. Cellular senescence, polyploidy, and apoptosis was significantly increased in all cell lines after combination treatment. In vivo xenograft studies indicated decreased tumor growth and decreased aurora B kinase activity in mice treated with low-dose AMG 900 and vorinostat compared to either agent alone. Pharmacodynamics was assessed by scoring for phosphorylated histone H3 through immunofluorescence. Our results indicate that combination treatment with low doses of AMG 900 and HDACIs could be a promising therapy for future clinical trials against PCA

  7. Traditional, Cyber and Combined Bullying Roles: Differences in Risky Online and Offline Activities

    Sebastian Wachs

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study (1 reports frequency rates of mutually exclusive traditional, cyber and combined (both traditional and cyber bullying roles; and (2 investigates whether adolescents belonging to particular bullying roles show higher levels of involvement in risky online activities (Compulsive Internet Use (CIU, online grooming victimization, and sexting and risky offline activities (bad behavior in school, drinking alcohol and truancy than non-involved adolescents. The sample comprised self-reports of 1928 German, Dutch and Thai adolescents (Age = 12–18; M = 14.52; SD = 1.6. The results revealed age, sex and country differences in bullying frequency rates. CIU, sending of sexts and risky offline activities were most strongly associated with combined bully-victims. The receiving of sexts was most strongly associated with combined bullies; and online grooming victimization was most strongly related to cyber bully-victims. Another important finding is that the associations between risky offline activities and combined bullying are stronger than for traditional and cyber bullying. The findings contribute to better understanding of the associations between varying bullying roles and risky online and offline activities among adolescents. In sum, the results underscore the need to promote life skills rather than adopting more conventional approaches, which focus almost exclusively on reduction of risks.

  8. Simulation and Analysis of a Combined Mobility Model with Obstacles

    Pecchia, Emiliano; Erman, David; Popescu, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    The use of simulations have become increasingly frequent in the study and the performance evaluation of network systems. The simulation environment deeply influences the behavior of results, so a model that simulates a realistic movement of the nodes is necessary for the study of wireless networks. Simple mobility models do not provide realistic scenarios. Often movements are completely random, uncorrelated and in open space, without the chance of considering the effects of obstacles or rules...

  9. Combining Imagery and Models to Understand River Dynamics

    Blain, C. A.; Mied, R. P.; Linzell, R. S.

    2014-12-01

    Rivers pose one of the most challenging environments to characterize. Their geometric complexity and continually changing position and character are difficult to measure under optimal circumstances. Further compounding the problem is the often inaccessibility of these areas around the globe. Yet details of the river bank position and bed elevation are essential elements in the construction of accurate predictive river models. To meet this challenge, remote sensing imagery is first used to initialize the construction of advanced high resolution river circulation models. In turn, such models are applied to dynamically interpret remotely-sensed surface features. A method has been developed to automatically extract water and shoreline locations from arbitrarily sourced high resolution (~1m gsd) visual spectrum imagery without recourse to the spectral or color information. The approach relies on quantifying the difference in image texture between the relatively smooth water surface and the comparatively rough surface of surrounding land. Processing the segmented land/water interface results in ordered, continuous shoreline coordinates that bound river model construction. In the absence of observed bed elevations, one of several available analytic bathymetry cross-sectional relations are applied to complete the river model configuration. Successful application of this approach to the Snohomish River, WA and the Pearl River, MS are demonstrated. Once constructed, a hydrodynamic model of the river model can also be applied to unravel the dynamics responsible for observed surface features in the imagery. At a creek-river confluence in the Potomac River, MD, an ebb tide front observed in the imagery is analyzed using the model. The result is knowledge that an ebb shoal located just outside of the creek must be present and is essential for front formation. Furthermore, the front is found to be persistent throughout the tidal cycle, although it changes sign between ebb and

  10. Challenges in combining projections from multiple climate models

    J. Cermak; Furrer, R.; Knutti, R.; Meehl, G. A.; Tebaldi, C.

    2010-01-01

    Recent coordinated efforts, in which numerous general circulation climate models have been run for a common set of experiments, have produced large datasets of projections of future climate for various scenarios. Those multimodel ensembles sample initial conditions, parameters, and structural uncertainties in the model design, and they have prompted a variety of approaches to quantifying uncertainty in future climate change. International climate change assessments also rely heavily on these ...

  11. Formulation of a Combined Transportation and Inventory Optimization Model with Multiple Time Periods

    G.Krishnakumari,

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Most distribution network design models existing in the literature have focused on minimizing the costs of inventory and transportation. During the analysis of supply chain of currency management problem it is observed that the transportation of currency from various sources to various destinations and the required inventory to be maintained to meet the emerging demands requires formulation of a combined problem. This framework aims to support the coordination of inventory and transportation activities to properly manage the inventory profiles and currency flows between source locations and distribution centers. This paper considers a multi-period inventory and transportation model for a single commodity. The key contribution of this paper is, a mathematical programming formulation of transportation cum inventory problem is proposed and an algorithm for this new formulation as a multi period decision process is intended. A numerical example of currency transportation cum inventory is presented to illustrate the proposed algorithm

  12. Synergistic antitumor activity of gemcitabine combined with triptolide in pancreatic cancer cells

    QIAO, ZHIXIN; He, Min; HE, MU; Li, Weijing; WANG, XUANLIN; Wang, Yanbing; KUAI, QIYUAN; Li, Changlan; REN, SUPING; Yu, Qun

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a fatal human malignancy associated with an exceptionally poor prognosis. Novel therapeutic strategies are urgently required to treat this disease. In addition to immunosuppressive activity, triptolide possesses strong antitumor activity and synergistically enhances the antitumor activities of conventional chemotherapeutic drugs in preclinical models of pancreatic cancer. The present study investigated the antitumor effects of triptolide in pancreatic cancer cells, either...

  13. Activity transport models for PWR primary circuits

    The corrosion products activated in the primary circuit form a major source of occupational radiation dose in the PWR reactors. Transport of corrosion activity is a complex process including chemistry, reactor physics, thermodynamics and hydrodynamics. All the mechanisms involved are not known and there is no comprehensive theory for the process, so experimental test loops and plant data are very important in research efforts. Several activity transport modelling attempts have been made to improve the water chemistry control and to minimise corrosion in PWR's. In this research report some of these models are reviewed with special emphasis on models designed for Soviet VVER type reactors. (51 refs., 16 figs., 4 tabs.)

  14. Local Inflammation in Fracture Hematoma: Results from a Combined Trauma Model in Pigs

    K. Horst

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Previous studies showed significant interaction between the local and systemic inflammatory response after severe trauma in small animal models. The purpose of this study was to establish a new combined trauma model in pigs to investigate fracture-associated local inflammation and gain information about the early inflammatory stages after polytrauma. Material and Methods. Combined trauma consisted of tibial fracture, lung contusion, liver laceration, and controlled hemorrhage. Animals were mechanically ventilated and under ICU-monitoring for 48 h. Blood and fracture hematoma samples were collected during the time course of the study. Local and systemic levels of serum cytokines and diverse alarmins were measured by ELISA kit. Results. A statistical significant difference in the systemic serum values of IL-6 and HMGB1 was observed when compared to the sham. Moreover, there was a statistical significant difference in the serum values of the fracture hematoma of IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and HMGB1 when compared to the systemic inflammatory response. However a decrease of local proinflammatory concentrations was observed while anti-inflammatory mediators increased. Conclusion. Our data showed a time-dependent activation of the local and systemic inflammatory response. Indeed it is the first study focusing on the local and systemic inflammatory response to multiple-trauma in a large animal model.

  15. Modelling Odor Decoding in the Antennal Lobe by Combining Sequential Firing Rate Models with Bayesian Inference.

    Cuevas Rivera, Dario; Bitzer, Sebastian; Kiebel, Stefan J

    2015-10-01

    The olfactory information that is received by the insect brain is encoded in the form of spatiotemporal patterns in the projection neurons of the antennal lobe. These dense and overlapping patterns are transformed into a sparse code in Kenyon cells in the mushroom body. Although it is clear that this sparse code is the basis for rapid categorization of odors, it is yet unclear how the sparse code in Kenyon cells is computed and what information it represents. Here we show that this computation can be modeled by sequential firing rate patterns using Lotka-Volterra equations and Bayesian online inference. This new model can be understood as an 'intelligent coincidence detector', which robustly and dynamically encodes the presence of specific odor features. We found that the model is able to qualitatively reproduce experimentally observed activity in both the projection neurons and the Kenyon cells. In particular, the model explains mechanistically how sparse activity in the Kenyon cells arises from the dense code in the projection neurons. The odor classification performance of the model proved to be robust against noise and time jitter in the observed input sequences. As in recent experimental results, we found that recognition of an odor happened very early during stimulus presentation in the model. Critically, by using the model, we found surprising but simple computational explanations for several experimental phenomena. PMID:26451888

  16. Modelling Odor Decoding in the Antennal Lobe by Combining Sequential Firing Rate Models with Bayesian Inference.

    Dario Cuevas Rivera

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The olfactory information that is received by the insect brain is encoded in the form of spatiotemporal patterns in the projection neurons of the antennal lobe. These dense and overlapping patterns are transformed into a sparse code in Kenyon cells in the mushroom body. Although it is clear that this sparse code is the basis for rapid categorization of odors, it is yet unclear how the sparse code in Kenyon cells is computed and what information it represents. Here we show that this computation can be modeled by sequential firing rate patterns using Lotka-Volterra equations and Bayesian online inference. This new model can be understood as an 'intelligent coincidence detector', which robustly and dynamically encodes the presence of specific odor features. We found that the model is able to qualitatively reproduce experimentally observed activity in both the projection neurons and the Kenyon cells. In particular, the model explains mechanistically how sparse activity in the Kenyon cells arises from the dense code in the projection neurons. The odor classification performance of the model proved to be robust against noise and time jitter in the observed input sequences. As in recent experimental results, we found that recognition of an odor happened very early during stimulus presentation in the model. Critically, by using the model, we found surprising but simple computational explanations for several experimental phenomena.

  17. Discursive positionings and emotions in modelling activities

    Daher, Wajeeh

    2015-11-01

    Mathematical modelling is suggested as an activity through which students engage in meaningful mathematics. In the current research, the modelling activity of a group of four seventh-grade students was analysed using the discursive analysis framework. The research findings show that the positionings and emotions of the group members during their participation in the modelling activity changed as the activity proceeded. Overall, it can be said that three of the four group members acted as insiders, while the fourth acted as an outsider, and only, towards the end of the group's work on the activity, he acted as an insider. Moreover, the research findings point at four factors that affected the group members' positionings and emotions during the modelling activity: the member's characteristics, the member's history of learning experiences, the activity characteristics and the modelling phases. Furthermore, the different positionings of the group members in the different modelling phases were accompanied by different emotions experienced by them, where being an insider and a collaborator resulted in positive emotions, while being an outsider resulted in negative emotions.

  18. Daily reservoir inflow forecasting combining QPF into ANNs model

    Jun Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Daily reservoir inflow predictions with lead-times of several days are essential to the operational planning and scheduling of hydroelectric power system. The demand for quantitative precipitation forecasting (QPF is increasing in hydropower operation with the dramatic advances in the numerical weather prediction (NWP models. This paper presents a simple and an effective algorithm for daily reservoir inflow predictions which solicits the observed precipitation, forecasted precipitation from QPF as predictors and discharges in following 1 to 6 days as predicted targets for multilayer perceptron artificial neural networks (MLP-ANNs modeling. An improved error back-propagation algorithm with self-adaptive learning rate and self-adaptive momentum coefficient is used to make the supervised training procedure more efficient in both time saving and search optimization. Several commonly used error measures are employed to evaluate the performance of the proposed model and the results, compared with that of ARIMA model, show that the proposed model is capable of obtaining satisfactory forecasting not only in goodness of fit but also in generalization. Furthermore, the presented algorithm is integrated into a practical software system which has been severed for daily inflow predictions with lead-times varying from 1 to 6 days of more than twenty reservoirs operated by the Fujian Province Grid Company, China.

  19. Feature extraction and recognition of epileptiform activity in EEG by combining PCA with ApEn

    Wang, Chunmei; Zou, Junzhong; Zhang, Jian; WANG Min; Wang, Rubin

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a new method for feature extraction and recognition of epileptiform activity in EEG signals. The method improves feature extraction speed of epileptiform activity without reducing recognition rate. Firstly, Principal component analysis (PCA) is applied to the original EEG for dimension reduction and to the decorrelation of epileptic EEG and normal EEG. Then discrete wavelet transform (DWT) combined with approximate entropy (ApEn) is performed on epileptic EEG and normal EE...

  20. Conditioned Reinforcement and Locomotor Activating Effects of Caffeine and Ethanol Combinations in Mice

    Megan L.T. Hilbert; May, Christina E.; Griffin, William C.

    2013-01-01

    A growing trend among ethanol drinkers, especially young adults, is to combine caffeinated energy drinks with ethanol during a drinking episode. The primary active ingredient of these mixers is caffeine, which may significantly interact with ethanol. We tested the two hypotheses that caffeine would enhance ethanol-conditioned place preference and also enhance ethanol-stimulated locomotor activity. The interactive pharmacology of ethanol and caffeine was examined in C57BL/6J (B6) mice in a con...

  1. Experimental study of anti-inflammatory activity of the new combined with drug urolytolytic action

    Iermolenko T.I.

    2015-01-01

    Herbal medicines provide their versatile complex influence on the course of the pathological process in the kidneys due to biologically active compounds. Specifically, they cause the direct impact on the concrements formation. The search of drugs which would contain high biological compounds of plant origin is an actual issue of modern pharmacology. The aim of investigation was to study the anti-inflammatory activity of the new combined drug of urolytolytic action, which includes the total pl...

  2. Experimental study of anti-inflammatory activity of the new combined with drug urolytolytic action.

    Iermolenko, T. I.

    2015-01-01

    Herbal medicines provide their versatile complex influence on the course of the pathological process in the kidneys due to biologically active compounds. Specifically, they cause the direct impact on the concrements formation. The search of drugs which would contain high biological compounds of plant origin is an actual issue of modern pharmacology. The aim of investigation was to study the anti-inflammatory activity of the new combined drug of urolytolytic action, which includes the total pl...

  3. Traditional, Cyber and Combined Bullying Roles: Differences in Risky Online and Offline Activities

    Sebastian Wachs; Marianne Junger; Ruthaychonee Sittichai

    2015-01-01

    This study (1) reports frequency rates of mutually exclusive traditional, cyber and combined (both traditional and cyber) bullying roles; and (2) investigates whether adolescents belonging to particular bullying roles show higher levels of involvement in risky online activities (Compulsive Internet Use (CIU), online grooming victimization, and sexting) and risky offline activities (bad behavior in school, drinking alcohol and truancy) than non-involved adolescents. The sample comprised self-r...

  4. Reducing hydrologic model uncertainty in monthly streamflow predictions using multimodel combination

    Li, Weihua; Sankarasubramanian, A.

    2012-12-01

    Model errors are inevitable in any prediction exercise. One approach that is currently gaining attention in reducing model errors is by combining multiple models to develop improved predictions. The rationale behind this approach primarily lies on the premise that optimal weights could be derived for each model so that the developed multimodel predictions will result in improved predictions. A new dynamic approach (MM-1) to combine multiple hydrological models by evaluating their performance/skill contingent on the predictor state is proposed. We combine two hydrological models, "abcd" model and variable infiltration capacity (VIC) model, to develop multimodel streamflow predictions. To quantify precisely under what conditions the multimodel combination results in improved predictions, we compare multimodel scheme MM-1 with optimal model combination scheme (MM-O) by employing them in predicting the streamflow generated from a known hydrologic model (abcd model orVICmodel) with heteroscedastic error variance as well as from a hydrologic model that exhibits different structure than that of the candidate models (i.e., "abcd" model or VIC model). Results from the study show that streamflow estimated from single models performed better than multimodels under almost no measurement error. However, under increased measurement errors and model structural misspecification, both multimodel schemes (MM-1 and MM-O) consistently performed better than the single model prediction. Overall, MM-1 performs better than MM-O in predicting the monthly flow values as well as in predicting extreme monthly flows. Comparison of the weights obtained from each candidate model reveals that as measurement errors increase, MM-1 assigns weights equally for all the models, whereas MM-O assigns higher weights for always the best-performing candidate model under the calibration period. Applying the multimodel algorithms for predicting streamflows over four different sites revealed that MM-1 performs

  5. COMBINING SCENE MODEL AND FUSION FOR NIGHT VIDEO ENHANCEMENT

    Li Jing; Yang Tao; Pan Quan; Cheng Yongmei

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a video context enhancement method for night surveillance. The basic idea is to extract and fuse the meaningful information of video sequence captured from a fixed camera under different illuminations. A unique characteristic of the algorithm is to separate the image context into two classes and estimate them in different ways. One class contains basic surrounding scene information and scene model, which is obtained via background modeling and object tracking in daytime video sequence. The other class is extracted from nighttime video, including frequently moving region, high illumination region and high gradient region. The scene model and pixel-wise difference method are used to segment the three regions. A shift-invariant discrete wavelet based image fusion technique is used to integral all those context information in the final result. Experiment results demonstrate that the proposed approach can provide much more details and meaningful information for nighttime video.

  6. The combined effects of atrazine and lead (Pb): relative microbial activities and herbicide dissipation.

    Chen, Qinglin; Wang, Hui; Yang, Baoshan; He, Fei

    2014-04-01

    The experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of single and combined pollution from different concentrations of atrazine (field rate, FR, 2.0 mg kg(-1) and 5 times FR, 10 mg kg(-1)) and lead (Pb) (300 mg kg(-1) and 600 mg kg(-1)) on enzyme activity, basal soil respiration (BSR), and net nitrogen (N) mineralization (NNM) in soil after exposure for 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. In addition, residual atrazine was measured in the samples of combined contamination. Results showed that the notable effects of either or both contaminants on the microbial activity and biological processes. Enzyme activity data demonstrated that the order of sensitivity to contamination was urease>invertase>catalase. BSR was strongly stimulated by atrazine/Pb at the early exposure (0-7 days for single contaminant and 7-14 days for combined contaminants). The stimulation effects on BSR were higher at low concentrations of the contamination (FR and Pb300). The combined treatments of 5FR+Pb600 inhibit BSR and NNM. Overall, the parameters associated with N cycling (urease and NNM) were more sensitive than others. Both Pb concentrations (300 and 600 mg/kg) had little influence on the dissipation of high concentrations of atrazine (5FR) during the 28-day-incubation. This study has provided useful information on potential ecotoxicology effects of combined contamination of atrazine and Pb on relative microbial biological process. PMID:24580827

  7. Comparing Bayesian models for multisensory cue combination without mandatory integration

    Beierholm, Ulrik R.; Shams, Ladan; Kording, Konrad P; Ma, Wei Ji

    2009-01-01

    Bayesian models of multisensory perception traditionally address the problem of estimating an underlying variable that is assumed to be the cause of the two sensory signals. The brain, however, has to solve a more general problem: it also has to establish which signals come from the same source and should be integrated, and which ones do not and should be segregated. In the last couple of years, a few models have been proposed to solve this problem in a Bayesian fashion. One of these ha...

  8. Combined treatment of retting flax wastewater using Fenton oxidation and granular activated carbon

    Sohair I. Abou-Elela

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The process of retting flax produces a huge amount of wastewater which is characterized with bad unpleasant smell and high concentration of organic materials. Treatment of such waste had always been difficult because of the presence of refractory organic pollutants such as lignin. In this study, treatment of retting wastewater was carried out using combined system of Fenton oxidation process followed by adsorption on granular activated carbon (GAC. The effects of operating condition on Fenton oxidation process such as hydrogen peroxide and iron concentration were investigated. In addition, kinetic study of the adsorption process was elaborated. The obtained results indicated that degradation of organic matters follows a pseudo-first order reaction with regression coefficient of 0.98. The kinetic model suggested that the rate of reaction was highly affected by the concentration of hydrogen peroxide. Moreover, the results indicated that the treatment module was very efficient in removing the organic and inorganic pollutants. The average percentage removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD, total suspended solid (TSS, oil, and grease was 98.60%, 86.60%, and 94.22% with residual values of 44, 20, and 5 mg/L, respectively. The treated effluent was complying with the National Regulatory Standards for wastewater discharge into surface water or reuse in the retting process.

  9. The Combination Forecasting Model of Grain Production Based on Stepwise Regression Method and RBF Neural Network

    Lihua Yang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the accuracy of grain production forecasting, this study proposed a new combination forecasting model, the model combined stepwise regression method with RBF neural network by assigning proper weights using inverse variance method. By comparing different criteria, the result indicates that the combination forecasting model is superior to other models. The performance of the models is measured using three types of error measurement, which are Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE, Theil Inequality Coefficient (Theil IC and Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE. The model with smallest value of MAPE, Theil IC and RMSE stands out to be the best model in predicting the grain production. Based on the MAPE, Theil IC and RMSE evaluation criteria, the combination model can reduce the forecasting error and has high prediction accuracy in grain production forecasting, making the decision more scientific and rational.

  10. Models of fragmentation phenomena based on the symmetric group Sn and combinational analysis

    Various models for fragmentation phenomena are developed using methods from permutation groups and combinational analysis. The appearance and properties of power laws in these models are discussed. Various exactly soluble cases are studied

  11. Combined effects of cadmium and butachlor on soil enzyme activities and microbial community structure

    Wang, Jinhua; Lu, Yitong; Shen, Guoqing

    2007-02-01

    The combined effects of cadmium (Cd, 10 mg/kg of soil) and butachlor (5, 10 and 50 mg/kg of soil) on enzyme activities and microbial community structure were assessed in phaeozem soil. The result showed that phosphatase activities were decreased in soils with Cd (10 mg/kg of soil) alone whereas urease acitivities were unaffected by Cd. Urease and phosphatase activities were significantly reduced by high butachlor concentration (50 mg/kg of soil). When Cd and butachlor concentrations in soils were added at milligram ratio of 2:1 or 1:2, urease and phosphatase activities were decreased, while enzyme activities were greatly improved at the ratio of 1:5. This study indicates that the combined effects of Cd and butachlor on soil urease and phosphatase activities depend largely on the addition concentration ratios to soils. The random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis showed that the changes occurring in RAPD profiles of different treated samples included variation in loss of normal bands and appearance of new bands compared with the control soil. The RAPD fingerprints showed substantial differences between the control and treated soil samples, with apparent changes in the number and size of amplified DNA fragments. The results showed that the addition of high concentration butachlor and the combined applied Cd and butachlor significantly affected the diversity of microbial community. The present results suggest that RAPD analysis in conjunction with other biomarkers such as soil enzyme parameter etc. would prove a powerful ecotoxicological tool.

  12. Patterns of Activity in a Global Model of a Solar Active Region

    Bradshaw, S. J.; Viall, N. M.

    2016-04-01

    In this work we investigate the global activity patterns predicted from a model active region heated by distributions of nanoflares that have a range of frequencies. What differs is the average frequency of the distributions. The activity patterns are manifested in time lag maps of narrow-band instrument channel pairs. We combine hydrodynamic and forward modeling codes with a magnetic field extrapolation to create a model active region and apply the time lag method to synthetic observations. Our aim is not to reproduce a particular set of observations in detail, but to recover some typical properties and patterns observed in active regions. Our key findings are the following. (1) Cooling dominates the time lag signature and the time lags between the channel pairs are generally consistent with observed values. (2) Shorter coronal loops in the core cool more quickly than longer loops at the periphery. (3) All channel pairs show zero time lag when the line of sight passes through coronal loop footpoints. (4) There is strong evidence that plasma must be re-energized on a timescale comparable to the cooling timescale to reproduce the observed coronal activity, but it is likely that a relatively broad spectrum of heating frequencies are operating across active regions. (5) Due to their highly dynamic nature, we find nanoflare trains produce zero time lags along entire flux tubes in our model active region that are seen between the same channel pairs in observed active regions.

  13. Explorations in combining cognitive models of individuals and system dynamics models of groups.

    Backus, George A.

    2008-07-01

    This report documents a demonstration model of interacting insurgent leadership, military leadership, government leadership, and societal dynamics under a variety of interventions. The primary focus of the work is the portrayal of a token societal model that responds to leadership activities. The model also includes a linkage between leadership and society that implicitly represents the leadership subordinates as they directly interact with the population. The societal model is meant to demonstrate the efficacy and viability of using System Dynamics (SD) methods to simulate populations and that these can then connect to cognitive models depicting individuals. SD models typically focus on average behavior and thus have limited applicability to describe small groups or individuals. On the other hand, cognitive models readily describe individual behavior but can become cumbersome when used to describe populations. Realistic security situations are invariably a mix of individual and population dynamics. Therefore, the ability to tie SD models to cognitive models provides a critical capability that would be otherwise be unavailable.

  14. Infectious diseases among animals : combining models with data

    Koeijer, A.A. de

    2003-01-01

    To eradicate or control the spread of infectious diseases, knowledge on the spread of the infection between (groups of) animals is necessary. Models can include such information and can subsequently be used to observe the efficacy of various control measures in fighting the infection. However, the a

  15. Multilayer piezoelectric transducer models combined with Field II

    Bæk, David; Willatzen, Morten; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2012-01-01

    One-dimensional and three-dimensional axisymmetric transducer model have been compared to determine their feasibility to predict the volt-to-surface impulse response of a circular Pz27 piezoceramic disc. The ceramic is assumed mounted with silver electrodes, bounded at the outer circular boundary...

  16. Low coherence interferometry modelling using combined broadband Gaussian light sources

    Jansz, Paul; Wild, Graham; Richardson, Steven; Hinckley, Steven

    2012-02-01

    Using a Low Coherence Interferometry (LCI) model, a comparison of broadband single-Gaussian and multi-Gaussian light sources has been undertaken. For single-Gaussian sources, the axial resolution improved with source bandwidth, confirming the coherence length relation that resolution for single Gaussian sources improves with increasing spectral bandwidth. However, narrow bandwidth light sources resulted in interferograms with overlapping strata peaks and the loss of individual strata information. For multiple-Gaussian sources with the same bandwidth, spectral side lobes increased, reducing A-scan reliability to show accurate layer information without eliminating the side lobes. The simulations show the conditions needed for resolution of strata information for broadband light sources using both single and multiple Gaussian models. The potential to use the model to study LCI and OCT light sources, optical delays and sample structures can better characterise these LCI and OCT elements. Forecasting misinformation in the interferogram, may allow preliminary corrections. With improvements to the LCI-OCT model, more applications are envisaged.

  17. Combined in vivo and in silico investigations of activation of glycolysis in contracting skeletal muscle

    Schmitz, J. P. J.; Groenendaal, W.; Wessels, B.; Wiseman, R. W.; Hilbers, P. A. J.; Nicolay, K.; Prompers, J. J.; Jeneson, J. A. L.; van Riel, N. A. W.

    2013-01-01

    Schmitz JP, Groenendaal W, Wessels B, Wiseman RW, Hilbers PA, Nicolay K, Prompers JJ, Jeneson JA, van Riel NA. Combined in vivo and in silico investigations of activation of glycolysis in contracting skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 304: C180-C193, 2013. First published October 31, 2012; d

  18. Alkaline phosphatase activity and some minerals concentration in canine blood plasma with radiation combined injuries

    Alkaline phosphatase activity, Ca, P and Mg concentration were investigated in the blood plasma of dogs with a bone fracture as well as in those ones with a bone fracture combined with irradiation (2Gy). Obtained results show that none of the investigated parameters were significantly changed during the experiment. (author) 6 refs.; 1 tab

  19. Combined pharmacological activation of AMPK and PPARδ potentiates the effects of exercise in trained mice.

    Manio, Mark Christian C; Inoue, Kazuo; Fujitani, Mina; Matsumura, Shigenobu; Fushiki, Tohru

    2016-03-01

    The combined activation of the cellular energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and the nuclear transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARδ) has been demonstrated to improve endurance and muscle function by mimicking the effects of exercise training. However, their combined pharmacological activation with exercise training has not been explored. Balb/c mice were trained on a treadmill and administered both the AMPK activator AICAR and the PPARδ agonist GW0742 for 4 weeks. AICAR treatment potentiated endurance, but the combination of AICAR and GW0742 further potentiated endurance and increased all running parameters significantly relative to exercised and nonexercised groups (138-179% and 355% increase in running time, respectively). Despite the lack of change in basal whole-body metabolism, a significant shift to fat as the main energy source with a decline in carbohydrate utilization was observed upon indirect calorimetry analysis at the period near exhaustion. Increased energy substrates before exercise, and elevated muscle nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and elevated muscle glycogen at exhaustion were observed together with increased PDK4 mRNA expression. Citrate synthase activity was elevated in AICAR-treated groups, while PGC-1α protein level tended to be increased in GW0742-treated groups. At exhaustion, Pgc1a was robustly upregulated together with Pdk4, Cd36, and Lpl in the muscle. A robust upregulation of Pgc1a and a downregulation in Chrebp were observed in the liver. Our data show that combined pharmacological activation of AMPK and PPARδ potentiates endurance in trained mice by transcriptional changes in muscle and liver, increased available energy substrates, delayed hypoglycemia through glycogen sparing accompanied by increased NEFA availability, and improved substrate shift from carbohydrate to fat. PMID:26997622

  20. Adsorption behavior of redox-active suppressor additives: Combined electrochemical and STM studies

    Highlights: → Janus Green B and safranine are prototypical redox-active leveler additives for copper electroplating. → Their redox-transitions lie within the copper potential window. → Reduced additives are identified as active species for the leveling effect. → Electro-reduction affects in particular the central aromatic cores of the additives. - Abstract: The redox chemistry and the related surface phase behavior of Safranine (SAF) and Janus Green B (JGB) have been studied by means of cyclic voltammetry in combination with in situ Scanning Tunneling Microscopy using HOPG (Highly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite) and single crystalline Cu(1 0 0) as model substrates, both revealing different widths of the accessible potential windows. JGB and SAF serve as prototypical heterocyclic suppressor/leveler additives that are used for the metallization of 3D-TSVs (3D Through Silicon Vias) following a classical 'leveling' concept. SAF can be considered as the reductive decomposition product of JGB that is formed at the copper/electrolyte interface upon electroplating. Both additives reveal a pronounced pH-dependent redox-chemistry with redox-transitions lying close to or even beyond the anodic limit of the copper potential window. Affected by these redox-processes are in particular the aromatic cores of those heterocycles that can be (quasi)reversibly reduced by a two electron transfer process within the potential window of copper. Therefore we identify the reduced form of those dyes as the active components for the suppressing/leveling effect in copper plating. STM data clearly shows a dye surface phase behavior that is crucially determined by its potential-dependent redox-chemistry. This will be exemplarily discussed for the SAF dye. On chloride-modified Cu(1 0 0) mono-reduced SAF forms a structurally well-defined monolayer of cationic stacking polymers. However, this coupled anion/cation layer reveals only minor suppressing capabilities with respect to the copper

  1. Combined kinetic and transport modeling of radiofrequency current drive

    A numerical model for predictive simulations of radiofrequency current drive in magnetically confined plasmas is developed. It includes the minimum requirements for a self consistent description of such regimes, i.e., a 3-D ,kinetic equation for the electron distribution function, 1-D heat and current transport equations, and resonant coupling between velocity space and configuration space dynamics, through suitable wave propagation equations. The model finds its full application in predictive studies of complex current profile control scenarios in tokamaks, aiming at the establishment of internal transport barriers by the simultaneous use of various radiofrequency current drive methods. The basic properties of this non-linear numerical system are investigated and illustrated by simulations applied to reversed magnetic shear regimes obtained by Lower Hybrid and Electron Cyclotron current drive for parameters typical of the Tore Supra tokamak. (authors)

  2. Dynamically combining climate models to "supermodel" the tropical Pacific

    Shen, Mao-Lin; Keenlyside, Noel; Selten, Frank; Wiegerinck, Wim; Duane, Gregory S.

    2016-01-01

    We construct an interactive ensemble of two different climate models to improve simulation of key aspects of tropical Pacific climate. Our so-called supermodel is based on two atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs) coupled to a single ocean GCM, which is driven by a weighted average of the air-sea fluxes. Optimal weights are determined using a machine learning algorithm to minimize sea surface temperature errors over the tropical Pacific. This coupling strategy synchronizes atmospheric variability in the two AGCMs over the equatorial Pacific, where it improves the representation of ocean-atmosphere interaction and the climate state. In particular, the common double Intertropical Convergence Zone error is suppressed, and the positive Bjerknes feedback improves substantially to match observations well, and the negative heat flux feedback is also much improved. This study supports the concept of supermodeling as a promising multimodel ensemble strategy to improve weather and climate predictions.

  3. ANALYSIS AND MODELLING OF ENERGY SOURCE COMBINATIONS FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES

    Jarushi, Ali Milad

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research is to develop suitable models to simulate and analyse Electrical Vehicle (EV) power-trains to identify and improve some of the deficiencies of EVs and investigate new system architectures.Although some electro-chemical batteries improvements have lately been achieved in specific-energy, the power density is still low. Therefore, an efficient, cost-effective and high power density support unit could facilitate EV competitiveness compared to conventional internal...

  4. Combining Models of Coronal Mass Ejections and Solar Dynamos

    Warnecke, Jörn

    2013-01-01

    Observations show that Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) are associated with twisted magnetic flux configurations. Conventionally, CMEs are modeled by shearing and twisting the footpoints of a certain distribution of magnetic flux at the solar surface and letting it evolve at the surface. Of course, the surface velocities and magnetic field patterns should ultimately be obtained from realistic simulations of the solar convection zone where the field is generated by dynamo action. Therefore, a uni...

  5. Combining Various Methods of Automated User Decision and Preferences Modelling

    Eckhardt, Alan; Vojtáš, Peter

    Berlin: Springer, 2009 - (Torra, V.; Narukawa, Y.; Inuiguchi, M.), s. 172-181. (Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence. 5861). ISBN 978-3-642-04819-7. [MDAI 2009. Internationa Conference on Modeling Decisions for Artificial Intelligence /6./. Awaji Island (JP), 30.11.2009-02.12.2009] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET100300517 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : user preferences learning * recommender systems Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  6. Semantic Part Segmentation using Compositional Model combining Shape and Appearance

    Wang, Jianyu; Yuille, Alan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we study the problem of semantic part segmentation for animals. This is more challenging than standard object detection, object segmentation and pose estimation tasks because semantic parts of animals often have similar appearance and highly varying shapes. To tackle these challenges, we build a mixture of compositional models to represent the object boundary and the boundaries of semantic parts. And we incorporate edge, appearance, and semantic part cues into the compositional...

  7. Probabilistic forecasts of debris-flow hazard at the regional scale with a combination of models.

    Malet, Jean-Philippe; Remaître, Alexandre

    2015-04-01

    Debris flows are one of the many active slope-forming processes in the French Alps, where rugged and steep slopes mantled by various slope deposits offer a great potential for triggering hazardous events. A quantitative assessment of debris-flow hazard requires the estimation, in a probabilistic framework, of the spatial probability of occurrence of source areas, the spatial probability of runout areas, the temporal frequency of events, and their intensity. The main objective of this research is to propose a pipeline for the estimation of these quantities at the region scale using a chain of debris-flow models. The work uses the experimental site of the Barcelonnette Basin (South French Alps), where 26 active torrents have produced more than 150 debris-flow events since 1850 to develop and validate the methodology. First, a susceptibility assessment is performed to identify the debris-flow prone source areas. The most frequently used approach is the combination of environmental factors with GIS procedures and statistical techniques, integrating or not, detailed event inventories. Based on a 5m-DEM and derivatives, and information on slope lithology, engineering soils and landcover, the possible source areas are identified with a statistical logistic regression model. The performance of the statistical model is evaluated with the observed distribution of debris-flow events recorded after 1850 in the study area. The source areas in the three most active torrents (Riou-Bourdoux, Faucon, Sanières) are well identified by the model. Results are less convincing for three other active torrents (Bourget, La Valette and Riou-Chanal); this could be related to the type of debris-flow triggering mechanism as the model seems to better spot the open slope debris-flow source areas (e.g. scree slopes), but appears to be less efficient for the identification of landslide-induced debris flows. Second, a susceptibility assessment is performed to estimate the possible runout distance

  8. Application of Active Contour Model in Tracking Sequential Nearshore Waves

    Yu-Hung HSIAO; Min-Chih HUANG

    2009-01-01

    In the present study,a generalized active contour model of gradient vector flow is combined with the video techniques of Argus system to delineate and track sequential nearshore wave crest profdes in the shoaling process,up to their breaking on the shorehne.Previous applications of active contour models to water wave problems are limited to controllable wave tank experiments.By contrast,our application in this study is in a nearshore field environment where oblique images obtained under natural and varying condition of ambient light are employed.Existing Argus techniques produce plane image data or time series data from a selected small subset of discrete pixels.By contrast,the active contour model produces line image data along continuous visible curves such as wave crest profdes.The combination of these two existing techniques,the active contour model and Argus methodologies,facilitates the estimates of the direction wave field and phase speeds within the whole area covered by camera.These estimates are useful for the purpose of inverse calculation of the water depth.Applications of the present techniques to Hsi-tzu bay where a beach restoration program is currently undertaken are illustrated.This extension of Argus video techniques provides new application of optical remote sensing to study the hydrodynamics and morphology of a nearshore environment.

  9. Does birth weight influence physical activity in youth? A combined analysis of four studies using objectively measured physical activity

    Ridgway, Charlotte L; Brage, Søren; Sharp, Stephen J;

    2011-01-01

    Animal models suggest growth restriction in utero leads to lower levels of motor activity. Furthermore, individuals with very low birth weight report lower levels of physical activity as adults. The aim of this study was to examine whether birth weight acts as a biological determinant of physical...

  10. Acupoints combination correlates with activation of cerebral areas A functional MRI study

    Xinsheng Lai; Yong Huang; Chunzhi Tang; Junjun Yang; Yanqi Zou; Junxian Wu; Yangjia Lu; Renyong Lin

    2011-01-01

    Acupoint combination is a method used for acupoint treatment of patients. Traditionally, acupoints are matched along the meridian distribution, which is a common rule in clinical practice, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Cerebral scans with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have been used in the study of acupuncture and acupoint specifically. In this study,fMRI was used to detect the activation of the brain areas under different acupoints, matched along different meridians, to elucidate the acupoint combination via a modern medical approach. Forty healthy volunteers were randomly divided into the following groups: Waiguan point (SJ5), Waiguan (SJ5) + Zhigou (SJ6) (2 acupoints come from the same meridian), Waiguan (SJ 5) + Neiguan (PC 6)(2 acupoints come from 2 meridians with the relationship of interior-exterior), Waiguan (SJ 5) +Yanglingquan (GB 34) (2 acupoints come from 2 meridians with the same name-Shaoyang Meridian), and sham point groups (needling in different points on the right hand). A real-time cerebral fMRI scan was simultaneously performed. The cerebral activation rate, and the number and strength of different regions of interest ware compared among the groups. The fMRI cerebral imaging confirmed that there were some differences in the activation of cerebral areas by the needlings in SJ 5, and in combination with other acupoints. Needling at SJ 5 alone greatly activated the right cerebellum, while needling at both SJ 5 and different co-needling points activated different cerebral functional areas.

  11. Learning models of activities involving interacting objects

    Manfredotti, Cristina; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Hamilton, Howard J.; Zilles, Sandra

    We propose the LEMAIO multi-layer framework, which makes use of hierarchical abstraction to learn models for activities involving multiple interacting objects from time sequences of data concerning the individual objects. Experiments in the sea navigation domain yielded learned models that were...

  12. Learning models of activities involving interacting objects

    Manfredotti, Cristina; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Hamilton, Howard J.;

    2013-01-01

    We propose the LEMAIO multi-layer framework, which makes use of hierarchical abstraction to learn models for activities involving multiple interacting objects from time sequences of data concerning the individual objects. Experiments in the sea navigation domain yielded learned models that were...

  13. Modelling the Active Hearing Process in Mosquitoes

    Avitabile, Daniele; Homer, Martin; Jackson, Joe; Robert, Daniel; Champneys, Alan

    2011-11-01

    A simple microscopic mechanistic model is described of the active amplification within the Johnston's organ of the mosquito species Toxorhynchites brevipalpis. The model is based on the description of the antenna as a forced-damped oscillator coupled to a set of active threads (ensembles of scolopidia) that provide an impulsive force when they twitch. This twitching is in turn controlled by channels that are opened and closed if the antennal oscillation reaches a critical amplitude. The model matches both qualitatively and quantitatively with recent experiments. New results are presented using mathematical homogenization techniques to derive a mesoscopic model as a simple oscillator with nonlinear force and damping characteristics. It is shown how the results from this new model closely resemble those from the microscopic model as the number of threads approach physiologically correct values.

  14. Combining modeling and observations to better understand marine ecosystem dynamics

    Curchitser, Enrique N.; Rose, Kenneth A.; Ito, Shin-ichi; Peck, Myron A.; Kishi, Michio J.

    2015-11-01

    The linkage between climate-scale variability and the dynamics of marine ecosystems has been the subject of increasing research. From global estimates and predictions of primary productivity to the dynamics of near-shore fish populations, the concept of environmental drivers affecting marine ecosystems is often used. Despite significant correlations between the environment and various aspects of the ecosystem, cause-and-effect relationships between climate and biology remain, in most cases, elusive. Additionally, in ecosystems experiencing high human activities (e.g., coastal development) or generating high commercial or recreational value (e.g., fisheries), understanding the ecosystem dynamics becomes more complicated by the need to consider humans as dynamic members of the ecosystem.

  15. Event study combining magnetospheric and ionospheric perspectives of the substorm current wedge modeling

    Sergeev, V. A.; Nikolaev, A. V.; Kubyshkina, M. V.; Tsyganenko, N. A.; Singer, H. J.; Rodriguez, J. V.; Angelopoulos, V.; Nakamura, R.; Milan, S. E.; Coxon, J. C.; Anderson, B. J.; Korth, H.

    2014-12-01

    Unprecedented spacecraft and instrumental coverage and the isolated nature and distinct step-like development of a substorm on 17 March 2010 has allowed validation of the two-loop substorm current wedge model (SCW2L). We find a close spatiotemporal relationship of the SCW with many other essential signatures of substorm activity in the magnetotail and demonstrate its azimuthally localized structure and stepwise expansion in the magnetotail. We confirm that ground SCW diagnostics makes it possible to reconstruct and organize the azimuthal spatiotemporal substorm development pattern with accuracy better than 1 h magnetic local time (MLT) in the case of medium-scale substorm. The Active Magnetosphere and Planetary Electrodynamics Response Experiment (AMPERE)-based study of global field-aligned current distribution indicates that (a) the SCW-related field-aligned current system consists of simultaneously activated R1- and R2-type currents, (b) their net currents have a R1-sense, and (c) locations of net current peaks are consistent with the SCW edge locations inferred from midlatitude variations. Thanks to good azimuthal coverage of four GOES and three Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms spacecraft, we evaluated the intensities of the SCW R1- and R2-like current loops (using the SCW2L model) obtained from combined magnetospheric and ground midlatitude magnetic observations and found the net currents consistent (within a factor of 2) with the AMPERE-based estimate. We also ran an adaptive magnetospheric model and show that SCW2L model outperforms it in predicting the magnetic configuration changes during substorm dipolarizations.

  16. Mathematical Modeling on Combined Mid-infrared and Hot Air Drying of Beef Meat

    Xiao-Lei Xie

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the drying models and characteristics of Combined Mid-Infrared and Hot Air (CMIHA drying BEEF MEAT (BM, a laboratory scale CMIHA dryer was applied to the treatment of BM samples in a temperature range from 40-70°C, with air velocity of 1m/s and mid-infrared of 2.8-3.1 m. Microsoft visual C sharp (C# was used to develop a Moisture Prediction System (MPS to digitize the prediction process. The results indicated that the Modified Henderson and Pabis model could present better predictions for the moisture transfer than others and the MPS could predict the moisture ratio through the whole drying process conveniently. Besides, higher temperature could accelerate effective diffusivities to increase drying rate, thus shorten the drying time. The activation energy of BM dried with CMIHA was 32.83 kJ/mol. All of these could be used in the design and operation of the combination drying beef meat.

  17. Quantifying antiviral activity optimizes drug combinations against hepatitis C virus infection

    Koizumi, Yoshiki [School of Medicine, College of Medical, Pharmaceutical and Health Sciences, Kanazawa University, Ishikawa, Japan; Nakajim, Syo [Department of Virology II, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan; Department of Applied Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Sciences, Chiba, J; Ohash, Hirofumi [Department of Virology II, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan: Department of Applied Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Sciences, Chiba, J; Tanaka, Yasuhito [Department of Virology and Liver Unit, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medicinal Sciences, Nagoya, Japan; Wakita, Takaji [Department of Virology II, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan; Perelson, Alan S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Iwami, Shingo [Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan: PRESTO, JST, Saitama, Japan: CREST, JST, Saitama, Japan; Watashi, Koichi [Department of Virology II, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan: Department of Applied Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Sciences, Chiba, J

    2016-03-21

    Cell culture study combing a mathematical model and computer simulation quantifies the anti-hepatitis C virus drug efficacy at any concentrations and any combinations in preclinical settings, and can obtain rich basic evidences for selecting optimal treatments prior to costly clinical trials.

  18. Generalized weighted functional proportional mean combining forecasting model and its method of parameter estimation

    万玉成; 盛昭瀚

    2004-01-01

    A new kind of combining forecasting model based on the generalized weighted functional proportional mean is proposed and the parameter estimation method of its weighting coefficients by means of the algorithm of quadratic programming is given. This model has extensive representation. It is a new kind of aggregative method of group forecasting.By taking the suitable combining form of the forecasting models and seeking the optimal parameter, the optimal combining form can be obtained and the forecasting accuracy can be improved. The effectiveness of this model is demonstrated by an example.

  19. Active Gel Model of Amoeboid Cell Motility

    Callan-Jones, A C

    2013-01-01

    We develop a model of amoeboid cell motility based on active gel theory. Modeling the motile apparatus of a eukaryotic cell as a confined layer of finite length of poroelastic active gel permeated by a solvent, we first show that, due to active stress and gel turnover, an initially static and homogeneous layer can undergo a contractile-type instability to a polarized moving state in which the rear is enriched in gel polymer. This agrees qualitatively with motile cells containing an actomyosin-rich uropod at their rear. We find that the gel layer settles into a steadily moving, inhomogeneous state at long times, sustained by a balance between contractility and filament turnover. In addition, our model predicts an optimal value of the gel-susbstrate adhesion leading to maximum layer speed, in agreement with cell motility assays. The model may be relevant to motility of cells translocating in complex, confining environments that can be mimicked experimentally by cell migration through microchannels.

  20. Modeling of Activated Sludge Floc Characteristics

    Ibrahim H. Mustafa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: The activated sludge system needs to improve the operational performance and to achieve more effective control. To realize this, a better quantitative understanding of the biofloc characteristics is required. The objectives of this study were to: (i Study the biofloc characteristics from kinetics-mass transfer interaction point of view by quantification of the weight of the aerobic portion of the activated sludge floc to the total floc weight. (ii Study the effect of bulk concentrations of oxygen and nitrates, power input and substrates diffusivity on the portion aerobic portion of the floc. Approach: An appropriate mathematical model based on heterogeneous modeling is developed for activated sludge flocs. The model was taking into account three growth processes: Carbon oxidation, nitrification and de-nitrification in terms of four components: substrate, nitrate, ammonia, and oxygen. The model accounts for the internal and external mass transfer limitations and relates the external mass transfer resistance with power input. The floc model equations were two- point boundary value differential equations. Therefore a central finite difference method is employed. Results: The percentage aerobic portion increased with increasing with oxygen bulk concentrations and power input and decreases when the bulk concentration of ammonia and substrate increases. Both will compete to consume the internal oxygen by autotrophic and heterotrophic bacteria through aerobic growth processes. The biofloc activity through the profiles was either totally active or partially active. The totally active biofloc is either totally aerobic or aerobic and anoxic together. Conclusions: The heterogeneous floc model was able to describe the biofloc characteristics and reflects the real phenomena existing in the activated sludge processes.

  1. Quantitative structure–activity relationship study of P2X7 receptor inhibitors using combination of principal component analysis and artificial intelligence methods

    Ahmadi, Mehdi; Shahlaei, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    P2X7 antagonist activity for a set of 49 molecules of the P2X7 receptor antagonists, derivatives of purine, was modeled with the aid of chemometric and artificial intelligence techniques. The activity of these compounds was estimated by means of combination of principal component analysis (PCA), as a well-known data reduction method, genetic algorithm (GA), as a variable selection technique, and artificial neural network (ANN), as a non-linear modeling method. First, a linear regression, combined with PCA, (principal component regression) was operated to model the structure–activity relationships, and afterwards a combination of PCA and ANN algorithm was employed to accurately predict the biological activity of the P2X7 antagonist. PCA preserves as much of the information as possible contained in the original data set. Seven most important PC's to the studied activity were selected as the inputs of ANN box by an efficient variable selection method, GA. The best computational neural network model was a fully-connected, feed-forward model with 7−7−1 architecture. The developed ANN model was fully evaluated by different validation techniques, including internal and external validation, and chemical applicability domain. All validations showed that the constructed quantitative structure–activity relationship model suggested is robust and satisfactory. PMID:26600858

  2. Quantitative structure-activity relationship study of P2X7 receptor inhibitors using combination of principal component analysis and artificial intelligence methods.

    Ahmadi, Mehdi; Shahlaei, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    P2X7 antagonist activity for a set of 49 molecules of the P2X7 receptor antagonists, derivatives of purine, was modeled with the aid of chemometric and artificial intelligence techniques. The activity of these compounds was estimated by means of combination of principal component analysis (PCA), as a well-known data reduction method, genetic algorithm (GA), as a variable selection technique, and artificial neural network (ANN), as a non-linear modeling method. First, a linear regression, combined with PCA, (principal component regression) was operated to model the structure-activity relationships, and afterwards a combination of PCA and ANN algorithm was employed to accurately predict the biological activity of the P2X7 antagonist. PCA preserves as much of the information as possible contained in the original data set. Seven most important PC's to the studied activity were selected as the inputs of ANN box by an efficient variable selection method, GA. The best computational neural network model was a fully-connected, feed-forward model with 7-7-1 architecture. The developed ANN model was fully evaluated by different validation techniques, including internal and external validation, and chemical applicability domain. All validations showed that the constructed quantitative structure-activity relationship model suggested is robust and satisfactory. PMID:26600858

  3. Combined Treatment with an Oncolytic Adenovirus and Antitumor Activity of Vincristine against Retinoblastoma Cells

    Xianqun Fan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Treatment trends of retinoblastoma (RB have gradually evolved from eye enucleation and external radiation to local treatment. Combined treatment with an oncolytic virus and chemotherapy is currently a new method in RB treatment. To investigate the therapeutic effect of oncolytic adenovirus SG600 in combination with vincristine (VCR on retinoblastoma in vitro, the cell viability, cell cycle effects and apoptotic activity of HXO-RB44 cells treated with SG600, VCR or SG600 plus VCR were measured using a cell counting kit-8-based procedure and flow cytometry. Western blot analysis for Akt, p-Akt, p-p53 and p-Rb protein was performed to investigate the underlying mechanisms of combined therapy. The combination therapy exerted a synergistic antitumor effect via a type of G2/M and S phase arrest rather than the induction of apoptosis. The combination of VCR and SG600 further reduced Akt phosphorylation compared with cells treated with VCR alone, suggesting that SG600 could overcome chemoresistance, perhaps by down-regulating Akt in RB cells. An increase in the expression of p-p53 and decrease in p-Rb expression in HXO-RB44 after co-treatment might be associated with cell cycle block. Western blot examination revealed that VCR might enhance SG600 replication. These results suggest that viro-chemo combination therapy is a feasible and potentially promising approach for the treatment of retinoblastoma.

  4. Research of combination model for prediction of the trend of outbreak of hepatitis B

    Yin-ping CHEN

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To establish a combination model of autoregressive integrated moving average model and the grey dynamics (ARIMA-GM of hepatitis B incidence rate (1/100 000 to predict the trend of outbreak of hepatitis B, as to provide a scientific basis for the early discovery of the infectious diseases for the performance of countermeasures of controlling its spread. Methods The monthly incidence of hepatitis B in Qian'an city, Hebei province, was collected from Jan 2004 to Dec 2012, and a model (ARIMA was reproduced with SPSS software. The GM (1,1 model was used to correct the residual sequence with a threshold value, and a combined forecasting model was reproduced. This combination model was used to predict the monthly incidence rate in this city in 2013. Results The model ARIMA(0,1,1(0,1,112 was established successfully and the residual sequence was a white noise sequence. Then the GM (1,1 model with a threshold of 3 was used to correct its residuals and obtain its nonlinear feature extraction of information. The forecasting model met required precision standards (C=0.673, P=0.877, the fitting accuracy of which was basically qualified. The results showed that the MAE, MAPE of the ARIMA-GM combined model were smaller than that of a single model, and the combined model could improve the prediction accuracy. Using the combined model to forecast the incidence of hepatitis B during Jan 2013 to Dec 2013, the overall trend was relatively consistent with the condition of previous years. Conclusion The ARIMA-GM combined model can better fit the incidence rate of hepatitis B with a greater accuracy than the seasonal ARIMA model. The prediction results can provide the reference for the early warning system of HBV. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.01.12

  5. Combining multitracing and 2D-modelling to identify the dynamic of heavy metals during flooding.

    Hissler, C.; Hostache, R.; Matgen, P.; Tosheva, Z.; David, E.; Bates, P.; Stille, P.

    2012-04-01

    Recent years have seen a growing awareness of the wider environmental significance of the sediment loads transported by rivers and streams. This includes the importance of suspended sediment in transporting heavy metals and the potential for these trace elements to be desorbed from the particles to the solution. That threaten the water quality and can cause severe impacts in downstream areas like wetlands and floodplains. Contemporary data on the sediment loads of rivers provide clear evidence of significant recent changes in the sediment fluxes and of several rivers in response to human activities. For instance, Trace elements (including heavy metals) that are currently considered to be undisturbed by human activities and used as tracers of continental crust derived material have become more and more involved in industrial processes. Mathematical models validated by in situ experimentations are the only available tool to predict the consequences of natural as well as man-induced environmental changes and impacts on sediment dynamics. They are approximate representations of complex natural systems and the evaluation of a model with respect to its ability to reproduce multiple criteria and behaviour of a real system is still problematic. Interactions between modellers and experimentalists improve significantly the interpretation of the modelling output and led to formulate more realistic assumptions on the behaviour of natural systems. The geochemical information, which appeared to be non-correlated with the hydrological standard parameters, provides new information and contributes to give an "orthogonal view" on the hydrologic system behaviour. Regarding the recent development in geochemical tracer applications in models, the multi-tracer approach (natural vs anthropogenic; elemental concentration-isotopic signature-radionuclide activity) may be a necessity to decrease significantly the uncertainties in sediment transport modelling. The objective of this study is

  6. Effect of a combined program of physical activity and intellectual activity in the cognitive functioning of the elderly

    Martínez Vidal, Aurora; Prada Martínez, Aurora; Díaz Pereira, María del Pino; Martínez Patiño, María José

    2011-01-01

    Aerobic exercise done in an enriched environment with intellectual activity seems to improve cognitive performance associated with the aging process of humans, although the results can sometimes be contradictory. The objective of the present study was to ascertain to what degree the practice of combined aerobic exercise and memory strategies improve the cognitive functioning, in general, and to a more concrete measure in the cognitive memory domain of the elderly. Sixteen subjects, the majori...

  7. Combining Diffusion and Grey Models Based on Evolutionary Optimization Algorithms to Forecast Motherboard Shipments

    Fu-Kwun Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is important for executives to predict the future trends. Otherwise, their companies cannot make profitable decisions and investments. The Bass diffusion model can describe the empirical adoption curve for new products and technological innovations. The Grey model provides short-term forecasts using four data points. This study develops a combined model based on the rolling Grey model (RGM and the Bass diffusion model to forecast motherboard shipments. In addition, we investigate evolutionary optimization algorithms to determine the optimal parameters. Our results indicate that the combined model using a hybrid algorithm outperforms other methods for the fitting and forecasting processes in terms of mean absolute percentage error.

  8. A Model Combining Oscillations and Attractor Dynamics for Generation of Grid Cell Firing

    Michael E Hasselmo; Brandon, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    Different models have been able to account for different features of the data on grid cell firing properties, including the relationship of grid cells to cellular properties and network oscillations. This paper describes a model that combines elements of two major classes of models of grid cells: models using interference of oscillations and models using attractor dynamics. This model includes a population of units with oscillatory input representing input from the medial septum. These units ...

  9. PAH exposure through soil ingestion: Combining digestion models and bioassays

    Wiele, T.R. van de; Verstraete, W. [Ghent University (BE).Laboratory Microbial Ecology and Technology (LabMET); Siciliano, S.D. [University of Saskatchewan (Canada). Department of Soil Science

    2003-07-01

    Exposure to environmental contaminants through soil ingestion is an important issue in current health risk assessment. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) or their metabolites pose risks to humans due to their toxic, mutagenic, carcinogenic or even (anti)estrogenic properties. PAH mobilization from a soil matrix (49.1{+-}1.5 mg PAH/kg DW) was assessed using a Simulator of the Human Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem (SHIME). PAH GC-MS analysis was performed on the pellet and supernatant of SHIME digests and gave 101, 92, 89 and 97% recovery for water, stomach, duodenal and colon digests, respectively. PAH release was highest for the water extract (0.51%) and the stomach digestion (0.44%). Lower mobilized fractions in the duodenum (0.13%) and colon (0.30%) digests could be attributed to PAH complexation with bile salts, dissolved organic matter or colon microbiota. The digestion model provides us with relevant information to what extent soil bound PAHs are mobilized in the gastrointestinal tract and thus reach the gut wall, prior to absorption. (orig.)

  10. Planck focal plane instruments: advanced modelization and combined analysis

    Zonca, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is the result of my work as research fellow at IASF-MI, Milan section of the Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica, part of INAF, Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica. This work started in January 2006 in the context of the PhD school program in Astrophysics held at the Physics Department of Universita' degli Studi di Milano under the supervision of Aniello Mennella. The main topic of my work is the software modelling of the Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) radiometers. The LFI is one of the two instruments on-board the European Space Agency Planck Mission for high precision measurements of the anisotropies of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). I was also selected to participate at the International Doctorate in Antiparticles Physics, IDAPP. IDAPP is funded by the Italian Ministry of University and Research (MIUR) and coordinated by Giovanni Fiorentini (Universita' di Ferrara) with the objective of supporting the growing collaboration between the Astrophysics and Particles Physics commu...

  11. A testbed combining visual perception models for geographic gaze contingent displays

    Bektaş, Kenan; Coltekin, Arzu; Krüger, Jens; Duchowski, Andrew T.

    2015-01-01

    We present a testbed featuring gaze-contingent displays (GCDs), in which we combined multiple models of the human visual system (HVS) to manage the visual level of detail. GCDs respond to the viewer’s gaze in real-time, rendering a space-variant visualization. Our testbed is optimized for testing mathematical models of the human visual perception utilized in GCDs. Specifically, we combined models of contrast sensitivity, color perception and depth of field; and customized our implementation f...

  12. Forecasting and Analysis of Agricultural Product Logistics Demand in Tibet Based on Combination Forecasting Model

    Wenfeng; YANG

    2015-01-01

    Over the years,the logistics development in Tibet has fallen behind the transport. Since the opening of Qinghai-Tibet Railway in2006,the opportunity for development of modern logistics has been brought to Tibet. The logistics demand analysis and forecasting is a prerequisite for regional logistics planning. By establishing indicator system for logistics demand of agricultural products,agricultural product logistics principal component regression model,gray forecasting model,BP neural network forecasting model are built. Because of the single model’s limitations,quadratic-linear programming model is used to build combination forecasting model to predict the logistics demand scale of agricultural products in Tibet over the next five years. The empirical analysis results show that combination forecasting model is superior to single forecasting model,and it has higher precision,so combination forecasting model will have much wider application foreground and development potential in the field of logistics.

  13. Molluscicidal activity of Lawsonia inermis and its binary and tertiary combinations with other plant derived molluscicides.

    Singh, A; Singh, D K

    2001-03-01

    Molluscicidal activity of leaf, bark and seed of Lawsonia inermis against Lymnaea acuminata and Indoplanorbis exustus was studied. Highest toxicity was observed in the seed of Lawsonia inermis. Toxicity of binary (1:1) and tertiary (1:1:1) combinations of the essential oil of cedar (Cedrus deodara Roxh) and neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss), powder from bulb of garlic (Allium sativum Linn), and oleoresin extracted from rhizome of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc) with Lawsonia inermis and Embelia ribes fruit powder were studied against L. acuminata and I. exustus. L. inermis seed powder in combination with Cedrus deodara oil and Azadirachta indica oil was more toxic than their individual components and other combinations. PMID:11495286

  14. Mathematical modeling of COD removal via the combined treatment of domestic wastewater and landfill leachate based on the PACT process.

    Fernández Bou, Ángel S; Nascentes, Alexandre Lioi; Costa Pereira, Barbara; Da Silva, Leonardo Duarte Batista; Alberto Ferreira, João; Campos, Juacyara Carbonelli

    2015-01-01

    The experiments performed in this study consisted of 16 batch reactors fed different mixtures of landfill leachate combined with synthetic wastewater treated using the Powdered Activated Carbon Treatment (PACT) process. The objective was to measure the COD mass removal per liter each day for each reactor using two models: the first model combined the variables PAC concentration (0 g·L(-1), 2 g·L(-1), 4 g·L(-1), and 6 g·L(-1)) and leachate rate in the wastewater (0%, 2%, 5%, and 10%), and the second model combined the PAC concentration and the influent COD. The Response Surface Methodology with Central Composite Design was used to describe the response surface of both models considered in this study. Domestic wastewater was produced under controlled conditions in the laboratory where the experiments were performed. The results indicated that the PAC effect was null when the influent did not contain leachate; however, as the concentration of leachate applied to the mixture was increased, the addition of a higher PAC concentration resulted in a better COD mass removal in the reactors. The adjusted R(2) values of the two models were greater than 0.95, and the predicted R(2) values were greater than 0.93. The models may be useful for wastewater treatment companies to calculate PAC requirements in order to meet COD mass removal objectives in combined treatment. PMID:25723064

  15. Short communication: Combined antimicrobial activity of reuterin and diacetyl against foodborne pathogens.

    Langa, S; Martín-Cabrejas, I; Montiel, R; Landete, J M; Medina, M; Arqués, J L

    2014-10-01

    Reuterin (β-hydroxypropionialdehyde) is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial substance produced by some strains of Lactobacillus reuteri during anaerobic fermentation of glycerol. Some of these strains are able to survive and produce reuterin in cheese and yogurt when added as adjuncts to the starter. Similarly, in fermented dairy foods, other inhibitory compounds such as lactic acid and diacetyl are produced during fermentation. In this work, we studied the combined effect of reuterin and diacetyl under different pH conditions against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Enteritidis, and Listeria monocytogenes. Results from agar spot assays showed that the antimicrobial activity of reuterin-producing strains against the gram-negative bacteria tested was enhanced as the concentration of diacetyl increased to 50 mg/kg, and was higher under acidic conditions (pH 5.0) for the 3 pathogenic strains. The combination of reuterin and diacetyl had an additive effect against L. monocytogenes only at diacetyl concentrations of 50 mg/kg and pH 5.0. In addition, growth kinetics studies showed that the combination of 1 activity unit (AU)/mL of reuterin with 100mg/kg diacetyl increased the lag time of the 3 pathogens. In milk, synergistic antimicrobial activity was observed with the combination of 1 AU/mL reuterin and 50 or 100 mg/kg of diacetyl on the gram-negative strains tested, and with 1 AU/mL reuterin and 100 mg/kg of diacetyl on L. monocytogenes. The greatest inhibition of the 3 pathogens was achieved in acidified milk at pH 5.0 with reuterin (1 AU/mL) and diacetyl (100 mg/kg). Based on these results, the combination of reuterin and diacetyl in acidified dairy products could be a promising strategy to control food pathogens in these products. PMID:25087026

  16. Combining Costs and Benefits of Animal Activities to Assess Net Yield Outcomes in Apple Orchards.

    Saunders, Manu E; Luck, Gary W

    2016-01-01

    Diverse animal communities influence ecosystem function in agroecosystems through positive and negative plant-animal interactions. Yet, past research has largely failed to examine multiple interactions that can have opposing impacts on agricultural production in a given context. We collected data on arthropod communities and yield quality and quantity parameters (fruit set, yield loss and net outcomes) in three major apple-growing regions in south-eastern Australia. We quantified the net yield outcome (accounting for positive and negative interactions) of multiple animal activities (pollination, fruit damage, biological control) across the entire growing season on netted branches, which excluded vertebrate predators of arthropods, and open branches. Net outcome was calculated as the number of undamaged fruit at harvest as a proportion of the number of blossoms (i.e., potential fruit yield). Vertebrate exclusion resulted in lower levels of fruit set and higher levels of arthropod damage to apples, but did not affect net outcomes. Yield quality and quantity parameters (fruit set, yield loss, net outcomes) were not directly associated with arthropod functional groups. Model variance and significant differences between the ratio of pest to beneficial arthropods between regions indicated that complex relationships between environmental factors and multiple animal interactions have a combined effect on yield. Our results show that focusing on a single crop stage, species group or ecosystem function/service can overlook important complexity in ecological processes within the system. Accounting for this complexity and quantifying the net outcome of ecological interactions within the system, is more informative for research and management of biodiversity and ecosystem services in agricultural landscapes. PMID:27391022

  17. Enhanced antitumor activity of 3-bromopyruvate in combination with rapamycin in vivo and in vitro.

    Zhang, Qi; Pan, Jing; Lubet, Ronald A; Komas, Steven M; Kalyanaraman, Balaraman; Wang, Yian; You, Ming

    2015-04-01

    3-Bromopyruvate (3-BrPA) is an alkylating agent and a well-known inhibitor of energy metabolism. Rapamycin is an inhibitor of the serine/threonine protein kinase mTOR. Both 3-BrPA and rapamycin show chemopreventive efficacy in mouse models of lung cancer. Aerosol delivery of therapeutic drugs for lung cancer has been reported to be an effective route of delivery with little systemic distribution in humans. In this study, 3-BrPA and rapamycin were evaluated in combination for their preventive effects against lung cancer in mice by aerosol treatment, revealing a synergistic ability as measured by tumor multiplicity and tumor load compared treatment with either single-agent alone. No evidence of liver toxicity was detected by monitoring serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) enzymes. To understand the mechanism in vitro experiments were performed using human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines. 3-BrPA and rapamycin also synergistically inhibited cell proliferation. Rapamycin alone blocked the mTOR signaling pathway, whereas 3-BrPA did not potentiate this effect. Given the known role of 3-BrPA as an inhibitor of glycolysis, we investigated mitochondrial bioenergetics changes in vitro in 3-BrPA-treated NSCLC cells. 3-BrPA significantly decreased glycolytic activity, which may be due to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) depletion and decreased expression of GAPDH. Our results demonstrate that rapamycin enhanced the antitumor efficacy of 3-BrPA, and that dual inhibition of mTOR signaling and glycolysis may be an effective therapeutic strategy for lung cancer chemoprevention. PMID:25644152

  18. Active life in old age. Combining measures of functional ability and social participation

    Avlund, K; Holstein, B E; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Schroll, M

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a new measure of Active Life Expectancy, called Active Life Classification (ALC) in which the criterion for successful aging is a combination of good functional ability and high social participation. OBJECTIVES: 1) to describe the distribution of ALC among 75-year-old men and...... women, 2) to investigate the association between ALC and life satisfaction and 3) to describe how ALC is determined by socio-demographic, psycho-social, and health factors. DESIGN: A cross-sectional population survey. SETTING: Eleven municipalities in the Western part of Copenhagen County in 1989....... SUBJECTS: A random sample of 75-year-old people who were invited to participate in the study (participation rate: 89, n = 477). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: ALC is a combination of two dichotomized variables: functional ability (dependent vs not dependent of help) and social participation (low vs. high). RESULTS...

  19. Hepatoprotective activity of aqueous extract of Portulaca oleracea in combination with lycopene in rats

    M Anusha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To investigate the hepatoprotective activity of the aqueous extract of the aerial parts of Portulaca oleracea (P. oleracea in combination with lycopene against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Materials and Methods : Hepatotoxicity was induced in male Wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of carbon tetrachloride (0.1 ml/kg b.w for 14 days. The aqueous extract of P. oleracea in combination with lycopene (50 mg/kg b.w was administered to the experimental animals at two selected doses for 14 days. The hepatoprotective activity of the combination was evaluated by the liver function marker enzymes in the serum [aspartate transaminases (AST, alanine transaminases (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (Alk.P, total bilirubin (TB, total protein (TP and total cholesterol (TC], pentobarbitone induced sleeping time (PST and histopathological studies of liver. Results : Both the treatment groups showed hepatoprotective effect against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity by significantly restoring the levels of serum enzymes to normal which was comparable to that of silymarin group. Besides, the results obtained from PST and histopathological results also support the study. Conclusions : The oral administration of P. oleracea in combination with lycopene significantly ameliorates CCl 4 hepatotoxicity in rats.

  20. Combining ability of wheat genotypes in two models of diallel analyses

    Giovani Benin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Diallel analyses are commonly used for the estimate of population genetic effects. Different models can beused, with a direct effect on the inferences. The objective of this study was to determine and compare two diallel analysismodels, fixed and random, regarding the combining effects among six wheat genotypes. The experiment was conducted in thecounty of Capão do Leão/RS in the year 2006. Six wheat genotypes were used that were used for artificial crosses accordingto a complete diallel model without reciprocals, resulting in 15 hybrid combinations. The data were subjected to diallelanalyses according to model 2 of Griffing (fixed and BLUP (random. The results show that both diallel models indicatesimilar general combining ability effects. On the other hand, for the specific combining ability, the data must be used withcaution, considering the two models simultaneously.

  1. Activity of a social dynamics model

    Reia, Sandro M.; Neves, Ubiraci P. C.

    2015-10-01

    Axelrod's model was proposed to study interactions between agents and the formation of cultural domains. It presents a transition from a monocultural to a multicultural steady state which has been studied in the literature by evaluation of the relative size of the largest cluster. In this article, we propose new measurements based on the concept of activity per agent to study the Axelrod's model on the square lattice. We show that the variance of system activity can be used to indicate the critical points of the transition. Furthermore the frequency distribution of the system activity is able to show a coexistence of phases typical of a first order phase transition. Finally, we verify a power law dependence between cluster activity and cluster size for multicultural steady state configurations at the critical point.

  2. Combining Activity DSM with Temporal Logic for Collaborative Planning and Scheduling

    Mathieu Baudin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an approach that implements enhanced scheduling algorithms to plan and schedule interventions in scientific facilities emitting various types of ionizing radiation such as the ones present at CERN in Geneva, (Switzerland or at GSI in Darmstadt (Germany. To deal with the collaborative process of activity creation and submission used in those organizations, we propose a framework to set the appropriate sequence or skeleton for the activities. This framework combines Allen’s Interval Algebra and DSM (Design Structure Matrix. It enables the sequence of activities to be automatically computed while gathering and taking into account the needs of users and testing their compatibility. It also deals with technical-type or resource-type constraints between activities as well as incompatible submissions. The work described in this paper includes details of the collaborative submission process and introduces suggestions for compromising as well as temporal calculations with the introduction of parameterized DSMs rather than binary ones.

  3. Combined treatment of retting flax wastewater using Fenton oxidation and granular activated carbon

    Sohair I. Abou-Elela; Mohammed Eid M. Ali; Ibrahim, Hanan S.

    2016-01-01

    The process of retting flax produces a huge amount of wastewater which is characterized with bad unpleasant smell and high concentration of organic materials. Treatment of such waste had always been difficult because of the presence of refractory organic pollutants such as lignin. In this study, treatment of retting wastewater was carried out using combined system of Fenton oxidation process followed by adsorption on granular activated carbon (GAC). The effects of operating condition on Fento...

  4. Integrated gasification combined-cycle research development and demonstration activities in the U.S.

    Ness, H.M.

    1994-12-31

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) has selected seven integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) advanced power systems for demonstration in the Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program. DOE`s Office of Fossil Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center, is managing a research development and demonstration (RD&D)program that supports the CCT program, and addresses long-term improvements in support of IGCC technology. This overview briefly describes the CCT projects and the supporting RD&D activities.

  5. Lovastatin inhibits VEGFR and AKT activation: synergistic cytotoxicity in combination with VEGFR inhibitors.

    Tong T Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In a recent study, we demonstrated the ability of lovastatin, a potent inhibitor of mevalonate synthesis, to inhibit the function of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR. Lovastatin attenuated ligand-induced receptor activation and downstream signaling through the PI3K/AKT pathway. Combining lovastatin with gefitinib, a potent EGFR inhibitor, induced synergistic cytotoxicity in a variety of tumor derived cell lines. The vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR and EGFR share similar activation, internalization and downstream signaling characteristics. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The VEGFRs, particularly VEGFR-2 (KDR, Flt-1, play important roles in regulating tumor angiogenesis by promoting endothelial cell proliferation, survival and migration. Certain tumors, such as malignant mesothelioma (MM, also express both the VEGF ligand and VEGFRs that act in an autocrine loop to directly stimulate tumor cell growth and survival. In this study, we have shown that lovastatin inhibits ligand-induced VEGFR-2 activation through inhibition of receptor internalization and also inhibits VEGF activation of AKT in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC and H28 MM cells employing immunofluorescence and Western blotting. Combinations of lovastatin and a VEGFR-2 inhibitor showed more robust AKT inhibition than either agent alone in the H28 MM cell line. Furthermore, combining 5 µM lovastatin treatment, a therapeutically relevant dose, with two different VEGFR-2 inhibitors in HUVEC and the H28 and H2052 mesothelioma derived cell lines demonstrated synergistic cytotoxicity as demonstrated by MTT cell viability and flow cytometric analyses. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results highlight a novel mechanism by which lovastatin can regulate VEGFR-2 function and a potential therapeutic approach for MM through combining statins with VEGFR-2 inhibitors.

  6. Modeling Aerobic Carbon Source Degradation Processes using Titrimetric Data and Combined Respirometric-Titrimetric Data: Experimental Data and Model Structure

    Gernaey, Krist; Petersen, B.; Nopens, I.;

    2002-01-01

    Experimental data are presented that resulted from aerobic batch degradation experiments in activated sludge with simple carbon sources (acetate and dextrose) as substrates. Data collection was done using combined respirometric-titrimetric measurements. The respirometer consists of an open aerate...

  7. The ZEW combined microsimulation-CGE model : innovative tool for applied policy analysis

    Clauss, Markus; Schubert, Stefanie

    2009-01-01

    This contribution describes the linkage of microsimulation models and computable general equilibrium (CGE) models using two already established models called "STSM" and "PACE-L" used by the Centre for European Economic Research. This state of the art research method for applied policy analysis combines the advantages of both model types: On the one hand, microsimulation models allow for detailed labor supply and distributional effects due to policy measures, as individual household data is us...

  8. Combining Diffusion and Grey Models Based on Evolutionary Optimization Algorithms to Forecast Motherboard Shipments

    Fu-Kwun Wang; Yu-Yao Hsiao; Ku-Kuang Chang

    2012-01-01

    It is important for executives to predict the future trends. Otherwise, their companies cannot make profitable decisions and investments. The Bass diffusion model can describe the empirical adoption curve for new products and technological innovations. The Grey model provides short-term forecasts using four data points. This study develops a combined model based on the rolling Grey model (RGM) and the Bass diffusion model to forecast motherboard shipments. In addition, we investigate evolutio...

  9. [Theoretical model for compatibility of medicinal property combination of traditional Chinese medicines].

    Sun, Jing; Zhang, Yan-ling; Gu, Hao; Wang, Yun

    2015-08-01

    Medicinal properties are specific attributes of traditional Chinese medicines(TCM). The medicinal property theory is an important principle for the compatibility of traditional Chinese medicines. In this paper, medicinal properties, flavors and meridian tropism were combined to represent TCM medicinal properties; and multiple medicinal properties were further combined into medicinal property combination modes. TCMs and medicinal property combination modes were divided according to their efficacies, which were regarded as the concept of inductive logic programming and finally got medicinal property combination and compatibility rules with different efficacies. These medicinal property combination and compatibility rules were used to form the theoretical model through the entity grammar system, realize the automatic reasoning process from the medicinal property combination and compatibility to the efficacies, verify the reasoning result and analyze their rationality and limitations, in order to provide new ideas for revealing the relations between the TCM compatibility rules and efficacies. PMID:26790316

  10. Neural Network for Combining Linear and Non-Linear Modelling of Dynamic Systems

    Madsen, Per Printz

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a method to combine linear models with MLP networks. In other words to find a method to make a non-linear and multivariable model that performs at least as good as a linear model, when the training data lacks information....

  11. Crisis response simulation combining discrete-event and agent-based modeling

    Gonzalez, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a crisis response simulation model architecture combining a discrete-event simulation (DES) environment for a crisis scenario with an agent-based model of the response organization. In multi-agent systems (MAS) as a computational organization, agents are modeled and implemented s

  12. A mathematical model of combined therapies against cancer using viruses and inhibitors

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with a procedure for combined therapies against cancer using oncolytic viruses and inhibitors. Replicating genetically modified adenoviruses infect cancer cells, reproduce inside them and eventually cause their death (lysis). As infected cells die, the viruses inside them are released and then proceed to infect other tumor cells. The successful entry of virus into cancer cells is related to the presence of the coxsackie-adenovirus receptor (CAR). Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (known as MEK) inhibitors can promote CAR expression, resulting in enhanced adenovirus entry into cancer cells. However, MEK inhibitors can also cause G1 cell-cycle arrest, inhibiting reproduction of the virus. To design an effective synergistic therapy, the promotion of virus infection must be optimally balanced with inhibition of virus production. We introduce a mathematical model to describe the effects of MEK inhibitors and viruses on tumor cells, and use it to explore the reduction of the tumor size that can be achieved by the combined therapies. Furthermore, we find an optimal dose of inhibitor: Poptimal = 1 - μ/δ for a certain initial density of cells (where μ is the removal rate of the dead cells and δ is the death rate of the infected cells). The optimal timing of MEK inhibitors is also numerically studied.

  13. A mathematical model of combined therapies against cancer using viruses and inhibitors

    TAO YouShan; GUO Qian

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with a procedure for combined therapies against cancer using oncolytic viruses and inhibitors. Replicating genetically modified adenoviruses infect cancer cells, reproduce inside them and eventually cause their death (lysis). As infected cells die, the viruses inside them are released and then proceed to infect other tumor cells. The successful entry of virus into cancer cells is related to the presence of the coxsackie-adenovirus receptor (CAR). Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (known as MEK) inhibitors can promote CAR expression, resulting in enhanced adenovirus entry into cancer cells. However, MEK inhibitors can also cause G1 cell-cycle arrest, inhibiting reproduction of the virus. To design an effective synergistic therapy, the promotion of virus infection must be optimally balanced with inhibition of virus production. We introduce a mathematical model to describe the effects of MEK inhibitors and viruses on tumor cells, and use it to explore the reduction of the tumor size that can be achieved by the combined therapies. Furthermore, we find an optimal dose of inhibitor: Poptimal = I - μ/δ for a certain initial density of cells (where μ is the removal rate of the dead cells and δ is the death rate of the infected cells). The optimal timing of MEK inhibitors is also numerically studied.

  14. Combined Prediction Model of Death Toll for Road Traffic Accidents Based on Independent and Dependent Variables

    Feng Zhong-xiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to build a combined model which can meet the variation rule of death toll data for road traffic accidents and can reflect the influence of multiple factors on traffic accidents and improve prediction accuracy for accidents, the Verhulst model was built based on the number of death tolls for road traffic accidents in China from 2002 to 2011; and car ownership, population, GDP, highway freight volume, highway passenger transportation volume, and highway mileage were chosen as the factors to build the death toll multivariate linear regression model. Then the two models were combined to be a combined prediction model which has weight coefficient. Shapley value method was applied to calculate the weight coefficient by assessing contributions. Finally, the combined model was used to recalculate the number of death tolls from 2002 to 2011, and the combined model was compared with the Verhulst and multivariate linear regression models. The results showed that the new model could not only characterize the death toll data characteristics but also quantify the degree of influence to the death toll by each influencing factor and had high accuracy as well as strong practicability.

  15. Anti-malarial activities of Andrographis paniculata and Hedyotis corymbosa extracts and their combination with curcumin

    Swain Bijay K

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Herbal extracts of Andrographis paniculata (AP and Hedyotis corymbosa (HC are known as hepato-protective and fever-reducing drugs since ancient time and they have been used regularly by the people in the south Asian sub-continent. Methanolic extracts of these two plants were tested in vitro on choloroquine sensitive (MRC-pf-20 and resistant (MRC-pf-303 strains of Plasmodium falciparum for their anti-malarial activity. Methods Growth inhibition was determined using different concentrations of these plant extracts on synchronized P. falciparum cultures at the ring stage. The interactions between these two plant extracts and individually with curcumin were studied in vitro. The performance of these two herbal extracts in isolation and combination were further evaluated in vivo on Balb/c mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA and their efficacy was compared with that of curcumin. The in vivo toxicity of the plant derived compounds as well as their parasite stage-specificity was studied. Results The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50 of AP (7.2 μg/ml was found better than HC (10.8 μg/ml. Combination of these two herbal drugs showed substantial enhancement in their anti-malarial activity. Combinatorial effect of each of these with curcumin also revealed anti-malarial effect. Additive interaction between the plant extracts (AP + HC and their individual synergism with curcumin (AP+CUR, HC+CUR were evident from this study. Increased in vivo potency was also observed with the combination of plant extracts over the individual extracts and curcumin. Both the plant extracts were found to inhibit the ring stage of the parasite and did not show any in vivo toxicity, whether used in isolation or in combination. Conclusion Both these two plant extracts in combination with curcumin could be an effective, alternative source of herbal anti-malarial drugs.

  16. Molecular modelling on small molecular CDK2 inhibitors: an integrated approach using a combination of molecular docking, 3D-QSAR and pharmacophore modelling.

    Yuan, H; Liu, H; Tai, W; Wang, F; Zhang, Y; Yao, S; Ran, T; Lu, S; Ke, Z; Xiong, X; Xu, J; Chen, Y; Lu, T

    2013-10-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) has been identified as an important target for developing novel anticancer agents. Molecular docking, three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) and pharmacophore modelling were combined with the ultimate goal of studying the structure-activity relationship of CDK2 inhibitors. The comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA) model constructed based on a set of 3-aminopyrazole derivatives as CDK2 inhibitors gave statistically significant results (q (2) = 0.700; r (2) = 0.982). A HypoGen pharmacophore model, constructed using diverse CDK2 inhibitors, also showed significant statistics ([Formula: see text]Cost = 61.483; RMSD = 0.53; Correlation coefficient = 0.98). The small residues and error values between the estimated and experimental activities of the training and test set compounds proved their strong capability of activity prediction. The structural insights obtained from these two models were consistent with each other. The pharmacophore model summarized the important pharmacophoric features required for protein-ligand binding. The 3D contour maps in combination with the comprehensive pharmacophoric features helped to better interpret the structure-activity relationship. The results will be beneficial for the discovery and design of novel CDK2 inhibitors. The simplicity of this approach provides expansion to its applicability in optimizing other classes of small molecular CDK2 inhibitors. PMID:23941641

  17. In vitro and in vivo antimicrobial activity of combined therapy of silver nanoparticles and visible blue light against Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Nour El Din S

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Suzanne Nour El Din,1 Tarek A El-Tayeb,2 Khaled Abou-Aisha,1 Mohamed El-Azizi1 1Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Biotechnology, Faculty of Pharmacy and Biotechnology, German University in Cairo, 2National Institute for Laser Enhanced Sciences, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt Abstract: Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs have been used as potential antimicrobial agents against resistant pathogens. We investigated the possible therapeutic use of AgNPs in combination with visible blue light against a multidrug resistant clinical isolate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in vitro and in vivo. The antibacterial activity of AgNPs against P. aeruginosa (1×105 colony forming unit/mL was investigated at its minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and sub-MIC, alone and in combination with blue light at 460 nm and 250 mW for 2 hours. The effect of this combined therapy on the treated bacteria was then visualized using transmission electron microscope. The therapy was also assessed in the prevention of biofilm formation by P. aeruginosa on AgNP-impregnated gelatin biopolymer discs. Further, in vivo investigations were performed to evaluate the efficacy of the combined therapy to prevent burn-wound colonization and sepsis in mice and, finally, to treat a real infected horse with antibiotic-unresponsive chronic wound. The antimicrobial activity of AgNPs and visible blue light was significantly enhanced (P<0.001 when both agents were combined compared to each agent alone when AgNPs were tested at MIC, 1/2, or 1/4 MIC. Transmission electron microscope showed significant damage to the cells that were treated with the combined therapy compared to other cells that received either the AgNPs or blue light. In addition, the combined treatment significantly (P<0.001 inhibited biofilm formation by P. aeruginosa on gelatin discs compared to each agent individually. Finally, the combined therapy effectively treated a horse suffering from a chronic wound caused by mixed

  18. Combined Thickness of the Modeled Saddle Mountains Basalt and Mabton Interbed Geomodel Units (smthk_f)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The smthk_f grid represents the modeled combined thickness of the Saddle Mountains Basalt and Mabton interbed geomodel units at a 500 foot resolution. It is one...

  19. Bivalirudin in combination with heparin to control mesenchymal cell procoagulant activity.

    Xavier Stephenne

    Full Text Available Islet and hepatocyte transplantation are associated with tissue factor-dependent activation of coagulation which elicits instant blood mediated inflammatory reaction, thereby contributing to a low rate of engraftment. The aim of this study was i to evaluate the procoagulant activity of human adult liver-derived mesenchymal progenitor cells (hALPCs, ii to compare it to other mesenchymal cells of extra-hepatic (bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and skin fibroblasts or liver origin (liver myofibroblasts, and iii to determine the ways this activity could be modulated. Using a whole blood coagulation test (thromboelastometry, we demonstrated that all analyzed cell types exhibit procoagulant activity. The hALPCs pronounced procoagulant activity was associated with an increased tissue factor and a decreased tissue factor pathway inhibitor expression as compared with hepatocytes. At therapeutic doses, the procoagulant effect of hALPCs was inhibited by neither antithrombin activators nor direct factor Xa inhibitor or direct thrombin inhibitors individually. However, concomitant administration of an antithrombin activator or direct factor Xa inhibitor and direct thrombin inhibitor proved to be a particularly effective combination for controlling the procoagulant effects of hALPCs both in vitro and in vivo. The results suggest that this dual antithrombotic therapy should also improve the efficacy of cell transplantation in humans.

  20. Evaluation of activity and combination strategies with the microtubule-targeting drug sagopilone in breast cancer cell lines.

    Eschenbrenner, Julia; Winsel, Sebastian; Hammer, Stefanie; Sommer, Anette; Mittelstaedt, Kevin; Drosch, Michael; Klar, Ulrich; Sachse, Christoph; Hannus, Michael; Seidel, Monika; Weiss, Bertram; Merz, Claudia; Siemeister, Gerhard; Hoffmann, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Sagopilone, a fully synthetic epothilone, is a microtubule-stabilizing agent optimized for high in vitro and in vivo activity against a broad range of tumor models, including those resistant to paclitaxel and other systemic treatments. Sagopilone development is accompanied by translational research studies to evaluate the molecular mode of action, to recognize mechanisms leading to resistance, to identify predictive response biomarkers, and to establish a rationale for combination with different therapies. Here, we profiled sagopilone activity in breast cancer cell lines. To analyze the mechanisms of mitotic arrest and apoptosis and to identify additional targets and biomarkers, an siRNA-based RNAi drug modifier screen interrogating 300 genes was performed in four cancer cell lines. Defects of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) were identified to cause resistance against sagopilone-induced mitotic arrest and apoptosis. Potential biomarkers for resistance could therefore be functional defects like polymorphisms or mutations in the SAC, particularly in the central SAC kinase BUB1B. Moreover, chromosomal heterogeneity and polyploidy are also potential biomarkers of sagopilone resistance since they imply an increased tolerance for aberrant mitosis. RNAi screening further demonstrated that the sagopilone-induced mitotic arrest can be enhanced by concomitant inhibition of mitotic kinesins, thus suggesting a potential combination therapy of sagopilone with a KIF2C (MCAK) kinesin inhibitor. However, the combination of sagopilone and inhibition of the prophase kinesin KIF11 (EG5) is antagonistic, indicating that the kinesin inhibitor has to be highly specific to bring about the required therapeutic benefit. PMID:22649765

  1. Evaluation of efficacy of combination of methotrexate and hydroxychloroquine with leflunomide in active rheumatoid arthritis

    Shashikumar N

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several new drugs for rheumatoid arthritis are available including leflunomide. Comparative studies of treatment with leflunomide (against methotrexate report a better quality of life. Aim: This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of combination of methotrexate and hydroxychloroquine with leflunomide, a new disease modifying antirheumatoid drug. Analysis was of intent to treat group. Materials and Methods: This was an open labeled, randomized, comparative clinical trial in the department of rheumatology and immunology, at a tertiary care center in Bangalore. Patients who have diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis as per American College of Rheumatology aged between 18 and 60 years were recruited and randomized to receive leflunomide (10 mg/day p.o. or a combination of methotrexate and hydroxychloroquine (7.5 mg/week p.o. and 200 mg/day p.o., respectively along with folate supplementation for 12 weeks. The European League Against Rheumatism criteria of improvement according to disease activity score 28 was considered as the primary efficacy variable. Baseline and end of study values were evaluated. The duration of the study period was 1 year. Analysis of variance (ANOVA and Wilcoxon Signed rank test were used for statistical analysis. Results: After 12 weeks, improvement noted in patients treated with leflunomide was similar to those treated with a combination of methotrexate and hydroxychloroquine. There was no statistical significance in improvement in disease activity between the two groups (P = 0.377. Conclusion: Combination of methotrexate and hydroxychloroquine is equivalent to leflunomide in terms of efficacy in reducing disease activity in the initial treatment of severe rheumatoid arthritis.

  2. Effects of combining biological treatment and activated carbon on hexavalent chromium reduction.

    Orozco, A M Ferro; Contreras, E M; Zaritzky, N E

    2011-02-01

    The objectives of the present work were: (a) to analyze the Cr(VI) removal by combining activated sludge (AS) with powdered activated carbon (PAC), (b) to analyze the effect of PAC and Cr(VI) on the growth kinetics of activated sludge, and (c) to determine if the combined method (AS-PAC) for Cr(VI) removal can be considered additive or synergistic with respect to the individual processes. Chromate removal was improved by increasing PAC concentrations in both PAC and AS-PAC systems. Cr(VI) removal using the AS-PAC system was higher than using AS or PAC. The increase of Cr(VI) caused longer lag phase and lower observed specific growth rate (μ(obs)), biomass yield (Y(X/S)), and specific growth substrate consumption rate (q(S)) of activated sludge; additionally, PAC did not enhance the growth kinetic parameters (μ(obs), Y(X/S), q(S)). Cr(VI) reduction in AS-PAC system was the result of the additive effect of each individual Cr(VI) removal process. PMID:21123053

  3. MODELING MERCURY CONTROL WITH POWDERED ACTIVATED CARBON

    The paper presents a mathematical model of total mercury removed from the flue gas at coal-fired plants equipped with powdered activated carbon (PAC) injection for Mercury control. The developed algorithms account for mercury removal by both existing equipment and an added PAC in...

  4. Local Inflammation in Fracture Hematoma: Results from a Combined Trauma Model in Pigs

    Horst, K.; Eschbach, D.; Pfeifer, R.; S. Hübenthal; Sassen, M.; T. Steinfeldt; Wulf, H; Ruchholtz, S.; Pape, H. C.; F. Hildebrand

    2015-01-01

    Background. Previous studies showed significant interaction between the local and systemic inflammatory response after severe trauma in small animal models. The purpose of this study was to establish a new combined trauma model in pigs to investigate fracture-associated local inflammation and gain information about the early inflammatory stages after polytrauma. Material and Methods. Combined trauma consisted of tibial fracture, lung contusion, liver laceration, and controlled hemorrhage. Ani...

  5. Distributional Models and Deep Learning Embeddings: Combining the Best of Both Worlds

    Sergienya, Irina; Schütze, Hinrich

    2013-01-01

    There are two main approaches to the distributed representation of words: low-dimensional deep learning embeddings and high-dimensional distributional models, in which each dimension corresponds to a context word. In this paper, we combine these two approaches by learning embeddings based on distributional-model vectors - as opposed to one-hot vectors as is standardly done in deep learning. We show that the combined approach has better performance on a word relatedness judgment task.

  6. Evaluation of active hexose correlated compound (AHCC in combination with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin for treatment of ovarian cancer

    R J Hunter

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The objective was to define the mechanism of the growth inhibition of active hexose correlated compound (AHCC alone and evaluate its activity in combination with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD. Scientific Methods: In vitro growth inhibition assays were completed with AHCC alone and in combination with PLD in panel of human cancer cell lines  and findings confirmed in vivo in an ovarian cancer xenograft mouse model.  AHCC mechanism of action was evaluated with immunoblotting and flow cytometry studies. Major Findings: The in vitro growth inhibition assays demonstrated additive activity when AHCC is co-administered with PLD.  The combination of AHCC with PLD demonstrated a 64.1% reduction in tumor growth compared to the untreated group (p value = 0.03 and a 31.2% improvement in tumor response with combination regimen compared to PLD alone. No difference in toxicity was observed in the control or treatment groups.  An increased expression of Bcl-2 was observed and induction of apoptosis confirmed in presence of AHCC. Conclusions: There is potential improvement in PLD activity when co-administered with AHCC and decrease side effects of PLD.  A clinical study to evaluate of the combination of AHCC plus PLD in the treatment of ovarian cancer is being pursued. Industrial Relevance: This study presents an example of the successful integration of a well- known herbal supplement, AHCC, with traditional western medicine cytotoxic agent, pegylated liposomal doxorubicin, for the treatment of recurrent ovarian cancer.    In addition to providing evidence of the efficacy of AHCC, the mechanism of improved activity was also investigated.   Using a traditional approach this study provides pre-clinical data to support the benefits previously observed and reported in the clinical setting and supports future endeavors to integrate AHCC into standard of care to be given with chemotherapy. .  These finding are particularly beneficial in the

  7. Combining scales in habitat models to improve conservation planning in an endangered vulture

    Mateo-Tomás, Patricia; Olea, Pedro P.

    2009-07-01

    Predictive modelling of species' distributions has been successfully applied in conservation ecology, but effective conservation requires predictive and accurate models. The combination of different scales to build habitat models might improve their predictive ability and hence their usefulness for conservation, but this approach has rarely been evaluated. We developed habitat-occupancy models combining scales from nest-site to landscape for a key population at the northwestern edge of the distribution of the globally endangered Egyptian vulture ( Neophron percnopterus). We used generalised linear models (GLM) and an information-theoretic approach to identify the best combination of scales and resolutions for explaining occurrence. Those models that combined nest-site and landscape scales improved the predictive ability compared with the scale-specific ones. The best combined model had a very high predictive ability when used against an independent dataset (92% correct classifications). Egyptian vultures preferred to nest in caves with vegetation at the entrance that were situated at the base of long cliffs, provided that these cliffs are embedded within low-lying, heterogeneous areas with little topographic irregularity and with little human disturbance. The density of sheep around the nest positively influenced Egyptian vulture presence. Conservation of the studied population should focus on minimising human disturbance and on promoting sustainable development through conservation of traditional pastoralism. Our findings highlight the importance of developing region-specific multiscale models in order to design effective conservation strategies. The approach described here may be applied similarly in other populations and species.

  8. Structural dynamics modeling and testing of the Department of Energy tractor/trailer combination

    Field, R.V. Jr.; Hurtado, J.E.; Carne, T.G.; Dohrmann, C.R.

    1996-12-31

    This study presents a combined analytical and experimental effort to characterize and improve the ride quality of the Department of Energy tractor/trailer combination. The focus is to augment the experimental test results with the use of a high quality computer model. The discussion includes an overview of the finite element model of the vehicle and experimental modal test results. System identification techniques are employed to update the mathematical model. The validated model is then used to illustrate the benefits of incorporating two major design changes, namely the switch from a separate cab/sleeper configuration to an integrated cab, and the use of a cab suspension system.

  9. Macrofilaricidal Activity in Wuchereria bancrofti after 2 Weeks Treatment with a Combination of Rifampicin plus Doxycycline

    Alexander Yaw Debrah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection with the filarial nematode Wuchereria bancrofti can lead to lymphedema, hydrocele, and elephantiasis. Since adult worms cause pathology in lymphatic filariasis (LF, it is imperative to discover macrofilaricidal drugs for the treatment of the infection. Endosymbiotic Wolbachia in filariae have emerged as a new target for antibiotics which can lead to macrofilaricidal effects. In Ghana, a pilot study was carried out with 39 LF-infected men; 12 were treated with 200 mg doxycycline/day for 4 weeks, 16 were treated with a combination of 200 mg doxycycline/day + 10 mg/kg/day rifampicin for 2 weeks, and 11 patients received placebo. Patients were monitored for Wolbachia and microfilaria loads, antigenaemia, and filarial dance sign (FDS. Both 4-week doxycycline and the 2-week combination treatment reduced Wolbachia load significantly. At 18 months posttreatment, four-week doxycycline resulted in 100% adult worm loss, and the 2-week combination treatment resulted in a 50% adult worm loss. In conclusion, this pilot study with a combination of 2-week doxycycline and rifampicin demonstrates moderate macrofilaricidal activity against W. bancrofti.

  10. Mathematical model of radon activity measurements

    Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine N.; Kappke, Jaqueline; Zambianchi, Pedro, E-mail: sergei@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: janine_nicolosi@hotmail.com [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Denyak, Valeriy, E-mail: denyak@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisa Pele Pequeno Principe, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Present work describes a mathematical model that quantifies the time dependent amount of {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn altogether and their activities within an ionization chamber as, for example, AlphaGUARD, which is used to measure activity concentration of Rn in soil gas. The differential equations take into account tree main processes, namely: the injection of Rn into the cavity of detector by the air pump including the effect of the traveling time Rn takes to reach the chamber; Rn release by the air exiting the chamber; and radioactive decay of Rn within the chamber. Developed code quantifies the activity of {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn isotopes separately. Following the standard methodology to measure Rn activity in soil gas, the air pump usually is turned off over a period of time in order to avoid the influx of Rn into the chamber. Since {sup 220}Rn has a short half-life time, approximately 56s, the model shows that after 7 minutes the activity concentration of this isotope is null. Consequently, the measured activity refers to {sup 222}Rn, only. Furthermore, the model also addresses the activity of {sup 220}Rn and {sup 222}Rn progeny, which being metals represent potential risk of ionization chamber contamination that could increase the background of further measurements. Some preliminary comparison of experimental data and theoretical calculations is presented. Obtained transient and steady-state solutions could be used for planning of Rn in soil gas measurements as well as for accuracy assessment of obtained results together with efficiency evaluation of chosen measurements procedure. (author)

  11. Mathematical model of radon activity measurements

    Present work describes a mathematical model that quantifies the time dependent amount of 222Rn and 220Rn altogether and their activities within an ionization chamber as, for example, AlphaGUARD, which is used to measure activity concentration of Rn in soil gas. The differential equations take into account tree main processes, namely: the injection of Rn into the cavity of detector by the air pump including the effect of the traveling time Rn takes to reach the chamber; Rn release by the air exiting the chamber; and radioactive decay of Rn within the chamber. Developed code quantifies the activity of 222Rn and 220Rn isotopes separately. Following the standard methodology to measure Rn activity in soil gas, the air pump usually is turned off over a period of time in order to avoid the influx of Rn into the chamber. Since 220Rn has a short half-life time, approximately 56s, the model shows that after 7 minutes the activity concentration of this isotope is null. Consequently, the measured activity refers to 222Rn, only. Furthermore, the model also addresses the activity of 220Rn and 222Rn progeny, which being metals represent potential risk of ionization chamber contamination that could increase the background of further measurements. Some preliminary comparison of experimental data and theoretical calculations is presented. Obtained transient and steady-state solutions could be used for planning of Rn in soil gas measurements as well as for accuracy assessment of obtained results together with efficiency evaluation of chosen measurements procedure. (author)

  12. Research on Short-Term Wind Power Prediction Based on Combined Forecasting Models

    Zhang Chi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Short-Term wind power forecasting is crucial for power grid since the generated energy of wind farm fluctuates frequently. In this paper, a physical forecasting model based on NWP and a statistical forecasting model with optimized initial value in the method of BP neural network are presented. In order to make full use of the advantages of the models presented and overcome the limitation of the disadvantage, the equal weight model and the minimum variance model are established for wind power prediction. Simulation results show that the combination forecasting model is more precise than single forecasting model and the minimum variance combination model can dynamically adjust weight of each single method, restraining the forecasting error further.

  13. BAYESIAN FORECASTS COMBINATION TO IMPROVE THE ROMANIAN INFLATION PREDICTIONS BASED ON ECONOMETRIC MODELS

    Mihaela Simionescu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There are many types of econometric models used in predicting the inflation rate, but in this study we used a Bayesian shrinkage combination approach. This methodology is used in order to improve the predictions accuracy by including information that is not captured by the econometric models. Therefore, experts’ forecasts are utilized as prior information, for Romania these predictions being provided by Institute for Economic Forecasting (Dobrescu macromodel, National Commission for Prognosis and European Commission. The empirical results for Romanian inflation show the superiority of a fixed effects model compared to other types of econometric models like VAR, Bayesian VAR, simultaneous equations model, dynamic model, log-linear model. The Bayesian combinations that used experts’ predictions as priors, when the shrinkage parameter tends to infinite, improved the accuracy of all forecasts based on individual models, outperforming also zero and equal weights predictions and naïve forecasts.

  14. Combination strategies for pandemic influenza response - a systematic review of mathematical modeling studies

    Lee Vernon J

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individual strategies in pandemic preparedness plans may not reduce the impact of an influenza pandemic. Methods We searched modeling publications through PubMed and associated references from 1990 to 30 September 2009. Inclusion criteria were modeling papers quantifying the effectiveness of combination strategies, both pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical. Results Nineteen modeling papers on combination strategies were selected. Four studies examined combination strategies on a global scale, 14 on single countries, and one on a small community. Stochastic individual-based modeling was used in nine studies, stochastic meta-population modeling in five, and deterministic compartmental modeling in another five. As part of combination strategies, vaccination was explored in eight studies, antiviral prophylaxis and/or treatment in 16, area or household quarantine in eight, case isolation in six, social distancing measures in 10 and air travel restriction in six studies. Two studies suggested a high probability of successful influenza epicenter containment with combination strategies under favorable conditions. During a pandemic, combination strategies delayed spread, reduced overall number of cases, and delayed and reduced peak attack rate more than individual strategies. Combination strategies remained effective at high reproductive numbers compared with single strategy. Global cooperative strategies, including redistribution of antiviral drugs, were effective in reducing the global impact and attack rates of pandemic influenza. Conclusion Combination strategies increase the effectiveness of individual strategies. They include pharmaceutical (antiviral agents, antibiotics and vaccines and non-pharmaceutical interventions (case isolation, quarantine, personal hygiene measures, social distancing and travel restriction. Local epidemiological and modeling studies are needed to validate efficacy and feasibility.

  15. Combining Metabolite-Based Pharmacophores with Bayesian Machine Learning Models for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Drug Discovery

    Sarker, Malabika; Li, Shao-Gang; Mittal, Nisha; Kumar, Pradeep; Wang, Xin; Stratton, Thomas P.; Zimmerman, Matthew; Talcott, Carolyn; Bourbon, Pauline; Travers, Mike; Yadav, Maneesh

    2015-01-01

    Integrated computational approaches for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) are useful to identify new molecules that could lead to future tuberculosis (TB) drugs. Our approach uses information derived from the TBCyc pathway and genome database, the Collaborative Drug Discovery TB database combined with 3D pharmacophores and dual event Bayesian models of whole-cell activity and lack of cytotoxicity. We have prioritized a large number of molecules that may act as mimics of substrates and metabolites in the TB metabolome. We computationally searched over 200,000 commercial molecules using 66 pharmacophores based on substrates and metabolites from Mtb and further filtering with Bayesian models. We ultimately tested 110 compounds in vitro that resulted in two compounds of interest, BAS 04912643 and BAS 00623753 (MIC of 2.5 and 5 μg/mL, respectively). These molecules were used as a starting point for hit-to-lead optimization. The most promising class proved to be the quinoxaline di-N-oxides, evidenced by transcriptional profiling to induce mRNA level perturbations most closely resembling known protonophores. One of these, SRI58 exhibited an MIC = 1.25 μg/mL versus Mtb and a CC50 in Vero cells of >40 μg/mL, while featuring fair Caco-2 A-B permeability (2.3 x 10−6 cm/s), kinetic solubility (125 μM at pH 7.4 in PBS) and mouse metabolic stability (63.6% remaining after 1 h incubation with mouse liver microsomes). Despite demonstration of how a combined bioinformatics/cheminformatics approach afforded a small molecule with promising in vitro profiles, we found that SRI58 did not exhibit quantifiable blood levels in mice. PMID:26517557

  16. Active house: A contemporary housing model for flood affected population

    Stratimirović Tatjana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of architectural knowledge in the struggle for a better future can be seen in the attitude that a good design or a good architectural solution, does not belong solely to the privileged ones as an improvement of the basic requirements, rather quite the opposite, that it is created as a response to a need. The goal of physical and emotional wellbeing, combined with a long term strategy for reducing the negative impact of the built environment by converting it into a positive influence upon the natural ecosystem, brings together and advances bioclimatic principles, architectural design and sustainable construction in the contemporary housing model dubbed the Active House. The Active House Workshop was held, as part of a wider student initiative New Housing Models for Flood Affected Population, at the University of Belgrade - Faculty of Architecture. The purpose of the campaign was to provide help to flood affected communities and assistance in efforts for repairing buildings in Serbia, hit by the severe floods of May 2014. Students came up with nine design solutions for small family homes, which incorporate the principles of Active House into existing construction techniques. In an architectural context, when concerning repair work after flooding, the need to consider problems related to contemporary living conditions through the ‘active’ category is seen in a new understanding of nature which allows the replacement of a passive restoration model, with an active models for designing in interaction with the environment.

  17. A Combined Cooperative Braking Model with a Predictive Control Strategy in an Electric Vehicle

    Hongqiang Guo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative braking with regenerative braking and mechanical braking plays an important role in electric vehicles for energy-saving control. Based on the parallel and the series cooperative braking models, a combined model with a predictive control strategy to get a better cooperative braking performance is presented. The balance problem between the maximum regenerative energy recovery efficiency and the optimum braking stability is solved through an off-line process optimization stream with the collaborative optimization algorithm (CO. To carry out the process optimization stream, the optimal Latin hypercube design (Opt LHD is presented to discrete the continuous design space. To solve the poor real-time problem of the optimization, a high-precision predictive model based on the off-line optimization data of the combined model is built, and a predictive control strategy is proposed and verified through simulation. The simulation results demonstrate that the predictive control strategy and the combined model are reasonable and effective.

  18. Combined CFD/Population Balance Model for Gas Hydrate Particle Size Prediction in Turbulent Pipeline Flow

    Balakin, Boris V.; Hoffmann, Alex C.; Kosinski, Pawel; Istomin, Vladimir A.; Chuvilin, Evgeny M.

    2010-09-01

    A combined computational fluid dynamics/population balance model (CFD-PBM) is developed for gas hydrate particle size prediction in turbulent pipeline flow. The model is based on a one-moment population balance technique, which is coupled with flow field parameters computed using commercial CFD software. The model is calibrated with a five-moment, off-line population balance model and validated with experimental data produced in a low-pressure multiphase flow loop.

  19. Combined effects of social stress and liver fluke infection in a mouse model.

    Avgustinovich, Damira F; Marenina, Mariya K; Zhanaeva, Svetlana Ya; Tenditnik, Mikhail V; Katokhin, Alexey V; Pavlov, Konstantin S; Sivkov, Anton Yu; Vishnivetskaya, Galina B; Lvova, Maria N; Tolstikova, Tatiana G; Mordvinov, Viatcheslav A

    2016-03-01

    The effects of two influences, social stress and acute opisthorchiasis, were investigated in inbred C57BL/6J male mice. In the model of social stress, mice were repeatedly attacked and defeated by aggressive outbred ICR male mice and were in continuous sensory contact with an aggressive conspecific mouse in their home cage for 20days. Acute opisthorchiasis was provoked by invasion of Opisthorchis felineus (50 larvae per animal) on the fourth day after the social stress was induced. Simultaneous action of both factors caused the hypertrophy of adrenal glands, as well as elevated the activity of cathepsins B and L in the spleen. This effect on the activity of the cysteine proteases in the hippocampus and hypothalamus following O. felineus invasion was the predominant result of simultaneous action with social stress. Acute opisthorchiasis, social stress, and their combination caused an increase in the level of blood IL-6 in approximately 30% of the animals. Social stress induced a more pronounced effect on mouse plus-maze behavior than O. felineus invasion. Our results suggest a more severe negative effect of the simultaneous influence of both factors on most of the parameters that were investigated. PMID:26778779

  20. Absence of osteoporosis in an adult population undergoing combined immunosuppressive therapy for chronic active hepatitis

    Thirty adult patients who had received 1-20 years of combined immunosuppressive therapy (CIT) for chronic active hepatitis (CAH) underwent dual-photon absorptiometry (DPA) of L-2 through L-4 CIT consisted of azathioprine and prednisone supplemented and calcium and vitamin D. Osteoporosis is known to occur in patients with CAH, and in other clinical settings prednisone therapy has been shown to induce osteoporosis. For these 30 adult CAH patients undergoing CIT, absorptiometric measurements did not differ significantly from those in age- and sex-matched normal controls. CIT therapy for CAH may have arrested the long-term loss of bone mineral often produced by CAH. The authors' hypothesize that a combined azathioprine and prednisone regimen with reduced corticosteroid requirements was responsible for this favorable outcome

  1. Combined effects of weight loss and physical activity on all-cause mortality of overweight men and women

    ÿstergaard, Jane Nautrup; Grønbaek, M; Schnohr, P; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.; Heitmann, B L

    2010-01-01

    To estimate the excess deaths associated with weight loss in combination with leisure time physical activity among overweight or obese people.......To estimate the excess deaths associated with weight loss in combination with leisure time physical activity among overweight or obese people....

  2. Combination therapy of orally administered glycyrrhizin and UVB improved active-stage generalized vitiligo

    Mou, K.H.; Han, D.; Liu, W.L.; Li, P.

    2016-01-01

    Glycyrrhizin has been used clinically for several years due to its beneficial effect on immunoglobulin E (IgE)-induced allergic diseases, alopecia areata and psoriasis. In this study, glycyrrhizin, ultraviolet B light (UVB) or a combination of both were used to treat active-stage generalized vitiligo. One hundred and forty-four patients between the ages of 3 and 48 years were divided into three groups: group A received oral compound glycyrrhizin (OCG); group B received UVB applications twice weekly, and group C received OCG+UVB. Follow-ups were performed at 2, 4, and 6 months after the treatment was initiated. The Vitiligo Area Scoring Index (VASI) and the Vitiligo Disease Activity (VIDA) instrument were used to assess the affected body surface, at each follow-up. Results showed that 77.1, 75.0 and 87.5% in groups A, B and C, respectively, presented repigmentation of lesions. Responsiveness to therapy seemed to be associated with lesion location and patient compliance. Adverse events were limited and transient. This study showed that, although the three treatment protocols had positive results, OCG and UVB combination therapy was the most effective and led to improvement in disease stage from active to stable. PMID:27464024

  3. Combination therapy of orally administered glycyrrhizin and UVB improved active-stage generalized vitiligo.

    Mou, K H; Han, D; Liu, W L; Li, P

    2016-07-25

    Glycyrrhizin has been used clinically for several years due to its beneficial effect on immunoglobulin E (IgE)-induced allergic diseases, alopecia areata and psoriasis. In this study, glycyrrhizin, ultraviolet B light (UVB) or a combination of both were used to treat active-stage generalized vitiligo. One hundred and forty-four patients between the ages of 3 and 48 years were divided into three groups: group A received oral compound glycyrrhizin (OCG); group B received UVB applications twice weekly, and group C received OCG+UVB. Follow-ups were performed at 2, 4, and 6 months after the treatment was initiated. The Vitiligo Area Scoring Index (VASI) and the Vitiligo Disease Activity (VIDA) instrument were used to assess the affected body surface, at each follow-up. Results showed that 77.1, 75.0 and 87.5% in groups A, B and C, respectively, presented repigmentation of lesions. Responsiveness to therapy seemed to be associated with lesion location and patient compliance. Adverse events were limited and transient. This study showed that, although the three treatment protocols had positive results, OCG and UVB combination therapy was the most effective and led to improvement in disease stage from active to stable. PMID:27464024

  4. Phase Transitions in Model Active Systems

    Redner, Gabriel S.

    The amazing collective behaviors of active systems such as bird flocks, schools of fish, and colonies of microorganisms have long amazed scientists and laypeople alike. Understanding the physics of such systems is challenging due to their far-from-equilibrium dynamics, as well as the extreme diversity in their ingredients, relevant time- and length-scales, and emergent phenomenology. To make progress, one can categorize active systems by the symmetries of their constituent particles, as well as how activity is expressed. In this work, we examine two categories of active systems, and explore their phase behavior in detail. First, we study systems of self-propelled spherical particles moving in two dimensions. Despite the absence of an aligning interaction, this system displays complex emergent dynamics, including phase separation into a dense active solid and dilute gas. Using simulations and analytic modeling, we quantify the phase diagram and separation kinetics. We show that this nonequilibrium phase transition is analogous to an equilibrium vapor-liquid system, with binodal and spinodal curves and a critical point. We also characterize the dense active solid phase, a unique material which exhibits the structural signatures of a crystalline solid near the crystal-hexatic transition point, as well as anomalous dynamics including superdiffusive motion on intermediate timescales. We also explore the role of interparticle attraction in this system. We demonstrate that attraction drastically changes the phase diagram, which contains two distinct phase-separated regions and is reentrant as a function of propulsion speed. We interpret this complex situation with a simple kinetic model, which builds from the observed microdynamics of individual particles to a full description of the macroscopic phase behavior. We also study active nematics, liquid crystals driven out of equilibrium by energy-dissipating active stresses. The equilibrium nematic state is unstable in these

  5. Urban Saturated Power Load Analysis Based on a Novel Combined Forecasting Model

    Huiru Zhao

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of urban saturated power loads is helpful to coordinate urban power grid construction and economic social development. There are two different kinds of forecasting models: the logistic curve model focuses on the growth law of the data itself, while the multi-dimensional forecasting model considers several influencing factors as the input variables. To improve forecasting performance, a novel combined forecasting model for saturated power load analysis was proposed in this paper, which combined the above two models. Meanwhile, the weights of these two models in the combined forecasting model were optimized by employing a fruit fly optimization algorithm. Using Hubei Province as the example, the effectiveness of the proposed combined forecasting model was verified, demonstrating a higher forecasting accuracy. The analysis result shows that the power load of Hubei Province will reach saturation in 2039, and the annual maximum power load will reach about 78,630 MW. The results obtained from this proposed hybrid urban saturated power load analysis model can serve as a reference for sustainable development for urban power grids, regional economies, and society at large.

  6. Activities of colistin- and minocycline-based combinations against extensive drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from intensive care unit patients

    Li Jian; Zhu De-mei; Huang Jun; Liu Xiao-fang; Liang Wang; Zhang Jing

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Extensive drug resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii is a serious problem in the clinical setting. It is therefore important to find active antibiotic combinations that could be effective in the treatment of infections caused by this problematic 'superbug'. In this study, we analyzed the in vitro activities of three colistin-based combinations and a minocycline-based combination against clinically isolated extensive drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (XDR-AB) strains. ...

  7. Economic damages of ozone air pollution to crops using combined air quality and GIS modelling

    Vlachokostas, Ch.; Nastis, S. A.; Achillas, Ch.; Kalogeropoulos, K.; Karmiris, I.; Moussiopoulos, N.; Chourdakis, E.; Banias, G.; Limperi, N.

    2010-09-01

    This study aims at presenting a combined air quality and GIS modelling methodological approach in order to estimate crop damages from photochemical air pollution, depict their spatial resolution and assess the order of magnitude regarding the corresponding economic damages. The analysis is conducted within the Greater Thessaloniki Area, Greece, a Mediterranean territory which is characterised by high levels of photochemical air pollution and considerable agricultural activity. Ozone concentration fields for 2002 and for specific emission reduction scenarios for the year 2010 were estimated with the Ozone Fine Structure model in the area under consideration. Total economic damage to crops turns out to be significant and estimated to be approximately 43 M€ for the reference year. Production of cotton presents the highest economic loss, which is over 16 M€, followed by table tomato (9 M€), rice (4.2 M€), wheat (4 M€) and oilseed rape (2.8 M€) cultivations. Losses are not spread uniformly among farmers and the major losses occur in areas with valuable ozone-sensitive crops. The results are very useful for highlighting the magnitude of the total economic impacts of photochemical air pollution to the area's agricultural sector and can potentially be used for comparison with studies worldwide. Furthermore, spatial analysis of the economic damage could be of importance for governmental authorities and decision makers since it provides an indicative insight, especially if the economic instruments such as financial incentives or state subsidies to farmers are considered.

  8. A "Kanes's Dynamics" Model for the Active Rack Isolation System

    Hampton, R. David; Beech, Geoffrey

    1999-01-01

    Many microgravity space-science experiments require vibratory acceleration levels unachievable without active isolation. The Boeing Corporation's Active Rack Isolation System (ARIS) employs a novel combination of magnetic actuation and mechanical linkages, to address these isolation requirements on the International Space Station (ISS). ARIS provides isolation at the rack (international Standard Payload Rack, or ISPR) level. Effective model-based vibration isolation requires (1) an appropriate isolation device, (2) an adequate dynamic (i.e., mathematical) model of that isolator, and (3) a suitable, corresponding controller. ARIS provides the ISS response to the first requirement. This paper presents one response to the second, in a state-space framework intended to facilitate an optimal-controls approach to the third. The authors use "Kane's Dynamics" to develop an state-space, analytical (algebraic) set of linearized equations of motion for ARIS.

  9. Enhanced activation of motor execution networks using action observation combined with imagination of lower limb movements.

    Villiger, Michael; Estévez, Natalia; Hepp-Reymond, Marie-Claude; Kiper, Daniel; Kollias, Spyros S; Eng, Kynan; Hotz-Boendermaker, Sabina

    2013-01-01

    The combination of first-person observation and motor imagery, i.e. first-person observation of limbs with online motor imagination, is commonly used in interactive 3D computer gaming and in some movie scenes. These scenarios are designed to induce a cognitive process in which a subject imagines himself/herself acting as the agent in the displayed movement situation. Despite the ubiquity of this type of interaction and its therapeutic potential, its relationship to passive observation and imitation during observation has not been directly studied using an interactive paradigm. In the present study we show activation resulting from observation, coupled with online imagination and with online imitation of a goal-directed lower limb movement using functional MRI (fMRI) in a mixed block/event-related design. Healthy volunteers viewed a video (first-person perspective) of a foot kicking a ball. They were instructed to observe-only the action (O), observe and simultaneously imagine performing the action (O-MI), or imitate the action (O-IMIT). We found that when O-MI was compared to O, activation was enhanced in the ventralpremotor cortex bilaterally, left inferior parietal lobule and left insula. The O-MI and O-IMIT conditions shared many activation foci in motor relevant areas as confirmed by conjunction analysis. These results show that (i) combining observation with motor imagery (O-MI) enhances activation compared to observation-only (O) in the relevant foot motor network and in regions responsible for attention, for control of goal-directed movements and for the awareness of causing an action, and (ii) it is possible to extensively activate the motor execution network using O-MI, even in the absence of overt movement. Our results may have implications for the development of novel virtual reality interactions for neurorehabilitation interventions and other applications involving training of motor tasks. PMID:24015241

  10. Enhanced activation of motor execution networks using action observation combined with imagination of lower limb movements.

    Michael Villiger

    Full Text Available The combination of first-person observation and motor imagery, i.e. first-person observation of limbs with online motor imagination, is commonly used in interactive 3D computer gaming and in some movie scenes. These scenarios are designed to induce a cognitive process in which a subject imagines himself/herself acting as the agent in the displayed movement situation. Despite the ubiquity of this type of interaction and its therapeutic potential, its relationship to passive observation and imitation during observation has not been directly studied using an interactive paradigm. In the present study we show activation resulting from observation, coupled with online imagination and with online imitation of a goal-directed lower limb movement using functional MRI (fMRI in a mixed block/event-related design. Healthy volunteers viewed a video (first-person perspective of a foot kicking a ball. They were instructed to observe-only the action (O, observe and simultaneously imagine performing the action (O-MI, or imitate the action (O-IMIT. We found that when O-MI was compared to O, activation was enhanced in the ventralpremotor cortex bilaterally, left inferior parietal lobule and left insula. The O-MI and O-IMIT conditions shared many activation foci in motor relevant areas as confirmed by conjunction analysis. These results show that (i combining observation with motor imagery (O-MI enhances activation compared to observation-only (O in the relevant foot motor network and in regions responsible for attention, for control of goal-directed movements and for the awareness of causing an action, and (ii it is possible to extensively activate the motor execution network using O-MI, even in the absence of overt movement. Our results may have implications for the development of novel virtual reality interactions for neurorehabilitation interventions and other applications involving training of motor tasks.

  11. A combined Preisach–Hyperbolic Tangent model for magnetic hysteresis of Terfenol-D

    This study presents a new model using the combination of Preisach and Hyperbolic Tangent models, to predict the magnetic hysteresis of Terfenol-D at different frequencies. Initially, a proper experimental setup was fabricated and used to obtain different magnetic hysteresis curves of Terfenol-D; such as major, minor and reversal loops. Then, it was shown that the Hyperbolic Tangent model is precisely capable of modeling the magnetic hysteresis of the Terfenol-D for both rate-independent and rate-dependent cases. Empirical equations were proposed with respect to magnetic field frequency which can calculate the non-dimensional coefficients needed by the model. These empirical equations were validated at new frequencies of 100 Hz and 300 Hz. Finally, the new model was developed through the combination of Preisach and Hyperbolic Tangent models. In the combined model, analytical relations of the Hyperbolic Tangent model for the first order reversal loops determined the weighting function of the Preisach model. This model reduces the required experiments and errors due to numerical differentiations generally needed for characterization of the Preisach function. In addition, it can predict the rate-dependent hysteresis as well as rate-independent hysteresis. - Highlights: • Different hysteresis curves of Terfenol-D are experimentally obtained at 0–200 Hz. • A new model is presented using combination of Preisach and Hyperbolic Tangent models. • The model predicts both rate-independent and rate-dependent hystereses of Terfenol-D. • The analytical model reduces the numerical errors and number of required experiments

  12. A combined Preisach–Hyperbolic Tangent model for magnetic hysteresis of Terfenol-D

    Talebian, Soheil [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hojjat, Yousef, E-mail: yhojjat@modares.ac.ir [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghodsi, Mojtaba [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat (Oman); Karafi, Mohammad Reza [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mirzamohammadi, Shahed [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shahid Rajaee University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    This study presents a new model using the combination of Preisach and Hyperbolic Tangent models, to predict the magnetic hysteresis of Terfenol-D at different frequencies. Initially, a proper experimental setup was fabricated and used to obtain different magnetic hysteresis curves of Terfenol-D; such as major, minor and reversal loops. Then, it was shown that the Hyperbolic Tangent model is precisely capable of modeling the magnetic hysteresis of the Terfenol-D for both rate-independent and rate-dependent cases. Empirical equations were proposed with respect to magnetic field frequency which can calculate the non-dimensional coefficients needed by the model. These empirical equations were validated at new frequencies of 100 Hz and 300 Hz. Finally, the new model was developed through the combination of Preisach and Hyperbolic Tangent models. In the combined model, analytical relations of the Hyperbolic Tangent model for the first order reversal loops determined the weighting function of the Preisach model. This model reduces the required experiments and errors due to numerical differentiations generally needed for characterization of the Preisach function. In addition, it can predict the rate-dependent hysteresis as well as rate-independent hysteresis. - Highlights: • Different hysteresis curves of Terfenol-D are experimentally obtained at 0–200 Hz. • A new model is presented using combination of Preisach and Hyperbolic Tangent models. • The model predicts both rate-independent and rate-dependent hystereses of Terfenol-D. • The analytical model reduces the numerical errors and number of required experiments.

  13. Activation of the human immune system by chemotherapeutic or targeted agents combined with the oncolytic parvovirus H-1

    Parvovirus H-1 (H-1PV) infects and lyses human tumor cells including melanoma, hepatoma, gastric, colorectal, cervix and pancreatic cancers. We assessed whether the beneficial effects of chemotherapeutic agents or targeted agents could be combined with the oncolytic and immunostimmulatory properties of H-1PV. Using human ex vivo models we evaluated the biological and immunological effects of H-1PV-induced tumor cell lysis alone or in combination with chemotherapeutic or targeted agents in human melanoma cells +/- characterized human cytotoxic T-cells (CTL) and HLA-A2-restricted dendritic cells (DC). H-1PV-infected MZ7-Mel cells showed a clear reduction in cell viability of >50%, which appeared to occur primarily through apoptosis. This correlated with viral NS1 expression levels and was enhanced by combination with chemotherapeutic agents or sunitinib. Tumor cell preparations were phagocytosed by DC whose maturation was measured according to the treatment administered. Immature DC incubated with H-1PV-induced MZ7-Mel lysates significantly increased DC maturation compared with non-infected or necrotic MZ7-Mel cells. Tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 release was clearly increased by DC incubated with H-1PV-induced SK29-Mel tumor cell lysates (TCL) and was also high with DC-CTL co-cultures incubated with H-1PV-induced TCL. Similarly, DC co-cultures with TCL incubated with H-1PV combined with cytotoxic agents or sunitinib enhanced DC maturation to a greater extent than cytotoxic agents or sunitinib alone. Again, these combinations increased pro-inflammatory responses in DC-CTL co-cultures compared with chemotherapy or sunitinib alone. In our human models, chemotherapeutic or targeted agents did not only interfere with the pronounced immunomodulatory properties of H-1PV, but also reinforced drug-induced tumor cell killing. H-1PV combined with cisplatin, vincristine or sunitinib induced effective immunostimulation via a pronounced DC maturation, better cytokine

  14. Activity and safety of combined rituximab with chlorambucil in patients with mantle cell lymphoma.

    Bauwens, Deborah; Maerevoet, Marie; Michaux, Lucienne; Théate, Ivan; Hagemeijer, Anne; Stul, Michel; Danse, Etienne; Costantini, Sabrina; Vannuffel, Pascal; Straetmans, Nicole; Vekemans, Marie-Christiane; Deneys, Véronique; Ferrant, Augustin; Van Den Neste, Eric

    2005-11-01

    We evaluated the combination of rituximab with chlorambucil in patients with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) not eligible for aggressive therapy. Fourteen patients (male/female: 9/5) were included (two newly diagnosed, 12 relapsed/refractory). The toxicities were neutropenia, thrombopenia and infection. Nine (64%) patients responded; five (36%) achieved complete remission and four (29%) achieved partial remission. The median progression-free survival for responders was 26 months (95% CI, 4-48). Marrow polymerase chain reaction negativity was attained in seven responders. These results suggest that this schedule may have notable antitumour activity in patients with MCL, including patients in relapse after autologous stem cell transplantation. PMID:16225653

  15. The Combination of Antidepressant Duloxetine with Piracetam in Mice does not Produce Enhancement of Nootropic Activity

    Kale, Pravin Popatrao; Addepalli, Veeranjaneyulu; Sarkar, Amrita; Patel, Sonam; Savai, Jay

    2014-01-01

    There is a strong association between depression and memory impairment. The present study aims to assess the nootropic activity of duloxetine and piracetam combination. Male Swiss Albino mice were divided randomly into 4 groups. Treatment of normal saline (10 ml/kg), duloxetine (10 mg/kg), piracetam (100 mg/kg), and duloxetine (5 mg/kg) plus piracetam (50 mg/kg) were given through intra-peritoneal route to group I-IV, respectively. Transfer latency in elevated plus maze (EPM) and time spent i...

  16. Experimental study of anti-inflammatory activity of the new combined with drug urolytolytic action

    Iermolenko T.I.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medicines provide their versatile complex influence on the course of the pathological process in the kidneys due to biologically active compounds. Specifically, they cause the direct impact on the concrements formation. The search of drugs which would contain high biological compounds of plant origin is an actual issue of modern pharmacology. The aim of investigation was to study the anti-inflammatory activity of the new combined drug of urolytolytic action, which includes the total plant extract and succinate buffer complex. Materials and methods: aseptic exudative inflammation was caused by subplantar introduction of 0,1 ml of 1% solution of λ-karahenin in the right hind paw of rats, the investigated drug was administered at doses 1, 2 and 4 ml/kg. The influence of the studied drug was evaluated in terms of swelling limbs volume. It is shown that the severity of antiexudative action of flarosukcine had dose-dependent nature, increasing from dose of 1,0 ml/kg to 2,0 ml/kg (by 5,5%. Further dose increase to 4,0 ml/kg, was not defined by significant increase of activity. Anti-inflammatory activity of the drug ranged from 25 to 33%, which can be regarded as quite distinct, since in pharmacological study of anti-inflammatory drugs pharmacological activity level of at least 20% is significant.

  17. Simulation model structure numerically robust to changes in magnitude and combination of input and output variables

    Rasmussen, Bjarne D.; Jakobsen, Arne

    1999-01-01

    instabilities prevent the practical use of such a system model for more than one input/output combination and for other magnitudes of refrigerating capacities.A higher numerical robustness of system models can be achieved by making a model for the refrigeration cycle the core of the system model and by using...... variables with narrow definition intervals for the exchange of information between the cycle model and the component models.The advantages of the cycle-oriented method are illustrated by an example showing the refrigeration cycle similarities between two very different refrigeration systems.......Mathematical models of refrigeration systems are often based on a coupling of component models forming a “closed loop” type of system model. In these models the coupling structure of the component models represents the actual flow path of refrigerant in the system. Very often numerical...

  18. Combining Decision Diagrams and SAT Procedures for Efficient Symbolic Model Checking

    Williams, Poul Frederick; Biere, Armin; Clarke, Edmund M.;

    2000-01-01

    , combined with BDDs and SAT-solvers to perform satisfiability checking. As a result we are able to model check systems for which standard BDD-based methods fail. For example, we model check a liveness property of a 256 bit shift-and-add multiplier and we are able to find a previously undetected bug...

  19. Modelling Combined Heat Exchange in the Leading Edge of Perspective Aircraft Wing

    Kandinsky Roman O.; Prosuntsov Pavel V.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper gas dynamic numerical modelling of leading edge flow is presented and thermal loading parameters are determined. Numerical modelling of combined radiative and conductive heat transfer of the wing edge is carried out, thermal state of structure is given and the results are analyzed.

  20. A Manager's Perspective on Combining Expert and Model-based Forecasts

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); R. Legerstee (Rianne)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractWe study the performance of sales forecasts which linearly combine model-based forecasts and expert forecasts. Using a unique and very large database containing monthly model-based forecasts for many pharmaceutical products and forecasts given by thirty-seven different experts, we docume

  1. Modelling Combined Heat Exchange in the Leading Edge of Perspective Aircraft Wing

    Kandinsky Roman O.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper gas dynamic numerical modelling of leading edge flow is presented and thermal loading parameters are determined. Numerical modelling of combined radiative and conductive heat transfer of the wing edge is carried out, thermal state of structure is given and the results are analyzed.

  2. Finite-element Mathematical Modeling of Combined Processes of Hot Rolling and Plastic Bending

    Salganik, V.; Pesin, A.

    2004-06-01

    Finite-element viscoplastic mathematical model of combined process of asymmetrical rolling and plastic sheet bending has been created. Modeling of a new technology and its further introduction for a plate mill made it possible to have new expensive production — large-size bodies of revolution in the form of cylinders and cones.

  3. Combined thermodynamic-geochemical modeling in metamorphic geology: Boron as tracer of fluid-rock interaction

    Konrad-Schmolke, Matthias; Halama, Ralf

    2014-11-01

    Quantitative geochemical modeling is today applied in a variety of geological environments from the petrogenesis of igneous rocks to radioactive waste disposal. In addition, the development of thermodynamic databases and computer programs to calculate equilibrium phase diagrams has greatly advanced our ability to model geodynamic processes. Combined with experimental data on elemental partitioning and isotopic fractionation, thermodynamic forward modeling unfolds enormous capacities that are far from exhausted. In metamorphic petrology the combination of thermodynamic and trace element forward modeling can be used to study and to quantify processes at spatial scales from μm to km. The thermodynamic forward models utilize Gibbs energy minimization to quantify mineralogical changes along a reaction path of a chemically open fluid/rock system. These results are combined with mass balanced trace element calculations to determine the trace element distribution between rock and melt/fluid during the metamorphic evolution. Thus, effects of mineral reactions, fluid-rock interaction and element transport in metamorphic rocks on the trace element and isotopic composition of minerals, rocks and percolating fluids or melts can be predicted. Here we illustrate the capacities of combined thermodynamic-geochemical modeling based on two examples relevant to mass transfer during metamorphism. The first example focuses on fluid-rock interaction in and around a blueschist-facies shear zone in felsic gneisses, where fluid-induced mineral reactions and their effects on boron (B) concentrations and isotopic compositions in white mica are modeled. In the second example, fluid release from a subducted slab, the associated transport of B as well as variations in B concentrations and isotopic compositions in liberated fluids and residual rocks are modeled. We compare the modeled results of both examples to geochemical data of natural minerals and rocks and demonstrate that the combination

  4. Comparison of Simple Models of Periodic Protocols for Combined Anticancer Therapy

    Marzena Dołbniak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Several simple ordinary differential equation (ODE models of tumor growth taking into account the development of its vascular network are discussed. Different biological aspects are considered from the simplest model of Hahnfeldt et al. proposed in 1999 to a model which includes drug resistance of cancer cells to chemotherapy. Some of these models can be used in clinical oncology to optimize antiangiogenic and cytostatic drugs delivery so as to ensure maximum efficacy. Simple models of continuous and periodic protocols of combined therapy are implemented. Discussion on the dynamics of the models and their complexity is presented.

  5. A combined spectroscopic and photometric stellar activity study of Epsilon Eridani

    Giguere, Matthew J; Zhang, Cyril X Y; Matthews, Jaymie M; Cameron, Chris; Henry, Gregory W

    2016-01-01

    We present simultaneous ground-based radial velocity (RV) measurements and space-based photometric measurements of the young and active K dwarf Epsilon Eridani. These measurements provide a data set for exploring methods of identifying and ultimately distinguishing stellar photospheric velocities from Keplerian motion. We compare three methods we have used in exploring this data set: Dalmatian, an MCMC spot modeling code that fits photometric and RV measurements simultaneously; the FF$'$ method, which uses photometric measurements to predict the stellar activity signal in simultaneous RV measurements; and H$\\alpha$ analysis. We show that our H$\\alpha$ measurements are strongly correlated with photometry from the Microvariability and Oscillations of STars (MOST) instrument, which led to a promising new method based solely on the spectroscopic observations. This new method, which we refer to as the HH$'$ method, uses H$\\alpha$ measurements as input into the FF$'$ model. While the Dalmatian spot modeling analysi...

  6. A Model Based Control methodology combining Blade Pitch and Adaptive Trailing Edge Flaps in a common framework

    This work investigates how adaptive trailing edge flaps and classical blade pitch can work in concert using a model-based state space control formulation. The trade-off between load reduction and actuator activity is decided by setting different weights in the objective function used by the model......-based controller. The combined control approach allow to achieve higher load alleviations, furthermore, in the presence of e.g. deterioration of an actuator, it enables an online re-tuning of the workload distribution of blade pitch and trailing edge flaps, thus potentially increasing the smart rotor reliability....

  7. A Model Based Control methodology combining Blade Pitch and Adaptive Trailing Edge Flaps in a common framework

    Henriksen, Lars Christian; Bergami, Leonardo; Andersen, Peter Bjørn

    2013-01-01

    This work investigates how adaptive trailing edge flaps and classical blade pitch can work in concert using a model-based state space control formulation. The trade-off between load reduction and actuator activity is decided by setting different weights in the objective function used by the model......-based controller. The combined control approach allow to achieve higher load alleviations, furthermore, in the presence of e.g. deterioration of an actuator, it enables an online re-tuning of the workload distribution of blade pitch and trailing edge flaps, thus potentially increasing the smart rotor reliability....

  8. Gene × physical activity interactions in obesity: combined analysis of 111,421 individuals of European ancestry.

    Shafqat Ahmad

    Full Text Available Numerous obesity loci have been identified using genome-wide association studies. A UK study indicated that physical activity may attenuate the cumulative effect of 12 of these loci, but replication studies are lacking. Therefore, we tested whether the aggregate effect of these loci is diminished in adults of European ancestry reporting high levels of physical activity. Twelve obesity-susceptibility loci were genotyped or imputed in 111,421 participants. A genetic risk score (GRS was calculated by summing the BMI-associated alleles of each genetic variant. Physical activity was assessed using self-administered questionnaires. Multiplicative interactions between the GRS and physical activity on BMI were tested in linear and logistic regression models in each cohort, with adjustment for age, age(2, sex, study center (for multicenter studies, and the marginal terms for physical activity and the GRS. These results were combined using meta-analysis weighted by cohort sample size. The meta-analysis yielded a statistically significant GRS × physical activity interaction effect estimate (Pinteraction  = 0.015. However, a statistically significant interaction effect was only apparent in North American cohorts (n = 39,810, Pinteraction  = 0.014 vs. n = 71,611, Pinteraction  = 0.275 for Europeans. In secondary analyses, both the FTO rs1121980 (Pinteraction  = 0.003 and the SEC16B rs10913469 (Pinteraction  = 0.025 variants showed evidence of SNP × physical activity interactions. This meta-analysis of 111,421 individuals provides further support for an interaction between physical activity and a GRS in obesity disposition, although these findings hinge on the inclusion of cohorts from North America, indicating that these results are either population-specific or non-causal.

  9. Combination therapy targeting the tumor microenvironment is effective in a model of human ocular melanoma

    Schafer Peter H

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ocular melanoma is the leading intraocular malignancy. There is no effective treatment for metastatic ocular melanoma. We sought a treatment targeting the tumor microenvironment as well as the tumor cells. Methods Migration of HUVEC cells, the ability of HUVEC cells to form tubes, and proliferative capacity of a human ocular melanoma cell line were tested in the presence of lenalidomide and sorafenib alone and in combination. The compounds were also tested in a rat aortic ring assay and were tested in a highly aggressive human ocular melanoma xenograft model. Results Lenalidomide and Sorafenib inhibit HUVEC ability to migrate and form tubes and when used in combination the inhibition is increased. The agents alone and in combination inhibit outgrowth in the rat aortic ring model. The combination of the agents improved the inhibition over either single agent. In a xenograft model, combination therapy inhibited tumor growth over inhibition by single agent alone in a significant fashion (p Conclusion Lenalidomide and sorafenib are effective at targeting endothelial cells, inhibiting growth of ocular melanoma cells and can inhibit growth of tumors in a xenograft model as well as inhibit development of metastases. Combining these agents works in an additive to synergistic way to inhibit the growth of tumors and development of metastases.

  10. Combination of activity and lying/standing data for detection of oestrus in cows

    Jónsson, Ragnar Ingi; Blanke, Mogens; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad;

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop an algorithm for detecting oestrus in dairy cows from measurements of activity and duration of lying/standing periods. Each cows activity is measured by a sensor attached to the neck that returns an activity index for each hour. Duration of lying is...... and results of decision algorithms are presented for Oestrus detection. Detection based on the lying balance indicator and the two sets of measured information are demonstrated to increase the detection sensitivity to 100% for a set of 10 cows....... measured by a sensor attached to the hind leg of the cow. Activity and lying/standing behaviour are modelled as a discrete event system, constructed using automata theory. In an attempt to estimate a biologically relevant lying balance, a lying balance indicator is constructed and is influencing transition...

  11. Combination of CuO nanoparticles and fluconazole: preparation, characterization, and antifungal activity against Candida albicans

    Combination therapy becomes an important strategy in the management of invasive fungal infections and emergence of resistant fungi mutants. In this work, we examine the combination of copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles (NPs) with fluconazole as potential treatment against the pathogenic fungi, Candidaalbicans. CuO NPs (∼7 nm in size) were synthesized with acetate ligands assembled on their surface, as shown by both thermal gravimetric analysis and FTIR spectroscopy. Unlike the commercial CuO (both bulk and 50 nm particles), that are poorly dispersed in water, the interaction with water allows the fine dispersion of the coated CuO NPs and their excellent colloidal stability. The addition of fluconazole to the aqueous CuO dispersion induced spontaneous self-assembly of the NPs into linear pearl-like chains network, shown by cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM). The antifungal activity of the CuO NPs and their combination with fluconazole (fluconazole–CuO NPs) was studied against C. albicans. The best MIC values were obtained at concentrations as low as 0.2 and 0.3 mg/mL, respectively. The results suggest that fluconazole–CuO NPs can provide a potential alternative treatment for C. albicans infections

  12. Antimicrobial Activity of Individual and Combined Essential Oils against Foodborne Pathogenic Bacteria.

    Reyes-Jurado, Fatima; López-Malo, Aurelio; Palou, Enrique

    2016-02-01

    The antimicrobial activities of essential oils from Mexican oregano (Lippia berlandieri Schauer), mustard (Brassica nigra), and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) were evaluated alone and in binary combinations against Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, or Salmonella Enteritidis. Chemical compositions of the essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The MICs of the evaluated essential oils ranged from 0.05 to 0.50% (vol/vol). Mustard essential oil was the most effective, likely due to the presence of allyl isothiocyanate, identified as its major component. Furthermore, mustard essential oil exhibited synergistic effects when combined with either Mexican oregano or thyme essential oils (fractional inhibitory concentration indices of 0.75); an additive effect was obtained by combining thyme and Mexican oregano essential oils (fractional inhibitory concentration index = 1.00). These results suggest the potential of studied essential oil mixtures to inhibit microbial growth and preserve foods; however, their effect on sensory quality in selected foods compatible with their flavor needs to be assessed. PMID:26818994

  13. Antimicrobial Activities of Nisin, Tea Polyphenols, and Chitosan and their Combinations in Chilled Mutton.

    He, Li; Zou, Likou; Yang, Qianru; Xia, Jinghua; Zhou, Kang; Zhu, Yuanting; Han, Xinfeng; Pu, Biao; Hu, Bin; Deng, Wenwen; Liu, Shuliang

    2016-06-01

    Antimicrobial activities of nisin, tea polyphenols (TPs), and chitosan, and their combinations were evaluated against both Gram-positive bacteria (GPB) and Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) by the agar dilution method. Results showed that the MIC of nisin was 2.44 to 1250 mg/L for GPB and reached 5000 mg/L for GNB. The MICs of TPs and chitosan were 313 to 625 mg/L and 469 mg/L for GNB, and 156 to 5000 mg/L and 234 to 938 mg/L for GPB, respectively. These results indicated that TPs and chitosan exhibited inhibitory effects against both GPB and GNB, whereas nisin inhibited the growth of GPB only. Based on the orthogonal test of their MICs, and evaluation of preservative effect and sensory attributes in chilled mutton, the optimum combination was chosen as 0.625, 0.313, and 3.752 g/L for nisin, TPs, and chitosan, respectively. By using the optimum treatment, the shelf life of chilled mutton was extended from 6 to 18 d at 4 °C in the preservative film packages. These results indicate that the combination of nisin, TPs, and chitosan could be used as preservatives to efficiently inhibit the growth of spoilage microorganisms and pathogens in meat, thus improving the safety and shelf life of chilled mutton. PMID:27096939

  14. Mechanistic Study of the Synergistic Antibacterial Activity of Combined Silver Nanoparticles and Common Antibiotics.

    Deng, Hua; McShan, Danielle; Zhang, Ying; Sinha, Sudarson S; Arslan, Zikri; Ray, Paresh C; Yu, Hongtao

    2016-08-16

    A combination of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and an antibiotic can synergistically inhibit bacterial growth, especially against the drug-resistant bacteria Salmonella typhimurium. However, the mechanism for the synergistic activity is not known. This study chooses four classes of antibiotics, β-lactam (ampicillin and penicillin), quinolone (enoxacin), aminoglycoside (kanamycin and neomycin), and polykeptide (tetracycline) to explore their synergistic mechanism when combined with AgNPs against the multidrug-resistant bacterium Salmonella typhimurium DT 104. Enoxacin, kanamycin, neomycin, and tetracycline show synergistic growth inhibition against the Salmonella bacteria when combined with AgNPs, while ampicillin and penicillin do not. UV-vis and Raman spectroscopy studies reveal that all these four synergistic antibiotics can form complexes with AgNPs, while ampicillin and penicillin do not. The presence of tetracycline enhances the binding of Ag to Salmonella by 21% and Ag(+) release by 26% in comparison to that without tetracycline, while the presence of penicillin does not enhance the binding of Ag or Ag(+) release. This means that AgNPs first form a complex with tetracycline. The tetracycline-AgNPs complex interacts more strongly with the Salmonella cells and causes more Ag(+) release, thus creating a temporal high concentration of Ag(+) near the bacteria cell wall that leads to growth inhibition of the bacteria. These findings agree with the recent findings that Ag(+) release from AgNPs is the agent causing toxicity. PMID:27390928

  15. Simultaneous comparison of thrombogenic reactions to different combinations of anticoagulants, activated clotting times, and materials.

    Nagai, Mirei; Iwasaki, Kiyotaka; Umezu, Mitsuo; Ozaki, Makoto

    2014-11-01

    Thrombogenic reactions under multiple interactions of pharmacological agents, doses, and materials have not been well understood yet. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability to simultaneously compare thrombogenic reactions to different combinations of anticoagulants, doses, and blood-contacting materials, in a single human blood using an in vitro test method. Four venous blood samples were drawn from each of six healthy volunteers into syringes that contained two different amounts of heparin and argatroban to set the activated clotting time (ACT) to approximately 200 or 500 s, respectively. The four blood samples from each volunteer were immediately poured into two clinical-grade extracorporeal circulation tubes: a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tube and a poly(2-methoxyethyl acrylate)-coated (PMEA) PVC tube. These tubes with an inner diameter of 12.7 mm were rotated at 183 rpm in a 37°C chamber for 10 min. The results indicated that the in vitro thrombogenicity test method was capable of assessing differences in platelet factor 4 and β-thromboglobulin increases among different combinations of the two materials, two anticoagulants, and two ACTs. Higher amounts of total plasma proteins were absorbed on PVC tubes than on PMEA-coated tubes when using the same anticoagulant and dose. These data elucidate that the in vitro thrombogenicity test method is useful for the simultaneous quantitative evaluation of the influences of various combinations of materials, pharmacological agents, and doses on thrombogenicity in a single human blood. PMID:24652689

  16. Combination of CuO nanoparticles and fluconazole: preparation, characterization, and antifungal activity against Candida albicans

    Weitz, Iris S., E-mail: irisweitz@braude.ac.il; Maoz, Michal; Panitz, Daniel [ORT Braude College, Department of Biotechnology Engineering (Israel); Eichler, Sigal; Segal, Ester [Technion – Israel Institute of Technology, Department of Biotechnology and Food Engineering (Israel)

    2015-08-15

    Combination therapy becomes an important strategy in the management of invasive fungal infections and emergence of resistant fungi mutants. In this work, we examine the combination of copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles (NPs) with fluconazole as potential treatment against the pathogenic fungi, Candidaalbicans. CuO NPs (∼7 nm in size) were synthesized with acetate ligands assembled on their surface, as shown by both thermal gravimetric analysis and FTIR spectroscopy. Unlike the commercial CuO (both bulk and 50 nm particles), that are poorly dispersed in water, the interaction with water allows the fine dispersion of the coated CuO NPs and their excellent colloidal stability. The addition of fluconazole to the aqueous CuO dispersion induced spontaneous self-assembly of the NPs into linear pearl-like chains network, shown by cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM). The antifungal activity of the CuO NPs and their combination with fluconazole (fluconazole–CuO NPs) was studied against C. albicans. The best MIC values were obtained at concentrations as low as 0.2 and 0.3 mg/mL, respectively. The results suggest that fluconazole–CuO NPs can provide a potential alternative treatment for C. albicans infections.

  17. The Best Combination Methods and Applied Research of Seismic Prospecting for Active Faults in Urban Areas

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces briefly the basic principles of various seismic prospecting techniques and working methods according to nationwide practices of seismic prospecting of active faults beneath big cities in recent years. Furthermore, it analyzes the application range of different seismic prospecting methods, main achievements and solved problems, and discusses the best combination of seismic exploration methods for detecting crustal structures and locating the faults used in the present stage, that is, to trace faults which are at depths of hundred of meters underground using shallow seismic investigation, to detect the faults which are above basement (at a depth of kilometers) using high resolution refraction sounding, and the deep crustal faults using combined seismic prospecting methods of reflection seismic sounding and wide-angle reflection/refraction sounding, and furthermore, to use the 3-D deep seismic sounding method to obtain 3-D velocity structures beneath urban areas. Thus, we can get information about fault attitude and distribution at different depths and a complete image of faults from their shallow part to deep part using the combined seismic exploration method. Some application examples are presented in the article.

  18. Diclofenac and 2-anilinophenylacetate degradation by combined activity of biogenic manganese oxides and silver.

    Meerburg, Francis; Hennebel, Tom; Vanhaecke, Lynn; Verstraete, Willy; Boon, Nico

    2012-05-01

    The occurrence of a range of recalcitrant organic micropollutants in our aquatic environment has led to the development of various tertiary wastewater treatment methods. In this study, biogenic manganese oxides (Bio-MnOx), biogenic silver nanoparticles (Bio-Ag(0)) and ionic silver were used for the oxidative removal of the frequently encountered drug diclofenac and its dechlorinated form, 2-anilinophenylacetate (APA). Diclofenac was rapidly degraded during ongoing manganese oxidation by Pseudomonas putida MnB6. Furthermore, whereas preoxidized Bio-MnOx, Bio-Ag(0) and Ag(+) separately did not show any removal capacity for diclofenac, an enhanced removal occurred when Bio-MnOx and silver species were combined. Similar results were obtained for APA. Finally, a slow removal of diclofenac but more rapid APA degradation was observed when silver was added to manganese-free P. putida biomass. Combining these results, three mechanisms of diclofenac and APA removal could be distinguished: (i) a co-metabolic removal during active Mn(2+) oxidation by P. putida; (ii) a synergistic interaction between preoxidized Bio-MnOx and silver species; and (iii) a (bio)chemical process by biomass enriched with silver catalysts. This paper demonstrates the use of P. putida for water treatment purposes and is the first report of the application of silver combined with biogenic manganese for the removal of organic water contaminants. PMID:22221449

  19. Diclofenac and 2‐anilinophenylacetate degradation by combined activity of biogenic manganese oxides and silver

    Meerburg, Francis; Hennebel, Tom; Vanhaecke, Lynn; Verstraete, Willy; Boon, Nico

    2012-01-01

    Summary The occurrence of a range of recalcitrant organic micropollutants in our aquatic environment has led to the development of various tertiary wastewater treatment methods. In this study, biogenic manganese oxides (Bio‐MnOx), biogenic silver nanoparticles (Bio‐Ag0) and ionic silver were used for the oxidative removal of the frequently encountered drug diclofenac and its dechlorinated form, 2‐anilinophenylacetate (APA). Diclofenac was rapidly degraded during ongoing manganese oxidation by Pseudomonas putida MnB6. Furthermore, whereas preoxidized Bio‐MnOx, Bio‐Ag0 and Ag+ separately did not show any removal capacity for diclofenac, an enhanced removal occurred when Bio‐MnOx and silver species were combined. Similar results were obtained for APA. Finally, a slow removal of diclofenac but more rapid APA degradation was observed when silver was added to manganese‐free P. putida biomass. Combining these results, three mechanisms of diclofenac and APA removal could be distinguished: (i) a co‐metabolic removal during active Mn2+ oxidation by P. putida; (ii) a synergistic interaction between preoxidized Bio‐MnOx and silver species; and (iii) a (bio)chemical process by biomass enriched with silver catalysts. This paper demonstrates the use of P. putida for water treatment purposes and is the first report of the application of silver combined with biogenic manganese for the removal of organic water contaminants. PMID:22221449

  20. Modelling of activity transport in PHWR

    The modelling of mass and activity transport in PHWR is of importance in predicting the build up of radiation field in and around the Primary Heat Transport system which will consequently help in planning the Dilute Chemical Decontamination and man rem budgeting. Modeling also helps in understanding the different parameters controlling the transport behaviour. Some of the important parameters include coolant chemistry like pH, physical parameters like temperature, the nature of the corrosion film and hence the effect of passivation techniques. VVER code for activity transport uses six nodes for the primary system and is essentially devised for stainless steel system. In the present work though based on this model, major modifications have been incorporated to suit the PHWR conditions. In the code, the PHT system of PHWR is suitably divided into 14 nodes, 5 in-core and 9 out of core nodes based on material and heat transfer properties. This paper describes the mechanisms involved in the various processes like generation of corrosion products, their release as well as their transport into the primary coolant, the activation of inactive corrosion product nuclides and the build up of radiation field due to 60Co around the PHT system. (author)

  1. Modeling of an Active Tablet Coating Process.

    Toschkoff, Gregor; Just, Sarah; Knop, Klaus; Kleinebudde, Peter; Funke, Adrian; Djuric, Dejan; Scharrer, Georg; Khinast, Johannes G

    2015-12-01

    Tablet coating is a common unit operation in the pharmaceutical industry, during which a coating layer is applied to tablet cores. The coating uniformity of tablets in a batch is especially critical for active coating, that is, coating that contains an active pharmaceutical ingredient. In recent years, discrete element method (DEM) simulations became increasingly common for investigating tablet coating. In this work, DEM was applied to model an active coating process as closely as possible, using measured model parameters and non-spherical particles. We studied how operational conditions (rotation speed, fill level, number of nozzles, and spray rate) influence the coating uniformity. To this end, simulation runs were planned and interpreted according to a statistical design of (simulation) experiments. Our general goal was to achieve a deeper understanding of the process in terms of residence times and dimensionless scaling laws. With that regard, the results were interpreted in light of analytical models. The results were presented at various detail levels, ranging from an overview of all variations to in-depth considerations. It was determined that the biggest uniformity improvement in a realistic setting was achieved by increasing the number of spray nozzles, followed by increasing the rotation speed and decreasing the fill level. PMID:26344941

  2. A Study of Tropical Cyclone Combination Forecast Model Based on the Cost-sensitive Analysis

    Zhenhua Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the research of tropical cyclone forecast model, most of the conventional forecast methods adopted single model to do research. And the traditional classification methods are based on the assumption that the misclassification costs are equal which means the risk of missing report rate is equal to that of false alarm rate. Taking this into account and considering the lack of combination model with high prediction accuracy, we propose a novel combinational classification method of cost-sensitive analysis. First, the concept of the cost coefficient is presented. And then we apply SVM, GRNN, PNN and 3 decision tree algorithms to build classification models and compare the forecast accuracy as well as the cost coefficient of these models. Lastly, based on cost-sensitive analysis, three models with higher forecast accuracy and lower cost coefficient named GRNN, PNN and C5.0, are selected to build a new combination forecast model for a complex system. 2117 tropical cyclones’ meteorological indexing from 1949 to 2012 are applied to create a complex forecasting system and all the tropical cyclones are classified into two groups: Whether they will land on China or not. The final result is satisfactory that the overall accuracy is 81.81%. More importantly, the accuracy in identifying the tropical cyclones which have landed on China is 94.76%. The combination model has reduced the possibility of omitting landed tropical cyclones significantly and performed better than any single model. Therefore, the combination model is an important reference for emergency management of disaster.

  3. Combination of Model Checking and Theorem Proving to Verify Embedded Software

    XIAO Jian-yu; ZHANG De-yun; DONG Hao; CHEN Hai-quan

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a scheme of combining model checking and theorem proving techniques to verify high trustworthy embedded software is proposed. The software model described in state machine of unified model language is transformed into the input modeling language of a model checker in which the model is analyzed with associated property specifications expressed in temporal logic. The software model which has been verified by model checker is then transformed into abstract specifications of a theorem prover , in which the model will be refined, verified and translated into source C code. The transformation rules from state machine to input language of model checker and abstract specifications of theorem prover are given. The experiment shows that the proposed scheme can effectively improve the development and verification of high trustworthy embedded software.

  4. Patterns of Activity in a Global Model of a Solar Active Region

    Bradshaw, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    In this work we investigate the global activity patterns predicted from a model active region heated by distributions of nanoflares that have a range of frequencies. What differs is the average frequency of the distributions. The activity patterns are manifested in time lag maps of narrow-band instrument channel pairs. We combine hydrodynamic and forward modeling codes with a magnetic field extrapolation to create a model active region and apply the time lag method to synthetic observations. Our aim is not to reproduce a particular set of observations in detail, but to recover some typical properties and patterns observed in active regions. Our key findings are the following. 1. cooling dominates the time lag signature and the time lags between the channel pairs are generally consistent with observed values. 2. shorter coronal loops in the core cool more quickly than longer loops at the periphery. 3. all channel pairs show zero time lag when the line-of-sight passes through coronal loop foot-points. 4. there ...

  5. Fault detection and identification based on combining logic and model in a wall-climbing robot

    Yong JIANG; Hongguang WANG; Lijin FANG; Mingyang ZHAO

    2009-01-01

    A combined logic- and model-based approach to fault detection and identification (FDI) in a suction foot control system of a wall-climbing robot is presented in this paper. For the control system, some fault models are derived by kinematics analysis. Moreover, the logic relations of the system states are known in advance. First, a fault tree is used to analyze the system by evaluating the basic events (elementary causes), which can lead to a root event (a particular fault). Then, a multiple-model adaptive estimation algorithm is used to detect and identify the model-known faults. Finally, based on the system states of the robot and the results of the estimation, the model-unknown faults are also identified using logical reasoning. Experiments show that the proposed approach based on the combination of logical reasoning and model estimating is efficient in the FDI of the robot.

  6. Combined Acoustic and Pronunciation Modelling for Non-Native Speech Recognition

    Bouselmi, Ghazi; Illina, Irina

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we present several adaptation methods for non-native speech recognition. We have tested pronunciation modelling, MLLR and MAP non-native pronunciation adaptation and HMM models retraining on the HIWIRE foreign accented English speech database. The ``phonetic confusion'' scheme we have developed consists in associating to each spoken phone several sequences of confused phones. In our experiments, we have used different combinations of acoustic models representing the canonical and the foreign pronunciations: spoken and native models, models adapted to the non-native accent with MAP and MLLR. The joint use of pronunciation modelling and acoustic adaptation led to further improvements in recognition accuracy. The best combination of the above mentioned techniques resulted in a relative word error reduction ranging from 46% to 71%.

  7. Removal of atrazine in water by combination of activated carbon and dielectric barrier discharge.

    Vanraes, Patrick; Willems, Gert; Nikiforov, Anton; Surmont, Pieter; Lynen, Frederic; Vandamme, Jeroen; Van Durme, Jim; Verheust, Yannick P; Van Hulle, Stijn W H; Dumoulin, Ann; Leys, Christophe

    2015-12-15

    Efficiency of modern wastewater treatment plants to remove or decompose persistent contaminants in low concentration is often insufficient to meet the demands imposed by governmental laws. Novel, efficient and cheap methods are required to address this global issue. We developed a new type of plasma reactor, in which atrazine decomposition by atmospheric dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in dry air is combined with micropollutant adsorption on activated carbon textile and with extra bubbling of generated ozone. Investigation of reaction kinetics and by-product analysis shows that increasing input power with a factor 3.5 leads to deeper atrazine oxidation without significantly changing energy yield of atrazine removal. By-products of first and later generations are detected with HPLC-MS analysis in water and adsorbed on the activated carbon textile. Our reactor is compared in energy efficiency with reactors described in literature, showing that combination of plasma discharge with pollutant adsorption and ozone recycling is attractive for future applications of water treatment. PMID:26282086

  8. Effect of proteolytic activities in combination with the pectolytic activities on extractability of the fat and phenolic compounds from olives.

    Moustakime, Youssef; Hazzoumi, Zakaria; Amrani Joutei, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    During the extraction, a portion of oil remains trapped inside the cells and its release requires the degradation of the walls and cell membranes, especially when the fruits have not reached a maximum maturity which is likely to cause an optimal embrittlement of the parietal structures and cell membrane. This can be done by specific enzymes necessary for the degradation of various cellular barriers. Three different enzyme treatments proteolytic, pectolytic or both are applied on the Moroccan Picholine olives from veraison to maturity of the fruit. The effect of these treatments is evaluated by olive oil diffusion, its phenolic content (PC) and cellular embrittlement determination of olives during ripening. The pectolytic activities lead to a significant increase in both the oil extractability (76 % at veraison and 14 % at maturity) and the PC (up to 50 % of gain compared to the control at veraison and 27 % at maturity). The proteolytic activities applied alone have no significant effect on the extractability and the polyphenols levels of oils. Furthermore, when these proteolytic activities are added in combination with the pectolytic activities, the oil extractability is doubled at veraison and its flowing up to 99 % at maturity that barely 84 % in the control in addition to a richness of polyphenols which can reach 84 % more compared to the control. This increase in polyphenols wealth is probably due to the degradation of cell walls, cellular and vacuolar membranes by enzyme activities releasing PCs that were previously associated with these structures in the drupe. PMID:27376007

  9. Feature extraction and recognition of epileptiform activity in EEG by combining PCA with ApEn.

    Wang, Chunmei; Zou, Junzhong; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Min; Wang, Rubin

    2010-09-01

    This paper proposes a new method for feature extraction and recognition of epileptiform activity in EEG signals. The method improves feature extraction speed of epileptiform activity without reducing recognition rate. Firstly, Principal component analysis (PCA) is applied to the original EEG for dimension reduction and to the decorrelation of epileptic EEG and normal EEG. Then discrete wavelet transform (DWT) combined with approximate entropy (ApEn) is performed on epileptic EEG and normal EEG, respectively. At last, Neyman-Pearson criteria are applied to classify epileptic EEG and normal ones. The main procedure is that the principle component of EEG after PCA is decomposed into several sub-band signals using DWT, and ApEn algorithm is applied to the sub-band signals at different wavelet scales. Distinct difference is found between the ApEn values of epileptic and normal EEG. The method allows recognition of epileptiform activities and discriminates them from the normal EEG. The algorithm performs well at epileptiform activity recognition in the clinic EEG data and offers a flexible tool that is intended to be generalized to the simultaneous recognition of many waveforms in EEG. PMID:21886676

  10. Combining microsimulation with CGE and macro modelling for distributional analysis in developing and transition countries

    James B. Davies

    2009-01-01

    This paper overviews recent work that has attempted to bring together microsimulation, Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) and macro models to perform distributional analysis in developing and transition countries. Particular attention is paid to applications relating to aspects of economic growth and political economy. Applications in which macro, CGE and microsimulation models are either layered or integrated are considered. It is demonstrated that different combinations of such models, in...

  11. A Dynamic Cordon Pricing Scheme combining a Macroscopic and an Agent-based traffic Models

    Zheng, Nan; Waraich, Rashid A.; Axhausen, Kay W.; Geroliminis, Nikolaos

    2012-01-01

    Pricing is considered an effective management policy to reduce traffic congestion in transportation networks. In this paper we combine a macroscopic model of traffic congestion in urban networks with an agent-based simulator to study congestion pricing schemes. The macroscopic model, which has been tested with real data in previous studies, represents an accurate and robust approach to model the dynamics of congestion. The agent-based simulator can reproduce the complexity of travel behavior ...

  12. Flood Hazard Mapping Combining Hydrodynamic Modeling and Multi Annual Remote Sensing data

    Laura Giustarini; Marco Chini; Renaud Hostache; Florian Pappenberger; Patrick Matgen

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores a method to combine the time and space continuity of a large-scale inundation model with discontinuous satellite microwave observations, for high-resolution flood hazard mapping. The assumption behind this approach is that hydraulic variables computed from continuous spatially-distributed hydrodynamic modeling and observed as discrete satellite-derived flood extents are correlated in time, so that probabilities can be transferred from the model series to the observations...

  13. A Simplified Nonlinear Model For A Combined Heat and Power (CHP) System

    Karrari, M.; Nicholson, H

    1990-01-01

    Steady state errors, hunting and high interactions have been reported in the operation of combined heat and power (CHP) systems working with steam turbines. The design of currently employed regulators in industry is usually absed on a linear model of the system. An improved system regulation can only be achieved if a more accurate mathematical model is available. In this paper, a simplified nonlinear model is derived which can be used to investigate the present problems and evaluate new contr...

  14. Combining the Missing Link: An Incremental Topic Model of Document Content and Hyperlink

    Ma, Huifang; Li, Zhixin; Shi, Zhongzhi

    2010-01-01

    The content and structure of linked information such as sets of web pages or research paper archives are dynamic and keep on changing. Even though different methods are proposed to exploit both the link structure and the content information, no existing approach can effectively deal with this evolution. We propose a novel joint model, called Link-IPLSI, to combine texts and links in a topic modeling framework incrementally. The model takes advantage of a novel link updating technique that can...

  15. Combining Design and Engineering of Interactive Systems through Models and Tools (ComDeisMoto)

    Sauer, Stefan; Breiner, Kai; Hussmann, Heinrich; Meixner, Gerrit; Pleuss, Andreas; Van den Bergh, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Development of interactive systems and their user interfaces combines engineering and design, formal and informal development methods from different domains. Diverse models and tools can be used to support the developers’ work. In model-driven development, software systems are specified systematically using dedicated models for different aspects of the system. Yet, appropriate design of user interfaces is as important as functional correctness. This workshop provides a forum of multi-discipli...

  16. Dynamic operational risk: modeling dependence and combining different sources of information

    Peters, Gareth W.; Shevchenko, Pavel V.; Mario V. W\\"uthrich

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we model dependence between operational risks by allowing risk profiles to evolve stochastically in time and to be dependent. This allows for a flexible correlation structure where the dependence between frequencies of different risk categories and between severities of different risk categories as well as within risk categories can be modeled. The model is estimated using Bayesian inference methodology, allowing for combination of internal data, external data and expert opinio...

  17. Test Case Generation For Concurrent Object-Oriented Systems Using Combinational Uml Models

    Swagatika Dalai, Arup Abhinna Acharya, Durga Prasad Mohapatra

    2012-01-01

    Software testing is an important phase of software development to ensure the quality and reliability of the software. Due to some limitations of code based testing method, the researcher has been taken a new method to work upon UML model based testing. It is found that different UML model is having different coverage and capable of detecting different kinds of faults. Here we have taken combinational UML models to have better coverage and fault detection capability. Testing concurrent system ...

  18. On a Quantum Model of Brain Activities

    Fichtner, K.-H.; Fichtner, L.; Freudenberg, W.; Ohya, M.

    2010-01-01

    One of the main activities of the brain is the recognition of signals. A first attempt to explain the process of recognition in terms of quantum statistics was given in [6]. Subsequently, details of the mathematical model were presented in a (still incomplete) series of papers (cf. [7, 2, 5, 10]). In the present note we want to give a general view of the principal ideas of this approach. We will introduce the basic spaces and justify the choice of spaces and operations. Further, we bring the model face to face with basic postulates any statistical model of the recognition process should fulfill. These postulates are in accordance with the opinion widely accepted in psychology and neurology.

  19. Active Appearance Model Based Hand Gesture Recognition

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses the application of hand gesture recognition in monocular image sequences using Active Appearance Model (AAM). For this work, the proposed algorithm is conposed of constructing AAMs and fitting the models to the interest region. In training stage, according to the manual labeled feature points, the relative AAM is constructed and the corresponding average feature is obtained. In recognition stage, the interesting hand gesture region is firstly segmented by skin and movement cues.Secondly, the models are fitted to the image that includes the hand gesture, and the relative features are extracted.Thirdly, the classification is done by comparing the extracted features and average features. 30 different gestures of Chinese sign language are applied for testing the effectiveness of the method. The Experimental results are given indicating good performance of the algorithm.

  20. Solar resources estimation combining digital terrain models and satellite images techniques

    Bosch, J.L.; Batlles, F.J. [Universidad de Almeria, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Ctra. Sacramento s/n, 04120-Almeria (Spain); Zarzalejo, L.F. [CIEMAT, Departamento de Energia, Madrid (Spain); Lopez, G. [EPS-Universidad de Huelva, Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica y Termica, Huelva (Spain)

    2010-12-15

    One of the most important steps to make use of any renewable energy is to perform an accurate estimation of the resource that has to be exploited. In the designing process of both active and passive solar energy systems, radiation data is required for the site, with proper spatial resolution. Generally, a radiometric stations network is used in this evaluation, but when they are too dispersed or not available for the study area, satellite images can be utilized as indirect solar radiation measurements. Although satellite images cover wide areas with a good acquisition frequency they usually have a poor spatial resolution limited by the size of the image pixel, and irradiation must be interpolated to evaluate solar irradiation at a sub-pixel scale. When pixels are located in flat and homogeneous areas, correlation of solar irradiation is relatively high, and classic interpolation can provide a good estimation. However, in complex topography zones, data interpolation is not adequate and the use of Digital Terrain Model (DTM) information can be helpful. In this work, daily solar irradiation is estimated for a wide mountainous area using a combination of Meteosat satellite images and a DTM, with the advantage of avoiding the necessity of ground measurements. This methodology utilizes a modified Heliosat-2 model, and applies for all sky conditions; it also introduces a horizon calculation of the DTM points and accounts for the effect of snow covers. Model performance has been evaluated against data measured in 12 radiometric stations, with results in terms of the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of 10%, and a Mean Bias Error (MBE) of +2%, both expressed as a percentage of the mean value measured. (author)

  1. A linear combination of pharmacophore hypotheses as a new tool in search of new active compounds--an application for 5-HT1A receptor ligands.

    Dawid Warszycki

    Full Text Available This study explores a new approach to pharmacophore screening involving the use of an optimized linear combination of models instead of a single hypothesis. The implementation and evaluation of the developed methodology are performed for a complete known chemical space of 5-HT1AR ligands (3616 active compounds with K i < 100 nM acquired from the ChEMBL database. Clusters generated from three different methods were the basis for the individual pharmacophore hypotheses, which were assembled into optimal combinations to maximize the different coefficients, namely, MCC, accuracy and recall, to measure the screening performance. Various factors that influence filtering efficiency, including clustering methods, the composition of test sets (random, the most diverse and cluster population-dependent and hit mode (the compound must fit at least one or two models from a final combination were investigated. This method outmatched both single hypothesis and random linear combination approaches.

  2. MODEL OF ACTIVITY OF THE ENTERPRISE AS MODEL OF ACTIVITY OF THE HUMAN: SEARCH ANALYSIS

    Ruslan Flerovich Vildanov; Aidar Sultangalievich Puryaev

    2014-01-01

    Actualized demand of manufactury company's efficiency from the point of quality charachteristics. Reveal unbreakable connection of man and organisation, on example of the comparative analysis of man's and manufacture company's activities. Studing models of company's and men's activities in order to reveal similarity. In order of their implementation to the economics assumes opportunity of using scientific methods, which use for studying functions, vital activities and behavior of the men.

  3. The combination of ANT2 shRNA and hNIS radioiodine gene therapy increases CTL cytotoxic activity through the phenotypic modulation of cancer cells: combination treatment with ANT2 shRNA and I-131

    It is important to simultaneously induce strong cell death and antitumor immunity in cancer patients for successful cancer treatment. Here, we investigated the cytotoxic and phenotypic modulation effects of the combination of ANT2 shRNA and human sodium iodide symporter (hNIS) radioiodine gene therapy in vitro and in vivo and visualized the antitumor effects in an immunocompromised mouse colon cancer model. A mouse colon cancer cell line co-expressing hNIS and the luciferase gene (CT26/hNIS-Fluc, named CT26/NF) was established. CT26/NF cells and tumor-bearing mice were treated with HBSS, scramble, ANT2 shRNA, I-131, and ANT2 shRNA + I-131. The apoptotic rates (%) and MHC class I and Fas gene expression levels were determined in treated CT26/NF cells using flow cytometry. Concurrently, the level of caspase-3 activation was determined in treated cells in vitro. For in vivo therapy, tumor-bearing mice were treated with scramble, ANT2 shRNA, I-131, and the combination therapy, and the anti-tumor effects were monitored using bioluminescence. The killing activity of cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) was measured with a lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay. For the in vitro experiments, the combination of ANT2 shRNA and I-131 resulted in a higher apoptotic cell death rate compared with ANT2 shRNA or I-131 alone, and the levels of MHC class I and Fas-expressing cancer cells were highest in the cells receiving combination treatment, while single treatment modestly increased the level of MHC class I and Fas gene expression. The combination of ANT2 shRNA and I-131 resulted in a higher caspase-3 activation than single treatments. Interestingly, in vivo combination treatment led to increased gene expression of MHC class I and Fas than the respective mono-therapies; furthermore, bioluminescence showed increased antitumor effects after combination treatment than monotherapies. The LDH assay revealed that the CTL killing activity against CT26/NF cells was most effective after combination

  4. Development of a generic activities model of command and control

    Stanton, NA; Baber, C; Walker, GH; Houghton, RJ; McMaster, R.; Stewart, R; Harris, D.; Jenkins, DP; Young, MS; Salmon, PM

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on five different models of command and control. Four different models are reviewed: a process model, a contextual control model, a decision ladder model and a functional model. Further to this, command and control activities are analysed in three distinct domains: armed forces, emergency services and civilian services. From this analysis, taxonomies of command and control activities are developed that give rise to an activities model of command and control. This model w...

  5. In vitro antiplasmodial activities and synergistic combinations of differential solvent extracts of the polyherbal product, Nefang.

    Arrey Tarkang, Protus; Franzoi, Kathrin Diehl; Lee, Sukjun; Lee, Eunyoung; Vivarelli, Diego; Freitas-Junior, Lucio; Liuzzi, Michel; Nolé, Tsabang; Ayong, Lawrence S; Agbor, Gabriel A; Okalebo, Faith A; Guantai, Anastasia N

    2014-01-01

    Nefang, a polyherbal product composed of Mangifera indica (bark and leaf), Psidium guajava, Carica papaya, Cymbopogon citratus, Citrus sinensis, and Ocimum gratissimum (leaves), is a potential therapy against P. falciparum malaria. In vitro antiplasmodial activities of its constituent solvent extracts were analyzed on CQ-sensitive (3D7) and multidrug resistant (Dd2) P. falciparum strains. The interactions involving the differential solvent extracts were further analyzed using a variable potency ratio drug combination approach. Effective concentration 50 (EC50) values were determined by nonlinear regression curve-fitting of the dose-response data and used in calculating the fractional inhibitory concentration 50 (FIC50) and combination indices (CI) for each pair. The derived EC50 values (3D7/Dd2, μ g/mL) are Nefang-96.96/55.08, MiB-65.33/34.58, MiL-82.56/40.04, Pg-47.02/25.79, Cp-1188/317.5, Cc-723.3/141, Cs-184.4/105.1, and Og-778.5/118.9. Synergism was obtained with MiB/Pg (CI = 0.351), MiL/Pg (0.358), MiB/Cs (0.366), MiL/Cs (0.482), Pg/Cs (0.483), and Cs/Og (0.414) when analyzed at equipotency ratios. Cytotoxicity testing of Nefang and the solvent extracts on two human cell lines (Hep G2 and U2OS) revealed no significant toxicity relative to their antiplasmodial activities (SI > 20). Taken together, our data confirm the antimalarial activities of Nefang and its constituent plant extracts and identified extract pairs with promising synergistic interactions for exploitation towards a rational phytotherapeutic and evidence-based antimalarial drug discovery. PMID:24877138

  6. Treatment of municipal landfill leachate using a combined anaerobic digester and activated sludge system

    The main objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of treating sanitary landfill leachate using a combined anaerobic and activated sludge system. A high-strength leachate from Shiraz municipal landfill site was treated using this system. A two-stage laboratory-scale anaerobic digester under mesophilic conditions and an activated sludge unit were used. Landfill leachate composition and characteristics varied considerably during 8 months experiment (COD concentrations of 48,552-62,150 mg/L). It was found that the system could reduce the COD of the leachate by 94% at a loading rate of 2.25 g COD/L/d and 93% at loading rate of 3.37 g COD/L/d. The anaerobic digester treatment was quite effective in removing Fe, Cu, Mn, and Ni. However, in the case of Zn, removal efficiency was about 50%. For the rest of the HMs the removal efficiencies were in the range 88.8-99.9%. Ammonia reduction did not occur in anaerobic digesters. Anaerobic reactors increased alkalinity about 3.2-4.8% in the 1st digester and 1.8-7.9% in the 2nd digester. In activated sludge unit, alkalinity and ammonia removal efficiency were 49-60% and 48.6-64.7%, respectively. Methane production rate was in the range of 0.02-0.04, 0.04-0.07, and 0.02-0.04 L/g CODrem for the 1st digester, the 2nd digester, and combination of both digesters, respectively; the methane content of the biogas varied between 60% and 63%.

  7. Maximization of seasonal forecasts performance combining Grand Multi-Model Ensembles

    Alessandri, Andrea; De Felice, Matteo; Catalano, Franco; Lee, Doo Young; Yoo, Jin Ho; Lee, June-Yi; Wang, Bin

    2014-05-01

    Multi-Model Ensembles (MMEs) are powerful tools in dynamical climate prediction as they account for the overconfidence and the uncertainties related to single-model errors. Previous works suggested that the potential benefit that can be expected by using a MME amplify with the increase of the independence of the contributing Seasonal Prediction Systems. In this work we combine the two Multi Model Ensemble (MME) Seasonal Prediction Systems (SPSs) independently developed by the European (ENSEMBLES) and by the Asian-Pacific (CliPAS/APCC) communities. To this aim, all the possible multi-model combinations obtained by putting together the 5 models from ENSEMBLES and the 11 models from CliPAS/APCC have been evaluated. The grand ENSEMBLES-CliPAS/APCC Multi-Model enhances significantly the skill compared to previous estimates from the contributing MMEs. The combinations of SPSs maximizing the skill that is currently attainable for specific predictands/phenomena is evaluated. Our results show that, in general, the better combinations of SPSs are obtained by mixing ENSEMBLES and CliPAS/APCC models and that only a limited number of SPSs is required to obtain the maximum performance. The number and selection of models that perform better is usually different depending on the region/phenomenon under consideration. As an example for the tropical Pacific, the maximum performance is obtained with only the combination of 5-to-6 SPSs from the grand ENSEMBLES-CliPAS/APCC MME. With particular focus over Tropical Pacific, the relationship between performance and bias of the grand-MME combinations is evaluated. The skill of the grand-MME combinations over Euro-Mediterranean and East-Asia regions is further evaluated as a function of the capability of the selected contributing SPSs to forecast anomalies of the Polar/Siberian highs during winter and of the Asian summer monsoon precipitation during summer. Our results indicate that, combining SPSs from independent MME sources is a good

  8. Autonomous 3D Modeling of Unknown Objects for Active Scene Exploration

    Kriegel, Simon

    2015-01-01

    The thesis Autonomous 3D Modeling of Unknown Objects for Active Scene Exploration presents an approach for efficient model generation of small-scale objects applying a robot-sensor system. Active scene exploration incorporates object recognition methods for analyzing a scene of partially known objects as well as exploration approaches for autonomous modeling of unknown parts. Here, recognition, exploration, and planning methods are extended and combined in a single scene exploration system, e...

  9. Linking activity-based travel demand models and traffic assignment: A Flemish case study

    Ramaekers, Katrien; Kochan, Bruno; BELLEMANS, Tom; JANSSENS, Davy; Wets, Geert

    2008-01-01

    A custom agent-based simulation framework is developed that combines the fields of traffic demand modeling and traffic assignment, applied to the region of Flanders (Belgium). The framework uses an activity-based approach to model traffic demand and an assignment module that is linked to the traffic demand module. Activity data for the framework is provided by a large scale survey, conducted on 2500 households in the study area. The agent-based simulation model consists of over six million ag...

  10. Brain activations during bimodal dual tasks depend on the nature and combination of component tasks

    Emma Salo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate brain activations during nine different dual tasks in which the participants were required to simultaneously attend to concurrent streams of spoken syllables and written letters. They performed a phonological, spatial or “simple” (speaker-gender or font-shade discrimination task within each modality. We expected to find activations associated specifically with dual tasking especially in the frontal and parietal cortices. However, no brain areas showed systematic dual task enhancements common for all dual tasks. Further analysis revealed that dual tasks including component tasks that were according to Baddeley’s model “modality atypical”, that is, the auditory spatial task or the visual phonological task, were not associated with enhanced frontal activity. In contrast, for other dual tasks, activity specifically associated with dual tasking was found in the left or bilateral frontal cortices. Enhanced activation in parietal areas, however, appeared not to be specifically associated with dual tasking per se, but rather with intermodal attention switching. We also expected effects of dual tasking in left frontal supramodal phonological processing areas when both component tasks required phonological processing and in right parietal supramodal spatial processing areas when both tasks required spatial processing. However, no such effects were found during these dual tasks compared with their component tasks performed separately. Taken together, the current results indicate that activations during dual tasks depend in a complex manner on specific demands of component tasks.

  11. Combined Treatment Effects of Radiation and Immunotherapy: Studies in an Autochthonous Prostate Cancer Model

    Wada, Satoshi [Department of Oncology, James Buchanan Brady Urological Institute, Johns Hopkins Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Harris, Timothy J.; Tryggestad, Erik [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, James Buchanan Brady Urological Institute, Johns Hopkins Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Yoshimura, Kiyoshi [Department of Oncology, James Buchanan Brady Urological Institute, Johns Hopkins Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Zeng, Jing [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, James Buchanan Brady Urological Institute, Johns Hopkins Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Yen, Hung-Rong; Getnet, Derese; Grosso, Joseph F.; Bruno, Tullia C. [Department of Oncology, James Buchanan Brady Urological Institute, Johns Hopkins Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); De Marzo, Angelo M. [Department of Pathology, James Buchanan Brady Urological Institute, Johns Hopkins Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Department of Urology, James Buchanan Brady Urological Institute, Johns Hopkins Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); and others

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: To optimize the combination of ionizing radiation and cellular immunotherapy using a preclinical autochthonous model of prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Transgenic mice expressing a model antigen under a prostate-specific promoter were treated using a platform that integrates cone-beam CT imaging with 3-dimensional conformal therapy. Using this technology we investigated the immunologic and therapeutic effects of combining ionizing radiation with granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor-secreting cellular immunotherapy for prostate cancer in mice bearing autochthonous prostate tumors. Results: The combination of ionizing radiation and immunotherapy resulted in a significant decrease in pathologic tumor grade and gross tumor bulk that was not evident with either single-modality therapy. Furthermore, combinatorial therapy resulted in improved overall survival in a preventive metastasis model and in the setting of established micrometastases. Mechanistically, combined therapy resulted in an increase of the ratio of effector-to-regulatory T cells for both CD4 and CD8 tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. Conclusions: Our preclinical model establishes a potential role for the use of combined radiation-immunotherapy in locally advanced prostate cancer, which warrants further exploration in a clinical setting.

  12. Defining the optimal murine models to investigate immune checkpoint blockers and their combination with other immunotherapies.

    Sanmamed, M F; Chester, C; Melero, I; Kohrt, H

    2016-07-01

    The recent success of checkpoint blockers to treat cancer has demonstrated that the immune system is a critical player in the war against cancer. Historically, anticancer therapeutics have been tested in syngeneic mouse models (with a fully murine immune system) or in immunodeficient mice that allow the engraftment of human xenografts. Animal models with functioning human immune systems are critically needed to more accurately recapitulate the complexity of the human tumor microenvironment. Such models are integral to better predict tumor responses to both immunomodulatory agents and directly antineoplastic therapies. In this regard, the development of humanized models is a promising, novel strategy that offers the possibility of testing checkpoint blockers' capacity and their combination with other antitumor drugs. In this review, we discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the available animal models regarding their capacity to evaluate checkpoint blockers and checkpoint blocker-based combination immunotherapy. PMID:26912558

  13. Insights on past and future sea-ice evolution from combining observations and models

    Stroeve, Julienne; Notz, Dirk

    2015-12-01

    We discuss the current understanding of past and future sea-ice evolution as inferred from combining model simulations and observations. In such combined analysis, the models allow us to enhance our understanding behind the observed evolution of sea ice, while the observations allow us to assess how realistically the models represent the processes that govern sea-ice evolution in the real world. Combined, observations and models thus provide robust insights into the functioning of sea ice in the Earth's climate system, and can inform policy decisions related to the future evolution of the ice cover. We find that models and observations agree well on the sensitivity of Arctic sea ice to global warming and on the main drivers for the observed retreat. In contrast, a robust reduction of the uncertainty range of future sea-ice evolution remains difficult, in particular since the observational record is often too short to robustly examine the impact of internal variability on model biases. Process-based model evaluation and model evaluation based on seasonal-prediction systems provide promising ways to overcome these limitations.

  14. A meme propagation model to combine social affirmation with meme attractiveness and persistence

    Zheng, Aiguo; Luo, Shuangling; Xia, Haoxiang

    2016-06-01

    The propagation of memes on online social networks often depends on the mechanism of social affirmation. Centola termed such social-affirmation-driven diffusion as complex contagion and partly validated it through an online experiment. However, for actual online meme propagation, the mechanism of social affirmation often takes effect in combination with various other factors and mechanisms. In this paper, we examine the combinatorial effects of social affirmation and the attractiveness and persistence of the meme by proposing and analyzing a UACI model, where an agent’s activities to receive and transfer a meme is associated with the transition between its four possible states of “Uninformed”, “Attended”,“Convinced” and “Immune”. The numerical simulations illustrate nontrivial patterns of propagation. Especially, it is revealed that the effects of simple and complex contagions co-exist and equilibrate in accordance with the joint functions of meme attractiveness and social affirmation. Furthermore, the low-persistence of the meme hinders the propagation-scale more remarkably on the regular network than on the random one, indicating that the persistence may be critical for retaining complex contagion.

  15. Key Characteristics of Combined Accident including TLOFW accident for PSA Modeling

    Kim, Bo Gyung; Kang, Hyun Gook [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Ho Joon [Khalifa University of Science, Technology and Research, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2015-05-15

    The conventional PSA techniques cannot adequately evaluate all events. The conventional PSA models usually focus on single internal events such as DBAs, the external hazards such as fire, seismic. However, the Fukushima accident of Japan in 2011 reveals that very rare event is necessary to be considered in the PSA model to prevent the radioactive release to environment caused by poor treatment based on lack of the information, and to improve the emergency operation procedure. Especially, the results from PSA can be used to decision making for regulators. Moreover, designers can consider the weakness of plant safety based on the quantified results and understand accident sequence based on human actions and system availability. This study is for PSA modeling of combined accidents including total loss of feedwater (TLOFW) accident. The TLOFW accident is a representative accident involving the failure of cooling through secondary side. If the amount of heat transfer is not enough due to the failure of secondary side, the heat will be accumulated to the primary side by continuous core decay heat. Transients with loss of feedwater include total loss of feedwater accident, loss of condenser vacuum accident, and closure of all MSIVs. When residual heat removal by the secondary side is terminated, the safety injection into the RCS with direct primary depressurization would provide alternative heat removal. This operation is called feed and bleed (F and B) operation. Combined accidents including TLOFW accident are very rare event and partially considered in conventional PSA model. Since the necessity of F and B operation is related to plant conditions, the PSA modeling for combined accidents including TLOFW accident is necessary to identify the design and operational vulnerabilities.The PSA is significant to assess the risk of NPPs, and to identify the design and operational vulnerabilities. Even though the combined accident is very rare event, the consequence of combined

  16. Modeling Aspects Of Activated Sludge Processes Part I: Process Modeling Of Activated Sludge Facilitation And Sedimentation

    Process modeling of activated sludge flocculation and sedimentation reviews consider the activated sludge floc characteristics such as: morphology viable and non-viable cell ratio density and water content, bio flocculation and its kinetics were studied considering the characteristics of bio flocculation and explaining theory of Divalent Cation Bridging which describes the major role of cations in bio flocculation. Activated sludge flocculation process modeling was studied considering mass transfer limitations from Clifft and Andrew, 1981, Benefild and Molz 1983 passing Henze 1987, until Tyagi 1996 and G. Ibrahim et aI. 2002. Models of aggregation and breakage of flocs were studied by Spicer and Pratsinis 1996,and Biggs 2002 Size distribution of floes influences mass transfer and biomass separation in the activated sludge process. Therefore, it is of primary importance to establish the role of specific process operation factors, such as sludge loading dynamic sludge age and dissolved oxygen, on this distribution with special emphasis on the formation of primary particles

  17. A Combined Spectroscopic and Photometric Stellar Activity Study of Epsilon Eridani

    Giguere, Matthew J.; Fischer, Debra A.; Zhang, Cyril X. Y.; Matthews, Jaymie M.; Cameron, Chris; Henry, Gregory W.

    2016-06-01

    We present simultaneous ground-based radial velocity (RV) measurements and space-based photometric measurements of the young and active K dwarf Epsilon Eridani. These measurements provide a data set for exploring methods of identifying and ultimately distinguishing stellar photospheric velocities from Keplerian motion. We compare three methods we have used in exploring this data set: Dalmatian, an MCMC spot modeling code that fits photometric and RV measurements simultaneously; the FF‧ method, which uses photometric measurements to predict the stellar activity signal in simultaneous RV measurements; and Hα analysis. We show that our Hα measurements are strongly correlated with the Microvariability and Oscillations of STars telescope (MOST) photometry, which led to a promising new method based solely on the spectroscopic observations. This new method, which we refer to as the HH‧ method, uses Hα measurements as input into the FF‧ model. While the Dalmatian spot modeling analysis and the FF‧ method with MOST space-based photometry are currently more robust, the HH‧ method only makes use of one of the thousands of stellar lines in the visible spectrum. By leveraging additional spectral activity indicators, we believe the HH‧ method may prove quite useful in disentangling stellar signals.

  18. Combination of supervised and semi-supervised regression models for improved unbiased estimation

    Arenas-Garía, Jeronimo; Moriana-Varo, Carlos; Larsen, Jan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the steady-state performance of semisupervised regression models adjusted using a modified RLS-like algorithm, identifying the situations where the new algorithm is expected to outperform standard RLS. By using an adaptive combination of the supervised and semisupervi......In this paper we investigate the steady-state performance of semisupervised regression models adjusted using a modified RLS-like algorithm, identifying the situations where the new algorithm is expected to outperform standard RLS. By using an adaptive combination of the supervised and...

  19. A generalized combination equation derived from a multi-layer micrometeorological model

    Lhomme, Jean-Paul

    1988-10-01

    The discrete multi-layer model originally devised by Waggoner and Reifsnyder (1968) is used as a theoretical basis to describe the vegetation-atmosphere interaction. Mathematical development of the basic equations yields Ohm's law-type formulae for sensible and latent heat fluxes from which it is possible to derive a combination equation very close in form to Penman-Monteith's equation. A bulk aerodynamic resistance and a bulk stomatal resistance can be defined and expressed in terms of the elementary resistances of the multi-layer model. This new combination equation offers an alternative to the attempts undertaken by Shuttleworth (1976) to unify multi-layer and single-layer approaches.

  20. A hybrid model combining first-principles and data-driven models for on-line condition monitoring

    We present an online anomaly detection technique using a hybrid method which combines first-principles (physical) models with data-driven (empirical) models. We use an error propagation scheme for computing the output variance of the proposed hybrid model, which utilizes the input and output measurement errors along with modeling uncertainty. This on-line model output variance estimation technique is used in a statistical test to determine whether observed output measurements are statistically too distant from expected output values (for given inputs) as to declare that an anomaly has occurred. The performance of the proposed error-propagation approach for anomaly detection was successfully tested in a simulated experiment. (authors)

  1. Evaluation of activity and combination strategies with the microtubule-targeting drug sagopilone in breast cancer cell lines

    Julia eEschenbrenner

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The molecular heterogeneity of cancer calls for individualized therapies to become the standard of care. The development of new therapeutic agents needs to include integrative translational research as early as possible. Target-specific compounds require specific diagnostic biomarker support. Tailored treatment approaches, such as specific schedules or combinations, can improve the therapeutic outcome of drugs with more general mode of action, i.e. the classical chemotherapy. Results from translational research will allow to define the optimal patient population, to tailor individual treatment and to choose treatment combinations on a rational basis.Sagopilone, a fully synthetic epothilone, is a microtubule-stabilizing agent optimized for high in vitro and in vivo activity against a broad range of tumor models, including those resistant to paclitaxel and other systemic treatments. Sagopilone development was accompanied by translational research studies to evaluate the molecular mode of action, to recognize mechanisms leading to resistance, to identify predictive response biomarkers and to establish a rationale for combination with different therapies.Here, we present an RNAi drug modifier screen interrogating 300 genes in four cancer cell lines. Defects of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC were identified to cause resistance against sagopilone-induced mitotic arrest and apoptosis. Potential biomarkers for resistance are SAC-defects like mutations in the SAC-kinase BUB1B and chromosomal heterogeneity and polyploidy since they imply an increased tolerance for aberrant mitosis. The RNAi drug modifier screen identified the enhancement of sagopilone-induced mitotic arrest by inhibition of the mitotic kinesin KIF2C (MCAK as potential combination strategy.These new findings are correlated with results from previous studies. We discuss successes and failures of our integrative preclinical development program and provide recommendations for future

  2. Combined Active and Passive Seismology to Study Continental Collision; Central South Island of New Zealand

    Stern, T.; Okaya, D.; Baldock, G.; Scherwath, M.

    2005-12-01

    Central South Island of New Zealand is a continental region that has undergone both collision and strike-slip shear in the late Tertiary. From a tectonics, or rock-mechanics, view-point there is an interest in how the crust and mantle have been both thickened and sheared. The South Island Geophysical Transect (SIGHT) and the Southern Alps Passive Seismic Experiment (SAPSE) - both jointly funded US-NZ programs - studied these processes. Some of the most important findings came about by merging data from passive and active seismology. Three specific examples will be discussed: 1. Teleseismic P-wave delays from earthquakes in the Western Pacific are used to map a ~ 0.8-1 s speed-up in the mantle right beneath the region of thickest crust and highest topography of the collision zone. Forward modeling of this velocity anomaly shows that the amplitude of the anomaly can be explained by a 100 km-thick body that has a 7% in increase in P-wave speed. From the spatial pattern of the P-wave residuals we can also show that the high-speed body is about 80-100 km wide and roughly vertically disposed beneath the crustal root. The shape and position of the high-speed body beneath the seismically determined crustal root is consistent with it being thickened, and therefore cold, mantle lithosphere that has uniformly strained into a roughly symmetric root beneath the collision zone. 2. Pn anisotropy measurements from our onshore-offshore seismic shooting program allowed us to make mutually perpendicular determinations of Pn wave speeds at three localities. P-wave anisotropies of up to 11 ± 3%, 6.5 ± 2.5% and 0 ± 3%, were measured, depending on the distance of the measurement from the surface trace of the plate boundary (the Alpine Fault). These are necessarily minimum anisotropy values because it assumes that the two axes of measurement are those of minimum and maximum wave speed. Combining these results with SKS splitting values of ~ 2 s from passive seismology allowed us to make

  3. Global emissions and models of photochemically active compounds

    Anthropogenic emissions from industrial activity, fossil fuel combustion, and biomass burning are now known to be large enough (relative to natural sources) to perturb the chemistry of vast regions of the troposphere. A goal of the IGAC Global Emissions Inventory Activity (GEIA) is to provide authoritative and reliable emissions inventories on a 1 degree x 1 degree grid. When combined with atmospheric photochemical models, these high quality emissions inventories may be used to predict the concentrations of major photochemical products. Comparison of model results with measurements of pertinent species allows us to understand whether there are major shortcomings in our understanding of tropospheric photochemistry, the budgets and transport of trace species, and their effects in the atmosphere. Through this activity, we are building the capability to make confident predictions of the future consequences of anthropogenic emissions. This paper compares IGAC recommended emissions inventories for reactive nitrogen and sulfur dioxide to those that have been in use previously. We also present results from the three-dimensional LLNL atmospheric chemistry model that show how emissions of anthropogenic nitrogen oxides might potentially affect tropospheric ozone and OH concentrations and how emissions of anthropogenic sulfur increase sulfate aerosol loadings

  4. Combination of PKCε Activation and PTP1B Inhibition Effectively Suppresses Aβ-Induced GSK-3β Activation and Tau Phosphorylation.

    Kanno, Takeshi; Tsuchiya, Ayako; Tanaka, Akito; Nishizaki, Tomoyuki

    2016-09-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) is a key element to phosphorylate tau and form neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) found in tauopathies including Alzheimer's disease (AD). A current topic for AD therapy is focused upon how to prevent tau phosphorylation. In the present study, PKCε activated Akt and inactivated GSK-3β by directly interacting with each protein. Inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), alternatively, caused an enhancement in the tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1), allowing activation of Akt through a pathway along an IRS-1/phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)/3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1)/Akt axis, to phosphorylate and inactivate GSK-3β. Combination of PKCε activation and PTP1B inhibition more sufficiently activated Akt and inactivated GSK-3β than each independent treatment, to suppress amyloid β (Aβ)-induced tau phosphorylation and ameliorate spatial learning and memory impairment in 5xFAD transgenic mice, an animal model of AD. This may represent an innovative strategy for AD therapy. PMID:26328540

  5. Financial Time Series Modelling with Hybrid Model Based on Customized RBF Neural Network Combined With Genetic Algorithm

    Lukas Falat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, authors apply feed-forward artificial neural network (ANN of RBF type into the process of modelling and forecasting the future value of USD/CAD time series. Authors test the customized version of the RBF and add the evolutionary approach into it. They also combine the standard algorithm for adapting weights in neural network with an unsupervised clustering algorithm called K-means. Finally, authors suggest the new hybrid model as a combination of a standard ANN and a moving average for error modeling that is used to enhance the outputs of the network using the error part of the original RBF. Using high-frequency data, they examine the ability to forecast exchange rate values for the horizon of one day. To determine the forecasting efficiency, authors perform the comparative out-of-sample analysis of the suggested hybrid model with statistical models and the standard neural network.

  6. ACTIVE AND PARTICIPATORY METHODS IN BIOLOGY: MODELING

    Brînduşa-Antonela SBÎRCEA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available By using active and participatory methods it is hoped that pupils will not only come to a deeper understanding of the issues involved, but also that their motivation will be heightened. Pupil involvement in their learning is essential. Moreover, by using a variety of teaching techniques, we can help students make sense of the world in different ways, increasing the likelihood that they will develop a conceptual understanding. The teacher must be a good facilitator, monitoring and supporting group dynamics. Modeling is an instructional strategy in which the teacher demonstrates a new concept or approach to learning and pupils learn by observing. In the teaching of biology the didactic materials are fundamental tools in the teaching-learning process. Reading about scientific concepts or having a teacher explain them is not enough. Research has shown that modeling can be used across disciplines and in all grade and ability level classrooms. Using this type of instruction, teachers encourage learning.

  7. A Bayesian Combined Model for Time-Dependent Turning Movement Proportions Estimation at Intersections

    Pengpeng Jiao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Time-dependent turning movement flows are very important input data for intelligent transportation systems but are impossible to be detected directly through current traffic surveillance systems. Existing estimation models have proved to be not accurate and reliable enough during all intervals. An improved way to address this problem is to develop a combined model framework that can integrate multiple submodels running simultaneously. This paper first presents a back propagation neural network model to estimate dynamic turning movements, as well as the self-adaptive learning rate approach and the gradient descent with momentum method for solving. Second, this paper develops an efficient Kalman filtering model and designs a revised sequential Kalman filtering algorithm. Based on the Bayesian method using both historical data and currently estimated results for error calibration, this paper further integrates above two submodels into a Bayesian combined model framework and proposes a corresponding algorithm. A field survey is implemented at an intersection in Beijing city to collect both time series of link counts and actual time-dependent turning movement flows, including historical and present data. The reported estimation results show that the Bayesian combined model is much more accurate and stable than other models.

  8. The Olefin Metathesis Reactions Combined with Organo-Iron Arene Activation Towards Dendrimers, and Polymers

    Astruc, Didier; Martinez, Victor

    The subjects treated in the two lectures of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) summer course are (1) the combination of arene activation and perfunctionalization using organo-iron chemistry with olefin metathesis incuding metathesis of dendritic polyolefin molecules; (2) the synthesis of metallodendritic benzylidene complexes that catalyse ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) under ambient conditions and the formation of dendritic stars; (3) the use of stoichiometric and catalytic electron-transfer processes with standard reservoirs of electrons (reductants) or electron holes (oxidants) iron complexes to achieve noteworthy metathesis reactions or synthesize compounds that are useful in metathesis. Only the two first topics are treated in this chapter, and interested readers can find references concerning the third aspect called in the introduction and subsequently cited in the reference list.

  9. In vitro activity of ceftriaxone combined with tazobactam against anaerobic bacteria.

    Wüst, J; Hardegger, U

    1994-02-01

    The in vitro activity of ceftriaxone combined with tazobactam against 190 strains of anaerobic bacteria was compared with that of amoxicillin with clavulanic acid, ampicillin with sulbactam, piperacillin alone and with tazobactam, cefoxitin, and imipenem, i.e. beta-lactam antibiotics established in the treatment of anaerobic infections. All anaerobes tested were susceptible to ceftriaxone when tazobactam was added at fixed ratios (ceftriaxone to tazobactam) of 2:1 and 8:1 and at constant concentrations of 2,4 and 8 mg/l, respectively. When 4 mg/l tazobactam was added, the MICs of ceftriaxone for 83 of 94 strains of the Bacteroides fragilis group were reduced by a factor of 8 to 512; for eight strains, this reduction was two to fourfold. Only the MICs of ceftriaxone for three Bacteroides fragilis strains were not influenced. PMID:8013494

  10. Detection of telomerase activity by combination of telomeric repeat amplification protocol and electrochemiluminescence assay

    Xiao Ming Zhou; Li Jia

    2008-01-01

    A highly sensitive telomerase detection method that combines telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) and magnetic beads based electrochemiluminescence (ECL) assay has been developed. Briefly, telomerase recognizes biotinylated telomerase synthesis primer (B-TS) and synthesizes extension products, which then serve as the templates for PCR amplification using B-TS as the forward primer and Iris-(2'2'-bipyridyl) ruthenium (TBR) labeled ACX (TBR-ACX) as the reversed primer. The amplified product is captured on streptavidin-coated paramagnetic beads and detected by ECL. Telomerase positive HeLa cells were used to validate the feasibility of the method. The experimental results showed down to 10 cancer cells can be detected easily. The method is a useful tool for telomerase activity analysis due to its sensitivity, rapidity, safety, high throughput, and low cost. It can be used for screening a large amount of clinical samples.

  11. Combined action of magnetic activated water and some cosmic flight factors (acceleration, radiation) of animals

    Investigations were carried out on albino mice, line ''H'', half of them being exposed to the action of water running through a constant magnetic field. The animals were divided in the following subgroups: 1. Twenty experimental (receiving magnetic activated water - MAW) and 20 control mice were exposed to the action of positive acceleration of 20 G in the course of 5 minutes. 2. Twenty experimental mice (MAW) and 20 control mice were exposed to a positive transverse acceleration 24 hours before gamma irradiation with 600 R. The parameters studied were: survival, main duration of life, protection coefficient (α), changes in body weight and in erythrocytes and leucocytes counts in the peripheral blood. The results of these experiments show that after irradiation the observed parameters undergo milder changes in the experimental (MAW) than in the control groups, i.e. MAW exerts a distinct antiradiation effect, which is not reduced after exposure to the combined action of acceleration and radiation. (author)

  12. The in vitro activity of beta-lactamase inhibitors in combination with cephalosporins against M. tuberculosis.

    Chen, C H; Yang, M H; Lin, J S; Lee, Y C; Perng, R P

    1995-04-01

    Although there are reports that the addition of a beta-lactamase inhibitor to ampicillin or amoxicillin greatly improves their in vitro activity against M. tuberculosis, there are no written reports about the antituberculosis effects of beta-lactamase inhibitors in combination with cephalosporins against M. tuberculosis. In this report, we have determined the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 5 cephalosporins with or without combination with beta-lactamase inhibitor against M. tuberculosis strains isolated from patients before antituberculosis treatment and checked the production of beta-lactamase by bacteria before this procedure. Four strains of M. tuberculosis were contaminated during the experiment, and all the other 16 strains hydrolyzed the nitrocefin disc, thus indicating a beta-lactamase producer. The MICs of cephalosporins alone against M. tuberculosis were 200-400 micrograms/ml for ceforanide, 100-400 micrograms/ml for cephapirin, 400-1600 micrograms/ml for cefamandole, 200-1600 micrograms/ml for cefotaxime, and 800-1600 micrograms/ml for ceftriaxone. After adding the equimolar concentrations of sulbactam, the MICs were reduced to 100-200 micrograms/ml for ceforanide, 12.5-100 micrograms/ml for cephapirin, 100-400 micrograms/ml for cefamandole, 25-200 micrograms/ml for cefotaxime, and 100-800 micrograms/ml for ceftriaxone. We concluded that sulbactam enhanced the antituberculosis effect of cephalosporins. PMID:7624446

  13. Combined active and passive immunization enhances the efficacy of immunotherapy against nicotine in rats.

    Roiko, Samuel A; Harris, Andrew C; Keyler, Daniel E; Lesage, Mark G; Zhang, Yan; Pentel, Paul R

    2008-06-01

    Vaccination against nicotine reduces the behavioral effects of nicotine in rats, and it is under clinical evaluation as a treatment for tobacco addiction. Efficacy is limited by the need for high serum nicotine-specific antibody (NicAb) levels, and currently available nicotine vaccines do not uniformly generate the required NicAb levels. Passive immunization with a nicotine-specific monoclonal antibody (Nic311) has also shown efficacy in rats. The principal aim of this study was to determine whether the combined use of vaccination and passive immunization would produce greater effects than vaccination alone on nicotine pharmacokinetics and locomotor sensitization (LMS) to nicotine. Rats were treated with vaccination alone, Nic311 alone, both, or neither, and then they were administered 10 daily injections of 0.3 mg/kg nicotine s.c. Treatment with Nic311 or vaccination alone increased the binding of nicotine in serum, reduced the unbound serum nicotine concentration and nicotine distribution to brain, and attenuated the development of LMS. Combined use of vaccination and passive immunization produced higher total serum NicAb levels, greater changes in nicotine pharmacokinetics, and a greater attenuation of LMS than either treatment alone. The total serum NicAb concentration was significantly correlated with brain nicotine levels and locomotor activity. These data indicate that providing higher serum NicAb concentrations improves the efficacy of immunotherapy against nicotine and that supplementing vaccination with passive immunization is a potential strategy to accomplish this. PMID:18305013

  14. Comparative study of wastewater treatment and nutrient recycle via activated sludge, microalgae and combination systems.

    Wang, Liang; Liu, Jinli; Zhao, Quanyu; Wei, Wei; Sun, Yuhan

    2016-07-01

    Algal-bacterial synergistic cultivation could be an optional wastewater treatment technology in temperate areas. In this study, a locally screened vigorous Chlorella strain was characterized and then it was used in a comparative study of wastewater treatment and nutrient recycle assessment via activated sludge (AS), microalgae and their combination systems. Chlorella sp. cultured with AS in light showed the best performance, in which case the removal efficiencies of COD, NH3-N and TP were 87.3%, 99.2% and 83.9%, respectively, within a short period of 1day. Algal-bacterial combination in light had the best settleability. Chlorella sp. contained biomass, could be processed to feed, fertilizer or fuel due to the improved quality (higher C/H/N) compared with sludge. PCR-DGGE analysis shows that two types of rhizobacteria, namely, Pseudomonas putida and Flavobacterium hauense were enriched in sludge when cultured with algae in light, serving as the basics for artificial consortium construction for improved wastewater treatment. PMID:26995615

  15. In vitro activity effects of combinations of cephalothin, dicloxacillin, imipenem, vancomycin and amikacin against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus spp. strains

    Solórzano-Santos Fortino; Vilchis-Pérez Mariano; Leaños-Miranda Blanca E; Miranda-Novales Guadalupe

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background combinations of drugs has been proposed as an alternative for oxacillin-resistant staphylococci infections, however, limited information about in vitro combinations are available for multi-resistant strains. The objective of this study was to describe the interaction of beta-lactams in combination with vancomycin or amikacin against 26 oxacillin and amikacin-resistant nosocomial Staphylococcus spp. isolates. Methods activity of dicloxacillin plus amikacin, cephalothin plus...

  16. Comparison of the effects of EPA and DHA alone or in combination in a murine model of myocardial infarction.

    Madingou, Ness; Gilbert, Kim; Tomaro, Leandro; Prud'homme Touchette, Charles; Trudeau, François; Fortin, Samuel; Rousseau, Guy

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this project was to investigate the impact of two dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), alone or in combination, on infarct size. Adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed for 14 days with different omega-3 diets. The animals were subjected to ischemia for 40min followed by reperfusion. Infarct size, Akt (protein kinase B) activation level, caspase-3 activity and mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening were measured. The results indicate that EPA or DHA alone significantly reduced infarct size compared to the other diets. Akt activity was increased in the group fed EPA or DHA alone, whereas no significant activation was observed in the other groups compared to no omega-3 PUFA. DHA alone reduced caspase-3 activity and conferred resistance to mPTP opening. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that EPA and DHA are individually effective in diminishing infarct size in our experimental model while their combination is not. PMID:27499449

  17. Improved computational model (AQUIFAS) for activated sludge, integrated fixed-film activated sludge, and moving-bed biofilm reactor systems, Part I: Semi-empirical model development.

    Sen, Dipankar; Randall, Clifford W

    2008-05-01

    Research was undertaken to develop a model for activated sludge, integrated fixed-film activated sludge (IFAS), and moving-bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) systems. The model can operate with up to 12 cells (reactors) in series, with biofilm media incorporated to one or more cells, except the anaerobic cells. The process configuration can be any combination of anaerobic, anoxic, aerobic, post-anoxic with or without supplemental carbon, and reaeration; it can also include any combination of step feed and recycles, including recycles for mixed liquor, return activated sludge, nitrates, and membrane bioreactors. This paper presents the structure of the model. The model embeds a biofilm model into a multicell activated sludge model. The biofilm flux rates for organics, nutrients, and biomass can be computed by two methods--a semi-empirical model of the biofilm that is relatively simpler, or a diffusional model that is computationally intensive. The values of the kinetic parameters for the model were measured using pilot-scale activated sludge, IFAS, and MBBR systems. For the semiempirical version, a series of Monod equations were developed for chemical oxygen demand, ammonium-nitrogen, and oxidized-nitrogen fluxes to the biofilm. Within the equations, a second Monod expression is used to simulate the effect of changes in biofilm thickness and fraction nitrifiers in the biofilm. The biofilm flux model is then linked to the activated sludge model. The diffusional model and the verification of the models are presented in subsequent papers (Sen and Randall, 2008a, 2008b). The model can be used to quantify the amount of media and surface area required to achieve nitrification, identify the best locations for the media, and optimize the dissolved oxygen levels and nitrate recycle rates. Some of the advanced features include the ability to apply different media types and fill fractions in cells; quantify nitrification, denitrification, and biomass production in the biofilm and

  18. Generic Energy Matching Model and Figure of Matching Algorithm for Combined Renewable Energy Systems

    J.C. Brezet

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the Energy Matching Model and Figure of Matching Algorithm which originally was dedicated only to photovoltaic (PV systems [1] are extended towards a Model and Algorithm suitable for combined systems which are a result of integration of two or more renewable energy sources into one. The systems under investigation will range from mobile portable devices up to the large renewable energy system conceivably to be applied at the Afsluitdijk (Closure- dike in the north of the Netherlands. This Afsluitdijk is the major dam in the Netherlands, damming off the Zuiderzee, a salt water inlet of the North Sea and turning it into the fresh water lake of the IJsselmeer. The energy chain of power supplies based on a combination of renewable energy sources can be modeled by using one generic Energy Matching Model as starting point.

  19. Tumor reoxygenation following administration of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase inhibitors: A rationale for combination with radiation therapy

    Background and purpose: The relevance of Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) inhibitors as co-treatments for radiation therapy is investigated, with special focus on a potential link between the MAPK pathway and tumor hypoxia, which is a critical determinant for response to therapy. Materials and methods: The effects of two MAPK inhibitors, Sorafenib and PD0325901, were monitored daily using in vivo EPR (Electron Paramagnetic Resonance) oximetry in FSaII and TLT tumor models in order to identify a window of reoxygenation, during which tumor blood flow, oxygen consumption and radiation sensitivity were assessed. Results: Reoxygenation was shown after two days of treatments with Sorafenib or PD0325901 in two tumor models, which was further successfully exploited with Sorafenib for improving the radiation response of FSaII tumors by a factor of 1.5. The increase in tumor oxygenation was shown to be the result of two major factors: (i) an increase in blood flow for Sorafenib, that might be linked to its anti-angiogenic effect (vascular normalization), and (ii) a decrease in oxygen consumption for Sorafenib and PD0325901, due to an alteration of the mitochondrial activity. Conclusion: We evidenced tumor reoxygenation in vivo following MAPK inhibition and suggest a rationale for the combination of radiation therapy with Sorafenib.

  20. A new method for avalanche hazard mapping using a combination of statistical and deterministic models

    M. Barbolini; Keylock, C. J.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to propose a new method for avalanche hazard mapping using a combination of statistical and deterministic modelling tools. The methodology is based on frequency-weighted impact pressure, and uses an avalanche dynamics model embedded within a statistical framework. The outlined procedure provides a useful way for avalanche experts to produce hazard maps for the typical case of avalanche sites where histor...

  1. Model Updating of Complex Structures Using the Combination of Component Mode Synthesis and Kriging Predictor

    Yang Liu; Yan Li; Dejun Wang; Shaoyi Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Updating the structural model of complex structures is time-consuming due to the large size of the finite element model (FEM). Using conventional methods for these cases is computationally expensive or even impossible. A two-level method, which combined the Kriging predictor and the component mode synthesis (CMS) technique, was proposed to ensure the successful implementing of FEM updating of large-scale structures. In the first level, the CMS was applied to build a reasonable condensed FEM o...

  2. Combining Coarse-Grained Protein Models with Replica-Exchange All-Atom Molecular Dynamics

    Andrzej Koliński; Maksim Kouza; Dominik Gront; Sebastian Kmiecik; Jacek Wabik

    2013-01-01

    We describe a combination of all-atom simulations with CABS, a well-established coarse-grained protein modeling tool, into a single multiscale protocol. The simulation method has been tested on the C-terminal beta hairpin of protein G, a model system of protein folding. After reconstructing atomistic details, conformations derived from the CABS simulation were subjected to replica-exchange molecular dynamics simulations with OPLS-AA and AMBER99sb force fields in explicit solvent. Such a combi...

  3. Modelling and Stability of a Single-Shaft Combined Cycle Power Plant

    Costas Vournas

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper is the development of a dynamic model for a single-shaft combined cycle plant and the analysis of its response to electrical load and frequency transients. In particular the stability of the frequency control, as well as the implications of overheat control are investigated. The model is developed in the Simulink environment of Matlab as part of an educational and research simulation package for autonomous and interconnected systems.

  4. Numerical Model to Characterize the Size Increase of Combination Drug and Hygroscopic Excipient Nanoparticle Aerosols

    Longest, P. Worth; Hindle, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Enhanced excipient growth is a newly proposed respiratory delivery strategy in which submicrometer or nanometer particles composed of a drug and hygroscopic excipient are delivered to the airways in order to minimize extrathoracic depositional losses and maximize lung retention. The objective of this study was to develop a validated mathematical model of aerosol size increase for hygroscopic excipients and combination excipient-drug particles and to apply this model to characterize growth und...

  5. Bumblebees minimize control challenges by combining active and passive modes in unsteady winds

    Ravi, Sridhar; Engels, Thomas; Schneider, Kai; Wang, Chun; Sesterhenn, Joern; Liu, Hao

    2016-01-01

    The natural wind environment that volant insects encounter is unsteady and highly complex, posing significant flight control and stability challenges. Unsteady airflows can range from structured chains of discrete vortices shed in the wake of an object to fully developed chaotic turbulence. It is critical to understand the flight control strategies insect employ to safely navigate in natural environments. We combined experiments on free flying bumblebees with high fidelity numerical simulations and lower order modeling to identify the salient mechanics that mediate insect flight in unsteady winds. We trained bumblebees to fly upwind towards an artificial flower in a wind tunnel under steady wind and in a von Karman street (23Hz) formed in the wake of a cylinder. The bees displayed significantly higher movement in the unsteady vortex street compared to steady winds. Correlation analysis revealed that at lower frequencies, less than 10 Hz, in both steady and unsteady winds the bees mediated lateral movement wit...

  6. Glass Durability Modeling, Activated Complex Theory (ACT)

    The most important requirement for high-level waste glass acceptance for disposal in a geological repository is the chemical durability, expressed as a glass dissolution rate. During the early stages of glass dissolution in near static conditions that represent a repository disposal environment, a gel layer resembling a membrane forms on the glass surface through which ions exchange between the glass and the leachant. The hydrated gel layer exhibits acid/base properties which are manifested as the pH dependence of the thickness and nature of the gel layer. The gel layer has been found to age into either clay mineral assemblages or zeolite mineral assemblages. The formation of one phase preferentially over the other has been experimentally related to changes in the pH of the leachant and related to the relative amounts of Al+3 and Fe+3 in a glass. The formation of clay mineral assemblages on the leached glass surface layers ,lower pH and Fe+3 rich glasses, causes the dissolution rate to slow to a long-term steady state rate. The formation of zeolite mineral assemblages ,higher pH and Al+3 rich glasses, on leached glass surface layers causes the dissolution rate to increase and return to the initial high forward rate. The return to the forward dissolution rate is undesirable for long-term performance of glass in a disposal environment. An investigation into the role of glass stoichiometry, in terms of the quasi-crystalline mineral species in a glass, has shown that the chemistry and structure in the parent glass appear to control the activated surface complexes that form in the leached layers, and these mineral complexes ,some Fe+3 rich and some Al+3 rich, play a role in whether or not clays or zeolites are the dominant species formed on the leached glass surface. The chemistry and structure, in terms of Q distributions of the parent glass, are well represented by the atomic ratios of the glass forming components. Thus, glass dissolution modeling using simple atomic

  7. Building Customers` Credit Scoring Models with Combination of Feature Selection and Decision Tree Algorithms

    Zahra Davoodabadi

    Full Text Available Today`s financial transactions have been increased through banks and financial institutions. Therefore, credit scoring is a critical task to forecast the customers’ credit. We have created 9 different models for the credit scoring by combining three metho ...

  8. Fitting a linear regression model by combining least squares and least absolute value estimation

    Allende, Sira; Bouza, Carlos; Romero, Isidro

    1995-01-01

    Robust estimation of the multiple regression is modeled by using a convex combination of Least Squares and Least Absolute Value criterions. A Bicriterion Parametric algorithm is developed for computing the corresponding estimates. The proposed procedure should be specially useful when outliers are expected. Its behavior is analyzed using some examples.

  9. Estimating Net Primary Production of Swedish Forest Landscapes by Combining Mechanistic Modeling and Remote Sensing

    Tagesson, Håkan Torbern; Smith, Benjamin; Løfgren, Anders;

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate a combination of satellite images of leaf area index (LAI) with processbased vegetation modeling for the accurate assessment of the carbon balances of Swedish forest ecosystems at the scale of a landscape. Monthly climatologic data were used as inputs in a...

  10. A COMBINED PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOENERGETICS-BASED MODEL FOR METHYLMERCURY IN FEMALE AMERICAN KESTRELS

    The results of this combined dose-response and modeling effort will be used to improve effects characterizations for methylmercury in avian wildlife. This information will reduce uncertainty in risk assessments for methylmercury in the environment and contribute to the developme...

  11. A combined crustal depth model for Iran based on the gravity and seismological data

    Kiamehr, Ramin

    2010-05-01

    The inversion of the Bouguer gravity data based on the Parker-Oldenburg method is the well-known method for estimation of the Moho depth model between geoscientist. The advantage of this method is that it gives a continuous surface model in the study area. However, in order to have a precise result in this method, we need to have a well distributed and dense gravity data which does not have large systematic errors. Estimation of the crust depth based on the seismological data is another independent method which is basically point-wised but more precise than the inversion approach. In order to reduce the effect of datum and systematic errors in inversion and taking advantage of the precise seismological model, we developed a combined crustal model for Iran based on the corrective surface idea. The four, five and seven parameters models were used in the least-squares sense to get the best combination. The combined model evaluated based on the independent seismological data. The results indicate clearly very good improvements versus the gravity inversion method.

  12. Pharmacokinetic modeling of an induction regimen for in vivo combined testing of novel drugs against pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia xenografts.

    Barbara Szymanska

    Full Text Available Current regimens for induction therapy of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL, or for re-induction post relapse, use a combination of vincristine (VCR, a glucocorticoid, and L-asparaginase (ASP with or without an anthracycline. With cure rates now approximately 80%, robust pre-clinical models are necessary to prioritize active new drugs for clinical trials in relapsed/refractory patients, and the ability of these models to predict synergy/antagonism with established therapy is an essential attribute. In this study, we report optimization of an induction-type regimen by combining VCR, dexamethasone (DEX and ASP (VXL against ALL xenograft models established from patient biopsies in immune-deficient mice. We demonstrate that the VXL combination was synergistic in vitro against leukemia cell lines as well as in vivo against ALL xenografts. In vivo, VXL treatment caused delays in progression of individual xenografts ranging from 22 to >146 days. The median progression delay of xenografts derived from long-term surviving patients was 2-fold greater than that of xenografts derived from patients who died of their disease. Pharmacokinetic analysis revealed that systemic DEX exposure in mice increased 2-fold when administered in combination with VCR and ASP, consistent with clinical findings, which may contribute to the observed synergy between the 3 drugs. Finally, as proof-of-principle we tested the in vivo efficacy of combining VXL with either the Bcl-2/Bcl-xL/Bcl-w inhibitor, ABT-737, or arsenic trioxide to provide evidence of a robust in vivo platform to prioritize new drugs for clinical trials in children with relapsed/refractory ALL.

  13. Models of the stochastic activity of neurones

    Holden, Arun Vivian

    1976-01-01

    These notes have grown from a series of seminars given at Leeds between 1972 and 1975. They represent an attempt to gather together the different kinds of model which have been proposed to account for the stochastic activity of neurones, and to provide an introduction to this area of mathematical biology. A striking feature of the electrical activity of the nervous system is that it appears stochastic: this is apparent at all levels of recording, ranging from intracellular recordings to the electroencephalogram. The chapters start with fluctuations in membrane potential, proceed through single unit and synaptic activity and end with the behaviour of large aggregates of neurones: L have chgaen this seque~~e\\/~~';uggest that the interesting behaviourr~f :the nervous system - its individuality, variability and dynamic forms - may in part result from the stochastic behaviour of its components. I would like to thank Dr. Julio Rubio for reading and commenting on the drafts, Mrs. Doris Beighton for producing the fin...

  14. Theory and modeling of active brazing.

    van Swol, Frank B.; Miller, James Edward; Lechman, Jeremy B.; Givler, Richard C.

    2013-09-01

    Active brazes have been used for many years to produce bonds between metal and ceramic objects. By including a relatively small of a reactive additive to the braze one seeks to improve the wetting and spreading behavior of the braze. The additive modifies the substrate, either by a chemical surface reaction or possibly by alloying. By its nature, the joining process with active brazes is a complex nonequilibrium non-steady state process that couples chemical reaction, reactant and product diffusion to the rheology and wetting behavior of the braze. Most of the these subprocesses are taking place in the interfacial region, most are difficult to access by experiment. To improve the control over the brazing process, one requires a better understanding of the melting of the active braze, rate of the chemical reaction, reactant and product diffusion rates, nonequilibrium composition-dependent surface tension as well as the viscosity. This report identifies ways in which modeling and theory can assist in improving our understanding.

  15. Computer modeling for neutron activation analysis methods

    Full text: The INP AS RU develops databases for the neutron-activation analysis - ND INAA [1] and ELEMENT [2]. Based on these databases, the automated complex is under construction aimed at modeling of methods for natural and technogenic materials analysis. It is well known, that there is a variety of analysis objects with wide spectra, different composition and concentration of elements, which makes it impossible to develop universal methods applicable for every analytical research. The modelling is based on algorithm, that counts the period of time in which the sample was irradiated in nuclear reactor, providing the sample's total absorption and activity analytical peaks areas with given errors. The analytical complex was tested for low-elemental analysis (determination of Fe and Zn in vegetation samples, and Cu, Ag and Au - in technological objects). At present, the complex is applied for multielemental analysis of sediment samples. In this work, modern achievements in the analytical chemistry (measurement facilities, high-resolution detectors, IAEA and IUPAC databases) and information technology applications (Java software, database management systems (DBMS), internet technologies) are applied. Reference: 1. Tillaev T., Umaraliev A., Gurvich L.G., Yuldasheva K., Kadirova J. Specialized database for instrumental neutron activation analysis - ND INAA 1.0, The 3-rd Eurasian Conference Nuclear Science and its applications, 2004, pp.270-271.; 2. Gurvich L.G., Tillaev T., Umaraliev A. The Information-analytical database on the element contents of natural objects. The 4-th International Conference Modern problems of Nuclear Physics, Samarkand, 2003, p.337. (authors)

  16. Removal of humic and tannic acids by adsorption-coagulation combined systems with activated biochar.

    Jung, Chanil; Phal, Narong; Oh, Jeill; Chu, Kyoung Hoon; Jang, Min; Yoon, Yeomin

    2015-12-30

    Despite recent interest in transforming biomass into bio-oil and syngas, there is inadequate information on the compatibility of byproducts (e.g., biochar) with agriculture and water purification infrastructures. A pyrolysis at 300°C yields efficient production of biochar, and its physicochemical properties can be improved by chemical activation, resulting in a suitable adsorbent for the removal of natural organic matter (NOM), including hydrophobic and hydrophilic substances, such as humic acids (HA) and tannic acids (TA), respectively. In this study, the adsorption affinities of different HA and TA combinations in NOM solutions were evaluated, and higher adsorption affinity of TA onto activated biochar (AB) produced in the laboratory was observed due to its superior chemisorption tendencies and size-exclusion effects compared with that of HA, whereas hydrophobic interactions between adsorbent and adsorbate were deficient. Assessment of the AB role in an adsorption-coagulation hybrid system as nuclei for coagulation in the presence of aluminum sulfate (alum) showed a synergistic effect in a HA-dominated NOM solution. An AB-alum hybrid system with a high proportion of HA in the NOM solution may be applicable as an end-of-pipe solution. PMID:26340547

  17. Active liquid treatment by a combination of precipitation and membrane processes

    Ultrafiltration-based processes have been developed for the treatment of low and medium-active radioactive wastes. Actinides such as U, Pu and Am were found to be present as insoluble species in many effluents and were separated with high efficiency, by direct ultrafiltration. Soluble nuclides, including complexed actinides, Sr and Cs, were removed at > 99 % efficiency by combined processes, in which very low concentrations (3) of ultrafine activity absorbing precipitates were added. The new ultrafiltration processes were applied successfully to a variety of simulated and real wastes, including magnesium alloy clad spent storage fuel pond waters, reprocessing plant solvent wash liquors, plutonium production effluents and mixed site effluents. After initial laboratory scale feasibility experiments, the process was scaled up, using a variety of different ultrafiltration modules. An inorganic, tubular ultrafiltration module was selected for more detailed investigation and an automated mini-unit was constructed for longterm evaluation. The information thus accumulated on membrane performance, membrane fouling and flux restoration techniques, and ancillary equipment performance was used to design a much larger demonstration pilot plant. This plant is now processing continuously each day over 1 m3 of a real radioactive effluent

  18. Active State Model for Autonomous Systems

    Park, Han; Chien, Steve; Zak, Michail; James, Mark; Mackey, Ryan; Fisher, Forest

    2003-01-01

    The concept of the active state model (ASM) is an architecture for the development of advanced integrated fault-detection-and-isolation (FDI) systems for robotic land vehicles, pilotless aircraft, exploratory spacecraft, or other complex engineering systems that will be capable of autonomous operation. An FDI system based on the ASM concept would not only provide traditional diagnostic capabilities, but also integrate the FDI system under a unified framework and provide mechanism for sharing of information between FDI subsystems to fully assess the overall health of the system. The ASM concept begins with definitions borrowed from psychology, wherein a system is regarded as active when it possesses self-image, self-awareness, and an ability to make decisions itself, such that it is able to perform purposeful motions and other transitions with some degree of autonomy from the environment. For an engineering system, self-image would manifest itself as the ability to determine nominal values of sensor data by use of a mathematical model of itself, and selfawareness would manifest itself as the ability to relate sensor data to their nominal values. The ASM for such a system may start with the closed-loop control dynamics that describe the evolution of state variables. As soon as this model was supplemented with nominal values of sensor data, it would possess self-image. The ability to process the current sensor data and compare them with the nominal values would represent self-awareness. On the basis of self-image and self-awareness, the ASM provides the capability for self-identification, detection of abnormalities, and self-diagnosis.

  19. Theoretical Study on Stochastic Modeling of Combined Gravity-Magnetic-Electric-Seismic Inversion and Its Application

    Yan Hanjie; Yan Hong; Li Yunping; Zhang Xiaofeng

    2003-01-01

    As gravity field, magnetic field, electric field and reismic wave field are all physical fields, their object function, reverse function and compound function are certainly infinite continuously differentiable functions which can be expanded into Taylor (Fourier) series within domain of definition and be further reduced into solving stochastic distribution function of series and statistic inference of optimal approximation. This is thebasis of combined gravity-magnetic-electric-seismic inversion of stochastic modeling. It is an uncertainty modeling technology of combining gravity-magnetic-electric-seismic inversion built on the basis of separation of field and source gravity-magnetic difference-value (D-value) trend surface, taking distribution-independent fault system as its unit, depths of seismic and electric interfaces of interests as its corresponding bivariate compound reverse function of gravity-magnetic anomalies and using high order polynomial (high order trigonometric function) approximating to its series distribution. The difference from current dominant inversion techniques is that, first, it does not respectively create gravity-seismic, magnetic-seismic deterministic inversion model from theoretical model, but combines gravity-magnetic-electric-seismic stochastic inversion model from stochastic model; second, after the concept of equivalent geological body being introduced, using feature of independent variable of gravity-magnetic field functions, taking density and susceptibility related to gravity-magnetic function as default parameters of model, the deterministic model is established owing to better solution to the contradiction of difficulty in identifying strata and less test analytical data for density and susceptibility in newly explored area; third, under assumption of independent parent distribution, a real modeling by strata, the problem of difficult plane closure arising in profile modeling is avoided. This technology has richer and more

  20. Balanced pan-PPAR activator bezafibrate in combination with statin: comprehensive lipids control and diabetes prevention?

    Tenenbaum Alexander

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract All fibrates are peroxisome proliferators-activated receptors (PPARs-alpha agonists with ability to decrease triglyceride and increase high density lipoprotein- cholesterol (HDL-C. However, bezafibrate has a unique characteristic profile of action since it activates all three PPAR subtypes (alpha, gamma and delta at comparable doses. Therefore, bezafibrate operates as a pan-agonist for all three PPAR isoforms. Selective PPAR gamma agonists (thiazolidinediones are used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. They improve insulin sensitivity by up-regulating adipogenesis, decreasing free fatty acid levels, and reversing insulin resistance. However, selective PPAR gamma agonists also cause water retention, weight gain, peripheral edema, and congestive heart failure. The expression of PPAR beta/ delta in essentially all cell types and tissues (ubiquitous presence suggests its potential fundamental role in cellular biology. PPAR beta/ delta effects correlated with enhancement of fatty acid oxidation, energy consumption and adaptive thermogenesis. Together, these data implicate PPAR beta/delta in fuel combustion and suggest that pan-PPAR agonists that include a component of PPAR beta/delta activation might offset some of the weight gain issues seen with selective PPAR gamma agonists, as was demonstrated by bezafibrate studies. Suggestively, on the whole body level all PPARs acting as one orchestra and balanced pan-PPAR activation seems as an especially attractive pharmacological goal. Conceptually, combined PPAR gamma and alpha action can target simultaneously insulin resistance and atherogenic dyslipidemia, whereas PPAR beta/delta properties may prevent the development of overweight. Bezafibrate, as all fibrates, significantly reduced plasma triglycerides and increased HDL-C level (but considerably stronger than other major fibrates. Bezafibrate significantly decreased prevalence of small, dense low density lipoproteins particles, remnants

  1. A sequential Monte Carlo model of the combined GB gas and electricity network

    A Monte Carlo model of the combined GB gas and electricity network was developed to determine the reliability of the energy infrastructure. The model integrates the gas and electricity network into a single sequential Monte Carlo simulation. The model minimises the combined costs of the gas and electricity network, these include gas supplies, gas storage operation and electricity generation. The Monte Carlo model calculates reliability indices such as loss of load probability and expected energy unserved for the combined gas and electricity network. The intention of this tool is to facilitate reliability analysis of integrated energy systems. Applications of this tool are demonstrated through a case study that quantifies the impact on the reliability of the GB gas and electricity network given uncertainties such as wind variability, gas supply availability and outages to energy infrastructure assets. Analysis is performed over a typical midwinter week on a hypothesised GB gas and electricity network in 2020 that meets European renewable energy targets. The efficacy of doubling GB gas storage capacity on the reliability of the energy system is assessed. The results highlight the value of greater gas storage facilities in enhancing the reliability of the GB energy system given various energy uncertainties. -- Highlights: •A Monte Carlo model of the combined GB gas and electricity network was developed. •Reliability indices are calculated for the combined GB gas and electricity system. •The efficacy of doubling GB gas storage capacity on reliability of the energy system is assessed. •Integrated reliability indices could be used to assess the impact of investment in energy assets

  2. Colorimetry and SERS dual-mode detection of telomerase activity: combining rapid screening with high sensitivity

    Zong, Shenfei; Wang, Zhuyuan; Chen, Hui; Hu, Guohua; Liu, Min; Chen, Peng; Cui, Yiping

    2014-01-01

    As an important biomarker and therapeutic target, telomerase has attracted considerable attention concerning its detection and monitoring. Here, we present a colorimetry and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) dual-mode telomerase activity detection method, which has several distinctive advantages. First, colorimetric functionality allows rapid preliminary discrimination of telomerase activity by the naked eye. Second, the employment of SERS technique results in greatly improved detection sensitivity. Third, the combination of colorimetry and SERS into one detection system can ensure highly efficacious and sensitive screening of numerous samples. Besides, the avoidance of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) procedures further guarantees fine reliability and simplicity. Generally, the presented method is realized by an ``elongate and capture'' procedure. To be specific, gold nanoparticles modified with Raman molecules and telomeric repeat complementary oligonucleotide are employed as the colorimetric-SERS bifunctional reporting nanotag, while magnetic nanoparticles functionalized with telomerase substrate oligonucleotide are used as the capturing substrate. Telomerase can synthesize and elongate telomeric repeats onto the capturing substrate. The elongated telomeric repeats subsequently facilitate capturing of the reporting nanotag via hybridization between telomeric repeat and its complementary strand. The captured nanotags can cause a significant difference in the color and SERS intensity of the magnetically separated sediments. Thus both the color and SERS can be used as indicators of the telomerase activity. With fast screening ability and outstanding sensitivity, we anticipate that this method would greatly promote practical application of telomerase-based early-stage cancer diagnosis.As an important biomarker and therapeutic target, telomerase has attracted considerable attention concerning its detection and monitoring. Here, we present a colorimetry and

  3. Combination of Cytokine Responses Indicative of Latent TB and Active TB in Malawian Adults

    Hur, Yun-Gyoung; Gorak-Stolinska, Patricia; Ben-Smith, Anne; Lalor, Maeve K.; Chaguluka, Steven; Dacombe, Russell; Doherty, T. Mark; Ottenhoff, Tom H.; Dockrell, Hazel M.; Crampin, Amelia C.

    2013-01-01

    Background An IFN-γ response to M. tuberculosis-specific antigens is an effective biomarker for M. tuberculosis infection but it cannot discriminate between latent TB infection and active TB disease. Combining a number of cytokine/chemokine responses to M. tuberculosis antigens may enable differentiation of latent TB from active disease. Methods Asymptomatic recently-exposed individuals (spouses of TB patients) were recruited and tuberculin skin tested, bled and followed-up for two years. Culture supernatants, from a six-day culture of diluted whole blood samples stimulated with M. tuberculosis-derived PPD or ESAT-6, were measured for IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-13, IL-17, TNF-α and CXCL10 using cytokine ELISAs. In addition, 15 patients with sputum smear-positive pulmonary TB were recruited and tested. Results Spouses with positive IFN-γ responses to M. tuberculosis ESAT-6 (>62.5 pg/mL) and TB patients showed high production of IL-17, CXCL10 and TNF-α. Higher production of IL-10 and IL-17 in response to ESAT-6 was observed in the spouses compared with TB patients while the ratios of IFN-γ/IL-10 and IFN-γ/IL-17 in response to M. tuberculosis-derived PPD were significantly higher in TB patients compared with the spouses. Tuberculin skin test results did not correlate with cytokine responses. Conclusions CXCL10 and TNF-α may be used as adjunct markers alongside an IFN-γ release assay to diagnose M. tuberculosis infection, and IL-17 and IL-10 production may differentiate individuals with LTBI from active TB. PMID:24260295

  4. Comparison of activity coefficient models for electrolyte systems

    Lin, Yi; ten Kate, Antoon; Mooijer, Miranda;

    2010-01-01

    Three activity coefficient models for electrolyte solutions were evaluated and compared. The activity coefficient models are: The electrolyte NRTL model (ElecNRTL) by Aspentech, the mixed solvent electrolyte model (MSE) by OLI Systems Inc., and the Extended UNIQUAC model from the Technical Univer...

  5. Holocene canyon activity under a combination of tidal and tectonic forcing

    Mountjoy, Joshu; Micallef, Aaron; Stevens, Craig; Stirling, Mark

    2013-04-01

    heads, and transported sediment is accumulating in upper canyon depocentres. Based on pseudo-static stability modelling, and supported by sediment core records, we estimate that earthquake triggered failure occurs approximately every 100 years. Lower canyon geomorphology indicates that failed material is being conveyed down the length of the canyon system to the deep ocean. Thus, while flushing rates may be low, the Cook Strait Canyon system can be considered to be an active sedimentary system during the current sea level high stand. The processes identified here are likely to be analogous to those occurring in many non-coupled shelf indenting canyons on tectonically active margins globally, and provide a framework within which the biological response to intermediate disturbance geomorphic processes in submarine canyons can be assessed.

  6. Anticonvulsant Effects of Combined Treatment with Citicoline and Valproate on the Model of Acute Generalized Convulsions Induced by Pentylenetetrazole in Wistar Rats.

    Karpova, M N; Kuznetsova, L V; Zin'kovskii, K A; Klishina, N V

    2016-02-01

    We studied anticonvulsant effects of combined treatment with citicoline, a nootropic substance with neuroregenerative and neuroprotective activities, and valproate, an antiepileptic agent widely used in the treatment of epilepsy, on the model of pentylenetetrazole-induced (75 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) acute generalized convulsions in male Wistar rats. Combined treatment with citicoline and valproate in minimum effective doses (70 and 300 mg/kg, respectively) potentiated the anticonvulsant properties of both agents. PMID:26902360

  7. Modeling active memory: Experiment, theory and simulation

    Amit, Daniel J.

    2001-06-01

    Neuro-physiological experiments on cognitively performing primates are described to argue that strong evidence exists for localized, non-ergodic (stimulus specific) attractor dynamics in the cortex. The specific phenomena are delay activity distributions-enhanced spike-rate distributions resulting from training, which we associate with working memory. The anatomy of the relevant cortex region and the physiological characteristics of the participating elements (neural cells) are reviewed to provide a substrate for modeling the observed phenomena. Modeling is based on the properties of the integrate-and-fire neural element in presence of an input current of Gaussian distribution. Theory of stochastic processes provides an expression for the spike emission rate as a function of the mean and the variance of the current distribution. Mean-field theory is then based on the assumption that spike emission processes in different neurons in the network are independent, and hence the input current to a neuron is Gaussian. Consequently, the dynamics of the interacting network is reduced to the computation of the mean and the variance of the current received by a cell of a given population in terms of the constitutive parameters of the network and the emission rates of the neurons in the different populations. Within this logic we analyze the stationary states of an unstructured network, corresponding to spontaneous activity, and show that it can be stable only if locally the net input current of a neuron is inhibitory. This is then tested against simulations and it is found that agreement is excellent down to great detail. A confirmation of the independence hypothesis. On top of stable spontaneous activity, keeping all parameters fixed, training is described by (Hebbian) modification of synapses between neurons responsive to a stimulus and other neurons in the module-synapses are potentiated between two excited neurons and depressed between an excited and a quiescent neuron

  8. COMBINING PCA ANALYSIS AND ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS IN MODELLING ENTREPRENEURIAL INTENTIONS OF STUDENTS

    Marijana Zekić-Sušac

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite increased interest in the entrepreneurial intentions and career choices of young adults, reliable prediction models are yet to be developed. Two nonparametric methods were used in this paper to model entrepreneurial intentions: principal component analysis (PCA and artificial neural networks (ANNs. PCA was used to perform feature extraction in the first stage of modelling, while artificial neural networks were used to classify students according to their entrepreneurial intentions in the second stage. Four modelling strategies were tested in order to find the most efficient model. Dataset was collected in an international survey on entrepreneurship self-efficacy and identity. Variables describe students’ demographics, education, attitudes, social and cultural norms, self-efficacy and other characteristics. The research reveals benefits from the combination of the PCA and ANNs in modeling entrepreneurial intentions, and provides some ideas for further research.

  9. A deterministic combination of numerical and physical models for coastal waves

    Zhang, Haiwen

    2006-01-01

    of numerical and physical modelling hence provides an attractive alternative to the use of either tool on it's own. The goal of this project has been to develop a deterministically combined numerical/physical model where the physical wave tank is enclosed in a much larger computational domain, and the two......Numerical and physical modelling are the two main tools available for predicting the influence of water waves on coastlines and structures placed in the near-shore environment. Numerical models can cover large areas at the correct scale, but are limited in their ability to capture strong...... nonlinearities, wave breaking, splash, mixing, and other such complicated physics. Physical models naturally include the real physics (at the model scale), but are limited by the physical size of the facility and must contend with the fact that different physical effects scale differently. An integrated use...

  10. Combining partially ranked data in plant breeding and biology: II. Analysis with Rasch model

    Ivan Simko

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Many years of breeding experiments, germplasm screening, and molecular biologic experimentation have generated volumes of sequence, genotype, and phenotype information that have been stored in public data repositories. These resources afford genetic and genomic researchers the opportunity to handle and analyze raw data from multiple laboratories and study groups whose research interests revolve around a common or closely related trait. However, although such data sets are widely available for secondary analysis, their heterogeneous nature often precludes their direct combination and joint exploration. Integration of phenotype information across multiple studies and databases is challenging due to variations in the measurement instruments, endpoint classifications, and biological material employed by each investigator. In the present work, we demonstrate how Rasch measurement model can surmount these problems. The model allows incorporating data sets with partially overlapping variables, large numbers of missing data points and dissimilar ratings of phenotypic endpoints. The model also enables quantifying the extent of heterogeneity between data sets. Biologists can use the model in a data-mining process to obtain combined ratings from various databases and other sources. Subsequently, these ratings can be used for selecting desirable material or (in combination with genotypic information for mapping genes involved in the particular trait. The model is not limited to genetics and breeding and can be applied in many other areas of biology and agriculture.

  11. Fitting complex population models by combining particle filters with Markov chain Monte Carlo.

    Knape, Jonas; de Valpine, Perry

    2012-02-01

    We show how a recent framework combining Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) with particle filters (PFMCMC) may be used to estimate population state-space models. With the purpose of utilizing the strengths of each method, PFMCMC explores hidden states by particle filters, while process and observation parameters are estimated using an MCMC algorithm. PFMCMC is exemplified by analyzing time series data on a red kangaroo (Macropus rufus) population in New South Wales, Australia, using MCMC over model parameters based on an adaptive Metropolis-Hastings algorithm. We fit three population models to these data; a density-dependent logistic diffusion model with environmental variance, an unregulated stochastic exponential growth model, and a random-walk model. Bayes factors and posterior model probabilities show that there is little support for density dependence and that the random-walk model is the most parsimonious model. The particle filter Metropolis-Hastings algorithm is a brute-force method that may be used to fit a range of complex population models. Implementation is straightforward and less involved than standard MCMC for many models, and marginal densities for model selection can be obtained with little additional effort. The cost is mainly computational, resulting in long running times that may be improved by parallelizing the algorithm. PMID:22624307

  12. Combining spiking neuronal network model with presynaptic and astrocyte interface models

    Eero Antero Räisänen

    2014-01-01

    Astrocytes have gained an increased interest in neuroscience due to their ability to influence synaptic transmission through gliotransmitters. The effects of gliotransmitters are computationally modeled by various groups. However models integrating astrocytes and their effects in the network level are lacking. Here we introduce a simulation scheme of astrocyte control of single synapses extend that to its effects on neuronal network behavior. A version of Tsodyks-Markram presynaptic model is ...

  13. Modeling of combined high-temperature oxidation and nitridation under isothermal and thermal-cycling conditions

    A computer model was developed to simulate the oxidation and nitridation behavior of nickel-base alloys at high temperatures. The numerical model combines a commercial thermochemical software (ChemApp) with a two-dimensional finite-difference diffusion calculation. The growth of the external oxide scale and the dependence of the internal corrosion behavior on cracking and spalling of the oxide layer have been incorporated into the simulation. The model has been applied to reveal the mechanisms of several corrosion processes which have been investigated in air and oxygen-free nitrogen atmosphere under isothermal and thermal-cycling conditions. (orig.)

  14. Enhancement of thermophilic anaerobic digestion of thickened waste activated sludge by combined microwave and alkaline pretreatment

    Yongzhi Chi; Yuyou Li; Xuening Fei; Shaopo Wang; Hongying Yun

    2011-01-01

    Pretreatment of thickened waste activated sludge (TWAS) by combined microwave and alkaline pretreatment (MAP) was studied to improve thermophilic anaerobic digestion efficiency.Uniform design was applied to determine the combination of target temperature (110-210℃),microwave holding time (1-51 min),and NaOH dose (0-2.5 g NaOH/g suspended solids (SS)) in terms of their effect on volatile suspended solids (VSS) solubilization.Maximum solubilization ratio (85.1%) of VSS was observed at 210℃ with 0.2 g-NaOH/g-SS and 35 min holding time.The effects of 12 different pretreatment methods were investigated in 28 thermophilic batch reactors by monitoring cumulative methane production (CMP).Improvements in methane production in the TWAS were directly related to the microwave and alkaline pretreatment of the sludge.The highest CMP was a 27% improvement over the control.In spite of the increase in soluble chemical oxygen demand concentration and the decrease in dewaterability of digested sludge,a semi-continuous thennophilic reactor fed with pretreated TWAS without neutralization (at 170℃ with 1 rain holding time and 0.05 g NaOH/g SS) was stable and functioned well,with volatile solid (VS) and total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) reductions of 28% and 18%,respectively,which were higher than those of the control system.Additionally,methane yields (L@STP/g-CODadded,at standard temperature and pressure (STP) conditions of 0℃ and 101.325 kPa) and (L@STP/g VSadded) increased by 17% and 13%,respectively,compared to the control reactor.

  15. Effect of Endostar Combined with Gemcitabine on the Mouse Model of Human Pancreatic Cancer

    林清风

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of recombinant human endostatin,that is,endostar combined with gemcitabine on the mouse model of human pancreatic cancer.Methods We use the cell line PANC-1 and the severe combined immune deficient mice to set up the mouse model of human pancreatic cancer,then devide them into three groups,treat them with gemcitabine,gemcitabine combined with endostar,and 0.9% saline water respectively.We observe the change of the tumor volumn,use ELISA method to detect the serum VEGF level,stain the micro vessel in the tumor tissue with immunohistochemistry method,and compare the data among the different groups respectively.Results On the twenty-eighth day,the tumor volume of the control group,the monotherapy group and the combination group,averaged 1 700 mm3,19.2 mm3,10.4 mm3,serum VEGF level 88.6 L,35.5,26.3 pg/mL and MVD 43.9,30.3,19.2 respectively,which had significant difference.Conclusion Endostar can strengthen the lethal effect of gemcitabine on the mouse model of human pancreatic cancer.

  16. Probabilistic Modelling of Combined Sewer Overflow Using the First Order Reliability Method

    Thorndahl, Søren; Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld; Jensen, Jacob Birk

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a new and alternative method (in the context of urban drainage) for probabilistic hydrodynamical analysis of drainage systems in general and especially prediction of combined sewer overflow. Using a probabilistic shell it is possible to implement both input and parameter...... uncertainties on an application of the commercial urban drainage model MOUSE combined with the probabilistic First Order Reliability Method (FORM). Applying statistical characteristics on several years of rainfall, it is possible to derive a parameterization of the rainfall input and the failure probability and...

  17. Probabilistic modelling of combined sewer overflow using the First Order Reliability Method

    Thorndahl, Søren; Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld; Jensen, Jacob Birk

    This paper presents a new and alternative method (in the context of urban drainage) for probabilistic hydrodynamical analysis of drainage systems in general and especially prediction of combined sewer overflow. Using a probabilistic shell it is possible to implement both input and parameter...... uncertainties on an application of the commercial urban drainage model MOUSE combined with the probabilistic First Order Reliability Method (FORM). Applying statistical characteristics on several years of rainfall, it is possible to derive a parameterization of the rainfall input and the failure probability and...

  18. Establishment of a Model of Combined Pancreas-Kidney Transplantation in Pig

    2001-01-01

    Objective To establish a model of combined pancreas-kidney transplantation in pig. Methods A renoportal end-to-end anastomoses between the left renal vein and the distal end of portal vein were performed. Only two vascular end-to-side anastomoses between the donor portal vein and recipient inferior vena cava, and between the donor aortic segment including the celiac, superior mesenteric, and left renal arteries and recipient abdominal aorta were constructed. Pancreas exocrine drainage was established with duodenocystostomy. The ureterostomosis of the graft was performed. Results Satisfactory results were obtained in 11 pigs. Conclusion The method for combined pancreas-kidney transplantation was reliable.

  19. Analysis of combined HERA data in the Impact-Parameter dependent Saturation model

    Rezaeian, Amir H; Van de Klundert, Merijn; Venugopalan, Raju

    2012-01-01

    The Impact-Parameter dependent Saturation Model (IP-Sat) is a simple dipole model that incorporates key features of the physics of gluon saturation and matches smoothly to the perturbative QCD dipole expression at large Q^2 for a given x. It was previously shown that the model gives a good description of HERA data suggesting evidence for gluon saturation effects at small x. The model has also been applied to proton-proton and proton-nucleus collisions and provides the basis for the IP-Glasma model of initial conditions in heavy ion collisions. Here we present a reanalysis of available data in electron-proton collisions at small Bjorken-x, including the recently released combined data from the ZEUS and H1 collaborations. We first confront the model to the high precision combined data for the reduced cross-section and obtain its parameters. With these parameters fixed, we compare model results to data for the structure function F_2, the longitudinal structure function F_L, the charm structure function F_2^{c\\ba...

  20. A Combined Tissue Kinetics and Dosimetric Model of Respiratory Tissue Exposed to Radiation. Final Technical Report

    Existing dosimetric models of the radiation response of tissues are essentially static. Consideration of changes in the cell populations over time has not been addressed realistically. For a single acute dose this is not a concern, but for modeling chronic exposures or fractionated acute exposures, the natural turnover and progression of cells could have a significant impact on a variety of endpoints. This proposal addresses the shortcomings of current methods by combining current dose-based calculation techniques with information on the cell turnover for a model tissue. The proposed model will examine effects at the single-cell level for an exposure of a section of human bronchiole. The cell model will be combined with Monte Carlo calculations of doses to cells and cell nuclei due to varying dose-rates of different radiation qualities. Predictions from the model of effects on survival, apoptosis rates, and changes in the number of cycling and differentiating cells will be tested experimentally. The availability of dynamic dosimetric models of tissues at the single-cell level will be useful for analysis of low-level radiation exposures and in the development of new radiotherapy protocols

  1. A Combined Tissue Kinetics and Dosimetric Model of Respiratory Tissue Exposed to Radiation

    John R. Ford

    2005-11-01

    Existing dosimetric models of the radiation response of tissues are essentially static. Consideration of changes in the cell populations over time has not been addressed realistically. For a single acute dose this is not a concern, but for modeling chronic exposures or fractionated acute exposures, the natural turnover and progression of cells could have a significant impact on a variety of endpoints. This proposal addresses the shortcomings of current methods by combining current dose-based calculation techniques with information on the cell turnover for a model tissue. The proposed model will examine effects at the single-cell level for an exposure of a section of human bronchiole. The cell model will be combined with Monte Carlo calculations of doses to cells and cell nuclei due to varying dose-rates of different radiation qualities. Predictions from the model of effects on survival, apoptosis rates, and changes in the number of cycling and differentiating cells will be tested experimentally. The availability of dynamic dosimetric models of tissues at the single-cell level will be useful for analysis of low-level radiation exposures and in the development of new radiotherapy protocols.

  2. Combining multi-objective optimization and bayesian model averaging to calibrate forecast ensembles of soil hydraulic models

    Vrugt, Jasper A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wohling, Thomas [NON LANL

    2008-01-01

    Most studies in vadose zone hydrology use a single conceptual model for predictive inference and analysis. Focusing on the outcome of a single model is prone to statistical bias and underestimation of uncertainty. In this study, we combine multi-objective optimization and Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA) to generate forecast ensembles of soil hydraulic models. To illustrate our method, we use observed tensiometric pressure head data at three different depths in a layered vadose zone of volcanic origin in New Zealand. A set of seven different soil hydraulic models is calibrated using a multi-objective formulation with three different objective functions that each measure the mismatch between observed and predicted soil water pressure head at one specific depth. The Pareto solution space corresponding to these three objectives is estimated with AMALGAM, and used to generate four different model ensembles. These ensembles are post-processed with BMA and used for predictive analysis and uncertainty estimation. Our most important conclusions for the vadose zone under consideration are: (1) the mean BMA forecast exhibits similar predictive capabilities as the best individual performing soil hydraulic model, (2) the size of the BMA uncertainty ranges increase with increasing depth and dryness in the soil profile, (3) the best performing ensemble corresponds to the compromise (or balanced) solution of the three-objective Pareto surface, and (4) the combined multi-objective optimization and BMA framework proposed in this paper is very useful to generate forecast ensembles of soil hydraulic models.

  3. Multi-day activity scheduling reactions to planned activities and future events in a dynamic model of activity-travel behavior

    Nijland, Linda; Arentze, Theo; Timmermans, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Modeling multi-day planning has received scarce attention in activity-based transport demand modeling so far. However, new dynamic activity-based approaches are being developed at the current moment. The frequency and inflexibility of planned activities and events in activity schedules of individuals indicate the importance of incorporating those pre-planned activities in the new generation of dynamic travel demand models. Elaborating and combining previous work on event-driven activity generation, the aim of this paper is to develop and illustrate an extension of a need-based model of activity generation that takes into account possible influences of pre-planned activities and events. This paper describes the theory and shows the results of simulations of the extension. The simulation was conducted for six different activities, and the parameter values used were consistent with an earlier estimation study. The results show that the model works well and that the influences of the parameters are consistent, logical, and have clear interpretations. These findings offer further evidence of face and construct validity to the suggested modeling approach.

  4. Rapid estimation of compost enzymatic activity by spectral analysis method combined with machine learning.

    Chakraborty, Somsubhra; Das, Bhabani S; Ali, Md Nasim; Li, Bin; Sarathjith, M C; Majumdar, K; Ray, D P

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using visible near-infrared (VisNIR) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) as an easy, inexpensive, and rapid method to predict compost enzymatic activity, which traditionally measured by fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis (FDA-HR) assay. Compost samples representative of five different compost facilities were scanned by DRS, and the raw reflectance spectra were preprocessed using seven spectral transformations for predicting compost FDA-HR with six multivariate algorithms. Although principal component analysis for all spectral pretreatments satisfactorily identified the clusters by compost types, it could not separate different FDA contents. Furthermore, the artificial neural network multilayer perceptron (residual prediction deviation=3.2, validation r(2)=0.91 and RMSE=13.38 μg g(-1) h(-1)) outperformed other multivariate models to capture the highly non-linear relationships between compost enzymatic activity and VisNIR reflectance spectra after Savitzky-Golay first derivative pretreatment. This work demonstrates the efficiency of VisNIR DRS for predicting compost enzymatic as well as microbial activity. PMID:24398221

  5. Short communication: Inhibitory activities of the lantibiotic nisin combined with phenolic compounds against Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes in cow milk.

    Alves, Fernanda C B; Barbosa, Lidiane N; Andrade, Bruna F M T; Albano, Mariana; Furtado, Fabiana Barcelos; Marques Pereira, Ana Flávia; Rall, Vera L M; Fernandes Júnior, Ary

    2016-03-01

    We aimed to investigate the antibacterial activities of carvacrol, thymol, eugenol, cinnamaldehyde, and lantibiotic nisin against standard bacterial strains of the milk pathogens Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 15313 in cow milk. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of these substances were recorded. The synergistic effects were also assessed in culture medium (time kill curve) and in a food model (cow milk) during the storage period (4 °C for 6 d) after inoculation with S. aureus and L. monocytogenes individually by combining nisin and the phenolic compounds at proportions of 1/4 + 1/4 the MIC (determined in a previous in vitro assay) in the culture medium and 1/4 + 1/4 of MIC in the food model. Inhibitory activities of nisin and the tested compounds, as well as synergism in the combinations, were found against both bacteria assayed. Bacteriostatic effects were found with all combinations and a significant difference in L. monocytogenes reduction was found compared with the control assays. Thus, the antibacterial activity of nisin combined with phenolic compounds was confirmed against these pathogenic bacteria that are important in the milk industry, or more broadly in food science, with potential applications for milk preservation. PMID:26774728

  6. Combination angiostatin and endostatin gene transfer induces synergistic antiangiogenic activity in vitro and antitumor efficacy in leukemia and solid tumors in mice.

    Scappaticci, F A; Smith, R; Pathak, A; Schloss, D; Lum, B; Cao, Y; Johnson, F; Engleman, E G; Nolan, G P

    2001-02-01

    Angiostatin and endostatin are potent endothelial cell growth inhibitors that have been shown to inhibit angiogenesis in vivo and tumor growth in mice. However, tumor shrinkage requires chronic delivery of large doses of these proteins. Here we report synergistic antitumor activity and survival of animals when these factors are delivered in combination to tumors by retroviral gene transfer. We have demonstrated this efficacy in both murine leukemia and melanoma models. Complete loss of tumorigenicity was seen in 40% of the animals receiving tumors transduced by the combination of angiostatin and endostatin in the leukemia model. The synergy was also demonstrated in vitro on human umbilical vein endothelial cell differentiation and this antiangiogenic activity may suggest a mechanism for the antitumor activity in vivo. These findings imply separate pathways by which angiostatin and endostatin mediate their antiangiogenic effects. Together, these data suggest that a combination of antiangiogenic factors delivered by retroviral gene transfer may produce synergistic antitumor effects in both leukemia and solid tumors, thus avoiding long-term administration of recombinant proteins. The data also suggest that novel combinations of antiangiogenic factors delivered into tumors require further investigation as therapeutic modalities. PMID:11237675

  7. A model of dispenser cathode activity

    Lamartine, B. C.; Eyink, K. G.; Czarnecki, J. V.; Lampert, W. V.; Haas, T. W.

    1985-12-01

    A semiquantitative model of dispenser cathode activity based on recent work on the co-adsorption of Ba and O onto W surfaces is presented. The co-adsorption studies have determined the shape of a three-dimensional surface of work function as a function of θO and θBa, the surface coverages of O and Ba, respectively. Compositions of a variety of pedigreed dispenser cathodes were fitted to this surface and their composition changes during lifetime were modeled. Changes of surface composition with temperature and of workfunction, φ, with temperature were also found to fit these curves. The concept of a patchy surface implied by the co-adsorption measurements was used to explain earlier results on the shape of the X-ray excited Ba MNN Auger feature. Finally, SIMS measurements under UHV conditions was found to provide an extremely sensitive measurement of surface composition in the region of surface coverages of interest in the study of cathode phenomena. Extensions of this work to other types of cathodes such as M-types, and rhenium substrate cathodes is also discussed.

  8. Large Animal Stroke Models vs. Rodent Stroke Models, Pros and Cons, and Combination?

    Cai, Bin; Wang, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of serious long-term disability worldwide and the second leading cause of death in many countries. Long-time attempts to salvage dying neurons via various neuroprotective agents have failed in stroke translational research, owing in part to the huge gap between animal stroke models and stroke patients, which also suggests that rodent models have limited predictive value and that alternate large animal models are likely to become important in future translational research. The genetic background, physiological characteristics, behavioral characteristics, and brain structure of large animals, especially nonhuman primates, are analogous to humans, and resemble humans in stroke. Moreover, relatively new regional imaging techniques, measurements of regional cerebral blood flow, and sophisticated physiological monitoring can be more easily performed on the same animal at multiple time points. As a result, we can use large animal stroke models to decrease the gap and promote translation of basic science stroke research. At the same time, we should not neglect the disadvantages of the large animal stroke model such as the significant expense and ethical considerations, which can be overcome by rodent models. Rodents should be selected as stroke models for initial testing and primates or cats are desirable as a second species, which was recommended by the Stroke Therapy Academic Industry Roundtable (STAIR) group in 2009. PMID:26463926

  9. On progress of nuclear activation model calculations

    Progress of work on improved methods of nuclear model calculations for nuclear activation data carried out at IFIN-HH in 2003-2004 is reported. In order to provide accurate predictions of further interest for the European Activation File (EAF-2005), no use of normalization or free parameters are involved. Model calculations carried out by using the computer codes EMPIRE-II and STAPRE-H have been validated by analysis of activation cross sections of all W and Ta stable isotopes and compared with the corresponding predictions obtained with the code TALYS. The accurate description of these reaction cross sections is obtained by using a consistent local parameter set, being fully due to the start of proton pre-equilibrium contribution due to the partial wave l = 7ℎ at incident energies of ∼ 14 MeV. This feature makes possible a faster increase of the STAPRE-H results for the (n,p) reaction cross sections just around this energy, while at 20 MeV they are in between the EMPIRE-II and TALYS predictions. It is thus pointed out the need for additional experimental data in the energy range above 15 MeV, similar to previous measurements at, e.g., JRC/IRMM. It is also shown that enlargement actions already in due course may have lower effectiveness concerning the preservation and development of knowledge and capabilities at Romanian R and D institutes as well as their integration into existing EC/JRC programmes and EU networks. While from the beginning EC asked CEEC to improve their R and D infrastructure to better benefit from the enlargement process, no real step forward has been done in this respect in Romania. The present conditions at IFIN-HH well below the limits making possible a real work have made thus not possible a further co-operation with JRC/IRMM, where we found previously the best opportunities for a sound common work, simply because no study completion may be done now in Bucharest. (author)

  10. Analytical Solution of Interface Effect on the Strength of Combined Model Composed of Different Geologic Bodies

    Zeng-hui Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the special combined structure of surrounding rock in western mining area of China, a micromechanical model with variable parameters containing contact interface was proposed firstly. Then, the derived stresses in coal and rock near the interface were analyzed on the basis of the harmonized strain relation, and the analytical solutions with respect to stress states near the interface were drawn up. The triaxial compressive strength of coal and rock was further determined in case the contact interface was in the horizontal position. Moreover, effects of stiffness ratio, interface angle, and stress level on the strength of two bodies near the contact area were expounded in detail. Results indicate that additional stresses which have significant effect on the strength of combined model are derived due to the adhesive effect of contact interface and lithological differences between geologic bodies located on both sides. The interface effect on the strength of combined body is most associated with the stiffness, interface angle, and the stress level. These conclusions are also basically valid for three-body model and even for the multibody model and lay important theory foundation to guide the stability study of soft strata composed of different geologic bodies.

  11. A unified model of combined energy systems with different cycle modes and its optimum performance characteristics

    A unified model is presented for a class of combined energy systems, in which the systems mainly consist of a heat engine, a combustor and a counter-flow heat exchanger and the heat engine in the systems may have different thermodynamic cycle modes such as the Brayton cycle, Carnot cycle, Stirling cycle, Ericsson cycle, and so on. Not only the irreversibilities of the heat leak and finite-rate heat transfer but also the different cycle modes of the heat engine are considered in the model. On the basis of Newton's law, expressions for the overall efficiency and power output of the combined energy system with an irreversible Brayton cycle are derived. The maximum overall efficiency and power output and other relevant parameters are calculated. The general characteristic curves of the system are presented for some given parameters. Several interesting cases are discussed in detail. The results obtained here are very general and significant and can be used to discuss the optimal performance characteristics of a class of combined energy systems with different cycle modes. Moreover, it is significant to point out that not only the important conclusions obtained in Bejan's first combustor model and Peterson's general combustion driven model but also the optimal performance of a class of solar-driven heat engine systems can be directly derived from the present paper under some limit conditions

  12. Damage evaluation of reinforced concrete frame based on a combined fiber beam model

    Shang, Bing; Liu, ZhanLi; Zhuang, Zhuo

    2014-04-01

    In order to analyze and simulate the impact collapse or seismic response of the reinforced concrete (RC) structures, a combined fiber beam model is proposed by dividing the cross section of RC beam into concrete fiber and steel fiber. The stress-strain relationship of concrete fiber is based on a model proposed by concrete codes for concrete structures. The stress-strain behavior of steel fiber is based on a model suggested by others. These constitutive models are implemented into a general finite element program ABAQUS through the user defined subroutines to provide effective computational tools for the inelastic analysis of RC frame structures. The fiber model proposed in this paper is validated by comparing with experiment data of the RC column under cyclical lateral loading. The damage evolution of a three-dimension frame subjected to impact loading is also investigated.

  13. Hybrid predictions of railway induced ground vibration using a combination of experimental measurements and numerical modelling

    Kuo, K. A.; Verbraken, H.; Degrande, G.; Lombaert, G.

    2016-07-01

    Along with the rapid expansion of urban rail networks comes the need for accurate predictions of railway induced vibration levels at grade and in buildings. Current computational methods for making predictions of railway induced ground vibration rely on simplifying modelling assumptions and require detailed parameter inputs, which lead to high levels of uncertainty. It is possible to mitigate against these issues using a combination of field measurements and state-of-the-art numerical methods, known as a hybrid model. In this paper, two hybrid models are developed, based on the use of separate source and propagation terms that are quantified using in situ measurements or modelling results. These models are implemented using term definitions proposed by the Federal Railroad Administration and assessed using the specific illustration of a surface railway. It is shown that the limitations of numerical and empirical methods can be addressed in a hybrid procedure without compromising prediction accuracy.

  14. Modeling Soil Organic Carbon at Regional Scale by Combining Multi-Spectral Images with Laboratory Spectra

    Peng, Yi; Xiong, Xiong; Adhikari, Kabindra; Knadel, Maria; Grunwald, Sabine; Greve, Mogens Humlekrog

    2015-01-01

    There is a great challenge in combining soil proximal spectra and remote sensing spectra to improve the accuracy of soil organic carbon (SOC) models. This is primarily because mixing of spectral data from different sources and technologies to improve soil models is still in its infancy. The first...... parameters and soil maps were compiled to predict topsoil SOC using Cubist regression and Bayesian kriging. The results showed that the model developed from RS data, ancillary environmental data and laboratory spectral data yielded a lower root mean square error (RMSE) (2.8%) and higher R2 (0.59) than the...... model developed from only RS data and ancillary environmental data (RMSE: 3.6%, R2: 0.46). Plant-available water (PAW) was the most important predictor for all the models because of its close relationship with soil organic matter content. Moreover, vegetation indices, such as the Normalized Difference...

  15. Combining engineering and data-driven approaches: Development of a generic fire risk model facilitating calibration

    De Sanctis, G.; Fischer, K.; Kohler, J.;

    2014-01-01

    Fire risk models support decision making for engineering problems under the consistent consideration of the associated uncertainties. Empirical approaches can be used for cost-benefit studies when enough data about the decision problem are available. But often the empirical approaches are not...... detailed enough. Engineering risk models, on the other hand, may be detailed but typically involve assumptions that may result in a biased risk assessment and make a cost-benefit study problematic. In two related papers it is shown how engineering and data-driven modeling can be combined by developing a...... generic risk model that is calibrated to observed fire loss data. Generic risk models assess the risk of buildings based on specific risk indicators and support risk assessment at a portfolio level. After an introduction to the principles of generic risk assessment, the focus of the present paper is on...

  16. Merging Alternate Remotely-Sensed Soil Moisture Retrievals Using a Non-Static Model Combination Approach

    Seokhyeon Kim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil moisture is an important variable in the coupled hydrologic and climate system. In recent years, microwave-based soil moisture products have been shown to be a viable alternative to in situ measurements. A popular way to measure the performance of soil moisture products is to calculate the temporal correlation coefficient (R against in situ measurements or other appropriate reference datasets. In this study, an existing linear combination method improving R was modified to allow for a non-static or nonstationary model combination as the basis for improving remotely-sensed surface soil moisture. Previous research had noted that two soil moisture products retrieved using the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA and Land Parameter Retrieval Model (LPRM algorithms from the same Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2 sensor are spatially complementary in terms of R against a suitable reference over a fixed period. Accordingly, a linear combination was proposed to maximize R using a set of spatially-varying, but temporally-fixed weights. Even though this approach showed promising results, there was room for further improvements, in particular using non-static or dynamic weights that take account of the time-varying nature of the combination algorithm being approximated. The dynamic weighting was achieved by using a moving window. A number of different window sizes was investigated. The optimal weighting factors were determined for the data lying within the moving window and then used to dynamically combine the two parent products. We show improved performance for the dynamically-combined product over the static linear combination. Generally, shorter time windows outperform the static approach, and a 60-day time window is suggested to be the optimum. Results were validated against in situ measurements collected from 124 stations over different continents. The mean R of the dynamically-combined products was found to be 0.57 and 0

  17. Finite element modeling of reinforced concrete beams with a hybrid combination of steel and aramid reinforcement

    Highlights: • Modeling of concrete beams reinforced steel and FRP bars. • Developed finite element models achieved good results. • The models are validated via comparison with experimental results. • Parametric studies are performed. - Abstract: Corrosion of steel bars has an adverse effect on the life-span of reinforced concrete (RC) members and is usually associated with crack development in RC beams. Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) bars have been recently used to reinforce concrete members in flexure due to their high tensile strength and superior corrosion resistance properties. However, FRP materials are brittle in nature, thus RC beams reinforced with such materials would exhibit a less ductile behavior when compared to similar members reinforced with conventional steel reinforcement. Recently, researchers investigated the performance of concrete beams reinforced with a hybrid combination of steel and Aramid Fiber Reinforced Polymer (AFRP) reinforcement to maintain a reasonable level of ductility in such members. The function of the AFRP bars is to increase the load-carrying capacity, while the function of the steel bars is to ensure ductility of the flexural member upon yielding in tension. This paper presents a three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) model that predicted the load versus mid-span deflection response of tested RC beams conducted by other researchers with a hybrid combination of steel and AFRP bars. The developed FE models account for the constituent material nonlinearities and bond–slip behavior between the reinforcing bars and adjacent concrete surfaces. It was concluded that the developed models can accurately capture the behavior and predicts the load-carrying capacity of such RC members. In addition, a parametric study is conducted using the validated models to investigate the effect of AFRP bar size, FRP material type, bond–slip action, and concrete compressive strength on the performance of concrete beams when reinforced

  18. RECONSTRUCTION OF 3D VECTOR MODELS OF BUILDINGS BY COMBINATION OF ALS, TLS AND VLS DATA

    H. Boulaassal

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS, Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS and Vehicle based Laser Scanning (VLS are widely used as data acquisition methods for 3D building modelling. ALS data is often used to generate, among others, roof models. TLS data has proven its effectiveness in the geometric reconstruction of building façades. Although the operating algorithms used in the processing chain of these two kinds of data are quite similar, their combination should be more investigated. This study explores the possibility of combining ALS and TLS data for simultaneously producing 3D building models from bird point of view and pedestrian point of view. The geometric accuracy of roofs and façades models is different due to the acquisition techniques. In order to take these differences into account, the surfaces composing roofs and façades are extracted with the same algorithm of segmentation. Nevertheless the segmentation algorithm must be adapted to the properties of the different point clouds. It is based on the RANSAC algorithm, but has been applied in a sequential way in order to extract all potential planar clusters from airborne and terrestrial datasets. Surfaces are fitted to planar clusters, allowing edge detection and reconstruction of vector polygons. Models resulting from TLS data are obviously more accurate than those generated from ALS data. Therefore, the geometry of the roofs is corrected and adapted according to the geometry of the corresponding façades. Finally, the effects of the differences between raw ALS and TLS data on the results of the modeling process are analyzed. It is shown that such combination could be used to produce reliable 3D building models.

  19. No tillage combined with crop rotation improves soil microbial community composition and metabolic activity.

    Sun, Bingjie; Jia, Shuxia; Zhang, Shixiu; McLaughlin, Neil B; Liang, Aizhen; Chen, Xuewen; Liu, Siyi; Zhang, Xiaoping

    2016-04-01

    Soil microbial community can vary with different agricultural managements, which in turn can affect soil quality. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of long-term tillage practice (no tillage (NT) and conventional tillage (CT)) and crop rotation (maize-soybean (MS) rotation and monoculture maize (MM)) on soil microbial community composition and metabolic capacity in different soil layers. Long-term NT increased the soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) mainly at the 0-5 cm depth which was accompanied with a greater microbial abundance. The greater fungi-to-bacteria (F/B) ratio was found in NTMS at the 0-5 cm depth. Both tillage and crop rotation had a significant effect on the metabolic activity, with the greatest average well color development (AWCD) value in NTMS soil at all three soil depths. Redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that the shift in microbial community composition was accompanied with the changes in capacity of utilizing different carbon substrates. Therefore, no tillage combined with crop rotation could improve soil biological quality and make agricultural systems more sustainable. PMID:26631020

  20. Degradation of triclosan in aqueous solution by dielectric barrier discharge plasma combined with activated carbon fibers.

    Xin, Lu; Sun, Yabing; Feng, Jingwei; Wang, Jian; He, Dong

    2016-02-01

    The degradation of triclosan (TCS) in aqueous solution by dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma with activated carbon fibers (ACFs) was investigated. In this study, ACFs and DBD plasma coexisted in a planar DBD plasma reactor, which could synchronously achieve degradation of TCS, modification and in situ regeneration of ACFs, enhancing the effect of recycling of ACFs. The properties of ACFs before and after modification by DBD plasma were characterized by BET and XPS. Various processing parameters affecting the synergetic degradation of TCS were also investigated. The results exhibited excellent synergetic effects in DBD plasma-ACFs system on TCS degradation. The degradation efficiency of 120 mL TCS with initial concentration of 10 mg L(-1) could reach 93% with 1 mm thick ACFs in 18 min at input power of 80 W, compared with 85% by single DBD plasma. Meanwhile, the removal rate of total organic carbon increased from 12% at pH 6.26-24% at pH 3.50. ACFs could ameliorate the degradation efficiency for planar DBD plasma when treating TCS solution at high flow rates or at low initial concentrations. A possible degradation pathway of TCS was investigated according to the detected intermediates, which were identified by liquid chromatography-hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS) combined with theoretical calculation of Gaussian 09 program. PMID:26421625

  1. Model Checking of Software Components: Combining Java PathFinder and Behavior Protocol Model Checker

    Pařízek, P.; Plášil, František; Kofroň, Jan

    Los Alamitos: IEEE Computer Society, 2006, s. 133-141. ISBN 0-7695-2624-1. [SEW 2006. Annual IEEE/NASA Software Engineering Workshop /30./. Loyola College Graduate Center, Columbia (US), 24.04.2006-28.04.2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/06/0770 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : software components * behavior protocols * model checking * cooperation of model checkers Subject RIV: JC - Computer Hardware ; Software

  2. Flood Hazard Mapping Combining Hydrodynamic Modeling and Multi Annual Remote Sensing data

    Laura Giustarini

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores a method to combine the time and space continuity of a large-scale inundation model with discontinuous satellite microwave observations, for high-resolution flood hazard mapping. The assumption behind this approach is that hydraulic variables computed from continuous spatially-distributed hydrodynamic modeling and observed as discrete satellite-derived flood extents are correlated in time, so that probabilities can be transferred from the model series to the observations. A prerequisite is, therefore, the existence of a significant correlation between a modeled variable (i.e., flood extent or volume and the synchronously-observed flood extent. If this is the case, the availability of model simulations over a long time period allows for a robust estimate of non-exceedance probabilities that can be attributed to corresponding synchronously-available satellite observations. The generated flood hazard map has a spatial resolution equal to that of the satellite images, which is higher than that of currently available large scale inundation models. The method was applied on the Severn River (UK, using the outputs of a global inundation model provided by the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts and a large collection of ENVISAT ASAR imagery. A comparison between the hazard map obtained with the proposed method and with a more traditional numerical modeling approach supports the hypothesis that combining model results and satellite observations could provide advantages for high-resolution flood hazard mapping, provided that a sufficient number of remote sensing images is available and that a time correlation is present between variables derived from a global model and obtained from satellite observations.

  3. The combined analysis of uncertainty and patient heterogeneity in medical decision models.

    Groot Koerkamp, Bas; Stijnen, Theo; Weinstein, Milton C; Hunink, M G Myriam

    2011-01-01

    The analysis of both patient heterogeneity and parameter uncertainty in decision models is increasingly recommended. In addition, the complexity of current medical decision models commonly requires simulating individual subjects, which introduces stochastic uncertainty. The combined analysis of uncertainty and heterogeneity often involves complex nested Monte Carlo simulations to obtain the model outcomes of interest. In this article, the authors distinguish eight model types, each dealing with a different combination of patient heterogeneity, parameter uncertainty, and stochastic uncertainty. The analyses that are required to obtain the model outcomes are expressed in equations, explained in stepwise algorithms, and demonstrated in examples. Patient heterogeneity is represented by frequency distributions and analyzed with Monte Carlo simulation. Parameter uncertainty is represented by probability distributions and analyzed with 2nd-order Monte Carlo simulation (aka probabilistic sensitivity analysis). Stochastic uncertainty is analyzed with 1st-order Monte Carlo simulation (i.e., trials or random walks). This article can be used as a reference for analyzing complex models with more than one type of uncertainty and patient heterogeneity. PMID:20974904

  4. Estimating demographic parameters using a combination of known-fate and open N-mixture models

    Schmidt, Joshua H.; Johnson, Devin S.; Lindberg, Mark S.; Adams, Layne G.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate estimates of demographic parameters are required to infer appropriate ecological relationships and inform management actions. Known-fate data from marked individuals are commonly used to estimate survival rates, whereas N-mixture models use count data from unmarked individuals to estimate multiple demographic parameters. However, a joint approach combining the strengths of both analytical tools has not been developed. Here we develop an integrated model combining known-fate and open N-mixture models, allowing the estimation of detection probability, recruitment, and the joint estimation of survival. We demonstrate our approach through both simulations and an applied example using four years of known-fate and pack count data for wolves (Canis lupus). Simulation results indicated that the integrated model reliably recovered parameters with no evidence of bias, and survival estimates were more precise under the joint model. Results from the applied example indicated that the marked sample of wolves was biased toward individuals with higher apparent survival rates than the unmarked pack mates, suggesting that joint estimates may be more representative of the overall population. Our integrated model is a practical approach for reducing bias while increasing precision and the amount of information gained from mark–resight data sets. We provide implementations in both the BUGS language and an R package.

  5. A subspace thermodynamic model for shape memory alloy wire elements undergoing combined thermo-mechanical axial and torsional loads

    Given that most applications of shape memory alloys (SMA) are in the wire form, a reduced order model and analysis has been attempted in this paper. It takes into account the fact that the predominant actions are axial (bending inclusive) and torsional. A thermodynamic framework is first developed to simulate the behaviour of the SMA material under thermo-mechanical loading that is a combination of axial and shear stresses arising at a point in a wire due to axial and torsional loads applied to the wire. Since only a few variants relevant to axial-torsion are going to be active in transformation under this kind of loading, a reduced order model that tracks the evolution of four martensite variants and an austenite variant is proposed. It is shown through simulations that these five model parameters amply form a minimal set of model parameters sufficient for simulating response under tension–torsion loading excursions. The model is further applied to the structural member, in this case, a wire of circular cross-section subject to a twist and an axial extension and the capability of the model to simulate the kind of response expected in wires. Incorporation of this model into a large deformation space frame nonlinear analysis will help in the design and analysis of several applications where SMA wire forms are used. (paper)

  6. Measurement of high-threshold-energy activation reaction rates in combined materials with 14 MeV neutrons

    High-threshold-energy activation reaction rates were measured in cylindric combined materials bombarded by D-T neutrons with 6 threshold-energy detectors Fe, Al, Nb, F, Zr and Cu. The experimental results are discussed. MCNP/4B code was used to calculate the activation reaction rates on the experimental device. The calculated results are compared with the experimental ones. It shows that the discrepancies are 10%-30% except for the F activation reaction rate. (authors)

  7. Models of intracellular mechanisms of plant bioelectrical potentials caused by combined stimulation

    D. V. Chernetchenko

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with bioelectrical potentials of the plants recorded during different types of stimuli and combined stimulus as well. All registrations were observed on the leaves of the corn. We used different stimuli, such as cold, heat, photo- and electrical stimulation, and certain combination of this stimuli. Hardware and software system for automated recording of bioelectrical potentials has been successfully used in this work. We proposed the universal pattern of bioelectrical potentials’ recording which allowed to detect the response of the biological object to different stimuli and various combinations of these stimuli. This pattern can be used for the deeper understanding of biological mechanisms of electrical potentials’ generation in cells and discovering of processes of accommodation of whole organisms to these stimuli. Integrated system of recording and biometrical processing was used for analysis of corn leaves electrical responses to the thermal stimuli. The dynamics of these potentials was studied, with the quantitative analysis of the potential level stabilization.We calculated the ratio of amplitude of response potentials to the first response amplitude. Mathematical models of the plant cell were used for studying of intracellular mechanisms of biopotentials gereration. As a result of modeling, we revealed that electrical response of the cells was based on selectiveconductivity of cell membrane for Н+ and Ca2+ ions. Therefore, we showed the biophysical relation of plant potentials to underlying intracellular biophysical mechanisms during thermal and combined stimulation.

  8. Can the Heterosexual HIV Epidemic be Eliminated in South Africa Using Combination Prevention? A Modeling Analysis.

    Abuelezam, Nadia N; McCormick, Alethea W; Fussell, Thomas; Afriyie, Abena N; Wood, Robin; DeGruttola, Victor; Freedberg, Kenneth A; Lipsitch, Marc; Seage, George R

    2016-08-01

    Little is known about how combining efficacious interventions for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention could lead to HIV elimination. We used an agent-based simulation model, the HIV calibrated dynamic model, to assess the potential for HIV elimination in South Africa. We examined several scenarios (from continuation of the current status quo to perfect achievement of targets) with differing combinations of male condom use, adult male circumcision, HIV testing, and early antiretroviral therapy (ART). We varied numerous parameters, including the proportion of adult males circumcised, the frequency of condom use during sex acts, acceptance of HIV testing, linkage to health care, criteria for ART initiation, ART viral suppression rates, and loss to follow-up. Maintaining current levels of combination prevention would lead to increasing HIV incidence and prevalence in South Africa, while the perfect combination scenario was projected to eliminate HIV on a 50-year time scale from 2013 to 2063. Perfecting testing and treatment, without changing condom use or circumcision rates, resulted in an 89% reduction in HIV incidence but not elimination. Universal adult male circumcision alone resulted in a 21% incidence reduction within 20 years. Substantial decreases in HIV incidence are possible from sufficient uptake of both primary prevention and ART, but with continuation of the status quo, HIV elimination in South Africa is unlikely within a 50-year time scale. PMID:27416841

  9. A combined hydrological and fuzzy rule based model for catchment scale nitrate dynamics

    Shrestha, R. R.; Bardossy, A.; Rode, M.

    2006-12-01

    The diffuse nitrate pollution in rivers is driven by a complex interaction of hydrological and bio-chemical processes. Due to limited process understanding and restricted data availability, physically based approaches for the simulation of these dynamics are still associated with large uncertainties. Therefore we developed a combined deterministic - data driven approach, which consists of a spatially distributed water balance model WaSiM-ETH for the simulation of the different hydrological flow components and a fuzzy rule based model (FRBM) for the simulation of nitrate concentration in the river. Hydrological flow components are considered as dominant driving variables for the dynamic behaviour of nitrate concentrations in surface water The TOPMODEL approach is used for water balance and simulation of runoff components in the WaSiM-ETH model. The model is calibrated using an automatic parameter estimation program PEST. The simulated subsurface and surface runoff components are taken as input variables for the fuzzy rule based nitrate transport model. In addition to these runoff components, mean air temperature is included as an input variable for the consideration of seasonal variability. The FRBM consists of Mamdani type "IF- THEN" fuzzy rule system with triangular membership function in both the input and the output. 13 rule systems are used for the representation of the dynamics of the nitrate concentration in the river. The fuzzy rules are derived from a combination of expert knowledge and the input - output data using the simulated annealing optimization algorithm. The study was undertaken using 6 years of daily hydrological and nutrient time series data from the Weida catchment, which is a 100 km2 subcatchment of the Weisse Elster in the Elbe river basin, Germany. The results of the study show that the combined deterministic - fuzzy rule based model can give a good simulation of catchment scale nitrate dynamics. The WaSiM-ETH model produced a very good match

  10. New Combined Weighting Model Based on Maximizing the Difference in Evaluation Results and Its Application

    Bin Meng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an approach for weighting indices in the comprehensive evaluation. In accordance with the principle that the entire difference of various evaluation objects is to be maximally differentiated, an adjusted weighting coefficient is introduced. Based on the idea of maximizing the difference between the adjusted evaluation scores of each evaluation object and their mean, an objective programming model is established with more obvious differentiation between evaluation scores and the combined weight coefficient determined, thereby avoiding contradictory and less distinguishable evaluation results of single weighting methods. The proposed model is demonstrated using 2,044 observations. The empirical results show that the combined weighting method has the least misjudgment probability, as well as the least error probability, when compared with four single weighting methods, namely, G1, G2, variation coefficient, and deviation methods.

  11. The Development of a New Way of a Combined Burning Injury Modeling

    Peretyagin S.P.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to develop a new way of a combined burning injury modeling enabling to consider all pathogenic mechanisms of injury occurrence. Materials and Methods. There has been designed an original inhalation chamber: a disiccator with a ground stopper and a tray. Two groups of white Wistar rats (n=50 have taken part in the experiment. Results. There has been suggested a new way of a combined burning injury modeling consisting of applying a contact burn to an animal (damage area is 20% of body surface with an additional thermoinhalation exposure of hot air and combustion products within 20—30 sec in the conditions of an inhalation chamber.

  12. Combining Coarse-Grained Protein Models with Replica-Exchange All-Atom Molecular Dynamics

    Andrzej Koliński

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We describe a combination of all-atom simulations with CABS, a well-established coarse-grained protein modeling tool, into a single multiscale protocol. The simulation method has been tested on the C-terminal beta hairpin of protein G, a model system of protein folding. After reconstructing atomistic details, conformations derived from the CABS simulation were subjected to replica-exchange molecular dynamics simulations with OPLS-AA and AMBER99sb force fields in explicit solvent. Such a combination accelerates system convergence several times in comparison with all-atom simulations starting from the extended chain conformation, demonstrated by the analysis of melting curves, the number of native-like conformations as a function of time and secondary structure propagation. The results strongly suggest that the proposed multiscale method could be an efficient and accurate tool for high-resolution studies of protein folding dynamics in larger systems.

  13. Combining Coarse-Grained Protein Models with Replica-Exchange All-Atom Molecular Dynamics

    Wabik, Jacek; Gront, Dominik; Kouza, Maksim; Kolinski, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    We describe a combination of all-atom simulations with CABS, a well-established coarse-grained protein modeling tool, into a single multiscale protocol. The simulation method has been tested on the C-terminal beta hairpin of protein G, a model system of protein folding. After reconstructing atomistic details, conformations derived from the CABS simulation were subjected to replica-exchange molecular dynamics simulations with OPLS-AA and AMBER99sb force fields in explicit solvent. Such a combination accelerates system convergence several times in comparison with all-atom simulations starting from the extended chain conformation, demonstrated by the analysis of melting curves, the number of native-like conformations as a function of time and secondary structure propagation. The results strongly suggest that the proposed multiscale method could be an efficient and accurate tool for high-resolution studies of protein folding dynamics in larger systems.

  14. Modified Bean Model and FEM Method Combined for Persistent Current Calculation in Superconducting Coils

    Völlinger, Christine; Russenschuck, Stephan

    2001-01-01

    Field variations in the LHC superconducting magnets, e. g. during the ramping of the magnets, induce magnetization currents in the superconducting material, the so-called persistent currents that do not decay but persist due to the lack of resistivity. This paper describes a semi-analytical hysteresis model for hard superconductors, which has been developed for the computation of the total field errors arising from persistent currents. Since the superconducting coil is surrounded by a ferromagnetic yoke structure, the persistent current model is combined with the finite element method (FEM), as the non-linear yoke can only be calculated numerically. The used finite element method is based on a reduced vector potential formulation that avoids the meshing of the coil while calculating the part of the field arising from the source currents by means of the Biot-Savart Law. The combination allows to determine persistent current induced field errors as function of the excitation and for arbitrarily shaped iron yoke...

  15. Face Alignment Using Active Shape Model And Support Vector Machine

    Le Hoang Thai; Vo Nhat Truong

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The Active Shape Model (ASM is one of the most popular local texture modelsfor face alignment. It applies in many fields such as locating facial features in theimage, face synthesis, etc. However, the experimental results show that theaccuracy of the classical ASM for some applications is not high. This papersuggests some improvements on the classical ASM to increase the performanceof the model in the application: face alignment. Four of our major improvementsinclude: i building a model combining Sobel filter and the 2-D profile in searchingface in image; ii applying Canny algorithm for the enhancement edge on image;iii Support Vector Machine (SVM is used to classify landmarks on face, in orderto determine exactly location of these landmarks support for ASM; ivautomatically adjust 2-D profile in the multi-level model based on the size of theinput image. The experimental results on Caltech face database and TechnicalUniversity of Denmark database (imm_face show that our proposedimprovement leads to far better performance.

  16. Modeling of active control of external magnetohydrodynamic instabilities

    A general circuit formulation of resistive wall mode (RWM) feedback stabilization developed by Boozer [Phys. Plasmas 5, 3350 (1998)] has been used as the basis for the VALEN computer code that calculates the performance of an active control system in arbitrary geometry. The code uses a finite element representation of a thin shell structure in an integral formulation to model arbitrary conducting walls. This is combined with a circuit representation of stable and unstable plasma modes. Benchmark comparisons of VALEN results with large aspect ratio analytic model of the current driven kink mode are in very good agreement. VALEN also models arbitrary sensors, control coils, and the feedback logic connecting these sensors and control coils to provide a complete simulation capability for feedback control of plasma instabilities. VALEN modeling is in good agreement with experimental results on DIII-D [Garofalo et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 1491 (2000)] and HBT-EP [Cates et al., Phys. Plasmas 7, 3133 (2000)]. VALEN feedback simulations have also been used to evaluate and optimize the sensor/coil configurations for present and planned RWM experiments on DIII-D. These studies have shown a clear advantage for the use of local poloidal field sensors driving a 'mode control' feedback logic control loop and configurations which minimize the control coil coupling to the stabilizing resistive wall

  17. A combination of the leaves and tuber ofIcacina senegalensis A. Juss (Icacinaceae) improves the antimalarial activity of the plant in mice

    Esien David-Oku; Juliet Ifeoma Obiajunwa-Otteh

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the possibility of increased antimalarial activity ofIcacina senegalensis A. Juss (Icacinaceae) upon a combination of its leaves and tubers against Plasmodium berghei malaria in mice. Methods: Chloroquine sensitiveANKA clones ofPlasmodium berghei were used to develop experimental models based on intraperitoneal injection of 107 parasitized erythrocytes in phosphate buffer saline (pH 7.2) and subsequent development of parasitemia. The models were employed to investigate prophylactic and curative anti-malarial activities of tuber and tuber-leaf methanol extracts of the plant at selected dosages (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight). Chloroquine with a curative dosage of 10 mg/kg body weight was used as positive control in both studies. Results:Tuber and tuber-leaf extracts produced a dose-dependent chemosuppression of the parasites, with higher activity and mean survival time exhibited by the combined extract. Conclusions:Anti-plasmodia activity has been discovered in methanol extract ofIcacina senegalensis tuber extract. The observed optimization of the antimalarial actions of the plant upon a combination of its leaf and tuber opens a new area of medicinal plant research.

  18. Mapping fluxes of radicals from the combination of electrochemical activation and optical microscopy.

    Munteanu, Sorin; Roger, Jean Paul; Fedala, Yasmina; Amiot, Fabien; Combellas, Catherine; Tessier, Gilles; Kanoufi, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    The coating of gold (Au) electrode surfaces with nitrophenyl (NP) layers is studied by combination of electrochemical actuation and optical detection. The electrochemical actuation of the reduction of the nitrobenzenediazonium (NBD) precursor is used to generate NP radicals and therefore initiate the electrografting. The electrografting process is followed in situ and in real time by light reflectivity microscopy imaging, allowing for spatio-temporal imaging with sub-micrometer lateral resolution and sub-nanometer thickness sensitivity of the local growth of a transparent organic coating onto a reflecting Au electrode. The interest of the electrochemical actuation resides in its ability to finely control the grafting rate of the NP layer through the electrode potential. Coupling the electrochemical actuation with microscopic imaging of the electrode surface allows quantitative estimates of the local grafting rates and subsequently a real time and in situ mapping of the reacting fluxes of NP radicals on the surface. Over the 2 orders of magnitude range of grafting rates (from 0.04 to 4 nm s(-1)), it is demonstrated that the edge of Au electrodes are grafted -1.3 times more quickly than their centre, illustrating the manifestation of edge-effects on flux distribution at an electrode. A model is proposed to explain the observed edge-effect, it relies on the short lifetime of the intermediate NP radical species. PMID:24466667

  19. Protein folding simulations of the hydrophobic-hydrophilic model by combining tabu search with genetic algorithms

    Jiang, Tianzi; Cui, Qinghua; Shi, Guihua; Ma, Songde

    2003-08-01

    In this paper, a novel hybrid algorithm combining genetic algorithms and tabu search is presented. In the proposed hybrid algorithm, the idea of tabu search is applied to the crossover operator. We demonstrate that the hybrid algorithm can be applied successfully to the protein folding problem based on a hydrophobic-hydrophilic lattice model. The results show that in all cases the hybrid algorithm works better than a genetic algorithm alone. A comparison with other methods is also made.

  20. Quantitative Modeling of Microbial Population Responses to Chronic Irradiation Combined with Other Stressors

    Shuryak, Igor; Dadachova, Ekaterina

    2016-01-01

    Microbial population responses to combined effects of chronic irradiation and other stressors (chemical contaminants, other sub-optimal conditions) are important for ecosystem functioning and bioremediation in radionuclide-contaminated areas. Quantitative mathematical modeling can improve our understanding of these phenomena. To identify general patterns of microbial responses to multiple stressors in radioactive environments, we analyzed three data sets on: (1) bacteria isolated from soil co...