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Sample records for activity coefficient

  1. Comparison of activity coefficient models for electrolyte systems

    Lin, Yi; ten Kate, Antoon; Mooijer, Miranda;

    2010-01-01

    Three activity coefficient models for electrolyte solutions were evaluated and compared. The activity coefficient models are: The electrolyte NRTL model (ElecNRTL) by Aspentech, the mixed solvent electrolyte model (MSE) by OLI Systems Inc., and the Extended UNIQUAC model from the Technical Univer...

  2. Distributing Correlation Coefficients of Linear Structure-Activity/Property Models

    Sorana D. BOLBOACA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative structure-activity/property relationships are mathematical relationships linking chemical structure and activity/property in a quantitative manner. These in silico approaches are frequently used to reduce animal testing and risk-assessment, as well as to increase time- and cost-effectiveness in characterization and identification of active compounds. The aim of our study was to investigate the pattern of correlation coefficients distribution associated to simple linear relationships linking the compounds structure with their activities. A set of the most common ordnance compounds found at naval facilities with a limited data set with a range of toxicities on aquatic ecosystem and a set of seven properties was studied. Statistically significant models were selected and investigated. The probability density function of the correlation coefficients was investigated using a series of possible continuous distribution laws. Almost 48% of the correlation coefficients proved fit Beta distribution, 40% fit Generalized Pareto distribution, and 12% fit Pert distribution.

  3. Activity coefficients in nearly athermal model polymer/solvent systems

    Sheng, Y.J.; Panagiotopoulos, A.Z. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). School of Chemical Engineering; Tassios, D.P. [National Technical Univ. of Athens, Zographos (Greece). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1995-10-01

    Phase equilibria play a crucial role in the design of polymer manufacturing processes. Knowledge of the phase behavior of polymer/solvent solutions is especially important for polymer production and purification operations. Constant pressure Monte Carlo simulations were performed to study the activity coefficients of bead-spring polymers dissolved in a monomeric solvent. Activity coefficients were obtained for binary mixtures of monomer and 20-mer for compositions ranging from pure 20-mer to pure solvent, using the chain increment method to obtain the chemical potentials of long-chain solute and monomeric solvent. Infinite dilution activity coefficients were also calculated for polymeric solutes in monomeric solvents and monomeric solutes in polymeric solvents solutions with chain length up to 60. Such detailed information on activity coefficients in polymer/solvent systems with large size differences had not been available previously from simulation or experiment. Several engineering models were tested for their ability to predict the activity coefficients in these nearly a thermal systems. Results indicate that simple free-volume models can provide qualitatively accurate predictions for both short-chain solvent and long-chain solutes, provided that the functional form of the free-volume dependence is chosen appropriately.

  4. Infinite dilution activity coefficients of solvents in fatty oil derivatives

    Ferreira, Olga; Foco, Gloria

    2003-01-01

    http://apps.isiknowledge.com/full_record.do?product=UA&search_mode=GeneralSearch&qid=8&SID=V21Di6PajaHLPoM3@AJ&page=1&doc=1&colname=WOS Inverse gas-liquid chromatography has been applied to measure infinite dilution activity coefficients (γ∞) of different solutes in low and high molecular weight triacylglycerides (TAGs) and in mixtures of carboxylic acids with TAGs. The γ∞ data obtained were used to determine binary interaction and size related parameters for the GCA-EOS group contribut...

  5. A molecular simulation-based method for the estimation of activity coefficients for alkane solutions

    Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Epaminondas, Voutsas; Dimitrios, Tassios

    1996-01-01

    In a recent study Sheng et al. (1995, A.I. Ch.E. J. 41 (10) 2306-2313) presented activity coefficients calculated by molecular simulation (MS) for athermal model polymer-solvent systems. Both activity coefficients of the monomeric solvent in the polymer (gamma(1)(infinity)) and of the polymer...... compared with classical and recently proposed free-volume (FV) activity coefficient models in order to conclude on the suitability of the models for phase equilibrium calculations for asymmetric systems. On the basis of the work by Sheng et al., extrapolation methods for estimating the activity coefficient...... of a solvent and that of a polymer in real solvent-polymer systems are developed here. The so-obtained MS-based activity coefficients are compared with experimental data (in the case of solvent activities) and with the predictions of various activity coefficients models (in the case of polymer activities...

  6. Measurement of activity coefficient at infinite dilution using the dilutor technique

    Qureshi, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this Master’s thesis was to design and validate inert gas stripping equipment which would be able to measure activity coefficient at infinite dilution for chemical ompounds specially those present in bio-oil. Activity Coefficient at infinite dilution is an important parameter which is considered when designing rigorous thermal separation processes. The motivation of this research is derived by the absence of infinite dilution activity coefficient values for various chemical c...

  7. The effect of activity coefficient on growth control of ZnO nanoparticles

    Kazemi, AsiehSadat [Engineering Department, Islamic Azad University, Bojnourd Branch, Bojnourd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ketabi, Seyed Ahmad; Bagheri-Mohagheghi, Mohamad Mehdi [School of Physics and Center for Solid State Research, Damghan University, Damghan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abadyan, Mohamadreza, E-mail: abadyan@yahoo.com [Mechanical Engineering Group, Islamic Azad University, Ramsar branch, Ramsar (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    In this paper, the relative importance of effective parameters such as the activity coefficient, thermal decomposition and pH of chemical additives is investigated on the control procedure of ZnO nanoparticle growth. It is found that the activity coefficient is of greater importance compared with other parameters and should not be neglected in nanosynthesis any longer. This effect of activity coefficient of additives may also improve the fabrication and properties of other applicable nanostructures.

  8. Temperature dependence of invariant diffusion coefficient and activation energy for Fe-Cr-Ni-Co system

    Experimental determination of diffusion invariant coefficients in a four-component Fe-Cr-Ni-Co system is conducted for alloys with 16 mas.% of Cr, 13 mas.% of Ni, 2-14 mas.% of Co. Activation energies, corresponding to diffusion invariant coefficients are calculated by the least squares technique. The analysis of concentrational dependences of these coefficients has shown that under a low cobalt content the system can be characterized by the unique activation energy value

  9. A molecular simulation-based method for the estimation of activity coefficients for alkane solutions

    Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Epaminondas, Voutsas; Dimitrios, Tassios

    1996-01-01

    In a recent study Sheng et al. (1995, A.I. Ch.E. J. 41 (10) 2306-2313) presented activity coefficients calculated by molecular simulation (MS) for athermal model polymer-solvent systems. Both activity coefficients of the monomeric solvent in the polymer (gamma(1)(infinity)) and of the polymer in ...

  10. UNIQUAC activity coefficient model for the systems of 1-propanol + water and 2-propanol + water

    Numuang, C.; Kaewsichan, L.

    2005-01-01

    Predictions of vapor liquid equilibria and azeotrope conditions of binary systems of 1-propanol+ water and 2-propanol+water at 30, 60, and 100 kPa were conducted in this work. UNIQUAC activity coefficient and ideal gas models represented behavior of the systems in liquid phase and vapor phase respectively. Experimental data collected from the literature (Gobaldon et al., 1996 and Marzal et al., 1996) were used to calculate energy interaction parameters of the UNIQUAC activity coefficient mode...

  11. Activity Coefficient Derivatives of Ternary Systems Based on Scatchard's Neutral Electrolyte description

    Miller, D G

    2007-05-16

    Activity coefficient derivatives with respect to molality are presented for the Scatchard Neutral Electrolyte description of a ternary common-ion electrolyte system. These quantities are needed for the calculation of 'diffusion Onsager coefficients' and in turn for tests of the Onsager Reciprocal Relations in diffusion. The usually-omitted b{sub 23} term is included. The direct SNE binary approximations and a further approximation are discussed. Binary evaluation strategies other than constant ionic strength are considered.

  12. Mean ionic activity coefficients in aqueous NaCl solutions from molecular dynamics simulations

    Mester, Zoltan; Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z., E-mail: azp@princeton.edu [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

    2015-01-28

    The mean ionic activity coefficients of aqueous NaCl solutions of varying concentrations at 298.15 K and 1 bar have been obtained from molecular dynamics simulations by gradually turning on the interactions of an ion pair inserted into the solution. Several common non-polarizable water and ion models have been used in the simulations. Gibbs-Duhem equation calculations of the thermodynamic activity of water are used to confirm the thermodynamic consistency of the mean ionic activity coefficients. While the majority of model combinations predict the correct trends in mean ionic activity coefficients, they overestimate their values at high salt concentrations. The solubility predictions also suffer from inaccuracies, with all models underpredicting the experimental values, some by large factors. These results point to the need for further ion and water model development.

  13. Mean ionic activity coefficients in aqueous NaCl solutions from molecular dynamics simulations

    The mean ionic activity coefficients of aqueous NaCl solutions of varying concentrations at 298.15 K and 1 bar have been obtained from molecular dynamics simulations by gradually turning on the interactions of an ion pair inserted into the solution. Several common non-polarizable water and ion models have been used in the simulations. Gibbs-Duhem equation calculations of the thermodynamic activity of water are used to confirm the thermodynamic consistency of the mean ionic activity coefficients. While the majority of model combinations predict the correct trends in mean ionic activity coefficients, they overestimate their values at high salt concentrations. The solubility predictions also suffer from inaccuracies, with all models underpredicting the experimental values, some by large factors. These results point to the need for further ion and water model development

  14. Mean ionic activity coefficients in aqueous NaCl solutions from molecular dynamics simulations.

    Mester, Zoltan; Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z

    2015-01-28

    The mean ionic activity coefficients of aqueous NaCl solutions of varying concentrations at 298.15 K and 1 bar have been obtained from molecular dynamics simulations by gradually turning on the interactions of an ion pair inserted into the solution. Several common non-polarizable water and ion models have been used in the simulations. Gibbs-Duhem equation calculations of the thermodynamic activity of water are used to confirm the thermodynamic consistency of the mean ionic activity coefficients. While the majority of model combinations predict the correct trends in mean ionic activity coefficients, they overestimate their values at high salt concentrations. The solubility predictions also suffer from inaccuracies, with all models underpredicting the experimental values, some by large factors. These results point to the need for further ion and water model development. PMID:25637995

  15. Application of Genetic Programming in Predicting Infinite Dilution Activity Coefficients of Organic Compounds in Water

    Yi Lin CAO; Huan Ying LI

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we calculated 37 structural descriptors of 174 organic compounds. The154 molecules were used to derive quantitative structure-infinite dilution activity coefficientrelationship by genetic programming, the other 20 compounds were used to test the model. Theresult showed that molecular partition property and three-dimensional structural descriptors havesignificant influence on the infinite dilution activity coefficients.

  16. UNIQUAC activity coefficient model and modified Redlich- Kwong EOS for the vapor liquid equilibrium systems of carbon dioxide-water

    Nurak Grisdanurak; Katawut Keowkrai; Lupong Kaewsichan

    2004-01-01

    The UNIQUAC activity coefficient model and fugacity coefficient model of modified Redlich-Kwong predicted vapor-liquid equilibrium between carbon dioxide and water efficiently. The activity coefficient model needed the energy interaction parameters between molecules of carbon dioxide and water. Those parameters can be obtained by non-linear regression method of the experimental data of the vapor-liquid equilibria of carbon dioxide and water (Lide, 1992). The fugacity coefficient model of modi...

  17. Livestock Sector Submodel, The: A Description of Coefficient and Activity Development

    Stanley Schraufnagel; English, Burton C.; K. Eswaramoorthy

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an insight into the methodology used in calculating coefficients for the livestock sector of the Center for Agricultural and Rural Development's (CARD) linear programming models. The livestock sector consists of four basic livestock activities—feeder cattle producing, feeder cattle finishing, dairy producing, and pork producing. These activities produce agricultural livestock commodities and nitrogen waste while requiring feed, water, energy, and capi...

  18. Molecular radiotherapy: The NUKFIT software for calculating the time-integrated activity coefficient

    Kletting, P.; Schimmel, S.; Luster, M. [Klinik für Nuklearmedizin, Universität Ulm, Ulm 89081 (Germany); Kestler, H. A. [Research Group Bioinformatics and Systems Biology, Institut für Neuroinformatik, Universität Ulm, Ulm 89081 (Germany); Hänscheid, H.; Fernández, M.; Lassmann, M. [Klinik für Nuklearmedizin, Universität Würzburg, Würzburg 97080 (Germany); Bröer, J. H.; Nosske, D. [Bundesamt für Strahlenschutz, Fachbereich Strahlenschutz und Gesundheit, Oberschleißheim 85764 (Germany); Glatting, G. [Medical Radiation Physics/Radiation Protection, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim 68167 (Germany)

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: Calculation of the time-integrated activity coefficient (residence time) is a crucial step in dosimetry for molecular radiotherapy. However, available software is deficient in that it is either not tailored for the use in molecular radiotherapy and/or does not include all required estimation methods. The aim of this work was therefore the development and programming of an algorithm which allows for an objective and reproducible determination of the time-integrated activity coefficient and its standard error.Methods: The algorithm includes the selection of a set of fitting functions from predefined sums of exponentials and the choice of an error model for the used data. To estimate the values of the adjustable parameters an objective function, depending on the data, the parameters of the error model, the fitting function and (if required and available) Bayesian information, is minimized. To increase reproducibility and user-friendliness the starting values are automatically determined using a combination of curve stripping and random search. Visual inspection, the coefficient of determination, the standard error of the fitted parameters, and the correlation matrix are provided to evaluate the quality of the fit. The functions which are most supported by the data are determined using the corrected Akaike information criterion. The time-integrated activity coefficient is estimated by analytically integrating the fitted functions. Its standard error is determined assuming Gaussian error propagation. The software was implemented using MATLAB.Results: To validate the proper implementation of the objective function and the fit functions, the results of NUKFIT and SAAM numerical, a commercially available software tool, were compared. The automatic search for starting values was successfully tested for reproducibility. The quality criteria applied in conjunction with the Akaike information criterion allowed the selection of suitable functions. Function fit

  19. Variation in the Activity Coefficient of Zinc Sulfate in the Presence of Sulfuric Acid

    Begar, A.; Djeghlal, M. A.; Saada, A.

    2012-01-01

    The present study concerns the dissolution process of sphalerite in synthetic aqueous solution of sulfuric acid in the absence of oxygen, which allows zinc sulfate to be obtained from a sphalerite. The reaction product of the reaction solution in the absence of oxygen is determined using the Pitzer model used to calculate the various activity coefficients. As the leaching experiments of the present study covered the temperature range from 25° C to 200° C, it is necessa...

  20. Measurement of Infinite Diluted Activity Coefficient of Solvents in Polymer by Inverse Gas Chromatography Method

    2000-01-01

    @@1 INTRODUCTION Due to its short experimental time, little sample needed, suitable for broad temperature range, inverse gas chromatography (IGC) has been widely used to measure variety of properties of polymer systems, such as the intinite diluted activity coefficients of solvent in polymer, the glass transition temperature of polymer and the surface properties of polymer[1-5], etc. Those data have been used to develop the group contribution method for the prediction of thermodynamic proper-ties of polymer solution[6].

  1. Activity coefficients of ferrocenium iodide in aqueous-organic salt solutions

    Values of electrode potentials were obtained by the method of potentiometric titration at 298.2 K, the standard values of emf and unified activity coefficients of ferrocenium iodide in water-acetone and water-ethanol solvents of different salt composition being calculated. It is shown that interaction of ferrocenium (Fc+) with iodide can occur with formation of two forms of complexes, i.e. [Fc+I-] and [Fc+I2]-

  2. Chaotic Temperatures vs Coefficients of Thermodynamic Activity The Advantage of the Method of Chemical Dynamics

    Zilbergleyt, B

    2002-01-01

    The article compares traditional coefficients of thermodynamic activity as a parameter related to individual chemical species to newly introduced reduced chaotic temperatures as system characteristics, both regarding their usage in thermodynamic simulation of open chemical systems. Logical and mathematical backgrounds of both approaches are discussed. It is shown that usage of reduced chaotic temperatures and the Method of Chemical Dynamics to calculate chemical and phase composition in open chemical systems is much less costly, easier to perform and potentially leads to better precision.

  3. UNIQUAC activity coefficient model for the systems of 1-propanol + water and 2-propanol + water

    Numuang, C.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Predictions of vapor liquid equilibria and azeotrope conditions of binary systems of 1-propanol+ water and 2-propanol+water at 30, 60, and 100 kPa were conducted in this work. UNIQUAC activity coefficient and ideal gas models represented behavior of the systems in liquid phase and vapor phase respectively. Experimental data collected from the literature (Gobaldon et al., 1996 and Marzal et al., 1996 were used to calculate energy interaction parameters of the UNIQUAC activity coefficient model by non-linear regression method. The obtained parameters were not dependent on temperature and mole fraction; however, those parameters were dependent on pressure of the system. The mean absolute error of vapor mole fraction of alcohol and water were in the range 3.86-4.65% and 2.33-3.28% respectively for the binary system of 1-propanol +water. The mean absolute error of vapor mole fraction of alcohol and water were in the range 1.93-2.06% and 1.47-1.94% respectively for the binary system of 2-propanol+water. The thermodynamics consistency test proved that the UNIQUAC activity coefficient model was satisfied very well with Gibbs- Duhem equation.

  4. Comparison of apparent diffusion coefficient in spondylarthritis axial active inflammatory lesions and type 1 modic changes

    Objective: The goal of this study was to evaluate whether the values of ADC in spondylarthritis axial active inflammatory lesions are different from ADC values in type 1 Modic changes. Subjects and methods: 95 patients with recent lumbar pain, including 46 patients with diagnosed or suspected spondylarthritis and 49 patients with purely degenerative history, underwent spine MRI. T1w, STIR, and diffusion-weighted images (DWI) were obtained. Two musculoskeletal radiologists interpreted the images. Axial active inflammatory lesions from the SpA group and type 1 Modic changes from the degenerative group were identified on T1w and STIR sequences. ADC values from these lesions and from healthy subchondral bone were compared. Results: All axial active inflammatory lesions (n = 27) and type 1 Modic changes (n = 22) identified in T1w and STIR images were visible on DWI. ADC values were significantly higher (p < 0.05) for axial active inflammatory lesions (median = 0.788 × 10−3 mm2/s, IQR 25–75 [0.7 × 10−3 mm2/s; 0.9 × 10−3 mm2/s]) than for type 1 Modic changes (median = 0.585 × 10−3 mm2/s, IQR 25–75 [0.55 × 10−3 mm2/s; 0.60 × 10−3 mm2/s]) and normal subchondral bone (median = 0.443 × 10−3 mm2/s, IQR 25–75 [0.40 × 10−3 mm2/s; 0.50 × 10−3 mm2/s]). Intra-class correlation coefficients for intra- and inter-reader ADC values comparison were excellent (0.89 and 0.98 respectively). Conclusion: DWI is a sensitive and fast sequence that offer the possibility of quantifying diffusion coefficients of the lesions, which could help to discriminate between spondylarthritis axial active inflammatory and type 1 Modic changes

  5. The statistical and practical significance and "effect size" coefficients for the evaluation of physical activity

    Dagmar Sigmundová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An adequate statistical analysis of obtained data is a necessary condition for the right interpretation of results followed by correct formulation of conclusions. The use of appropriate statistical procedures is repeatedly a subject of justified criticism and recommendations in our and other international publications. For example, during the interpretation of results we often "blindly" rely on the statistical significance, and the practical significance of the research is ignored. OBJECTIVE: The main aim of this study is to highlight the formulation of the practical significance of the results and its correct interpretation. We used an analysis of the international studies and own findings from physical activity monitoring. Another aim is to introduce an applicable effect size coefficient as a guide for assessing the practical significance. METHODS: Materials for formulating rules to assess the practical significance and introduction of effect size coefficients was comprised of the 29 international and Czech studies about the level of week and short time (PE lesson, training, exercise lesson physical activity of Czech children and adolescents (1,129 girls and 938 boys, and adults (5,727 females and 5,426 males with use of accelerometers, pedometers and IPAQ questionnaires during 2000-2010. RESULTS: Rules for assessing the practical significance consider measurement error, data variability and the size of position from the beginning on the measurement scale. The formulation of the practical significance should include - a a determination of the minimal values of certain measurement unit that will be limiting for assessing the significancy of the difference; b the determination of a minimal size of mutual relationship between the expected results and findings. The presentation of the "effect size" coefficients (d, r, r2, K2, ω2 comprises of their definition, the conditions for use as well as the calculation and interpretation of

  6. Application of several activity coefficient models to water-organic-electrolyte aerosols of atmospheric interest

    T. Raatikainen

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, existing and modified activity coefficient models are examined in order to assess their capabilities to describe the properties of aqueous solution droplets relevant in the atmosphere. Five different water-organic-electrolyte activity coefficient models were first selected from the literature. Only one of these models included organics and electrolytes which are common in atmospheric aerosol particles. In the other models, organic species were solvents such as alcohols, and important atmospheric ions like NH4+ could be missing. The predictions of these models were compared to experimental activity and solubility data in aqueous single electrolyte solutions with 31 different electrolytes. Based on the deviations from experimental data and on the capabilities of the models, four predictive models were selected for fitting of new parameters for binary and ternary solutions of common atmospheric electrolytes and organics. New electrolytes (H+, NH4+, Na+, Cl-, NO3- and SO42- and organics (dicarboxylic and some hydroxy acids were added and some modifications were made to the models if it was found useful. All new and most of the existing parameters were fitted to experimental single electrolyte data as well as data for aqueous organics and aqueous organic-electrolyte solutions. Unfortunately, there are very few data available for organic activities in binary solutions and for organic and electrolyte activities in aqueous organic-electrolyte solutions. This reduces model capabilities in predicting solubilities. After the parameters were fitted, deviations from measurement data were calculated for all fitted models, and for different data types. These deviations and the calculated property values were compared with those from other non-electrolyte and organic-electrolyte models found in the literature. Finally, hygroscopic growth factors were calculated for four 100 nm organic-electrolyte particles and these predictions were compared to

  7. Agreement of electrolyte models with activity coefficient data of sulfuric acid in water

    Highlights: • A 3-parameter Pitzer equation for γ±vs. m is used in analyzing aqueous H2SO4. • The equation fits better for aqueous H2SO4 as 1–3, than 1–2 or 1–1/1–2 electrolyte. • The 1–2 analysis is the worst, obtained with negative values of the β(1) parameter. • Pitzer model cannot distinguish between electrolyte families, ionization modes. • The DH–SiS model analyzes aqueous H2SO4 as 1–3 electrolyte better than Pitzer model. - Abstract: The calculation of thermodynamic properties of many strong electrolytes in solution, including aqueous sulfuric acid, has been performed over the past four decades using so-called thermodynamic models, such as the well-known Pitzer model. I have recently pointed out (Fraenkel, 2012) [15,16] that H2SO4 in water appears to follow the mean ionic activity pattern of a strong 1–3 electrolyte, and postulated that this H3A acid may be H4SO5 fully ionizing to 3H+ (3H3O+) and HSO53-. This contrasts with the traditional view of the aqueous acid – claimed to be supported by thermodynamic models – according to which H2SO4 retains its molecular structure in water and dissociates primarily to H+ and HSO4-, and at <0.1 M, HSO4- dissociates further to H+ and SO42-. I now show that a good fit of Pitzer model with the activity coefficients reported by Hamer and Harned can be obtained for the “1–3 H2SO4” even by using the simple 3-parameter equation of the model; the best-fit Pitzer parameters are β(0) = 0.240, β(1) = 4.30 and CMX = −0.0134, and the standard deviation, σ is 0.0152. With the corrected activity coefficients as proposed in the first reference above, the best-fit parameters are β(0) = 0.230, β(1) = 3.60 and CMX = −0.0120, and σ = 0.0081. σ of the analysis of the “1–3 acid” is in both cases considerably lower than that of the “1–2 acid” (σ = 0.049) that provides a best-fit β(1) value of −3.000; a negative β(1) is inappropriate since it is parallel to a negative ion

  8. Limiting activity coefficients of some aromatic and aliphatic nitro compounds in water

    Benes, M.; Dohnal, V. [Inst. of Chemical Technology, Prague (Czech Republic). Dept. of Physical Chemistry

    1999-09-01

    Limiting activity coefficients of nine nitroaromatic compounds and four nitroalkanes in water were determined in the range of environmentally related temperatures by measuring suitable phase equilibria. For liquid and solid nitroaromatics (nitrobenzene, 2-nitrotoluene, 3-nitrotoluene, 4-nitrotoluene, 2-nitrophenol, 3-nitrophenol, 4-nitrophenol, 1-chloro-2-nitrobenzene, and 1-chloro-4-nitrobenzene) the aqueous solubilities were measured by a conventional batch contacting method with UV spectrophotometric analysis, while for nitroalkanes (nitromethane, nitroethane, 1-nitropropane, and 2-nitropropane) the air-water partitioning (Henry`s law constant H{sub 12} or air-water partition coefficient K{sub aw}) was determined by the inert gas stripping method employing gas chromatography. Whenever possible, results were compared to literature values. Calculation of H{sub 12} or K{sub aw} for nitroaromatics from the measured solubilities is hindered by the lack of reliable vapor pressure data. On the basis of the temperature dependences of the solubilities measured, the enthalpies of solution at infinite dilution for the nitroaromatics in water were evaluated.

  9. UNIQUAC activity coefficient model and modified Redlich- Kwong EOS for the vapor liquid equilibrium systems of carbon dioxide-water

    Nurak Grisdanurak

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The UNIQUAC activity coefficient model and fugacity coefficient model of modified Redlich-Kwong predicted vapor-liquid equilibrium between carbon dioxide and water efficiently. The activity coefficient model needed the energy interaction parameters between molecules of carbon dioxide and water. Those parameters can be obtained by non-linear regression method of the experimental data of the vapor-liquid equilibria of carbon dioxide and water (Lide, 1992. The fugacity coefficient model of modified Redlich- Kwong needed only some physical properties of carbon dioxide and water without any interaction parameters. The experimental data had ranges of temperature and partial pressure of carbon dioxide between 10 to 100ºC and 5 to 1,200 kPa, respectively. The parameters for the activity coefficient model are temperature dependent but are not concentration dependent. The regression results gave good agreements with the experimental data in which the mean absolute error (MAE between experiment and calculated partial pressure of carbon dioxide was 2.72% and the mean absolute standard deviation (MAD of that error was 1.35%. Comparing the effects of activity coefficients and fugacity coefficients, we found that the non-ideality in vapor phase was more influential than the non-ideality in liquid phase.

  10. Experimental Identification of Dynamic Coefficients of Tilting-Pad Bearings with Active Lubrication

    Salazar, Jorge Andrés González; Cerda Varela, Alejandro Javier; Santos, Ilmar

    supply unit, b) servovalves, c) radial injection nozzles, d) displacement sensors and e) well-tuned digital controllers which turn the bearing static and dynamic properties controllable. A scaled-down industrial rotor, composed by a flexible rotor supported by a four rocker LBP tilting-pad journal......This article presents the experimental identification of the equivalent dynamic coefficients of an activelylubricated bearing under different lubrication regimes, namely: passive (no injection flow), hybrid (constant injection flow) and feedback-controlled (variable injection flow) lubrication. The...... bearing featuring active lubrication under light load conditions, is used for such a goal. The experimental identification is performed in the frequency domain by means of the measured FRFs and a finite element model of the rotor. The comparison between results under the different lubrication regimes...

  11. Self-shielding coefficient and thermal flux depression factor of voluminous sample in neutron activation analysis

    Full text: One of the major problems encountered during the irradiation of large inhomogeneous samples in performing activation analysis using neutron is the perturbation of the neutron field due to absorption and scattering of neutron within the sample as well as along the neutron guide in the case of prompt gamma activation analysis. The magnitude of this perturbation shown by self-shielding coefficient and flux depression depend on several factors including the average neutron energy, the size and shape of the sample, as well as the macroscopic absorption cross section of the sample. In this study, we use Monte Carlo N-Particle codes to simulate the variation of neutron self-shielding coefficient and thermal flux depression factor as a function of the macroscopic thermal absorption cross section. The simulation works was carried out using the high performance computing facility available at UTM while the experimental work was performed at the tangential beam port of Reactor TRIGA PUSPATI, Malaysia Nuclear Agency. The neutron flux measured along the beam port is found to be in good agreement with the simulated data. Our simulation results also reveal that total flux perturbation factor decreases as the value of absorption increases. This factor is close to unity for low absorbing sample and tends towards zero for strong absorber. In addition, sample with long mean chord length produces smaller flux perturbation than the shorter mean chord length. When comparing both the graphs of self-shielding factor and total disturbance, we can conclude that the total disturbance of the thermal neutron flux on the large samples is dominated by the self-shielding effect. (Author)

  12. Biodegradation of 4-chlorophenol by acclimated and unacclimated activated sludge-Evaluation of biokinetic coefficients

    Unacclimated and acclimated activated sludges were examined for their ability to degrade 4-CP (4-chlorophenol) in the presence and absence of a readily growing substrate using aerobic batch reactors. The effects of 4-CP on the μ (specific growth rate), COD removal efficiency, Y (yield coefficient), and q (specific substrate utilization rate) were investigated. It was observed that the toxicity of 4-CP on the culture decreased remarkably after acclimation. For example, the IC50 value on the basis of μ was found to increase from 130 to 218mg/L with the acclimation of the culture. Although an increase in 4-CP concentration up to 300mg/L has no adverse effect on the COD removal efficiency of the acclimated culture, a considerable decrease was observed in the case of an unacclimated culture. Although 4-CP removal was not observed with an unacclimated culture, almost complete removal was achieved with the acclimated culture, up to 300mg/L. The Haldane kinetic model adequately predicted the biodegradation of 4-CP and the kinetic constants obtained were qm=41.17mg/(gMLVSSh), Ks=1.104mg/L, and Ki=194.4mg/L. The degradation of 4-CP led to formation of 5-chloro-2-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde, which was further metabolized, indicating complete degradation of 4-CP via a meta-cleavage pathway

  13. Influences of the chemical structure of entrainers on the activity coefficients in presence of biodiesel

    In this work we analyzed the strength of the intermolecular forces between biodiesel and the entrainer and their influence on the entrainer's ability to interact with biodiesel. Furthermore we investigated the influence of the chemical structure of an entrainer to the interaction with biodiesel. For this purpose the activity coefficients γ∞ at infinite dilution of acids, aldehydes, ketones and alcohols in biodiesel were measured with the method of headspace gas chromatography (HSGC). Short-chained acids showed the highest interaction of the analyzed entrainers caused by their ability to build hydrogen bonds with biodiesel. Increased chain length of the acids cause reduced interaction with biodiesel, which is mainly due to the higher obstruction of the acid molecule and therefore the reduced ability to build hydrogen bonds with biodiesel. Aldehydes, ketones and alcohols showed lower interaction with biodiesel compared to the acids. Longer-chained alcohols showed increased interaction with biodiesel due to the raised London Forces and an inductive +I effect of the molecule chain.

  14. Prediction of Infinite Dilution Activity Coefficients of Halogenated Hydrocarbons in Water

    XU Hui-Ying; MIN Jian-Qing

    2008-01-01

    Geometrical optimization and electrostatic potential calculations have been performed for a series of halogenated hydrocarbons at the HF/Gen-6d level. A number of electrostatic potentials and the statistically based structural descriptors derived from these electrostatic potentials have been obtained. Multiple linear regression analysis and artificial neural network are employed simultaneously in this paper. The result shows that the parameters derived from electrostatic potentials σ2tot, Vs and ΣVs+, together with the molecular volume (Vmc) can be used to express the quantitative structure-infinite dilution activity coefficients (γ∞) relationship of halogenated hydrocarbons in water. The result also demonstrates that the model obtained by using BFGS quasi-Newton neural network method has much better predictive capability than that from multiple linear regression. The goodness of the model has been validated through exploring the predictive power for the external test set. The model obtained via neural network may be applied to predict γ∞ of other halogenated hydrocarbons not present in the data set.

  15. The nature of single-ion activity coefficients calculated from potentiometric measurements on cells with liquid junctions

    Highlights: → Problem of ionic activity coefficients, determined by potentiometry, is reconsidered. → They are found to be functions of mean activity coefficients and transport numbers of ions. → The finding is verified by calculations and comparing the results with reported data. → Calculations are performed for systems with single electrolytes and binary mixtures. - Abstract: Potentiometric measurements on cells with liquid junctions are sometimes used for calculations of single-ion activity coefficients in electrolyte solutions, the incidence of this being increased recently. As surmised by Guggenheim in the 1930s, such coefficients (of ions i), γi, are actually complicated functions of mean ionic activity coefficients, γ±, and transport numbers of ions, ti. In the present paper specific functions γi(γ±, ti) are derived for a number of cell types with an arbitrary mixture of strong electrolytes in a one-component solvent in the liquid-junction system. The cell types include cells with (i) identical electrodes, (ii) dissimilar electrodes reversible to the same ions, (iii) dissimilar electrodes reversible to ions of opposite charge signs, (iv) dissimilar electrodes reversible to different ions of the same charge sign, and (v) identical reference electrodes and an ion-selective membrane permeable to ions of only one type. Pairs of functions for oppositely charged ions are found to be consistent with the mean ionic activity coefficients as would be expected for pairs of the proper γi quantities by definition of γ±. The functions are tested numerically on some of the reported γi datasets that are the more tractable. A generally good agreement is found with data reported for cells with single electrolytes HCl and KCl in solutions, and with binary mixtures in the liquid-junction systems of KCl from the reference solutions and NaCl and HCl from the test solutions. It is found that values of γi(γ±, ti) functions, in general, do depend on the

  16. On the calculation of single ion activity coefficients in homogeneous ionic systems by application of the grand canonical ensemble

    Sloth, Peter

    1993-01-01

    The grand canonical ensemble has been used to study the evaluation of single ion activity coefficients in homogeneous ionic fluids. In this work, the Coulombic interactions are truncated according to the minimum image approximation, and the ions are assumed to be placed in a structureless......, homogeneous dielectric continuum. Grand canonical ensemble Monte Carlo calculation results for two primitive model electrolyte solutions are presented. Also, a formula involving the second moments of the total correlation functions is derived from fluctuation theory, which applies for the derivatives of the...... individual ionic activity coefficients with respect to the total ionic concentration. This formula has previously been proposed on the basis of somewhat different considerations....

  17. Structure-activity relationships to estimate the effective Henry's law coefficients of organics of atmospheric interest

    Raventos-Duran, T.; M. Camredon; R. Valorso; B. Aumont

    2010-01-01

    The Henry's law coefficient is a key property needed to address the multiphase behaviour of organics in the atmosphere. Methods that can reliably predict the values for the vast number of organic compounds of atmospheric interest are therefore required. The effective Henry's law coefficient H* in air-water systems at 298 K was compiled from literature for 488 organic compounds bearing functional groups of atmospheric relevance. This data set was used to assess the reliabili...

  18. Application of MultiScale Hidden Markov Modeling Wavelet Coefficients to fMRI Activation Detection

    Fangyuan Nan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: The problem of detection of functional magnetic resonance images (fMRIs, that is, to decide active and nonactive regions of human brain from fMRIs is studied in this paper. fMRI research is finding and will find more and more applications in diagnosing and treating brain diseases like depression and schizophrenia. At its initial stage fMRI detection are pixel-wise methods, which do not take advantage of mutual information among neighboring pixels. Ignoring such spatial information can reduce detection accuracy. During past decade, many efforts have been focusing on taking advantage of spatial correlation inherent in fMRI data. Most well known is smoothing using a fixed Gaussian filter and the compensation for multiple testing using Gaussian random field theory as used by Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM. Other methods including wavelets had also been proposed by the community. Approach: In this study a novel two-step approach was put forward that incorporates spatial correlation information and is amenable to analysis and optimization. First, a new multi scale image segmentation algorithm was proposed to decompose the correlation image into several different regions, each of which is of homogeneous statistical behavior. Second, each region will be classified independently as active or inactive using existing pixel-wise test methods. The image segmentation consists of two procedures: Edge detection followed by label estimation. To deduce the presence or absence of an edge from continuous data, two fundamental assumption of our algorithm are 1 each wavelet coefficient was described by a 2-state Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM; 2 across scale, each state is caused by its parent state, hence the Multiscale Hidden Markov Model (MHMM. The states of Markov chain are unknown ("hidden" and represent the presence (state 1 or absence (state 0 of edges. Using this interpretation, the edge detection problem boils down to the posterior state

  19. Measurement of activity coefficients at infinite dilution for hydrocarbons in imidazolium-based ionic liquids and QSPR model

    ZHU Jiqin; YU Yanmei; CHEN Jian; FEI Weiyang

    2007-01-01

    The separations of olefin/paraffin,aromatic/aliphatic hydrocarbons or olefin isomers using ionic liquids instead of volatile solvents have interested many researchers.Activity coefficients γ∞ at infinite dilution of a solute in ionic liquid are generally used in the selection of solvents for extraction or extractive distillation.In fact,the measurement of γ∞ by gas-liquid chromatography is a speedy and costsaving method.Activity coefficients at infinite dilution of hydrocarbon solutes,such as alkanes,hexenes,alkylbenzenes,styrene,in 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([AMIM][BF4]) and 1-butyl-3-methyl imidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([BMIM][PF6]), 1-isobutenyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([MPMIM][BF4]) and [MPMIM][BF4]-AgBF4 have been determined by gas-liquid chromatography using ionic liquids as stationary phase.The measurements were carried out at different temperatures from 298 to 318 K.The separating effects of these ionic liquids for alkanes/hexane,aliphatic hydrocarbons/benzene and hexene isomers have been discussed.The hydrophobic parameter,dipole element,frontier molecular orbital energy gap and hydration energy of these hydrocarbons were calculated with the PM3 semi-empirical quantum chemistry method.The quantitative relations among the computed structure parameters and activity coefficients at infinite dilution were also developed.The experimental activity coefficient data are consistent with the correlated and predicted results using QSPR models.

  20. Towards the Development of a Second-Order Approximation in Activity Coefficient Models Based on Group Contributions

    Abildskov, Jens; Constantinou, Leonidas; Gani, Rafiqul

    1996-01-01

    A simple modification of group contribution based models for estimation of liquid phase activity coefficients is proposed. The main feature of this modification is that contributions estimated from the present first-order groups in many instances are found insufficient since the first-order groups...... correlation/prediction capabilities, distinction between isomers and ability to overcome proximity effects....

  1. Prediction of Chemical Potentials, Activity Coefficients and Solubility in Aqueous NaCl Solutions by Polarizable Models

    Moučka, F.; Nezbeda, Ivo; Smith, W.R.

    Ozarow Mazowiecki: Nobell Compressing sp. z o.o, 2015 - (Kosinsky, K.; Urbanczyk, M.; Žerko, S.), s. 207 ISBN N. [European Symposium on Applied Thermodynamics ESAT 2015 /28./. Athens (GR), 11.06.2015-14.06.2015] Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : solubility * electrolyte * activity coefficients Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  2. Molecular Descriptors Family on Structure Activity Relationships 6. Octanol-Water Partition Coefficient of Polychlorinated Biphenyls

    Lorentz JÄNTSCHI

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Octanol-water partition coefficient of two hundred and six polychlorinated biphenyls was model by the use of an original method based on complex information obtained from compounds structure. The regression analysis shows that best results are obtained in four-varied model (r2 = 0.9168. The prediction ability of the model was studied through leave-one-out analysis (r2cv(loo = 0.9093 and in training and test sets analysis. Modeling the octanol-water partition coefficient of polychlorinated biphenyls by integration of complex structural information provide a stable and performing four-varied model, allowing us to make remarks about relationship between structure of polychlorinated biphenyls and associated octanol-water partition coefficients.

  3. Prediction of activity coefficients at infinite dilution for organic solutes in ionic liquids by artificial neural network

    To our knowledge, this work illustrates for the first time the ability of artificial neural network (ANN) to predict activity coefficients at infinite dilution for organic solutes in ionic liquids (ILs). Activity coefficient at infinite dilution (γ∞) is a useful parameter which can be used for the selection of effective solvent in the separation processes. Using a multi-layer feed-forward network with Levenberg-Marquardt optimization algorithm, the resulting ANN model generated activity coefficient at infinite dilution data over a temperature range of 298 to 363 K. The unavailable input data concerning softness (S) of organic compounds (solutes) and dipole moment (μ) of ionic liquids were calculated using GAMESS suites of quantum chemistry programs. The resulting ANN model and its validation are based on the investigation of up to 24 structurally different organic compounds (alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, cycloalkanes, aromatics, and alcohols) in 16 common imidazolium-based ionic liquids, at different temperatures within the range of 298 to 363 K (i.e. a total number of 914 γSolute∞ for each IL data point). The results show a satisfactory agreement between the predicted ANN and experimental data, where, the root mean square error (RMSE) and the determination coefficient (R2) of the designed neural network were found to be 0.103, 0.996 for training data and 0.128, 0.994 for testing data, respectively.

  4. Can we better use existing and emerging computing hardware to embed activity coefficient predictions in complex atmospheric aerosol models?

    Topping, David; Alibay, Irfan; Ruske, Simon; Hindriksen, Vincent; Noisternig, Michael

    2016-04-01

    To predict the evolving concentration, chemical composition and ability of aerosol particles to act as cloud droplets, we rely on numerical modeling. Mechanistic models attempt to account for the movement of compounds between the gaseous and condensed phases at a molecular level. This 'bottom up' approach is designed to increase our fundamental understanding. However, such models rely on predicting the properties of molecules and subsequent mixtures. For partitioning between the gaseous and condensed phases this includes: saturation vapour pressures; Henrys law coefficients; activity coefficients; diffusion coefficients and reaction rates. Current gas phase chemical mechanisms predict the existence of potentially millions of individual species. Within a dynamic ensemble model, this can often be used as justification for neglecting computationally expensive process descriptions. Indeed, on whether we can quantify the true sensitivity to uncertainties in molecular properties, even at the single aerosol particle level it has been impossible to embed fully coupled representations of process level knowledge with all possible compounds, typically relying on heavily parameterised descriptions. Relying on emerging numerical frameworks, and designed for the changing landscape of high-performance computing (HPC), in this study we show that comprehensive microphysical models from single particle to larger scales can be developed to encompass a complete state-of-the-art knowledge of aerosol chemical and process diversity. We focus specifically on the ability to capture activity coefficients in liquid solutions using the UNIFAC method, profiling traditional coding strategies and those that exploit emerging hardware.

  5. Activity coefficients of CaCl2 in (maltose + water) and (lactose + water) mixtures at 298.15 K

    Activity coefficients of CaCl2 in disaccharide {(maltose, lactose) + water} mixtures at 298.15 K were determined by cell potentials. The molalities of CaCl2 ranged from about 0.01 mol . kg-1 to 0.20 mol . kg-1, the mass fractions of maltose from 0.05 to 0.25, and those of lactose from 0.025 to 0.125. The cell potentials were analyzed by using the Debye-Hueckel extended equation and the Pitzer equation. The activity coefficients obtained from the two theoretical models are in good agreement with each other. Gibbs free energy interaction parameters (gES) and salting constants (kS) were also obtained. These were discussed in terms of the stereo-chemistry of saccharide molecules and the structural interaction model

  6. Activity coefficients in electrolyte mixtures. HCl + ThCl4 + H2O for 5-55 degree C

    The emf of the cell without liquid junction (A) was used to study the HCl + ThCl4 + H2O mixed electrolyte system, where (A) is Pt, H2(g,1 atm)|Hcl(mB)|AgCl,Ag. The emf was measured for solutions at constant total ionic strengths of 0.006, 0.008, 0.01, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 mol.kg-1 and at temperatures ranging from 5 to 55 degree C. The mean activity coefficients of HCl in the mixtures were calculated using the Nernst equation. Two detailed treatments are given of the data for 25 degree C. In the first, the Harned equations were fitted to the activity coefficient data using least-squares regression techniques. Results show that the quadratic equation is adequate for the full range of YB to 0.9 for I ≤ 2.0 mol.kg-1 but only for smaller YB at I = 3.0. Second, an ion-interaction (Pitzer) equation treatment is given in which experimental isopiestic measurements, solubility, and the activity coefficient data are analyzed and the necessary parameters developed for the H+-Th4+-Cl--H2O system. 26 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs

  7. Activity coefficients of NaF in (glucose+water) and (sucrose+water) mixtures at 298.15 K

    The activity coefficients of NaF in (glucose+water) and (sucrose+water) mixtures were experimentally determined at 298.15 K from electromotive force measurements of the following electrochemical cell containing two ion selective electrodes (ISEs):Na-ISE|NaF(m),sugar(Y),H2O(100-Y)|F-ISEThe molality (m) varied between ca. 0.01 mol.kg-1 and saturation, while the mass fractions of sugar in the mixture (Y) were 0, 0.10, 0.20, 0.30 and 0.40. The values for electromotive force were analyzed using different models for describing the variations of the activity coefficients with concentration, including an extended Debye-Huckel, the Pitzer and the Scatchard equations. Results obtained with the different models were in good agreement. Once E-bar was determined, the mean coefficients of ionic activity for NaF, the free energy of transference from the water to the (sugar+water) mixture, and the primary NaF hydration number were calculated. The variation of these magnitudes with the composition of the mixture is comparative discussed in terms of the ion-solvent and ion-ion interactions with results from the literature for NaCl in (glucose+water) and (sucrose+water) systems

  8. Temperature-dependent solubilities and mean ionic activity coefficients of alkali halides in water from molecular dynamics simulations.

    Mester, Zoltan; Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z

    2015-07-28

    The mean ionic activity coefficients of aqueous KCl, NaF, NaI, and NaCl solutions of varying concentrations have been obtained from molecular dynamics simulations following a recently developed methodology based on gradual insertions of salt molecules [Z. Mester and A. Z. Panagiotopoulos, J. Chem. Phys. 142, 044507 (2015)]. The non-polarizable ion models of Weerasinghe and Smith [J. Chem. Phys. 119, 11342 (2003)], Gee et al. [J. Chem. Theory Comput. 7, 1369 (2011)], Reiser et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 140, 044504 (2014)], and Joung and Cheatham [J. Phys. Chem. B 112, 9020 (2008)] were used along with the extended simple point charge (SPC/E) water model [Berendsen et al., J. Phys. Chem. 91, 6269 (1987)] in the simulations. In addition to the chemical potentials in solution used to obtain the activity coefficients, we also calculated the chemical potentials of salt crystals and used them to obtain the solubility of these alkali halide models in SPC/E water. The models of Weerasinghe and Smith [J. Chem. Phys. 119, 11342 (2003)] and Gee et al. [J. Chem. Theory Comput. 7, 1369 (2011)] provide excellent predictions of the mean ionic activity coefficients at 298.15 K and 1 bar, but significantly underpredict or overpredict the solubilities. The other two models generally predicted the mean ionic activity coefficients only qualitatively. With the exception of NaF for which the solubility is significantly overpredicted, the model of Joung and Cheatham predicts salt solubilities that are approximately 40%-60% of the experimental values. The models of Reiser et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 140, 044504 (2014)] make good predictions for the NaCl and NaI solubilities, but significantly underpredict the solubilities for KCl and NaF. We also tested the transferability of the models to temperatures much higher than were used to parametrize them by performing simulations for NaCl at 373.15 K and 1 bar, and at 473.15 K and 15.5 bar. All models overpredict the drop in the values of mean ionic

  9. Diffusion Coefficients and Activation Energies for Ag Transport through SiC

    One of the desired functions of TRISO coating is to prevent the release of fission products from inside the particle into the coolant. Among these layers, the retention of fission products is accomplished primarily by the SiC layer of the coating. These processes include oxide fuel kernel migration (via the transport of carbon from the cool to hot side); intra-layer crack formation, noble gas (Kr, Xe), Ba, Ag, Sr, Cs diffusion out of the kernel; pressure build-up due to noble gas release from the kernel and CO from released oxygen in ungettered oxide kernel; a Pd attack on SiC and noble gas, Pd, Ba, Sr, Cs, Ag, transport via bulk diffusion, grain boundaries, and cracks through the coating layers. In this paper, the measured and estimated diffusion coefficients of Ag in and/or through SiC are compared based on the following experimental methods: 1) measuring Ag diffusion through ion-implanted cubic (3C) SiC and 6H-SiC samples and annealing, 2) measuring Ag diffusion through a diffusion couple and annealing, and 3) fitting the overall integrated/fractional Ag release from a batch of TRISO fuel particle during heating after irradiation and irradiation testing. The causes of uprising Ag transport through SiC, the coating layer of TRISO fuel are complex depending on the temperature during operation or irradiation testing. Although Ag transport depends on the microstructure of SiC (such as grain boundary stoichiometry, SiC grain size and shape, the presence of free silicon, nano-cracks, etc.), neutron irradiation, irradiation temperature, Pd attack, thermal decomposition, transmutation products, layer thinning and coated particle shape, etc., Ag diffusion along the grain boundary of SiC plays a major role. Considering that the current Ag diffusion coefficient is summarized and compared from previous studies, it might also be possible that, considering the irradiation effects of SiC, the Ag retention ability of a TRISO particle somehow improves during the TRISO

  10. Dynamic Coefficients of a Tilting Pad With Active Lubrication: Comparison Between Theoretical and Experimental Results

    Cerda Varela, Alejandro Javier; Santos, Ilmar

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with the validation of the mathematical model for predicting the equivalent stiffness and damping of an active tilting-pad bearing. The active bearing design includes an injection nozzle in the pad and a hydraulic supply system featuring a servovalve, which enables to modify...

  11. Measurement of the activity coefficient of carbon in steels in liquid sodium

    In sodium cooled fast reactors carbon is both a carbon impurity and element of structural materials. Carbon transfert through liquid sodium can produce carburization or decarburization of structural materials. Carbon content in sodium is determined with thin foils of austenitic alloys, when equilibrium is reached thermodynamic activity of carbon in sodium is deduced from carbon activity in alloys. Studied alloys are FeMn 20%, FeNi 30%, Z2CN 18-10 and Z3CND17-13. Carbon activity of alloys in sodium was between 5.10-3 and 10-1 at 600 and 6500C. Calibration was obtained with the alloys FeNi 30% in gaseous mixtures He-CO-CO2 of known activity

  12. Activity coefficients in (hydrogen chloride+holmium chloride) (aq) from T=(278.15 to 328.15) K

    Activity coefficients of HCl in (hydrogen chloride+holmium chloride) (aq) have been calculated from the observed e.m.f.s using the Nernst equation. The temperatures ranged from (278.15 to 328.15) K at 5 K intervals and at constant total ionic strengths of (0.01, 0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5) mol.kg-1. Electromotive-force measurements were made on the cell without liquid junction of the type:Pt vertical bar H2(g,p=101.325kPa) vertical bar HCl(mA),HoCl3(mB) vertical bar AgCl(s), vertical bar Ag(s) The results of the activity coefficients of HCl for this mixed electrolyte mixture have been interpreted in terms of the simpler Harned's equations and the ion-interaction model of Pitzer. Results show that the quadratic term is sufficient for the full range of YB (the ionic strength fraction of the salt) to 0.9 at all the ionic strengths studied. The Pitzer's mixing parameters SθH,Ho and ΨH,Ho,Cl (including higher order electrostatic effects) and θH,Ho and ΨH,Ho,Cl (excluding higher order electrostatic effects) have been determined. These values at T=298.15 K are: SθH,Ho=0.115, ΨH,Ho,Cl=-.071; and θH,Ho=-.663, ΨH,Ho,Cl=0.165. The parameters obtained in this study reproduce the activity coefficients of HCl in the mixtures within 0.015 over the entire range of ionic strengths and within 0.009 for I>=0.05 mol.kg-1 over the entire temperature range

  13. Chemical Potentials, Activity Coefficients, and Solubility in Aqueous NaCl Solutions: Prediction by Polarizable Force Fields.

    Moučka, Filip; Nezbeda, Ivo; Smith, William R

    2015-04-14

    We describe a computationally efficient molecular simulation methodology for calculating the concentration dependence of the chemical potentials of both solute and solvent in aqueous electrolyte solutions, based on simulations of the salt chemical potential alone. We use our approach to study the predictions for aqueous NaCl solutions at ambient conditions of these properties by the recently developed polarizable force fields (FFs) AH/BK3 of Kiss and Baranyai (J. Chem. Phys. 2013, 138, 204507) and AH/SWM4-DP of Lamoureux and Roux (J. Phys. Chem. B 2006, 110, 3308 - 3322) and by the nonpolarizable JC FF of Joung and Cheatham tailored to SPC/E water (J. Phys. Chem. B 2008, 112, 9020 - 9041). We also consider their predictions of the concentration dependence of the electrolyte activity coefficient, the crystalline solid chemical potential, the electrolyte solubility, and the solution specific volume. We first highlight the disagreement in the literature concerning calculations of solubility by means of molecular simulation in the case of the JC FF and provide strong evidence of the correctness of our methodology based on recent independently obtained results for this important test case. We then compare the predictions of the three FFs with each other and with experiment and draw conclusions concerning their relative merits, with particular emphasis on the salt chemical potential and activity coefficient vs concentration curves and their derivatives. The latter curves have only previously been available from Kirkwood-Buff integrals, which require approximate numerical integrations over system pair correlation functions at each concentration. Unlike the case of the other FFs, the AH/BK3 curves are nearly parallel to the corresponding experimental curves at moderate and higher concentrations. This leads to an excellent prediction of the water chemical potential via the Gibbs-Duhem equation and enables the activity coefficient curve to be brought into excellent agreement

  14. Correction method of secondary reflection effects in measurement of electro-optic coefficient in optically active materials

    Lemaire, Ph.; Georges, M.

    1992-07-01

    The propagation of light in linearly birefringent and optically active media, such as Bi 12SiO 20 crystals (BSO), has been widely studied by several workers. Various measurement methods of the electro-optic coefficient r41 have been described. One family of those methods consisting in measurement of the light polarization ellipticity after through the crystal has been analysed. Due to the high reflectivity of such crystals, we show that the effect of the secondary reflections can not be neglected. We present the theoretical description and analysis of this effect for one of these methods and we propose a corrective algorithm.

  15. Measurement of Henry's Law Constant and Infinite Dilution Activity Coefficient of Isopropyl Mercaptan and Isobutyl Stripping Method

    Zin, Rohani Mohd; Coquelet, Christophe; Valtz, Alain; Mutalib, Mohamed I. Abdul; sabil, khalik Mohamad

    2016-01-01

    2 Mercaptan in Methyldiethanolamine (1) + Water (2) with w 1 = 3 0.25 and 0.50 at temperature of 298 to 348K using Inert Gas dilution in a mass fraction of 25%, and 50% of methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) aqueous 19 solution within the temperature range of 298-348 K at atmospheric pressure, were measured. 20 An inert gas stripping method was used to perform all the measurements. The new values of 21 Henry's Law Constant and the activity coefficients in infinite dilution correlation with solute 22 ...

  16. On Implicit Active Constraints in Linear Semi-Infinite Programs with Unbounded Coefficients

    Goberna, M. A., E-mail: mgoberna@ua.es [Alicante University, Dep. of Statistics and Operations Research (Spain); Lancho, G. A., E-mail: lanchoga@mixteco.utm.mx [Universidad Tecnologica de Mixteca, Instituto de Fisica y Matematicas (Mexico); Todorov, M. I., E-mail: maxim.todorov@udlap.mx [UDLA, Dep. of Physics and Mathematics (Mexico); Vera de Serio, V. N., E-mail: vvera@uncu.edu.ar [Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Facultad de Ciencias Economicas, Instituto de Ciencias Basicas (Argentina)

    2011-04-15

    The concept of implicit active constraints at a given point provides useful local information about the solution set of linear semi-infinite systems and about the optimal set in linear semi-infinite programming provided the set of gradient vectors of the constraints is bounded, commonly under the additional assumption that there exists some strong Slater point. This paper shows that the mentioned global boundedness condition can be replaced by a weaker local condition (LUB) based on locally active constraints (active in a ball of small radius whose center is some nominal point), providing geometric information about the solution set and Karush-Kuhn-Tucker type conditions for the optimal solution to be strongly unique. The maintaining of the latter property under sufficiently small perturbations of all the data is also analyzed, giving a characterization of its stability with respect to these perturbations in terms of the strong Slater condition, the so-called Extended-Nuernberger condition, and the LUB condition.

  17. On Implicit Active Constraints in Linear Semi-Infinite Programs with Unbounded Coefficients

    The concept of implicit active constraints at a given point provides useful local information about the solution set of linear semi-infinite systems and about the optimal set in linear semi-infinite programming provided the set of gradient vectors of the constraints is bounded, commonly under the additional assumption that there exists some strong Slater point. This paper shows that the mentioned global boundedness condition can be replaced by a weaker local condition (LUB) based on locally active constraints (active in a ball of small radius whose center is some nominal point), providing geometric information about the solution set and Karush-Kuhn-Tucker type conditions for the optimal solution to be strongly unique. The maintaining of the latter property under sufficiently small perturbations of all the data is also analyzed, giving a characterization of its stability with respect to these perturbations in terms of the strong Slater condition, the so-called Extended-Nürnberger condition, and the LUB condition.

  18. Vapor pressures, osmotic and activity coefficients for (LiBr + acetonitrile) between the temperatures (298.15 and 343.15) K

    Precise vapor pressure data for pure acetonitrile and (LiBr + acetonitrile) are given for temperatures ranging from T=(298.15 to 343.15) K. The molality range is from m=(0.0579 to 0.8298) mol · kg-1. The osmotic coefficients are calculated by taking into account the second virial coefficient of acetonitrile. The parameters of the extended Pitzer ion interaction model of Archer and the mole fraction-based thermodynamic model of Clegg-Pitzer are evaluated. These models accurately reproduce the available osmotic coefficients. The parameters of the extended Pitzer ion interaction model of Archer are used to calculate the mean molal activity coefficients

  19. Estimation of abraham solvation equation coefficients for hydrogen bond formation from abraham solvation parameters for solute activity and basicity

    Noort, van P.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    Abraham solvation equations find widespread use in environmental chemistry and pharmaco-chemistry. The coefficients in these equations, which are solvent (system) descriptors, are usually determined by fitting experimental data. To simplify the determination of these coefficients in Abraham solvatio

  20. Theory for the determination of activity coefficients of strong electrolytes with regard to concentration dependence of hydration numbers

    A new theory of electrolyte solutions is discussed which, as opposed to the Debye-Huckel method valid for relatively small concentrations only, enables one to describe the thermodynamic properties of electrolyte solutions over a wide range of state parameters. The novelty of the proposed theory is that it takes into account the dependence of hydration numbers upon concentration, the fact that failed to attract much attention before. The applicability of the theory to the calculation of activity coefficients of some electrolytes (LiCl, NaCl, KCl, RbCl, and CsCl) is demonstrated. A method is proposed for the determination of the thermodynamic parameters of solvation of separate ions

  1. Prediction of Henry's constant in polymer solutions using PCOR equation of state coupled with an activity coefficient model

    Somayeh Tourani; Alireza Behvandi; Farhad Khorasheh

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the polymer chain of rotator (PCOR) equation of state (EOS) was used together with an EOS/GE mixing rule (MHV1) and the Wilson's equation as an excess-Gibbs-energy model in the proposed approach to extend the capability and improve the accuracy of the PCOR EOS for predicting the Henry's constant of solutions containing polymers. The results of the proposed method compared with two equation of state (van der Waals and GC-Flory) and three activity coefficient models (UNIFAC, UNIFAC-FV and Entropic-FV) indicated that the PCOR EOS/Wilson's equation provided more accurate results. The interaction parameters of Wilson's equation were fitted with Henry's constant experimental data and the property parameters of PCOR, a and b, were fitted with experimental volume data (Tait equation). As a result, the present work provided a simple and useful model for prediction of Henry's constant for polymer solutions.

  2. Osmotic and activity coefficients of aqueous NaTcO4 and NaReO4 solutions at 250C

    Isopiestic vapor-pressure comparison experiments were performed with aqueous binary sodium perchlorate, pertechnetate, and perrhenate solutions to concentrations of approximately 8.5 m. Osmotic coefficients for these solutions and mean molal ionic activity coefficients for NaTcO4 and NaReO4 were derived from the isotonic molalities. Pitzer's treatment was applied to describe the concentration dependence of the osmotic coefficients of NaClO4, NaTcO4, and NaReO4, and the implications of the parameters derived from a least-squares fit are discussed in terms of solvent structure and interionic forces. 4 tables, 1 figure

  3. Vapour pressures, osmotic and activity coefficients for binary mixtures containing (1-ethylpyridinium ethylsulfate + several alcohols) at T = 323.15 K

    Osmotic coefficients of binary mixtures containing several primary and secondary alcohols (1-propanol, 2-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-butanol, and 1-pentanol) and the pyridinium-based ionic liquid 1-ethylpyridinium ethylsulfate were determined at T = 323.15 K using the vapour pressure osmometry technique. From the experimental results, vapour pressure and activity coefficients can be determined. For the correlation of osmotic coefficients, the extended Pitzer model modified by Archer, and the modified NRTL (MNRTL) model were used, obtaining deviations lower than 0.017 and 0.047, respectively. The mean molal activity coefficients and the excess Gibbs free energy for the binary mixtures studied were determined from the parameters obtained with the extended Pitzer model modified by Archer.

  4. Activity Coefficients at Infinite Dilution of Organic Compounds in Trihexyl(tetradecyl)phophonium Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide Using Inverse Gas Chromatography

    Revelli, Anne-Laure [Laboratoire de Thermodynamique des Milieux Polyphases, Nancy-Universite, Nancy, France; Sprunger, Laura [University of North Texas; Gibbs, Jennifer [University of North Texas; Acree, William [University of North Texas; Baker, Gary A [ORNL; Mutelet, Fabrice [Laboratoire de Thermodynamique des Milieux Polyphases, Nancy-Universite, Nancy, France

    2009-01-01

    Activity coefficients at infinite dilution of organic compounds in the ionic liquid (IL) trihexyl(tetradecyl) phosphonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide were determined using inverse gas chromatography at three temperatures, T ) (302.45, 322.35, and 342.45) K. Linear free energy relationship (LFER) correlations have been obtained for describing the gas-to-IL and water-to-IL partition coefficients.

  5. Activity coefficients at infinite dilution of organic solutes in diethylene glycol and triethylene glycol from gas–liquid chromatography

    Highlights: • γ13∞ values reported for 25 organic solutes in the solvents DEG and TEG. • Measurements undertaken using the glc technique at T = (333.2, 348.2, and 363.2) K. • Measurements at elevated temperature possible by pre-saturation of carrier gas. • Comparison of DEG and TEG performance with a number of solvents. -- Abstract: The infinite dilution activity coefficients for 25 hydrocarbon solutes in diethylene glycol (DEG) and triethylene glycol (TEG) were measured using the gas–liquid chromatography technique with pre-saturation of the carrier gas. The hydrocarbon solutes included n-alkanes, alk-1-enes, alk-1-ynes, cycloalkanes, alkylbenzenes and alkanols. At the temperatures at which measurements were conducted, the solvents were volatile, and pre-saturation was considered necessary. The measurements were made at T = (333.2, 348.2 and 363.2) K. Values of the selectivity and capacity relating to DEG and TEG, for two sets of mixtures, which are usually difficult to separate by distillation or solvent extraction, were calculated from the experimental results. The two sets of mixtures were: cyclohexane and benzene; and benzene and methanol. The results obtained in this work were then compared to values for other solvents, at similar temperatures, which were obtained or calculated from literature data

  6. Activity coefficients at infinite dilution of organic solutes in 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoroacetate and influence of interfacial adsorption using gas–liquid chromatography

    Highlights: • Activity coefficients at infinite dilution of organic solutes in [HMIM][TFA] were determined. • The contribution of interfacial adsorption to the retention mechanism was estimated. • The partial molar excess enthalpies and the solubility parameters of [HMIM][TFA] were calculated. -- Abstract: Activity coefficients at infinite dilution for a series of organic solutes in the ionic liquid 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoroacetate ([HMIM][TFA]) have been determined by gas–liquid chromatography at the temperature range from (303.15 to 363.15) K. The contribution of interfacial adsorption to the retention mechanism was estimated by changing the loading of ionic liquid in stationary phase. The partial molar excess enthalpies at infinite dilution and the solubility parameters of ionic liquid were also calculated from the experimental values of activity coefficients at infinite dilution

  7. Traceable mean activity coefficients and osmotic coefficients in aqueous magnesium chloride solutions at T = 298.15 K up to a molality of 3.0 mol · kg−1

    Highlights: • This work reports new equations for thermodynamic activity quantities in aqueous MgCl2 solutions. • The new equations are functionally the same as those obtained previously solutions of CaCl2 and uni-univalent electrolytes. • The new activity and osmotic coefficients are fully traceable and transparent. • These new values were tested thoroughly with existing literature data. -- Abstract: The Hückel equation used in this study for the thermodynamic activity quantities in dilute MgCl2 solutions up to an ionic strength (=Im) of 1.5 mol · kg−1 contains two parameters being dependent on the electrolyte, i.e., those of B and b1. The former is linearly related to the ion-size parameter in the Debye–Hückel equation and the latter is the coefficient of the linear correction term with respect to the molality. For more concentrated solutions up to Im of 9.0 mol · kg−1, an extended Hückel equation was used. For it, the Hückel equation was extended with a quadratic term in molality, and the coefficient of this term is the third parameter b2. Parameters B and b1 for dilute MgCl2 solutions were obtained from the isopiestic data of Robinson and Stokes for solutions of this salt and KCl [Trans. Faraday Soc. 36 (1940) 733] by using the previous Hückel parameters for dilute KCl solutions [J. Chem. Eng. Data 54 (2009) 208]. The resulting parameters for MgCl2 solutions were successfully tested with all isopiestic data available in the literature for dilute solutions of this salt. For less dilute solutions, new values for parameters b1 and b2 were determined for the extended version of the Hückel equation of MgCl2 solutions from the isopiestic data of Rard and Miller [J. Chem. Eng. Data 26 (1981) 38] for NaCl and MgCl2 solutions but the dilute-solution value for parameter B was used. The previous extended Hückel equation for concentrated NaCl solutions was used in this estimation (see the KCl citation above). In the tests of the new parameter values

  8. Phase Equilibria of Mixtures Containing Glycol and n-Alkane: Experimental Study of Infinite Dilution Activity Coefficients and Modeling Using the Cubic-Plus-Association Equation of State

    Afzal, Waheed; Breil, Martin Peter; Théveneau, Pascal;

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we report the infinite dilution activity coefficients for four n-alkanes (n-pentane, n-hexane, n-heptane, and n-octane) in monoethylene glycol in the temperature range from 298 to 334 K and at atmospheric pressure. Experimental data were measured using a previously described inert gas...

  9. Computation of amplification coefficients for multi-component active media in CO/sub 2/ combustion product gas dynamic lasers

    Genich, A.P.; Evtyukhin, N.V.; Kulikov, S.V.; Manelis, G.B.; Solov' eva, M.E.

    1979-01-01

    A study is made of the alpha amplification coefficients of complex multicomponent working media of CO/sub 2/ combustion product gas dynamic lasers that use fuel with the primary composition of C, H, O, and N. Kinetic constants are selected on the basis of a thorough analysis of large sampling of literature data which allows for an adequate description of a variety of experiments for measuring the amplification coefficients in a broad range of gas laser parameters. The computational results are presented in triangular diagrams of C, H, and O with fixed proportion of N in the form of equal lines of amplification coefficients. An analysis is made of the influence that the nozzle, composition, and stopping pressure have on the form of alpha isolines. 26 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  10. Osmotic and Activity Coefficients of the {xZnCl2 + (1 - x)ZnSO4}(aq) System at 298.15 K

    Ninkovic, R; Miladinovic, J; Todorovic, M; Grujic, S; Rard, J A

    2006-06-27

    Isopiestic vapor pressure measurements were made for (xZnCl{sub 2} + (1 - x)ZnSO{sub 4})(aq) solutions with ZnCl{sub 2} molality fractions of x = (0, 0.3062, 0.5730, 0.7969, and 1) at the temperature 298.15 K, using KCl(aq) as the reference standard. These measurements cover the water activity range 0.901-0.919 {le} a{sub w} {le} 0.978. The experimental osmotic coefficients were used to evaluate the parameters of an extended ion-interaction (Pitzer) model for these mixed electrolyte solutions. A similar analysis was made of the available activity data for ZnCl{sub 2}(aq) at 298.15 K, while assuming the presence of equilibrium amounts of ZnCl{sup +}(aq) ion-pairs, to derive the ion-interaction parameters for the hypothetical pure binary electrolytes (Zn{sup 2+}, 2Cl{sup -}) and (ZnCl{sup +},Cl{sup -}). These parameters are required for the analysis of the mixture results. Although significant concentrations of higher-order zinc chloride complexes may also be present in these solutions, it was possible to represent the osmotic coefficients accurately by explicitly including only the predominant complex ZnCl{sup +}(aq) and the completely dissociated ions. The ionic activity coefficients and osmotic coefficients were calculated over the investigated molality range using the evaluated extended Pitzer model parameters.

  11. Vapor pressures and activity coefficients of binary mixtures of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide with acetonitrile and tetrahydrofuran

    Highlights: ► A new apparatus for the determination of VLE is presented. ► The first vapor pressures for binary mixtures containing aprotic solvents in IL are reported. ► Calculated activity coefficients and osmotic coefficients reveal a strong non-ideal behavior. ► A more detailed study of the highly diluted IL concentration range is necessary to test the Debye–Hückel law. - Abstract: A new apparatus for the determination of VLE has been constructed which works for absolute pressure measurements as well as for measuring differential pressures. The first results obtained are (vapor + liquid) equilibria (VLE) of binary mixtures containing acetonitrile or tetrahydrofuran and the ionic liquid (IL) 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide [EMIm][NTf2] by using the absolute pressures method. VLE measurements were carried out over the whole concentration range at four different temperatures between 293.15 K and 313.15 K. Activity coefficients (γ1) of the solvents in [EMIm][NTf2] and their osmotic coefficients (φ1) have been determined from the VLE data.

  12. Activity coefficients at infinite dilution for hydrocarbons in furfuryl alcohol at T=(278.15 and 298.15) K, determined by g.l.c

    The potential of the polar solvent, furfuryl alcohol, as a solvent in the separation of aromatics from aliphatics and other hydrocarbons, has been investigated by measuring activity coefficients at infinite dilution. The activity coefficients at infinite dilution for some alkanes, cycloalkanes, alkenes, alkynes and benzene in furfuryl alcohol have been determined by g.l.c. at T=(278.15 and 298.15) K. The method used is we believe, a more controlled and reliable method than the alternative pre-saturation method. The results have been used to calculate the selectivity factor and hence predict the potential for furfuryl alcohol as a solvent in separating aromatic compounds from aliphatic compounds and other hydrocarbons using extractive distillation. The results have been compared to the recently published work on a related polar solvent - furfural. The excess enthalpies of mixing at infinite dilution have also been calculated

  13. Investigations on systematics of thermodynamic data and comparison of estimation of solubility values among different activity coefficient models for development of thermodynamic database

    Investigations on systematics of thermodynamic data were performed for enhancement of thermodynamic database for performance assessment of geological disposal of high-level radioactive and part of TRU wastes. Correlation between standard free energy of formation and standard enthalpy of formation was investigated, and it was shown that estimation of the standard enthalpy of formation from the standard free energy of formation was possible using the correlation. Three models on systematics of formation constant of actinides were compared and the best model was proposed. It was shown that estimation of formation constants for unpublished actinide species was possible using the model. Furthermore, two models for estimation of activity coefficient which was required to estimate solubility of elements of interest and the estimated activity coefficient were compared. It was found that the estimated solubility values using the one of the two models were 6 times larger/smaller at a maximum than those using the other. It was expected that the estimation of unreported thermodynamic data would enhance thermodynamic database was useful and use of more elaborate activity coefficient model was required to improve the reliability of the performance assessment of geological disposal. (author)

  14. Efficacy Coefficients Determined Using Nail Permeability and Antifungal Activity in Keratin-Containing Media Are Useful for Predicting Clinical Efficacies of Topical Drugs for Onychomycosis.

    Yoshiki Matsuda

    Full Text Available Onychomycosis is difficult to treat topically due to the deep location of the infection under the densely keratinized nail plate. In order to obtain an in vitro index that is relevant to the clinical efficacy of topical anti-onychomycosis drugs, we profiled five topical drugs: amorolfine, ciclopirox, efinaconazole, luliconazole, and terbinafine, for their nail permeabilities, keratin affinities, and anti-dermatophytic activities in the presence of keratin. Efinaconazole and ciclopirox permeated full-thickness human nails more deeply than luliconazole. Amorolfine and terbinafine did not show any detectable permeation. The free-drug concentration of efinaconazole in a 5% human nail keratin suspension was 24.9%, which was significantly higher than those of the other drugs (1.1-3.9%. Additionally, efinaconazole was released from human nail keratin at a greater proportion than the other drugs. The MICs of the five drugs for Trichophyton rubrum were determined at various concentrations of keratin (0-20% in RPMI 1640 medium. The MICs of ciclopirox were not affected by keratin, whereas those of efinaconazole were slightly increased and those of luliconazole and terbinafine were markedly increased in the presence of 20% keratin. Efficacy coefficients were calculated using the nail permeation flux and MIC in media without or with keratin. Efinaconazole showed the highest efficacy coefficient, which was determined using MIC in media with keratin. The order of efficacy coefficients determined using MIC in keratin-containing media rather than keratin-free media was consistent with that of complete cure rates in previously reported clinical trials. The present study revealed that efficacy coefficients determined using MIC in keratin-containing media are useful for predicting the clinical efficacies of topical drugs. In order to be more effective, topical drugs have to possess higher efficacy coefficients.

  15. Efficacy Coefficients Determined Using Nail Permeability and Antifungal Activity in Keratin-Containing Media Are Useful for Predicting Clinical Efficacies of Topical Drugs for Onychomycosis.

    Matsuda, Yoshiki; Sugiura, Keita; Hashimoto, Takashi; Ueda, Akane; Konno, Yoshihiro; Tatsumi, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Onychomycosis is difficult to treat topically due to the deep location of the infection under the densely keratinized nail plate. In order to obtain an in vitro index that is relevant to the clinical efficacy of topical anti-onychomycosis drugs, we profiled five topical drugs: amorolfine, ciclopirox, efinaconazole, luliconazole, and terbinafine, for their nail permeabilities, keratin affinities, and anti-dermatophytic activities in the presence of keratin. Efinaconazole and ciclopirox permeated full-thickness human nails more deeply than luliconazole. Amorolfine and terbinafine did not show any detectable permeation. The free-drug concentration of efinaconazole in a 5% human nail keratin suspension was 24.9%, which was significantly higher than those of the other drugs (1.1-3.9%). Additionally, efinaconazole was released from human nail keratin at a greater proportion than the other drugs. The MICs of the five drugs for Trichophyton rubrum were determined at various concentrations of keratin (0-20%) in RPMI 1640 medium. The MICs of ciclopirox were not affected by keratin, whereas those of efinaconazole were slightly increased and those of luliconazole and terbinafine were markedly increased in the presence of 20% keratin. Efficacy coefficients were calculated using the nail permeation flux and MIC in media without or with keratin. Efinaconazole showed the highest efficacy coefficient, which was determined using MIC in media with keratin. The order of efficacy coefficients determined using MIC in keratin-containing media rather than keratin-free media was consistent with that of complete cure rates in previously reported clinical trials. The present study revealed that efficacy coefficients determined using MIC in keratin-containing media are useful for predicting the clinical efficacies of topical drugs. In order to be more effective, topical drugs have to possess higher efficacy coefficients. PMID:27441843

  16. Isopiestic determination of the osmotic and activity coefficients of the {yKCl + (1 - y)K2HPO4}(aq) system at T = 298.15 K

    Highlights: → Isopiestic measurements were made for {yKCl + (1 - y)K2HPO4}(aq) at T = 298.15 K. → The resulting osmotic coefficients were represented by three thermodynamic models. → Activity coefficients from Pitzer model with Scatchard mixing terms are recommended. - Abstract: The osmotic coefficients of aqueous mixtures of KCl and K2HPO4 have been measured at T = (298.15 ± 0.01) K by the isopiestic vapor pressure method over the range of ionic strengths from (2.3700 to 11.250) mol . kg-1 using CaCl2(aq) as the reference solution. Our new experimental results were modeled with an extended form of Pitzer's ion-interaction model equations, both with the usual mixing terms and with Scatchard's neutral-electrolyte mixing terms, and with the Clegg-Pitzer-Brimblecombe equations based on the mole-fraction-composition scale. There is a dearth of previously published isopiestic data for mixtures containing salts of HPO42-(aq) and, consequently, no previous measurements are available for comparison with the present results. The present study yields Cl-HPO42- mixing parameters for these three models that are needed for modeling the thermodynamic activities of solute components of natural waters and other complex aqueous electrolyte mixtures.

  17. Measurements of activity coefficients at infinite dilution for organic solutes and water in the ionic liquid 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium tricyanomethanide

    Highlights: • Measurements of activity coefficients at infinite dilution using GLC. • 62 organic solvents and water in the ionic liquid 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium tricyanomethanide. • High capacity for thiophene, 1.37 at T = 328.15 K. • Possible entrainer for extraction of sulfur, or nitrogen compounds from fuels. • The excess thermodynamic functions and the gas–liquid partition coefficients were calculated. -- Abstract: The activity coefficients at infinite dilution, γ13∞, for 62 solutes, including alkanes, cycloalkanes, alkenes, alkynes, aromatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, water, thiophene, ethers, ketones, acetonitrile, pyridine and 1-nitropropane in the ionic liquid 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium tricyanomethanide, [BMPYR][TCM] were determined by gas–liquid chromatography at six temperatures over the range of (318.15 to 368.15) K. The partial molar excess Gibbs free energy, ΔG1E∞, enthalpy ΔH1E∞, and entropy term TrefΔS1E,∞ at infinite dilution were calculated from the experimental γ13∞ values obtained over the temperature range. The densities of [BMPYR][TCM] were measured within temperature range from 318.15 K to 368.15 K. The gas–liquid partition coefficients, KL were calculated for all solutes. The values of selectivity for few separation problems as hexane/benzene, cyclohexane/benzene, heptane/thiophene were calculated from γ13∞ and compared to literature values for N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP), sulfolane, and other ionic liquids based on [BMPYR]+ cation. In comparison with the former measured ILs, [BMPYR][TCM] present quite high selectivity for the separation of aromatic hydrocarbons and aliphatics hydrocarbons, an average capacity for benzene. The data presented here shows that [BMPYR][TCM] ionic liquid can be used as an alternative solvent for the separation of thiophene from the aliphatic hydrocarbons

  18. Feasibility of Influencing the Dynamic Fluid Film Coefficients of a Multirecess Journal Bearing by means of Active Hybrid Lubrication

    Santos, Ilmar; Watanabe, F. Y.

    2003-01-01

    The main objective of this research project is the investigation of multirecess hydrostatic journal bearings with active hybrid (hydrostatic and hydrodynamic) lubrication. This paper gives a theoretical contribution to the modeling of this kind of bearing, combining computational fluid dynamics a...... significant modifications of active hybrid forces, which can be useful while reducing vibration and stabilizing rotating machines.......The main objective of this research project is the investigation of multirecess hydrostatic journal bearings with active hybrid (hydrostatic and hydrodynamic) lubrication. This paper gives a theoretical contribution to the modeling of this kind of bearing, combining computational fluid dynamics and...

  19. Henry's constants and infinite dilution activity coefficients of propane, propene, butane, isobutane, 1-butene, isobutene, trans-2-butene, and 1,3-butadiene in isobutanol and tert-butanol

    The Henry's constants and the infinite dilution activity coefficients of propane, propene, butane, isobutane, 1-butene, isobutene, trans-2-butene and 1,3-butadiene in isobutanol at T = (250 to 330) K and tert-butanol at T (300 to 330) K are measured by a gas stripping method. The rigorous formula for evaluating the Henry's constants from the gas stripping measurements is used for data reduction of these highly volatile mixtures. The accuracy of the measurements is about 2% for Henry's constants and 3% for the estimated infinite dilution activity coefficients. In the evaluations for the infinite dilution activity coefficients, the nonideality of the solute such as the fugacity coefficient and the Pointing correction is not negligible, especially at higher temperatures, and the estimation uncertainty in the infinite dilution activity coefficients includes 1% for nonideality

  20. Henry's law constants and infinite dilution activity coefficients of propane, propene, butane, isobutane, 1-butene, isobutene, trans-2-butene, and 1,3-butadiene in 1-pentanol, 2-pentanol, and 3-pentanol

    Henry's law constants and infinite dilution activity coefficients of propane, propene, butane, isobutane, 1-butene, isobutene, trans-2-butene, and 1,3-butadiene in 1-pentanol, 2-pentanol in the temperature range of (250 to 330) K and 3-pentanol in the temperature range of (260 to 330) K were measured by a gas stripping method. A rigorous formula for evaluating the Henry's law constants from the gas stripping measurements was used for the data reduction of these highly volatile mixtures. The uncertainty is about 2% for the Henry's law constants and 3% for the estimated infinite dilution activity coefficients. In the evaluation of the infinite dilution activity coefficients, the nonideality of the solute such as the fugacity coefficient and Pointing correction factor cannot be neglected, especially at higher temperatures. The estimated uncertainty of the infinite dilution activity coefficients includes 1% for nonideality

  1. The activity of γ-emitters as measured by ionisation chambers the determination of the specific emission coefficient γ for some radio-elements (1961)

    The object of this work is to study techniques of measurement using the gamma ionisation chamber, making it possible either to measure the activities of radioactive sources, or to determine the specific emission coefficient γ (or the coefficient K) of a given radioelement. The ionisation chambers studied belong to two categories: graphites cavity-chambers, and 4 π γ chambers. For the cavity-chamber measurements, the different correction factors of which account must be taken have been calculated, in particular the geometric and hygrometric corrections. The absorption and auto-absorption corrections have led to the introduction of the notion of the 'effective energy γ' of a radioelement. In the case of 4 π γ chambers, it has been shown that appropriately shaped electrodes make it possible to improve their performances. One of the chambers described permits the measurement of β emitters using the associated Bremsstrahlung. In order to measure the K coefficient of some radioelements, it has been found useful a 4 π γ chamber with graphite walls, the measurement being carried out by comparison with a radium standard. The validity of the method was checked with radioelements for whom the K coefficient values are well-known (24Na, 60Co, 131I, 198Au). For other radioelements, the following values were obtained (expressed in r cm3 mc-1 h-1): 51Cr: 0,18; 56Mn: 8,8; 65Zn: 3,05; 124Sb: 9,9; 134Cs: 9,3; 137Cs: 3,35; 141Ce: 0,46; 170Tm: 0,023; 192Ir: 24,9; 203Hg: 1,18; These values have been corrected for the contribution to the dose of the fluorescent radiation which may be emitted by the source, except in the case of Tm170. In the last part of this work, the performances of the different electro-metric devices used were compared. (author)

  2. Active Control of Fan Noise: Feasibility Study. Volume 5; Numerical Computation of Acoustic Mode Reflection Coefficients for an Unflanged Cylindrical Duct

    Kraft, R. E.

    1996-01-01

    A computational method to predict modal reflection coefficients in cylindrical ducts has been developed based on the work of Homicz, Lordi, and Rehm, which uses the Wiener-Hopf method to account for the boundary conditions at the termination of a thin cylindrical pipe. The purpose of this study is to develop a computational routine to predict the reflection coefficients of higher order acoustic modes impinging on the unflanged termination of a cylindrical duct. This effort was conducted wider Task Order 5 of the NASA Lewis LET Program, Active Noise Control of aircraft Engines: Feasibility Study, and will be used as part of the development of an integrated source noise, acoustic propagation, ANC actuator coupling, and control system algorithm simulation. The reflection coefficient prediction will be incorporated into an existing cylindrical duct modal analysis to account for the reflection of modes from the duct termination. This will provide a more accurate, rapid computation design tool for evaluating the effect of reflected waves on active noise control systems mounted in the duct, as well as providing a tool for the design of acoustic treatment in inlet ducts. As an active noise control system design tool, the method can be used preliminary to more accurate but more numerically intensive acoustic propagation models such as finite element methods. The resulting computer program has been shown to give reasonable results, some examples of which are presented. Reliable data to use for comparison is scarce, so complete checkout is difficult, and further checkout is needed over a wider range of system parameters. In future efforts the method will be adapted as a subroutine to the GEAE segmented cylindrical duct modal analysis program.

  3. Activity coefficients and excess Gibbs' free energy of some binary mixtures formed by p-cresol at 95.23 kPa

    Bubble point temperatures at 95.23 kPa, over the entire composition range are measured for the binary mixtures formed by p-cresol with 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, and o- , m- , and p-xylenes, making use of a Swietoslawski-type ebulliometer. Liquid phase mole fraction (x 1) versus bubble point temperature (T) measurements are found to be well represented by the Wilson model. The optimum Wilson parameters are used to calculate the vapor phase composition, activity coefficients, and excess Gibbs free energy. The results are discussed

  4. Critical Assessment of P2O5 Activity Coefficients in CaO-based Slags during Dephosphorization Process of Iron-based Melts

    Yang, Xue-min; Li, Jin-yan; Chai, Guo-Ming; Duan, Dong-ping; Zhang, Jian

    2016-08-01

    According to the experimental results of hot metal dephosphorization by CaO-based slags at a commercial-scale hot metal pretreatment station, activity a_{{{{P}}_{ 2} {{O}}_{ 5} }} of P2O5 in the CaO-based slags has been determined using the calculated comprehensive mass action concentration N_{{{{Fe}}t {{O}}}}{} of iron oxides by the ion and molecule coexistence theory (IMCT) for representing the reaction ability of Fe t O, i.e., activity of a_{{{{Fe}}t {{O}}}}{} . The collected ten models from the literature for predicting activity coefficient γ_{{{{P}}_{ 2} {{O}}_{ 5} }} of P2O5 in CaO-based slags have been evaluated based on the determined activity a_{{{{P}}_{ 2} {{O}}_{ 5} }} of P2O5 by the IMCT as the criterion. The collected ten models of activity coefficient γ_{{{{P}}_{ 2} {{O}}_{ 5} }} of P2O5 in CaO-based slags can be described in the form of a linear function as log γ_{{{{P}}_{ 2} {{O}}_{ 5} }} ≡ y = c0 + c1 x , in which independent variable x represents the chemical composition of slags, intercept c0 including the constant term depicts temperature effect and other unmentioned or acquiescent thermodynamic factors, and slope c1 is regressed by the experimental results. Thus, a general approach for obtaining good prediction results of activity a_{{{{P}}_{ 2} {{O}}_{ 5} }} of P2O5 in CaO-based slags is proposed by revising the constant term in intercept c0 for the collected ten models. The better models with an ideal revising possibility or flexibility in the collected ten models have been selected and recommended.

  5. Classification of alpha-active workplace aerosols based on coefficient of transportability as measured by the dialysis method

    This report describes a method by which potentially inhaled workplace aerosols containing plutonium compounds are classified on the basis of measured transportability in Ringer's solution. It is suggested that the criterion 'transportability' be used in the ICRP respiratory tract model. Transportability is measured as the fraction of plutonium alpha activity, deposited on a collecting filter, that passes through a semi-permeable membrane in Ringer's physiological solution during two days of dialysis. First order kinetic equations are used for explanation of dialysis results. The dissolution characteristics of alpha-active aerosols are important in interpretation of their passage from the lungs after inhalation. (author)

  6. Effect of particle size on dc conductivity, activation energy and diffusion coefficient of lithium iron phosphate in Li-ion cells

    T.V.S.L. Satyavani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cathode materials in nano size improve the performance of batteries due to the increased reaction rate and short diffusion lengths. Lithium Iron Phosphate (LiFePO4 is a promising cathode material for Li-ion batteries. However, it has its own limitations such as low conductivity and low diffusion coefficient which lead to high impedance due to which its application is restricted in batteries. In the present work, increase of conductivity with decreasing particle size of LiFePO4/C is studied. Also, the dependence of conductivity and activation energy for hopping of small polaron in LiFePO4/C on variation of particle size is investigated. The micro sized cathode material is ball milled for different durations to reduce the particle size to nano level. The material is characterized for its structure and particle size. The resistivities/dc conductivities of the pellets are measured using four probe technique at different temperatures, up to 150 °C. The activation energies corresponding to different particle sizes are calculated using Arrhenius equation. CR2032 cells are fabricated and electrochemical characteristics, namely, ac impedance and diffusion coefficients, are studied.

  7. Activity coefficients at infinite dilution of organic solutes in N-formylmorpholine and N-methylpyrrolidone from gas–liquid chromatography

    Highlights: ► γ13∞ values reported for 25 organic solutes in the solvents NMP and NFM. ► Measurements undertaken using the glc technique at T = (333.2, 348.2, and 363.2) K. ► Measurements at elevated temperature possible by pre-saturation of carrier gas. ► Comparison of NMP and NFM performance with a number of solvents. -- Abstract: The infinite dilution activity coefficients for 25 solutes (n-alkanes, alk-1-enes, alk-1-ynes, cycloalkanes, alkylbenzenes and alcohols) were measured in N-formylmorpholine (NFM) and N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP). This was performed using the gas–liquid chromatography (glc) technique with pre-saturation of the carrier gas. The solvents that were used had significant vapour pressures at the measured temperatures and therefore pre-saturation was necessary to mitigate against solvent loss from the column. Measurements were undertaken at three temperatures, viz. T = (333.2, 348.2, and 363.2) K. The selectivities and capacities for some industrial systems of interest, typically those which are quite difficult to separate via normal distillation, were calculated from the experimental results. The activity coefficients, selectivities and capacities are discussed and compared. The work was conducted to investigate the possibility of using the studied solvents in separating alkanes (such as cyclohexane) from aromatic compounds (such as benzene) and also separating aromatic compounds (such as benzene) from alkanols (such as methanol)

  8. Thermodynamics and activity coefficients at infinite dilution for organic solutes, water and diols in the ionic liquid choline bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Measurements of activity coefficients at infinite dilution using GLC. • 63 Solvents including water and 6 diols in the ionic liquid choline bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide. • High selectivity for thiophene/heptane and pyridine/heptane separation. • The excess thermodynamic functions and the (gas + liquid) partition coefficients were calculated. - Abstract: The activity coefficients at infinite dilution, γ13∞, for 63 solutes, including alkanes, cycloalkanes, alkenes, alkynes, aromatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, water, thiophene, ethers, ketones, esters, aldehyde, acetonitrile, pyridine and 1-nitropropane and 6 diols in the ionic liquid (IL) choline bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, [N1112OH][NTf2] were determined by (gas + liquid) chromatography at six temperatures in range of (318.15 to 368.15) K and at three temperatures for diols in the range of (388.15 to 418.15) K. The thermodynamic functions at infinite dilution as partial molar excess Gibbs free energy, ΔG1E,∞, enthalpy ΔH1E,∞, and entropy term TrefΔS1E,∞ were calculated from the experimental γ13∞ values obtained over the temperature range. The density of [N1112OH][NTf2] was measured within temperature range (313.15 to 353.15) K. The (gas + liquid) partition coefficient KL was calculated for all solutes. The values of selectivity and capacity for a few separation problems as hexane/benzene, cyclohexane/benzene, heptane/thiophene at T = 328.15 K were calculated from γ13∞ and compared to literature values for similar ionic liquids, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP), and sulfolane. In comparison with the former measured ammonium-based ILs and the morpholinium-based ILs, the [N1112OH][NTf2] shows average selectivity for the separation of aromatic hydrocarbons, or sulfur compound from aliphatic hydrocarbons, and very high selectivity for pyridine/heptane separation. New data show that [N1112OH][NTf2] IL may be proposed as an alternative solvent for the

  9. Ant Colony Optimization as a Powerful Tool for Descriptor Selection in QSPR Study of Infinite Dilution Activity Coefficients of Halogenated Hydrocarbons in Water

    Morteza Atabati

    2012-01-01

    A quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) study was suggested for the prediction of infinite dilution activity coefficients of halogenated hydrocarbons, γ∞ , in water at 298.15 K. After optimization of 3D geometry of the halogenated hydrocarbons with semi-empirical quantum chemical calculations at the AM1 level, different descriptors (1514 descriptors) were calculated by the HyperChem and Dragon softwares. A major problem of QSPR is the high dimensionality of the descriptor space; therefore, descriptor selection is the most important step. In this paper, an ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithm was proposed to select the best descriptors. Then the selected descriptors were applied for model development using multiple linear regression. The average absolute relative deviation and correlation coefficient for the training set were obtained as 4.36% and 0.951, respectively, while the corresponding values for the test set were 5.96% and 0.929, respectively. The results showed that the applied procedure is suitable for the prediction of γ∞ of halogenated hydrocarbons in water.

  10. 水-DMF-NaCl系统活度系数和粘度测定%Measurement of Activity Coefficient and Viscosity of Water-DMF-NaCl Mixture

    秦原; 虞大红; 胡伟; 刘洪来; 胡英

    2001-01-01

    利用电池电动势法测定了298.15K下NaCl在不同DMF含量的水-DMF混合溶剂中的活度系数。结果表明,随着混合溶剂中DMF含量的增加NaCl的活度系数减小。测定了水-DMF-NaCl混合物在不同温度下的粘度。%Activity coefficients of NaCl in water-N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) mixed solvents are determined at 298.15K by EMF measurement with sodium ion selective electrode and Ag-AgCl electrode. It is shown that the activity coefficient of NaCl decrease with the increase of concentration of DMF in mixed solvents. The viscosities of water-DMF-NaCl ternary system at different temperature have also been measured. The experimental viscosities have been correlated by using pseudo-binary solute aggregation model presented by Liu et al. The mean deviation between calculated results and experimental data is 2.5%.

  11. Effect of Silicon on Activity Coefficients of Siderophile Elements (P, Au, Pd, As, Ge, Sb, and In) in Liquid Fe, with Application to Core Formation

    Righter, K.; Pando, K.; Danielson, L. R.; Humayun, M.; Righter, M.; Lapen, T.; Boujibar, A.

    2016-01-01

    Earth's core contains approximately 10 percent light elements that are likely a combination of S, C, Si, and O, with Si possibly being the most abundant. Si dissolved into Fe liquids can have a large effect on the magnitude of the activity coefficient of siderophile elements (SE) in Fe liquids, and thus the partitioning behavior of those elements between core and mantle. The effect of Si can be small such as for Ni and Co, or large such as for Mo, Ge, Sb, As. The effect of Si on many siderophile elements is unknown yet could be an important, and as yet unquantified, influence on the core-mantle partitioning of SE. Here we report new experiments designed to quantify the effect of Si on the partitioning of P, Au, Pd, and many other SE between metal and silicate melt. The results will be applied to Earth, for which we have excellent constraints on the mantle siderophile element concentrations.

  12. Henry’s constants and activity coefficients of some organic solutes in 1-butyl,3-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate and in 1-methyl,3-trimethylsilylmethylimidazolium chloride

    Highlights: ► New solubility data are reported for two ionic liquids. ► Density data are reported. ► Thermo-gravimetric analysis data are obtained. - Abstract: Using a customized capillary gas–liquid chromatography column, Henry’s constants and activity coefficients at infinite dilution are reported for benzene, toluene, ethyl acetate, 1,4-dioxane, 1,2-dimethoxyethane, acetonitrile, nitromethane, tetrahydrofuran, chloroform, methanol, ethanol, and 1-propanol in ionic liquids 1-butyl,3-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate [BMIM][HSO4] and 1-methyl,3-trimethylsilylmethylimidazolium [SiMIM][Cl] chloride from 313 to 413 K. These acidic ionic liquids may provide suitable media for acid-catalyzed chemical reactions.

  13. Osmotic and activity coefficients in the binary solutions of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride and bromide in methanol or ethanol at T = 298.15 K from isopiestic measurements

    Highlights: → The osmotic coefficients of the solutions of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride and bromide in ethanol and methanol have been measured. → Measured osmotic coefficients were correlated using NRTL and Pitzer models. → Vapor pressures were evaluated from the correlated osmotic coefficients. → Model parameters have been interpreted in terms of ion-ion and ion-solvent interactions. - Abstract: Osmotic coefficients of the binary solutions of two room-temperature ionic liquids (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride and bromide) in methanol and ethanol have been measured at T = 298.15 K by the isopiestic method. The experimental osmotic coefficient data have been correlated using a forth-order polynomial in terms of (molality)0.5, with both, ion interaction model of Pitzer and electrolyte non-random two liquid (e-NRTL) model of Chen. The values of vapor pressures of above-mentioned solutions have been calculated from the osmotic coefficients. The model parameters fitted to the experimental osmotic coefficients have been used for prediction of the mean ionic activity coefficients of those ionic liquids in methanol and ethanol.

  14. Coefficients for Interrater Agreement.

    Zegers, Frits E.

    1991-01-01

    The degree of agreement between two raters rating several objects for a single characteristic can be expressed through an association coefficient, such as the Pearson product-moment correlation. How to select an appropriate association coefficient, and the desirable properties and uses of a class of such coefficients--the Euclidean…

  15. Determination of infinite dilution activity coefficients using HS-SPME/GC/FID for hydrocarbons in furfural at temperatures of (298.15, 308.15, and 318.15) K

    Highlights: ► Two approaches were proposed using SPME on determination of infinite dilution activity coefficients. ► Infinite dilution activity coefficients of nine solutes in solvent furfural at T = (298.15, 308.15, and 318.15) K. ► Fiber–gas partition coefficients of nine solutes on PDMS at T = (298.15, 308.15, and 318.15) K. ► Optical microscopy analysis and statistical tests to measure possible damages on fiber coating. ► Advantages and limitations of methodology proposed were discussed. - Abstract: A new methodology using the headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) technique has been used to evaluate the infinite dilution activity coefficient (γ12∞) of nine hydrocarbons (alkanes, cycloalkanes, and aromatics) in furfural solvent. The main objective of this study was to validate a faster and lower cost methodology expanding the use of HS-SPME to determine infinite dilution activity of solutes in organic solvents. Two approaches were proposed for the determination of γ12∞ in order to use this technique (HS-SPME). In addition, the fiber–gas partition coefficients (Kfg) for each analyte at each of the studied temperatures were determined. The activity and partition coefficients have been reported at temperatures of (298.15, 308.15, and 318.15) K. The data were compared with the literature infinite dilution data determined by other methods such as liquid–gas chromatography (GLC) and gas stripping. Partial molar excess enthalpies of mixing at infinite dilution for each solute have been determined. The fibers were tested before and after each experiment, using statistical methods to ensure that their properties do not change during the experiments. The fibers were also analyzed by optical microscopy to evaluate possible surface damage by comparing them with new fibers. The activity coefficient values correlated well with the data in the literature and showed average deviations less than 10%.

  16. Thermodynamics of proton binding and weak (Cl−, Na+ and K+) species formation, and activity coefficients of 1,2-dimethyl-3-hydroxypyridin-4-one (deferiprone)

    Graphical abstract: Trend of the deferiprone protonation constant (log K1H) vs. ionic strength (in the molal concentration scale) in NaCl (□), KCl (Δ) and (CH3)4NCl (○), at T = 298.15 K. - Highlights: • Thermodynamics, solubility and distribution of deferiprone in NaCl, KCl and (CH3)4NCl. • Deferiprone total solubility is 0.100 mol · dm−3 in pure water and shows salting out. • The protonation process is entropic for the first step and enthalpic for the second. • Debye–Hückel, SIT and Pitzer approaches used for modelling of protonation constants. • Formation constants of three weak species were determined, Nadef, Kdef and H2defCl. - Abstract: The acid base properties of 1,2-dimethyl-3-hydroxypyridin-4-one (also known as deferiprone, def, figure 1), together with the solubility and the distribution ratio have been studied potentiometrically at different temperatures and ionic strengths in NaCl, KCl and in (CH3)4NCl aqueous solutions. The total solubility of deferiprone is fairly high (0.100 mol · dm−3 in pure water) and decreases with increasing salt concentration (salting out effect); this behaviour is greater in NaCl than in (CH3)4NCl aqueous solutions. From the analysis of the solubility and the distribution measurements it was possible to determine the Setschenow and the activity coefficients of the neutral species. Deferiprone shows two protonation steps, whose protonation constants are logK1H=10.088 and logK2H=3.656 at infinite dilution and T = 298.15 K. The ionic strength dependence of the protonation constants was interpreted both in terms of variation of the activity coefficients, using the Debye–Hückel, the SIT (Specific ion Interaction Theory) and the Pitzer approaches, or considering the formation of weak species with the ions of the supporting electrolyte (e.g. Na+, K+ and Cl−). Moreover, temperature gradients were provided for the two protonation constants. The stepwise protonation enthalpy values are negative in all cases

  17. Activity coefficients at infinite dilution of organic solutes in the ionic liquid trihexyltetradecylphosphonium bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide using gas–liquid chromatography at T = (313.15, 333.15, 353.15 and 373.15) K

    Highlights: • Activity coefficients at infinite dilution measured in the ionic liquid [3C6C14P][BTI]. • 22 solutes investigated at T = (313.15, 333.15, 353.15, 373.15) K using glc. • Selectivities and capacities for selected separations compared to other IL’s and solvents. -- Abstract: Activity coefficients at infinite dilution for organic solutes, which include n-alkanes, alk-1-enes, alk-1-ynes, cycloalkanes, alkylbenzenes, alcohols and ketones, in the ionic liquid trihexyltetradecylphosphonium bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide were measured by gas–liquid chromatography using the latter as the stationary phase. This ionic liquid had previously been studied and reported in literature; however due to significant discrepancies in the reported infinite activity coefficient values, there was justification for further study and reporting. The temperature range investigated in this study is significantly wider and at higher temperatures than presented previously in the literature. From the experimental infinite dilution activity coefficient data at the four different temperatures T = (313.15, 333.15, 353.15 and 373.15) K, partial molar excess enthalpies at infinite dilution were calculated. Values of the selectivity for hexane/benzene and methanol/benzene separations were determined from experimental values of the activity coefficients at infinite dilution and these results were compared to literature values for other ionic liquids, as well as for industrial solvents. The capacities were also determined as it gives an indication of the solvent extraction behavior of the ionic liquid

  18. Activity coefficients at infinite dilution of hydrocarbons, alkylbenzenes, and alcohols in the paramagnetic ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium tetrachloridoferrate(III) using gas-liquid chromatography

    Activity coefficients at infinite dilution γi∞ of alkanes, alkenes, and alkylbenzenes as well as of the linear C1-C6 alcohols in the paramagnetic ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium tetrachloridoferrate(III) have been determined by gas chromatography using the ionic liquids as stationary phase. The measurements were carried out at different temperatures between (305 and 403) K. From the temperature dependence of the limiting activity coefficients partial molar excess enthalpies at infinite dilution HiE,∞ of the solutes in the ionic liquids have been derived. Activity coefficients at infinite dilution γi∞ of ionic liquid with the ionic liquids containing 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium cation and different non-magnetic anions have been compared at 298 K with results for 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium tetrachloridoferrate(III). No significant effects caused by the paramagnetic anion anion have been observed

  19. The CPA Equation of State and an Activity Coefficient Model for Accurate Molar Enthalpy Calculations of Mixtures with Carbon Dioxide and Water/Brine

    Myint, P. C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hao, Y. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Firoozabadi, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-03-27

    Thermodynamic property calculations of mixtures containing carbon dioxide (CO2) and water, including brines, are essential in theoretical models of many natural and industrial processes. The properties of greatest practical interest are density, solubility, and enthalpy. Many models for density and solubility calculations have been presented in the literature, but there exists only one study, by Spycher and Pruess, that has compared theoretical molar enthalpy predictions with experimental data [1]. In this report, we recommend two different models for enthalpy calculations: the CPA equation of state by Li and Firoozabadi [2], and the CO2 activity coefficient model by Duan and Sun [3]. We show that the CPA equation of state, which has been demonstrated to provide good agreement with density and solubility data, also accurately calculates molar enthalpies of pure CO2, pure water, and both CO2-rich and aqueous (H2O-rich) mixtures of the two species. It is applicable to a wider range of conditions than the Spycher and Pruess model. In aqueous sodium chloride (NaCl) mixtures, we show that Duan and Sun’s model yields accurate results for the partial molar enthalpy of CO2. It can be combined with another model for the brine enthalpy to calculate the molar enthalpy of H2O-CO2-NaCl mixtures. We conclude by explaining how the CPA equation of state may be modified to further improve agreement with experiments. This generalized CPA is the basis of our future work on this topic.

  20. In Silico Calculation of Infinite Dilution Activity Coefficients of Molecular Solutes in Ionic Liquids: Critical Review of Current Methods and New Models Based on Three Machine Learning Algorithms.

    Paduszyński, Kamil

    2016-08-22

    The aim of the paper is to address all the disadvantages of currently available models for calculating infinite dilution activity coefficients (γ(∞)) of molecular solutes in ionic liquids (ILs)-a relevant property from the point of view of many applications of ILs, particularly in separations. Three new models are proposed, each of them based on distinct machine learning algorithm: stepwise multiple linear regression (SWMLR), feed-forward artificial neural network (FFANN), and least-squares support vector machine (LSSVM). The models were established based on the most comprehensive γ(∞) data bank reported so far (>34 000 data points for 188 ILs and 128 solutes). Following the paper published previously [J. Chem. Inf. Model 2014, 54, 1311-1324], the ILs were treated in terms of group contributions, whereas the Abraham solvation parameters were used to quantify an impact of solute structure. Temperature is also included in the input data of the models so that they can be utilized to obtain temperature-dependent data and thus related thermodynamic functions. Both internal and external validation techniques were applied to assess the statistical significance and explanatory power of the final correlations. A comparative study of the overall performance of the investigated SWMLR/FFANN/LSSVM approaches is presented in terms of root-mean-square error and average absolute relative deviation between calculated and experimental γ(∞), evaluated for different families of ILs and solutes, as well as between calculated and experimental infinite dilution selectivity for separation problems benzene from n-hexane and thiophene from n-heptane. LSSVM is shown to be a method with the lowest values of both training and generalization errors. It is finally demonstrated that the established models exhibit an improved accuracy compared to the state-of-the-art model, namely, temperature-dependent group contribution linear solvation energy relationship, published in 2011 [J. Chem

  1. Transport Coefficients of Fluids

    Eu, Byung Chan

    2006-01-01

    Until recently the formal statistical mechanical approach offered no practicable method for computing the transport coefficients of liquids, and so most practitioners had to resort to empirical fitting formulas. This has now changed, as demonstrated in this innovative monograph. The author presents and applies new methods based on statistical mechanics for calculating the transport coefficients of simple and complex liquids over wide ranges of density and temperature. These molecular theories enable the transport coefficients to be calculated in terms of equilibrium thermodynamic properties, and the results are shown to account satisfactorily for experimental observations, including even the non-Newtonian behavior of fluids far from equilibrium.

  2. The Randomized Dependence Coefficient

    Lopez-Paz, David; Hennig, Philipp; Schölkopf, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    We introduce the Randomized Dependence Coefficient (RDC), a measure of non-linear dependence between random variables of arbitrary dimension based on the Hirschfeld-Gebelein-R\\'enyi Maximum Correlation Coefficient. RDC is defined in terms of correlation of random non-linear copula projections; it is invariant with respect to marginal distribution transformations, has low computational cost and is easy to implement: just five lines of R code, included at the end of the paper.

  3. Do Fresnel coefficients exist?

    Felbacq, D; Guizal, B.; F Zolla

    2001-01-01

    The starting point of the article is the puzzling fact that one cannot recover the Fresnel coefficients by letting tend the width of a slab to infinity. Without using the so-called limiting absorption principle, we show by a convenient limit analysis that it is possible to define rigorously the field diffracted by a semi-infinite periodic medium.

  4. THE ANALYSIS OF THE CORRELATION BETWEEN THE LEVEL OF THE BANK FEES FOR CARDS AND THE NUMBER OF ACTIVE CARDS, CONDUCTED WITH THE HELP OF THE „PEARSON†COEFFICIENT

    Iuga Iulia

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of human society in all areas, and especially the economic field,required the banking offer to adapt to new requirements, which called for the modernization andthe development of the services provided by the bank to its customers, but also becoming close tothem. The goal we set with this article is to examine in terms of methodology the correlation between thenumber of active cards and the fees level with PEARSON coefficient. It is study the level of feespracticed by Raiffeisen ...

  5. The Truth About Ballistic Coefficients

    Courtney, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The ballistic coefficient of a bullet describes how it slows in flight due to air resistance. This article presents experimental determinations of ballistic coefficients showing that the majority of bullets tested have their previously published ballistic coefficients exaggerated from 5-25% by the bullet manufacturers. These exaggerated ballistic coefficients lead to inaccurate predictions of long range bullet drop, retained energy and wind drift.

  6. Converting Sabine absorption coefficients to random incidence absorption coefficients

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2013-01-01

    Absorption coefficients measured by the chamber method are referred to as Sabine absorption coefficients, which sometimes exceed unity due to the finite size of a sample and non-uniform intensity in the reverberation chambers under test. In this study, conversion methods from Sabine absorption...... coefficients to random incidence absorption coefficients are proposed. The overestimations of the Sabine absorption coefficient are investigated theoretically based on Miki's model for porous absorbers backed by a rigid wall or an air cavity, resulting in conversion factors. Additionally, three optimizations...

  7. On the Kendall Correlation Coefficient

    Stepanov, Alexei

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper, we first discuss the Kendall rank correlation coefficient. In continuous case, we define the Kendall rank correlation coefficient in terms of the concomitants of order statistics, find the expected value of the Kendall rank correlation coefficient and show that the later is free of n. We also prove that in continuous case the Kendall correlation coefficient converges in probability to its expected value. We then propose to consider the expected value of the Kendall rank ...

  8. WEIR COEFFICIENT FOR CYLINDRICAL WEIRS

    Senayi DÖNMEZ

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the weir coefficient for cylindrical weirs was experimentally investigated. Experiments were conducted for both free and submerged overflow conditions. Experimental results have indicated that the weir coefficient is about 3.50-3.80 for the free overflow condition. The weir coefficient for the submerged overflow condition varies with the amount of submergence.

  9. VHTRC temperature coefficient benchmark problem

    As an activity of IAEA Coordinated Research Programme, a benchmark problem is proposed for verifications of neutronic calculation codes for a low enriched uranium fuel high temperature gas-cooled reactor. Two problems are given on the base of heating experiments at the VHTRC which is a pin-in-block type core critical assembly loaded mainly with 4% enriched uranium coated particle fuel. One problem, VH1-HP, asks to calculate temperature coefficient of reactivity from the subcritical reactivity values at five temperature steps between an room temperature where the assembly is nearly at critical state and 200degC. The other problem, VH1-HC, asks to calculate the effective multiplication factor of nearly critical loading cores at the room temperature and 200degC. Both problems further ask to calculate cell parameters such as migration area and spectral indices. Experimental results corresponding to main calculation items are also listed for comparison. (author)

  10. Transfer coefficients for terrestrial foodchains

    Transfer coefficients to predict the passage of isotopes from the environment to terrestrial foods have been derived for various radionuclides of importance in the nuclear fuel cycle. These data update and extend previously recommended handbook values. We derive transfer coefficients to terrestrial foods and describe the systematics of the derived transfer coefficients. Suggestions are offered for changes in the values of transfer coefficients to terrestrial foods that now appear in federal regulatory guides. Deficiencies in our present knowledge concerning transfer coefficients and limitations in the use of these values to ensure compliance with radiation protection standards are discussed. (orig.) 891 HP/orig. 892 MB

  11. Drag Coefficient of Hexadecane Particles

    Nakao, Yoshinobu; Hishida, Makoto; Kajimoto, Sadaaki; Tanaka, Gaku

    This paper deals with the drag coefficient of solidified hexadecane particles and their free rising velocity in liquid. The drag coefficient was experimentally investigated in Reynolds number range of about 40-300. The present experimental results are summarized in the following; (1) the drag coefficient of solidified hexadecane particles formed in liquid coolant by direct contact cooling is higher than that of a smooth surface sphere, this high drag coefficient seems to be attributed to the non-smooth surface of the solidified hexadecane particles, (2) experimental correlation for the drag coefficient of the solidified hexadecane particles was proposed, (3 ) the measured rising velocity of the solidified hexadecane particle agrees well with the calculated one, (4) the drag coefficients of hexadecane particles that were made by pouring hexadecane liquid into a solid hollow sphere agreed well with the drag coefficient of smooth surface sphere.

  12. The activity of {gamma}-emitters as measured by ionisation chambers the determination of the specific emission coefficient {gamma} for some radio-elements (1961); Mesure de l'activite des emetteurs {gamma} par chambre d'ionisation. Determination du coefficient specifique d'emission {gamma} de quelques radioelements (1961)

    Engelmann, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-06-15

    The object of this work is to study techniques of measurement using the gamma ionisation chamber, making it possible either to measure the activities of radioactive sources, or to determine the specific emission coefficient {gamma} (or the coefficient K) of a given radioelement. The ionisation chambers studied belong to two categories: graphites cavity-chambers, and 4 {pi} {gamma} chambers. For the cavity-chamber measurements, the different correction factors of which account must be taken have been calculated, in particular the geometric and hygrometric corrections. The absorption and auto-absorption corrections have led to the introduction of the notion of the 'effective energy {gamma}' of a radioelement. In the case of 4 {pi} {gamma} chambers, it has been shown that appropriately shaped electrodes make it possible to improve their performances. One of the chambers described permits the measurement of {beta} emitters using the associated Bremsstrahlung. In order to measure the K coefficient of some radioelements, it has been found useful a 4 {pi} {gamma} chamber with graphite walls, the measurement being carried out by comparison with a radium standard. The validity of the method was checked with radioelements for whom the K coefficient values are well-known ({sup 24}Na, {sup 60}Co, {sup 131}I, {sup 198}Au). For other radioelements, the following values were obtained (expressed in r cm{sup 3} mc{sup -1} h{sup -1}): {sup 51}Cr: 0,18; {sup 56}Mn: 8,8; {sup 65}Zn: 3,05; {sup 124}Sb: 9,9; {sup 134}Cs: 9,3; {sup 137}Cs: 3,35; {sup 141}Ce: 0,46; {sup 170}Tm: 0,023; {sup 192}Ir: 24,9; {sup 203}Hg: 1,18; These values have been corrected for the contribution to the dose of the fluorescent radiation which may be emitted by the source, except in the case of Tm{sup 170}. In the last part of this work, the performances of the different electro-metric devices used were compared. (author) [French] Le but de ce travail est d'etudier les techniques de mesure par

  13. Verifying reciprocal relations for experimental diffusion coefficients in multicomponent mixtures

    Medvedev, Oleg; Shapiro, Alexander

    2003-01-01

    coefficients for a three-component mixture consists of four Fickian diffusion coefficients, each being reported separately. However, the Onsager theory predicts the existence of only three independent coefficients, as one of them disappears due to the symmetry requirement. Re-calculation of the Fickian......The goal of the present study is to verify the agreement of the available data on diffusion in ternary mixtures with the theoretical requirement of linear non-equilibrium thermodynamics consisting in symmetry of the matrix of the phenomenological coefficients. A common set of measured diffusion...... diffusion coefficients into Onsager coefficients for a non-ideal mixture involves derivatives of the chemical potentials and, thus, should be based on a certain thermodynamic model (cubic equation of state (EoS), an activity coefficient model, etc.). Transformation of the Fickian diffusion coefficients into...

  14. Activity concentration of 210Po and 210Pb, its contribution to the radiation dose and distribution coefficient in aquatic ecosystem of major rivers of coastal Karnataka

    Rivers are the major pathways for the transport of weathered materials from the land to the oceans. The geochemical studies on river waters provide an insight into the weathering process that control the distribution of elements in dissolved and particulate phases and their fluxes to the estuaries. Concentrations of natural series radionuclide in fresh water bodies are liable to be much more variable than those in the marine environment since they are heavily influenced by the local geochemistry of the watershed. The concentrations of radioactive materials vary from region to region and this variation is found to be significantly high in some areas. Some of the regions are rich with the flow of major rivers and estuaries of these rivers, and investigations of these riverine and estuarine aquatic environments would throw light on the transportation, distribution and enrichment mechanism of radionuclides. In this context, the activity of 210Po and 210Pb were measured in different matrices of aquatic ecosystem of the major rivers namely, Kali, Sharavathi and Netravathi river of Coastal Karnataka

  15. Sabine absorption coefficients to random incidence absorption coefficients

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2014-01-01

    Absorption coefficients measured by the chamber method are referred to as Sabine absorption coefficients, which sometimes exceed unity due to the finite size of a specimen and non-uniform intensity in the test chamber. In this study, several methods that convert Sabine absorption coefficients into...... random incidence absorption coefficients for porous absorbers are investigated. Two optimization-based conversion methods are suggested: the surface impedance estimation for locally reacting absorbers and the flow resistivity estimation for extendedly reacting absorbers. The suggested conversion methods...

  16. New and extended parameterization of the thermodynamic model AIOMFAC: calculation of activity coefficients for organic-inorganic mixtures containing carboxyl, hydroxyl, carbonyl, ether, ester, alkenyl, alkyl, and aromatic functional groups

    A. Zuend

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a new and considerably extended parameterization of the thermodynamic activity coefficient model AIOMFAC (Aerosol Inorganic-Organic Mixtures Functional groups Activity Coefficients at room temperature. AIOMFAC combines a Pitzer-like electrolyte solution model with a UNIFAC-based group-contribution approach and explicitly accounts for interactions between organic functional groups and inorganic ions. Such interactions constitute the salt-effect, may cause liquid-liquid phase separation, and affect the gas-particle partitioning of aerosols. The previous AIOMFAC version was parameterized for alkyl and hydroxyl functional groups of alcohols and polyols. With the goal to describe a wide variety of organic compounds found in atmospheric aerosols, we extend here the parameterization of AIOMFAC to include the functional groups carboxyl, hydroxyl, ketone, aldehyde, ether, ester, alkenyl, alkyl, aromatic carbon-alcohol, and aromatic hydrocarbon. Thermodynamic equilibrium data of organic-inorganic systems from the literature are critically assessed and complemented with new measurements to establish a comprehensive database. The database is used to determine simultaneously the AIOMFAC parameters describing interactions of organic functional groups with the ions H+, Li+, Na+, K+, NH4+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl, Br, NO3, HSO4, and SO42−. Detailed descriptions of different types of thermodynamic data, such as vapor-liquid, solid-liquid, and liquid-liquid equilibria, and their use for the model parameterization are provided. Issues regarding deficiencies of the database, types and uncertainties of experimental data, and limitations of the model, are discussed. The challenging parameter optimization problem is solved with a novel combination of powerful global minimization

  17. New and extended parameterization of the thermodynamic model AIOMFAC: calculation of activity coefficients for organic-inorganic mixtures containing carboxyl, hydroxyl, carbonyl, ether, ester, alkenyl, alkyl, and aromatic functional groups

    A. Zuend

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a new and considerably extended parameterization of the thermodynamic activity coefficient model AIOMFAC (Aerosol Inorganic-Organic Mixtures Functional groups Activity Coefficients at room temperature. AIOMFAC combines a Pitzer-like electrolyte solution model with a UNIFAC-based group-contribution approach and explicitly accounts for interactions between organic functional groups and inorganic ions. Such interactions constitute the salt-effect, may cause liquid-liquid phase separation, and affect the gas-particle partitioning of aerosols. The previous AIOMFAC version was parameterized for alkyl and hydroxyl functional groups of alcohols and polyols. With the goal to describe a wide variety of organic compounds found in atmospheric aerosols, we extend here the parameterization of AIOMFAC to include the functional groups carboxyl, hydroxyl, ketone, aldehyde, ether, ester, alkenyl, alkyl, aromatic carbon-alcohol, and aromatic hydrocarbon. Thermodynamic equilibrium data of organic-inorganic systems from the literature are critically assessed and complemented with new measurements to establish a comprehensive database. The database is used to determine simultaneously the AIOMFAC parameters describing interactions of organic functional groups with the ions H+, Li+, Na+, K+, NH4+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl, Br, NO3, HSO4, and SO42−. Detailed descriptions of different types of thermodynamic data, such as vapor-liquid, solid-liquid, and liquid-liquid equilibria, and their use for the model parameterization are provided. Issues regarding deficiencies of the database, types and uncertainties of experimental data, and limitations of the model, are discussed. The challenging parameter optimization problem is solved with a novel combination of powerful global minimization

  18. The Evolution of Pearson's Correlation Coefficient

    Kader, Gary D.; Franklin, Christine A.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes an activity for developing the notion of association between two quantitative variables. By exploring a collection of scatter plots, the authors propose a nonstandard "intuitive" measure of association; and by examining properties of this measure, they develop the more standard measure, Pearson's Correlation Coefficient. The…

  19. Quadrature formulas for Fourier coefficients

    Bojanov, Borislav; Petrova, Guergana

    2009-09-01

    We consider quadrature formulas of high degree of precision for the computation of the Fourier coefficients in expansions of functions with respect to a system of orthogonal polynomials. In particular, we show the uniqueness of a multiple node formula for the Fourier-Tchebycheff coefficients given by Micchelli and Sharma and construct new Gaussian formulas for the Fourier coefficients of a function, based on the values of the function and its derivatives.

  20. Quadrature formulas for Fourier coefficients

    Bojanov, Borislav

    2009-09-01

    We consider quadrature formulas of high degree of precision for the computation of the Fourier coefficients in expansions of functions with respect to a system of orthogonal polynomials. In particular, we show the uniqueness of a multiple node formula for the Fourier-Tchebycheff coefficients given by Micchelli and Sharma and construct new Gaussian formulas for the Fourier coefficients of a function, based on the values of the function and its derivatives. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Assessments of conversion coefficients between equivalent dose and accumulated activity using pre-dose scanning images of patients subjected to radioiodine treatment and the Fax/Egs4 computational model

    The radioiodine is a technique for treatment of thyroid cancer. In this technique, the patients are submitted to the incorporation of the radioactive substance sodium iodide (Na131I), which reacts with physiologically metastasis, thyroid tissue remains of and other organs and tissues of the human body. The locations of these reactions are known as areas of highest concentration, hipercaptured areas, hiperconcentrator areas, ''hot areas'' or organ-sources and are viewed through images of nuclear medicine scan known as pre-dose (front and rear). To obtain these images, the patient receives, orally, a quantity of 131I with low activity (±74 MBq) and is positioned in the chamber of flicker. According to the attendance of hot areas shown in the images, the doctor determines the nuclear activity to be administered in treatment. This analysis is purely qualitative. In this study, the scanning images of pre-dose were adjusted to the dimensions of FAX voxel phantom, and the hot areas correspond to internal sources of the proposed model. Algorithms were developed to generate particles (photons and electrons) in these regions of the FAX. To estimate the coefficients of conversions between equivalent dose and accumulated activity in major radiosensitive organs, FAX and algorithms source were coupled to the Monte Carlo EGS4 code (Electron Gamma Shower, version 4). With these factors is possible to estimate the equivalent doses in the radiosensitive organs and tissues of patients as long as is know the activity administered and the half-life of organic sources. (author)

  2. Assessments of conversion coefficients between equivalent dose and accumulated activity using pre-dose scanning images of patients subjected to radioiodine treatment and the Fax/Egs4 computational model

    The radioiodine is a technique for treatment of thyroid cancer. In this technique, the patients are submitted to the incorporation of the radioactive substance sodium iodide (Na131I), which reacts with physiologically metastasis, thyroid tissue remains of and other organs and tissues of the human body. The locations of these reactions are known as areas of highest concentration, hipercaptured areas, hiperconcentrator areas, 'hot areas' or organ-sources and are viewed through images of nuclear medicine scan known as pre-dose (front and rear). To obtain these images, the patient receives, orally, a quantity of 131I with low activity (± 74 MBq) and is positioned in the chamber of flicker. According to the attendance of hot areas shown in the images, the doctor determines the nuclear activity to be administered in treatment. This analysis is purely qualitative. In this study, the scanning images of pre-dose were adjusted to the dimensions of FAX voxel phantom, and the hot areas correspond to internal sources of the proposed model. Algorithms were developed to generate particles (photons and electrons) in these regions of the FAX. To estimate the coefficients of conversions between equivalent dose and accumulated activity in major radiosensitive organs, FAX and algorithms source were coupled to the Monte Carlo EGS4 code (Electron Gamma Shower, version 4). With these factors is possible to estimate the equivalent doses in the radiosensitive organs and tissues of patients as long as is know the activity administered and the half-life of organic sources. (author)

  3. 用于描述三元水醇系统汽液平衡的活度系数模型%Activity coefficient models to describe vapor-liquid equilibrium in ternary hydro-alcoholic solutions

    Claudio A.Faundez; Jose O.Valderrama

    2009-01-01

    In this study,three semipredictive activity coefficient models:Wilson,non-random-two liquid model (NRTL),and universal quasi-chemical model(UNIQUAC),have been used for modeling vapor-liquid equilibrium properties oftemary mixtures that include substances found in alcoholic distillation processes ofwine and musts.In pamcular,vapor-hqmd eqmIIbnum in temary mixtures containing water+ethanol+congener has been modeled using parameters obtained from binary and ternary mixture data.Thc congeners are substances that although present in very lOW concentrations,of the order of part per million.are important cnological parameters.The results given by these difierent models have been compared with literature data and conclusions about the accuracy ofthe models studied are drawn,recommending the best models for correlating and predicting phase equilibrium properties of this type of mixtures.

  4. Total individual ion activity coefficients of calcium and carbonate in seawater at 25°C and 35%. salinity, and implications to the agreement between apparent and thermodynamic constants of calcite and aragonite

    Plummer, L. Neil; Sundquist, Eric T.

    1982-01-01

    We have calculated the total individual ion activity coefficients of carbonate and calcium,  and , in seawater. Using the ratios of stoichiometric and thermodynamic constants of carbonic acid dissociation and total mean activity coefficient data measured in seawater, we have obtained values which differ significantly from those widely accepted in the literature. In seawater at 25°C and 35%. salinity the (molal) values of  and  are 0.038 ± 0.002 and 0.173 ± 0.010, respectively. These values of  and  are independent of liquid junction errors and internally consistent with the value . By defining  and  on a common scale (), the product  is independent of the assigned value of  and may be determined directly from thermodynamic measurements in seawater. Using the value  and new thermodynamic equilibrium constants for calcite and aragonite, we show that the apparent constants of calcite and aragonite are consistent with the thermodynamic equilibrium constants at 25°C and 35%. salinity. The demonstrated consistency between thermodynamic and apparent constants of calcite and aragonite does not support a hypothesis of stable Mg-calcite coatings on calcite or aragonite surfaces in seawater, and suggests that the calcite critical carbonate ion curve of Broecker and Takahashi (1978,Deep-Sea Research25, 65–95) defines the calcite equilibrium boundary in the oceans, within the uncertainty of the data.

  5. Measuring of heat transfer coefficient

    Henningsen, Poul; Lindegren, Maria

    Subtask 3.4 Measuring of heat transfer coefficient Subtask 3.4.1 Design and setting up of tests to measure heat transfer coefficient Objective: Complementary testing methods together with the relevant experimental equipment are to be designed by the two partners involved in order to measure the h...

  6. Standardized Discriminant Coefficients: A Rejoinder.

    Mueller, Ralph O.; Cozad, James B.

    1993-01-01

    Although comments of D.J. Nordlund and R. Nagel are welcomed, their arguments are not sufficient to accept the recommendation of using total variance estimates to standardize canonical discriminant function coefficients. If standardized coefficients are used to help interpret a discriminant analysis, pooled within-group variance estimates should…

  7. Computational Seebeck Coefficient Measurement Simulations

    Martin, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    We have employed finite element analysis to develop computational Seebeck coefficient metrology simulations. This approach enables a unique exploration of multiple probe arrangements and measurement techniques within the same temporal domain. To demonstrate the usefulness of this approach, we have performed these Seebeck coefficient measurement simulations to quantitatively explore perturbations to voltage and temperature correspondence, by comparing simultaneous and staggered data acquisitio...

  8. Henry's law constants and infinite dilution activity coefficients of cis-2-butene, dimethylether, chloroethane, and 1,1-difluoroethane in methanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-butanol, isobutanol, tert-butanol, 1-pentanol, 2-pentanol, 3-pentanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, and 2-methyl-2-butanol

    Henry's law constants and infinite dilution activity coefficients of cis-2-butene, dimethylether, chloroethane, and 1,1-difluoroethane in methanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-butanol, isobutanol, tert-butanol, 1-pentanol, 2-pentanol, 3-pentanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, and 2-methyl-2-butanol in the temperature range of 250 K to 330 K were measured by a gas stripping method and partial molar excess enthalpies were calculated from the activity coefficients. A rigorous formula for evaluating the Henry's law constants from the gas stripping measurements was used for the data reduction of these highly volatile mixtures. The uncertainty is about 2% for the Henry's law constants and 3% for the estimated infinite dilution activity coefficients. In the evaluation of the infinite dilution activity coefficients, the nonideality of the solute such as the fugacity coefficient and Poynting correction factor cannot be neglected, especially at higher temperatures. The estimated uncertainty of the infinite dilution activity coefficients includes 1% for nonideality

  9. Determination Permeability Coefficient from Piezocone

    Qiang Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The permeability coefficient of soil profile is one of the problems concerned by engineers, and the determination of permeability coefficient method mainly relies on the laboratory permeability test and field pumping test, but these tests are time-consuming and inefficient, and especially the permeability coefficient of soil under the condition of partial drainage was difficult to determine; in this paper, the modern digital CPTU technology was used. Dimensional permeability KT was defined by using the dimensionless normalized cone tip resistance Qt, friction factor Fr, and pore pressure ratio Bq, these parameters enable plots of Bq-Qt, Fr-Qt, Bq-Fr to be contoured KT and hence for permeability coefficient. The relationship has been applied to Nanjing 4th Yangtze river bridge, and compared with laboratory penetration test. The results indicate that the method can accurately determine the permeability coefficient of soil under partial drainage condition and provide the theoretical basis for engineering application.

  10. Predicting Abraham model solvent coefficients

    Bradley, Jean-Claude; Abraham, Michael H; Acree, William E; Lang, Andrew SID

    2015-01-01

    Background The Abraham general solvation model can be used in a broad set of scenarios involving partitioning and solubility, yet is limited to a set of solvents with measured Abraham coefficients. Here we extend the range of applicability of Abraham’s model by creating open models that can be used to predict the solvent coefficients for all organic solvents. Results We created open random forest models for the solvent coefficients e, s, a, b, and v that had out-of-bag R2 values of 0.31, 0.77...

  11. Reactivity coefficients by perturbation theory

    The development of the formulae of perturbation theory provides a good opportunity to use one of the principal devices of mathematical heuristics, i.e. proceeding by analogy from something that is simple to something that is more complicated. This paper: (a) Reviews the formulation of perturbation theory as a method of calculating reactivity coefficients; this consists mainly of developing the differential equation for the adjoint flux, as a continuous function of position and lethargy, by proceeding by analogy from the one-group differential equation for adjoint flux. (b) Presents an application of the two-group form of perturbation theory to a boiling-mercury-cooled fast-breeder reactor (MCBR). It is seen that the net Hg density coefficient of reactivity for the first-design-try for the MCBR is negative for some regions and positive for others. However, it is negative for regions of highest statistical weight and where the density change for a power change would be the greatest. The overall Hg density coefficient is thus negative, i.e. the void coefficient is positive-an unsafe condition. It can be easily seen from the two-group formulation what design changes had to be made to obtain a design which would have a negative void coefficient. It developed in subsequent investigations that there were such design changes that could be made and a design of the MCBR with a negative void coefficient was eventually achieved. (author)

  12. Calculation of NaCl, KCl and LiCl Salts Activity Coefficients in Polyethylene Glycol (PEG4000)-Water System Using Modified PHSC Equation of State, Extended Debye-Hückel Model and Pitzer Model

    Marjani, Azam

    2016-07-01

    For biomolecules and cell particles purification and separation in biological engineering, besides the chromatography as mostly applied process, aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS) are of the most favorable separation processes that are worth to be investigated in thermodynamic theoretically. In recent years, thermodynamic calculation of ATPS properties has attracted much attention due to their great applications in chemical industries such as separation processes. These phase calculations of ATPS have inherent complexity due to the presence of ions and polymers in aqueous solution. In this work, for target ternary systems of polyethylene glycol (PEG4000)-salt-water, thermodynamic investigation for constituent systems with three salts (NaCl, KCl and LiCl) has been carried out as PEG is the most favorable polymer in ATPS. The modified perturbed hard sphere chain (PHSC) equation of state (EOS), extended Debye-Hückel and Pitzer models were employed for calculation of activity coefficients for the considered systems. Four additional statistical parameters were considered to ensure the consistency of correlations and introduced as objective functions in the particle swarm optimization algorithm. The results showed desirable agreement to the available experimental data, and the order of recommendation of studied models is PHSC EOS > extended Debye-Hückel > Pitzer. The concluding remark is that the all the employed models are reliable in such calculations and can be used for thermodynamic correlation/predictions; however, by using an ion-based parameter calculation method, the PHSC EOS reveals both reliability and universality of applications.

  13. Personal dose-equivalent conversion coefficients for 1252 radionuclides.

    Otto, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Dose conversion coefficients for radionuclides are useful for routine calculations in radiation protection in industry, medicine and research. They give a simple and often sufficient estimate of dose rates during production, handling and storage of radionuclide sources, based solely on the source's activity. The latest compilation of such conversion coefficients dates from 20 y ago, based on nuclear decay data published 30 y ago. The present publication provides radionuclide-specific conversion coefficients to personal dose based on the most recent evaluations of nuclear decay data for 1252 radionuclides and fluence-to-dose-equivalent conversion coefficients for monoenergetic radiations. It contains previously unknown conversion coefficients for >400 nuclides and corrects those conversion coefficients that were based on erroneous decay schemes. For the first time, estimates for the protection quantity Hp(3) are included. PMID:25349458

  14. Transport coefficients of heavy baryons

    Tolos, Laura; Torres-Rincon, Juan M.; Das, Santosh K.

    2016-08-01

    We compute the transport coefficients (drag and momentum diffusion) of the low-lying heavy baryons Λc and Λb in a medium of light mesons formed at the later stages of high-energy heavy-ion collisions. We employ the Fokker-Planck approach to obtain the transport coefficients from unitarized baryon-meson interactions based on effective field theories that respect chiral and heavy-quark symmetries. We provide the transport coefficients as a function of temperature and heavy-baryon momentum, and analyze the applicability of certain nonrelativistic estimates. Moreover we compare our outcome for the spatial diffusion coefficient to the one coming from the solution of the Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck transport equation, and we find a very good agreement between both calculations. The transport coefficients for Λc and Λb in a thermal bath will be used in a subsequent publication as input in a Langevin evolution code for the generation and propagation of heavy particles in heavy-ion collisions at LHC and RHIC energies.

  15. Isopiestic Determination of the Osmotic and Activity Coefficients of Li2SO4(aq) at T = 298.15 and 323.15 K, and Representation with an Extended Ion-interaction (Pitzer) model

    Rard, J A; Clegg, S L; Palmer, D A

    2007-01-03

    Isopiestic vapor-pressure measurements were made for Li{sub 2}SO{sub 4}(aq) from 0.1069 to 2.8190 mol {center_dot} kg{sup -1} at 298.15 K, and from 0.1148 to 2.7969 mol {center_dot} kg{sup -1} at 323.15 K, with NaCl(aq) as the reference standard. Published thermodynamic data for this system were reviewed, recalculated for consistency, and critically assessed. The present results and the more reliable published results were used to evaluate the parameters of an extended version of Pitzer's ion-interaction model with an ionic-strength dependent third virial coefficient, as well as those of the standard Pitzer model, for the osmotic and activity coefficients at both temperatures. Published enthalpies of dilution at 298.15 K were also analyzed to yield the parameters of the ion-interaction models for the relative apparent molar enthalpies of dilution. The resulting models at 298.15 K are valid to the saturated solution molality of the thermodynamically stable phase Li{sub 2}SO{sub 4} {center_dot} H{sub 2}O(cr). Solubilities of Li{sub 2}SO{sub 4} {center_dot} H{sub 2}O(cr) at 298.15 K were assessed, and the selected value of m(sat.) = 3.13 {+-} 0.04 mol {center_dot} kg{sup -1} was used to evaluate the thermodynamic solubility product K{sub s}(Li{sub 2}SO{sub 4} {center_dot} H{sub 2}O, cr, 298.15 K) = (2.62 {+-} 0.19) and a CODATA-compatible standard molar Gibbs energy of formation {Delta}{sub f}G{sub m}{sup o} (Li{sub 2}SO{sub 4} {center_dot} H{sub 2}O, cr, 298.15 K) = -(1564.6 {+-} 0.5) kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}.

  16. Analysis of internal conversion coefficients

    An extensive database has been assembled that contains the three most widely used sets of calculated internal conversion coefficients (ICC): [Hager R.S., Seltzer E.C., 1968. Internal conversion tables. K-, L-, M-shell Conversion coefficients for Z=30 to Z=103, Nucl. Data Tables A4, 1-237; Band I.M., Trzhaskovskaya M.B., 1978. Tables of gamma-ray internal conversion coefficients for the K-, L- and M-shells, 10≤Z≤104, Special Report of Leningrad Nuclear Physics Institute; Roesel F., Fries H.M., Alder K., Pauli H.C., 1978. Internal conversion coefficients for all atomic shells, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 21, 91-289] and also includes new Dirac-Fock calculations [Band I.M. and Trzhaskovskaya M.B., 1993. Internal conversion coefficients for low-energy nuclear transitions, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 55, 43-61]. This database is linked to a computer program to plot ICCs and their combinations (sums and ratios) as a function of Z and energy, as well as relative deviations of ICC or their combinations for any pair of tabulated data. Examples of these analyses are presented for the K-shell and total ICCs of the gamma-ray standards [Hansen H.H., 1985. Evaluation of K-shell and total internal conversion coefficients for some selected nuclear transitions, Eur. Appl. Res. Rept. Nucl. Sci. Tech. 11.6 (4) 777-816] and for the K-shell and total ICCs of high multipolarity transitions (total, K-, L-, M-shells of E3 and M3 and K-shell of M4). Experimental data sets are also compared with the theoretical values of these specific calculations

  17. Viscosity coefficient with pairing interaction

    In the study of dynamic process (for example, deep-inelastic scattering of heavy ion, nuclear fission), viscosity, which describes the coupling between the intrinsic degrees of freedom and the collective one, is a basic quantity. In this paper, under BCS approximation, we derive a microscopic expression of viscosity coefficient with pairing interaction by means of a linear response theory. Taking the fission process of 236U as an example, we discuss the effect of pairing interaction on the viscosity coefficient. The results show that pairing interaction must be taken into account at lower temperature and can be neglected at a high-temperature region

  18. Estimating the Polyserial Correlation Coefficient.

    Bedrick, Edward J.; Breslin, Frederick C.

    1996-01-01

    Simple noniterative estimators of the polyserial correlation coefficient are developed by exploiting a general relationship between the polyserial correlation and the point polyserial correlation to give extensions of the biserial estimators of K. Pearson (1909), H. E. Brogden (1949), and F. M. Lord (1963) to the multicategory setting. (SLD)

  19. Fresnel coefficients as hyperbolic rotations

    Monzon, J. J.; Sanchez-Soto, L. L.

    2001-01-01

    We describe the action of a plane interface between two semi-infinite media in terms of a transfer matrix. We find a remarkably simple factorization of this matrix, which enables us to express the Fresnel coefficients as a hyperbolic rotation.

  20. Calculation of self-diffusion coefficients in iron

    Baohua Zhang

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of available P-V-T equation of state of iron, the temperature and pressure dependence of self-diffusion coefficients in iron polymorphs (α, δ, γ and ɛ phases) have been successfully reproduced in terms of the bulk elastic and expansivity data by means of a thermodynamical model that interconnects point defects parameters with bulk properties. The calculated diffusion parameters, such as self-diffusion coefficient, activation energy and activation volume over a broad temperature r...

  1. Cálculo y Predicción de Azeótropos Multicomponentes con Modelos de Coeficientes de Actividad Calculation and Prediction of Multicomponent Azeotropes with Activity Coefficient Models

    Beatriz A Mandagarán

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudia la capacidad predictiva de azeótropos multicomponentes con modelos de coeficiente de actividad. Para los azeótropos homogéneos se utilizan Wilson y UNIFAC y para los azeótropos heterogéneos se utilizan UNIQUAC y UNIFAC. Los cálculos se realizan con el software comercial DISTIL y HYSYS con los parámetros binarios de la base de DISTIL ó en su defecto estimados a partir de información experimental de los binarios. Los resultados del trabajo indican que la capacidad predictiva de los modelos disminuye al aumentar el número de componentes de la mezcla. La predicción es buena para azeótropos ternarios y regular para azeótropos de 4 y 5 componentes, tanto para Wilson como para UNIQUAC. Las predicciones con UNIFAC son comparables a los cálculos con los otros modelos pero introducen inmiscibilidad de fases en algunos sistemas homogéneos.This paper studies the multicomponent azeotropic capacity prediction of activity coefficient models. Wilson and UNIFAC models are used for homogeneous azeotropes while UNIQUAC and UNIFAC models are used for heterogeneous azeotropes. Calculations were done with the commercial software DISTIL and HYSYS using the DISTIL Data Base for the binary parameters. In the case that binary parameters were not available they were estimated from binary experimental data. The prediction capability of the models decreases as the number of components in the mixtures increases. Prediction from Wilson and UNIQUAC are good for ternaries and poor for 4 and 5 component mixtures. Prediction using UNIFAC is as good as those from Wilson and UNIQUAC. However, calculations with UNIFAC produce occasionally two liquid phases in homogeneous systems.

  2. Estimating biokinetic coefficients in the PACT™ system.

    Shen, Zhiyao; Arbuckle, Wm Brian

    2016-02-01

    When powdered activated carbon (PAC) is continuously added to the aeration tank of an activated sludge reactor, the modification is called a PACT™ process (for powdered activated carbon treatment). The PAC provides many benefits, but complicates the determination of biological phenomena. Determination of bio-oxidation kinetics in a PACT system is a key to fully understanding enhanced biological mechanisms resulting from PAC addition. A model is developed to account for the main mechanisms involved in the PACT system -- adsorption, air stripping and bio-oxidation. The model enables the investigation of biokinetic information, including possible synergistic effects. Six parallel reactors were used to treat a synthetic waste; three activated sludge and three PACT. The PACT reactors provided significantly reduced effluent TOC (total organic carbon). Biokinetic coefficients were obtained from steady-state data using averaged reactor data and by using all data (22 points for each reactor). As expected, the PACT reactors resulted in a substantial reduction in the effluent concentration of non-biodegradable total organic carbon. The Monod equation's half-saturation coefficient (Ks) was reduced significantly in the PACT reactors, resulting in higher growth rates at lower concentrations. The maximum specific substrate utilization (qm) rate was also reduced about 25% using the averaged data and remained unchanged using all the data. The substrate utilization values are affected by errors in biomass determination and more research is needed to accurately determine biomass. PMID:26613352

  3. Reproducibility of The Random Incidence Absorption Coefficient Converted From the Sabine Absorption Coefficient

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Chang, Ji-ho

    2015-01-01

    Absorption coefficients measured in reverberation chambers, Sabine absorption coefficients, suffer from two major problems. Firstly, they sometimes exceed unity. Secondly, the reproducibility of the Sabine absorption coefficients is quite poor, meaning that the Sabine absorption coefficients vary...

  4. Clustering Coefficients in Multiplex Networks

    Cozzo, Emanuele; De Domenico, Manlio; Solé, Albert; Arenas, Alex; Gómez, Sergio; Porter, Mason A; Moreno, Yamir

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in the study of complex networked systems has highlighted that our interconnected world is made of networks that are coupled together through different layers that each stand for one type of interaction or system. Despite this situation, it is traditional to aggregate multiplex data into a single weighted network in order take advantage of existing tools. This is admittedly convenient, but it is also extremely problematic. In this paper, we generalize the concept of clustering coefficients for multiplex networks. We show how the layered structure of multiplex networks introduces a new degree of freedom that has a fundamental effect on transitivity. We compute our new multiplex clustering coefficients for several real multiplex networks and illustrate why generalizing monoplex concepts to multiplex networks must be done with great care.

  5. Portable vapor diffusion coefficient meter

    Ho, Clifford K.

    2007-06-12

    An apparatus for measuring the effective vapor diffusion coefficient of a test vapor diffusing through a sample of porous media contained within a test chamber. A chemical sensor measures the time-varying concentration of vapor that has diffused a known distance through the porous media. A data processor contained within the apparatus compares the measured sensor data with analytical predictions of the response curve based on the transient diffusion equation using Fick's Law, iterating on the choice of an effective vapor diffusion coefficient until the difference between the predicted and measured curves is minimized. Optionally, a purge fluid can forced through the porous media, permitting the apparatus to also measure a gas-phase permeability. The apparatus can be made lightweight, self-powered, and portable for use in the field.

  6. SPATIAL DEPENDENCE OF REACTIVITY COEFFICIENTS

    Salah, Sideeg

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to study and understand the behavior of the reactivity coefficients (RCs) in a boiling water reactor (BWR) partially within 25 different segments with different void fractions, with enriched oxide fuel (UOX) core, as well as to evaluate the methodologies exposed in [10]. These two normalization  methods (described in chapter 3) are used to analyse the contribution of each segment of the core having different regions (fuel, clad, coolant, moderator and channel b...

  7. Mutual diffusion coefficients of L-lysine in aqueous solutions

    Highlights: • Mutual diffusion coefficients of L-lysine in aqueous solutions. • Influence of the thermodynamic factors on the variation of their mutual diffusion coefficients. • Estimation of the hydrodynamic radius of L-lysine. - Abstract: Mutual diffusion coefficients, D, were determined for aqueous solutions of L-lysine at T = 298.15 K at concentrations from (0.001 to 0.100) mol · dm−3. From these experimental results, the hydrodynamic radius Rh, diffusion coefficients at infinite dilution D0, the thermodynamic factors and activity coefficients γ, by using the Hartley equation, have been estimated, permitting us to have a better understanding of the thermodynamic of these systems of L-lysine in aqueous solutions

  8. Matrix Fourier transform with discontinuous coefficients

    Yaremko, O.; Zhuravleva, E.

    2013-01-01

    The explicit construction of direct and inverse Fourier's vector transform with discontinuous coefficients is presented. The technique of applying Fourier's vector transform with discontinuous coefficients for solving problems of mathematical physics.Multidimensional integral transformations with non-separated variables for problems with discontinuous coefficients are constructed in this work. The coefficient discontinuities focused on the of parallel hyperplanes. In this work explicit formul...

  9. Activity coefficients at infinite dilution of organic solutes in the ionic liquid PEG-5 cocomonium methylsulfate at T = (313.15, 323.15, 333.15, and 343.15) K: Experimental results and COSMO-RS predictions

    Highlights: ► γ13∞ values reported for 25 organic solutes in the ionic liquid PEG-5 cocomonium methylsulfate. ► Measurements undertaken using the g.l.c. technique at T = (313.15, 323.15, 333.15, and 343.15) K. ► Sound speed, density and refractive index data for ionic liquid PEG-5 cocomonium methylsulfate also reported. ► Measured γ13∞ values compared to COSMO-RS predictions. -- Abstract: Activity coefficients at infinite dilution γ13∞ have been determined for 25 polar and non-polar organic solutes (alkanes, cycloalkanes, alk-1-enes, alk-1-ynes, aromatic compounds, alcohols, and ketones) in the ionic liquid PEG-5 cocomonium methylsulfate with gas–liquid chromatography at four different temperatures, T = (313.15, 323.15, 333.15, and 343.15) K. Packed columns with phase loadings of 0.28 and 0.34 ionic liquid mass fraction in the stationary phase were employed to obtain γ13∞ values at each temperature investigated. Speed of sound, density, and refractive index values have also been measured for the pure ionic liquid at P = 0.1 MPa and T = (303.15, 313.15, 323.15, 333.15, and 343.15) K. The uncertainties in the sound speeds, densities, and refractive indices are estimated to be values of 0.9 m · s−1, 0.00003 g · cm−3, and 0.00002, respectively. Partial molar excess enthalpies at infinite dilution ΔH1E,∞ were calculated for the solutes from the temperature dependency of the γ13∞ values for the temperature range of this study. The uncertainties in the determinations of γ13∞ and ΔH1E,∞ values are 5% and 10%, respectively. Selectivity values at infinite dilution S12∞ for hexane/benzene, cyclohexane/benzene, hexane/hex-1-ene, and hexane/ethanol separations have been calculated. These have been compared against values obtained from COSMO-RS predictions

  10. Investigating bias in squared regression structure coefficients

    Nimon, Kim F.; Zientek, Linda R.; Thompson, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    The importance of structure coefficients and analogs of regression weights for analysis within the general linear model (GLM) has been well-documented. The purpose of this study was to investigate bias in squared structure coefficients in the context of multiple regression and to determine if a formula that had been shown to correct for bias in squared Pearson correlation coefficients and coefficients of determination could be used to correct for bias in squared regression structure coefficie...

  11. Diffusion coefficients for absorbing materials

    A method to improve the diffusion results for systems containing strong absorbers is described. Each absorbing material is transformed into an equivalent rectangle. Transport and diffusion calculations in slab geometry are performed for both directions of the rectangle, and group-dependent diffusion coefficients are determined by matching the outgoing currents. Test problems comprise a critical slab, a compact PWR fuel element storage pool and two BWR fuel elements with a control rod and a poison cell. The multiplication factors of these systems are calculated with an accuracy of 1 to 2%. (Auth.)

  12. Determining Absorption, Emissivity Reduction, and Local Suppression Coefficients inside Sunspots

    Ilonidis, Stathis; Zhao, Junwei

    2010-01-01

    The power of solar acoustic waves is reduced inside sunspots mainly due to absorption, emissivity reduction, and local suppression. The coefficients of these power-reduction mechanisms can be determined by comparing time-distance cross-covariances obtained from sunspots and from the quiet Sun. By analyzing 47 active regions observed by SOHO/MDI without using signal filters, we have determined the coefficients of surface absorption, deep absorption, emissivity reduction, and local suppression....

  13. Higher Order Macro Coefficients in Periodic Homogenization

    Conca, Carlos; San Martin, Jorge; Smaranda, Loredana; Vanninathan, Muthusamy

    2011-09-01

    A first set of macro coefficients known as the homogenized coefficients appear in the homogenization of PDE on periodic structures. If energy is increased or scale is decreased, these coefficients do not provide adequate approximation. Using Bloch decomposition, it is first realized that the above coefficients correspond to the lowest energy and the largest scale. This naturally paves the way to introduce other sets of macro coefficients corresponding to higher energies and lower scales which yield better approximation. The next task is to compare their properties with those of the homogenized coefficients. This article reviews these developments along with some new results yet to be published.

  14. Higher Order Macro Coefficients in Periodic Homogenization

    Conca, Carlos; San Martin, Jorge [Departamento de IngenierIa Matematica, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas y Matematicas, Universidad de Chile and Centro de Modelamiento Matematico, UMR 2071 CNRS-UChile, Casilla 170/3 - Correo 3, Santiago (Chile); Smaranda, Loredana [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Pitesti, 110040 Pitesti, Str. Targu din Vale Nr.1, Arges (Romania); Vanninathan, Muthusamy, E-mail: cconca@dim.uchile.cl, E-mail: jorge@dim.uchile.cl, E-mail: smaranda@dim.uchile.cl, E-mail: vanni@math.tifrbng.res.in [TIFR-CAM, Post Bag 6503, GKVK Post, Bangalore - 560065 (India)

    2011-09-15

    A first set of macro coefficients known as the homogenized coefficients appear in the homogenization of PDE on periodic structures. If energy is increased or scale is decreased, these coefficients do not provide adequate approximation. Using Bloch decomposition, it is first realized that the above coefficients correspond to the lowest energy and the largest scale. This naturally paves the way to introduce other sets of macro coefficients corresponding to higher energies and lower scales which yield better approximation. The next task is to compare their properties with those of the homogenized coefficients. This article reviews these developments along with some new results yet to be published.

  15. Measurements of Xe diffusion coefficient of UN

    Post irradiation annealing (PIA) tests were performed to obtain the Xe-133 diffusion coefficients of uranium nitride (UN). UN powder was obtained from the mixed powder of UO2 and carbon under the H2-N2 gas mixture. Porous discs (45%TD) of UN were made and used for the specimens for the PIA tests. For comparison purposes, porous discs of UO2 (47%TD) were also made. Each 300mg specimen was irradiated to a burnup of 0.1 MWd/t-U. PIA tests were performed at 1200degC, 1300degC and 1400degC for UN, and 1400degC, 1500degC and 1600degC for UO2, continuously. The oxygen potential during the annealing tests was about 440 ± 20 kJ/mol. The disc specimens of UN and UO2 were found to be cracked or broken in pieces after annealing tests. The xenon diffusion coefficient for the near stoichiometric UN turned out to be about 1,000 times higher than that of UO2 at 1400degC. And, the activation energy of diffusion in UN is about 230 kJ/mol, while that of UO2 measured to be about 393 kJ/mol. (author)

  16. Index-free Heat Kernel Coefficients

    De van Ven, A E M

    1998-01-01

    Using index-free notation, we present the diagonal values of the first five heat kernel coefficients associated with a general Laplace-type operator on a compact Riemannian space without boundary. The fifth coefficient appears here for the first time. For a flat space with a gauge connection, the sixth coefficient is given too. Also provided are the leading terms for any coefficient, both in ascending and descending powers of the Yang-Mills and Riemann curvatures, to the same order as required for the fourth coefficient. These results are obtained by directly solving the relevant recursion relations, working in Fock-Schwinger gauge and Riemann normal coordinates. Our procedure is thus noncovariant, but we show that for any coefficient the `gauged' respectively `curved' version is found from the corresponding `non-gauged' respectively `flat' coefficient by making some simple covariant substitutions. These substitutions being understood, the coefficients retain their `flat' form and size. In this sense the fift...

  17. On cloud modelling and the mass accommodation coefficient of water

    A. Laaksonen

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The mass accommodation coefficient of water is a quantity for which different experimental techniques have yielded conflicting values in the range 0.04–1. From the viewpoint of cloud modelling, this is an unfortunate situation, since the value of the mass accommodation coefficient affects the model results, e.g. the number concentration of activated cloud droplets. In this paper we argue that a mass accommodation coefficient of unity should be used in cloud modelling, since this value has been obtained in experimental studies of water droplet growth rates, a quantity which is explicitly described in cloud models. In contrast, mass accommodation coefficient values below unity have been derived from experimental results which are analyzed with different theoretical expressions than those included in cloud models.

  18. Innovative Correlation Coefficient Measurement with Fuzzy Data

    Berlin Wu; Chin Feng Hung

    2016-01-01

    Correlation coefficients are commonly found with crisp data. In this paper, we use Pearson’s correlation coefficient and propose a method for evaluating correlation coefficients for fuzzy interval data. Our empirical studies involve the relationship between mathematics achievement and other projects.

  19. Diffusion coefficient in photon diffusion theory

    Graaff, R; Ten Bosch, JJ

    2000-01-01

    The choice of the diffusion coefficient to be used in photon diffusion theory has been a subject of discussion in recent publications on tissue optics. We compared several diffusion coefficients with the apparent diffusion coefficient from the more fundamental transport theory, D-app. Application to

  20. Coefficient of Partial Correlation and Its Calculation

    段全才; 张保法

    1992-01-01

    This thesis offers the general concept of coefficient of partial correlation.Starting with regres-sion analysis,the paper,by using samples,infers the general formula of expressing coefficient of partial correlation by way of simple correlation coefficient.

  1. Standards for Standardized Logistic Regression Coefficients

    Menard, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Standardized coefficients in logistic regression analysis have the same utility as standardized coefficients in linear regression analysis. Although there has been no consensus on the best way to construct standardized logistic regression coefficients, there is now sufficient evidence to suggest a single best approach to the construction of a…

  2. Soccer Ball Lift Coefficients via Trajectory Analysis

    Goff, John Eric; Carre, Matt J.

    2010-01-01

    We performed experiments in which a soccer ball was launched from a machine while two high-speed cameras recorded portions of the trajectory. Using the trajectory data and published drag coefficients, we extracted lift coefficients for a soccer ball. We determined lift coefficients for a wide range of spin parameters, including several spin…

  3. Calculation of self-diffusion coefficients in iron

    Zhang, Baohua, E-mail: zhangbh148@qq.com [Laboratory for High Temperature and High Pressure Study of the Earth' s Interior, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang, Guizhou 550002, China and Institute for Study of the Earth' s Interior, Okayama University, Misasa, Tottori-ken 682-0193 (Japan)

    2014-01-15

    On the basis of available P-V-T equation of state of iron, the temperature and pressure dependence of self-diffusion coefficients in iron polymorphs (α, δ, γ and ε phases) have been successfully reproduced in terms of the bulk elastic and expansivity data by means of a thermodynamical model that interconnects point defects parameters with bulk properties. The calculated diffusion parameters, such as self-diffusion coefficient, activation energy and activation volume over a broad temperature range (500-2500 K) and pressure range (0-100 GPa), compare favorably well with experimental or theoretical ones when the uncertainties are considered.

  4. Calculation of self-diffusion coefficients in iron

    Baohua Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of available P-V-T equation of state of iron, the temperature and pressure dependence of self-diffusion coefficients in iron polymorphs (α, δ, γ and ɛ phases have been successfully reproduced in terms of the bulk elastic and expansivity data by means of a thermodynamical model that interconnects point defects parameters with bulk properties. The calculated diffusion parameters, such as self-diffusion coefficient, activation energy and activation volume over a broad temperature range (500-2500 K and pressure range (0-100 GPa, compare favorably well with experimental or theoretical ones when the uncertainties are considered.

  5. Transport coefficients of relativistic systems

    It becomes increasingly important to know the strength of dissipative effects in relativistic hydrodynamics. Recently, scientists have strongly focused on shear viscosity. Nevertheless, heat flow, being proportional to spatial gradients of e.g. chemical potential over temperature, can also be an important effect in studies of relativistic fluid dynamics. We investigated the heat conductivity coefficient for an ultrarelativistic Boltzmann-gas, using our partonic transport model BAMPS. BAMPS solves the relativistic Boltzmann-equation numerically for arbitrary different particle species. We use pQCD scattering cross-sections. Furthermore, the response of a charged, relativistic gas onto an external electric field determines the electric conductivity. We investigated the electric conductivity of different model systems using three different methods: analytic transport theory, linear response via Green-Kubo formulae in equilibrium BAMPS-setups, and applying the textbook-picture of linear response to BAMPS. We plan to investigate the electric conductivity with the recently improved 2<->3 processes from BAMPS and compare the results with lattice QCD.

  6. Energy coefficients for a propeller series

    Olsen, Anders Smærup

    2004-01-01

    The efficiency for a propeller is calculated by energy coefficients. These coefficients are related to four types of losses, i.e. the axial, the rotational, the frictional, and the finite blade number loss, and one gain, i.e. the axial gain. The energy coefficients are derived by use of the...... potential theory with the propeller modelled as an actuator disk. The efficiency based on the energy coefficients is calculated for a propeller series. The results show a good agreement between the efficiency based on the energy coefficients and the efficiency obtained by a vortex-lattice method....

  7. Justification for change in AXAIR dispersion coefficients

    AXAIR is the primary dose assessment code used at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to predict doses following hypothetical releases of relatively short durations. The atmospheric dispersion coefficients currently used in AXAIR are analytical expressions developed to fit the curves in the Turner Workbook as referred to in USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.145. This report explores the ramifications and benefits of changing the dispersion coefficients to a combination of Pasquill's lateral dispersion coefficients and Briggs' vertical dispersion coefficients. The differences in the dispersion coefficients have a minor effect on the relative air concentrations for stability classes A--D, but a significant difference is seen for classes E, F, and G

  8. Rotational raman lidar for aerosol scattering coefficients

    Two channel lidar signals which are composed of the total rotational scattering and elastic signals provide good information for the aerosol scattering coefficients. We can calculate the aerosol backscattering coefficient and extinction coefficient directly without any assumption and calibration process. Generally, a high spectral resolution lidar is used for an aerosol monitoring. But we have designed a new normal spectral receiving lidar system which contains the scattering information simultaneously, and we have retrieved the aerosol scattering coefficient. The results show that there is no need to assume any relation between the aerosol backscattering and extinction and to consider any wavelength calibration process for the aerosol scattering coefficient

  9. Inelastic Neutron Scattering and Separation Coefficient of Absorbed Hydrogen

    Silvera, I. F.; Nielsen, Mourits

    1976-01-01

    Inelastic neutron scattering and measurement of the ortho-para separation coefficient have been used to study the low lying rotational states of molecular hydrogen adsorbed on activated alumina. The observations are consistent with a picture in which the orientational motion of the molecules is...

  10. Determination of the surface drag coefficient

    Mahrt, L.; Vickers, D.; Sun, J.L.;

    2001-01-01

    This study examines the dependence of the surface drag coefficient on stability, wind speed, mesoscale modulation of the turbulent flux and method of calculation of the drag coefficient. Data sets over grassland, sparse grass, heather and two forest sites are analyzed. For significantly unstable ...... of calculation, partly due to meandering of the stress vector.......This study examines the dependence of the surface drag coefficient on stability, wind speed, mesoscale modulation of the turbulent flux and method of calculation of the drag coefficient. Data sets over grassland, sparse grass, heather and two forest sites are analyzed. For significantly unstable...... conditions, the drag coefficient does not depend systematically on z/L but decreases with wind speed for fixed intervals of z/L, where L is the Obukhov length. Even though the drag coefficient for weak wind conditions is sensitive to the exact method of calculation and choice of averaging time, the decrease...

  11. Remarks on the maximum correlation coefficient

    Dembo, Amir; Kagan, Abram; Shepp, Lawrence A.

    2001-01-01

    The maximum correlation coefficient between partial sums of independent and identically distributed random variables with finite second moment equals the classical (Pearson) correlation coefficient between the sums, and thus does not depend on the distribution of the random variables. This result is proved, and relations between the linearity of regression of each of two random variables on the other and the maximum correlation coefficient are discussed.

  12. The Intuitionistic Fuzzy Normed Space of Coefficients

    Bilalov, B. T.; S. M. Farahani; Guliyeva, F. A.

    2012-01-01

    Intuitionistic fuzzy normed space is defined using concepts of $t$ -norm and $t$ -conorm. The concepts of fuzzy completeness, fuzzy minimality, fuzzy biorthogonality, fuzzy basicity, and fuzzy space of coefficients are introduced. Strong completeness of fuzzy space of coefficients with regard to fuzzy norm and strong basicity of canonical system in this space are proved. Strong basicity criterion in fuzzy Banach space is presented in terms of coefficient operator.

  13. NEW CORRELATION COEFFICIENT FOR DATA ANALYSIS

    Falie, Dragos; Livia DAVID

    2012-01-01

    The proposed correlation coefficient better characterize the statistical independence of two random variables that are a linear mixture of two independent sources. This correlation coefficient can be calculated with analytical relations or with the known algorithms of independent components analysis (ICA). The value of the correlation coefficient is zero when the random variables are a statistically independent and it is one when these are fully dependent.

  14. Index-free Heat Kernel Coefficients

    van de Ven, Anton E. M.

    1997-01-01

    Using index-free notation, we present the diagonal values of the first five heat kernel coefficients associated with a general Laplace-type operator on a compact Riemannian space without boundary. The fifth coefficient appears here for the first time. For a flat space with a gauge connection, the sixth coefficient is given too. Also provided are the leading terms for any coefficient, both in ascending and descending powers of the Yang-Mills and Riemann curvatures, to the same order as require...

  15. Magnetoelectric voltage coefficients of magnetoelectric composites

    WAN Yong-ping; ZHONG Zheng; QIU Jin-hao

    2006-01-01

    The magnetoelectric(ME) effect of the particulate magnetostrictive/piezoelectric composite was theoretically studied. The dependence of the ME voltage coefficients on the material properties of the magnetostrictive phase was discussed. The permittivity,permeability and the elastic modulus of the magnetostrictive phase generally have obvious influences on the ME voltage coefficients. The magnetostrictive phase with a large permittivity,large permeability or stiffer modulus will respectively contribute to the higher ME voltage coefficients. For a certain kind of piezoelectric matrix,the ME voltage coefficients can be improved to some extent by choosing those magnetostrictive materials with large permittivity,permeability or high elastic modulus.

  16. Mutual diffusion coefficients in systems containing the nickel ion

    Ribeiro, Ana C. F.; Veríssimo, Luis V. M. M.; Gomes, Joselaine C. S.; Santos, Cecilia I. A. V.; Barros, Marisa C. F.; Lobo, Victor M. M.; Sobral, Abílio J. F. N.; Esteso, Miguel A.; Leaist, Derek G.

    2013-04-01

    Mutual diffusion coefficients of nickel chloride in water have been measured at 293.15 K and 303.15 K and at concentrations between 0.020 mol dm-3 and 0.100 mol dm-3, using a conductimetric cell. The experimental mutual diffusion coefficients are discussed on the basis of the Onsager-Fuoss model. The equivalent conductances at infinitesimal concentration of the nickel ion in these solutions at those temperatures have been estimated using these results. In addition, from these data, we have estimated some transport and structural parameters, such as limiting diffusion coefficient, ionic conductance at infinitesimal concentration, hydrodynamic radii and activation energy, contributing this way to a better understanding of the structure of these systems and of their thermodynamic behavior in aqueous solution at different concentrations.

  17. Alternatives to Pearson's and Spearman's Correlation Coefficients

    Smarandache, Florentin

    2008-01-01

    This article presents several alternatives to Pearson's correlation coefficient and many examples. In the samples where the rank in a discrete variable counts more than the variable values, the mixtures that we propose of Pearson's and Spearman's correlation coefficients give better results.

  18. Factorization of Transport Coefficients in Macroporous Media

    Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2000-01-01

    We prove the fundamental theorem about factorization of the phenomenological coefficients for transport in macroporous media. By factorization we mean the representation of the transport coefficients as products of geometric parameters of the porous medium and the parameters characteristic of the...

  19. A gain-coefficient switched Alexandrite laser

    Lee, Chris J.; van der Slot, Peter J. M.; Boller, Klaus-J.

    2012-01-01

    We report on a gain-coefficient switched Alexandrite laser. An electro-optic modulator is used to switch between high and low gain states by making use of the polarization dependent gain of Alexandrite. In gain-coefficient switched mode, the laser produces 85 ns pulses with a pulse energy of 240 mJ at a repetition rate of 5 Hz.

  20. Problems with Discontinuous Diffusion/Dispersion Coefficients

    Stefano Ferraris

    2012-01-01

    accurate on smooth solutions and based on a special numerical treatment of the diffusion/dispersion coefficients that makes its application possible also when such coefficients are discontinuous. Numerical experiments confirm the convergence of the numerical approximation and show a good behavior on a set of benchmark problems in two space dimensions.

  1. Seebeck coefficient of CePd3

    Rare earth compounds have potential applications in thermoelectric devices due to their large value conductivity and Seebeck coefficient. CePd3 has the highest reported Seebeck coefficient (S ∼ 125 μV/K), when doped appropriately, among all rare-earth compounds. This high value is explained as a result of the placement of the cerium f1 level. (author)

  2. Coefficient Alpha Bootstrap Confidence Interval under Nonnormality

    Padilla, Miguel A.; Divers, Jasmin; Newton, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Three different bootstrap methods for estimating confidence intervals (CIs) for coefficient alpha were investigated. In addition, the bootstrap methods were compared with the most promising coefficient alpha CI estimation methods reported in the literature. The CI methods were assessed through a Monte Carlo simulation utilizing conditions…

  3. On Burnett coefficients in periodic media

    Conca, Carlos; Orive, Rafael; Vanninathan, Muthusamy

    2006-03-01

    The aim of this work is to demonstrate a curious property of general periodic structures. It is well known that the corresponding homogenized matrix is positive definite. We calculate here the next order Burnett coefficients associated with such structures. We prove that these coefficients form a tensor which is negative semidefinite. We also provide some examples showing degeneracy in multidimension.

  4. A gain-coefficient switched Alexandrite laser

    Lee, C. J.; van der Slot, P. J. M.; Boller, K. J.

    2013-01-01

    We report on a gain-coefficient switched Alexandrite laser. An electro-optic modulator is used to switch between high and low gain states by making use of the polarization dependent gain of Alexandrite. In gain-coefficient switched mode, the laser produces 85 ns pulses with a pulse energy of 240 mJ

  5. Heat transfer coefficient for boiling carbon dioxide

    Knudsen, Hans Jørgen Høgaard; Jensen, Per Henrik

    1998-01-01

    Heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop for boiling carbon dioxide (R744) flowing in a horizontal pipe has been measured. The calculated heat transfer coeeficient has been compared with the Chart correlation of Shah. The Chart Correlation predits too low heat transfer coefficient but the ratio...

  6. Effective stress coefficient for uniaxial strain condition

    Alam, Mohammad Monzurul; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2012-01-01

    coefficient from one dimensional rock mechanical deformation. We further investigated the effect of boundary condition on the stress dependency of effective stress coefficient and discussed its application in reservoir study. As stress field in the reservoirs are most unlikely to be hydrostatic, effective...... stress determined under uniaxial strain condition will be more relevant in reservoir studies....

  7. Coefficients of heat transfer in condensation

    The authors analyze the problem of determining the coefficients of heat transfer in the condensation of steam on vertical walls in terms of the Prandtl hypothesis and the Reynolds analogy for distribution of the turbulent thermal conductivity across the condensate film. From the assumed model the authors derived expressions for the heat transfer coefficients

  8. Graphite friction coefficient for various conditions

    2001-01-01

    The friction coefficient the graphite used in the Tsinghua University 10MW High Tem-perature Gas-Cooled Reactor was analyzed for various conditions. The variation of the graphitefriction coefficient was measured for various sliding velocities, sliding distances, normal loads, en-vironments and temperatures. A scanning elector microscope (SEM) was used to analyze the fric-tion surfaces.

  9. Effective stress coefficient for uniaxial strain condition

    Alam, M.M.; Fabricius, I.L.

    2012-01-01

    coefficient from one dimensional rock mechanical deformation. We further investigated the effect of boundary condition on the stress dependency of effective stress coefficient and discussed its application in reservoir study. As stress field in the reservoirs are most unlikely to be hydrostatic, effective...... stress determined under uniaxial strain condition will be more relevant in reservoir studies. Copyright 2012 ARMA, American Rock Mechanics Association....

  10. Effective stress coefficient for uniaxial strain condition

    Alam, Mohammad Monzurul; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2012-01-01

    coefficient from one dimensional rock mechanical deformation. We further investigated the effect of boundary condition on the stress dependency of effective stress coefficient and discussed its application in reservoir study. As stress field in the reservoirs are most unlikely to be hydrostatic, effective...

  11. Helioseismic Solar Cycle Changes and Splitting Coefficients

    S. C. Tripathy; Kiran Jain; A. Bhatnagar

    2000-09-01

    Using the GONG data for a period over four years, we have studied the variation of frequencies and splitting coefficients with solar cycle. Frequencies and even-order coefficients are found to change significantly with rising phase of the solar cycle. We also find temporal variations in the rotation rate near the solar surface.

  12. Friction Coefficient for Quarks in Supergravity Duals

    Antonyan, E.

    2006-01-01

    We study quarks moving in strongly-coupled plasmas that have supergravity duals. We compute the friction coefficient of strings dual to such quarks for general static supergravity backgrounds near the horizon. Our results also show that a previous conjecture on the bound has to be modified and higher friction coefficients can be achieved.

  13. On diffusion approximation with discontinuous coefficients

    Krylov, N. V.; Liptser, R.

    2002-01-01

    Convergence of stochastic processes with jumps to diffusion processes is investigated in the case when the limit process has discontinuous coefficients. An example is given in which the diffusion approximation of a queueing model yields a diffusion process with discontinuous diffusion and drift coefficients.

  14. Tracking time-varying coefficient-functions

    Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg; Nielsen, Torben Skov; Joensen, Alfred K.;

    2000-01-01

    otherwise unknown, functions of a low-dimensional input process. These coefficient functions are estimated adaptively and recursively without specifying a global parametric, form, i.e. the method allows for online tracking of the coefficient functions. Essentially, in its most simple form, the method is a...

  15. Estimating Runoff Coefficients Using Weather Radars

    Ahm, Malte; Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Rasmussen, Michael R.;

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a method for estimating runoff coefficients of urban drainage catchments based on a combination of high resolution weather radar data and insewer flow measurements. By utilising the spatial variability of the precipitation it is possible to estimate the runoff coefficients...

  16. Gini coefficient as a life table function

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a toolkit for measuring and analyzing inter-individual inequality in length of life by Gini coefficient. Gini coefficient and four other inequality measures are defined on the length-of-life distribution. Properties of these measures and their empirical testing on mortality data suggest a possibility for different judgements about the direction of changes in the degree of inequality by using different measures. A new computational procedure for the estimation of Gini coefficient from life tables is developed and tested on about four hundred real life tables. The estimates of Gini coefficient are precise enough even for abridged life tables with the final age group of 85+. New formulae have been developed for the decomposition of differences between Gini coefficients by age and cause of death. A new method for decomposition of age-components into effects of mortality and composition of population by group is developed. Temporal changes in the effects of elimination of causes of death on Gini coefficient are analyzed. Numerous empirical examples show: Lorenz curves for Sweden, Russia and Bangladesh in 1995, proportional changes in Gini coefficient and four other measures of inequality for the USA in 1950-1995 and for Russia in 1959-2000. Further shown are errors of estimates of Gini coefficient when computed from various types of mortality data of France, Japan, Sweden and the USA in 1900-95, decompositions of the USA-UK difference in life expectancies and Gini coefficients by age and cause of death in 1997. As well, effects of elimination of major causes of death in the UK in 1951-96 on Gini coefficient, age-specific effects of mortality and educational composition of the Russian population on changes in life expectancy and Gini coefficient between 1979 and 1989. Illustrated as well are variations in life expectancy and Gini coefficient across 32 countries in 1996-1999 and associated changes in life expectancy and Gini

  17. Diffusion coefficients of paracetamol in aqueous solutions

    Highlights: ► Mutual diffusion coefficients of paracetamol in aqueous dilute solutions. ► Influence of the thermodynamic factors on the variation of their mutual diffusion coefficients. ► Estimation of the mutual limiting diffusion coefficients of the molecular, Dm0, and ionized forms, D±0, of this drug. - Abstract: Binary mutual diffusion coefficients measured by the Taylor dispersion method, for aqueous solutions of paracetamol (PA) at concentrations from (0.001 to 0.050) mol·dm−3 at T = 298.15 K, are reported. From the Nernst–Hartley equation and our experimental results, the limiting diffusion coefficient of this drug and its thermodynamic factors are estimated, thereby contributing in this way to a better understanding of the structure of such systems and of their thermodynamic behaviour in aqueous solution at different concentrations.

  18. Critical exponents from cluster coefficients.

    Rotman, Z; Eisenberg, E

    2009-09-01

    For a large class of repulsive interaction models, the Mayer cluster integrals can be transformed into a tridiagonal real symmetric matrix R_{mn} , whose elements converge to two constants. This allows for an effective extrapolation of the equation of state for these models. Due to a nearby (nonphysical) singularity on the negative real z axis, standard methods (e.g., Padé approximants based on the cluster integrals expansion) fail to capture the behavior of these models near the ordering transition, and, in particular, do not detect the critical point. A recent work [E. Eisenberg and A. Baram, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104, 5755 (2007)] has shown that the critical exponents sigma and sigma;{'} , characterizing the singularity of the density as a function of the activity, can be exactly calculated if the decay of the R matrix elements to their asymptotic constant follows a 1/n;{2} law. Here we employ renormalization group (RG) arguments to extend this result and analyze cases for which the asymptotic approach of the R matrix elements toward their limiting value is of a more general form. The relevant asymptotic correction terms (in RG sense) are identified, and we then present a corrected exact formula for the critical exponents. We identify the limits of usage of the formula and demonstrate one physical model, which is beyond its range of validity. The formula is validated numerically and then applied to analyze a number of concrete physical models. PMID:19905081

  19. Development of database on the distribution coefficient. 1. Collection of the distribution coefficient data

    Takebe, Shinichi; Abe, Masayoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    The distribution coefficient is very important parameter for environmental impact assessment on the disposal of radioactive waste arising from research institutes. The literature survey in the country was mainly carried out for the purpose of selecting the reasonable distribution coefficient value on the utilization of this value in the safety evaluation. This report was arranged much informations on the distribution coefficient for inputting to the database for each literature, and was summarized as a literature information data on the distribution coefficient. (author)

  20. Development of database on the distribution coefficient. 1. Collection of the distribution coefficient data

    The distribution coefficient is very important parameter for environmental impact assessment on the disposal of radioactive waste arising from research institutes. The literature survey in the country was mainly carried out for the purpose of selecting the reasonable distribution coefficient value on the utilization of this value in the safety evaluation. This report was arranged much informations on the distribution coefficient for inputting to the database for each literature, and was summarized as a literature information data on the distribution coefficient. (author)

  1. PREDICTION OF THE SOLUBILITY, ACTIVITY COEFFICIENT AND LIQUID/LIQUID PARTITION COEFFICIENT OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    Solvation models, based on fundamental chemical structure theory, were developed in the SPARC mechanistic tool box to predict a large array of physical properties of organic compounds in water and in non-aqueous solvents strictly from molecular structure. The SPARC self-interact...

  2. FRICTION COEFFICIENT OF DIAMOND WIRE SAW

    Siniša Dunda

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to estimate the diamond wire saw upon quarrying of dimension stone, it is necessary to know the value of a friction coefficient on the driving pulley of the saw. Therefore the numerical value of the friction coefficient between diamond wire and coating of a driving pulley was determined in experimental way. The experiments were conducted under different working conditions. The resulting average value of the friction coefficient upon working in wet and muddy conditions amounted to µ = 0,32.

  3. Soccer ball lift coefficients via trajectory analysis

    Goff, John Eric [Department of Physics, Lynchburg College, Lynchburg, VA 24501 (United States); Carre, Matt J, E-mail: goff@lynchburg.ed [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-15

    We performed experiments in which a soccer ball was launched from a machine while two high-speed cameras recorded portions of the trajectory. Using the trajectory data and published drag coefficients, we extracted lift coefficients for a soccer ball. We determined lift coefficients for a wide range of spin parameters, including several spin parameters that have not been obtained by today's wind tunnels. Our trajectory analysis technique is not only a valuable tool for professional sports scientists, it is also accessible to students with a background in undergraduate-level classical mechanics.

  4. Measuring optical temperature coefficients of Intralipid (registered)

    The temperature sensitivities of absorption and reduced scattering coefficients in the range 700-1000 nm are determined for the liquid phantom Intralipid (registered) using spatially resolved continuous wave measurements. The measurements were conducted on a 10 L heated volume of 1% Intralipid (registered) subjected to a 40-30 deg. C cooling regime. The temperature sensitivities of the absorbance coefficients are similar to that expected for pure water. However, the reduced scattering coefficients are more sensitive than can be explained by temperature related density changes, and show an unexpected relationship with wavelength. We have also found that temperature perturbations provide a useful means to evaluate instrument model performance

  5. Generalized Coefficients for Hopf Cyclic Cohomology

    Hassanzadeh, Mohammad; Kucerovsky, Dan; Rangipour, Bahram

    2014-09-01

    A category of coefficients for Hopf cyclic cohomology is defined. It is shown that this category has two proper subcategories of which the smallest one is the known category of stable anti Yetter-Drinfeld modules. The middle subcategory is comprised of those coefficients which satisfy a generalized SAYD condition depending on both the Hopf algebra and the (co)algebra in question. Some examples are introduced to show that these three categories are different. It is shown that all components of Hopf cyclic cohomology work well with the new coefficients we have defined.

  6. Cohomology with Coefficients for Operadic Coalgebras

    Anita Majumdar; Donald Yau

    2009-09-01

    Corepresentations of a coalgebra over a quadratic operad are defined, and various characterizations of them are given. Cohomology of such an operadic coalgebra with coefficients in a corepresentation is then studied.

  7. Combinatorics of 3n-j coefficients

    The purpose of this paper is to outline the general theory of recouping coefficients in the theory of angular momentum form the viewpoint of generating functions along the lines initiated by Schwinger, but with special emphasis on the combinatorial aspects

  8. Transonic Blunt Body Aerodynamic Coefficients Computation

    Sancho, Jorge; Vargas, M.; Gonzalez, Ezequiel; Rodriguez, Manuel

    2011-05-01

    In the framework of EXPERT (European Experimental Re-entry Test-bed) accurate transonic aerodynamic coefficients are of paramount importance for the correct trajectory assessment and parachute deployment. A combined CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) modelling and experimental campaign strategy was selected to obtain accurate coefficients. A preliminary set of coefficients were obtained by CFD Euler inviscid computation. Then experimental campaign was performed at DNW facilities at NLR. A profound review of the CFD modelling was done lighten up by WTT results, aimed to obtain reliable values of the coefficients in the future (specially the pitching moment). Study includes different turbulence modelling and mesh sensitivity analysis. Comparison with the WTT results is explored, and lessons learnt are collected.

  9. Thermal Expansion Coefficients of Thin Crystal Films

    2005-01-01

    The formulas for atomic displacements and Hamiltonian of a thin crystal film in phonon occupation number representation are obtained with the aid of Green's function theory. On the basis of these results, the formulas for thermal expansion coefficients of the thin crystal film are derived with the perturbation theory, and the numerical calculations are carried out. The results show that the thinner films have larger thermal expansion coefficients.

  10. Photon diffusion coefficient in an absorbing medium

    Aronson, Raphael; Corngold, Noel

    1999-01-01

    A number of investigators have recently claimed, based on both analysis from transport theory and transport theory-based Monte Carlo calculations, that the diffusion coefficient for photon migration should be taken to be independent of absorption. We show that these analyses are flawed and that the correct way of extracting diffusion theory from transport theory gives an absorption-dependent diffusion coefficient. Experiments by two different sets of investigators give conflicting results con...

  11. Experimental determination of bagasse stiffness coefficient

    Nelson Arzola de la Peña

    2010-01-01

    The experimentally determined stiffness coefficient of bagasse is described in this paper. This property defines the behaviour of the reaction forces exerted upon the bagasse layer when being compressed during juice-extraction in a sugar-cane mill. This information is important for correctly analysing sugar-cane mill operation and design. An experimental device was used for obtaining the stiffness coefficient; it consisted of a piston, a piston-skirt, a hydraulic press and instrumentation for...

  12. A Kendall correlation coefficient for functional dependence

    Valencia García, Dalia Jazmín; Romo, Juan; Lillo, Rosa E.

    2013-01-01

    Measuring dependence is a basic question when dealing with functional observations. The usual correlation for curves is not robust. Kendall's coefficient is a natural description of dependence between finite dimensional random variables. We extend this concept to functional observations. Given a bivariate sample of functions, a robust analysis of dependence can be carried out through the functional version of a Kendall correlation coefficient introduced in this paper. We also study its statis...

  13. Clustering coefficient without degree correlations biases

    Soffer, Sara Nadiv; Vazquez, Alexei

    2004-01-01

    The clustering coefficient quantifies how well connected are the neighbors of a vertex in a graph. In real networks it decreases with the vertex degree, which has been taken as a signature of the network hierarchical structure. Here we show that this signature of hierarchical structure is a consequence of degree correlation biases in the clustering coefficient definition. We introduce a new definition in which the degree correlation biases are filtered out, and provide evidence that in real n...

  14. Measuring Resource Inequality: The Gini Coefficient

    Michael T. Catalano

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper stems from work done by the authors at the Mathematics for Social Justice Workshop held in June of 2007 at Middlebury College. We provide a description of the Gini coefficient and some discussion of how it can be used to promote quantitative literacy skills in mathematics courses. The Gini Coefficient was introduced in 1921 by Italian statistician Corrado Gini as a measure of inequality. It is defined as twice the area between two curves. One, the Lorenz curve for a given population with respect to a given resource, represents the cumulative percentage of the resource as a function of the cumulative percentage of the population that shares that percentage of the resource. The second curve is the line y = x which is the Lorenz curve for a population which shares the resource equally. The Gini coefficient can be interpreted as the percentage of inequality represented in the population with respect to the given resource. We propose that the Gini coefficient can be used to enhance students’ understanding of calculus concepts and provide practice for students in using both calculus and quantitative literacy skills. Our examples are based mainly on distribution of energy resources using publicly available data from the Energy Information Agency of the United States Government. For energy resources within the United States, we find that by household, the Gini coefficient is 0.346, while using the 51 data points represented by the states and Washington D.C., the Gini coefficient is 0.158. When we consider the countries of the world as a population of 210, the Gini coefficient is 0.670. We close with ideas for questions which can be posed to students and discussion of the experiences two other mathematics instructors have had incorporating the Gini coefficient into pre-calculus-level mathematics classes.

  15. Onsager coefficients of a Brownian Carnot cycle

    Izumida, Yuki; Okuda, Koji

    2010-01-01

    We study a Brownian Carnot cycle introduced by T. Schmiedl and U. Seifert [Europhys. Lett. \\textbf{81}, 20003 (2008)] from a viewpoint of the linear irreversible thermodynamics. By considering the entropy production rate of this cycle, we can determine thermodynamic forces and fluxes of the cycle and calculate the Onsager coefficients for general protocols, that is, arbitrary schedules to change the potential confining the Brownian particle. We show that these Onsager coefficients contain the...

  16. Diffusion Coefficients of Fluorinated Surfactants in Water:

    Pereira, Luís A.M.; Martins, Luís F. G.; Ascenso, José R.; Morgado, Pedro; Ramalho, João P. P.; Filipe, Eduardo J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Intradiffusion coefficients of 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol in water have been measured by the pulsed field gradient (PFG)-NMR spin−echo technique as a function of temperature and composition on the dilute alcohol region. The measurements extend the range of compositions already studied in the literature and, for the first time, include the study of the temperature dependence. At the same time, intradiffusion coefficients of 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol, 2,2,3,3,3-pentafluoropropan-1-ol, ...

  17. Investigation of photon attenuation coefficients for marble

    The total linear attenuation coefficients μ (cm-1) have been obtained using the XCOM program at photon energies of 1 keV to 1 GeV for six different natural marbles produced in different places in Turkey. The individual contribution of photon interaction processes to the total linear attenuation coefficients for marble has been investigated. The calculated results were also compared with the measurements. The results obtained for marble were also compared with concrete. (note)

  18. Fractal fractal dimensions of deterministic transport coefficients

    Klages, R.; Klauss, T.

    2003-01-01

    If a point particle moves chaotically through a periodic array of scatterers the associated transport coefficients are typically irregular functions under variation of control parameters. For a piecewise linear two-parameter map we analyze the structure of the associated irregular diffusion coefficient and current by numerically computing dimensions from box-counting and from the autocorrelation function of these graphs. We find that both dimensions are fractal for large parameter intervals a...

  19. Decomposition of the Gini coefficient using Stata

    Alejandro López Feldman

    2009-01-01

    The Gini coefficient is widely used to measure inequality in the distribution of income, consumption, and other welfare proxies. Decomposing this measure can help you understand the determinants of inequality. In this presentation, I will use income data from Mexico to illustrate a user-written command, descogini, that implements the Gini decomposition proposed by Lerman and Yitzhaki (1985, Review of Economics and Statistics 67: 151–156). Using this command, the Gini coefficient for total inc...

  20. Transport coefficients for inelastic Maxwell mixtures

    Garzo, Vicente; Astillero, Antonio

    2004-01-01

    The Boltzmann equation for inelastic Maxwell models is used to determine the Navier-Stokes transport coefficients of a granular binary mixture in $d$ dimensions. The Chapman-Enskog method is applied to solve the Boltzmann equation for states near the (local) homogeneous cooling state. The mass, heat, and momentum fluxes are obtained to first order in the spatial gradients of the hydrodynamic fields, and the corresponding transport coefficients are identified. There are seven relevant transpor...

  1. Impact on odorant partition coefficients and flavour perception

    Rusu, Manuela

    2007-01-01

    Foods are complex multi-component systems which are composed of volatile and non-volatile substances. The flavour profile of a food is an important criterion for the selection of our foodstuffs. The main objective of this study was the clarification of the complex relationships of the flavour release as a function of the composition of the food matrix at molecular level. Therefore the influence of matrix effects onto the partition coefficients, odour activity values and sens...

  2. Modeling Complex System Correlation Using Detrended Cross-Correlation Coefficient

    2014-01-01

    The understanding of complex systems has become an area of active research for physicists because such systems exhibit interesting dynamical properties such as scale invariance, volatility correlation, heavy tails, and fractality. We here focus on traffic dynamic as an example of a complex system. By applying the detrended cross-correlation coefficient method to traffic time series, we find that the traffic fluctuation time series may exhibit cross-correlation characteristic. Further, we show...

  3. Statistical analyses of local transport coefficients in ohmic ASDEX discharges

    Tokamak energy transport is still an unsolved problem. Many theoretical models have been developed, which try to explain the anomalous high energy-transport coefficients. Up to now these models have been applied to global plasma parameters. A comparison of transport coefficients with global confinement time is only conclusive if the transport is dominated by one process across the plasma diameter. This, however, is not the case in most of the Ohmic confinement regimes, where at least three different transport mechanisms play an important role. Sawtooth activity leads to an increase in energy transport in the plasma centre. In the intermediate region turbulent transport is expected. Candidates here are drift waves and resistive fluid turbulences. At the edge, ballooning modes or rippling modes could dominate the transport. For the intermediate region, one can deduce theoretical scaling laws for τE from turbulent theories. Predicted scalings reproduce the experimentally found density dependence of τE in the linear Ohmic confinement regime (LOC) and the saturated regime (SOC), but they do not show the correct dependence on the isotope mass. The relevance of these transport theories can only be tested in comparing them to experimental local transport coefficients. To this purpose we have performed transport calculations on more than a hundred Ohmic ASDEX discharges. By Principal Component Analysis we determine the dimensionless components which dominate the transport coefficients and we compare the results to the predictions of various theories. (orig.)

  4. Experimental Mg IX photo recombination rate coefficient

    The rate coefficient for radiative and dielectronic recombination of beryllium-like magnesium ions was measured with high resolution at the Heidelberg heavy-ion storage ring TSR. In the electron-ion collision energy range 0-207 eV resonances due to 2s → 2p (ΔN = 0) and 2s → 3l (ΔN = 1) core excitations were detected. At low energies below 0.15 eV the recombination rate coefficient is dominated by strong 1s2(2s2p 3P)7l resonances with the strongest one occurring at an energy of only 21 meV. These resonances decisively influence the Mg IX recombination rate coefficient in a low temperature plasma. The experimentally derived Mg IX dielectronic recombination rate coefficient (±15% systematical uncertainty) is compared with the recommendation by Mazzotta et al. (1998, AandAS, 133, 403) and the recent calculations by Gu (2003, ApJ, 590, 1131) and by Colgan et al. (2003, AandA, 412, 597). These results deviate from the experimental rate coefficient by 130%, 82% and 25%, respectively, at the temperature where the fractional abundance of Mg IX is expected to peak in a photoionized plasma. At this temperature a theoretical uncertainty in the 1s2(2s2p 3P)7l resonance positions of only 100 meV would translate into an uncertainty of the plasma rate coefficient of almost a factor 3. This finding emphasizes that an accurate theoretical calculation of the Mg IX recombination rate coefficient from first principles is challenging. (authors)

  5. Experimental Mg IX photorecombination rate coefficient

    Schippers, S.; Schnell, M.; Brandau, C.; Kieslich, S.; Müller, A.; Wolf, A.

    2004-07-01

    The rate coefficient for radiative and dielectronic recombination of beryllium-like magnesium ions was measured with high resolution at the Heidelberg heavy-ion storage ring TSR. In the electron-ion collision energy range 0-207 eV resonances due to 2s -> 2p (Δ N = 0) and 2s -> 3l (Δ N=1) core excitations were detected. At low energies below 0.15 eV the recombination rate coefficient is dominated by strong 1s2 (2s 2p 3P) 7l resonances with the strongest one occuring at an energy of only 21 meV. These resonances decisively influence the Mg IX recombination rate coefficient in a low temperature plasma. The experimentally derived Mg IX dielectronic recombination rate coefficient (±15% systematical uncertainty) is compared with the recommendation by Mazzotta et al. (1998, A&AS, 133, 403) and the recent calculations by Gu (2003, ApJ, 590, 1131) and by Colgan et al. (2003, A&A, 412, 597). These results deviate from the experimental rate coefficient by 130%, 82% and 25%, respectively, at the temperature where the fractional abundance of Mg IX is expected to peak in a photoionized plasma. At this temperature a theoretical uncertainty in the 1s2 (2s 2p 3P) 7l resonance positions of only 100 meV would translate into an uncertainty of the plasma rate coefficient of almost a factor 3. This finding emphasizes that an accurate theoretical calculation of the Mg IX recombination rate coefficient from first principles is challenging.

  6. Inverse determination of local heat transfer coefficient

    The naphtalene sublimation and transient methods are widely used techniques which are particularly useful in complex flows and solid shapes. Both techniques have been widely used with considerable success but they are not appropriate for high temperatures. An alternative method to obtain the local convective heat transfer coefficient, that does not have any disadvantages noted above, is the inverse procedure. Determination of the space-variable heat transfer coefficient on a complex shape surface requires the solution of the nonlinear inverse heat conduction problem. The distribution of the heat transfer coefficient is calculated from temperature measurements at interior points of the solid and measured fluid temperature. The unknown parameters associated with the solution are selected to achieve the closest agreement in a least squares sense between the computed and measured temperatures using the Levenberg - Marquardt method. The nonlinear least - squares problem is parameterized by assuming the staircase changes of heat transfer coefficient on the boundary or expressing the space variations of the heat transfer coefficient in the functional form. The uncertainties in the estimated components of the heat transfer coefficient or in the estimated parameters are determined for the temperature measurements with known and unknown standard deviations. The determination of the circumferential heat transfer coefficient distribution on the heated tube with two longitudinal fins in cross flow demonstrates the accuracy of the developed method. The actual experimental data were used. Experiments were performed with an array of vertical tubes arranged in staggered pattern. The experimental results reported herein are among the first that show the variation of the local heat transfer coefficients over the circumference of the finned tube. Most data reported previously were acquired for smooth tubes at low temperatures. The main advantage of the method is that it does not

  7. Experimental Mg IX photorecombination rate coefficient

    Schippers, S; Brandau, C; Kieslich, S; Müller, A; Wolf, A

    2004-01-01

    The rate coefficient for radiative and dielectronic recombination of berylliumlike magnesium ions was measured with high resolution at the Heidelberg heavy-ion storage ring TSR. In the electron-ion collision energy range 0-207 eV resonances due to 2s -> 2p (Delta N = 0) and 2s -> 3l (Delta N=1) core excitations were detected. At low energies below 0.15 eV the recombination rate coefficient is dominated by strong 1s2 (2s 2p 3P) 7l resonances with the strongest one occuring at an energy of only 21 meV. These resonances decisively influence the Mg IX recombination rate coefficient in a low temperature plasma. The experimentally derived Mg IX dielectronic recombination rate coefficient (+-15% systematical uncertainty) is compared with the recommendation by Mazzotta et al. (1998, A&AS, 133, 403) and the recent calculations by Gu (2003, ApJ, 590, 1131) and by Colgan et al. (2003, A&A, 412, 597). These results deviate from the experimental rate coefficient by 130%, 82% and 25%, respectively, at the temperatu...

  8. Experimental methodology for obtaining sound absorption coefficients

    Carlos A. Macía M

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the authors propose a new methodology for estimating sound absorption coefficients using genetic algorithms. Methodology: sound waves are generated and conducted along a rectangular silencer. The waves are then attenuated by the absorbing material covering the silencer’s walls. The attenuated sound pressure level is used in a genetic algorithm-based search to find the parameters of the proposed attenuation expressions that include geometric factors, the wavelength and the absorption coefficient. Results: a variety of adjusted mathematical models were found that make it possible to estimate the absorption coefficients based on the characteristics of a rectangular silencer used for measuring the attenuation of the noise that passes through it. Conclusions: this methodology makes it possible to obtain the absorption coefficients of new materials in a cheap and simple manner. Although these coefficients might be slightly different from those obtained through other methodologies, they provide solutions within the engineering accuracy ranges that are used for designing noise control systems.

  9. On the Relation Between the Polychoric Correlation Coefficient and Spearman's Rank Correlation Coefficient

    Ekström, Joakim

    2011-01-01

    Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient is shown to be a deterministic transformation of the empirical polychoric correlation coefficient. The transformation is a homeomorphism under given marginal probabilities, and has a fixed point at zero. Moreover, the two measures of association for ordinal variables are asymptotically equivalent, in a certain sense. If the ordinal variables arise from discretizations, such as groupings of values into categories, Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient ...

  10. Improved Diffusion Coefficients for Stellar Plasmas

    Brassard, P.; Fontaine, G.

    2014-04-01

    We are currently working on the fourth generation of our codes for building evolutionary and static models of hot subdwarf and white dwarf stars. One of the improvements of these codes consists in an update of all the microphysics involved in the computations. As part of our efforts, we have taken a look at possible improvements for the diffusion coefficients. Since the publication of the widely used diffusion coefficients of Paquette et al. (1986), the number-crunching power of computers has immensely increased, allowing more accurate computations of the triple collision integrals. We have thus produced new tables of diffusion coefficients with higher accuracy and higher resolution than before, of general use in stellar astrophysics.

  11. Curvature of Indoor Sensor Network: Clustering Coefficient

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the geometric properties of the communication graph in realistic low-power wireless networks. In particular, we explore the concept of the curvature of a wireless network via the clustering coefficient. Clustering coefficient analysis is a computationally simplified, semilocal approach, which nevertheless captures such a large-scale feature as congestion in the underlying network. The clustering coefficient concept is applied to three cases of indoor sensor networks, under varying thresholds on the link packet reception rate (PRR. A transition from positive curvature (“meshed” network to negative curvature (“core concentric” network is observed by increasing the threshold. Even though this paper deals with network curvature per se, we nevertheless expand on the underlying congestion motivation, propose several new concepts (network inertia and centroid, and finally we argue that greedy routing on a virtual positively curved network achieves load balancing on the physical network.

  12. A drying coefficient for building materials

    Scheffler, Gregor Albrecht; Plagge, Rudolf

    2009-01-01

    The drying experiment is an important element of the hygrothermal characterisation of building materials. Contrary to other moisture transport experiments as the vapour diffusion and the water absorption test, it is until now not possible to derive a simple coefficient for the drying. However, in...... many cases such a coefficient would be highly appreciated, e.g. in interaction of industry and research or for the distinction and selection of suitable building materials throughout design and practise. This article first highlights the importance of drying experiments for hygrothermal...... characterisation of building materials on which the attempt is based to standardize the drying experiment as well as to derive a single number material coefficient. The drying itself is briefly reviewed and existing approaches are discussed. On this basis, possible definitions are evaluated. Finally, a drying...

  13. Understanding correlation coefficients in treaty verification

    DeVolpi, A.

    1991-11-01

    When a pair of images are compared on a point-by-point basis, the linear-correlation coefficient is usually used as a measure of similarity or dissimilarity. This paper evaluates the theoretical underpinnings and limitation of the linear-correlation coefficient, as well as other related statistics, particularly for cases where inherent white noise is present. As a result of the limitations in linear-correlation, an additional step has been derived -- local-sum clustering -- in order to improve recognition of small dissimilarities in a pair images. Results show that three-stage procedure, consisting of first establishing congruence of the two images, than using the linear-correlation coefficient as a test of true negatives, and finally qualifying a true positive by using the cluster (local-sum) method. These algorithmic stages would be especially useful in arms control treaty verification.

  14. The axial distribution of reactivity coefficients

    The purpose of the present work is to investigate the correlation of the axial distributions of the different reactivity coefficients with the neutron flux and the neutron flux squared. Calculations were carried out for the Zion Unit 2 PWR. Reactivity coefficients, forward fluxes and adjoint fluxes were all computed and correlations obtained. The core length was divided into 7 axial regions in order to obtain the effect on reactivity in the reactor as a whole of changing the cross sections in each axial region in turn. The parameters chosen for change were coolant density, coolant temperature and fuel temperature. The results appear to bear out our original hypothesis that the reactivity coefficient profiles have a higher positive correlation with the total flux squared profile than with the linear flux profile. (authors). 5 refs., 2 figs

  15. FACIAL FEATURE EXTRACTION USING STATISTICAL QUANTITIES OF CURVE COEFFICIENTS

    SHREEJA R,

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Face recognition technology involves obtaining the identity of a person by comparing the image captured with the stored images in the database. In today’s world face recognition has relevance in many day to day applications. A large number of organizations are making use of various biometric techniques for applications such are employeesign in, access to secure systems etc. Unlike other biometric techniques it has the advantage that it can be done without the active participation of the person. So it can be extensively used in crime investigation purpose. For identifying faces the preliminary phase is to obtain the features of the faces which are crucial for recognition. In this paper a feature extraction method based on the statistical descriptors of Curve coefficients is proposed. Curvelettransform is a multiscale pyramid with many directions, positions at each length, scale, and needle shaped elements at fine scales. The Curvelet transform is an extension of wavelet originally designed to represent edges and other singularities along curves much more efficiently than traditional wavelet transforms. After curvelet transform, the coefficients of low frequency and high frequency in matrix form is obtained. The former contain the approximation of the face images, and we call them curve faces. The latter contain the detail information. The low frequency coefficients i.e. curve faces, contain most significant information of faces, and are crucial for recognition. But after curvelet transform a large number of coefficients are obtained. Using all these will make our recognition system complex. So the important features that are sufficient for recognition are to be extracted. In this paper a method of extracting the required features from the coefficients obtained after curvelet transform is discussed.

  16. Oxygen atom loss coefficient of carbon nanowalls

    Mozetic, Miran, E-mail: miran.mozetic@guest.arnes.si [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Vesel, Alenka [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Stoica, Silviu Daniel; Vizireanu, Sorin; Dinescu, Gheorghe [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilo Street, PO Box MG-36, Magurele, Bucharest 077125 (Romania); Zaplotnik, Rok [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2015-04-01

    Highlights: • Atomic oxygen loss coefficient on carbon nanowalls (CNWs) was evaluated. • Atomic oxygen loss coefficient of CNW is the largest among any known materials. • Surface atom loss is a major loss mechanism at room temperatures. - Abstract: Extremely high values of atomic oxygen loss coefficient on carbon nanowall (CNW) surface are reported. CNW layers consisting of interconnected individual nanostructures with average length of 1.1 μm, average thickness of 66 nm and surface density of 3 CNW/μm{sup 2} were prepared by plasma jet enhanced chemical-vapor deposition using C{sub 2}H{sub 2}/H{sub 2}/Ar gas mixtures. The samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectrometry (RS) as well as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The surface loss coefficient was measured at room temperature in a flowing afterglow at different densities of oxygen atoms supplied from inductively coupled radiofrequency O{sub 2} plasma. The RF generator operated at 13.56 MHz and different nominal powers up to 900 W corresponding to different O-atom density in the afterglow up to 1.3 × 10{sup 21} m{sup −3}. CNW and several different samples of known coefficients for heterogeneous surface recombination of neutral oxygen atoms have been placed separately in the afterglow chamber and the O-atom density in their vicinity was measured with calibrated catalytic probes. Comparison of measured results allowed for determination of the loss coefficient for CNWs and the obtained value of 0.59 ± 0.03 makes this material an extremely effective sink for O-atoms.

  17. Super-b4 coefficients in supergravity

    For covariantly chiral superfields coupled to background Yang-Mills superfields and defined on a curved superspace background, the superfield analogue of the heat kernel associated with the differential operator appearing in the quadratic part of the action is defined. The super-b4 coefficient in the asymptotic expansion of the kernel is computed using a system of superspace normal coordinates. These coefficients are shown to determine the one-loop trace supermultiplet and the one-loop logarithmic divergence for pure supergravity. (author)

  18. Criterions for fixing regulatory seismic acceleration coefficients

    Acceleration coeffficients to be taken into account in seismic areas for calculation of structures are defined in national seismic regulations. Joined to the described qualitative requirements, these coefficients represent a balance between precaution costs and avoided damages, both in terms of material repairing costs and damage to human life. Persons in charge of fixing these coefficients must be informed of corresponding quantitative aspects. Data on seismic motions occurrencies and consequences are gathered here and convoluted to mean damage evaluations. Indications on precaution costs are joined, which shows that currently recommended levels of seismic motions are high relatively to financial profitability, and represent in fact an aethical choice about human life value

  19. Bayes estimation of the multiple correlation coefficient

    Tiwari, RC

    1989-01-01

    Let R denote the population multiple correlation coefficient of one variable on the other (m-1), in a m-variate normal —2 distribution. Bayes estimator of R, given only the sample 2 multiple correlation coefficient R, is derived with respect to the squared error loss function and a Beta prior distribution.-2 These results are then related to the Bayes estimates of R /(1-_o R), a parameter considered recently by Muirhead (1985). The ideas are illustrated and the effect of various parameters st...

  20. ANL results for LMFR reactivity coefficients benchmark

    The fast reactor analysis methods developed at ANL were extensively tested in ZPR and ZPPR experiments, applied to EBR-2 and FFTF test reactors. The basic nuclear data library used was ENDF/B-V.2 with the ETOE-2 data processing code and the ENDF/B-VI. Multigroup constants were generated by Monte Carlo code MCNP2-2. Neutron flux calculation were done by DIF3D code applying neutron diffusion theory and finite difference method. The results obtained include basic parameters; fuel and structure regional Doppler coefficients; geometry expansion fuel coefficients; kinetics parameters. In general, agreement between phase 1 and 2 results were excellent

  1. Viscous Coefficients of a Hot Pion Gas

    Sourav Sarkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The steps essentially involved in the evaluation of transport coefficients in linear response theory using Kubo formulas are to relate the defining retarded correlation function to the corresponding time-ordered one and to evaluate the latter in the conventional perturbation expansion. Here we evaluate the viscosities of a pion gas carrying out both the steps in the real-time formulation. We also obtain the viscous coefficients by solving the relativistic transport equation in the Chapman-Enskog approximation to leading order. An in-medium π π cross-section is used in which spectral modifications are introduced in the propagator of the exchanged ρ .

  2. Shear viscosity coefficient of liquid lanthanides

    Present paper deals with the computation of shear viscosity coefficient (η) of liquid lanthanides. The effective pair potential v(r) is calculated through our newly constructed model potential. The Pair distribution function g(r) is calculated from PYHS reference system. To see the influence of local field correction function, Hartree (H), Tailor (T) and Sarkar et al (S) local field correction function are used. Present results are compared with available experimental as well as theoretical data. Lastly, we found that our newly constructed model potential successfully explains the shear viscosity coefficient (η) of liquid lanthanides

  3. Study on the Friction Coefficient in Grinding

    2002-01-01

    The friction between the abrasive grains and workpi ec e is a crutial factor determining the main grinding output. Few studies have bee n carried out investigating the values of the friction coefficient in grinding, due to the difficulty of direct measurement. In this paper, a mathematical model of the friction coefficient in grinding has been established with the aid of a new grinding parameter C ge, which has close relations to wheel wear rate Z s, metal removal rate Z w, specific energy u and gr...

  4. Coefficient of Restitution of Wet Tennis Balls

    Eugene Jang; Tony Kim

    2014-01-01

    The coefficient of restitution of a damp tennis ball is of interest to tennis players. Using a spray bottle, water was added to a tennis ball and the mass of water on the wet ball was determined. The ball was then dropped from a fixed height of 0.86 m. The motion was recorded with a video camera and the bounce height was measured. Using the bounce height and the original height, the coefficient of restitution for that mass of added water was determined. The research found the mass of wa...

  5. Estimating inbreeding coefficients from NGS data

    Vieira, Filipe Garrett; Fumagalli, Matteo; Albrechtsen, Anders;

    2013-01-01

    Most methods for Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) data analyses incorporate information regarding allele frequencies using the assumption of Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE) as a prior. However, many organisms including domesticated, partially selfing or with asexual life cycles show strong...... deviations from HWE. For such species, and specially for low coverage data, it is necessary to obtain estimates of inbreeding coefficients (F) for each individual beforecalling genotypes. Here, we present two methods for estimating inbreeding coefficients from NGS data based on an Expectation...

  6. Introduction to the determination of transport numbers in electrolytic solutions. Effect of the activity coefficient in the coupled scattering and self-scattering processes. Electric mobility of the Na+ ion in water-THF mixture - Measurements of transport numbers by means of radio-tracers

    Within the frame of a study of ion preferential solvation in hydro-organic media, the author reports some measurements of ionic conductivities of the Na+ ion in mixtures of different proportions of water and THF (tetrahydrofuran), and more specifically the use of a recently developed method of transport number measurement. The author explains the general definition of the transport number, recalls usual measurement methods (Hittorf method, moving boundary method), describes the method principle, the measurement process, reports the assessment of corrective terms in the calculation of the transport number, and presents and comments the obtained results. A second part addresses the influence of activity coefficient gradient on the couple scattering and self-scattering phenomenon: self-scattering measurement with a tracer, theoretical aspects of coupled scattering, experimental results and discussion

  7. Determination of Complex-Valued Parametric Model Coefficients Using Artificial Neural Network Technique

    A. M. Aibinu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A new approach for determining the coefficients of a complex-valued autoregressive (CAR and complex-valued autoregressive moving average (CARMA model coefficients using complex-valued neural network (CVNN technique is discussed in this paper. The CAR and complex-valued moving average (CMA coefficients which constitute a CARMA model are computed simultaneously from the adaptive weights and coefficients of the linear activation functions in a two-layered CVNN. The performance of the proposed technique has been evaluated using simulated complex-valued data (CVD with three different types of activation functions. The results show that the proposed method can accurately determine the model coefficients provided that the network is properly trained. Furthermore, application of the developed CVNN-based technique for MRI K-space reconstruction results in images with improve resolution.

  8. Extending the Constant Coefficient Solution Technique to Variable Coefficient Ordinary Differential Equations

    Mohammed, Ahmed; Zeleke, Aklilu

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a class of second-order ordinary differential equations (ODEs) with variable coefficients whose closed-form solutions can be obtained by the same method used to solve ODEs with constant coefficients. General solutions for the homogeneous case are discussed.

  9. Pressure-viscosity coefficient of biobased lubricants

    Film thickness is an important tribological property that is dependent on the combined effect of lubricant properties, material property of friction surfaces, and the operating conditions of the tribological process. Pressure-viscosity coefficient (PVC) is one of the lubricant properties that influe...

  10. Regularity of the Interband Light Absorption Coefficient

    M Krishna

    2010-06-01

    In this paper we consider the interband light absorption coefficient (ILAC), in a symmetric form, in the case of random operators on the -dimensional lattice. We show that the symmetrized version of ILAC is either continuous or has a component which has the same modulus of continuity as the density of states.

  11. Infinite matrices, wavelet coefficients and frames

    N. A. Sheikh

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the action of A on f∈L2(ℝ and on its wavelet coefficients, where A=(almjklmjk is a double infinite matrix. We find the frame condition for A-transform of f∈L2(ℝ whose wavelet series expansion is known.

  12. Combinatorics of 3n-j coefficients

    The binary coupling theory of the addition of n+1 angular momenta, or, equivalently, of the reduction of n+1 multiple Kronecker products of the unitary irreducible representations of the unitary group SU(2), is reviewed with emphasis on the combinatorial structure. Using labeled binary trees, we give the generating function for the coupled angular-momentum function corresponding to every binary coupling scheme. From this result, we obtain the generating function for the coefficients for all recoupling coefficients. We generalize the methods of Schwinger, but formulated in the ring of polynomials. A key concept for recoupling coefficients is the double Pfaffian, which is closely related to MacMahon's master theorem. Work in progress includes the classification of 3n-j coefficients, the investigation of representations of U(n+1) that arise from its right action on the 2x(n+1) matrix Z of indeterminates whose columns are the two-component spinors associated with the (n+1)-angular-momentum basis function, and related problems

  13. Calculation of aberration coefficients by ray tracing

    Oral, Martin; Lencová, Bohumila

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 109, č. 11 (2009), s. 1365-1373. ISSN 0304-3991 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100650805 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : Aberrations * Aberration coefficients * Ray tracing * Regression * Fitting Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 2.067, year: 2009

  14. Confidence Intervals for Cronbach's Coefficient Alpha Values

    A.J. Koning (Alex); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractCoefficient Alpha, which is widely used in empirical research, estimates the reliability of a test consisting of parallel items. In practice it is difficult to compare values of alpha across studies as it depends on the number of items used. In this paper we provide a simple solution, wh

  15. Pressure viscosity coefficient of vegetable oils

    The elastohydrodynamic (EHD) pressure viscosity coefficient (PVC) of ten vegetable oils from commodity and new crops, and two petroleum-based oils, polyalphaolefin (PAO) and hexadecane, were investigated. PVC was measured using three different methods: the So and Klaus (S-K) procedure from oil visco...

  16. Coefficient Quantization for Frames in Banach Spaces

    Casazza, P. G.; Dilworth, S. J.; Odell, E.; Schlumprecht, Th.; Zsak, Andras

    2007-01-01

    Let $(e_i)$ be a fundamental system of a Banach space. We consider the problem of approximating linear combinations of elements of this system by linear combinations using quantized coefficients. We will concentrate on systems which are possibly redundant. Our model for this situation will be frames in Banach spaces.

  17. Diffusion Coefficient Measurements: Sulphuric Acid – Air

    Brus, David; Neitola, K.; Petäjä, T.; Lihavainen, H.

    Helsinki : -, 2010, P2L7. ISBN N. [International Aerosol Conference IAC 2010. Helsinki (FI), 29.08.2010-03.09.2010] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : diffusion coefficient * sulphuric acid * flow tube Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry www.iac2010.fi

  18. Coefficient Omega Bootstrap Confidence Intervals: Nonnormal Distributions

    Padilla, Miguel A.; Divers, Jasmin

    2013-01-01

    The performance of the normal theory bootstrap (NTB), the percentile bootstrap (PB), and the bias-corrected and accelerated (BCa) bootstrap confidence intervals (CIs) for coefficient omega was assessed through a Monte Carlo simulation under conditions not previously investigated. Of particular interests were nonnormal Likert-type and binary items.…

  19. Uses and Misuses of the Correlation Coefficient.

    Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Daniel, Larry G.

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an in-depth critical analysis of the use and misuse of correlation coefficients. Various analytical and interpretational misconceptions are reviewed, beginning with the egregious assumption that correlational statistics may be useful in inferring causality. Additional misconceptions, stemming from…

  20. Experimental determination of bagasse stiffness coefficient

    Nelson Arzola de la Peña

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The experimentally determined stiffness coefficient of bagasse is described in this paper. This property defines the behaviour of the reaction forces exerted upon the bagasse layer when being compressed during juice-extraction in a sugar-cane mill. This information is important for correctly analysing sugar-cane mill operation and design. An experimental device was used for obtaining the stiffness coefficient; it consisted of a piston, a piston-skirt, a hydraulic press and instrumentation for measuring the pressures so produced and piston position at different times. Compression rate, humidity level and degree of bagasse fragmentation were the experimental factors taken into account in the experimental design. The investigation was carried out with 40%-80% humidity level and up to 0.06 compression rates. All experimental factors proved statistically significant in the bagasse stiffness coefficient experimental model so obtained. Bagasse was seen to behave as a very rigid elastic material under normal sugar-mill pressure operating conditions, having 50 MPa to 20,000 MPa stiffness coefficient values.

  1. Molar extinction coefficients of some fatty acids

    Sandhu, G.K.; Singh, K.; Lark, B.S.; Gerward, Leif

    2002-01-01

    ) and stearic acid (C18H36O2), has been measured at the photon energies 81, 356, 511, 662, 1173 and 1332 keV. Experimental values for the molar extinction coefficient, the effective atomic number and the electron density have been derived and compared with theoretical calculations. There is good...

  2. Power coefficient anomaly in Joyo, (2)

    In this report, the presumption about the mechanism having caused the power coefficient anomaly in Joyo during the 75 MW power-raising test in 1979 is described. After the previous report, the new information about the results of the post-irradiation examination and the analysis of the power coefficient of Joyo were able to be obtained. From these information, the mechanism of causing the anomaly was presumed as follows. In 50 MW operation, the fuel burnup reached about 10,000 MWD/ton at the end of second cycle, and produced fission gas was almost retained in fuel pellets. When the power was raised from 50 MW to 75 MW for the first time, the fission gas began to be released when 50 MW was somewhat exceeded. The fission gas release caused the temperature rise and cracking of fuel pellets, and elongated fuel stack length abruptly. These phenomena induced to enlarge the fuel expansion reactivity effect and Doppler reactivity effect, and caused the anomalous behavior of power coefficient. After reaching 75 MW, the fuel stack length did not respond normally to reactor power change, and the magnitude of power coefficient became smaller. The reactivity was lost considerably from the core after the anomaly. (Kako, I.)

  3. Second virial coefficients of dipolar hard spheres

    Philipse, A.P.; Kuipers, B.W.M.

    2010-01-01

    An asymptotic formula is reported for the second virial coefficient B2 of a dipolar hard-sphere (DHS) fluid, in zero external field, for strongly coupled dipolar interactions. This simple formula, together with the one for the weak-coupling B2, provides an accurate prediction of the second virial co

  4. Detailed Investigations of Load Coefficients on Grates

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Rasmussen, Michael R.; Frigaard, Peter

    In this report is presented the results of model tests carried out at Dept. of Civil Engineering, aalborg University (AAU) on behalf of DONG Energy A/S and Vattenfall A/S, Denmark. The objective of the tests was to investigate the load coefficient on different grates and a solid plate for designing...

  5. Coefficient of Restitution of a Tennis Ball

    Andre Roux

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The coefficient of restitution (COR of a tennis ball was investigated over a range of impact velocities. It was found that the COR of the ball was lower than ATP regulations specify, and that the COR decreased with increasing impact velocity.

  6. Coefficient of Restitution of a Tennis Ball

    Andre Roux; Jennifer Dickerson

    2007-01-01

    The coefficient of restitution (COR) of a tennis ball was investigated over a range of impact velocities. It was found that the COR of the ball was lower than ATP regulations specify, and that the COR decreased with increasing impact velocity.

  7. Bitplane Image Coding With Parallel Coefficient Processing.

    Auli-Llinas, Francesc; Enfedaque, Pablo; Moure, Juan C; Sanchez, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Image coding systems have been traditionally tailored for multiple instruction, multiple data (MIMD) computing. In general, they partition the (transformed) image in codeblocks that can be coded in the cores of MIMD-based processors. Each core executes a sequential flow of instructions to process the coefficients in the codeblock, independently and asynchronously from the others cores. Bitplane coding is a common strategy to code such data. Most of its mechanisms require sequential processing of the coefficients. The last years have seen the upraising of processing accelerators with enhanced computational performance and power efficiency whose architecture is mainly based on the single instruction, multiple data (SIMD) principle. SIMD computing refers to the execution of the same instruction to multiple data in a lockstep synchronous way. Unfortunately, current bitplane coding strategies cannot fully profit from such processors due to inherently sequential coding task. This paper presents bitplane image coding with parallel coefficient (BPC-PaCo) processing, a coding method that can process many coefficients within a codeblock in parallel and synchronously. To this end, the scanning order, the context formation, the probability model, and the arithmetic coder of the coding engine have been re-formulated. The experimental results suggest that the penalization in coding performance of BPC-PaCo with respect to the traditional strategies is almost negligible. PMID:26441420

  8. Tracking Time-Varying Coefficient-Functions

    Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg; Nielsen, Torben Skov; Joensen, Alfred K.; Madsen, Henrik; Holst, Jan

    1999-01-01

    A conditional parametric ARX-model is an ARX-model in which the parameters re replaced by smooth functions of an, possibly multivariate, externalinput signal. These functions are called coefficient functions is suggested. Essentially, in its most simple form, this method is a combination of recur...

  9. Estimation of grass to cow's milk transfer coefficients for emergency situations

    Several studies have been reported on soil to grass equilibrium transfer factors and grass to cow's milk transfer coefficients for 137Cs for the environs of different nuclear power plants of both India and other parts of the world. In such studies, the activity concentration of 137Cs is measured in grass collected from different places. Cow's milk samples are collected from nearby localities or from milk dairies and analyzed for 137Cs and the grass to cow's milk transfer coefficient is estimated. In situation where 137Cs is not present in measurable activity concentrations, its stable counterpart (Cs) is measured for the estimation of transfer coefficients. These transfer coefficient values are generally used in theoretical models to estimate the dose to the population for hypothetical situation of emergency. It should be noted that the transfer coefficients obtained for equilibrium conditions may not be totally applicable for emergency situation. However, studies aimed at evaluating transfer coefficients for emergency situations are sparse because nuclear power plants do not release 137Cs during normal operating situations and therefore simulating situation of emergency release is not possible. Hence, the only method to estimate the grass to milk transfer coefficient for emergency situation is to spike the grass with small quantity of stable Cs. This paper reports the results of grass to milk transfer coefficients for stable isotope of Cesium (Cs) for emergency situation

  10. Measuring correlations between non-stationary series with DCCA coefficient

    Kristoufek, Ladislav

    2014-05-01

    In this short report, we investigate the ability of the DCCA coefficient to measure correlation level between non-stationary series. Based on a wide Monte Carlo simulation study, we show that the DCCA coefficient can estimate the correlation coefficient accurately regardless the strength of non-stationarity (measured by the fractional differencing parameter d). For a comparison, we also report the results for the standard Pearson correlation coefficient. The DCCA coefficient dominates the Pearson coefficient for non-stationary series.

  11. Coefficient convexity of divisors of x^n-1

    Decker, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    We say a polynomial f having integer coefficients is strongly coefficient convex if the set of coefficients of f consists of consecutive integers only. We establish various results suggesting that the divisors of x^n-1 with integer coefficients have the tendency to be strongly coefficient convex and have small coefficients. The case where n=p^2*q with p and q primes is studied in detail.

  12. A parameterization scheme for the x-ray linear attenuation coefficient and energy absorption coefficient

    A novel parameterization of x-ray interaction cross-sections is developed, and employed to describe the x-ray linear attenuation coefficient and mass energy absorption coefficient for both elements and mixtures. The new parameterization scheme addresses the Z-dependence of elemental cross-sections (per electron) using a simple function of atomic number, Z. This obviates the need for a complicated mathematical formalism. Energy dependent coefficients describe the Z-direction curvature of the cross-sections. The composition dependent quantities are the electron density and statistical moments describing the elemental distribution. We show that it is possible to describe elemental cross-sections for the entire periodic table and at energies above the K-edge (from 6 keV to 125 MeV), with an accuracy of better than 2% using a parameterization containing not more than five coefficients. For the biologically important elements and the energy range 30- keV, the parameterization utilizes four coefficients. At higher energies, the parameterization uses fewer coefficients with only two coefficients needed at megavoltage energies

  13. Osmotic coefficients of alcoholic mixtures containing BMpyrDCA: Experimental determination and correlation

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Osmotic coefficients of alcohols with BMpyrDCA ionic liquid are determined. • Experimental data were correlated with Extended Pitzer model of Archer and MNRTL. • Mean molal activity coefficients and excess Gibbs free energies were calculated. • The results have been interpreted in terms of interactions. - Abstract: The vapour pressure osmometry technique (VPO) has been used to obtain the osmotic coefficients of the binary mixtures of the primary and secondary alcohols 1-propanol, 2-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-butanol and 1-pentanol with the ionic liquid 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium dicyanamide, BMpyrDCA. From these coefficients, the corresponding activity coefficients and vapour pressures of the mixtures have been also determined. The results have been discussed in terms of solute–solvent and ion–ion interactions and have been compared with those taken from literature in order to analyse the influence of the anion or cation constituting the ionic liquid. For the treatment of the experimental data, the Extended Pitzer model of Archer and the MNRTL model have been applied, obtaining standard deviations from the experimental osmotic coefficients lower than 0.015 and 0.065, respectively. From the parameters obtained with the Extended Pitzer model or Archer, the mean molal activity coefficients and the excess Gibbs free energy for the studied mixtures have been calculated

  14. Minior Actinide Doppler Coefficient Measurement Assessment

    Nolan E. Hertel; Dwayne Blaylock

    2008-04-10

    The "Minor Actinide Doppler Coefficient Measurement Assessment" was a Department of Energy (DOE) U-NERI funded project intended to assess the viability of using either the FLATTOP or the COMET critical assembly to measure high temperature Doppler coefficients. The goal of the project was to calculate using the MCNP5 code the gram amounts of Np-237, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-241, AM-241, AM-242m, Am-243, and CM-244 needed to produce a 1E-5 in reactivity for a change in operating temperature 800C to 1000C. After determining the viability of using the assemblies and calculating the amounts of each actinide an experiment will be designed to verify the calculated results. The calculations and any doncuted experiments are designed to support the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative in conducting safety analysis of advanced fast reactor or acceoerator-driven transmutation systems with fuel containing high minor actinide content.

  15. Relations between coefficients of fractional parentage

    For each of the (9/2) (11/2), and (13/2) single j shells we have only one state with J=j v=3 for a five particle system. For four identical particles there can be more than one state of seniority four. We note some 'ratio' relations for the coefficients of fractional parentage for the four and five identical particle systems, which are found in the works of de Shalit and Talmi [Nuclear Shell Theory (Academic Press, New York, 1963)] and Talmi [Simple Models of Complex Nuclei (Harwood Academic, Reading, UK, 1993)] to be useful for explaining the vanishing of a five particle coefficients of fractional parentage (cfp). These relations are used to show that there is a special (g9/2)4 I=4 v=4 wave function that cannot be admixed with an I=4 v=2 wave function, even with seniority violating interactions

  16. Electrochemical determination of partition coefficients of drugs.

    Kontturi, K; Murtomäki, L

    1992-10-01

    An electrochemical method for the determination of partition coefficients of drugs that can exist as ions in aqueous solutions is presented. The method involves cyclic voltammetry at the polarizable interface between two immiscible electrolyte solutions. Because n-octanol is an unsuitable solvent for electrochemical purposes, 1,2-dichloroethane, which has electronic properties similar to those of n-octanol, was used in the measurements. The values obtained could be correlated with the values for n-octanol-water partition taken from the literature by an approach based on the linear solvation relationship: log P1 = a log P2 + b; in this relationship, a and b are constants and P1 and P2 correspond to the two different organic and aqueous phase partition equilibria. Furthermore, aqueous diffusion coefficients of drugs were determined from voltammograms. PMID:1432622

  17. Rotational dissipation and the Miesowicz coefficients.

    Simões, M; Yamaguti, K; Palangana, A J

    2009-12-01

    In this work, we will study the relative contribution of each of the two dissipative channels of the Eriksen, Leslie, and Parodi (ELP) approach to the observed values of the Miesowicz viscosity coefficients of the nematic liquid crystals. According to the fundamental equation of the liquid crystal's viscosity dissipative process, TS=-integral d3r(sigma)ijA(ij)+hxN , there are two channels by which the nematic viscous dissipation can occur: or it occurs by means of a shear flow configuration, where A(ij) is the characterizing term, or it occurs by means of a rotational configuration, where N is the characterizing term (these parameters will be defined in the paper). It will be also shown that this relative contribution can be measured by a simple relationship connecting the Miesowicz coefficients, which exhibits a quasitemperature independent behavior, suggesting that it is nearly constant through the entire domain of the nematic phase. PMID:20365179

  18. Doppler coefficient measurements in Zebra Core 5

    Measurements using a central hot loop in Zebra Core 5 are described. Results are given for the Doppler coefficients found in a number of assemblies with PuO2 and 16% PuO2/84% depleted UO2 pins, loaded with different combinations of steel, sodium or void pins. The mixed oxide results are in general about 20% more negative than was calculated using the FD2 data set, but agreement is good if the plutonium contributions in the calculations are omitted. The small positive Doppler coefficient calculated for Pu239 was not observed, and two measurements indicated instead a small negative effect. The Doppler effect in the mixed oxide systems was found to vary approximately as 1/T. The results from the empty loop and non-fissile assemblies indicate either a small negative Doppler effect in steel or alternatively the presence of an unexplained expansion effect. (author)

  19. Testing the correlated random coefficient model

    Heckman, James J.; Schmierer, Daniel; Urzua, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    The recent literature on instrumental variables (IV) features models in which agents sort into treatment status on the basis of gains from treatment as well as on baseline-pretreatment levels. Components of the gains known to the agents and acted on by them may not be known by the observing economist. Such models are called correlated random coefficient models. Sorting on unobserved components of gains complicates the interpretation of what IV estimates. This paper examines testable implicati...

  20. LOSS COEFFICIENT DEPENDENCE OF TURBINE BLADE CASCADE

    Matějka, M.; Šafařík, P.; Luxa, Martin; Šimurda, David; Synáč, J.

    Glasgow: ASME, 2010, s. 1-9. ISBN 978-0-7918-4402-1. [ASME Turbo Expo 2010. Glasgow (GB), 14.06.2010-18.06.2010] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06031; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA200760801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : loss coefficient * turbine cascade * pneumatic measurement Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics http://www.asmeconferences.org/TE10/ConfSpecInfo.cfm

  1. Basketball Surfaces and Coefficient of Restitution

    Kristyn Peacock; Faith Pearson

    2015-01-01

    A basketball was released from varying drop heights to simulate the impact speeds of a typical soft, medium, and hard dribble. This was repeated across four different surfaces that students typically play on–exposed aggregate concrete, maple wood flooring, EPI Outdoor Sport flooring, and playground rubber mesh. From the measured drop and bounce heights, the coefficient of restitution(COR)was calculated. It was concluded that only playground rubber mesh had COR’s below the regula...

  2. Confidence Intervals for Cronbach's Coefficient Alpha Values

    Koning, Alex; Franses, Philip Hans

    2003-01-01

    textabstractCoefficient Alpha, which is widely used in empirical research, estimates the reliability of a test consisting of parallel items. In practice it is difficult to compare values of alpha across studies as it depends on the number of items used. In this paper we provide a simple solution, which amounts to computing the confidence intervals of an alpha, as these intervals automatically account for differences across the numbers of items. We also give appropriate statistics to test for ...

  3. Confidence Intervals for Cronbach's Coefficient Alpha Values

    Koning, A. J.; Franses, Ph.H.B.F.

    2003-01-01

    Coefficient Alpha, which is widely used in empirical research, estimates the reliability of a test consisting of parallel items. In practice it is difficult to compare values of alpha across studies as it depends on the number of items used. In this paper we provide a simple solution, which amounts to computing the confidence intervals of an alpha, as these intervals automatically account for differences across the numbers of items. We also give appropriate statistics to test for significant ...

  4. Significane levels of linear correlation coefficients

    The determination of the significance (confidence) levels of linear correlation coefficients is discussed. Several methods which have been used in the analysis of channel correlations in nuclear physics are compared. A relatively new method, the bootstrap, is described and applied to a number of examples. Significance levels obtained with the different methods are usually comparable, but there are cases for which large differences exist. Reasons for these differences and the advantages of the bootstrap over previous methods are discussed. (orig.)

  5. Recursive algorithms, branching coefficients and applications

    Lyakhovsky, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    Recurrent relations for branching coefficients in affine Lie algebras integrable highest weight modules are studied. The decomposition algorithm based on the injection fan technique is adopted to the situation where the Weyl denominator becomes singular with respect to a reductive subalgebra. We study some modifications of the injection fan technique and demonstrate that it is possible to define the "subtracted fans" that play the role similar to the original ones. Possible applications of subtracted fans in CFT models are considered.

  6. Sensitivity of the Heat Transfer Coefficient Calculation

    Singer, Sasa

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the Liscic/Petrofer probe is to determine the cooling intensity during liquid quenching in laboratory and workshop environments. The surface heat transfer coefficient is calculated by the one-dimensional finite volume method from the smoothed temperature curve, measured at a near-surface point in the probe. Smoothed reference temperature curves for oil and water, based on measurements made by the probe, are used in a series of numerical experiments to investigate the sensitivit...

  7. Efficient estimation of price adjustment coefficients

    Lyhagen, Johan

    1999-01-01

    The price adjustment coefficient model of Amihud and Mendelson (1987) is shown to be suitable for estimation by the Kalman filter. A techique that, under some commonly used conditions, is asymptotically efficient. By Monte Carlo simulations it is shown that both bias and mean squared error are much smaler compared to the estimator proposed by Damodaran and Lim (1991) and Damodaran (1993). A test for the adeqacy of the model is also proposed. Using data from four minor, the nordic countries ex...

  8. Testing local versions of correlation coefficients

    Kalogirou, Stamatis

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to define and test local versions of standard correlation coefficients in statistical analysis. This research is motivated by the increasing number of applications using local versions of exploratory and explanatory spatial data analysis methods. A common example of the latter is local regression. Methods such as the Geographically Weighted Regression argue that it is necessary to check spatial non-stationarity in the relationships between a geographic phenomenon and ...

  9. Correlation and prediction of gaseous diffusion coefficients.

    Marrero, T. R.; Mason, E. A.

    1973-01-01

    A new correlation method for binary gaseous diffusion coefficients from very low temperatures to 10,000 K is proposed based on an extended principle of corresponding states, and having greater range and accuracy than previous correlations. There are two correlation parameters that are related to other physical quantities and that are predictable in the absence of diffusion measurements. Quantum effects and composition dependence are included, but high-pressure effects are not. The results are directly applicable to multicomponent mixtures.

  10. On the Central Coefficients of Riordan Matrices

    Barry, Paul

    2013-01-01

    We use the Lagrange-Bürmann inversion theorem to characterize the generating function of the central coefficients of the elements of the Riordan group of matrices. We apply this result to calculate the generating function of the central elements of a number of explicit Riordan arrays, defined by rational expressions, and in two cases we use the generating functions thus found to calculate the Hankel transforms of the central elements, which are themselves expressible as combinatorial polynomi...

  11. Coefficients of symmetric square L-functions

    LAU; Yuk-Kam

    2010-01-01

    Let λsym2f(n) be the n-th coefficient in the Dirichlet series of the symmetric square L-function associated with a holomorphic primitive cusp form f.We prove Ω± results for λsym2f(n) and evaluate the number of positive(resp.,negative) λsym2f(n) in some intervals.

  12. AN EXHAUSTIVE COEFFICIENT OF RANK CORRELATION

    Agostino Tarsitano; Rosetta Lombardo

    2011-01-01

    Rank association is a fundamental tool for expressing dependence in cases in which data are arranged in order. Measures of rank correlation have been accumulated in several contexts for more than a century and we were able to cite more than thirty of these coefficients, from simple ones to relatively complicated definitions invoking one or more systems of weights. However, only a few of these can actually be considered to be admissible substitutes for Pearson’s correlation. The main drawback ...

  13. Fresnel coefficients for a layer of NIM

    Reflection and transmission of traveling and evanescent waves by a layer of material with a negative index of refraction (NIM) is studied by means of the Fresnel coefficients. We derive their values in the “NIM limit”, and we show that this limit is consistent with the exact solution. It is also indicated that simply substituting the negative values of the relative permittivity and permeability of the NIM material into the exact solution leads to incorrect results for evanescent waves.

  14. Seebeck coefficients of half-metallic ferromagnets

    Balke, Benjamin; OUARDI, SIHAM; Graf, Tanja; Barth, Joachim; Blum, Christian G. F.; FECHER, GERHARD H.; Shkabko, Andrey; Weidenkaff, Anke; Felser, Claudia

    2009-01-01

    In this report the Co2 based Heusler compounds are discussed as potential materials for spin voltage generation. The compounds were synthesized by arcmelting and consequent annealing. Band structure calculations were performed and revealed the compounds to be half-metallic ferromagnets. Magnetometry was performed on the samples and the Curie temperatures and the magnetic moments were determined. The Seebeck coefficients were measured from low to ambient temperatures for all compounds. For sel...

  15. ON DAMPING COEFFICIENT DUE TO PHASE TRANSFORMATION

    Din-YuHSIEH

    2003-01-01

    The damping coefficient of capillary waves due to the evaporation-condensation process at the interface of the two phases of a fluid is evaluated. To highlight the mechanism of the effect of heat and mass transfer across the interface between regions of liquid and vapor, potential flow of incompressible fluids are assumed. Thus other mechanisms of damping are neglected. To fascilitate the analysis, the method of multiple-scale is employed in the analysis, even though the problem is linear.

  16. Thin film description by wavelet coefficients statistics

    Boldyš, Jiří; Hrach, R.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 1 (2005), s. 55-64. ISSN 0011-4626 Grant ostatní: GA UK(CZ) 173/2003 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : thin films * wavelet transform * descriptors * histogram model Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 0.360, year: 2005 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2009/ZOI/boldys-thin film description by wavelet coefficients statistics .pdf

  17. The attenuation coefficients in CT: Didactic review

    The review article refers details about the derivation of the Attenuation coefficient of the CT-Number, the electron density and physical density, the effective atomic number, dual KV scanning, the performance of different scanners, furtheron the CT-numbers of intracranial structures, the attempts of characterization of tissue by CT, measurements of effective atomic number and electron density, distribution and probability of occurance of CT-numbers, and distribution of CT-numbers in space. (AJ)

  18. Optimized Finite-Difference Coefficients for Hydroacoustic Modeling

    Preston, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    Responsible utilization of marine renewable energy sources through the use of current energy converter (CEC) and wave energy converter (WEC) devices requires an understanding of the noise generation and propagation from these systems in the marine environment. Acoustic noise produced by rotating turbines, for example, could adversely affect marine animals and human-related marine activities if not properly understood and mitigated. We are utilizing a 3-D finite-difference acoustic simulation code developed at Sandia that can accurately propagate noise in the complex bathymetry in the near-shore to open ocean environment. As part of our efforts to improve computation efficiency in the large, high-resolution domains required in this project, we investigate the effects of using optimized finite-difference coefficients on the accuracy of the simulations. We compare accuracy and runtime of various finite-difference coefficients optimized via criteria such as maximum numerical phase speed error, maximum numerical group speed error, and L-1 and L-2 norms of weighted numerical group and phase speed errors over a given spectral bandwidth. We find that those coefficients optimized for L-1 and L-2 norms are superior in accuracy to those based on maximal error and can produce runtimes of 10% of the baseline case, which uses Taylor Series finite-difference coefficients at the Courant time step limit. We will present comparisons of the results for the various cases evaluated as well as recommendations for utilization of the cases studied. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  19. Uranium GI absorption coefficients for young children

    Uranium is ubiquitously found in drinking water and food. The absorption fraction (f1) is an important parameter in risk assessment of uranium burdens from ingestion. Although absorption of uranium from the gastrointestinal tract (GI) has been studied extensively in both animals and humans in the past, human data among young children are rare. In a previous study based on measurements of uranium concentration in only 11 bone-ash samples collected by Health Canada, the GI absorption coefficient for uranium ingestion by infants, about 3 months of age were determined. The result was 0.256 which was much higher than the ICRP recommended f1 values of 0.04 for infants and 0.02 for anyone more than 1 year of age. To extend the study, a total of 73 bone-ash samples were selected for children ranging in age from 0 to 7 years. The estimated absorption coefficients were 0.093±0.113 for infants, and 0.050±0.032 for 1 - 7 years of age. This study provides human absorption coefficients of ingested uranium for young children of two age groups. (author)

  20. Feedback reactivity coefficients and their coupling

    Coupled reactivity feedback coefficients which accounts for variation in fuel temperature and moderator void simultaneously, have been determined for swimming pool type research reactor namely Pakistan Research Reactor PARR-1. The state of art is core criticality calculations, employing lattice cell code WIMS-D/4 and application of Taylor series expansion for core reactivity up to third order, involving two variables, i.e. fuel temperature and coolant void. The spectral effects in one region due to change of parameter in other region have also been studied. When spectral changes in moderator region due to 20 K change in fuel temperature have been incorporated in the calculation of fuel temperature coefficient, the results seems to be improved by 4.12%. Further, the results of void coefficient of reactivity show the improvement of 0.1% when the spectral effect in fuel region due to 5% change in void in moderator region is taken into account. These differences seem to be an improvement in the results, as physically any change in one region is accompanied by change in the other region

  1. Feedback reactivity coefficients and their coupling

    Khan, Rustam [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)]. E-mail: rustamzia@yahoo.com; Hamid, Tehsin [Directorate of Safety, P.O. Box 1114, Islamabad (Pakistan); Bakhtyar, Sabiha [Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2007-05-15

    Coupled reactivity feedback coefficients which accounts for variation in fuel temperature and moderator void simultaneously, have been determined for swimming pool type research reactor namely Pakistan Research Reactor PARR-1. The state of art is core criticality calculations, employing lattice cell code WIMS-D/4 and application of Taylor series expansion for core reactivity up to third order, involving two variables, i.e. fuel temperature and coolant void. The spectral effects in one region due to change of parameter in other region have also been studied. When spectral changes in moderator region due to 20 K change in fuel temperature have been incorporated in the calculation of fuel temperature coefficient, the results seems to be improved by 4.12%. Further, the results of void coefficient of reactivity show the improvement of 0.1% when the spectral effect in fuel region due to 5% change in void in moderator region is taken into account. These differences seem to be an improvement in the results, as physically any change in one region is accompanied by change in the other region.

  2. Analysis of flow coefficient in chair manufacture

    Ivković Dragoljub

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The delivery on time is not possible without the good-quality planning of deadlines, i.e. planning of the manufacturing process duration. The study of flow coefficient enables the realistic forecasting of the manufacturing process duration. This paper points to the significance of the study of flow coefficient on scientific basis so as to determine the terms of the end of the manufacture of chairs made of sawn timber. Chairs are the products of complex construction, often almost completely made of sawn timber as the basic material. They belong to the group of export products, so it is especially significant to analyze the duration of the production cycle, and the type and the degree of stoppages in this type of production. Parallel method of production is applied in chair manufacture. The study shows that the value of flow coefficient is close to one or higher, in most cases. The results indicate that the percentage of interoperational stoppage is unjustifiably high, so it is proposed how to decrease the percentage of stoppages in the manufacturing process.

  3. The Phi-coefficient, the Tetrachoric Correlation Coefficient, and the Pearson-Yule Debate

    Ekström, Joakim

    2011-01-01

    Two measures of association for dichotomous variables, the phi-coefficient and the tetrachoric correlation coefficient, are reviewed and differences between the two are discussed in the context of the famous so-called Pearson-Yule debate, that took place in the early 20th century. The two measures of association are given mathematically rigorous definitions, their underlying assumptions are formalized, and some key properties are derived. Furthermore, existence of a continuous bijection betwe...

  4. Heat transfer coefficient for F.E analysis in the warm forging process

    S.S. Kang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The Purpose of this paper is to obtain suitable convection and contact heat transfer coefficient forone-time finite element analysis in the warm forging process.Design/methodology/approach: To do this, the temperature of the tool used in the operation was measured witha thermocouple and repeated finite element analysis(FEA was performed using the experimentally calculatedcontact and cooling heat transfer coefficient. Also the surface temperature of the active tool was obtained bycomparing the measurement and analysis results and finally the contact heat transfer coefficient for one-time FEAwas completed by comparing the surface temperature between the repeated FEA and one-time FEA results.Findings: The acceptable convection heat transfer coefficients are from 0.3 to 0.8N/mm/s/K and the contactheat transfer coefficient of 6~9N/mm/s/K is appropriate for the warm forging process with flow-typelubrication conditions.Practical implications: A comparison of the temperatures from the repeated and one-time analysis allows anoptimum contact heat transfer coefficient for the one time finite element analysis to be determined.Originality/value: Several studies have been conducted with different conditions such as applied pressure andkind of lubricant, but no research has been conducted concerning the convection heat transfer coefficient in thewarm forging process. Also, comparative analysis concerning the reason for difference between experimentallydetermined contact heat transfer coefficient and practically adapted one has not been conducted, yet.

  5. Distribution coefficient of selenium in Japanese agricultural soils

    The soil/soil solution distribution coefficient (Kd) of selenium (Se) was measured by the batch technique using 58 Japanese agricultural soils in order to evaluate Se migration behavior. Soils used were air-dried and passed through a 2-mm mesh sieve. Three gram amounts of each soil were transferred into a plastic bottle and 30 mL of deionized water were added to the soil. Prior to adding 75Se, a radioactive tracer of Se, the mixture was shaken for 24 h using an end-over-end shaker. Seven days after the addition of 75Se tracer, the soil solution was separated by centrifugation and filtration. Activity was measured with a NaI (Tl) autowell scintillation counter, and Kd-Se values were calculated. For the agricultural soils, the Kd-Se values ranged from 12 to 1060. Among the soil groups, Andosols had higher Kd-Se values. All the Kd-Se values were significantly correlated with acid oxalate extractable Al (Alo) and Fe (Feo) at the 0.1% level. Alo and Feo contents refer to the amount of active-Al and active-Fe, respectively. These results indicated that the active-Al and the active-Fe were the major adsorbents of Se in Japanese agricultural soils. (author)

  6. Distribution coefficient of selenium in Japanese agricultural soils.

    Nakamaru, Yasuo; Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo

    2005-03-01

    In order to evaluate the selenium (Se) sorption level in Japanese soils, soil/soil solution distribution coefficients (K(d)s) were obtained for 58 agricultural soil samples (seven soil classification groups) using 75Se as a tracer. Although several chemical forms of Se are present in agricultural fields, selenite was used, because it is the major inorganic Se form in acid soils such as found in Japan. The Kd values obtained covered a wide range, from 12 to 1060l/kg, and their arithmetic mean was 315l/kg. Among the soil groups, Andosols had higher Kd values. The Kd values for all samples were highly correlated with soil active-aluminum (Al) and active-iron (Fe) contents. Thus, active-Al and active-Fe were considered to be the major adsorbents of Se. Then, a new sequential extraction procedure was applied to 12 soil samples in order to quantify the effect of soil components on Se adsorption. The sequential extraction results showed that 80-100% of the adsorbed Se was recovered as Al-bound Se and Fe-bound Se. The amount of Al-bound Se was the highest in the soils that showed high Kd values, though the relative contribution of Fe-bound Se tended to increase with decreasing Kd values. The high values of Kd seemed to be caused mainly by the adsorption of Se onto active-Al in Japanese soils. PMID:15686752

  7. Tests of Hypotheses Arising in the Correlated Random Coefficient Model

    Heckman, James J.; Schmierer, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the correlated random coefficient model. It extends the analysis of Swamy (1971, 1974), who pioneered the uncorrelated random coefficient model in economics. We develop the properties of the correlated random coefficient model and derive a new representation of the variance of the instrumental variable estimator for that model. We develop tests of the validity of the correlated random coefficient model against the null hypothesis of the uncorrelated random coefficient model.

  8. Measuring correlations between non-stationary series with DCCA coefficient

    Ladislav Kristoufek

    2013-01-01

    In this short report, we investigate the ability of the DCCA coefficient to measure correlation level between non-stationary series. Based on a wide Monte Carlo simulation study, we show that the DCCA coefficient can estimate the correlation coefficient accurately regardless the strength of non-stationarity (measured by the fractional differencing parameter $d$). For a comparison, we also report the results for the standard Pearson's correlation coefficient. The DCCA coefficient dominates the...

  9. Hydrodynamic Coefficients of Ships with Forward Speed in Shallow Waters

    M.HASANADIL; DUANWen-yang; WANGYu

    2004-01-01

    Effects of depth and forward speed on hydrodynamic coefficients of ships are presented in this paper. A modified simple Green function technique was used to calculate 2D coefficients while strip theory was used to calculate 3D coefficients. Numerical results are provided for hydrodynamic coefficients of parabolic hull ship. It is found out that both depth and forward speed have considerable effects on hydrodynamic coefficients of ship.

  10. Transport coefficients of He(+) ions in helium.

    Viehland, Larry A; Johnsen, Rainer; Gray, Benjamin R; Wright, Timothy G

    2016-02-21

    This paper demonstrates that the transport coefficients of (4)He(+) in (4)He can be calculated over wide ranges of E/N, the ratio of the electrostatic field strength to the gas number density, with the same level of precision as can be obtained experimentally if sufficiently accurate potential energy curves are available for the X(2)Σu (+) and A(2)Σg (+) states and one takes into account resonant charge transfer. We start by computing new potential energy curves for these states and testing their accuracy by calculating spectroscopic values for the separate states. It is established that the potentials obtained by extrapolation of results from d-aug-cc-pVXZ (X = 6, 7) basis sets using the CASSCF+MRCISD approach are each in exceptionally close agreement with the best potentials available and with experiment. The potentials are then used in a new computer program to determine the semi-classical phase shifts and the transport cross sections, and from these the gaseous ion transport coefficients are determined. In addition, new experimental values are reported for the mobilities of (4)He(+) in (4)He at 298.7 K, as a function of E/N, where careful consideration is given to minimizing various sources of uncertainty. Comparison with previously measured values establishes that only one set of previous data is reliable. Finally, the experimental and theoretical ion transport coefficients are shown to be in very good to excellent agreement, once corrections are applied to account for quantum-mechanical effects. PMID:26896985

  11. Control in the coefficients with variational crimes

    Evgrafov, Anton; Marhadi, Kun Saptohartyadi

    2012-01-01

    fourth order. Methods which do not require approximation subspaces to conform to the smoothness requirements dictated by the PDE are very attractive for such problems. However, variational formulations of such methods normally contain boundary integrals whose dependence on the small, with respect to...... “volumetric” Lebesgue norm, changes of the coefficients is generally speaking not continuous. We utilize the lifting formulation of the discontinuous Galerkin method to deal with this issue.Our main result is that limit points of sequences of designs verifying discrete versions of stationarity can also be...

  12. Measuring subdiffusion parameter and subdiffusion coefficient

    We derive theoretical formulas which allow one to extract the subdiffusion parameter α and subdiffusion coefficient Dα form measured concentration profiles of transported substance in a subdiffusive medium. The parameters occur in the relation defining the subdiffusion 2> = 2Dαtα/[Γ(1+α)] with α 2> denotes the mean-square displacement of a Brownian particle. The analysis is performed separately for the medium, where optical measurements of concentrations are possible (the medium is transparent for a laser beam), as well as for the non-transparent medium. (author)

  13. Determination of coefficient matrices for ARMA model

    A new recursive algorithm for determining coefficient matrices of ARMA model from measured data is presented. The Yule-Walker equations for the case of ARMA model are derived from the ARMA innovation equation. The recursive algorithm is based on choosing appropriate form of the operator functions and suitable representation of the (n+1)-th order operator functions according to ones with the lower order. Two cases, when the order of the AR part is equal to one of the MA part, and the optimal case, were considered. (author) 5 refs

  14. Semiclassical OPE coefficients from 3D gravity

    Chang, Chi-Ming

    2016-01-01

    We present a closed form expression for the semiclassical OPE coefficients that are universal for all 2D CFTs with a "weak" light spectrum, by taking the semiclassical limit of the fusion kernel. We match this with a properly regularized and normalized bulk action evaluated on a geometry with three conical defects, analytically continued in the deficit angles beyond the range for which a metric with positive signature exists. The analytically continued geometry has a codimension-one coordinate singularity surrounding the heaviest conical defect. This singularity becomes a horizon after Wick rotating to Lorentzian signature, suggesting a connection between universality and the existence of a horizon.

  15. Energy reflection coefficient of backscattered heavy ions

    An energy-dependent albedo problem, i.e., the energy-dependent leakage spectrum for a half-space of material irradiated by a monoenergetic beam of ions is investigated in this paper. For this purpose the flux decomposition procedure is applied. It is based on separation of the ion flux into terms that are exactly analytically solved and those calculated by the ordinary DPN approximation. Slowing down of particles is described by elastic scattering and various models for dealing with the anisotropy of ion scattering. The ion energy reflection coefficient is computed and compared to the values obtained by the exact and variational methods as well as DPN flux approximation

  16. Kinetic coefficients for quark-antiquark plasma

    The quark-antiquark plasma near equilibrium is studied. The results are based on the Heinz kinetic equations with the Boltzmann collision operator approximated by a relaxation term with the relaxation time, τ, treated as a small parameter. Linear in τ solutions of these equations are used to calculate the transport coefficients: the non-abelian version of Ohm's law, and the shear and volume viscosities. We introduce new chemical potentials which determine the color density matrix of quarks (antiquarks). Gradients of these potentials generate color currents. 12 refs. (author)

  17. Effective Diffusion Coefficients in Coal Chars

    Johnsson, Jan Erik; Jensen, Anker

    2001-01-01

    Knowledge of effective diffusion coefficients in char particles is important when interpreting experimental reactivity measurements and modeling char combustion or NO and N2O reduction. In this work, NO and N2O reaction with a bituminous coal char was studied in a fixed-bed quartz glass reactor....... In the case of strong pore diffusion limitations, the error in the interpretation of experimental results using the mean pore radius could be a factor of 5 on the intrinsic rate constant. For an average coal char reacting with oxygen at 1300 K, this would be the case for particle sizes larger than...

  18. ON DAMPING COEFFICIENT DUE TO PHASE TRANSFORMATION

    Din-Yu HSIEH

    2003-01-01

    The damping coefficient of capillary waves due to the evaporation-condensation process at the interface of the two phases of a fluid is evaluated.To highlight the mechanism of the effect of heat and mass transfer across the interface between regions of liquid and vapor,potential flow of incompressible fluids are assumed.Thus other mechanisms of damping are neglected.To fascilitate the analysis,the method of multiple-scale is employed in the analysis,even though the problem is linear.

  19. Studies of Gaseous Multiplication Coefficient in Isobutane

    Lima, Iara B.; Vivaldini, Túlio C.; Gonçalves, Josemary A. C.; Botelho, Suzana; Ridenti, Marco A.; Fonte, Paulo; Mangiarotti, Alessio; Pascholati, Paulo R.; Bueno Tobias, Carmen C.

    2010-05-01

    This work presents the studies of gaseous multiplication coefficient behavior for isobutane, as function of the reduced electric field, by means of signal amplitude analysis. The experimental method used is based on the Pulsed Townsend technique, which follows from Townsend equation solution for a uniform electric field. In our configuration, the anode is made of a high resistivity (2.1012 Ω.cm) glass, while the cathode is of aluminium. In order to validate the technique and to analyze effects of non-uniformity, results for nitrogen, which has well-established data available in literature, are also presented.

  20. Studies of Gaseous Multiplication Coefficient in Isobutane

    This work presents the studies of gaseous multiplication coefficient behavior for isobutane, as function of the reduced electric field, by means of signal amplitude analysis. The experimental method used is based on the Pulsed Townsend technique, which follows from Townsend equation solution for a uniform electric field. In our configuration, the anode is made of a high resistivity (2.1012 Ω.cm) glass, while the cathode is of aluminium. In order to validate the technique and to analyze effects of non-uniformity, results for nitrogen, which has well-established data available in literature, are also presented.

  1. Mass Accomodation Coefficient for Nanoscale Aerosol Particles

    Levdansky, Valerij Vladimirovič; Smolík, Jiří; Ždímal, Vladimír; Moravec, Pavel

    Praha : Česká aerosolová společnost, 2012 - (Vodička, P.; Zíková, N.), s. 75-76 ISBN 978-80-86186-40-5. [Výroční konference České aerosolové společnosti /13./. Třeboň (CZ), 25.10.2012-26.10.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/09/1633; GA AV ČR IAA200760905 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : nanoparticles * size effect * mass accommodation coefficient Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  2. Transport coefficients of a hot pion gas

    General expressions for transport coefficients of a single component gas (namely thermal conductivity, shear and bulk viscosities) of bosons are derived from a Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck transport equation by means of the Chapman-Enskog method to first order. These expressions are then used for the calculation of the associated transport relaxation times and applied to the pion gas produced in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions. The influence of Bose enhancement factors on transport properties can be seen by comparison with previous calculations. (authors)

  3. Heat transfer coefficient for F.E analysis in the warm forging process

    Kang, S S; Kang, J. H.; Lee, K. O.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The Purpose of this paper is to obtain suitable convection and contact heat transfer coefficient forone-time finite element analysis in the warm forging process.Design/methodology/approach: To do this, the temperature of the tool used in the operation was measured witha thermocouple and repeated finite element analysis(FEA) was performed using the experimentally calculatedcontact and cooling heat transfer coefficient. Also the surface temperature of the active tool was obtained bycom...

  4. Determination of Orbiter and Carrier Aerodynamic Coefficients from Load Cell Measurements

    Glenn, G. M.

    1976-01-01

    A method of determining orbiter and carrier total aerodynamic coefficients from load cell measurements is required to support the inert and the captive active flights of the ALT program. A set of equations expressing the orbiter and carrier total aerodynamic coefficients in terms of the load cell measurements, the sensed dynamics of the Boeing 747 (carrier) aircraft, and the relative geometry of the orbiter/carrier is derived.

  5. Link prediction with node clustering coefficient

    Wu, Zhihao; Lin, Youfang; Wang, Jing; Gregory, Steve

    2016-06-01

    Predicting missing links in incomplete complex networks efficiently and accurately is still a challenging problem. The recently proposed Cannistrai-Alanis-Ravai (CAR) index shows the power of local link/triangle information in improving link-prediction accuracy. Inspired by the idea of employing local link/triangle information, we propose a new similarity index with more local structure information. In our method, local link/triangle structure information can be conveyed by clustering coefficient of common-neighbors directly. The reason why clustering coefficient has good effectiveness in estimating the contribution of a common-neighbor is that it employs links existing between neighbors of a common-neighbor and these links have the same structural position with the candidate link to this common-neighbor. In our experiments, three estimators: precision, AUP and AUC are used to evaluate the accuracy of link prediction algorithms. Experimental results on ten tested networks drawn from various fields show that our new index is more effective in predicting missing links than CAR index, especially for networks with low correlation between number of common-neighbors and number of links between common-neighbors.

  6. Wavelet Cesptral Coefficients for Isolated Speech Recognition

    T. B. Adam

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The study proposes an improved feature extraction method that is called Wavelet Cepstral Coefficients (WCC. In traditional cepstral analysis, the cepstrums are calculated with the use of the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT. Owing to the fact that the DFT calculation assumes signal stationary between frames which in practice is not quite true, the WCC replaces the DFT block in the traditional cepstrum calculation with the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT hence producing the WCC. To evaluate the proposed WCC, speech recognition task of recognizing the 26 English alphabets were conducted. Comparisons with the traditional Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC are done to further analyze the effectiveness of the WCCs. It is found that the WCCs showed some comparable results when compared to the MFCCs considering the WCCs small vector dimension when compared to the MFCCs. The best recognition was found from WCCs at level 5 of the DWT decomposition with a small difference of 1.19% and 3.21% when compared to the MFCCs for speaker independent and speaker dependent tasks respectively.

  7. Ionization coefficient measurements in DC microplasmas

    Stefanovic, Ilija; Kuschel, Thomas; Winter, Joerg; Maric, Dragana; Petrovic, Zoran Lj.

    2012-10-01

    While steady state Townsend discharges may provide data for ionization coefficients those are often not as accurate as those produced in dedicated pulsed current growth experiments. In this paper we show that one may be able to measure ionization coefficients in DC microdischarges that are of excellent quality. Measurements were made for argon and argon/nitrogen mixtures with different gas flow rates. The technique based measuring the spatial profile of emission a Townsend discharge. In spite of having the drift length of only 1 mm, excellent agreement has been found between our new measurements and the data for low-pressure, larger dimension (2-4cm) discharges in argon (Jelenak et al) for the E/N in the range from 300 Td to 4000 Td, where E/N is normalized electrical field strength. Below 300 Td our measured values are larger then those by Jelenak et al. This discrepancy with previous measurements will be discussed. The influence of the gas flow-rate and nitrogen concentration on the radial discharge profile in the Townsend mode will also be presented and discussed. Jelenak et al 1993 Phys. Rev. E 47 3566

  8. Soil mass attenuation coefficient: Analysis and evaluation

    Highlights: • Experimental mass attenuation coefficient is affected by sample size. • Sample thickness larger than 9 cm presents the best results for 137Cs. • Sample thickness smaller than 5 cm presents the best results for 241Am. - Abstract: The mass attenuation coefficient (μ) is an important parameter to characterize the penetration and interaction of gamma-rays in the soil. Accurate determinations of μ are important to obtain representative values of soil physical properties by gamma-ray attenuation technique. In this study, the effect of collimator size (2–4 mm diameters) and absorber thickness (2–15 cm) on the experimental μ values of water and soils with different textures were investigated for 59.54 keV (241Am) and 661.1 keV (137Cs) gamma-ray sources. Theoretical results were calculated using the program XCOM. Experimental results were compared with theoretical ones showing a good correlation between methods. It was observed that for the 137Cs the best agreements between theoretical and experimental μ were obtained for sample thickness ⩾10 cm while for the 241Am were those obtained for thickness <5 cm for small collimators

  9. PET attenuation coefficients from CT images: experimental evaluation of the transformation of CT into PET 511-keV attenuation coefficients

    The CT data acquired in combined PET/CT studies provide a fast and essentially noiseless source for the correction of photon attenuation in PET emission data. To this end, the CT values relating to attenuation of photons in the range of 40-140 keV must be transformed into linear attenuation coefficients at the PET energy of 511 keV. As attenuation depends on photon energy and the absorbing material, an accurate theoretical relation cannot be devised. The transformation implemented in the Discovery LS PET/CT scanner (GE Medical Systems, Milwaukee, Wis.) uses a bilinear function based on the attenuation of water and cortical bone at the CT and PET energies. The purpose of this study was to compare this transformation with experimental CT values and corresponding PET attenuation coefficients. In 14 patients, quantitative PET attenuation maps were calculated from germanium-68 transmission scans, and resolution-matched CT images were generated. A total of 114 volumes of interest were defined and the average PET attenuation coefficients and CT values measured. From the CT values the predicted PET attenuation coefficients were calculated using the bilinear transformation. When the transformation was based on the narrow-beam attenuation coefficient of water at 511 keV (0.096 cm-1), the predicted attenuation coefficients were higher in soft tissue than the measured values. This bias was reduced by replacing 0.096 cm-1 in the transformation by the linear attenuation coefficient of 0.093 cm-1 obtained from germanium-68 transmission scans. An analysis of the corrected emission activities shows that the resulting transformation is essentially equivalent to the transmission-based attenuation correction for human tissue. For non-human material, however, it may assign inaccurate attenuation coefficients which will also affect the correction in neighbouring tissue. (orig.)

  10. Diversity of albedo and longwave exchange and radiative efficiency coefficients on Bledow Desert area

    In the vegetation seasons of 2001 and 2002, comprehensive meteorological and biological research was carried out in the selected sandy areas of the Błędów Desert, located in the Silesia Upland. The article presents part of a research concerning solar radiation, radiative efficiency, longwave exchange and albedo coefficients, which are elements used for the evaluation and comparison of active surface. The course and spatial distribution of individual elements of the radiation balance and the above-mentioned coefficients were analysed for surfaces representative of the Błędów Desert. Due to its easy determination, the albedo coefficient is the most often used determinant for the characteristics of an active surface for the research of short-wave radiation balance. Its values are between 0.1 for dark or damp areas and 0.4 for light sand. On sandy surfaces covered with organic substance or initial vegetation, the longwave exchange coefficient reaches the value of 0.54, which is much higher than on a sandy surface (0.37). The third of the researched indexes is the radiative efficiency coefficient, which is sensitive to environmental features due to the exchange of longwave streams of active surface. Nevertheless, it was found that the radiative efficiency coefficient shows little sensitivity for sandy and dry areas in the range between -0.32 and -0.35. (author)

  11. A new coefficient of concordance with applications to biosignal analysis

    Xu, Weichao; Chen, Zhaoguo; Liu, Wenqing

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we propose a novel concordance coefficients called Order Statistics Concordance Coefficients based on order statistics and Pearson's Product Moment Correlation Coefficient. For comparison, we also construct other three similar index based on Average Pearson's Product Moment Correlation Coefficient, Kendall's Concordance Coefficients, Average Kendall's tau. We propose Multivariate Normal Model to estimate the correlation coefficient, Linear Model and Nonlinear Model to model the linear and nonlinear association between multichannel signals, And we also apply the concordance coefficients to biosignal analysis developed a new organizational index for quantifying organization of AF. Statistical evidences suggest that (a) Order Statistics Concordance Coefficients have better robust than other three index; (b) capable of distinguishing fibrillatory rhythms from nonfibrillatory rhythms, such as Atiral flutter; (c) can reflect the effectiveness of adenosine, a drug commonly used during electrophysiological procedures; and (d) perform better than other three concordance coefficients.

  12. Questionnaire discrimination: (re-introducing coefficient δ

    Hankins Matthew

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Questionnaires are used routinely in clinical research to measure health status and quality of life. Questionnaire measurements are traditionally formally assessed by indices of reliability (the degree of measurement error and validity (the extent to which the questionnaire measures what it is supposed to measure. Neither of these indices assesses the degree to which the questionnaire is able to discriminate between individuals, an important aspect of measurement. This paper introduces and extends an existing index of a questionnaire's ability to distinguish between individuals, that is, the questionnaire's discrimination. Methods Ferguson (1949 1 derived an index of test discrimination, coefficient δ, for psychometric tests with dichotomous (correct/incorrect items. In this paper a general form of the formula, δG, is derived for the more general class of questionnaires allowing for several response choices. The calculation and characteristics of δG are then demonstrated using questionnaire data (GHQ-12 from 2003–2004 British Household Panel Survey (N = 14761. Coefficients for reliability (α and discrimination (δG are computed for two commonly-used GHQ-12 coding methods: dichotomous coding and four-point Likert-type coding. Results Both scoring methods were reliable (α > 0.88. However, δG was substantially lower (0.73 for the dichotomous coding of the GHQ-12 than for the Likert-type method (δG = 0.96, indicating that the dichotomous coding, although reliable, failed to discriminate between individuals. Conclusion Coefficient δG was shown to have decisive utility in distinguishing between the cross-sectional discrimination of two equally reliable scoring methods. Ferguson's δ has been neglected in discussions of questionnaire design and performance, perhaps because it has not been implemented in software and was restricted to questionnaires with dichotomous items, which are rare in health care research. It is

  13. ROUGHNESS COEFFICIENT FOR UNSUBMERGED AND SUBMERGED REED

    2007-01-01

    The characteristics of the roughness coefficient are very important for practical application. Some experiments are conducted to study the variation of Manning's n with flow depth, mean velocity, and density of vegetation,. An assumed velocity distribution to describe the vegetative flow of submerged vegetation is confirmed by experimental results. The measured velocities in this study seem to have little effect on the curve of n ~ h, and a new linear relationship between Manning's n and flow depths is observed clearly. According to the arguments that the flow resistance of densely unsubmerged vegetation is dominated by the resistance exerted on vegetations, the influence of the density of vegetation on Manning's n is estimated. On the basis of the velocity distribution, the n ~ h curve under submerged condition is theoretically obtained from the n ~ h curve under unsubmerged condition. These results are also well confirmed by experimental results and very significant for practical applications.

  14. APRECOT - analysis program for reactivity coefficient tests

    A computer program has been written which provides a rapid and convenient analysis route for fuel temperature coefficient of reactivity measurements, as carried out at Hinkley Point 'B' Power Station. This replaces the earlier, more tedious, iterative analysis using KINAGRAX. The program has been tested by analysing computer simulations of reactor tests. This has shown that APRECOT introduces errors which are small (approximately 11/2%) in comparison with other sources of error (approximately 10%), that the effect of axial flux shape changes is acceptably small and that effects due to xenon, which is not modelled in the current version of the program, can be dealt with adequately. This note describes the APRECOT method, including details of input and output to the program and gives results of the numerical tests made of the method. (author)

  15. Transport coefficients in superfluid neutron stars

    Tolos, Laura [Instituto de Ciencias del Espacio (IEEC/CSIC) Campus Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Facultat de Ciències, Torre C5, E-08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Frankfurt Institute for Advances Studies. Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Ruth-Moufang-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Manuel, Cristina [Instituto de Ciencias del Espacio (IEEC/CSIC) Campus Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Facultat de Ciències, Torre C5, E-08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Sarkar, Sreemoyee [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhaba Road, Mumbai-400005 (India); Tarrus, Jaume [Physik Department, Technische Universität München, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2016-01-22

    We study the shear and bulk viscosity coefficients as well as the thermal conductivity as arising from the collisions among phonons in superfluid neutron stars. We use effective field theory techniques to extract the allowed phonon collisional processes, written as a function of the equation of state and the gap of the system. The shear viscosity due to phonon scattering is compared to calculations of that coming from electron collisions. We also comment on the possible consequences for r-mode damping in superfluid neutron stars. Moreover, we find that phonon collisions give the leading contribution to the bulk viscosities in the core of the neutron stars. We finally obtain a temperature-independent thermal conductivity from phonon collisions and compare it with the electron-muon thermal conductivity in superfluid neutron stars.

  16. Thermal Conductivity Coefficient from Microscopic Models

    Nemakhavhani, T E

    2016-01-01

    Thermal conductivity of hadron matter is studied using a microscopic transport model, which will be used to simulate ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions at different energy densities, namely the Ultra-relativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics (UrQMD). The molecular dynamics simulation is performed for a system of light mesons species (pion, rho, kaon) in a box with periodic boundary conditions. The equilibrium state is investigated by studying chemical equilibrium and thermal equilibrium of the system. Particle multiplicity equilibrates with time, and the energy spectra of different light mesons species have the same slopes and common temperatures when thermal equilibrium is reached. Thermal conductivity transport coefficient is calculated from the heat current - current correlations using the Green-Kubo relations.

  17. Molar extinction coefficients of some fatty acids

    Sandhu, G.K.; Singh, K.; Lark, B.S.;

    2002-01-01

    ) and stearic acid (C18H36O2), has been measured at the photon energies 81, 356, 511, 662, 1173 and 1332 keV. Experimental values for the molar extinction coefficient, the effective atomic number and the electron density have been derived and compared with theoretical calculations. There is good......The attenuation of gamma rays in some fatty acids, viz. formic acid (CH2O2), acetic acid (C2H4O2), propionic acid (C3H6O2), butyric acid (C4H8O2), n-hexanoic acid (C6H12O2), n-caprylic acid (C8H16O2), lauric acid (C12H24O2), myristic acid (C14H28O2), palmitic acid (C16H32O2), oleic acid (C18H34O2...

  18. Distortion effects on the spin transfer coefficient

    Lee, S E; Hong, S W; Kim, B T

    1999-01-01

    We investigated the distortion effects on the spin transfer coefficient D sub n sub n for the intermediate energy (p,n) charge exchange reactions leading to the Gamow-Teller resonance in the continuum region. When the distortion is included, the imaginary parts of both the central and the tensor direct contributions are significantly changed. Also, the magnitude of T sub 0 sub 0 becomes smaller, which results in larger D sub n sub n values. We also found that when the distortion is included the phase difference between T sub 0 sub 0 and T sub 2 sub 0 in the complex plane remains almost the same for different Q-values.

  19. Effective Electrocardiogram Steganography Based on Coefficient Alignment.

    Yang, Ching-Yu; Wang, Wen-Fong

    2016-03-01

    This study presents two types of data hiding methods based on coefficient alignment for electrocardiogram (ECG) signals, namely, lossy and reversible ECG steganographys. The lossy method is divided into high-quality and high-capacity ECG steganography, both of which are capable of hiding confidential patient data in ECG signals. The reversible data hiding method can not only hide secret messages but also completely restore the original ECG signal after bit extraction. Simulations confirmed that the perceived quality generated by the lossy ECG steganography methods was good, while hiding capacity was acceptable. In addition, these methods have a certain degree of robustness, which is rare in conventional ECG stegangraphy schemes. Moreover, the proposed reversible ECG steganography method can not only successfully extract hidden messages but also completely recover the original ECG data. PMID:26711443

  20. Quantifying colocalization by correlation: the Pearson correlation coefficient is superior to the Mander's overlap coefficient.

    Adler, Jeremy; Parmryd, Ingela

    2010-08-01

    The Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC) and the Mander's overlap coefficient (MOC) are used to quantify the degree of colocalization between fluorophores. The MOC was introduced to overcome perceived problems with the PCC. The two coefficients are mathematically similar, differing in the use of either the absolute intensities (MOC) or of the deviation from the mean (PCC). A range of correlated datasets, which extend to the limits of the PCC, only evoked a limited response from the MOC. The PCC is unaffected by changes to the offset while the MOC increases when the offset is positive. Both coefficients are independent of gain. The MOC is a confusing hybrid measurement, that combines correlation with a heavily weighted form of co-occurrence, favors high intensity combinations, downplays combinations in which either or both intensities are low and ignores blank pixels. The PCC only measures correlation. A surprising finding was that the addition of a second uncorrelated population can substantially increase the measured correlation, demonstrating the importance of excluding background pixels. Overall, since the MOC is unresponsive to substantial changes in the data and is hard to interpret, it is neither an alternative to nor a useful substitute for the PCC. The MOC is not suitable for making measurements of colocalization either by correlation or co-occurrence. PMID:20653013

  1. Entropy-scaling laws for diffusion coefficients in liquid metals under high pressures

    Molecular dynamic simulations on the liquid copper and tungsten are used to investigate the empirical entropy-scaling laws D*=A exp(BSex), proposed independently by Rosenfeld and Dzugutov for diffusion coefficient, under high pressure conditions. We show that the scaling laws hold rather well for them under high pressure conditions. Furthermore, both the original diffusion coefficients and the reduced diffusion coefficients exhibit an Arrhenius relationship DM=DM0 exp(−EM/KBT), (M=un,R,D) and the activation energy EM increases with increasing pressure, the diffusion pre-exponential factors (DR0 and DD0) are nearly independent of the pressure and element. The pair correlation entropy, S2, depends linearly on the reciprocal temperature S2=−ES/T, and the activation energy, ES, increases with increasing pressure. In particular, the ratios of the activation energies (Eun, ER, and ED) obtained from diffusion coefficients to the activation energy, ES, obtained from the entropy keep constants in the whole pressure range. Therefore, the entropy-scaling laws for the diffusion coefficients and the Arrhenius law are linked via the temperature dependence of entropy

  2. Recovering DC coefficients in block-based DCT.

    Uehara, Takeyuki; Safavi-Naini, Reihaneh; Ogunbona, Philip

    2006-11-01

    It is a common approach for JPEG and MPEG encryption systems to provide higher protection for dc coefficients and less protection for ac coefficients. Some authors have employed a cryptographic encryption algorithm for the dc coefficients and left the ac coefficients to techniques based on random permutation lists which are known to be weak against known-plaintext and chosen-ciphertext attacks. In this paper we show that in block-based DCT, it is possible to recover dc coefficients from ac coefficients with reasonable image quality and show the insecurity of image encryption methods which rely on the encryption of dc values using a cryptoalgorithm. The method proposed in this paper combines dc recovery from ac coefficients and the fact that ac coefficients can be recovered using a chosen ciphertext attack. We demonstrate that a method proposed by Tang to encrypt and decrypt MPEG video can be completely broken. PMID:17076416

  3. The Attenuation of Correlation Coefficients: A Statistical Literacy Issue

    Trafimow, David

    2016-01-01

    Much of the science reported in the media depends on correlation coefficients. But the size of correlation coefficients depends, in part, on the reliability with which the correlated variables are measured. Understanding this is a statistical literacy issue.

  4. Experimental determination of B R-12 attenuation coefficients utilizing photon spectrometry

    In tests for quality assurance in mammography, it is common to use breast phantoms, with different compositions. One of the most used is the BR-12 phantom. There are few published experimental data on the attenuation of BR-12. Generally, the available attenuation coefficients are calculated from the composition of the coefficients determined for its components. In this work, the spectrometric method was used, with a CdTe detector, for X- and γ-rays from radioactive sources of 133Ba and 241Am. The spectra of direct and attenuated by 0.5 cm of BR-12 beams were measured. From the ratio of intensities obtained for these radiations, it was possible to determine values of the attenuation coefficients from Beer's law. Results show coherence with previous data. The values of such coefficients are useful, for example, for calculations of absorbed dose (in BR-12), which have been made on other research activities of this group. (author)

  5. Determination of the emanation coefficient and the Henry's law constant for the groundwater radon

    The radon emanation coefficient (ε) from aquifer rock and the Henry's law constant (H) of radon were determined by measuring activity concentrations using liquid scintillation counter (LSC). For the evaluation of the method, the coefficients were measured at 0, 10 and 20 deg C and the temperature dependency of the coefficients was compared with others. The radon emanation coefficients from the rock particles used in this work are 0.0845, 0.1007 and 0.1308 at 0, 10 and 20 deg C, respectively. The dimensionless Henry's law constants for the groundwater used in this work are 0.994, 1.153 and 2.641 at 0, 10 and 20 deg C, respectively. The results show a good agreement with those in literatures. (author)

  6. Global cycle properties in graphs with large minimum clustering coefficient

    Borchert, Adam; Nicol, Skylar; Oellermann, Ortrud R.

    2015-01-01

    The clustering coefficient of a vertex in a graph is the proportion of neighbours of the vertex that are adjacent. The minimum clustering coefficient of a graph is the smallest clustering coefficient taken over all vertices. A complete structural characterization of those locally connected graphs, with minimum clustering coefficient 1/2 and maximum degree at most 6, that are fully cycle extendable is given in terms of strongly induced subgraphs with given attachment sets. Moreover, it is show...

  7. EXACT SAMPLING DISTRIBUTION OF SAMPLE COEFFICIENT OF VARIATION

    Dr.G.S.David Sam Jayakumar; A.Sulthan

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes the sampling distribution of sample coefficient of variation from the normal population. We have derived the relationship between the sample coefficient of variation, standard normal and chi-square variate. We have derived density function of the sample coefficient of variation in terms of the confluent hyper-geometric distribution. Moreover, the first two moments of the distribution are derived and we have proved that the sample coefficient of variation (cv...

  8. PEARSON'S OR SPEARMAN'S CORRELATION COEFFICIENT - WHICH ONE TO USE?

    Andrijana Rebekić; Zdenko Lončarić; Sonja Petrović; Sonja Marić

    2015-01-01

    Mosf commonly used correlation coefficients are Pearson's product moment correlation coefficient and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. The aim of this paper is to compare a Pearson's and Spearman's coefficient of correlation on the same data set. The winter wheat grain cadmium (Cd) concentration was correlated to grain zinc (Zn) concentration, plant height, plant weight, number of spikelets per spike and 1000 kernel weight. Data were collected from the experiment carried out in semi co...

  9. Estimating crop coefficients from fraction of ground cover and height

    Richard G. Allen; L. S. Pereira

    2009-01-01

    The FAO-56 procedure for estimating the crop coefficient Kc as a function of fraction of ground cover and crop height has been formalized in this study using a density coefficient Kd. The density coefficient is multiplied by a basal Kc representing full cover conditions, Kcb full, to produce a basal crop coefficient that represents actual conditions of ET and vegetation coverage when the soil surface is dry. Kcb full is estimated primarily as a function of crop height....

  10. The photon attenuation coefficients of barite, marble and limra

    The linear attenuation coefficients μ (cm-1) and total mass attenuation coefficients ((μ)/(ρ)) (cm2 g-1) of γ-rays for barite, marble and limra have been calculated using the XCOM program (Version 3.1) at energies from 1 keV to 300 MeV. The calculated results were compared with the estimation coefficients ((μ)/(ρ)) based on the measured total linear attenuation coefficients (μ)

  11. Additional studies on heterodiffusion coefficients in periclase

    E. Dologlou

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available By using a thermodynamical model, the activation entropy is extracted from the experimental diffusion data of Al in MgO. Furthermore, we estimate the activation volume. We find a value for the activation entropy of (4.21 ± 0.05 k. As for the activation volume, we calculate the value (3.65 ± 0.16 cm3 mol −1 which is comparable with the experimental values when errors are considered.

  12. Measurement of gamma attenuation coefficients in UO2 and zirconium for self-absorption corrections of burn-up determination

    UO2 pellets from ALUOX fuel elements were used in measuring the absorption coefficient of gamma radiation in UO2. The results of measurements of the energy dependence of the linear absorption coefficient (within 622 to 796 keV) and of the dependence on pellet density showed that in the given density interval the absorption coefficient was almost constant. The density interval was chosen to be typical for pellet fuel used in water cooled and water moderated power reactors. The results are also shown of the dependence of the mass absorption coefficient of gamma radiation in Zr on radiation energy and compared with the mass absorption coefficient of Mo; these also showed the independence of the absorption coefficient on density. The linear and mass absorption coefficients of UO2 are considerably high and correspond approximately to the absorption coefficient of lead. For the measured energy range the variation of absorption coefficient is about 40%, which causes errors in burnup determination. The efficiency was also determined of Ge(Li) detectors for the energy range 0.5 to 1.2 MeV. The determination of the above coefficients was used for improving the gamma fuel scanning technique in determining the activity and burnup of spent fuel elements. (J.P.)

  13. General Symmetry Approach to Solve Variable-Coefficient Nonlinear Equations

    RUAN HangYu; CHEN YiXin; LOU SenYue

    2001-01-01

    After considering the variable coefficient of a nonlinear equation as a new dependent variable, some special types of variable-coefficient equation can be solved from the corresponding constant-coefficient equations by using the general classical Lie approach. Taking the nonlinear Schrodinger equation as a concrete example, the method is recommended in detail.``

  14. My Current Thoughts on Coefficient Alpha and Successor Procedures

    Cronbach, Lee J.; Shavelson, Richard J.

    2004-01-01

    In 1997, noting that the 50th anniversary of the publication of "Coefficient Alpha and the Internal Structure of Tests" was fast approaching, Lee Cronbach planned what have become the notes published here. His aim was to point out the ways in which his views on coefficient alpha had evolved, doubting now that the coefficient was the best way of…

  15. Microscopic formula for transport coefficients of causal hydrodynamics

    Koide, T.

    2007-01-01

    The Green-Kubo-Nakano formula should be modified in relativistic hydrodynamics because of the problem of acausality and the breaking of sum rules. In this work, we propose a formula to calculate the transport coefficients of causal hydrodynamics based on the projection operator method. As concrete examples, we derive the expressions for the diffusion coefficient, the shear viscosity coefficient, and corresponding relaxation times.

  16. Interpretation of Standardized Regression Coefficients in Multiple Regression.

    Thayer, Jerome D.

    The extent to which standardized regression coefficients (beta values) can be used to determine the importance of a variable in an equation was explored. The beta value and the part correlation coefficient--also called the semi-partial correlation coefficient and reported in squared form as the incremental "r squared"--were compared for variables…

  17. On the Occurrence of Standardized Regression Coefficients Greater than One.

    Deegan, John, Jr.

    1978-01-01

    It is demonstrated here that standardized regression coefficients greater than one can legitimately occur. Furthermore, the relationship between the occurrence of such coefficients and the extent of multicollinearity present among the set of predictor variables in an equation is examined. Comments on the interpretation of these coefficients are…

  18. Transport coefficients in the P3 and P5 approximations

    Several procedures to account for space dependence of diffusion coefficients can be found in the literature. In this work, a relationship between neutron current and flux in the P3 and P5 approximations (generalized Fick's law) is obtained. Thermal neutron diffusion coefficient and other transport coefficients are found in P2 and P3 approximations. (author)

  19. The Discharge Coefficient of a Centre-Pivot Roof Window

    Iqbal, Ahsan; Afshari, Alireza; Nielsen, Peter V.;

    2012-01-01

    value of discharge coefficient is used. The constant value of discharge coefficient leads to deceptive airflow estimation in the cases of centre-pivot roof windows. The object of this paper is to study and evaluate the discharge coefficient of the centre pivot roof window. Focus is given on...

  20. On some properties of SU(3) Fusion Coefficients

    Coquereaux, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Three aspects of the SU(3) fusion coefficients are revisited: the generating polynomials of fusion coefficients are written explicitly; some curious identities generalizing the classical Freudenthal-de Vries formula are derived; and the properties of the fusion coefficients under conjugation of one of the factors, previously analysed in the classical case, are extended to the affine algebra of su(3) at finite level.

  1. Structure dependence of the rate coefficients of hydroxyl radical+aromatic molecule reaction

    The rate coefficients of hydroxyl radical addition to the rings of simple aromatic molecules (kOH) were evaluated based on the literature data. By analyzing the methods of kOH determination and the data obtained the most probable values were selected for the kOH's of individual compounds and thereby the most reliable dataset was created for monosubstituted aromatics and p-substituted phenols. For these compounds the rate coefficients fall in a narrow range between 2×109 mol−1 dm3 s−1 and 1×1010 mol−1 dm3 s−1. Although the values show some regular trend with the electron donating/withdrawing nature of the substituent, the log kOH−σp Hammett substituent constant plots do not give straight lines because these high kOH's are controlled by both, the chemical reactivity and the diffusion. However, the logarithms of the rate coefficients of the chemical reactivity controlled reactions (kchem), are calculated by the equation 1/kOH=1/kchem+1/kdiff, and accepting for the diffusion controlled rate coefficient kdiff=1.1×1010 mol−1 dm3 s−1, show good linear correlation with σp. - Highlights: ► OH·+aromatic molecule rate coefficients are in the range 2×109–1×1010 mol−1 dm3 s−1. ► The logarithms of rate coefficients as a function of Hammett constants do not give straight lines. ► Logarithms rate coefficients of chemically activated reaction linearly depend on Hammett constants. ► Liquid phase chemically activated reaction rate coefficients and gas phase values are correlated

  2. Transport coefficients of a relativistic plasma

    Pike, O. J.; Rose, S. J.

    2016-05-01

    In this work, a self-consistent transport theory for a relativistic plasma is developed. Using the notation of Braginskii [S. I. Braginskii, in Reviews of Plasma Physics, edited by M. A. Leontovich (Consultants Bureau, New York, 1965), Vol. 1, p. 174], we provide semianalytical forms of the electrical resistivity, thermoelectric, and thermal conductivity tensors for a Lorentzian plasma in a magnetic field. This treatment is then generalized to plasmas with arbitrary atomic number by numerically solving the linearized Boltzmann equation. The corresponding transport coefficients are fitted by rational functions in order to make them suitable for use in radiation-hydrodynamic simulations and transport calculations. Within the confines of linear transport theory and on the assumption that the plasma is optically thin, our results are valid for temperatures up to a few MeV. By contrast, classical transport theory begins to incur significant errors above kBT ˜10 keV, e.g., the parallel thermal conductivity is suppressed by 15% at kBT =20 keV due to relativistic effects.

  3. Measurements of soil-solution distribution coefficient

    Tsukada, Hirofumi; Hasegawa, Hidenao; Hisamatsu, Shunichi; Sakurai, Naoyuki; Koyama, Kenji [Institute for Environmental Sciences, Department of Radioecology, Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    The soil-solution distribution coefficient (Kd) is defined as the ratio of element concentrations in a soil-solid phase to that in a solution phase. It is commonly used as an important parameter for transfer models of radionuclides in different environments, such as describing the migration behavior in the geosphere and transfer behavior in the biosphere. We plan to measure the Kd of elements by means of an extraction method in soils throughout Aomori Prefecture and to probe related factors affecting their variance. However, Kd values vary widely, dependent upon conditions of measurements even if a similar soil sample is measured. Therefore, measurement conditions for the Kd of elements were examined in the present study and the following conditions were adopted. A collected soil sample was passed through a 2 mm sieve and dried at 50degC. The ratio of solution to solid was 10. The mixture sample was shaken for 24 h at 20degC in a clean centrifuge bottle which was made of polypropylene copolymer (PPCO). According to the literature, common soil types in Aomori Prefecture are as follows: andosols in the Sanpachi-Kamikita region, gray lowland and upland soils in the Tsugaru region, sand-dune regosols in Kizukuri-machi, peat soils around lakes and so on. The Kd values for those soil types will be measured hereafter. (author)

  4. Ghost imaging based on Pearson correlation coefficients

    Yu, Wen-Kai; Yao, Xu-Ri; Liu, Xue-Feng; Li, Long-Zhen; Zhai, Guang-Jie

    2015-05-01

    Correspondence imaging is a new modality of ghost imaging, which can retrieve a positive/negative image by simple conditional averaging of the reference frames that correspond to relatively large/small values of the total intensity measured at the bucket detector. Here we propose and experimentally demonstrate a more rigorous and general approach in which a ghost image is retrieved by calculating a Pearson correlation coefficient between the bucket detector intensity and the brightness at a given pixel of the reference frames, and at the next pixel, and so on. Furthermore, we theoretically provide a statistical interpretation of these two imaging phenomena, and explain how the error depends on the sample size and what kind of distribution the error obeys. According to our analysis, the image signal-to-noise ratio can be greatly improved and the sampling number reduced by means of our new method. Project supported by the National Key Scientific Instrument and Equipment Development Project of China (Grant No. 2013YQ030595) and the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2013AA122902).

  5. Coefficient of Performance Enhancement of Refrigeration Cycles

    Eng. Naser R. M. AL-Ajmi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Refrigerator is one of the home appliance utilizing mechanical vapor compression cycle in its process. Performance of the systems become the main issue and many researches are still ongoing to evaluate and improve the efficiency of any used system. Therefore, this paper presents an experimental investigation of the performance of the refrigeration cycles. A small rrefrigerator is used as the test rig. The Coefficient of Performance (COP is studied by using different condenser designs and under varying evaporator loads. Three condenser designs are used in present work. These condensers are regular condenser of domestic refrigerator, condenser with copper plain tubes (Cond.1 and condenser with copper tubes welded with stainless steel flat plate (Cond.2. pressures and temperatures measurements of each point in the refrigeration cycle are collected in order to evaluate the refrigerator performance. The results showed that the average COP of Cond.1 and Cond.2 are increased up to 20 % and 14% respectively more than regular condenser design under no load. The evaporator load effects on the machine performance, where the COP of the machine increases with the increase of the evaporator load.

  6. Local diffusion coefficient determination: Mediterranean Sea experiments

    The Mediterranean is a semi/enclosed basin characterized by the presence of channels and straits influencing the circulation, temperature and salinity fields. The tides generally have amplitudes of the order of 10 cm and velocities of few cm/s. Conversely, the wind forced circulation is very strong and can assume velocity values of 1 m/s at the sea surface. The temperature and salinity fields have a high temporal and spatial variability, because of many mixing processes existing in the sea. For example, the waters coming from the Provencal basin meet those waters coming from the Tyrrhenian Sea in the eastern Ligurian Sea, creating meanders and eddies. Local runoff influences significantly the coastal circulation. This paper describes diffusion experiments carried out in this complex environment. The experimental apparatus for the detection of the fluorescine released at sea was composed by two Turner mod. 450 fluorometres. During the experiments, temperature and salinity vertical profiles were measured by using a CTD; meteorological data were acquired on a dinghy. The positioning was obtained by means of a Motorola system, having a precision of about 1 meter. The experiments were carried out under different stratification and wind conditions. From data analysis it was found that the horizontal diffusion coefficient does not depend on time or boundary conditions. The role of stratification is important with regard to vertical displacement of the dye. However, its role with regard to vertical diffusion cannot be assessed with the actual experimental apparatus

  7. Townsend coefficients of gases in avalanche counters

    Though much work has been done by many authors in the last few years in the development and application of avalanche counters for ion radiation, it is based upon values of the Townsend coefficients as the essential gas parameter, which were determined many years ago for much lower reduced field strengths F/p than prevail in such counters. Therefore absolute determinations of α in vapours of methyl alcohol, cyclohexane, acetone, and n-heptene were performed under original conditions of avalanche counters. The values obtained do not differ by more than 30%-50% from the former values indeed, extrapolated over F/p for the first three mentioned substances, but the amounts of A and B in the usual representation α/p=A exp(-B(F/p)) are much greater for the stronger reduced fields. This is of importance for such counter properties as the dependence of pulse heights on pressure, voltage, electrode distance etc., which are governed by other combinations of A and B than α/p itself. A comparison of results for different ionic radiations shows a marked influence of the primary ionization density along the particle tracks which is hard to explain. (Auth.)

  8. Transfer coefficients for terrestrial foodchain: their derivation and limitations

    Transfer coefficients to predict the passage of isotopes from the environment to terrestrial foods have been derived for various radionuclides of importance in the nuclear fuel cycle. These data update and extend previously recommended handbook values. We derive transfer coefficients to terrestrial foods and describe the systematics of the derived transfer coefficients. Suggestions are offered for changes in the values of transfer coefficients to terrestrial foods that now appear in federal regulatory guides. Deficiencies in our present knowledge concerning transfer coefficients and limitations in the use of these values to ensure compliance with radiation protection standards are discussed

  9. Vapour pressures and osmotic coefficients of binary mixtures containing alcohol and pyrrolidinium-based ionic liquids

    Highlights: • Osmotic coefficients of alcohols with pyrrolidinium ILs are determined. • Experimental data were correlated with extended Pitzer model of Archer and MNRTL. • Mean molal activity coefficients and excess Gibbs free energies were calculated. • The results have been interpreted in terms of interactions. -- Abstract: The osmotic and activity coefficients and vapour pressures of mixtures containing primary (1-propanol, 1-butanol and 1-pentanol) and secondary (2-propanol and 2-butanol) alcohols with pyrrolidinium-based ionic liquids (1-butyl-1-methyl pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, C4MpyrNTf2, and 1-butyl-1-methyl pyrrolidinium trifluoromethanesulfonate, C4MpyrTFO) have been experimentally determined at T = 323.15 K. For the experimental measurements, the vapour pressure osmometry technique has been used. The results on the influence of the structure of the alcohol and of the anion of the ionic liquid on the determined properties have been discussed and compared with literature data. For the correlation of the osmotic coefficients obtained, the Extended Pitzer model of Archer and the Modified Non-Random Two Liquids model were applied. The mean molal activity coefficients and the excess Gibbs energy for the studied mixtures were calculated from the parameters obtained in the correlation

  10. Phased Beam Tracing Method Using the Reflection Coefficient Calculated from the Absorption Coefficient

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Ih, Jeong-Guon; Rindel, Jens Holger

    The phased beam tracing method (PBTM) is a technique which can calculate the pressure impulse response instead of energy impulse response, by taking the phase information into account. Inclusion of the phase information can extend the application of beam tracing technique to the mid frequency range...... in spite of the fact that the usual assumptions of geometric acoustics still hold. In the calculation of pressure impulse response, it is essential to have the reflection characteristics of the surfaces in the enclosed space. There is a method to obtain the reflection coefficient of the surface using...... the measured surface impedance. However, it is not always possible to get the measured impedance data of the surface, so that a practical way of getting reflection characteristics is needed. Generally, in the architectural acoustics field, the absorption coefficients have been employed in the...

  11. Studies on mass attenuation coefficient, mass energy absorption coefficient and kerma of some vitamins

    Highlights: ► Kerma is essential for nuclear medicine, diagnostics and radiation dosimeter. ► The values of μm and μe/ρ depends on the photon energy and chemical content of vitamins. ► New experiments should be performed to study physical parameters of biomolecules. -- Abstract: The mass attenuation coefficients for some vitamins (retinol, beta-carotene, thiamine, riboflavin, niacinamide, pantothenic acid, pyridoxine, biotin, folic acid, cyanocobalamin, ascorbic acid, cholecalciferol, alpha-tocopherol, ketamine, hesperidin) were determined experimentally and theoretically at 356.61, 661.66, 1250 and 1408.01 keV photon energies by using a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. Also, the mass energy absorption coefficients and kerma have been calculated. The calculated values were compared with the semi-empirical values for vitamins.

  12. Systematic Risk on Istanbul Stock Exchange: Traditional Beta Coefficient Versus Downside Beta Coefficient

    Gülfen TUNA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to test the validity of Downside Capital Asset Pricing Model (D-CAPM on the ISE. At the same time, the explanatory power of CAPM's traditional beta and D-CAPM's downside beta on the changes in the average return values are examined comparatively. In this context, the monthly data for seventy three stocks that are continuously traded on the ISE for the period 1991-2009 is used. Regression analysis is applied in this study. The research results have shown that D-CAPM is valid on the ISE. In addition, it is obtained that the power of downside beta coefficient is higher than traditional beta coefficient on explaining the return changes. Therefore, it can be said that the downside beta is superior to traditional beta in the ISE for chosen period.

  13. A graphical algorithm for fast computation of identity coefficients and generalized kinship coefficients

    Abney, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Summary: Computing the probability of identity by descent sharing among n genes given only the pedigree of those genes is a computationally challenging problem, if n or the pedigree size is large. Here, I present a novel graphical algorithm for efficiently computing all generalized kinship coefficients for n genes. The graphical description transforms the problem from doing many recursion on the pedigree to doing a single traversal of a structure referred to as the kinship graph.

  14. Changes in Electrokinetic Coupling Coefficients of Granite under Triaxial Deformation

    Osamu Kuwano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrokinetic phenomena are believed to be the most likely origin of electromagnetic signals preceding or accompanying earthquakes. The intensity of the source current due to the electrokinetic phenomena is determined by the fluid flux and the electrokinetic coupling coefficient called streaming current coefficient; therefore, how the coefficient changes before rupture is essential. Here, we show how the electrokinetic coefficients change during the rock deformation experiment up to failure. The streaming current coefficient did not increase before failure, but continued to decrease up to failure, which is explained in terms of the elastic closure of capillary. On the other hand, the streaming potential coefficient, which is the product of the streaming current coefficient and bulk resistivity of the rock, increased at the onset of dilatancy. It may be due to change in bulk resistivity. Our result indicates that the zeta potential of the newly created surface does not change so much from that of the preexisting fluid rock interface.

  15. Linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients of spherical dome shells

    Guo, Kangxian; Liu, Guanghui; Huang, Lu; Zheng, Xianyi

    2015-08-01

    Linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients of spherical dome shells are theoretically investigated within analytical wave functions and numerical quantized energy levels. Our results show that the inner radius, the outer radius and the cut-off angle of spherical dome shells have great influences on linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients as well as the total optical absorption coefficients. It is found that with the increase of the inner radius and the outer radius, linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients exhibit a blueshift and a redshift, respectively. However, with the increase of the cut-off angle, linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients do not shift. Besides, the resonant peaks of linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients climb up and then decrease with increasing the cut-off angle. The influences of the incident optical intensity on the total optical absorption coefficients are studied. It is found that the bleaching effect occurs at higher incident optical intensity.

  16. Methods for Accurate Free Flight Measurement of Drag Coefficients

    Courtney, Elya; Courtney, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes experimental methods for free flight measurement of drag coefficients to an accuracy of approximately 1%. There are two main methods of determining free flight drag coefficients, or equivalent ballistic coefficients: 1) measuring near and far velocities over a known distance and 2) measuring a near velocity and time of flight over a known distance. Atmospheric conditions must also be known and nearly constant over the flight path. A number of tradeoffs are important when designing experiments to accurately determine drag coefficients. The flight distance must be large enough so that the projectile's loss of velocity is significant compared with its initial velocity and much larger than the uncertainty in the near and/or far velocity measurements. On the other hand, since drag coefficients and ballistic coefficients both depend on velocity, the change in velocity over the flight path should be small enough that the average drag coefficient over the path (which is what is really determined)...

  17. Local organ dose conversion coefficients for angiographic examinations of coronary arteries

    Schlattl, H [GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Radiation Protection, Ingolstaedter Landstr. 1, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Zankl, M [GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Radiation Protection, Ingolstaedter Landstr. 1, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Hausleiter, J [Klinik fuer Herz- und Kreislauferkrankungen, Deutsches Herzzentrum Muenchen, Klinik an der Technischen Universitaet Muenchen, Lazarettstr. 36, 80636 Munich (Germany); Hoeschen, C [GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Radiation Protection, Ingolstaedter Landstr. 1, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany)

    2007-08-07

    New organ dose conversion coefficients for coronary angiographic interventions are presented, as well as dose distributions and resulting maximal local dose conversion coefficients in the relevant organs. For the Monte Carlo based simulations, voxel models of the human anatomy were employed which represent the average Caucasian adult man and woman as defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. In the 21 investigated projections, the mean organ dose conversion coefficients vary from a few 0.01 to 2 mGy(Gy cm{sup 2}){sup -1}, depending on the projections. However, especially in portions of the lungs and the active bone marrow, the conversion coefficients can locally amount up to 10 mGy(Gy cm{sup 2}){sup -1}, which is half the average conversion coefficient of the skin at the field entrance. In addition to the dose conversion coefficients, the dependence of the patient dose on the projection has been estimated. It could be shown that the patient doses are highest for left anterior oblique views with strong caudal or cranial orientation. Nevertheless, for a large range of image-intensifier positions no significant dose differences could be found.

  18. Survivor dosimetry. Part A. Fluence-to-kerma conversion coefficients

    An important step in the dosimetry evaluation is to relate the radiation passing through a unit volume of a material of interest (fluence) to the energy release (kerma) in the material, which determines the absorbed dose. The fluence-to-kerma conversion coefficients or 'kerma coefficients' used in the Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86) are taken from Kerr (1982). These kerma coefficients are based on body tissue compositions for Reference Man from the International Commission on Radiological Protection (1975) and Kerr (1982), the mass energy-absorption coefficients for photons from Hubbell (1982), and the elemental kerma coefficients for neutrons from Caswell et al. (1980). Hence, the kerma coefficients used in DS86 are approximately 20 years old. In order to provide an updated set of kerma coefficients for use in the Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02), a new evaluation has been completed. This new evaluation considered recently suggested changes in the composition of soft tissues of the body in ICRU Report 44 (International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements 1989), the mass energy-absorption coefficients for photons by Hubbell and Seltzer (1996), and the elemental kerma coefficients for neutrons in ICRU Report 63 (International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements 2000). The new DS02 kerma coefficients for soft tissue are presented as both point-wise data for use in Monte Carlo radiation transport calculations and multigroup data for use in discrete ordinates radiation transport calculations. (author)

  19. N2-broadening coefficients of methyl chloride at room temperature

    Methyl chloride is of interest for atmospheric applications, since this molecule is directly involved in the catalytic destruction of ozone in the lower stratosphere. In a previous work [Bray et al. JQSRT 2011;112:2446], lines positions and intensities of self-perturbed 12CH335Cl and 12CH337Cl have been studied into details for the 3.4 μm spectral region. The present work is focused on measurement and calculation of N2-broadening coefficients of the 12CH335Cl and 12CH337Cl isotopologues. High-resolution Fourier Transform spectra of CH3Cl-N2 mixtures at room-temperature have been recorded between 2800 and 3200 cm-1 at LADIR (using a classical source) and between 47 and 59 cm-1 at SOLEIL (using the synchrotron source on the AILES beamline). 612 mid-infrared transitions of the ν1 band and 86 far-infrared transitions of the pure rotational band have been analyzed using a multispectrum fitting procedure. Average accuracy on the deduced N2-broadening coefficients has been estimated to 5% and 10% in the mid- and far-infrared spectral regions, respectively. The J- and K-rotational dependences of these coefficients have been observed in the mid-infrared region and then a simulation has been performed using an empirical model for 0≤J≤50, K≤9. The 12CH335Cl-N2 line widths for 0≤J≤50 and K≤10 of the ν1 band and for 55≤J≤67 and K≤15 of the pure rotational band have been computed using a semi-classical approach involving exact trajectories and a real symmetric-top geometry of the active molecule. Finally, a global comparison with the experimental and theoretical data existing in the literature has been performed. Similar J- and K-rotational dependences have been appeared while no clear evidence for any vibrational or isotopic dependences have been pointed out.

  20. Rate coefficients of hydroxyl radical reactions with pesticide molecules and related compounds: A review

    Rate coefficients published in the literature on hydroxyl radical reactions with pesticides and related compounds are discussed together with the experimental methods and the basic reaction mechanisms. Recommendations are made for the most probable values. Most of the molecules whose rate coefficients are discussed have aromatic ring: their rate coefficients are in the range of 2×109–1×1010 mol–1 dm3 s–1. The rate coefficients show some variation with the electron withdrawing–donating nature of the substituent on the ring. The rate coefficients for triazine pesticides (simazine, atrazine, prometon) are all around 2.5×109 mol–1 dm3 s–1. The values do not show variation with the substituent on the s-triazine ring. The rate coefficients for the non-aromatic molecules which have C=C double bonds or several C–H bonds may also be above 1×109 mol–1 dm3 s–1. However, the values for molecules without C=C double bonds or several C–H bonds are in the 1×107–1×109 mol–1 dm3 s–1 range. - Highlights: • The ∙OH rate coefficients with aromatic pesticides are (2–10)×109 mol−1 dm3 s−1. • For triazine type pesticides the values are around 2.5×109 mol−1 dm3 s−1. • For non-aromatics with double bond or several C–H they are ∼1×109 mol−1 dm3 s−1. • For aromatics kOH’s are determined by diffusion; for triazines by chemical activation. • They are activation controlled when molecule does not have double or C–H bonds

  1. Synthesis report on the relevant diffusion coefficients of fission products and helium in spent nuclear fuels

    This document corresponds to the deliverable D2 of the Work Package 1 of the 'Spent Fuel Stability under repository conditions' (SFS) European project. It constitutes a synthesis report on relevant diffusion coefficients of fission products and helium in spent nuclear fuels at high and low temperatures. Coefficients corresponding to thermally activated diffusion were reviewed from literature data for O, U (self-diffusion coefficients), fission gases and other fission products. Data showed that thermal diffusion was irrelevant at temperatures expected in repository conditions. The occurrence of diffusion enhanced by alpha self-irradiation was studied through different theoretical approaches. A 'best estimate' value of the alpha self-irradiation diffusion coefficient, D (m2.s-1), is proposed. It is extrapolated from enhanced diffusion under irradiation observed in reactor and would be proportional to the volume alpha activity in the spent nuclear fuel, Av (Bq.m-3) as: D/Av ≅ 2.10-41 (m5)The migration of stable Pb in Oklo's uraninites was studied in order to validate the proposed diffusion coefficient. The obtained value is one order of magnitude higher than the theoretical proposed value. As for He behaviour in spent nuclear fuel, a few data are today available in open literature. The document will be completed as soon as new experimental results are available. (authors)

  2. Turbulent transport coefficient in Tore-Supra: instant measurements by collective light scattering

    Fusion plasma confinement is limited by radial energy losses across the magnetic field. In the frame of weakly out-of-equilibrium thermodynamics, cross B energy flux is proportional to the temperature gradient, times a constant coefficient which depends only on the equilibrium properties. For turbulent fluids, the 'turbulent' transport is also assumed to be proportional to the temperature gradient, although the transport coefficient is much larger than the equilibrium one, and cannot be a-priori predicted. An appropriate control of a fusion plasma requires an access to this coefficient. Until now, two types of procedures, active and passive, have been applied. The active method uses a strong energy deposition perturbation (additional heating modulation, sawtooth disruption) and observes the heat pulse cross-B propagation. The passive method requires a fully diagnosed plasma, where the temperature as well as a detailed power density deposition profiles are simultaneously available. An energy balance numerical model then provides the heat transport coefficient profile. These two methods however are either strongly perturbative, or indirect, and require expensive power losses or extensive diagnostics. The collective scattering of electromagnetic waves can directly provide a localized, instant measurement of a plasma turbulent transport coefficient. Plasma non-uniformities provoke the scattering of a monochromatic light beam. Since in addition the scattered light frequency is shifted from the incident light frequency by plasma motion, a detailed analysis of the scattered light frequency spectrum provides direct informations on this plasma motion. (author) 5 refs., 4 figs

  3. Osmotic coefficients and apparent molar volumes of 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate ionic liquid in alcohols

    Highlights: • Physical and osmotic properties of [HMim][TfO] in alcohols are reported. • Apparent molar properties and osmotic coefficients were obtained. • Apparent molar volumes were fitted using a Redlich–Meyer type equation. • The osmotic coefficients were modeled with the Extended Pitzer and the MNRTL models. -- Abstract: In this work, density for the binary mixtures of 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate in alcohols (1-propanol, or 2-propanol, or 1-butanol, or 2-butanol, or 1-pentanol) was measured at T = 323.15 K and atmospheric pressure. From this property, the corresponding apparent molar volumes were calculated and fitted to a Redlich–Meyer type equation. For these mixtures, the osmotic and activity coefficients, and vapor pressures of these binary systems were also determined at the same temperature using the vapor pressure osmometry technique. The experimental osmotic coefficients were modeled by the Extended Pitzer model of Archer. The parameters obtained in this correlation were used to calculate the mean molal activity coefficients and the excess Gibbs free energy for the studied mixtures

  4. 40 CFR 799.6756 - TSCA partition coefficient (n-octanol/water), generator column method.

    2010-07-01

    ... cornerstone of a myriad of structure-activity relationships (SAR) property. The coefficient has been used... bioconcentration and is important to SAR. (iii) Of the three properties that can be estimated from Kow, water... determining RFs or standard solutions of basic chromate for determining the sample-loop volume. The other...

  5. Fusion of Daubechies Wavelet Coefficients for Human Face Recognition

    Bhowmik, Mrinal Kanti; Nasipuri, Mita; Basu, Dipak Kumar; Kundu, Mahantapas

    2010-01-01

    In this paper fusion of visual and thermal images in wavelet transformed domain has been presented. Here, Daubechies wavelet transform, called as D2, coefficients from visual and corresponding coefficients computed in the same manner from thermal images are combined to get fused coefficients. After decomposition up to fifth level (Level 5) fusion of coefficients is done. Inverse Daubechies wavelet transform of those coefficients gives us fused face images. The main advantage of using wavelet transform is that it is well-suited to manage different image resolution and allows the image decomposition in different kinds of coefficients, while preserving the image information. Fused images thus found are passed through Principal Component Analysis (PCA) for reduction of dimensions and then those reduced fused images are classified using a multi-layer perceptron. For experiments IRIS Thermal/Visual Face Database was used. Experimental results show that the performance of the approach presented here achieves maximum...

  6. On the Connection Coefficients of the Chebyshev-Boubaker Polynomials

    Paul Barry

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Chebyshev-Boubaker polynomials are the orthogonal polynomials whose coefficient arrays are defined by ordinary Riordan arrays. Examples include the Chebyshev polynomials of the second kind and the Boubaker polynomials. We study the connection coefficients of this class of orthogonal polynomials, indicating how Riordan array techniques can lead to closed-form expressions for these connection coefficients as well as recurrence relations that define them.

  7. Degree and clustering coefficient in sparse random intersection graphs

    Bloznelis, Mindaugas

    2013-01-01

    We establish asymptotic vertex degree distribution and examine its relation to the clustering coefficient in two popular random intersection graph models of Godehardt and Jaworski [Electron. Notes Discrete Math. 10 (2001) 129–132]. For sparse graphs with a positive clustering coefficient, we examine statistical dependence between the (local) clustering coefficient and the degree. Our results are mathematically rigorous. They are consistent with the empirical observation of Foudalis et al. [In...

  8. Zero Pearson Coefficient for Strongly Correlated Growing Trees

    Dorogovtsev S.N.; Ferreira A.L.; Goltsev A.V.; Mendes J.F.F.

    2009-01-01

    We obtained Pearson's coefficient of strongly correlated recursive networks growing by preferential attachment of every new vertex by $m$ edges. We found that the Pearson coefficient is exactly zero in the infinite network limit for the recursive trees ($m=1$). If the number of connections of new vertices exceeds one ($m>1$), then the Pearson coefficient in the infinite networks equals zero only when the degree distribution exponent $\\gamma$ does not exceed 4. We calculated the Pearson coeffi...

  9. A Meta-analysis of Cronbach's Coefficient Alpha.

    Robert A. Peterson

    1994-01-01

    Despite some limitations, Cronbach's coefficient alpha remains the most widely used measure of scale reliability. The purpose of this article was to empirically document the magnitudes of alpha coefficients obtained in behavioral research, compare these obtained values with guidelines and recommendations set forth by individuals such as Nunnally (1967, 1978), and provide insights into research design characteristics that may influence the size of coefficient alpha. Average reported alpha coef...

  10. Consideration on Singularities in Learning Theory and the Learning Coefficient

    Miki Aoyagi

    2013-01-01

    We consider the learning coefficients in learning theory and give two new methods for obtaining these coefficients in a homogeneous case: a method for finding a deepest singular point and a method to add variables. In application to Vandermonde matrix-type singularities, we show that these methods are effective. The learning coefficient of the generalization error in Bayesian estimation serves to measure the learning efficiency in singular learning models. Mathematically, the learning coeffic...

  11. Coefficient of restitution of model repaired car body parts

    D. Hadryś; M. Miros

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The qualification of influence of model repaired car body parts on the value of coefficient of restitution and evaluation of impact energy absorption of model repaired car body parts.Design/methodology/approach: Investigation of plastic strain and coefficient of restitution of new and repaired model car body parts with using impact test machine for different impact energy.Findings: The results of investigations show that the value of coefficient of restitution changes with speed (ene...

  12. Microscopic formula of transport coefficients for causal hydrodynamics

    Koide, T

    2007-01-01

    The Green-Kubo-Nakano formula should be modified in relativistic hydrodynamics, because of the problem of acausality and the breaking of sum rules. In this work, we propose a new formula to calculate the transport coefficients of causal hydrodynamics based on the projection operator method. As concrete examples, we derive the expressions for the diffusion coefficient, the shear viscosity coefficient and corresponding relaxation times.

  13. DCFPAK: Dose coefficient data file package for Sandia National Laboratory

    Eckerman, K.F.; Leggett, R.W.

    1996-07-31

    The FORTRAN-based computer package DCFPAK (Dose Coefficient File Package) has been developed to provide electronic access to the dose coefficient data files summarized in Federal Guidance Reports 11 and 12. DCFPAK also provides access to standard information regarding decay chains and assembles dose coefficients for all dosimetrically significant radioactive progeny of a specified radionuclide. DCFPAK was designed for application on a PC but, with minor modifications, may be implemented on a UNIX workstation.

  14. AN ALTERNATIVE RANK CORRELATION COEFFICIENT WİTH GRAPHICAL APPROXIMATION

    ÖZDEMİR, Yaprak Arzu; EKİZ, Meltem

    2010-01-01

     ABSTRACTIn this study, a rank correlation coefficient (v) proposed by Blest(2000), which does not require normality assumption in hypothesis testing of correlation coefficient for interval level or ratio scaled measured variables, is introduced. This rank correlation coefficient, which is examined based on graphical presentation and their comments, has a structure, which considers the interchanges in the early ranking of the data. When the sample size is five this introduced v rank corr...

  15. SLE_k: correlation functions in the coefficient problem

    Loutsenko, Igor

    2012-01-01

    We apply the method of correlation functions to the coefficient problem in stochastic geometry. In particular, we give a proof for some universal patterns conjectured by M. Zinsmeister for the second moments of the Taylor coefficients for special values of kappa in the whole-plane Schramm-Loewner evolution (SLE_kappa). We propose to use multi-point correlation functions for the study of higher moments in coefficient problem. Generalizations related to the Levy-type processes are also consider...

  16. Wavelet Correlation Coefficient of 'strongly correlated' financial time series

    Ashok Razdan

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we use wavelet concepts to show that correlation coefficient between two financial data's is not constant but varies with scale from high correlation value to strongly anti-correlation value This studies is important because correlation coefficient is used to quantify degree of independence between two variables. In econophysics correlation coefficient forms important input to evolve hierarchial tree and minimum spanning tree of financial data.

  17. A new approach to bootstrap inference in functional coefficient models

    Herwartz, Helmut; Xu, Fang

    2007-01-01

    We introduce a new, factor based bootstrap approach which is robust under heteroskedastic error terms for inference in functional coefficient models. Modeling the functional coefficient parametrically, the bootstrap approximation of an F statistic is shown to hold asymptotically. In simulation studies with both parametric and nonparametric functional coefficients, factor based bootstrap inference outperforms the wild bootstrap and pairs bootstrap approach according to its size features. Apply...

  18. Optimization of coefficients of lists of polynomials by evolutionary algorithms

    Sendra Pons, Juan Rafael; Winkler, Stephan M.

    2015-01-01

    We here discuss the optimization of coefficients of lists of polynomials using evolutionary computation. The given polynomials have 5 variables, namely t, a1, a2, a3, a4, and integer coefficients. The goal is to find integer values i, with i 2 {1, 2, 3, 4}, substituting ai such that, after crossing out the gcd (greatest common divisor) of all coefficients of the polynomials, the resulting integers are minimized in absolute value. Evolution strategies, a special class of heu...

  19. Some comments on `Equation for the second virial coefficient`

    Umirzakov, I. H.

    2013-01-01

    The second viral coefficient calculated using the equation suggested in the paper of Kaplun A.B., Meshalkin A.B. Equation for the second virial coefficient published in High temperature high pressure, 1999, Volume 31, pages 253-258 is compared with experimental data for helium, hydrogen, neon, argon, krypton, xenon, carbon dioxide, water, ammonia, methane, ethylene. It is shown the formula cannot describe the temperature dependence of the experimental data on the second virial coefficient for...

  20. Testing the heteroscedastic error structure in quantile varying coefficient models

    Gijbels, Irène; Ibrahim, Mohammed; Verhasselt, Anneleen

    2015-01-01

    Regression quantiles generalize naturally mean regression for Gaussian linear models, while substantially out-performing the least-squares estimator over a wide class of nonGaussian error distributions. Varying coefficient models (VCMs) are considered, they are an extension of classical linear regression models that allow the coefficients to depend on other variables. Assuming longitudinal data, the regression coefficients are allowed to vary with time. We consider VCMs with various struct...

  1. A Semiparametric Recurrent Events Model with Time-varying Coefficients

    Yu, Zhangsheng; Liu, Lei; Bravata, Dawn M.; Williams, Linda S.; Tepper, Robert S.

    2012-01-01

    We consider a recurrent events model with time-varying coefficients motivated by two clinical applications. A random effects (Gaussian frailty) model is used to describe the intensity of recurrent events. The model can accommodate both time-varying and time-constant coefficients. The penalized spline method is used to estimate the time-varying coefficients. Laplace approximation is used to evaluate the penalized likelihood without a closed form. The smoothing parameters are ...

  2. Fresnel coefficients of a two-dimensional atomic crystal

    Merano, Michele

    2015-01-01

    In general the experiments on the linear optical properties of a single-layer two-dimensional atomic crystal are interpreted by modeling it as a homogeneous slab with an effective thickness. Here I fit the most remarkable experiments in graphene optics by using the Fresnel coefficients, fixing both the surface susceptibility and the surface conductivity of graphene. It is shown that the Fresnel coefficients and the slab model are not equivalent. Experiments indicate that the Fresnel coefficie...

  3. Cluster automorphism groups of cluster algebras with coefficients

    Chang, Wen; Zhu, Bin

    2015-01-01

    We study the cluster automorphism group of a skew-symmetric cluster algebra with geometric coefficients. For this, we introduce the notion of gluing free cluster algebra, and show that under a weak condition the cluster automorphism group of a gluing free cluster algebra is a subgroup of the cluster automorphism group of its principal part cluster algebra (i.e. the corresponding cluster algebra without coefficients). We show that several classes of cluster algebras with coefficients are gluin...

  4. ON TESTING THE EQUALITY OF K MULTIPLEAND PARTIAL CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS

    2001-01-01

    Coutsourides (1980) derives an ad hoc nuisance parameter removal test for testing the equality of two multiple correlation coefficients of two independent p variate normal populations, under the assumption that a sample of size n is available from each population. He also extends his ad hoc nuisance parameter removal test to the testing of the equality of two multiple correlation matrices. This paper presents likelihood ratio tests for testing the equality of k multiple correlation coefficients, and also k partial correlation coefficients.

  5. Numerical calculation of the transport coefficients in thermal plasmas

    Mahfouf, Ali; André, Pascal; Faure, Géraldine

    2014-01-01

    -We have performed a new efficient method to calculate numerically the transport coefficients at high temperature. The collision theory was treated to study singularities that occur when evaluating the collision cross section. The transport coefficients (viscosity, diffusion coefficient, thermal and electrical conductivity) depend strongly on nature of the interaction between the particles that form the plasma and that is why it is necessary to determine the interaction potential accurately.

  6. Estimating Crop Coefficients Using Remote Sensing-Based Vegetation Index

    Kenneth Hubbard; Baburao Kamble; Ayse Kilic

    2013-01-01

    Crop coefficient (Kc)-based estimation of crop evapotranspiration is one of the most commonly used methods for irrigation water management. However, uncertainties of the generalized dual crop coefficient (Kc) method of the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations Irrigation and Drainage Paper No. 56 can contribute to crop evapotranspiration estimates that are substantially different from actual crop evapotranspiration. Similarities between the crop coefficient curve and a sate...

  7. Scanning measurement of Seebeck coefficient of a heated sample

    Snyder, G. Jeffrey; Iwanaga, Shiho

    2016-04-19

    A novel scanning Seebeck coefficient measurement technique is disclosed utilizing a cold scanning thermocouple probe tip on heated bulk and thin film samples. The system measures variations in the Seebeck coefficient within the samples. The apparatus may be used for two dimensional mapping of the Seebeck coefficient on the bulk and thin film samples. This technique can be utilized for detection of defective regions, as well as phase separations in the sub-mm range of various thermoelectric materials.

  8. Local heat transfer coefficient for turbulent flow in rod bundles

    The correlation of the local heat transfer coefficients in heated triangular array of rod bundles, in terms of the flow hydrodynamic parameters is presented. The analysis is made first for fluid with Prandtl numbers varying from moderated to high (Pr>0.2), and then extended to fluids with low Prandtl numbers (0.004< Pr<0.2). Results of temperature and velocity fields distribution of slip coefficients and local heat transfer coefficients are obtained. (E.G.)

  9. Investigating Diffusion Coefficient Using Dynamic Light Scattering Technique

    Sun, Yong

    2006-01-01

    In this work, the Z-average, effective, apparent diffusion coefficients and their poly-dispersity indexes were investigated for dilute poly-disperse homogeneous spherical particles in dispersion where the Rayleigh-Gans-Debye approximation is valid. The results reveal that the values of the apparent and effective diffusion coefficients at a scattering angle investigated are consistent and the difference between the effective and Z-average diffusion coefficients is a function of the mean partic...

  10. Measurement of crack length by ultrasonic attenuation coefficient

    In this paper, the ultrasonic attenuation coefficient was measured by variation of crack length for Double-Cantilever Beam(DCB) specimen. The energy release rate, G, was obtained by the experimental measurement of compliance. The experimental results represents that the crack length for the ultrasonic attenuation coefficient and energy release rate is increases proportionally. From the experimental results, we proposed a detecting method of the crack length by the ultrasonic attenuation coefficient and discussed it

  11. Consideration on Singularities in Learning Theory and the Learning Coefficient

    Miki Aoyagi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We consider the learning coefficients in learning theory and give two new methods for obtaining these coefficients in a homogeneous case: a method for finding a deepest singular point and a method to add variables. In application to Vandermonde matrix-type singularities, we show that these methods are effective. The learning coefficient of the generalization error in Bayesian estimation serves to measure the learning efficiency in singular learning models. Mathematically, the learning coefficient corresponds to a real log canonical threshold of singularities for the Kullback functions (relative entropy in learning theory.

  12. Kinetic theory of the interdiffusion coefficient in dense plasmas

    Naive applications of Spitzer's theory to very dense plasmas can lead to negative diffusion coefficients. The interdiffusion coefficients in Binary Ionic Mixtures (two species of point ions in a uniform neutralizing background) have been calculated recently using molecular dynamics techniques. These calculations can provide useful benchmarks for theoretical evaluations of the diffusion coefficient in dense plasma mixtures. This paper gives a brief description of a kinetic theoretic approximation to the diffusion coefficient which generalizes Spitzer to high density and is in excellent agreement with the computer simulations. 15 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  13. Improvement of Similarity Measure: Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient

    LIUYong-suo; MENGQing-hua; CHENRong; WANGJian-song; JIANGShu-min; HUYu-zhu

    2004-01-01

    Aim To study the reason of the insensitiveness of Pearson preduct-moment correlation coefficient as a similarity measure and the method to improve its sensitivity. Methods Experimental and simulated data sets were used. Results The distribution range of the data sets influences the sensitivity of Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient. Weighted Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient is more sensitive when the range of the data set is large. Conclusion Weighted Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient is necessary when the range of the data set is large.

  14. Correlation Degree and Correlation Coefficient of Multi- Output Functions

    JU Gui-zhi; ZHAO Ya-qun

    2005-01-01

    We present definitions of the correlation degree and correlation coefficient of multi-output functions. Two relationships about the correlation degree of multi-output functions are proved. One is between the correlation degree and independency,the other is between the correlation degree and balance. Especially the paper discusses the correlation degree of affine multioutput functions. We demonstrate properties of the correlation coefficient of multi-output functions. One is the value range of the correlation coefficient, one is the relationship between the correlation coefficient and independency, and another is the sufficient and necessary condition that two multi-output functions are equivalent to each other.

  15. Classification of coefficients of variation in experiments with commercial layers

    DE Faria Filho

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at determining a specific classification of coefficients of variation in experiments with commercial layers. Coefficients of variation were collected from papers published in Brazilian journals between 2000 and 2009 for performance, internal egg quality, and eggshell quality parameters. The coefficients of variation of each parameter were classified as low, intermediate, high, and very high according to the ratio between the median and the pseudo-sigma. It was concluded that the parameters used in experiments with commercial layers have a specific classification of coefficients of variation, and that this must be considered to evaluate experimental accuracy.

  16. Coefficients of distribution and accumulation of K, Rb, Cs and 137Cs in the intensive poultry breeding cycle

    The concentration of K,Rb,Cs and the activity level of Cs-137 in samples from the intensive poultry breeding cycle (feed, meat, eggs), under the condition of chronic alimentary contamination is presented. Concentrations of Cs and Rb were determined by non-destructive neutron activation analysis, concentration of K by atomic absorption flame photometry and activity of Cs-137 by gamma spectrometric analysis. On the basis of these results, coefficients of distribution and accumulation were calculated. The distribution coefficients of the analysed stable isotopes in meat have values close to 1, whereas for various parts of egg these coefficients vary between 0.5 and 1.5. Significant differences in Cs-137 distribution in various parts of egg were established. The values of accumulation coefficients indicate that all analysed elements selectively accumulate in the meat of young birds (broilers), and Cs-137 accumulates in the egg white as well. (orig.)

  17. Variation of the transfer coefficient for radiocaesium transport to sheep's milk during a complete lactation period

    The variation with time in the transfer coefficient for radiocaesium transport to sheep's milk was measured during an entire lactation period. One hundred and forty ewes were used. The animals were segregated into groups of six ewes and throughout their lactation period, every week one of the groups was given a diet of ground wheat, contaminated with radiocaesium from the Chernobyl accident. The results showed an increase of radiocaesium activity concentration in the milk by a factor of three, over the 21-week lactation period. A significant correlation was found between transfer coefficients for radiocaesium and average daily milk yield. (Author)

  18. Road Friction Coefficient Real-Time Identification Based on the Tire Dynamic Friction Model

    FAN Xiao-bin; DENG Pan; JIANG Yu; FAN Bing-xu

    2013-01-01

    Road friction coefficient real-time estimation methods is an important issue and problem in automotive active safety con-trol system development. First a fixed feedback gain sliding mode observer of road adhesion coefficient is designed through the es-tablishment of tire/road dynamic friction model in this article. The simulation results shows that the observer can well real-time iden-tify the current road adhesion characteristics. And more importantly, the observer only need wheel speed signal and the braking torque (brake pressure) signal, so the system is low cost, and its adaptability is good. There is no doubt this estimation method has a good application prospect.

  19. Determination and reliability of dose coefficients for radiopharmaceuticals; Ermittlung der Zuverlaessigkeit von Dosiskoeffizienten fuer Radiopharmaka

    Spielmann, V.; Li, W.B.; Zankl, M.; Oeh, U.

    2015-11-15

    The dose coefficients used in nuclear medicine for dose calculations of radiopharmaceuticals are based on recommendations by ICRP (International Commission on radiological protection) and the MIRD (Medical Internal Radiation Dose Committee) using mathematical models for the temporal activity distributions in organs and tissues (biokinetic models) and mathematical models of the human body. These models using an idealized human body do not include uncertainty estimations. The research project is aimed to determine the uncertainties and thus the reliability of the dose coefficients for radiopharmaceuticals and to identify the biokinetic and dosimetric parameters that contribute most of the uncertainties.

  20. Activities.

    Moody, Mally

    1992-01-01

    A series of four activities are presented to enhance students' abilities to appreciate and use trigonometry as a tool in problem solving. Activities cover problems applying the law of sines, the law of cosines, and matching equivalent trigonometric expressions. A teacher's guide, worksheets, and answers are provided. (MDH)

  1. Aerosol hygroscopic growth parameterization based on a solute specific coefficient

    S. Metzger

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Water is a main component of atmospheric aerosols and its amount depends on the particle chemical composition. We introduce a new parameterization for the aerosol hygroscopic growth factor (HGF, based on an empirical relation between water activity (aw and solute molality (μs through a single solute specific coefficient νi. Three main advantages are: (1 wide applicability, (2 simplicity and (3 analytical nature. (1 Our approach considers the Kelvin effect and covers ideal solutions at large relative humidity (RH, including CCN activation, as well as concentrated solutions with high ionic strength at low RH such as the relative humidity of deliquescence (RHD. (2 A single νi coefficient suffices to parameterize the HGF for a wide range of particle sizes, from nanometer nucleation mode to micrometer coarse mode particles. (3 In contrast to previous methods, our analytical aw parameterization depends not only on a linear correction factor for the solute molality, instead νi also appears in the exponent in form x · ax. According to our findings, νi can be assumed constant for the entire aw range (0–1. Thus, the νi based method is computationally efficient. In this work we focus on single solute solutions, where νi is pre-determined with the bisection method from our analytical equations using RHD measurements and the saturation molality μssat. The computed aerosol HGF and supersaturation (Köhler-theory compare well with the results of the thermodynamic reference model E-AIM for the key compounds NaCl and (NH42SO4 relevant for CCN modeling and calibration studies. The equations introduced here provide the basis of our revised gas-liquid-solid partitioning model, i.e. version 4 of the EQuilibrium Simplified Aerosol Model (EQSAM4

  2. The Determinants of Gini Coefficient in Iran Based on Bayesian Model Averaging

    Mohsen Mehrara

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper has tried to apply BMA approach in order to investigate important influential variables on Gini coefficient in Iran over the period 1976-2010. The results indicate that the GDP growth is the most important variable affecting the Gini coefficient and has a positive influence on it. Also the second and third effective variables on Gini coefficient are respectively the ratio of government current expenditure to GDP and the ratio of oil revenue to GDP which lead to an increase in inequality. This result is corresponding with rentier state theory in Iran economy. Injection of massive oil revenue to Iran's economy and its high share of the state budget leads to inefficient government spending and an increase in rent-seeking activities in the country. Economic growth is possibly a result of oil revenue in Iran economy which has caused inequality in distribution of income.

  3. Explicit solutions of two nonlinear dispersive equations with variable coefficients

    A mathematical technique based on an auxiliary equation and the symbolic computation system Matlab is developed to construct the exact solutions for a generalized Camassa-Holm equation and a nonlinear dispersive equation with variable coefficients. It is shown that the variable coefficients of the derivative terms in the equations cause the qualitative change in the physical structures of the solutions

  4. Solitary Wave in Linear ODE with Variable Coefficients

    LIU Shi-Da; FU Zun-Tao; LIU Shi-Kuo; XIN Guo-Jun; LIANG Fu-Ming; FENG Bei-Ye

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the linear ordinary differential equations with variable coefficients are obtained from thecontrolling equations satisfied by wavelet transform or atmospheric internal gravity waves, and these linear equationscan be further transformed into Weber equations. From Weber equations, the homoclinic orbit solutions can be derived,so the solitary wave solutions to linear equations with variable coefficients are obtained.

  5. Oscillations in linear difference equations with variable coefficients

    Ch. G. Philos

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available A class of linear difference equations with variable coefficients is considered. Sufficient conditions and necessary conditions for the oscillation of the solutions are established. In the special cases where the coefficients are constant or periodic the conditions become both necessary and sufficient.

  6. Anderson-Witting transport coefficients for flows in general relativity

    Ambrus, Victor E

    2016-01-01

    The transport coefficients induced by the Anderson-Witting approximation of the collision term in the relativistic Boltzmann equation are derived for close to equilibrium flows in general relativity. Using the tetrad formalism, it is shown that the expression for these coefficients is the same as that obtained on flat space-time, in agreement with the generalized equivalence principle.

  7. Delimiting Coefficient a from Internal Consistency and Unidimensionality

    Sijtsma, Klaas

    2015-01-01

    I discuss the contribution by Davenport, Davison, Liou, & Love (2015) in which they relate reliability represented by coefficient a to formal definitions of internal consistency and unidimensionality, both proposed by Cronbach (1951). I argue that coefficient a is a lower bound to reliability and that concepts of internal consistency and…

  8. Calculation of fusion product angular correlation coefficients for fusion plasmas

    The angular correlation coefficients for fusion products are calculated in the cases of Maxwellian and beam-target plasmas. Measurement of these coefficients as a localized ion temperature or fast-ion diagnostic is discussed. 8 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  9. Group classification of variable coefficient generalized Kawahara equations

    An exhaustive group classification of variable coefficient generalized Kawahara equations is carried out. As a result, we derive new variable coefficient nonlinear models admitting Lie symmetry extensions. All inequivalent Lie reductions of these equations to ordinary differential equations are performed. We also present some examples on the construction of exact and numerical solutions. (paper)

  10. Heavy Quark Momentum Diffusion Coefficient from Lattice QCD

    Banerjee, Debasish; Datta, Saumen; Gavai, Rajiv; Majumdar, Pushan

    2011-01-01

    The momentum diffusion coefficient for heavy quarks is studied in a deconfined gluon plasma in the static approximation by investigating a correlation function of the color electric field using Monte Carlo techniques. The diffusion coefficient is extracted from the long distance behavior of such a correlator. For temperatures Tc < T

  11. A Note on the Correlated Random Coefficient Model

    Kolodziejczyk, Christophe

    In this note we derive the bias of the OLS estimator for a correlated random coefficient model with one random coefficient, but which is correlated with a binary variable. We provide set-identification to the parameters of interest of the model. We also show how to reduce the bias of the estimator...

  12. Scaling the Raman gain coefficient: Applications to Germanosilicate fibers

    Rottwitt, Karsten; Bromage, J.; Stentz, A.J.;

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the temperature dependence of a Raman amplifier and the scaling of the Raman gain coefficient with wavelength, modal overlap, and material composition. The temperature dependence is derived by applying a quantum theoretical description, whereas the...... scaling of the Raman gain coefficient is derived using a classical electromagnetic model. We also present experimental verification of our theoretical findings....

  13. The Use of Structure Coefficients in Regression Research.

    Perry, Lucille N.

    It is recognized that parametric methods (e.g., t-tests, discriminant analysis, and methods based on analysis of variance) are special cases of canonical correlation analysis. In canonical correlation it has been argued that structure coefficients must be computed to correctly interpret results. It follows that structure coefficients may be useful…

  14. The Fresnel coefficients of a two-dimensional atomic crystal

    Merano, Michele

    2016-01-01

    I deduce the Fresnel coefficients valid for a generic two dimensional crystal. In general the optical properties of an atomically thin monolayer are interpreted by modelling it as a homogeneous medium with an effective thickness. The comparison with experimental results, published in literature, shows that the Fresnel coefficients are better suited to this end than the above mentioned model.

  15. Minimum wall pressure coefficient of orifice plate energy dissipater

    Wan-zheng AI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Orifice plate energy dissipaters have been successfully used in large-scale hydropower projects due to their simple structure, convenient construction procedure, and high energy dissipation ratio. The minimum wall pressure coefficient of an orifice plate can indirectly reflect its cavitation characteristics: the lower the minimum wall pressure coefficient is, the better the ability of the orifice plate to resist cavitation damage is. Thus, it is important to study the minimum wall pressure coefficient of the orifice plate. In this study, this coefficient and related parameters, such as the contraction ratio, defined as the ratio of the orifice plate diameter to the flood-discharging tunnel diameter; the relative thickness, defined as the ratio of the orifice plate thickness to the tunnel diameter; and the Reynolds number of the flow through the orifice plate, were theoretically analyzed, and their relationships were obtained through physical model experiments. It can be concluded that the minimum wall pressure coefficient is mainly dominated by the contraction ratio and relative thickness. The lower the contraction ratio and relative thickness are, the larger the minimum wall pressure coefficient is. The effects of the Reynolds number on the minimum wall pressure coefficient can be neglected when it is larger than 105. An empirical expression was presented to calculate the minimum wall pressure coefficient in this study.

  16. Stochastic Modelling of the Diffusion Coefficient for Concrete

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    In the paper, a new stochastic modelling of the diffusion coefficient D is presented. The modelling is based on physical understanding of the diffusion process and on some recent experimental results. The diffusion coefficients D is strongly dependent on the w/c ratio and the temperature....

  17. Choice of the Ångström-Prescott coefficients

    Liu, Xiaoying; Mei, Xurong; Li, Yuzhong;

    2010-01-01

    (fixed) coefficients using data from 20 sites of temperate climate in China. When evaluated by performance indicators of RMSE, RRMSE, MBE, R2 and values of t-statistic, it is demonstrated that time-dependent A–P coefficients are not better than fixed ones in Rs prediction. This indicates that...

  18. Digital speckle pattern interferometric measurement of diffusion coefficients in hydrogels

    周金芳; 韩雁; 章献民; 徐坚

    2003-01-01

    The technique of real-time digital speckle pattern interferometry is proposed to study diffusion of surfactants in hydrogel. The diffusion coefficient is simply and directly determined from the interferograms. An example of diffusion coefficient measurement of surfactant in agarose gel demonstrates the usefulness of the method. The results obtained are compared with the theoretical simulating values.

  19. Invariant coefficients of diffusion in iron-chromium-nickel system

    Mokrov, A.P.; Akimov, V.K.; Golubev, V.G.

    1984-02-01

    The temperature and concentration dependences of the Dsub(c) coefficients in the ..gamma..-phase of iron-chromium-nickel system are determined. It is proposed to described mutual diffusion in multicomponent systems using invariant, i.e. independent of the choice of solvent, coefficients of diffusion. The assumption that their temperature dependence follows the Arrhenius law is confirmed by the experiment.

  20. Invariant coefficients of diffusion in iron-chromium-nickel system

    The temperature and concentration dependences of the Dsub(c) coefficients in the γ-phase of iron-chromium-nickel system are determined. It is proposed to described mutual diffusion in mul-- ticomponent systems using invariant, i. e. independent of the choice of solvent, coefficients of diffusion. The assumption that their temperature dependence follows the Arrhenius law is confirmed by the experiment

  1. Uncertainty in wind pressure coefficients for low-rise buildings

    De Wit, M.S.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports on an analysis of the uncertainty in wind pressure (difference) coefficients, which are assessed on the basis of generic knowledge and experimental data rather than with a specific (wind tunnel) experiment. The analysis is carried out on time averaged pressure coefficients in a sp

  2. Crop Coefficients of Some Selected Crops of Andhra Pradesh

    Reddy, K. Chandrasekhar; Arunajyothy, S.; Mallikarjuna, P.

    2015-06-01

    Precise information on crop coefficients for estimating crop evapotranspiration (ETc) for regional scale irrigation planning is a major impediment in many regions. Crop coefficients suggested based on lysimeter data by earlier investigators have to be locally calibrated to account for the differences in the crop canopy under given climatic conditions. In the present study crop coefficients were derived based on reference crop evapotranspiration (ET0) estimated from Penman-Monteith equation and lysimeter measured ETc for groundnut, paddy, tobacco, sugarcane and castor crops at Tirupati, Nellore, Rajahmundry, Anakapalli and Rajendranagar centers of Andhra Pradesh respectively. Crop coefficients derived were compared with those recommended by FAO-56. The mean crop coefficients at different stages of growth were significantly different from those of FAO-56 curve though a similar trend was observed. A third order polynomial crop coefficient model has therefore been developed as a function of time (days after sowing the crop) for deriving suitable crop coefficients. The crop coefficient models suggested may be adopted to estimate crop evapotranspiration in the study area with reasonable degree of accuracy.

  3. Crop coefficient development and application to an evapotranspiration network

    Crop coefficients derived from properly designed, operated, and maintained lysimeters provide the most accurate values throughout the growing season and are critical in the computation of hourly and daily,regionally based, crop evapotranspiration (ET) values. Multi-stage crop coefficients can be der...

  4. A computerized method to estimate friction coefficient from orientation distribution of meso-scale faults

    Sato, Katsushi

    2016-08-01

    The friction coefficient controls the brittle strength of the Earth's crust for deformation recorded by faults. This study proposes a computerized method to determine the friction coefficient of meso-scale faults. The method is based on the analysis of orientation distribution of faults, and the principal stress axes and the stress ratio calculated by a stress tensor inversion technique. The method assumes that faults are activated according to the cohesionless Coulomb's failure criterion, where the fluctuations of fluid pressure and the magnitude of differential stress are assumed to induce faulting. In this case, the orientation distribution of fault planes is described by a probability density function that is visualized as linear contours on a Mohr diagram. The parametric optimization of the function for an observed fault population yields the friction coefficient. A test using an artificial fault-slip dataset successfully determines the internal friction angle (the arctangent of the friction coefficient) with its confidence interval of several degrees estimated by the bootstrap resampling technique. An application to natural faults cutting a Pleistocene forearc basin fill yields a friction coefficient around 0.7 which is experimentally predicted by the Byerlee's law.

  5. Development and assessment of atomistic models for predicting static friction coefficients

    Jahangiri, Soran; Heverly-Coulson, Gavin S.; Mosey, Nicholas J.

    2016-08-01

    The friction coefficient relates friction forces to normal loads and plays a key role in fundamental and applied areas of science and technology. Despite its importance, the relationship between the friction coefficient and the properties of the materials forming a sliding contact is poorly understood. We illustrate how simple relationships regarding the changes in energy that occur during slip can be used to develop a quantitative model relating the friction coefficient to atomic-level features of the contact. The slip event is considered as an activated process and the load dependence of the slip energy barrier is approximated with a Taylor series expansion of the corresponding energies with respect to load. The resulting expression for the load-dependent slip energy barrier is incorporated in the Prandtl-Tomlinson (PT) model and a shear-based model to obtain expressions for friction coefficient. The results indicate that the shear-based model reproduces the static friction coefficients μs obtained from first-principles molecular dynamics simulations more accurately than the PT model. The ability of the model to provide atomistic explanations for differences in μs amongst different contacts is also illustrated. As a whole, the model is able to account for fundamental atomic-level features of μs, explain the differences in μs for different materials based on their properties, and might be also used in guiding the development of contacts with desired values of μs.

  6. A calibration transmission method to determine the gamma-ray linear attenuation coefficient without a collimator

    It is shown that the gamma-ray linear attenuation coefficient of a sample with unknown chemical composition can be determined through a systematic calibration of the correlation between the linear attenuation coefficient, gamma-ray energy and the relative degree of attenuation. For calibration, H2O, MnO2, NaCl, Na2CO3 and (NH4)2SO4 were used as reference materials. Point-like gamma-ray sources with modest activity of approximately 37 kBq, along with an HPGe detector, were used in the measurements. A semi-empirical formula was derived to calculate the linear attenuation coefficients as a function of the relative count rate and the gamma-ray energy. The method was applied to the determination of the linear attenuation coefficients for K2CrO4 and SiO2 test samples in the same setup used in calibration. The experimental result agreed well with the ones calculated by elementary data. - Highlights: • The gamma-ray linear attenuation coefficient of a compound is determined using wide-beam collimation-free transmission measurements, and calibration curves. • An experimental procedure is presented and applied to test samples

  7. The effect of water content on the radon emanation coefficient for some building materials used in Japan

    Hassan, Nabil M. [School of Radiological Sciences, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 7-2-10 Higashioku, Arakawa-ku, Tokyo 116-8551 (Japan); Research Center for Radiation Protection, Environmental Radiation Effects Research Group, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Department of Physics, University of Zagazig, Zagazig 44519 (Egypt); Ishikawa, Tetsuo, E-mail: tetsuo_i@nirs.go.j [Research Center for Radiation Protection, Environmental Radiation Effects Research Group, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Hosoda, Masahiro; Iwaoka, Kazuki; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Sahoo, Sarata K.; Janik, Miroslaw; Kranrod, Chutima; Yonehara, Hidenori [Research Center for Radiation Protection, Environmental Radiation Effects Research Group, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Fukushi, Masahiro [School of Radiological Sciences, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 7-2-10 Higashioku, Arakawa-ku, Tokyo 116-8551 (Japan); Tokonami, Shinji [Research Center for Radiation Protection, Environmental Radiation Effects Research Group, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)

    2011-02-15

    Building materials used in Japan were collected from several companies and their radionuclide concentrations were measured. Fifteen granite samples with high activity concentrations were selected for the present study. To investigate the effect of water content on the radon emanation coefficient, the coefficient was measured under 3 different conditions (dry, normal, and wet). The emanation coefficients were then used to calculate the alpha equivalent dose (dose from indoor radon generated from building materials), assuming a simple room model. The radon emanation coefficient for the dry condition ranged from (3.7 {+-} 0.1)% to (27.2 {+-} 3.9)%, with an average value of (10.5 {+-} 1.4)%. The emanation coefficients were 2-5 times that size for the wet condition. Similarly, the alpha dose became larger, owing to its proportion to the emanation coefficient, indicating that water content in building materials is an important factor for the emanation coefficient as well as the radiation dose. The radon exhalation rate was also measured for the dry samples. Radon exhalation rate and radium concentration had a relatively low correlation (R{sup 2} = 0.40). However, the correlation between radon exhalation rate and 'emanated radon concentration' (radium concentration x emanation coefficient) was much higher (R{sup 2} = 0.84). Therefore, emanated radon concentration could be a useful index for exhalation rate and alpha equivalent dose, but radium concentration in building materials alone is not.

  8. A new correlation coefficient for bivariate time-series data

    Erdem, Orhan; Ceyhan, Elvan; Varli, Yusuf

    2014-11-01

    The correlation in time series has received considerable attention in the literature. Its use has attained an important role in the social sciences and finance. For example, pair trading in finance is concerned with the correlation between stock prices, returns, etc. In general, Pearson’s correlation coefficient is employed in these areas although it has many underlying assumptions which restrict its use. Here, we introduce a new correlation coefficient which takes into account the lag difference of data points. We investigate the properties of this new correlation coefficient. We demonstrate that it is more appropriate for showing the direction of the covariation of the two variables over time. We also compare the performance of the new correlation coefficient with Pearson’s correlation coefficient and Detrended Cross-Correlation Analysis (DCCA) via simulated examples.

  9. Determination of absolute internal conversion coefficients using the SAGE spectrometer

    Sorri, J.; Greenlees, P. T.; Papadakis, P.; Konki, J.; Cox, D. M.; Auranen, K.; Partanen, J.; Sandzelius, M.; Pakarinen, J.; Rahkila, P.; Uusitalo, J.; Herzberg, R.-D.; Smallcombe, J.; Davies, P. J.; Barton, C. J.; Jenkins, D. G.

    2016-03-01

    A non-reference based method to determine internal conversion coefficients using the SAGE spectrometer is carried out for transitions in the nuclei of 154Sm, 152Sm and 166Yb. The Normalised-Peak-to-Gamma method is in general an efficient tool to extract internal conversion coefficients. However, in many cases the required well-known reference transitions are not available. The data analysis steps required to determine absolute internal conversion coefficients with the SAGE spectrometer are presented. In addition, several background suppression methods are introduced and an example of how ancillary detectors can be used to select specific reaction products is given. The results obtained for ground-state band E2 transitions show that the absolute internal conversion coefficients can be extracted using the methods described with a reasonable accuracy. In some cases of less intense transitions only an upper limit for the internal conversion coefficient could be given.

  10. Calculation of effective absorption coefficient for aerosols of internal mixture

    The effective absorption coefficient with time of strong absorbing aerosol made of carbon dusts and water of internal mixture is analyzed, and the influence of different wavelengths and radius ratios on it is discussed. The shorter the wavelength is, the larger the effective absorption coefficient is , and more quickly it increases during 1-100 μs, and the largest increase if 132.65% during 1-100 μs. Different ratios between inner and outer radius have large influence on the effective absorption coefficient. The larger the ratio is, the larger the effective absorption coefficient is, and more quickly it increases during 1-100 μs. The increase of the effective absorption coefficient during 1-100 μs is larger than that during 100-1000 μs, and the largest increase is 138.66% during 1-100 μs. (authors)

  11. Optimization of Submarine Hydrodynamic Coefficients Based on Immune Genetic Algorithm

    HU Kun; XU Yi-fan

    2010-01-01

    Aiming at the demand for optimization of hydrodynamic coefficients in submarine's motion equations, an adaptive weight immune genetic algorithm was proposed to optimize hydrodynamic coefficients in motion equations. Some hydrody-namic coefficients of high sensitivity to control and maneuver were chosen as the optimization objects in the algorithm. By using adaptive weight method to determine the weight and target function, the multi-objective optimization could be transla-ted into single-objective optimization. For a certain kind of submarine, three typical maneuvers were chosen to be the objects of study: overshoot maneuver in horizontal plane, overshoot maneuver in vertical plane and turning circle maneuver in horizontal plane. From the results of computer simulations using primal hydrodynamic coefficient and optimized hydrody-namic coefficient, the efficiency of proposed method is proved.

  12. Diffusion coefficient adaptive correction in Lagrangian puff model

    Lagrangian puff model is widely used in the decision support system for nuclear emergency management. The diffusion coefficient is one of the key parameters impacting puff model. An adaptive method was proposed in this paper, which could correct the diffusion coefficient in Lagrangian puff model, and it aimed to improve the accuracy of calculating the nuclide concentration distribution. This method used detected concentration data, meteorological data and source release data to estimate the actual diffusion coefficient with least square method. The diffusion coefficient adaptive correction method was evaluated by Kincaid data in MVK, and was compared with traditional Pasquill-Gifford (P-G) diffusion scheme method. The results indicate that this diffusion coefficient adaptive correction method can improve the accuracy of Lagrangian puff model. (authors)

  13. Friction Coefficient of UHMWPE During Dry Reciprocating Sliding

    F. Zivic

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the friction coefficient behaviour during dry reciprocating sliding of UHMWPE in contact with alumina (Al2O3, within a range of velocities typical for hip implants. Five values of normal force (100 - 1000 mN and three values of sliding speed (4 - 12 mm/s have been observed. Real time diagrams of the friction coefficient as a function of the sliding cycles were recorded for each test. Dynamic friction coefficient curves exhibited rather uniform behavior for all test conditions. Somewhat larger values of friction coefficient could be observed during the running-in period in case of low loads (100 - 250 mN and the lowest velocity (4 mm/s. In case of high loads and speeds, friction coefficient reached steady state values shortly after the beginning of the test.

  14. Influence of effective stress coefficient on mechanical failure of chalk

    Alam, Mohammad Monzurul; Fabricius, Ida Lykke; Hjuler, M.L.;

    2012-01-01

    The Effective stress coefficient is a measure of how chalk grains are connected with each other. The stiffness of chalk may decrease if the amount of contact cements between the grains decreases, which may lead to an increase of the effective stress coefficient. We performed CO2 injection in chalk......, as this process could affect the grain contact cement. If this happens, the effective stress at the grain contacts in a reservoir will change according to the effective stress principle of Biot. In a p′-q space for failure analysis, we observed that a higher effective stress coefficient reduces the...... elastic region and vice versa. However, as the effective stress working on the rock decreases with increased effective stress coefficient, the reduction of elastic region will have less effect on pore collapse strength if we consider the change in the effective stress coefficient. This finding will help...

  15. Automatic estimation of pressure-dependent rate coefficients

    Allen, Joshua W.

    2012-01-01

    A general framework is presented for accurately and efficiently estimating the phenomenological pressure-dependent rate coefficients for reaction networks of arbitrary size and complexity using only high-pressure-limit information. Two aspects of this framework are discussed in detail. First, two methods of estimating the density of states of the species in the network are presented, including a new method based on characteristic functional group frequencies. Second, three methods of simplifying the full master equation model of the network to a single set of phenomenological rates are discussed, including a new method based on the reservoir state and pseudo-steady state approximations. Both sets of methods are evaluated in the context of the chemically-activated reaction of acetyl with oxygen. All three simplifications of the master equation are usually accurate, but each fails in certain situations, which are discussed. The new methods usually provide good accuracy at a computational cost appropriate for automated reaction mechanism generation. This journal is © the Owner Societies.

  16. Structure Coefficients versus Scoring Coefficients as Bases for Interpreting Emergent Variables in Multiple Regression and Related Techniques.

    Harris, Richard J.

    Interpretation of emergent variables on the basis of structure coefficients (zero order correlations between original and emergent variables) is potentially very misleading and should be avoided in favor of interpretation on the basis of scoring coefficients. This is most apparent in multiple regression analysis and its special case, two-group…

  17. Diffusion coefficients of cesium in un-irradiated graphite and comparison with those obtained from in-pile experiments

    Diffusion coefficients of trace-level cesium in un-irradiated IG-110 graphite were determined by thin-source annealing experiments. Thus obtained values of the diffusion coefficients were larger by 3-4 orders of magnitude than in-pile values for the same brand graphite. Activation energies of the diffusion coefficients for the un-irradiated graphite were 112 and 95 kJ/mol for two series of the laboratory experiments, which are considerably lower than the in-pile value of 157 kJ/mol. An extended diffusion-trap model is proposed to explain the decreased diffusion coefficient and the increased activation energy for the in-pile diffusion, by considering the trapping effect of irradiation-induced lattice defects. (orig.)

  18. Dynamic sagittal flexibility coefficients of the human cervical spine.

    Ivancic, Paul C; Ito, Shigeki; Panjabi, Manohar M

    2007-07-01

    The goal of the present study was to determine the dynamic sagittal flexibility coefficients, including coupling coefficients, throughout the human cervical spine using rear impacts. A biofidelic whole cervical spine model (n=6) with muscle force replication and surrogate head was rear impacted at 5 g peak horizontal accelerations of the T1 vertebra within a bench-top mini-sled. The dynamic main and coupling sagittal flexibility coefficients were calculated at each spinal level, head/C1 to C7/T1. The average flexibility coefficients were statistically compared (p<0.05) throughout the cervical spine. To validate the coefficients, the average computed displacement peaks, obtained using the average flexibility matrices and the measured load vectors, were statistically compared to the measured displacement peaks. The computed and measured displacement peaks showed good overall agreement, thus validating the computed flexibility coefficients. These peaks could not be statistically differentiated, with the exception of extension rotation at head/C1 and posterior shear translation at C7/T1. Head/C1 was significantly more flexible than all other spinal levels. The cervical spine was generally more flexible in posterior shear, as compared to axial compression. The coupling coefficients indicated that extension moment caused coupled posterior shear translation while posterior shear force caused coupled extension rotation. The present results may be used towards the designs of anthropometric test dummies and mathematical models that better simulate the cervical spine response during dynamic loading. PMID:17140545

  19. An analytical solution for quantum size effects on Seebeck coefficient

    Karabetoglu, S.; Sisman, A.; Ozturk, Z. F.

    2016-03-01

    There are numerous experimental and numerical studies about quantum size effects on Seebeck coefficient. In contrast, in this study, we obtain analytical expressions for Seebeck coefficient under quantum size effects. Seebeck coefficient of a Fermi gas confined in a rectangular domain is considered. Analytical expressions, which represent the size dependency of Seebeck coefficient explicitly, are derived in terms of confinement parameters. A fundamental form of Seebeck coefficient based on infinite summations is used under relaxation time approximation. To obtain analytical results, summations are calculated using the first two terms of Poisson summation formula. It is shown that they are in good agreement with the exact results based on direct calculation of summations as long as confinement parameters are less than unity. The analytical results are also in good agreement with experimental and numerical ones in literature. Maximum relative errors of analytical expressions are less than 3% and 4% for 2D and 1D cases, respectively. Dimensional transitions of Seebeck coefficient are also examined. Furthermore, a detailed physical explanation for the oscillations in Seebeck coefficient is proposed by considering the relative standard deviation of total variance of particle number in Fermi shell.

  20. Determination of drying kinetics and convective heat transfer coefficients of ginger slices

    Akpinar, Ebru Kavak; Toraman, Seda

    2015-12-01

    In the present work, the effects of some parametric values on convective heat transfer coefficients and the thin layer drying process of ginger slices were investigated. Drying was done in the laboratory by using cyclone type convective dryer. The drying air temperature was varied as 40, 50, 60 and 70 °C and the air velocity is 0.8, 1.5 and 3 m/s. All drying experiments had only falling rate period. The drying data were fitted to the twelve mathematical models and performance of these models was investigated by comparing the determination of coefficient (R 2), reduced Chi-square (χ 2) and root mean square error between the observed and predicted moisture ratios. The effective moisture diffusivity and activation energy were calculated using an infinite series solution of Fick's diffusion equation. The average effective moisture diffusivity values and activation energy values varied from 2.807 × 10-10 to 6.977 × 10-10 m2/s and 19.313-22.722 kJ/mol over the drying air temperature and velocity range, respectively. Experimental data was used to evaluate the values of constants in Nusselt number expression by using linear regression analysis and consequently, convective heat transfer coefficients were determined in forced convection mode. Convective heat transfer coefficient of ginger slices showed changes in ranges 0.33-2.11 W/m2 °C.

  1. Radon diffusion coefficients in soils of varying moisture content

    Papachristodoulou, C.; Ioannides, K.; Pavlides, S.

    2009-04-01

    Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive gas that is generated in the Earth's crust and is free to migrate through soil and be released to the atmosphere. Due to its unique properties, soil gas radon has been established as a powerful tracer used for a variety of purposes, such as exploring uranium ores, locating geothermal resources and hydrocarbon deposits, mapping geological faults, predicting seismic activity or volcanic eruptions and testing atmospheric transport models. Much attention has also been given to the radiological health hazard posed by increased radon concentrations in the living and working environment. In order to exploit radon profiles for geophysical purposes and also to predict its entry indoors, it is necessary to study its transport through soils. Among other factors, the importance of soil moisture in such studies has been largely highlighted and it is widely accepted that any measurement of radon transport parameters should be accompanied by a measurement of the soil moisture content. In principle, validation of transport models in the field is encountered by a large number of uncontrollable and varying parameters; laboratory methods are therefore preferred, allowing for experiments to be conducted under well-specified and uniform conditions. In this work, a laboratory technique has been applied for studying the effect of soil moisture content on radon diffusion. A vertical diffusion chamber was employed, in which radon was produced from a 226Ra source, was allowed to diffuse through a soil column and was finally monitored using a silicon surface barrier detector. By solving the steady-state radon diffusion equation, diffusion coefficients (D) were determined for soil samples of varying moisture content (m), from null (m=0) to saturation (m=1). For dry soil, a D value of 4.1×10-7 m2s-1 was determined, which increased moderately by a factor of ~3 for soil with low moisture content, i.e. up to m ~0.2. At higher water fractions, a decrease

  2. Energy distribution for Coefficients of Redundant Signal Representations of Music

    Endelt, Line Ørtoft; la Cour-Harbo, Anders

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we investigate how the energy is distributed in the coefficients vector of various redundant signal representations of music signals. The representations are found using Basis Pursuit, Matching Pursuit, Alternating Projections, Best Orthogonal Basis and Method of Frames, with five...... energy in the coefficients, also the time consummation for finding the representations are considered. The distribution of energy in the coefficients of the representations found using Basis Pursuit, Matching Pursuit, Alternating Projections and Best Orthogonal Basis depends mainly on the signal, and...

  3. Inflationary Weak Anisotropic Model with General Dissipation Coefficient

    Sharif, M

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the dynamics of warm intermediate and logamediate inflationary models during weak dissipative regime with a general form of dissipative coefficient. We analyze these models within the framework of locally rotationally symmetric Bianchi type I universe. In both cases, we evaluate solution of inflaton, effective scalar potential, dissipative coefficient, slow-roll parameters, scalar and tensor power spectra, scalar spectral index and tensor to scalar ratio under slow-roll approximation. We constrain the model parameters using recent data and conclude that anisotropic inflationary universe model with generalized dissipation coefficient remains compatible with WMAP9, Planck and BICEP2 data.

  4. Conversion coefficients and yrast state spins in 180Os

    Internal conversion coefficients of transitions in 180Os have been measured using a superconducting, solenoidal electron spectrometer, operated in the lens mode. The high energy resolution and efficiency allow a precise measurement of the conversion coefficients of the 528 keV yrast transition. The values obtained, αK = 0.015 (2), αL = 0.004(1) define pure E2 multipolarity. Taken with the measured γ-ray angular distribution, the conversion coefficient leads to an unambiguous assignment of 16+→14+ for the 528 keV transition. 14 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  5. Spacetime Variation of Lorentz-Violation Coefficients at Nonrelativistic Scale

    Lane, Charles D

    2016-01-01

    The notion of uniform and/or constant tensor fields of rank $>0$ is incompatible with general curved spacetimes. This work considers the consequences of certain tensor-valued coefficients for Lorentz violation in the Standard-Model Extension varying with spacetime position. We focus on two of the coefficients, $a_\\mu$ and $b_\\mu$, that characterize Lorentz violation in massive fermions, particularly in those fermions that constitute ordinary matter. We calculate the nonrelativistic hamiltonian describing these effects, and use it to extract the sensitivity of several precision experiments to coefficient variation.

  6. Determination of BEACON Coupling Coefficients using data from Xenon transient

    NEK uses BEACOTM code (BEACOTM - Westinghouse Best Estimate Analyzer for Core Operating Nuclear) for core monitoring, analysis and core behaviour prediction. Coupling Coefficients determine relationship between core response and excore instrumentation. Measured power distribution using incore moveable detectors during Xenon transient with sufficient power axial offset change is the most important data for further analysis. Classic methodology and BEACOTM Conservative methodology using established Coupling Coefficients are compared on NPP Krsko case. BEACONTM Conservative methodology with predefined Coupling Coefficients is used as a surveillance tool for verification of relationship between core and excore instrumentation during power operation. (author)

  7. Kappa coefficient: a popular measure of rater agreement.

    Tang, Wan; Hu, Jun; Zhang, Hui; Wu, Pan; He, Hua

    2015-02-25

    In mental health and psychosocial studies it is often necessary to report on the between-rater agreement of measures used in the study. This paper discusses the concept of agreement, highlighting its fundamental difference from correlation. Several examples demonstrate how to compute the kappa coefficient - a popular statistic for measuring agreement - both by hand and by using statistical software packages such as SAS and SPSS. Real study data are used to illustrate how to use and interpret this coefficient in clinical research and practice. The article concludes with a discussion of the limitations of the coefficient. PMID:25852260

  8. Fresnel coefficients of a two-dimensional atomic crystal

    Merano, Michele

    2016-01-01

    In general the experiments on the linear optical properties of a single-layer two-dimensional atomic crystal are interpreted by modeling it as a homogeneous slab with an effective thickness. Here I fit the most remarkable experiments in graphene optics by using the Fresnel coefficients, fixing both the surface susceptibility and the surface conductivity of graphene. It is shown that the Fresnel coefficients and the slab model are not equivalent. Experiments indicate that the Fresnel coefficients are able to simulate the overall experiments here analyzed, while the slab model fails to predict absorption and the phase of the reflected light.

  9. Robust Stabilization of Nonlinear Systems with Uncertain Varying Control Coefficient

    Zaiyue Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the stabilization problem for a class of nonlinear systems, whose control coefficient is uncertain and varies continuously in value and sign. The study emphasizes the development of a robust control that consists of a modified Nussbaum function to tackle the uncertain varying control coefficient. By such a method, the finite-time escape phenomenon has been prevented when the control coefficient is crossing zero and varying its sign. The proposed control guarantees the asymptotic stabilization of the system and boundedness of all closed-loop signals. The control performance is illustrated by a numerical simulation.

  10. Calculation of power coefficient in CANFLEX-NU fuel bundle

    Min, Byung Joo; Jun, Ji Su; Suk, Ho Chun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-11-01

    Changes in power level affect reactivity due to its dependence on fuel and coolant temperatures. The power coefficient of reactivity is related to the fuel temperature coefficient through the change in fuel temperature per percent change in power. In addition, power level changes are followed by changes in coolant temperature and density which contribute to the reactivity effect. In this report, the power coefficient of CANFLEX-NU was calculated and the result would be compared with that of CANDU-6 reactor which is operating. 8 refs., 43 figs., 2 tabs. (Author)

  11. Ionization coefficients for argon in a micro-discharge

    Ionization coefficients are measured for electrons in a dc micro-discharge in argon from optical emission profiles. The micro-discharge is operated in the Townsend regime between two parallel-plate electrodes. Axial profiles of emission are obtained with sufficient resolution to provide spatial ionization coefficients. The measured coefficients agree very well with the data obtained from other sources, indicating the operation of the discharge in the Townsend regime and also that Townsend mechanisms do not need extension to describe such discharges. (paper)

  12. Ionization coefficients for argon in a micro-discharge

    Kuschel, Thomas; Stefanović, Ilija; Malović, Gordana; Marić, Dragana; Petrović, Zoran Lj

    2013-08-01

    Ionization coefficients are measured for electrons in a dc micro-discharge in argon from optical emission profiles. The micro-discharge is operated in the Townsend regime between two parallel-plate electrodes. Axial profiles of emission are obtained with sufficient resolution to provide spatial ionization coefficients. The measured coefficients agree very well with the data obtained from other sources, indicating the operation of the discharge in the Townsend regime and also that Townsend mechanisms do not need extension to describe such discharges.

  13. Measurement of friction coefficient in aluminum sheet warm forming

    GUO Zheng-hua; LI Zhi-gang; HUANG Chong-jiu; DONG Xiang-huai

    2005-01-01

    Aluminum alloy sheets are used more and more to manufacture auto panels. Because the friction behavior is very complicated, it is necessary to study the friction during the aluminum sheet warm forming process. The author has designed a new probe sensor based on an online tribotest method which directly measures friction coefficient in the forming process. Experiments of cup drawing have been conducted and the friction coefficients under different forming conditions have been measured. The results indicate that the forming parameters, such as forming temperature, blankholding force and lubrication status have great effect upon the friction coefficient.

  14. Gamma-ray attenuation coefficients in bismuth borate glasses

    Mass attenuation coefficients of glasses in the system: xBi2O3(1-x)B2O3 (x=0.30, 0.35, 0.40, 0.45 and 0.55) were determined at 356, 662, 1173 and 1332 keV photon energies using a narrow beam transmission method. Appreciable variations were observed in these coefficients due to changes in the chemical composition of glasses. These coefficients were then used to determine effective atomic numbers of glass samples, which were found to be constant with bismuth concentration and energy

  15. Drag and lift coefficients evolution of a Savonius rotor

    Chauvin, A.; Benghrib, D.

    1989-10-01

    The lift and drag coefficients of the rotating Savonius wind machine are determined from the pressure difference measured between the upper plane and the lower plane of a blade. Pressure measurements have been performed for two sets of experiments; the first one for U ∞ = 10 m/s and the second one for U ∞ = 12.5 m/s. In each case it is to be noted that a negative lift effect is present for low values of the tip speed ratio λ. The lift coefficient becomes positive when λ increases. The drag coefficient is of course always negative.

  16. Aerodynamic force coefficients of plain bridge cables in wet conditions

    Matteoni, Giulia; Georgakis, Christos T.

    , tests were performed for wind velocities between 2 and 31 m/s, whilst in wet conditions tests were performed for the range of wind velocities where rain rivulet formation was found possible, i.e. between 8-18 m/s. For all of the tested relative cable-wind angles in wet conditions, a reduction in the...... drag coefficient with increasing Reynolds number, accompanied by a near-zero lift coefficient, was observed. A theoretical evaluation of the aerodynamic damping assuming quasi-steady conditions reveals that changes in drag and lift coefficient are nonetheless not sufficient to generate negative...

  17. Clebsch-Gordan coefficients for symmetric representations of symplectic groups

    Method of generating invariants for symplectic groups is formulated. The Clebsch-Gordan coefficients for coupling of symmetric representations D(PO..., O) of groups Sp(2N) were calculated and their symmetry properties were obtained

  18. Scaling the Raman Gain Coefficient of Optical Fibers

    Rottwitt, Karsten; Bromage, J; Leng, L

    2002-01-01

    Scaling rules for the Raman gain coefficient are provided with emphasis on the effective area and wavelength dependence. Translation from measurements made at one pump wavelength to other pump wavelengths is demonstrated....

  19. Seal assembly for materials with different coefficients of thermal expansion

    Minford, Eric

    2009-09-01

    Seal assembly comprising (a) two or more seal elements, each element having having a coefficient of thermal expansion; and (b) a clamping element having a first segment, a second segment, and a connecting segment between and attached to the first and second segments, wherein the two or more seal elements are disposed between the first and second segments of the clamping element. The connecting segment has a central portion extending between the first segment of the clamping element and the second segment of the clamping element, and the connecting segment is made of a material having a coefficient of thermal expansion. The coefficient of thermal expansion of the material of the connecting segment is intermediate the largest and smallest of the coefficients of thermal expansion of the materials of the two or more seal elements.

  20. Calculations of angular momentum coupling coefficients on a computer code

    In this study, Clebsch-Gordan coefficients, 3j symbols, Racah coefficients, Wigner's 6j and 9j symbols were calculated by a prepared computer code of COEFF. The computer program COEFF is described which calculates angular momentum coupling coefficients and expresses them as quotient of two integers multiplied by the square root of the quotient of two integers. The program includes subroutines to encode an integer into its prime factors, to decode of prime factors back into an integer , to perform basic arithmetic operations on prime-coded numbers, as well as subroutines which calculate the coupling coefficients themselves. The computer code COEFF had been prepared to run on a VAX. In this study we rearranged the code to run on PC and tested it successfully. The obtained values in this study, were compared with the values of other computer programmes. A pretty good agreement is obtained between our prepared computer code and other computer programmes

  1. Transport Coefficients for Holographic Hydrodynamics at Finite Energy Scale

    Ge, Xian-Hui; Fang, Li Qing; Yang, Guo-Hong

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the relations between black hole thermodynamics and holographic transport coefficients in this paper. The formulae for DC conductivity and diffusion coefficient are verified for electrically single-charged black holes. We examine the correctness of the proposed expressions by taking charged dilatonic and single-charged STU black holes as two concrete examples, and compute the flows of conductivity and diffusion coefficient by solving the linear order perturbation equations. We then check the consistence by evaluating the Brown-York tensor at a finite radial position. Finally, we find that the retarded Green functions for the shear modes can be expressed easily in terms of black hole thermodynamic quantities and transport coefficients.

  2. Transport Coefficients for Holographic Hydrodynamics at Finite Energy Scale

    Xian-Hui Ge

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the relations between black hole thermodynamics and holographic transport coefficients in this paper. The formulae for DC conductivity and diffusion coefficient are verified for electrically single-charged black holes. We examine the correctness of the proposed expressions by taking charged dilatonic and single-charged STU black holes as two concrete examples, and compute the flows of conductivity and diffusion coefficient by solving the linear order perturbation equations. We then check the consistence by evaluating the Brown-York tensor at a finite radial position. Finally, we find that the retarded Green functions for the shear modes can be expressed easily in terms of black hole thermodynamic quantities and transport coefficients.

  3. Rate coefficients for N2(+)(v) dissociative recombination

    Bates, D. R.; Mitchell, J. B. A.

    1991-09-01

    The data of Zipf (1980) on N2(+)(v) dissociative recombination are analyzed taking into account the fact that there is coupling due to reversible symmetrical resonance charge transfer, N2(+)(v) + N2(0) yields N2(+)(0) + N2(v). The vibrational deactivation in N2(+)(v)-Ne collisions is also considered. A reported experimental value of the vibrational deactivation coefficient is found to be much higher than can be reconciled with the results of Zipf and it is therefore rejected. The analysis shows that the recombination coefficient for N2(+)(0) is about 2.6 x 10 exp-7 cu cm/s at 300 K and that recombination coefficients for N2(+)(1) and N2(+)(2) are substantially smaller. It is concluded that these coefficients conflict with the dissociative recombination cross section vs energy curve obtained by the merged beam method.

  4. Lower bound of assortativity coefficient in scale-free networks

    Yang, Dan; Zhou, Tao

    2016-01-01

    The degree-degree correlation is important in understanding the structural organization of a network and the dynamics upon a network. Such correlation is usually measured by the assortativity coefficient $r$, with natural bounds $r \\in [-1,1]$. For scale-free networks with power-law degree distribution $p(k) \\sim k^{-\\gamma}$, we analytically obtain the lower bound of assortativity coefficient in the limit of large network size, which is not -1 but dependent on the power-law exponent $\\gamma$. This work challenges the validation of assortativity coefficient in heterogeneous networks, suggesting that one cannot judge whether a network is positively or negatively correlated just by looking at its assortativity coefficient.

  5. Research on the Fault Coefficient in Complex Electrical Engineering

    Yi Sun

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Fault detection and isolation in a complex system are research hotspots and frontier problems in the reliability engineering field. Fault identification can be regarded as a procedure of excavating key characteristics from massive failure data, then classifying and identifying fault samples. In this paper, based on the fundamental of feature extraction about the fault coefficient, we will discuss the fault coefficient feature in complex electrical engineering in detail. For general fault types in a complex power system, even if there is a strong white Gaussian stochastic interference, the fault coefficient feature is still accurate and reliable. The results about comparative analysis of noise influence will also demonstrate the strong anti-interference ability and great redundancy of the fault coefficient feature in complex electrical engineering.

  6. Temperature dependence of the Soret coefficient of ionic colloids

    Sehnem, A. L.; Figueiredo Neto, A. M.; Aquino, R.; Campos, A. F. C.; Tourinho, F. A.; Depeyrot, J.

    2015-10-01

    The temperature dependence of the Soret coefficient ST(T ) in electrostatically charged magnetic colloids is investigated. Two different ferrofluids, with different particles' mean dimensions, are studied. In both cases we obtain a thermophilic behavior of the Soret effect. The temperature dependence of the Soret coefficient is described assuming that the nanoparticles migrate along the ionic thermoelectric field created by the thermal gradient. A model based on the contributions from the thermoelectrophoresis and variation of the double-layer energy, without fitting parameters, is used to describe the experimental results of the colloid with the bigger particles. To do so, independent measurements of the ζ potential, mass diffusion coefficient, and Seebeck coefficient are performed. The agreement of the theory and the experimental results is rather good. In the case of the ferrofluid with smaller particles, it is not possible to get experimentally reliable values of the ζ potential and the model described is used to evaluate this parameter and its temperature dependence.

  7. Calculation of diffusion coefficients in air-metal thermal plasmas

    Cressault, Y; Gleizes, A [Universite de Toulouse, UPS, INPT, LAPLACE (Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d' Energie), 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France)

    2010-11-03

    This paper presents the combined diffusion coefficients of metal vapours (silver, copper and iron) in air thermal plasmas for temperatures ranging from 300 to 30 000 K. The theory used to calculate these coefficients is remembered and validated by comparison with the literature values in several cases such as Ar-He, Ar-Cu and N{sub 2}-O{sub 2} mixtures. The results are discussed showing the influences of the metal concentration, of the vapour nature and of the pressure. The results show rather similar behaviour for the three metals. The maximum values of the combined ordinary diffusion coefficient in the evolution with temperature are obtained for temperature around 10 000 K but this peak is shifted to the highest temperatures when the metal proportion increases. Another result shows that the diffusion coefficient decreases when pressure increases.

  8. RELICOEF: Stata module to compute Raykov's factor reliability coefficient

    Mehmet Mehmetoglu

    2015-01-01

    relicoef computes Raykov's reliability coefficient (RRC) for factors from confirmatory factor analyses, a measure which is commonly seen as a more accurate one than that of Cronbach's alpha which is computed based on the assumption of tau-equivalent measures.

  9. Heat unit-based crop coefficient for grapefruit trees

    The onset and rate of sap moving up the branches of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macfadyen) trees were monitored hourly using portable sap flow sensors at Waddell, Arizona. Hourly reference evapotranspiration (ETo) estimates were calculated using data from a nearby weather station. Crop water use was estimated from soil moisture measurements using a neutron probe. These data were used to first delineate the upper and lower temperature threshold values for the determination of heat units. A heat unit-based crop coefficient was then derived from a correlation of the crop coefficient with heat units over a crop year. The heat unit-based crop coefficient was found to be similar to crop coefficients derived by other reseachers

  10. Approximate equations at breaking for nearshore wave transformation coefficients

    Chandramohan, P.; Nayak, B.U.; SanilKumar, V.

    Based on small amplitude wave theory approximate equations are evaluated for determining the coefficients of shoaling, refraction, bottom friction, bottom percolation and viscous dissipation at breaking. The results obtainEd. by these equations...

  11. Multivalued Stochastic Differential Equations with Non-Lipschitz Coefficients

    Siyan XU

    2009-01-01

    The existence and uniqueness of solutions to the multivalued stochastic differ-ential equations with non-Lipschitz coefficients are proved, and bicontinuons modifications of the solutions are obtained.

  12. Effect of applied mechanical stress on absorption coefficient of compounds

    The absorption coefficient of given materials is the parameter required for the basic information. The measurement of absorption coefficient of compounds Al2O3, CaCO3, ZnO2, SmO2 and PbO has been taken at different incident photon energies 26, 59.54, 112, 1173, 1332keV. The studies involve the measurements of absorption coefficient of the self supporting samples prepared under different mechanical stress. This mechanical stress is render in terms of pressure up to 0-6 ton by using hydraulic press. Measurements shows that absorption coefficient of a material is directly proportional to applied mechanical stress on it up to some extent then become independent. Experimentally measured results are in fairly good agreement with in theoretical values obtained from WinXCOM

  13. Isospin and density dependencies of nuclear matter symmetry energy coefficients

    Symmetry energy coefficients of explicitly isospin asymmetric nuclear matter at variable densities (from 0.5ρ0 up to 2ρ0) are studied as generalized screening functions. An extended stability condition for asymmetric nuclear matter is proposed. We find the possibility of obtaining stable asymmetric nuclear matter even in some cases for which the symmetric nuclear matter limit is unstable. Skyrme-type forces are extensively used in analytical expressions of the symmetry energy coefficients derived as generalized screening functions in the four channels of the particle hole interaction producing alternative behaviors at different ρ and b (respectively, the density and the asymmetry coefficient). The spin and spin-isospin coefficients, with corrections to the usual Landau Migdal parameters, indicate the possibility of occurring instabilities with common features depending on the nuclear density and n–p asymmetry. Possible relevance for high energy heavy ions collisions and astrophysical objects is discussed. (author)

  14. Correlation coefficients and the Robertson-Schroedinger uncertainty relations

    Fleming, G N

    2007-01-01

    Calling the quantity; 2delta(A)delta(B)/||, with non-zero denominator, the uncertainty product ratio or UPR for the pair of observables, (A, B), it is shown that any non-zero correlation coefficient between two observables raises, above unity, the lower bound of the UPR for each member of an infinite collection of pairs of incompatible observables. Conversely, any UPR is subject to lower bounds above unity determined by each of an infinite collection of correlation coefficients. This result generalizes the well known Schroedinger strengthening of the Robertson uncertainty relations (with the former expressed in terms of the correlation coefficient rather than the anticommutator) where the UPR and the correlation coefficient both involve the same pair of observables. Two, independent, derivations of the result are presented to clarify its origins and some examples of its use are examined.

  15. Einstein's coefficients and the nature of thermal radio emission

    Prigara, F. V.

    2001-01-01

    The relations between Einstein's coefficients for spontaneous and induced emission of radiation with account for the natural linewidth are obtained . It is shown that thermal radio emission is stimulated one . Thermal radio emission of non-uniform gas is considered .

  16. Design formulas of transmission coefficients for permeable breakwaters

    Su-xiang ZHANG; Xi LI

    2014-01-01

    Newempirical formulas of the transmission coefficient for permeable breakwaters were suggested based on available experimental data regarding the low-crest structure (LCS), including the permeable rubble mound breakwater and pile-type breakwater. The rationality of the present formulas was verified by their comparison with existing empirical and analytical formulas. Numerical flume results were obtained by solving the modified Boussinessq-type wave equations (MBEs), and a new expression relating the friction coefficientαto the relative submerged depth tsRHwas also derived. Comparative analysis shows that the results of the present formulas agree with the numerical flume results as well as available experimental data, and the present formulas are superior to the existing empirical and analytical expressions in estimating the transmission coefficient. The present formulas can provide references for estimation of the transmission coefficient in engineering practice.

  17. Intermittent-flow coefficients of a poppet valve

    Waldron, C D

    1939-01-01

    Flow coefficients were determined for the inlet valve of a modern air-cooled cylinder during operation of the valve. The cylinder head with valves was mounted on a large tank that could be evacuated. Operating the valve with a rotating cam allowed air to flow through the valve into the evacuated tank. The change of pressure in the tank was a measure of the amount of air flowing though the valve in a given number of cycles. The flow coefficients were determined from the pressure across the valve, the quantity of air flowing, and the valve-lift curve. Coefficients were measured with lifts of 0.1 to 0.6 inch and speeds of 130 to 1,200 r.p.m. The results obtained with intermittent flow were compared with the results of tests made with steady flow through this cylinder head. This comparison indicated that steady-flow coefficients can be used for intermittent flow.

  18. Determination of thermal diffusion coefficient of nanofluid: Fullerene-toluene

    Martin, Alain; Bou-Ali, M. Mounir

    2011-05-01

    Thermodiffusion coefficient at fullerene mass concentrations of 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.15%, and 0.2% was established for pure fullerene (C 60) diluted in toluene solutions. For this, the thermogravitational technique has been used in planar configuration with 4 extraction points. The determination of the concentration distribution along the column in steady state is determined by the method of analysis based on density measurements. In order to determine the thermal diffusion coefficient all thermophysical properties such as density, viscosity, thermal expansion coefficient and mass expansion coefficients were determined. All these studies coincide with the importance of the knowledge of the thermophysics and transport properties of the nanofluids to develop new applications and to optimize the existing ones.

  19. Gamma ray attenuation coefficient measurement for neutron-absorbent materials

    Jalali, Majid; Mohammadi, Ali

    2008-05-01

    The compounds Na 2B 4O 7, H 3BO 3, CdCl 2 and NaCl and their solutions attenuate gamma rays in addition to neutron absorption. These compounds are widely used in the shielding of neutron sources, reactor control and neutron converters. Mass attenuation coefficients of gamma related to the four compounds aforementioned, in energies 662, 778.9, 867.38, 964.1, 1085.9, 1173, 1212.9, 1299.1,1332 and 1408 keV, have been determined by the γ rays transmission method in a good geometry setup; also, these coefficients were calculated by MCNP code. A comparison between experiments, simulations and Xcom code has shown that the study has potential application for determining the attenuation coefficient of various compound materials. Experiment and computation show that H 3BO 3 with the lowest average Z has the highest gamma ray attenuation coefficient among the aforementioned compounds.

  20. Gamma ray attenuation coefficient measurement for neutron-absorbent materials

    The compounds Na2B4O7, H3BO3, CdCl2 and NaCl and their solutions attenuate gamma rays in addition to neutron absorption. These compounds are widely used in the shielding of neutron sources, reactor control and neutron converters. Mass attenuation coefficients of gamma related to the four compounds aforementioned, in energies 662, 778.9, 867.38, 964.1, 1085.9, 1173, 1212.9, 1299.1,1332 and 1408 keV, have been determined by the γ rays transmission method in a good geometry setup; also, these coefficients were calculated by MCNP code. A comparison between experiments, simulations and Xcom code has shown that the study has potential application for determining the attenuation coefficient of various compound materials. Experiment and computation show that H3BO3 with the lowest average Z has the highest gamma ray attenuation coefficient among the aforementioned compounds