WorldWideScience

Sample records for activity plug-in

  1. "Plug-In" for More Active Online Learning.

    Tuttle, Harry G.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses plug-ins, software programs that connect to an World Wide Web browser and enhance its functionality. Highlights finding the software; downloading and using plug-ins; and educational applications, including the document viewer, real-time chat, multimedia, map viewer, spelling checker, news network, sound and video, and real-time…

  2. Assessing the Potential of Plug-in Electric Vehicles in Active Distribution Networks

    Reza Ahmadi Kordkheili; Seyyed Ali Pourmousavi; Mehdi Savaghebi; Guerrero, Josep M.; Mohammad Hashem Nehrir

    2016-01-01

    A multi-objective optimization algorithm is proposed in this paper to increase the penetration level of renewable energy sources (RESs) in distribution networks by intelligent management of plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) storage. The proposed algorithm is defined to manage the reverse power flow (PF) from the distribution network to the upstream electrical system. Furthermore, a charging algorithm is proposed within the proposed optimization in order to assure PEV owner’s quality of service (...

  3. Assessing the Potential of Plug-in Electric Vehicles in Active Distribution Networks

    Kordheili, Reza Ahmadi; Pourmousavi, Seyyed Ali; Savaghebi, Mehdi;

    2016-01-01

    (PF) from the distribution network to the upstream electrical system. Furthermore, a charging algorithm is proposed within the proposed optimization in order to assure PEV owner’s quality of service (QoS). The method uses genetic algorithm (GA) to increase photovoltaic (PV) penetration without......A multi-objective optimization algorithm is proposed in this paper to increase the penetration level of renewable energy sources (RESs) in distribution networks by intelligent management of plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) storage. The proposed algorithm is defined to manage the reverse power flow...... demonstrate the capability of the algorithm in increasing solar power penetration in the grid up to 50%, depending on the PEV penetration level and the freedom of the system operator in managing the available PEV storage....

  4. U.S. Department of Energy -- Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Testing and Demonstration Activities

    James E. Francfort; Donald Karner; John G. Smart

    2009-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) tests plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) in closed track, dynamometer and onroad testing environments. The onroad testing includes the use of dedicated drivers on repeated urban and highway driving cycles that range from 10 to 200 miles, with recharging between each loop. Fleet demonstrations with onboard data collectors are also ongoing with PHEVs operating in several dozen states and Canadian Provinces, during which trips- and miles-per-charge, charging demand and energy profiles, and miles-per-gallon and miles-per-kilowatt-hour fuel use results are all documented, allowing an understanding of fuel use when vehicles are operated in charge depleting, charge sustaining, and mixed charge modes. The intent of the PHEV testing includes documenting the petroleum reduction potential of the PHEV concept, the infrastructure requirements, and operator recharging influences and profiles. As of May 2008, the AVTA has conducted track and dynamometer testing on six PHEV conversion models and fleet testing on 70 PHEVs representing nine PHEV conversion models. A total of 150 PHEVs will be in fleet testing by the end of 2008, all with onboard data loggers. The onroad testing to date has demonstrated 100+ miles per gallon results in mostly urban applications for approximately the first 40 miles of PHEV operations. The primary goal of the AVTA is to provide advanced technology vehicle performance benchmark data for technology modelers, research and development programs, and technology goal setters. The AVTA testing results also assist fleet managers in making informed vehicle purchase, deployment and operating decisions. The AVTA is part of DOE’s Vehicle Technologies Program. These AVTA testing activities are conducted by the Idaho National Laboratory and Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation, with Argonne National Laboratory providing dynamometer testing support. The proposed paper

  5. Assessing the Potential of Plug-in Electric Vehicles in Active Distribution Networks

    Reza Ahmadi Kordkheili

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A multi-objective optimization algorithm is proposed in this paper to increase the penetration level of renewable energy sources (RESs in distribution networks by intelligent management of plug-in electric vehicle (PEV storage. The proposed algorithm is defined to manage the reverse power flow (PF from the distribution network to the upstream electrical system. Furthermore, a charging algorithm is proposed within the proposed optimization in order to assure PEV owner’s quality of service (QoS. The method uses genetic algorithm (GA to increase photovoltaic (PV penetration without jeopardizing PEV owners’ (QoS and grid operating limits, such as voltage level of the grid buses. The method is applied to a part of the Danish low voltage (LV grid to evaluate its effectiveness and capabilities. Different scenarios have been defined and tested using the proposed method. Simulation results demonstrate the capability of the algorithm in increasing solar power penetration in the grid up to 50%, depending on the PEV penetration level and the freedom of the system operator in managing the available PEV storage.

  6. In-use measurement of activity, energy use, and emissions of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle.

    Graver, Brandon M; Frey, H Christopher; Choi, Hyung-Wook

    2011-10-15

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) could reduce transportation air emissions and energy use. However, a method is needed for estimating on-road emissions of PHEVs. To develop a framework for quantifying microscale energy use and emissions (EU&E), measurements were conducted on a Toyota Prius retrofitted with a plug-in battery system on eight routes. Measurements were made using the following: (1) a data logger for the hybrid control system; (2) a portable emissions measurement system; and (3) a global positioning system with barometric altimeter. Trends in EU&E are estimated based on vehicle specific power. Energy economy is quantified based on gasoline consumed by the engine and grid energy consumed by the plug-in battery. Emissions from electricity consumption are estimated based on the power generation mix. Fuel use is approximately 30% lower during plug-in battery use. Grid emissions were higher for CO₂, NO(x), SO₂, and PM compared to tailpipe emissions but lower for CO and hydrocarbons. EU&E depends on engine and plug-in battery operation. The use of two energy sources must be addressed in characterizing fuel economy; overall energy economy is 11% lower if including grid energy use than accounting only for fuel consumption. PMID:21902202

  7. An Activity-Based Assessment of the Potential Impacts of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles on Energy and Emissions Using One-Day Travel Data

    Recker, W. W.; Kang, J.E.

    2010-01-01

    With the success of Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) in the automobile market, Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) are emerging as the next evolution of this attractive alternative. PHEV market penetration is expected to lead to lower gasoline consumption and less emission. The main objective of this research is to assess PHEVs’ energy profile impacts based on simulation of vehicles used in activity and travel patterns drawn from the 2000-2001 California Statewide Household Travel Survey....

  8. Dual Active Bridge based Battery Charger for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle with Charging Current Containing Low Frequency Ripple

    Xue, Lingxiao; Díaz López, Daniel; Shen, Zhiyu; Luo, Fang; Mattavelli, Paolo; Boroyevich, Dushan

    2013-01-01

    High power density is strongly preferable for the on-board battery charger of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV). Wide band gap devices, such as Gallium Nitride HEMTs are being explored to push to higher switching frequency and reduce passive component size. In this case, the bulk DC link capacitor of AC-DC Power Factor Correction (PFC) stage, which is usually necessary to store ripple power of two times the line frequency in a DC current charging system, becomes a major barrier on power ...

  9. The NAHIF* Plug-in-Magnet

    CERN Audiovisual Unit

    1981-01-01

    * North Area High Intensity Facility of the CERN SPS. The beamlines with target stations and the plug-in magnets - The plug-in magnet to be removed for repair - The lifting bar and tool for the vacuum connector - The control stand - Controls for vacuum connector tool - The plug-in vacuum connector - Liftingbar with the automatic pins for magnets - The gravitational automatic pin - The plug-in kit in action.

  10. The Plug-in Concept: Technology and Aesthetics of Change

    Peter Šenk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The architecture concept of plug-in is based on the duality of the infrastructure system and units or elements connected to it. In the context of megastructures, the concept was most vividly characterised by works of Archigram and Japanese Metabolists in the 1960s and early 1970s. Blurring the boundary between the building and the city, the plug-in concept outgrew architectural boundaries and was slowly transformed into an urbanistic concept.The paper presents the cultural context relevant to contemporaneity, which influenced specific development of the technology-driven concept of plug-in in the British Archigram Group and Japanese Metabolists. Based on the aesthetics of change and incompleteness, which was characterised by similar architectural manifestations despite entirely different cultural backgrounds, the plug-in concept foreshadowed social transformation based on freedom, individualisation and mobility in an utopian manner and held a promise of urban development with adaptability to unpredictable needs and desires of residents, who would become its co-creators with an active approach.Although the revolutionary sixties are quite some time behind, the plug-in concept in its commodified form has become and remained operational and relevant at least on the metaphorical level; in the contemporary space it is evident primarily in urbanism and not as much in its original architectural form.

  11. U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Program -- Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity -- Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Review

    Kevin Morrow; Donald Darner; James Francfort

    2008-11-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are under evaluation by various stake holders to better understand their capability and potential benefits. PHEVs could allow users to significantly improve fuel economy over a standard HEV and in some cases, depending on daily driving requirements and vehicle design, have the ability to eliminate fuel consumption entirely for daily vehicle trips. The cost associated with providing charge infrastructure for PHEVs, along with the additional costs for the on-board power electronics and added battery requirements associated with PHEV technology will be a key factor in the success of PHEVs. This report analyzes the infrastructure requirements for PHEVs in single family residential, multi-family residential and commercial situations. Costs associated with this infrastructure are tabulated, providing an estimate of the infrastructure costs associated with PHEV deployment.

  12. Plug-in Hybrid Initiative

    Goodman, Angie; Moore, Ray; Rowden, Tim

    2013-09-27

    Our main project objective was to implement Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEV) and charging infrastructure into our electric distribution service territory and help reduce barriers in the process. Our research demonstrated the desire for some to be early adopters of electric vehicles and the effects lack of education plays on others. The response of early adopters was tremendous: with the initial launch of our program we had nearly 60 residential customers interested in taking part in our program. However, our program only allowed for 15 residential participants. Our program provided assistance towards purchasing a PEV and installation of Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE). The residential participants have all come to love their PEVs and are more than enthusiastic about promoting the many benefits of driving electric.

  13. Mastering Eclipse plug-in development

    Blewitt, Alex

    2014-01-01

    If you are a Java developer who is familiar with the Eclipse plug-in environment, this book covers the advanced concepts that you need to know to achieve true expertise. Prior experience in creating Eclipse plug-ins is assumed for this book.

  14. Plug-In Tutor Agents: Still Pluggin'

    Ritter, Steven

    2016-01-01

    "An Architecture for Plug-in Tutor Agents" (Ritter and Koedinger 1996) proposed a software architecture designed around the idea that tutors could be built as plug-ins for existing software applications. Looking back on the paper now, we can see that certain assumptions about the future of software architecture did not come to be, making…

  15. Method for in-use measurement and evaluation of the activity, fuel use, electricity use, and emissions of a plug-in hybrid diesel-electric school bus.

    Choi, Hyung-Wook; Frey, H Christopher

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to demonstrate a methodology for characterizing at high resolution the energy use and emissions of a plug-in parallel-hybrid diesel-electric school bus (PHSB) to support assessments of sensitivity to driving cycles and comparisons to a conventional diesel school bus (CDSB). Data were collected using onboard instruments for a first-of-a-kind prototype PHSB and a CDSB of the same chassis and engine, operated on actual school bus routes. The engine load was estimated on the basis of vehicle specific power (VSP) and an empirically derived relationship between VSP and engine manifold absolute pressure (MAP). VSP depends on speed, acceleration, and road grade. For the PHSB, the observed electrical discharge or recharge to the traction motor battery was characterized on the basis of VSP. The energy use and emission rates of the PHSB from tailpipe and electricity use were estimated for five real-world driving cycles and compared to the engine fuel use and emissions of the CDSB. The PHSB had the greatest advantage on arterial routes and less advantage on highway or local routes. The coupled VSP-MAP modeling approach enables assessment of a wide variety of driving conditions and comparisons of vehicles with different propulsion technologies. PMID:20380435

  16. Hybrid and Plug-in Electric Vehicles

    None

    2014-05-20

    Hybrid and plug-in electric vehicles use electricity either as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. This new generation of vehicles, often called electric drive vehicles, can be divided into three categories: hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles(PHEVs), and all-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, they have great potential to reduce U.S. petroleum use.

  17. eBooks & SFX Plug-Ins

    Overkamp, I.

    2009-01-01

    The presentations shortly summarizes how the MPG-wide eBook subscriptions are integrated into the MPG/SFX service menu. The current implementation uses the SFX Plug-In feature to request holding information from the MPG eBooks catalog on-the-fly.

  18. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle R&D plan

    None, None

    2007-06-01

    FCVT, in consultation with industry and other appropriate DOE offices, developed the Draft Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle R&D Plan to accelerate the development and deployment of technologies critical for plug-in hybrid vehicles.

  19. Plug-In Hybrid Vehicle Analysis (Milestone Report)

    Markel, T.; Brooker, A.; Gonder, J.; O' Keefe, M.; Simpson, A.; Thornton, M.

    2006-11-01

    NREL's plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) analysis activities made great strides in FY06 to objectively assess PHEV technology, support the larger U.S. Department of Energy PHEV assessment effort, and share technical knowledge with the vehicle research community and vehicle manufacturers. This report provides research papers and presentations developed in FY06 to support these efforts. The report focuses on the areas of fuel economy reporting methods, cost and consumption benefit analysis, real-world performance expectations, and energy management strategies.

  20. COMP: Comparing Ontology Matching Plug-in

    Tyl, Pavel; Loufek, J.

    Los Alamitos : IEEE Computer Society, 2009 - (Abraham, A.; Húsek, D.; Snášel, V.), s. 44-49 ISBN 978-0-7695-3821-1. [NWeSP 2009. International Conference on Next Generation Web Services Practices /5./. Prague (CZ), 09.11.2009-11.09.2009] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0554 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : matching * ontologie * plug-in * Protégé Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  1. Canadian sponsored plug-in hybrids and their impact

    Fitzpatrick, N. [Azure Dynamics Corp., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    This paper provided details of plug-in hybrid vehicles designed by Canadian companies and sponsored by the Canadian government. Canada's role in developing PHEVs and its contributions to PHEV research were also explored. The first plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) project in Canada involved the design of a parallel hybrid with a 10 kWh battery built by a team at the University of Toronto. After an international symposium on electric vehicles was held in Toronto in 1988, a review of battery activities was conducted across Canada. Results of the review showed that new developments in advanced lithium batteries and magnets would provide new impetus for electric and hybrid vehicle designs. The success of the programs has meant that conventional hybrid technology is now successfully penetrating the delivery vehicle and shuttle bus markets. Canada now holds a leading place in the commercial hybrid vehicle niche. It was concluded that the Canadian government should continue to support programs investigating both drivelines and batteries for hybrid vehicles. 4 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

  2. Smart grid agent: Plug-in electric vehicle

    Dallinger, David; Link, Jochen; Büttner, Markus

    2013-01-01

    This study describes a method for programming a plug-in electric vehicle agent that can be used in power system models and in embedded systems implemented in real plug-in electric vehicles. Implementing the software in real-life applications and in simulation tools enables research with a high degree of detail and practical relevance. Agent-based programming, therefore, is an important tool for investigating the future power system. To demonstrate the plug-in electric vehicle agent behavior, ...

  3. Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicles (Brochure)

    2014-05-01

    Hybrid and plug-in electric vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), all-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, they have great potential to cut U.S. petroleum use and vehicle emissions.

  4. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in dynamical energy markets

    Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Bosch, P.P.J. van den

    2008-01-01

    The plug-in hybrid electric vehicle allows vehicle propulsion from multiple internal power sources. Electric energy from the grid can be utilized by means of the plug-in connection. An on-line energy management (EM) strategy is proposed to minimize the costs for taking energy from each power source.

  5. California Statewide Plug-In Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Assessment

    Melaina, Marc; Helwig, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The California Statewide Plug-In Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Assessment conveys to interested parties the Energy Commission’s conclusions, recommendations, and intentions with respect to plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) infrastructure development. There are several relatively low-risk and high-priority electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) deployment options that will encourage PEV sales and

  6. A Genre Classification Plug-in for Data Collection

    Lehn-Schiøler, Tue; Arenas-García, Jerónimo; Petersen, Kaare Brandt;

    2006-01-01

    This demonstration illustrates how the methods developed in the MIR community can be used to provide real-time feedback to music users. By creating a genre classifier plug-in for a popular media player we present users with relevant information as they play their songs. The plug-in can furthermor...... be used as a data collection platform. After informed consent from a selected set of users the plug-in will report on music consumption behavior back to a central server....

  7. A Genre Classification Plug-in for Data Collection

    Lehn-Schiøler, Tue; Arenas-García, Jerónimo; Petersen, Kaare Brandt; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2006-01-01

    This demonstration illustrates how the methods developed in the MIR community can be used to provide real-time feedback to music users. By creating a genre classifier plug-in for a popular media player we present users with relevant information as they play their songs. The plug-in can furthermore be used as a data collection platform. After informed consent from a selected set of users the plug-in will report on music consumption behavior back to a central server.

  8. Plug-in electric vehicles automated charging control

    Dallinger, David; Kohrs, Robert; Mierau, Michael; Marwitz, Simon; Wesche, Julius

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines how plug-in electric vehicles can be managed to balance the fluctuation of renewable electricity sources. In this context, different control strategies are introduced. To investigate indirect control via electricity tariffs, an electricity market analysis is conducted of a system with a high share of generation from renewable electricity sources. The analysis uses driving data collected from battery electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles in a research project which means tha...

  9. Manipulating liquid plugs in microchannel with controllable air vents

    Liu, Hao-Bing; Ting, Eng Kiat; Gong, Hai-Qing

    2012-01-01

    An air venting element on microchannel, which can be controlled externally and automatically, was demonstrated for manipulating liquid plugs in microfluidic systems. The element’s open and closed statuses correspond to the positioning and movement of a liquid plug in the microchannel. Positioning of multiple liquid plugs at an air venting element enabled the merging and mixing of the plugs. Besides these basic functions, other modes of liquid plug manipulations including plug partitioning, mu...

  10. Integration of Plug-in Electrical Vehicles in the Software Ecosystem of Smart Grids

    Eilertsen, David Andrassy

    2013-01-01

    The thesis can be described as a roadmap accomplished by software engi-neering (SE) activities to elicit the challenges and opportunities presentedwhen integrating plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) into the Smart Grid. Theintegration is required to be sustainable and state-of-the-art given the SmartGrid's characterization as a software ecosystem (SECO), which introduces aset of new challenges for software engineering. PEVs are ideal candidates tointegrate given their dependency on energy,...

  11. Plug-in electric vehicles integrating fluctuating renewable electricity

    Dallinger, David

    2013-11-01

    This paper examines a method to model plug-in electric vehicles as part of the power system and presents results for the contribution of plug-in electric vehicles to balance the fluctuating electricity generation of renewable energy sources. The scientific contribution includes: - A novel approach to characterizing fluctuating generation. This allows the detailed comparison of results from energy analysis and is the basis to describe the effect of electricity from renewable energy sources and plug-in electric vehicles on the power system. - The characterization of mobile storage, which includes the description of mobility behavior using probabilities and battery discharging costs. - The introduction of an agent-based simulation approach, coupling energy markets and distributed grids using a price-based mechanism design. - The description of an agent with specific driving behavior, battery discharging costs and optimization algorithm suitable for real plug-in vehicles and simulation models. - A case study for a 2030 scenario describing the contribution of plug-in electric vehicles to balance generation from renewable energy sources in California and Germany.

  12. Report on electric cars and plug-in hybrid cars; Redegoerelse - elbiler og plug-in hybridbiler

    Elkjaer Toennesen, A.; Winther, K.; Noerregaard, K. (Teknologisk Institut, Taastrup (Denmark)); Larsen, Esben; Christensen, Linda; Kveiborg, O. (Danmarks Teknologiske Univ., Kgs. Lyngby (DTU) (Denmark))

    2010-04-15

    The Center for Green Transport at the Danish Transport Authority has prepared this statement in order to uncover driving technical aspects, user expectations and needs, and the environmental consequences of using electric and plug-in hybrid cars. An electric car is defined as a car driven by an electric motor that has a battery that can be charged with power from the grid. A plug-in hybrid car is defined as a car that combines gasoline or diesel engine with an electric motor with a battery which can be recharged with power from the grid. From an overall consideration related to the transport sector electric cars and plug-in hybrid cars have the major advantage that negative impacts on environment and climate from traffic can be reduced while the high mobility is maintained. Through an increased use of electric cars and plug-in hybrid cars, the many advantages attached to the car as an individual transportation form is maintained, while CO{sub 2} emissions etc. are reduced. Electric cars and plug-in hybrid cars is one of the technologies that are considered to have particularly great prospects in the medium term when it comes to promoting new technologies in transport. Another advantage of using electric vehicles is the power supply factor. An increased use of electricity in transport will reduce the need for and dependence on fossil fuels in the sector. Both electric cars and plug-in hybrid cars are expected to be used for storage of wind power, a possibility which is hardly available today. The plug-in hybrid car could meet some of the challenges facing the pure electric car, because it also can use conventional fuel. The report presents analyses based on three focus areas: a) Users' needs, expectations and economics in relation to vehicles; b) The technology - and hence the manufacturers' opportunities and challenges; c) Connection to the power grid. (ln)

  13. Charge It: The Promise of Plug-in Electric Hybrids

    Recker, W. W.; Kang, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    With rising energy prices and battery improvements, the plug-in hybrid electric vehicle, a variant of the betterknown self-charging hybrid electric vehicle, is fast gaining popularity. Because plug-in hybrids can recharge via a wall socket while resting, they can run purely on electric power for many trips without having to revert to gasoline. This significantly reduces emissions over conventional hybrids, which can only recharge while they’re operating and are thus more likely to rely on t...

  14. Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Consumers (Brochure)

    2011-09-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are entering the automobile market and are viable alternatives to conventional vehicles. This guide for consumers describes the basics of PEV technology, PEV benefits, how to select the right PEV, charging a PEV, and PEV maintenance.

  15. Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Fleet Managers (Brochure)

    2012-04-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are entering the automobile market and are viable alternatives to conventional vehicles. This guide for fleet managers describes the basics of PEV technology, PEV benefits for fleets, how to select the right PEV, charging a PEV, and PEV maintenance.

  16. PIXASTIC: STEGANOGRAPHY BASED ANTI-PHISHING BROWSER PLUG-IN

    P.Thiyagarajan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In spite of existence of many standard security mechanisms for ensuring secure e- Commerce business, users still fall prey for onlin e attacks. One such simple but powerful attack is ‘Phishing’. Phishing is the most alarming threat in the e-Commerce world and effective anti-phishing technique is the need of the hour. This paper focuses on a novel anti-phishing browser plug-in which uses information hiding technique - Steganography. A Robust Message based Image Steganography (RMIS algorithm has been proposed. The same has been incorporated in the form of a browser plug-in (safari called Pixastic. Pixastic is tested in an online banking scenario and it is compared with other well-known anti-phishing plug-in methods in practice. Various parameters such as robustness, usability and its behavior on various attacks have been analysed. From experimental results, it is ev ident that our method Pixastic performs well compared to other anti-phishing plug-ins.

  17. jMRUI Version 4: A Plug-in Platform

    Stefan, D.; Andrasecu, A.; Popa, E.; Rabeson, H.; Štrbák, Oliver; Starčuk jr., Zenon; Cabanas, M.; van Ormondt, D.; Graveron-Demilly, D.

    Chania: IEEE, 2008, s. 344-346. ISBN 978-1-4244-2496-2. [IEEE Workshop on Imaging Systems and Techniques Proceedings - IST 2008. Chania (GR), 10.09.2008-12.09.2008] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : MR Spectroscopy * MRS * MRSI * jMRUI Software Package * Java * Plug-ins * Quantitation Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  18. Are Batteries Ready for Plug-in Hybrid Buyers?

    Axsen, Jonn; Kurani, Kenneth S; Burke, Andy

    2009-01-01

    The notion persists that battery technology and cost remain as barriers to commercialization of electric-drive passenger vehicles. Within the context of starting a market for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), we explore two aspects of the purported problem: (1) PHEV performance goals and (2) the abilities of present and near-term battery chemistries to meet the resulting technological requirements. We summarize evidence stating that battery technologies do not meet the requirements th...

  19. Electricity Grid: Impacts of Plug-In Electric Vehicle Charging

    Yang, Christopher; McCarthy, Ryan

    2009-01-01

    Concerns regarding air pollution, energy dependence, and, increasingly, climate change continue to motivate the search for new transportation solutions. Much of the focus is on light-duty vehicles, as they account for approximately 60% of transportation energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Battery-powered, electric-drive vehicles (EVs), such as plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and battery electric vehicles (BEVs), are among the most promising of the advanced vehicle and fuel...

  20. Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Workplace Charging Hosts

    None

    2013-08-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) have immense potential for increasing the country's energy, economic, and environmental security, and they will play a key role in the future of U.S. transportation. By providing PEV charging at the workplace, employers are perfectly positioned to contribute to and benefit from the electrification of transportation. This handbook answers basic questions about PEVs and charging equipment, helps employers assess whether to offer workplace charging for employees, and outlines important steps for implementation.

  1. Are batteries ready for plug-in hybrid buyers?

    Axsen, Jonn; Kurani, Kenneth S; Burke, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    The notion persists that battery technology and cost remain as barriers to commercialization of electric-drive passenger vehicles. Within the context of starting a market for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), we explore two aspects of the purported problem: (1) PHEV performance goals and (2) the abilities of present and near-term battery chemistries to meet the resulting technological requirements. We summarize evidence stating that battery technologies do not meet the requirements th...

  2. Are Batteries Ready for Plug-in Hybrid Buyers?

    Axsen, Jonn; Burke, Andy; Kurani, Kenneth S

    2010-01-01

    The notion persists that battery technology and cost remain as barriers to commercialization of electric-drive passenger vehicles. Within the context of starting a market for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), we explore two aspects of the purported problem: (1) PHEV performance goals and (2) the abilities of present and near-term battery chemistries to meet the resulting technological requirements. We summarize evidence stating that battery technologies do not meet the requirements t...

  3. Improving power grid transient stability by plug-in electric vehicles

    Gajduk, A.; Todorovski, M.; Kurths, J.; L. Kocarev

    2014-01-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) can serve in discharge mode as distributed energy and power resources operating as vehicle-to-grid (V2G) devices and in charge mode as loads or grid-to-vehicle (G2V) devices. It has been documented that PEVs serving as V2G systems can offer possible backup for renewable power sources, can provide reactive power support, active power regulation, load balancing, peak load shaving,% and current harmonic filtering, can provide ancillary services as frequency contr...

  4. Optimal control of a repowered vehicle: Plug-in fuel cell against plug-in hybrid electric powertrain

    This paper describes two different powertrain configurations for the repowering of a conventional vehicle, equipped with an internal combustion engine (ICE). A model of a mid-sized ICE-vehicle is realized and then modified to model both a parallel plug-in hybrid electric powertrain and a proton electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell (FC) hybrid powertrain. The vehicle behavior under the application of an optimal control algorithm for the energy management is analyzed for the different scenarios and results are compared

  5. Influence of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles on smart grids; Management der Trendwatching Group. Einfluss von Plug-In Hybrid Vehicles auf intelligente Verteilnetze (Smart Grids) - Schlussbericht

    Horbaty, R. [ENCO Energie Consulting AG, Bubendorf (Switzerland); Strub, P. [Pierre Strub, Basel (Switzerland)

    2008-12-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the influence of plug-in hybrid vehicles on intelligent electricity distribution grids. The work of a trend-watching group which examined the regulatory services at the interface between such 'smart' grids and electrically powered vehicles is reported on. The trend-watching group includes research institutes, energy suppliers, NGOs, the automobile industry and technology companies. Vehicle-to-grid concepts and innovative developments in the Swiss market are commented on and the group's own activities (research, business models, technological development and politics) are discussed. The group will accompany relevant research programs and the implementation of measures as well as accompanying feasibility evaluations concerning current market developments. The Swiss federal strategy is to be discussed and international co-operation (with the IEA) is to be further strengthened.

  6. Bond strength of cementitious borehole plugs in welded tuff

    Axial loads on plugs or seals in an underground repository due to gas, water pressures and temperature changes induced subsequent to waste and plug emplacement lead to shear stresses at the plug/rock contact. Therefore, the bond between the plug and rock is a critical element for the design and effectiveness of plugs in boreholes, shafts or tunnels. This study includes a systematic investigation of the bond strength of cementitious borehole plugs in welded tuff. Analytical and numerical analysis of borehole plug-rock stress transfer mechanics is performed. The interface strength and deformation are studied as a function of Young's modulus ratio of plug and rock, plug length and rock cylinder outside-to-inside radius ratio. The tensile stresses in and near an axially loaded plug are analyzed. The frictional interface strength of an axially loaded borehole plug, the effect of axial stress and lateral external stress, and thermal effects are also analyzed. Implications for plug design are discussed. The main conclusion is a strong recommendation to design friction plugs in shafts, drifts, tunnels or boreholes with a minimum length to diameter ratio of four. Such a geometrical design will reduce tensile stresses in the plug and in the host rock to a level which should minimize the risk of long-term deterioration caused by excessive tensile stresses. Push-out tests have been used to determine the bond strength by applying an axial load to cement plugs emplaced in boreholes in welded tuff cylinders. A total of 130 push-out tests have been performed as a function of borehole size, plug length, temperature, and degree of saturation of the host tuff. The use of four different borehole radii enables evaluation of size effects. 119 refs., 42 figs., 20 tabs

  7. Plug in electric vehicles in smart grids charging strategies

    Rajakaruna, Sumedha; Ghosh, Arindam

    2014-01-01

    This book covers the recent research advancements in the area of charging strategies that can be employed to accommodate the anticipated high deployment of Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEVs) in smart grids. Recent literature has focused on various potential issues of uncoordinated charging of PEVs and methods of overcoming such challenges. After an introduction to charging coordination paradigms of PEVs, this book will present various ways the coordinated control can be accomplished. These innovative approaches include hierarchical coordinated control, model predictive control, optimal control

  8. Compact Fluorescent Plug-In Ballast-in-a-Socket

    Rebecca Voelker

    2001-12-21

    The primary goal of this program was to develop a ballast system for plug-in CFLs (compact fluorescent lamps) that will directly replace standard metal shell, medium base incandescent lampholders (such as Levition No. 6098) for use with portable lamp fixtures, such as floor, table and desk lamps. A secondary goal was to identify a plug-in CFL that is optimized for use with this ballast. This Plug-in CFL Ballastin-a-Socket system will allow fixture manufacturers to easily manufacture CFL-based high-efficacy portable fixtures that provide residential and commercial consumers with attractive, cost-effective, and energy-efficient fixtures for use wherever portable incandescent fixtures are used today. The advantages of this proposed system over existing CFL solutions are that the fixtures can only be used with high-efficacy CFLs, and they will be more attractive and will have lower life-cycle costs than screw-in or adapter-based CFL retrofit solutions. These features should greatly increase the penetration of CFL's into the North American market. Our work has shown that using integrated circuits it is quite feasible to produce a lamp-fixture ballast of a size comparable to the current Edison-screw 3-way incandescent fixtures. As for price points for BIAS-based fixtures, end-users polled by the Lighting Research Institute at RPI indicated that they would pay as much as an additional $10 for a lamp containing such a ballast. The ballast has been optimized to run with a 26 W amalgam triple biax lamp in the base-down position, yet can accept non-amalgam versions of the lamp. With a few part alterations, the ballast can be produced to support 32 W lamps as well. The ballast uses GE's existing L-Comp[1] power topology in the circuit so that the integrated circuit design would be a design that could possibly be used by other CFL and EFL products with minor modifications. This gives added value by reducing cost and size of not only the BIAS, but also possibly other

  9. Electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles advanced simulation methodologies

    Varga, Bogdan Ovidiu; Moldovanu, Dan; Iclodean, Calin

    2015-01-01

    This book is designed as an interdisciplinary platform for specialists working in electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles powertrain design and development, and for scientists who want to get access to information related to electric and hybrid vehicle energy management, efficiency and control. The book presents the methodology of simulation that allows the specialist to evaluate electric and hybrid vehicle powertrain energy flow, efficiency, range and consumption. The mathematics behind each electric and hybrid vehicle component is explained and for each specific vehicle the powertrain

  10. Plug in electric vehicles in smart grids energy management

    Rajakaruna, Sumedha; Ghosh, Arindam

    2014-01-01

    This book highlights the cutting-edge research on energy management within smart grids with significant deployment of Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEV). These vehicles not only can be a significant electrical power consumer during Grid to Vehicle (G2V) charging mode, they can also be smartly utilized as a controlled source of electrical power when they are used in Vehicle to Grid (V2G) operating mode. Electricity Price, Time of Use Tariffs, Quality of Service, Social Welfare as well as electrical parameters of the network are all different criteria considered by the researchers when developing

  11. Component sizing optimization of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are considered as one of the most promising means to improve the near-term sustainability of the transportation and stationary energy sectors. This paper describes a methodology for the optimization of PHEVs component sizing using parallel chaos optimization algorithm (PCOA). In this approach, the objective function is defined so as to minimize the drivetrain cost. In addition, the driving performance requirements are considered as constraints. Finally, the optimization process is performed over three different all electric range (AER) and two types of batteries. The results from computer simulation show the effectiveness of the approach and the reduction in drivetrian cost while ensuring the vehicle performance.

  12. Plug in electric vehicles in smart grids integration techniques

    Rajakaruna, Sumedha; Ghosh, Arindam

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses on the state of the art in worldwide research on applying optimization approaches to intelligently control charging and discharging of batteries of Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEVs) in smart grids. Network constraints, cost considerations, the number and penetration level of PEVs, utilization of PEVs by their owners, ancillary services, load forecasting, risk analysis, etc. are all different criteria considered by the researchers in developing mathematical based equations which represent the presence of PEVs in electric networks. Different objective functions can be defined an

  13. Important Factors for Early Market Microgrids: Demand Response and Plug-in Electric Vehicle Charging

    White, David Masaki

    Microgrids are evolving concepts that are growing in interest due to their potential reliability, economic and environmental benefits. As with any new concept, there are many unresolved issues with regards to planning and operation. In particular, demand response (DR) and plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging are viewed as two key components of the future grid and both will likely be active technologies in the microgrid market. However, a better understanding of the economics associated with DR, the impact DR can have on the sizing of distributed energy resource (DER) systems and how to accommodate and price PEV charging is necessary to advance microgrid technologies. This work characterizes building based DR for a model microgrid, calculates the DER systems for a model microgrid under DR through a minimization of total cost, and determines pricing methods for a PEV charging station integrated with an individual building on the model microgrid. It is shown that DR systems which consist only of HVAC fan reductions provide potential economic benefits to the microgrid through participation in utility DR programs. Additionally, peak shaving DR reduces the size of power generators, however increasing DR capacity does not necessarily lead to further reductions in size. As it currently stands for a microgrid that is an early adopter of PEV charging, current installation costs of PEV charging equipment lead to a system that is not competitive with established commercial charging networks or to gasoline prices for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV).

  14. Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Fuel Use Reporting Methods and Results

    James E. Francfort

    2009-07-01

    The Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) Fuel Use Reporting Methods and Results report provides real world test results from PHEV operations and testing in 20 United States and Canada. Examples are given that demonstrate the significant variations operational parameters can have on PHEV petroleum use. In addition to other influences, PHEV mpg results are significantly impacted by driver aggressiveness, cold temperatures, and whether or not the vehicle operator has charged the PHEV battery pack. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) has been testing plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) for several years. The AVTA http://avt.inl.gov/), which is part of DOE’s Vehicle Technology Program, also tests other advanced technology vehicles, with 12 million miles of total test vehicle and data collection experience. The Idaho National Laboratory is responsible for conducting the light-duty vehicle testing of PHEVs. Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation also supports the AVTA by conducting PHEV and other types of testing. To date, 12 different PHEV models have been tested, with more than 600,000 miles of PHEV operations data collected.

  15. On integration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles into existing power system structures

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) represent one option for the electrification of private mobility. In order to efficiently integrate PHEVs into power systems, existing organizational structures need to be considered. Based on procedures of power systems planning and operation, actors are identified whose operational activities will be affected by PHEV integration. Potential changes and challenges in the actors' long- and short term planning activities are discussed. Further, a PHEV operation state description is developed which defines vehicle operation states from the power system point of view integrating uncontrolled, controlled recharging and vehicle to grid (V2G) utilization in one single framework. Future PHEV managing entities, such as aggregators, can use this framework for planning and operation activities including load management and V2G. This operational state description could provide a solution for future short term planning challenges of PHEVs and an aegis for various routes of current research, which to date have been weakly linked to each other.

  16. Towards A Dynamic Object-Oriented Design Metric Plug-in Framework

    C. H. Loh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: The evolution of software is made difficult by the need to integrate new features with all previously implemented features in software applications. Approach: present study introduced a general-purpose, platform-independent object-oriented design metric plug-in framework called jmetric intended to help building scalable, extendable object-oriented design metric plug-ins. jmetric seeks to address problem by providing the plug-in developer a structured way to separately develop and incrementally integrate independent object-oriented design metrics as plug-ins to a domain specific object-oriented design metrics framework. jmetric was engineered to provide functional building blocks to accelerate the adding, removing and updating of object-oriented design metric plug-ins in tools such as Eclipse, JDeveloper, NetBeans, JBuilder and other Java-based tools. Dependency injection is heavily used in jmetric to accelerate the adding, removing and updating of object-oriented metrics plug-ins. We studied several commonly used integrated development environments and software metrics tools to identify the extendibility of the tools to provide additional object-oriented design metric functionalities as plug-ins. Results: We demonstrate a tool called jmetric tool that had developed as a reference implementation to validate the plug-in capabilities of jmetric. Conclusion: Extending other tools such as Eclipse, JDeveloper and NetBeans to include metric functionalities is possible by wiring plug-ins through dependency injection mechanism in jmetric.

  17. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in smart grid

    Yao, Yin

    In this thesis, in order to investigate the impact of charging load from plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), a stochastic model is developed in Matlab. In this model, two main types of PHEVs are defined: public transportation vehicles and private vehicles. Different charging time schedule, charging speed and battery capacity are considered for each type of vehicles. The simulation results reveal that there will be two load peaks (at noon and in evening) when the penetration level of PHEVs increases continuously to 30% in 2030. Therefore, optimization tool is utilized to shift load peaks. This optimization process is based on real time pricing and wind power output data. With the help of smart grid, power allocated to each vehicle could be controlled. As a result, this optimization could fulfill the goal of shifting load peaks to valley areas where real time price is low or wind output is high.

  18. Fissures and boreholes plugging in fractured geologic deposits (granites)

    This report gives the results of bench-scale experiments and field tests, destined to describe the bentonite behavior in fractured scale models and in boreholes, and to allow to study the rock weathering phenomenons under specific conditions. Dry and compact bentonite, used for exploratory drilling plugging, in crystalline rock deposits and in contact with groundwater, show hydration, swelling and mobility properties with penetration in conducting fractures. The purpose of this work is to define the procedure of clay weathering after the swelling phase, under groundwater circulation effect, to estimate plugs longevity. This study is prepared for the European Atomic Energy Community cost-sharing research program on radioactive waste management and disposal. 63 refs., 100 figs., 30 tabs., 17 plates

  19. Battery Test Manual For Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Jeffrey R. Belt

    2010-09-01

    This battery test procedure manual was prepared for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Program. It is based on technical targets established for energy storage development projects aimed at meeting system level DOE goals for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV). The specific procedures defined in this manual support the performance and life characterization of advanced battery devices under development for PHEV’s. However, it does share some methods described in the previously published battery test manual for power-assist hybrid electric vehicles. Due to the complexity of some of the procedures and supporting analysis, a revision including some modifications and clarifications of these procedures is expected. As in previous battery and capacitor test manuals, this version of the manual defines testing methods for full-size battery systems, along with provisions for scaling these tests for modules, cells or other subscale level devices.

  20. Battery Test Manual For Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Jeffrey R. Belt

    2010-12-01

    This battery test procedure manual was prepared for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Program. It is based on technical targets established for energy storage development projects aimed at meeting system level DOE goals for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV). The specific procedures defined in this manual support the performance and life characterization of advanced battery devices under development for PHEV’s. However, it does share some methods described in the previously published battery test manual for power-assist hybrid electric vehicles. Due to the complexity of some of the procedures and supporting analysis, a revision including some modifications and clarifications of these procedures is expected. As in previous battery and capacitor test manuals, this version of the manual defines testing methods for full-size battery systems, along with provisions for scaling these tests for modules, cells or other subscale level devices.

  1. Strength and stability of microbial plugs in porous media

    Sarkar, A.K. [NIPER/BDM-Oklahoma, Inc., Bartlesville, OK (United States); Sharma, M.M.; Georgiou, G. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Mobility reduction induced by the growth and metabolism of bacteria in high-permeability layers of heterogeneous reservoirs is an economically attractive technique to improve sweep efficiency. This paper describes an experimental study conducted in sandpacks using an injected bacterium to investigate the strength and stability of microbial plugs in porous media. Successful convective transport of bacteria is important for achieving sufficient initial bacteria distribution. The chemotactic and diffusive fluxes are probably not significant even under static conditions. Mobility reduction depends upon the initial cell concentrations and increase in cell mass. For single or multiple static or dynamic growth techniques, permeability reduction was approximately 70% of the original permeability. The stability of these microbial plugs to increases in pressure gradient and changes in cell physiology in a nutrient-depleted environment needs to be improved.

  2. Advancing Plug-In Hybrid Technology and Flex Fuel Application on a Chrysler Minivan

    Bazzi, Abdullah [Chrysler Group LLC, Auburn Hills, MI (United States); Barnhart, Steven [Chrysler Group LLC, Auburn Hills, MI (United States)

    2014-12-31

    FCA US LLC viewed this DOE funding as a historic opportunity to begin the process of achieving required economies of scale on technologies for electric vehicles. The funding supported FCA US LLC’s light-duty electric drive vehicle and charging infrastructure-testing activities and enabled FCA US LLC to utilize the funding on advancing Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) technologies to future programs. FCA US LLC intended to develop the next generations of electric drive and energy batteries through a properly paced convergence of standards, technology, components, and common modules, as well as first-responder training and battery recycling. To support the development of a strong, commercially viable supplier base, FCA US LLC also used this opportunity to evaluate various designated component and sub-system suppliers. The original project proposal was submitted in December 2009 and selected in January 2010. The project ended in December 2014.

  3. Plug-in Electric Vehicle Policy Effectiveness: Literature Review

    Zhou, Yan [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Levin, Todd [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Plotkin, Steven E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The U.S. federal government first introduced incentives for plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) through the American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009, which provided a tax credit of up to $7,500 for a new PEV purchase. Soon after, in December 2010, two mass-market PEVs were introduced, the plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) Chevrolet Volt and the battery electric vehicle (BEV) Nissan LEAF. Since that time, numerous additional types of PEV incentives have been provided by federal and regional (state or city) government agencies and utility companies. These incentives cover vehicle purchases as well as the purchase and installation of electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) through purchase rebates, tax credits, or discounted purchase taxes or registration fees. Additional incentives, such as free high-occupancy vehicle (HOV) lane access and parking benefits, may also be offered to PEV owners. Details about these incentives, such as the extent to which each type is offered by region, can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Alternative Fuel Data Center (http://www.afdc.energy.gov/). In addition to these incentives, other policies, such as zero-emission vehicle (ZEV) mandates,1 have also been implemented, and community-scale federal incentives, such as the DOE PEV Readiness Grants, have been awarded throughout the country to improve PEV market penetration. This report reviews 18 studies that analyze the impacts of past or current incentives and policies that were designed to support PEV adoption in the U.S. These studies were selected for review after a comprehensive survey of the literature and discussion with a number of experts in the field. The report summarizes the lessons learned and best practices from the experiences of these incentive programs to date, as well as the challenges they face and barriers that inhibit further market adoption of PEVs. Studies that make projections based on future policy scenarios and those that focus solely

  4. A Threats Blocking Plug-in for Open Source Learning Management Systems

    Braga, Gianluca; Sterbini, Andrea; Temperini, Marco

    Web-based Learning Management Systems, as in the nature of web-applications, are subject to attacks delivered through Internet, mainly aiming at accessing restricted data for illegal use. Protection from these kinds of threats is studied in the area of web applications and has been steadily improving in the last years. Nonetheless, especially in the area of very popular and easy-to-install web applications, such as Content Managements Systems, Blogs, and open source Learning Management Systems, the usual way to protect an installed system is to wait that weaknesses in the system software are discovered, and "patches" or new system releases are made available for installation. And this can be necessary also in cases in which no new threat technique has been discovered, while just another part of the system software has been detected as "weak" to that type of attack. Here we give an account of the most usual "exploit" techniques, known to be available, and describe a prototype methodology to equip certain Learning Management Systems (namely the open source ones, in particular those based on PHP engines) with a more stable protection, making it unnecessary to patch, or reinstall, a system in a hurry, after that minor weaknesses have been unveiled. The plug-in for a system is supposed to filter the input, sent by the user through a browser, and to avoid execution of server activities on suspect data. We test the methodology on Moodle, by producing a suitable plug-in, and verifying its success at system run-time.

  5. Technology Roadmaps - Electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (EV/PHEV)

    NONE

    2011-06-15

    The mass deployment of electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (EVs and PHEVs) that rely on low greenhouse gas (GHG) emission electricity generation has great potential to significantly reduce the consumption of petroleum and other high CO2-emitting transportation fuels. The vision of the Electric and Plug-in Hybrid (EV/PHEV) Vehicles Roadmap is to achieve by 2050 the widespread adoption and use of EVs and PHEVs, which together represent more than 50% of annual LDV (light duty vehicle) sales worldwide. In addition to establishing a vision, this roadmap sets strategic goals to achieve it, and identifies the steps that need to be taken to accomplish these goals. This roadmap also outlines the roles and collaboration opportunities for different stakeholders and shows how government policy can support the overall achievement of the vision. The strategic goals for attaining the widespread adoption and use of EVs and PHEVs worldwide by 2050 cover the development of the EV/PHEV market worldwide through 2030 and involve targets that align with global targets to stabilise GHG concentrations. These technology-specific goals include the following: Set targets for electric-drive vehicle sales; Develop coordinated strategies to support the market introduction of electric-drive vehicles; Improve industry understanding of consumer needs and behaviours; Develop performance metrics for characterising vehicles; Foster energy storage RD and D initiatives to reduce costs and address resource-related issues; and, Develop and implement recharging infrastructure. The roadmap outlines additional recommendations that must be considered in order to successfully meet the technology milestones and strategic goals. These recommendations include the following: Use a comprehensive mix of policies that provide a clear framework and balance stakeholder interests; Engage in international collaboration efforts; and, Address policy and industry needs at a national level. The IEA will work in an

  6. Computational analysis on plug-in hybrid electric motorcycle chassis

    Teoh, S. J.; Bakar, R. A.; Gan, L. M.

    2013-12-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric motorcycle (PHEM) is an alternative to promote sustainability lower emissions. However, the PHEM overall system packaging is constrained by limited space in a motorcycle chassis. In this paper, a chassis applying the concept of a Chopper is analysed to apply in PHEM. The chassis 3dimensional (3D) modelling is built with CAD software. The PHEM power-train components and drive-train mechanisms are intergraded into the 3D modelling to ensure the chassis provides sufficient space. Besides that, a human dummy model is built into the 3D modelling to ensure the rider?s ergonomics and comfort. The chassis 3D model then undergoes stress-strain simulation. The simulation predicts the stress distribution, displacement and factor of safety (FOS). The data are used to identify the critical point, thus suggesting the chassis design is applicable or need to redesign/ modify to meet the require strength. Critical points mean highest stress which might cause the chassis to fail. This point occurs at the joints at triple tree and bracket rear absorber for a motorcycle chassis. As a conclusion, computational analysis predicts the stress distribution and guideline to develop a safe prototype chassis.

  7. Plug-in privacy for Smart Metering billing

    Jawurek, Marek; Kerschbaum, Florian

    2010-01-01

    Smart Metering is a concept that allows to collect fine-grained consumption profiles from customers by replacing traditional electricity meters with Smart Meters in customers' households. The recorded consumption profile is the basis for the calculation of time-dependent tariffs but also allows deduction of the inhabitant's personal schedules and habits. The current reporting of such consumption profiles only protects this data from 3rd parties but falls short to protect the customer's privacy from illegitimate abuse by the supplier itself. We propose a privacy-preserving profile reporting protocol that enables billing for time-dependent tariffs without disclosing the actual data of the consumption profile to the supplier. Our approach relies on a zero-knowledge proof based on Pedersen Commitments performed by a plug-in privacy component that is put into the communication link between Smart Meter and supplier's back-end systems and requires no change to Smart Meter hardware and only little change to the softw...

  8. Episodic air quality impacts of plug-in electric vehicles

    Razeghi, Ghazal; Carreras-Sospedra, Marc; Brown, Tim; Brouwer, Jack; Dabdub, Donald; Samuelsen, Scott

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, the Spatially and Temporally Resolved Energy and Environment Tool (STREET) is used in conjunction with University of California Irvine - California Institute of Technology (UCI-CIT) atmospheric chemistry and transport model to assess the impact of deploying plug-in electric vehicles and integrating wind energy into the electricity grid on urban air quality. STREET is used to generate emissions profiles associated with transportation and power generation sectors for different future cases. These profiles are then used as inputs to UCI-CIT to assess the impact of each case on urban air quality. The results show an overall improvement in 8-h averaged ozone and 24-h averaged particulate matter concentrations in the South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) with localized increases in some cases. The most significant reductions occur northeast of the region where baseline concentrations are highest (up to 6 ppb decrease in 8-h-averaged ozone and 6 μg/m3 decrease in 24-h-averaged PM2.5). The results also indicate that, without integration of wind energy into the electricity grid, the temporal vehicle charging profile has very little to no effect on urban air quality. With the addition of wind energy to the grid mix, improvement in air quality is observed while charging at off-peak hours compared to the business as usual scenario.

  9. The Impact of Charging Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles on a Residential Distribution Grid

    Clement-Nyns, Kristien; Haesen, Edwin; Driesen, Johan

    2010-01-01

    Alternative vehicles, such as plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, are becoming more popular. The batteries of these plug-in hybrid electric vehicles are to be charged at home from a standard outlet or on a corporate car park. These extra electrical loads have an impact on the distribution grid which is analyzed in terms of power losses and voltage deviations. Without coordination of the charging, the vehicles are charged instantaneously when they are plugged in or after a fixed start delay. Thi...

  10. Plug-In Hybrid Urban Delivery Truck Technology Demonstration

    Miyasato, Matt [South Coast Air Quality Management District Building Corporation, Diamond Bar, CA (United States); Impllitti, Joseph [South Coast Air Quality Management District Building Corporation, Diamond Bar, CA (United States); Pascal, Amar [South Coast Air Quality Management District Building Corporation, Diamond Bar, CA (United States)

    2015-07-31

    The I-710 and CA-60 highways are key transportation corridors in the Southern California region that are heavily used on a daily basis by heavy duty drayage trucks that transport the cargo from the ports to the inland transportation terminals. These terminals, which include store/warehouses, inland-railways, are anywhere from 5 to 50 miles in distance from the ports. The concentrated operation of these drayage vehicles in these corridors has had and will continue to have a significant impact on the air quality in this region whereby significantly impacting the quality of life in the communities surrounding these corridors. To reduce these negative impacts it is critical that zero and near-zero emission technologies be developed and deployed in the region. A potential local market size of up to 46,000 trucks exists in the South Coast Air Basin, based on near- dock drayage trucks and trucks operating on the I-710 freeway. The South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD), California Air Resources Board (CARB) and Southern California Association of Governments (SCAG) — the agencies responsible for preparing the State Implementation Plan required under the federal Clean Air Act — have stated that to attain federal air quality standards the region will need to transition to broad use of zero and near zero emission energy sources in cars, trucks and other equipment (Southern California Association of Governments et al, 2011). SCAQMD partnered with Volvo Trucks to develop, build and demonstrate a prototype Class 8 heavy-duty plug-in hybrid drayage truck with significantly reduced emissions and fuel use. Volvo’s approach leveraged the group’s global knowledge and experience in designing and deploying electromobility products. The proprietary hybrid driveline selected for this proof of concept was integrated with multiple enhancements to the complete vehicle in order to maximize the emission and energy impact of electrification. A detailed review of all

  11. Kansas Consortium Plug-in Hybrid Medium Duty

    None, None

    2012-03-31

    On September 30, 2008, the US Department of Energy (DoE), issued a cooperative agreement award, DE-FC26-08NT01914, to the Metropolitan Energy Center (MEC), for a project known as “Kansas Consortium Plug-in Hybrid Medium Duty Certification” project. The cooperative agreement was awarded pursuant to H15915 in reference to H. R. 2764 Congressionally Directed Projects. The original agreement provided funding for The Consortium to implement the established project objectives as follows: (1) to understand the current state of the development of a test protocol for PHEV configurations; (2) to work with industry stakeholders to recommend a medium duty vehicle test protocol; (3) to utilize the Phase 1 Eaton PHEV F550 Chassis or other appropriate PHEV configurations to conduct emissions testing; (4) and to make an industry PHEV certification test protocol recommendation for medium duty trucks. Subsequent amendments to the initial agreement were made, the most significant being a revised Scope of Project Objectives (SOPO) that did not address actual field data since it was not available as originally expected. This project was mated by DOE with a parallel project award given to the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) in California. The SCAQMD project involved designing, building and testing of five medium duty plug-in hybrid electric trucks. SCAQMD had contracted with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to manage the project. EPRI provided the required match to the federal grant funds to both the SCAQMD project and the Kansas Consortium project. The rational for linking the two projects was that the data derived from the SCAQMD project could be used to validate the protocols developed by the Kansas Consortium team. At the same time, the consortium team would be a useful resource to SCAQMD in designating their test procedures for emissions and operating parameters and determining vehicle mileage. The years between award of the cooperative

  12. Toyota Prius Plug-In HEV: A Plug-In Hybrid Electric Car in NREL's Advanced Technology Vehicle Fleet (Fact Sheet)

    2011-10-01

    This fact sheet highlights the Toyota Prius plug-in HEV, a plug-in hybrid electric car in the advanced technology vehicle fleet at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). In partnership with the University of Colorado, NREL uses the vehicle for grid-integration studies and for testing new hardware and charge-management algorithms. NREL's advanced technology vehicle fleet features promising technologies to increase efficiency and reduce emissions without sacrificing safety or comfort. The fleet serves as a technology showcase, helping visitors learn about innovative vehicles that are available today or are in development. Vehicles in the fleet are representative of current, advanced, prototype, and emerging technologies.

  13. Creating the Semipar custom plug-in for the jMRUI platform

    This work is related to the FAST jMRUI signal-analysis package. Recently this package has been refactored as a plug-in platform, allowing end-users to add their own features. Here we describe the creation of a jMRUI custom plug-in named Semipar. This plug-in integrates into jMRUI a two-NLLS criterion that we have recently developed for handling the quantitation of in vivo MRS signals with an unknown common lineshape. The Semipar plug-in was tested by applying it to a simulated MRS signal. This signal was generated by using the various methods and tools of the jMRUI platform. It was found that—depending on the SNR of the signal—the Semipar approach can improve the MRS quantitation results

  14. Valuation of plug-in vehicle life-cycle air emissions and oil displacement benefits

    Michalek, Jeremy J.; Chester, Mikhail; Jaramillo, Paulina; Samaras, Constantine; Shiau, Ching-Shin Norman; Lester B. Lave

    2011-01-01

    We assess the economic value of life-cycle air emissions and oil consumption from conventional vehicles, hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid-electric vehicles (PHEVs), and battery electric vehicles in the US. We find that plug-in vehicles may reduce or increase externality costs relative to grid-independent HEVs, depending largely on greenhouse gas and SO2 emissions produced during vehicle charging and battery manufacturing. However, even if future marginal damages from emissions ...

  15. City of Las Vegas Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Demonstration Program

    None

    2013-12-31

    The City of Las Vegas was awarded Department of Energy (DOE) project funding in 2009, for the City of Las Vegas Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Demonstration Program. This project allowed the City of Las Vegas to purchase electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and associated electric vehicle charging infrastructure. The City anticipated the electric vehicles having lower overall operating costs and emissions similar to traditional and hybrid vehicles.

  16. Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicles (Spanish Version); Clean Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    None

    2015-08-01

    This is a Spanish-language brochure about hybrid and plug-in electric vehicles, which use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), all-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, they have great potential to cut U.S. petroleum use and vehicle emissions.

  17. LTC And Shunt Capacitor Switching In Smart Grid: Sensitivity To Plug-In Electric Vehicle Forecasts

    Sara Deilami

    2015-01-01

    Optimal scheduling of transformer load tap changer (LTC) and switched shunt capacitors (SSCs) in smart grid (SG) with plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) and nonlinear loads can be performed to reduce system losses, node voltage fluctuations and total harmonic distortion (THD). This paper investigates the effects of vehicles’ plug-in time forecast errors on performance of LTC and SSCs switching. First, a genetic algorithm (GA) is used to determine the optimal switching schedules with...

  18. Plug-in de procesado visual (OpenCV) en OpenDomo OS

    Herrera Castro, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Este proyecto consiste en el diseño y desarrollo de un plug-in que permita usar el sistema de procesado de imagen OpenCV desde el sistema operativo OpenDomo OS. Aquest projecte consisteix en el disseny i desenvolupament d'un plug-in que permeti utilitzar el sistema de processament d'imatge OpenCV des del sistema operatiu OpenDomo OS. Master thesis for the Free Software program.

  19. Ford Plug-In Project: Bringing PHEVs to Market Demonstration and Validation Project

    None

    2013-12-31

    This project is in support of our national goal to reduce our dependence on fossil fuels. By supporting efforts that contribute toward the successful mass production of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, our nation’s transportation-related fuel consumption can be offset with energy from the grid. Over four and a half years ago, when this project was originally initiated, plug-in electric vehicles were not readily available in the mass marketplace. Through the creation of a 21 unit plug-in hybrid vehicle fleet, this program was designed to demonstrate the feasibility of the technology and to help build cross-industry familiarity with the technology and interface of this technology with the grid. Ford Escape PHEV Demonstration Fleet 3 March 26, 2014 Since then, however, plug-in vehicles have become increasingly more commonplace in the market. Ford, itself, now offers an all-electric vehicle and two plug-in hybrid vehicles in North America and has announced a third plug-in vehicle offering for Europe. Lessons learned from this project have helped in these production vehicle launches and are mentioned throughout this report. While the technology of plugging in a vehicle to charge a high voltage battery with energy from the grid is now in production, the ability for vehicle-to-grid or bi-directional energy flow was farther away than originally expected. Several technical, regulatory and potential safety issues prevented progressing the vehicle-to-grid energy flow (V2G) demonstration and, after a review with the DOE, V2G was removed from this demonstration project. Also proving challenging were communications between a plug-in vehicle and the grid or smart meter. While this project successfully demonstrated the vehicle to smart meter interface, cross-industry and regulatory work is still needed to define the vehicle-to-grid communication interface.

  20. Integration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in a regional wind-thermal power system

    This study investigates consequences of integrating plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) in a wind-thermal power system supplied by one quarter of wind power and three quarters of thermal generation. Four different PHEV integration strategies, with different impacts on the total electric load profile, have been investigated. The study shows that PHEVs can reduce the CO2-emissions from the power system if actively integrated, whereas a passive approach to PHEV integration (i.e. letting people charge the car at will) is likely to result in an increase in emissions compared to a power system without PHEV load. The reduction in emissions under active PHEV integration strategies is due to a reduction in emissions related to thermal plant start-ups and part load operation. Emissions of the power sector are reduced with up to 4.7% compared to a system without PHEVs, according to the simulations. Allocating this emission reduction to the PHEV electricity consumption only, and assuming that the vehicles in electric mode is about 3 times as energy efficient as standard gasoline operation, total emissions from PHEVs would be less than half the emissions of a standard car, when running in electric mode.

  1. Implementation of Single Phase Soft Switched PFC Converter for Plug-in-Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Aiswariya Sekar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new soft switching boost converter with a passive snubber cell without additional active switches for battery charging systems. The proposed snubber finds its application in the front-end ac-dc converter of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV battery chargers. The proposed auxiliary snubber circuit consists of an inductor, two capacitors and two diodes. The new converter has the advantages of continuous input current, low switching stresses, high voltage gain without extreme duty cycle, minimized charger size and charging time and fewer amounts of cost and electricity drawn from the utility at higher switching frequencies. The switch is made to turn ON by Zero Current Switching (ZCS and turn OFF by Zero Voltage Switching (ZVS. The detailed steady state analysis of the novel ac-dc Zero Current- Zero Voltage Switching (ZC-ZVS boost Power Factor Correction (PFC converter is presented with its operating principle. The experimental prototype of 20 kHz, 100 W converter verifies the theoretical analysis. The power factor of the prototype circuit reaches near unity with an efficiency of 97%, at nominal output power for a ±10% variation in the input voltage and ±20% variation in the snubber component values.

  2. Improving power grid transient stability by plug-in electric vehicles

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) can serve in discharge mode as distributed energy and power resources operating as vehicle-to-grid (V2G) devices and in charge mode as loads or grid-to-vehicle devices. It has been documented that PEVs serving as V2G systems can offer possible backup for renewable power sources, can provide reactive power support, active power regulation, load balancing, peak load shaving, can reduce utility operating costs and can generate revenue. Here we show that PEVs can even improve power grid transient stability, that is, stability when the power grid is subjected to large disturbances, including bus faults, generator and branch tripping, and sudden large load changes. A control strategy that regulates the power output of a fleet of PEVs based on the speed of generator turbines is proposed and tested on the New England 10-unit 39-bus power system. By regulating the power output of the PEVs we show that (1) speed and voltage fluctuations resulting from large disturbances can be significantly reduced up to five times, and (2) the critical clearing time can be extended by 20–40%. Overall, the PEVs control strategy makes the power grid more robust. (paper)

  3. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles as regulating power providers. Case studies of Sweden and Germany

    This study investigates plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) as providers of regulating power in the form of primary, secondary and tertiary frequency control. Previous studies have shown that PHEVs could generate substantial profits while providing ancillary services. This study investigates under what conditions PHEVs can generate revenues using actual market data, i.e. prices and activations of regulating power, from Sweden and Germany from four months in 2008. PHEV market participation is modelled for individual vehicles in a fleet subject to a simulated movement pattern. Costs for infrastructure and vehicle-to-grid equipment are not included in the analysis. The simulation results indicate that maximum average profits generated on the German markets are in the range 30-80 EUR per vehicle and month whereas the Swedish regulating power markets give no profit. In addition, an analysis is performed to identify strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) of PHEVs as regulating power providers. Based on the simulation results and the SWOT analysis, characteristics for an ideal regulating power market for PHEVs are presented. (author)

  4. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles as regulating power providers: Case studies of Sweden and Germany

    This study investigates plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) as providers of regulating power in the form of primary, secondary and tertiary frequency control. Previous studies have shown that PHEVs could generate substantial profits while providing ancillary services. This study investigates under what conditions PHEVs can generate revenues using actual market data, i.e. prices and activations of regulating power, from Sweden and Germany from four months in 2008. PHEV market participation is modelled for individual vehicles in a fleet subject to a simulated movement pattern. Costs for infrastructure and vehicle-to-grid equipment are not included in the analysis. The simulation results indicate that maximum average profits generated on the German markets are in the range 30-80 Euro per vehicle and month whereas the Swedish regulating power markets give no profit. In addition, an analysis is performed to identify strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) of PHEVs as regulating power providers. Based on the simulation results and the SWOT analysis, characteristics for an ideal regulating power market for PHEVs are presented.

  5. Mobotware – A Plug-in Based Framework For Mobile Robots

    Beck, Anders Billesø; Andersen, Nils Axel; Andersen, Jens Christian;

    2010-01-01

    integration of sensors, fast porting to new robots and core system stability and maintainability in an undisciplined programming environment. Real-time performance is assured by using RTAI-Linux; core stability is obtained by using plug-ins for user developed modules. The plug-in based module structure......This paper describes a plug-in based software framework developed at Automation and Control, DTU Electrical Engineering. The software has been used for education and research in mobile robotics for the last decade. Important design criteria have been real-time performance of the control level, easy...... enabled many application i.e. robust navigation in an orchard with an autonomous tractor (Andersen,2010). Furthermore by providing a simple scripting robot control language the system also supports use by non-technicians....

  6. Impact of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles on the Electricity System

    Clement-Nyns, Kristien

    2010-01-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, are rapidly gaining interest. Batteries of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles are charged by either plugging into electric outlets or by an on-board generator. For grid charging, these batteries are supplied by power from the grid at home from a standard outlet or on a corporate car park. The extra electrical load, from charging the batteries, has an impact on the electricity system in general and more specifically on the distribution grid and the electricity g...

  7. Performance, Charging, and Second-use Considerations for Lithium Batteries for Plug-in Electric Vehicles

    Burke, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    This paper is concerned with batteries for use in plug-in electric vehicles. These vehicles use batteries that store a significant amount (kWh) of energy and thus will offer the possibilities for second-use in utility related applications such as residential and commercial backup systems and solar and wind generation systems. Cell test data are presented for the performance of lithium-ion batteries of several chemistries suitable for use in plug-in vehicles. The energy density of cells using ...

  8. Report on the Field Performance of A123Systems’s HymotionTM Plug-in Conversion Module for the Toyota Prius

    Huang Iu; John Smart

    2009-04-01

    A123Systems’s HymotionTM L5 Plug-in Conversion Module (PCM) is a supplemental battery system that converts the Toyota Prius hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) into a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). The Hymotion system uses a lithium ion battery pack with 4.5 kWh of useable energy capacity. It recharges by plugging into a standard 110/120V outlet. The system is designed to more than double the Prius fuel efficiency for 30-40 miles of charge depleting range. If the Hymotion pack is fully depleted, the Prius operates as a normal HEV in charge sustaining mode. The Hymotion L5 PCM is the first commercially available aftermarket product complying with CARB emissions and NHTSA impact standards. Since 2006, over 50 initial production Hymotion Plug-in Conversion Modules have been installed in private fleet vehicles across the United States and Canada. With the help of the Idaho National Laboratory, which conducts the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA), A123Systems collects real-time vehicle data from each fleet vehicle using on-board data loggers. These data are analyzed to determine vehicle performance. This paper presents the results of this field evaluation. Data to be presented includes the L5 Prius charge depleting range, gasoline fuel efficiency, and electrical energy efficiency. Effects of driving conditions, driving style, and charging patterns on fuel efficiency are also presented. Data show the Toyota Prius equipped with the Hymotion Plug-in Conversion Module is capable of achieving over 100 mpg in certain driving conditions when operating in charge depleting mode.

  9. Smart Procurement of Naturally Generated Energy (SPONGE) for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Buses

    Naoum-Sawaya, Joe; Crisostomi, Emanuele; Liu, Mingming; Gu, Yingqi; Shorten, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We discuss a recently introduced ECO-driving concept known as SPONGE in the context of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Buses (PHEB)'s.Examples are given to illustrate the benefits of this approach to ECO-driving. Finally, distributed algorithms to realise SPONGE are discussed, paying attention to the privacy implications of the underlying optimisation problems.

  10. Households' Stories of Their Encounters with a Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Caperello, Nicolette D.; Kurani, Kenneth S.

    2012-01-01

    One way to progress toward greenhouse gas reductions is for people to drive plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). Households in this study participated in a 4- to 6-week PHEV driving trial. A narrative of each household's encounter with the PHEV was constructed by the researchers from multiple in-home interviews, questionnaires completed by…

  11. Research Experience with a Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle: Preprint

    Markel, T.; Pesaran, A.; Kelly, K.; Thornton, M.; Nortman, P.

    2007-12-01

    This technical document reports on the exploratory research conducted by NREL on PHEV technology using a Toyota Prius that has been converted to a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle. The data includes both controlled dynamometer and on-road test results, particularly for hilly driving. The results highlight the petroleum savings and benefits of PHEV technology.

  12. Energy management strategies for electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    Williamson, Sheldon S

    2013-01-01

    Covers power electronics and motor drives for energy management of electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles Addresses specific issues and design solutions related to photovoltaic/grid based EV battery charging infrastructures and on-board battery management systems Emphasis on power electronic converter topologies for on-board battery management

  13. Clean Cities Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Fleet Managers

    None

    2012-04-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are entering the automobile market and are viable alternatives to conventional vehicles. This guide for fleet managers describes the basics of PEV technology, PEV benefits for fleets, how to select the right PEV, charging a PEV, and PEV maintenance.

  14. GIS-Based Target Tree Management Supporting System Based on Plug-In Technology

    Yixiang Wang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Traditional forest management models based on stand or landscape level should be transformed to concluding an individual tree level at the same time. Target tree management individual operation method based on close-to-nature sivlculture need to develop to implement such transformation. Aiming to complicated analysis, large computing and the status of lack of effective analysis tool for the operation method, we tried to develop GIS-based plug-in Target Tree Management system Supporting System (TTMSS to meet this requirement combing plug-in technology of .Net framework, C# and ArcGIS Engine 9.3 components kit. A target tree management individual operation method was established by designing target trees and interference trees decision processes and methods based on Geographic Information System (GIS. The results showed that the operation method improved the feasibility and reduced the difficulty of the target tree management with GIS technology to help improve the operations on the individual tree level. It was proved that TTMSS was an effective tool for target tree management. Under this plug-in mode, the users merely need to do is add or replace plug-ins if one wants to expand or upgrade the system, extremely improve TTMSS’s portability and expandability.

  15. Danish Visual Speech Synthesis & MPEG-4 Facial Animation plug-in for RealPlayer G

    Eliasen, Adam Johan; Forchhammer, Søren Otto; Dyhr, Niels-Jørn; Nielsen, Finn

    A Danish visual speech synthesis system is presented. Information from a speech synthesis system is used to create realistic lip-synched facial animation using MPEG-4. An MPEG-4 plug-in for RealPlayer G2 is also presented....

  16. Neutronics analysis of the IVVS/GDC plug in ITER

    Highlights: ► 3D neutronics analysis of the In-Vessel Viewing System (IVVS) and the Glow Discharge Cleaning (GDC) plug unit. ► Occupational dose rates around the isolated IVVS/GDC head are calculated on the basis of the rigorous 2-step (R2S) approach. ► The GDC head is shown to dominate the decay gamma activity and the shutdown dose rate around the isolated IVVS/GDC plug. ► All components, except the Be protective layer of the GDC probe, are shown to be classifiable as low level radwaste. - Abstract: A neutronics analysis has been performed to provide the input required for the design strategy for the In-Vessel Viewing System (IVVS) and the Glow Discharge Cleaning (GDC) plug units in the ITER tokamak. The focus of the analysis has been on operational loads to the GDC electrode head in the shielding position and on the activation and the decay photon radiation absorbed in the structural components of the entire system. To estimate the conditions for maintenance scenarios, the occupational dose rate around the isolated IVVS/GDC head has been calculated assuming the ITER SA2 irradiation scenario. The Rigorous 2 Step (R2S) method, developed previously at KIT, has been employed for the calculation of the shutdown dose rates. The GDC head, which is subjected to the highest neutron loads, gets heavily activated and dominates the decay gamma activity of the entire plug. Accordingly, the shutdown dose rate around the IVVS/GDC plug is dominated by the GDC electrode head. It is therefore recommended to separate the GDC head from the system prior to further operations inside the Hot Cell. All components, except the Be protective layer of the GDC probe, were shown to be classifiable as low level radwaste according to the French regulations.

  17. Fuel consumption of business passenger cars and plug-in vehicles; Praktijkverbruik van zakelijke personenauto's en plug-in voertuigen

    Ligterink, N.E.; Smokers, R.T.M.

    2013-05-15

    TNO investigates the use and fuel consumption of private cars since 2008. In this report the results for 2012 are presented. In part 1 the most recent results of statistical analyses of fuel card data, which are used by business-type drivers of passenger cars, are presented. The second part contains the results of an analysis of available fuel consumption data of so-called plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and range-extender electric vehicles that have entered the market in 2012 [Dutch] TNO doet al sinds 2008 onderzoek naar het praktijkverbruik van personenauto's. In dit rapport worden de resultaten over 2012 weergegeven. Het eerste deel presenteert de meest recente resultaten van statistische analyses van tankpasdata van door zakelijke rijders gebruikte personenvoertuigen. Het tweede deel bevat de resultaten van een analyse van beschikbare verbruiksgegevens van zogenoemde 'plug-in hybrides' en 'range-extender' elektrische voertuigen die in 2012 op de markt zijn gekomen.

  18. Plugging in or Going Wireless: Strategies for Interspecies Electron Transfer

    Pravin Malla Shrestha

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Interspecies exchange of electrons enables a diversity of microbial communities to gain energy from reactions that no one microbe can catalyze. The first recognized strategies for interspecies electron transfer were those that relied on chemical intermediates that are recycled through oxidized and reduced forms. Well-studied examples are interspecies H2 transfer and the cycling of sulfur intermediates in anaerobic photosynthetic communities. Direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET in which two species establish electrical contacts is an alternative. Electrical contacts documented to date include electrically conductive pili, as well as conductive iron minerals and conductive carbon moieties such as activated carbon and biochar. It seems likely that there are additional alternative strategies for interspecies electrical connections that have yet to be discovered. Interspecies electron transfer is central to the functioning of methane-producing microbial communities. The importance of interspecies H2 transfer in many methanogenic communities is clear, but under some circumstances DIET predominates. It is expected that further mechanistic studies and broadening investigations to a wider range of environments will help elucidate the factors that favor specific forms of interspecies electron exchange under different environmental conditions.

  19. Optimal Operation of Plug-In Electric Vehicles in Power Systems with High Wind Power Penetrations

    Hu, Weihao; Su, Chi; Chen, Zhe;

    2013-01-01

    The Danish power system has a large penetration of wind power. The wind fluctuation causes a high variation in the power generation, which must be balanced by other sources. The battery storage based Plug-In Electric Vehicles (PEV) may be a possible solution to balance the wind power variations in...... the power systems with high wind power penetrations. In this paper, the integration of plug-in electric vehicles in the power systems with high wind power penetrations is proposed and discussed. Optimal operation strategies of PEV in the spot market are proposed in order to decrease the energy cost...... electrical energy demand is chosen as the studied case. The results show that an optimal operation of PEV in both spot market and regulation market can not only decrease the energy costs for PEV owners, but also significantly decrease the power deviations between West Denmark and Union for the Coordination...

  20. Plug-in Electric Vehicle Infrastructure: A Foundation for Electrified Transportation: Preprint

    Markel, T.

    2010-04-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs)--which include all-electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles--provide a new opportunity for reducing oil consumption by drawing power from the electric grid. To maximize the benefits of PEVs, the emerging PEV infrastructure--from battery manufacturing to communication and control between the vehicle and the grid--must provide access to clean electricity, satisfy stakeholder expectations, and ensure safety. Currently, codes and standards organizations are collaborating on a PEV infrastructure plan. Establishing a PEV infrastructure framework will create new opportunities for business and job development initiating the move toward electrified transportation. This paper summarizes the components of the PEV infrastructure, challenges and opportunities related to the design and deployment of the infrastructure, and the potential benefits.

  1. Economic Scheduling of Residential Plug-In (Hybrid) Electric Vehicle (PHEV) Charging

    Maigha; Mariesa L. Crow

    2014-01-01

    In the past decade, plug-in (hybrid) electric vehicles (PHEVs) have been widely proposed as a viable alternative to internal combustion vehicles to reduce fossil fuel emissions and dependence on petroleum. Off-peak vehicle charging is frequently proposed to reduce the stress on the electric power grid by shaping the load curve. Time of use (TOU) rates have been recommended to incentivize PHEV owners to shift their charging patterns. Many utilities are not currently equipped to provide real-ti...

  2. Single-Phase PFC Converter for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Chargers

    Shakil Ahamed Khan; Md. Ismail Hossain; Mousumi Aktar

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a front end ac–dc power factor correction topology is proposed for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) battery charging. The topology can achieve improved power quality, in terms of power factor correction, reduced total harmonic distortion at input ac mains, and precisely regulated dc output. Within this context, this paper introduces a boost converter topology for implementing digital power factor correction based on low cost digital signal controller that operates the con...

  3. A control benchmark on the energy management of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle

    Sciarretta, Antonio; Serrao, Lorenzo; Dewagan, Prakash Chandra; Tona, Paolino; Bergshoeff, E.N. D.; Bordons, C.; Charmpa, E.; Elbert, P.; Eriksson, L.; Hofman, T.; Hubacher, H.; Isenegger, P.; Lacandia, F.; Laveau, A.; Li, H.

    2014-01-01

    International audience A benchmark control problem was developed for a special session of the IFAC Workshop on Engine and Powertrain Control, Simulation and Modeling (E-COSM 12), held in Rueil-Malmaison, France, in October 2012. The online energy management of a plug-in hybrid-electric vehicle was to be developed by the benchmark participants. The simulator, provided by the benchmark organizers, implements a model of the GM Voltec powertrain. Each solution was evaluated according to severa...

  4. A Multiphase Traction/Fast-Battery-Charger Drive for Electric or Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles

    Sandulescu, Paul; KESTELYN, Xavier; SEMAIL, Eric; BRUYERE, Antoine; Bouchez, Boris; Sousa, Luis

    2010-01-01

    For Electric Vehicles (EV), the charger is one of the main technical and economical weaknesses. This paper focuses on an original electric drive [1]-[3] dedicated to the vehicle traction and configurable as a battery charger without need of additional components. This cheap solution can outfit either electric or plug-in hybrid automotive vehicles, without needing additional mass and volume dedicated to the charger. Moreover, it allows a high charging power, for short duration charge cycles. H...

  5. Impact of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle charging/discharging management on a microgrid

    KAVEH, Kiamars; HAKIMI, Seyed Mehdi; MOGHADDAS-TAFRESHI, Seyed Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) may replace conventional vehicles in most urban areas and populated cities due to their lower levels of air pollution compared to internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles. PHEVs can increase the ability of residential complexes to participate in demand-side management, as well. This paper explores the potential of PHEVs as a flexible load in order to satisfy 2 main issues: increasing the penetration rate of renewable energy in a microgrid and in...

  6. Anticipating plug-in hybrid vehicle energy impacts in California: Constructing consumer-informed recharge profiles

    Axsen, Jonn; Kurani, Kenneth S

    2010-01-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) can be powered by gasoline, grid electricity, or both. To explore potential PHEV energy impacts, a three-part survey instrument collected data from new vehicle buyers in California. We combine the available information to estimate the electricity and gasoline use under three recharging scenarios. Results suggest that the use of PHEV vehicles could halve gasoline use relative to conventional vehicles. Using three scenarios to represent plausible conditi...

  7. Offline Optimization for Components Sizing and analysis of a Plug-in Hybrid Urban Microbus

    TRIGUI, Rochdi; Vinot, Emmanuel; BOUJELBEN, M

    2009-01-01

    An offline optimized energy management of a plug in series hybrid microbus is used for optimal component sizing and CO2 versus cost analysis. Comparison between fixed-rate battery discharge management and a global trip optimization are first performed. Then a parametrical study on components sizing is presented and give some elements concerning the best compromise between fuel consumption and The generating group size. A short economic study shows that according to the battery price and lifet...

  8. Voltage support by optimal integration of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles to a Residential Grid

    OVALLE, Andres; Bacha, Seddik; Hably, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    International audience This paper provides a linear approach to compute the voltages at any node on a residential grid based on the house instantaneous load and the presence of charging Plug- In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) on the grid (and the corresponding instantaneous consumption or injection). Based on this linear operation, the paper provides a detailed linear programming formulation of the problem of charging the PHEVs while providing a voltage support service to the grid. Multip...

  9. Structure development and simulation of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle

    A. A. Marozka; Yu. N. Petrenko

    2013-01-01

    Electric-drive vehicles (EDVs) have gained attention, especially in the context of growing concerns about global warming and energy security aspects associated with road transport. The main characteristic of EDVs is that the torque is supplied to the wheels by an electric motor that is powered either solely by a battery or in combination with an internal combustion engine (ICE). This covers hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), battery electric vehicles (BEVs), and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles...

  10. Impact of plug-in electric vehicles on the supply grid

    Balcells Sendra, Josep; García, Josep

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a case study describing the impact of charging process of plug in hybrid vehicles (PHEV) and all electrical vehicles (EV) on the supply grid. The paper shows the distortion produced in the grid by the simultaneous charge of a large fleet of vehicles and the corrective actions taken to guarantee the Electromagnetic Compatibility with other loads in the same grid. The goal of the investigation was to establish a design guide for parking facilities. Peer Reviewed

  11. Comparative Study on Different Energy Management Strategies for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Henglu Tang; Xiaokun Sun; Fengchun Sun; Hongwen He; Ximing Wang

    2013-01-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have a larger battery and can replace a certain amount of conventional fossil fuels with grid electricity, which differs from the traditional hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). The application of the onboard electrical energy significantly influences the energy utilization efficiency and thus impacts the fuel economy. In this paper, the basic PHEV operation modes are defined as pure electric driving (PED), hybrid driving charge depleting (HDCD) and hybri...

  12. Real-world fuel economy and CO2 emissions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    Plötz, Patrick; Funke, Simon; Jochem, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) combine electric propulsion with an internal combustion engine. Their potential to reduce transport related green-house gas emissions highly depends on their actual usage and electricity provision. Various studies underline their environmental and economic advantages, but are based on standardised driving cycles, simulations or small PHEV fleets. Here, we analyse real-world fuel economy of PHEV and the factors influencing it based on about 2,000 actual ...

  13. Battery Sizing for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles in Beijing: A TCO Model Based Analysis

    Cong Hou; Hewu Wang; Minggao Ouyang

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a total cost of ownership (TCO) model for battery sizing of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The proposed systematic TCO model innovatively integrates the Beijing driving database and optimal PHEV energy management strategies developed earlier. The TCO, including battery, fuel, electricity, and salvage costs, is calculated in yearly cash flows. The salvage cost, based on battery degradation model, is proposed for the first time. The results show that the optimal b...

  14. Nutzungsgerechte Dimensionierung des elektrischen Antriebssystems für Plug-In Hybride

    Nies, Benedikt Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Die Höhe der Reduktion des Kraftstoffverbrauchs für elektrifizierte Antriebsstränge als Plug-In Hybride realisiert hängt sehr stark von der Art der Nutzung ab. Die Arbeit analysiert das Nutzungsverhalten in seinen wesentlichen Größen und leitet darauf aufbauend ein Vorgehen ab, entsprechend dem Nutzungsverhalten eine Initialdimensionierung des elektrischen Antriebssystems vorzunehmen. Diese Initialdimensionierung wird wird validiert und in Abhängigkeit verschiedener Randbedingungen bewertet. ...

  15. Batteries charging systems for electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    Monteiro, Vítor; Gonçalves, Henrique; João C. Ferreira; Afonso, João L.

    2012-01-01

    Many countries have a large dependence on imported fossil fuels whose prices increase almost every day. Knowing that much of this consumption is for transportation systems, it becomes essential to seek for alternatives. The natural bet is the electric mobility, namely through Electric Vehicles (EVs) and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs). However, the wide spread utilization of these vehicles has consequences on the electrical power grid, mainly in terms of load management and electric ...

  16. A Fully Distributed Approach for Plug-in Electric Vehicle Charging

    Mohammadi, Javad; Vaya, Marina Gonzalez; Kar, Soummya; Hug, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are considered as flexible loads since their charging schedules can be shifted over the course of a day without impacting drivers mobility. This property can be exploited to reduce charging costs and adverse network impacts. The increasing number of PEVs makes the use of distributed charging coordinating strategies preferable to centralized ones. In this paper, we propose an agent-based method which enables a fully distributed solution of the PEVs Coordinated ...

  17. Plug-in Electric Vehicle Collaborative Charging for Current Unbalance Minimization: Ant System Optimization Application

    FERNANDEZ, Julian Alberto; Bacha, Seddik; Riu, Delphine; Hably, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are one of the solutions to reduce transportation dependency on oil. Nevertheless, uncoordinated charging in distribution low voltage (LV) networks can lead to local grid problems such as current unbalance and consequently voltage unbalance. In this paper, a combinatorial method based on Ant System (AS) optimization is proposed in order to minimize the current unbalance factor (CUF) by controlling the connection and disconnection of PEVs. The CUF is generated ...

  18. Fair design of plug-in electric vehicles aggregator for V2G regulation

    Escudero-Garzás, J. Joaquín; García-Armada, Ana; Seco-Granados, Gonzalo

    2012-01-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) have recently attracted much attention due to their potential to reduce CO2 emissions and transportation costs and can be grouped into entities (aggregators) to provide ancillary services such as frequency regulation. In this paper, the application of aggregators to frequency regulation by making fair use of their energy storage capacity is addressed. When the power grid requires frequency regulation service to the aggregator to adjust the grid frequency, the ...

  19. The best plan for entity water plugging in oil field and fluid performance supervising technique

    This paper describes how to use the information of water intake profiles obtained from radioactive tracer log to analyze and find high pressure permeable formation band, and provide the best plan for entity water plugging in different types of oil field. Carrying the plan into effect, we have achieved nice results. Another part of the paper states the importance of fluid performance supervision, and describes the logging methods and the time delay logging technique to supervise the oil and/or water performance

  20. Integrating plug-in electric vehicles into the electric power system

    Wu, Di

    This dissertation contributes to our understanding of how plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and plug-in battery-only electric vehicles (EVs)---collectively termed plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs)---could be successfully integrated with the electric power system. The research addresses issues at a diverse range of levels pertaining to light-duty vehicles, which account for the majority of highway vehicle miles traveled, energy consumed by highway travel modes, and carbon dioxide emissions from on-road sources. Specifically, the following topics are investigated: (i) On-board power electronics topologies for bidirectional vehicle-to-grid and grid-to-vehicle power transfer; (ii) The estimation of the electric energy and power consumption by fleets of light-duty PEVs; (iii) An operating framework for the scheduling and dispatch of electric power by PEV aggregators; (iv) The pricing of electricity by PHEV aggregators and how it affects the decision-making process of a cost-conscious PHEV owner; (v) The impacts on distribution systems from PEVs under aggregator control; (vi) The modeling of light-duty PEVs for long-term energy and transportation planning at a national scale.

  1. Integration of plug-in hybrid cars for the encouragement of intelligent power distribution structures; Integration von Plug-in-Hybrid Cars zur Foerderung intelligenter Verteilnetzstrukturen. Vorstudie

    Horbaty, R.; Rigassi, R.

    2007-11-15

    This preliminary study for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at how plug-in hybrid cars could be used to support the electricity supply in Switzerland. This study explains to what extent hybrid cars would be in a position to provide the services needed to regulate the Swiss electricity mains. Core elements of the concept known as 'Vehicle to Grid' (V2G) are presented. The requirements placed on the cars' equipment, including reversible battery chargers and communication equipment, are reviewed. Mains regulation systems are discussed, as are battery storage and the potential advantages offered by such a system. Challenges and hindrances to implementation are examined and initial feasibility studies are analysed. Questions still to be addressed are noted. A comprehensive appendix rounds off the report.

  2. Learning from Consumers: Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) Demonstration and Consumer Education, Outreach, and Market Research Program

    Kurani, Kenneth S; Axsen, Jonn; Caperello, Nicolette; Davies, Jamie; Stillwater, Tai

    2009-01-01

    Will people recharge a vehicle that does not have to be recharged? This, and the degree to which plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) designs emphasize gasoline or electricity, are central to assessing the energy and environmental effects of PHEVs. Plug-in conversions of hybrid vehicles are being made available to (predominately new-car buying) households throughout the Sacramento region for four to six weeks each. The vehicles are instrumented to report travel and energy; households are in...

  3. Application Study on the Dynamic Programming Algorithm for Energy Management of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Ximing Wang; Hongwen He; Fengchun Sun; Jieli Zhang

    2015-01-01

    To explore the problems associated with applying dynamic programming (DP) in the energy management strategies of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), a plug-in hybrid bus powertrain is introduced and its dynamic control model is constructed. The numerical issues, including the discretization resolution of the relevant variables and the boundary issue of their feasible regions, were considered when implementing DP to solve the optimal control problem of PHEVs. The tradeoff between the op...

  4. Optimierung der abläufe von emissionstests für die weltweite zulassung von plug-in-hybriden

    Ancochea Vilaplana, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Automobilhersteller werden von dem Gesetzgeber dazu bewegt, technische Neuerungen zu entwickeln, um den CO2-Austoß und die Emissionen ihrer Fahrzeugflotte zu verringern. Plug-In Hybrid Fahrzeuge weisen im Vergleich zu den konventionellen Fahrzeugen ein größeres Emissionseinsparpotential auf und tragen wesentlich zur CO2-Reduktion der Fahrzeugflotte bei. Wie bei allen anderen Fahrzeugen sind für Plug-In Hybride gesetzliche Emissions- und Verbrauchswerte vorgeschrieben. Diese werden bei der Typ...

  5. Analysis of Integration of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles in the Distribution Grid

    Karnama, Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    The new generation of cars are so-called Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) which has the grid connection capability. By the introduction of these vehicles, the grid issues will be connected to the private car transportation sector for the first time. The cars from the gird perspective can be considered as a regular load with certain power factor. The effects of this type of new load in distribution grid are studied in this thesis. By modelling the cars as regular load, the effects of t...

  6. Correlating Dynamometer Testing to In-Use Fleet Results of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    John G. Smart; Sera White; Michael Duoba

    2009-05-01

    Standard dynamometer test procedures are currently being developed to determine fuel and electrical energy consumption of plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEV). To define a repeatable test procedure, assumptions were made about how PHEVs will be driven and charged. This study evaluates these assumptions by comparing results of PHEV dynamometer testing following proposed procedures to actual performance of PHEVs operating in the US Department of Energy’s (DOE) North American PHEV Demonstration fleet. Results show PHEVs in the fleet exhibit a wide range of energy consumption, which is not demonstrated in dynamometer testing. Sources of variation in performance are identified and examined.

  7. Getting Started with VIBE as a DICE Plug-in Module

    Rearden, Bradley T [ORNL; Lefebvre, Robert A [ORNL

    2010-08-01

    The use of the SCALE (Standardized Computer Analysis for Licensing Evaluation) tool VIBE (Validation, Interpretation and Bias Estimation) as a plug-in module to DICE (Database for the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project) to access and interpret sensitivity data is described. In this initial release of VIBE within DICE, VIBE can identify sensitivity data and group collapse the data into a table, where the values can be sorted and filtered to identify experiments that are the most similar to a targeted application system in terms of sensitivity data. VIBE can then retrieve information about the selected experiments from the DICE database to provide the physical characteristics of the benchmarks.

  8. A compact plug-in module for LHC-like trigger emulation

    Sidiropoulos, Georgios; Manthos, N; Vichoudis, P

    2007-01-01

    A compact trigger emulation module for evaluating electronic systems for LHC applications has been built using off-the-shelf components. The emulator, which is based on an FPGA, generates both programmable and true-random trigger patterns in compliance with the LHC triggering rules. For the true-random trigger part, the source of randomness is the avalanche effect on a transistor emitter-base diode. The system can be used either as a plug-in module for VME systems or as a standalone device controlled via a standard USB link by a PC running LabVIEW.

  9. Battery Requirements for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Analysis and Rationale (Presentation)

    Pesaran, A.

    2007-12-01

    Slide presentation to EVS-23 conference describing NREL work to help identify appropriate requirements for batteries to be useful for plug-in hybrid-electric vehicles (PHEVs). Suggested requirements were submitted to the U.S. Advanced Battery Consortium, which used them for a 2007 request for proposals. Requirements were provided both for charge-depleting mode and charge-sustaining mode and for high power/energy ratio and hige energy/power ration batteries for each (different modes of PHEV operation), along with battery and system level requirements.

  10. [An almost fatal airway obstruction caused by a secretion plug in an endotracheal tube].

    Andersen, Emir Benjamin; Olsen, Karsten Skovgaard

    2014-12-15

    Airway obstruction caused by a secretion plug in an endotracheal tube or a tracheostomy cannula can be a serious complication to mechanical ventilation. This case describes an event caused by a mucus plug localized to the distal part of a tracheostomy tube in a tetraplegic patient. The plug functioned as a check valve, allowing air to pass in - but not out - of the patient. A suction catheter could be passed through the airway without any resistance, and thus the airway was believed to be free. The event, which had an almost fatal outcome due to hyperinflation of the lungs, was relieved by replacement of the tracheostomy cannula. PMID:25497629

  11. Development of a plug in for image j for the quality control of a scanner

    The increase in the quality of radiology equipment requirements necessitates that give us tools efficient that they simplify the more possible tasks of analysis of the data obtained in the quality controls. We can choose by solutions based on commercial software or otherwise try to develop our own to measure of our needs. For this reason we have developed a plug-in for the ImageJ program that automates the work of analysis of image quality in the Navarro health service scanners. (Author)

  12. Electric and hydrogen consumption analysis in plug-in road vehicles

    João P. Ribau, Carla M. Silva, Tiago L. Farias

    2010-01-01

    The main goal of the present study is to analyze some of the capabilities and behavior of two types of plug-in cars: battery electric and hydrogen fuel cell hybrid electric, facing different driving styles, different road gradients, different occupation rates, different electrical loads, and different battery's initial state of charge. In order to do that, four vehicles with different power/weight (kW/kg) ratio (0.044 to 0.150) were simulated in the software ADVISOR, which gives predictions o...

  13. jMRUI Versíon 4 : A Plug-in Platform

    Stefan, D.; Andrasecu, A.; Popa, E.; Lazariev, A.; Štrbák, Oliver; Starčuk jr., Zenon; Cabanas, M.; Ormondt van, D.; Graveron-Demilly, D.

    Red Hook: International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, 2009, s. 4340. ISBN 978-1-61567-338-4. [ISMRM 2009 - Annual Scientific Meeting and Exhibition /17./. Honolulu (US), 18.03.2009-24.03.2009] Grant ostatní: EC 6FP(XE) MRTN-CT-2006-035801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : MRS * MRSI * jMRUI Software Package * Java * Plug-ins * Quantitation Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  14. A Multi-Period Framework for Coordinated Dispatch of Plug-in Electric Vehicles

    Yinuo Huang; Chuangxin Guo; Yi Ding; Licheng Wang; Bingquan Zhu; Lizhong Xu

    2016-01-01

    Coordinated dispatch of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) with renewable energies has been proposed in recent years. However, it is difficult to achieve effective PEV dispatch with a win-win result, which not only optimizes power system operation, but also satisfies the requirements of PEV owners. In this paper, a multi-period PEV dispatch framework, combining day-ahead dispatch with real-time dispatch, is proposed. On the one hand, the day-ahead dispatch is used to make full use of wind power...

  15. Minimax Learning Rates for Bipartite Ranking and Plug-in Rules

    Clémençon, Stéphan; Robbiano, Sylvain

    2011-01-01

    While it is now well-known in the standard binary classi cation setup, that, under suitable margin assumptions and complexity conditions on the regression function, fast or even super-fast rates can be achieved by plug-in classi ers, no result of this nature has been proved yet in the context of bipartite ranking, though akin to that of classi cation. It is the main purpose of the present paper to investigate this issue. Viewing bipartite ranking as a nested continuous collection of cost-sens...

  16. Abstraction and Model Checking in the PEPA Plug-in for Eclipse

    Smith, Michael James Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The stochastic process algebra PEPA is a widely used language for performance modelling, and a large part of its success is due to the rich tool support that is available. As a compositional Markovian formalism, however, it suffers from the state space explosion problem, where even small models can...... lead to very large Markov chains. One way of analysing such models is to use abstraction - constructing a smaller model that bounds the properties of the original. We present an extension to the PEPA plug-in for Eclipse that enables abstracting and model checking of PEPA models. This implements two new...

  17. The Effect of Plug-in Electric Vehicles on Harmonic Analysis of Smart Grid

    Heidarian, T.; Joorabian, M.; Reza, A.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, the effect of plug-in electric vehicles is studied on the smart distribution system with a standard IEEE 30-bus network. At first, harmonic power flow analysis is performed by Newton-Raphson method and by considering distorted substation voltage. Afterward, proper sizes of capacitors is selected by cuckoo optimization algorithm to reduce the power losses and cost and by imposing acceptable limit for total harmonic distortion and RMS voltages. It is proposed that the impact of generated current harmonics by electric vehicle battery chargers should be factored into overall load control strategies of smart appliances. This study is generalized to the different hours of a day by using daily load curve, and then optimum time for charging of electric vehicles batteries in the parking lots are determined by cuckoo optimization algorithm. The results show that injecting harmonic currents of plug-in electric vehicles causes a drop in the voltage profile and increases power loss. Moreover, charging the vehicle batteries has more impact on increasing the power losses rather than the harmonic currents effect. Also, the findings showed that the current harmonics has a great influence on increasing of THD. Finally, optimum working times of all parking lots was obtained for the utilization cost reduction.

  18. Comparative Study on Different Energy Management Strategies for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Henglu Tang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs have a larger battery and can replace a certain amount of conventional fossil fuels with grid electricity, which differs from the traditional hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs. The application of the onboard electrical energy significantly influences the energy utilization efficiency and thus impacts the fuel economy. In this paper, the basic PHEV operation modes are defined as pure electric driving (PED, hybrid driving charge depleting (HDCD and hybrid driving charge sustaining (HDCS based on the battery state of charge (SoC profile. For a plug-in hybrid electric bus (PHEB, three different energy management strategies, which are combined with two or three of the basic operation modes, are put forward and comparatively examined based on simulation models. If some trip information can be approximately known in advance such as the trip distance and the mean power demand, the PED + HDCD + HDCS strategy comprised optimally of the PED mode, the HDCD mode and the HDCS mode would be the best energy management strategy.

  19. Real-Time Occupant Based Plug-in Device Control Using ICT in Office Buildings

    Woo-Bin Bae

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to reduce the unnecessary plug loads used by computers, monitors, and computer peripheral devices, all of which account for more than 95% of the entire plug loads of an office building. To this end, an occupant-based plug-in device control (OBC-P software was developed. The OBC-P software collects real-time information about the presence or absence of occupants who are connected to the access point through the Wifi and controls the power of monitors or computers, while a standby power off device controls computer peripheral devices. To measure the plug load saving of the occupant-based plug-in device control, an experiment was conducted, targeting 10 occupants of three research labs of the graduate school, for two weeks. The experiment results showed that it could save the plug loads of monitors and computer peripheral devices by 15% in the Awake mode, and by 26% in the Sleep mode.

  20. Design, production and initial state of the backfill and plug in deposition tunnels

    The report is included in a set of Production reports, presenting how the KBS-3 repository is designed, produced and inspected. The set of reports is included in the safety report for the KBS-3 repository and repository facility. The report provides input on the initial state of the backfill and plug in deposition tunnels for the assessment of the long-term safety, SR-Site. The initial state refers to the properties of the engineered barriers once they have been finally placed in the KBS-3 repository and will not be further handled within the repository facility. In addition, the report provides input to the operational safety report, SR-Operation, on how the backfill and plug shall be handled and installed. The report presents the design premises and reference designs of the backfill and plug in deposition tunnels and verifies their conformity to the design premises. It also describes the production of the backfill from excavation and delivery of backfill material to installation in the deposition tunnel, and gives an outline of the installation of the plug. Finally, the initial states of the backfill and plug and their conformity to the reference designs and design premises are presented

  1. Game-Theoretic Energy Management for Residential Users with Dischargeable Plug-in Electric Vehicles

    Bingtuan Gao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The plug-in electric vehicle (PEV has attracted more and more attention because of the energy crisis and environmental pollution, which is also the main shiftable load of the residential users’ demand side management (DSM system in the future smart grid (SG. In this paper, we employ game theory to provide an autonomous energy management system among residential users considering selling energy back to the utility company by discharging the PEV’s battery. By assuming all users are equipped with smart meters to execute automatic energy consumption scheduling (ECS and the energy company can adopt adequate pricing tariffs relating to time and level of energy usage, we formulate an energy management game, where the players are the residential users and the strategies are their daily schedules of household appliance use. We will show that the Nash equilibrium of the formulated energy management game can guarantee the global optimization in terms of minimizing the energy costs, where the depreciation cost of PEV’s battery because of discharging and selling energy back is also considered. Simulation results verify that the proposed game-theoretic approach can reduce the total energy cost and individual daily electricity payment. Moreover, since plug-in electric bicycles (PEBs are currently widely used in China, simulation results of residential users owing household appliances and bidirectional energy trading of PEBs are also provided and discussed.

  2. Single-Phase PFC Converter for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Chargers

    Shakil Ahamed Khan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a front end ac–dc power factor correction topology is proposed for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV battery charging. The topology can achieve improved power quality, in terms of power factor correction, reduced total harmonic distortion at input ac mains, and precisely regulated dc output. Within this context, this paper introduces a boost converter topology for implementing digital power factor correction based on low cost digital signal controller that operates the converter in continuous conduction mode, thereby significantly reducing input current harmonics. The theoretical analysis of the proposed converter is then developed, while an experimental digital control system is used to implement the new control strategy. A detailed converter operation, analysis and control strategy are presented along with simulation and experimental results for universal ac input voltage (100–240V to 380V dc output at up to 3.0 kW load and a power factor greater than 0.98. Experimental results show the advantages and flexibilities of the new control method for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV battery charging application.

  3. Techno-economic comparison of series hybrid, plug-in hybrid, fuel cell and regular cars

    van Vliet, Oscar P. R.; Kruithof, Thomas; Turkenburg, Wim C.; Faaij, André P. C.

    We examine the competitiveness of series hybrid compared to fuel cell, parallel hybrid, and regular cars. We use public domain data to determine efficiency, fuel consumption, total costs of ownership and greenhouse gas emissions resulting from drivetrain choices. The series hybrid drivetrain can be seen both as an alternative to petrol, diesel and parallel hybrid cars, as well as an intermediate stage towards fully electric or fuel cell cars. We calculate the fuel consumption and costs of four diesel-fuelled series hybrid, four plug-in hybrid and four fuel cell car configurations, and compared these to three reference cars. We find that series hybrid cars may reduce fuel consumption by 34-47%, but cost €5000-12,000 more. Well-to-wheel greenhouse gas emissions may be reduced to 89-103 g CO 2 km -1 compared to reference petrol (163 g km -1) and diesel cars (156 g km -1). Series hybrid cars with wheel motors have lower weight and 7-21% lower fuel consumption than those with central electric motors. The fuel cell car remains uncompetitive even if production costs of fuel cells come down by 90%. Plug-in hybrid cars are competitive when driving large distances on electricity, and/or if cost of batteries come down substantially. Well-to-wheel greenhouse gas emissions may be reduced to 60-69 g CO 2 km -1.

  4. Resource Efficiency Assessment—Comparing a Plug-In Hybrid with a Conventional Combustion Engine

    Martin Henßler

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The strong economic growth in recent years has led to an intensive use of natural resources, which causes environmental stress as well as restrictions on the availability of resources. Therefore, a more efficient use of resources is necessary as an important contribution to sustainable development. The ESSENZ method presented in this article comprehensively assesses a product’s resource efficiency by going beyond existing approaches and considering the pollution of the environment as well as the physical and socio-economic availability of resources. This paper contains a short description of the ESSENZ methodology as well as a case study of the Mercedes-Benz C-Class (W 205—comparing the conventional C 250 (petrol engine with the C 350 e Plug-In Hybrid (electric motor and petrol engine. By applying the ESSENZ method it can be shown that the use of more and different materials for the Plug-In-Hybrid influences the dimensions physical and socio-economic availability significantly. However, for environmental impacts, especially climate change and summer smog, clear advantages of the C 350 e occur due to lower demand of fossil energy carriers. As shown within the case study, the when applying the ESSENZ method a comprehensive evaluation of the used materials and fossil energy carriers can be achieved.

  5. Techno-economic comparison of series hybrid, plug-in hybrid, fuel cell and regular cars

    van Vliet, Oscar P.R.; Kruithof, Thomas; Turkenburg, Wim C.; Faaij, Andre P.C. [Utrecht University, Copernicus Institute, Science, Technology and Society Group, Heidelberglaan 2, 3584 CS Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2010-10-01

    We examine the competitiveness of series hybrid compared to fuel cell, parallel hybrid, and regular cars. We use public domain data to determine efficiency, fuel consumption, total costs of ownership and greenhouse gas emissions resulting from drivetrain choices. The series hybrid drivetrain can be seen both as an alternative to petrol, diesel and parallel hybrid cars, as well as an intermediate stage towards fully electric or fuel cell cars. We calculate the fuel consumption and costs of four diesel-fuelled series hybrid, four plug-in hybrid and four fuel cell car configurations, and compared these to three reference cars. We find that series hybrid cars may reduce fuel consumption by 34-47%, but cost EUR5000-12,000 more. Well-to-wheel greenhouse gas emissions may be reduced to 89-103 g CO{sub 2} km{sup -1} compared to reference petrol (163 g km{sup -1}) and diesel cars (156 g km{sup -1}). Series hybrid cars with wheel motors have lower weight and 7-21% lower fuel consumption than those with central electric motors. The fuel cell car remains uncompetitive even if production costs of fuel cells come down by 90%. Plug-in hybrid cars are competitive when driving large distances on electricity, and/or if cost of batteries come down substantially. Well-to-wheel greenhouse gas emissions may be reduced to 60-69 g CO{sub 2} km{sup -1}. (author)

  6. Design, production and initial state of the backfill and plug in deposition tunnels

    Boerjesson, Lennart; Gunnarsson, David; Johannesson, Lars-Erik; Jonsson, Esther

    2010-12-15

    The report is included in a set of Production reports, presenting how the KBS-3 repository is designed, produced and inspected. The set of reports is included in the safety report for the KBS-3 repository and repository facility. The report provides input on the initial state of the backfill and plug in deposition tunnels for the assessment of the long-term safety, SR-Site. The initial state refers to the properties of the engineered barriers once they have been finally placed in the KBS-3 repository and will not be further handled within the repository facility. In addition, the report provides input to the operational safety report, SR-Operation, on how the backfill and plug shall be handled and installed. The report presents the design premises and reference designs of the backfill and plug in deposition tunnels and verifies their conformity to the design premises. It also describes the production of the backfill from excavation and delivery of backfill material to installation in the deposition tunnel, and gives an outline of the installation of the plug. Finally, the initial states of the backfill and plug and their conformity to the reference designs and design premises are presented

  7. A Computable Plug-In Estimator of Minimum Volume Sets for Novelty Detection

    Park, Chiwoo

    2010-10-01

    A minimum volume set of a probability density is a region of minimum size among the regions covering a given probability mass of the density. Effective methods for finding the minimum volume sets are very useful for detecting failures or anomalies in commercial and security applications-a problem known as novelty detection. One theoretical approach of estimating the minimum volume set is to use a density level set where a kernel density estimator is plugged into the optimization problem that yields the appropriate level. Such a plug-in estimator is not of practical use because solving the corresponding minimization problem is usually intractable. A modified plug-in estimator was proposed by Hyndman in 1996 to overcome the computation difficulty of the theoretical approach but is not well studied in the literature. In this paper, we provide theoretical support to this estimator by showing its asymptotic consistency. We also show that this estimator is very competitive to other existing novelty detection methods through an extensive empirical study. ©2010 INFORMS.

  8. An analysis of U.S. federal mileage ratings for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    With the introduction of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, the US Environmental Protection Agency developed a rule to calculate “miles per gallon equivalent” (MPGe) for electric vehicle window stickers and the US Department of Energy created a separate procedure for calculation of fuel economy for use in the federally mandated corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards. The EPA rule fails to account for inefficiencies in or emissions resulting from the production of electricity and as a result greatly overestimates the life cycle efficiency of covered vehicles, which would be evident using “exergy analysis.” The DOE rule accounts for conversion efficiencies, but includes a long-standing, policy based factor (originally developed to reduce oil consumption by promoting alternatively fueled vehicles). This factor disproportionately raises the calculated performance of electrically powered vehicles. As a result, both the EPA and DOE rules incentivize policies that are not substantiated by the immediate technical merits. - Highlights: • We develop a model to examine US policy on plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. • The model is applied to a single example—the Chevy Volt. • The US EPA inflates the mileage of PEVs by equating electrical and chemical energy. • The US EPA fails to account for generating source emissions in PEVs. • On a “well to wheels basis,” PEV performance is similar to gasoline vehicles

  9. Plug-In Hybrid Medium-Duty Truck Demonstration and Evaluation

    Miyasato, Matt [Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States); Kosowski, Mark [Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The Plug-In Hybrid Medium-Duty Truck Demonstration and Evaluation Program was sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) using American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) funding. The purpose of the program is to develop a path to migrate plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) technology to medium-duty vehicles by demonstrating and evaluating vehicles in diverse applications. The program also provided three production-ready PHEV systems—Odyne Systems, Inc. (Odyne) Class 6 to 8 trucks, VIA Motors, Inc. (VIA) half-ton pickup trucks, and VIA three-quarter-ton vans. The vehicles were designed, developed, validated, produced, and deployed. Data were gathered and tests were run to understand the performance improvements, allow cost reductions, and provide future design changes. A smart charging system was developed and produced during the program. The partnerships for funding included the DOE; the California Energy Commission (CEC); the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD); the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI); Odyne; VIA; Southern California Edison; and utility and municipal industry participants. The reference project numbers are DOE FOA-28 award number EE0002549 and SCAQMD contract number 10659.

  10. Design and Application of a Power Unit to Use Plug-In Electric Vehicles as an Uninterruptible Power Supply

    Gorkem Sen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Grid-enabled vehicles (GEVs such as plug-in electric vehicles present environmental and energy sustainability advantages compared to conventional vehicles. GEV runs solely on power generated by its own battery group, which supplies power to its electric motor. This battery group can be charged from external electric sources. Nowadays, the interaction of GEV with the power grid is unidirectional by the charging process. However, GEV can be operated bi-directionally by modifying its power unit. In such operating conditions, GEV can operate as an uninterruptible power supply (UPS and satisfy a portion or the total energy demand of the consumption center independent from utility grid, which is known as vehicle-to-home (V2H. In this paper, a power unit is developed for GEVs in the laboratory to conduct simulation and experimental studies to test the performance of GEVs as a UPS unit in V2H mode at the time of need. The activation and deactivation of the power unit and islanding protection unit are examined when energy is interrupted.

  11. Distributed energy resources management using plug-in hybrid electric vehicles as a fuel-shifting demand response resource

    Morais, Hugo; Sousa, Tiago; Soares, J.;

    2015-01-01

    In the smart grids context, distributed energy resources management plays an important role in the power systems' operation. Battery electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles should be important resources in the future distribution networks operation. Therefore, it is important to...... develop adequate methodologies to schedule the electric vehicles' charge and discharge processes, avoiding network congestions and providing ancillary services.This paper proposes the participation of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in fuel shifting demand response programs. Two services are proposed...... the network. These programs are included in an energy resources management algorithm which integrates the management of other resources. The paper presents a case study considering a 37-bus distribution network with 25 distributed generators, 1908 consumers, and 2430 plug-in vehicles. Two scenarios...

  12. Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Quasi-Static Wireless Power Transfer for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Transit Buses

    Wang, Lijuan; Gonder, Jeff; Burton, Evan; Brooker, Aaron; Meintz, Andrew; Konan, Arnaud

    2015-10-19

    This study evaluates the costs and benefits associated with the use of a stationary-wireless- power-transfer-enabled plug-in hybrid electric bus and determines the cost effectiveness relative to a conventional bus and a hybrid electric bus. A sensitivity sweep was performed over many different battery sizes, charging power levels, and number/location of bus stop charging stations. The net present cost was calculated for each vehicle design and provided the basis for design evaluation. In all cases, given the assumed economic conditions, the conventional bus achieved the lowest net present cost while the optimal plug-in hybrid electric bus scenario beat out the hybrid electric comparison scenario. The study also performed parameter sensitivity analysis under favorable and high unfavorable market penetration assumptions. The analysis identifies fuel saving opportunities with plug-in hybrid electric bus scenarios at cumulative net present costs not too dissimilar from those for conventional buses.

  13. Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Quasi-Static Wireless Power Transfer for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Transit Buses: Preprint

    Wang, Lijuan; Gonder, Jeff; Burton, Evan; Brooker, Aaron; Meintz, Andrew; Konan, Arnaud

    2015-11-11

    This study evaluates the costs and benefits associated with the use of a plug-in hybrid electric bus and determines the cost effectiveness relative to a conventional bus and a hybrid electric bus. A sensitivity sweep analysis was performed over a number of a different battery sizes, charging powers, and charging stations. The net present value was calculated for each vehicle design and provided the basis for the design evaluation. In all cases, given present day economic assumptions, the conventional bus achieved the lowest net present value while the optimal plug-in hybrid electric bus scenario reached lower lifetime costs than the hybrid electric bus. The study also performed parameter sensitivity analysis under low market potential assumptions and high market potential assumptions. The net present value of plug-in hybrid electric bus is close to that of conventional bus.

  14. GTKDynamo: a PyMOL plug-in for QC/MM hybrid potential simulations.

    Bachega, José Fernando R; Timmers, Luís Fernando S M; Assirati, Lucas; Bachega, Leonardo R; Field, Martin J; Wymore, Troy

    2013-09-30

    Hybrid quantum chemical/molecular mechanical (QCMM) potentials are very powerful tools for molecular simulation. They are especially useful for studying processes in condensed phase systems, such as chemical reactions that involve a relatively localized change in electronic structure and where the surrounding environment contributes to these changes but can be represented with more computationally efficient functional forms. Despite their utility, however, these potentials are not always straightforward to apply since the extent of significant electronic structure changes occurring in the condensed phase process may not be intuitively obvious. To facilitate their use, we have developed an open-source graphical plug-in, GTKDynamo that links the PyMOL visualization program and the pDynamo QC/MM simulation library. This article describes the implementation of GTKDynamo and its capabilities and illustrates its application to QC/MM simulations. PMID:24137667

  15. Integration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) with grid connected residential photovoltaic energy systems

    Nagarajan, Adarsh; Shireen, Wajiha

    2013-06-01

    This paper proposes an approach for integrating Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) to an existing residential photovoltaic system, to control and optimize the power consumption of residential load. Control involves determining the source from which residential load will be catered, where as optimization of power flow reduces the stress on the grid. The system built to achieve the goal is a combination of the existing residential photovoltaic system, PHEV, Power Conditioning Unit (PCU), and a controller. The PCU involves two DC-DC Boost Converters and an inverter. This paper emphasizes on developing the controller logic and its implementation in order to accommodate the flexibility and benefits of the proposed integrated system. The proposed controller logic has been simulated using MATLAB SIMULINK and further implemented using Digital Signal Processor (DSP) microcontroller, TMS320F28035, from Texas Instruments

  16. Review on Automotive Power Generation System on Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles & Electric Vehicles

    Leong Yap Wee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Regenerative braking is a function to recharge power bank on the Plug-in electric vehicles (PHEV and electric vehicles (EV. The weakness of this system is, it can only perform its function when the vehicle is slowing down or by stepping the brake foot pedal. In other words, the electricity recharging system is inconsistent, non-continuous and geography dependent. To overcome the weakness of the regenerative braking system, it is suggested that to apply another generator which is going to be parallel with the regenerative braking system so that continuous charging can be achieved. Since the ironless electricity generator has a less counter electromotive force (CEMF comparing to an ironcored electricity generator and no cogging torque. Applying the ironless electricity generator parallel to the regenerative braking system is seen one of the options which creates sustainable charging system compared to cored electricity generator.

  17. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle charge pattern optimization for energy cost and battery longevity

    This paper examines the problem of optimizing the charge pattern of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), defined as the timing and rate with which the PHEV obtains electricity from the power grid. The optimization goal is to simultaneously minimize (i) the total cost of fuel and electricity and (ii) the total battery health degradation over a 24-h naturalistic drive cycle. The first objective is calculated for a previously-developed stochastic optimal PHEV power management strategy, whereas the second objective is evaluated through an electrochemistry-based model of anode-side resistive film formation in lithium-ion batteries. The paper shows that these two objectives are conflicting, and trades them off using a non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm. As a result, a Pareto front of optimal charge patterns is obtained. The effects of electricity price and trip schedule on the optimal Pareto points and the PHEV charge patterns are analyzed and discussed. (author)

  18. Harmonic Impact of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle on Electric Distribution System

    A. Aljanad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the harmonic effects of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV on the IEEE 37-bus distribution system at different PHEV penetration levels considering a practical daily residential load shape. The PHEV is modeled as a current harmonic source by using the Open-Source Distribution System Simulator (OpenDSS and DSSimpc software. Time series harmonic simulation was conducted to investigate the harmonic impact of PHEV on the system by using harmonic data obtained from a real electric vehicle. Harmonic effects on the system voltage profile and circuit power losses are also investigated by using OpenDSS and MATLAB software. Current/voltage total harmonic distortion (THD produced from the large scale of PHEV is investigated. Test results show that the voltage and current THDs are increased up to 9.5% and 50%, respectively, due to high PHEV penetrations and these THD values are significantly larger than the limits prescribed by the IEEE standards.

  19. Self-learning control system for plug-in hybrid vehicles

    DeVault, Robert C [Knoxville, TN

    2010-12-14

    A system is provided to instruct a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle how optimally to use electric propulsion from a rechargeable energy storage device to reach an electric recharging station, while maintaining as high a state of charge (SOC) as desired along the route prior to arriving at the recharging station at a minimum SOC. The system can include the step of calculating a straight-line distance and/or actual distance between an orientation point and the determined instant present location to determine when to initiate optimally a charge depleting phase. The system can limit extended driving on a deeply discharged rechargeable energy storage device and reduce the number of deep discharge cycles for the rechargeable energy storage device, thereby improving the effective lifetime of the rechargeable energy storage device. This "Just-in-Time strategy can be initiated automatically without operator input to accommodate the unsophisticated operator and without needing a navigation system/GPS input.

  20. Plug-in Based Analysis Framework for LHC Post-Mortem Analysis

    Gorbonosov, R; Zerlauth, M; Baggiolini, V

    2014-01-01

    Plug-in based software architectures [1] are extensible, enforce modularity and allow several teams to work in parallel. But they have certain technical and organizational challenges, which we discuss in this paper. We gained our experience when developing the Post-Mortem Analysis (PMA) system, which is a mission critical system for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). We used a plugin-based architecture with a general-purpose analysis engine, for which physicists and equipment experts code plugins containing the analysis algorithms. We have over 45 analysis plugins developed by a dozen of domain experts. This paper focuses on the design challenges we faced in order to mitigate the risks of executing third-party code: assurance that even a badly written plugin doesn't perturb the work of the overall application; plugin execution control which allows to detect plugin misbehaviour and react; robust communication mechanism between plugins, diagnostics facilitation in case of plugin failure; testing of the plugins be...

  1. Dynamic competition between plug-in hybrid and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles for personal transportation

    Bento, Nuno [LEPII, Universite de Grenoble, CNRS, BP47 38040 GRENOBLE Cedex 9 (France)

    2010-10-15

    This article addresses the issue of the diffusion of hydrogen cars in the market, particularly the competition with electric cars for the replacement of conventional vehicles. Using the multi-technological competition model developed by Le Bas and Baron-Sylvester's (Diffusion technologique non binaire et schema epidemiologique. Une reconsideration. Economie Appliquee 1995; tome XLVIII(3):71-101), it is shown that the early deployment of plug-in hybrid vehicles - the only electric technology which can compete with fuel cell cars in the multipurpose vehicle field - risks closing the market for hydrogen in the future. Moreover, the advent of the hydrogen vehicle depends on the rapid advancements in fuel cell technologies, as well as on the existence of an infrastructure with a sufficient coverage. (author)

  2. A Queueing Based Scheduling Approach to Plug-In Electric Vehicle Dispatch in Distribution Systems

    Li, Qiao; Ilic, Marija D

    2012-01-01

    Large-scale integration of plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) in power systems can cause severe issues to the existing distribution system, such as branch congestions and significant voltage drops. As a consequence, smart charging strategies are crucial for the secure and reliable operation of the power system. This paper tries to achieve high penetration level of PEVs with the existing distribution system infrastructure by proposing a smart charging algorithm that can optimally utilize the distribution system capacity. Specifically, the paper proposes a max-weight PEV dispatch algorithm to control the PEV charging rates, subject to power system physical limits. The proposed max-weight PEV dispatch algorithm is proved to be throughput optimal under very mild assumptions on the stochastic dynamics in the system. This suggests that the costly distribution system infrastructure upgrade can be avoided, or failing that, at least successfully deferred. The proposed PEV dispatch algorithm is particularly attractive in ...

  3. Consumer Views on Plug-in Electric Vehicles -- National Benchmark Report

    Singer, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-01-31

    Vehicle manufacturers, U.S. Department of Energy laboratories, universities, private researchers, and organizations from around the globe are pursuing advanced vehicle technologies that aim to reduce the consumption of petroleum in the form of gasoline and diesel. In order to make these technologies most appealing to the marketplace, they must take consumer sentiment into account. This report details study findings of broad American public sentiments toward issues that surround the advanced vehicle technologies of plug-in electric vehicles and is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technology Office in alignment with its mission to develop and deploy these technologies to improve energy security, provide mobility flexibility, reduce transportation costs, and increase environmental sustainability.

  4. A Dynamic Algorithm for Facilitated Charging of Plug-In Electric Vehicles

    Taheri, Nicole; Ye, Yinyu

    2011-01-01

    Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEVs) are a rapidly developing technology that can reduce greenhouse gas emissions and change the way vehicles obtain power. PEV charging stations will most likely be available at home and at work, and occasionally be publicly available, offering flexible charging options. Ideally, each vehicle will charge during periods when electricity prices are relatively low, to minimize the cost to the consumer and maximize societal benefits. A Demand Response (DR) service for a fleet of PEVs could yield such charging schedules by regulating consumer electricity use during certain time periods, in order to meet an obligation to the market. We construct an automated DR mechanism for a fleet of PEVs that facilitates vehicle charging to ensure the demands of the vehicles and the market are met. Our dynamic algorithm depends only on the knowledge of a few hundred driving behaviors from a previous similar day, and uses a simple adjusted pricing scheme to instantly assign feasible and satisfactory c...

  5. Development of Terra Harvest compliant plug-ins for McQ Unattended Ground Sensors (UGS)

    Roeder, Brent W.; Fish, Robert C.

    2013-05-01

    The Army Research Lab (ARL), in collaboration with the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) and representatives from industry, recently validated the feasibility of the Terra Harvest architecture by successfully integrating dozens of Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) assets at the Trident Spectre 12 (TS12) exercise in Fort Story, VA. Based on the exercise, it is evident that Terra Harvest will greatly simplify the process of integrating disparate ISR systems. By reducing this complexity, Terra Harvest will increase the variety of devices U.S. soldiers have at their disposal giving them a greater technological advantage over their adversaries than ever before. This paper describes McQ's effort to develop Terra Harvest compliant plug-ins for its UGS along with lessons learned from their demonstration at TS12.

  6. Targeting plug-in hybrid electric vehicle policies to increase social benefits

    In 2009 the U.S. federal government enacted tax credits aimed at encouraging consumers to purchase plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). These tax credits are available to all consumers equally and therefore do not account for the variability in social benefits associated with PHEV operation in different parts of the country. The tax credits also do not consider variability in consumer income. This paper discusses why the PHEV subsidy policy would have higher social benefits at equal or less cost if the tax credits were offered at different levels depending on consumer income and the location of purchase. Quantification of these higher social benefits and related policy proposals are left for future work.

  7. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle impacts on hourly electricity demand in the United States

    In this study we explore the effects of different charging behaviors of PHEVs in the United States on electricity demand profiles and energy use, in terms of time of day and location (at home, the workplace, or public areas). Based on driving behavior statistics on vehicle distance traveled and daily trips () in the US, we develop a simulation algorithm to estimate the PHEV charging profiles of electricity demand with plausible plug-in times and depth of discharge of the PHEVs. The model enables simulations of the impacts of various grid management strategies on the availability of vehicle charging in public places, the charge power levels and standards, scheduling charging in off-peak periods and policy measures to promote PHEV adoption. PHEV charging imposes a modest pressure on system load on the order of 560-910 Wp per vehicle. We find that enabling charging in places other than home increases the daily electric energy use of PHEV from 24% to 29% (1.5-2 kWh/day). Major findings of the different scenarios are that PHEVs with a 20 mile range (PHEV-20) shift 45-65% of vehicle miles traveled in the United States to electricity, compared with 65-80% for PHEVs with a 40 mile range (PHEV-40). - Highlights: → We estimate hourly electricity demand of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). → The 24-29% of PHEV daily electric energy use occurs outside of the home. → PHEVs with 20 miles of range shift 45-65% of vehicle miles traveled in the United States to electricity.

  8. Hybrid, plug-in hybrid, or electric—What do car buyers want?

    We use a survey to compare consumers’ stated interest in conventional gasoline (CV), hybrid (HEV), plug-in hybrid (PHEV) and pure electric vehicles (EV) of varying designs and prices. Data are from 508 households representing new vehicle buyers in San Diego County, California in 2011. The mixed-mode survey collected information about access to residential recharge infrastructure, three days of driving patterns, and desired vehicle designs and motivations via design games. Across the higher and lower price scenarios, a majority of consumers designed and selected some form of PHEV for their next new vehicle, smaller numbers designed an HEV or a conventional vehicle, and only a few percent designed an EV. Of those who did not design an EV, the most frequent concerns with EVs were limited range, charger availability, and higher vehicle purchase prices. Positive interest in HEVs, PHEVs and EVs was associated with vehicle images of intelligence, responsibility, and support of the environment and nation (United States). The distribution of vehicle designs suggests that cheaper, smaller battery PHEVs may achieve more short-term market success than larger battery PHEVs or EV. New car buyers’ present interests align with less expensive first steps in a transition to electric-drive vehicles. - Highlights: • We assess consumer interest in various electric-drive vehicle designs. • Web-based design games completed by 508 households from San Diego, California. • Plug-in hybrids are most popular, followed by hybrids and conventional vehicles. • Only a few percent opted for a pure electric vehicle. • Electric-drive associated with intelligence, responsibility, and environment

  9. Predicting the market potential of plug-in electric vehicles using multiday GPS data

    GPS data for a year's worth of travel by 255 Seattle households illuminate how plug-in electric vehicles can match household needs. The results suggest that a battery-electric vehicle (BEV) with 100 mi of range should meet the needs of 50% of one-vehicle households and 80% of multiple-vehicle households, when charging once a day and relying on another vehicle or mode just 4 days a year. Moreover, the average one-vehicle Seattle household uses each vehicle 23 mi per day and should be able to electrify close to 80% of its miles, while meeting all its travel needs, using a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) with 40-mile all-electric range. Households owning two or more vehicles can electrify 50 to 70% of their total household miles using a PHEV40, depending on how they assign the vehicle across drivers each day. Cost comparisons between the average single-vehicle household owning a Chevrolet Cruze versus a Volt PHEV suggest that, when gas prices are $3.50 per gallon and electricity rates are at 11.2 ct/kWh, the Volt will save the household $535 per year in operating costs. Similarly, the Toyota Prius PHEV will provide an annual savings of $538 per year over the Corolla. - Highlights: ► Daily travel distances over a year were obtained for 255 Seattle households. ► 100-mi-range BEVs can meet 99% of daily needs for 50% of one-vehicle households. ► 100-mi-range BEVs can meet 99% of needs for 80% of multi-vehicle households. ► One-vehicle households will electrify close to 80% of their miles using a PHEV40 while meeting all trip-distance needs. ► Two-vehicle households can electrify 50 to 70% of household miles using a PHEV40 while meeting all trip-distance needs.

  10. Modeling light-duty plug-in electric vehicles for national energy and transportation planning

    This paper sets forth a family of models of light-duty plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) fleets, appropriate for conducting long-term national-level planning studies of the energy and transportation sectors in an integrated manner. Using one of the proposed models, three case studies on the evolution of the U.S. energy and transportation infrastructures are performed, where portfolios of optimum investments over a 40-year horizon are identified, and interdependencies between the two sectors are highlighted. The results indicate that with a gradual but aggressive introduction of PEVs coupled with investments in renewable energy, the total cost from the energy and transportation systems can be reduced by 5%, and that overall emissions from electricity generation and light-duty vehicle (LDV) tailpipes can be reduced by 10% over the 40-year horizon. The annual gasoline consumption from LDVs can be reduced by 66% by the end of the planning horizon, but an additional 800 TWh of annual electricity demand will be introduced. In addition, various scenarios of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions are investigated. It is found that GHG emissions can be significantly reduced with only a marginal cost increment, by shifting electricity generation from coal to renewable sources. - Highlights: • We model plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) for long-term national planning studies. • Realistic travel patterns are used to estimate the vehicles' energy consumption. • National energy and transportation system interdependencies are considered. • Case studies illustrate optimum investments in energy and transportation sectors. • PEVs synergistically with renewable energy can aggressively reduce GHG emissions

  11. Upgrade of Foss Date Plug-In Implementation of a New Radargrammetric Dsm Generation Capability

    Di Rita, M.; Nascetti, A.; Fratarcangeli, F.; Crespi, M.

    2016-06-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) satellite systems may give important contribution in terms of Digital Surface Models (DSMs) generation considering their complete independence from logistic constraints on the ground and weather conditions. In recent years, the new availability of very high resolution SAR data (up to 20 cm Ground Sample Distance) gave a new impulse to radargrammetry and allowed new applications and developments. Besides, to date, among the software aimed to radargrammetric applications only few show as free and open source. It is in this context that it has been decided to widen DATE (Digital Automatic Terrain Extractor) plug-in capabilities and additionally include the possibility to use SAR imagery for DSM stereo reconstruction (i.e. radargrammetry), besides to the optical workflow already developed. DATE is a Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) developed at the Geodesy and Geomatics Division, University of Rome "La Sapienza", and conceived as an OSSIM (Open Source Software Image Map) plug-in. It has been developed starting from May 2014 in the framework of 2014 Google Summer of Code, having as early purpose a fully automatic DSMs generation from high resolution optical satellite imagery acquired by the most common sensors. Here, the results achieved through this new capability applied to two stacks (one ascending and one descending) of three TerraSAR-X images each, acquired over Trento (Northern Italy) testfield, are presented. Global accuracies achieved are around 6 metres. These first results are promising and further analysis are expected for a more complete assessment of DATE application to SAR imagery.

  12. Evaluation of energy requirements for all-electric range of plug-in hybrid electric two-wheeler

    Recently plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are emerging as one of the promising alternative to improve the sustainability of transportation energy and air quality especially in urban areas. The all-electric range in PHEV design plays a significant role in sizing of battery pack and cost. This paper presents the evaluation of battery energy and power requirements for a plug-in hybrid electric two-wheeler for different all-electric ranges. An analytical vehicle model and MATLAB simulation analysis has been discussed. The MATLAB simulation results estimate the impact of driving cycle and all-electric range on energy capacity, additional mass and initial cost of lead-acid, nickel-metal hydride and lithium-ion batteries. This paper also focuses on influence of cycle life on annual cost of battery pack and recommended suitable battery pack for implementing in plug-in hybrid electric two-wheelers. -- Research highlights: → Evaluates the battery energy and power requirements for a plug-in hybrid electric two-wheeler. → Simulation results reveal that the IDC demand more energy and cost of battery compared to ECE R40. → If cycle life is considered, the annual cost of Ni-MH battery pack is lower than lead-acid and Li-ion.

  13. Effects of gravity on the stability of the steady propagation of a liquid plug in a small conduit

    Campana, D M; Ubal, S; Giavedoni, M D; Saita, F A, E-mail: madelia@santafe-conicet.gov.ar [Instituto de Desarrollo Tecnologico para la Industria Quimica (CONICET - UNL), Gueemes 3450, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina)

    2011-05-01

    In this work we numerically study the stability of the steady state displacement of a liquid plug in a capillary tube when gravity, inertia and surface forces are important. The methodology employed is based on the analysis of steady state solutions and has been presented in previous publications. Gravity is assumed to act only along the axis of the tube.

  14. New Integrated Multilevel Converter for Switched Reluctance Motor Drives in Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles with Flexible Energy Conversion

    Gan, Chun; Wu, Jianhua; Hu, Yihua;

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated multilevel converter of switched reluctance motors (SRMs) fed by a modular front-end circuit for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) applications. Several operating modes can be achieved by changing the on-off states of the switches in the front-end circuit. I...

  15. Well-to-Wheels Analysis of Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Elgowainy, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Han, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Poch, L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wang, M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vyas, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mahalik, M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Rousseau, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2010-06-01

    This report examines energy use and emissions from primary energy source through vehicle operation to help researchers understand the impact of the upstream mix of electricity generation technologies for recharging plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), as well as the powertrain technology and fuel sources for PHEVs.

  16. Plug-in-Hybrid Vehicle Use, Energy Consumption, and Greenhouse Emissions: An Analysis of Household Vehicle Placements in Northern California

    Daniel Kammen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We report on the real-world use over the course of one year of a nickel-metal-hydride plug-in hybrid—the Toyota Plug-In HV—by a set of 12 northern California households able to charge at home and work. From vehicle use data, energy and greenhouse-emissions implications are also explored. A total of 1557 trips—most using under 0.5 gallons of gasoline—ranged up to 2.4 hours and 133 miles and averaged 14 minutes and 7 miles. 399 charging events averaged 2.6 hours. The maximum lasted 4.6 hours. Most recharges added less than 1.4 kWh, with a mean charge of 0.92 kWh. The average power drawn was under one-half kilowatt. The greenhouse gas emissions from driving and charging were estimated to be 2.6 metric tons, about half of the emissions expected from a 22.4-mpg vehicle (the MY2009 fleet-wide real-world average. The findings contribute to better understanding of how plug-in hybrids might be used, their potential impact, and how potential benefits and requirements vary for different plug-in-vehicle designs. For example, based on daily driving distances, 20 miles of charge-depleting range would have been fully utilized on 81% of days driven, whereas 40 miles would not have been fully utilized on over half of travel days.

  17. Plug-in vs. wireless charging: Life cycle energy and greenhouse gas emissions for an electric bus system

    Graphical abstract: In this study, plug-in and wireless charging for an all-electric bus system are compared from the life cycle energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions perspectives. The comparison of life cycle GHG emissions is shown in the graph below. The major differences between the two systems, including the charger, battery and use-phase electricity consumption, are modeled separately and compared aggregately. In the base case, the wireless charging system consumes 0.3% less energy and emits 0.5% less greenhouse gases than plug-in charging system in the total life cycle. To further improve the energy and environmental performance of the wireless charging system, key parameters including grid carbon intensity and wireless charging efficiency are analyzed and discussed in this paper. - Highlights: • Compared life cycle energy and GHG emissions of wireless to plug-in charging. • Modeled a transit bus system to compare both charging methods as a case study. • Contrasted tradeoffs of infrastructure burdens with lightweighting benefits. • The wireless battery can be downsized to 27–44% of a plug-in charged battery. • Explored sensitivity of wireless charging efficiency & grid carbon intensity. - Abstract: Wireless charging, as opposed to plug-in charging, is an alternative charging method for electric vehicles (EVs) with rechargeable batteries and can be applicable to EVs with fixed routes, such as transit buses. This study adds to the current research of EV wireless charging by utilizing the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to provide a comprehensive framework for comparing the life cycle energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions associated with a stationary wireless charging all-electric bus system to a plug-in charging all-electric bus system. Life cycle inventory analysis of both plug-in and wireless charging hardware was conducted, and battery downsizing, vehicle lightweighting and use-phase energy consumption were modeled. A bus system in Ann Arbor

  18. Long-term assessment of economic plug-in hybrid electric vehicle battery lifetime degradation management through near optimal fuel cell load sharing

    Martel, François; Dubé, Yves; Kelouwani, Sousso; Jaguemont, Joris; Agbossou, Kodjo

    2016-06-01

    This work evaluates the performance of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) energy management process that relies on the active management of the degradation of its energy carriers - in this scenario, a lithium-ion battery pack and a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) - to produce a near economically-optimal vehicle operating profile over its entire useful lifetime. This solution is obtained through experimentally-supported PHEV models exploited by an optimal discrete dynamic programming (DDP) algorithm designed to efficiently process vehicle usage cycles over an extended timescale. Our results demonstrate the economic and component lifetime gains afforded by our strategy when compared with alternative rule-based PHEV energy management benchmarks.

  19. Influence of driving patterns on life cycle cost and emissions of hybrid and plug-in electric vehicle powertrains

    We compare the potential of hybrid, extended-range plug-in hybrid, and battery electric vehicles to reduce lifetime cost and life cycle greenhouse gas emissions under various scenarios and simulated driving conditions. We find that driving conditions affect economic and environmental benefits of electrified vehicles substantially: Under the urban NYC driving cycle, hybrid and plug-in vehicles can cut life cycle emissions by 60% and reduce costs up to 20% relative to conventional vehicles (CVs). In contrast, under highway test conditions (HWFET) electrified vehicles offer marginal emissions reductions at higher costs. NYC conditions with frequent stops triple life cycle emissions and increase costs of conventional vehicles by 30%, while aggressive driving (US06) reduces the all-electric range of plug-in vehicles by up to 45% compared to milder test cycles (like HWFET). Vehicle window stickers, fuel economy standards, and life cycle studies using average lab-test vehicle efficiency estimates are therefore incomplete: (1) driver heterogeneity matters, and efforts to encourage adoption of hybrid and plug-in vehicles will have greater impact if targeted to urban drivers vs. highway drivers; and (2) electrified vehicles perform better on some drive cycles than others, so non-representative tests can bias consumer perception and regulation of alternative technologies. We discuss policy implications. - Highlights: • Electrified vehicle life cycle emissions and cost depend on driving conditions. • GHGs can triple in NYC conditions vs. highway (HWFET), cost +30%. • Under NYC conditions hybrid and plug-in vehicles cut GHGs up to 60%, cost 20%. • Under HWFET conditions they offer few GHG reductions at higher costs. • Federal tests for window labels and CAFE standards favor some technologies over others

  20. Commercializing light-duty plug-in/plug-out hydrogen-fuel-cell vehicles: "Mobile electricity" technologies, early California household markets, and innovation management

    Williams, Brett David

    Starting from the premise that new consumer value must drive hydrogen-fuel-cell-vehicle (H2FCV) commercialization, a group of opportunities collectively called "Mobile Electricity" (Me-) is characterized. Me- redefines H2 FCVs as innovative products able to provide home recharging and mobile power, for example for tools, mobile activities, emergencies, and electric-grid-support services. To characterize such opportunities, this study first integrates and extends previous analyses of H2FCVs, plug-in hybrids, and vehicle-to-grid (V2G) power. It uses a new model to estimate zero-emission-power vs. zero-emission-driving tradeoffs, costs, and grid-support revenues for various electric-drive vehicle types and levels of infrastructure service. Next, the initial market potential for Me- enabled vehicles, such as H2FCVs and plug-in hybrids, is estimated by eliminating unlikely households from consideration for early adoption. 5.2 million of 33.9 million Californians in the 2000 Census live in households pre-adapted to Me-, 3.9 million if natural gas is required for home refueling. The possible sales base represented by this population is discussed. Several differences in demographic and other characteristics between the target market and the population as a whole are highlighted, and two issues related to the design of H2FCVs and their supporting infrastructure are discussed: vehicle range and home hydrogen refueling. These findings argue for continued investigation of this and similar target segments-which represent more efficient research populations for subsequent study by product designers and other decision-makers wishing to understand the early market dynamics facing Me- innovations. Next, Me-H2FCV commercialization issues are raised from the perspectives of innovation, product development, and strategic marketing. Starting with today's internalcombustion hybrids, this discussion suggests a way to move beyond the battery vs. fuel-cell zero-sum game and towards the

  1. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles as a source of distributed frequency regulation

    Mullen, Sara Kathryn

    The movement to transform the North American power grid into a smart grid may be accomplished by expanding integrated sensing, communications, and control technologies to include every part of the grid to the point of end-use. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) provide an opportunity for small-scale distributed storage while they are plugged-in. With large numbers of PHEV and the communications and sensing associated with the smart grid, PHEV could provide ancillary services for the grid. Frequency regulation is an ideal service for PHEV because the duration of supply is short (order of minutes) and it is the highest priced ancillary service on the market offering greater financial returns for vehicle owners. Using Simulink a power system simulator modeling the IEEE 14 Bus System was combined with a model of PHEV charging and the controllers which facilitate vehicle-to-grid (V2G) regulation supply. The system includes a V2G controller for each vehicle which makes regulation supply decisions based on battery state, user preferences, and the recommended level of supply. A PHEV coordinator controller located higher in the system has access to reliable frequency measurements and can determine a suitable local automatic generation control (AGC) raise/lower signal for participating vehicles. A first step implementation of the V2G supply system where battery charging is modulated to provide regulation was developed. The system was simulated following a step change in loading using three scenarios: (1) Central generating units provide frequency regulation, (2) PHEV contribute to primary regulation analogous to generator speed governor control, and (3) PHEV contribute to primary and secondary regulation using an additional integral term in the PHEV control signal. In both cases the additional regulation provided by PHEV reduced the area control error (ACE) compared to the base case. Unique contributions resulting from this work include: (1) Studied PHEV energy systems

  2. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles: battery degradation, grid support, emissions, and battery size tradeoffs

    Peterson, Scott B.

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) may become a substantial part of the transportation fleet in a decade or two. This dissertation investigates battery degradation, and how introducing PHEVs may influence the electricity grid, emissions, and petroleum use in the US. It examines the effects of combined driving and vehicle-to-grid (V2G) usage on lifetime performance of commercial Li-ion cells. The testing shows promising capacity fade performance: more than 95% of the original cell capacity remains after thousands of driving days. Statistical analyses indicate that rapid vehicle motive cycling degraded the cells more than slower, V2G galvanostatic cycling. These data are used to examine the potential economic implications of using vehicle batteries to store grid electricity generated at off-peak hours for off-vehicle use during peak hours. The maximum annual profit with perfect market information and no battery degradation cost ranged from ˜US140 to 250 in the three cities. If measured battery degradation is applied the maximum annual profit decreases to ˜10-120. The dissertation predicts the increase in electricity load and emissions due to vehicle battery charging in PJM and NYISO with the current generators, with a 50/tonne CO2 price, and with existing coal generators retrofitted with 80% CO2 capture. It also models emissions using natural gas or wind+gas. We examined PHEV fleet percentages between 0.4 and 50%. Compared to 2020 CAFE standards, net CO2 emissions in New York are reduced by switching from gasoline to electricity; coal-heavy PJM shows smaller benefits unless coal units are fitted with CCS or replaced with lower CO2 generation. NOX is reduced in both RTOs, but there is upward pressure on SO2 emissions or allowance prices under a cap. Finally the dissertation compares increasing the all-electric range (AER) of PHEVs to installing charging infrastructure. Fuel use was modeled with National Household Travel Survey and Greenhouse Gasses, Regulated

  3. Sorting through the many total-energy-cycle pathways possible with early plug-in hybrids

    Using the 'total energy cycle' methodology, we compare U.S. near term (to ∼2015) alternative pathways for converting energy to light-duty vehicle kilometers of travel (VKT) in plug-in hybrids (PHEVs), hybrids (HEVs), and conventional vehicles (CVs). For PHEVs, we present total energy-per-unit-of-VKT information two ways (1) energy from the grid during charge depletion (CD); (2) energy from stored on-board fossil fuel when charge sustaining (CS). We examine 'incremental sources of supply of liquid fuel such as (a) oil sands from Canada, (b) Fischer-Tropsch diesel via natural gas imported by LNG tanker, and (c) ethanol from cellulosic biomass. We compare such fuel pathways to various possible power converters producing electricity, including (i) new coal boilers, (ii) new integrated, gasified coal combined cycle (IGCC), (iii) existing natural gas fueled combined cycle (NGCC), (iv) existing natural gas combustion turbines, (v) wood-to-electricity, and (vi) wind/solar. We simulate a fuel cell HEV and also consider the possibility of a plug-in hybrid fuel cell vehicle (FCV). For the simulated FCV our results address the merits of converting some fuels to hydrogen to power the fuel cell vs. conversion of those same fuels to electricity to charge the PHEV battery. The investigation is confined to a U.S. compact sized car (i.e. a world passenger car). Where most other studies have focused on emissions (greenhouse gases and conventional air pollutants), this study focuses on identification of the pathway providing the most vehicle kilometers from each of five feedstocks examined. The GREET 1.7 fuel cycle model and the new GREET 2.7 vehicle cycle model were used as the foundation for this study. Total energy, energy by fuel type, total greenhouse gases (GHGs), volatile organic compounds (VOC), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), fine particulate (PM2.5) and sulfur oxides (SOx) values are presented. We also isolate the PHEV emissions contribution from varying k

  4. Electric and hydrogen consumption analysis in plug-in road vehicles

    João P. Ribau, Carla M. Silva, Tiago L. Farias

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the present study is to analyze some of the capabilities and behavior of two types of plug-in cars: battery electric and hydrogen fuel cell hybrid electric, facing different driving styles, different road gradients, different occupation rates, different electrical loads, and different battery's initial state of charge. In order to do that, four vehicles with different power/weight (kW/kg ratio (0.044 to 0.150 were simulated in the software ADVISOR, which gives predictions of energy consumption, and behavior of vehicle’s power train components (including energy regeneration along specified driving cycles. The required energy, electricity and/or hydrogen, to overcome the specified driving schedules, allowed to estimate fuel life cycle's CO2 emissions and primary energy. A vehicle with higher power/weight ratio (kW/kg demonstrated to be less affected in operation and in variation of the energy consumption, facing the different case studies, however may have higher consumptions in some cases. The autonomy, besides depending on the fuel consumption, is directly associated with the type and capacity (kWh of the chosen battery, plus the stored hydrogen (if fuel cell vehicles are considered, PHEV-FC. The PHEV-FC showed to have higher autonomy than the battery vehicles, but higher energy consumption which is extremely dependent on the type and ratio of energy used, hydrogen or electricity. An aggressive driving style, higher road gradient and increase of weight, required more energy and power to the vehicle and presented consumption increases near to 77%, 621%, 19% respectively. Higher electrical load and battery's initial state of charge, didn't affect directly vehicle's dynamic. The first one drained energy directly from the battery plus demanded a fraction of its power, with energy consumption maximum increasing near 71%. The second one restricted the autonomy without influence directly the energy consumption per kilometer, except

  5. Idaho National Laboratory’s Analysis of ARRA-Funded Plug-in Electric Vehicle and Charging Infrastructure Projects: Final Report

    Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bennett, Brion [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Carlson, Richard [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Garretson, Thomas [Electric Applications Incorporated, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Gourley, LauraLee [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Karner, Donal [Electric Applications Incorporated, Phoenix, AZ (United States); McGuire, Patti [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Scoffield, Don [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kirkpatrick, Mindy [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Shrik, Matthew [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Salisbury, Shawn [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Schey, Stephen [Electric Applications Incorporated, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Smart, John [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); White, Sera [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wishard, Jeffery [Intertek Center for the Evaluation of Clean Energy Technology, Phoenix, AZ (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, managing and operating contractor for the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Idaho National Laboratory (INL), is the lead laboratory for U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA). INL’s conduct of the AVTA resulted in a significant base of knowledge and experience in the area of testing light-duty vehicles that reduced transportation-related petroleum consumption. Due to this experience, INL was tasked by DOE to develop agreements with companies that were the recipients of The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) grants, that would allow INL to collect raw data from light-duty vehicles and charging infrastructure. INL developed non-disclosure agreements (NDAs) with several companies and their partners that resulted in INL being able to receive raw data via server-to-server connections from the partner companies. This raw data allowed INL to independently conduct data quality checks, perform analysis, and report publicly to DOE, partners, and stakeholders, how drivers used both new vehicle technologies and the deployed charging infrastructure. The ultimate goal was not the deployment of vehicles and charging infrastructure, cut rather to create real-world laboratories of vehicles, charging infrastructure and drivers that would aid in the design of future electric drive transportation systems. The five projects that INL collected data from and their partners are: • ChargePoint America - Plug-in Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Demonstration • Chrysler Ram PHEV Pickup - Vehicle Demonstration • General Motors Chevrolet Volt - Vehicle Demonstration • The EV Project - Plug-in Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Demonstration • EPRI / Via Motors PHEVs – Vehicle Demonstration The document serves to benchmark the performance science involved the execution, analysis and reporting for the five above projects that provided lessons learned based on driver’s use of the

  6. 3D FEM Simulation of Rolling Load Working on Piercer Plug in Mannesmann Piercing Process

    Yoshida, Motohisa

    2010-06-01

    This paper presents 3D FEM simulation of piercer plug in Mannesmann piercing process. Target is establishment of a virtual piercing experiment tool to assistant piercer plug development. FEM simulation analysis has been applied to Mannesmann piercing process previously. Aspect of those studies is how to simulate material flow in piercing process, especially focused on how to describe ductile fracture which is known as Mannesmann effect. Thus far, simulation of rolling tools has not been focused. Present piercer plugs, made of special alloys, are damaged severely and quickly in case of piercing higher Cr contented alloys in seamless steel tube production process. Therefore, development of FEM simulation on rolling tools has been demanded in production side. 3D FEM analysis of piercer plug is performed with ALE (Arbitrary Lagrangian—Eulerian) method by using ABAQUS/Explicit 6.9. Simulations are thermo-mechanical, elasto-plastic coupled, and dynamic calculation. Piercer plug and the billet are modeled by solid elements to analyze various factors on stress, strain and temperature. Ductile fracture is not considered in the simulations. Simulation results are correlated sufficiently to experimental results on damage of piercer plugs. Verifying absolute value of simulated factors is hard since there are few empirical methods to measure them. As a conclusion, studied simulations are sufficient as a virtual piercing experiment tool to develop higher performance piercer plugs.

  7. Development of a software platform for a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle simulator

    Karlis, Athanasios; Bibeau, Eric; Zanetel, Paul; Lye, Zelon

    2012-03-01

    Electricity use for transportation has had limited applications because of battery storage range issues, although many recent successful demonstrations of electric vehicles have been achieved. Renewable biofuels such as biodiesel and bioethanol also contribute only a small percentage of the overall energy mix for mobility. Recent advances in hybrid technologies have significantly increased vehicle efficiencies. More importantly, hybridization now allows a significant reduction in battery capacity requirements compared to pure electric vehicles, allowing electricity to be used in the overall energy mix in the transportation sector. This paper presents an effort made to develop a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) platform that can act as a comprehensive alternative energy vehicle simulator. Its goal is to help in solving the pressing needs of the transportation sector, both in terms of contributing data to aid policy decisions for reducing fossil fuel use, and to support research in this important area. The Simulator will allow analysing different vehicle configurations, and control strategies with regards to renewable and non-renewable fuel and electricity sources. The simulation platform models the fundamental aspects of PHEV components, that is, process control, heat transfer, chemical reactions, thermodynamics and fluid properties. The outcomes of the Simulator are: (i) determining the optimal combination of fuels and grid electricity use, (ii) performing greenhouse gas calculations based on emerging protocols being developed, and (iii) optimizing the efficient and proper use of renewable energy sources in a carbon constrained world.

  8. Economic Scheduling of Residential Plug-In (Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV Charging

    Maigha

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, plug-in (hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs have been widely proposed as a viable alternative to internal combustion vehicles to reduce fossil fuel emissions and dependence on petroleum. Off-peak vehicle charging is frequently proposed to reduce the stress on the electric power grid by shaping the load curve. Time of use (TOU rates have been recommended to incentivize PHEV owners to shift their charging patterns. Many utilities are not currently equipped to provide real-time use rates to their customers, but can provide two or three staggered rate levels. To date, an analysis of the optimal number of levels and rate-duration of TOU rates for a given consumer demographic versus utility generation mix has not been performed. In this paper, we propose to use the U.S. National Household Travel Survey (NHTS database as a basis to analyze typical PHEV energy requirements. We use Monte Carlo methods to model the uncertainty inherent in battery state-of-charge and trip duration. We conclude the paper with an analysis of a different TOU rate schedule proposed by a mix of U.S. utilities. We introduce a centralized scheduling strategy for PHEV charging using a genetic algorithm to accommodate the size and complexity of the optimization.

  9. Environmental and energy implications of plug-in hybrid-electric vehicles.

    Stephan, Craig H; Sullivan, John

    2008-02-15

    We analyze the effect of charging a significant number of plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEVs) in the United States using presently available night-time spare electric capacity in the shortterm and new base-load capacity in the long term. Nationwide, there is currently ample spare night-time utility capacityto charge even a large fleet of PHEVs. Using the mix of generating plants expected to be used for PHEV charging, we find that, while driving on battery power, PHEVs compared to their conventional hybrid counterparts reduce CO2 emissions by 25% in the short term and as much as 50% in the long term. The shortterm fractional increase in demand for margin fuels such as natural gas is found to be roughly twice the fractional penetration of PHEVs into the nationwide light-duty vehicle fleet. We also compare, on an energy basis, the CO2 savings of replacing coal plants versus replacing conventional vehicles with PHEVs. The result is found to depend critically on the fuel economy of the vehicles displaced by the PHEVs. PMID:18351091

  10. Consequential life cycle air emissions externalities for plug-in electric vehicles in the PJM interconnection

    Weis, Allison; Jaramillo, Paulina; Michalek, Jeremy

    2016-02-01

    We perform a consequential life cycle analysis of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and conventional gasoline vehicles in the PJM interconnection using a detailed, normative optimization model of the PJM electricity grid that captures the change in power plant operations and related emissions due to vehicle charging. We estimate and monetize the resulting human health and environmental damages from life cycle air emissions for each vehicle technology. We model PJM using the most recent data available (2010) as well as projections of the PJM grid in 2018 and a hypothetical scenario with increased wind penetration. We assess a range of sensitivity cases to verify the robustness of our results. We find that PEVs have higher life cycle air emissions damages than gasoline HEVs in the recent grid scenario, which has a high percentage of coal generation on the margin. In particular, battery electric vehicles with large battery capacity can produce two to three times as much air emissions damage as gasoline HEVs, depending on charge timing. In our future 2018 grid scenarios that account for predicted coal plant retirements, PEVs would produce air emissions damages comparable to or slightly lower than HEVs.

  11. Toyota Prius Hybrid Plug-in Conversation and Battery Monitoring system

    Unnikannan, Krishnanunni; McIntyre, Michael; Harper, Doug; Kessinger, Robert; Young, Megan; Lantham, Joseph

    2012-03-01

    The objective of the project was to analyze the performance of a Toyota Hybrid. We started off with a stock Toyota Prius and taking data by driving it in city and on the highway in a mixed pre-determined route. The batteries can be charged using standard 120V AC outlets. First phase of the project was to increase the performance of the car by installing 20 Lead (Pb) batteries in a plug-in kit. To improve the performance of the kit, a centralized battery monitoring system was installed. The battery monitoring system has two components, a custom data modules and a National Instruments CompactRIO. Each Pb battery has its own data module and all the data module are connected to the CompactRIO. The CompactRIO records differential voltage, current and temperature from all the 20 batteries. The LabVIEW software is dynamic and can be reconfigured to any number of batteries and real time data from the batteries can be monitored on a LabVIEW enabled machine.

  12. Experimental Study on Communication Delay of Powertrain System of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Dafang Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to contrast and analyze the real-time performance of the powertrain system of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle, a mathematical model of the system delay is established under the circumstances that the transmission adopts the CAN (controller area network protocol and the TTCAN (time-triggered CAN protocol, respectively, and the interior of the controller adopts the foreground-background mode and the OSEK mode respectively. In addition, an experimental platform is developed to test communication delays of messages under 4 different implementation models. The 4 models are testing under the CAN protocol while the controller interior adopts the foreground-background mode; testing under the CAN protocol while the controller interior adopts the OSEK mode; testing under the TTCAN protocol while the controller interior adopts the foreground-background mode, and testing under the TTCAN protocol while the controller interior adopts the OSEK mode. The theoretical and testing results indicate that the communication delay of the OSEK mode is a little longer than the one of the foreground-background mode. Moreover, compared with the CAN protocol, the periodic message has a better real-time performance under the TTCAN protocol, while the nonperiodic message has a worse one.

  13. Integrated thermal and energy management of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    Shams-Zahraei, Mojtaba; Kouzani, Abbas Z.; Kutter, Steffen; Bäker, Bernard

    2012-10-01

    In plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), the engine temperature declines due to reduced engine load and extended engine off period. It is proven that the engine efficiency and emissions depend on the engine temperature. Also, temperature influences the vehicle air-conditioner and the cabin heater loads. Particularly, while the engine is cold, the power demand of the cabin heater needs to be provided by the batteries instead of the waste heat of engine coolant. The existing energy management strategies (EMS) of PHEVs focus on the improvement of fuel efficiency based on hot engine characteristics neglecting the effect of temperature on the engine performance and the vehicle power demand. This paper presents a new EMS incorporating an engine thermal management method which derives the global optimal battery charge depletion trajectories. A dynamic programming-based algorithm is developed to enforce the charge depletion boundaries, while optimizing a fuel consumption cost function by controlling the engine power. The optimal control problem formulates the cost function based on two state variables: battery charge and engine internal temperature. Simulation results demonstrate that temperature and the cabin heater/air-conditioner power demand can significantly influence the optimal solution for the EMS, and accordingly fuel efficiency and emissions of PHEVs.

  14. Effects of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles on ozone concentrations in Colorado.

    Brinkman, Gregory L; Denholm, Paul; Hannigan, Michael P; Milford, Jana B

    2010-08-15

    This study explores how ozone concentrations in the Denver, CO area might have been different if plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) had replaced light duty gasoline vehicles in summer 2006. A unit commitment and dispatch model was used to estimate the charging patterns of PHEVs and dispatch power plants to meet electricity demand. Emission changes were estimated based on gasoline displacement and the emission characteristics of the power plants providing additional electricity. The Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions (CAMx) was used to simulate the effects of these emissions changes on ozone concentrations. Natural gas units provided most of the electricity used for charging PHEVs in the scenarios considered. With 100% PHEV penetration, nitrogen oxide (NO(x)) emissions were reduced by 27 tons per day (tpd) from a fleet of 1.7 million vehicles and were increased by 3 tpd from power plants; VOC emissions were reduced by 57 tpd. These emission changes reduced modeled peak 8-h average ozone concentrations by approximately 2-3 ppb on most days. Ozone concentration increases were modeled for small areas near central Denver. Future research is needed to forecast when significant PHEV penetration may occur and to anticipate characteristics of the corresponding power plant and vehicle fleets. PMID:20704224

  15. Battery Sizing for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles in Beijing: A TCO Model Based Analysis

    Cong Hou

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a total cost of ownership (TCO model for battery sizing of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs. The proposed systematic TCO model innovatively integrates the Beijing driving database and optimal PHEV energy management strategies developed earlier. The TCO, including battery, fuel, electricity, and salvage costs, is calculated in yearly cash flows. The salvage cost, based on battery degradation model, is proposed for the first time. The results show that the optimal battery size for PHEVs in Beijing is 6–8 kWh. Several additional scenarios are also analyzed: (1 10% increase in battery price or discount rate leads to an optimal battery size of 6 kWh, and 10% increase in fuel price shifts the optimal battery size to 8 kWh; (2 the longer and more dispersive daily range distribution in the U.S. increases the optimal battery size to 14 kWh; (3 the subsidy in China results in an optimal battery size of 13 kWh, while that in the U.S. results in 17 kWh, and a fuel savings rate based subsidy policy is innovatively proposed; (4 the optimal battery size with Li4Ti5O12 batteries is 2 kWh, but the TCO of Li4Ti5O12 batteries is higher than that of LiFePO4 batteries.

  16. Life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions from plug-in hybrid vehicles: implications for policy.

    Samaras, Constantine; Meisterling, Kyle

    2008-05-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), which use electricity from the grid to power a portion of travel, could play a role in reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the transport sector. However, meaningful GHG emissions reductions with PHEVs are conditional on low-carbon electricity sources. We assess life cycle GHG emissions from PHEVs and find that they reduce GHG emissions by 32% compared to conventional vehicles, but have small reductions compared to traditional hybrids. Batteries are an important component of PHEVs, and GHGs associated with lithium-ion battery materials and production account for 2-5% of life cycle emissions from PHEVs. We consider cellulosic ethanol use and various carbon intensities of electricity. The reduced liquid fuel requirements of PHEVs could leverage limited cellulosic ethanol resources. Electricity generation infrastructure is long-lived, and technology decisions within the next decade about electricity supplies in the power sector will affectthe potential for large GHG emissions reductions with PHEVs for several decades. PMID:18522090

  17. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles-A low-carbon solution for Ireland?

    Between 1990 and 2006, the primary energy requirement of the Irish transport sector increased by 166%. Associated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have followed a corresponding trajectory, and are responsible-at least in part-for Ireland's probable failure to meet its Kyoto targets. As in most countries, Ireland's transport sector is almost totally reliant on oil-a commodity for which Ireland is totally dependent on imports-and therefore vulnerable to supply and price shocks. Conversely, the efficiency and carbon intensity of the Irish electricity supply system have both improved dramatically over the same period, with significant further improvements projected over the coming decade. This paper analyses the prospects for leveraging these changes by increasing the electrification of the Irish transport sector. Specifically, the potential benefits of plug-in hybrid-electric vehicles (PHEV) are assessed, in terms of reducing primary energy requirement (PER) and CO2 emissions. It is shown that, on a per-km basis, PHEV offer the potential for reductions of 50% or more in passenger car PER and CO2 intensity. However, the time required to turn over the existing fleet means that a decade or more will be required to significantly impact PER and emissions of the PC fleet.

  18. Evaluation of energy consumption, emissions and cost of plug-in hybrid vehicles

    Plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEVs) are gaining attention over the world due to their ability to reduce gasoline/diesel consumption by using electricity from the grid. Despite the efforts of Society of Automotive Engineers Recommended Practice SAE J1711, it has not yet been established a worldwide methodology for calculation of fuel consumption and emission factors when regarding emission standards, with distinct driving cycles. This paper intends to contribute to the creation of this broader methodology, based on SAE J1711, aiming a fair comparison among vehicle technologies, and giving insight on electric grid impact and on CO2 life-cycle emissions. The methodology was applied to two simulated PHEVs exploring two different powertrain configurations: series and parallel; different driving cycles: CAFE, FTP75, NEDC and JC08; different driving distances (specially analyzing the average commuting daily distance of 20 km) and different user behaviours regarding battery recharging. CO2 emissions were calculated for fuel consumption, electricity generation and cradle-to-grave. Electric grid power demand was estimated. Maintenance, manufacturer and use costs were discussed.

  19. Evaluation of the Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Considering Power Generation Best Mix

    Shinoda, Yukio; Tanaka, Hideo; Akisawa, Atsushi; Kashiwagi, Takao

    In transport section, it is necessary to reduce amount of CO2 emissions and Oil dependence. Bio fuels and Fuel Cell Vehicle (FCV), Electric Vehicle (EV) and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) are expected to reduce CO2 emissions and Oil dependence. We focus on PHEV. PHEV can reduce total energy Consumptions because of its high efficiency and can run with both oil and electricity. Introduction of PHEV reduces oil consumptions, however it also increases electricity demands. Therefore we must evaluate PHEV's CO2 reduction potential, not only in transport section but also in power grid section. To take into account of the distribution of the daily travel distance is also very important. All energy charged in the PHEV's battery cannot always be used. That influences the evaluation. We formulate the total model that combines passenger car model and power utility grid model, and we also consider the distribution of the daily travel distance. With this model, we show the battery cost per kWh at which PHEV begins to be introduced and oil dependence in passenger car section is to be reduced to 80%. We also show PHEV's CO2 reduction potentials and effects on the power supply system.

  20. Design and construction technology of the engineered scale plug in the TSX. Research document

    JNC has conducted the international joint project 'Tunnel Sealing Experiment (TSX)' with AECL at Underground Research Laboratory (URL) in Canada. Full-scale sealing technologies are applied to the underground tunnel in the TSX. Sealing technologies contain backfilling, plugging, grouting and so on. Since development of the plugging technology has impact to the whole sealing technology, understanding of the sealing performance of the plug is one of the most important problems. The TSX has full-scale concrete plug and clay plug. The sealing performance of the plugs has been monitored with the various sensors in and around the plugs, and assessed by the monitored data. This report summaries the design and construction technology of the plugs in the TSX. The design of the plugs focused on the impervious (seepage control). The concrete plug selected the shape and the size of the body and the size of the key considering the attachment between plug and rock mass. The clay plug selected the shape and the size of the key considering the volume of the EDZ. The material of the concrete plug was Low-Heat High-Performance Concrete. The material of the clay plug was pre-compacted bentonite blocks with sand. Feasibility of design and construction of both plugs were demonstrated with engineer scale and in-situ full-scale plugs. (author)

  1. A Plug-in Hybrid Consumer Choice Model with Detailed Market Segmentation

    Lin, Zhenhong [ORNL; Greene, David L [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a consumer choice model for projecting U.S. demand for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) in competition among 13 light-duty vehicle technologies over the period 2005-2050. New car buyers are disaggregated by region, residential area, attitude toward technology risk, vehicle usage intensity, home parking and work recharging. The nested multinomial logit (NMNL) model of vehicle choice incorporates daily vehicle usage distributions, refueling and recharging availability, technology learning by doing, and diversity of choice among makes and models. Illustrative results are presented for a Base Case, calibrated to the Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) 2009 Reference Updated Case, and an optimistic technology scenario reflecting achievement of U.S. Department of Energy s (DOE s) FreedomCAR goals. PHEV market success is highly dependent on the degree of technological progress assumed. PHEV sales reach one million in 2037 in the Base Case but in 2020 in the FreedomCARGoals Case. In the FreedomCARGoals Case, PHEV cumulative sales reach 1.5 million by 2015. Together with efficiency improvements in other technologies, petroleum use in 2050 is reduced by about 45% from the 2005 level. After technological progress, PHEV s market success appears to be most sensitive to recharging availability, consumers attitudes toward novel echnologies, and vehicle usage intensity. Successful market penetration of PHEVs helps bring down battery costs for electric vehicles (EVs), resulting in a significant EV market share after 2040.

  2. On-line Decentralized Charging of Plug-In Electric Vehicles in Power Systems

    Li, Qiao; Negi, Rohit; Franchetti, Franz; Ilic, Marija D

    2011-01-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) are gaining increasing popularity in recent years, due to the growing societal awareness of reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and the dependence on foreign oil or petroleum. Large-scale implementation of PEVs in the power system currently faces many challenges. One particular concern is that the PEV charging can potentially cause significant impact on the existing power distribution system, due to the increase in peak load. As such, this work tries to mitigate the PEV charging impact by proposing a decentralized smart PEV charging algorithm to minimize the distribution system load variance, so that a 'flat' total load profile can be obtained. The charging algorithm is on-line, in that it controls the PEV charging processes in each time slot based entirely on the current power system state. Thus, compared to other forecast based smart charging approaches in the literature, the charging algorithm is robust against various uncertainties in the power system, such as random PE...

  3. An agent-based model to study market penetration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    Eppstein, Margaret J., E-mail: Maggie.Eppstein@uvm.edu [Department of Computer Science, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405 (United States); Grover, David K.; Marshall, Jeffrey S.; Rizzo, Donna M. [School of Engineering, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405 (United States)

    2011-06-15

    A spatially explicit agent-based vehicle consumer choice model is developed to explore sensitivities and nonlinear interactions between various potential influences on plug-in hybrid vehicle (PHEV) market penetration. The model accounts for spatial and social effects (including threshold effects, homophily, and conformity) and media influences. Preliminary simulations demonstrate how such a model could be used to identify nonlinear interactions among potential leverage points, inform policies affecting PHEV market penetration, and help identify future data collection necessary to more accurately model the system. We examine sensitivity of the model to gasoline prices, to accuracy in estimation of fuel costs, to agent willingness to adopt the PHEV technology, to PHEV purchase price and rebates, to PHEV battery range, and to heuristic values related to gasoline usage. Our simulations indicate that PHEV market penetration could be enhanced significantly by providing consumers with ready estimates of expected lifetime fuel costs associated with different vehicles (e.g., on vehicle stickers), and that increases in gasoline prices could nonlinearly magnify the impact on fleet efficiency. We also infer that a potential synergy from a gasoline tax with proceeds is used to fund research into longer-range lower-cost PHEV batteries. - Highlights: > We model consumer agents to study potential market penetration of PHEVs. > The model accounts for spatial, social, and media effects. > We identify interactions among potential leverage points that could inform policy. > Consumer access to expected lifetime fuel costs may enhance PHEV market penetration. > Increasing PHEV battery range has synergistic effects on fleet efficiency.

  4. Transport of Wetting and Nonwetting Liquid Plugs in a T-shaped Microchannel

    YONG Yumei; LI Sha; YANG Chao; YIN Xiaolong

    2013-01-01

    The transport of liquid plugs in microchannels is very important for many applications such as in medical treatments in airways and in extraction of oil from porous rocks.A plug of wetting and non-wetting liquids driven by a constant pressure difference through a T-shaped microchannel is studied numerically with lattice Boltzmann (LB) method.A two-phase flow LB model based on field mediators is built.Three typical flow patterns (blocking,rupture and splitting flow) of plug flow are obtained with different driving pressures.It is found that it becomes difficult for a plug with short initial plug length to leave the microchannel; the flow pattern of plug transport varies with the contact angle,especially from wetting to nonwetting; with the increase of interracial tension,the front interface of plug moves faster; the front and rear interfaces of the plug with small viscosity ratio move faster in the microchannel than those of the plug with large viscosity ratio.The study is helpful to provide theoretical data for the design and scale-up of liquid-liquid reactors and separators.

  5. Magnitude and Variability of Controllable Charge Capacity Provided by Grid Connected Plug-in Electric Vehicles

    Scoffield, Don R [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smart, John [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Salisbury, Shawn [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-03-01

    As market penetration of plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) increases over time, the number of PEVs charging on the electric grid will also increase. As the number of PEVs increases, their ability to collectively impact the grid increases. The idea of a large body of PEVs connected to the grid presents an intriguing possibility. If utilities can control PEV charging, it is possible that PEVs could act as a distributed resource to provide grid services. The technology required to control charging is available for modern PEVs. However, a system for wide-spread implementation of controllable charging, including robust communication between vehicles and utilities, is not currently present. Therefore, the value of controllable charging must be assessed and weighed against the cost of building and operating such as system. In order to grasp the value of PEV charge control to the utility, the following must be understood: 1. The amount of controllable energy and power capacity available to the utility 2. The variability of the controllable capacity from day to day and as the number of PEVs in the market increases.

  6. Proceedings of the PHEV09 conference : plug-in hybrid and electric vehicles

    The commercialization of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and electric vehicles (EVs) will require careful consideration of the electric grid's generation and distribution capacities as well as new developments in electric drives and other PHEV and EV technologies. A greater understanding of the policy initiatives needed to develop and promote the use of PHEVs and EVs is also needed in Canada. With 344 delegates, this conference provided a forum for the discussion of issues related to the current PHEV and EV market in Canada. The first day of the conference focused on emerging battery technologies, while the second and third days discussed PHEV and EV technologies, markets, policies and regulations. Presentations at the conference were divided into 18 sessions: (1) performance of batteries in extreme conditions; (2) grid integration; (3) customer perspectives; (4) public and private support programs for the Canadian EV industry; (5) grid-vehicle interface; (6) standards, regulations and safety issues now and in the foreseeable future; (7) an overview of key initiatives in Canada; (8) applications in defence and space; (9) international perspectives on market issues and supportive policies; (10) power management; (11) applications in northern and remote communities; (12) emerging business models to accelerate electric drive; (13) power management; (14) renewable and zero GHG energy opportunities; (15) human resources implications; (16) OEM perspectives; (17) OEM perspectives part 2; and (18) a closing plenary session. The conference featured 64 presentations, of which 11 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs.

  7. The Development of CPSES Plug-in(CPMP) for APR1400 Computerized Procedure Effective Maintenance

    The Computerized Procedure System (CPS) is one of the Man Machine Interface (MMI) resources of the Shin-Kori 3 and 4 nuclear power plants. The CPS is a computerized operator support system that enables operating crew to execute procedures in an accurate and fast manner. The Computerized Procedure (CP) is the XML data file in executable format that can be installed in the Procedure eXecution System (PXS) for execution. The CP contains specific information related to a particular procedure (i.e. LOCA). These computerized procedures such as Alarm Response Procedures (ARP) are separated into individual alarm procedure to maximize function interface between CPS and DCS. E.g. 'Procedure open by alarm list'. The procedure writer's burden to manage many procedures has been increased because of separated procedures. This paper introduces Computerized Procedure System Engineering System (CPSES) plug-in that is computerized procedure management program (CPMP) to reduce procedure writer's burden. This paper introduces the main features of CPMP. CPMP reduces procedure writer's or CPX maintainer's burden. This program is implemented and tested by program design requirement

  8. Consequential life cycle air emissions externalities for plug-in electric vehicles in the PJM interconnection

    We perform a consequential life cycle analysis of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and conventional gasoline vehicles in the PJM interconnection using a detailed, normative optimization model of the PJM electricity grid that captures the change in power plant operations and related emissions due to vehicle charging. We estimate and monetize the resulting human health and environmental damages from life cycle air emissions for each vehicle technology. We model PJM using the most recent data available (2010) as well as projections of the PJM grid in 2018 and a hypothetical scenario with increased wind penetration. We assess a range of sensitivity cases to verify the robustness of our results. We find that PEVs have higher life cycle air emissions damages than gasoline HEVs in the recent grid scenario, which has a high percentage of coal generation on the margin. In particular, battery electric vehicles with large battery capacity can produce two to three times as much air emissions damage as gasoline HEVs, depending on charge timing. In our future 2018 grid scenarios that account for predicted coal plant retirements, PEVs would produce air emissions damages comparable to or slightly lower than HEVs. (letter)

  9. The oscillatory motion of a surfactant-laden liquid plug in a 2D-channel

    Fujioka, Hideki; Grotberg, James B.

    2004-11-01

    Liquid plugs can form in the lung's small airways near the end of expiration. This happens more frequently when the amount of pulmonary surfactant is reduced. In medical treatments such as surfactant replacement therapy, partial liquid ventilation, and drug delivery, the formation of plugs in an airway is important to deliver the instilled liquid uniformly throughout the lung. In this study, we investigate numerically the oscillatory motion of a surfactant-laden liquid plug within a two-dimensional channel lined by a thin liquid film. The viscosity of both the left and right air phases is assumed to be negligible, so that the only fluid dynamics of the liquid phase is considered. The plug motion is regulated by the flow rate in the left air phase, which is prescribed as a sinusoidal function of time. The pressure drop between the left and right air phases varies for time with a different phase of the flow rate. The plug length and the film thickness oscillate with an average value during a cycle. These behaviors changes by system parameters, Reynolds number, Womersley number, Capillary number, and surfactant properties. The significance of this study on mechanical stresses acting on airway epithelial cells caused by the motion of a liquid plug during normal breath, conventional or high-frequency ventilation is discussed. Supported by NIH grant HL41126, NASA grant NAG3-2740.

  10. Consistent electrification of the powertrain in Mercedes-Benz cars. From micro hybrid to plug-in; Konsequente Elektrifizierung des Antriebsstrangs bei Mercedes-Benz Cars. Vom Micro-Hybrid bis zum Plug-In

    Weiss, M.; Henning, G.; Lamm, A.; Bitsche, O.; Antony, P.; Nietfeld, F. [Daimler AG (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Electrifying vehicle drives is a major part of Daimler's strategy to realize sustained mobility. Electrification encompasses a wide range of concepts and system designs - from the micro hybrid to the plug-in. Economically priced micro hybrids were initially available in the smart fortwo as well as A-Class and B-Class model series and will be successively offered for other model series. Mild and full hybrids, which feature additional functionality, have already been successfully launched or will be available in the near future. The effort to continually advance innovative drive technology culminates in the SClass Plug-In. The lithium-ion battery plays a key role with its high energy density and efficiency. These vehicles and the drive technology they incorporate make it possible to meet the most stringent emissions standards as well as achieve very low fuel economy and CO{sub 2} emissions. (orig.)

  11. Vehicle Technologies Program Educational Activities

    None

    2011-12-13

    Description of educational activities including: EcoCAR2: Plugging In to the Future, EcoCAR: The NeXt Challenge, Green Racing, Automotive X Prize, Graduate Technology Automotive Education (GATE), and Hydrogen Education.

  12. Application Study on the Dynamic Programming Algorithm for Energy Management of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Ximing Wang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available To explore the problems associated with applying dynamic programming (DP in the energy management strategies of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs, a plug-in hybrid bus powertrain is introduced and its dynamic control model is constructed. The numerical issues, including the discretization resolution of the relevant variables and the boundary issue of their feasible regions, were considered when implementing DP to solve the optimal control problem of PHEVs. The tradeoff between the optimization accuracy when using the DP algorithm and the computational burden was systematically investigated. As a result of overcoming the numerical issues, the DP-based approach has the potential to improve the fuel-savings potential of PHEVs. The results from comparing the DP-based strategy and the traditional control strategy indicate that there is an approximately 20% improvement in fuel economy.

  13. Plug-in-Hybrid Vehicle Use, Energy Consumption, and Greenhouse Emissions: An Analysis of Household Vehicle Placements in Northern California

    Daniel Kammen; Elliot Martin; Brett Williams; Timothy Lipman

    2011-01-01

    We report on the real-world use over the course of one year of a nickel-metal-hydride plug-in hybrid—the Toyota Plug-In HV—by a set of 12 northern California households able to charge at home and work. From vehicle use data, energy and greenhouse-emissions implications are also explored. A total of 1557 trips—most using under 0.5 gallons of gasoline—ranged up to 2.4 hours and 133 miles and averaged 14 minutes and 7 miles. 399 charging events averaged 2.6 hours. The maximum lasted 4.6 ...

  14. 告别不插电2010丰田 Plug-in Hybrid普锐斯

    2009-01-01

    丰田新一代的Plug-in Hybrid普锐斯将会在下周的法兰克福车展首次亮相。现在我们得到了一些细节消息和照片。正如预计的,这款Plug-inHybrid普锐斯将会配备锂离子电池组。它的混合动力驱动系统得到了升级以使得普锐斯可以在电动模式下以100km/h的时速行驶20km(现款普锐斯的纯电动模式只能在40km/h以下时速行驶很短距离)。

  15. All-SiC Inductively Coupled Charger with Integrated Plug-in and Boost Functionalities for PEV Applications

    Chinthavali, Madhu Sudhan [ORNL; Campbell, Steven L [ORNL; Tolbert, Leon M [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    So far, vehicular power electronics integration is limited to the integration of on-board battery chargers (OBC) into the traction drive system and sometimes to the accessory dc/dc converters in plug-in electric vehicles (PEV). These integration approaches do not provide isolation from the grid although it is an important feature that is required for user interface systems that have grid connections. This is therefore a major limitation that needs to be addressed along with the integrated functionality. Furthermore, there is no previous study that proposes the integration of wireless charger with the other on-board components. This study features a unique way of combining the wired and wireless charging functionalities with vehicle side boost converter integration and maintaining the isolation to provide the best solution to the plug-in electric vehicle users. The new topology is additionally compared with commercially available OBC systems from manufacturers.

  16. Multi-Period Optimization Model for Electricity Generation Planning Considering Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Penetration

    Lena Ahmadi; Ali Elkamel; Sabah A. Abdul-Wahab; Michael Pan; Eric Croiset; Peter L. Douglas; Evgueniy Entchev

    2015-01-01

    One of the main challenges for widespread penetration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) is their impact on the electricity grid. The energy sector must anticipate and prepare for this extra demand and implement long-term planning for electricity production. In this paper, the additional electricity demand on the Ontario electricity grid from charging PHEVs is incorporated into an electricity production planning model. A case study pertaining to Ontario energy planning is considered ...

  17. Développement de chargeurs intégrés pour véhicules hybrides plug-in

    Marzouk, Mounir

    2015-01-01

    This thesis consists on the design and realization of a plug-in hybrid vehicle integrated tractiondrive supply. The work turns to a solution of a mutualized converter, in the objective to imagine asolution which shared drive and battery chargers modes, the three-level NPC topology has beenretained. The single phase charger is based on an interleaved PWM rectifier, and motor windings areused as smoothing inductors. A double-boost PFC configuration is introduced to ensure the threephasecharger....

  18. Swarm Intelligence-Based Smart Energy Allocation Strategy for Charging Stations of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Imran Rahman; Pandian M. Vasant; Balbir Singh Mahinder Singh; Abdullah-Al-Wadud, M.

    2015-01-01

    Recent researches towards the use of green technologies to reduce pollution and higher penetration of renewable energy sources in the transportation sector have been gaining popularity. In this wake, extensive participation of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) requires adequate charging allocation strategy using a combination of smart grid systems and smart charging infrastructures. Daytime charging stations will be needed for daily usage of PHEVs due to the limited all-electric range....

  19. Interpersonal Influence within Car Buyers’ Social Networks: Five Perspectives on Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Demonstration Participants

    Axsen, Jonn; Kurani, Kenneth S

    2009-01-01

    To explore the role of social interactions in individuals’ assessments of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), this study analyzes over 190 social (interpersonal) interactions elicited in interviews with 31 individuals in eight different social networks centered on households in the Sacramento, California region. Results are framed within five theoretical perspectives on social influence: contagion, conformity, dissemination, translation, and reflexivity. Responses within networks cent...

  20. Impact of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle on Power Distribution System Considering Vehicle to Grid Technology: A Review

    A. Aljanad; Azah Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a comprehensive review of the potential technical impacts of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles on power distribution and transmission systems. This review also presents various power quality impacts on the power system in several aspects. This review conveys a detailed analysis of electric vehicle charging strategies on electrical distribution networks. The two charging aspects (coordinated/uncoordinated) and intelligent scheduling of charging are discussed in terms of thei...

  1. Policy driven demand for sales of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and battery-electric vehicles in Germany

    Trommer, Stefan; Kihm, Alexander; Hebes, Paul; Mehlin, Markus

    2010-01-01

    While technology issues are increasingly overcoming, the economic viability of electric vehicles is remaining constrained by higher prices than for conventional vehicles. However, first automakers present their Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs) and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) or at least pronounce them for the near future. Hence, there is an emerging need for vehicle manufacturers, practitioners and policy to estimate the particular demand for partly and fully electrified drive tr...

  2. Optimal Energy Management Strategy of a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Based on a Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm

    Zeyu Chen; Rui Xiong; Kunyu Wang; Bin Jiao

    2015-01-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have been recognized as one of the most promising vehicle categories nowadays due to their low fuel consumption and reduced emissions. Energy management is critical for improving the performance of PHEVs. This paper proposes an energy management approach based on a particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm. The optimization objective is to minimize total energy cost (summation of oil and electricity) from vehicle utilization. A main drawback of optim...

  3. Batteries for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs): Goals and the State of Technology circa 2008

    Axsen, Jonn; Burke, Andy; Kurani, Kenneth S

    2008-01-01

    This report discusses the development of advanced batteries for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) applications. We discuss the basic design concepts of PHEVs, compare three sets of influential technical goals, and explain the inherent trade-offs in PHEV battery design. We then discuss the current state of several battery chemistries, including nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) and lithium-ion (Li-Ion), comparing their abilities to meet PHEV goals, and potential trajectories for further improve...

  4. A Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Loss Model to Compare Well-to-Wheel Energy Use from Multiple Sources

    Johnson, Kurt M

    2008-01-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) come in many sizes and degrees of hybridization. Mild hybrid systems, where a simple idle stop strategy is employed, eliminate fuel use for idling. Multiple motor hybrid systems with complex electrically continuously variable transmissions in passenger cars, SUVs and light duty trucks have large increases in fuel economy. The plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) takes the electrification of the automobile one step further than the HEV by increasing the batte...

  5. Interpersonal influence within car buyers' social networks: applying five perspectives to plug-in hybrid vehicle drivers

    Jonn Axsen; Kurani, Kenneth S

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. Although interpersonal influence is thought to play in important role in proenvironmental consumption behavior, mechanisms of influence are not well understood. Through literature review, we identify five theoretical perspectives on interpersonal influence: contagion, conformity, dissemination, translation, and reflexivity. We apply these perspectives to car buyer perceptions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), a technology with attributes that can be perceived as functiona...

  6. Plug-in Electric Vehicle Interactions with a Small Office Building: An Economic Analysis using DER-CAM

    Momber, Ilan

    2010-01-01

    It is generally believed that plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) offer environmental and energy security advantages compared to conventional vehicles. Policies are stimulating electric transportation deployment, and PEV adoption may grow significantly. New technology and business models are being developed to organize the PEV interface and their interaction with the wider grid. This paper analyzes the PEVs' integration into a building's Energy Management System (EMS), differentiating between ve...

  7. Regenerative braking potencial and energy simulations for a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle under real driving conditions

    Martins, Luís Barreiros; Brito, J. M. O.; Rocha, A. M. D.; Martins, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    There are several possible configurations and technologies for the powertrains of electric and hybrid vehicles, but most of them will include advanced energy storage systems comprising batteries and ultra-capacitors. Thus, it will be of capital importance to evaluate the power and energy involved in braking and the fraction that has the possibility of being regenerated. The Series type Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (SPHEV), with electric traction and a small Internal Co...

  8. Optimizing battery sizes of plug-in hybrid and extended range electric vehicles for different user types

    Redelbach, Martin; Özdemir, Enver Doruk; Friedrich, Horst E.

    2014-01-01

    There are ambitious greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) targets for the manufacturers of light duty vehicles. To reduce the GHG emissions, plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) and extended range electric vehicle (EREV) are promising powertrain technologies. However, the battery is still a very critical component due to the high production cost and heavy weight. This paper introduces a holistic approach for the optimization of the battery size of PHEVs and EREVs under German market conditions. Th...

  9. Thermoelectric Modeling and Online SOC Estimation of Li-Ion Battery for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Aishwarya Panday; Hari Om Bansal; Pramod Srinivasan

    2016-01-01

    The increasing oil price, energy demand, and environmental concern are leading to a global switch towards Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs). In a PHEV, Li-ion battery is considered as the primary propelling source. Therefore, an accurate battery model is required to predict the I-V characteristic and dynamic behavior of a battery. This paper presents a highly effective thermoelectric model of Li-ion battery developed in Simulink. An algorithm is proposed for estimation of state of char...

  10. A Novel Satellite Concept “Panel Extension Satellite (PETSAT)” Consisting of Plug-in, Modular, Functional Panels

    Nakasuka, Shinichi; Sahara, Hironori; Sugawara, Yoshiki; Morimoto, Takeshi; Koyama, Kanichi; Kikuchi, Hideaki; Okada, Takanori; Tanaka, Hidenori; Sato, Shinichi; Kobayashi, Chisato

    2007-01-01

    A novel concept of satellite design, named "PETSAT," is proposed in this paper. In this concept, a satellite is made of several "Functional Panels" such as "Communication panel," "Attitude control panel," "Thruster panel," and “Mission Panel,” each of which has a special dedicated function. By connecting these panels by reliable connection mechanism in "plug-in" fashion, the total integrated system as a whole has a satellite function. Various combinations of functional panels, (for example, o...

  11. Simulations of Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles Using Advanced Lithium Batteries and Ultracapacitors on Various Driving Cycles

    Burke, Andy; Zhao, Hengbing

    2010-01-01

    The use of ultracapacitors in plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEVs) with high energy density lithium-ion and zinc-air batteries is studied. Simulations were performed for various driving cycles with the PHEVs operating in the charge depleting and charge sustaining modes. The effects of the load leveling of the power demand from the batteries using the ultracapacitors are evident. The average and the peak currents from the batteries are lower by a factor of 2-3.

  12. Rechargeable Energy Storage Systems for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles—Assessment of Electrical Characteristics

    Noshin Omar; Mohamed Daowd; Peter Van den Bossche; Omar Hegazy; Jelle Smekens; Thierry Coosemans; Joeri Van Mierlo

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the performances of various lithium-ion chemistries for use in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles have been investigated and compared to several other rechargeable energy storage systems technologies such as lead-acid, nickel-metal hydride and electrical-double layer capacitors. The analysis has shown the beneficial properties of lithium-ion in the terms of energy density, power density and rate capabilities. Particularly, the nickel manganese cobalt oxide cathode stands out with...

  13. Distributed energy resources management using plug-in hybrid electric vehicles as a fuel-shifting demand response resource

    Highlights: • Definition fuel shifting demand response programs applied to the electric vehicles. • Integration of the proposed fuel shifting in energy resource management algorithm. • Analysis of fuel shifting contribution to support the consumption increasing. • Analysis of fuel shifting contribution to support the electric vehicles growing. • Sensitivity analysis considering different electric vehicles penetration levels. - Abstract: In the smart grids context, distributed energy resources management plays an important role in the power systems’ operation. Battery electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles should be important resources in the future distribution networks operation. Therefore, it is important to develop adequate methodologies to schedule the electric vehicles’ charge and discharge processes, avoiding network congestions and providing ancillary services. This paper proposes the participation of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in fuel shifting demand response programs. Two services are proposed, namely the fuel shifting and the fuel discharging. The fuel shifting program consists in replacing the electric energy by fossil fuels in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles daily trips, and the fuel discharge program consists in use of their internal combustion engine to generate electricity injecting into the network. These programs are included in an energy resources management algorithm which integrates the management of other resources. The paper presents a case study considering a 37-bus distribution network with 25 distributed generators, 1908 consumers, and 2430 plug-in vehicles. Two scenarios are tested, namely a scenario with high photovoltaic generation, and a scenario without photovoltaic generation. A sensitivity analyses is performed in order to evaluate when each energy resource is required

  14. Cost analysis of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles using GPS-based longitudinal travel data

    Using spatial, longitudinal travel data of 415 vehicles over 3–18 months in the Seattle metropolitan area, this paper estimates the operating costs of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) of various electric ranges (10, 20, 30, and 40 miles) for 3, 5, and 10 years of payback period, considering different charging infrastructure deployment levels and gasoline prices. Some key findings were made. (1) PHEVs could help save around 60% or 40% in energy costs, compared with conventional gasoline vehicles (CGVs) or hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), respectively. However, for motorists whose daily vehicle miles traveled (DVMT) is significant, HEVs may be even a better choice than PHEV40s, particularly in areas that lack a public charging infrastructure. (2) The incremental battery cost of large-battery PHEVs is difficult to justify based on the incremental savings of PHEVs' operating costs unless a subsidy is offered for large-battery PHEVs. (3) When the price of gasoline increases from $4/gallon to $5/gallon, the number of drivers who benefit from a larger battery increases significantly. (4) Although quick chargers can reduce charging time, they contribute little to energy cost savings for PHEVs, as opposed to Level-II chargers. - Highlights: • A spatial and longitudinal travel dataset was used to study PHEVs' operating costs. • Whether PHEVs have lower energy costs than CGVs/HEVs depends on charger coverage. • Under small charging coverage PHEV40 is more costly than HEV if one's DVMT is large. • If the gas price is $3, PHEV10 is the least costly even if the battery cost is $200/kW. • Impact of fast charging is trivial on energy cost, but significant on charging time

  15. Potential impacts assessment of plug-in electric vehicles on the Portuguese energy market

    Electric vehicles (EVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), which obtain their fuel from the grid by charging a battery, are set to be introduced into the mass market and expected to contribute to oil consumption reduction. In this research, scenarios for 2020 EVs penetration and charging profiles are studied integrated with different hypotheses for electricity production mix. The impacts in load profiles, spot electricity prices and emissions are obtained for the Portuguese case study. Simulations for year 2020, in a scenario of low hydro production and high prices, resulted in energy costs for EVs recharge of 20 cents/kWh, with 2 million EVs charging mainly at evening peak hours. On the other hand, in an off-peak recharge, a high hydro production and low wholesale prices' scenario, recharge costs could be reduced to 5.6 cents/kWh. In these extreme cases, EV's energy prices were between 0.9 Euro to 3.2 Euro per 100 km. Reductions in primary energy consumption, fossil fuels use and CO2 emissions of up to 3%, 14% and 10%, respectively, were verified (for a 2 million EVs' penetration and a dry year's off-peak recharge scenario) from the transportation and electricity sectors together when compared with a BAU scenario without EVs. - Highlights: → EVs and PHEVs impacts in energy, power profiles and spot electricity prices. → Reductions in primary energy consumption, fossil fuels use and CO2 emissions. → Electricity production with more % of fossil fuels technologies and renewable ones. → Comparison between extreme charging profiles, peak and off-peak, in charging cost.

  16. Influence of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle charging strategies on charging and battery degradation costs

    The profitability of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) is significantly influenced by battery aging and electricity costs. Therefore a simulation model for PHEVs in the distribution grid is presented which allows to compare the influence of different charging strategies on these costs. The simulation is based on real-world driving behavior and European Energy Exchange (EEX) intraday prices for obtaining representative results. The analysis of comprehensive lithium-ion battery aging tests performed within this study shows that especially high battery states of charge (SOCs) decrease battery lifetime, whereas the cycling of batteries at medium SOCs only has a minor contribution to aging. Charging strategies that take into account the previously mentioned effects are introduced, and the SOC distributions and cycle loads of the vehicle battery are investigated. It can be shown that appropriate charging strategies significantly increase battery lifetime and reduce charging costs at the same time. Possible savings due to lifetime extension of the vehicle battery are approximately two times higher than revenues due to energy trading. The findings of this work indicate that car manufacturers and energy/mobility providers have to make efforts for developing intelligent charging strategies to reduce mobility costs and thus foster the introduction of electric mobility. - Highlights: ► Modeling of PHEVs based on real-world driving behavior and electricity prices. ► Consideration of battery degradation for the calculation of mobility costs. ► Smart charging decreases battery degradation and electricity costs simultaneously. ► Reduction of battery degradation costs is around two times higher than reduction of electricity costs.

  17. On the business value of ICT-controlled plug-in electric vehicle charging in California

    The increasing penetration of variable renewable energy, such as wind and solar, requires the deployment of large scale energy storage or dynamic demand side management. Leveraging the intrinsic energy storage potential of certain electric loads could be the key for an efficient transition to green power generation. Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are about to be introduced on a large scale. In this paper, we investigate the savings potential of electricity retailers resulting from the ability to control the charging behavior of a fleet of PEVs using Information and Communication Technology (ICT). This savings potential is important as it could jumpstart the development of advanced control infrastructures for dynamic demand side management. The paper makes three major contributions: first, it applies a novel car usage model based on data from the National Household Travel Survey (NHTS). Second, it develops and evaluates several charging scheduling algorithms with low computational requirements. Third, it identifies several key parameters influencing the relative and absolute savings potential of ICT-controlled PEV charging. We obtain a relative savings potential of up to 45%. The absolute yearly savings per PEV, however, are rather small, which could limit the economic incentives of electricity retailers to deploy the required infrastructure. - Highlights: ► The paper presents a novel model for car usage based on NHTS. ► Several charging scheduling algorithms with low computational requirements are developed and evaluated. ► Several key parameters influencing the relative and absolute savings potential of ICT-controlled PEV charging are identified. ► PEVs can be used to reduce electricity sourcing cost by up to 45%. ► The absolute yearly savings per controlled PEV are rather small and could limit the economic incentives of electricity retailers to deploy the required infrastructure.

  18. Real-world fuel economy and CO2 emissions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) combine electric propulsion with an internal combustion engine. Their potential to reduce transport related green-house gas emissions highly depends on their actual usage and electricity provision. Various studies underline their environmental and economic advantages, but are based on standardised driving cycles, simulations or small PHEV fleets. Here, we analyse real-world fuel economy of PHEV and the factors influencing it based on about 2,000 actual PHEV that have been observed over more than a year in the U.S. and Germany. We find that real-world fuel economy of PHEV differ widely among users. The main factors explaining this variation are the annual mileage, the regularity of daily driving, and the likelihood of long-distance trips. Current test cycle fuel economy ratings neglect these factors. Despite the broad range of PHEV fuel economies, the test cycle fuel economy ratings can be close to empiric PHEV fleet averages if the average annual mile-age is about 17,000 km. For the largest group of PHEV in our data, the Chevrolet Volt, we find the average fuel economy to be 1.45 litres/100 km at an average electric driving share of 78%. The resulting real-world tank-to-wheel CO2 emissions of these PHEV are 42 gCO2/km and the annual CO2 savings in the U.S. amount to about 50 Mt. In conclusion, the variance of empirical PHEV fuel economy is considerably higher than of conventional vehicles. This should be taken into account by future test cycles and high electric driving shares should be incentivised.

  19. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Market Introduction Study: Final Report

    Sikes, Karen [Sentech, Inc.; Gross, Thomas [Sentech, Inc.; Lin, Zhenhong [ORNL; Sullivan, John [University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute; Cleary, Timothy [Sentech, Inc.; Ward, Jake [U.S. Department of Energy

    2010-02-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Sentech, Inc., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)/University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute (UMTRI), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) have conducted a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) Market Introduction Study to identify and assess the effect of potential policies, regulations, and temporary incentives as key enablers for a successful market debut. The timeframe over which market-stimulating incentives would be implemented - and the timeframe over which they would be phased out - are suggested. Possible sources of revenue to help fund these mechanisms are also presented. In addition, pinch points likely to emerge during market growth are identified and proposed solutions presented. Finally, modeling results from ORNL's Market Acceptance of Advanced Automotive Technologies (MA3T) Model and UMTRI's Virtual AutoMotive MarketPlace (VAMMP) Model were used to quantify the expected effectiveness of the proposed policies and to recommend a consensus strategy aimed at transitioning what begins as a niche industry into a thriving and sustainable market by 2030. The primary objective of the PHEV Market Introduction Study is to identify the most effective means for accelerating the commercialization of PHEVs in order to support national energy and economic goals. Ideally, these mechanisms would maximize PHEV sales while minimizing federal expenditures. To develop a robust market acceleration program, incentives and policies must be examined in light of: (1) clarity and transparency of the market signals they send to the consumer; (2) expenditures and resources needed to support them; (3) expected impacts on the market for PHEVs; (4) incentives that are compatible and/or supportive of each other; (5) complexity of institutional and regulatory coordination needed; and (6) sources of funding.

  20. An agent-based model to study market penetration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    A spatially explicit agent-based vehicle consumer choice model is developed to explore sensitivities and nonlinear interactions between various potential influences on plug-in hybrid vehicle (PHEV) market penetration. The model accounts for spatial and social effects (including threshold effects, homophily, and conformity) and media influences. Preliminary simulations demonstrate how such a model could be used to identify nonlinear interactions among potential leverage points, inform policies affecting PHEV market penetration, and help identify future data collection necessary to more accurately model the system. We examine sensitivity of the model to gasoline prices, to accuracy in estimation of fuel costs, to agent willingness to adopt the PHEV technology, to PHEV purchase price and rebates, to PHEV battery range, and to heuristic values related to gasoline usage. Our simulations indicate that PHEV market penetration could be enhanced significantly by providing consumers with ready estimates of expected lifetime fuel costs associated with different vehicles (e.g., on vehicle stickers), and that increases in gasoline prices could nonlinearly magnify the impact on fleet efficiency. We also infer that a potential synergy from a gasoline tax with proceeds is used to fund research into longer-range lower-cost PHEV batteries. - Highlights: → We model consumer agents to study potential market penetration of PHEVs. → The model accounts for spatial, social, and media effects. → We identify interactions among potential leverage points that could inform policy. → Consumer access to expected lifetime fuel costs may enhance PHEV market penetration. → Increasing PHEV battery range has synergistic effects on fleet efficiency.

  1. Connecting plug-in vehicles with green electricity through consumer demand

    Axsen, Jonn; Kurani, Kenneth S.

    2013-03-01

    The environmental benefits of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) increase if the vehicles are powered by electricity from ‘green’ sources such as solar, wind or small-scale hydroelectricity. Here, we explore the potential to build a market that pairs consumer purchases of PEVs with purchases of green electricity. We implement a web-based survey with three US samples defined by vehicle purchases: conventional new vehicle buyers (n = 1064), hybrid vehicle buyers (n = 364) and PEV buyers (n = 74). Respondents state their interest in a PEV as their next vehicle, in purchasing green electricity in one of three ways, i.e., monthly subscription, two-year lease or solar panel purchase, and in combining the two products. Although we find that a link between PEVs and green electricity is not presently strong in the consciousness of most consumers, the combination is attractive to some consumers when presented. Across all three respondent segments, pairing a PEV with a green electricity program increased interest in PEVs—with a 23% demand increase among buyers of conventional vehicles. Overall, about one-third of respondents presently value the combination of a PEV with green electricity; the proportion is much higher among previous HEV and PEV buyers. Respondents’ reported motives for interest in both products and their combination include financial savings (particularly among conventional buyers), concerns about air pollution and the environment, and interest in new technology (particularly among PEV buyers). The results provide guidance regarding policy and marketing strategies to advance PEVs and green electricity demand.

  2. Ghrelin does not modulate angiogenesis in matrigel plug in normal and diet-induced obese mice

    Zoya Tahergorabi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The reciprocal interaction between adipocytes and angiogenesis is considered as an essential component in the development and expansion of adipose tissue. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ghrelin on angiogenic response using in vivo angiogenesis assay of matrigel plug and its correlation with serum leptin levels in normal and diet-induced obese mice. Materials and Methods: This experimental study has been done on 24 male C57BL/6 mice which were randomly divided into four groups: Normal diet (ND or control, ND + ghrelin, high-fat-diet (HFD or obese and HFD + ghrelin (n = 6/group. Obese and control groups received HFD or standard diet for 14 weeks. Then, growth factor reduced matrigel plug (500 ΅l containing bFGF (basic fibroblast growth factor; 100 ng with or without ghrelin (100 ΅g/kg was injected subcutaneously in the mid-ventral abdominal region of each mice. After 10 days, blood samples were taken and matrigel plugs were removed under anesthesia and angiogenic response was assessed by immunohisochemical staining. Results: HFD significantly increased angiogenesis in matrigel plug as expressed as the number of CD31-positive cells than standard diet (43 ΁ 5 vs. 13 ΁ 2.5 CD31 + cells/field. Ghrelin did not alter angiogenesis in matrigel plug in both obese and control groups. There was a strong positive correlation between the number of CD31-positive cells and serum leptin concentration (r = 0.91. Conclusion: Leptin as an angiogenic factor has a positive correlation with angiogenesis in matrigel plug model of angiogenesis and ghrelin could not alter angiogenesis.

  3. Energy conversion phenomena in plug-in hybrid-electric vehicles

    Research highlights: → Energy conversion phenomena of PHEVs for different drive cycles and depletion rates of energy sources. → Detailed physically based framework for analyzing energy conversion phenomena in PHEVs. → Interaction of energy flows and energy losses with energy consumption of the PHEV. → Identification and explanation of mechanisms leading to optimal tank-to-wheel efficiency. → Analysis of well-to-wheel efficiencies for different realistic well-to-tank scenarios. -- Abstract: Energy flows and energy conversion efficiencies of commercial plug-in hybrid-electric vehicles (PHEV) are analyzed for parallel and series PHEV topologies. The analysis is performed by a combined analytical and simulation approach. Combined approach enables evaluation of energy losses on different energy paths and provides their impact on the energy consumption of the PHEV. Thereby the paper reveals energy conversion phenomena of different PHEV topologies operating according to charge depleting and charge sustaining modes as well as according to different test cycles. It is shown in the paper that amount of the energy depleted from both on-board energy sources is significantly influenced by the efficiencies of energy conversion chains from on-board energy sources to the wheels. It is also shown that energy used to power the PHEV according to particular test cycles varies based on its operating mode, which influences energy flows on different energy paths within the PHEVs and consequently overall energy consumed by the PHEV. The paper additionally discusses well-to-wheel efficiencies considering different realistic well-to-tank scenarios. It is shown that well-to-tank efficiency of electric energy generation significantly influences optimal operating mode of the PHEV if consumption of primary energy sources is considered.

  4. Connecting plug-in vehicles with green electricity through consumer demand

    The environmental benefits of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) increase if the vehicles are powered by electricity from ‘green’ sources such as solar, wind or small-scale hydroelectricity. Here, we explore the potential to build a market that pairs consumer purchases of PEVs with purchases of green electricity. We implement a web-based survey with three US samples defined by vehicle purchases: conventional new vehicle buyers (n = 1064), hybrid vehicle buyers (n = 364) and PEV buyers (n = 74). Respondents state their interest in a PEV as their next vehicle, in purchasing green electricity in one of three ways, i.e., monthly subscription, two-year lease or solar panel purchase, and in combining the two products. Although we find that a link between PEVs and green electricity is not presently strong in the consciousness of most consumers, the combination is attractive to some consumers when presented. Across all three respondent segments, pairing a PEV with a green electricity program increased interest in PEVs—with a 23% demand increase among buyers of conventional vehicles. Overall, about one-third of respondents presently value the combination of a PEV with green electricity; the proportion is much higher among previous HEV and PEV buyers. Respondents’ reported motives for interest in both products and their combination include financial savings (particularly among conventional buyers), concerns about air pollution and the environment, and interest in new technology (particularly among PEV buyers). The results provide guidance regarding policy and marketing strategies to advance PEVs and green electricity demand. (letter)

  5. Optimised performance of a plug-in electric vehicle aggregator in energy and reserve markets

    Highlights: • A new model is developed to optimise the performance of a PEV aggregator in the power market. • PEVs aggregator can combine the PEVs and manage the charge/discharge of their batteries. • A new approach to calculate the satisfaction/motivation of PEV owners is proposed. • Several uncertainties are taken into account using a two-stage stochastic programing approach. • The proposed model is proficient in significantly improving the short- and long-term behaviour. - Abstract: In this paper, a new model is developed to optimise the performance of a plug-in Electric Vehicle (EV) aggregator in electricity markets, considering both short- and long-term horizons. EV aggregator as a new player of the power market can aggregate the EVs and manage the charge/discharge of their batteries. The aggregator maximises the profit and optimises EV owners’ revenue by applying changes in tariffs to compete with other market players for retaining current customers and acquiring new owners. On this basis, a new approach to calculate the satisfaction/motivation of EV owners and their market participation is proposed in this paper. Moreover, the behaviour of owners to select their supplying company is considered. The aggregator optimises the self-scheduling programme and submits the best bidding/offering strategies to the day-ahead and real-time markets. To achieve this purpose, the day-ahead and real-time energy and reserve markets are modelled as oligopoly markets, in contrast with previous works that utilised perfectly competitive ones. Furthermore, several uncertainties and constraints are taken into account using a two-stage stochastic programing approach, which have not been addressed in previous works. The numerical studies show the effectiveness of the proposed model

  6. Power system operation risk analysis considering charging load self-management of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    Highlights: • The interactive mechanism between system and PHEVs is presented. • The charging load self-management without sacrificing user requirements is proposed. • The charging load self-management is coupled to system operation risk analysis. • The charging load self-management can reduce the extra risk brought by PHEVs. • The charging load self-management can shift charging power to the time with low risk. - Abstract: Many jurisdictions around the world are supporting the adoption of electric vehicles through incentives and the deployment of a charging infrastructure to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), with offer mature technology and stable performance, are expected to gain an increasingly larger share of the consumer market. The aggregated effect on power grid due to large-scale penetration of PHEVs needs to be analyzed. Nighttime-charging which typically characterizes PHEVs is helpful in filling the nocturnal load valley, but random charging of large PHEV fleets at night may result in new load peaks and valleys. Active response strategy is a potentially effective solution to mitigate the additional risks brought by the integration of PHEVs. This paper proposes a power system operation risk analysis framework in which charging load self-management is used to control system operation risk. We describe an interactive mechanism between the system and PHEVs in conjunction with a smart charging model is to simulate the time series power consumption of PHEVs. The charging load is managed with adjusting the state transition boundaries and without violating the users’ desired charging constraints. The load curtailment caused by voltage or power flow violation after outages is determined by controlling charging power. At the same time, the system risk is maintained under an acceptable level through charging load self-management. The proposed method is implemented using the Roy Billinton Test System (RBTS) and

  7. Global Optimal Energy Management Strategy Research for a Plug-In Series-Parallel Hybrid Electric Bus by Using Dynamic Programming

    Hongwen He; Henglu Tang; Ximing Wang

    2013-01-01

    Energy management strategy influences the power performance and fuel economy of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles greatly. To explore the fuel-saving potential of a plug-in hybrid electric bus (PHEB), this paper searched the global optimal energy management strategy using dynamic programming (DP) algorithm. Firstly, the simplified backward model of the PHEB was built which is necessary for DP algorithm. Then the torque and speed of engine and the torque of motor were selected as the control va...

  8. Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition Study - Final Report

    Sikes, Karen [Sentech, Inc.; Hadley, Stanton W [ORNL; McGill, Ralph N [ORNL; Cleary, Timothy [Sentech, Inc.

    2010-07-01

    PHEVs have been the subject of growing interest in recent years because of their potential for reduced operating costs, oil displacement, national security, and environmental benefits. Despite the potential long-term savings to consumers and value to stakeholders, the initial cost of PHEVs presents a major market barrier to their widespread commercialization. The study Objectives are: (1) To identify and evaluate value-added propositions for PHEVs that will help overcome the initial price premium relative to comparable ICEs and HEVs and (2) to assess other non-monetary benefits and barriers associated with an emerging PHEV fleet, including environmental, societal, and grid impacts. Study results indicate that a single PHEV-30 on the road in 2030 will: (1) Consume 65% and 75% less gasoline than a comparable HEV and ICE, respectively; (2) Displace 7.25 and 4.25 barrels of imported oil each year if substituted for equivalent ICEs and HEVs, respectively, assuming 60% of the nation's oil consumed is imported; (3) Reduce net ownership cost over 10 years by 8-10% relative to a comparable ICE and be highly cost competitive with a comparable HEV; (4) Use 18-22% less total W2W energy than a comparable ICE, but 8-13% more than a comparable HEV (assuming a 70/30 split of E10 and E85 use in 2030); and (5) Emit 10% less W2W CO{sub 2} than equivalent ICEs in southern California and emits 13% more W2W CO{sub 2} than equivalent ICEs in the ECAR region. This also assumes a 70/30 split of E10 and E85 use in 2030. PHEVs and other plug-in vehicles on the road in 2030 may offer many valuable benefits to utilities, business owners, individual consumers, and society as a whole by: (1) Promoting national energy security by displacing large volumes of imported oil; (2) Supporting a secure economy through the expansion of domestic vehicle and component manufacturing; (3) Offsetting the vehicle's initial price premium with lifetime operating cost savings (e.g., lower fuel and

  9. Integration of plug-in hybrid cars in the promotion of intelligent distribution networks; Integration von Plug-in-Hybrid Cars zur Foerderung intelligenter Verteilnetzstrukturen (Vorstudie) - Schlussbericht / 2 2008

    Horbaty, R.; Rigassi, R.

    2008-08-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reviews work done as part of a preliminary study concerning the use of plug-in hybrid cars as part of a system for the regulation of energy in electricity supply grids. The 'Vehicle to Grid' concept is discussed. This involves hybrid vehicles with higher accumulator capacities, reversible charger units as well as appropriate connector technologies and communication systems. This 'smart grid' concept is looked at and the players involved are introduced. The advantages and disadvantages of such a system are discussed.

  10. Development of a plug in for image j for the quality control of a scanner; Desarrollo de un Plug-in de Imagej para el control de calidad de un escaner

    Otal Palacin, A.; Fuentemilla Urio, N.; Olasolo Alonso, J.; Martin Albina, M. L.; Miquelez Alonso, S.; Lozares Cordero, S.; Pellejero, S.; Maneru Camara, F.; Rubio Arroniz, A.; Soto Prados, P.

    2013-07-01

    The increase in the quality of radiology equipment requirements necessitates that give us tools efficient that they simplify the more possible tasks of analysis of the data obtained in the quality controls. We can choose by solutions based on commercial software or otherwise try to develop our own to measure of our needs. For this reason we have developed a plug-in for the ImageJ program that automates the work of analysis of image quality in the Navarro health service scanners. (Author)

  11. Shifting primary energy source and NOx emission location with plug-in hybrid vehicles

    Karman, Deniz

    2011-06-01

    Plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEVs) present an interesting technological opportunity for using non-fossil primary energy in light duty passenger vehicles, with the associated potential for reducing air pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions, to the extent that the electric power grid is fed by non-fossil sources. This perspective, accompanying the article by Thompson et al (2011) in this issue, will touch on two other studies that are directly related: the Argonne study (Elgowainy et al 2010) and a PhD thesis from Utrecht (van Vliet 2010). Thompson et al (2011) have examined air quality effects in a case where the grid is predominantly fossil fed. They estimate a reduction of 7.42 tons/day of NOx from motor vehicles as a result of substituting electric VMTs for 20% of the light duty gasoline vehicle miles traveled. To estimate the impact of this reduction on air quality they also consider the increases in NOx emissions due to the increased load on electricity generating units. The NOx emission increases are estimated as 4.0, 5.5 and 6.3 tons for the Convenience, Battery and Night charging scenarios respectively. The net reductions are thus in the 1.1-3.4 tons/day range. The air quality modelling results presented show that the air quality impact from a ground-level ozone perspective is favorable overall, and while the effect is stronger in some localities, the difference between the three scenarios is small. This is quite significant and suggests that localization of the NOx emissions to point sources has a more pronounced effect than the absolute reductions achieved. Furthermore it demonstrates that localization of NOx emissions to electricity generating units by using PHEVs in vehicle traffic has beneficial effects for air quality not only by minimizing direct human exposure to motor vehicle emissions, but also due to reduced exposure to secondary pollutants (i.e. ozone). In an electric power grid with a smaller share of fossil fired generating units, the beneficial

  12. Identifying bottlenecks in charging infrastructure of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles through agent-based traffic simulation

    Lindgren, Juuso; Lund, Peter D.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of different charging infrastructure configurations on the electric-driven distance of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (e-mileage) has been investigated, using an agent-based traffic simulation. Our findings suggest that the same e-mileage can be achieved with fewer charging poles if the poles support charging from several parking slots around them, and the charging cable is switched from one vehicle to the next. We also find that the charging power supported by most Finnish charg...

  13. Three-Phase High-Power and Zero-Current-Switching OBC for Plug-In Electric Vehicles

    Cheng-Shan Wang; Wei Li; Zhun Meng; Yi-Feng Wang; Jie-Gui Zhou

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, an interleaved high-power zero-current-switching (ZCS) onboard charger (OBC) based on the three-phase single-switch buck rectifier is proposed for application to plug-in electric vehicles (EVs). The multi-resonant structure is used to achieve high efficiency and high power density, which are necessary to reduce the volume and weight of the OBC. This study focuses on the border conditions of ZCS converting with a battery load, which means the variation ranges of the output volta...

  14. Impact of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle on Power Distribution System Considering Vehicle to Grid Technology: A Review

    A. Aljanad

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a comprehensive review of the potential technical impacts of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles on power distribution and transmission systems. This review also presents various power quality impacts on the power system in several aspects. This review conveys a detailed analysis of electric vehicle charging strategies on electrical distribution networks. The two charging aspects (coordinated/uncoordinated and intelligent scheduling of charging are discussed in terms of their impacts on power systems. Vehicle to grid technology are investigated, elaborated and evaluated based on technical, suitability and configuration aspects.

  15. Battery Sizing for Serial Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles: A Model-Based Economic Analysis for Germany

    Ernst, Christian-Simon; Hackbarth, André; Madlener, Reinhard; Lunz, Benedikt; Sauer, Dirk Uwe; Eckstein, Lutz

    2010-01-01

    The battery size of a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) is decisive for the pure electrical range of the vehicle and crucial for the cost-effectiveness of this particular vehicle concept. Based on the energy consumption of a conventional reference car and a PHEV, we introduce a comprehensive total cost of ownership model for the average car user in Germany for both vehicle types. The model takes into account the purchase price, fixed annual costs and variable operating costs. The amortiz...

  16. Learning From Non-iid Data: Fast Rates for the One-vs-All Multiclass Plug-in Classifiers

    Dinh, Vu; Ho, Lam Si Tung; Cuong, Nguyen Viet; Nguyen, Duy; Nguyen, Binh T.

    2014-01-01

    We prove new fast learning rates for the one-vs-all multiclass plug-in classifiers trained either from exponentially strongly mixing data or from data generated by a converging drifting distribution. These are two typical scenarios where training data are not iid. The learning rates are obtained under a multiclass version of Tsybakov's margin assumption, a type of low-noise assumption, and do not depend on the number of classes. Our results are general and include a previous result for binary...

  17. Effects of the introduction of electric vehicles and plug-in hybrids on sources of energy and the electricity grid; Auswirkungen der Markteinfuehrung von Elektrofahrzeugen und Plug-In-Hybrids auf die Energietraeger und das Elektrizitaetsnetz. Bericht

    Rigassi, R.; Huber, S. [Enco AG, Liestal (Switzerland); Strub, P. [Pierre Strub - nachhaltig wirkt, Basel (Switzerland)

    2010-12-15

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the effects of the introduction of electric vehicles and plug-in hybrids on sources of energy and the electricity grid. According to the authors, the introduction of electric drives in the automobile sector will cause no important additional consumption of electricity by 2035 for an expected percentage of around 25% of all vehicles being wholly or partly electrically powered; fossil fuel consumption can, however, be reduced by almost a quarter. The energy storage function of the batteries in electric vehicles can additionally be used to help integrate the high proportion of stochastically generated wind and solar power in the power grid. Energy and CO{sub 2} balances for electric vehicles and plug-in hybrids are discussed, as is the use of vehicle batteries as part of a 'vehicle-to-grid' system that can help regulate the electricity mains. The potential for using vehicles for the supply of regulating energy is looked at. Charge optimisation and mains feed-in are discussed. The ecological effects of this regulating function are examined in the European context. Relationships to other energy scenarios are presented and discussed. Finally, conclusions are drawn and recommendations are made. Questions still to be examined are listed.

  18. Development of Production-Intent Plug-In Hybrid Vehicle Using Advanced Lithium-Ion Battery Packs with Deployment to a Demonstration Fleet

    No, author

    2013-09-29

    The primary goal of this project was to speed the development of one of the first commercially available, OEM-produced plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV). The performance of the PHEV was expected to double the fuel economy of the conventional hybrid version. This vehicle program incorporated a number of advanced technologies, including advanced lithium-ion battery packs and an E85-capable flex-fuel engine. The project developed, fully integrated, and validated plug-in specific systems and controls by using GM’s Global Vehicle Development Process (GVDP) for production vehicles. Engineering Development related activities included the build of mule vehicles and integration vehicles for Phases I & II of the project. Performance data for these vehicles was shared with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The deployment of many of these vehicles was restricted to internal use at GM sites or restricted to assigned GM drivers. Phase III of the project captured the first half or Alpha phase of the Engineering tasks for the development of a new thermal management design for a second generation battery module. The project spanned five years. It included six on-site technical reviews with representatives from the DOE. One unique aspect of the GM/DOE collaborative project was the involvement of the DOE throughout the OEM vehicle development process. The DOE gained an understanding of how an OEM develops vehicle efficiency and FE performance, while balancing many other vehicle performance attributes to provide customers well balanced and fuel efficient vehicles that are exciting to drive. Many vehicle content and performance trade-offs were encountered throughout the vehicle development process to achieve product cost and performance targets for both the OEM and end customer. The project team completed two sets of PHEV development vehicles with fully integrated PHEV systems. Over 50 development vehicles were built and operated for over 180,000 development miles. The team

  19. Rechargeable Energy Storage Systems for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles—Assessment of Electrical Characteristics

    Noshin Omar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the performances of various lithium-ion chemistries for use in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles have been investigated and compared to several other rechargeable energy storage systems technologies such as lead-acid, nickel-metal hydride and electrical-double layer capacitors. The analysis has shown the beneficial properties of lithium-ion in the terms of energy density, power density and rate capabilities. Particularly, the nickel manganese cobalt oxide cathode stands out with the high energy density up to 160 Wh/kg, compared to 70–110, 90 and 71 Wh/kg for lithium iron phosphate cathode, lithium nickel cobalt aluminum cathode and, lithium titanate oxide anode battery cells, respectively. These values are considerably higher than the lead-acid (23–28 Wh/kg and nickel-metal hydride (44–53 Wh/kg battery technologies. The dynamic discharge performance test shows that the energy efficiency of the lithium-ion batteries is significantly higher than the lead-acid and nickel-metal hydride technologies. The efficiency varies between 86% and 98%, with the best values obtained by pouch battery cells, ahead of cylindrical and prismatic battery design concepts. Also the power capacity of lithium-ion technology is superior compared to other technologies. The power density is in the range of 300–2400 W/kg against 200–400 and 90–120 W/kg for lead-acid and nickel-metal hydride, respectively. However, considering the influence of energy efficiency, the power density is in the range of 100–1150 W/kg. Lithium-ion batteries optimized for high energy are at the lower end of this range and are challenged to meet the United States Advanced Battery Consortium, SuperLIB and Massachusetts Institute of Technology goals. Their association with electric-double layer capacitors, which have low energy density (4–6 Wh/kg but outstanding power capabilities, could be very interesting. The study of the rate capability of the lithium-ion batteries has

  20. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition Study: Interim Report: Phase I Scenario Evaluation

    Sikes, Karen R [ORNL; Markel, Lawrence C [ORNL; Hadley, Stanton W [ORNL; Hinds, Shaun [Sentech, Inc.; DeVault, Robert C [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) offer significant improvements in fuel economy, convenient low-cost recharging capabilities, potential environmental benefits, and decreased reliance on imported petroleum. However, the cost associated with new components (e.g., advanced batteries) to be introduced in these vehicles will likely result in a price premium to the consumer. This study aims to overcome this market barrier by identifying and evaluating value propositions that will increase the qualitative value and/or decrease the overall cost of ownership relative to the competing conventional vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) of 2030 During this initial phase of this study, business scenarios were developed based on economic advantages that either increase the consumer value or reduce the consumer cost of PHEVs to assure a sustainable market that can thrive without the aid of state and Federal incentives or subsidies. Once the characteristics of a thriving PHEV market have been defined for this timeframe, market introduction steps, such as supportive policies, regulations and temporary incentives, needed to reach this level of sustainability will be determined. PHEVs have gained interest over the past decade for several reasons, including their high fuel economy, convenient low-cost recharging capabilities, potential environmental benefits and reduced use of imported petroleum, potentially contributing to President Bush's goal of a 20% reduction in gasoline use in ten years, or 'Twenty in Ten'. PHEVs and energy storage from advanced batteries have also been suggested as enabling technologies to improve the reliability and efficiency of the electric power grid. However, PHEVs will likely cost significantly more to purchase than conventional or other hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), in large part because of the cost of batteries. Despite the potential long-term savings to consumers and value to stakeholders, the initial cost of PHEVs

  1. Emissions impacts of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle deployment on the U.S. western grid

    Jansen, Karel H.; Brown, Tim M.; Samuelsen, G. Scott

    The constantly evolving western grid of the United States is characterized by complex generation dispatch based on economics, contractual agreements, and regulations. The future electrification of transportation via plug-in electric vehicles calls for an energy and emissions analysis of electric vehicle (EV) penetration scenarios based on realistic resource dispatch. A resource dispatch and emissions model for the western grid is developed and a baseline case is modeled. Results are compared with recorded data to validate the model and provide confidence in the analysis of EV-grid interaction outlooks. A modeled dispatch approach, based on a correlation between actual historical dispatch and system load data, is exercised to show the impacts (emission intensity, temporally resolved load demand) associated with EV penetration on the western grid. The plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) and selected charging scenarios are the focus for the analysis. The results reveal that (1) a correlation between system load and resource group capacity factor can be utilized in dispatch modeling, (2) the hourly emissions intensity of the grid depends upon PHEV fleet charge scenario, (3) emissions can be reduced for some species depending on the PHEV fleet charge scenario, and (4) the hourly model resolution of changes in grid emissions intensity can be used to decide on preferred fleet-wide charge profiles.

  2. Impact of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles on power systems with demand response and wind power

    This paper uses a new unit commitment model which can simulate the interactions among plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), wind power, and demand response (DR). Four PHEV charging scenarios are simulated for the Illinois power system: (1) unconstrained charging, (2) 3-hour delayed constrained charging, (3) smart charging, and (4) smart charging with DR. The PHEV charging is assumed to be optimally controlled by the system operator in the latter two scenarios, along with load shifting and shaving enabled by DR programs. The simulation results show that optimally dispatching the PHEV charging load can significantly reduce the total operating cost of the system. With DR programs in place, the operating cost can be further reduced. - Research highlights: → A unit commitment model is used to simulate the interactions among plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), wind power, and demand response (DR). → Different PHEV charging scenarios are simulated on the Illinois power system → Load shifting and shaving enabled by DR programs are also modeled. → The simulation results show that the operating cost can be reduced with DR and optimal PHEV charging.

  3. Comparison of transportation options in a carbon-constrained world : hydrogen, plug-in hybrids and biofuels

    A 100-year advanced vehicle simulation was conducted in order to compare the relative costs between hydrogen-powered, plug-in hybrids, and biofuel-powered vehicles. The life-cycle costs for various hydrogen systems were presented in order to estimate the future costs of a distributed hydrogen infrastructure. Vehicles were compared in terms of fuel economy, urban air pollution costs and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Societal cost reduction factors were also considered. Stringent future climate change constraints were applied to the simulation. The study demonstrated that fuel cell vehicles and a hydrogen infrastructure are both durable and cost-competitive. Plug-in vehicles are also economically viable. The study considered that hydrogen and electricity sources will become non-polluting in the future. Scenario market shares for various advanced vehicles were presented. The cost of the hydrogen infrastructure was compared with costs to reduce the carbon footprint of the electricity grid. Infrastructure costs were also compared to gasoline and diesel infrastructure. It was concluded that hydrogen-powered fuel cell vehicles will reduce GHGs to 80 per cent below 1990 levels, eliminate urban air pollution, and achieve petroleum energy independence. tabs., figs.

  4. Managing operations of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) exchange stations for use with a smart grid

    We consider a deterministic integer programming model for determining the optimal operations of multiple plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) battery exchange stations over time. The operations include the number of batteries to charge, discharge, and exchange at each point in time over a set time horizon. We allow discharging of batteries back to the power grid, through vehicle-to-grid technology. We incorporate the exchange station's dependence on the power network, transportation network, and other exchange stations. The charging and discharging at these exchange stations lead to a greater amount of variability which creates a less predictable and flat power generation curve. We introduce and test three policies to smooth the power generation curve by balancing its load. Further, tests are conducted evaluating these policies while factoring wind energy into the power generation curve. These computational tests use realistic data and analysis of the results suggest general operating procedures for exchange stations and evaluate the effectiveness of these power flattening policies. - Highlights: • Model the operations of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle battery exchange stations. • Determine the optimal and general charging, discharging, and exchange operations. • Conclude that forced customer service levels are unnecessary with proper pricing. • Examine policies to reduce variability in power generation from PHEVs and wind. • Observe that strict constraints on exchange stations best reduce variability

  5. Optimal sizing of plug-in fuel cell electric vehicles using models of vehicle performance and system cost

    Highlights: ► An analytical model for vehicle performance and power-train parameters. ► Quantitative relationships between vehicle performance and power-train parameters. ► Optimal sizing rules that help designing an optimal PEM fuel cell power-train. ► An on-road testing showing the performance of the proposed vehicle. -- Abstract: This paper presents an optimal sizing method for plug-in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell and lithium-ion battery (LIB) powered city buses. We propose a theoretical model describing the relationship between components’ parameters and vehicle performance. Analysis results show that within the working range of the electric motor, the maximal velocity and driving distance are influenced linearly by the parameters of the components, e.g. fuel cell efficiency, fuel cell output power, stored hydrogen mass, vehicle auxiliary power, battery capacity, and battery average resistance. Moreover, accelerating time is also linearly dependant on the abovementioned parameters, except of those of the battery. Next, we attempt to minimize fixed and operating costs by introducing an optimal sizing problem that uses as constraints the requirements on vehicle performance. By solving this problem, we attain several optimal sizing rules. Finally, we use these rules to design a plug-in PEM fuel cell city bus and present performance results obtained by on-road testing.

  6. Identification and use of an alkane transporter plug-in for application in biocatalysis and whole-cell biosensing of alkanes

    Grant, Chris; Deszcz, Dawid; Wei, Yu-Chia;

    2014-01-01

    Effective application of whole-cell devices in synthetic biology and biocatalysis will always require consideration of the uptake of molecules of interest into the cell. Here we demonstrate that the AlkL protein from Pseudomonas putida GPo1 is an alkane import protein capable of industrially...... plug-in, specific yields improved by up to 100-fold for bioxidation of>C12 alkanes to fatty alcohols and acids. The alkL protein was shown to be toxic to the host when overexpressed but when expressed from a vector capable of controlled induction, yields of alkane oxidation were improved a further 10......-fold (8 g/L and 1.7 g/g of total oxidized products). Further testing of activity on n-octane with the controlled expression vector revealed the highest reported rates of 120 μmol/min/g and 1 g/L/h total oxidized products. This is the first time AlkL has been shown to directly facilitate enhanced uptake...

  7. DualX E-drive. A flexible power train for plug-in hybrids; DualX E-Drive. Ein flexibles Antriebskonzept fuer Plug-in Hybride

    Ott, Martin W.; Blankenbach, Bernd; Schaefer, Juergen; Walliser, Dirk; Kuehn, Michael [MBtech Group GmbH und Co. KGaA, Sindelfingen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    On one hand, plug-in hybrids enable emission-free driving over appreciable distances. On the other hand, this is achieved by means of a correspondingly large and thus correspondingly expensive traction battery. The cost pressure for this component, as with all other hybrid components, is thus extremely high. MBtech developed the DualX E-Drive concept as part of an in-house plug-in hybrid project for a van. The results of an MBtech study regarding the requirements for the hybridization of light commercial vehicles served as the starting point. As with ''P4'' or ''through-the-road'' power trains, the DualX E-Drive combines a conventional combustion engine power train with an electromotive traction unit which power different axles. In addition to the advantages of a hybrid, the DualX E-Drive also provides an all-wheel drive power train. The ''off the shelf'' combustion engine powers the front wheels via a five-speed automated manual transmission. The electromotive power train, consisting of a high-speed synchronous motor and a two-speed transmission, powers the rear axle. The maximum torque and power values of the drive units have been optimized by means of simulations. For the vehicle investigated here this means that the maximum performance of both drive units is approximately the same. In addition to the range, fuel consumption and driving dynamics requirements, this also takes into account additional aspects such as cost, weight and installation space. Depending on the desired approach - ''green'' versus ''high range at low cost'' - the conventional power train can be powered by a CNG, diesel or gasoline engine. The use of an intelligent hybrid control in combination with the large battery makes the use of a high-voltage starter generator unnecessary. (orig.)

  8. Energy management of a power-split plug-in hybrid electric vehicle based on genetic algorithm and quadratic programming

    Chen, Zheng; Mi, Chris Chunting; Xiong, Rui; Xu, Jun; You, Chenwen

    2014-02-01

    This paper introduces an online and intelligent energy management controller to improve the fuel economy of a power-split plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). Based on analytic analysis between fuel-rate and battery current at different driveline power and vehicle speed, quadratic equations are applied to simulate the relationship between battery current and vehicle fuel-rate. The power threshold at which engine is turned on is optimized by genetic algorithm (GA) based on vehicle fuel-rate, battery state of charge (SOC) and driveline power demand. The optimal battery current when the engine is on is calculated using quadratic programming (QP) method. The proposed algorithm can control the battery current effectively, which makes the engine work more efficiently and thus reduce the fuel-consumption. Moreover, the controller is still applicable when the battery is unhealthy. Numerical simulations validated the feasibility of the proposed controller.

  9. Thermoelectric Modeling and Online SOC Estimation of Li-Ion Battery for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Aishwarya Panday

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing oil price, energy demand, and environmental concern are leading to a global switch towards Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs. In a PHEV, Li-ion battery is considered as the primary propelling source. Therefore, an accurate battery model is required to predict the I-V characteristic and dynamic behavior of a battery. This paper presents a highly effective thermoelectric model of Li-ion battery developed in Simulink. An algorithm is proposed for estimation of state of charge (SOC and open circuit voltage (OCV adaptively to notify the exact SOC level for better utilization of battery power and optimal vehicle performance. Thermal behavior of Li-ion battery is investigated for wide temperature range and its effect on resistance, capacity, and OCV is recorded. The minimum SOC level to which battery can get depleted is calculated using gradient method. The proposed simulation results are analyzed with those of earlier models and found to be better.

  10. Energy management of power-split plug-in hybrid electric vehicles based on simulated annealing and Pontryagin's minimum principle

    Chen, Zheng; Mi, Chunting Chris; Xia, Bing; You, Chenwen

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, an energy management method is proposed for a power-split plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). Through analyzing the PHEV powertrain, a series of quadratic equations are employed to approximate the vehicle's fuel-rate, using battery current as the input. Pontryagin's Minimum Principle (PMP) is introduced to find the battery current commands by solving the Hamiltonian function. Simulated Annealing (SA) algorithm is applied to calculate the engine-on power and the maximum current coefficient. Moreover, the battery state of health (SOH) is introduced to extend the application of the proposed algorithm. Simulation results verified that the proposed algorithm can reduce fuel-consumption compared to charge-depleting (CD) and charge-sustaining (CS) mode.

  11. Dynamic Coordinated Shifting Control of Automated Mechanical Transmissions without a Clutch in a Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Xinlei Liu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the shifting process of automated mechanical transmissions (AMTs for traditional hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs, and by combining the features of electric machines with fast response speed, the dynamic model of the hybrid electric AMT vehicle powertrain is built up, the dynamic characteristics of each phase of shifting process are analyzed, and a control strategy in which torque and speed of the engine and electric machine are coordinatively controlled to achieve AMT shifting control for a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV without clutch is proposed. In the shifting process, the engine and electric machine are well controlled, and the shift jerk and power interruption and restoration time are reduced. Simulation and real car test results show that the proposed control strategy can more efficiently improve the shift quality for PHEVs equipped with AMTs.

  12. Energy efficiency analysis of a series plug-in hybrid electric bus with different energy management strategies and battery sizes

    Highlights: • Recuperation and fuel-to-traction efficiencies are analyzed for a PHEV powertrain. • Two different energy controls are compared in terms of the two efficiencies. • Impact of battery downsizing on the two efficiencies is quantified. • Convex modeling and optimization are used to analyze the powertrain. - Abstract: This paper is concerned with the tank-to-wheel (TTW) analysis of a series plug-in hybrid electric bus operated in Gothenburg, Sweden. The bus line and the powertrain model are described. The definition and the calculation method of the recuperation and fuel-to-traction efficiencies are delineated for evaluating the TTW energy conversion. The two efficiencies are quantified and compared for two optimization-based energy management strategies, in which convex modeling and optimization are used. The impact of downsizing the battery on the two efficiencies is also investigated

  13. Plug-in Development Based on the Eclipse Platform%基于Eclipse平台的插件开发

    罗强

    2012-01-01

    Full analysis and application by the introduction of the Eclipse integrated development environment platform using the Eclipse platform plug-in development mechanism,providing an object-oriented visualization,game development environment,which integrated development environment for visualization of mobile games analysis and design.%全文通过对Eclipse集成开发环境的介绍已经平台的分析与应用,利用Eclipse平台的插件开发机制,提供一个面向对象的可视化的游戏开发环境,从而进行手机游戏可视化集成开发环境的分析设计。

  14. Implementation Approach for Plug-in Electric Vehicles at Joint Base Lewis McChord. Task 4

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This study focused on Joint Base Lewis McChord (JBLM), which is located in Washington State. Task 1 consisted of a survey of the non-tactical fleet of vehicles at JBLM to begin the review of vehicle mission assignments and the types of vehicles in service. In Task 2, daily operational characteristics of select vehicles were identified and vehicle movements were recorded in data loggers in order to characterize the vehicles’ missions. In Task 3, the results of the data analysis and observations were provided. Individual observations of the selected vehicles provided the basis for recommendations related to PEV adoption (i.e., whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle [collectively referred to as PEVs] can fulfill the mission requirements0, as well as the basis for recommendations related to placement of PEV charging infrastructure. This report focuses on an implementation plan for the near-term adoption of PEVs into the JBLM fleet.

  15. Assessment of Charging Infrastructure for Plug-in Electric Vehicles at Naval Air Station Whidbey Island: Task 3

    Schey, Steve [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Several U.S. Department of Defense base studies have been conducted to identify potential U.S. Department of Defense transportation systems that are strong candidates for introduction or expansion of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). Task 1 consisted of a survey of the non-tactical fleet of vehicles at NASWI to begin the review of vehicle mission assignments and types of vehicles in service. Task 2 selected vehicles for further monitoring and involved identifying daily operational characteristics of these select vehicles. Data logging of vehicle movements was initiated in order to characterize the vehicle’s mission. The Task 3 Vehicle Utilization report provided the results of the data analysis and observations related to the replacement of current vehicles with PEVs. This report provides an assessment of charging infrastructure required to support the suggested PEV replacements.

  16. Perception and reality: Public knowledge of plug-in electric vehicles in 21 U.S. cities

    This paper examines the extent of consumer knowledge about plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) and the current policies in place to encourage their purchase and use. Data are collected via a survey administered to a sample of 2302 adult drivers in 21 of the largest cities in the United States. Almost two-thirds of the respondents provided incorrect answers to basic factual questions about PEVs and, of those, approximately 75% underestimated their private value or advantages. The vast majority (94.5%) of respondents were not aware of the current state and local incentives in place in their locale to encourage PEV purchase and use. Based on a review of consumer theory, multivariate models are developed and used to assess the factors associated with consumer interest in the two major types of PEV technologies, Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV) and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV). Results show demographic and attitudinal characteristics having the largest influence on interest in either type of PEV. Misperceptions about purchase price and expected fuel and maintenance savings are likewise significant, although their impacts differ between BEVs and PHEVs. Better informing consumers about already available public incentives and advantageous aspects of existing PEV technologies offer promising steps toward their mass commercialization. - Highlights: • Survey analysis examines consumer knowledge of PEVs and current public policies. • Majority of respondents have incorrect perceptions about basic PEV characteristics. • Vast majority of respondents are not aware of current state and local PEV policies. • Misperception about fuel and maintenance savings significantly affects PEV interest

  17. Future Users of Plug-in Hybrids and Battery Electric Vehicles. Characteristics of the future early adopters and early majority in the Netherlands

    Velthuis, Martin

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY One approach to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions in the transport sector is to change transportation modes to become more electric. The scope of this research is on the Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV), the Electric Vehicle with a Range

  18. Study on Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle%Plug-in混合动力电动汽车的研究分析

    杨金星; 周荣; 乔维高

    2009-01-01

    外接充电式混合动力电动汽车(Plug-in HEV)是在传统混合动力汽车基础上派生出来的新型节能环保车,可以大大改善汽车有害气体和温室气体排放,提高汽车燃油经济性.文章介绍了Plug-in HEV的动力系统结构,阐述了Plug-in HEV的工作模式及控制策略,指出Plug-in HEV除具有纯电动汽车的全部优点外,还可利用晚间低谷电对电池充电等优点,但同时又受到充电基础设施和成本等因素制约,是一种最有发展前景的混合动力电动汽车.

  19. Demonstrating a Multi-purpose, Modular, Open Source Inverse Modeling Plug-in for HydroDesktop on a Simple 2-D Application

    Rubin, Y.; Over, M. W.; Ames, D. P.; Osorio, C.

    2011-12-01

    Inversion modeling techniques have long since been documented and practiced in the hydrological community; but few methods have been developed into open source, easy-to-use software. Current collaborative work involves the construction of a modularized plug-in tool to perform method of anchored distribution (MAD) analysis within the HydroDesktop application. MAD is a general inverse method with applicability to all areas in hydrology that deal with spatial variability, and with issues of multi-type and multi-scale data. The plug-in will feature a simple GUI with a guided wizard to assist users through the inversion modeling analysis. The capacities of the MAD plug-in will be demonstrated on a simple 2-D, planar flow problem generated with fixed head and flow boundaries on a random hydraulic conductivity domain. Custody of the MAD plug-in, after development, will be turned over to CUAHSI for long term maintenance and continued support as a community tool.

  20. The version 4.1 of jMRUI: a state-of-the-art plug-in platform for medical MRS

    Stefan, D.; Amariei, D.; Di Cesare, F.; Uberti, M.; Vescovo, E.; Allouche, A.; Aubert-Frécon, M.; de Beer, R.; Cabanas, M.; Sima, D.; Slotboom, J.; Starčuková, Jana; Starčuk jr., Zenon; Ormondt van, D.; Graveron-Demilly, D.

    Vol. S1. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 2011, s. 532-533. ISSN 1352-8661. [ESMRMB 2011 Congress. Leipzig (DE), 06.10.2011-08.10.2011] Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : jMRUI * quantitation * plug-ins * simulation * spectroscopy Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  1. 应用泪道栓塞术治疗顽固性干眼的临床观察%Clinical trial of Smart Plug in lacrimal plug in the treatment of serious dry eye

    赵越筑; 屠叔丹; 邵利琴

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the availability and efficacy of Smart Plug in lacrimal plug in the treatment of serious dry eye with the VDT (video display terminal). Methods Lacrumal plug by lacrimal aperture was applied in 32 patients (48 eyes) with the VDT dry eyes. Symptoms of patients with 6 months before operation and after operation, tears secretion test and the improvement of tears break-up time (BUT) were recorded. Results The results showed that effective rate and improvement rate were 83% (40eyes) and 17% (8 eyes) respectively. Symptoms of patients suffered from dry eye were relieved obviously by using Smart Plug. Conclusions Lacrimal plug can be used for patients with serious dry eye by improving tear volume and tear film stability.%目的 探讨新型Smart Plug泪道栓子治疗视频终端顽固性干眼的临床效果.方法 观察32例(48只眼)视频终端顽固性干眼的患者,选择性在上下泪小点或下泪小点植入泪道栓子,治疗后6个月进行复诊,记录术前、术后6个月症状及泪液分泌试验、泪膜破裂时间的改善情况.结果 经治疗显效40只眼占83%,有效8只眼占17%.结论 使用Smart Plug泪道栓子进行泪道栓塞术可以明显改善干眼患者的临床症状,增加患者眼球表面泪液量,改善泪膜的稳定性,是治疗视频终端顽固性干眼的有效方法之一.

  2. Field-test programs of borehole plugs in southeastern New Mexico

    This paper gives a general overview of the repository-sealing field test effort being conducted by Sandia National Laboratories in support of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in southeast New Mexico. Summary descriptions of supporting activities, such as performance assessment and plugging materials development, are included to create the connection between modeling and laboratory activities as they relate to field results. Results of tests on a portion of a 17-year-old plug (Plug 217) recovered from a mine horizon and the Bell Canyon Test, in which a cement plug was emplaced to isolate a naturally pressurized aquifer, are given. Conclusions from these field plugging tests are included

  3. Response of microbial community structure to microbial plugging in a mesothermic petroleum reservoir in China.

    Zhang, Fan; She, Yue Hui; Ma, Sha Sha; Hu, Ji Ming; Banat, Ibrahim M; Hou, Du Jie

    2010-12-01

    Microbial plugging, a microbial enhancement of oil recovery (MEOR) technique, has been applied in a candidate oil reservoir of Daqing Oil Field (China). The goal of this study is to monitor the survival of injected bacteria and reveal the response of microbial communities in field trial of microbial plugging through injection of selected microbial culture broth and nutrients. Culture-dependent enrichment and culture-independent 16S rDNA clone library methods were used. The results show that it was easy to activate targeted biopolymer-producing bacteria in a laboratory environment, and it was difficult for injected exogenous bacteria to survive. In addition, microbial communities in the oil reservoir also changed before and after the field trial. However, microbial communities, activated by fermentative medium for biopolymer-producing bacteria, appeared to show greater differences in the laboratory than in the natural reservoir. It was concluded that microbial populations monitoring was important to MEOR; results of response of microbial communities could provide a guide for the future field trials. PMID:20803140

  4. Response of microbial community structure to microbial plugging in a mesothermic petroleum reservoir in China

    Zhang, Fan; Hou, Du Jie [Ministry of Education, China Univ. of Geosciences, Beijing (China). Key Lab. of Marine Reservoir Evolution and Hydrocarbon Accumulation Mechanism; She, Yue Hui [Wuhan Univ. (China). College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences; Yangtze Univ., Hubei (China). College of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering; Ma, Sha Sha [Yangtze Univ., Hubei (China). College of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering; Hu, Ji Ming [Wuhan Univ. (China). College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences; Banat, Ibrahim M. [Ulster Univ., Coleraine (Ireland). School of Biomedical Sciences

    2010-12-15

    Microbial plugging, a microbial enhancement of oil recovery (MEOR) technique, has been applied in a candidate oil reservoir of Daqing Oil Field (China). The goal of this study is to monitor the survival of injected bacteria and reveal the response of microbial communities in field trial of microbial plugging through injection of selected microbial culture broth and nutrients. Culture-dependent enrichment and culture-independent 16S rDNA clone library methods were used. The results show that it was easy to activate targeted biopolymer-producing bacteria in a laboratory environment, and it was difficult for injected exogenous bacteria to survive. In addition, microbial communities in the oil reservoir also changed before and after the field trial. However, microbial communities, activated by fermentative medium for biopolymer-producing bacteria, appeared to show greater differences in the laboratory than in the natural reservoir. It was concluded that microbial populations monitoring was important to MEOR; results of response of microbial communities could provide a guide for the future field trials. (orig.)

  5. Optimal Coordinated Management of a Plug-In Electric Vehicle Charging Station under a Flexible Penalty Contract for Voltage Security

    Jip Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The increasing penetration of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs may cause a low-voltage problem in the distribution network. In particular, the introduction of charging stations where multiple PEVs are simultaneously charged at the same bus can aggravate the low-voltage problem. Unlike a distribution network operator (DNO who has the overall responsibility for stable and reliable network operation, a charging station operator (CSO may schedule PEV charging without consideration for the resulting severe voltage drop. Therefore, there is a need for the DNO to impose a coordination measure to induce the CSO to adjust its charging schedule to help mitigate the voltage problem. Although the current time-of-use (TOU tariff is an indirect coordination measure that can motivate the CSO to shift its charging demand to off-peak time by imposing a high rate at the peak time, it is limited by its rigidity in that the network voltage condition cannot be flexibly reflected in the tariff. Therefore, a flexible penalty contract (FPC for voltage security to be used as a direct coordination measure is proposed. In addition, the optimal coordinated management is formulated. Using the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E 69-bus test distribution network, the effectiveness of the coordination was verified by comparison with the current TOU tariff.

  6. On the aggregate grid load imposed by battery health-conscious charging of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    Bashash, Saeid; Moura, Scott J.; Fathy, Hosam K.

    2011-10-01

    This article examines the problem of estimating the aggregate load imposed on the power grid by the battery health-conscious charging of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The article begins by generating a set of representative daily trips using (i) the National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) and (ii) a Markov chain model of both federal and naturalistic drive cycles. A multi-objective optimizer then uses each of these trips, together with PHEV powertrain and battery degradation models, to optimize both PHEV daily energy cost and battery degradation. The optimizer achieves this by varying (i) the amounts of charge obtained from the grid by each PHEV, and (ii) the timing of this charging. The article finally computes aggregate PHEV power demand by accumulating the charge patterns optimized for individual PHEV trips. The results of this aggregation process show a peak PHEV load in the early morning (between 5.00 and 6.00 a.m.), with approximately half of all PHEVs charging simultaneously. The ability to charge at work introduces smaller additional peaks in the aggregate load pattern. The article concludes by exploring the sensitivity of these results to the relative weighting of the two optimization objectives (energy cost and battery health), battery size, and electricity price.

  7. Swarm Intelligence-Based Smart Energy Allocation Strategy for Charging Stations of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Imran Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent researches towards the use of green technologies to reduce pollution and higher penetration of renewable energy sources in the transportation sector have been gaining popularity. In this wake, extensive participation of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs requires adequate charging allocation strategy using a combination of smart grid systems and smart charging infrastructures. Daytime charging stations will be needed for daily usage of PHEVs due to the limited all-electric range. Intelligent energy management is an important issue which has already drawn much attention of researchers. Most of these works require formulation of mathematical models with extensive use of computational intelligence-based optimization techniques to solve many technical problems. In this paper, gravitational search algorithm (GSA has been applied and compared with another member of swarm family, particle swarm optimization (PSO, considering constraints such as energy price, remaining battery capacity, and remaining charging time. Simulation results obtained for maximizing the highly nonlinear objective function evaluate the performance of both techniques in terms of best fitness.

  8. Analysis of Plug-In hybrid Electric Vehicles' utility factors using GPS-based longitudinal travel data

    Aviquzzaman, Md

    The benefit of using a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) comes from its ability of substituting gasoline with electricity in operation. Defined as the share of distance traveled in the electric mode, the utility factor (UF) depends mostly on the battery capacity but also on many other factors, such as travel pattern and recharging pattern. Conventionally, the UFs are calculated from the daily vehicle miles traveled (DVMT) of vehicles by assuming motorists leaving home in the morning with full battery and return home in the evening. Such assumption, however, ignores the impact of the heterogeneity in both travel and charging behavior. The main objective of the thesis is to compare the UF by using multiday GPS-based travel data in regards to the charging decision. This thesis employs the global positioning system (GPS) based longitudinal travel data (covering 3-18 months) collected from 403 vehicles in the Seattle metropolitan area to investigate the impacts of such travel and charging behavior on UFs by analyzing the DVMT and home and work related tours. The UFs based on the DVMT are found close to those based on home-to-home tours. On the other hand, it is seen that the workplace charge opportunities largely improve UFs if the battery capacity is no more than 50 miles. It is also found that the gasoline price does not have significant impact on the UFs.

  9. Optimal economy-based battery degradation management dynamics for fuel-cell plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    Martel, François; Kelouwani, Sousso; Dubé, Yves; Agbossou, Kodjo

    2015-01-01

    This work analyses the economical dynamics of an optimized battery degradation management strategy intended for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) with consideration given to low-cost technologies, such as lead-acid batteries. The optimal management algorithm described herein is based on discrete dynamic programming theory (DDP) and was designed for the purpose of PHEV battery degradation management; its operation relies on simulation models using data obtained experimentally on a physical PHEV platform. These tools are first used to define an optimal management strategy according to the economical weights of PHEV battery degradation and the secondary energy carriers spent to manage its deleterious effects. We then conduct a sensitivity study of the proposed optimization process to the fluctuating economic parameters associated with the fuel and energy costs involved in the degradation management process. Results demonstrate the influence of each parameter on the process's response, including daily total operating costs and expected battery lifetime, as well as establish boundaries for useful application of the method; in addition, they provide a case for the relevance of inexpensive battery technologies, such as lead-acid batteries, for economy-centric PHEV applications where battery degradation is a major concern.

  10. Impacts of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles on a residential transformer using stochastic and empirical analysis

    Razeghi, Ghazal; Zhang, Li; Brown, Tim; Samuelsen, Scott

    2014-04-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) have been identified as an option that can reduce criteria pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions associated with the transportation sector. The electricity demand of one of these vehicles is comparable to that of a typical U.S. household and thus clustering of PEVs in a neighborhood might have adverse effects on the transformer and disruption of service. In this paper, the electricity demand of a neighborhood is modeled based on measured vehicle and household data. The electricity demand profile of the PEVs is modeled based on the vehicle type, arrival and departure times and the daily miles traveled, all taken from the National Household Travel Survey (NHTS). A thermal model is developed to calculate the hot spot temperature and loss of life of the transformer. Results show that Level 1 charging has a small impact on the transformer aging and that only in one case, with Level 2 charging, the transformer might fail due to excessive temperatures. Overall addition of a significant number of PEVs is manageable for the transformer. The negative effects on the life time can be mitigated by properly designing the transformers and using smart charging scenarios.

  11. Fuel reduction and electricity consumption impact of different charging scenarios for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    Zhang, Li; Brown, Tim; Samuelsen, G. Scott

    2011-08-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) consume both gasoline and grid electricity. The corresponding temporal energy consumption and emission trends are valuable to investigate in order to fully understand the environmental benefits. The 24-h energy consumption and emission profile depends on different vehicle designs, driving, and charging scenarios. This study assesses the potential energy impact of PHEVs by considering different charging scenarios defined by different charging power levels, locations, and charging time. The region selected for the study is the South Coast Air Basin of California. Driving behaviors are derived from the National Household Travel Survey 2009 (NHTS 2009) and vehicle parameters are based on realistic assumptions consistent with projected vehicle deployments. Results show that the reduction in petroleum consumption is significant compared to standard gasoline vehicles and the ability to operate on electricity alone is crucial to cold start emission reduction. The benefit of higher power charging on petroleum consumption is small. Delayed and average charging are better than immediate charging for home, and non-home charging increases peak grid loads.

  12. Optimal Energy Management Strategy of a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Based on a Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm

    Zeyu Chen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs have been recognized as one of the most promising vehicle categories nowadays due to their low fuel consumption and reduced emissions. Energy management is critical for improving the performance of PHEVs. This paper proposes an energy management approach based on a particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm. The optimization objective is to minimize total energy cost (summation of oil and electricity from vehicle utilization. A main drawback of optimal strategies is that they can hardly be used in real-time control. In order to solve this problem, a rule-based strategy containing three operation modes is proposed first, and then the PSO algorithm is implemented on four threshold values in the presented rule-based strategy. The proposed strategy has been verified by the US06 driving cycle under the MATLAB/Simulink software environment. Two different driving cycles are adopted to evaluate the generalization ability of the proposed strategy. Simulation results indicate that the proposed PSO-based energy management method can achieve better energy efficiency compared with traditional blended strategies. Online control performance of the proposed approach has been demonstrated through a driver-in-the-loop real-time experiment.

  13. Emissions impacts and benefits of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and vehicle-to-grid services.

    Sioshansi, Ramteen; Denholm, Paul

    2009-02-15

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have been promoted as a potential technology to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and other pollutants by using electricity instead of petroleum, and byimproving electric system efficiency by providing vehicle-to-grid (V2G) services. We use an electric power system model to explicitly evaluate the change in generator dispatches resulting from PHEV deployment in the Texas grid, and apply fixed and non-parametric estimates of generator emissions rates, to estimate the resulting changes in generation emissions. We find that by using the flexibility of when vehicles may be charged, generator efficiency can be increased substantially. By changing generator dispatch, a PHEVfleet of up to 15% of light-duty vehicles can actually decrease net generator NOx emissions during the ozone season, despite the additional charging load. By adding V2G services, such as spinning reserves and energy storage, CO2, SO2, and NOx emissions can be reduced even further. PMID:19320180

  14. Multi-Period Optimization Model for Electricity Generation Planning Considering Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Penetration

    Lena Ahmadi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the main challenges for widespread penetration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs is their impact on the electricity grid. The energy sector must anticipate and prepare for this extra demand and implement long-term planning for electricity production. In this paper, the additional electricity demand on the Ontario electricity grid from charging PHEVs is incorporated into an electricity production planning model. A case study pertaining to Ontario energy planning is considered to optimize the value of the cost of the electricity over sixteen years (2014–2030. The objective function consists of the fuel costs, fixed and variable operating and maintenance costs, capital costs for new power plants, and the retrofit costs of existing power plants. Five different case studies are performed with different PHEVs penetration rates, types of new power plants, and CO2 emission constraints. Among all the cases studied, the one requiring the most new capacity, (~8748 MW, is assuming the base case with 6% reduction in CO2 in year 2018 and high PHEV penetration. The next highest one is the base case, plus considering doubled NG prices, PHEV medium penetration rate and no CO2 emissions reduction target with an increase of 34.78% in the total installed capacity in 2030. Furthermore, optimization results indicate that by not utilizing coal power stations the CO2 emissions are the lowest: ~500 tonnes compared to ~900 tonnes when coal is permitted.

  15. Design and simulation of a fast-charging station for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) batteries

    de Leon, Nathalie Pulmones

    2011-12-01

    With the increasing interest in green technologies in transportation, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) have proven to be the best short-term solution to minimize greenhouse gas emissions. Despite such interest, conventional vehicle drivers are still reluctant in using such a new technology, mainly because of the long duration (4-8 hours) required to charge PHEV batteries with the currently existing Level I and II chargers. For this reason, Level III fast-charging stations capable of reducing the charging duration to 10-15 minutes are being considered. The present thesis focuses on the design of a fast-charging station that uses, in addition to the electrical grid, two stationary energy storage devices: a flywheel energy storage and a supercapacitor. The power electronic converters used for the interface of the energy sources with the charging station are designed. The design also focuses on the energy management that will minimize the PHEV battery charging duration as well as the duration required to recharge the energy storage devices. For this reason, an algorithm that minimizes durations along with its mathematical formulation is proposed, and its application in fast charging environment will be illustrated by means of two scenarios.

  16. Tradeoffs between battery energy capacity and stochastic optimal power management in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    Recent results in plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) power management research suggest that battery energy capacity requirements may be reduced through proper power management algorithm design. Specifically, algorithms which blend fuel and electricity during the charge depletion phase using smaller batteries may perform equally to algorithms that apply electric-only operation during charge depletion using larger batteries. The implication of this result is that ''blended'' power management algorithms may reduce battery energy capacity requirements, thereby lowering the acquisition costs of PHEVs. This article seeks to quantify the tradeoffs between power management algorithm design and battery energy capacity, in a systematic and rigorous manner. Namely, we (1) construct dynamic PHEV models with scalable battery energy capacities, (2) optimize power management using stochastic control theory, and (3) develop simulation methods to statistically quantify the performance tradeoffs. The degree to which blending enables smaller battery energy capacities is evaluated as a function of both daily driving distance and energy (fuel and electricity) pricing. (author)

  17. Assessment of Charging Infrastructure for Plug-in Electric Vehicles at Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune. Task 3

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, managing and operating contractor for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory, is the lead laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy’s advanced vehicle testing. Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC contracted with Intertek Testing Services, North America (Intertek) to conduct several U.S. Department of Defense-based studies to identify potential U.S. Department of Defense transportation systems that are strong candidates for introduction or expansion of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). Task 1 consisted of a survey of the non-tactical fleet of vehicles at Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune to begin the review of vehicle mission assignments and types of vehicles in service. Task 2 selected vehicles for further monitoring and involved identifying daily operational characteristics of these select vehicles. Data logging of vehicle movements was initiated in order to characterize the vehicle’s mission. The Task 3 vehicle utilization report provided results of the data analysis and observations related to the replacement of current vehicles with PEVs. Finally, this report provides an assessment of charging infrastructure required to support the suggested PEV replacements. Intertek acknowledges the support of Idaho National Laboratory, Marine Corps headquarters, and Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune Fleet management and personnel for participation in this study. Intertek is pleased to provide this report and is encouraged by enthusiasm and support from Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune personnel.

  18. Evaluation of the Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Considering Learning Curve on Battery and Power Generation Best Mix

    Shinoda, Yukio; Tanaka, Hideo; Akisawa, Atsushi; Kashiwagi, Takao

    Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) is one of the technologies to reduce amount of CO2 emissions in transport section. This paper presents one of the scenarios that shows how widely used the PHEVs will be in the future. And this paper also presents how amount of CO2 will be reduced by the introduction of PHEVs, and whether there are any serious effects on power supply system in those scenarios. PHEV can run with both gasoline and electricity. Therefore we evaluate CO2 emissions not only from gasoline consumption but also from electricity consumption. To consider a distribution of daily-trip-distance is important for evaluating the economical merit and CO2 emissions by introducing of PHEV. Also, the battery cost in the future is very important for making a PHEV's growth scenario. The growth of the number of PHEV makes battery cost lower. Then, we formulate the total model that combines passenger car sector and power supply sector with considering a distribution of daily-trip-distance and Learning Curve on battery costs. We use the iteration method to consider a Learning Curve that is non- linear. Therefore we set battery cost only in the first year of the simulation. Battery costs in the later year are calculated in the model. We focus on the 25-year time frame from 2010 in Japan, with divided in 5 terms (1st∼5th). And that model selects the most economical composition of car type and power sources.

  19. Three-Phase High-Power and Zero-Current-Switching OBC for Plug-In Electric Vehicles

    Cheng-Shan Wang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an interleaved high-power zero-current-switching (ZCS onboard charger (OBC based on the three-phase single-switch buck rectifier is proposed for application to plug-in electric vehicles (EVs. The multi-resonant structure is used to achieve high efficiency and high power density, which are necessary to reduce the volume and weight of the OBC. This study focuses on the border conditions of ZCS converting with a battery load, which means the variation ranges of the output voltage and current are very large. Furthermore, a novel hybrid control method combining pulse frequency modulation (PFM and pulse width modulation (PWM together is presented to ensure a driving frequency higher than 10 kHz, and this will reduce the unexpected inner resonant power flow and decrease the total harmonic distortion (THD of the input current under a light load at the end of the charging process. Finally, a prototype is established, and experiments are carried out. According to the experimental results, the conversion efficiency is higher than 93.5%, the THD about 4.3% and power factor (PF 0.98 under the maximum power output condition. Besides, a three-stage charging process is also carried out the experimental platform.

  20. Maximizing Societal Benefits Associated With Alternative Fuel Subsidies: The Case of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Nazir, Samir M.

    Government seeks to improve the welfare of its citizenry and intervenes in marketplaces to maximize benefits when externalities are not captured. By analyzing how welfare changes from area to area across the country in response to the same intervention informs where government should act. This thesis analyzes the case of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). PHEVs have many societal benefits, including improving national security, economic, environmental, and health advantages. The magnitude and distribution of these benefits depends on where PHEVs are deployed. This thesis develops and applies a methodology to determine if the benefits from PHEV deployment vary across the country and for ranking regions where positive PHEV consequences are likely to be maximized. The metrics in this method are proxies of key variables which predict the level of benefits in a county from the deployment of a PHEV there; they include population, health benefits from reduced ozone concentration, vehicle miles traveled per capita, existence of non-federal policies, and CO 2 intensity of electricity. By shedding light on how benefits from PHEV deployment vary across counties, this thesis seeks to better inform where to enact government interventions to maximize the benefits of this technology.

  1. Coupling Clinical Decision Support System with Computerized Prescriber Order Entry and their Dynamic Plugging in the Medical Workflow System

    Bouzguenda, Lotfi

    2012-01-01

    This work deals with coupling Clinical Decision Support System (CDSS) with Computerized Prescriber Order Entry (CPOE) and their dynamic plugging in the medical Workflow Management System (WfMS). First, in this paper we argue some existing CDSS representative of the state of the art in order to emphasize their inability to deal with coupling with CPOE and medical WfMS. The multi-agent technology is at the basis of our proposition since (i) it provides natural abstractions to deal with distribution, heterogeneity and autonomy which are inherent to the previous systems (CDSS, CPOE and medical WfMS), and (ii) it introduces powerful concepts such as organizations, goals and roles useful to describe in details the coordination of the different components involved in these systems. In this paper, we also propose a Multi-Agent System (MAS) to support the coupling CDSS with CPOE. Finally, we show how we integrate the proposed MAS in the medical workflow management system which is also based on collaborating agents

  2. Extending a teleradiology system by tools for 3D-visualization and volumetric analysis through a plug-in mechanism.

    Evers, H; Mayer, A; Engelmann, U; Schröter, A; Baur, U; Wolsiffer, K; Meinzer, H P

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes ongoing research concerning interactive volume visualization coupled with tools for volumetric analysis. To establish an easy to use application, the 3D-visualization has been embedded in a state of the art teleradiology system, where additional functionality is often desired beyond basic image transfer and management. Major clinical requirements for deriving spatial measures are covered by the tools, in order to realize extended diagnosis support and therapy planning. Introducing the general plug-in mechanism this work exemplarily describes the useful extension of an approved application. Interactive visualization was achieved by a hybrid approach taking advantage of both the precise volume visualization based on the Heidelberg Raytracing Model and the graphics acceleration of modern workstations. Several tools for volumetric analysis extend the 3D-viewing. They offer 3D-pointing devices to select locations in the data volume, measure anatomical structures or control segmentation processes. A haptic interface provides a realistic perception while navigating within the 3D-reconstruction. The work is closely related to research work in the field of heart, liver and head surgery. In cooperation with our medical partners the development of tools as presented proceed the integration of image analysis into clinical routine. PMID:10384617

  3. A framework for allocating greenhouse gas emissions from electricity generation to plug-in electric vehicle charging

    This paper describes a number of different allocation methods for assigning greenhouse gas emissions from electricity generation to charging plug-in electric vehicles. These methods for calculating the carbon intensity of electricity are discussed in terms of merits and drawbacks and are placed into a framework to aid in understanding the relation with other allocation methods. Three independent decisions are used to define these methods (average vs. marginal, aggregate vs. temporally-explicit, and retrospective vs. prospective). This framework is important because the use of different methods can lead to very different carbon intensities and studies or analyses that do not properly identify the methods used can confuse policymakers and stakeholders, especially when compared to other studies using different methods. - Highlights: • Reviews literature of emissions from charging electric vehicles. • Examines multiple allocation methods for GHG emissions for electric vehicles. • Provides a framework for understanding various GHG impact studies. • A “best” allocation method for all situations and analyses does not exist

  4. Optimal scheduling for vehicle-to-grid operation with stochastic connection of plug-in electric vehicles to smart grid

    Highlights: • A novel event-triggered scheduling scheme for vehicle-to-grid (V2G) operation is proposed. • New scheme can handle the uncertainty arising from stochastic connection of electric vehicles. • New scheme aims at minimizing the overall load variance of power grid by V2G operation. • Method to evaluate the performance of proposed scheme is elaborated and demonstrated. - Abstract: Vehicle-to-grid (V2G) operation of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) is attracting increasing attention since it can assist to improve the efficiency and reliability of power grid, as well as reduce the operating cost and greenhouse gas emission of electric vehicles. Within the scheme of V2G operation, PEVs are expected to serve as a novel distributed energy storage system (ESS) to help achieve the balance between supply and demand of power grid. One of the key difficulties concerning its practical implementation lies in that the availability of PEVs as ESS for grid remains highly uncertain due to their mobility as transportation tools. To address this issue, a novel event-triggered scheduling scheme for V2G operation based on the scenario of stochastic PEV connection to smart grid is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the mathematical model is formulated. Secondly, the preparation of input data for systematic evaluation is introduced and the case study is conducted. Finally, statistic analysis results demonstrate that our proposed V2G scheduling scheme can dramatically smooth out the fluctuation in power load profiles

  5. GHG emissions from sugar cane ethanol, plug-in hybrids, heavy duty gasoline vehicles and hybrids, and materials review

    This report provided updates of new work and new pathways added to the GHGenius model. The model was developed to analyze lifecycle emissions of contaminants associated with the production and use of alternative and traditional fuels, and is continually updated with new information on existing processes and new innovations. The report described the addition of a new table that showed fossil energy consumption per km driven. New information on energy requirements to remove sulphur from gasoline and diesel fuel in Canada were provided. The report also outlined a new pathway for plug-in hybrid battery-powered electric and gasoline vehicles. Vehicle weight was included as part of the user inputs for modelling gasoline powered heavy duty vehicles and gasoline hybrid heavy duty vehicles. Information on the production processes of ethanol from sugar cane were also added to the model. Amounts of energy consumed during the manufacture of materials for vehicles were also incorporated into the model. 34 refs., 39 tabs., 6 figs

  6. Implications of driving patterns on well-to-wheel performance of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

    Raykin, Leon; MacLean, Heather L; Roorda, Matthew J

    2012-06-01

    This study examines how driving patterns (distance and conditions) and the electricity generation supply interact to impact well-to-wheel (WTW) energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The WTW performance of a PHEV is compared with that of a similar (nonplug-in) gasoline hybrid electric vehicle and internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV). Driving PHEVs for short distances between recharging generally results in lower WTW total and fossil energy use and GHG emissions per kilometer compared to driving long distances, but the extent of the reductions depends on the electricity supply. For example, the shortest driving pattern in this study with hydroelectricity uses 81% less fossil energy than the longest driving pattern. However, the shortest driving pattern with coal-based electricity uses only 28% less fossil energy. Similar trends are observed in reductions relative to the nonplug-in vehicles. Irrespective of the electricity supply, PHEVs result in greater reductions in WTW energy use and GHG emissions relative to ICEVs for city than highway driving conditions. PHEVs charging from coal facilities only reduce WTW energy use and GHG emissions relative to ICEVs for certain favorable driving conditions. The study results have implications for environmentally beneficial PHEV adoption and usage patterns. PMID:22568681

  7. 2D geo-electric structure across volcanic plugs in Junagadh area of Saurashtra using magnetotellurics

    Complete text of publication follows. A magnetotelluric survey has been conducted along a traverse of 220 km oriented in SW-NE direction, covering three major geological formations covering 18 broad band MT sites in Saurashtra peninsula. The traverse passes over Tertiary sediments, Deccan traps on the SW side and Mesozoic sediments on the NE side. The Porbandar formations and alluvium are well reflected close to the coast with a thickness 1 Km. The plutonic masses towards SW of Rajkot are well reflected in 2D subsurface geo-electric section. A significant change in geological structure (from about 3 km. onwards) has been observed at sites close to NE side of the profile. Undulating basement topography has been observed throughout the traverse with as shallow as 1 km on NE side to as deep as more than 5 km. at other sites. The most interesting feature in this traverse is that the deeper structure in the SW direction is highly resistive. Another interesting feature observed is that two deep conducting features separated by a highly resistive structure is prominent in NE part of the profile at some sites indicating deep tectonic activity, probably during the Cretaceous period. Study of gravity anomalies along the traverse are correlatable with the geo-electric section obtained through 2-D modeling. Mesozoic sediments in SW part is either thin or absent, but is well reflected upto depths of at least 500 m. towards the NE part. Extension of exposed sediments beneath the Deccan traps (∼65 Ma) is seen at sites close to NE side with a thickness of about 500 m. A highly resistive feature has also been observed upto upper mantle levels at a site close to NE side. In the present study the deep electric structure of Saurashtra peninsula is discussed in relation to its earlier tectonic activity of upliftment, erosion of volcanic plugs etc.

  8. SBMLsqueezer: A CellDesigner plug-in to generate kinetic rate equations for biochemical networks

    Schröder Adrian

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of complex biochemical models has been facilitated through the standardization of machine-readable representations like SBML (Systems Biology Markup Language. This effort is accompanied by the ongoing development of the human-readable diagrammatic representation SBGN (Systems Biology Graphical Notation. The graphical SBML editor CellDesigner allows direct translation of SBGN into SBML, and vice versa. For the assignment of kinetic rate laws, however, this process is not straightforward, as it often requires manual assembly and specific knowledge of kinetic equations. Results SBMLsqueezer facilitates exactly this modeling step via automated equation generation, overcoming the highly error-prone and cumbersome process of manually assigning kinetic equations. For each reaction the kinetic equation is derived from the stoichiometry, the participating species (e.g., proteins, mRNA or simple molecules as well as the regulatory relations (activation, inhibition or other modulations of the SBGN diagram. Such information allows distinctions between, for example, translation, phosphorylation or state transitions. The types of kinetics considered are numerous, for instance generalized mass-action, Hill, convenience and several Michaelis-Menten-based kinetics, each including activation and inhibition. These kinetics allow SBMLsqueezer to cover metabolic, gene regulatory, signal transduction and mixed networks. Whenever multiple kinetics are applicable to one reaction, parameter settings allow for user-defined specifications. After invoking SBMLsqueezer, the kinetic formulas are generated and assigned to the model, which can then be simulated in CellDesigner or with external ODE solvers. Furthermore, the equations can be exported to SBML, LaTeX or plain text format. Conclusion SBMLsqueezer considers the annotation of all participating reactants, products and regulators when generating rate laws for reactions. Thus, for

  9. Determining PHEV Performance Potential – User and Environmental Influences on A123 Systems’ Hymotion™ Plug-In Conversion Module for the Toyota Prius

    John G. Smart; Huang Iu

    2009-05-01

    A123Systems’s HymotionTM L5 Plug-in Conversion Module (PCM) is a supplemental battery system that converts the Toyota Prius hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) into a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). The Hymotion system uses a lithium ion battery pack with 4.5 kWh of useable energy capacity and recharges by plugging into a standard 110/120V outlet. The system is designed to more than double the Prius fuel efficiency for 30-50km of charge depleting range. This paper will cover efforts by A123 Systems and the Idaho National Laboratory in studying the on-road performance of this PHEV fleet. The performance potentials of various fleets will be compared in order to determine the major influences on overall performance.

  10. Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Quasi-In-Motion Wireless Power Transfer for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Transit Buses from Fleet Perspective

    Wang, Lijuan; Gonder, Jeff; Brooker, Aaron; Meintz, Andrew; Konan, Arnaud; Markel, Tony

    2016-05-16

    This study evaluated the costs and benefits associated with the use of stationary-wireless-power-transfer-enabled plug-in hybrid electric buses and determined the cost effectiveness relative to conventional buses and hybrid electric buses. A factorial design was performed over a number of different battery sizes, charging power levels, and f bus stop charging stations. The net present costs were calculated for each vehicle design and provided the basis for design evaluation. In all cases, given the assumed economic conditions, the conventional bus achieved the lowest net present cost while the optimal plug-in hybrid electric bus scenario beat out the hybrid electric comparison scenario. The parameter sensitivity was also investigated under favorable and unfavorable market penetration assumptions.

  11. Multiobjective Synergistic Scheduling Optimization Model for Wind Power and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles under Different Grid-Connected Modes

    Liwei Ju; Zhongfu Tan; Huanhuan Li; Xiaobao Yu; Huijuan Zhang

    2014-01-01

    In order to promote grid’s wind power absorptive capacity and to overcome the adverse impacts of wind power on the stable operation of power system, this paper establishes benefit contrastive analysis models of wind power and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) under the optimization goal of minimum coal consumption and pollutant emission considering multigrid connected modes. Then, a two-step adaptive solving algorithm is put forward to get the optimal system operation scheme with the h...

  12. Plug-in Hybrid and Battery-Electric Vehicles: State of the research and development and comparative analysis of energy and cost efficiency

    Francoise Nemry; Guillaume Leduc; Almudena Muñoz

    2009-01-01

    This technical note is a first contribution from IPTS to a JRC more integrated assessment of future penetration pathways of new vehicles technologies in the EU27 market and of their impacts on energy security, GHG emissions and on the economy. The present report focuses on battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). It provides a general overview of the current state of the research and development about the concerned technologies and builds some first estim...

  13. Understanding consumer knowledge, perceptions, and preferences regarding pro-environmental technology: The cases of plug-in electric vehicles and utility controlled charging

    Langman, Bradley Guy

    2015-01-01

    Consumer demand is an important aspect of a successful transition to low-carbon technology. In this study I explore consumer knowledge, perceptions, and preference formation for two such technologies: purchasing a plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) and enrolling in a green electricity program (to power the PEV). I explore this through in-depth interviews with 22 households in Metro Vancouver, British Columbia. Results provide several key insights into how consumers perceive and may come to value ...

  14. Main Design of Serial - parallel Plug-in Hybrid Electric Bus%混联插电式混合动力客车的主要设计

    高振波; 王波

    2012-01-01

    The authors present the illustration of the main technical parameters, general arrangement and part struc- tures design of LCK6105CHEV serial-parallel plug-in hybrid electric bus.%简要介绍中通LCK6105CHEV混联插电式混合动力客车的主要技术参数、整车布置、部分结构设计方案。

  15. Real World Operation of a Complex Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle: Analysis of Its CO 2 Emissions and Operating Costs

    Federico Millo; Luciano Rolando; Rocco Fuso

    2014-01-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (pHEVs) could represent the stepping stone to move towards a more sustainable mobility and combine the benefits of electric powertrains with the high range capability of conventional vehicles. Nevertheless, despite the huge potential in terms of CO 2 emissions reduction, the performance of such vehicles has to be deeply investigated in real world driving conditions considering also the CO 2 production related to battery recharge which, on the contrary, is curr...

  16. Online Energy Management of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles for Prolongation of All-Electric Range Based on Dynamic Programming

    Zeyu Chen; Weiguo Liu; Ying Yang; Weiqiang Chen

    2015-01-01

    The employed energy management strategy plays an important role in energy saving performance and exhausted emission reduction of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). An application of dynamic programming for optimization of power allocation is implemented in this paper with certain driving cycle and a limited driving range. Considering the DP algorithm can barely be used in real-time control because of its huge computational task and the dependence on a priori driving cycle, several onlin...

  17. The Novel Application of Optimization and Charge Blended Energy Management Control for Component Downsizing within a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Ravi Shankar; James Marco; Francis Assadian

    2012-01-01

     The adoption of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) is widely seen as an interim solution for the decarbonization of the transport sector. Within a PHEV, determining the required energy storage capacity of the battery remains one of the primary concerns for vehicle manufacturers and system integrators. This fact is particularly pertinent since the battery constitutes the largest contributor to vehicle mass. Furthermore, the financial cost associated with the procurement, design...

  18. A Rule-Based Energy Management Strategy for a Plug-in Hybrid School Bus Based on a Controller Area Network Bus

    Jiankun Peng; Hao Fan; Hongwen He; Deng Pan

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a rule-based energy management strategy for a plug-in hybrid school bus (PHSB). In order to verify the effectiveness and rationality of the proposed energy management strategy, the powertrain and control models were built with MATLAB/Simulink. The PHSB powertrain model includes an engine model, ISG (integrated started and generator) model, drive motor model, power battery packs model, driver model, and vehicle longitudinal dynamics model. To evaluate the controller area ne...

  19. Integration of Distribution Grid Constraints in an Event-driven Control Strategy for Plug-in Electric Vehicles in a Multi-aggregator Setting

    De Craemer, Klaas; Vandael, Stijn; Claessens, Bert; Deconinck, Geert

    2015-01-01

    In literature, several mechanisms are proposed to prevent Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEVs) from overloading the distribution grid. However, it is unclear how such technical mechanisms influence the market level control strategies of a PEV aggregator. Moreover, the presence of multiple aggregators in the same distribution grid further complicates the problem. Often, grid congestion management mechanisms are proposed to solve the potential interference between the technical and market objecti...

  20. Impact of electric range and fossil fuel price level on the economics of plug-in hybrid vehicles and greenhouse gas abatement costs

    In this paper, the energy consumption shares of plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEVs) for electricity from the grid and conventional fuel depending on electric driving range are estimated. The resulting mobility costs and greenhouse gas (GHG) abatement costs per vehicle kilometer for the year 2030 are calculated and optimal electric driving range (which indicates the size of the battery) is found for different oil price levels with the help of a MATLAB based model for a typical compact passenger car (e.g. VW Golf). The results show that the optimum electric driving range for minimum mobility costs of a PHEV is between 12 and 32 km. Furthermore, optimum GHG abatement costs are achieved with an electric driving range between 16 and 23 km. These results are considerable lower than most market ready PHEVs (electric driving range of 50 to 100 km), which shows that the automobile industry should concentrate on shorter electric driving range for PHEVs in the near future to offer cost optimum mobility and low GHG abatement costs. However, the oil price level and the consumer driving habits impact heavily on the cost performance as well as the optimum electric driving range of plug-in hybrid vehicles. - Highlights: ► We analyze the energy consumption (and share of grid electricity) of plug-in hybrid vehicles. ► We analyzed the mobility costs and GHG abatement costs depending on electric driving range. ► Mobility costs of plug-in hybrid vehicles can be lower than those of conventional diesel vehicles in 2030. ► The optimum mobility costs are achieved with the electric driving range between 12 and 32 km. ► The optimum GHG abatement costs are achieved with the electric driving range between 16 and 23 km.

  1. Multi-objective component sizing of a power-split plug-in hybrid electric vehicle powertrain using Pareto-based natural optimization machines

    Mozaffari, Ahmad; Vajedi, Mahyar; Chehresaz, Maryyeh; Azad, Nasser L.

    2016-03-01

    The urgent need to meet increasingly tight environmental regulations and new fuel economy requirements has motivated system science researchers and automotive engineers to take advantage of emerging computational techniques to further advance hybrid electric vehicle and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) designs. In particular, research has focused on vehicle powertrain system design optimization, to reduce the fuel consumption and total energy cost while improving the vehicle's driving performance. In this work, two different natural optimization machines, namely the synchronous self-learning Pareto strategy and the elitism non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm, are implemented for component sizing of a specific power-split PHEV platform with a Toyota plug-in Prius as the baseline vehicle. To do this, a high-fidelity model of the Toyota plug-in Prius is employed for the numerical experiments using the Autonomie simulation software. Based on the simulation results, it is demonstrated that Pareto-based algorithms can successfully optimize the design parameters of the vehicle powertrain.

  2. Knowledge basis concerning the market for electric vehicles and plug-in hybrids (KAMEL); Kunskapsunderlag angaaende marknaden foer elfordon och laddhybrider (KAMEL)

    2009-07-01

    The Swedish Energy Agency is proposing a four-year demonstration and development program to support the market introduction of electric vehicles and plug-in hybrids (electric vehicle applications). This in light of the uncertainties in the market introduction of vehicles, cost of key components such as batteries, the possibility of industrial development in Sweden and the uncertainty of how to complement to existing charging infrastructure in an socioeconomic way. In addition to this, the more general aid to electric cars and plug-in hybrids is to be reviewed. Today, electric vehicles, hybrids, ethanol vehicles, bio-gas vehicles and fuel-efficient vehicles, are supported by the green car definition and the environmental classification system. Furthermore, ethanol vehicles and biogas vehicles have support through tax reduction for biofuels. Overall, community support for electric vehicles and plug-in hybrids is lower than for the introduction of ethanol vehicles and biogas vehicles which do not reflect the environmental benefits they have. The review of the general subsidies for electric vehicles and the support through a demonstration program represent a concerted strategy to overcome the initially very high additional cost of these vehicles

  3. GIS plug-in technology based on .Net reflection mechanism%基于.NET反射机制的GIS插件技术研究

    章志; 都金康; 卓凤军

    2011-01-01

    Plug-in technology for characteristics of high reusability, scalability and less resource consumption is very suitable for the individual needs of GIS software, namely according to their own habits users can customize the software interface, function or operation process and so on. This paper discussed the principle of the plug-in technology and its realization methods. Finally, a GIS spatial analysis function of GIS plug-ins was developed on the platform ArcEngine by .NET reflection mechanism.%插件技术以其高复用性,可扩充性,更少的资源占用的特点非常适合GIS软件的个性化需求,即由用户按自己的习惯和需求来定制软件的界面、功能或操作流程等.本文首先简要介绍了插件技术实现的原理,之后讨论了插件实现的三种方式,最后以.NET反射机制作为重点研究对象,在ArcEngine平台上开发了一个基于.NET反射机制的GIS空间分析插件.

  4. RemLogic plug-in enables clinical application of apnea-hypopnea index adjusted for severity of individual obstruction events.

    Leppänen, Timo; Särkkä, Mikko; Kulkas, Antti; Muraja-Murro, Anu; Kupari, Salla; Anttonen, Meri; Tiihonen, Pekka; Mervaala, Esa; Töyräs, Juha

    2016-04-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is diagnosed based on obstruction event incidence, albeit individual obstruction event severity is connected to increased mortality rate. Adjusted-AHI parameter, incorporating number and severity of obstruction events, has shown good potential, but is calculated using custom-made MATLAB(®) functions. To allow its clinical use, this study introduces the RemLogic™ plug-in. It is tested comparing adjusted-AHI values calculated with the plug-in and MATLAB(®) with a hundred patients. Furthermore, retrospective follow-up (mean ± SD = 194.1 ± 54.0 months) of 1128 working-age men was conducted to evaluate potential of adjusted-AHI to enhance diagnostic of OSA. Adjusted-AHI values were strongly correlated (r = 1.000, p < 0.001) and their average difference (mean ± SD) was minimal (0.08 ± 0.19%). Using adjusted-AHI to define OSA severity resulted in a higher hazard ratio of mortality in the severe OSA group and, for the first time, adjusted-AHI was found to explain independently the overall mortality and non-fatal cardiovascular events. Importantly, the present plug-in enables clinical use of adjusted-AHI, enhancing assessment of OSA severity. PMID:26977739

  5. Impact of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles charging demand on the optimal energy management of renewable micro-grids

    This paper suggests a new stochastic expert framework to investigate the charging effect of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) on the optimal operation and management of micro-grids (MGs). In this way, a useful method based on smart charging approach is proposed to consider the charging demand of PHEVs in both residential location and public charging stations. The analysis is simulated for 24 h considering the uncertainties associated with the forecast error in the charging demand of PHEVs, hourly load consumption, hourly energy price and Renewable Energy Sources (RESs) output power. In order to see the effect of storage devices on the operation of the MG, NiMH-Battery is also incorporated in the MG. According to the high complexity of the problem, a new optimization method called θ-krill herd (θ-KH) algorithm is proposed which uses the phase angle vectors to update the velocity/position of krill animals with faster and more stable convergence. In addition, a new modification method is proposed to improve the search ability of the algorithm, effectively. The suggested problem is examined on an MG including different RESs such as photovoltaic (PV), fuel cells (FCs), wind turbine (WT), micro turbine (MT) and battery as the storage device. - Highlights: • Introducing an expert stochastic framework for optimal operation and management of MGs including PHEVs. • Introducing a new artificial optimization algorithm based on KH evolutionary technique. • Introducing a new version of KH algorithm called θ-KH for the optimization applications. • Modeling the uncertainty of forecast error in Wind turbine, Photovoltaics, market price, load data, PHEVs electric charging demand in an intelligent framework

  6. Real-world fuel economy and CO{sub 2} emissions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    Ploetz, Patrick; Funke, Simon Arpad; Jochem, Patrick [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany). Competence Center Energiepolitik und Energiesysteme

    2015-07-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) combine electric propulsion with an internal combustion engine. Their potential to reduce transport related green-house gas emissions highly depends on their actual usage and electricity provision. Various studies underline their environmental and economic advantages, but are based on standardised driving cycles, simulations or small PHEV fleets. Here, we analyse real-world fuel economy of PHEV and the factors influencing it based on about 2,000 actual PHEV that have been observed over more than a year in the U.S. and Germany. We find that real-world fuel economy of PHEV differ widely among users. The main factors explaining this variation are the annual mileage, the regularity of daily driving, and the likelihood of long-distance trips. Current test cycle fuel economy ratings neglect these factors. Despite the broad range of PHEV fuel economies, the test cycle fuel economy ratings can be close to empiric PHEV fleet averages if the average annual mile-age is about 17,000 km. For the largest group of PHEV in our data, the Chevrolet Volt, we find the average fuel economy to be 1.45 litres/100 km at an average electric driving share of 78%. The resulting real-world tank-to-wheel CO{sub 2} emissions of these PHEV are 42 gCO{sub 2}/km and the annual CO{sub 2} savings in the U.S. amount to about 50 Mt. In conclusion, the variance of empirical PHEV fuel economy is considerably higher than of conventional vehicles. This should be taken into account by future test cycles and high electric driving shares should be incentivised.

  7. Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles in the Smart Grid Environment: An Economic Model of Load Management by Demand Response

    Poudineh R.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Environmental concern regarding the consumption of fossil fuels is among the most serious challenges facing the world. As a result, utilisation of more renewable resources and promotion of a clean transport system such as the use of Plug in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs became the forefront of the new energy policies. However, the breakthrough of PHEVs in the automotive fleet increases concerns around the stability of power system and in particular, the power network. This research simulates the aggregate load profile of the UK with presence of PHEVs based upon different price scenarios. The results show that under the fixed rate and time of use programmes in the current grid, the extra load of the electric vehicles intensifies the consumption profile and also creates new critical points. Thus, there should always be excess standby capacity to satisfy peak demand even for a short period of time. On the other hand, when the consumers do not pay the price based on the actual cost of supply, those who consume less in peak hours subsidise the ones who consume more and this cross subsidy raises a regulatory issue. On the contrary, a smart grid can accommodate PHEVs without creating technical and regulatory problems. This positive consequence is the result of demand response to the real time pricing. From a technical point of view, the biggest chunk of PHEVs' load will be shifted to the late evening and the hours of minimum demand. Besides, from a welfare analysis standpoint, real time pricing creates no deadweight losses and corresponding demand response will limit the ability of suppliers to increase the spot market clearing price above its equilibrium level.

  8. Impact of battery weight and charging patterns on the economic and environmental benefits of plug-in hybrid vehicles

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) technology is receiving attention as an approach to reducing US dependency on foreign oil and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the transportation sector. PHEVs require large batteries for energy storage, which affect vehicle cost, weight, and performance. We construct PHEV simulation models to account for the effects of additional batteries on fuel consumption, cost, and GHG emissions over a range of charging frequencies (distance traveled between charges). We find that when charged frequently, every 20 miles or less, using average US electricity, small-capacity PHEVs are less expensive and release fewer GHGs than hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) or conventional vehicles. For moderate charging intervals of 20-100 miles, PHEVs release fewer GHGs, but HEVs have lower lifetime costs. High fuel prices, low-cost batteries, or high carbon taxes combined with low-carbon electricity generation would make small-capacity PHEVs cost competitive for a wide range of drivers. In contrast, increased battery specific energy or carbon taxes without decarbonization of the electricity grid would have limited impact. Large-capacity PHEVs sized for 40 or more miles of electric-only travel do not offer the lowest lifetime cost in any scenario, although they could minimize GHG emissions for some drivers and provide potential to shift air pollutant emissions away from population centers. The tradeoffs identified in this analysis can provide a space for vehicle manufacturers, policymakers, and the public to identify optimal decisions for PHEV design, policy and use. Given the alignment of economic, environmental, and national security objectives, policies aimed at putting PHEVs on the road will likely be most effective if they focus on adoption of small-capacity PHEVs by urban drivers who can charge frequently.

  9. Air quality impacts of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in Texas: evaluating three battery charging scenarios

    The air quality impacts of replacing approximately 20% of the gasoline-powered light duty vehicle miles traveled (VMT) with electric VMT by the year 2018 were examined for four major cities in Texas: Dallas/Ft Worth, Houston, Austin, and San Antonio. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) charging was assumed to occur on the electric grid controlled by the Electricity Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT), and three charging scenarios were examined: nighttime charging, charging to maximize battery life, and charging to maximize driver convenience. A subset of electricity generating units (EGUs) in Texas that were found to contribute the majority of the electricity generation needed to charge PHEVs at the times of day associated with each scenario was modeled using a regional photochemical model (CAMx). The net impacts of the PHEVs on the emissions of precursors to the formation of ozone included an increase in NOx emissions from EGUs during times of day when the vehicle is charging, and a decrease in NOx from mobile emissions. The changes in maximum daily 8 h ozone concentrations and average exposure potential at twelve air quality monitors in Texas were predicted on the basis of these changes in NOx emissions. For all scenarios, at all monitors, the impact of changes in vehicular emissions, rather than EGU emissions, dominated the ozone impact. In general, PHEVs lead to an increase in ozone during nighttime hours (due to decreased scavenging from both vehicles and EGU stacks) and a decrease in ozone during daytime hours. A few monitors showed a larger increase in ozone for the convenience charging scenario versus the other two scenarios. Additionally, cumulative ozone exposure results indicate that nighttime charging is most likely to reduce a measure of ozone exposure potential versus the other two scenarios.

  10. Moving from assumption to observation: Implications for energy and emissions impacts of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are currently for sale in most parts of the United States, Canada, Europe and Japan. These vehicles are promoted as providing distinct consumer and public benefits at the expense of grid electricity. However, the specific benefits or impacts of PHEVs ultimately relies on consumers purchase and vehicle use patterns. While considerable effort has been dedicated to understanding PHEV impacts on a per mile basis few studies have assessed the impacts of PHEV given actual consumer use patterns or operating conditions. Instead, simplifying assumptions have been made about the types of cars individual consumers will choose to purchase and how they will drive and charge them. Here, we highlight some of these consumer purchase and use assumptions, studies which have employed these assumptions and compare these assumptions to actual consumer data recorded in a PHEV demonstration project. Using simulation and hypothetical scenarios we discuss the implication for PHEV impact analyses and policy if assumptions about key PHEV consumer use variables such as vehicle choice, home charging frequency, distribution of driving distances, and access to workplace charging were to change. -- Highlights: •The specific benefits or impacts of PHEVs ultimately relies on consumers purchase and vehicle use patterns. •Simplifying, untested, assumptions have been made by prior studies about PHEV consumer driving, charging and vehicle purchase behaviors. Some simplifying assumptions do not match observed data from a PHEV demonstration project. •Changing the assumptions about PHEV consumer driving, charging, and vehicle purchase behaviors affects estimates of PHEV impacts. •Premature simplification may have lasting consequences for standard setting and performance based incentive programs which rely on these estimates

  11. Optimizing battery sizes of plug-in hybrid and extended range electric vehicles for different user types

    There are ambitious greenhouse gas emission (GHG) targets for the manufacturers of light duty vehicles. To reduce the GHG emissions, plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) and extended range electric vehicle (EREV) are promising powertrain technologies. However, the battery is still a very critical component due to the high production cost and heavy weight. This paper introduces a holistic approach for the optimization of the battery size of PHEVs and EREVs under German market conditions. The assessment focuses on the heterogeneity across drivers, by analyzing the impact of different driving profiles on the optimal battery setup from total cost of ownership (TCO) perspective. The results show that the battery size has a significant effect on the TCO. For an average German driver (15,000 km/a), battery capacities of 4 kWh (PHEV) and 6 kWh (EREV) would be cost optimal by 2020. However, these values vary strongly with the driving profile of the user. Moreover, the optimal battery size is also affected by external factors, e.g. electricity and fuel prices or battery production cost. Therefore, car manufacturers should develop a modular design for their batteries, which allows adapting the storage capacity to meet the individual customer requirements instead of “one size fits all”. - Highlights: • Optimization of the battery size of PHEVs and EREVs under German market conditions. • Focus on heterogeneity across drivers (e.g. mileage, trip distribution, speed). • Optimal battery size strongly depends on the driving profile and energy prices. • OEMs require a modular design for their batteries to meet individual requirements

  12. Battery sizing for serial plug-in hybrid electric vehicles: A model-based economic analysis for Germany

    The battery size of a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) is decisive for the electrical range of the vehicle and crucial for the cost-effectiveness of this particular vehicle concept. Based on the energy consumption of a conventional reference car and a PHEV, we introduce a comprehensive total cost of ownership model for the average car user in Germany for both vehicle types. The model takes into account the purchase price, fixed annual costs and variable operating costs. The amortization time of a PHEV also depends on the recharging strategy (once a day, once a night, after each trip), the battery size, and the battery costs. We find that PHEVs with a 4 kWh battery and at current lithium-ion battery prices reach the break-even point after about 6 years (5 years when using the lower night-time electricity tariffs). With higher battery capacities the amortization time becomes significantly longer. Even for the small battery size and assuming the EU-15 electricity mix, a PHEV is found to emit only around 60% of the CO2 emissions of a comparable conventional car. Thus, with the PHEV concept a cost-effective introduction of electric mobility and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions per vehicle can be reached. - Highlights: → Total cost of ownership of a PHEV and a conventional car are compared for the average German car user.→ PHEVs with a 4 kWh battery reach the break-even after 5-6 years at current Li-Ion battery prices.→ Even with a small battery, PHEVs emit about 40% less CO2 emissions than the average conventional car.

  13. U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Program: Battery Test Manual For Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Jon P. Christophersen

    2014-09-01

    This battery test procedure manual was prepared for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office. It is based on technical targets for commercial viability established for energy storage development projects aimed at meeting system level DOE goals for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV). The specific procedures defined in this manual support the performance and life characterization of advanced battery devices under development for PHEV’s. However, it does share some methods described in the previously published battery test manual for power-assist hybrid electric vehicles. Due to the complexity of some of the procedures and supporting analysis, future revisions including some modifications and clarifications of these procedures are expected. As in previous battery and capacitor test manuals, this version of the manual defines testing methods for full-size battery systems, along with provisions for scaling these tests for modules, cells or other subscale level devices. The DOE-United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) supported the development of the manual. Technical Team points of contact responsible for its development and revision are Renata M. Arsenault of Ford Motor Company and Jon P. Christophersen of the Idaho National Laboratory. The development of this manual was funded by the Unites States Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office. Technical direction from DOE was provided by David Howell, Energy Storage R&D Manager and Hybrid Electric Systems Team Leader. Comments and questions regarding the manual should be directed to Jon P. Christophersen at the Idaho National Laboratory (jon.christophersen@inl.gov).

  14. Battery sizing for serial plug-in hybrid electric vehicles: A model-based economic analysis for Germany

    Ernst, Christian-Simon, E-mail: ernst@ika.rwth-aachen.de [Institute for Automotive Engineering (ika), RWTH Aachen University, Steinbachstrasse 7, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Hackbarth, Andre; Madlener, Reinhard [Institute for Future Energy Consumer Needs and Behavior (FCN), School of Business and Economics/E.ON Energy Research Center, RWTH Aachen University, Mathieustrasse 6, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Lunz, Benedikt; Uwe Sauer, Dirk [Institute for Power Generation and Storage Systems (PGS), E.ON Energy Research Center, RWTH Aachen University, Mathieustrasse 6, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Eckstein, Lutz [Institute for Automotive Engineering (ika), RWTH Aachen University, Steinbachstrasse 7, 52074 Aachen (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    The battery size of a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) is decisive for the electrical range of the vehicle and crucial for the cost-effectiveness of this particular vehicle concept. Based on the energy consumption of a conventional reference car and a PHEV, we introduce a comprehensive total cost of ownership model for the average car user in Germany for both vehicle types. The model takes into account the purchase price, fixed annual costs and variable operating costs. The amortization time of a PHEV also depends on the recharging strategy (once a day, once a night, after each trip), the battery size, and the battery costs. We find that PHEVs with a 4 kWh battery and at current lithium-ion battery prices reach the break-even point after about 6 years (5 years when using the lower night-time electricity tariffs). With higher battery capacities the amortization time becomes significantly longer. Even for the small battery size and assuming the EU-15 electricity mix, a PHEV is found to emit only around 60% of the CO{sub 2} emissions of a comparable conventional car. Thus, with the PHEV concept a cost-effective introduction of electric mobility and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions per vehicle can be reached. - Highlights: > Total cost of ownership of a PHEV and a conventional car are compared for the average German car user. > PHEVs with a 4 kWh battery reach the break-even after 5-6 years at current Li-Ion battery prices.> Even with a small battery, PHEVs emit about 40% less CO{sub 2} emissions than the average conventional car.

  15. Technology Status and Expected Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Battery, Plug-In Hybrid, and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles

    Lipman, Timothy E.

    2011-11-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) of various types are experiencing a commercial renaissance but of uncertain ultimate success. Many new electric-drive models are being introduced by different automakers with significant technical improvements from earlier models, particularly with regard to further refinement of drivetrain systems and important improvements in battery and fuel cell systems. The various types of hybrid and all-electric vehicles can offer significant greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions when compared to conventional vehicles on a full fuel-cycle basis. In fact, most EVs used under most condition are expected to significantly reduce lifecycle GHG emissions. This paper reviews the current technology status of EVs and compares various estimates of their potential to reduce GHGs on a fuel cycle basis. In general, various studies show that battery powered EVs reduce GHGs by a widely disparate amount depending on the type of powerplant used and the particular region involved, among other factors. Reductions typical of the United States would be on the order of 20-50%, depending on the relative level of coal versus natural gas and renewables in the powerplant feedstock mix. However, much deeper reductions of over 90% are possible for battery EVs running on renewable or nuclear power sources. Plug-in hybrid vehicles running on gasoline can reduce emissions by 20-60%, and fuel cell EV reduce GHGs by 30-50% when running on natural gas-derived hydrogen and up to 95% or more when the hydrogen is made (and potentially compressed) using renewable feedstocks. These are all in comparison to what is usually assumed to be a more advanced gasoline vehicle "baseline" of comparison, with some incremental improvements by 2020 or 2030. Thus, the emissions from all of these EV types are highly variable depending on the details of how the electric fuel or hydrogen is produced.

  16. Regulatory framework and business models for charging plug-in electric vehicles: Infrastructure, agents, and commercial relationships

    Electric vehicles (EVs) present efficiency and environmental advantages over conventional transportation. It is expected that in the next decade this technology will progressively penetrate the market. The integration of plug-in electric vehicles in electric power systems poses new challenges in terms of regulation and business models. This paper proposes a conceptual regulatory framework for charging EVs. Two new electricity market agents, the EV charging manager and the EV aggregator, in charge of developing charging infrastructure and providing charging services are introduced. According to that, several charging modes such as EV home charging, public charging on streets, and dedicated charging stations are formulated. Involved market agents and their commercial relationships are analysed in detail. The paper elaborates the opportunities to formulate more sophisticated business models for vehicle-to-grid applications under which the storage capability of EV batteries is used for providing peak power or frequency regulation to support the power system operation. Finally penetration phase dependent policy and regulatory recommendations are given concerning time-of-use pricing, smart meter deployment, stable and simple regulation for reselling energy on private property, roll-out of public charging infrastructure as well as reviewing of grid codes and operational system procedures for interactions between network operators and vehicle aggregators. - Highlights: → A conceptual regulatory framework for charging EVs is proposed. → 2 new agents, EV charging point manager, EV aggregator and their functions are introduced. → Depending on private or public access of charging points, contractual relations change. → A classification of charging scenarios alludes implications on regulatory topics. → EV penetration phase dependent policy and regulatory recommendations are given.

  17. Plugged in Youth

    Singla, Rashmi

    2011-01-01

    This chapter investigates psychosocial consequences of global migration through an empirical study of South Asians to Scandinavian countries and is a follow up of a Danish project conducted in the mid-nineties. Diasporia and transnational processes in interaction with the everyday life...... welfare societies. The results hardly support the myth of return, although the country of residence has turned increasingly restrictive in migration policies and xenophobic in the past years. The chapter purports to delineate dynamics of global dynamics in transnational contexts hardly investigated...... trends in the socio-cultural adaptation of the diasporic group. The study focuses explicitly on the intersections of migration, technology and sociocultural adaptations through a longitudinal perspective. An array of theoretical discussions are also embedded in the long time perspective of the research...

  18. Optimizing and Diversifying the Electric Range of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles for U.S. Drivers

    To provide useful information for automakers to design successful plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) products and for energy and environmental analysts to understand the social impact of PHEVs, this paper addresses the question of how many of the U.S. consumers, if buying a PHEV, would prefer what electric ranges. The Market-oriented Optimal Range for PHEV (MOR-PHEV) model is developed to optimize the PHEV electric range for each of 36,664 sampled individuals representing U.S. new vehicle drivers. The optimization objective is the minimization of the sum of costs on battery, gasoline, electricity and refueling hassle. Assuming no battery subsidy, the empirical results suggest that: 1) the optimal PHEV electric range approximates two thirds of one s typical daily driving distance in the near term, defined as $450/kWh battery delivered price and $4/gallon gasoline price. 2) PHEVs are not ready to directly compete with HEVs at today s situation, defined by the $600/kWh battery delivered price and the $3-$4/gallon gasoline price, but can do so in the near term. 3) PHEV10s will be favored by the market over longer-range PHEVs in the near term, but longer-range PHEVs can dominate the PHEV market if gasoline prices reach as high as $5-$6 per gallon and/or battery delivered prices reach as low as $150-$300/kWh. 4) PHEVs can become much more attractive against HEVs in the near term if the electric range can be extended by only 10% with multiple charges per day, possible with improved charging infrastructure or adapted charging behavior. 5) the impact of a $100/kWh decrease in battery delivered prices on the competiveness of PHEVs against HEVs can be offset by about $1.25/gallon decrease in gasoline prices, or about 7/kWh increase in electricity prices. This also means that the impact of a $1/gallon decrease in gasoline prices can be offset by about 5/kWh decrease in electricity prices.

  19. Time-dependent plug-in hybrid electric vehicle charging based on national driving patterns and demographics

    Highlights: ► Analyzed National Household Travel Survey to simulate driving and charging patterns. ► Average compact PHEVs used 49 kW h of electricity and 6.8 L of gasoline per week. ► Percent of electrically driven miles increased from 64.3 in 2001 to 66.7 in 2009. ► Investigated demographic effects of sex, age, income, and household location. ► Analysis shows higher utility factors for females versus males and high age variation. -- Abstract: Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are one promising technology for addressing concerns around petroleum consumption, energy security and greenhouse gas emissions. However, there is much uncertainty in the impact that PHEVs can have on energy consumption and related emissions, as they are dependent on vehicle technology, driving patterns, and charging behavior. A methodology is used to simulate PHEV charging and gasoline consumption based on driving pattern data in USDOT’s National Household Travel Survey. The method uses information from each trip taken by approximately 170,000 vehicles to track their battery state of charge throughout the day, and to determine the timing and quantity of electricity and gasoline consumption for a fleet of PHEVs. Scenarios were developed to examine the effects of charging location, charging rate, time of charging and battery size. Additionally, demographic information was examined to see how driver and household characteristics influence consumption patterns. Results showed that a compact vehicle with a 10.4 kW h useable battery (approximately a 42 mile [68 km] all electric range) travels between 62.5% and 75.7% on battery electricity, depending on charging scenario. The percent of travel driven electrically (Utility Factor, UF) in a baseline charging scenario increased from 64.3% using 2001 NHTS data to 66.7% using 2009 data. The average UF was 63.5% for males and 72.9% for females and in both cases they are highly sensitive to age. Vehicle charging load profiles across

  20. Sally Ride EarthKAM - Automated Image Geo-Referencing Using Google Earth Web Plug-In

    Andres, Paul M.; Lazar, Dennis K.; Thames, Robert Q.

    2013-01-01

    Sally Ride EarthKAM is an educational program funded by NASA that aims to provide the public the ability to picture Earth from the perspective of the International Space Station (ISS). A computer-controlled camera is mounted on the ISS in a nadir-pointing window; however, timing limitations in the system cause inaccurate positional metadata. Manually correcting images within an orbit allows the positional metadata to be improved using mathematical regressions. The manual correction process is time-consuming and thus, unfeasible for a large number of images. The standard Google Earth program allows for the importing of KML (keyhole markup language) files that previously were created. These KML file-based overlays could then be manually manipulated as image overlays, saved, and then uploaded to the project server where they are parsed and the metadata in the database is updated. The new interface eliminates the need to save, download, open, re-save, and upload the KML files. Everything is processed on the Web, and all manipulations go directly into the database. Administrators also have the control to discard any single correction that was made and validate a correction. This program streamlines a process that previously required several critical steps and was probably too complex for the average user to complete successfully. The new process is theoretically simple enough for members of the public to make use of and contribute to the success of the Sally Ride EarthKAM project. Using the Google Earth Web plug-in, EarthKAM images, and associated metadata, this software allows users to interactively manipulate an EarthKAM image overlay, and update and improve the associated metadata. The Web interface uses the Google Earth JavaScript API along with PHP-PostgreSQL to present the user the same interface capabilities without leaving the Web. The simpler graphical user interface will allow the public to participate directly and meaningfully with EarthKAM. The use of

  1. Demand Response and Economic Dispatch of Power Systems Considering Large-Scale Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles/Electric Vehicles (PHEVs/EVs): A Review

    Xiaohui Xu; Junpeng Zhu; Haojun Yu; Wei Liu; Wei Gu

    2013-01-01

    Increasing concerns about global environmental issues have led to the urgent development of green transportation. The enthusiasm of governments should encourage the prosperity of the plug-in hybrid electric vehicles/electric vehicles (PHEVs/EVs) industry in the near future. PHEVs/EVs are not only an alternative to gasoline but are also burgeoning units for power systems. The impact of large-scale PHEVs/EVs on power systems is of profound significance. This paper discusses how to use PHEVs/EVs...

  2. Driving Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Reports from U.S. Drivers of HEVs converted to PHEVs, circa 2006-07

    Kurani, Kenneth S; Heffner, Reid R.; Turrentine, Tom

    2008-01-01

    This report examines early users’ experiences with plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEVs). At the time this study was conducted in winter and spring of 2007, PHEVs were not yet commercialized. Still, Americans were becoming aware of PHEVs and 25 to 30 vehicles converted from hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) to PHEVs were on the road. In interviews with 23 drivers of these vehicles we explored how they used and recharged their vehicles. We also discussed their recommendations for future PHEV designs...

  3. Development of customer survey by using the method design for mode of application -Survey specifically designed for Hybrid plug-in car owners-

    Martí Bigorra, Anna

    2013-01-01

    In November 2011, Volvo Cars Company (VCC) launched the V60 hybrid plug-in, which was developed in close collaboration with Vattenfall. The lack of financial incentives in Sweden is a major contributor to low V60 PHEV sales in the country, and VCC together with Vattenfall needs to create a win-win situation in which car sales increase. The following research is focused on the implementation of the preliminary steps of the DMA method to develop a survey to obtain insight into the customer’s ne...

  4. RIVET Plug-in for $Z^0 \\to e^+ e^-$ Production Cross-Section Measurement in pp Collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 7$ TeV

    Dumitriu, Ana Elena

    2015-01-01

    The Robust Independent Validation of Experiment and Theory (RIVET) project is an efficient and portable tool kit in form of a C++ class library enabling validation and tuning of Monte Carlo (MC) event generator models in elementary particle physics and astrophysics. It provides a large collection of standard experimental analyses useful for MC generator development, validation, tuning and regression testing proposing a new way by which analysis code from the LHC and other high-energy collider experiments is preserved for comparison and development of future theory models. The RIVET plug-in developed for the LHCb measurement of Z 0 ! e + e ...

  5. A GAMOS plug-in for GEANT4 based Monte Carlo simulation of radiation-induced light transport in biological media

    Glaser, Adam K.; Kanick, Stephen C.; Zhang, Rongxiao; Arce, Pedro; Pogue, Brian W.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a tissue optics plug-in that interfaces with the GEANT4/GAMOS Monte Carlo (MC) architecture, providing a means of simulating radiation-induced light transport in biological media for the first time. Specifically, we focus on the simulation of light transport due to the Čerenkov effect (light emission from charged particle’s traveling faster than the local speed of light in a given medium), a phenomenon which requires accurate modeling of both the high energy particle and subsequen...

  6. High voltage energy storage system design for a parallel-through-the-road plug-in hybrid electric vehicle

    Belt, Bryan Whitney D.

    A parallel-through-the-road (PTTR) plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) pairs an engine powering the front wheels of a vehicle with an electric motor powering the rear wheels. This arrangement gives the flexibility of being able to operate the vehicle in an all-electric mode, an all biodiesel mode, or a combination of both to create maximum power. For this work, a 1.7 L CIDI engine running on biodiesel will be the engine being used and a 103 kW Magna motor will power the rear wheels. In order to power the motor, a high voltage (HV) energy storage system (ESS) needs to be designed and integrated into the vehicle. The goal for the mechanical design of the ESS is to create a structure that will enclose all of the batteries and battery control modules to protect them from environmental factors such as dirt and water as well as to prevent them from becoming dislodged in the event of a collision. The enclosure will also serve as a means to protect the consumer from the dangers of HV. The mechanical design also entailed designing a cooling system that will keep the batteries operating in an acceptable temperature range while they are charging and discharging. The electrical design focused on designing a HV system that could adequately supply enough current flow to each component to meet the peak loading condition yet be able to disconnect should a fault occur to prevent component damage. The system was also designed with safety in mind. Controllers will constantly be monitoring both the HV and LV systems to make sure that each is isolated from the other. Should a controller detect a problem, it will disconnect the HV system. The electrical system will have a high voltage interlock loop (HVIL). The HVIL will be a continuous LV circuit that passes through every HV connector and various switches, so that, if a connector is unplugged or a switch is flipped, the circuit will open. A controller will be monitoring the HVIL for LV. Should it not detect LV, the controller will

  7. Well-to-wheels analysis of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

    Elgowainy, A.; Han, J.; Poch, L.; Wang, M.; Vyas, A.; Mahalik, M.; Rousseau, A.

    2010-06-14

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are being developed for mass production by the automotive industry. PHEVs have been touted for their potential to reduce the US transportation sector's dependence on petroleum and cut greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by (1) using off-peak excess electric generation capacity and (2) increasing vehicles energy efficiency. A well-to-wheels (WTW) analysis - which examines energy use and emissions from primary energy source through vehicle operation - can help researchers better understand the impact of the upstream mix of electricity generation technologies for PHEV recharging, as well as the powertrain technology and fuel sources for PHEVs. For the WTW analysis, Argonne National Laboratory researchers used the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model developed by Argonne to compare the WTW energy use and GHG emissions associated with various transportation technologies to those associated with PHEVs. Argonne researchers estimated the fuel economy and electricity use of PHEVs and alternative fuel/vehicle systems by using the Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) model. They examined two PHEV designs: the power-split configuration and the series configuration. The first is a parallel hybrid configuration in which the engine and the electric motor are connected to a single mechanical transmission that incorporates a power-split device that allows for parallel power paths - mechanical and electrical - from the engine to the wheels, allowing the engine and the electric motor to share the power during acceleration. In the second configuration, the engine powers a generator, which charges a battery that is used by the electric motor to propel the vehicle; thus, the engine never directly powers the vehicle's transmission. The power-split configuration was adopted for PHEVs with a 10- and 20-mile electric range because they require frequent use of the engine for acceleration and

  8. Well-to-wheels energy use and greenhouse gas emissions analysis of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

    Elgowainy, A.; Burnham, A.; Wang, M.; Molburg, J.; Rousseau, A.; Energy Systems

    2009-03-31

    Researchers at Argonne National Laboratory expanded the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model and incorporated the fuel economy and electricity use of alternative fuel/vehicle systems simulated by the Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) to conduct a well-to-wheels (WTW) analysis of energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The WTW results were separately calculated for the blended charge-depleting (CD) and charge-sustaining (CS) modes of PHEV operation and then combined by using a weighting factor that represented the CD vehicle-miles-traveled (VMT) share. As indicated by PSAT simulations of the CD operation, grid electricity accounted for a share of the vehicle's total energy use, ranging from 6% for a PHEV 10 to 24% for a PHEV 40, based on CD VMT shares of 23% and 63%, respectively. In addition to the PHEV's fuel economy and type of on-board fuel, the marginal electricity generation mix used to charge the vehicle impacted the WTW results, especially GHG emissions. Three North American Electric Reliability Corporation regions (4, 6, and 13) were selected for this analysis, because they encompassed large metropolitan areas (Illinois, New York, and California, respectively) and provided a significant variation of marginal generation mixes. The WTW results were also reported for the U.S. generation mix and renewable electricity to examine cases of average and clean mixes, respectively. For an all-electric range (AER) between 10 mi and 40 mi, PHEVs that employed petroleum fuels (gasoline and diesel), a blend of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline (E85), and hydrogen were shown to offer a 40-60%, 70-90%, and more than 90% reduction in petroleum energy use and a 30-60%, 40-80%, and 10-100% reduction in GHG emissions, respectively, relative to an internal combustion engine vehicle that used gasoline. The spread of WTW GHG emissions among the different fuel production

  9. Effect of regional grid mix, driving patterns and climate on the comparative carbon footprint of gasoline and plug-in electric vehicles in the United States

    Yuksel, Tugce; Tamayao, Mili-Ann M.; Hendrickson, Chris; Azevedo, Inês M. L.; Michalek, Jeremy J.

    2016-04-01

    We compare life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from several light-duty passenger gasoline and plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) across US counties by accounting for regional differences due to marginal grid mix, ambient temperature, patterns of vehicle miles traveled (VMT), and driving conditions (city versus highway). We find that PEVs can have larger or smaller carbon footprints than gasoline vehicles, depending on these regional factors and the specific vehicle models being compared. The Nissan Leaf battery electric vehicle has a smaller carbon footprint than the most efficient gasoline vehicle (the Toyota Prius) in the urban counties of California, Texas and Florida, whereas the Prius has a smaller carbon footprint in the Midwest and the South. The Leaf is lower emitting than the Mazda 3 conventional gasoline vehicle in most urban counties, but the Mazda 3 is lower emitting in rural Midwest counties. The Chevrolet Volt plug-in hybrid electric vehicle has a larger carbon footprint than the Prius throughout the continental US, though the Volt has a smaller carbon footprint than the Mazda 3 in many urban counties. Regional grid mix, temperature, driving conditions, and vehicle model all have substantial implications for identifying which technology has the lowest carbon footprint, whereas regional patterns of VMT have a much smaller effect. Given the variation in relative GHG implications, it is unlikely that blunt policy instruments that favor specific technology categories can ensure emission reductions universally.

  10. 插电式混合动力SUV车控制策略研究%Energy Management Strategy of Plug - in Hybrid Electric SUV

    张志; 杨芸芸

    2012-01-01

    对插电式并联混合动力SUV车的发动机、电机、蓄电池及变速器参数进行选取,并提出一种规则控制策略.在ADVISOR 2002仿真软件中建立仿真模型,并在UDDS-EPA城市循环工况下进行多次仿真.将该插电式混合动力车与配备相同电池容量的混合动力车的仿真结果进行比较,并对蓄电池和电机参数进行优化.仿真结果表明,该设计比较合理.%The engine parameters, motor parameters, batteries parameters and transmission parameters were selected for the plug - in parallel hybrid electric SUV. Then a rule - based energy management strategy for a Plug - in Hybrid Electric Vehicle ( PHEV) was presented. The proposed energy management strategy was implemented on a PHEV model in ADVISOR2002 and the model was then simulated for a number of UDDS - EPA drive cycles. The proposed PHEV algorithm results were compared with those for HEV with similar battery capacity as PHEV,then the battery and motor parameters were optimized. The simulation results show the whole design is quite reasonable.

  11. Modeling and Simulation of Parallel Plug-in Hybrid Electric Bus%插电式并联混合动力客车建模及仿真

    范彪; 袁景敏; 李建鹏; 袁月会; 舒红

    2011-01-01

    基于Advisor软件中并联混合动力客车仿真模型,建立插电式并联双离合器混合动力客车仿真模型,并对发动机、电机、传动系和电池等进行参数匹配;分析电力辅助控制策略,利用正交设计对其控制参数进行优选研究。仿真结果表明,动力系统主要参数及整车控制策略设计合理,满足整车性能要求。%Based on the simulation model of a parallel plug-in hybrid electric bus in the Advisor software, a simulation model for a parallel plug-in hybrid electric bus which has two clutches is established. Main parameters of the engine, motor, transmission and batteries are matched. The electric-assistant control strategy is analyzed and its control parameters are optimized parameters of powertrain and the demands. by orthogonal design method. The simulation results show that the design PHEV's control strategy are reasonable and satisfy the vehicle's performance

  12. Effect of regional grid mix, driving patterns and climate on the comparative carbon footprint of gasoline and plug-in electric vehicles in the United States

    We compare life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from several light-duty passenger gasoline and plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) across US counties by accounting for regional differences due to marginal grid mix, ambient temperature, patterns of vehicle miles traveled (VMT), and driving conditions (city versus highway). We find that PEVs can have larger or smaller carbon footprints than gasoline vehicles, depending on these regional factors and the specific vehicle models being compared. The Nissan Leaf battery electric vehicle has a smaller carbon footprint than the most efficient gasoline vehicle (the Toyota Prius) in the urban counties of California, Texas and Florida, whereas the Prius has a smaller carbon footprint in the Midwest and the South. The Leaf is lower emitting than the Mazda 3 conventional gasoline vehicle in most urban counties, but the Mazda 3 is lower emitting in rural Midwest counties. The Chevrolet Volt plug-in hybrid electric vehicle has a larger carbon footprint than the Prius throughout the continental US, though the Volt has a smaller carbon footprint than the Mazda 3 in many urban counties. Regional grid mix, temperature, driving conditions, and vehicle model all have substantial implications for identifying which technology has the lowest carbon footprint, whereas regional patterns of VMT have a much smaller effect. Given the variation in relative GHG implications, it is unlikely that blunt policy instruments that favor specific technology categories can ensure emission reductions universally. (letter)

  13. Online Energy Management of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles for Prolongation of All-Electric Range Based on Dynamic Programming

    Zeyu Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The employed energy management strategy plays an important role in energy saving performance and exhausted emission reduction of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs. An application of dynamic programming for optimization of power allocation is implemented in this paper with certain driving cycle and a limited driving range. Considering the DP algorithm can barely be used in real-time control because of its huge computational task and the dependence on a priori driving cycle, several online useful control rules are established based on the offline optimization results of DP. With the above efforts, an online energy management strategy is proposed finally. The presented energy management strategy concerns the prolongation of all-electric driving range as well as the energy saving performance. A simulation study is deployed to evaluate the control performance of the proposed energy management approach. All-electric range of the plug-in HEV can be prolonged by up to 2.86% for a certain driving condition. The energy saving performance is relative to the driving distance. The presented energy management strategy brings a little higher energy cost when driving distance is short, but for a long driving distance, it can reduce the energy consumption by up to 5.77% compared to the traditional CD-CS strategy.

  14. Global Optimal Energy Management Strategy Research for a Plug-In Series-Parallel Hybrid Electric Bus by Using Dynamic Programming

    Hongwen He

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy management strategy influences the power performance and fuel economy of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles greatly. To explore the fuel-saving potential of a plug-in hybrid electric bus (PHEB, this paper searched the global optimal energy management strategy using dynamic programming (DP algorithm. Firstly, the simplified backward model of the PHEB was built which is necessary for DP algorithm. Then the torque and speed of engine and the torque of motor were selected as the control variables, and the battery state of charge (SOC was selected as the state variables. The DP solution procedure was listed, and the way was presented to find all possible control variables at every state of each stage in detail. Finally, the appropriate SOC increment is determined after quantizing the state variables, and then the optimal control of long driving distance of a specific driving cycle is replaced with the optimal control of one driving cycle, which reduces the computational time significantly and keeps the precision at the same time. The simulation results show that the fuel economy of the PEHB with the optimal energy management strategy is improved by 53.7% compared with that of the conventional bus, which can be a benchmark for the assessment of other control strategies.

  15. Variability of Battery Wear in Light Duty Plug-In Electric Vehicles Subject to Ambient Temperature, Battery Size, and Consumer Usage: Preprint

    Wood, E.; Neubauer, J.; Brooker, A. D.; Gonder, J.; Smith, K. A.

    2012-08-01

    Battery wear in plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) is a complex function of ambient temperature, battery size, and disparate usage. Simulations capturing varying ambient temperature profiles, battery sizes, and driving patterns are of great value to battery and vehicle manufacturers. A predictive battery wear model developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory captures the effects of multiple cycling and storage conditions in a representative lithium chemistry. The sensitivity of battery wear rates to ambient conditions, maximum allowable depth-of-discharge, and vehicle miles travelled is explored for two midsize vehicles: a battery electric vehicle (BEV) with a nominal range of 75 mi (121 km) and a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) with a nominal charge-depleting range of 40 mi (64 km). Driving distance distributions represent the variability of vehicle use, both vehicle-to-vehicle and day-to-day. Battery wear over an 8-year period was dominated by ambient conditions for the BEV with capacity fade ranging from 19% to 32% while the PHEV was most sensitive to maximum allowable depth-of-discharge with capacity fade ranging from 16% to 24%. The BEV and PHEV were comparable in terms of petroleum displacement potential after 8 years of service, due to the BEV?s limited utility for accomplishing long trips.

  16. Charging up for the future of plug-in hybrids and range extenders. An exploration of options for increased battery utilisation; Opladen voor de toekomst van plug-in hybrides en range extenders. Een verkenning naar mogelijkheden voor vergroten van het elektrische gebruik

    Van Essen, H.; Schroten, A.; Aarnink, S.

    2013-05-15

    If the full potential of plug-in hybrids and electric cars with a range extender is to be usefully exploited, it is important that these vehicles be used in battery mode as much as possible. This means that users' charging and driving behaviour needs to be positively influenced. This can be achieved through suitably designed financial incentives on the part of employers and government, further expansion of battery-charging infrastructure, and transferring knowledge on driving style. Improved driving and charging behaviour will lead to lower effective fuel consumption, reduced CO2 emissions and improved air quality. These are some of the results of this study in which it is examined how the performance of plug-in hybrids and cars with a range extender can be improved. It is the first study to look into the factors governing practical usage of such vehicles and the options available to the various parties to improve that usage. To this end a literature study was carried out and interviews were held with employers, leasing companies, trade associations, government agencies and other parties [Dutch] Om het potentieel van plug-in hybrides en elektrische auto's met een range extender te benutten is het van belang dat deze auto's zoveel mogelijk elektrisch worden gereden. Hiervoor is het nodig om het oplaad- en rijgedrag van de gebruikers positief te beïnvloeden. Dit kan door het geven van slimme financiële prikkels door werkgevers en overheid, het verder uitbreiden van de laadinfrastructuur en kennisoverdracht over rijgedrag. Een verbeterd rij- en laadgedrag zorgt voor een lager brandstofpraktijkverbruik, minder CO2-uitstoot en een betere luchtkwaliteit. Dit staat onder meer in de studie 'Opladen voor de toekomst van plug-in hybrides en range extenders' van CE Delft, waarin op verzoek van de Nederlandse importeurs van Toyota en Opel is onderzocht hoe het elektrisch gebruik kan worden verbeterd. Hierin is voor het eerst gekeken naar de factoren

  17. Well-to-wheels analysis of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

    Elgowainy, A.; Han, J.; Poch, L.; Wang, M.; Vyas, A.; Mahalik, M.; Rousseau, A.

    2010-06-14

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are being developed for mass production by the automotive industry. PHEVs have been touted for their potential to reduce the US transportation sector's dependence on petroleum and cut greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by (1) using off-peak excess electric generation capacity and (2) increasing vehicles energy efficiency. A well-to-wheels (WTW) analysis - which examines energy use and emissions from primary energy source through vehicle operation - can help researchers better understand the impact of the upstream mix of electricity generation technologies for PHEV recharging, as well as the powertrain technology and fuel sources for PHEVs. For the WTW analysis, Argonne National Laboratory researchers used the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model developed by Argonne to compare the WTW energy use and GHG emissions associated with various transportation technologies to those associated with PHEVs. Argonne researchers estimated the fuel economy and electricity use of PHEVs and alternative fuel/vehicle systems by using the Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) model. They examined two PHEV designs: the power-split configuration and the series configuration. The first is a parallel hybrid configuration in which the engine and the electric motor are connected to a single mechanical transmission that incorporates a power-split device that allows for parallel power paths - mechanical and electrical - from the engine to the wheels, allowing the engine and the electric motor to share the power during acceleration. In the second configuration, the engine powers a generator, which charges a battery that is used by the electric motor to propel the vehicle; thus, the engine never directly powers the vehicle's transmission. The power-split configuration was adopted for PHEVs with a 10- and 20-mile electric range because they require frequent use of the engine for acceleration and

  18. Demand Response and Economic Dispatch of Power Systems Considering Large-Scale Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles/Electric Vehicles (PHEVs/EVs: A Review

    Xiaohui Xu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Increasing concerns about global environmental issues have led to the urgent development of green transportation. The enthusiasm of governments should encourage the prosperity of the plug-in hybrid electric vehicles/electric vehicles (PHEVs/EVs industry in the near future. PHEVs/EVs are not only an alternative to gasoline but are also burgeoning units for power systems. The impact of large-scale PHEVs/EVs on power systems is of profound significance. This paper discusses how to use PHEVs/EVs as a useful new tool for system operation and regulation from a review of recent studies and mainly considers two mainstream methods: demand response and economic dispatch. The potential of using PHEVs/EVs to coordinate renewable energy resources is also discussed in terms of accepting more renewable resources without violating the safety and the reliability of power systems or increasing the operation cost significantly.

  19. A Study of Fuel Economy Improvement in a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle using Engine on/off and Battery Charging Power Control Based on Driver Characteristics

    Seulgi Lee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, driving data for various types of drivers are collected using a VIDE (virtual integrated driving environment, and a driver model is developed. To represent the driver tendencies quantitatively, the DDA (degree of driver aggression is proposed based on fuzzy logic. DDA has a 0-1 value; the closer the DDA is to one, the more aggressive the driver. Using the DDA, an engine on/off and battery charging power control algorithm are developed to improve the fuel economy of a power-split-type plug-in hybrid electric vehicle. The engine on/off control reduces the frequent engine on/off caused by aggressive driving, whereas the battery charging power control maintains the battery state of charge (SOC by operating the engine according to the DDA. It is found that the proposed control algorithm improves fuel economy by 17.3% compared to the existing control for an aggressive driver.

  20. Methodology for modelling plug-in electric vehicles in the power system and cost estimates for a system with either smart or dumb electric vehicles

    Kiviluoma, Juha; Meibom, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The article estimates the costs of plug-in electric vehicles (EVs) in a future power system as well as the benefits from smart charging and discharging EVs (smart EVs). To arrive in a good estimate, a generation planning model was used to create power plant portfolios, which were operated in a more...... detailed unit commitment and dispatch model. In both models the charging and discharging of EVs is optimised together with the rest of the power system. Neither the system cost nor the market price of electricity for EVs turned out to be high (36–263 €/vehicle/year in the analysed scenarios). Most of the...... benefits of smart EVs come from smart timing of charging although benefits are also accrued from provision of reserves and lower power plant portfolio cost. The benefits of smart EVs are 227 €/vehicle/year. This amount has to cover all expenses related to enabling smart EVs and need to be divided between...

  1. Cost-effectiveness of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle battery capacity and charging infrastructure investment for reducing US gasoline consumption

    Federal electric vehicle (EV) policies in the United States currently include vehicle purchase subsidies linked to EV battery capacity and subsidies for installing charging stations. We assess the cost-effectiveness of increased battery capacity vs. nondomestic charging infrastructure installation for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles as alternate methods to reduce gasoline consumption for cars, trucks, and SUVs in the US. We find across a wide range of scenarios that the least-cost solution is for more drivers to switch to low-capacity plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (short electric range with gasoline backup for long trips) or gasoline-powered hybrid electric vehicles. If more gasoline savings are needed per vehicle, nondomestic charging infrastructure installation is substantially more expensive than increased battery capacity per gallon saved, and both approaches have higher costs than US oil premium estimates. Cost effectiveness of all subsidies are lower under a binding fuel economy standard. Comparison of results to the structure of current federal subsidies shows that policy is not aligned with fuel savings potential, and we discuss issues and alternatives. - Highlights: ► We compare cost of PHEV batteries vs. charging infrastructure per gallon of gasoline saved. ► The lowest cost solution is to switch more drivers to low-capacity PHEVs and HEVs. ► If more gasoline savings is needed, batteries offer a better value than chargers. ► Extra batteries and chargers are both more costly per gal than oil premium estimates. ► Current subsidies are misaligned with fuel savings. We discuss alternatives.

  2. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles as a way to maximize the integration of variable renewable energy in power systems: The case of wind generation in northeastern Brazil

    Several studies have proposed different tools for analyzing the integration of variable renewable energy into power grids. This study applies an optimization tool to model the expansion of the electric power system in northeastern Brazil, enabling the most efficient dispatch of the variable output of the wind farms that will be built in the region over the next 20 years. The expected combined expansion of wind generation with conventional inflexible generation facilities, such as nuclear plants and run-of-the-river hydropower plants, poses risks of future mismatch between supply and demand in northeastern Brazil. Therefore, this article evaluates the possibility of using a fleet of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) to regularize possible energy imbalances. Findings indicate that a dedicated fleet of 500 thousand PHEVs in 2015, and a further 1.5 million in 2030, could be recharged overnight to take advantage of the surplus power generated by wind farms. To avoid the initial costs of smart grids, this article suggests, as a first step, the use of a governmental PHEV fleet that allows fleet managers to control battery charging times. Finally, the study demonstrates the advantages of optimizing simultaneously the power and transport sectors to test the strategy suggested here. -- Highlights: ► We evaluated the use of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) to regularize possible energy imbalances in northeastern Brazil. ► This imbalance might result from the large-scale wind power penetration along with conventional inflexible power plants in the region. ► We adapted the MESSAGE optimization tool to the base conditions of the Brazilian power system. ► 500 thousand PHEVs in 2015 and 1.5 million in 2030 could be recharged taking advantage of wind energy surplus.

  3. 插电式混合动力客车工作模式切换控制研究%Research on Control Logic of Work Mode Shifting for Plug-in Hybrid Bus

    叶明; 舒红; 陈然

    2012-01-01

    在研究插电式混合动力客车结构特征的基础上,分析了插电式混合动力客车行驶状态下的主要工作模式。根据模式切换的逻辑关系,提出了插电式混合动力客车采用选择性模式切换方式,并制定了控制逻辑。按照控制逻辑要求,从整车的角度提出了发动机、电动机及自动离合器的控制方法,并通过实车道路试验进行了验证。结果表明:所提出的控制逻辑及部件控制方法满足插电式混合动力客车工作模式切换的需要,并具有良好的行驶性能。%According to the structural characteristics of plug-in hybrid bus,major work modes of plug-in hybrid buses under running were put forward.Based on the relation of mode shifting logic,authors proposed that selective mode shifting was applied to plug-in hybrid bus and control logic of work mode shifting for plug-in hybrid bus was designed.Control method of engine,motor and auto clutch which was verified by field road test was proposed to satisfy control logic.Results show that the proposed control logic and component control method satisfy necessity of work mode shifting for plug-in hybrid bus.It has good running performance.

  4. A life-cycle approach to technology, infrastructure, and climate policy decision making: Transitioning to plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and low-carbon electricity

    Samaras, Constantine

    In order to mitigate the most severe effects of climate change, large global reductions in the current levels of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are required in this century to stabilize atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations at less than double pre-industrial levels. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) fourth assessment report states that GHG emissions should be reduced to 50-80% of 2000 levels by 2050 to increase the likelihood of stabilizing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. In order to achieve the large GHG reductions by 2050 recommended by the IPCC, a fundamental shift and evolution will be required in the energy system. Because the electric power and transportation sectors represent the largest GHG emissions sources in the United States, a unique opportunity for coupling these systems via electrified transportation could achieve synergistic environmental (GHG emissions reductions) and energy security (petroleum displacement) benefits. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), which use electricity from the grid to power a portion of travel, could play a major role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the transport sector. However, this thesis finds that life cycle GHG emissions from PHEVs depend on the electricity source that is used to charge the battery, so meaningful GHG emissions reductions with PHEVs are conditional on low-carbon electricity sources. Power plants and their associated GHGs are long-lived, and this work argues that decisions made regarding new electricity supplies within the next ten years will affect the potential of PHEVs to play a role in a low-carbon future in the coming decades. This thesis investigates the life cycle engineering, economic, and policy decisions involved in transitioning to PHEVs and low-carbon electricity. The government has a vast array of policy options to promote low-carbon technologies, some of which have proven to be more successful than others. This thesis uses life

  5. Shifting Control Algorithm for a Single-Axle Parallel Plug-In Hybrid Electric Bus Equipped with EMT

    Yunyun Yang; Sen Wu; Xiang Fu

    2014-01-01

    Combining the characteristics of motor with fast response speed, an electric-drive automated mechanical transmission (EMT) is proposed as a novel type of transmission in this paper. Replacing the friction synchronization shifting of automated manual transmission (AMT) in HEVs, the EMT can achieve active synchronization of speed shifting. The dynamic model of a single-axle parallel PHEV equipped with the EMT is built up, and the dynamic properties of the gearshift process are also described. I...

  6. 可外接充电混合动力汽车能量管理策略%Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Energy Management Strategy

    张博; 郑贺悦; 王成

    2011-01-01

    With the design ideas of“offline global optimization - online application - test verification”, a set of energy management strategy (EMS) for a parallel plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) is studied by using the methods of system simulation modeling,dynamic programming and computation, genetic algorithm optimization.Through dynamic programming global optimization, an optimal control is obtained and used as a macro-guidance for developing the online EMS or an evaluation criteria for different control strategies.By using online EMS design method, a strategy not only being consistent with the PHEV characteristics but also meet the vehicle real-time control requirement is developed.The test results show that through the obtained three-level EMS, the PHEV can fully utilize the energy charged from the power grid according to different mileage.And the vehicle economic performance is improved by 50%~57%, as the power train energy flow is reasonably distributed.%按照"离线全局优化一在线应用设计一试验结果验证"的设计思路,采用系统仿真建模、动态规划计算、遗传算法优化等方法,对一并联式可外接充电混合动力汽车(Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle,PHEV)能量管理策略进行了研究.由动态规划全局优化方法获取的最优控制,既可以作为制定实时在线策略的宏观指导,也可以作为不同策略的评估标准,对能量管理策略的优化设计具有重要指导意义.而通过在线能量管理策略设计方法,则可以制定出既符合PHEV特点又满足车辆实时性要求的在线能量管理策略.试验验证结果表明:由以上方法获取的三个层次的PHEV能量管理策略,能够根据车辆的不同行驶里程充分利用外围电网充入能量,并对动力总成能量流进行合理分配,使整车经济性能提高50%~57%.

  7. 含插电式混合动力汽车的机组组合问题%Unit Commitment Problem Considering Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    李高望; 钱斌; 石东源; 段献忠

    2013-01-01

    An intelligent charging model for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), in which the minimized difference between peak- and valley-load is taken as optimization objective and driving habits of drivers are taken into account, is established, and the inverse discharge capacities of PHEVs in different time periods are estimated. On this basis, a unit commitment model containing PHEVs is built. Taking a 10-unit system as example, the proposed unit commitment model is solved by heuristic binary particle swamp optimization algorithm, and the influences of different PHEVs control schemes on unit commitment are analyzed and compared. Simulation results show that applying different charging and discharging schemes to PHEVs will obviously impact the optimization results of unit commitment; adopting intelligent charging strategy and utilizing inverse discharging capacity of PHEVs as spinning reserves, the power generation cost of units can be minimized.%建立了以负荷峰谷差最小化为优化目标的计及用户行驶习惯的插电式混合动力汽车(plug-in hybrid electric vehicle,PHEV)智能充电模型,并对各时段PHEV的反向放电能力进行估算.以10机测试系统为算例,采用启发式二进制粒子群优化算法对机组组合模型进行求解,并对比分析了不同的PHEV控制方案对机组组合结果的影响.仿真结果表明,对PHEV采取不同的充放电控制方案,将对机组组合的优化结果产生显著的影响.采用智能充电策略,并利用PHEV的反向放电能力为电网提供备用,将使机组的发电成本降至最低.

  8. Impacts of battery characteristics, driver preferences and road network features on travel costs of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) for long-distance trips

    In a road network with refueling and fast charging stations, the minimum-cost driving path of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) depends on factors such as location and availability of refueling/fast charging stations, capacity and cost of PHEV batteries, and driver tolerance towards extra mileage or additional stopping. In this paper, our focus is long-distance trips of PHEVs. We analyze the impacts of battery characteristics, often-overlooked driver preferences and road network features on PHEV travel costs for long-distance trips and compare the results with hybrid electric and conventional vehicles. We investigate the significance of these factors and derive critical managerial insights for shaping the future investment decisions about PHEVs and their infrastructure. In particular, our findings suggest that with a certain level of deployment of fast charging stations, well established cost and emission benefits of PHEVs for the short range trips can be extended to long distance. Drivers' stopping intolerance may hamper these benefits; however, increasing battery capacity may help overcome the adverse effects of this intolerance. - Highlights: • We investigate the travel costs of CVs, HEVs and PHEVs for long-distance trips. • We analyze the impacts of battery, driver and road network characteristics on the costs. • We provide critical managerial insights to shape the investment decisions about PHEVs. • Drivers' stopping intolerance may hamper the cost and emission benefits of PHEVs. • Negative effect of intolerance on cost may be overcome by battery capacity expansion

  9. Environmental assessment of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles using naturalistic drive cycles and vehicle travel patterns: A Michigan case study

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) use grid electricity as well as on-board gasoline for motive force. These multiple energy sources make prediction of PHEV energy consumption challenging and also complicate evaluation of their environmental impacts. This paper introduces a novel PHEV energy consumption modeling approach and compares it to a second approach from the literature, each using actual trip patterns from the 2009 National Household Travel Survey (NHTS). The first approach applies distance-dependent fuel efficiency and on-road electricity consumption rates based on naturalistic or real world, driving information to determine gasoline and electricity consumption. The second uses consumption rates derived in accordance with government certification testing. Both approaches are applied in the context of a location-specific case study that focuses on the state of Michigan. The two PHEV models show agreement in electricity demand due to vehicle charging, gasoline consumption, and life cycle environmental impacts for this case study. The naturalistic drive cycle approach is explored as a means of extending location-specific driving data to supplement existing PHEV impact assessments methods. - Highlights: • Travel patterns from survey data are combined with naturalistic drive cycles. • More realistic PHEV energy modeling using these synthesized real-world drive cycles. • Methodology is demonstrated for PHEVs in Michigan but applicable for other regions. • Energy and emissions findings have major implications for PHEV standards and policy

  10. Multiobjective Synergistic Scheduling Optimization Model for Wind Power and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles under Different Grid-Connected Modes

    Liwei Ju

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to promote grid’s wind power absorptive capacity and to overcome the adverse impacts of wind power on the stable operation of power system, this paper establishes benefit contrastive analysis models of wind power and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs under the optimization goal of minimum coal consumption and pollutant emission considering multigrid connected modes. Then, a two-step adaptive solving algorithm is put forward to get the optimal system operation scheme with the highest membership degree based on the improved ε constraints method and fuzzy decision theory. Thirdly, the IEEE36 nodes 10-unit system is used as the simulation system. Finally, the sensitive analysis for PHEV’s grid connected number is made. The result shows the proposed algorithm is feasible and effective to solve the model. PHEV’s grid connection could achieve load shifting effect and promote wind power grid connection. Especially, the optimization goals reach the optimum in fully optimal charging mode. As PHEV’s number increases, both abandoned wind and thermal power generation cost would decrease and the peak and valley difference of load curve would gradually be reduced.

  11. Plug-in混合动力汽车动力系统参数匹配%Parameter Matching of Powertrain in a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    赵又群; 李佳

    2011-01-01

    Taking the parallel Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle as research object, the principle and implementing scheme of parameters matching for its powertrain were presented. As an example, the parameters matching for the powertrain of a car was conducted with car performance simulated using software ADVISOR. The simulation results were presented, which vertifies the prospective objects that is, the vehicle dynamic performance is equal to the prototype vehicle' s, fuel economy increases compared with the prototype vehicle' s.%以并联型Plug-in混合动力电动汽车(PHEV)为研究对象,提出了其动力驱动系统参数匹配的原则和实施方法.采用该方法对某型轿车动力总成参数进行了匹配,使用电动汽车仿真软件ADVISOR对整车性能进行仿真计算.仿真结果表明:Plug-in混合动力轿车动力性与原车相当,经济性与原车相比有很大提高,达到预期开发目标.

  12. A Rule-Based Energy Management Strategy for a Plug-in Hybrid School Bus Based on a Controller Area Network Bus

    Jiankun Peng

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a rule-based energy management strategy for a plug-in hybrid school bus (PHSB. In order to verify the effectiveness and rationality of the proposed energy management strategy, the powertrain and control models were built with MATLAB/Simulink. The PHSB powertrain model includes an engine model, ISG (integrated started and generator model, drive motor model, power battery packs model, driver model, and vehicle longitudinal dynamics model. To evaluate the controller area network (CAN bus performance features such as the bus load, signal hysteresis, and to verify the reliability and real-time performance of the CAN bus multi-node control method, a co-simulation platform was built with CANoe and MATLAB/Simulink. The co-simulation results show that the control strategy can meet the requirements of the PHSB’s dynamic performance. Meanwhile, the charge-depleting mode (CD and charge-sustaining mode (CS can switch between each other and maintain a state-of-charge (SoC of around 30%, indicating that the energy management strategy effectively extends the working period of the CD mode and improves the fuel economy further. The energy consumption per 100 km includes 13.7 L diesel and 10.5 kW·h electricity with an initial SoC of 75%. The CANoe simulation results show that the bus communication performs well without error frames.

  13. Real World Operation of a Complex Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle: Analysis of Its CO2 Emissions and Operating Costs

    Federico Millo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (pHEVs could represent the stepping stone to move towards a more sustainable mobility and combine the benefits of electric powertrains with the high range capability of conventional vehicles. Nevertheless, despite the huge potential in terms of CO2 emissions reduction, the performance of such vehicles has to be deeply investigated in real world driving conditions considering also the CO2 production related to battery recharge which, on the contrary, is currently only partially considered by the European regulation to foster the diffusion of pHEVs. Therefore, this paper aims to assess, through numerical simulation, the real performance of a test case pHEV, the energy management system (EMS of which is targeted to the minimization of its overall CO2 emissions. The paper highlights, at the same time, the relevance of the CO2 production related to the battery recharge from the power grid. Different technologies mixes used to produce the electricity required for the battery recharge are also taken into account in order to assess the influence of this parameter on the vehicle CO2 emissions. Finally, since the operating cost still represents the main driver in orienting the customer’s choice, an alternative approach for the EMS, targeted to the minimization of this variable, is also analyzed.

  14. Development of Near Optimal Rule-Based Control for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles Taking into Account Drivetrain Component Losses

    Hanho Son

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A near-optimal rule-based mode control (RBC strategy was proposed for a target plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV taking into account the drivetrain losses. Individual loss models were developed for drivetrain components including the gears, planetary gear (PG, bearings, and oil pump, based on experimental data and mathematical governing equations. Also, a loss model for the power electronic system was constructed, including loss from the motor-generator while rotating in the unloaded state. To evaluate the effect of the drivetrain losses on the operating mode control strategy, backward simulations were performed using dynamic programming (DP. DP selects the operating mode, which provides the highest efficiency for given driving conditions. It was found that the operating mode selection changes when drivetrain losses are included, depending on driving conditions. An operating mode schedule was developed with respect to the wheel power and vehicle speed, and based on the operating mode schedule, a RBC was obtained, which can be implemented in an on-line application. To evaluate the performance of the RBC, a forward simulator was constructed for the target PHEV. The simulation results show near-optimal performance of the RBC compared with dynamic-programming-based mode control in terms of the mode operation time and fuel economy. The RBC developed with drivetrain losses taken into account showed a 4%–5% improvement of the fuel economy over a similar RBC, which neglected the drivetrain losses.

  15. 配电网电动汽车优化充电研究%Research on Charging Optimization for Distributed Plug-in Hybrid EV

    万路路; 王磊; 丁昊

    2011-01-01

    The PHEV( Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle) can be seen as a new kind of power load, but huge amounts of PHEV may cause such problems as power loss and voltage drop. Two main charging modes of the PHEV, uncoordinated mode and coordinated mode, are discussed in the paper and a quadratic programming strategy is presented based on minimizing power loss to achieve the optimization charging of PHEV. Finally, an IEEE 14-node example is given to verify the feasibility and practicality of the method proposed.%大量电动汽车接入电网会对配网的运行产生很大影响,如网损,电压跌落等。讨论了电动汽车的两种充电模式:非协调式和协调式,并提出了基于网损最小的二次规划法,以实现电动汽车的优化充电。最后,以IEEE14节点算例验证了所提方法的可行性和实用性。

  16. The effectiveness of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and renewable power in support of holistic environmental goals: Part 1 - Evaluation of aggregate energy and greenhouse gas performance

    Tarroja, Brian; Eichman, Joshua D.; Zhang, Li; Brown, Tim M.; Samuelsen, Scott

    2014-07-01

    A study that analyzes the effectiveness of plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEVs) to meet holistic environmental goals has been performed across the combined electricity and light-duty transportation sectors. PHEV penetration levels are varied from 0 to 60% and base renewable penetration levels are varied from 10 to 45%. Part 1 of the study focuses on CO2 emissions, fuel usage, and the renewable penetration level of individual and combined energy sectors. The effect on grid renewable penetration level depends on two factors: the additional vehicle load demand acting to decrease renewable penetration, and the controllability of vehicle charging acting to reduce curtailment of renewable power. PHEV integration can reduce CO2 emissions and fuel usage and increase the aggregate renewable energy share compared to the no-vehicle case. The benefits of isolated PHEV integration are slightly offset by increased CO2 emissions and fuel usage by the electric grid. Significant benefits are only realized when PHEVs are appropriately deployed in conjunction with renewable energy resources, highlighting important synergies between the electric and light-duty transportation sectors for meeting sustainability goals.

  17. Beyond batteries: An examination of the benefits and barriers to plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and a vehicle-to-grid (V2G) transition

    This paper explores both the promise and the possible pitfalls of the plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) and vehicle-to-grid (V2G) concept, focusing first on its definition and then on its technical state-of-the-art. More originally, the paper assesses significant, though often overlooked, social barriers to the wider use of PHEVs (a likely precursor to V2G) and implementation of a V2G transition. The article disputes the idea that the only important barriers facing the greater use of PHEVs and V2G systems are technical. Instead, it provides a broader assessment situating such 'technical' barriers alongside more subtle impediments relating to social and cultural values, business practices, and political interests. The history of other energy transitions, and more specifically the history of renewable energy technologies, implies that these 'socio-technical' obstacles may be just as important to any V2G transition-and perhaps even more difficult to overcome. Analogously, the article illuminates the policy implications of such barriers, emphasizing what policymakers need to achieve a transition to a V2G and PHEV world

  18. Integrated motor drive and non-isolated battery charger based on the split-phase PM motors for plug-in vehicles

    Saeid Haghbin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel integrated motor drive and non-isolated battery charger based on a split-phase permanent magnet (PM motor is presented and described for a plug-in vehicle. The motor windings are reconfigured by a relay for the traction and charging operation. In traction mode, the motor is like a normal three-phase motor, whereas in the charging mode, after windings reconnection, the system is a three-phase Boost rectifier. One important challenge to use the motor as three inductors in charger circuit is to have it in standstill during the battery charging. Based on the presented mathematical model of a split-phase PM motor, the zero-torque condition of the motor is explained which led to a proper windings reconnection for the charging. Simulation and experimental results of two separate practical systems are provided to verify the proposed integrated battery charger. Some practical limitations and design recommendations are provided to achieve a more realistic practical system.

  19. SAR Image Processing Study on the Photoshop Plug-in%关于Photoshop插件的SAR图像处理探究

    万振杰

    2012-01-01

    SAR图像处理主要包括相干斑抑制、特征提取等,如果在使用Photoshop插件SAR图像处理图片,将主要精力集中于算法的设计和优化方面,可以尽量减少在用户界面、内存管理和基本的图像操作方面的编程,既可以实现多种图像处理,又容易实现功能的充分扩大与填充,从而在最短的时间内做做多的事。%SAR image speckle reduction, feature extraction,etc.If you use Photoshop plug-in SAR image processing image will mainly focus on the design and optimization of the algorithm, can be minimized in the user interface,memory management,and basic image operational aspects of programming,we can achieve a variety of image processing,and easy to implement functionality to fully expand and fill,resulting in the shortest possible time to do some more things.

  20. The ability of battery second use strategies to impact plug-in electric vehicle prices and serve utility energy storage applications

    Neubauer, Jeremy; Pesaran, Ahmad

    The high cost of lithium ion batteries is a major impediment to the increased market share of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and full electric vehicles (EVs). The reuse of PHEV/EV propulsion batteries in second use applications following the end of their automotive service life may have the potential to offset the high initial cost of these batteries today. Accurately assessing the value of such a strategy is exceedingly complex and entails many uncertainties. This paper takes a first step toward such an assessment by estimating the impact of battery second use on the initial cost of PHEV/EV batteries to automotive consumers and exploring the potential for grid-based energy storage applications to serve as a market for used PHEV/EV batteries. It is found that although battery second use is not expected to significantly affect today's PHEV/EV prices, it has the potential to become a common component of future automotive battery life cycles and potentially to transform markets in need of cost-effective energy storage. Based on these findings, the authors advise further investigation focused on forecasting long-term battery degradation and analyzing second-use applications in more detail.

  1. The Novel Application of Optimization and Charge Blended Energy Management Control for Component Downsizing within a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Ravi Shankar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available  The adoption of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs is widely seen as an interim solution for the decarbonization of the transport sector. Within a PHEV, determining the required energy storage capacity of the battery remains one of the primary concerns for vehicle manufacturers and system integrators. This fact is particularly pertinent since the battery constitutes the largest contributor to vehicle mass. Furthermore, the financial cost associated with the procurement, design and integration of battery systems is often cited as one of the main barriers to vehicle commercialization. The ability to integrate the optimization of the energy management control system with the sizing of key PHEV powertrain components presents a significant area of research. Contained within this paper is an optimization study in which a charge blended strategy is used to facilitate the downsizing of the electrical machine, the internal combustion engine and the high voltage battery. An improved Equivalent Consumption Method has been used to manage the optimal power split within the powertrain as the PHEV traverses a range of different drivecycles. For a target CO2 value and drivecycle, results show that this approach can yield significant downsizing opportunities, with cost reductions on the order of 2%–9% being realizable.

  2. A Plug-in Technology Based on Soft Bus%一种基于软总线的插件技术

    张怡

    2012-01-01

    工控软件大都基于Windows平台,用Visual C++等工具开发。为了应对日益复杂,且变化多端的软件需求,对市场做出快速反应,工控软件已经向模块化(组件化)、标准化及系列化方向发展。针对上述发展要求,该文论述一种基于软总线的插件技术,从而可实现工控软件的模块化(组件化)、标准化及系列化设计。%Most industrial control programs are based on windows platform,developed with the help of tools such as Visual C++.In order to meet the increasing complex and varying software demands,to respond rapidly to the markets,industrial control programs have been developed more modularized,standardized and in series.In this paper we will discuss a plug-in technology based on soft bus,with which the industrial control programs can be developed more modularized,standardized and in series.

  3. Efficiency and Loss Models for Key Electronic Components of Hybrid and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles' Electrical Propulsion Systems

    Cao, J.; Bharathan, D.; Emadi, A.

    2007-01-01

    Isolated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) are widely used in power electronic applications including electric, hybrid electric, and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (EVs, HEVs, and PHEVs). The trend towards more electric vehicles (MEVs) has demanded the need for power electronic devices capable of handling power in the range of 10-100 kW. However, the converter losses in this power range are of critical importance. Therefore, thermal management of the power electronic devices/converters is crucial for the reliability and longevity of the advanced vehicles. To aid the design of heat exchangers for the IGBT modules used in propulsion motor drives, a loss model for the IGBTs is necessary. The loss model of the IGBTs will help in the process of developing new heat exchangers and advanced thermal interface materials by reducing cost and time. This paper deals with the detailed loss modeling of IGBTs for advanced electrical propulsion systems. An experimental based loss model is proposed. The proposed loss calculation method utilizes the experimental data to reconstruct the loss surface of the power electronic devices by means of curve fitting and linear extrapolating. This enables the calculation of thermal losses in different voltage, current, and temperature conditions of operation. To verify the calculation method, an experimental test set-up was designed and built. The experimental set-up is an IGBT based bi-directional DC/DC converter. In addition, simulation results are presented to verify the proposed calculation method.

  4. Shifting Control Algorithm for a Single-Axle Parallel Plug-In Hybrid Electric Bus Equipped with EMT

    Yunyun Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Combining the characteristics of motor with fast response speed, an electric-drive automated mechanical transmission (EMT is proposed as a novel type of transmission in this paper. Replacing the friction synchronization shifting of automated manual transmission (AMT in HEVs, the EMT can achieve active synchronization of speed shifting. The dynamic model of a single-axle parallel PHEV equipped with the EMT is built up, and the dynamic properties of the gearshift process are also described. In addition, the control algorithm is developed to improve the shifting quality of the PHEV equipped with the EMT in all its evaluation indexes. The key techniques of changing the driving force gradient in preshifting and shifting compensation phases as well as of predicting the meshing speed in the gear meshing phase are also proposed. Results of simulation, bench test, and real road test demonstrate that the proposed control algorithm can reduce the gearshift jerk and the power interruption time noticeably.

  5. Architecture design of plug-in WebGIS using RIA technology%RIA技术方案下的插件式WebGIS系统架构设计

    罗智勇; 罗娟; 赖德军

    2012-01-01

    本文介绍了RIA方案下基于MVVM设计模式和MEF插件方案进行插件式WebGIS系统设计的核心思路和关键实现技术,并在“四川省山地灾害多源信息集成管理系统”开发项目中对插件式WebGIS系统架构进行了实践,取得了良好的效果.系统中各项功能被作为独立插件进行开发,然后被集中或分散部署到可访问到的任何网络位置,用户在使用时,按需对插件进行动态加载或卸载,这种松散耦合的架构方式降低了软件设计开发的难度,提高了开发效率,保障了系统的灵活、高效、稳定,为WebGIS应用程序开发提供了良好的支持.%This article discussed MVVM design pattern and MEF plug-in solution, which constituted key technologies of plug-in WebGIS architecture design. Toe architecture solution discussed in this article was practiced in Sichuan Province Geological Hazard Information Management System, and obtained good results. Facts have proved that plug-in architecture pattern provides effective support for the development of complicated and flexible WebGIS software. In R1A web application development, plug-irt architecture pattern considers function modules as independent plug-in components, which can been developed separately and deployed to any Website. By on-demand asynchronous loading, the main web framework can load plug-in components dynamically and extend new functions expediently without modifying or recompiling the original application. Loosely coupled architecture pattern reduces the difficulty of software design , and increases the efficiency of system development and maintenance, and assures the flexibility, efficiency and stability of system. Plug-in architecture pattern has already become a kind of important design pattern for the development of WebGIS system.

  6. Implementation of a solar thermal electricity pilot plant (Concentrated Tower) of 1MW and introduction of a bus fleet of plug-in hybrids on the Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Implementacao de uma planta piloto de heliotermia (Torre de Concentracao) de 1MW e introducao de uma frota de onibus hibridos plug-in na Ilha do Fundao

    Borba, Bruno Soares Moreira Cesar; Malagueta, Diego Cunha [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (PPE/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Planejamento Energetico

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to simulate a solar thermal electricity pilot plant at the Campus of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), at Fundao Island, which would generate part of the electricity demanded by the Technology Center (CT) of the UFRJ. Based on the electricity demand from UFRJ and the electric prices paid by the institution, this study proposes the construction of a 1MW Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) pilot plant and analyses the economical, energy and environmental viability of implementation of this plant, operating from 2015 to 2045. This CSP plant would cover a field of 0,01km{sup 2} and have a 30% of capacity factor. This study also evaluates the impact caused by the substitution of the current Campus internal bus fleet for plug-in hybrid electric buses. The current service is provided by Normandy, which operates 12 buses plus 1 backup. These new buses would be regularly partially recharged by the energy generated from CSP. All the simulations have been made with the RETScreen software, which simulated the operation of the CSP, the amount of electricity produced, the carbon emissions avoided, the acquisition and implementation of the plug-in hybrid electric bus fleet and the cash flow. Six scenarios generated were, namely A1, B1, C1 (all for lower costs for the CSP plants) and A2, B2, C2 (for higher costs). For a social discount rate around 8% and along 30 years, only the A1, C1 and C2 scenarios showed a non-negative cash flow. Also, the emissions avoided were around 222 tCO{sub 2}/yr (or 6.660 tCO{sub 2} over 30 years) in the A1 and A2 scenarios, and around 550 tCO{sub 2}/yr (or 16.512 tCO{sub 2} over 30 years) in all others scenarios. (author)

  7. Development of HFF6120G03SHEV Plug-in Hybrid Electric Bus%HFF6120G03SHEV插电式混合动力客车开发

    王少凯

    2015-01-01

    简要介绍HFF6120G03SHEV插电式混合动力客车整车的开发和驱动控制系统的设计,以及整车动力电池组布置技术方案.%The author briefly introduces the whole vehicle development, drive control system design and the vehicle power battery layout scheme of HFF6120G03SHEV plug-in hybrid electric bus.

  8. The effectiveness of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and renewable power in support of holistic environmental goals: Part 2 - Design and operation implications for load-balancing resources on the electric grid

    Tarroja, Brian; Eichman, Joshua D.; Zhang, Li; Brown, Tim M.; Samuelsen, Scott

    2015-03-01

    A study has been performed that analyzes the effectiveness of utilizing plug-in vehicles to meet holistic environmental goals across the combined electricity and transportation sectors. In this study, plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) penetration levels are varied from 0 to 60% and base renewable penetration levels are varied from 10 to 63%. The first part focused on the effect of installing plug-in hybrid electric vehicles on the environmental performance of the combined electricity and transportation sectors. The second part addresses impacts on the design and operation of load-balancing resources on the electric grid associated with fleet capacity factor, peaking and load-following generator capacity, efficiency, ramp rates, start-up events and the levelized cost of electricity. PHEVs using smart charging are found to counteract many of the disruptive impacts of intermittent renewable power on balancing generators for a wide range of renewable penetration levels, only becoming limited at high renewable penetration levels due to lack of flexibility and finite load size. This study highlights synergy between sustainability measures in the electric and transportation sectors and the importance of communicative dispatch of these vehicles.

  9. Analysis between Cheating Plug-in and Cheating Program in the Perspective of Criminology%“私服”“外挂”行为的犯罪学分析

    张晶; 权硕朝; 张方勇

    2012-01-01

    Cheating plug-in and cheating program are two prominent transgressed behaviors in online game,and are also one of the regulated behaviors in China's judicial practice.Cheating plug-in and cheating program have shown a flooded tendency to spread and have caused damages on the normal order of network and information industries.The behaviors of cheating plug-in and cheating program have a considerable harm to society.If the behaviors become severe,that is committing a crime and we have to use criminal law to regulate their behaviors.%"私服""外挂"是网络游戏中两个比较突出的越轨行为,也是最早为我国司法实务界所规制的行为之一。"私服""外挂"在网络游戏中已呈泛滥之势,且对正常的网络秩序和信息产业的发展产生了危害。"私服""外挂"行为已经具有相当的社会危害性,严重的应属于犯罪,并用刑法予以规制。

  10. Research on the"Plugged-in"Lifestyle of Children and Solving Strategies%少年儿童“插电”式生活方式及解决策略研究

    杨金兰

    2014-01-01

    越来越多少年儿童的娱乐、生活和学习的方式都已离不开电脑、手机、游戏机、电视等这些需要插电的电子产品和媒体,它们的生活方式已渐渐变成了“插电”式的。这种“插电”式的生活方式对少年儿童的健康、学习、心理等都产生了各种负面影响。本文分析了产生“插电”式生活方式的社会和家庭原因,并提出了培养少年儿童“不插电”生活方式的几个策略。%More and more children's lifestyle are connected with electronics and medias which need be plugged in, such as, computers, cell phones, video games, TV, and etc. Their lifestyle is changed into"plugged-in". This type of lifestyle brings a lot of negative effects on children’s study performance, health and psychology. This article analyzes reasons of"plugged-in"lifestyle, and comes up several strategies of changing this lifestyle.

  11. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition Study: Phase 1, Task 3: Technical Requirements and Procedure for Evaluation of One Scenario

    Sikes, Karen R [ORNL; Hinds, Shaun [Sentech, Inc.; Hadley, Stanton W [ORNL; McGill, Ralph N [ORNL; Markel, Lawrence C [ORNL; Ziegler, Richard E [ORNL; Smith, David E [ORNL; Smith, Richard L [ORNL; Greene, David L [ORNL; Brooks, Daniel L [ORNL; Wiegman, Herman [GE Global Research; Miller, Nicholas [GE; Marano, Dr. Vincenzo [Ohio State University

    2008-07-01

    In Task 2, the project team designed the Phase 1 case study to represent the 'baseline' plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) fleet of 2030 that investigates the effects of seventeen (17) value propositions (see Table 1 for complete list). By creating a 'baseline' scenario, a consistent set of assumptions and model parameters can be established for use in more elaborate Phase 2 case studies. The project team chose southern California as the Phase 1 case study location because the economic, environmental, social, and regulatory conditions are conducive to the advantages of PHEVs. Assuming steady growth of PHEV sales over the next two decades, PHEVs are postulated to comprise approximately 10% of the area's private vehicles (about 1,000,000 vehicles) in 2030. New PHEV models introduced in 2030 are anticipated to contain lithium-ion batteries and be classified by a blended mileage description (e.g., 100 mpg, 150 mpg) that demonstrates a battery size equivalence of a PHEV-30. Task 3 includes the determination of data, models, and analysis procedures required to evaluate the Phase 1 case study scenario. Some existing models have been adapted to accommodate the analysis of the business model and establish relationships between costs and value to the respective consumers. Other data, such as the anticipated California generation mix and southern California drive cycles, have also been gathered for use as inputs. The collection of models that encompasses the technical, economic, and financial aspects of Phase 1 analysis has been chosen and is described in this deliverable. The role of PHEV owners, utilities (distribution systems, generators, independent system operators (ISO), aggregators, or regional transmission operators (RTO)), facility owners, financing institutions, and other third parties are also defined.

  12. Evaluation of commercial lithium-ion cells based on composite positive electrode for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle applications. Part I: Initial characterizations

    Evaluating commercial Li-ion batteries presents some unique benefits. One of them is to use cells made from established fabrication process and form factor, such as those offered by the 18650 cylindrical configuration, to provide a common platform to investigate and understand performance deficiency and aging mechanism of target chemistry. Such an approach shall afford us to derive relevant information without influence from processing or form factor variability that may skew our understanding on cell-level issues. A series of 1.9 Ah 18650 lithium ion cells developed by a commercial source using a composite positive electrode comprising (LiMn1/3Ni1/3Co1/3O2 + LiMn2O4) is being used as a platform for the investigation of certain key issues, particularly path-dependent aging and degradation in future plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) applications, under the US Department of Energy's Applied Battery Research (ABR) program. Here we report in Part I the initial characterizations of the cell performance and Part II some aspects of cell degradation in 2C cycle aging. The initial characterizations, including cell-to-cell variability, are essential for life cycle performance characterization in the second part of the report when cell-aging phenomena are discussed. Due to the composite nature of the positive electrode, the features (or signature) derived from the incremental capacity (IC) of the cell appear rather complex. In this work, the method to index the observed IC peaks is discussed. Being able to index the IC signature in details is critical for analyzing and identifying degradation mechanism later in the cycle aging study.

  13. Methodology for modelling plug-in electric vehicles in the power system and cost estimates for a system with either smart or dumb electric vehicles

    The article estimates the costs of plug-in electric vehicles (EVs) in a future power system as well as the benefits from smart charging and discharging EVs (smart EVs). To arrive in a good estimate, a generation planning model was used to create power plant portfolios, which were operated in a more detailed unit commitment and dispatch model. In both models the charging and discharging of EVs is optimised together with the rest of the power system. Neither the system cost nor the market price of electricity for EVs turned out to be high (36-263 Euro /vehicle/year in the analysed scenarios). Most of the benefits of smart EVs come from smart timing of charging although benefits are also accrued from provision of reserves and lower power plant portfolio cost. The benefits of smart EVs are 227 Euro /vehicle/year. This amount has to cover all expenses related to enabling smart EVs and need to be divided between different actors. Additional benefits could come from the avoidance of grid related costs of immediate charging, but these were not part of the analysis. -- Research highlights: → The costs of 'smart' and 'dumb' electric vehicles were estimated. → The power system benefits of smart electric vehicles were 227 Euro /vehicle/year. → Two models were used: a generation planning model and a unit commitment model. → Impact of electric vehicles in the long-term power plant portfolio are important. → A model for electric vehicles was made for the stochastic unit commitment model.

  14. Conventional, hybrid, plug-in hybrid or electric vehicles? State-based comparative carbon and energy footprint analysis in the United States

    Highlights: • Driving patterns and electricity generation mix influence vehicle preferences. • EVs are found to be least carbon-intensive vehicle option in 24 states. • HEVs are found to be the most energy-efficient option in 45 states. • EVs across the board are unfavorable in the marginal electricity mix scenario. • Use of renewable energy to power EVs/PHEVs is crucial. - Abstract: Electric vehicles (EVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are often considered as better options in terms of greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption compared to internal combustion vehicles. However, making any decision among these vehicle options is not a straightforward process due to temporal and spatial variations, such as the sources of the electricity used and regional driving patterns. In this study, we compared these vehicle options across 50 states, taking into account state-specific average and marginal electricity generation mixes, regional driving patterns, and vehicle and battery manufacturing impacts. Furthermore, a policy scenario proposing the widespread use of solar energy to charge EVs and PHEVs is evaluated. Based on the average electricity generation mix scenario, EVs are found to be least carbon-intensive vehicle option in 24 states, while HEVs are found to be the most energy-efficient option in 45 states. In the marginal electricity mix scenario, widespread adoption of EVs is found to be an unwise strategy given the existing and near-future marginal electricity generation mix. On the other hand, EVs can be superior to other alternatives in terms of energy-consumption, if the required energy to generate 1 kW h of electricity is below 1.25 kW h

  15. Market penetration speed and effects on CO2 reduction of electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in Japan

    Abstarct: In order to reduce CO2 emissions in the passenger vehicle sector, mass introduction of electric vehicles (EVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) is required despite their high battery costs. This paper forecasts the rate at which EV/PHEV will penetrate into the market in the future and the effects of that spread on CO2 reduction by using a learning curve for lithium-ion batteries, distribution of daily travel distance for each vehicle, and an optimal power generation planning model for charging vehicles. Taking into consideration each driver's economical viewpoint, the speed at which the EV/PHEV share of the new passenger vehicle market grows is fairly slow. The optimum calculation in our base case shows that the share of EV/PHEV is only a quarter even in 2050. However, the initial price and progress rate of batteries have a great effect on this share. Therefore, long-term economic support from the government and significant R and D innovation are required to reduce CO2 drastically through cutting down battery price. The results also show how much the CO2 emission intensity of power generation affects the CO2 reduction rate by introducing EV/PHEV. - Highlights: ► Authors minimized the total cost of vehicle and power supply sectors until 2050. ► Simulation results show the penetration speed of PHEVs/EVs is not so fast. ► To accelerate it and reduce CO2, subsidies and innovations are required. ► The introduction of PHEVs/EVs is still reasonable even after the nuclear accident.

  16. Plugging in or Going Wireless

    Shrestha, Pravin; Rotaru, Amelia-Elena

    2014-01-01

    and reduced forms. Well-studied examples are interspecies H2 transfer and the cycling of sulfur intermediates in anaerobic photosynthetic communities. Direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) in which two species establish electrical contact is an alternative. Electrical contacts documented to date...... methanogenic communities is clear, but under some circumstances DIET predominates. It is expected that further mechanistic studies and broadening investigations to a wider range of environments will help elucidate the factors that favor specific forms of interspecies electron exchange under different...

  17. Replacement of 13 valves by using an isolation plug in the 20 inches diameter main offshore gas pipeline at Cantarell oil field, Campeche Bay, Mexico

    Carvahal Reyes, Jorge Omar; Ulloa Ochoa, Carlos Manuel [PEMEX, Exploracion y Produccion, MX (Mexico)

    2009-12-19

    In 2002 we changed 13 valves on deck of one gas production platform called Nohoch-A-Enlace at Cantarell Offshore Oil Field. The 20'' diameter gas pipeline and 200 km of length, transport and deliver gas for others production platforms in the Gas Lift System, So 2 millions of oil barrels per day depends of the operation of this gas pipeline but there was 13 valves on pig traps to be changed after 20 years of service to high pressure (64 to 63 kg/cm{sup 2}). We could not stop the operation of this pipeline and some little gas leaks were eliminated in some parts of the valves. This pipeline has two risers so the gas can be injected by two sides of the ring of 20 Km. So we found the proper technology in order to isolate one riser nad change 8 valves and the isolate the other and change the 5, and the gas lift system never stop during the plug and maintenance operations on platform. In the first isolation plug operation this tool run 20 mts inside the riser and was actionated and resists 65 Kg/cm{sup 2} of gas pressure during 44 hours so we changed 8 valves: 2 of 20'', 2 of 10'', 3 of 4'' and 1 of 8'' diameter. In the second isolation the plug run 30 mts inside the second risers and resist 64 Kg/cm{sup 2} of gas during 46 hours and we changed 5 valves of 20'' diameter. In the paper I will describe all the details of this successful operations and procedures. Also the aspects of Health, Security and Environment that we prepared one year before this operations at platform. Pemex save almost 2.5 millions of dollars because the gas lift system never stop and all valves were changed and now we can run cleaning and inspection tools inside the full ring. We used the first isolation plug in Latin America and we want to share this experience to all the pipeline operators in the world as a good practice in pipeline maintenance using plugging technology in the main and large pipelines of high pressure. (author)

  18. Energy-saving effect of a residential polymer electrolyte fuel cell cogeneration system combined with a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle

    Highlights: • Combined use of PEFC-CGS and PHEV is focused on for energy savings. • Optimal operational planning considering daily start–stop operation is modeled. • Charging PHEV with PEFC-CGS increases electric capacity factor of PEFC-CGS. • Combined use has higher energy-saving effect than their separate use. • Combined use synergistically saves energies in residential and transport sectors. - Abstract: The energy-saving effect of a residential polymer electrolyte fuel cell cogeneration system (PEFC-CGS) that adopts a daily start–stop operation with no reverse power flow, combined with a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) is analyzed by optimal operational planning model based on mixed-integer linear programming. This combined use aims to increase the electric capacity factor of the PEFC-CGS by charging the PHEV using the PEFC-CGS output late at night, and targets the application in regions where the reverse power flow from residential cogeneration systems to commercial electric power systems is not permitted, like in Japan. First, the optimal operational planning model that incorporates the daily start–stop operation of the PEFC-CGS is developed. The energy-saving effect of the combined use of the PEFC-CGS and PHEV is then analyzed on the basis of observations of the optimal operation patterns for a 0.75-kWe PEFC-CGS, a simulated energy demand with a sampling time of 5 min, and various daily running distances of the PHEV. The results show that the combined use of the PEFC-CGS and PHEV increases the electric capacity factor and hot water supply rate of the PEFC-CGS and saves more energy in comparison with their separate use in which the PEFC-CGS is used but the PHEV is charged only using purchased electric power. Consequently, this feasibility study reveals that the combined use of the PEFC-CGS and PHEV provides the synergistic effect on energy savings in the residential and transport sectors

  19. Intelligent optimization to integrate a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle smart parking lot with renewable energy resources and enhance grid characteristics

    Highlights: • The proposed algorithms handled design steps of an efficient parking lot of PHEVs. • Optimizations are performed with 1 h intervals to find optimum charging rates. • Multi-objective optimization is performed to find the optimum size and site of DG. • Optimal sizing of a PV–wind–diesel HRES is attained. • Charging rates are optimized intelligently during peak and off-peak times. - Abstract: Widespread application of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) as an important part of smart grids requires drivers and power grid constraints to be satisfied simultaneously. We address these two challenges with the presence of renewable energy and charging rate optimization in the current paper. First optimal sizing and siting for installation of a distributed generation (DG) system is performed through the grid considering power loss minimization and voltage enhancement. Due to its benefits, the obtained optimum site is considered as the optimum location for constructing a movie theater complex equipped with a PHEV parking lot. To satisfy the obtained size of DG, an on-grid hybrid renewable energy system (HRES) is chosen. In the next set of optimizations, optimal sizing of the HRES is performed to minimize the energy cost and to find the best number of decision variables, which are the number of the system’s components. Eventually, considering demand uncertainties due to the unpredictability of the arrival and departure times of the vehicles, time-dependent charging rate optimizations of the PHEVs are performed in 1 h intervals for the 24-h of a day. All optimization problems are performed using genetic algorithms (GAs). The outcome of the proposed optimization sets can be considered as design steps of an efficient grid-friendly parking lot of PHEVs. The results indicate a reduction in real power losses and improvement in the voltage profile through the distribution line. They also show the competence of the utilized energy delivery method in

  20. Feasibility study on combined use of residential SOFC cogeneration system and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle from energy-saving viewpoint

    Highlights: ► Optimal operational planning for combined use of SOFC-CGS and PHEV is conducted. ► Charging PHEV with SOFC-CGS increases electric capacity factor of SOFC-CGS. ► Energy-saving effect of combined use is higher than that of their separate use. ► Combined use provides energy savings in both residential and transport sectors. - Abstract: The energy-saving effect of a combined use of a residential solid oxide fuel cell cogeneration system (SOFC-CGS) that adopts a continuous operation, and a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) is discussed by optimal operational planning based on mixed-integer linear programming. This combined use aims to increase the electric capacity factor of the SOFC-CGS by charging the PHEV using the SOFC-CGS electric power output late at night, and targets the application in regions where the reverse power flow from residential cogeneration systems to commercial electric power systems is not permitted, like in Japan. The optimal operation patterns of the combined use of 0.7-kWe SOFC-CGS and PHEV for a simulated energy demand with a sampling time of 1 h and various daily running distances of the PHEV show that this combined use increases the electric capacity factor of the SOFC-CGS and saves more energy in comparison with their separate use in which the SOFC-CGS is used but the PHEV is charged only with purchased electric power. Furthermore, it is found that at the PHEV daily running distance of 12 km/d, the reduction rate of the annual primary energy consumption for this combined use increases by up to 3.7 percentage points relative to their separate use. Consequently, this feasibility study reveals that the combined use of the SOFC-CGS and PHEV provides the synergistic effect on energy savings in the residential and transport sectors. For the practical use, simulation scenarios considering the energy demand fluctuations with short periods and real-time pricing of the purchased electric power must be considered as future

  1. Effects of the introduction of electric vehicles and plug-in hybrids on sources of energy and the electricity grid - Additional information; Auswirkungen der Markteinfuehrung von Elektrofahrzeugen und Plug-In-Hybrids auf die Energietraeger und das Elektrizitaetsnetz. Ergaenzende Informationen - Schlussbericht

    Rigassi, R.; Huber, S. [Enco AG, Liestal (Switzerland); Strub, P. [Pierre Strub - nachhaltig wirkt, Basel (Switzerland)

    2010-12-15

    This comprehensive annex to a final report for the Swiss federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the effects of the introduction of electric vehicles and plug-in hybrids on sources of energy and the electricity grid. Energy and CO{sub 2} balances are discussed as is the use of vehicle batteries as part of a 'vehicle-to-grid' system that can help regulate the electricity mains. Charge optimisation and mains fed-in are discussed. The control and cost/remuneration of the power involved are looked at. The modelling involved for calculating the power quantities involved is examined. Data on related vehicle technologies and their usage is presented and discussed. The Swiss power grid, production and the mix of electricity produced are looked at and the needs for regulating energy are discussed. Factors taken into account for the comparison of carbon dioxide emissions are looked at. Further additional information is presented and discussed. Relationships to other energy scenarios are presented and discussed. Finally, conclusions are drawn and recommendations are made. Questions still to be examined are listed.

  2. The Software Design of AMT Plug-in System Data Based on the MATLAB GUI%基于MATLAB GUI的AMT插电式系统数据分析软件设计

    李勇华; 郭淑英; 宋超

    2015-01-01

    AMT插电式汽车经济性、动力性和换挡平顺性对其整车性能有着重要影响.通过分析AMT插电式系统结构,设计了集数据采集与数据分析的上位机软件,此上位机软件采用MATLAB与C语言混合编程的方法,同时利用MATLAB强大数据处理和数据分析功能,实现了对工况数据采集和存储,完成数据的解析和图形的绘制.重点阐述AMT插电式系统分析软件设计方法.对用户开发MATLAB GUI应用程序和数据分析等相关问题具有借鉴意义.%AMT plug-in cars economy, power and smooth shifting of its vehicle performance has an important impact. By analyzing the AMT plug-in system structure, design a set of data collection and data analysis upper computer software, the upper computer software using C language and MATLAB mixed programming method, while using MATLAB powerful data processing and data analysis functions, the realization of data acquisition and storage conditions, complete analytical drawing and graphic data. AMT focuses on plug-in system analysis software design methods. With a reference to the related problems of user MATLAB GUI application development and data analysis.

  3. Istraživanje potrošnje energije i ispuštanja štetnih plinova kod plug-in i hibridnih električnih vozila

    Barmaki, Reza; Ilkhani, Mohammad; Salehpour, Saman

    2016-01-01

    Jedan od osnovnih zadataka u automobilskoj industriji je razvoj hibridnih električnih vozila (HEVs) kao primarnog kandidata za poboljšanje učinkovitosti goriva i smanjenje ispušnih plinova. Ovo se istraživanje bavi učinkom aktualnog modela pogona i upravljanja na konvencionalna i plug-in hibridna električna vozila (PHEV). Najprije se predlaže postupak razvoja pogonskog ciklusa za stvarne uvjete. Tada se za HEVs i PHEVs istražuju učinci pogonskog modela i načina upravljanja potrošnjom energije...

  4. Skutečná energetická náročnost plug-in hybridů a elektromobilů v závislosti na místě provozu vozidla

    Bochníček, Ondřej

    2015-01-01

    Tématem bakalářské práce je posouzení energetické náročnosti elektromobilů a plug-in hybridů v závislosti na místě provozu a porovnání jednotlivých vybraných modelů s vozy s klasickým spalovacím motorem. Dalším kriteriem hodnocení jsou rovněž emise oxidu uhličitého, které vozidlo vyprodukuje při ujetí jednoho kilometru. Pro energetickou náročnost elektromobilů a plug-in hybridů je zásadní způsob výroby elektrické energie v dané zemi. Na základě informací o energetických mixech jednotlivých ze...

  5. Parameter Matching and Simulation of a Plug-in Hybrid Electric City Bus%Plug—in混合动力城市公交车参数匹配与仿真

    杨攀; 赵又群

    2011-01-01

    We rebuild a conventional city bus to a parallel plug-in hybrid electric city bus, and the structure and parameters of the power system are designed. Ni-MH battery and permanent magnet synchronous motor are used in this hybrid electric city bus. Based on the result of simulation in ADVISOR, the plug-in hybrid electric bus has almost equal kinetic performance to the prototype bus, but the fuel economy increases by at least 20% compared with the prototype bus.%将一种传统城市公交车改造成单轴并联结构的Plug-in混合动力公交车,并对动力系统进行参数匹配和设计。该混合动力公交车的储能原件采用镍氢电池,电机采用永磁同步电机。在电动汽车仿真软件ADVISOR中进行建模仿真的结果表明,Plug-in混合动力公交车的动力性与原型车相当,经济性与原型车相比提高了20%以上,达到了预期开发设计的目标。

  6. Design of a Novel Environment-Friendly and Anti-Pollution Plug-in Type Laryngoscope%新型插接式环保防污染喉镜的研制

    詹慧明; 张咸伟; 伍源; 邓乾

    2012-01-01

    Objective To introduce an economic, environment friendly, safe and convenient novel laryngoscope applied to tracheal intubation. Methods This new laryngoscope mainly consists of two parts: disposable-blade with a transparent hollow pipe and laryngoscope handle built-in a replaceable light emitting diode(LED) as light source. The LED light source is plugged in the disposable blade along the hollow pipe. The disposable blade is connected with the laryngoscope handle in a novel and unique plug-in type. Results We successfully developed a novel environment-friendly and anti-pollution plug-in type laryngoscope. Through a dummy test verification, the new laryngoscope could finish tie tracheal intubation effectively. Compared with the existed disposable blade, this device had a better isolating effect and was more economic, environment friendly, simple and effective. Conclusion The novel laryngoscope could be referred to the patients who required tracheal intubation (for example: general anaesthesia). It could greatly satisfy the demand of isolation in the process of tracheal intubation, which protected both of patients and doctors. And it also could ease the labor burden of clinical staff and improve the working efficiency.%目的 研制一种用于气管插管的新型插接式环保防污染喉镜.方法 本新型喉镜由一次性喉镜叶片和喉镜柄组成.一次性喉镜叶片带有透明封头的中空管道,喉镜柄内置可更换的LED光源索,镜柄内的LED光源索沿中空管道插入叶片体内,以插接旋卡衔接方式连接.结果 新型插接式环保防污染喉镜研制成功后,经模拟人实验证明,可有效地实现气管插管,操作简单.与临床现有的一次性喉镜叶片相比,该装置有更好的隔离效果,更经济、环保.结论 本装置可用于临床科室需行气管插管(全身麻醉)的患者,极大地满足了气管插管过程中一次性隔离需求,既保护病人又保护医生,同时也减轻了医务人员的

  7. 增程/插电式电动商用车制动能量回收分析%Analysis of Energy Recovery for an Extended-range/Plug-in Electric Vehicle

    王佳

    2014-01-01

    The paper analyzes the structure of the hybrid braking system structure for an extended-range/plug-in electric vehicle. Then, based on the Chinese urban driving condition, the parallel mode of the air pressure brake and electric brake is simulated to indicate the useful reference for the further optimization of the hybrid braking system.%以一款增程/插电式电动商用车为研究对象,对制动系统结构进行分析。以并联式气电复合制动为例,在中国典型城市工况下对该电动商用车的制动过程进行了仿真,为制动能量回收的进一步优化提高了参考。

  8. Impactos Ambientais e Econômicos dos Veículos Elétricos e Híbridos Plug-In: uma revisão da literatura

    Vonbun, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Este Texto para Discussão (TD) apresenta uma breve revisão da literatura acerca dos custos e benefícios de veículos elétricos e veículos híbridos do tipo plug-in (PHEV), com ênfase em seus benefícios em termos de redução da emissão de gases de efeito estufa e gases nocivos à saúde humana. Conclui-se que os veículos híbridos, ainda que tenham de superar barreiras tecnológicas e culturais, apresentam um grande potencial de elevar não apenas a eficiência energética do setor de transporte, mas ta...

  9. 基于Cruise的Plug-in并联混合动力客车动力参数匹配与仿真%Parameter Matching and Simulation of the Plug-in Hybrid Electric Bus Based on Cruise

    王菁; 谭德荣

    2012-01-01

    根据客车运行中实际功率需求,在满足动力性基础上,以最低燃油消耗为目标,进行动力系统参数匹配.通过Matlab/Simulink建立控制策略模型,实现Cruise中Plug-in整车模型动力性能仿真运算.仿真结果表明,所设计的Plug-in HEV能够实现所设定的预期目标,发动机工作性能得到改善,经济性得到提高.

  10. Characterization tests for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle application of graphite/LiNi0.4Mn1.6O4 cells with two different separators and electrolytes

    Arbizzani, C.; De Giorgio, F.; Mastragostino, M.

    2014-11-01

    The paper reports and discusses the results of electrochemical tests carried out according to the DOE Battery Test Manual for plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) on laboratory high-voltage graphite/LiNi0.4Mn1.6O4 cells with electrode formulation and mass-loading suitable for scale-up, and mixed ethylene carbonate-dimethyl carbonate with two diverse lithium salts, lithium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate and LiPF6, as electrolytes. The cells, assembled with two different separators, a polypropylene monolayer separator (Celgard®2400) and a reinforced polyvinylidene fluoride macroporous membrane (PVdF-NCC), were also tested by deep charge/discharge cycles. The results show the strong impact of the separator on high-rate cell functioning in PHEVs.

  11. Simulation Research on a Plug-in Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle%一款插电式并联混合动力汽车性能的仿真研究

    胡耀华; 杨亚宁

    2012-01-01

      采用 AVL Cruise 软件与 Matlab/Simulink 软件可实现一款插电式并联混合动力电动汽车的建模。通过仿真计算得到的结果,为下一步整车控制策略的开发及动力总成匹配的优化奠定了基础。%  AVL Cruise and Matlab/Simulink softwares can be used to establish the model for a plug-in parallel hybrid electric vehicle modeling. The results through simulation calculation lay the base for the next step of vehicle control strategy development and optimization of power train matching.

  12. Plug-In并联式混合动力汽车实时优化能量管理策略%Real-Time Optimization of Energy Management Strategy for Plug-In Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    崔纳新; 步刚; 吴剑; 符晓玲; 张承慧

    2011-01-01

    能量管理策略是混合动力汽车的核心技术之一,其品质直接影响车辆的动力性、经济性和排放性能。首先制定了基于确定性规则的Plug-In并联式混合动力汽车能量管理策略;然后,为了提高车辆的燃油经济性,设计了电池能量观测单元,并对等效燃油消耗最小策略进行改进,提出了适用于Plug-In混合动力汽车的实时优化能量管理策略。研究结果表明,该能量管理策略显著提高了Plug-In并联式混合动力汽车的燃油经济性。%The energy management strategy is one of the core technologies of hybrid electric vehicles.The driving ability,economic and emission performances are influenced directly by the quality of the energy management strategy.First,a deterministic rule-based energy management strategy for parallel plug-in hybrid electric vehicle(PHEV) is established.Based on established battery energy observation unit,equivalent fuel consumption minimization is remolded,then a real-time optimization based energy management strategy for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle is established to improve fuel economy of the vehicle.The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed strategy can improve fuel economy significantly.

  13. Multi-objective Optimization of Energy Management Strategy of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle%插电式混合动力汽车能量管理策略多目标优化

    张松; 吴光强; 郑松林

    2011-01-01

    Energy management strategy is related to fuel consumption and exhaust emissions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). Vehicle simulation model is established on the basis of energy management strategy developed in this paper. A hybrid optimization algorithm is proposed to overcome the inherent defects in single optimization algorithm by combining the improved particle swarm algorithm and genetic algorithm (GA). The hybrid optimization algorithm is applied to the multi-optimization of energy management strategy of PHEV. Optimization results show that the hybrid optimization algorithm can avoid falling into local optimum and its search capability is much better than simple particle swarm optimization(PSO) and GA. The optimized fuel consumption and the exhaust emissions reduce around 30%.%能量管理策略与插电式混合动力汽车(plug-in hybrid electric vehicles,PHEV)的燃油消耗和尾气排放密切相关.在开发的PHEV能量管理策略基础上,建立整车仿真模型.利用自适应惯性因子对基本粒子群算法进行改进.为克服单一优化算法的固有缺陷,将改进粒子群算法和遗传算法组成混合优化算法,并将该混合算法应用于PHEV能量管理策略的多目标优化.优化结果表明,该算法能有效跳出局部最优,其寻优能力明显高于基本粒子群算法和遗传算法,优化后的PHEV油耗和尾气排放相对于优化前减少近30%.

  14. Effect of nitrate addition on the diversity and activity of sulfate-reducing prokaryotes in high-temperature oil production systems

    Gittel, Antje; Wieczorek, Adam; Sørensen, Ketil;

    Sulfate-reducing prokaryotes (SRP) producing hydrogen sulfide cause severe problems like microbial corrosion, souring and plugging in seawater-injected oil production systems. Adding nitrate to the injection water is a possible strategy to control the activity of SRP by favoring the growth of both...

  15. Analysis of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles Based on PEST Analysis Method——BYD PHEV as an Example%基于类PEST分析法的插电式混合动力汽车的分析——以比亚迪PHEV为例

    曾宪军

    2015-01-01

    The analysis and comparison of the use of traditional fuel vehicles and plug-in hybrid in the political and legal, economic, social and technical aspects of, pure electric vehicles and total cost of ownership by building plug-in hybrids cost model, taking into account prices of gasoline and electricity price factor changes, analyze the strengths and plug-in hybrid of economic weakness. The results show that the plug-in hybrid with a plurality of different applications on the wider economy.%首先简要分析了基于类PEST分析法的插电式混合动力汽车发展的政治和法律环境、经济环境、社会环境、技术环境,然后通过建立插电式混合动力汽车成本计算模型,分析了插电式混合动力汽车应用的经济优势,旨在为该类型新能源汽车的快速发展奠定坚实的基础.

  16. Commercializing Light-Duty Plug-In/Plug-Out Hydrogen-Fuel-Cell Vehicles: "Mobile Electricity" Technologies, Early California Household Markets, and Innovation Management

    Williams, Brett D.

    2010-01-01

    Starting from the premise that new consumer value must drive hydrogen-fuel-cell-vehicle (H2FCV) commercialization, a group of opportunities collectively called “Mobile Electricity” is characterized. Mobile Electricity (Me-) redefines H2FCVs as innovative products able to import and export electricity across the traditional vehicle boundary. Such vehicles could provide home recharging and mobile power, for example for tools, mobile activities, emergencies, and electric-grid-support services. T...

  17. A Study of Parameter Design of Power and Transmission System for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle%插电式混合动力汽车动力系统参数研究

    刘雪梅; 黄伟; 周云山

    2009-01-01

    How to design transmission parameter in order to realize the optimal matching between engine and transmission system was very important in the primary design of a car. This paper studied a Plug - in Hybrid Electric Vehicle's transmission system, and integrated the automobile's power index with economy performance to put forward a new study method which combines the project with simulation. The new method was used to choose the main compoment of the transmission system and ascertained the parameters of the engine, the ISG motor, the main electromotor, the retarter and the battery. At last the Matlab/simulink and ADVISOR were used for simulation. The results showed that the parameters were suited for the design. Also the power performance and fuel consumption performed well. It gives a good matting for the future excogitation.%在研发一款新车的初期,如何设计动力系参数以达到与汽车发动机的合理匹配足设计中一个关键的问题.针对一种新型插电式混合动力汽车(Plug-in HEV,PHEV)的动力系统进行分析研究,综合汽车动力性评价指标和经济件评价指标为目标,提出了用工程分析与仿真校验相结合的方法对传动系统的主要部件进行了选型,确定了发动机、ISG电机、后驱动电机、主减速器、电池的参数,最后利用Matlab\\simulink和ADVISOR软件对整车性能进行仿真计算,结果表明所确定的动力系统的参数基本达到了汽车的动力件和经济性的设计要求,为后期的研发工作起到了很好的铺垫作用.

  18. Coordination Control for Grid-Connection of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles and Distributed Generation%电动汽车与分布式发电入网的协调控制研究

    李惠玲; 白晓民; 谭闻; 董伟杰; 栗楠

    2013-01-01

    When large-amount of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) and distributed generation (DG) are integrated into power grid, the randomness of vehicle owners’ charging behavior and the intermittence of DG make the requirement to regulation capability of power grid raised. A multi-objective optimization model for coordination control of PHEV and DG is established, in which the maximum equivalent load rate, the minimum out-of-limit voltage and power loss ratio and the lowest service cost of vehicle to grid (V2G) and charging cost of PHEV owners are taken as the objectives. Using the proposed model, the charging/discharging power of PHEV can be dynamically adjusted; the load fluctuation and the output fluctuation of DG can be well matched, thus the impact of DG’s intermittence on power grid can be alleviated. The simulation of an actual 10kV feeder connected with PV generation and wind farm is performed and the results are analyzed in depth.%  当大规模的电动汽车(plug-in hybrid electric vehicle, PHEV)和分布式发电(distributed generation,DG)接入电网时,车主充电行为的随机性和分布式发电的间歇性加大了对电网调节能力的要求。文章建立了电动汽车和分布式发电协调控制的多目标优化模型。该模型以等效负荷率最大、节点电压越限和损耗率最小、入网服务成本和车主充电成本最低为目标,动态调节电动汽车充放电功率,能很好地匹配负荷和分布式发电的功率波动,降低分布式发电间歇性对电网的影响。最后用实例进行仿真,并对结果进行了深入分析。

  19. 谁领风骚下十年?--试驾比亚迪e6先行者和丰田普锐斯Plug-in Hybrid

    周志华; 王锋(摄影)

    2012-01-01

    在我国汽车产业的最新规划方向上,新能源汽车主要包括纯电动汽车、插电式混合动力汽车及燃料电池汽车。而燃料电池汽车目前还尚无成型的产品投放。在纯电动车方面,比亚迪e6无疑是国内认知度颇高的一款;另一方面,丰田普锐斯plug-in hybrid凭借着在混合动力车市场积累的底蕴,成为一款众人瞩目的插电式混动车型。 比亚迪e6:电池生产商制造的纯电动车

  20. 插电式串联混合动力汽车的系统匹配与仿真%System Matching and Simulation of a Plug-in Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    吴晓刚; 卢兰光

    2013-01-01

    A system matching method for plug-in series hybrid electric vehicle is proposed based on the analysis on road conditions and vehicle power demand.A model for hybrid power system is built and a simulation analysis on the energy efficiency of system under different energy management strategies is conducted by means of energy flow diagram.The results show that the system matching method proposed is feasible,and the control strategy combining ON-OFF control with load following scheme can enhance the efficiency of key system components while improve the fuel economy of vehicle.%针对插电式串联混合动力汽车,提出了一种基于道路工况和整车功率需求分析的系统匹配方法.建立了混合动力系统的模型,并利用能量流图,对采用不同的能量管理策略时系统的能效进行仿真分析.结果表明,所提出的系统匹配方法可行,采用ON-OFF与负载跟随相结合的控制策略在改善车辆燃油经济性的同时,可提高系统关键部件的效率.

  1. A Research on the Vehicle Control Strategy of a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Car%插电式混合动力轿车整车控制策略的研究

    周能辉; 赵春明; 辛明华; 李磊; 夏超英

    2013-01-01

    针对赛豹插电式混合动力汽车(PHEV)的特点,依照整车不同电量状态和功率需求,提出了一种多阶段多目标的控制策略.按ECE工况循环的转鼓试验结果表明:该控制策略满足了赛豹PHEV的控制需求,实现了其在不同工况下对电机和发动机转矩的合理分配,经换算的100km等效油耗为3.4L,比原汽油车节能56.7%.%Aiming at the features of Saibao plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) , a multi-stage multi-objective control strategy is proposed based on the different states of charge and power demand of vehicle. The results of drum test with ECE drive cycle show that the control strategy proposed meets the control requirements of Saibao PHEV with an equivalent fuel consumption of 3. 4 1/100km, 56. 7% lower than that of original gasoline car.

  2. Capacity and power fade cycle-life model for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle lithium-ion battery cells containing blended spinel and layered-oxide positive electrodes

    Cordoba-Arenas, Andrea; Onori, Simona; Guezennec, Yann; Rizzoni, Giorgio

    2015-03-01

    This paper proposes and validates a semi-empirical cycle-life model for lithium-ion pouch cells containing blended spinel and layered-oxide positive electrodes. For the model development and validation experimental data obtained during an aging campaign is used. During the campaign the influence of charge sustaining/depleting operation, minimum state of charge (SOC), charging rate and temperature on the aging process is studied. The aging profiles, which are prescribed in power mode, are selected to be representative of realistic plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) operation. The proposed model describes capacity fade and resistance increase as function of the influencing stress factors and battery charge throughput. Due to its simplicity but still good accuracy, the applications of the proposed aging model include the design of algorithms for battery state-of-health (SOH) monitoring and prognosis, PHEV optimal energy management including battery aging, and the study of aging propagation among battery cells in advanced energy storage systems.

  3. 基于最佳电能使用的插电式混合动力客车控制策略%Control Strategy for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Bus Based on Optimal Electric Energy Use

    罗国鹏; 罗禹贡; 李克强

    2012-01-01

    In view of the problem of poor fuel economy of plug-in hybrid electric bus in long distance driving with the control strategy currently adopted, a control strategy based on optimal electric energy use is proposed. It selects the mode of best utilization of electric energy according to expected driving distance and the SOC of battery. The results of simulation show that using the control strategy proposed can significantly improve the fuel economy of vehicle.%针对目前插电式混合动力汽车采用的控制策略在较长行驶里程时燃油经济性较差的问题,提出了一种基于最佳电能使用的控制策略.它根据目标行驶里程和电池SOC,选择最佳的电能使用方式.仿真结果表明,当目标行驶里程较长时,采用所提出的控制策略可显著改善汽车燃油经济性.

  4. A control-oriented lithium-ion battery pack model for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle cycle-life studies and system design with consideration of health management

    Cordoba-Arenas, Andrea; Onori, Simona; Rizzoni, Giorgio

    2015-04-01

    A crucial step towards the large-scale introduction of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) in the market is to reduce the cost of its battery systems. Currently, battery cycle- and calendar-life represents one of the greatest uncertainties in the total life-cycle cost of battery systems. The field of battery aging modeling and prognosis has seen progress with respect to model-based and data-driven approaches to describe the aging of battery cells. However, in real world applications cells are interconnected and aging propagates. The propagation of aging from one cell to others exhibits itself in a reduced battery system life. This paper proposes a control-oriented battery pack model that describes the propagation of aging and its effect on the life span of battery systems. The modeling approach is such that it is able to predict pack aging, thermal, and electrical dynamics under actual PHEV operation, and includes consideration of random variability of the cells, electrical topology and thermal management. The modeling approach is based on the interaction between dynamic system models of the electrical and thermal dynamics, and dynamic models of cell aging. The system-level state-of-health (SOH) is assessed based on knowledge of individual cells SOH, pack electrical topology and voltage equalization approach.

  5. Development of an Information System for Landscape Ecology Based on Plug-in GIS%基于插件式GIS的景观生态专业信息系统开发

    杜日星; 张静潇; 余志伟

    2012-01-01

    With the rapid development of landscape ecology and geography information system (GIS) , the relationship between the two areas is getting more and more compacted. An information system for landscape ecology based on plug-in GIS technology is developed. The information system is constructed on the platform of open source software quantum GIS(QGIS), including a common GISs function module and some landscape ecology's professional function modules. This information system extends the application field of QGIS, and creates a new area for GIS in landscape e-cology.%随着景观生态学的深入发展以及开源GIS的日益成熟,两者结合日渐紧密.景观生态专业信息系统基于插件式GIS技术,以开源软件QGIS为平台,开发景观分析、景观生态综合评价等模块,扩展QGIS的应用领域,为GIS在景观生态专业领域的应用开辟一条新路子.

  6. Activities.

    Moody, Mally

    1992-01-01

    A series of four activities are presented to enhance students' abilities to appreciate and use trigonometry as a tool in problem solving. Activities cover problems applying the law of sines, the law of cosines, and matching equivalent trigonometric expressions. A teacher's guide, worksheets, and answers are provided. (MDH)

  7. Using Activity Metrics for DEVS Simulation Profiling

    Muzy A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Activity metrics can be used to profile DEVS models before and during the simulation. It is critical to get good activity metrics of models before and during their simulation. Having a means to compute a-priori activity of components (analytic activity may be worth when simulating a model (or parts of it for the first time. After, during the simulation, analytic activity can be corrected using dynamic one. In this paper, we introduce McCabe cyclomatic complexity metric (MCA to compute analytic activity. Both static and simulation activity metrics have been implemented through a plug-in of the DEVSimPy (DEVS Simulator in Python language environment and applied to DEVS models.

  8. Impact of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Charging on Power Distribution Network%插电式混合电动汽车充电对配电网的影响

    宫鑫; 林涛; 苏秉华

    2012-01-01

    The rapid development of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) will greatly affect on distribution network. A charging model is established to analyze the affect of PHEV charging on distribution network and a coordinated charging strategy to mitigate the affect of PHEV charging on distribution network is proposed. The probability distribution of two key random factors influencing PHEV charging is analyzed and taking random factors into account a probabilistic model of PHEV charging load, whose charging power varies with charging curve, is built. There are different affections on distribution network while PHEV is charged by free charging mode or load valley charging mode, for this reason, a coordinated charging strategy, in which random factors are taken into account and the minimized load variance is taken as objective function, is put forward. Taking IEEE 40-bus radial distribution system as the case and through the simulation based on Matlab, the affects of the charging of different number of PHEV on load curve, network loss and nodal voltage deviation of distribution network under three kind of charging modes are analyzed. Analysis results show that adopting the proposed coordinated charging strategy the network loss and nodal voltage deviation can be reduced and the affects on PHEV charging on distribution network can be effectively mitigated.%插电式混合电动汽车(plug-in hybrid electric vehicle,PHEV)的快速发展将对配电网产生重要影响.在此背景下,建立了用于分析PHEV充电对配电网影响的充电负荷模型,提出了用于改善PHEV充电对配电网影响的优化充电策略.分析了影响PHEV充电的2个关键随机因素的概率分布,并计及随机因素,建立了充电功率按照充电曲线变化的PHEV充电负荷的概率模型.PHEV采用自由充电方式和负荷低谷充电方式时对配电网有不同程度的影响,为此提出了考虑随机因素,以负荷方差最小化为目

  9. 实时电价下插电式混合动力汽车智能集中充电策略%Centralized Charging Strategies of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles Under Electricity Markets Based on Spot Pricing

    邹文; 吴福保; 刘志宏

    2011-01-01

    以实时电价为背景,提出了基于需求侧响应思想的插电式混合动力汽车(PHEV)集中充电机制,计及供电侧填谷效果与用户成本,建立数学模型,并根据模型特点提出了一种新颖的基于动态估计插值思想的算法,基于某地区2020年的预测数据进行算例仿真。结果表明,文中提出的PHEV集中充电策略可以有效地降低峰谷差,节约用户充电成本,达到供电侧与用户侧的双赢结果。%Under a spot pricing based electricity market environment,a centralized charging strategy of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles(PHEVs) is proposed based on demand side response.A mathematical model is established taking into account the valley-filling effect of supply side and the users' cost.A dynamic estimation interpolation based algorithm is designed to optimize the mathematical model.Finally,a simulation based on an area's predicted data of year 2020 is made to show that,the proposed centralized charging strategy can not only lower the peak-valley difference,but also save users' cost,and achieve a win-win result.

  10. A Study on Optimization Design of the Powertrain of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle%Plug-in混合动力汽车动力总成优化设计研究

    张博; 李君; 杨世春; 高莹; 尹雪峰

    2009-01-01

    The simulation model for a parallel plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) with dual clutch is developed by using forward simulation software PSAT. After the performance constraints of PHEV are defined and the key component costs of its powertrain are analyzed, an optimization on the powertrain of PHEV with different all electric ranges (AER) and different types of power battery is conducted. The results show that the designed capaci-ty of power battery, which mainly dependeds on the AER required, has most effect on the cost of complete vehicle,and as the required AER increases, the desired maximum output power of electric motor rises and the power peak of engine reduces.%应用PSAT前向仿真软件,建立了双离合器式并联PHEV仿真模型.在确定了PHEV整车性能约束条件并对动力总成主要部件进行了成本分析之后,对不同伞电力续驶哩程和动力电池类型的PHEV动力总成进行了优化.结果表明:动力电池设计容量对整车成本影响最大,而它主要取决于所要求的全电力续驶里程;随着所要求的全电力续驶里程的增大,所需电机最大输出功率升高,而发动机最大输出功率则降低.

  11. Control Strategy on Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Regenerative Braking%插电式混合动力汽车再生制动控制策略

    刘闪闪; 韩震; 业德明; 乔曌

    2012-01-01

    Regenerative braking control strategy directly influenced fuel economy of Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. A style of a control strategy based on ideal braking force is proposed in this paper. This strategy can ensure braking stability, at the meantime reclaim the braking energy as much as possible. And the control strategy model of regenerative brake system is built based on Simulink. The control strategy model is imbedded in Cruise and simulated. The simulation results show that compared with PHEV with no braking energy recovery and traditional vehicles fuel economy is improved and the control strategy of regenerative braking system are proved to be appropriate.%由于再生制动控制策略直接影响了插电式混合动力汽车(PHEV)的经济性,文章提出了一种基于理想制动力分配的再生制动控制策略,这种策略能在保证制动稳定性的同时,尽可能多地回收制动能量,在Simulink平台上建立再生制动控制策略模型,并嵌入到Cruise软件中进行仿真。仿真结果表明,此模型相比没有制动能量回收的PHEV和传统汽车,都有效地提高了经济性,验证了再生制动控制策略的合理性。

  12. Simulation and Matching Analysis of Four-wheel-drive Plug-in Hybrid Vehicle%插电式四轮驱动混合动力汽车建模仿真与匹配分析

    毛冲冲; 胡军

    2015-01-01

    The structure of a four-wheel-drive plug-in hybrid vehicle was proposed and analyzed in de-tail. The simulation model of the vehicle was constructed by Cruise software, the control strategy of the vehicle was constructed by Matlab/Simulink software. The gear ratio of the final drive and the upper limit and lower limit of the battery's SOC were optimized to obtain optimal gear ratio of the final drive and the upper limit and the lower limit of the battery's SOC, which can significantly improve the vehi-cle's dynamical performance and fuel economy.%提出一种插电式四轮驱动混合动力汽车的结构,并对该结构进行详细分析.利用Cruise软件搭建该插电式四轮驱动混合动力汽车的整车仿真模型,利用Matlab/Simulink软件搭建整车控制策略.对该插电式四轮驱动混合动力汽车的主减速器传动比和动力电池SOC的上限值和下限值进行优化分析,得到最佳的主减速器传动比和SOC的上限值和下限值.根据优化结果可以显著改善该车的动力性和经济性.

  13. Efficacy and Incontinence Rate of Biomaterials (Fibrin Glue and Fibrin Plug in Comparison to Surgical Interventions in the Treatment of Perianal Fistula: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized, Controlled Trials

    Saeed Derakhshani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Anal fistula is an abnormal connection between the anal or rectal lumen and perianal skin that reduce quality of life. There are various surgical options for treatment with variable success rate. A novel treatment is to seal the fistula tract using biomaterials (fibrin glue and fibrin plug. Objective of this study was to evaluate the healing efficacy and incontinence rate of biomaterials (fibrin glue and fibrin plug in comparison to surgical interventions in the treatment of cryptoglandular perianal fistula using meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar and Web of Science were searched for clinical trial studies investigated the effects of biomaterials in the treatment of fistula-in-ano. Studies on patient with anal fistulae underwent fibrin glue, fibrin plug or other biomaterials application and surgical management for healing of fistula were included. Clinical response and incontinence were the key outcomes of interest. Six randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials consisting 315 patients in various arms met our criteria (comparing biomaterial with surgical interventions and were included in the analysis. Pooling of data showed that effectiveness of biomaterials in comparison to surgical interventions was non-significant with relative risk (RR of 0.73 (95% CI of 0.31-0.89, p = 0.096. The incontinence rate RR in biomaterials and intervention was also non significant with RR of 0.35 (95% CI = 0.05-2.28, p = 0.27. The included clinical trials had different follow-up durations, causes of fistula and method of intervention in treated patients. This meta-analysis demonstrates that the effectiveness and incontinence rate of biomaterials and conservative treatment is not significantly different.

  14. Real-time immune-inspired optimum state-of-charge trajectory estimation using upcoming route information preview and neural networks for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles fuel economy

    Mozaffari, Ahmad; Vajedi, Mahyar; Azad, Nasser L.

    2015-06-01

    The main proposition of the current investigation is to develop a computational intelligence-based framework which can be used for the real-time estimation of optimum battery state-of-charge (SOC) trajectory in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The estimated SOC trajectory can be then employed for an intelligent power management to significantly improve the fuel economy of the vehicle. The devised intelligent SOC trajectory builder takes advantage of the upcoming route information preview to achieve the lowest possible total cost of electricity and fossil fuel. To reduce the complexity of real-time optimization, the authors propose an immune system-based clustering approach which allows categorizing the route information into a predefined number of segments. The intelligent real-time optimizer is also inspired on the basis of interactions in biological immune systems, and is called artificial immune algorithm (AIA). The objective function of the optimizer is derived from a computationally efficient artificial neural network (ANN) which is trained by a database obtained from a high-fidelity model of the vehicle built in the Autonomie software. The simulation results demonstrate that the integration of immune inspired clustering tool, AIA and ANN, will result in a powerful framework which can generate a near global optimum SOC trajectory for the baseline vehicle, that is, the Toyota Prius PHEV. The outcomes of the current investigation prove that by taking advantage of intelligent approaches, it is possible to design a computationally efficient and powerful SOC trajectory builder for the intelligent power management of PHEVs.

  15. Plug-in integrated/hybrid circuit

    Stringer, E. J.

    1974-01-01

    Hybrid circuitry can be installed into standard round bayonet connectors, to eliminate wiring from connector to circuit. Circuits can be connected directly into either section of connector pair, eliminating need for hard wiring to that section.

  16. Plug-in Hybrid启示录

    吴展濠

    2010-01-01

    2009年的法兰克福和东京车展中,奔驰、宝马、丰田、铃木、三菱等都展出了他们的插电式混合动力车,这是否代表这种技术已经是新一代混合动力车的趋势?

  17. Remote Handling behind port plug in ITER

    Different Test Blanket Modules (TBM) will be used in succession in the same equatorial ports of ITER. The remote handling operations for connection/disconnection of an interface between the port plug of the EU-HCPB-TBM and the port cell equipment are investigated with the goal to reach a quick and simple TBM exchange procedure. This paper describes the operations and systems which are required for connection of the TBM to its supply lines at this interface. The interface is located inside the free space of the port plug flange between the port plug shield and the bioshield of the port cell behind. The approach of the operation place is only available through a narrow gate in the bioshield opened temporarily during maintenance periods. This gate limits the dimensions of the whole system and its tools. The current design of the EU-HCPB-TBM foresees up to 9 supply lines which have to be connected inside the free space of one half of the port plug flange. The connection operations require positioning and adjustment of the tools for each pipe separately. Despite the strict circumstances it is still possible to find such an industrial jointed-arm robot with sufficient payload, which can penetrate into the working area. A mechanical system is necessary to move the robot from its storing place in the hot cell to the port plug on 6 m distance. Each operation requires different end-of-arm tools. The most special one is a pipe positioner tool, which can position and pull the pipe ends to each other and align the tool before welding and hold them in proper position during the welding process. Weld seams can be made by orbital welding tool. The pipe positioner tool has to provide place for welding tool. Using of inbore tool is impossible because pipes have no open ends where the tool could leave it. Orbital tool must be modified to meet requirements of remote handling because it is designed for human handling. The coolant is helium, so for eliminating the leak of helium it is of high importance to find a safe way for weld seam audit. The installation and removal of thermal insulations around the pipes at the interface is an additional requirement which has to be met by a special tool. With application of a fast tool changer adapter the arm can easily exchange the tools stored in the envelope area of robot. Conceptual design is made by CAD modelling. Work area accessibility is assessed using a kinematic analyse. (author)

  18. Expert Oracle Application Express Plug-Ins

    D'Souza, Martin Giffy

    2011-01-01

    Expert Oracle Application Express Plugins is your "go to" book on the groundbreaking plugin architecture introduced in Oracle Application Express 4.0. Using the new APEX functionality, you can create well-packaged, documented, reusable components and reliably leverage your coding investments across many applications. Components you create can define new item and region types, specify validation processes, and present dynamic actions to client applications. You can design innovative and colorful ways to display information, such as displaying the temperature using an image of a thermometer, or

  19. Executives "Plug in" to Electronic Commerce

    Education & Training, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Describes a programme, developed by FT Knowledge and the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania, USA, to guide managers through the opportunities and threats presented by electronic commerce. Focuses on areas such as marketing, electronic retailing, pricing, product design, supply chain management and communication. Highlights how the…

  20. Development Process Analysis Structure of the Lightweight Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle%轻型插入式混合动力电动汽车整车构造研发过程浅析

    王强; 闫君杰

    2015-01-01

    Development of today's automotive industry is facing two major problems of environmental protection and energy ,electric vehicles have the advantage of energy‐saving ,emission reduction ,so the research is the development of energy‐efficient electric vehicles the main direction of environmentally friendly vehicles .Hybrid electric vehicle is an electric car ,which combines the advantages of traditional internal combustion engine and electric motor ,to improve fuel economy and reduce emissions purposes . This paper describes the results of the actual development process Axon60 like cars and what they have learned .Axon60 regenerated using lightweight carbon fiber structure ,multi-fuel engine and a motor , to achieve better than 100mpg statutory drive cycle fuel economy and lower than CO2 50g/km of .Be‐cause lightweight aerodynamic design and efficient powertrain ,using 2kWh battery electric car can travel 10 miles alone .Construction vehicle development process through the car for China Light Plug -in hy‐brid vehicle test laid a solid foundation .%当今汽车工业的发展面临环保和能源两大问题,电动汽车具有节能、减排的优势,因此电动汽车的研究是开发节能环保型汽车的主攻方向。混合动力电动汽车是电动汽车的一种,它结合了传统内燃机和电动机的优势,达到了提高燃油经济性和降低排放的目的。Axon60采用轻型再生碳纤维结构,多种燃料引擎及一台电机,实现优于法定传动循环超过100mpg的燃料经济性和低于50g/km的CO2。由于轻型空气动力设计和高效动力系,使用2kWh电池组该车能够仅凭电力行驶10英里。通过该车的整车构造研发过程,为我国轻型插电式混合动力汽车的实车试验奠定了基础。

  1. 轻型插入式混合动力电动汽车整车构造研发过程浅析%Development Process Analysis Structure of the Lightweight Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    王强; 闫君杰

    2015-01-01

    当今汽车工业的发展面临环保和能源两大问题,电动汽车具有节能、减排的优势,因此电动汽车的研究是开发节能环保型汽车的主攻方向。混合动力电动汽车是电动汽车的一种,它结合了传统内燃机和电动机的优势,达到了提高燃油经济性和降低排放的目的。Axon60采用轻型再生碳纤维结构,多种燃料引擎及一台电机,实现优于法定传动循环超过100mpg的燃料经济性和低于50g/km的CO2。由于轻型空气动力设计和高效动力系,使用2kWh电池组该车能够仅凭电力行驶10英里。通过该车的整车构造研发过程,为我国轻型插电式混合动力汽车的实车试验奠定了基础。%Development of today's automotive industry is facing two major problems of environmental protection and energy ,electric vehicles have the advantage of energy‐saving ,emission reduction ,so the research is the development of energy‐efficient electric vehicles the main direction of environmentally friendly vehicles .Hybrid electric vehicle is an electric car ,which combines the advantages of traditional internal combustion engine and electric motor ,to improve fuel economy and reduce emissions purposes . This paper describes the results of the actual development process Axon60 like cars and what they have learned .Axon60 regenerated using lightweight carbon fiber structure ,multi-fuel engine and a motor , to achieve better than 100mpg statutory drive cycle fuel economy and lower than CO2 50g/km of .Be‐cause lightweight aerodynamic design and efficient powertrain ,using 2kWh battery electric car can travel 10 miles alone .Construction vehicle development process through the car for China Light Plug -in hy‐brid vehicle test laid a solid foundation .

  2. Initial clinical observation of Smart Plug lacrimal plug in the treatment of aqueous tear deficiency dry eye%Smart Plug泪小管塞治疗水液缺乏型干眼症临床初步观察

    郭丽; 袁方; 李斌

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical efficacy of SmartPlug lacrimal plug in the treatment of aqueous tear deficiency dry eye. Methods SmartPlug lacrimal plugs were inserted to treat 42 cases of aqueous tear deficiency dry eye ( 84 eyes). All patients were followed-up for 5-15 months( average 8.3 months). Schirmer I test (SIT) ,tear break-up time (TBUT), and fluorescent of cornea (FL) were used to evaluate the clinical efficacy. Results ①Pre- and posttreatment SIT were 3.41 ± 0.60mm and 5.75 ± 0.44 mm ( P < 0.05 ), respectively; ② Pre- and post-treatment TBUT were 3.75 ± 1.26 seconds and 6.46 ± 1.47 seconds ( P < 0.05 ), respectively; ③Pre- and post-treatment FL were 2.45 ±0.06 and 0.04 ± 0.02 (P < 0.05 ), respectively;④The subjective symptoms improved in most patients. Conclusions The SmartPlug lacrimal plug is effective in the treatment of aqueous tear deficiency dry eye. Moreover, it is recommended that lacrimal punctual occlusion should be done before irreversible damages of the ocular surface.%目的 观察Smart Plug泪小管塞治疗水液缺乏型干眼症的临床疗效.方法 应用Smart Plug泪小管塞治疗水液缺乏型干眼症患者42例(84眼),随访5~15个月,平均8.3个月,根据SchirmerI试验(SIT)、泪膜破裂时间(TBUT)、角膜荧光素染色(FL)观察临床疗效.结果 ①治疗前后SIT分别为(3.41±0.60)mm和(5.75±0.44)mm(P<0.05);②治疗前后TBUT分别为(3.75±1.26)s和(6.46±1.47)s(P<0.05);③FL评分分别为(2.45±0.06)分和(0.04±0.02)分(P<0.05);④患者主观症状改善.结论 Smart Plug泪小管塞治疗水液缺乏型干眼症具有明确的疗效,对于水液缺乏型干眼病患者在眼表发生不可逆性损害之前即应早期行泪道栓塞治疗.

  3. Gore BioA Fistula Plug in the treatment of high anal fistulas – initial results from a German multicenter-study [Gore BioA Fistel Plug zur Behandlung hoher Analfisteln – erste Ergebnisse einer deutschen Multicenter-Studie

    Ommer, A.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available [english] Background: Treatment of high anal fistulas may be associated with a high risk of continence disorders. Beside traditional procedure of flap-reconstruction the occlusion of the fistula tract using fistula-plugs offers a new sphincter-saving treatment option. In this study for the first time results from Germany are described.Patients and method: 40 patients (30 male, 10 female, age 51±12 years underwent closure of a high trans-sphincteric (n=28 or supra-sphincteric (n=12 fistula with Gore BioA Fistula Plug in three surgical departments. The surgical procedures had been performed by five colorectal surgeons. Four patients had Crohn’s disease. Preoperatively 33 patients were completely continent; seven patients complained of minor continence disorders. Treatment of the patients was performed on a intent-to-treat basis and evaluation of the results was retrospective using pooled data from each center.Results: Postoperatively one patient developed an abscess, which had to be managed surgically. In two patients the plug had fallen out within the first two weeks postoperatively. Six months after surgery the fistula has been healed in 20 patients (50.0%. Three additional fistulas healed after 7, 9 rsp. 12 months. The overall healing-rate was 57.5% (23/40. The healing rate differs considerably between the surgeons from 0 to 75% and depends on the number of previous interventions. In patients having only drainage of the abscess success occurred in 63.6% (14/22 whereas in patients after one or more flap fistula reconstruction the healing rate decreased slightly to 50% (9/18. No patient complained about any impairment of his preoperative continence status.Conclusion: By occlusion of high anal fistulas with a plug technique definitive healing could be achieved in nearly every second patients. Previous surgery seems to have a negative impact on success rate. We have not observed any negative impact on anal continence. From that point of view

  4. 插电式四驱混合动力汽车能量管理与转矩协调控制策略%Energy management and torque coordination control for plug-in 4WD hybrid electric vehicle

    钱立军; 邱利宏; 辛付龙; 胡伟龙

    2014-01-01

    为克服传统比例-积分-微分(proportion integration differentiation,PID)以及模糊逻辑算法的缺陷、保障汽车经济性并改善乘员的乘坐舒适性,该文采用自适应模糊PID算法,建立了驾驶员模型。使用基于发动机输出转矩最优的能量管理控制策略,简述了驱动模式判别条件及转矩分配方法。提出1种“发动机调速+离合器模糊PID控制+发动机动态转矩查表+双电机转矩补偿控制”转矩协调控制方法,简述了模式切换步骤。在dSPACE实时仿真系统上对控制策略进行了硬件在环仿真。仿真结果表明,该控制策略在能量管理方面控制效果良好,动力部件的输出与控制策略完全吻合且平均车速误差下降37.1%。引入转矩协调之后,整车最大冲击度下降47.5%。该文的研究方法可以为制定复杂混合动力系统的控制策略提供参考。%This paper focuses on the control strategy of a plug-in 4-wheel-drive (4WD) hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). To overcome the defects of the traditional proportion-integration-differentiation (PID) control method, an algorithm based on an adaptive fuzzy PID control method which provides better dynamic and static performances for the vehicle was adopted and a driver model was established using this algorithm. The input of the driver model was the difference between the cycle velocity and the actual output velocity of the vehicle. The output of the driver model was the required torque coefficient which reflects the driver’s intention and thus can be used to calculate the actual required torque of the driver. The PID parameters can be revised real-time according to the change of the cycle conditions, and the principle to choose theses parameters to ensure the stability of the controller was introduced as well. The domain of discourse for the inputs and outputs of the fuzzy PID controller and their membership functions were analyzed and parts of the fuzzy

  5. User-specific mobile sensing system and energy storage system for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles%混合动力电动汽车的特定用户移动传感器和能量存储系统

    伍捷; 孙义和

    2012-01-01

    针对新兴混合插拔式电动汽车(plug-in hybrid electric vehicle,PHEV)应用,已有的车用能量存储系统存在笨重和可靠性差等缺点,同时驾驶人的驾驶行为严重地影响能量存储系统的性能和使用寿命,因此有效地对特定用户驾驶行为进行分析,并对大规模混合能量存储系统进行优化设计,将为未来新兴电驱动混合动力汽车的应用与实践打下坚实基础.该文提出特定用户传感器系统框架,分析其驾驶行为对混合能量存储系统(hybrid energy storage system,HESS)如锂电池和超级电容集成的影响,并设计了一个基于大规模HESS的优化架构.它综合考虑工艺制造的差异性和实时驾驶行为的多变性等因素影响,在满足能量需求条件下优化HESS成本和使用寿命.实验结果表明:该优化架构与只采用单一锂电池作为存储资源的架构相比,在达到使用寿命年限15a前提下,混合能量存储系统的成本代价平均降低了51.3%.同时,该架构的求解速度快,有利于实际实现.%Existing in-vehicle hybrid energy storage systems (HESS) in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are bulky and unreliable. In addition, the user-specific driving behavior substantially impacts the HESS performance and lifetime. Therefore, user-centric driving behavior analyses and energy storage system design and optimization are essential for hybrid vehicles. This paper presents a personalized mobile sensing system framework to analyze the user's driving behavior and characterize its impact on the HESS performance. An integrated hybrid energy storage system (e. g. , a Li-ion battery and an ultra-capacitor) design and optimization architecture are then given for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. This architecture statistically optimizes the HESS cost and lifetime considering variances in the HESS system due to manufacturing tolerances and user-specific use. Tests show that this HESS design and optimization

  6. Commercializing Light-Duty Plug-In/Plug-Out Hydrogen-Fuel-Cell Vehicles:“Mobile Electricity†Technologies, Early California Household Markets, and Innovation Management

    Williams, Brett D.

    2007-01-01

    Starting from the premise that new consumer value must drive hydrogen-fuel-cell-vehicle (H2FCV) commercialization, a group of opportunities collectively called “Mobile Electricity†is characterized. Mobile Electricity (Me-) redefines H2FCVs as innovative products able to import and export electricity across the traditional vehicle boundary. Such vehicles could provide home recharging and mobile power, for example for tools, mobile activities, emergencies, and electric-grid-support services...

  7. Trouble Analysis and Clearing of High Voltage Insulation Fault During Charging for Plug-in Hybrid Bus%插电式混合动力客车充电时高压绝缘故障分析与排除

    罗丙荷; 张福成; 姜传云

    2015-01-01

    The authors introduce the trouble shooting ideas of high voltage insulation fault during charging for a plug-in hybrid bus. By measuring the insulation resistance value between high voltage DC bus and ground, collect-ing the CAN bus data, analyzing the logic of related software and hardware, and listing different possible causes, they finally find out the real trouble cause and clear it.%描述一插电式混合动力客车充电时报高压绝缘故障的问题解析思路。通过现场测量直流母线绝缘电阻值,采集CAN总线数据,分析相关软硬件逻辑等手段,列出各种可能的故障原因,按照先易后难的原则,最终确定真正的故障原因并予以排除。

  8. Optimization of Control Strategy for Engine Start-stop in a Plug-in Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle%插电式串联混合动力汽车发动机起停控制策略的优化

    李献菁; 孙永正; 邓俊; 胡宗杰; 李理光

    2011-01-01

    利用AVL-CRUISE软件对某插电式串联混合动力汽车进行整车建模与仿真,并在不同的行驶循环工况和车辆行驶里程下优化发动机的起停控制策略.结果表明:根据不同的行驶循环工况和行驶里程来修正发动机起停时刻的SOC值,可以有效缩短发动机的运行时间,从而降低油耗和能量损失.该方法也可为增程型电动汽车发动机的起动控制提供参考.%The model for a plug-in series hybrid electric vehicle is set up using software AVL CRUISE, and simulations are conducted to optimize the control strategy for engine start-stop with different driving cycles and driving distance. The results show that the correction on SOC value at engine start or stop for different driving cycles and driving distance can effectively shorten running time of engine and hence reduce fuel consumption and energy losses. The scheme can also provide reference for the engine start control of mileage-extending electric vehicles.

  9. 插电式混合动力汽车大规模接入环境下的发输电系统可靠性评估%Reliability Assessment of Composite Power System With Large-Scale Grid-Integration of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    何剑; 程林; 卜广全

    2013-01-01

      电动汽车的充电行为具有随机性,未来插电式混合电动汽车(plug-in hybrid electric vehicle,PHEV)的大规模接入将对发输电系统的可靠运行造成重要影响。文章系统地研究了PHEV大规模接入环境下发输电系统可靠性评估的模型、指标和算法。首先,建立了 PHEV 充电需求仿真模型,包括 PHEV 的动力电池特性模型、用户随机出行特性模型以及PHEV充电功率需求仿真方法;其次,提出了PHEV对电网的穿透水平指标和 PHEV 接入规模对系统可靠性的灵敏度指标,能够表征 PHEV 接入对电网的影响;最后,提出了 PHEV 大规模接入环境下的发输电系统可靠性评估算法,采用扩展的状态空间分割算法可快速有效地评估PHEV接入后的系统可靠性水平。通过 IEEE RTS 算例分析了PHEV 接入规模及充电策略等因素对系统负荷曲线和可靠性水平的影响,验证了所提指标和算法的有效性。%In view of the randomness of electric vehicles (EV) charging, the large-scale grid-integration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) will leads to evident impact on reliable operation of composite power system. The model, indices and algorithm of reliability assessment on composite power system under large-scale grid-integration of PHEVs are systemically researched. Firstly, a simulation model of PHEV charging demand, including the model of the driving and battery characteristics of PHEVs, the model of the travelling habits of users, and the simulation approach for the PHEV charging power demand, is established;secondly, the indices of PHEV penetration rate to power system and the sensitivity index of grid-integration scale of PHEVs to power system reliability that can characterize the impact of grid-integration of PHEVs on power system are put forward;finally, a quick and effective reliability assessment algorithm of composite power system under large-scale grid-integration of PHEVs, in which the

  10. 面向公交客车应用的插电式混合动力实时优化策略研究%Research on City-bus Application-oriented Real-time Optimal Energy Management Strategy for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Bus

    杨超; 焦晓红; 李亮; 游思雄; 颜丙杰; 马兹林

    2015-01-01

    插电式混合动力汽车随着电功率比的逐渐提升实现了机电耦合系统的能量深度混合.然而在应对复杂瞬变的城市公交工况时,如何通过设计实时高效的能量管理策略实现插电式混合动力客车全工况能量消耗最优已成为学术界的研究热点.考虑城市公交工况路况信息对能量分配的影响以及同轴并联式系统构型的自身特点,提出等效坡道在线估计及相应的电池荷电状态(State of charge, SOC)轨线修正方法,在此基础上利用等效油耗最小策略(Equivalent consumption minimization strategy, ECMS)设计一种实时优化能量管理策略,将整条公交线路的能量需求进行合理分配,另外对发动机起停的约束条件保证了发动机的合理高效运行.仿真结果表明所提出的实时优化能量管理策略与实际中应用的规则策略相比,对整车燃油经济性的提升更为显著,且可以更好地匹配公交工况与动力系统构型.实车试验结果也验证了所提出方法的有效性.因此所提出方法为基于优化理论的实车控制策略应用提供了理论依据.%With the gradual increase of the electric power ratio, the energy hybridization might be implemented in the electromechanical coupling system of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle. But for the complicated and transient driving conditions of city bus, how to minimize the energy consumption within the driving cycle through designing the real-time energy management strategy for plug-in hybrid electric bus(PHEB) might be the research focus in theacademia. Considering the characteristics of the driving condition of city bus and the single-shaft parallel hybrid powertrain, an equivalent grade estimation method and the relevant battery state of charge(SOC) correction approach are proposed, and then based on the above two approaches, the energy in one city bus route might be optimally distributed by the employed equivalent consumption minimization

  11. Intelligent Energy Management for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles: The Role of ITS Infrastructure in Vehicle Electrification Gestion énergétique intelligente pour véhicules électriques hybrides rechargeables : rôle de l’infrastructure de systèmes de transport intelligents (STI dans l’électrification des véhicules

    Marano V.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The desire to reduce carbon emissions due to transportation sources has led over the past decade to the development of new propulsion technologies, focused on vehicle electrification (including hybrid, plug-in hybrid and battery electric vehicles. These propulsion technologies, along with advances in telecommunication and computing power, have the potential of making passenger and commercial vehicles more energy efficient and environment friendly. In particular, energy management algorithms are an integral part of plug-in vehicles and are very important for achieving the performance benefits. The optimal performance of energy management algorithms depends strongly on the ability to forecast energy demand from the vehicle. Information available about environment (temperature, humidity, wind, road grade, etc. and traffic (traffic density, traffic lights, etc., is very important in operating a vehicle at optimal efficiency. This article outlines some current technologies that can help achieving this optimum efficiency goal. In addition to information available from telematic and geographical information systems, knowledge of projected vehicle charging demand on the power grid is necessary to build an intelligent energy management controller for future plug-in hybrid and electric vehicles. The impact of charging millions of vehicles from the power grid could be significant, in the form of increased loading of power plants, transmission and distribution lines, emissions and economics (information are given and discussed for the US case. Therefore, this effect should be considered in an intelligent way by controlling/scheduling the charging through a communication based distributed control. Le désir de réduire les émissions de carbone issues des sources de transport a conduit durant la dernière décennie au développement de nouvelles technologies de propulsion, axées sur l’électrification des véhicules (comprenant les véhicules

  12. Downloading plug-ins for nationalism and cosmopolitanism.

    Tabak, Edin

    2015-09-01

    A crucial factor in differentiation between existing approaches to nationalism and cosmopolitanism is the positioning of these approaches within a continuum between particularism and universalism, based on their understanding of space and time. However, this also poses a major difficulty in studying practices of nationalism and cosmopolitanism: Reducing these practices to a position within the particularism/universalism continuum establishes different forms of nationalism and cosmopolitanism as 'order of things', through which any practice is projected as an approximation or a distortion of this ideal 'order'. Such a projection tells more about the researchers' own theoretical commitments than the participants' practices. This article utilizes some conceptual tools from Actor-Network Theory in an effort to establish a sketch for an alternative projection to study practices of nationalism and cosmopolitanism, which will give the participants an opportunity to perform their own time and space, instead of reducing them to placeholders of an already determined position, a priori identified by researchers. PMID:26139476

  13. Optimization of batteries for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    English, Jeffrey Robb

    This thesis presents a method to quickly determine the optimal battery for an electric vehicle given a set of vehicle characteristics and desired performance metrics. The model is based on four independent design variables: cell count, cell capacity, state-of-charge window, and battery chemistry. Performance is measured in seven categories: cost, all-electric range, maximum speed, acceleration, battery lifetime, lifetime greenhouse gas emissions, and charging time. The performance of each battery is weighted according to a user-defined objective function to determine its overall fitness. The model is informed by a series of battery tests performed on scaled-down battery samples. Seven battery chemistries were tested for capacity at different discharge rates, maximum output power at different charge levels, and performance in a real-world automotive duty cycle. The results of these tests enable a prediction of the performance of the battery in an automobile. Testing was performed at both room temperature and low temperature to investigate the effects of battery temperature on operation. The testing highlighted differences in behavior between lithium, nickel, and lead based batteries. Battery performance decreased with temperature across all samples with the largest effect on nickel-based chemistries. Output power also decreased with lead acid batteries being the least affected by temperature. Lithium-ion batteries were found to be highly efficient (>95%) under a vehicular duty cycle; nickel and lead batteries have greater losses. Low temperatures hindered battery performance and resulted in accelerated failure in several samples. Lead acid, lead tin, and lithium nickel alloy batteries were unable to complete the low temperature testing regime without losing significant capacity and power capability. This is a concern for their applicability in electric vehicles intended for cold climates which have to maintain battery temperature during long periods of inactivity. Three sample optimizations were performed: a compact car, a, truck, and a sports car. The compact car benefits from increased battery capacity despite the associated higher cost. The truck returned the smallest possible battery of each chemistry, indicating that electrification is not advisable. The sports car optimization resulted in the largest possible battery, indicating large performance from increased electrification. These results mirror the current state of the electric vehicle market.

  14. 起亚Ray Plug-In Hybrid

    2010-01-01

    全新Ray概念车乃由Kia美国设计中心操刀,旨在将Kia新一代设计元素,融合在Plug—in Hybrid插电式油电混合车款之中。目前正在研究替代动力的方案。而Kia也计划在今年内,将LPG Hybrid液化石油气混合动力车款导入市售量产阶段,并在韩国开售。

  15. Possible Applications of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Ships

    De Breucker, Sven; Driesen, Johan; Peeters, Eefje

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the evolution of hybrid electric ships and the upcoming changes in hybrid electric propulsions by the addition of a battery based ESS. The inverter topology most suited for the expansion of the hybrid electric drive is the VSI inverter because this topology allows a DC/DC converter to control the power flow between the battery and the DC-bus of the propulsion motor. Different battery technologies are discussed by comparing the specifications of a 1 MWh reference battery. T...

  16. Elastocapillary powered manipulation of liquid plug in microchannels

    George, D.; Anoop, R.; Sen, A. K.

    2015-12-01

    We report the manipulation of a liquid plug inside a rectangular microchannel, when one of the channel walls is a deformable membrane, which adjoins another parallel microchannel. Elastocapillary flow of a driving liquid (DL) through the adjoining microchannel, when approaches the plug, tries to pull the membrane near the plug, which is initially deflected into the plug, towards the DL. The plug is transported due to a differential pressure that develops across the plug owing to the increase in the radius of curvature of the trailing meniscus of the plug. A theoretical model is proposed to predict the plug velocity, which depends on a parameter J and plug length L ˜ . The predictions of the theoretical model show good agreement with experimental data. The dynamic behaviour of the plug and DL is presented and discussed.

  17. Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Consumers

    None

    2015-02-09

    This handbook is designed to answer a consumer's basic questions, as well as point them to additional information they need, to make the best decision about whether an electric-drive vehicle is right for them.

  18. Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Consumers (Brochure)

    2015-02-01

    This handbook is designed to answer a consumer's basic questions, as well as point them to additional information they need, to make the best decision about whether an electric-drive vehicle is right for them.

  19. Risk of containment sump plugging in EDF nuclear power plants

    The fuel of PWR type reactors in usual functioning is cooled by water circulating in the primary circuit, kept at a 155 bars pressure. In the case of break in the circuit, the reactor is stopped automatically. But it is necessary to evacuate the power that continues to escape from the fuel, because of the radioactivity of products created during the reactor operating. In this aim a system called system of security injection allows to send water in the reactor core when the vapor that is releases by the primary circuit opening is condensed in the containment by the spraying system in the containment that sprays water under the containment dome. The two systems of security and spraying are supplied by a tank but when it is empty they are supplied by water recovered in the bottom of containment in sumps. The two systems operate in closed circuit and allow to evacuate the residual power. The purpose of this work is to study the risk of filters clogging that are in the sumps. (N.C.)

  20. A Mobility Performance Assessment on Plug-in EV Battery

    Jay Lee

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with mobility prediction of LiFeMnPO_4 batteries for an emission-free Electric Vehicle. The data-driven model has been developed based on empirical data from two different road types –highway and local streets –and two different driving modes – aggressive and moderate. Battery State of Charge (SoC can be predicted on any new roads based on the trained model by selecting the drving mode. In this paper, the performance of Adaptive Recurrent Neural Network (ARNN and regression is evaluated using two benchmark data sets. The ARNN model at first estimates the speed profile of the new road based on slope and then both slope and speed is going to be used as the input to estimate battery current and SoC. Through comparison it is found that if ARNN system is appropriately trained, it performs with better accuracy than Regression in both two road types and driving modes. The results show that prediction SoC model follows the Columb-counting SoC according to the road slope.

  1. Plug-in for radio station music test data analysis

    VYDRA-STANČIČ, MIHA

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of radio stations nowadays opts for market research on audience shares and music evaluation. Such research can be analysed using general programmes and solutions, such as SPSS and different data warehouse solutions, but there is lack of specialised software that would offer such analysis. The topic of the diploma thesis is Polling Data Analysis, which represents the add-in for Microsoft Excel. The add-in enables the transformation of input, which must be in SPSS file...

  2. 78 FR 58549 - Information Collection Activities: Decommissioning Activities; Submitted for Office of Management...

    2013-09-24

    ... Professional Engineer/firm of the well abandonment design and procedures; plugs in the annuli meet requirements..., we published a Federal Register notice (78 FR 29772) announcing that we would submit this ICR to...

  3. 配电系统中电动汽车与可再生能源的随机协同调度%Stochastic Optimization Dispatching of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles in Coordination with Renewable Generation in Distribution Systems

    王贵斌; 赵俊华; 文福拴; 薛禹胜; 辛建波

    2012-01-01

    电动汽车和可再生能源发电的快速发展为电力系统的安全和经济运行带来了新的挑战。在此背景下,构建了能够计及可入网混合动力电动汽车(PHEV)和风电、光伏发电系统出力不确定性的随机协同优化调度模型。首先,分析了PHEV的行驶耗电和随机充放电行为。之后,在假设风速服从Rayleigh分布、光照服从Beta分布的前提下,导出了风电机组和光伏发电系统出力的期望、方差及二阶原点矩的表达式。在此基础上,发展了以平抑可再生能源出力波动为目标的电力系统随机协同优化调度模型,并应用交叉熵算法进行求解。最后,以33节点配电系统为例说明了所提出的随机协同优化调度模型的基本特征。%The rapid development of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles(PHEVs) and renewable generation brings new challenges to the secure and economic operation of power systems.A stochastic optimization based dispatching model,capable of accommodating uncertain outputs of PHEVs and renewable generation,is developed.The probability distributions of energy consumption and charging/discharging behaviors of PHEVs are first studied.The probability distributions of the wind and photovoltaic generation outputs are derived assuming that the wind speed follows the Rayleigh distribution and solar irradiance follows the Beta distribution.The mathematical expectations,second order expectations and variances of the power outputs of wind and photovoltaic generation are derived analytically.On this basis,a stochastic optimization dispatching model with the objective of reducing the fluctuations of renewable generation outputs is finally established.The well-established cross-entropy method is employed to solve this optimization problem.The feasibility and efficiency of the dispatching model and the cross-entropy method are demonstrated by a 33-bus distribution system.

  4. Computational Modeling for the Activation Cycle of G-proteins by G-protein-coupled Receptors

    Bao, Yifei; Glavy, Joseph; White, Tommy; 10.4204/EPTCS.40.4

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we survey five different computational modeling methods. For comparison, we use the activation cycle of G-proteins that regulate cellular signaling events downstream of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) as a driving example. Starting from an existing Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs) model, we implement the G-protein cycle in the stochastic Pi-calculus using SPiM, as Petri-nets using Cell Illustrator, in the Kappa Language using Cellucidate, and in Bio-PEPA using the Bio-PEPA eclipse plug in. We also provide a high-level notation to abstract away from communication primitives that may be unfamiliar to the average biologist, and we show how to translate high-level programs into stochastic Pi-calculus processes and chemical reactions.

  5. Thermally activated building systems in context of increasing building energy efficiency

    Stojanović Branislav V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the possible ways to provide heating to the building is to use thermally activated building systems. This type of heating, besides providing significant increase in building energy efficiency, allows using low-temperature heating sources. In this paper, special attention is given to opaque part of the building façade with integrated thermally activated building systems. Due to fact that this type of system strongly depends on temperature of this construction-thermal element and type and thickness of other materials of the façade, influence of these parameters on energy efficiency was analyzed in this paper. Since the simplest and most promising way of using geothermal energy is to use it directly, for our analysis this source of energy was selected. Building energy needs for heating were obtained for real residential multi-family building in Serbia by using EnergyPlus software. The building with all necessary input for simulation was modeled in Google SketchUp with aid of Open Studio Plug-in. Obtained results were compared with measured heating energy consumption. The results show that thermally activated building systems represent good way to increase building energy efficiency and that applying certain temperatures within this element, low-energy house standard can be achieved.

  6. Physical activity

    Physical activity -- which includes an active lifestyle and routine exercise -- plus eating well, is the best way to ... shortness of breath when you are active Build physical activity into your regular routine Simple lifestyle changes can ...

  7. Physical activity

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001941.htm Physical activity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Physical activity -- which includes an active lifestyle and routine exercise -- ...

  8. MSLICE Science Activity Planner for the Mars Science Laboratory Mission

    Powell, Mark W.; Shams, Khawaja S.; Wallick, Michael N.; Norris, Jeffrey S.; Joswig, Joseph C.; Crockett, Thomas M.; Fox, Jason M.; Torres, Recaredo J.; Kurien, James A.; McCurdy, Michael P.; Pyrzak, Guy; Aghevli, Arash; Bachmann, Andrew G.

    2009-01-01

    MSLICE (Mars Science Laboratory InterfaCE) is the tool used by scientists and engineers on the Mars Science Laboratory rover mission to visualize the data returned by the rover and collaboratively plan its activities. It enables users to efficiently and effectively search all mission data to find applicable products (e.g., images, targets, activity plans, sequences, etc.), view and plan the traverse of the rover in HiRISE (High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment) images, visualize data acquired by the rover, and develop, model, and validate the activities the rover will perform. MSLICE enables users to securely contribute to the mission s activity planning process from their home institutions using off-the-shelf laptop computers. This software has made use of several plug-ins (software components) developed for previous missions [e.g., Mars Exploration Rover (MER), Phoenix Mars Lander (PHX)] and other technology tasks. It has a simple, intuitive, and powerful search capability. For any given mission, there is a huge amount of data and associated metadata that is generated. To help users sort through this information, MSLICE s search interface is provided in a similar fashion as major Internet search engines. With regard to the HiRISE visualization of the rover s traverse, this view is a map of the mission that allows scientists to easily gauge where the rover has been and where it is likely to go. The map also provides the ability to correct or adjust the known position of the rover through the overlaying of images acquired from the rover on top of the HiRISE image. A user can then correct the rover s position by collocating the visible features in the overlays with the same features in the underlying HiRISE image. MSLICE users can also rapidly search all mission data for images that contain a point specified by the user in another image or panoramic mosaic. MSLICE allows the creation of targets, which provides a way for scientists to collaboratively name

  9. Simulation of adaptive semi-active magnetorheological seat damper for vehicle occupant blast protection

    Yoo, Jin-Hyeong; Murugan, Muthuvel; Wereley, Norman M.

    2013-04-01

    This study investigates a lumped-parameter human body model which includes lower leg in seated posture within a quarter-car model for blast injury assessment simulation. To simulate the shock acceleration of the vehicle, mine blast analysis was conducted on a generic land vehicle crew compartment (sand box) structure. For the purpose of simulating human body dynamics with non-linear parameters, a physical model of a lumped-parameter human body within a quarter car model was implemented using multi-body dynamic simulation software. For implementing the control scheme, a skyhook algorithm was made to work with the multi-body dynamic model by running a co-simulation with the control scheme software plug-in. The injury criteria and tolerance levels for the biomechanical effects are discussed for each of the identified vulnerable body regions, such as the relative head displacement and the neck bending moment. The desired objective of this analytical model development is to study the performance of adaptive semi-active magnetorheological damper that can be used for vehicle-occupant protection technology enhancements to the seat design in a mine-resistant military vehicle.

  10. Get Active

    ... feeling the benefits of getting active, such as sleeping better or getting toned. Here are 2 ways to add more activity to your life. Be active for longer each time. If you are walking 3 days a week for 30 minutes, try ...

  11. IA-HEV Task 15 �Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles 2008-2013

    Schmid, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Der Vortrag beinhaltet die Zusammenfassung der Aktivitäten in der Taskforce 15 der Technologieplattform "Hybrid and Electric Vehicle" der Internationalen Energieagentur (IEA) in den Jahren 2008 bis 2013.

  12. 向电动车看齐 PRIUS PLUG-IN HYBRID

    刘雅坤; 霍庆泽(图)

    2011-01-01

    单从环保方面来说,纯电动车无疑是最优秀的,但是充电设施的不完善以及自身续航里程有限等因素依然制约着纯电动车的发展,而单纯的混合动力车型在控制CO2排放方面能力有限,于是一种名为"PHEV"的车型诞生了。

  13. An optimal energy management development for various configuration of plug-in and hybrid electric vehicle

    Morteza Montazeri-Gh; Mehdi Mahmoodi-K

    2015-01-01

    Due to soaring fuel prices and environmental concerns, hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) technology attracts more attentions in last decade. Energy management system, configuration of HEV and traffic conditions are the main factors which affect HEV's fuel consumption, emission and performance. Therefore, optimal management of the energy components is a key element for the success of a HEV. An optimal energy management system is developed for HEV based on genetic algorithm. Then, different powertrain system component combinations effects are investigated in various driving cycles. HEV simulation results are compared for default rule-based, fuzzy and GA-fuzzy controllers by using ADVISOR. The results indicate the effectiveness of proposed optimal controller over real world driving cycles. Also, an optimal powertrain configuration to improve fuel consumption and emission efficiency is proposed for each driving condition. Finally, the effects of batteries in initial state of charge and hybridization factor are investigated on HEV performance to evaluate fuel consumption and emissions. Fuel consumption average reduction of about 14% is obtained for optimal configuration data in contrast to default configuration. Also results indicate that proposed controller has reduced emission of about 10% in various traffic conditions.

  14. Plug-in Hybrid and Battery Electric Vehicles. Market penetration scenarios of electric drive vehicles

    Francoise Nemry; Martijn Brons

    2010-01-01

    Electric-drive vehicles (EDVs) are currently emerging in the market and are seen as a promising option towards a less carbon intensive road transport. This report presents a prospective analysis in relation with two of the current bottlenecks for the diffusion of electric vehicles. These concern batteries performance and cost, and the access to charging infrastructures. Based on projections on these factors, the analysis develops scenarios for the future market for electric cars and provides ...

  15. Load-scheduling and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles in the Smart Grid

    Haukedal, Eirik Daleng

    2012-01-01

    To avoid the problem that increasing PHEV demand will further aggravate peak demand hours in the power grid, several different multi-agent scheduling mechanisms have been investigated, including two centralized scheduling mechanisms and two decentralized scheduling mechanisms. For both of the decentralized mechanisms, the PHEV agents choose their own charging plans without relying upon a centralized scheduler, while in the centralized scheduling mechanisms, the PHEVs agents defer control to a...

  16. A computer assisted universal design (CAUD) plug-in tool for architectural design process

    Afacan, Yasemin

    2008-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of Interior Architecture and Environmental Design and the Institute of Economics and Social Sciences of Bilkent University, 2008. Thesis (Ph.D.) -- Bilkent University, 2008. Includes bibliographical references leaves 182-194. Managing universal design process is a highly complex and challenging design task due to its multi-parameter characteristics. It becomes even more difficult while accommodating the needs of people with diverse impairments in archite...

  17. DC Charging of Heavy Commercial Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Hällman, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    A solution to reduce exhaust emissions from heavy commercial vehicles are to haul the vehicles completely or partially electric. This means that the vehicle must contain a significant electric energy source. The large capacity of the energy source causes the vehicle to either sacrifice a large part of its up time to charge the source or apply a higher charge power at the cost of power losses and lifetime of the energy source. This thesis contains a pre-study of high-power DC-charge of hybrid ...

  18. A flexible distributed framework for realising electric and plug-in hybrid vehicle charging policies

    Stüdli, S.; Crisostomi, E.; Middleton, R.; Shorten, R.

    2012-08-01

    Motivated by the problems of charging a number of electric vehicles via limited capacity infrastructure, this article considers the problem of individual load adjustment under a total capacity constraint. For reasons of scalability and simplified communications, distributed solutions to this problem are sought. Borrowing from communication networks (AIMD algorithms) and distributed convex optimisation, we describe a number of distributed algorithms for achieving relative average fairness whilst maximising utilisation. We present analysis and simulation results to show the performance of these algorithms. In the scenarios examined, the algorithm's performance is typically within 5% of that achievable in the ideal centralised case, but with greatly enhanced scalability and reduced communication requirements.

  19. 混出精彩 VOLVO XC60 PLUG-IN HYBRID CONCEPT

    包崇美

    2012-01-01

    凭借着高大宽敞的空间和底盘的高通过性,在自驾游越来越盛行的今天,SUV车型慢慢成了市场上的"香馍馍",其市场热度毫不逊色于小排量车型。但高油耗和高排放的环保问题成为制约其进一步发展的瓶颈,于是开发混合动力的SUV车型成为汽车厂商研发的一个重点。

  20. The economics of using plug-in hybrid electric vehicle battery packs for grid storage

    We examine the potential economic implications of using vehicle batteries to store grid electricity generated at off-peak hours for off-vehicle use during peak hours. Ancillary services such as frequency regulation are not considered here because only a small number of vehicles will saturate that market. Hourly electricity prices in three U.S. cities were used to arrive at daily profit values, while the economic losses associated with battery degradation were calculated based on data collected from A123 Systems LiFePO4/Graphite cells tested under combined driving and off-vehicle electricity utilization. For a 16 kWh (57.6 MJ) vehicle battery pack, the maximum annual profit with perfect market information and no battery degradation cost ranged from ∝US$140 to $250 in the three cities. If the measured battery degradation is applied, however, the maximum annual profit (if battery pack replacement costs fall to $5000 for a 16 kWh battery) decreases to ∝10-120. It appears unlikely that these profits alone will provide sufficient incentive to the vehicle owner to use the battery pack for electricity storage and later off-vehicle use. We also estimate grid net social welfare benefits from avoiding the construction and use of peaking generators that may accrue to the owner, finding that these are similar in magnitude to the energy arbitrage profit. (author)

  1. Web Card - Clean Cities Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Public Charging Station Hosts

    None

    2012-07-01

    A 2" x 3-1/4" web card which has a quick response code for accessing the PEV Handbook for Public Charging Station Hosts via a smart phone. The cards are intended to be handed out instead of the handbook.

  2. Optimization of ridge parameters in multivariate generalized ridge regression by plug-in methods

    Nagai, Isamu; Yanagihara, Hirokazu; Satoh, Kenichi

    2012-01-01

    Generalized ridge (GR) regression for an univariate linear model was proposed simultaneously with ridge regression by Hoerl and Kennard (1970). In this paper, we deal with a GR regression for a multivariate linear model, referred to as a multivariate GR (MGR) regression. From the viewpoint of reducing the mean squared error (MSE) of a predicted value, many authors have proposed several GR estimators consisting of ridge parameters optimized by non-iterative methods. By expanding...

  3. Medium-Duty Plug-in Electric Delivery Truck Fleet Evaluation

    Prohaska, Robert; Ragatz, Adam; Simpson, Mike; Kelly, Kenneth

    2016-06-29

    In this paper, the authors present an overview of medium-duty electric vehicle (EV) operating behavior based on in-use data collected from Smith Newton electric delivery vehicles and compare their performance and operation to conventional diesel trucks operating in the same fleet. The vehicles' drive cycles and operation are analyzed and compared to demonstrate the importance of matching specific EV technologies to the appropriate operational duty cycle. The results of this analysis show that the Smith Newton EVs demonstrated a 68% reduction in energy consumption over the data reporting period compared to the conventional diesel vehicles, as well as a 46.4% reduction in carbon dioxide equivalent emissions based on the local energy generation source.

  4. MESAM: A Protégé Plug-in for the Specialization of Models

    Zemirline, Nadjet; Bourda, Yolaine; Reynaud, Chantal; Popineau, Fabrice

    2009-01-01

    International audience Nowadays, several efforts are focused on re-using generic platforms to create new systems, in order to make the design process easier and faster. Often, the designer has his own models and resources and would like to reuse the generic system over his resources. That means, he has to integrate his models and resources in the system, and then to directly reuse the generic system. But many problems occur. One of them is that the designer needs to translate his models in...

  5. Instability and the formation of bubbles and the plugs in fluidized beds

    Piotr Schulz

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This is an review paper, particulary concentrate on results not many researches by reason that are explain in the text. We consider stability of disperse, two-phase flow (gas-solid particles or liquid-solid particles linear and non-linear. In particular we discuss the result of Anderson, Sundareson and Jackson (1995 [Anderson K., Sundareson S., Jackson R.: Instabilities and the formation of bubbles in fluidized beds. J. Fluid Mech. 303 (1995, 327-366] that for vertical dispersion flow one- and two-dimensional, they attack problem growing disturbances directly by numerical integration of equations of motion from given initial conditions (using computer Cray C-90. In principle, this would allow authors to explore all aspects of dynamical behaviour of fluidized beds. It is interesting mechanism of periodic plug describing by Anderson et al. and attest by other researchers. Second part of paper is more general, dedicate the problem of linear stability of uniformly fluidized state ("fluidized bed". We make the most important stages of calculations (after to Jackson (2000 [Jackson R.: The Dynamics of Fluidized Particles. Cambridge University Press 2000] and demonstrate that the majority (but not all of fluidized beds with parameters having technical importance is unstable, or stable in narrow interval of wave numbers \\(k\\.

  6. A tm Plug-In for Distributed Text Mining in R

    Stefan Theussl; Ingo Feinerer; Kurt Hornik

    2012-01-01

    R has gained explicit text mining support with the tm package enabling statisticians to answer many interesting research questions via statistical analysis or modeling of (text) corpora. However, we typically face two challenges when analyzing large corpora: (1) the amount of data to be processed in a single machine is usually limited by the available main memory (i.e., RAM), and (2) the more data to be analyzed the higher the need for efficient procedures for calculating valua...

  7. Structural Integrity Evaluation of Rotating Plug in a Steady State Condition

    Han, In-su; Koo, Gyeong-Hoi; Kim, Sung-Kyun; Kim, Jong-Bum [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Its basic structure is much the same as that of stationary portion of the reactor head. The RP is has many penetration holes for control rod drive mechanism (CRDM), the in vessel transfer machine(IVTM) an in-service inspection (ISI) instruments. In this study, the steady state analysis for the rotating plug was performed and the structural integrity was assessed in accordance with ASME Section III, Division 5 HB. In this paper, the structural integrities of the rotating plug under the design condition and service level A condition have been assessed according to ASME code. As a result, it was confirmed that the structural integrity of the rotating plug was secured for a steady state condition. For the future work, a transient analysis and a seismic analysis need to be performed by combining the different design loads.

  8. Plugging In: Possibilities for Connecting Teens and Communities through Scholastic and Nonscholastic Youth Media Websites

    Neely, Jeffrey C.

    2015-01-01

    Many of today's youth feel disconnected from their local communities. At the same time, most of them are regularly connected to the Internet and other digital media to gather information and communicate with their peers. This study conducts a qualitative textual analysis of 14 scholastic and nonscholastic youth media websites to derive five…

  9. Cost analysis of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles including Maintenance & Repair Costs and Resale Values

    Propfe, Bernd; Redelbach, Martin; Santini, Danilo J.; Friedrich, Horst

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the cost competitiveness of different electrified propulsion technologies for the German auto market in 2020. Several types of hybrid electric vehicles including parallel hybrids (with and without external charging) and a serial range extended electric vehicle are compared to a conventional car with SI engine, a full battery electric vehicle and a hydrogen powered fuel cell vehicle. Special focus lies on the maintenance and repair cost and the expected resale value of alte...

  10. Comparison of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Life Across Geographies and Drive-Cycles

    In a laboratory environment, it is cost prohibitive to run automotive battery aging experiments across a wide range of possible ambient environment, drive cycle and charging scenarios. Since worst-case scenarios drive the conservative sizing of electric-drive vehicle batteries, it is useful to understand how and why those scenarios arise and what design or control actions might be taken to mitigate them. In an effort to explore this problem, this paper applies a semi-empirical life model of the graphite/nickel-cobalt-aluminum lithium-ion chemistry to investigate impacts of geographic environments under storage and simplified cycling conditions. The model is then applied to analyze complex cycling conditions, using battery charge/discharge profiles generated from simulations of PHEV10 and PHEV40 vehicles across 782 single-day driving cycles taken from Texas travel survey data.

  11. Techno-economic comparison of series hybrid, plug-in hybrid, fuel cell and regular cars

    van Vliet, O.P.R.; Kruithof, T.; Turkenburg, W.C.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2010-01-01

    We examine the competitiveness of series hybrid compared to fuel cell, parallel hybrid, and regular cars. We use public domain data to determine efficiency, fuel consumption, total costs of ownership and greenhouse gas emissions resulting from drivetrain choices. The series hybrid drivetrain can be

  12. Resource Efficiency Assessment—Comparing a Plug-In Hybrid with a Conventional Combustion Engine

    Martin Henßler; Vanessa Bach; Markus Berger; Matthias Finkbeiner; Klaus Ruhland

    2016-01-01

    The strong economic growth in recent years has led to an intensive use of natural resources, which causes environmental stress as well as restrictions on the availability of resources. Therefore, a more efficient use of resources is necessary as an important contribution to sustainable development. The ESSENZ method presented in this article comprehensively assesses a product’s resource efficiency by going beyond existing approaches and considering the pollution of the environment as well as ...

  13. Multi-objective optimization control of plug-in electric vehicles in low voltage distribution networks

    García-Villalobos, J.; Zamora, I.; Knezovic, Katarina;

    2016-01-01

    context, this paper proposes a new multi-objective optimization algorithm in order to reduce the mentioned problems. At the same time, users’ interests in terms of charging cost and privacy have been taken into account. The proposed multi-objective optimization is based on minimizing the load variance and...... charging costs by using the weighted sum method and fuzzy control. The use of vehicle to grid (V2G) concept and load forecast uncertainties have been also considered. Furthermore, an innovative method for mitigating voltage unbalances has been developed. The effectiveness of this methodology has been...... tested using real data of a LV distribution network, located in Borup (Denmark). Simulation results show that this approach can reduce both energy losses and charging costs as well as it allows a high PEV penetration rates (PEV-PR)....

  14. From catastrophic acceleration to deceleration of liquid plugs in prewetted capillary tubes

    Magniez, J C; Liu, C; Zoueshtiagh, F

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of individual liquid plugs pushed at constant pressure head inside prewetted cylindrical capillary tubes is investigated experimentally and theoretically. It is shown that, depending on the thickness of the prewetting film and the magnitude of the pressure head, the plugs can either experience a continuous acceler ation leading to a catastrophic decrease of their size and eventually their rupture or conversely, a progressive deceleration associated with their growth. These behaviors are quantitatively reproduced with a simple nonlinear model [Baudoin et al., Proc. Nat. Ac. Sci. USA, 2013, 110, 859] adapted here for cylindrical channels. Furthermore, an analytical criterion for the transition between these two regimes is obtained and successfully compared with extensive experimental data. The implications of this work for pulmonary obstructive diseases are discussed.

  15. Effect of tube plugging in the thermalhydraulic performance of 'U' tube steam generators

    The thermalhydraulic performance of Angra II steam generator has been simulated using the model developed by Braga, C.V.M., 'Thermohydraulic model for steam generator of PWR power plants', in steady state, with plugging up to 40% of total number of tubes. (E.G.)

  16. Model-Based Design of a Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Control Strategy

    King, Jonathan Charles

    2012-01-01

    For years the trend in the automotive industry has been toward more complex electronic control systems. The number of electronic control units (ECUs) in vehicles is ever increasing as is the complexity of communication networks among the ECUs. Increasing fuel economy standards and the increasing cost of fuel is driving hybridization and electrification of the automobile. Achieving superior fuel economy with a hybrid powertrain requires an effective and optimized control system. On the other h...

  17. Medium-Duty Plug-In Electric Delivery Truck Fleet Evaluation: Preprint

    Prohaska, Robert; Ragatz, Adam; Simpson, Mike; Kelly, Kenneth

    2016-04-13

    In this paper, the authors present an overview of medium-duty electric vehicle (EV) operating behavior based on in-use data collected from Smith Newton electric delivery vehicles and compare their performance and operation to conventional diesel trucks operating in the same fleet. The vehicles' drive cycles and operation are analyzed and compared to demonstrate the importance of matching specific EV technologies to the appropriate operational duty cycle. The results of this analysis show that the Smith Newton EVs demonstrated a 68% reduction in energy consumption over the data reporting period compared to the conventional diesel vehicles, as well as a 46.4% reduction in carbon dioxide equivalent emissions based on the local energy generation source.

  18. Flowing catalyst particles in annular stream around a plug in lift pot

    Skraba, F.W.

    1987-06-23

    A catalytic cracking process is described comprising (a) flowing a stream of hot cracking catalyst particles longitudinally through at least a portion of a lift pot in an annular stream around a plug which is positioned in the lift pot and which has an upstream end; a downstream end and a longitudinal axis; the hot cracking catalyst particles flow generally radially inwardly toward the plug axis past the downstream end of the plug, and then longitudinally into a riser-reactor; (b) introducing an oil feedstock into the stream of hot cracking catalyst particles as it is moving radially inwardly from around the periphery of the downstream end of the plug for the formation of a reaction mixture with the hot cracking catalyst. The hot catalyst particles and the oil feedstock moves at approximately right angles to each other at the point at which the oil feedstock is introduced; and (c) flowing the reaction mixture through the riser-reactor and into a disengagement chamber. The mixture flows into the disengagement chamber comprising cracked oil product and catalyst particles.

  19. Search engine optimization and its implications in Internet marketing : plagiarism avenger Word Press plug-in

    Neupane, Kiran

    2013-01-01

    Internet audience is on a hike and marketers are concentrated on reaching them through Internet marketing. Search engines had never been used as intensively as it is today. Being rated high in Google or other search engine ranking reflects the potentiality of being reached to millions of customers, hence enhancing the business. Google alone has 694,000 searches conducted every second and the process which help our website rank higher in the organic (natural) search result is known as search e...

  20. Of Minds and Media: Teaching Critical Citizenship to the Plugged-in Generation

    Carducci, Rozana; Rhoads, Robert A.

    2005-01-01

    College campuses in America have become buzzing media centers. Educators who are serious about maximizing student learning and facilitating social, moral, and civic development must now also become serious about understanding the influence of media on their students. Today's students are largely socialized through the media, a reality that calls…