Pratt, Charlotte; Webber, Larry S.; Baggett, Chris D.; Ward, Dianne; Pate, Russell R.; Murray, David; Lohman, Timothy; Lytle, Leslie; Elder, John P.
This study describes the relationships between sedentary activity and body composition in 1,458 sixth-grade girls from 36 middle schools across the United States. Multivariate associations between sedentary activity and body composition were examined with regression analyses using general linear mixed models. Mean age, body mass index, and…
Minna K Salonen
Full Text Available Low physical activity (PA is a major risk factor for cardiovascular and metabolic disorders in all age groups. We measured intensity and volume of PA and examined the associations between PA and the metabolic syndrome (MS, its components and body composition among young Finnish adults.The study comprises 991 men and women born 1985-86, who participated in a clinical study during the years 2009-11 which included assessments of metabolism, body composition and PA. Objectively measured (SenseWear Armband five-day PA data was available from 737 participants and was expressed in metabolic equivalents of task (MET.The prevalence of MS ranged between 8-10%. Higher total mean volume (MET-hours or intensity (MET were negatively associated with the risk of MS and separate components of MS, while the time spent at sedentary level of PA was positively associated with MS.MS was prevalent in approximately every tenth of the young adults at the age of 24 years. Higher total mean intensity and volume rates as well as longer duration spent at moderate and vigorous PA level had a beneficial impact on the risk of MS. Longer time spent at the sedentary level of PA increased the risk of MS.
A large scale study is currently underway on the changes in body composition resulting from the cachexia of malignancy. The ultimate objective of the overall project is to assess the changes in body composition associated with hyperalimentation and other modes of nutritional support to cancer patients. The first phase of this study is now in progress. In this phase, a study is being made of a control group of normal patients to provide baseline data against which data from cancer patients can be evaluated. Total body nitrogen and potassium are measured in a group of normal men and women, and are analyzed as a function of age. Additionally, changes in skeletal mass (total body calcium) are also recorded, and body water is measured simultaneously with the use of tritiated water
Full Text Available Background: Physical activity is a part of a healthy lifestyle, however sed entary habits are currently prevalent among adolescents which impacts rates of overweight and obesity in this group. This study aims to describe the relationship of physical activity with the use of active transportation to school (ATS and its relationshi p with body composition in adolescents. Materials and Methods: Information about physical activity, sedentary behavior and active transportation were collected through two survey instruments, one completed by a responsible parent/guardian and other by the adolescent. Body composition was assessed by dual - energy x - ray absorptiometry (DXA. Excess body fat was defined as ≥ 25% in male and ≥ 30% among female adolescents. Less than 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous daily physical activity defined one as sede ntary and greater than 2 hours of screen time per day was defined as excessive. Results: The prevalence of excess body fat was 46.5%. Only 24.7% of the sample performed recommended amounts of physical activity and 92.3% engaged in excess screen time. Appro ximately one - fifth of our sample (19.2% used ATS. The main barriers to active transport were traffic, distance and safety. Those that used ATS had lower body fat and fewer hours of sedentary behavior.
This study sought to evaluate the body composition of subjects with active spinal cord injuries and polio. Two groups of males and females, active, free-living, of similar ages and body mass index (BMI), were distributed according to the source of deficiency: SCI – low spinal cord injury (T5-T12) an...
In-vivo neutron activation followed by whole body counting has become a routine method for measuring the major elements in the body, such as total body calcium. More recently a careful analysis of radioactive components in expired air after neutron activation has shown some of these components are directly related to the body content of major elements. The gaseous activation products are produced both by direct fast neutron reactions and by secondary proton reactions. The protons are produced by hydrogen atom recoil after neutron interaction with the large quantity of hydrogen in the body. The specific longer-lived radionuclides which are easily measured in expired air are 37Ar, 41Ar, 11C, and 13N. The 37Ar is expired as noble gas and is produced by the reaction 40Ca(n, α)37Ar. The accurate determination of total body calcium in animals has been demonstrated using 37Ar measurements and the determination in humans appears very feasible. The 11C, expired as 11CO and 11CO2, is produced by 14N(p, α)11C and it appears that total body nitrogen can be determined from the 11C measurements All activation products which form gases in the body after neutron irradiation are potentially useful in determining the body content of the parent element. Several radioactive gases have been recently identified in the expired air of animals or humans after low level neutron irradiation. These include 37Ar, 41Ar, 11CO, 11CO2, 13N2, 13NO or 13N2O. Other radioactive gases which can probably be measured at very low levels are 11CH3
Total body protein (nitrogen), body cell mass (potassium), fat, and water were measured in 15 renal patients on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD). Total body nitrogen was measured by means of prompt γ neutron activation analysis; total body water was determined with tritium labeled water; total body potassium was measured by whole body counting. The extracellular water was determined by a technique utilizing the measurement of total body chloride and plasma chloride. When compared with corresponding values of a control group of the same age, sex, and height, the protein content, body cell mass, and total body fat of the MHD patients were within the normal range. The only significant change was an increase in the extracellular water/body cell mass ratio in the male MHD patients compared to the control. The lack of significant difference of the nitrogen values of the MHD patients compared to matched controls suggests that dialysis minimizes any residual effects of uremic toxicity or protein-calorie malnutrition. These findings further suggest that there is a need to reevaluate the traditional anthropometric and biochemical standards of nutritional status for MHD patients. It was concluded that it is particularly important to measure protein stores of MHD patients with low protein intake to ascertain nutritional status. Finally, in vivo measurement of total body nitrogen and potassium for determination of body composition provides a simple, direct, and accurate assessment of the nutritional status of MHD patients
Wei Dai-min; Yu Qi; Zhang Ying; Chen Feng-ling
Objective: To investigate the influence of age,menopause status,body mass index (BMI) and physical activity on body composition and body fat distribution in Chinese midlife women.Methods: The healthy women who underwent anniversary health checkup in Peking Union Medical College Hospital were recruited cross-sectionally.The level of physical activity was determined via International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short in Chinese Version.The body composition and fat distribution were measured by dualenergy X-ray absorptiometry.Results: A total of 162 women with average age 52 years (40-62 years) were recruited.Multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to test the relationship between age,menopause status,BMI and physical activity and parameters of body composition and body fat distribution.The total fat tissue percentage was positively associated with BMI (standardized partial regression coefficient: b=0.70),menopause status (b＝0.19,grading variables 1,2,3 were assigned to represent for reproductive group,menopausal transition group and postmenopausal group,respectively),and negatively associated with physical activity energy expenditure (b=-0.17) with model determination coefficient 0.55.Total body fat-free-tissue mass was positively associated with BMI (b =0.61),negatively associated with menopause status (b =-0.14) with model determination coefficient 0.39.The ratio of trunk fat-tissue mass/total body fat-tissue mass (Tr/T) was positively associated with BMI (b=0.32) and menopause status (b＝ 0.30) with model determination coefficient 0.20.After adjusted the effects of BMI,menopause status and physical activity,age was not significantly related with total fat tissue percentage,body fat-free-tissue mass,nor ratio of (Tr/T).Conclusion: Menopause impacts body composition and body fat distribution independently.During the process of female reproductive aging,body fat tissue mass and centrally distributed fat tissue mass increase,while body fatfree
Stanish, Heidi I.; Draheim, Christopher C.
Background: Individuals with intellectual disabilities engage in limited physical activity which places their health at risk. This study examined the walking activity, body composition and blood pressure of adults with intellectual disabilities. Methods: A group of male and female adults (n = 103) wore a pedometer for 7 days and were categorized…
Total-body levels of calcium and phosphorus (reflecting skeletal mass) and total-body levels of potassium (reflecting muscle mass) were measured by neutron activation analysis in 39 men and 40 women ages 30 to 90 yr. In order to intercompare the total body calcium (TBCa) values in a heterogeneous population, such as this, it was necessary to normalize the data for skeletal size. The normalization consisted of dividing the absolute calcium level by the predicted calcium level for each individual matched to a set of critical parameters. The parameter used in the computation of normal values were age, sex, muscle mass, i.e., total body potassium (TBK) and height. For the calcium data of the women, it was necessary to add an age correction factor after the age of 55 yr. The calcium ratio (mean ratio of the predicted to measured TBCa) in men was 1.000 +- 7.8 percent and in women 0.996 +- 7.1 percent. The TBCa of normal males and females can thus be predicted to +-13 percent (at the 90 percent confidence level). An exception to this was found in males (70 to 90 yr) who exhibited a mean calcium ratio greater than 1.13
I compiled literature on zooplankton body composition, from protozoans to gelatinous plankton, and report allometric relations and average body composition. Zooplankton segregate into gelatinous and non-gelatinous forms, with few intermediate taxa (chaetognaths, polychaetes, and pteropods). In most...... groups body composition is size independent. Exceptions are protozoans, chaetognaths, and pteropods, where larger individuals become increasingly watery. I speculate about the dichotomy in body composition and argue that differences in feeding mechanisms and predator avoidance strategies favor either a...
Holbrook, Elizabeth A.; Caputo, Jennifer L.; Perry, Tara L.; Fuller, Dana K.; Morgan, Don W.
Relatively little is known about the health and fitness of adults with visual impairments. This article documents the physical activity levels and body-composition profiles of young and middle-aged adults with visual impairments and addresses the concomitant effects of these factors on perceived quality of life. (Contains 2 tables.)
Vahlkvist, S; Pedersen, S
Background: Information about how the asthma disease affects the life style and health in children is sparse. Aim: To measure fitness, daily physical activity and body composition in children with newly diagnosed, untreated asthma and healthy controls, and to assess the association between the...... level of asthma control and these parameters. Methods: Daily physical activity measured using accelerometry, cardiovascular fitness and body composition (per cent fat, per cent lean tissue and bone mineral density) were measured in 57 children with newly diagnosed, untreated asthma and in 157 healthy...... age- and sex-matched controls. The level of asthma control was assessed by measurements of a variety of asthma outcomes. Results: Children with asthma were less fit (35.1 vs 39.3 ml O(2)/min/kg) (P < 0.001), had a higher body per cent fat (22.8 vs 19.5%) (P < 0.01) and a higher frequency of overweight...
Martínez-Pardo, Esmeraldo; Martínez-Ruiz, Enrique; Alcaraz, Pedro E; Rubio-Arias, Jacobo A
In the last decade, it has been suggested that whole- body vibration training (WBV) may increase neuromuscular performance and consequently affect the muscular improvement as either acute response to vibration or chronic adaptation training. Vibrating platforms generate frequencies from 5-45 Hz and vertical oscillations of 1-11 mm peak to peak, affecting more or less intensity acceleration changing by combining frequency and amplitude. Vibration training, in a session as various offers different results in regard to changes in body composition and in increasing the vertical jump, sprint, and the different manifestations of force development. These promising results await further research to establish parameters (duration, frequency and amplitude) with vibration stimulation in young active subjects. This literature review provides an update on the scientific evidence on the body vibrations in order to answer the question whether WBV, meaning the exercise by increasing the gravitational load collection, is a treatment option if the aim is to improve neuromuscular function, flexibility, balance, agility, coordination and body composition. PMID:26545648
The impact of physical activity patterns and sleep duration on growth and body composition of preschool-aged children remains unresolved. Aims were (1) to delineate cross-sectional associations among physical activity components, sleep, total energy expenditure (TEE), and body size and composition; ...
Vilaça, Karla Helena Coelho; Carneiro, José Ailton Oliveira; Ferriolli, Eduardo; Lima, Nereida Kilza da Costa; de Paula, Francisco José Albuquerque; Moriguti, Julio Cesar
Fat gain is one of the major factors aggravating physical disability in the elderly population, which presents an increase in fat mass and a decrease in lean mass compared to the young population. For this reason it is important to assess body composition and the effects of these alterations in obese elderly women. The purpose of this study was to assess body composition, physical performance and muscle quality in active elderly women. Cross-sectional study included 75 elderly women (29 eutrophic and 46 obese) 65-80 years old. Body composition was evaluated by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and the physical performance was determined by 6-minute walk test (6MWT), handgrip strength (HS) and knee extension strength (KES). Muscle quality was calculated as the ratio between muscle strength and lean mass. Fat free mass, lean mass, fat mass and percent body fat were significantly higher in the obese group (pmuscle quality, the obese group exhibited a impaired in comparison to the eutrophic group in the upper (11.45±2.57 kg and 13.31±2.03 kg, respectively, pmuscle mass detected in the obese elderly was not sufficient to maintain adequate muscle quality and physical function, showing a negative influence of the excess of body fat. PMID:24630334
Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased understanding of why and how physical activity impacts on health outcomes is needed to increase the effectiveness of physical activity interventions. A recent randomized controlled trial of an active video game (PlayStation EyeToy™ intervention showed a statistically significant treatment effect on the primary outcome, change from baseline in body mass index (BMI, which favored the intervention group at 24 weeks. In this short paper we evaluate the mediating effects of the secondary outcomes. Objective To identify mediators of the effect of an active video games intervention on body composition. Methods Data from a two-arm parallel randomized controlled trial of an active video game intervention (n = 322 were analyzed. The primary outcome was change from baseline in BMI. A priori secondary outcomes were considered as potential mediators of the intervention on BMI, including aerobic fitness (VO2Max, time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA, and food snacking at 24 weeks. Results Only aerobic fitness at 24 weeks met the conditions for mediation, and was a significant mediator of BMI. Conclusion Playing active video games can have a positive effect on body composition in overweight or obese children and this effect is most likely mediated through improved aerobic fitness. Future trials should examine other potential mediators related to this type of intervention. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry Website: http://www.anzctr.org.au Study ID number: ACTRN12607000632493
Regular physical activity is important for children and adolescent’s healthy growth and for their physical, social and mental health. Therefore, comprehensive knowledge is needed on levels and patterns of physical activity, as well as factors influencing physical activity participation. PURPOSE: The overall purpose was to increase the knowledge regarding 9- and 15-year-olds physical activity level, aerobic fitness and their body composition. Further, to gain increased insight w...
Falconer, Catherine L; Leary, Sam D; Page, Angie S; Cooper, Ashley R.
BackgroundTo examine the tracking of active travel through adolescence, and its association with body mass index (BMI) and fat mass at age 17 in a UK cohort.MethodsWe analysed data collected from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). The analyses include all participants with self-reported travel mode to school at ages 12, 14 and 16 years, and measured height, weight and body composition at age 17 (n=2,026). Tracking coefficients were calculated for individual travel b...
Seyyed Reza Attarzadeh Hosseini; Morteza Motahari Rad; Keyvan Hejazi
Introduction: Hunger and reduction in regular energy intake can lead to a number of problems based on their intensity. For instance, low energy level can cause blood cell production to decline or it may pose a higher risk of anemia. It can also weaken the immune system and platelet aggregation or negatively affect clot formation. This study aimed to have a closer look at fasting and regular physical activity and their impacts on body composition and blood hematological-biochemical parameters ...
K Djafarian; M Hession; JR Speakman; DM Jackson
Childhood overweight and obesity are already on the rise in developed and developing countries. Childhood obesity is becoming a serious health problem. The cause of this problem is poorly understood. Despite a variety of factors such as genetic and environmental, a sedentary lifestyle is a known major contributor to obesity in children. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between physical activity, sedentary behaviour and body composition in children. Methods: The stu...
Full Text Available objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate functioning of the respiratory system and to estimate the correlation between the function parameters of the respiratory system and the level of physical activity and body composition in the adult rural population. The study involved a group of 116 people from rural population aged 35–60 years, staying on 3-week rehabilitation camps. They were divided into two groups: men (29 and women (87. The somatic features: body height, body weight, Body Mass Index (BMI and body copmposition were analysed, on the status of smoking and declared level of physical activity (PA was checked. For the evaluation of the functional parameters of the respiratory system the pattern of flow volume curve was used. The following parameters were determined: vital capacity (VC, forced vital capacity (FVC, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1, peak expiratory flow (PEF, MEF50 (maximum expiratory flow at 50% of VC and Tiffenau index. Hand grip and maximum torque of the knee join flexor and extensor muscles was measured. As expected, men had significantly higher levels of respiratory parameters. In analyzing the status of smoking cigarettes, it can be stated that the majority of subjects are smokers. conclusions. The values of functional parameters of the respiratory system were suitable for the age they were within the norm and did not show lung ventilation disorder. Most subjects of the study declared low physical activity which may be due to manual work on the farm. Smoking cigarettes significantly lowered the value of such parameters as FEV1, PEF and MEF50 only in the male group but the values did not indicate ventilatory disorder. Parameters of the respiratory system show the highest correlations with the parameters of muscle strength. Significant correlations with body compositions parameters (FFM, water have been noticed too.
In vivo analysis of body elements by neutron activation is an important tool in medical research. It has provided a direct quantitative measure of body composition of human beings in vivo. Basic physiological differences related to age, sex, race, and body size have been assessed by this noninvasive technique. The diagnosis and management of patients with various metabolic disorders and diseases has also been demonstrated. Two major facilities at Brookhaven are being utilized exclusively for in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA) of calcium, phosphorus, sodium, chlorine, nitrogen, hydrogen, and potassium. These elements serve as the basis for a four compartment model of body composition: protein, water, mineral ash, and fat. Variations in these compartments are demonstrated in clinical research programs investigating obesity, anorexia, cancer, renal failure, osteoporosis, and normal aging. IVNAA continues to provide a unique approach to the evaluation of clinical diagnosis, efficacy of therapeutic regimens, and monitoring of the aging process. Classical balance studies usually require the patient to be admitted to a hospital for extended periods of confinement. IVNAA, however, allows for clinical management of the patient on an out-patient basis, an important aspect for treatment of chronic diseases. 25 references, 3 figures, 5 tables
Ellis, K.J.; Cohn, S.H.
In vivo analysis of body elements by neutron activation is an important tool in medical research. It has provided a direct quantitative measure of body composition of human beings in vivo. Basic physiological differences related to age, sex, race, and body size have been assessed by this noninvasive technique. The diagnosis and management of patients with various metabolic disorders and diseases has also been demonstrated. Two major facilities at Brookhaven are being utilized exclusively for in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA) of calcium, phosphorus, sodium, chlorine, nitrogen, hydrogen, and potassium. These elements serve as the basis for a four compartment model of body composition: protein, water, mineral ash, and fat. Variations in these compartments are demonstrated in clinical research programs investigating obesity, anorexia, cancer, renal failure, osteoporosis, and normal aging. IVNAA continues to provide a unique approach to the evaluation of clinical diagnosis, efficacy of therapeutic regimens, and monitoring of the aging process. Classical balance studies usually require the patient to be admitted to a hospital for extended periods of confinement. IVNAA, however, allows for clinical management of the patient on an out-patient basis, an important aspect for treatment of chronic diseases. 25 references, 3 figures, 5 tables.
Gouveia, Élvio Rúbio Quintal
Physical Activity (PA) and functional fitness (FF) are predictors of a healthy and independent lifestyle in older adults. The purpose of this study was: (1) to construct reference values for FF; (2) to describe sex- and age-related changes in FF, balance, gait, PA, body composition, and bone health/strength; and (3) to determine their variation and co-variation with respect to PA. This cross-sectional study included 401 males and 401 females aged 60-79 years old. FF was assessed using t...
Drenowatz, Clemens; Prasad, Vivek K; Hand, Gregory A; Shook, Robin P; Blair, Steven N
Current physical activity (PA) guidelines indicate that moderate-intensity (MPA) and vigorous intensity (VPA) PA provide similar benefits when total volume is equal. The present study examined the associations of MPA and VPA with body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness in free-living young adults. A total of 197 young adults (52.8 % male) were followed over a period of 15 months. Body composition was assessed via dual X-ray absorptiometry and time spent in various PA intensities was determined with a multi-sensor device every 3 months. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed with a graded exercise test at baseline and 15-months follow-up. Change in VPA was positively associated with cardiorespiratory fitness while MPA had beneficial associations with percent body fat. In overweight/obese participants the association with VO2peak was similar for MVPA bouts and VPA. Even though MPA and VPA have positive associations with overall health, their associations on key health parameters differ. PMID:27055817
The main purpose of this thesis was to study, whether drinkable yoghurt enriched with probiotic bacteria could have any effect on constipation and body weight (BW) among older people with dementia. Further, it concerns poor nutritional status among older people with physical and cognitive impairments and its relationship with factors commonly occur in older people living in residential care facilities. It also discusses how body composition changes with ageing and the associations between cha...
Pederse, agnes N; Ovesen, Lars; Schroll, M;
OBJECTIVE: To measure body composition and analyse the relation to muscle strength, physical activity and functional ability in healthy, old subjects, and to relate the results to an optimal BMI level for the elderly. SETTING: Subjects aged 80 years living at home from the 1914-population in...... Glostrup, Denmark. SUBJECTS AND METHOD: 121 men and 113 women had their height and weight measured. Body fat mass and fat-free mass were assessed by bioelectrical impedance. Muscle strength was measured as handgrip, elbow flexion, knee extension, body flexion and body extension. Physical activity was self...... physical activity and functional ability. BMI was related to body fat mass, and FFM was related to muscle strength. Muscle strength was related to mobility and PPT. Mobility and PPT were mutually related and were related to physical activity. CONCLUSION: Our cross sectional study did not support newly...
Seyyed Reza Attarzadeh Hosseini
Full Text Available Introduction: Hunger and reduction in regular energy intake can lead to a number of problems based on their intensity. For instance, low energy level can cause blood cell production to decline or it may pose a higher risk of anemia. It can also weaken the immune system and platelet aggregation or negatively affect clot formation. This study aimed to have a closer look at fasting and regular physical activity and their impacts on body composition and blood hematological-biochemical parameters among professional wrestlers. Method: In this semi-experimental study, 9 subjects were selected by convenience sampling. The selected training program included participation in this exerciseprogram, 90 min per session, 6 times per week for a period of one month. Blood samples were obtained four times: before the start of Ramadan, 2 weeks after the start, during the last week and 2 weeks after the end of Ramadan. To make intra-group comparison, repeated measure analysis of variance was used. For all statistical comparisons, the level of significance was considered at PResults: Body weight and red blood cell count (RBC dropped significantly at the end of Ramadan (Respectively P= 0.001 and P=0.034. However, the number of white blood cells (WBC and circulating platelets (PLT significantly increased during fasting (Respectively P= 0.048 and P=0.042. As a matter of fact, PLT and WBC were the only factors which dramatically increased during fasting. Intra-group variations of tetracycline (TC, low-density lipoprotein (LDL, LDL: high-density lipoprotein (HDL, triglyceride (TG: HDL and TC: HDL reduced at the end of Ramadan. However, HDL levels drastically increased during fasting (P≤0.05. Conclusion: Based on the results of the research, despite being a regular activity and fasting has beneficial effects on lipid profile in athletes, however, they can with tangible changes in hematological factors may lead to weaken the immune system of athletes.
Full Text Available Physical activity (PA is a key contributor in long-term weight management but there remains limited research on the association between weekly PA patterns and weight change. The purpose of the present study was to examine the prospective association between weekly PA patterns and weight change in generally healthy young adults. Anthropometric measurements, including dual X-ray absorptiometry, were obtained every 3 months over a period of one year in 338 adults (53% male. At each measurement time, participants wore a multisensor device for a minimum of 10 days to determine total daily energy expenditure and time spent sleeping, sedentary, in light PA (LPA, in moderate PA (MPA, and in vigorous PA (VPA. PA did not differ between weekdays and the weekend at baseline. Twenty-four-hour sleep time, however, was significantly longer during weekends compared to weekdays, which was associated with less time spent sedentary. Weight loss was associated with a significant increase in LPA at the expense of sedentary time during the weekend but not during weekdays. Regression analyses further revealed an inverse association between change in VPA during the weekend and body composition at 12-month follow-up. Taken together, these results suggest that weekend PA plays an important role in long-term weight management.
Gribben, Nicole; Wirth, Michael D.; Hand, Gregory A.; Shook, Robin P.; Burgess, Stephanie; Blair, Steven N.
Physical activity (PA) is a key contributor in long-term weight management but there remains limited research on the association between weekly PA patterns and weight change. The purpose of the present study was to examine the prospective association between weekly PA patterns and weight change in generally healthy young adults. Anthropometric measurements, including dual X-ray absorptiometry, were obtained every 3 months over a period of one year in 338 adults (53% male). At each measurement time, participants wore a multisensor device for a minimum of 10 days to determine total daily energy expenditure and time spent sleeping, sedentary, in light PA (LPA), in moderate PA (MPA), and in vigorous PA (VPA). PA did not differ between weekdays and the weekend at baseline. Twenty-four-hour sleep time, however, was significantly longer during weekends compared to weekdays, which was associated with less time spent sedentary. Weight loss was associated with a significant increase in LPA at the expense of sedentary time during the weekend but not during weekdays. Regression analyses further revealed an inverse association between change in VPA during the weekend and body composition at 12-month follow-up. Taken together, these results suggest that weekend PA plays an important role in long-term weight management. PMID:27200185
Crawford, Margaret A.; Mendoza-Vasconez, Andrea S.; Larsen, Britta A.
The rates of diabetes in the U.S. are rapidly increasing, and vary widely across different racial/ethnic groups. This paper explores the potential contribution of body composition, diet, and physical activity in explaining diabetes disparities across women of different racial and ethnic backgrounds. For body composition, racial/ethnic groups differ widely by BMI, distribution of body mass, and quantity and type of adipose tissue. Dietary patterns that vary across race/ethnicity include consumption of meat, added sugars, high-glycemic carbohydrates, and fast food. Additionally, physical activity patterns of interest include aerobic vs. muscle-strengthening exercises, and the purpose of physical activity (leisure, occupation, or transportation). Overall, these variables provide a partial picture of the source of these widening disparities, and could help guide future research in addressing and reducing diabetes disparities. PMID:26648099
Crawford, Margaret A; Mendoza-Vasconez, Andrea S; Larsen, Britta A
The rates of diabetes in the USA are rapidly increasing, and vary widely across different racial/ethnic groups. This paper explores the potential contribution of body composition, diet and physical activity in explaining diabetes disparities across women of different racial and ethnic backgrounds. For body composition, racial/ethnic groups differ widely by BMI, distribution of body mass and quantity and type of adipose tissue. Dietary patterns that vary across race/ethnicity include consumption of meat, added sugars, high-glycemic carbohydrates and fast food. Additionally, physical activity patterns of interest include aerobic versus muscle-strengthening exercises, and the purpose of physical activity (leisure, occupation, or transportation). Overall, these variables provide a partial picture of the source of these widening disparities, and could help guide future research in addressing and reducing diabetes disparities. PMID:26648099
Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical inactivity is recognised as a public health concern within children and interventions to increase physical activity are needed. GreatFun2Run was a school-based healthy lifestyles intervention that showed positive changes in physical activity levels and body composition immediately post-intervention. The purpose of this paper was to examine whether these changes in physical activity and body composition were maintained 18-20 months after the intervention ended. Method Participants (n = 589, aged 7-11 yrs from 4 intervention and 4 control schools took part in the 10-month intervention, of which 421 (71% were present for follow-up. The intervention comprised a CD-rom learning and teaching resource for teachers; an interactive website for pupils, teachers and parents; two highlight physical activity events (1 mile school runs/walks; a local media campaign; and a summer activity wall planner and record. Randomisation was not possible because of local media content. Outcome measures were objectively measured physical activity (pedometers and accelerometers and body composition variables (body mass index, waist circumference, estimated percent body fat, and sum of skinfolds. Teacher interviews and participant focus groups were conducted. Multi-level modelling was employed for the data analysis. Results Both control and intervention participants had increased their physical activity at follow-up but there was no group by time interaction (control: 2726 steps per day increase; intervention 3404 steps per day increase, p > .05. There were significant increases in estimated percent body fat, sum of skinfolds, waist circumference and body mass index (BMI with increasing age. In the control group, there was evidence for a plateauing in the rate of change in all body composition variables with increasing age, except BMI. In contrast, significant interaction terms suggest that the rate of change in waist circumference, BMI and
Nishiwaki, Masato; Kuriyama, Akinori; Ikegami, Yumi; Nakashima, Nana; Matsumoto, Naoyuki
Background Wearing an activity monitor as a motivational tool and incorporating a behavior-based reward system or a computerized game element might have a synergistic effect on an increase in daily physical activity, thereby inducing body fat reduction. This pilot crossover study aimed to examine the effects of a short-term lifestyle intervention using an activity monitor with computerized game functions on physical activity and body composition. Methods Twenty healthy volunteers (31 ± 3 year...
Yu Zou; Yue Zhao; Wenzhong Hu
Melanin extracted from Auricularia auricula fruiting bodies (AAFB) was examined by element analyzer, amino acid analyzer, inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. Elemental composition analysis revealed that main component of AAFB melanin was pheomelanin. Amino acid analysis showed that 16 amino acids were found in AAFB melanin and total amino acid content was 321. 63 mg/g. There were 13 detectable metal elements in AAFB melanin, which was rich in Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn. In additi...
A prompt gamma IVNAA facility has been developed in Auckland to study body composition in both the depleted surgical patient and the critically ill intensive car patient. The IVNAA method, used in conjunction with the tritium dilution technique, enables total body protein, water and fat to be determined with precision. This paper reviews clinical research on the protein and hydration status of surgical patients requiring nutritional support as are the changes in proteins and fat achieved with nutritional therapy in pre- and post-operative patients. Results are also presented of a clinical trial which examines the efficacy of fat and glucose as hypercalorific energy sources. The IVNAA/tritium dilution method has for the first time been applied to document body composition changes in intensive care patients and results on critically ill post-operative septic intensive care patients are discussed. Data are also presented for patients who have suffered major blunt trauma. Finally, the method is contrasted with skinfold anthropometry as a means of determining total body fat and also with conventional nitrogen balance as a means of monitoring crude protein changes in the clinical situation
Maddison Ralph; Mhurchu Cliona; Jull Andrew; Prapavessis Harry; Foley Louise S; Jiang Yannan
Abstract Background Increased understanding of why and how physical activity impacts on health outcomes is needed to increase the effectiveness of physical activity interventions. A recent randomized controlled trial of an active video game (PlayStation EyeToy™) intervention showed a statistically significant treatment effect on the primary outcome, change from baseline in body mass index (BMI), which favored the intervention group at 24 weeks. In this short paper we evaluate the mediating ef...
York, J L; Pendergast, D E
Body composition was evaluated in healthy detoxified alcoholics (aged 20-39) and lifestyle controls, with the expectation that prolonged, excessive consumption of alcohol may bring about nutritional or toxicologic alterations in the relationship between body fat and lean body mass. Body fat was assessed by measurements of skin-fold thickness and by means of bioelectric impedance methodology. No noteworthy differences were observed between alcoholics and controls with regard to the relationship between lean body mass and body fat or in the relationship between extracellular and intracellular water. It would appear that 15-20 years of heavy alcohol consumption does not necessarily alter body composition in healthy, young alcoholics. PMID:2190482
De Lorenzo, A.; Bertini, I.; Candeloro, N.; Iacopino, L; Andreoli, A; Van Loan, M. D.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the differences in the estimate of body fat percentage (%FM) and the amount (kg) of fat free mass (FFM) by different methods in 26 moderately active adolescents very similar in age, body fatness, and training status. METHODS: Mean (SD) age was 16.7 (0.9) years, height was 177.0 (5.1) cm, and weight 68.0 (5.2) kg. %FM was assessed using dual-energy x ray absorptiometry (DXA) and two skinfold prediction equations: that of Slaughter et al (%FM Sla) and that of Deuren...
Mattsson, Soeren [Department of Radiation Physics, Lund University, Malmoe University Hospital, SE-205 02 Malmoe (Sweden); Thomas, Brian J [School of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD 4001 (Australia)
This review is focused on experimental methods for determination of the composition of the human body, its organs and tissues. It summarizes the development and current status of fat determinations from body density, total body water determinations through the dilution technique, whole and partial body potassium measurements for body cell mass estimates, in vivo neutron activation analysis for body protein measurements, dual-energy absorptiometry (DEXA), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, fMRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) for body composition studies on tissue and organ levels, as well as single- and multiple-frequency bioimpedance (BIA) and anthropometry as simple easily available methods. Methods for trace element analysis in vivo are also described. Using this wide range of measurement methods, together with gradually improved body composition models, it is now possible to quantify a number of body components and follow their changes in health and disease. (review)
This review is focused on experimental methods for determination of the composition of the human body, its organs and tissues. It summarizes the development and current status of fat determinations from body density, total body water determinations through the dilution technique, whole and partial body potassium measurements for body cell mass estimates, in vivo neutron activation analysis for body protein measurements, dual-energy absorptiometry (DEXA), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, fMRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) for body composition studies on tissue and organ levels, as well as single- and multiple-frequency bioimpedance (BIA) and anthropometry as simple easily available methods. Methods for trace element analysis in vivo are also described. Using this wide range of measurement methods, together with gradually improved body composition models, it is now possible to quantify a number of body components and follow their changes in health and disease. (review)
Hüseyin GÜMÜŞ; Bulduk, Sıdıka; Akdevelioğlu, Yasemin
Aim: The study was planned and implemented with the purpose of determining the relationship between the nutritional and physical activity conditions of adolescents living in orphanages in Ankara and their health and body compositions. Material and Methods: Research implemented by taking permission from Ethic Council of Gazi University Faculty of Medicine. 198 adolescents (115 boys, 83 girls) within the age group 13-18 living in orphanages, constitute the population of the study. Data's were c...
Silventoinen, Karri; Hasselbalch, Ann Louise; Lallukka, Tea;
Mx statistical package (Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA). RESULTS: High physical activity was associated with lower mean values, and a high proportion of protein in the diet was associated with higher mean BMI, waist...... circumference, and percentage body fat and a reduction in genetic and environmental variances. Genetic modification by physical activity was statistically significant for BMI (-0.18; 95% CI: -0.31, -0.05) and waist circumference (-0.14; 95% CI: -0.22, -0.05) in the merged data. A high proportion of protein in...
Majid, Hazreen Abdul; Amiri, Mohammadreza; Mohd Azmi, Nahar; Su, Tin Tin; Jalaludin, Muhammad Yazid; Al-Sadat, Nabilla
Insufficient physical activity and growing obesity levels among Malaysian adolescents are becoming a public health concern. Our study is to identify the trends of self-reported physical activity (PA) levels, blood lipid profiles, and body composition (BC) indices from a cohort of 820 adolescents. The self-reported PA was assessed using a validated Malay version of the PA Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C). Fasting blood samples were collected to investigate their lipid profiles. Height, weight, waist and hip circumferences as well as body fat percentage were measured. The baseline and the first follow-up were conducted in 2012 and 2014, respectively. A downward trend in the PA level was seen in all categories with a significant reduction among all rural adolescents (P = 0.013) and more specifically, PA among girls residing in rural areas dropped significantly (P = 0.006). Either a significant reduction in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) or a significant increment in BC indices (i.e., body mass index [BMI], waist circumference [WC], hip circumference, and body fat percentage [BF %]) were seen in this group. Female adolescents experienced more body fat increment with the reduction of physical activity. If not intervened early, adolescents from rural areas may increase their risk of developing cardiovascular diseases earlier. PMID:27465116
Mestek, Michael L.; Plaisance, Eric; Grandjean, Peter
Pedometer-determined physical activity (PA) is inversely related to body composition in middle-aged adults; however, researchers have not established such a relationship in college students. Objective and Participants: In this study, the authors attempted to characterize PA and examine its relationship with body composition in undergraduate…
Andreoli, Angela; Garaci, Francesco; Cafarelli, Francesco Pio; Guglielmi, Giuseppe
Nutritional status is the results of nutrients intake, absorption and utilization, able to influence physiological and pathological conditions. Nutritional status can be measured for individuals with different techniques, such as CT Body Composition, quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Ultrasound, Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry and Bioimpendance. Because obesity is becoming a worldwide epidemic, there is an increasing interest in the study of body composition to monitor conditions and delay in development of obesity-related diseases. The emergence of these evidence demonstrates the need of standard assessment of nutritional status based on body weight changes, playing an important role in several clinical setting, such as in quantitative measurement of tissues and their fluctuations in body composition, in survival rate, in pathologic condition and illnesses. Since body mass index has been shown to be an imprecise measurement of fat-free and fat mass, body cell mass and fluids, providing no information if weight changes, consequently there is the need to find a better way to evaluate body composition, in order to assess fat-free and fat mass with weight gain and loss, and during ageing. Monitoring body composition can be very useful for nutritional and medical interventional. This review is focused on the use of Body Composition in Clinical Practice. PMID:26971404
Chen, Dong; Wang, Wei; Ru, Shaoguo
An 8-week feeding experiment was performed to evaluate the effect of dietary genistein on growth performance, body composition, and digestive enzymes activity of juvenile Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus). Four isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated containing four graded supplements of genistein: 0, 30, 300, and 3 000 μg/g. Each diet was randomly assigned in triplicate to tanks stocked with 15 juvenile tilapia (10.47±1.24 g). The results show that 30 and 300 μg/g dietary genistein had no significant effect on growth performance of Nile tilapia, but the higher level of genistein (3 000 μg/g) significantly depressed the final body weight and specific growth rate. There was no significant difference in survival rate, feed intake, feed efficiency ratio or whole body composition among all dietary treatments. An assay of digestive enzymes showed that the diet containing 3 000 μg/ggenistein decreased stomach and hepatopancreas protease activity, and amylase activity in the liver and intestine, while a dietary level of 300 μg/g genistein depressed stomach protease and intestine amylase activities. However, no significant difference in stomach amylase activity was found among dietary treatments. Overall, the results of the present study indicate that a high level of dietary genistein (3 000 μg/g, or above) would significantly reduce the growth of Nile tilapia, partly because of its inhibitory effect on the activity of major digestive enzymes. Accordingly, the detrimental effects of genistein, as found in soybean products, should not be ignored when applied as an alternative ingredient source in aquaculture.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — pulmonary parameters, BALF biomarkers, body composition, motor activity data collected from rats exposed to ozone after high fructose or high fat diets. This...
Correa-Rodríguez, María; Rio-Valle, Jacqueline Schmidt; González-Jiménez, Emilio; Rueda-Medina, Blanca
Identifying modifiable factors that influence bone gain during early adulthood in order to maximize peak bone mass (PBM) is a potential primary strategy in the prevention of osteoporosis in later life. The present study examined the relationships between body composition, dietary intake and physical activity (PA), and bone health measured by quantitative ultrasound (QUS) at the right calcaneus. The study population consisted of 781 Spanish men and women (age 19.1 ± 3.6). Body composition, dietary intake, PA, and bone strength were assessed. Calcaneus QUS was significantly correlated with age, height, weight, body mass index, lean mass, fat mass, protein intake, and moderate and high PA. No significant correlation between calcium intake and broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA, dB/MHz) was detected. Linear regression analyses revealed that independent variables accounted for 18.8% of the total variance of calcaneus BUA (p = .000). Lean mass and high PA were significant predictors of BUA variance in young adults (p = .000 and p = .045, respectively). Results indicate that lifestyle choices and their consequences during early adulthood could influence bone mass, particularly PA and lean mass. Furthermore, this study provides novel data about bone mass as indicated by the QUS measurements at the time of PBM acquisition. PMID:26933147
Wang, ZiMian; Heshka, Stanley; Wang, Jack; Gallagher, Dympna; Deurenberg, Paul; Chen, Zhao; Heymsfield, Steven B
The proportion of fat-free mass (FFM) as body cell mass (BCM) is highly related to whole body resting energy expenditure. However, the magnitude of BCM/FFM may have been underestimated in previous studies. This is because Moore’s equation [BCM (kg) =0.00833 × total body potassium (in mmol)], which was used to predict BCM, underestimates BCM by ~ %. The aims of the present study were to develop a theoretical BCM/FFM model at the cellular level and to explore the influences of sex, age, and adi...
Full Text Available Introduction: Ever since there is insufficient and incoherent information about the effect of the Ramadan Fasting together with regular exercise on levels of serum osmolarity, and electrolytes concentration. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of fasting and physical activity on active and non-active males’ body composition, serum osmolarity levels and some parameters of electrolytes. Methods: Twenty six healthy males, who were selected by convenience sampling method, were divided into two (active and non-active groups. The Active group participated in football training for three sessions per week during the fasting month. All measurements were repeated on the first and last day of fasting month and were used to analyze the test results. Results: The average differences were significantly decreased in weight, BMI, WHR, mineral, total water in two groups (P≤0.05. There was a significant difference in average of BMI, WHR, body fat, mineral and total water between two groups (P≤0.05. Within-group mean differences in glucose, potassium, urine and albumin in both groups were significant (P≤0.05. Differences of serum osmolarity in between- and within-groups were not significant in both groups. While, glucose decreased significantly, the levels of the protein decreased, and urea increased significantly only in non active fasting group. Conclusion: According to these results, regular exercise together with the Ramadan fasting result in change in some serum osmolarity index, electrolytes and water. Therefore, it is necessary to protect the athletics against the malnutrition in Ramadan fasting by using the diet schedule and enough water.
Sanae Saitoh; Taeko Shimoda; Yukie Hamamoto; Yutaka Nakaya; Shigeru Nakajima
Context: Various studies have focused on the correlation between β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR), the β3-adrenergic receptor (β3AR), and the uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) polymorphisms and obesity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Aims: We examined the correlation between these polymorphisms and body composition variables and between body composition and lifestyle variables in Japanese T2DM patients. Materials and Methods: Of the 48, T2DM outpatients in Kanagawa prefecture recruit...
The in vivo evaluation of body composition is essential in many clinical investigations, in order to accurately describe and monitor the nutritional status of a range of medical conditions and physiological processes, including sick and malnourished patients, pregnant women, breastfeeding women and the elderly, as well as in patients with cancer, osteoporosis and many other diseases. This research area is also important to the field of human nutrition and exercise physiology. Several research investigations have indicated the importance of measuring fat deposition in different body compartments, in order to gain a fuller understanding of the genetic factors that contribute to obesity, obesity-related disorders, such as dyslipidemia, and thereby to a fuller understanding of obesity associated cardio-metabolic disorders, with relevance to the relationship between body composition and energy expenditure. The spatial and temporal dimension, where and when, may influence the physiological relevance and the pathological implications of the fat composition of different body compartments, and, as such, is a new element to be considered when assessing body composition. PMID:26564096
The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity poses a global health problem. Special concern is focused on overweight during youth since it may cause negative impact on health both during childhood, adolescence and later life. Physical activity is a key component in preventing overweight and associated with major health benefits and therefore crucial in youth health. An important personal factor for being physically active is the individual perceived physical self-este...
Z. Wang; Heymsfield, S. B.; PI-SUNYER, F.X.; Gallagher, D.; PIERSON, R.N.
During the past two decades, a major outgrowth of efforts by our research group at St. Luke’s-Roosevelt Hospital is the development of body composition models that include cellular level models, models based on body component ratios, total body potassium models, multi-component models, and resting energy expenditure-body composition models. This review summarizes these models with emphasis on component ratios that we believe are fundamental to understanding human body composition during growt...
Full text: Extracellular water space (ECW) is expanded in acute illness or in catabolic states. The assessment of change in ECW provides a simple method for monitoring nutritional status. ECW can be measured by Br dilution. A small amount of natural Br (10-17mg per Kg of body weight) is given orally. The concentration of Br in plasma is measured prior and 3 hours following the administration. Plasma is analysed for Br either by ion-exchange chromatography, or by non-destructive methods, such as instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) or X-ray fluorescence (XRF). We developed a method for the rapid analysis of Br in plasma with a small hand-held, XRF instrument consisting of a 30mCi Cd-109 source and an electronically-cooled solid-state Xray detector. 128 plasma samples were analysed from 64 volunteers aged 19 to 84y. The samples were measured first with the XRF instrument and then by INAA using the nuclear reactor of the research center 'Democritos' by the 79Br(n,γ)80Br neutron capture reaction. The samples were exposed to 2x1013n/cm2/s for 3 min. Detection of the 80Br (t1/2= 17.8 min) gamma-ray (616.2 KeV) followed 3 min after the irradiation using a liquid nitrogen-cooled purified Ge photon detector. We found the XRF instrument to be highly correlated with the neutron activation measurements (R= 1.000 for 7 standards, R = 0.997 for human plasma samples). We also observed that, in our group of volunteers, ECW was able to assess nutritional status as determined by in vivo neutron activation analysis. This simple method makes body composition measurements widely available as the main outcome of nutritional and pharmaceutical anabolic interventions. (author)
Belsito, K R; Vester, B M; Keel, T; Graves, T K; Swanson, K S
The mechanisms contributing to BW gain following ovariohysterectomy in domestic cats are poorly understood. Moreover, the effects of food restriction to maintain BW following spaying have been poorly studied. Thus, our primary objective was to determine the effects of spaying and food restriction to maintain BW on adipose and skeletal muscle mRNA abundance and activity levels in cats. After a 4-wk baseline period (wk 0), 8 adult (approximately 1.5 yr old) domestic shorthair cats were spayed and fed to maintain BW for 12 wk. After 12 wk, cats were fed ad libitum for an additional 12 wk. Body composition was determined, activity levels were measured, and adipose and muscle biopsies were collected at wk 0, 12, and 24. Fasting blood samples were collected at wk 0, 6, 12, 18, and 24. To maintain BW post-spay, food intake was decreased (P spaying and food restriction affect physical activity levels and several genes associated with lipid metabolism (decreased lipoprotein lipase), food intake (decreased leptin expression), and insulin insensitivity (increased interleukin-6). By identifying these changes, targets for nutritional intervention or lifestyle management have been identified that may curb the risk of obesity and related disorders in spayed cats. PMID:18997063
Background Adults with congenital heart disease (CHD) is a growing population and related to advances in surgical and medical treatment, they now outnumber the children with corresponding lesions. Since a congenital heart lesion often results in reduced exercise capacity, this population is a potential target for physiotherapy. To what extent this reduction in exercise capacity is caused by abnormal cardiovascular anatomy and physiology or to what degree insufficient physical activity contrib...
Fosbøl, Marie Ø; Zerahn, Bo
Reliable and valid body composition assessment is important in both clinical and research settings. A multitude of methods and techniques for body composition measurement exist, all with inherent problems, whether in measurement methodology or in the assumptions upon which they are based. This review is focused on currently applied methods for in vivo measurement of body composition, including densitometry, bioimpedance analysis, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance techniques and anthropometry. Multicompartment models including quantification of trace elements by in vivo neutron activation analysis, which are regarded as gold standard methods, are also summarized. The choice of a specific method or combination of methods for a particular study depends on various considerations including accuracy, precision, subject acceptability, convenience, cost and radiation exposure. The relative advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed with these considerations in mind. PMID:24735332
Genç, Abdurrahman; ÜÇOK, Kağan; ŞENER, Ümit; KOYUNCU, Tülay; AKAR, Olcay; ÇELİK, Sefa; Ünlü, Mehmet
To investigate total oxidant and antioxidant status, maximal aerobic capacity, daily physical activity, pulmonary functions, and body composition changes, as well as the associations among these parameters, in patients with mild to moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) versus healthy controls. Materials and methods: The study included 30 male patients newly diagnosed with COPD and 30 body mass index-matched, nonsmoker male controls. Maximal aerobic capacity, daily physical ac...
Isobe, Yuki; Sakurai, Masaru; Kita, Yuki; Takeshita, Yumie; Misu, Hirofumi; Kaneko, Shuichi; Takamura, Toshinari
Abstract Aims/Introduction To investigate the clinical and anthropometrical parameters that are associated with non‐exercise activity thermogenesis that is composed of basal energy expenditure (BEE) and diet‐induced thermogenesis (DIT) in patients with diabetes. Materials and Methods Body composition was assessed using bioelectrical impedance, and BEE and DIT were measured using indirect calorimetry in 40 Japanese patients with diabetes. Results BEE correlated positively with bodyweight, body...
Isobe, Yuki; Sakurai, Masaru; Kita, Yuki; Takeshita, Yumie; Misu, Hirofumi; Kaneko, Shuichi; Takamura, Toshinari
Aims/Introduction: To investigate the clinical and anthropometrical parameters that are associated with non-exercise activity thermogenesis that is composed of basal energy expenditure (BEE) and diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) in patients with diabetes. Materials and Methods: Body composition was assessed using bioelectrical impedance, and BEE and DIT were measured using indirect calorimetry in 40 Japanese patients with diabetes. Results: BEE correlated positively with bodyweight, body mass ...
Malan, Dawid Daniel Jacobus; Monyeki, Makama Andries; Toriola, Abel; Van Ridder, Johannes Hendrik; Du Preez, Susanna Maria
Excessive body fat is one of the main contributing factors in many health related health debilitating diseases, such as diabetes, obesity, hypertension and coronary arterioscleroses. The objective of this study was to determine whether a ten month physical activity intervention (PAI) programme could alter the body composition of 9-13 year old boys. A total of 322 (173=experimental group (EG) and 149=control group (CG)) from two primary schools in Gauteng province of South Africa were studied....
Full Text Available Aim: The study was planned and implemented with the purpose of determining the relationship between the nutritional and physical activity conditions of adolescents living in orphanages in Ankara and their body compositions. Material and Methods: Research implemented by taking permission from Ethic Council of Gazi University Faculty of Medicine. 198 adolescents (115 boys, 83 girls within the age group 13-18 living in orphanages, constitute the population of the study. Data’s were collected in three stages; in the first stage, the question set developed to determine the nutritional status and habits. In the second stage, food consumption and physical activities of adolescents were recorded. In the third stage, anthropometric measurements were taken. Results: It was found that 69.6% boys and 91.6% of girls skipped meals, and among those skipping meals, 34.8% of boys and 61.4% of girls skipped breakfast most. More than half of boys (63.0% and girls (65.0% were pickers as regards what they eat, 17.2% of adolescents never consumed milk, and 40.9% never consumed red meat. When daily mean energy and nutrient intakes of adolescents were evaluated according to Nutrition Guide Unique for Turkey, boys ate diets insufficient in vitamin A, folic acid, Vitamin B12, potassium, calcium and magnesium, girls ate diets insufficient in energy, vitamin A, Vitamin B1, folic acid, Vitamin B12, potassium, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus. Anthropometric measurements of adolescents were within normal limits; however, their activity levels were below those recommended. Conclusion: HEI score for 15.7% of adolescent boys (n=18 were evaluated as “bad” for 80.9% (n=86 as “medium” and for 3.5% (n=6 as “good”. It is recommended that implementing a training program for correcting the diet habits and the knowledge in nutrition of adolescents living in orphanages.
Magnusson, Kristjan Thor; Hrafnkelsson, Hannes; Sigurgeirsson, Ingvar; Johannsson, Erlingur; Sveinsson, Thorarinn
The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a 2-year cluster-randomized physical activity and dietary intervention program among 7-year-old (at baseline) elementary school participants on body composition and objectively measured cardiorespiratory fitness. Three pairs of schools were selected and matched, then randomly selected as either an…
Koo, W W
Infancy is the period of most rapid postnatal growth and is accompanied by major changes in body composition (BC). There are many challenges to successfully measuring BC of infants in vivo, which include the inherent limitations in the underlying assumptions for each technique. The small body mass and rapid nonuniform changes in body parts, that is, the components of BC during infancy, can strain the technical limits of all methods. Many techniques for in vivo BC measurement used in older people have been applied to infants. However, the vast majority of them either are difficult to adapt for widespread use in infants, or the roles and limitations for using them during infancy are ill-defined because of limited or no critical validation and cross-calibration studies. Based on validation data from animals, well-defined methodological issues in data acquisition and analyses, availability of normative data, and pertinent accuracy and precision of the technique to allow us to determinate clinically relevant changes in BC within a reasonable time interval, three techniques appear to be most suitable for in vivo BC measurement in infants. Anthropometric measurements can be used in field studies or for group comparisons, and total body electrical conductivity (TOBEC) and selected dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements can be used to compare BC in individual infants. DXA has the advantages of being able to measure bone mass and the potential to be adaptable to the widely available existing instruments. However, regardless of the techniques used in measuring BC in infants, meticulous attention to details in data acquisition and data analysis, and a knowledge of the limitations of the particular technique are the prerequisites for generating valid data. PMID:10865776
The effect of obesity on glucose intolerance is a mixture of the impact of body composition on glucose-insulin relationships as well as the modulation of this metabolism by physical activity. Populations of the African diaspora in the Caribbean and the United States have higher levels of obesity, glucose intolerance and diabetes than the ancestral population in West Africa. This is most likely a consequence of lifestyle changes, including an apparent decline in physical activity and dietary changes
Most studies focusing on the relationship between physical activity and obesity have been conducted in middle class Caucasian adults and children and few such studies are available concerning minority children in physical activity settings (Johnson, Kulinna, Tudor-Locke, Darst, & Pangrazi, 2007; Rowlands et al., 1999; Tudor-Locke, Lee, Morgan,…
Mehdi Broghani; mohamadreza hamedinea; mohamadreza asad; mehdi zarae
Introduction: The aim of this study is to investigate the body mass indexes and physical activities of 11-14 year -old adolescent boys in Khooshab.Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 300 male students aging 11-14 years old in Khooshab (2009). Subjects were selected via random sampling. Underweight, overweight and obesity were defined based on the 5th, 85th and 95th percentiles of body mass index (BMI) for age and sex, respectively, as proposed by CDC, 2000. Physical activity ...
There is a gradient of diabetes prevalence among populations of the African Diaspora. HYPOTHESIS: The risk of diabetes in transitional populations of the African diaspora is directly related to the rate of anthropornetric change and physical activity. AIMS: - To determine whether risk of incident diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance is related to physical activity in two populations of the African Diaspora with widely different levels of obesity; - To determine whether risk of incident diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance is related to rate of rise in body weight and change in body composition
Full Text Available Aim: The study was planned and implemented with the purpose of determining the relationship between the nutritional and physical activity conditions of adolescents living in orphanages in Ankara and their health and body compositions. Material and Methods: Research implemented by taking permission from Ethic Council of Gazi University Faculty of Medicine. 198 adolescents (115 boys, 83 girls within the age group 13-18 living in orphanages, constitute the population of the study. Data's were collected in three stages; in the first stage, the question set developed to determine the nutritional status and habits. In the second stage, food consumption and physical activities of adolescents were recorded. In the third stage, anthropometric measurements were taken. Results: It was found in the study that 13.9% of boys and 31.3% of girls had health problems. It was also found that 69.6% boys and 91.6% of girls skipped meals, and among those skipping meals, 34.8% of boys and 61.4% of girls skipped breakfast most. More than half of boys (63.0% and girls (65.0% were pickers as regards what they eat, 17.2% of adolescents never consumed milk, and 40.9% never consumed red meat. When daily mean energy and nutrient intakes of adolescents were evaluated according to Nutrition Guide Unique for Turkey, boys ate diets insufficient in vitamin A, folic acid, Vitamin B12, potassium, calcium and magnesium, girls ate diets insufficient in energy, vitamin A, Vitamin B1, folic acid, Vitamin B12, potassium, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus. Anthropometric measurements of adolescents were within normal limits; however, their activity levels were below those recommended. Conclusion: HEI (Healthy eating index score for 15.7% of adolescent boys (n=18 were evaluated as "bad" for 80.9% (n=86 as "medium" and for 3.5% (n=6 as "good". It is recommended that implementing a training program for correcting the diet habits and the knowledge in nutrition of adolescents living in
Fowke Jay H
Full Text Available Abstract Background Established risk factors for prostate cancer have not translated to effective prevention or adjuvant care strategies. Several epidemiologic studies suggest greater body adiposity may be a modifiable risk factor for high-grade (Gleason 7, Gleason 8-10 prostate cancer and prostate cancer mortality. However, BMI only approximates body adiposity, and may be confounded by centralized fat deposition or lean body mass in older men. Our objective was to use bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA to measure body composition and determine the association between prostate cancer and total body fat mass (FM fat-free mass (FFM, and percent body fat (%BF, and which body composition measure mediated the association between BMI or waist circumference (WC with prostate cancer. Methods The study used a multi-centered recruitment protocol targeting men scheduled for prostate biopsy. Men without prostate cancer at biopsy served as controls (n = 1057. Prostate cancer cases were classified as having Gleason 6 (n = 402, Gleason 7 (n = 272, or Gleason 8-10 (n = 135 cancer. BIA and body size measures were ascertained by trained staff prior to diagnosis, and clinical and comorbidity status were determined by chart review. Analyses utilized multivariable linear and logistic regression. Results Body size and composition measures were not significantly associated with low-grade (Gleason 6 prostate cancer. In contrast, BMI, WC, FM, and FFM were associated with an increased risk of Gleason 7 and Gleason 8-10 prostate cancer. Furthermore, BMI and WC were no longer associated with Gleason 8-10 (ORBMI = 1.039 (1.000, 1.081, ORWC = 1.016 (0.999, 1.033, continuous scales with control for total body FFM (ORBMI = 0.998 (0.946, 1.052, ORWC = 0.995 (0.974, 1.017. Furthermore, increasing FFM remained significantly associated with Gleason 7 (ORFFM = 1.030 (1.008, 1.052 and Gleason 8-10 (ORFFM = 1.044 (1.014, 1.074 after controlling for FM. Conclusions Our results
Fosbøl, Marie Ø; Zerahn, Bo
Reliable and valid body composition assessment is important in both clinical and research settings. A multitude of methods and techniques for body composition measurement exist, all with inherent problems, whether in measurement methodology or in the assumptions upon which they are based....... This review is focused on currently applied methods for in vivo measurement of body composition, including densitometry, bioimpedance analysis, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance techniques and anthropometry. Multicompartment models including quantification of trace...
Mattsson, Sören; Thomas, Brian J.
This review is focused on experimental methods for determination of the composition of the human body, its organs and tissues. It summarizes the development and current status of fat determinations from body density, total body water determinations through the dilution technique, whole and partial body potassium measurements for body cell mass estimates, in vivo neutron activation analysis for body protein measurements, dual-energy absorptiometry (DEXA), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, fMRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) for body composition studies on tissue and organ levels, as well as single- and multiple-frequency bioimpedance (BIA) and anthropometry as simple easily available methods. Methods for trace element analysis in vivo are also described. Using this wide range of measurement methods, together with gradually improved body composition models, it is now possible to quantify a number of body components and follow their changes in health and disease.
Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study is to investigate the body mass indexes and physical activities of 11-14 year -old adolescent boys in Khooshab.Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 300 male students aging 11-14 years old in Khooshab (2009. Subjects were selected via random sampling. Underweight, overweight and obesity were defined based on the 5th, 85th and 95th percentiles of body mass index (BMI for age and sex, respectively, as proposed by CDC, 2000. Physical activity levels were assessed by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ. Sedentary behaviors and socioeconomic status of subjects were assessed by means of a researcher- made questionnaire.Results: The overall prevalence of underweight and overweight-obesity was 16% and 3.38%, respectively. The levels of light; intermediate, and heavy physical activity among the obese subjects were 19, 24 and 15, among normal subjects were 19, 44, and 36, and among the lean ones were 22, 60 and 41 mins in 24 hours. Physical activity levels significantly were lower (P<0.01 in overweight-obese subjects than in normal-weight and underweight subjects. Television watching times were higher (P<0.05 in overweight-obese subjects than normal-weight subjects. Education levels of parents were significantly higher in overweight-obese subjects than normal-weight subjects.Conclusion: we concluded that prevalence of underweight was higher than prevalence overweight and obesity among 11-14 year-old adolescent boys in Khooshab. Furthermore, physical activity was not related to body mass index and increase in sedentary behaviors (television waticng were related with obesity and overweight in our subjects.
A programme of metabolic and nutritional research is being undertaken in critically ill patients requiring intensive care. Central to this research is the measurement of the three nutritionally important compartments of body composition, protein, fat, and water by a combination of tritium dilution and prompt gamma in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA). In this paper a calibration technique is presented that enables absolute estimates of total body nitrogen (TBN) to be made using prompt gamma IVNAA in critically ill patients with gross abnormalities in body composition, especially in their state of hydration. This technique, which is independent of skinfold anthropometry and does not make a priori assumptions about the ratios of major body compartments, has been applied to 41 normal volunteers and the derived values for nitrogen compared with values obtained by applying three currently used calibration methods to the same experimental data. The empirical equations relate TBN in normal people to age, height, weight and sex. The mean ratios of experimental to predicted TBN (with SEMs) are 1.013 +/- 0.017 and 1.002 +/- 0.014, respectively. Mean values of the ratio of TBN to fat-free mass (0.0340 +/- 0.0004) and of total body water to fat-free mass (0.716 +/- 0.002) agree closely with values reported elsewhere for normals by a variety of techniques including chemical analysis. Finally, TBN results based on the four different calibration methods are presented for five surgical patients, demonstrating the importance of the calibration method on estimates of TBN in patients with abnormal body composition. It is concluded that this technique will provide accurate estimates of the total body content of protein, water, and fat in intensive care patients
Beddoe, A.H.; Streat, S.J.; Hill, G.L.
A programme of metabolic and nutritional research is being undertaken in critically ill patients requiring intensive care. Central to this research is the measurement of the three nutritionally important compartments of body composition, protein, fat, and water by a combination of tritium dilution and prompt gamma in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA). In this paper a calibration technique is presented that enables absolute estimates of total body nitrogen (TBN) to be made using prompt gamma IVNAA in critically ill patients with gross abnormalities in body composition, especially in their state of hydration. This technique, which is independent of skinfold anthropometry and does not make a priori assumptions about the ratios of major body compartments, has been applied to 41 normal volunteers and the derived values for nitrogen compared with values obtained by applying three currently used calibration methods to the same experimental data. The empirical equations relate TBN in normal people to age, height, weight and sex. The mean ratios of experimental to predicted TBN (with SEMs) are 1.013 +/- 0.017 and 1.002 +/- 0.014, respectively. Mean values of the ratio of TBN to fat-free mass (0.0340 +/- 0.0004) and of total body water to fat-free mass (0.716 +/- 0.002) agree closely with values reported elsewhere for normals by a variety of techniques including chemical analysis. Finally, TBN results based on the four different calibration methods are presented for five surgical patients, demonstrating the importance of the calibration method on estimates of TBN in patients with abnormal body composition. It is concluded that this technique will provide accurate estimates of the total body content of protein, water, and fat in intensive care patients.
The measurement of body composition by multiple isotope dilution provides an accurate and precise measure of both the nutritional state and the response to nutritional support. A multiple isotope dilution technique has been developed that permits measurement of the three major components of body composition: body fat, extracellular mass (ECM), and body cell mass (BCM). Normal body composition was defined by data obtained in 25 healthy volunteers. Malnutrition is characterized by a loss of BCM and an expansion of the ECM, and as a result the lean body mass is not significantly different from normal. The loss of body weight with malnutrition therefore often reflects the loss of body fat. The utility of body composition measurements was demonstrated by determining the effect of total parenteral nutrition on body composition to determine the relationship between caloric intake and the change in the BCM. A statistically significant relationship was developed which demonstrated that a caloric intake in the range of 30-40 cal/kg/day is required for maintenance. To restore a depleted or malnourished BCM requires a caloric intake in excess of that required for maintenance. The measurement of body composition by multiple isotope dilution is complex and time consuming, and requires specialized laboratory facilities and specially trained personnel. As a result, these measurements are not suited for routine patient management, but should rather be reserved for research purposes
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN are often observed to have high levels of physical activity, which do not necessarily diminish after a successful therapy. Previous studies have shown that body fat tissue recovery in these patients is associated with a disproportional restoration of the adipocyte hormone, leptin. Therefore, we wondered whether the individual variation in physical activity in AN patients prior to treatment may be related to body fat percentage and plasma leptin level outcome. METHOD: Body fat percentage, leptin serum, and physical activity levels (accelerometer were measured in adolescents with an (n=37, age 13 to 17.5 years at initial assessment, at the end of study participation (median 12 months, and at one-year follow-up. RESULTS: Accelerometer data were used to split the patients in two groups: those with low (n=26 and those with high levels of physical activity (HLPA, n=11. These groups did not differ in terms of age, IQ, presence of menses, BMI and season of admission. The HLPA group was characterized by a longer total duration of illness. Physical activity levels during therapy decreased for the group with initially HLPA and increased for the group with low levels of physical activity (to comparable levels. Physical activity remained stable after one year. The increase in body fat percentage and leptin levels were dependent on the recovery status; however, recovered patients with initially HLPA had significantly higher fat mass during the follow-up. DISCUSSION: HLPA, an important modulator of AN progression in adolescents, can be successfully diminished by therapeutic intervention. Among recovered patients, those with initially HLPA had higher fat mass levels than those with low levels of physical activity. This finding suggests that HLPA are an important modulator of the body composition recovery mechanism.
Moushira Erfan Zaki; Afifi, Hanan H
Objective: This cross-sectional study was undertaken to construct the new body fat % curve and provide body composition reference data for adolescent girls with Turner syndrome (TS). They diagnosed cytogenetically by blood karyotyping and not treated with growth hormone (GH). Materials and Methods: The study included 70 TS girls from age 13 years to age 17 years. Body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance. Smoothed centile charts were derived by using the least mean square (...
Acromegaly is a disease caused by a benign pituitary tumor producing excess amount of growth hormone. A changed body composition can be a functional parameter of the disorder. The aim of this study is to describe body composition in acromegaly before and after therapy. Total body potassium (TBK) was measured as total exchangeable potassium using 42K by dilution technique or by counting gamma radiation from the naturally present 40K in a high sensitivity 3π whole body counter. Total body water (TBW) was determined with an isotope dilution technique using tritiated water as a tracer. The specific activity was measured in urine or plasma. The predicted values for TBK, TBW, and body fat (BF) were calculated by equations using body weight (BW), body height, age and sex as independent variables. The normal values for BW were calculated by using body height and sex as independent variables
Casazza, K.; Durant, N. H.
Summary This study evaluated body composition outcomes following a 3-month exercise program for overweight/obese Black women. BMI decreased over the 3-month study despite an observed increase in body fat. Enhancements in bone marrow density and muscle density were also observed. Results show promising yet hypothesis-generating findings to explore in future research. Introduction Few studies have evaluated the relationship between aerobic physical activity (PA) and body composition among young adult overweight/obese African American (AA) women. Purpose The current study evaluated the effect of a 3-month moderate-intensity aerobic physical activity intervention for overweight and obese young adult women on bone, lean, and fat mass. Methods Participants (n=15) were a randomly selected subset of AA female college students (M age=21.7 years; M BMI= 33.3) enrolled in a larger PA promotion pilot study (n=31). Study protocol required participants to engage in four 30–60-min moderate-intensity aerobic PA sessions each week. Whole body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) was used to assess additional quantitative and qualitative assessment of the radius. Results BMI decreased over the duration of the study (P=.034), reflected by a marginal decrease in body weight (P=.057). However, unexpectedly, increases in adipose tissue measures were observed, including total body fat (P=.041), percent body fat (P=.044), trunk fat (P=.031), and percent trunk fat (P=.041). No changes in DXA-measured bone outcomes were observed (i.e., bone mineral density, P=.069; bone mineral content, P=.211). Results from the pQCT assessment showed that bone marrow density increased (P=.011), but cortical density remained stable (P=.211). A marginally significant increase in muscle density (P=.053) and no changes in muscle area (P=.776) were observed. Conclusions A 3-month moderate-intensity PA program was associated
The effect of obesity on glucose intolerance is a mixture of impact of body composition on glucose-insulin relationships as well as the modulation of this metabolism by physical activity. In this project, we seek to measure the energy expenditure on activity, the rate of weight gain and changes in body composition in a free-living population, and to relate these variables to changes in glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. We have enrolled a cohort of 280 adults in Idikan, a poor urban community in lbadan, Nigeria, selected by simple random sampling from a population database. In this communication, we report characteristics of the study cohort, findings on evaluation of a physical activity questionnaire and changes in body size, body composition and measures of insulin resistance over a one-year period. Mean age of the men is 49.7 (SD 12.7) years and of the women 44.7 (SD 10.7) years. Mean fasting blood glucose was 4.57 (SD 4.75) mmol/L among men and 3.54 (SD 1.02) mmol/L among women. The modified HIP physical activity (PA) questionnaire was evaluated in a subset of participants for whom scale reliability coefficients of 0.57 and 0.33 were obtained for the occupational and leisure scales of HIP respectively. Two-week test-retest intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.53. On validation against doubly-labelled water measurements, the HIP occupational score showed a positive correlation (r=0.37, p=0.01) with activity energy expenditure per kg body weight (AEE per kg) and a similar correlation of 0. 37 with physical activity level (PAL). Thus, the HIP occupational scale showed adequate consistency, good test-retest reliability and good correlations with measures of physical activity by doubly-labelled water. Over a one-year follow-up period, the participants showed increases in weight, BMI, waist circumferences, fat mass, fasting insulin and insulin-to-glucose ratio. However, HOMA-IR did not significantly change. Overweight increased from 21.3% to 23.9% while
Hafla, A N; Carstens, G E; Forbes, T D A; Tedeschi, L O; Bailey, J C; Walter, J T; Johnson, J R
The objectives of this study were to determine if residual feed intake (RFI) classification of beef heifers affected efficiency of forage utilization, body composition, feeding behavior, heart rate, and physical activity of pregnant females. Residual feed intake was measured in growing Bonsmara heifers for 2 yr (n=62 and 53/yr), and heifers with the lowest (n=12/yr) and highest (n=12/yr) RFI were retained for breeding. Of the 48 heifers identified as having divergent RFI, 19 second-parity and 23 first-parity females were used in the subsequent pregnant-female trial. Pregnant females were fed a chopped hay diet (ME=2.11 Mcal kg(-1) DM) in separate pens equipped with GrowSafe bunks to measure individual intake and feeding behavior. Body weights were measured at 7-d intervals and BCS and ultrasound measurements of 12th-rib fat depth, rump fat depth, and LM area obtained on d 0 and 77. Heart rate and physical activity were measured for 7 consecutive d. First-parity females had lower (Pheifers consumed 17% less (Pheifers but maintained the same BW, BW gain, and body composition. Likewise, RFI classification did not affect calving date. An interaction (P=0.04) between heifer RFI classification and parity was found for calf birth weight. Calves from first-parity low-RFI females were lighter at birth (PHeifer postweaning RFI but not G:F or residual gain were positively correlated with forage intake (r=0.38) and RFI (r=0.42) of pregnant females. Results indicate that heifers identified as having low postweaning RFI have greater efficiency of forage utilization as pregnant females, with minimal impacts on growth, body composition, calving date, and calf birth BW, compared to their high-RFI counterparts. PMID:23989881
Effects of 6-month soccer and traditional physical activity programmes on body composition, cardiometabolic risk factors, inflammatory, oxidative stress markers and cardiorespiratory fitness in obese boys.
Seabra, André; Katzmarzyk, Peter; Carvalho, Maria José; Seabra, Ana; Coelho-E-Silva, Manuel; Abreu, Sandra; Vale, Susana; Póvoas, Susana; Nascimento, Henrique; Belo, Luís; Torres, Sandra; Oliveira, José; Mota, Jorge; Santos-Silva, Alice; Rêgo, Carla; Malina, Robert M
Physical activity is important in obesity prevention, but the effectiveness of different physical activity modalities remains to be determined among children. The main purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a 6-month soccer programme and a traditional physical activity programme on changes in body composition, cardiometabolic risk factors, inflammatory and oxidative markers, cardiorespiratory fitness and perceived psychological status in obese boys. Eighty-eight boys (8-12 years; BMI > +2 standard deviations of WHO reference values) participated in one of three groups: soccer, traditional activity and control. Soccer and traditional activity programmes involved 3 sessions per week for 60-90 min at an average intensity of 70-80% of maximal heart rate. Control group participated in activities of normal daily living. All boys participated in school physical education, two sessions per week of 45-90-min. Measurements were taken at baseline and after 6 months, and included body size and composition, cardiometabolic risk factors, inflammatory and oxidative markers, cardiorespiratory fitness and perceived psychological status. Physical activity and dietary intake were assessed before and immediately following the intervention. The three groups had similar characteristics at baseline. After 6 months, both intervention groups had significantly lower relative fatness (% fat), waist circumference and total cholesterol, and higher cardiorespiratory fitness, self-esteem, perceived physical competence and attraction to physical activity compared with control group. In conclusion, physical activity interventions over 6 months positively influenced several indicators of health status among obese boys. The results also suggested that soccer has the potential as an effective tool for the prevention and reduction of childhood obesity and associated consequences. PMID:26890580
Full Text Available K Binymin1,3, AL Herrick1, GL Carlson2, SJ Hopkins21University of Manchester, Rheumatic Diseases Centre, 2Infection Injury and Inflammation Group, and Brain Injury Research Group, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre and University of Manchester Faculty of Medical and Human Sciences, Salford Royal Hospitals NHS Trust, Salford, UK; 3Southport District General Hospital, Southport, UKIntroduction: Cachexia is associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA, but whether it is attributable primarily to reduced dietary intake or increased metabolism is unclear, as is the association with inflammation. To examine whether rheumatoid cachexia is related to increased energy expenditure, reduced food intake, or an inflammatory cytokine response we undertook a prospective, longitudinal study of patients with RA, during periods of relative relapse and remission of inflammation.Methods: Sixteen patients admitted to hospital with a flare of RA were assessed clinically to determine disease activity and were re-examined 6 weeks later. Their fat-free mass (FFM, dietary intake, resting energy expenditure (REE, and plasma concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6 were also measured. Data were compared with those from 16 healthy, age- and sex-matched controls.Results: At baseline the body weight, body mass index, and FFM of patients with RA were significantly lower than those of controls. Disease activity scores of patients (6.39 ± 0.8 were reduced when the patients were re-examined 6 weeks later (5.23 ± 1.26 and FFM was no longer statistically different from that of controls (visit 1 = 25.8 ± 10.1 and visit 2 = 26.8 ± 9.5 versus controls = 32.3 ± 10.9. There were no differences in food intake between patients and controls or between patients studied at the 2 time points, but REE was greater in patients after correcting for FMM (visit 1 = 62.2 ± 24.7, visit 2 = 59.7 ± 26.3 versus controls = 46.0 ± 13.7. Plasma IL-6 concentrations were significantly higher in
The objective of this study was to compare different body composition techniques in infants and toddlers. Anthropometric measures including mid-upper arm circumference (MAC), triceps skinfold thickness (TSF), and weight-for-height or -length Z-scores (WHZ), and measures of body fat mass assessed wit...
Zaki, Moushira Erfan; Afifi, Hanan H.
OBJECTIVE: This cross-sectional study was undertaken to construct the new body fat % curve and provide body composition reference data for adolescent girls with Turner syndrome (TS). They diagnosed cytogenetically by blood karyotyping and not treated with growth hormone (GH). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 70 TS girls from age 13 years to age 17 years. Body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance. Smoothed centile charts were derived by using the least mean square (LMS) method. RESULTS: The new body fat curves reflect the increase of body fat mass (FM) from age 13 years to age 17 years. Body FM % of Egyptian TS girls was lower when compared with age-matched American untreated TS girls. CONCLUSION: This study presents the new body fat curves and reference values of body composition for untreated Egyptian TS adolescent girls. The present charts can be used for direct assessment of body FM % for Egyptian TS girls and evaluation for cases on GH treatment or other growth promoting therapy. PMID:24019614
Moushira Erfan Zaki
Full Text Available Objective: This cross-sectional study was undertaken to construct the new body fat % curve and provide body composition reference data for adolescent girls with Turner syndrome (TS. They diagnosed cytogenetically by blood karyotyping and not treated with growth hormone (GH. Materials and Methods: The study included 70 TS girls from age 13 years to age 17 years. Body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance. Smoothed centile charts were derived by using the least mean square (LMS method. Results: The new body fat curves reflect the increase of body fat mass (FM from age 13 years to age 17 years. Body FM % of Egyptian TS girls was lower when compared with age-matched American untreated TS girls. Conclusion: This study presents the new body fat curves and reference values of body composition for untreated Egyptian TS adolescent girls. The present charts can be used for direct assessment of body FM % for Egyptian TS girls and evaluation for cases on GH treatment or other growth promoting therapy.
Savage J Maurice
Full Text Available Abstract Background The assumption that lifestyles formed early in life track into adulthood has been used to justify the targeting of health promotion programmes towards children and adolescents. The aim of the current study was to use data from the Northern Ireland Young Hearts Project to ascertain the extent of tracking, between adolescence and young adulthood, of physical activity, aerobic fitness, selected anthropometric variables, and diet. Methods Males (n 245 and females (n 231 were assessed at age 15 y, and again in young adulthood [mean (SD age 22 (1.6 y]. At both timepoints, height, weight and skinfold thicknesses were measured, and physical activity and diet were assessed by questionnaire and diet history method respectively. At 15y, fitness was assessed using the 20 metre shuttle run, while at young adulthood, the PWC170 cycle ergometer test was used. For each measurement made at 15y, subjects were ranked into 'low' (L1; lowest 25%, 'medium' (M1; middle 50% or 'high' (H1; highest 25% categories. At young adulthood, similar categories (L2, M2, H2 were created. The extent of tracking of each variable over time was calculated using 3 × 3 matrices constructed using these two sets of categories, and summarised using kappa (κ statistics. Results Tracking of diet and fitness was poor (κ ≤ 0.20 in both sexes, indicating substantial drift of subjects between the low, medium and high categories over time. The tracking of physical activity in males was fair (κ 0.202, but was poor in females (κ 0.021. In contrast, anthropometric variables such as weight, body mass index and sum of skinfolds tracked more strongly in females (κ 0.540, κ 0.307, κ 0.357 respectively than in males (κ 0.337, κ 0.199, κ 0.216 respectively. Conclusions The poor tracking of fitness and diet in both sexes, and physical activity in females, suggests that these aspects of adolescent lifestyle are unlikely to be predictive of behaviours in young adulthood. In
Mihajlović Bojan; Mijatov Saša; Srdić Biljana; Stokić Edita J.
Introduction The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the nutritional status and body composition in female ballet dancers and a group of non-athletic female controls. Materials and methods The study group consisted of 30 female ballet dancers, aged 17.4±2.01, whereas the control group included 30 non-athletic female examinees, aged 18.00 years on average. Height and weight were measured and body mass index (BMI) was calculated in all subjects. Body composition was estimated using th...
Danielle R Reed; Bachmanov, Alexander A.; Tordoff, Michael G.
We measured body weight and composition of ~10 male and ~10 female mice from 40 inbred strains. Body composition was assessed in ~16-wk old mice that had been individually housed and fed a high-carbohydrate, low-fat diet (AIN-76A) for the previous 8 wk. Carcass lean and fat weights were assessed using a PIXIMus II DEXA and confirmed by fat extraction assay. There was a nearly continuous range of body weights, from a strain mean±SE of 11.4±0.2 g (MSM/MsJ) to 39.3±1.8 g (NON/LtJ). The percentag...
Hodge, Melissa G; Hovinga, Mary; Shepherd, John A; Egleston, Brian; Gabriel, Kelley; Van Horn, Linda; Robson, Alan; Snetselaar, Linda; Stevens, Victor K; Jung, Seungyoun; Dorgan, Joanne
This study prospectively investigates associations between youth moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) and body composition in young adult women using data from the Dietary Intervention Study in Children (DISC) and the DISC06 Follow-Up Study. MVPA was assessed by questionnaire on 5 occasions between the ages 8 and 18 years and at age 25-29 years in 215 DISC female participants. Using whole body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), overall adiposity and body fat distribution were assessed at age 25-29 years by percent body fat (%fat) and android-to-gynoid (A:G) fat ratio, respectively. Linear mixed effects models and generalized linear latent and mixed models were used to assess associations of youth MVPA with both outcomes. Young adult MVPA, adjusted for other young adult characteristics, was significantly inversely associated with young adult %fat (%fat decreased from 37.4% in the lowest MVPA quartile to 32.8% in the highest (p-trend = 0.02)). Adjusted for youth and young adult characteristics including young adult MVPA, youth MVPA also was significantly inversely associated with young adult %fat (β=-0.40 per 10 MET-hrs/wk, p = .02) . No significant associations between MVPA and A:G fat ratio were observed. Results suggest that youth and young adult MVPA are important independent predictors of adiposity in young women. PMID:25387239
Bonnefoy, Marc; Gilbert, Thomas
Obesity and excess in fat versus lean mass is well known to enhance the risk of mortality and morbidity. Several recent works have pointed the importance of analysing more precisely body composition for the assessment of prognosis of patients in terms of cardiovascular outcomes and mortality. The body mass index (BMI), commonly used for defining obese patients, does not give sufficient indication on the body composition and distribution of fat mass. In the elderly population, relative excess in fat mass associated with a decrease in lean mass is frequently observed. In such situations of sarcopenic obesity, the relative weight stability can be misleading. Sarcopenic obesity is an emerging public health problem in the geriatric population. It appears to be the situation with the worst prognosis for cardiovascular risk. In addition, recent works have highlighted the major impact of visceral fat, clearly linked with cardiovascular events. Body composition has also an impact on other pathologic conditions such as dementia, sleep apnoea or cancer. The links between body composition and morbidity in the elderly population are presented in this review, with emphasis on adipokines and their interactions with other organs such as the heart, liver, skeletal muscle or bones. More precise measurements of body composition, rather than BMI alone, should be developed in the elderly population. PMID:26345585
Full text: The design, calibration, radiation dosimetry and preliminary performance evaluation of a prompt-gamma neutron activation analysis facility for in vivo body composition studies in small animals (i.e. rats or rabbits) are described. The system design was guided by Monte Carlo neutron and photon transport calculations performed using the MCNP-4C code. The facility utilizes a 555 GBq (15 Ci) Am-Be radionuclide neutron source positioned within a graphite collimator and appropriate shielding assembly. Prompt gamma rays produced by thermal neutron capture reactions within the animal are detected by a combination of a NaI(Tl) and a HPGe detectors positioned on either side of the sample, perpendicularly to the neutron beam. Small animal body nitrogen and hydrogen are determined by the NaI(Tl) detector by analysis of the 10.83 MeV and 2.22 MeV peaks, respectively, while calcium and chlorine are determined by the HPGe detector by analysis of the 6.42 MeV and 6.11 MeV peaks, respectively. Moreover, body potassium is determined independently by means of 40K measurement at a modified whole body counter facility. Appropriate corrections for animal body size and shape are applied. Mixed neutron and gamma radiation dosimetry was performed using a tissue-equivalent proportional counter. The facility described is a simple tool enabling us to perform in vivo analysis of the major body compartments of protein, bone mass, extra-cellular and intra-cellular space. It will be used to perform serial nutritional and metabolic studies in sets of small experimental animals under controlled conditions for an ethically accepted radiation dose and without the need to kill the animal. (author)
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of whole body resistance training on bone status and body composition in young female. Twenty five moderately active females volunteered to participate in this study and were randomly assigned to whole body resistance trained (WRT (n=13; 23.1±2.0 years and control (C groups (n=12; 22.5±1.7 years. Height, body weight and body composition measurements were held. Total body fat (%BF, fat mass (FM, fat-free mass (FFM, and bone mineral density (BMD measurements were performed with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. After completing the pre-test measurements, the WRT subjects were participated in 12 week whole body resistance training. At the end of the 12-week training period, paired t-test results showed that there was a significant (p.05 change in the body weight (-.21kg or BMI (.09. In the control group, significant (p.05 change in the body weight (.85kg, FFM (.12kg, and BMD (-.002 g/cm2 after 12 week period. These results showed that 12 week whole body resistance training had a optimize effect on body composition and bone status, but had no effect on body weight and body mass index in young female subjects.
Drenowatz, Clemens; Shook, Robin P.; Hand, Gregory A; Hébert, James R.; Blair, Steven N.
Excess body weight is associated with an imbalance between energy expenditure and dietary intake but evidence on the association between diet quality and body composition remains equivocal. Rather than relying on differences in diet quality between overweight/obese and normal weight adults, this study examined the association between the Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010) and body fatness on a continuous scale, independent of physical activity (PA). Further the association between component...
Full Text Available Introduction The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the nutritional status and body composition in female ballet dancers and a group of non-athletic female controls. Materials and methods The study group consisted of 30 female ballet dancers, aged 17.4±2.01, whereas the control group included 30 non-athletic female examinees, aged 18.00 years on average. Height and weight were measured and body mass index (BMI was calculated in all subjects. Body composition was estimated using the bioelectrical impedance method. Results Body composition analysis of ballet dancers revealed significantly lower values of body fat mass compared to the control group (18.85±4.50% vs. 23.41±4.34. Most examinees in both groups were of normal weight. 50% of ballet dancers and 23.33% of examinees in the control group were underweight, while overweight subjects were registered only in the control group. Most underweight ballet dancers had lower body fat mass, whereas majority of underweight examinees in the control group presented with normal body fat mass. Normal-weight obesity was established in 40.91% candidates in the control and 6.67% in the study group. Conclusion Ballet dancers had significantly lower values of body mass and BMI, compared to the study group. In order to prevent very serious complications caused by changes in size and proportion of some body compartments, it is necessary to carry out assessment of body composition more often in high-risk groups, such as the study group of ballet dancers.
Full Text Available John E Lewis1, Stacey L Tannenbaum1, Jinrun Gao3, Angelica B Melillo1, Evan G Long1, Yaima Alonso2, Janet Konefal1, Judi M Woolger2, Susanna Leonard1, Prabjot K Singh1, Lawrence Chen1, Eduard Tiozzo1 1Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, 2Department of Medicine, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, 3State Farm Insurance, Bloomington, IL, USA Background and purpose: The Electro Sensor Complex (ESC is software that combines three devices using bioelectrical impedance, galvanic skin response, and spectrophotometry: (1 ES-BC (Electro Sensor-Body Composition; LD Technology, Miami, FL to assess body composition, (2 EIS-GS (Electro Interstitial Scan-Galvanic Skin; LD Technology to predict autonomic nervous system activity, and (3 ES Oxi (Electro Sensor Oxi; LD Technology to assess cardiac output. The objective of this study was to compare each to a standardized assessment: ES-BC to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, EIS-GS to heart rate variability, and ES Oxi to BioZ Dx Diagnostic System (BioZ Dx; SonoSite Inc, Bothell, WA. Patients and methods: The study was conducted in two waves. Fifty subjects were assessed for body composition and autonomic nervous system activity. Fifty-one subjects were assessed for cardiac output. Results: We found adequate relative and absolute agreement between ES-BC and DXA for fat mass (r = 0.97, P < 0.001 with ES-BC overestimating fat mass by 0.1 kg and for body fat percentage (r = 0.92, P < 0.001 with overestimation of fat percentage by 0.4%. For autonomic nervous system activity, we found marginal relative agreement between EIS-GS and heart rate variability by using EIS-GS as the predictor in a linear regression equation (adjusted R2 = 0.56, P = 0.03. For cardiac output, adequate relative and absolute agreement was found between ES Oxi and BioZ Dx at baseline (r = 0.60, P < 0.001, after the first exercise stage (r = 0.79, P < 0.001, and after the second exercise stage (r = 0.86, P
Christie L. Ward, MS; Yoojin Suh, PhD; Abbi D. Lane, PhD; Huimin Yan, MS; Sushant M. Ranadive, PhD; Bo Fernhall, PhD; Robert W. Motl, PhD; Ellen M. Evans, PhD
Persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) have reduced physical activity (PA) and lower-limb physical function and potentially disordered body composition compared with their peers without MS. The aim of this study was to determine whether PA and body composition were differentially associated with lower-limb physical function in persons with MS compared with controls. Females with MS and age- and body mass index-matched female controls (n = 51; average age 48.1 +/– 9.7 yr) were measured for PA wi...
Z. M. Wang
The study of human body composition is a branch of human biology which focuses on the in vivo quantification of body components, the quantitative relationships between components, and the quantitative changes in these components related to various influencing factors. Accordingly, the study of human body composition is composed of three interrelated research areas, body composition rules, body composition methodology, and body composition alterations. This thesis describes the authors recent ...
A study was conducted to evaluate the use of deuterium oxide (D2O) for in vivo estimation of body composition of diverse types of pigs. Obese (Ob, 30) and contemporary Hampshire X Yorkshire (C, 30) types of pigs used in the study were managed and fed under typical management regimens. Indwelling catheters were placed in a jugular vein of 6 Ob and 6 C pigs at 4, 8, 12, 18 and 24 wk of age. The D2O was infused (.5 g/kg body weight) as a .9% NaCl solution into the jugular catheter. Blood samples were taken immediately before and at .25, 1, 4, 8, 12, 24 and 48 h after the D2O infusion and D2O concentration in blood water was determined. Pigs were subsequently killed by euthanasia injection. Contents of the gastrointestinal tract were removed and the empty body was then frozen and later ground and sampled for subsequent analyses. Ground body tissue samples were analyzed for water, fat, N, fat-free organic matter and ash. Pig type, age and the type X age interaction were significant sources of variation in live weight, D2O pool size and all empty body components, as well as all fat-free empty body components. Relationships between age and live weight or weight of empty body components, and between live weight, empty body weight, empty body water or D2O space and weight of empty components were highly significant but influenced, in most cases, by pig type. The results of this study suggested that, although relationships between D2O space and body component weights were highly significant, they were influenced by pig type and were little better than live weight for the estimation of body composition
Going, Scott; Lee, Vinson; Blew, Rob; Laddu, Deepika; Hetherington-Rauth, Megan
An understanding of body composition is crucial to understanding human health, disease, and function. Research in body composition has focused on the development of assessment methods, description of normal changes in body composition with growth and development and aging, and the changes that occur in body composition in response to challenges…
Ribeiro, Sandra M L; Kehayias, Joseph J
Reduction of lean mass is a primary body composition change associated with aging. Because many factors contribute to lean mass reduction, the problem has been given various names depending on the proposed cause, such as "age-related sarcopenia," "dynapenia," "myopenia," "sarcopenic obesity," or simply "sarcopenia." There is currently no consensus on how to best diagnose the reduction of lean mass and its consequences on health. We propose that simple body composition methods can be used to indirectly evaluate sarcopenia, provided that those techniques are validated against the "quality of lean" criterion that associates muscle mass and metabolic function with the components of fat-free mass. Promising field methods include the use of stable isotopes for the evaluation of water compartments and new approaches to bioelectrical impedance analysis, which is also associated with the monitoring of water homeostasis. PMID:24829472
Full Text Available Body composition represents an unbreakable unity of the human body basic structure elements and involves a relative representation of the various constituent elements of the human total body weight. It is well known that body composition changes under the influence of continuous physical activity, and, therefore, it is one of the major components of fitness, and general health of the athletes. Therefore, this topic has become a major field of interest for many exercise and sport scientists as well as clinicians who specialize not only in different training methods but also in the prevention of and rehabilitation from major injuries. To date, having considered issues of accuracy, repeatability and utility, there is no universally applicable criterion or ‘gold standard’ methodology for body composition assessment in athletes. The main objective of this review was to give a short overview of methods for body composition analysis in athletes and to show and compare the latest data on their usefulness and reliability in order to find the best solution for practical everyday work.
Dunton, Genevieve F; Liao, Yue; Dzubur, Eldin; Leventhal, Adam M; Huh, Jimi; Gruenewald, Tara; Margolin, Gayla; Koprowski, Carol; Tate, Eleanor; Intille, Stephen
Parental stress is an understudied factor that may compromise parenting practices related to children's dietary intake, physical activity, and obesity. However, studies examining these associations have been subject to methodological limitations, including cross-sectional designs, retrospective measures, a lack of stress biomarkers, and the tendency to overlook momentary etiologic processes occurring within each day. This paper describes the recruitment, data collection, and data analytic protocols for the MATCH (Mothers And Their Children's Health) study, a longitudinal investigation using novel real-time data capture strategies to examine within-day associations of maternal stress with children's physical activity and dietary intake, and how these effects contribute to children's obesity risk. In the MATCH study, 200 mothers and their 8 to 12 year-old children are participating in 6 semi-annual assessment waves across 3 years. At each wave, measures for mother-child dyads include: (a) real-time Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) of self-reported daily psychosocial stressors (e.g., work at a job, family demands), feeling stressed, perceived stress, parenting practices, dietary intake, and physical activity with time and location stamps; (b) diurnal salivary cortisol patterns, accelerometer-monitored physical activity, and 24-hour dietary recalls; (c) retrospective questionnaires of sociodemographic, cultural, family, and neighborhood covariates; and (d) height, weight, and waist circumference. Putative within-day and longitudinal effects of maternal stress on children's dietary intake, physical activity, and body composition will be tested through multilevel modeling and latent growth curve models, respectively. The results will inform interventions that help mothers reduce the negative effects of stress on weight-related parenting practices and children's obesity risk. PMID:25987483
Ejlerskov, Katrine Tschentscher
are physiologically plausible and should be investigated in other study settings. Results from paper III showed that total and free IGF-I at both 9 and 36 months were positively related to most measures of anthropometry and body composition at 3 years. We found no clear associations between IGF-I levels and early...... with later increased adiposity risk. Growth in early childhood is highly related to the levels of insulin-like growth factor-I. Objectives: Data used in this thesis is from the prospective cohort study SKOT which includes 330 children examined at 9, 18 and 36 months of age. The main objective with this Ph...... was to identify growth periods with relation to body composition at 3 years and whether the impact of growth was modified by nutrition. A third objective was to examine the relation between IGF-I levels at 9 and 36 months and body composition at 3 years. Since the IGF-I level was expected to be affected...
Brierley, Mary-Ellen; Brooks, Kevin R; Mond, Jonathan; Stevenson, Richard J; Stephen, Ian D
The dominant evolutionary theory of physical attraction posits that attractiveness reflects physiological health, and attraction is a mechanism for identifying a healthy mate. Previous studies have found that perceptions of the healthiest body mass index (weight scaled for height; BMI) for women are close to healthy BMI guidelines, while the most attractive BMI is significantly lower, possibly pointing to an influence of sociocultural factors in determining attractive BMI. However, less is known about ideal body size for men. Further, research has not addressed the role of body fat and muscle, which have distinct relationships with health and are conflated in BMI, in determining perceived health and attractiveness. Here, we hypothesised that, if attractiveness reflects physiological health, the most attractive and healthy appearing body composition should be in line with physiologically healthy body composition. Thirty female and 33 male observers were instructed to manipulate 15 female and 15 male body images in terms of their fat and muscle to optimise perceived health and, separately, attractiveness. Observers were unaware that they were manipulating the muscle and fat content of bodies. The most attractive apparent fat mass for female bodies was significantly lower than the healthiest appearing fat mass (and was lower than the physiologically healthy range), with no significant difference for muscle mass. The optimal fat and muscle mass for men's bodies was in line with the healthy range. Male observers preferred a significantly lower overall male body mass than did female observers. While the body fat and muscle associated with healthy and attractive appearance is broadly in line with physiologically healthy values, deviations from this pattern suggest that future research should examine a possible role for internalization of body ideals in influencing perceptions of attractive body composition, particularly in women. PMID:27257677
Full Text Available The dominant evolutionary theory of physical attraction posits that attractiveness reflects physiological health, and attraction is a mechanism for identifying a healthy mate. Previous studies have found that perceptions of the healthiest body mass index (weight scaled for height; BMI for women are close to healthy BMI guidelines, while the most attractive BMI is significantly lower, possibly pointing to an influence of sociocultural factors in determining attractive BMI. However, less is known about ideal body size for men. Further, research has not addressed the role of body fat and muscle, which have distinct relationships with health and are conflated in BMI, in determining perceived health and attractiveness. Here, we hypothesised that, if attractiveness reflects physiological health, the most attractive and healthy appearing body composition should be in line with physiologically healthy body composition. Thirty female and 33 male observers were instructed to manipulate 15 female and 15 male body images in terms of their fat and muscle to optimise perceived health and, separately, attractiveness. Observers were unaware that they were manipulating the muscle and fat content of bodies. The most attractive apparent fat mass for female bodies was significantly lower than the healthiest appearing fat mass (and was lower than the physiologically healthy range, with no significant difference for muscle mass. The optimal fat and muscle mass for men's bodies was in line with the healthy range. Male observers preferred a significantly lower overall male body mass than did female observers. While the body fat and muscle associated with healthy and attractive appearance is broadly in line with physiologically healthy values, deviations from this pattern suggest that future research should examine a possible role for internalization of body ideals in influencing perceptions of attractive body composition, particularly in women.
Elzbieta Kostrzewa; van Elburg, Annemarie A.; Nicole Sanders; Lot Sternheim; Adan, Roger A. H.; Kas, Martien J H
OBJECTIVE: Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) are often observed to have high levels of physical activity, which do not necessarily diminish after a successful therapy. Previous studies have shown that body fat tissue recovery in these patients is associated with a disproportional restoration of the adipocyte hormone, leptin. Therefore, we wondered whether the individual variation in physical activity in AN patients prior to treatment may be related to body fat percentage and plasma leptin l...
Elder, Sonya J.; Roberts, Susan B.; McCrory, Megan A.; Das, Sai Krupa; Fuss, Paul J.; Pittas, Anastassios G.; Greenberg, Andrew S.; Heymsfield, Steven B; Dawson-Hughes, Bess; Bouchard, Thomas J.; Saltzman, Edward; Neale, Michael C.
Heritability estimates of human body fatness vary widely and the contribution of body composition methodology to this variability is unknown. The effect of body composition methodology on estimations of genetic and environmental contributions to body fatness variation was examined in 78 adult male and female monozygotic twin pairs reared apart or together. Body composition was assessed by six methods – body mass index (BMI), dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), underwater weighing (UWW), t...
Di Renzo, L; Del Gobbo, V; Bigioni, M; Premrov, M G; Cianci, R; De Lorenzo, A
The purpose of this study was to identify new indexes of body composition that characterize the normal weight obese (NWO) women. We measured body composition by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and resting metabolic rate (RMR) by indirect calorimetry in a cohort of seventy-five healthy Italian women, subdivided into three groups (nonobese/controls, NWO, preobese-obese women). Despite a normal body mass index (BMI), the NWO women have a higher body fat mass percentage (FAT %) (38.99 +/- 6.03) associated to a significant (p = 0.02) lower amount of lean mass of legs (12.24 +/- 1.31) and lean mass of left leg (6.07 +/- 0.64) with respect to the control group. The NWO group showed a significant (p = 0.043) lower RMR (1201.25 +/- 349.02) in comparison with nonobese and preobese-obese women. To classify NWO individuals among general population, we identified three significant body composition indexes: abdominal index, leg index and trunk index. The NWO women showed significant increased value in the three indexes (p NWO women displayed a cluster of anthropometric characteristics (body fat mass percentage, leg indexes) not different to obese women ones. An appropriate diet-therapy and physical activity may be protecting NWO individuals from diabetes and cardiovascular diseases associated to preobese-obese women. PMID:16910350
A Web site intended to inform the general public about existing nuclear technologies based on the measurement of radioisotopes in the human body has been designed. The presentation is focused on the concept of radioisotope measurements for determination of body composition (bone, muscle, water, fat), and the risks, benefits, and clinical applications of these techniques. Procedures covered are 40K whole body counting, delayed-gamma neutron activation, prompt-gamma neutron activation, and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The information presented is tailored for the nonscientific public, in order to promote familiarity with and understanding of the basic concepts of radioisotope measurements in the human body. Further development of the site will include greater scientific detail, suitable for student instruction or for continuing education requirements of various certification programs. (author)
Pitts, G. C.
Studies of the centrifugation of adult rats showed an unexpected decrease in the mass of fat-free muscle and bone, in spite of the added load induced by centrifugation. It is suggested that the lower but constant fat-free body mass was probably regulated during centrifugation. Rats placed in weightless conditions for 18.5 days gave indirect but strong evidence that the muscle had increased in mass. Other changes in the rats placed in weightless conditions included a smaller fraction of skeletal mineral, a smaller fraction of water in the total fat-free body, and a net shift of fluid from skin to viscera. Adult rats centrifuged throughout the post-weaning growth period exhibited smaller masses of bone and central nervous system (probably attributable to slower growth of the total body), and a larger mass of skin than controls at 1 G. Efforts at simulating the effects of weightlessness or centrifugation on the body composition of rats by regimens at terrestrial gravity were inconclusive.
This Bachelor’s Thesis was done for the Metropolia University of Applied Science’s Concept City Car Project, funded and initiated by TEKES, the Finnish Funding Agency for Technology and Innovation, in the aim of designing and producing a lightweight vehicle for urban environments using bio composites in the body of the vehicle and having an engine that uses the next generation biodiesel as its fuel. This graduate study is but one of many done for this project, one of them being the foundation...
Christie L. Ward, MS
Full Text Available Persons with multiple sclerosis (MS have reduced physical activity (PA and lower-limb physical function and potentially disordered body composition compared with their peers without MS. The aim of this study was to determine whether PA and body composition were differentially associated with lower-limb physical function in persons with MS compared with controls. Females with MS and age- and body mass index-matched female controls (n = 51; average age 48.1 +/– 9.7 yr were measured for PA with daily step counts, relative fat mass (%Fat, and leg lean mass (LM-LEG via dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and for lower-limb physical function with objective performance tests. Persons with MS had 12.5% to 53% poorer lower-limb physical function than controls (all p < 0.05. PA, %Fat, and LM-LEG to body mass ratio (LM-LEG/BM were associated with lower-limb physical function in both persons with MS and controls (all p < 0.05. Based on median splits, higher %Fat, lower LM-LEG/BM, and MS conferred poorer lower-limb physical function (all p < 0.05. PA, %Fat, and LM-LEG/BM were associated with lower-limb physical function, suggesting that body composition, specifically reducing adiposity and increasing lean mass and/or increasing PA levels, may be a potential target for MS interventions.
Here, we describe the results of a cross-sectional bioimpedance study of body composition in 552 Russian children and adolescents aged 7-17 years in remission of various types of cancer (remission time 0-15 years, median 4 years). A sample of 1500 apparently healthy individuals of the same age interval was used for comparison. Our data show high frequency of malnutrition in total cancer patients group depending on type of cancer. 52.7% of patients were malnourished according to phase angle and percentage fat mass z-score with the range between 42.2% in children with solid tumors located outside CNS and 76.8% in children with CNS tumors. The body mass index failed to identify the proportion of patients with malnutrition and showed diagnostic sensitivity 50.6% for obesity on the basis of high percentage body fat and even much less so for undernutrition – 13.4% as judged by low phase angle. Our results suggest an advantage of using phase angle as the most sensitive bioimpedance indicator for the assessment of metabolic alterations, associated risks, and the effectiveness of rehabilitation strategies in childhood cancer patients.
Tseytlin, G. Ja; Anisimova, A. V.; Godina, E. Z.; Khomyakova, I. A.; Konovalova, M. V.; Nikolaev, D. V.; Rudnev, S. G.; Starunova, O. A.; Vashura, A. Yu
Here, we describe the results of a cross-sectional bioimpedance study of body composition in 552 Russian children and adolescents aged 7-17 years in remission of various types of cancer (remission time 0-15 years, median 4 years). A sample of 1500 apparently healthy individuals of the same age interval was used for comparison. Our data show high frequency of malnutrition in total cancer patients group depending on type of cancer. 52.7% of patients were malnourished according to phase angle and percentage fat mass z-score with the range between 42.2% in children with solid tumors located outside CNS and 76.8% in children with CNS tumors. The body mass index failed to identify the proportion of patients with malnutrition and showed diagnostic sensitivity 50.6% for obesity on the basis of high percentage body fat and even much less so for undernutrition - 13.4% as judged by low phase angle. Our results suggest an advantage of using phase angle as the most sensitive bioimpedance indicator for the assessment of metabolic alterations, associated risks, and the effectiveness of rehabilitation strategies in childhood cancer patients.
Wells, J. C.; Cole, T.J.; Davies, P S
In adults greater energy expenditure, primarily on physical activity, is associated with greater leanness. Such an association has proved more difficult to demonstrate in infants, partly due to the difficulty of measuring fatness and free living energy expenditure in this age group. Stable isotope techniques now make such investigations more viable. OBJECTIVE: The relationship between body composition and energy expenditure was investigated in 12 week infants. METHODS: Total energy expenditur...
魏代敏; 郁琦; 张颖; 陈凤领
Objective: To investigate the influence of age, menopause status, body mass index (BMI) and physical activity on body composition and body fat distribution in Chinese midlife women. Methods: The healthy women who underwent anniversary health checkup in Peking Union Medical College Hospital were recruited cross-sectionally. The level of physical activity was determined via International Physical Activity Questionare-Short in Chinese Version. The body composition and fat distribution were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results: A total of 162 women with average age 52 years (40-62 years) were collected. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to test the relationship between age, menopause status, BMI and physical activity and parameters of body composition & body fat distribution. The total fat tissue percentage was positively associated with BMI (standardized partial regression coefficient; b = 0. 70), menopause status (b = 0. 19, grading variable 1, 2, 3) were assigned to represent for reproductive group, menopausal transition group and postmenopausal group, respectively, and negatively associated with physical activity energy expenditure (b=-0. 17) with model determination coefficient 0. 55. Total body fat-free mass was positively associated with BMI (b = 0. 61) , negatively associated with menopause status (b=-0. 14) with model determination coefficient 0. 39. The ratio of trunk fat tissue/total body fat tissue was positively related with BMI (b = 0. 32) and menopause status (b = 0. 30) with model determination coefficient 0. 20. After adjusted the effects of BMI, menopause status and physical activity, age was not significantly related with total fat tissue percentage, body fat-free mass, nor ratio of trunk fat tissue/total body fat tissue. Conclusions: Menopause impact body composition and body fat distribution independently. During the process of female reproductive aging, body fat tissue mass increases and becomes more susceptible to
This thesis describes several studies related to the three components of energy balance in elderly people: body composition, energy expenditure, and energy intake.Body composition. The applicability of the body mass index, skinfold thickness method, and multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance was tested in elderly men and women. The first two methods predicted body fat in elderly people on a group level with a mean prediction error of 5%. The impedance method predicted total body water (at 50...
Sakai, Toshiro; Demura, Shinichi; Fujii, Katsunori
Childhood obesity is one of the most serious public health challenges of the 21st century. Obesity is a state in which body fat accumulates to an abnormal degree, and detailed information about body composition is necessary to investigate the problems of obesity in children. In the present study, we measured body composition using equipment based on the multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis method to measure lean body mass and the quantity of fat. We evaluated differences in body co...
Kostrzewa, Elzbieta; van Elburg, Annemarie A; Sanders, Nicole; Sternheim, Lot; Adan, Roger A H; Kas, Martien J H
OBJECTIVE: Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) are often observed to have high levels of physical activity, which do not necessarily diminish after a successful therapy. Previous studies have shown that body fat tissue recovery in these patients is associated with a disproportional restoration of th
Full Text Available Background:The method of bioelectrical impedance (BIA is frequently used to estimate body composition in sports. The total body water (TBW is the basic variable that BIA measures. That implies the degree of sensitivity of BIA to the hydration of the organism, which is also demonstrated by the principles of measurement that primarily relate to the hydration of the organism. It is difficult to provide standard hydration of the organism of subjects prior to measurements when taking the measurements in the field. Objective:The objective of the study is to assess the changes in the final values of the selected body composition parameters in soccer players caused by intake of water, using two devices commonly used in the field. Methods:The research was performed in a group of 33 soccer players (mean age 20.30 ± 1.18 years. The measurements were taken using Tanita BC 418 MA (frequency 50 kHz and Nutriguard-M (frequency 100 kHz. To evaluate the effect of water intake, we took two measurements before and after the intake of 500 ml of water. The parameters measured by Tanita BC 418 MA were body weight (BW, total body water (TBW, body fat (BF, fat free mass (FFM. Nutriguard-M was used to measure total body water (TBW, intra and extracellular water (ICW and ECW, body fat (BF, fat free mass (FFM, intra and extracellular mass (BCM and ECM. The differences in the means (M1 and M2 of the monitored parameters were evaluated using the Paired Samples t-test. In statistically significant differences in the mean, the practical significance was also verified using the effect of size (Cohen's d. Results:The Tanita device showed statistically significant differences after the intake of 500 ml in parameters BW (+0.42 kg, BF (+0.39 kg, +0.53% and TBW (-0.38%. As for the Nutriguard device, statistically significant differences were found in parameters TBW (+0.77 kg, ICW (+0.83 kg, FFM (+1.05 kg, BCM (+0.79 kg and ECM/BCM (-0.01. Conclusion
This thesis describes several studies related to the three components of energy balance in elderly people: body composition, energy expenditure, and energy intake.Body composition. The applicability of the body mass index, skinfold thickness method, and multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance was te
Gonzalez-Aguero, Alejandro; Matute-Llorente, Angel; Gomez-Cabello, Alba; Casajus, Jose A.; Vicente-Rodriguez, German
The present study aimed to determine the effect of 20 weeks of whole body vibration (WBV) on the body composition of adolescents with Down syndrome (DS). Thirty adolescent with DS were divided into two groups: control and WBV. Whole body, upper and lower limbs body fat and lean body mass were measured with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)…
Veasey-Rodrigues, Heloisa; Parsons, Henrique A.; Janku, Filip; Naing, Aung; Wheler, Jennifer J.; Apostolia M Tsimberidou; Kurzrock, Razelle
Purpose Body weight and composition play a role in cancer etiology, prognosis, and treatment response. Therefore, we analyzed the weight, body composition changes, and outcome in patients treated with temsirolimus, an mTor inhibitor that has weight loss as one of its side effects. Patients and methods Sixteen patients with advanced solid tumors treated with temsirolimus were studied; body composition was evaluated utilizing computerized tomography images. Sarcopenia was defined as skeletal mu...
Zillikens, Carola; Yazdanpanah, Mojgan; Pardo Cortes, Luba; Rivadeneira Ramirez, Fernando; Aulchenko, Yurii; Oostra, Ben; Uitterlinden, André; Pols, Huib; Tikka-Kleemola, Päivi
textabstractAims/hypothesis: Despite well-known sex differences in body composition it is not known whether sex-specific genetic or environmental effects contribute to these differences. Methods: We assessed body composition in 2,506 individuals, from a young Dutch genetic isolate participating in the Erasmus Rucphen Family study, by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and anthropometry. We used variance decomposition procedures to partition variation of body composition into genetic and environ...
To estimate which maternal body composition parameters measured using multifrequency segmental bioelectric impedance analysis in the first trimester of pregnancy are predictors of increased birth weight.
Miller, I M; Rytgaard, Helene Charlotte; Mogensen, U B;
BACKGROUND: Several studies have suggested an association between Hidradenitis Suppurativa (HS) and obesity. Obesity is often expressed as Body Mass Index (BMI). However, BMI lacks information on body composition. General obesity is a predictor of health status and cardiovascular risk, but body...... composition (e.g. abdominal fat) may be more so. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is an expression of resting metabolism and may serve as a complementary tool when assessing the possibly underlying metabolism behind a persons' body composition. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the body composition and basal metabolic rate...... in individuals with HS compared with healthy controls. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study on both a hospital-based and population-based HS group and compared with controls using Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis to assess body composition. RESULTS: We identified a hospital-based HS group of...
M.C. Zillikens (Carola); M. Yazdanpanah (Mojgan); L.M. Pardo Cortes (Luba); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); Y.S. Aulchenko (Yurii); B.A. Oostra (Ben); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); H.A.P. Pols (Huib); P. Tikka-Kleemola (Päivi)
textabstractAims/hypothesis: Despite well-known sex differences in body composition it is not known whether sex-specific genetic or environmental effects contribute to these differences. Methods: We assessed body composition in 2,506 individuals, from a young Dutch genetic isolate participating in t
Frisen, Ann; Lunde, Carolina; Hwang, Philip
The present study examined the links between children's exposure to peer victimisation, in terms of type and frequency, their body composition and subjective perceptions of body composition. A total of 960 Swedish 10-year-olds (515 girls and 445 boys) completed questionnaires about their peer victimisation experiences, weight and height, and…
Lifestyle modifies the relationship between body composition and adrenergic receptor genetic polymorphisms, ADRB2, ADRB3 and ADRA2B: A secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial of physical activity among postmenopausal women
Bea, Jennifer W.; Lohman, Timothy G.; Cussler, Ellen C; Going, Scott B.; Thompson, Patricia A.
Genetic variations in the adrenergic receptor (ADR) have been associated with body composition in cross-sectional studies. Recent findings suggest that ADR variants may also modify body composition response to lifestyle. We assessed the role of ADR variants in body composition response to 12 months of resistance training versus control in previously sedentary postmenopausal women. Randomized trial completers were genotyped for A2BGlu9/12 by fragment length analysis, and B2Gln27Glu and B3Trp64...
The effects of combined nutritional support (parenteral, enteral, and oral) were measured in cancer patients unable to maintain normal alimentation.Changes in body composition were quantified by measurement of total body levels of nitrogen, potassium, water, and fat. The protein-calorie intake of the patients was also evaluated by dietary survey (4-day recall). Standard anthropometric and biochemical measurements for nutritional assessment were obtained for comparison. The dietary evaluation indicated that the dietary supplementation for all patients was more than adequate to meet their energy requirements. Determination of body composition indicated that change in body weight was equal to the sum of the changes in body protein, total body water, and total body fat. Information on the nature of the tissue gained was obtained by comparison of body composition data with the ratio of protein:water:lean body mass for normal tissue. The mean gain of protein in the cancer patients was quite small (0.3-0.6 kg). The main change in body weight appeared to be the result of gains in body water and body fat. The total body nitrogen to potassium ratio served to define the extent of tissue anabolism following hyperalimentation. The ratio dropped in the cancer patients following hyperalimentation toward the value of the control subjects on ad libitum diets. Total body nitrogen was determined by prompt gamma neutron activation analysis, total body potassium by whole-body counting
Mesut Sipahi; Halil İbrahim Serin; Mustafa Fatih Erkoç; Çiğdem Ünal Kantekin; Ergin Arslan; Hasan Börekçi
Objective: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) which is strongly correlated with obesity; has been a common worldwide health problem with the improvements in social status. Body composition studies are accepted as a simple follow-up tool for treatment of obesity. Since the correlation of body mass index (BMI) with the hepatosteatosis (HS) is well known; the aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of body composition parameters (BCP) to determine HS on NAFLD patients; using dual bi...
Fowke Jay H; Motley Saundra S; Concepcion Raoul S; Penson David F; Barocas Daniel A
Abstract Background Established risk factors for prostate cancer have not translated to effective prevention or adjuvant care strategies. Several epidemiologic studies suggest greater body adiposity may be a modifiable risk factor for high-grade (Gleason 7, Gleason 8-10) prostate cancer and prostate cancer mortality. However, BMI only approximates body adiposity, and may be confounded by centralized fat deposition or lean body mass in older men. Our objective was to use bioelectric impedance ...
Shapses Sue A
Full Text Available Abstract Background The body mass index (BMI is the standard parameter for predicting body fat fraction and for classifying degrees of obesity. Currently available regression equations between BMI and fat are based on 2 or 3 parameter empirical fits and have not been validated for highly obese subjects. We attempt to develop regression relations that are based on realistic models of body composition changes in obesity. These models, if valid, can then be extrapolated to the high fat fraction of the morbidly obese. Methods The analysis was applied to 3 compartment (density and total body water measurements of body fat. The data was collected at the New York Obesity Research Center, Body Composition Unit, as part of ongoing studies. A total of 1356 subjects were included, with a BMI range of 17 to 50 for males and 17 to 65 for females. The body composition model assumes that obese subjects can be represented by the sum of a standard lean reference subject plus an extra weight that has a constant adipose, bone and muscle fraction. Results There is marked age and sex dependence in the relationship between BMI and fat fraction. There was no significant difference among Caucasians, Blacks and Hispanics while Asians had significantly greater fat fraction for the same BMI. A linear relationship between BMI and fat fraction provides a good description for men but overestimates the fat fraction in morbidly obese women for whom a non-linear regression should be used. New regression relations for predicting body fat just from experimental measurements of body density are described that are more accurate then those currently used. From the fits to the experimental BMI and density data, a quantitative description of the bone, adipose and muscle body composition of lean and obese subjects is derived. Conclusion Physiologically realistic models of body composition provide both accurate regression relations and new insights about changes in body composition in
Vernazza, P.; Marsset, M.; Beck, P.; Binzel, R. P.; Birlan, M.; Cloutis, E. A.; DeMeo, F. E.; Dumas, C.; Hiroi, T.
CM chondrites are the most common type of hydrated meteorites, making up ˜1.5% of all falls. Whereas most CM chondrites experienced only low-temperature (˜0°C–120°C) aqueous alteration, the existence of a small fraction of CM chondrites that suffered both hydration and heating complicates our understanding of the early thermal evolution of the CM parent body(ies). Here, we provide new constraints on the collisional and thermal history of CM-like bodies from a comparison between newly acquired spectral measurements of main-belt Ch/Cgh-type asteroids (70 objects) and existing laboratory spectral measurements of CM chondrites. It first appears that the spectral variation observed among CM-like bodies is essentially due to variations in the average regolith grain size. Second, the spectral properties of the vast majority (unheated) of CM chondrites resemble both the surfaces and the interiors of CM-like bodies, implying a “low” temperature (body(ies). It follows that an impact origin is the likely explanation for the existence of heated CM chondrites. Finally, similarly to S-type asteroids and (2) Pallas, the surfaces of large (D > 100 km)—supposedly primordial—Ch/Cgh-type main-belt asteroids likely expose the interiors of the primordial CM parent bodies, a possible consequence of impacts by small asteroids (D < 10 km) in the early solar system.
Effects of 28 days of resistance exercise and consuming a commercially available pre-workout supplement, NO-Shotgun®, on body composition, muscle strength and mass, markers of satellite cell activation, and clinical safety markers in males
Leutholtz Brian; Redd Liz; Hudson Geoffrey; Buford Thomas; Cooke Matt; Shelmadine Brian; Willoughby Darryn S
Abstract Purpose This study determined the effects of 28 days of heavy resistance exercise combined with the nutritional supplement, NO-Shotgun®, on body composition, muscle strength and mass, markers of satellite cell activation, and clinical safety markers. Methods Eighteen non-resistance-trained males participated in a resistance training program (3 × 10-RM) 4 times/wk for 28 days while also ingesting 27 g/day of placebo (PL) or NO-Shotgun® (NO) 30 min prior to exercise. Data were analyzed...
Vernazza, P.; Marsset, M.; Beck, P.; Binzel, R. P.; Birlan, M.; Cloutis, E. A.; DeMeo, F. E.; Dumas, C.; Hiroi, T.
CM chondrites are the most common type of hydrated meteorites, making up ˜1.5% of all falls. Whereas most CM chondrites experienced only low-temperature (˜0°C–120°C) aqueous alteration, the existence of a small fraction of CM chondrites that suffered both hydration and heating complicates our understanding of the early thermal evolution of the CM parent body(ies). Here, we provide new constraints on the collisional and thermal history of CM-like bodies from a comparison between newly acquired spectral measurements of main-belt Ch/Cgh-type asteroids (70 objects) and existing laboratory spectral measurements of CM chondrites. It first appears that the spectral variation observed among CM-like bodies is essentially due to variations in the average regolith grain size. Second, the spectral properties of the vast majority (unheated) of CM chondrites resemble both the surfaces and the interiors of CM-like bodies, implying a “low” temperature (origin is the likely explanation for the existence of heated CM chondrites. Finally, similarly to S-type asteroids and (2) Pallas, the surfaces of large (D > 100 km)—supposedly primordial—Ch/Cgh-type main-belt asteroids likely expose the interiors of the primordial CM parent bodies, a possible consequence of impacts by small asteroids (D solar system.
Valter Paulo N. Miranda; Franciane Rocha de Faria; Eliane Rodrigues de Faria; Silvia Eloiza Priore
Objective: To evaluate the relationship between the stages of somatic maturation and body composition in eutrophic female adolescents with or without excessive body fat. Methods: Cross-sectional study of 118 female adolescents, from 14 to 19 years-old, in Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Southeast Brazil. The adolescents were divided in two groups: Group 1 (G1), eutrophic with adequate body fat percentage, and Group 2 (G2), eutrophic with high body fat percentage. The somatic maturation was assesse...
Edson S. Farias
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar o efeito da atividade física programada na escola sobre a composição corporal em escolares adolescentes durante 1 ano letivo. MÉTODOS: Amostra foi composta por 383 alunos, divididos em dois grupos: caso com 186 (96 meninos e 90 meninas e controle com 197 (108 meninos e 89 meninas, com idade entre 10 e 15 anos. Trata-se de estudo de intervenção com pré e pós-teste, no qual o grupo caso foi submetido a atividade física programada e o grupo-controle a aulas convencionais de educação física escolar. A composição corporal foi avaliada por medidas antropométricas e cálculos de índice de massa corporal, percentual de gordura e massas gorda e magra. RESULTADOS: O grupo caso apresentou estabilidade na prega cutânea subescapular, índice de massa corporal, percentual de gordura e na massa gorda; redução significativa na prega cutânea triciptal, perímetro do abdome nas meninas e aumento significativo dos perímetros do braço, cintura e panturrilha e da massa magra. No grupo-controle houve aumento do índice de massa corporal, prega cutânea triciptal, perímetro do abdome e da massa gorda nas meninas. O grupo caso apresentou diminuição significativa na proporção de sobrepesos e obesos no pós em relação ao pré-teste, o mesmo não ocorrendo no grupo-controle. CONCLUSÃO: A atividade física programada resultou em melhoria e manutenção nas variáveis da composição corporal e redução da frequência de sobrepeso e obesidade no grupo que sofreu intervenção.OBJECTIVE: To verify the influence of programmed physical activity on body composition among adolescent students during 1 school year. METHODS: The sample included 383 students (age range: 10 to 15years separated into two groups: 186 cases (96 male and 90 female and 197 controls (108 male and 89 female. This was an intervention study with pre- and post-test assessments in which interventions consisted of programmed physical activity; the control group
Mohammad Reza Salamat
Conclusions: Combinations of anthropometric measurements predict whole-body lean mass and trunk fat mass better than any of these single anthropometric indices. Therefore, the findings of the present study may be used to verify the results in patients with various diseases or diets.
There is a gradient of diabetes prevalence among populations of the African Diaspora, with a rate of about 1% in West Africa, 12% in Jamaica and 16% in the United States. A population-based survey was conducted in an urban community in Jamaica to document the risk factors for the evolution of impaired glucose tolerance to frank diabetes. In a sample of 614 adults, 239 men and 375 women, oral glucose tolerance tests and examinations were conducted at Baseline and after 4-years of Follow-Up. There were significant increases in virtually all weight and adiposity variables for both men and women. Energy expenditure was also measured in a subset of participants at Follow-Up and was related significantly to glucose tolerance status. Among men, baseline age, weight, fat mass, body fat, waist circumference, and change in waist circumference were predictive of worsening glucose tolerance status. Among women, only age and change in waist circumference was a significant predictor. No physical activity parameter was predictive of change in tolerance status. These results provide support for the need to decrease adiposity as an important mechanism to control the rise in diabetes prevalence. (author)
The study of human body composition is a branch of human biology which focuses on the in vivo quantification of body components, the quantitative relationships between components, and the quantitative changes in these components related to various influencing factors. Accordingly, the study of human
Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, a relationship between obesity and schizophrenia has been reported. Although fat- mass and fat free mass have been shown to be more predictive of health risk than body mass index, there are limited findings about body composition among patients suffering from schizophrenia. The aim of this study is to compare the body composition of schizophrenia patients with that of healthy subjects in Japan. Methods We recruited patients (n = 204, aged 41.3 ± 13.8 (mean ± SD years old with the DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia who were admitted to psychiatric hospital using a cross-sectional design. Subjects' anthropometric measurements including weight, height, body mass index (BMI, and medications were also collected. Body fat, percent (% body fat, fat- free mass, muscle mass, and body water were measured using the bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA method. Comparative analysis was performed with schizophrenic subjects and 204 healthy control individuals. Results In a multiple regression model with age, body mass index, and dose in chlorpromazine equivalents, schizophrenia was a significantly linked with more body fat, higher % body fat, lower fat- free mass, lower muscle mass, and lower body water among males. In females, schizophrenia had a significant association with lower % body fat, higher fat- free mass, higher muscle mass, and higher body water. Conclusions Our data demonstrate gender differences with regard to changes in body composition in association with schizophrenia. These results indicate that intervention programs designed to fight obesity among schizophrenic patients should be individualized according to gender.
There is increasing interest in body composition in paediatric research, as distinct from growth and nutritional status, as almost all diseases have adverse effects on either fatness or the fat-free mass. However, the approaches used to assess growth and nutritional status are not appropriate for separate evaluations of body fatness and lean mass. Traditional measurements such as body mass index and skinfold thickness do not measure fat in accurate quantitative terms. Variou...
Nayera E. Hassan; El-Masry, Sahar A; Rokia El-Banna; Salwa M. Elshebini; Muhamed Al-Tohamy; Salwa El-Batrawy; Nihad H. Ahmed; Dalia Adel; Enas Abdel Rasheed; Mohamed Selim; Mohamed S. El Hussieny; Aya Khalil; Manal Mouhamed Ali
AIM: To evaluate body composition changes after use of three different types of obesity management protocols: dietary measures and physical activity; acupuncture or laser acupuncture with healthy diet; aiming at achieving stable weight loss among obese Egyptian females. METHODS: A randomized longitudinal prospective study included 76 obese adult females; aged 26 up to 55 years. Anthropometric, body composition, ultrasonographic and biochemical assessments were done. RESULTS: The thre...
Müller, Manfred J; Braun, Wiebke; Pourhassan, Maryam; Geisler, Corinna; Bosy-Westphal, Anja
The aim of this review is to extend present concepts of body composition and to integrate it into physiology. In vivo body composition analysis (BCA) has a sound theoretical and methodological basis. Present methods used for BCA are reliable and valid. Individual data on body components, organs and tissues are included into different models, e.g. a 2-, 3-, 4- or multi-component model. Today the so-called 4-compartment model as well as whole body MRI (or computed tomography) scans are considered as gold standards of BCA. In practice the use of the appropriate method depends on the question of interest and the accuracy needed to address it. Body composition data are descriptive and used for normative analyses (e.g. generating normal values, centiles and cut offs). Advanced models of BCA go beyond description and normative approaches. The concept of functional body composition (FBC) takes into account the relationships between individual body components, organs and tissues and related metabolic and physical functions. FBC can be further extended to the model of healthy body composition (HBC) based on horizontal (i.e. structural) and vertical (e.g. metabolism and its neuroendocrine control) relationships between individual components as well as between component and body functions using mathematical modelling with a hierarchical multi-level multi-scale approach at the software level. HBC integrates into whole body systems of cardiovascular, respiratory, hepatic and renal functions. To conclude BCA is a prerequisite for detailed phenotyping of individuals providing a sound basis for in depth biomedical research and clinical decision making. PMID:26541411
Ward, L C; White, K J; van der Aa Kuhle, K; Cawdell-Smith, J; Bryden, W L
Assessment of equine body composition using objective measurements is difficult owing to the large size of the animals and the costs involved. Bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS), a technique widely used for the assessment of body composition in humans, was investigated for practicality of use in horses. BIS uses algorithms that require values for the apparent resistivities of body fluids and body proportion factors (Kb), currently not available for horses. Aims of the present study were to derive resistivity coefficients and body proportion factors and to validate their use for prediction of body composition horses. Validation of coefficients and predictive power using a split-sample agreement study design using correlation and limits of agreement analysis. Whole body impedance measurements were performed on 35 standardbred horses, yearlings to 14 yr, concurrently with determination of total body water volume (TBW) by deuterium dilution and extracellular water volume (ECW) by bromide dilution. Kb was determined in an independent group of 38 mixed-breed, age, and sex horses. Mean apparent resistivity coefficients were 511.4 and 1415.9 ohm.cm for intracellular water and TBW, respectively. Mean Kb was 1.52 ± 0.1. Using these coefficients, TBW and fat-free mass could be predicted with limits of agreement (2SD) of ± 11.6%; mean fat-free mass and fat mass were under- and overestimated by 3.1% and 14.1%, respectively, compared to measured reference values although these differences were not statistically significant. BIS is a practical technique for the assessment of body composition in equids, but the relatively wide limits of agreement, particularly for fat mass, may limit its usefulness for predicting body composition in individual horses. PMID:27065123
Girma, Tsinuel; Mossie, Andualem; Getu, Yesufe
Background Khat (Catha edulis Forsk) is a psychostimulant herb widely cultivated and used in Ethiopia. The link between khat use and body composition is little known. Objective The aim was to determine the association between body composition and khat use. Methods We recruited 415 individuals 18–78 years of age from Jimma Town. Sociodemographic and lifestyle data were collected using structured questionnaires. Fat mass (FM, kg) and fat-free mass (FFM, kg) were estimated from whole-body bio im...
McDougald Dawn M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Women gain total body weight and accrue body fat during pregnancy. Breastfeeding has been suggested as an efficient means of promoting postpartum weight loss due to its high energy cost. We investigated the effect of infant feeding mode on maternal body composition. Methods This study evaluated maternal weight and percent body fat changes in exclusively breastfeeding versus mixed feeding mothers during the first 12 weeks postpartum using the BOD POD. Twenty four mothers aged 19 – 42 years were studied. Participants were recruited from Athens-Clarke County and surrounding areas of the State of Georgia, USA. The study was conducted between November 2005 and December 2006. Results Prepregnancy weight was higher in mixed feeding mothers than in exclusively breastfeeding mothers (68.4 kg vs. 61.4 kg but the difference was not statistically significant. At 12 weeks postpartum, exclusively breastfeeding mothers had lost more total body weight than mixed feeding mothers (4.41 ± 4.10 kg versus 2.79 ± 3.09 kg; p = 0.072. There was no significant difference in fat weight change between the two groups (4.38 ± 2.06 kg versus 4.17 ± 2.63 kg. However, mixed feeding mothers lost slightly more percent body fat than exclusively breastfeeding mothers (1.90 ± 4.18 kg versus 1.71 ± 3.48 kg, but the difference was not statistically significant. The trend in percent body fat loss was significant among exclusively breastfeeding mothers (p = 0.034 but not mixed feeding mothers (p = 0.081. Exclusively breastfeeding mothers consumed more calories than mixed feeding mothers (1980 ± 618 kcal versus 1541 ± 196 kcal p = 0.08. Physical activity levels were, however, higher in mixed feeding mothers than exclusively breastfeeding mothers. Conclusion Our results provide further evidence that exclusive breastfeeding promotes greater weight loss than mixed feeding among mothers even in the early postpartum period. This suggests that there is the need
Yearling Boer x Spanish wethers (n=40) were used to develop and compare body composition prediction equations for mature meat goats based on urea space (US) and body condition score (BCS). Before the experiment, one-half of the animals were managed to have high BW and BCS (1-5, with 1 being extreme...
Valter Paulo N. Miranda
Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the relationship between the stages of somatic maturation and body composition in eutrophic female adolescents with or without excessive body fat. Methods: Cross-sectional study of 118 female adolescents, from 14 to 19 years-old, in Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Southeast Brazil. The adolescents were divided in two groups: Group 1 (G1, eutrophic with adequate body fat percentage, and Group 2 (G2, eutrophic with high body fat percentage. The somatic maturation was assessed by the formula for estimating the Peak Height Velocity (PHV. Results: The PHV had higher average score in G1 adolescents compared to G2 (0.26 versus 0.05; p=0.032. There was an association between G1, G2 and the somatic maturation (p=0.049. The female adolescents before and during PHV presented higher values of fat body BMI (p=0.034 and percentage of central fat (p=0.039 compared to the adolescents after PHV. There was a correspondence between before PHV stage and the excess of body fat (α=0.751. Conclusions: There was an association between somatic maturation and body composition in eutrophic female adolescents. Length, BMI and fat percentage were different among the somatic maturation stages. It is relevant to evaluate the somatic maturation and the changes occurring in the body composition during adolescence in order to better evaluate and manage the nutritional status and the body fat excess.
Brierley, Mary-Ellen; Brooks, Kevin R.; Mond, Jonathan; Stevenson, Richard J.
The dominant evolutionary theory of physical attraction posits that attractiveness reflects physiological health, and attraction is a mechanism for identifying a healthy mate. Previous studies have found that perceptions of the healthiest body mass index (weight scaled for height; BMI) for women are close to healthy BMI guidelines, while the most attractive BMI is significantly lower, possibly pointing to an influence of sociocultural factors in determining attractive BMI. However, less is known about ideal body size for men. Further, research has not addressed the role of body fat and muscle, which have distinct relationships with health and are conflated in BMI, in determining perceived health and attractiveness. Here, we hypothesised that, if attractiveness reflects physiological health, the most attractive and healthy appearing body composition should be in line with physiologically healthy body composition. Thirty female and 33 male observers were instructed to manipulate 15 female and 15 male body images in terms of their fat and muscle to optimise perceived health and, separately, attractiveness. Observers were unaware that they were manipulating the muscle and fat content of bodies. The most attractive apparent fat mass for female bodies was significantly lower than the healthiest appearing fat mass (and was lower than the physiologically healthy range), with no significant difference for muscle mass. The optimal fat and muscle mass for men’s bodies was in line with the healthy range. Male observers preferred a significantly lower overall male body mass than did female observers. While the body fat and muscle associated with healthy and attractive appearance is broadly in line with physiologically healthy values, deviations from this pattern suggest that future research should examine a possible role for internalization of body ideals in influencing perceptions of attractive body composition, particularly in women. PMID:27257677
Human Resources Division
For the present staff review, the advisory bodies set up to prepare recommendations are composed as follows: Senior Staff Advancement Committee (SSAC) Cristoforo BENVENUTI/EST [Convener] David PLANE/EP Peter SCHMID/EP Technical Engineers & Administrative Careers Committee (TEACC) Robin LAUCKNER/SL [Chairman] Flemming PEDERSEN/PS Lucie LINSSEN/EP Dietrich SCHINZEL/EP Marcel MOTTIER/EST Louis WALCKIERS/LHC Long-term contract Boards (LTCBs) (Categories 2 & 5a) Tiziano CAMPORESI/EP [Convener] Florence RANJARD/EP [Alternate] Jacques GRUBER/PS [until 30.6.2002] Roger BAILEY/SL [from 1.7. 2002] Peter SIEVERS/LHC [Alternate] Doris FORKEL-WIRTH/TIS Pierre NININ/ST [Alternate] Sue FOFFANO/AS Maarten WILBERS/DSU [Alternate] Werner ZAPF/HR[Secretary] LTCB 2 Categories 3, 4, 5b & 5c) Véronique PARIS/SL [Convener] Fabien PERRIOLLAT/PS [Alternate] Mats WILHELMSSON/ST Charles NUTTALL/TIS [Alternate] Lucie LINSSEN/EP Alfredo PLACCI/EP [Alternate] Patrick GEERAER...
For the present staff review, the advisory bodies set up to prepare recommendations are composed as follows : Senior Staff Advancement Committee (SSAC) David Plane/EP [Convener] Enrico Chiaveri/AB Peter Schmid/EP Technical Engineers & Administrative Careers Committee (TEACC) Robin Lauckner/AB [Chairman]Marcel Mottier/EST Michael Letheren/EP Louis Walckiers/AT Lucie Linssen/EP Mats Wilhelmsson/ST Long-term contract Boards (LTCBs) LTCB 1 (Categories 2 & 5a) Tiziano Camporesi/EP [Convener]Florence Ranjard/EP [Alternate] Roger Bailey/ABPeter Sievers/AT " " Doris Forkel-Wirth/TISPierre Ninin/ST " " Rob Rayson/HRMaarten Wilbers/DSU " " Seamus Hegarty/HR [Secretary] LTCB 2 (Categories 3, 4, 5b & 5c) Véronique Paris/AB [Convener]Fabien Perriollat/AB [Alternate] Christian Lasseur/ESTRamon Folch/EST " " Lucie Linssen/EP Alfredo Placci/EP " " Mats Møller/ASLaszlo Abel/SPL " " Seamus Hegarty/HR [Secretary] Human Resources Division Tel. 74128
Seamus Hegarty / HR; Tel. 74128
For the present staff review, the advisory bodies set up to prepare recommendations are composed as follows : Senior Staff Advancement Committee (SSAC) David O. Williams/it (Convener) Cristoforo Benvenuti/est David Plane/ep Technical Engineers & Administrative Careers Committee (TEACC) Sverre Jarp/it (Chairman) Flemming Pedersen/ps Robin Lauckner/sl Christian Roche/ett Lars Leistam/est Dietrich Schinzel/ep Long-term contract Boards (LTCBs) LTCB 1 (Categories 2 & 5a) Tiziano Camporesi/ep [Convener] - Florence Ranjard/ep [Alternate] Jacques Gruber/ps - Peter Sievers/lhc [Alternate] Thomas Pettersson/est - Michel Mayoud/est [Alternate] Sue Foffano/as - Thierry Lagrange/spl [Alternate] Werner Zapf/hr (Secretary) LTCB 2 (Categories 3, 4, 5b & 5c) Véronique Paris/sl [Convener] - Fabien Perriollat/ps [Alternate] Mats Wilhelmsson/st - Véronique Fassnacht/tis [Alternate] Lucie Linssen/ep - Alfredo Placci/ep [Alternate] Patrick Geeraert/fi - John Cuthb...
Full Text Available The article deals with importance and adaptation options of body composition and physical fitness. Measurement methodology of body composition and physical fitness was done. Skinfold caliper and bioelectrical impedance analysis techniques was used to obtain body composition parameters. Physical fitness was measured using veloergometry, sit-ups, sit-and-reach, flamingo balance, plate tapping and back muscle dynamometer tests. After research relationship was established between: muscle mass and maximum oxygen uptake (for female, r = −0,635, p 0,05, bone mass and maximum oxygen uptake (for female, r = −0,636, p < 0,05, body fat mass and maximum oxygen uptake (for male, 0,580 r = − , 0,05 p < , body fat mass and sit-and-reach results (for male, r = − 0,601, p < 0,05, total body water and maximum oxygen uptake (for male, r = 0,537 , p < 0,05 , total body water and sit-and-reach results (for male, r = 0,559 , p < 0,05.
During infancy and early childhood, the pace and quality of growth mark the risk of ill health in the short and longer term. Measurements of body weight and its changes are frequently taken as indicators of growth, without adequate attention being paid to linear growth or body composition during this critical window of opportunity, as these measurements are more challenging to make. To better define and characterize healthy growth, there is a need for guidance on the use of standardized methodologies to assess body composition during early life to differentiate between nutrient partitioning to fat free mass and to fat mass in infants and young children. Given the necessity for an international consensus, in 2009 the IAEA initiated a review of body composition assessment techniques as the basis for efforts aimed at the standardization of body composition assessment from birth to 2 years of age. This initiative follows the IAEA's long standing tradition of providing guidance on the use of nuclear techniques in nutrition. This publication was developed by an international group of experts as an integral part of the IAEA's contribution to the transfer of technology and capacity building in this field to assist Member States in their efforts to improve the nutrition and health of infants and young children, who are among the most vulnerable population groups. This publication provides practical information on the assessment of body composition from birth up to 2 years of age and is intended for nutritionists, paediatricians and other health professionals. The body composition assessment techniques included in this publication were considered the methodologies with the highest potential for standardization globally - based on considerations such as access to equipment, cost and the training needs of staff - and include stable isotope dilution for total body water assessment as well as dual energy X ray absorptiometry and air displacement plethysmography. In addition, the
Krzykała, M; Leszczyński, P
The aim of the study was to determine if a sport in which one side of the body is dominant, like field hockey, influences regional body composition and bone mineral density (BMD) distribution in particular body segments, and whether the sporting level is a determining factor. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) method (Lunar Prodigy Advance; General Electric, Madison, USA) with the whole body scan was used to measure bone mineral density, fat mass and lean mass in 31 female field hockey players divided according to their sporting level. The morphological asymmetry level was assessed between two body sides and body segments in athletes from the National Team (n=17) and from the Youth Team (n=14) separately and between groups. Bone mineral density in the lower extremity and of the trunk was significantly asymmetric in favor of the left side in the National Team. In the case of the Youth Team, only the trunk BMD indicated clear left-right difference with left side dominance. Both the lean mass and fat mass values were relatively higher on the left side of all body segments and it related to both analyzed groups of athletes. The present study shows that playing field hockey contributes to laterality in body composition and BMD and that the sporting level is a determining factor. In most cases the left side dominated. A greater asymmetry level was observed in more experienced female field hockey players. PMID:26077573
Full Text Available Many small mammals respond to seasonal changes in photoperiod by altering body mass and adiposity. These animals may provide valuable models for understanding the regulation of energy balance. In present study, we examined the effect on body mass, rest metabolic rate, food intake and body composition in cold-acclimated (5 °C in Eothenomys miletus by transferring them from a short (SD, 8h :16h L: D to long day photoperiod (LD, 16h: 8h L:D. During the first 4 weeks of exposure to SD, E. miletus decreased body mass. After the next 4 weeks of exposure to LD, which the average difference between body masses of LD and SD voles was 4.76 g. This 14.74% increase in body mass reflected significant increases in absolute amounts of body components, including wet carcass mass, dry carcass mass and body fat mass. After correcting body composition and organ morphology data for the differences in body mass, only livers, kidney, and small intestine were enlarged due to photoperiod treatment during cold exposure. E. miletus increased RMR and energy intake exposure to LD, but maintained a stable level to SD after 28 days. Serum leptin levels were positively correlated with body mass, body fat mass, RMR as well as energy intake. All of the results indicated that E. miletus may provide an attractive novel animal model for investigation of the regulation of body mass and energy balance at organism levels. Leptin is potentially involved in the photoperiod induced body mass regulation and thermogenesis in E. miletus during cold exposure.
Correia de Faria Santarém, G; de Cleva, R; Marco Aurélio Santo; Aline Biaseto Bernhard; Alexandre Vieira Gadducci; Julia Maria D'Andrea Greve; Paulo Roberto Santos Silva
Background Obesity is associated with mobility reduction due to mechanical factors and excessive body fat. The six-minute walk test (6MWT) has been used to assess functional capacity in severe obesity. Objective To determine the association of BMI, total and segmental body composition with distance walked (6MWD) during the six-minute walk test (6MWT) according to gender and obesity grade. Setting University of São Paulo Medical School, Brazil; Public Practice. Methods Functional capacity was ...
Gotfredsen, A; Westergren Hendel, H; Andersen, T
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of the pancreas lipase inhibitor orlistat (OLS) on calcium metabolism, bone turnover, bone mass, bone density and body composition when given for obesity as adjuvant to an energy- and fat-restricted diet. DESIGN: Randomized controlled double-blinded trial of...... bone mineral and body composition included total bone mineral content (TBMC), total bone mineral density (TBMD), lumbar spine BMC and BMD, forearm BMC and BMD, fat mass (FM), fat free-mass (FFM), percentage fat mass (FM%) as well as a DXA estimate of the body weight. Body composition (FM, FFM and FM....../creatinine and Ca/creatinine (fU-OHpr/creat, fUCa/creat). RESULTS: There were no significant differences between OLS and placebo groups as to any of the body composition variables (FFM, FM, FM%) at baseline or after 1 y treatment. Weight loss was of 11.2+/-7.5 kg in the OLS group and 8.1+/-7.5 kg in the placebo...
Ribeiro, Sandra M. L.; Kehayias, Joseph J.
Reduction of lean mass is a primary body composition change associated with aging. Because many factors contribute to lean mass reduction, the problem has been given various names depending on the proposed cause, such as “age-related sarcopenia,” “dynapenia,” “myopenia,” “sarcopenic obesity,” or simply “sarcopenia.” There is currently no consensus on how to best diagnose the reduction of lean mass and its consequences on health. We propose that simple body composition methods can be used to i...
The purpose of this study was to determine body composition and somatotype of the male fencers who were grouped by different fencing weapons. Analysis of body composition, with untrained men as background, will update the data necessary for the somatic profiles of fencers. Thirty contestants were examined during the Polish Fencing Championships in 2004. They took part in épée (n=10), foil (n=10) and sabre (n=10). They were aged 23.3±2.9; their length of training was 12.6±2.5 years, with the f...
Blekhman, Ran; Goodrich, Julia K; Huang, Katherine; Sun, Qi; Bukowski, Robert; Bell, Jordana T.; Timothy D Spector; Keinan, Alon; Ley, Ruth E.; Gevers, Dirk; Clark, Andrew G.
Background The composition of bacteria in and on the human body varies widely across human individuals, and has been associated with multiple health conditions. While microbial communities are influenced by environmental factors, some degree of genetic influence of the host on the microbiome is also expected. This study is part of an expanding effort to comprehensively profile the interactions between human genetic variation and the composition of this microbial ecosystem on a genome- and mic...
Full Text Available OBJETIVO. Medir los indicadores antropométricos de composición corporal por bioimpedancia eléctrica y la actividad física, así como la glucosa sanguínea y la presión arterial en personas mayores de 60 años de una región rural. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS. Por muestreo intencional no probabilístico se seleccionaron 54 sujetos mayores de 60 años, quienes se sometieron al protocolo estandarizado para las mediciones antropométricas y composición corporal por bioimpedancia eléctrica (BIE y actividad física mediante el cuestionario de actividades. Asimismo, se midió la presión arterial y se realizó la prueba de tolerancia a la glucosa. Los valores promedio se analizaron por sexo mediante la prueba t de Student, y la asociación de la actividad física y la composición corporal con otras variables, por regresión lineal simple y el coeficiente de correlación de Pearson. RESULTADOS. La actividad física correlacionó negativamente con el porcentaje de grasa (r= -0.36; p= 0.007; la presión arterial diastólica (r= -0.36; p= 0.006 y sistólica (r= -0.32; p= 0.018 y el índice de masa corporal, con la glucosa posdosis (r= 0.31; p= 0.024. CONCLUSIONES. La actividad física en este grupo de personas puede tener un impacto favorable respecto a los indicadores de salud tan importantes que se mencionaron.OBJECTIVE. To measure anthropometric indicators of body composition by electric bioimpedence, as well as physical activity, blood glucose and arterial pressure in rural people over 60 years of age. MATERIAL AND METHODS. A total of 54 subjects over 60 years old were selected by intentional non-probabilistic sampling. They were subjected to a standardized protocol to measure anthropometric indicators, body composition by electric bioimpedance (EBI, and physical activity was determined by an activity questionnaire. Arterial pressure and glucose tolerance levels were also measured. Analysis included Student's t test to detect differences by sex and the
Tiago Wally Hartwig
Full Text Available The most alarming cases are known as morbidly obese. An effective method to change the anthropometric characteristics of this population with excess body weight and high fat mass is bariatric surgery. The objective of this study was to analyze the body composition of morbidly obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery in the city of Pelotas, Southern Brazil. In a prospective cohort study, a group of morbidly obese patients was followed up 30 days before and 30 days after surgery. The sample consisted of 123 patients who underwent vertical banded Roux-en-Y gastroplasty between April 2003 and May 2010. Body composition (fat percentage was determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis. The mean age of the patients was 36.1 ± 8.8 years and mean body weight loss was 14.1 ± 6.0 kg (p<0.001. The mean reduction in body mass index (BMI was 5.2 ± 2.1 kg/m2 (p<0.001. Body fat percentage and fat mass were reduced by 2.8% (p<0.001 and 9.7 ± 4.9 kg (p<0.001, respectively. In addition, there was a reduction of 4.4 ± 3.4 kg (p<0.001 in lean mass. We concluded that the surgical procedure significantly reduced body weight, BMI, fat percentage and fat mass and is an alternative when conventional treatments appear ineffective.
Jensen, W.A.; Spellman, G.P.
A survey of composite materials and processes for the NIF Optical Switch Body is described. Mechanical and physical criterion set upon the part are used as guidelines for the selection of materials and processes for manufacturing. Benefits, costs, and risks associated with selected processes, as well as a recommendation for prototype fabrication is presented.
Pitts, G. C.; Bull, L. S.; Oyama, J.
Two groups of adult female rats were chronically centrifuged for 60 days (2.76 G, 4.15 G, controls at 1.00 G). Live weights of centrifugal rats decreased about 20 g (6%) per Delta 1 G above control. This weight loss comprised reductions in both body fat and fat-free body weight (FFBW) as determined by body-composition studies on eight rats per group killed at the end of centrifugation. Of nine components constituting the FFBW, only skeletal muscle, liver, and heart changed significantly in weight. Chemical composition showed reductions (compared with controls) in the fat fraction of most components and increases in the water fraction of liver and gut. Identical measurements were made on the remaining eight rats per group killed 43 days after return to 1 G. Neither centrifuged group had reached the control body-weight level at this time. No statistically significant effect of previous G level was found in any of the body-composition parameters. The possible involvment of physiological regulation was considered.
Kürkçü, Recep; Hazar, Fatih; Özdağ, Selçuk
The aim of this study is to study to determine and comparison the body composition, body components and somatotype characteristics of young soccer players (Young Soccer Team of Sport Club of Muğla University) with other national and international soccer players. Subjects were eighteen pubescent soccer players (age, 13.22y) of a team playing in regional soccer league. Skinfolds (biceps, triceps, back, suprailiac, abdominal, leg, thigh), diameters (femur and humerus biconduler), circumferences ...
Jukka A. Salmi
Full Text Available Body composition assessment is an important factor in weight management, exercise science and clinical health care. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA is widely used method for estimating body composition. The purpose of this study was to evaluate segmental multi-frequency bioimpedance method (SMFBIA in body composition assessment with underwater weighing (UWW and whole body dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA in healthy obese middle-aged male subjects. The measurements were carried out at the UKK Institute for Health Promotion Research in Tampere, Finland according to standard procedures of BIA, UWW and DXA. Fifty-eight (n=58 male subjects, aged 36-53 years, body mass index (BMI 24.9-40.7, were studied. Of them forty (n=40 underwent also DXA measurement. Fat mass (FM, fat-percentage (F% and fat free mass (FFM were the primary outcome variables. The mean whole body FM (±SD from UWW was 31.5 kg (±7.3. By DXA it was 29.9 kg (±8.1 and by SMFBIA it was 25.5 kg (±7.6, respectively. The Pearson correlation coefficients (r were 0.91 between UWW and SMFBIA, 0.94 between DXA and SMFBIA and 0.91 between UWW and DXA, respectively. The mean segmental FFM (±SD from DXA was 7.7 kg (±1.0 for arms, 41.7 kg (±4.6 for trunk and 21.9 kg (±2.2 for legs. By SMFBIA, it was 8.5 kg (±0.9, 31.7 kg (±2.5 and 20.3 kg (±1.6, respectively. Pearson correlation coefficients were 0.75 for arms, 0.72 for legs and 0.77 for trunk. This study demonstrates that SMFBIA is usefull method to evaluate fat mass (FM, fat free mass (FFM and fat percentage (F% from whole body. Moreover, SMFBIA is suitable method for assessing segmental distribution of fat free mass (FFM compared to whole body DXA. The results of this study indicate that the SMFBIA method may be particularly advantageous in large epidemiological studies as being a simple, rapid and inexpensive method for field use of whole body and segmental body composition assessment
Pitts, G. C.; Ushakov, A. S.; Pace, N.; Smith, A. H.; Rahlmann, D. F.; Smirnova, T. A.
The effects of weightlessness on the body composition of rats were investigated using 5 male rats exposed to 18.5 days of weightlessness on the COSMOS 1129 biosatellite and killed after reentry. The animals were immediately dissected and the three major body divisions (musculoskeletal system, skin, and pooled viscera) were analyzed for fat, water, solids, and six elements. These results were determined as percentages of the fat-free body or its components and then compared with two groups of terrestrial controls, one of which was subjected to a flight simulation in a spacecraft mock-up while the other was under standard vivarium conditions. Compared with the control groups, the flight group was found to exhibit a reduced fraction of total body water, a net shift of body water from skin to viscera, a marked diminution in the fraction of extracellular water in the fat-free body, a marked reduction in the fraction of bone mineral, no change in the quantity of stored fat or adrenal masses, and a net increase in total muscle mass as indicated by total body creatine, protein, and body cell mass.
Wan-long Zhu; Shengchang Yang; Jin-hong Cai; Lihua Meng; Zheng-kun Wang
Many small mammals respond to seasonal changes in photoperiod by altering body mass and adiposity. These animals may provide valuable models for understanding the regulation of energy balance. In present study, we examined the effect on body mass, rest metabolic rate, food intake and body composition in cold-acclimated (5 °C) in Eothenomys miletus by transferring them from a short (SD, 8h :16h L: D) to long day photoperiod (LD, 16h: 8h L:D). During the first 4 weeks of exposure to SD, E. mil...
Dmitry S. Blinov
Full Text Available Introduction. Tissues of the human body can conduct electricity. Liquid medium (water, blood, the contents of hollow bodies, have a low impedance, i.e. good conductors, while denser tissue (muscle, nerves, etc. resistance is significantly higher. The biggest impedance have fat and bone tissues. The bioimpendancemetry – a method which allows to determine the composition of the human body by measuring electrical resistance (impedance of its tissues. Relevance. This technique is indispensable to dieticians and fitness trainers. In addition, the results of the study can provide invaluable assistance in the appointment of effective treatment physicians, gynecologists, orthopedists, and other specialists. The bioimpedance method helps to determine the risks of developing diabetes type 2, atherosclerosis, hypertension, diseases of the musculoskeletal system, disorders of the endocrine system, gall-stone disease and etc. Materials and Methods. In the list of parameters of body composition assessed by bioimpedance analysis method, included absolute and relative indicators. Depending on the method of measurement of the absolute rates were determined for the whole body. To absolute performance were: fat and skinny body mass index, active cell and skeletal muscle mass, total body water, cellular and extracellular fluid. Along with them were calculated relatively (normalized to body weight, lean mass, or other variables indicators of body composition. Results. In the result of the comparison of anthropometric and bioimpedance method found that growth performance, vital capacity, weight, waist circumference, circumfer¬ence of waist and hip, basal metabolism, body fat mass, normalized on growth, lean mass, percentage skeletal muscle mass in boys and girls with normal and excessive body weight had statistically significant differences. Discussion and Conclusions. In the present study physical development with consideration of body composition in students
Active children and quiet bodies wanted! A new school law was implemented in the Danish primary and secondary school system from August 2014. The main purpose of the law is to: – challenge all pupils to become as skilled as possible, – lower the consequences of social background in order to achieve...... education the physical activities and movements should be integrated in the academic subjects as active teaching and brain breaks etc. or as organized activities during the extended school day. By doing fieldwork and interviewing pupils from grade 0-2 the study investigate how these changes are experienced...... the teachers do a lot of effort to civilize their bodies the pupils don’t care and know how to avoid troubles – at least most of the times. References Elias, N. (1994). The Civilizing Process. Oxford: Blackwell. Sommer, D.; Samuelsson, I.P. & Hundeide, K. (2010). Child Perspectives and Children...
Full Text Available Objective:Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD which is strongly correlated with obesity; has been a common worldwide health problem with the improvements in social status. Body composition studies are accepted as a simple follow-up tool for treatment of obesity. Since the correlation of body mass index (BMI with the hepatosteatosis (HS is well known; the aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of body composition parameters (BCP to determine HS on NAFLD patients; using dual bioimpedance analyzer (BIA. Methods:A total of 253 patients with diagnosis of NAFLD were included into the study. The demographic parameters such as age, sex and BMI were collected; and the ultrasonographic (US evolution was performed to determine the HS stages. The BCP, such as amount and the percentage of total body fat, fat free mass, and total body water were assessed with the dual bioimpedance analyzer. Results:There were strong significant correlations between BMI and HS, between BCP and HS (p0.05. Conclusion: According to our results, it can be concluded that BCP values may have a diagnostic value on diagnosis of NAFLD.
In modem technological societies the requirement for physical work is diminished and access to food is unrestricted. Under these circumstances a large proportion of the population will gain weight and develop obesity and diabetes. At the individual level, genetic and behavioural factors must combine to lead to an imbalance between energy intake and its expenditure. Weight gain, especially rapid weight gain in a population appears to increase the risk of diabetes sharply. Thus understanding the route to weight gain and obesity, and the modulatory effects of physical activity on development of glucose intolerance is critical to credible intervention strategies to reverse or prevent diabetes in populations especially those in transitional societies. In this proposal we will examine the quantitative importance of non-resting energy expenditure (EE) in populations with rising levels of obesity and high prevalence of diabetes. (author)
Zolotov, M. Y.
Interior oceans may exist on at least several solar system bodies: Europa, Enceladus, Ganymede, Titan and Triton. Compositions of the oceans could reflect bulk chemistries on the bodies, degree and timing of differendentition, current temperature and pressure conditions, and chemical exchanges between icy shells, liquid layers, and suboceanic solids (rocks, sediments, ices and clathrates). Observational signs are sparse and modeling is the major approach to evaluate oceanic compositions. On Europa, a presence of S(VI) species and CO2 at endogenic surface features  suggests sulfates and C species (organic and/or inorganic) in the ocean. The detection of NaCl and Na2CO3/NaHCO3-bearing grains emitted from Enceladus  implies the dominance of Na, Cl and carbonate/bicarbonate ions in the past and/or present alkaline fluids in the interior. These observations are consistent with independent models for water-rock interaction . Evaluated low contents of other elements (Mg, Fe, Ca, K, S, P, etc.) in initial oceanic waters  are accounted for by low solubilities of minerals deposited from water solutions (serpentine, saponite, magnetite, carbonates, sulfides and phosphates). Oceanic redox states are affected by the composition of accreted ices and rocks, hydrogen production through oxidation of solids (mainly Fe-Ni metal) by water and an efficiency of H2 escape. Formation of a sulfate-bearing ocean (as on Europa) through oxidation of sulfides could have been driven by radiolytically-formed oxidants (H2O2, O2), high-temperature (>500 K) hydrothermal activity and H2 escape. Formation of sulfate facilitates leaching of Mg from minerals leading to the Mg-SO4-Na-Cl ocean. Although some of these factors could have played roles on the Galilean satellites, formation of sulfate-bearing oceans beyond Jupiter is unlikely. Accretion of cometary-type ices on moons allows an existence of water-methanol-ammonia liquids at ~153 K, although ammonia could have been sequestered in
Model compositions of the moon and earth were calculated on the assumption that these planets had experienced chondrite-like nebular fractionation processes. The model correctly predicts the abundance ratios of certain volatile/refractory element pairs (e.g., Cd/Ba, Ga/La, Sn/Th, and Pb/U), the density of the moon, and the major rock types. The model is also used to reconstruct the composition of the parent eucrite body, which resembles the moon except for a lower content of refractory elements.
Kaula, W. M.
Properties of the earth are considered in the light of the earth's presumed status as an end member of the class of predominantly silicate solar system bodies. Bulk composition data for the inner planets are presented and processes which may account for compositional variations are discussed. Problems posed by Viking findings on Mars and Pioneer findings on Venus are mentioned. Prominent evolutionary patterns of the inner planets are discussed, including the inverse correlation of lithospheric and crustal thickness with planetary size, and the thermotectonics of Venus, Mars, and earth are compared.
Background. There is a need to find ways to increase the physical activity levels and improve the body composition and blood pressure of girls. Methods. Thirty 11-year-old girls were recruited from two after-school programs in Houston, Texas, in spring 2005. Participants from one program (16) were r...
(WC), android fat mass divided by total fat mass (AFM:TFM), fat mass index (FMI) and fat-free mass index (FFMI) of 8-11-year-olds? 2.) Can fasting levels of leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin, insulin, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), osteocalcin and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) predict changes......Growth and body composition in childhood are influenced by many factors. Some of these are modifiable e.g. dietary intake, while others may be less easy to influence. The hormonal regulation of growth and body composition during childhood is complex and the interrelationship between the numerous...... hormones involved has to be taken into account when studying the impact of individual hormones. There is increasing evidence for a bidirectional relationship between bone growth and energy metabolism. Hormones coupled to the mineralization or demineralization of bones have been suggested to impact...
Luis David Maldonado-Bonilla
Full Text Available mRNA accumulation is tightly regulated by diverse molecular pathways. The identification and characterization of enzymes and regulatory proteins involved in controlling the fate of mRNA offers the possibility to broaden our understanding of posttranscriptional gene regulation. Processing bodies (P bodies, PB are cytoplasmic protein complexes involved in degradation and translational arrest of mRNA. Composition and dynamics of these subcellular structures have been studied in animal systems, yeasts and in the model plant Arabidopsis. Their assembly implies the aggregation of specific factors related to decapping, deadenylation and exoribonucleases that operate synchronously to regulate certain mRNA targets during development and adaptation to stress. Although the general function of PB along with the flow of genetic information is understood, several questions still remain open. This review summarizes data on the composition, potential molecular roles, and biological significance of PB and potentially related proteins in Arabidopsis.
The automotive industry stands in front of a great challenge, to decrease its impact on the environment. One important part in succeeding with this is to decrease the structural weight of the body structure and by that the fuel consumption or the required battery power. Carbon fibre composites are by many seen as the only real option when traditional engineering materials are running out of potential for further weight reduction. However, the automotive industry lacks experience working with ...
Genton Graf, Laurence
Measurement of body composition is an important part of nutritional assessment. The low FFM associated with malnutrition has been associated with numerous infectious and noninfectious complications, increasing length of stay, morbidity and mortality. DXA and TBK are reference method for determination of FFM and BCM, but, as these methods are expensive and require extensive technique of the operator, we have focused especially on BIA, an easy, quick, safe and reliable bedside method to measure...
Márcio Augusto Nogueira Costa
Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the reliability of ultrasound in determining the size and identify the sonographic features and artifacts generated by intraocular foreign bodies of different materials. METHODS: Experimental study using 36 enucleated porcine eyes. Fragments of nine different compositions (wood, glass, plastic, cardboard, iron, aluminum, lead, powder and concrete and similar dimensions (4 mm were implanted via scleral incision into the vitreous cavity of 36 porcine eyes, four eyes were used for each material. Ultrasound examination was performed in all eyes using the contact technique, conductive gel and 10-MHz transducer (EZScan, Sonomed. RESULTS: Considering the material fragments of gunpowder, lead, concrete, aluminum, wood and glass, the size determined by ultrasound was considered statistically similar to the actual size. The material iron presented ultrasound-determined dimension statistically smaller than its actual size. Cardboard and plastic materials showed ultrasound-determined measurements far greater than the actual. All fragments of intraocular foreign bodies demonstrated hyper-reflective interfaces, irrespective of their composition. Whereas the artifacts generated by different materials, it was found that the materials iron, aluminum and lead showed reverberation of great extent. The material wood showed no reverberation. The length of the reverberation artifact for the materials iron, glass, aluminum and cardboard was lower when compared to other materials. All materials presented posterior shadowing artifact, with the exception of aluminum. CONCLUSION: Ultrasonography was considered a reliable technique to determine the size of intraocular foreign bodies in pigs, with little influence caused by its composition. Ultrasound artifacts generated were considered material-dependent and can assist the examiner to identify the nature of a foreign body of unknown etiology. Ultrasonography aided the surgeon to identify, locate and
Chen Rong; Lin Shou-qing; Lin Xia; Chen Yan; Yang Qiu-hong; Zhou Yong; Zhang Ying
Objective:To explore the effect of age on body composition in healthy Beijing women.Methods:We measured body composition with dual-energy X-ray (GE Lunar Prodigy) in 316 healthy Beijing females aged 20 to 74 years (5-7 women per age).Parameters provided by the software were as following:total body bone mineral content (BMC),lean mass (LM),fat mass and fat mass percentage (FM％).Local regions measured included arm,leg,trunk,android region and gynoid region.Body mass index (BMI),fat mass index (FMI),free fat mass index (FFMI) and A/G were calculated.Volunteers were assigned to 6 groups according to age by every ten years a group.Results..BMC peaked during the 4th decade,LM peaked during the 5th decade,with a decline of 18.1％ and 5.2％ respectively at age 74 years.Total body fat mass and FM％ showed a general increase with aging throughout the studied age range.Total body fat mass increased from (16±5) kg at age 20-29 years to (24±6)kg at age 70-74years,while FM％ increased from 31.3％ to 39.5％.All local region FM％ increased with aging at different extents.Android region FM％ showed the largest raise extent (32.2％).BMI increased gradually from 21.1 kg/m2 at age 20-29 years to 26.1 kg/m2 at age 70-74 years.FMI changed more obviously than FFMI.A/G increased from 0.85 at age 20-29 years to 1.02 at age 70-74 years.Different menstrual status in women of 40-59 years had obvious effect on A/G and BMC (P＜0.05),while it had no significant effect on BMI,body weight and waist circumference (P＞0.05).Conclusion:Aging has a great effect on body composition distribution in healthy Beijing women.
6th grade) on health related outcomes in children. The objectives are: 1.To describe the Svendborg Project and the CHAMPS study-DK (paper I). 2.To evaluate the effect of four extra PE lessons per week in primary schools on body composition and weight status in children aged 8 to 13 (paper II). 3.To......Background In 2011 the World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that more than 40 million children under the age of five were overweight and ten per cent of the world’s school aged children are estimated to carry excess body fat. Childhood obesity is associated with a number of immediate...... Intervention had beneficial, but non significant effect on mean BMI or mean Total Body Fat percentage (TBF%), but a significant beneficial effect on overweight and obesity prevalence, as children at intervention schools had a significant reduced risk of becoming overweight or obese after 2 school years...
Jansen, Rasmus Bo; Christensen, Tomas Møller; Bülow, Jens;
BACKGROUND: Treatment of Charcot osteoarthropathy (COA) requires restricted walking and offloading for several months, which lead to fat re-distribution and increased sarcopenia. OBJECTIVES/AIM: To investigate whether subjects with COA have an altered body composition compared to controls. METHODS......: Cross-sectional case-control study of people with diabetes with acute or chronic Charcot osteoarthropathy, matched with otherwise healthy people with diabetes. A total of 49 subjects (distribution ~1:1) had a total body DXA-scanning, measuring appendicular lean mass, android/gynoid and truncal....../total body fat distribution ratios. RESULTS: Sarcopenia frequency was higher in the total population with diabetes overall (9-40%), compared to normal materials. Using two different models for correlating appendicular lean mass to sarcopenia, there were no differences in sarcopenia-rates between the groups...
The lean-fat composition (%FATR) of soft tissue and the mineral mass of the skeleton were determined in vivo using dual-photon (153Gd) absorptiometry (dose under 2 mrem). A rectilinear raster scan was made over the entire body in 18 subjects (14 female, 4 male). Single-photon absorptiometry (125I) measured bone mineral content on the radius. Percentage fat (%FATD) was determined in the same subjects using body density (from underwater weighing with correction for residual lung volume). Lean body mass (LBM) was determined using both %FATR and %FATD. Percentage fat from absorptiometry and from underwater density were correlated (r . 0.87). The deviation of %FATD from %FATR was due to the amount of skeletal mineral as a percentage of the LBM (r . 0.90). Therefore, skeletal variability, even in normal subjects, where mineral ranges only from 4 to 8% of the LBM, essentially precludes use of body density as a composition indicator unless skeletal mass is measured. Anthropometry (fatfolds and weight) predicted %FATR and LBM at least as well as did underwater density. The predictive error of %FATR from fatfolds was 5% while the predictive error in predicting LBM from anthropometry was 2 to 3 kg (3%)
Mazess, R.B.; Peppler, W.W.; Gibbons, M.
The lean-fat composition (%FATR) of soft tissue and the mineral mass of the skeleton were determined in vivo using dual-photon (153Gd) absorptiometry (dose under 2 mrem). A rectilinear raster scan was made over the entire body in 18 subjects (14 female, 4 male). Single-photon absorptiometry (125I) measured bone mineral content on the radius. Percentage fat (%FATD) was determined in the same subjects using body density (from underwater weighing with correction for residual lung volume). Lean body mass (LBM) was determined using both %FATR and %FATD. Percentage fat from absorptiometry and from underwater density were correlated (r . 0.87). The deviation of %FATD from %FATR was due to the amount of skeletal mineral as a percentage of the LBM (r . 0.90). Therefore, skeletal variability, even in normal subjects, where mineral ranges only from 4 to 8% of the LBM, essentially precludes use of body density as a composition indicator unless skeletal mass is measured. Anthropometry (fatfolds and weight) predicted %FATR and LBM at least as well as did underwater density. The predictive error of %FATR from fatfolds was 5% while the predictive error in predicting LBM from anthropometry was 2 to 3 kg (3%).
Sherman, Andrew J.
A heterogeneous body having ceramic rich cermet regions in a more ductile metal matrix. The heterogeneous bodies are formed by thermal spray operations on metal substrates. The thermal spray operations apply heat to a cermet powder and project it onto a solid substrate. The cermet powder is composed of complex composite particles in which a complex ceramic-metallic core particle is coated with a matrix precursor. The cermet regions are generally comprised of complex ceramic-metallic composites that correspond approximately to the core particles. The cermet regions are approximately lenticular shaped with an average width that is at least approximately twice the average thickness. The cermet regions are imbedded within the matrix phase and generally isolated from one another. They have obverse and reverse surfaces. The matrix phase is formed from the matrix precursor coating on the core particles. The amount of heat applied during the formation of the heterogeneous body is controlled so that the core particles soften but do not become so fluid that they disperse throughout the matrix phase. The force of the impact on the surface of the substrate tends to flatten them. The flattened cermet regions tend to be approximately aligned with one another in the body.
Effects of 28 days of resistance exercise and consuming a commercially available pre-workout supplement, NO-Shotgun®, on body composition, muscle strength and mass, markers of satellite cell activation, and clinical safety markers in males
Full Text Available Abstract Purpose This study determined the effects of 28 days of heavy resistance exercise combined with the nutritional supplement, NO-Shotgun®, on body composition, muscle strength and mass, markers of satellite cell activation, and clinical safety markers. Methods Eighteen non-resistance-trained males participated in a resistance training program (3 × 10-RM 4 times/wk for 28 days while also ingesting 27 g/day of placebo (PL or NO-Shotgun® (NO 30 min prior to exercise. Data were analyzed with separate 2 × 2 ANOVA and t-tests (p Results Total body mass was increased in both groups (p = 0.001, but without any significant increases in total body water (p = 0.77. No significant changes occurred with fat mass (p = 0.62; however fat-free mass did increase with training (p = 0.001, and NO was significantly greater than PL (p = 0.001. Bench press strength for NO was significantly greater than PL (p = 0.003. Myofibrillar protein increased with training (p = 0.001, with NO being significantly greater than PL (p = 0.019. Serum IGF-1 (p = 0.046 and HGF (p = 0.06 were significantly increased with training and for NO HGF was greater than PL (p = 0.002. Muscle phosphorylated c-met was increased with training for both groups (p = 0.019. Total DNA was increased in both groups (p = 0.006, while NO was significantly greater than PL (p = 0.038. For DNA/protein, PL was decreased and NO was not changed (p = 0.014. All of the myogenic regulatory factors were increased with training; however, NO was shown to be significantly greater than PL for Myo-D (p = 0.008 and MRF-4 (p = 0.022. No significant differences were located for any of the whole blood and serum clinical chemistry markers (p > 0.05. Conclusion When combined with heavy resistance training for 28 days, NO-Shotgun® is not associated with any negative side effects, nor does it abnormally impact any of the clinical chemistry markers. Rather, NO-Shotgun® effectively increases muscle strength and mass
Bouchard, Claude; Tchernof, Andre; Tremblay, Angelo
Objective We have previously shown that 24 young lean men (12 pairs of identical twins) subjected to a standardized 353 MJ (84 000 kcal) overfeeding protocol over 100 days exhibited individual differences in body weight and composition gains. The mean (+SD) gains in fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) were 5.4+1.9 kg and 2.7+1.5 kg for a total body energy (BE) gain of 221+75 MJ representing 63% of the energy surplus consumed. We report here on the most important baseline correlates of these...
The Impact of Strenuous Group Physical Activity on Mood States, Personal Views, Body Composition, and Markers of Myocardial Damage in Overweight/Obese Adults: The “Step-by-Step Italy’s Coast to Coast” Trek
Full Text Available It is clinically relevant to understand whether it is safe to recommend to trained overweight/obese people long-distance treks and whether these experiences could have a negative psychological impact or become even dangerous exposing the trekkers to the risk of clinically silent myocardial damage. To answer these questions we have performed a quantitative/qualitative study comparing the changes in mood profiles, personal views, body composition, and plasma troponin levels of 40 overweight/obese subjects with those of 36 healthy normal weight subjects after the participation in a trek of 388 km from the Adriatic to the Tyrrhenian seas trek: the “Step by step…Italy’s coast to coast”. The results of this study demonstrate that long-distance treks are a safe activity for trained overweight/obese people which should be recommended because they improve mood, health status, and the relationship of participants with themselves and with the regular practice of exercise with effects similar to those obtained by healthy normal weight subjects.
Wallström, P; Bjartell, A; Gullberg, B.; Olsson, H; Wirfält, E
Obesity may be associated with increased risk of prostate cancer (PCa). According to one hypothesis, obesity could lower the risk of non-aggressive tumours, while simultaneously increasing the risk of aggressive cancer. Furthermore, central adiposity may be independently associated with PCa risk; it is also associated with diabetes, which itself may influence risk of PCa. We studied the associations between height, body composition, and fat distribution, diabetes prevalence and risk of total,...
The body composition of 50 elderly and 20 middle-aged people presenting the symptoms and signs of congestive heart failure was determined by multiple-isotope method (3H2O; 22Na; 35S; 131I-HSA). In both sexes independently of age the extracellular fluids (extracellular volume ECV; interstitial volume ISV) except plasma volume (PV) were enhanced comparing to controls. The total body water (TBW) did not change, but the intracellular water diminished. The majority of these patients received a combined treatment of diuretics and digitalis, but only a few of them received only digitalis. In the first group, the authors observed a significant diminution of PV, TBW and a less marked diminution of ECV and ISV. Interestingly the ICV diminished further. In the group treated by digitalis alone, the PB did not change, while the TVW, ECV, and ISV enhanced further and the ICV normalized. After 2 weeks of digitalis treatment the ECV and ISV normalized also, while TBW showing a tendency to decrease without normalization. A good correlation was found between the body composition changes and hormonal changes mainly in the case of aldosterone and plasma renin activity. These investigations show that: congestive heart failure cases a redistribution of fluids in favor of extracellular fluids; the combined treatment of diuretics and digitalis is very effective, but if applied too quickly could cause further imbalance in the body composition, and the digitalis treatment alone approach to normal body composition is the best candidates for this type of treatment
Vozarova, B; Wang, J; Weyer, C;
To compare two software versions provided by Lunar CO: for assessment of body composition analysis by DXA.......To compare two software versions provided by Lunar CO: for assessment of body composition analysis by DXA....
Background This study investigated the effects of long term betaine supplementation on body composition, performance, and homocysteine thiolactone (HCTL) in experienced strength trained men. Methods Twenty-three subjects were matched for training experience (4.8 ± 2.3 years) and body fat percentage (BF%: 16.9 ± 8.0%), randomly assigned to either a placebo (PL; n = 12) or betaine group (BET; n = 11; 2.5 g/day), and completed a 6 week periodized training program consisting of 3 two-week micro-cycles. Bench press and back squat training volumes were recorded and changes in training volume were assessed at each micro-cycle. Fasting urine was collected at baseline (BL), weeks 2, 4 and 6, and assayed for HCTL. Subjects were tested prior to and following 6 weeks of treatment. Arm and thigh cross sectional area (CSA) was estimated via girth and skin fold measurements. Body density was estimated via skin fold calipers and used to estimate BF%, fat mass (FM), and lean body mass (LBM). Performance was assessed via vertical jump (VJ), bench press 1 RM (BP), and back squat 1 RM (BS). Results Arm CSA increased significantly (p < .05) in BET but not PL. No differences existed between group and time for changes in thigh CSA. Back squat training volume increased significantly (p < .05) for both groups throughout training. Bench press training volume was significantly (p < .05) improved for BET compared to PL at microcycles one and three. Body composition (BF%, FM, LBM) improved significantly (p < .05) in BET but not PL. No differences were found in performance variables (BP, BS, VJ) between groups, except there was a trend (p = .07) for increased VJ power in BET versus PL. A significant interaction (p < .05) existed for HCTL, with increases from BL to week 2 in PL, but not BET. Additionally, HCTL remained elevated at week 4 in PL, but not BET. Conclusion Six-weeks of betaine supplementation improved body composition, arm size, bench press
Gallagher, Dympna; DeLegge, Mark
The study of body composition is a rapidly evolving science. In today’s environment, there is a great deal of interest in assessing body composition, especially in the obese subject, as a guide to clinical and nutrition interventions. There are some strikingly different compartments of body composition between the obese and the lean patient. We do have the ability to measure body composition accurately, although these techniques can be labor intensive and expensive. The recognition of patient...
The Impact of Strenuous Group Physical Activity on Mood States, Personal Views, Body Composition, and Markers of Myocardial Damage in Overweight/Obese Adults: The “Step-by-Step Italy’s Coast to Coast” Trek
Claudia Mazzeschi; Natalia Piana; Daniela Capezzali; Antonella Mommi; Cristina Aiello; Michela Gatti; Giannermete Romani; Livia Buratta; Dalila Battistini; Giovanni Nasini; Elisa Reginato; Lorena Urbani; Chiara Pazzagli; Carla Ferri; Giuseppe Ambrosio
It is clinically relevant to understand whether it is safe to recommend to trained overweight/obese people long-distance treks and whether these experiences could have a negative psychological impact or become even dangerous exposing the trekkers to the risk of clinically silent myocardial damage. To answer these questions we have performed a quantitative/qualitative study comparing the changes in mood profiles, personal views, body composition, and plasma troponin levels of 40 overweight/obe...
Objective: The longitudinal trajectories of body composition of children born to normal weight, overweight and obese mothers have not been evaluated using precise body composition methods. This study investigated the relationship between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and offspring body composition traj...
Soares Costa de Mendonça Rosa Maria
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to verify the effects of 16 weeks of practicing different exercise programmes on body composition. This is an exploratory and descriptive study of 89 women aged 25 to 55 years (41.42 ± 9.23 years. The subjects were randomly divided into three experimental groups (EG: practitioners of strength training (SG, dance (DG, hydrogymnastics (HG, and a control group (CG with sedentary women. Measurements of body mass and height, circumferences of the chest, waist, abdomen, hips, thighs, calves, and skinfolds of the triceps, suprailiac and thigh were registered in three different moments: prior to the commencement of the training program, again after 8 weeks of training, and finally after 16 weeks of training. Body density was estimated by using the trifold protocol by Jackson, Pollock and Ward. The ANOVA and deltas of change (Δ% were used for data analysis. The level of significance was set at p<0.05. The effects of greater statistical significance on body composition related the variables "time", "group" and the interaction between the two (time x group were observed for the percentage of fat - F% (F (1.79, 152.52 = 24.59, p <0.001, η 2 = 0.22, fat mass - FM (F (1.75, 149.01 = 12.65, p <0.001, η 2 = 0.13 and lean mass - LM (F (1.77, 150.66 = 47.38, p <0.001, η 2 = 0.36. The HG and SG were more beneficial in reducing F%. It was observed that the EG indicated healthier anthropometric aspects compared to the CG, regardless of the type of exercise programmes practiced. The time factor was more representative over the effects of exercise on anthropometric dimensions.
Yin, J; Peng, C
According to the impedance feature of biological tissue, the instrument was designed at 1, 5, 10, 50, 100kHz to measure human impedance, and then to calculate human FAT, FFM, FAT%, TBW, ECW, ICW and so on. A 8031 singlechip microprocessor contacuting used as a control center in the instrument. The part of electric circuit contacuting human body in the instrument was unreally earthing. The instrument was safty, effective, repeatable, and easily manpulative. Prelimintary clinical experiment showed the results measured with the instrument could effectively reflect practical, status of human composition. PMID:9647623
This thesis describes the studies on body composition and dietary intakes of the three major ethnic groups residing in Singapore, and how these are related to cardiovascular risk factors in these groups.Body composition : Body fat percentage was measured using a four-compartment model described by Baumgartner. When the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage was studied, it was discovered that Singaporeans have higher percentage of body fat compared to Caucasians wi...
Elia, M; Ward, L C
New techniques in air-displacement plethysmography seem to have overcome many of the previous problems of poor reproducibility and validity. These have made body-density measurements available to a larger range of individuals, including children, elderly and sick patients who often have difficulties in being submerged underwater in hydrodensitometry systems. The BOD POD air-displacement system (BOD POD body composition system; Life Measurement Instruments, Concord, CA, USA) is more precise than hydrodensitometry, is simple and rapid to operate (approximately 1 min measurements) and the results agree closely with those of hydrodensitometry (e.g. +/- 3.4% for estimation of body fat). Body line scanners employing the principles of three-dimensional photography are potentially able to measure the surface area and volume of the body and its segments even more rapidly (approximately 10 s), but the validity of the measurements needs to be established. Advances in i.r. spectroscopy and mathematical modelling for calculating the area under the curve have improved precision for measuring enrichment of 2H2O in studies of water dilution (CV 0.1-0.9% within the range of 400-1000 microliters/l) in saliva, plasma and urine. The technique is rapid and compares closely with mass spectrometry (bias 1 (SD 2) %). Advances in bedside bioelectrical-impedance techniques are making possible potential measurements of skinfold thicknesses and limb muscle mass electronically. Preliminary results suggest that the electronic method is more reproducible (intra- and inter-individual reproducibility for measuring skinfold thicknesses) and associated with less bias (+12%), than anthropometry (+40%). In addition to these selected examples, the 'mobility' or transfer of reference methods between centres has made the distinction between reference and bedside or field techniques less distinct than in the past. PMID:10343337
The three components of body mass, body cell mass (BCM), extracellular fluid (ECF), and fat + extracellular solids (ECS: bone, tendon, etc) can be quantified using established isotope dilution techniques. With these techniques, total body water (TBW) and ECF are measured using 3H2O and 82Bromine, respectively, as tracers. BCM is calculated from intracellular fluid (ICF) where ICF . TBW - ECF. Fat + ECS is estimated as: body weight - (BCM + ECF). TBW and ECF can be determined by either of two calculation methods, one requiring several timed plasma samples (extrapolation method) and one requiring a single plasma sample and a 4-h urine collection (urine-corrected method). The comparability of the two calculation methods was evaluated in 20 studies in 12 bone marrow transplant recipients. We found that for determination of TBW and ECF there was a very strong linear relationship (r2 greater than 0.98) between the calculation methods. Further comparisons (by t test, 2-sided) indicated that for the determination of ECF, the methods were not significantly (p greater than 0.90) different; however, TBW determined by the urine-corrected method was slightly (0.1 to 6%), but significantly (p less than 0.01) greater than that determined by the extrapolation method. Therefore, relative to the extrapolation method, the urine-corrected method ''over-estimates'' BCM and ''under-estimates'' fat + ECS since determination of these compartment sizes depends on measurement of TBW. We currently use serial isotope dilution studies to monitor the body composition changes of patients receiving therapeutic nutritional support
Sontam, D. M.; Vickers, M. H.; O’Sullivan, J M; Watson, M.; Firth, E. C.
Physical activity has a vital role in regulating and improving bone strength. Responsiveness of bone mass to exercise is age dependent with the prepubertal period suggested to be the most effective stage for interventions. There is a paucity of data on the effects of exercise on bone architecture and body composition when studied within the prepubertal period. We examined the effect of two forms of low-impact exercise on prepubertal changes in body composition and bone architecture. Weanling ...
Paes, Lorena da Silva; Borges, Juliana Pereira; dos Santos, Fernanda Monteiro; de Oliveira, Taciana Pinto; Dupin, Jaciara Gomes; Harris, Elizabeth Assumpção; Farinatti, Paulo
Background : There is a lack of research investigating long-term effects of exercise training upon the body composition and muscle function in HIV-infected patients (PHIV). The study investigated the influence of a 2-year supervised exercise program on body composition and strength of PHIV under highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Methods : A training program including aerobic, strength and flexibility exercises was performed by 27 PHIV (17 men/ 10 women; age: 48.7±7.0 years; HAART:...
Pilar de Miguel-Etayo; Moreno, Luis A; Iris Iglesia; Silvia Bel-Serrat; Theodora Mouratidou; Garagorri, Jesús M.
Nutrition, physical activity and behavior-modifying techniques are widely applied components of interventions treating obesity. Our aim was to review available information on the short and long term effects of intervention treatment on body fat composition of overweight and obese children and adolescents and, to obtain a further understanding on how different body composition techniques detect longitudinal changes. In total, thirteen papers were included; seven included a multidisciplinary in...
Nayera E. Hassan
Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate body composition changes after use of three different types of obesity management protocols: dietary measures and physical activity; acupuncture or laser acupuncture with healthy diet; aiming at achieving stable weight loss among obese Egyptian females. METHODS: A randomized longitudinal prospective study included 76 obese adult females; aged 26 up to 55 years. Anthropometric, body composition, ultrasonographic and biochemical assessments were done. RESULTS: The three types of obesity management protocols showed significant improvement in body composition (decrease in fat% and increases in FFM and TBW and visceral fat by US. However, nutritional intervention showed highly significant improvement in the skin fold thickness at triceps and biceps sites and peripheral adiposity index. Acupuncture intervention showed highly significant improvement in fasting blood glucose (decreased and lipid profile (decreased triglycerides, total cholesterol and LDL, and increased HDL. Laser intervention showed highly significant improvement in all the skin fold thickness and some parameters of lipid profile (decreased total cholesterol and LDL. CONCLUSIONS: The three obesity management protocols have significant effect on body composition, but acupuncture has the best effect in improving the lipid profile and fasting blood sugar. In addition, Laser intervention was recommended to improve skin fold thickness and subcutaneous fat.
Linchey, Jennifer; Madsen, Kristine A.
Introduction We present a comprehensive picture of state requirements and recommendations for body mass index (BMI) and body composition screening of children and explore the association between pediatric obesity prevalence and state screening policies. Methods Researchers completed telephone interviews with contacts at the departments of education for all 50 states and reviewed state content standards for physical education. Results Twenty states (40%) require BMI or body composition screeni...
Full Text Available Objective: We examined whether dietary energy intake (EI and dietary energy density (ED were cross-sectionally associated with body composition of children living in Southwest China. Design and Methods: Multivariate regression analyses were performed on three day, 24 h dietary recall data and information on potential confounders from 1207 participants aged 8–14 years. EI was calculated from all foods and drinks and ED was classified into five categories. Body mass index (BMI z-scores, percentage of body fat (%BF, fat mass index (FMI, fat-free mass index (FFMI and ratio of waist to hip circumference (WHR were used to describe body composition. Results: Boys with higher total EI had higher BMI z-scores, %BF, and FMI than boys with lower total EI both before and after measurements were adjusted for confounders (age, fiber intake, physical activity, the timing of adding complementary foods, paternal education level and maternal BMI (p ≤ 0.04. However, EI was not associated with body composition in girls. Dietary ED, in any category, was not associated with body composition in either gender. Conclusions: Dietary ED was not associated with body composition of children in Southwest China, while dietary EI in boys, not girls, was positively associated with body composition. Reducing dietary energy intake may help to prevent obesity and related diseases in later life among boys living in Southwest China.
The purpose of this study was to determine body composition and somatotype of the male fencers who were grouped by different fencing weapons. Analysis of body composition, with untrained men as background, will update the data necessary for the somatic profiles of fencers. Thirty contestants were examined during the Polish Fencing Championships in 2004. They took part in epée (n = 10), foil (n = 10) and sabre (n = 10). They were aged 23.3 +/- 2.9; their length of training was 12.6 +/- 2.5 years, with the frequency of training 15.9 +/- 3.1 hours per week. In each weapon style there were champions and vice-champions of Poland from the year 2004. Twelve of them were classified among the first fifty contestants according to the D'Escrime International Federation (FIE) ranking. An experienced evaluator performed 10 measurements necessary to designate somatotypes by means of Heath-Carter method and to estimate the percentage of body fat and composition. Sabre fencers (weight = 84.4 kg, somatotype = 3.4-5.4-1.8) were heavier than both epée fencers (77.9 kg, 3.6-4.9-2.5) and foil fencers (74.9 kg, 2.9-4.2-2.8). Sabre specialists had higher mesomorphy than foil fencers (ANOVA and Bonferroni's multi comparison test). Sabre fencers were characterized by higher fat free mass and a higher BMI and fat free mass index than fencers of the other two weapons. Discriminant analysis result was significant (p < 0.01) with a relative percentage with a 72.4 and a canonical correlation coefficient 0.692, and Wilks' lambda = 0.385. Amongst the 30 observations used to fit the model, 22 (73.3%) were correctly classified. Against the background of non-training men, fencers were distinguished by a higher body weight (79.0 vs. 72.1 kg, t = 3.97, p < 0.001) and a higher height-weight ratio (43.21 vs. 42.46, t = 2.24, p < 0.05). Fencers' somatotypes differed from the somatotypes of the untrained (3.3-4.8-2.3 vs. 3.7-4.3-3.1). They were characterized by their higher mesomorphy (t = 2.10, p < 0
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to study to determine and comparison the body composition, body components and somatotype characteristics of young soccer players (Young Soccer Team of Sport Club of Muğla University with other national and international soccer players. Subjects were eighteen pubescent soccer players (age, 13.22y of a team playing in regional soccer league. Skinfolds (biceps, triceps, back, suprailiac, abdominal, leg, thigh, diameters (femur and humerus biconduler, circumferences (biceps, thigh of the body and body fat parameters were measured. Somatotype characteristics were calculated and evaluated by Heat-Carter formula. Subjects’ measurements were as; height 158.44±10.42cm, body weight 47.65±8.38kg, skinfolds; biceps 5.75±1.54mm, triceps 10.61±2.93mm, back 7.30±1.59mm, suprailiac 7.00±2.04mm, abdominal 9.91±3.98mm, leg 13.52±4.76mm; diameters; femur biconduler 11.03±0.74cm; humerus biconduler 7.30±0.59cm; circumferences, biceps 22.76±3.11cm, thigh 32.84±3.33cm and body fat percentage 5.41±1.37 %, somatotype characteristics; Endomorph; 4.59±2.08, Mezomorph; 6.94±3.10, and Ecthomorph; 3.55±1.34. In related sports, physical fitness parameters including physical and anthropometric characteristics of athletes are very important in talent identification. Therefore, results of the present study could provide important data on selection of talented players in soccer and to the other related researches.
OBJECTIVE: To identify the maternal body composition parameters that independently influence birth weight. STUDY DESIGN: A longitudinal prospective observational study in a large university teaching hospital. One hundred and eighty-four non-diabetic caucasian women with a singleton pregnancy were studied. In early pregnancy maternal weight and height were measured digitally in a standardised way and the body mass index (BMI) was calculated. At 28 and 37 weeks\\' gestation maternal body composition was assessed using segmental multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis. At delivery the baby was weighed and the clinical details were recorded. RESULTS: Of the women studied, 29.2% were overweight and 34.8% were obese. Birth weight did not correlate with maternal weight or BMI in early pregnancy. Birth weight correlated with gestational weight gain (GWG) before the third trimester (r=0.163, p=0.027), but not with GWG in the third trimester. Birth weight correlated with maternal fat-free mass, and not fat mass at 28 and 37 weeks gestation. Birth weight did not correlate with increases in maternal fat and fat-free masses between 28 and 37 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to previous reports, we found that early pregnancy maternal BMI in a non-diabetic population does not influence birth weight. Interestingly, it was the GWG before the third trimester and not the GWG in the third trimester that influenced birth weight. Our findings have implications for the design of future intervention studies aimed at optimising gestational weight gain and birth weight. CONDENSATION: Maternal fat-free mass and gestational weight gain both influence birth weight.
G Correia de Faria Santarém
Full Text Available Obesity is associated with mobility reduction due to mechanical factors and excessive body fat. The six-minute walk test (6MWT has been used to assess functional capacity in severe obesity.To determine the association of BMI, total and segmental body composition with distance walked (6MWD during the six-minute walk test (6MWT according to gender and obesity grade.University of São Paulo Medical School, Brazil; Public Practice.Functional capacity was assessed by 6MWD and body composition (% by bioelectrical impedance analysis in 90 patients.The mean 6MWD was 514.9 ± 50.3 m for both genders. The male group (M: 545.2 ± 46.9 m showed a 6MWD higher (p = 0.002 than the female group (F: 505.6 ± 47.9 m. The morbid obese group (MO: 524.7 ± 44.0 m also showed a 6MWD higher (p = 0.014 than the super obese group (SO: 494.2 ± 57.0 m. There was a positive relationship between 6MWD and fat free mass (FFM, FFM of upper limps (FFM_UL, trunk (FFM_TR and lower limbs (FFM_LL. Female group presented a positive relationship between 6MWD and FFM, FFM_UL and FFM_LL and male group presented a positive relationship between 6MWD and FFM_TR. In morbid obese group there was a positive relationship between 6MWD with FFM, FFM_UL, FFM_TR and FFM_LL. The super obese group presented a positive relationship between 6MWD with FFM, FFM_TR and FFM_LL.Total and segmental FFM is associated with a better walking capacity than BMI.
Camargo, Cristiane Teixeira Amaral; Gomez-Campos, Rossana Anelice; Cossio-Bolaños, Marco Antonio; Barbeta, Vinicius Justino De Oliveira; Arruda, Miguel; Guerra-Junior, Gil
The aim was to analyse the physical growth and body composition of rhythmic gymnastics athletes relative to their level of somatic maturation. This was a cross-sectional study of 136 athletes on 23 teams from Brazil. Mass, standing height and sitting height were measured. Fat-free and fat masses, body fat percentages and ages of the predicted peak height velocity (PHV) were calculated. The z scores for mass were negative during all ages according to both WHO and Brazilian references, and that for standing height were also negative for all ages according to WHO reference but only until 12 years old according to Brazilian reference. The mean age of the predicted PHV was 12.1 years. The mean mass, standing and sitting heights, body fat percentage, fat-free mass and fat mass increased significantly until 4 to 5 years after the age of the PHV. Menarche was reached in only 26% of these athletes and mean age was 13.2 years. The mass was below the national reference standards, and the standing height was below only for the international reference, but they also had late recovery of mass and standing height during puberty. In conclusion, these athletes had a potential to gain mass and standing height several years after PHV, indicating late maturation. PMID:24936888
Miggiano, G A D; Petitti, T
136 patients were selected (16 men and 120 women with non-specific menstrual disturbances) with a BMI (Body Mass Index) between 25 and 45 kg/m2, which were diagnosed with "disendocrinia" (GH deficit, hyperadrenocorticism, hypothyroidsm, hyperandrogenism, menstrual cycle disorders). The proposed approach, based on the visualization of the value distribution of the electric measures in different graphics, is able to immediately explain the bioelectric state of the individual's lean-mass. Subjects with hypothyroidism present, along with their overweight, less bio-conducting mass, with an altered fluid intra/extra-cellular distribution. Patients with hyperadrenocorticism show instead an hyperhydratation of the body mass, especially in the extracellular level. Patients with menstrual disorders (amenorrea, polycystic ovary syndrome, anovulatory cycle etc...) present a lean mass reduction (elevated Rs) and an increase of the intra-cellular compartment (elevated-Xc). Patients with hyper-androgenism (and hirsutism) show a characteristic bioelectric "pattern", with low Rs levels and high Xc levels. Subjects with GH deficit (men and women), has a trend of documenting bioelectric measures with lower lean mass and higher fat-mass. Different electric biotypes seem to characterize the body composition in the several endocrine disorders. PMID:15700636
José Miguel Martínez-Sanz
Full Text Available Introduction: The swimmer is a high level athlete, with long limbs, and whose musculoskeletal components are important in sporting success. However, the fat component is paradoxical because of its relationship with the buoyancy and displacement of the body in the water. The aim of this study is to describe the anthropometric profile of adolescent competition swimmers.Material and methods: A total of 17 adolescent swimmers were evaluated, 10 boys (13.2 ±1.32 years and 7 girls (15±1.83 years. A qualified anthropometrist took anthropometric measures according to the protocol of the Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK, with approved materials according to the methodology of Marfell-Jones et al, 2003. Body composition was calculated according to the consensus of Kinanthropometry and somatotype with Heath-Carter´s method.Results: Of all the variables studied (weight, height, folds, circumferences, diameters and lengths, significant differences were found (P<.05 between the sexes in height, arm span, skinfolds (triceps, subscapular, crestailiaca, ileo-spinal, abdominal, thigh, leg, sum of skinfolds, biacromial-bi-iliac index, bone body mass, muscle and fat, ectomorphy, and endomorphy.Conclusions: There are significant anthropometric differences between genders in adolescent swimmers (P<.05. Such differences, resulting in the development of both sexes, might be highly related to athletic performance of young athletes.
Full Text Available Background: Lower body mass index (BMI is associated with worse pulmonary function in cystic fibrosis (CF. Hypothesis: Lean body mass (LBM is more strongly associated with pulmonary function than BMI is.Methods: Anthropometrics, body composition by dual x-ray absorptiometry, and pulmonary function were determined in pancreatic insufficient CF (PI-CF youth. Sex and age-adjusted Z-scores (BMI-Z, LBMI-Z, FMI-Z were generated for CF and controls. 1 Associations of BMI-Z with LBMI-Z and FMI-Z and 2 age-adjusted associations of BMI-Z, LBMI-Z, and FMI-Z with FEV1%-predicted were tested. Results: 208 PI-CF subjects had lower BMI-Z, LBMI-Z, FMI-Z compared to 390 controls. BMI-Z was associated with lower LBMI-Z (pConclusions: In PI-CF youth, deficits in LBM were apparent. At lower BMI percentiles, BMI may not accurately depict LBM in PI-CF. In under-nourished PI-CF youth this preservation of FM in preference to LBM is relevant since LBMI-Z, but not FMI-Z, is positively associated with FEV1%-predicted. LBMI is more strongly associated with lung function compared to BMI, especially in the undernourished child and adolescent with PI-CF.
Gerusa Eisfeld Milano
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the effects of aquatic exercise and nutritionalguidance on the body composition of obese children and adolescents. Thirty obese childrenaged 10 to 16 years, with a body mass index (BMI above the 95th percentile according to theclassification proposed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2000, weredivided into two groups: the first group started learning to swim (GSwim, n = 10 and the secondgroup underwent a deep water running program (GDeep, n = 20. Weight, height, BMI, BMIZ-scores, relative and absolute fat, and relative and absolute lean body mass were evaluated atbaseline and after 12 weeks. The program consisted of 12 meetings for nutritional guidance (oncea week and 36 sessions of exercise (three times per week. MANOVA and Fisher’s exact testwere used for statistical analysis, with the level of significance set at p < 0.05. After 12 weeks,GDeep showed a significant reduction in BMI, BMI Z-scores and relative and absolute fat,and an increase in relative and absolute lean body mass. Significant differences were observedbetween GDeep and GSwim in terms of the reduction in body fat (p = 0.014 and the increasein lean mass (p = 0.006. A program of deep water running together with nutritional guidancemay promote significant changes in the body composition of obese children and adolescents dueto the cyclic characteristic of this physical activity.
Elzânia S. Pereira
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the energy requirements for maintenance (NEm and growth of 48 Brazilian Somali ram lambs with an average initial body weight of 13.47±1.76 kg. Eight animals were slaughtered at the trials beginning as a reference group to estimate the initial empty body weight (EBW and body composition. The remaining animals were assigned to a randomised block design with eight replications per block and five diets with increasing metabolisable energy content (4.93, 8.65, 9.41, 10.12 and 11.24 MJ/kg dry matter. The logarithm of heat production was regressed against metabolisable energy intake (MEI, and the NEm (kJ/kg0.75 EBW/day were estimated by extrapolation, when MEI was set at zero. The NEm was 239.77 kJ/kg0.75 EBW/day. The animal’s energy and EBW fat contents increased from 11.20 MJ/kg and 208.54 g/kg to 13.54 MJ/kg and 274.95 g/kg of EBW, respectively, as the BW increased from 13 to 28.70 kg. The net energy requirements for EBW gain increased from 13.79 to 16.72 MJ/kg EBW gain for body weights of 13 and 28.70 kg. Our study indicated the net energy requirements for maintenance in Brazilian Somali lambs were similar to the values commonly recommended by the United States’ nutritional system, but lower than the values recommended by Agricultural Research Council and Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization. Net requirements for weight gain were less compared to the values commonly recommended by nutritional system of the United States.
Excessive weight gain has frequently been reported in adolescents with type 1 diabetes, especially in girls. In general, puberty is associated with reduced insulin sensitivity that is further diminished by overweight. The causes and consequences of excessive weight gain in adolescents with type 1 diabetes are not fully understood. The studies described in this thesis addressed body composition in adolescents with type 1 diabetes and the relationships between physical activity, energy intake a...
Maria F. Laus; Telma M. Braga Costa; Sebastião S. Almeida
Objective: To evaluate body image dissatisfaction and its relationship with physical activity and body mass index in a Brazilian sample of adolescents. Methods: A total of 275 adolescents (139 boys and 136 girls) between the ages of 14 and 18 years completed measures of body image dissatisfaction through the Contour Drawing Scale and current physical activity by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Weight and height were also measured for subsequent calculation of body mass inde...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is rising at an alarming rate globally. Different fermentable carbohydrates have been shown to reduce obesity. The aim of the present study was to investigate if two different fermentable carbohydrates (inulin and β-glucan exert similar effects on body composition and central appetite regulation in high fat fed mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Thirty six C57BL/6 male mice were randomized and maintained for 8 weeks on a high fat diet containing 0% (w/w fermentable carbohydrate, 10% (w/w inulin or 10% (w/w β-glucan individually. Fecal and cecal microbial changes were measured using fluorescent in situ hybridization, fecal metabolic profiling was obtained by proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1H NMR, colonic short chain fatty acids were measured by gas chromatography, body composition and hypothalamic neuronal activation were measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and manganese enhanced MRI (MEMRI, respectively, PYY (peptide YY concentration was determined by radioimmunoassay, adipocyte cell size and number were also measured. Both inulin and β-glucan fed groups revealed significantly lower cumulative body weight gain compared with high fat controls. Energy intake was significantly lower in β-glucan than inulin fed mice, with the latter having the greatest effect on total adipose tissue content. Both groups also showed an increase in the numbers of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus-Enterococcus in cecal contents as well as feces. β-Glucan appeared to have marked effects on suppressing MEMRI associated neuronal signals in the arcuate nucleus, ventromedial hypothalamus, paraventricular nucleus, periventricular nucleus and the nucleus of the tractus solitarius, suggesting a satiated state. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although both fermentable carbohydrates are protective against increased body weight gain, the lower body fat content induced by inulin may be metabolically advantageous. β-Glucan appears to suppress
Remig Valentina M
Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated the effects of a calcium-fortified beverage supplemented over 12 months on body composition in postmenopausal women (n = 37, age = 48–75 y. Methods Body composition (total-body percent fat, %FatTB; abdominal percent fat, %FatAB was measured with dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. After baseline assessments, subjects were randomly assigned to a free-living control group (CTL or the supplement group (1,125 mg Ca++/d, CAL. Dietary intake was assessed with 3-day diet records taken at baseline and 12 months (POST. Physical activity was measured using the Yale Physical Activity Survey. Results At 12 months, the dietary calcium to protein ratio in the CAL group (32.3 ± 15.6 mg/g was greater than the CTL group (15.2 ± 7.5 mg/g. There were no differences from baseline to POST between groups for changes in body weight (CAL = 0.1 ± 3.0 kg; CTL = 0.0 ± 2.9 kg, %FatTB (CAL = 0.0 ± 2.4%; CTL = 0.5 ± 5.4%, %FatAB (CAL = -0.4 ± 8.7%; CTL = 0.6 ± 8.7%, or fat mass (CAL = 1.3 ± 2.6 kg; CTL = 1.3 ± 2.7 kg. Conclusion These results indicate that increasing the calcium to protein ratio over two-fold by consuming a calcium-fortified beverage for 12 months did not decrease body weight, body fat, or abdominal fat composition in postmenopausal women.
Sheean, Patricia M.; Hoskins, Kent; Stolley, Melinda
Body composition changes cannot be precisely captured using body weight or body mass index measures. Therefore, the primary purpose of this review was to characterize the patterns of body composition change in females treated for breast cancer including only studies that utilize imaging technologies to quantify adipose tissue and lean body mass (LBM). We reviewed PubMed for studies published between 1971–2012 involving females diagnosed with breast cancer where computed axial tomography (CAT)...
Veciana Miró, Jaume; Ratera Bastardas, Inmaculada; Díez Gil, César; Villaverde Corrales, Antonio Pedro; Vázquez Gómez, Esther; García Fruitós, Elena
[EN] The present invention relates to an isolated inclusion body comprising a polypeptide, characterised in that such inclusion body is in particulate formo The present invention also refers to a bacterial cell comprising said inclusion body. The present invention additionally refers to a composition comprising said inclusion body and a eukaryotic cell. The present invention moreover refers to a composition comprising said inclusion body and animal or plant tissue. The present invent...
Morgan, H M; Shakeshaft, J T; Lillicrap, S C
The purpose of this study was to examine the potential of using backscatter information to assess regional body composition at selected sites. Two measurement techniques are examined: the measurement of the ratio of coherent to Compton scatter, and the measurement of the Compton scatter profile. Two possible applications are considered: the measurement of trabecular bone mineral density, and the measurement of the average fat/muscle ratio in a tissue volume. The results presented indicate that the analysis of coherent and Compton backscattered gamma-ray spectra from an 241Am source has the potential for measuring both trabecular bone mineral density and average fat/muscle ratio in a tissue volume, with a low absorbed dose to the subject. PMID:9569541
Wray-Cahen, C D; Kerr, D E; Evock-Clover, C M; Steele, N C
Growth rate and body composition of livestock can be optimized to meet consumer needs for a leaner product and to improve the efficiency of meat-animal production. Optimization strategies have traditionally focused on genetic selection and cost-effective ration formulation to achieve the genetic potential. Advances in understanding the mechanisms of growth and its control have led to additional opportunities for its manipulation. These include nutritional manipulation,the use of growth promotants, and, more recently, the ability to change the genetic potential through genetic engineering. Selection of appropriate candidate genes for manipulation depends on understanding the mechanisms underlying differentiation and growth of embryonic muscle cells. Recent advances in genetic engineering techniques, including gene therapy and germline transgenesis, will likely hasten the genetic progress toward a leaner carcass in domestic livestock. Such strategies may prove to be more beneficial then the controlled enhancement of somatotropin expression. PMID:9706219
Thais Costa Machado
Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the relationship between body composition of preschool children suffering from excess weight and birth weight (BW. Methods: probabilistic sample, by conglomerates, with 17 daycare centers (of a total of 59 composing a final sample of 479 children. We used Z-score of Body Mass Index (zBMI ≥ +1 and ≥ +2, respectively, to identify preschool children with risk of overweight and excess weight (overweight or obesity. The arm muscle area (AMA and the arm fat area (AFA were estimated from measurements of arm circumference, triceps skin fold thickness. Results: the prevalence of risk of overweight was 22.9% (n=110 and excess weight was 9.3% (n=44. The risk of overweight and excess weight in children did not show correlation between BW and AFA, but it did with adjusted arm muscle area (AMAa (rp= 0.21; p= 0.0107. The analysis of the group with excess weight alone also showed a positive correlation between BW and AMAa (rp= 0.42; p= 0.0047. Conclusion: among overweight children, lower BW is associated with a lower arm muscle area in early preschool age, regardless of the fat arm area presented by them.
This thesis describes the studies on body composition and dietary intakes of the three major ethnic groups residing in Singapore, and how these are related to cardiovascular risk factors in these groups.Body composition : Body fat percentage was measured using a four-compartment model described by B
Madsen, Kristine A.; Linchey, Jennifer
Background: School-based body mass index (BMI) or body composition screening is increasing, but little is known about the process of parent notification. Since 2001, California has required annual screening of body composition via the FITNESSGRAM, with optional notification. This study sought to identify the prevalence of parental notification…
Seabra, A C; Seabra, A F; Brito, J;
. Indicators of perceived psychological status included body image, self-esteem, attraction to participation in physical activity, and perceived physical competence measured with standardized questionnaires. Body composition was evaluated using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. From baseline through 5 months......The effects of a 5-month intervention of football instruction and practice on the perceived psychological status and body composition of overweight boys were examined. Twelve boys (8-12 years; body mass index ≥ 85th percentile) participated in a structured 5-month football program, consisting......, FG improved (P body fat and lean body mass, however, did not differ between FG and CG. The findings suggest that a 5-month football intervention program was effective...
Finelli, Carmine; Gioia, Saverio; La Sala, Nicolina
We review the current concepts about energy expenditure and evaluate the physical activity (PhA) in the context of this knowledge and the available literature. Regular PhA is correlated with low body weight and low body fat mass. The negative fat balance is probably secondary to this negative energy balance. Nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) and physical activity, that is crucial for weight control, may be important in the physiology of weight change. An intriguing doubt that remains unresolved is whether changes in nutrient intake or body composition secondarily affect the spontaneous physical activity. PMID:24533208
Activities of 17 radionuclides induced in the human body by the activation of 14 elements with thermal neutrons were calculated. Resulting dependences of these activities on the activation time are shown in graphs. (author)
Navarro-Barrientos, J-Emeterio; Rivera, Daniel E; Collins, Linda M
We present a dynamical model incorporating both physiological and psychological factors that predicts changes in body mass and composition during the course of a behavioral intervention for weight loss. The model consists of a three-compartment energy balance integrated with a mechanistic psychological model inspired by the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). The latter describes how important variables in a behavioural intervention can influence healthy eating habits and increased physical activity over time. The novelty of the approach lies in representing the behavioural intervention as a dynamical system, and the integration of the psychological and energy balance models. Two simulation scenarios are presented that illustrate how the model can improve the understanding of how changes in intervention components and participant differences affect outcomes. Consequently, the model can be used to inform behavioural scientists in the design of optimised interventions for weight loss and body composition change. PMID:21673826
In the past 20 years, in vivo analysis of body elements by neutron activation has become an important tool in medical research. In particular, it provides a much needed means to make quantitative assessments of body composition of human beings in vivo. The data are useful both for basic physiological understanding and for diagnosis and management of a variety of diseases and disorders. This paper traces the development of the in vivo neutron activation technique from basic systems to the present state of the art facilities. A scan of some of the numerous clinical applications that have been made with this technique, reveals the broad potentialities of in vivo neutron activation. The paper also considers alternative routes of future development and raises some of the questions now faced in making the techniques more widely available to both medical practitioners and medical investigators. In vivo neutron activation has opened a new era of both clinical diagnosis and therapy evaluation, and investigation into the modelling of body composition. The techniques are new, but it is already clear that considerable strides can be made in increasing accuracy and precision, increasing the number of elements susceptible to measurement, and reducing the dose required for the measurement. 18 refs., 7 figs
In the past 20 years, in vivo analysis of body elements by neutron activation has become an important tool in medical research. In particular, it provides a much needed means to make quantitative assessments of body composition of human beings in vivo. The data are useful both for basic physiological understanding and for diagnosis and management of a variety of diseases and disorders. This paper traces the development of the in vivo neutron activation technique from basic systems to the present state of the art facilities. A scan of some of the numerous clinical applications that have been made with this technique, reveals the broad potentialities of in vivo neutron activation. The paper also considers alternative routes of future development and raises some of the questions now faced in making the techniques more widely available to both medical practitioners and medical investigators. In vivo neutron activation has opened a new era of both clinical diagnosis and therapy evaluation, and investigation into the modelling of body composition. The techniques are new, but it is already clear that considerable strides can be made in increasing accuracy and precision, increasing the number of elements susceptible to measurement, and reducing the dose required for the measurement. 18 refs., 7 figs.
Friesen, Karlie J; Rozenek, Ralph; Clippinger, Karen; Gunter, Kathy; Russo, Albert C; Sklar, Susan E
This study investigates body composition (BC), bone mineral density (BMD), eating behaviors, and menstrual dysfunction in collegiate modern dancers. Thirty-one female collegiate modern dance majors (D), 18 to 25 years of age, and 30 age-matched controls (C) participated in the study. BC and BMD were measured using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Upper and lower body strength was assessed by chest and leg press one-repetition maximum tests. Participants completed three-day food records, and the diet was analyzed using nutritional software. Menstrual dysfunction (MD) and history of eating disorder (ED) data were collected via questionnaires. BC and BMD variables were analyzed using MANCOVA and frequency of ED and MD by Chi-Square analysis. BMD was greater in D than C at the spine (1.302 ± 0.135 g/cm(2) vs. 1.245 ± 0.098 g/cm(2)), and both the right hip (1.163 ± 0.111 g/cm(2) vs. 1.099 ± 0.106 g/cm(2)) and left hip (1.160 ± 0.114 g/cm(2) vs. 1.101 ± 0.104 g/cm(2); p ≤ 0.05). Total body fat percentage was lower in D than C (25.9 ± 4.2% vs. 32.0 ± 5.9%; p ≤ 0.05), and percent of fat distributed in the android region was also lower in D than C (28.0 ± 6.2% vs. 37.6 ± 8.6%; p ≤ 0.05). With regard to diet composition, only percent fat intake was lower in D than C (27.54 ± 6.8% vs. 31.5 ± 7.4%, p ≤ 0.05). A greater incidence of ED was reported by D than C (12.9% vs. 0%; p ≤ 0.05), as well as a greater incidence of secondary amenorrhea (41.9% vs 13.3%; p ≤ 0.05). No differences were found for incidence of primary amenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, or use of birth control. Strength values were higher in D than C for both chest press (30.1 ± 0.9 kg vs. 28.4 ± 1.0 kg; p ≤ 0.05) and leg press (170.7 ± 4.2 kg vs.163.1 ± 3.9 kg; p ≤ 0.05). It is concluded that the dancers in our study had a healthy body weight, yet reported a higher incidence of eating disorders and menstrual dysfunction, than non-dancers. These dancers' higher BMD may be
Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of the present investigations was to determine the effects of aqua aerobics on body weight and composition, lipid profile, and selected blood count parameters in middle-aged sedentary females. Methods. Twenty-one women were randomly assigned to an experimental group (age 56.20 ± 2.57 years, height 162.80 ± 4.76 cm, weight 74.03 ± 3.84 kg that participated in aqua aerobics classes three times a week for three months and a control group (mean age 56.44 ± 3.28 years, height 165.00 ± 3.91 cm, weight 70.01 ± 11.36 kg not involved in any kind of targeted exercise. The aqua aerobics classes were tailored to suit the age and abilities of the participants, with workout intensity controlled and maintained at approximately 128-137 bpm. Results. Significant differences between the experimental and control groups were found for body weight, total body water, fat-free mass, and skeletal muscle mass. A significant increase in post-intervention hemoglobin and erythrocyte counts was observed in the experimental group. Conclusions. Future studies should determine the intensity of physical activity with the most beneficial effect on blood variables in middle-aged and older individuals.
Kesavachandran, C.; Bihari, V.; N. Mathur
Background/Aims: A cross-sectional study was undertaken on 767 urban male volunteers performing physical activity and 469 age and socioeconomic status matched controls not doing any physical activity from the city limits of North India. Materials and Methods: Height and weight were recorded for each participant to determine their Body Mass Index (BMI). Body fat percentage and weight was measured using a body fat monitor. Results: Fifty three percent of the physical activity performers showed ...
Kesavachandran C; Bihari V; Mathur N
Background/Aims : A cross-sectional study was undertaken on 767 urban male volunteers performing physical activity and 469 age and socioeconomic status matched controls not doing any physical activity from the city limits of North India. Materials and Methods : Height and weight were recorded for each participant to determine their Body Mass Index (BMI). Body fat percentage and weight was measured using a body fat monitor. Results : Fifty three percent of the physical activity performers ...
Pearce, R.D.; O'Shea, T.J.; Wunder, B.A.
Bat researchers have used both morphological indices and total body electric conductivity (TOBEC) as proxies for body condition in a variety of studies, but have typically not validated these indices against direct measurement of body composition. We quantified body composition (total carcass lipids) to determine if morphological indices were useful predictors of body condition in big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus). We also evaluated body composition indirectly by TOBEC using EM-SCAN?? technology. The most important predictors of body composition in multiple regression analysis were body mass-to-forearm ratio (partial r2 = 0.82, P < 0.001) followed by TOBEC measurement (partial r2 = 0.08, P < 0.001) and to a minor extent head length (partial r2 = 0.02, P < 0.05). Morphological condition indices alone may be adequate for some studies because of lower cost and effort. Marking bats with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags affected TOBEC measurements. ?? Museum and Institute of Zoology PAS.
Body composition is a useful means for athletes' body composition assessment, relying on reference population data. This study aims at comparing body composition multifrequency impedance data of athletes and healthy adult populations. Differences were found in tissular, hydration and metabolic indices. They were significant, in the expected direction, but quite weak and additional data from reference technologies would set if specific equations are needed. The current ones are nevertheless suitable for reliable follow-up studies.
Brey, Thomas; Müller-Wiegmann, Corinna; Zittier, Zora M. C.; Hagen, Wilhelm
We introduce a global data bank on body composition of aquatic organisms that is available at http://www.thomas-brey.de/science/virtualhandbook. It covers ratios between body mass (wet, dry, ash free dry mass), body composition (protein, lipid, carbohydrate), macro-elements (C, N, P) and energy content (J). Sofar, data for 3158 different taxa (animals, plants, bacteria) were collected from 725 different sources. The principal purpose of the data bank is mining for conversion factors, as necessary in ecological studies that require a common energetic currency. The data bank can be used to explore general ecological principles, too: among all animals, carnivorous swimmers have the highest energy density, presumably an across-taxon selection for propulsion power and handling force. Plants and animals do not only differ in their C/N and C/P ratios, but these ratios change with temperature in opposite directions. In plants, C/N and C/P increase with temperature, most likely a response to the higher levels of N and P in polar waters. In animals C/N and C/P decrease with temperature, an indicator for selection towards lower activity and larger lipid stores in polar animals.