WorldWideScience

Sample records for activities relating global

  1. Present status of research activities relating global warming problems in Japan (mainly MITI and relating organizations)

    Yokoyama, O.

    1993-12-31

    Japanese government has issued action program so called {open_quotes}Action Program to Arrest Global Warming{close_quotes} for preventing global warming at Oct., 1990. According to the program, CO{sub 2} emission should be stabilized on a per capita basis in the year 2000 and beyond at about same level as in 2000 by introducing several methods such as energy conservation, improvement of energy using efficiency, expanding use of renewable energy and so on. The basic concept, target and methods are summarized. At the same time, MITI published so called {open_quotes}New Earth 21{close_quotes} project which aims remedying the earth environment modified by human activities since industrial innovation began at about 200 years ago in coming 100 years. This plan proposed yearly step of research development of technology for mitigating CO{sub 2} emission. According to the MITI`s plan, 15 institutions belonging to AIST have carrying research for developing technology of reducing emission of CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases, with cooperation of other research organizations such as RITE (research Institute of Innovative Technology for Earth) and NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Developing Organization). Time schedule of the research development by The New Earth 21 project is summarized in Table 2. Now, in Japan, many national institutions and universities, research works relating reduction and mitigation of GHG are carried out according to this guideline.

  2. Global development of advanced nuclear power plants, and related IAEA activities

    Renewed interest in the potential of nuclear energy to contribute to a sustainable worldwide energy mix is underlining the IAEA's statutory role in fostering the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, in particular the need for effective exchanges of information and collaborative research and technology development among Member States on advanced nuclear power technologies deployable in the near term as well as in the longer term. For applications in the medium to longer term, with rising expectations for the role of nuclear energy in the future, technological innovation has become a strong focus of nuclear power technology developments by many Member States. To meet Member States' needs, the IAEA conducts activities to foster information exchange and collaborative research and development in the area of advanced nuclear reactor technologies. These activities include coordination of collaborative research, organization of international information exchange, and analyses of globally available technical data and results, with a focus on reducing nuclear power plant capital costs and construction periods while further improving performance, safety and proliferation resistance. In other activities, evolutionary and innovative advances are catalyzed for all reactor lines such as advanced water cooled reactors, high temperature gas cooled reactors, liquid metal cooled reactors and accelerator driven systems, including small and medium sized reactors. In addition, there are activities related to other applications of nuclear energy such as seawater desalination, hydrogen production, and other process heat applications. This brochure summarizes the worldwide status and the activities related to advanced nuclear power technology development and related IAEA activities. It includes a list of the collaborative research and development projects conducted by the IAEA, as well as of the status reports and other publications produced

  3. On the possible relations between solar activities and global seismicity in the solar cycle 20 to 23

    Herdiwijaya, Dhani, E-mail: dhani@as.itb.ac.id [Astronomy Research Division and Bosscha Observatory, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Bandung Institute of Technology, Ganesha 10, Bandung, Indonesia 40132 (Indonesia); Arif, Johan [Geology Research Division, Faculty of Earth Sciences and Technology, Bandung Institute of Technology, Ganesha 10, Bandung, Indonesia 40132 (Indonesia); Nurzaman, Muhamad Zamzam; Astuti, Isna Kusuma Dewi [Astronomy Study Program, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Bandung Institute of Technology, Ganesha 10, Bandung, Indonesia 40132 (Indonesia)

    2015-09-30

    Solar activities consist of high energetic particle streams, electromagnetic radiation, magnetic and orbital gravitational forces. The well-know solar activity main indicator is the existence of sunspot which has mean variation in 11 years, named by solar cycle, allow for the above fluctuations. Solar activities are also related to the space weather affecting all planetary atmospheric variability, moreover to the Earth’s climate variability. Large extreme space and geophysical events (high magnitude earthquakes, explosive volcanic eruptions, magnetic storms, etc.) are hazards for humankind, infrastructure, economies, technology and the activities of civilization. With a growing world population, and with modern reliance on delicate technological systems, human society is becoming increasingly vulnerable to natural hazardous events. The big question arises to the relation between solar forcing energy to the Earth’s global seismic activities. Estimates are needed for the long term occurrence-rate probabilities of these extreme natural hazardous events. We studied connectivity from yearly seismic activities that refer to and sunspot number within the solar cycle 20 to 23 of year 1960 to 2013 (53 years). We found clear evidences that in general high magnitude earthquake events and their depth were related to the low solar activity.

  4. On the possible relations between solar activities and global seismicity in the solar cycle 20 to 23

    Solar activities consist of high energetic particle streams, electromagnetic radiation, magnetic and orbital gravitational forces. The well-know solar activity main indicator is the existence of sunspot which has mean variation in 11 years, named by solar cycle, allow for the above fluctuations. Solar activities are also related to the space weather affecting all planetary atmospheric variability, moreover to the Earth’s climate variability. Large extreme space and geophysical events (high magnitude earthquakes, explosive volcanic eruptions, magnetic storms, etc.) are hazards for humankind, infrastructure, economies, technology and the activities of civilization. With a growing world population, and with modern reliance on delicate technological systems, human society is becoming increasingly vulnerable to natural hazardous events. The big question arises to the relation between solar forcing energy to the Earth’s global seismic activities. Estimates are needed for the long term occurrence-rate probabilities of these extreme natural hazardous events. We studied connectivity from yearly seismic activities that refer to and sunspot number within the solar cycle 20 to 23 of year 1960 to 2013 (53 years). We found clear evidences that in general high magnitude earthquake events and their depth were related to the low solar activity

  5. Relational contracts and global sourcing

    Kukharskyy, Bohdan

    2015-01-01

    Relational contracts - informal agreements sustained by the value of future relationships - are integral parts of global production processes. This paper develops a repeated-game model of global sourcing in which final goods producers decide whether to engage with their suppliers in relational contracting and whether to integrate a supplier into a firm's boundaries or deal with the latter at arm's length. The model predicts that the likelihood of vertical integration increases in the long-ter...

  6. Globalization of nuclear activities and global governance

    The safe production of nuclear energy as well as the disarmament of nuclear weapons and the peaceful utilization of nuclear materials resulting from dismantling of such weapons are some of the formidable problems of global governance. The Commission on Global Governance was established in 1992 in the belief that international developments had created a unique opportunity for strengthening global co-operation to meet the challenge of securing peace, achieving sustainable development, and universalizing democracy. Here a summary of their proposals on the globalization of nuclear activities to face challenges of the coming century is given. To follow up their activities by the worlds community in general. The research Centre for Global Governance (RCGG) at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul was established. Already a great number of researchers from many different countries have adhered to the Centre. Here the program of the RCGG is described. (author)

  7. Global Monopole in General Relativity

    Bronnikov, K A; Podolyak, E R; Bronnikov, Kirill A.; Meierovich, Boris E.; Podolyak, Evgeny R.

    2002-01-01

    We consider the gravitational properties of a global monopole on the basis of the simplest Higgs scalar triplet model in general relativity. We begin with establishing some common features of hedgehog-type solutions with a regular center, independent of the choice of the symmetry-breaking potential. There are six types of qualitative behavior of the solutions; we show, in particular, that the metric can contain at most one simple horizon. For the standard Mexican hat potential, the previously known properties of the solutions are confirmed and some new results are obtained. Thus, we show analytically that solutions with monotonically growing Higgs field and finite energy in the static region exist only in the interval $1<\\gamma <3$, $\\gamma $ being the squared energy of spontaneous symmetry breaking in Planck units. The cosmological properties of these globally regular solutions apparently favor the idea that the standard Big Bang might be replaced with a nonsingular static core and a horizon appearing ...

  8. Global physical activity levels

    Hallal, Pedro C; Andersen, Lars Bo; Bull, Fiona C;

    2012-01-01

    To implement effective non-communicable disease prevention programmes, policy makers need data for physical activity levels and trends. In this report, we describe physical activity levels worldwide with data for adults (15 years or older) from 122 countries and for adolescents (13-15-years......-old) from 105 countries. Worldwide, 31·1% (95% CI 30·9-31·2) of adults are physically inactive, with proportions ranging from 17·0% (16·8-17·2) in southeast Asia to about 43% in the Americas and the eastern Mediterranean. Inactivity rises with age, is higher in women than in men, and is increased in high......-income countries. The proportion of 13-15-year-olds doing fewer than 60 min of physical activity of moderate to vigorous intensity per day is 80·3% (80·1-80·5); boys are more active than are girls. Continued improvement in monitoring of physical activity would help to guide development of policies and programmes...

  9. ON THE FLARE-INDUCED SEISMICITY IN THE ACTIVE REGION NOAA 10930 AND RELATED ENHANCEMENT OF GLOBAL WAVES IN THE SUN

    A major flare (of class X3.4) occurred on 2006 December 13 in the active region NOAA 10930. This flare event has remained interesting to solar researchers for studies related to particle acceleration during the flare process and the reconfiguration of magnetic fields as well as fine-scale features in the active region. The energy released during flares is also known to induce acoustic oscillations in the Sun. Here, we analyze the line-of-sight velocity patterns in this active region during the X3.4 flare using the Dopplergrams obtained by the Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) instrument. We have also analyzed the disk-integrated velocity observations of the Sun obtained by the Global Oscillation at Low Frequency (GOLF) instrument on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory spacecraft as well as full-disk collapsed velocity signals from GONG observations during this flare to study any possible connection between the flare-related changes seen in the local and global velocity oscillations in the Sun. We apply wavelet transform to the time series of the localized velocity oscillations as well as the global velocity oscillations in the Sun spanning the flare event. The line-of-sight velocity shows significant enhancement in some localized regions of the penumbra of this active region during the flare. The affected region is seen to be away from the locations of the flare ribbons and the hard X-ray footpoints. The sudden enhancement of this velocity seems to be caused by the Lorentz force driven by the 'magnetic jerk' in the localized penumbral region. Application of wavelet analysis to these flare-induced localized seismic signals shows significant enhancement in the high-frequency domain (5 <ν < 8 mHz) and a feeble enhancement in the p-mode oscillations (2 <ν < 5 mHz) during the flare. On the other hand, the wavelet analysis of GOLF velocity data and the full-disk collapsed GONG velocity data spanning the flare event indicates significant post

  10. Relational Ethics in Global Commerce

    Andrew Creed; Ambika Zutshi; Jane Ross

    2009-01-01

    This article identifies the fragility of relationships and ethical practices in the context of global commercial relationships and reflects upon the centrality of human relationships in commerce. The connections between people in global business are underpinned by ethical actions and outcomes and influenced by the degree that information and communication technology are part of the commercial relationship. Issues of trust, privacy, sharing, communication, security, anonymity, and learning eme...

  11. Recent Activities on Global Nuclear Safety Regime

    Recently, rapid progress on the globalization of the nuclear safety issues is being made in IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) and its member states. With the globalization, the need for international cooperation among international bodies and member states continues to grow for resolving these universal nuclear safety issues. Furthermore, the importance of strengthening the global nuclear safety regime is emphasized through various means, such as efforts in application of IAEA safety standards to all nuclear installations in the world and in strengthening the code of conduct and the convention on nuclear safety. In this regards, it is important for us to keep up with the activities related with the global nuclear safety regime as an IAEA member state and a leading country in nuclear safety regulation

  12. Globalization and Women's Labour Activism in Japan

    BISHOP, Beverley

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of globalization not only encompasses increased economic integration and increased flows of capital, but also social, political and cultural change. While considerable attention has been paid to the pro-active role that Japanese government and business actors have played, there has been rather less analysis of the way civil actors in Japan have been affected by, and have adapted their goals and strategies to the changing global polity. This paper examines how female labour activists in Japan have adapted their strategies to the existing national and international institutions, and changed their strategies as the processes of globalization have altered the relative power of these institutions. Section B of the paper examines the lack of influence that women labour activists have traditionally had in party and trade union politics, and how changes in these institutions are affecting the way women engage with them. Section C looks at the alternative way campaigners for women's labour rights actually organize. Section D goes on to examine the way women's groups are increasingly directing action at international bodies, and sharing information and activities with activists overseas.

  13. Global conservation priorities for crop wild relatives.

    Castañeda-Álvarez, Nora P; Khoury, Colin K; Achicanoy, Harold A; Bernau, Vivian; Dempewolf, Hannes; Eastwood, Ruth J; Guarino, Luigi; Harker, Ruth H; Jarvis, Andy; Maxted, Nigel; Müller, Jonas V; Ramirez-Villegas, Julian; Sosa, Chrystian C; Struik, Paul C; Vincent, Holly; Toll, Jane

    2016-01-01

    The wild relatives of domesticated crops possess genetic diversity useful for developing more productive, nutritious and resilient crop varieties. However, their conservation status and availability for utilization are a concern, and have not been quantified globally. Here, we model the global distribution of 1,076 taxa related to 81 crops, using occurrence information collected from biodiversity, herbarium and gene bank databases. We compare the potential geographic and ecological diversity encompassed in these distributions with that currently accessible in gene banks, as a means to estimate the comprehensiveness of the conservation of genetic diversity. Our results indicate that the diversity of crop wild relatives is poorly represented in gene banks. For 313 (29.1% of total) taxa associated with 63 crops, no germplasm accessions exist, and a further 257 (23.9%) are represented by fewer than ten accessions. Over 70% of taxa are identified as high priority for further collecting in order to improve their representation in gene banks, and over 95% are insufficiently represented in regard to the full range of geographic and ecological variation in their native distributions. The most critical collecting gaps occur in the Mediterranean and the Near East, western and southern Europe, Southeast and East Asia, and South America. We conclude that a systematic effort is needed to improve the conservation and availability of crop wild relatives for use in plant breeding. PMID:27249561

  14. Climate change and related activities

    The production and consumption of energy contributes to the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and is the focus of other environmental concerns as well. Yet the use of energy contributes to worldwide economic growth and development. If we are to achieve environmentally sound economic growth, we must develop and deploy energy technologies that contribute to global stewardship. The Department of Energy carries out an aggressive scientific research program to address some of the key uncertainties associated with the climate change issue. Of course, research simply to study the science of global climate change is not enough. At the heart of any regime of cost-effective actions to address the possibility of global climate change will be a panoply of new technologies-technologies both to provide the services we demand and to use energy more efficiently than in the past. These, too, are important areas of responsibility for the Department. This report is a brief description of the Department's activities in scientific research, technology development, policy studies, and international cooperation that are directly related to or have some bearing on the issue of global climate change

  15. Asteroseismic stellar activity relations

    Bonanno, A; Karoff, C

    2014-01-01

    In asteroseismology an important diagnostic of the evolutionary status of a star is the small frequency separation which is sensitive to the gradient of the mean molecular weight in the stellar interior. It is thus interesting to discuss the classical age-activity relations in terms of this quantity. Moreover, as the photospheric magnetic field tends to suppress the amplitudes of acoustic oscillations, it is important to quantify the importance of this effect by considering various activity indicators. We propose a new class of age-activity relations that connects the Mt. Wilson $S$ index and the average scatter in the light curve with the small frequency separation and the amplitude of the p-mode oscillations. We used a Bayesian inference to compute the posterior probability of various empirical laws for a sample of 19 solar-like active stars observed by the Kepler telescope. We demonstrate the presence of a clear correlation between the Mt. Wilson $S$ index and the relative age of the stars as indicated by ...

  16. Global diagnostics of the ionospheric perturbations related to the seismic activity using the VLF radio signals collected on the DEMETER satellite

    O. Molchanov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the VLF signals radiated by ground transmitters and received on board of the French DEMETER satellite, reveals a drop of the signals (scattering spot connected with the occurrence of large earthquakes. The extension of the "scattering spots" zone is large enough (1000–5000 km and, probably, it increases with the magnitude of the "relative" earthquake. A possible model to explain the phenomenology, based on the acoustic gravity waves and the ionosphere turbulence, is proposed. The method of diagnostics applied to this study has the advantage to be a global one due to the world wide location of the powerful VLF transmitters and of the satellite reception. However, a specific disadvantage exists because the method requires rather a long time period of analysis due to the large longitudinal displacements among the successive satellite orbits. At the moment, at least, one month seems to be necessary.

  17. Boundary conditions for free A-DNA in solution and the relation of local to global DNA structures at reduced water activity.

    Porschke, Dietmar

    2016-07-01

    Because of repeated claims that A-DNA cannot exist without aggregation or condensation, the state of DNA restriction fragments with 84-859 bp has been analyzed in aqueous solutions upon reduction of the water activity. Rotational diffusion times τ (d) measured by electric dichroism at different water activities with a wide variation of viscosities are normalized to values τ (c) at the viscosity of water, which indicate DNA structures at a high sensitivity. For short helices (chain lengths [Formula: see text] ≤ persistence length p), cooperative formation of A-DNA is reflected by the expected reduction of the hydrodynamic length; the transition to the A-form is without aggregation or condensation upon addition of ethanol at monovalent salt ≤1 mM. The aggregation boundary, indicated by a strong increase of τ (c), is shifted to higher monovalent salt (≥4 mM) when ethanol is replaced by trifluoroethanol. The BA transition is not indicated anymore by a cooperative change of τ (c) for [Formula: see text] » p; τ (c) values for these long chains decrease upon reduction of the water activity continuously over the full range, including the BA transition interval. This suggests a non-cooperative BC transition, which induces DNA curvature. The resulting wide distribution of global structures hides changes of local length during the BA transition. Free A-DNA without aggregation/condensation is found at low-salt concentrations where aggregation is inhibited and/or very slow. In an intermediate range of solvent conditions, where the A-form starts to aggregate, a time window remains that can be used for analysis of free A-DNA in a quasi-equilibrium state. PMID:26872482

  18. Global water cycle and solar activity variations

    Al-Tameemi, Muthanna A.; Chukin, Vladimir V.

    2016-05-01

    The water cycle is the most active and most important component in the circulation of global mass and energy in the Earth system. Furthermore, water cycle parameters such as evaporation, precipitation, and precipitable water vapour play a major role in global climate change. In this work, we attempt to determine the impact of solar activity on the global water cycle by analyzing the global monthly values of precipitable water vapour, precipitation, and the Solar Modulation Potential in 1983-2008. The first object of this study was to calculate global evaporation for the period 1983-2008. For this purpose, we determined the water cycle rate from satellite data, and precipitation/evaporation relationship from 10 years of Planet Simulator model data. The second object of our study was to investigate the relationship between the Solar Modulation Potential (solar activity index) and the evaporation for the period 1983-2008. The results showed that there is a relationship between the solar modulation potential and the evaporation values for the period of study. Therefore, we can assume that the solar activity has an impact on the global water cycle.

  19. Global Sourcing of Services Versus Manufacturing Activities

    Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.; Petersen, Bent

    2012-01-01

    between the attributes of the globally sourced activities and the international sourcing operations of firms is presented. This paper discusses the implications for global sourcing research and the strategic and organizational implications for managers, and it argues that finding the right match between......International sourcing strategies and operations are usually described distinctively for manufacturing and services. In this paper, the theoretical and strategic relevance of this distinction is questioned. As an alternative, an activity-based theoretical framework for exploring the linkages...... strategy, activity and organization is a key determinant of the success of the sourcing process and outcome....

  20. Globalization and Women's Labour Activism in Japan

    BISHOP, Beverley

    2002-01-01

    The concept of globalization not only encompasses increased economic integration and increased flows of capital, but also social, political and cultural change. While considerable attention has been paid to the pro-active role that Japanese government and business actors have played, there has been rather less analysis of the way civil actors in Japan have been affected by, and have adapted their goals and strategies to the changing global polity. This paper examines how female labour activis...

  1. Land-related global habitability science issues

    1983-01-01

    The scientific investigation of the viewpoint of the biosphere that living organisms and their physical and chemical environment are bound, inseparable parts of one set of closely coupled global processes of the global biogeochemical system, life and life support cycles, is discussed as one of the major scientific challenges of the next decade by building from understanding land processes to interdisciplinary, holistic studies of biospheric dynamics including human impacts.

  2. The place of physical activity in the WHO Global Strategy on Diet and Physical Activity

    Craig Cora L

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In an effort to reduce the global burden of non-communicable disease, the World Health Organization released a Global Strategy for Diet and Physical Activity in May 2004. This commentary reports on the development of the strategy and its importance specifically for physical activity-related work of NGOs and researchers interested in increasing global physical activity participation. Sparked by its work on global efforts to target non-communicable disease prevention in 2000, the World Health Organization commissioned a global strategy on diet and physical activity. The physical activity interest followed efforts that had led to the initial global "Move for Health Day" in 2002. WHO assembled a reference group for the global strategy, and a regional consultation process with countries was undertaken. Underpinning the responses was the need for more physical activity advocacy; partnerships outside of health including urban planning; development of national activity guidelines; and monitoring of the implementation of the strategy. The consultation process was an important mechanism to confirm the importance and elevate the profile of physical activity within the global strategy. It is suggested that separate implementation strategies for diet and physical activity may be needed to work with partner agencies in disparate sectors (e.g. urban planning for physical activity, agriculture for diet. International professional societies are well situated to make an important contribution to global public health by advocating for the importance of physical activity among risk factors; developing international measures of physical activity and global impacts of inactivity; and developing a global research and intervention agenda.

  3. On Relations between Current Global Volcano Databases

    Newhall, C. G.; Siebert, L.; Sparks, S.

    2009-12-01

    The Smithsonian’s Volcano Reference File (VRF), the database that underlies Volcanoes of the World and This Dynamic Planet, is the premier source for the “what, when, where, and how big?” of Holocene and historical eruptions. VOGRIPA (Volcanic Global Risk Identification and Analysis) will catalogue details of large eruptions, including specific phenomena and their impacts. CCDB (Collapse Caldera Database) also considers large eruptions with an emphasis on the resulting calderas. WOVOdat is bringing monitoring data from the world’s observatories into a centralized database in common formats, so that they can be searched and compared during volcanic crises and for research on preeruption processes. Oceanographic and space institutions worldwide have growing archives of volcano imagery and derivative products. Petrologic databases such as PETRODB and GEOROC offer compositions of many erupted and non-erupted magmas. Each of these informs and complements the others. Examples of interrelations include: ● Information in the VRF about individual volcanoes is the starting point and major source of background “volcano” data in WOVOdat, VOGRIPA, and petrologic databases. ● Images and digital topography from remote sensing archives offer high-resolution, consistent geospatial "base maps" for all of the other databases. ● VRF data about eruptions shows whether unrest of WOVOdat culminated in an eruption and, if yes, its type and magnitude. ● Data from WOVOdat fills in the “blanks” between eruptions in the VRF. ● VOGRIPA adds more detail to the VRF’s descriptions of eruptions, including quantification of runout distances, expanded estimated column heights and eruption impact data, and other parameters not included in the Smithsonian VRF. ● Petrologic databases can add detail to existing petrologic data of the VRF, WOVOdat, and VOGRIPA, e.g, detail needed to estimate viscosity of melt and its influence on magma and eruption dynamics ● Hazard

  4. Global-Change-Induced Disturbances of Water-Related Phenomena - The European Perspective

    Falkenmark, M.

    1989-01-01

    Impact of global change on human society will first be felt through disturbances of water-related phenomena. Traditionally, land use discussions only seldom reflect water phenomena. Present methods may therefore be poor tools in addressing the impact of global change. This report takes an alternative approach to land use by addressing a number of water-related phenomena from the perspective of their relation to land use and land-use-related societal activities. Such activities include both th...

  5. Global environment and activity of RITE

    In the present paper, the author would like to discuss the relation between conventional energy and global warming. Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth (RITE) was established in Japan, September 1990. The author would like to introduce what RITE is intending to achieve. This is the case when technology leads science. (J.P.N.)

  6. Space activities and global popular music culture

    Wessels, Allison Rae; Collins, Patrick

    During the "space age" era, space activities appear increasingly as a theme in Western popular music, as they do in popular culture generally. In combination with the electronics and tele-communications revolution, "pop/rock" music has grown explosively during the space age to become an effectively global culture. From this base a number of trends are emerging in the pattern of influences that space activities have on pop music. The paper looks at the use of themes and imagery in pop music; the role of space technology in the modern "globalization" of pop music; and current and future links between space activities and pop music culture, including how public space programmes are affected by its influence on popular attitudes.

  7. Controlling alcohol-related global health problems.

    Lam, Tai Hing; Chim, David

    2010-07-01

    Alcohol's adverse public health impact includes disease, injury, violence, disability, social problems, psychiatric illness, drunk driving, drug use, unsafe sex, and premature death. Furthermore, alcohol is a confirmed human carcinogen. The International Agency for Research on Cancer concluded that alcohol causes cancer of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, liver, colon-rectum, and breast. World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research concluded that the evidence justifies recommending avoidance of consuming any alcohol, even in small quantities. Despite being responsible for 3.8% of global deaths (2,255,000 deaths) and 4.6% of global disability-adjusted life years in 2004, alcohol consumption is increasing rapidly in China and Asia. Contrary to the World Health Assembly's call for global control action, Hong Kong has reduced wine and beer taxes to zero since 2008. An International Framework Convention on Alcohol Control is urgently needed. Increasing alcohol taxation and banning alcohol advertisement and promotion are among the most effective policies. PMID:20566555

  8. Detection of clandestine activities: a global approach

    The detection of clandestine activities is mainly a question of global approach, dealing with all the steps of the proliferation process. The detection of clandestine activities could be achieved adopting a four step global approach. First, you have to perfectly know the fuel and weapons cycles. Then, you have to be able to describe all the indicators and signatures of those cycles. Once those indicators are known, you need to detect them through the use of the right sensors that could be either technical sensors but also other 'sensors' like export control, visa control and other tools like bibliometry. When all information is available, there is a need for data mining and data fusion including also all open source information. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation

  9. Relations entre tectonique globale et déformations intraplaques Relations Between Global Tectonics and Intraplate

    Poulet M.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available C'est dans le domaine continental intraplaque que les applications de la tectonique globale intéressent le plus les géologues pétroliers mais c'est aussi dans ce domaine que sa réalité est la plus difficile à percevoir. Après un bref rappel des concepts de base de la tectonique globale et de la structure de la lithosphère, on fait le point des connaissances acquises à ce jour sur les principaux paramètres intervenant lors des déformations intraplaques - les déplacements absolus des plaques qui conditionnent les relations entre phénomènes profonds et déformations de surface ; - les hétérogénéités de la croûte terrestre qui introduisent des déséquilibres mécaniques - dissymétrie de structure des marges stables, - variations d'épaisseur et de composition chimique de la croûte continentale, - modifications des charges lithostatiques par sédimentation ou érosion. - les phénomènes thermiques qui n'apparaissent pas, sauf pour les marges stables, directement en relation avec la tectonique globale mais avec la géométrie de la lithosphère continentale mal connue à ce jour; - les forces motrices ou résistantes responsables du mouvement des plaques c'est en réalité l'étude des déformations actuelles qui doit permettre de tester la validité des mécanismes proposés par la tectonique globale. Ces mécanismes, une fois établis, permettront une meilleure compréhension des déformations passées affectant le sédimentaire dans la mesure où l'on tient compte des hétérogénéités anciennes du substratum. Après cet examen critique, on présente en conclusion un exemple concret, l'évolution structurale des grabens rhénans, évolution qui résulte de l'influence conjuguée des trois facteurs précédemment examinés : phénomènes thermiques, hétérogénéité de la croûte, mouvement des plaques. The intraplate continental realm is where the applications of global tectonics are of mostinterestta petroleum

  10. Relational Deployments Towards Cognitive Global Frames

    Rinaldo C. Michelini

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the globalisation complex and confused scenarios show that the industrialism cycle has arrived to an impasse; sustainable and long-lasting progress requests strong changeovers. The technology challenge needs solving the overpollution and over-consumption figures of the current industrialism: to that purpose the world ought to radically modify the political set-up moving to global village sustainable growth, ruled by ‹the force of the law› and turning to ‹hyperdemocracy›, to assuring balanced citizen/authority interplay.

  11. Born Global Firms: A Foreign Trade Related Study on Turkey

    Aytaç GÖKMEN

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available With the comprehensive advent in information and communication technologies and worldwide ease of transportation, the volume of international trade and business increased profoundly. Within this process, a Born Global Firm (BGF, right from its initiation, aims at creating competitive advantage by marketing a large volume of its products in various international markets by utilizing technological advances. Therefore, the rational behind the idea of BGF is to become an international firm in a short period of time and making international business affairs core of its business activities. Thus, the aim of this study is to review the concept of BGF theoretically and relate the issue to foreign trade affairs resting on significant sources related to the Turkish case mainly focusing on trade statistics as to review the potential development of BGFs in Turkey.

  12. Going global: Trust research and international relations

    Ruzicka, Jan; Keating, Vincent Charles

    2015-01-01

    In this review article we explore the growing body of literature on the subject of trust in the field of international relations. We argue that the international level represents a unique challenge for trust research. This is so because some of the most pressing problems facing the world today...... require the development of trusting relationships internationally. In addition, the international environment is structurally different from domestic or personal relations on which much of the trust literature has focused so far. We identify three main strands of trust literature in international...... relations – rationalist, social and psychological. We not only note the contributions these have made to understanding the role of trust internationally, but also highlight areas where more research is needed. Particularly, we argue that this includes theorising processes of trust...

  13. Going global: Trust research and international relations

    Ruzicka, Jan; Keating, Vincent Charles

    2015-01-01

    In this review article we explore the growing body of literature on the subject of trust in the field of international relations. We argue that the international level represents a unique challenge for trust research. This is so because some of the most pressing problems facing the world today...... require the development of trusting relationships internationally. In addition, the international environment is structurally different from domestic or personal relations on which much of the trust literature has focused so far. We identify three main strands of trust literature in international...... relations – rationalist, social and psychological. We not only note the contributions these have made to understanding the role of trust internationally, but also highlight areas where more research is needed. Particularly, we argue that this includes theorising processes of trust-building, the...

  14. Evidence for global runoff increase related to climate warming

    Labat, David; Goddéris, Yves; Probst, Jean-Luc; Guyot, Jean-Loup

    2004-01-01

    Ongoing global climatic change initiated by the anthropogenic release of carbon dioxide is a matter of intense debate. We focus both on the impact of these climatic changes on the global hydrological cycle and on the amplitude of the increase of global and continental runoff over the last century, in relation to measured temperature increases. In this contribution, we propose an original statistical wavelet-based method for the reconstruction of the monthly discharges of worldwide largest riv...

  15. Going global: Trust research and international relations

    Ruzicka, Jan; Keating, Vincent Charles

    2015-01-01

    In this review article we explore the growing body of literature on the subject of trust in the field of international relations. We argue that the international level represents a unique challenge for trust research. This is so because some of the most pressing problems facing the world today...

  16. The Global Society and Its Impact on Public Relations Theorizing

    Valentini, Chiara; Kruckeberg, Dean; Starck, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    This article contributes to the discussion on societal changes and their impact on communication disciplines by focusing on public relations and its role in contemporary global society. The thesis is that public relations profession has been affected by contemporary societal changes that challenge...... the existing body of knowledge and its underpinning theories. To understand the role of public relations in the 21st Century global societies and pursue future public relations theorizing, the authors argue it is paramount to comprehend which factors at macro, meso, and micro levels lie beneath the...... substantial changes in today’s global society. The article presents and reflects on four major macro trends of contemporary global society and concludes with suggestions for future directions for public relations scholarship and practice that are rooted in the concept of community and the idea of being part...

  17. Age-related decline in global form suppression

    Wiegand, Iris Michaela; Finke, Kathrin; Töllner, Thomas;

    2015-01-01

    Visual selection of illusory ‘Kanizsa’ figures, an assembly of local elements that induce the percept of a whole object, is facilitated relative to configurations composed of the same local elements that do not induce a global form – an instance of ‘global precedence’ in visual processing. Select...

  18. Bridging dynamic global sourcing relations with knowledge governance

    Jørgensen, Claus; Friis, Ole Uhrskov

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to explore how knowledge governance can be used for bridging global sourcing relations in the struggle to avoid the erosion of firm capabilities. The paper is based on longitudinal case studies of two Danish enterprises competing in the highly globalized textile industry....

  19. Understanding the relative importance of global dengue risk factors.

    Lowe, Rachel

    2015-10-01

    Dengue is a mosquito-transmitted viral infection of major international public health concern. Global environmental and socio-economic change has created ideal conditions for the global expansion of dengue transmission. Innovative modelling tools help in understanding the global determinants of dengue risk and the relative impact of environmental and socio-economic factors on dengue transmission and spread. While climatic factors may act as a limiting factor on the global scale, other processes may play a dominant role at the local level. Understanding the spatial scales at which environmental and socio-economic factors dominate can help to target appropriate dengue control and prevention strategies. PMID:26311416

  20. ‘REFLEXIVE’ GLOBALIZATION AND RECASTING GLOBALIZATION DEBATE IN INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

    KÜÇÜK, Assist. Prof. Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    This paper contends that globalization as framed and understood within the theoretical context of mainstream International Relations (IR) and International Political Economy (IPE) is largely incapacitated to reflect on contemporary changes in world politics and that the advent of ‘globalization debate’ in IR theory and IPE has been unrewarding. Nevertheless, rather than refuting globalization, this study redeems the concept by defining it in such a way that it is able to capture such changes ...

  1. Globfit: Consistently fitting primitives by discovering global relations

    Li, Yangyan

    2011-07-01

    Given a noisy and incomplete point set, we introduce a method that simultaneously recovers a set of locally fitted primitives along with their global mutual relations. We operate under the assumption that the data corresponds to a man-made engineering object consisting of basic primitives, possibly repeated and globally aligned under common relations. We introduce an algorithm to directly couple the local and global aspects of the problem. The local fit of the model is determined by how well the inferred model agrees to the observed data, while the global relations are iteratively learned and enforced through a constrained optimization. Starting with a set of initial RANSAC based locally fitted primitives, relations across the primitives such as orientation, placement, and equality are progressively learned and conformed to. In each stage, a set of feasible relations are extracted among the candidate relations, and then aligned to, while best fitting to the input data. The global coupling corrects the primitives obtained in the local RANSAC stage, and brings them to precise global alignment. We test the robustness of our algorithm on a range of synthesized and scanned data, with varying amounts of noise, outliers, and non-uniform sampling, and validate the results against ground truth, where available. © 2011 ACM.

  2. Stoichiometry of soil enzyme activity at global scale.

    Sinsabaugh, Robert L; Lauber, Christian L; Weintraub, Michael N; Ahmed, Bony; Allison, Steven D; Crenshaw, Chelsea; Contosta, Alexandra R; Cusack, Daniela; Frey, Serita; Gallo, Marcy E; Gartner, Tracy B; Hobbie, Sarah E; Holland, Keri; Keeler, Bonnie L; Powers, Jennifer S; Stursova, Martina; Takacs-Vesbach, Cristina; Waldrop, Mark P; Wallenstein, Matthew D; Zak, Donald R; Zeglin, Lydia H

    2008-11-01

    Extracellular enzymes are the proximate agents of organic matter decomposition and measures of these activities can be used as indicators of microbial nutrient demand. We conducted a global-scale meta-analysis of the seven-most widely measured soil enzyme activities, using data from 40 ecosystems. The activities of beta-1,4-glucosidase, cellobiohydrolase, beta-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminidase and phosphatase g(-1) soil increased with organic matter concentration; leucine aminopeptidase, phenol oxidase and peroxidase activities showed no relationship. All activities were significantly related to soil pH. Specific activities, i.e. activity g(-1) soil organic matter, also varied in relation to soil pH for all enzymes. Relationships with mean annual temperature (MAT) and precipitation (MAP) were generally weak. For hydrolases, ratios of specific C, N and P acquisition activities converged on 1 : 1 : 1 but across ecosystems, the ratio of C : P acquisition was inversely related to MAP and MAT while the ratio of C : N acquisition increased with MAP. Oxidative activities were more variable than hydrolytic activities and increased with soil pH. Our analyses indicate that the enzymatic potential for hydrolyzing the labile components of soil organic matter is tied to substrate availability, soil pH and the stoichiometry of microbial nutrient demand. The enzymatic potential for oxidizing the recalcitrant fractions of soil organic material, which is a proximate control on soil organic matter accumulation, is most strongly related to soil pH. These trends provide insight into the biogeochemical processes that create global patterns in ecological stoichiometry and organic matter storage. PMID:18823393

  3. Age-related decline in global form suppression.

    Wiegand, Iris; Finke, Kathrin; Töllner, Thomas; Starman, Kornelija; Müller, Hermann J; Conci, Markus

    2015-12-01

    Visual selection of illusory 'Kanizsa' figures, an assembly of local elements that induce the percept of a whole object, is facilitated relative to configurations composed of the same local elements that do not induce a global form--an instance of 'global precedence' in visual processing. Selective attention, i.e., the ability to focus on relevant and ignore irrelevant information, declines with increasing age; however, how this deficit affects selection of global vs. local configurations remains unknown. On this background, the present study examined for age-related differences in a global-local task requiring selection of either a 'global' Kanizsa- or a 'local' non-Kanizsa configuration (in the presence of the respectively other configuration) by analyzing event-related lateralizations (ERLs). Behaviorally, older participants showed a more pronounced global-precedence effect. Electrophysiologically, this effect was accompanied by an early (150-225 ms) 'positivity posterior contralateral' (PPC), which was elicited for older, but not younger, participants, when the target was a non-Kanizsa configuration and the Kanizsa figure a distractor (rather than vice versa). In addition, timing differences in the subsequent (250-500 ms) posterior contralateral negativity (PCN) indicated that attentional resources were allocated faster to Kanizsa, as compared to non-Kanizsa, targets in both age groups, while the allocation of spatial attention seemed to be generally delayed in older relative to younger age. Our results suggest that the enhanced global-local asymmetry in the older age group originated from less effective suppression of global distracter forms on early processing stages--indicative of older observers having difficulties with disengaging from a global default selection mode and switching to the required local state of attentional resolution. PMID:26498865

  4. Conclusions: sovereignty, globalization and the future of international relations

    Hough, Peter

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter you will learn about the following; • The legal and political meaning of sovereignty. • Rival perspectives on the significance of sovereignty in the contemporary world. • The idea of global civil society. • Competing theoretical predictions over whether the future of international relations will continue to be based on interactions between sovereign states or on some alternative form of global governance.

  5. Struggles Against Bilateral FTAs: Challenges for Transnational Global Justice Activism

    Aziz Choudry

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The past decade has seen major movements and mobilizations against the new crop of bilateral free trade and investment agreements being pursued by governments in the wake of the failure of global (World Trade Organization and regional (e.g. Free Trade Area of the Americas negotiations, and the defeat of an attempted Multilateral Agreement on Investment in the 1990s.  However, in spite of much scholarly, non-governmental organization (NGO and activist focus on transnational global justice activism, many of these movements, such as the major multi-sectoral popular struggle over the recently-concluded US-Korea Free Trade Agreement, are hardly acknowledged in North America and Europe.  With a shift in emphasis pushing liberalization and deregulation of trade and investment increasingly favouring lower-profile bilateral agreements, this article maps the resistance movements to these latest shifts in global free market capitalist relations and discusses the disconnect between these (mainly Southern struggles and dominant scholarly and NGO conceptions of global justice and the global justice movement as well as questions of knowledge production arising from these movements.

  6. Multi-Label Object Categorization Using Histograms of Global Relations

    Mustafa, Wail; Xiong, Hanchen; Kraft, Dirk;

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present an object categorization system capable of assigning multiple and related categories for novel objects using multi-label learning. In this system, objects are described using global geometric relations of 3D features. We propose using the Joint SVM method for learning and...

  7. Whales. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities.

    Jones, Claire

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  8. G8 global partnership. 2004-2005-2006 activity report

    The Global Partnership Against the Spread of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction was launched by the heads of state and government of the G8 at the G8 summit in Kananaskis in June 2002. Fourteen other countries have since joined this G8 initiative. The aim of this partnership is to 'prevent terrorists, or those who harbor them, from acquiring or developing nuclear, chemical radiological and biological weapons, missiles, and related materials, equipment and technology'. Within the framework of the Partnership, the participants have agreed to support cooperation projects, starting with Russia, to promote non-proliferation, disarmament, the fight against terrorism and nuclear safety. The destruction of chemical weapons, the dismantling of decommissioned nuclear submarines, the disposal of fissile materials and the employment of former weapons scientists are among the priority concerns expressed. Ukraine has also been a beneficiary of this partnership since 2004. The participants in this initiative have agreed to contribute up to 20 billion dollars (up to 750 million euros from France) to support these projects over a period of ten years from 2002. A group of experts from the G8 on the Global Partnership (the GPWG = Global Partnership Working Group) meets regularly and gives an account of the progress made with this initiative in its annual report to the G8. These annual reports are published at the G8 summits. This document is the 2004 to 2006 activity report of the G8 global partnership

  9. The Role of Volcanic Activity in Climate and Global Change

    Stenchikov, Georgiy L.

    2015-09-23

    Explosive volcanic eruptions are magnificent events that in many ways affect the Earth\\'s natural processes and climate. They cause sporadic perturbations of the planet\\'s energy balance, activating complex climate feedbacks and providing unique opportunities to better quantify those processes. We know that explosive eruptions cause cooling in the atmosphere for a few years, but we have just recently realized that volcanic signals can be seen in the subsurface ocean for decades. The volcanic forcing of the previous two centuries offsets the ocean heat uptake and diminishes global warming by about 30%. The explosive volcanism of the twenty-first century is unlikely to either cause any significant climate signal or to delay the pace of global warming. The recent interest in dynamic, microphysical, chemical, and climate impacts of volcanic eruptions is also excited by the fact that these impacts provide a natural analogue for climate geoengineering schemes involving deliberate development of an artificial aerosol layer in the lower stratosphere to counteract global warming. In this chapter we aim to discuss these recently discovered volcanic effects and specifically pay attention to how we can learn about the hidden Earth-system mechanisms activated by explosive volcanic eruptions. To demonstrate these effects we use our own model results when possible along with available observations, as well as review closely related recent publications.

  10. Improvement of global performance measures related to intangible assets

    Rodgers, Waymond; Housel, Thomas J.

    2006-01-01

    Global reporting practices will eventually change as the dominance of intangible assets is increasingly dominating organizations most valuable commodities. Yet, the general consensus seems to be that before any real progress can be made in the area of converging performance measures with financial information, the international standard setters need more active participation regarding the depiction of intangible assets metrics. This research article suggests that knowledge valu...

  11. Emotional Eruptions, Volcanic Activity and Global Mobilities

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2011-01-01

    The eruption of Iceland’s Eyjafjallajökull volcano in April 2010 set off a number of environmental, economic and cultural effects obstructing thousands of people in the midst of their global mobility flows. It halted, as well, the exchange of goods and commodities and exposed the vulnerability of...

  12. Geomagnetic activity and the global temperature

    Bucha, Václav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 4 (2009), s. 571-573. ISSN 0039-3169 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : global warming * Southern Oscillation * geomagnetic storms Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2009

  13. Masked emotional priming beyond global valence activations

    M. Rohr; J. Degner; D. Wentura

    2012-01-01

    An immense body of research demonstrates that emotional facial expressions can be processed unconsciously. However, it has been assumed that such processing takes place solely on a global valence-based level, allowing individuals to disentangle positive from negative emotions but not the specific em

  14. Global Opinion Theory and the English School of International Relations

    Rusciano Frank L.

    2010-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the English School of international relations theory, associated with the London School of Economics, approaches its subject from a different perspective than its American variants. This perception has endured into the post-Cold War era. Despite their countries special relationship, the American and English approaches are assumed to be separated by a common language, opposing assumptions, and divergent global interests.The following article challenges this percep...

  15. The Fundamental k-Form and Global Relations

    Anthony C.L. Ashton

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In [Proc. Roy. Soc. London Ser. A 453 (1997, no. 1962, 1411-1443] A.S. Fokas introduced a novel method for solving a large class of boundary value problems associated with evolution equations. This approach relies on the construction of a so-called global relation: an integral expression that couples initial and boundary data. The global relation can be found by constructing a differential form dependent on some spectral parameter, that is closed on the condition that a given partial differential equation is satisfied. Such a differential form is said to be fundamental [Quart. J. Mech. Appl. Math. 55 (2002, 457-479]. We give an algorithmic approach in constructing a fundamental k-form associated with a given boundary value problem, and address issues of uniqueness. Also, we extend a result of Fokas and Zyskin to give an integral representation to the solution of a class of boundary value problems, in an arbitrary number of dimensions. We present an extended example using these results in which we construct a global relation for the linearised Navier-Stokes equations.

  16. Molecular Hydrogen and Global Star Formation Relations in Galaxies

    Robertson, Brant

    2007-01-01

    (ABRIDGED) We use hydrodynamical simulations of disk galaxies to study relations between star formation and properties of the molecular interstellar medium (ISM). We implement a model for the ISM that includes low-temperature (T~4 for small dwarf galaxies. We show that deviations from the disk-averaged Sigma_SFR \\propto Sigma_gas^1.4 correlation determined by Kennicutt (1998) owe primarily to spatial trends in the molecular fraction f_H2 and may explain observed deviations from the global Schmidt-Kennicutt relation.

  17. Transnational activism and free trade: Exploring the emancipatory potentials of global civil society

    Del Felice, M.C.

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the alleged emancipatory potential of global civil society as regards transnational activism to promote fair trade. It examines the case of transnational activism on European Free Trade Agreements, with illustrations from the Stop EPAs campaign and activism relating to the nego

  18. Global design of an active integrated antenna for millimeter wave

    Marzolf, Eric; Drissi, M’hamed

    2001-01-01

    An active integrated antenna working in the millimeter wave has been realized in a monolithic process. The concept of active integrated antenna is first introduced, then the design of the integrated circuit based on a global approach, following electromagnetic and circuit simulations, is presented. The obtained performances of the active antenna are discussed and compared to a passive one.

  19. Response of global lightning activity to air temperature variation

    MA Ming; TAO Shanchang; ZHU Baoyou; L(U) Weitao; TAN Yongbo

    2005-01-01

    It is an issue of great attention but yet not very clear whether lightning activities increase or decrease on a warmer world. Reeve et al. presented that lightning activities in global land and the Northern Hemisphere land have positive response to the increase of wet bulb temperature at 1000hPa. Is this positive response restricted only to wet bulb temperature or in land? What is the response of global lightning activities (in both land and ocean) to the global surface air temperature variation like? This paper, based on the 5-year or 8-year OTD/LIS satellite-based lightning detecting data and the NCEP reanalysis data, makes a reanalysis of the response of the global and regional lightning activities to temperature variations. The results show that on the interannual time scale the global total flash rate has positive response to the variation in global surface air temperature, with the sensitivity of 17±7% K-1. Also, the seasonal mean flash rate of continents all over the world and that of continents in the Northern Hemisphere have sensitive positive response to increase of global surface air temperature and wet bulb temperature, with the sensitivity of about 13±5% K-1, a bit lower than estimation of 40% K-1 in Reeve et al. However, the Southern Hemisphere and other areas like the tropics show no significant correlation.

  20. Global hydrobelts: improved reporting scale for water-related issues?

    M. Meybeck

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Questions related to water such as its availability, water needs or stress, or management, are mapped at various resolutions at the global scale. They are reported at many scales, mostly along political or continental boundaries. As such, they ignore the fundamental heterogeneity of the hydroclimate and the natural boundaries of the river basins. Here, we describe the continental landmasses according to eight global-scale hydrobelts strictly limited by river basins, defined at a 30′ (0.5° resolution. The belts were defined and delineated, based primarily on the annual average temperature (T and runoff (q, to maximise interbelt differences and minimise intrabelt variability. The belts were further divided into 29 hydroregions based on continental limits.

    This new global puzzle defines homogeneous and near-contiguous entities with similar hydrological and thermal regimes, glacial and postglacial basin histories, endorheism distribution and sensitivity to climate variations. The Mid-Latitude, Dry and Subtropical belts have northern and southern analogues and a general symmetry can be observed for T and q between them. The Boreal and Equatorial belts are unique. The hydroregions (median size 4.7 Mkm2 contrast strongly, with the average q ranging between 6 and 1393 mm yr−1 and the average T between −9.7 and +26.3 °C.

    Unlike the hydroclimate, the population density between the North and South belts and between the continents varies greatly, resulting in pronounced differences between the belts with analogues in both hemispheres. The population density ranges from 0.7 to 0.8 p km−2 for the North American Boreal and some Australian hydroregions to 280 p km−2 for the Asian part of the Northern Mid-Latitude belt. The combination of population densities and hydroclimate features results in very specific expressions of water-related

  1. Assessing global vegetation activity using spatio-temporal Bayesian modelling

    Mulder, Vera L.; van Eck, Christel M.; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Regnier, Pierre A. G.

    2016-04-01

    This work demonstrates the potential of modelling vegetation activity using a hierarchical Bayesian spatio-temporal model. This approach allows modelling changes in vegetation and climate simultaneous in space and time. Changes of vegetation activity such as phenology are modelled as a dynamic process depending on climate variability in both space and time. Additionally, differences in observed vegetation status can be contributed to other abiotic ecosystem properties, e.g. soil and terrain properties. Although these properties do not change in time, they do change in space and may provide valuable information in addition to the climate dynamics. The spatio-temporal Bayesian models were calibrated at a regional scale because the local trends in space and time can be better captured by the model. The regional subsets were defined according to the SREX segmentation, as defined by the IPCC. Each region is considered being relatively homogeneous in terms of large-scale climate and biomes, still capturing small-scale (grid-cell level) variability. Modelling within these regions is hence expected to be less uncertain due to the absence of these large-scale patterns, compared to a global approach. This overall modelling approach allows the comparison of model behavior for the different regions and may provide insights on the main dynamic processes driving the interaction between vegetation and climate within different regions. The data employed in this study encompasses the global datasets for soil properties (SoilGrids), terrain properties (Global Relief Model based on SRTM DEM and ETOPO), monthly time series of satellite-derived vegetation indices (GIMMS NDVI3g) and climate variables (Princeton Meteorological Forcing Dataset). The findings proved the potential of a spatio-temporal Bayesian modelling approach for assessing vegetation dynamics, at a regional scale. The observed interrelationships of the employed data and the different spatial and temporal trends support

  2. Dynamic Activity-Related Incentives for Physical Activity.

    Schüler, Julia; Brunner, Sibylle

    2012-01-01

    The present studies adopted the theoretical framework of activity- and purpose-related incentives (Rheinberg, 2008) to explain the maintenance of physical activity. We hypothesized that activity-related incentives (e.g., “fun”) increase more than purpose-related incentives (e.g., “health”) between the initiation and maintenance phase of physical activity. Additionally, change in activity-related incentives was hypothesized to be a better predictor of maintenance of physical activity than chan...

  3. Dynamic activity-related incentives for physical activity

    2012-01-01

    The present studies adopted the theoretical framework of activity- and purpose-related incentives (Rheinberg, 2008) to explain the maintenance of physical activity. We hypothesized that activity-related incentives (e.g., “fun”) increase more than purpose-related incentives (e.g., “health”) between the initiation and maintenance phase of physical activity. Additionally, change in activity-related incentives was hypothesized to be a better predictor of maintenance of physical activity than chan...

  4. Global emissions and models of photochemically active compounds

    Anthropogenic emissions from industrial activity, fossil fuel combustion, and biomass burning are now known to be large enough (relative to natural sources) to perturb the chemistry of vast regions of the troposphere. A goal of the IGAC Global Emissions Inventory Activity (GEIA) is to provide authoritative and reliable emissions inventories on a 1 degree x 1 degree grid. When combined with atmospheric photochemical models, these high quality emissions inventories may be used to predict the concentrations of major photochemical products. Comparison of model results with measurements of pertinent species allows us to understand whether there are major shortcomings in our understanding of tropospheric photochemistry, the budgets and transport of trace species, and their effects in the atmosphere. Through this activity, we are building the capability to make confident predictions of the future consequences of anthropogenic emissions. This paper compares IGAC recommended emissions inventories for reactive nitrogen and sulfur dioxide to those that have been in use previously. We also present results from the three-dimensional LLNL atmospheric chemistry model that show how emissions of anthropogenic nitrogen oxides might potentially affect tropospheric ozone and OH concentrations and how emissions of anthropogenic sulfur increase sulfate aerosol loadings

  5. International global atmospheric chemistry (IGAC) program global emissions inventory activity (GEIA). Proceedings of the IGAC/GEIA workshop on global emission inventory

    Pacyna, J.M. [Norwegian Inst. for Air Research, Lillestroem (Norway); Graedel, T.E. [AT and T Bell Labs., Murray Hill, NJ (United States)

    1992-10-01

    In accordance with the work plan of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program (IGBP)/International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) Global Emission Inventory was organized by the GEIA Secretariat and the Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU). The workshop was attended by 34 participants from 9 countries and 3 international organizations. The overall goals of the workshop were to review the progress of work within individual GEIA projects and to plan further activity, as well as to discuss new projects. Major focus was placed on projects related to emissions of acidic components, such as SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}, and other nitrogen compounds, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs)

  6. Low-latitude coronal holes, decaying active regions and global coronal magnetic structure

    Petrie, Gordon

    2013-01-01

    We study the relationship between decaying active region magnetic fields, coronal holes and the global coronal magnetic structure using Global Oscillations Network Group (GONG) synoptic magnetograms, Solar Terrestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO) extreme ultra-violet (EUV) synoptic maps and coronal potential-field source-surface (PFSS) models. We analyze 14 decaying regions and associated coronal holes occurring between early 2007 and late 2010, four from cycle 23 and 10 from cycle 24. We investigate the relationship between asymmetries in active regions' positive and negative magnetic intensities, asymmetric magnetic decay rates, flux imbalances, global field structure and coronal hole formation. Whereas new emerging active regions caused changes in the large-scale coronal field, the coronal fields of the 14 decaying active regions only opened under the condition that the global coronal structure remained almost unchanged. This was because the dominant slowly-varying, low-order multipoles prevented opposin...

  7. Global estimation of burned area using MODIS active fire observations

    GIGLIO, L.; G. R. van der Werf; J. T. Randerson; Collatz, G. J.; Kasibhatla, P.

    2006-01-01

    We present a method for estimating monthly burned area globally at 1° spatial resolution using Terra MODIS data and ancillary vegetation cover information. Using regression trees constructed for 14 different global regions, MODIS active fire observations were calibrated to ''true'' burned area estimates derived from 500-m MODIS imagery based on the conventional assumption that burned area is proportional to counts of fire pixels. Unlike earlier methods, we...

  8. EDA activities related to safety

    This article reviews the accomplishments in ITER safety analysis during the course of the Engineering Design Activities (EDA). The key aspects of ITER safety analysis are: effluents and emissions from normal operation, including planned maintenance activities; occupational safety for workers at the facility; radioactive materials and wastes generated during operation and from decommissioning ; potential incidents and accidents and the resulting transients. As a result of the work during the EDA it is concluded that ITER is safe

  9. The Relation Between Global Migration and Trade Networks

    Sgrignoli, Paolo; Schiavo, Stefano; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we develop a methodology to analyze and compare multiple global networks. We focus our analysis on the relation between human migration and trade. First, we identify the subset of products for which the presence of a community of migrants significantly increases trade intensity. To assure comparability across networks, we apply a hypergeometric filter to identify links for which migration and trade intensity are both significantly higher than expected. Next we develop an econometric methodology, inspired by spatial econometrics, to measure the effect of migration on international trade while controlling for network interdependencies. Overall, we find that migration significantly boosts trade across sectors and we are able to identify product categories for which this effect is particularly strong.

  10. Born Globals and Active Online Internationalization : A closer look on the effects of active online internationalization for Swedish Born Globals

    Jallow, Antouman; Abraha, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Research pertaining to the role of active online internationalization (AOI) in the context of Born Globals has been shown to be an under-researched area of study. This compelled us to explore the possible benefits and challenges that may come from pursuing AOI for Swedish Born Globals. Our theoretical framework combined literature concerning Born Globals and their rapid internationalization with the notion of learning advantages of newness and literature regarding AOI into a theoretical model...

  11. The Globalization of Value chain activities, Knowledge dynamics, and Innovation

    Park, Eunkyung

    Firms are increasingly relocating diverse activities in the value chain abroad to reap the locational advantage available in other countries. One of the issues raised in this context is that, as global operations can function as channels for knowledge flows, the involved firms and locations may...... involved regions and countries. The purpose of this thesis is to study these issues with a broad research question, “What implications does the globalization of value chain activities have on innovation in firms and locations?” Four articles and a case study included in the thesis present empirical results...

  12. Public relations activities in BNFL

    Phillips, B. [British Nuclear Fuels plc, Cheshire (United Kingdom)

    1993-12-31

    British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) is a major industrial company employing 15,000 people and supporting another 50,000 jobs in British industry through it`s isnvestment program. BNFL is frequently in the news, mainly because of the Sellafield reprocessing plant in West Cumbria. The company`s public relation policy is described in this report.

  13. Patterns of Activity in a Global Model of a Solar Active Region

    Bradshaw, S. J.; Viall, N. M.

    2016-04-01

    In this work we investigate the global activity patterns predicted from a model active region heated by distributions of nanoflares that have a range of frequencies. What differs is the average frequency of the distributions. The activity patterns are manifested in time lag maps of narrow-band instrument channel pairs. We combine hydrodynamic and forward modeling codes with a magnetic field extrapolation to create a model active region and apply the time lag method to synthetic observations. Our aim is not to reproduce a particular set of observations in detail, but to recover some typical properties and patterns observed in active regions. Our key findings are the following. (1) Cooling dominates the time lag signature and the time lags between the channel pairs are generally consistent with observed values. (2) Shorter coronal loops in the core cool more quickly than longer loops at the periphery. (3) All channel pairs show zero time lag when the line of sight passes through coronal loop footpoints. (4) There is strong evidence that plasma must be re-energized on a timescale comparable to the cooling timescale to reproduce the observed coronal activity, but it is likely that a relatively broad spectrum of heating frequencies are operating across active regions. (5) Due to their highly dynamic nature, we find nanoflare trains produce zero time lags along entire flux tubes in our model active region that are seen between the same channel pairs in observed active regions.

  14. Global analysis of small molecule binding to related protein targets.

    Felix A Kruger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on the integration of pharmacological data and homology information for a large scale analysis of small molecule binding to related targets. Differences in small molecule binding have been assessed for curated pairs of human to rat orthologs and also for recently diverged human paralogs. Our analysis shows that in general, small molecule binding is conserved for pairs of human to rat orthologs. Using statistical tests, we identified a small number of cases where small molecule binding is different between human and rat, some of which had previously been reported in the literature. Knowledge of species specific pharmacology can be advantageous for drug discovery, where rats are frequently used as a model system. For human paralogs, we demonstrate a global correlation between sequence identity and the binding of small molecules with equivalent affinity. Our findings provide an initial general model relating small molecule binding and sequence divergence, containing the foundations for a general model to anticipate and predict within-target-family selectivity.

  15. Public Relations as Promotional Activity

    Almira CURRI-MEMETI

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Public relations give opportunity to the organization to present its image and personality to its own “public”- users, supporters, sponsors, donors, local community and other public.It is about transferring the message to the public, but that is a twoway street. You must communicate with your public, but at the same time you must give opportunity to the public to communicate easier with you. The real public relations include dialog – you should listen to the others, to see things through their perspective. This elaborate is made with the purpose to be useful for every organization, not for the sensational promotion of its achievements, but to become more critical towards its work. Seeing the organization in the way that the other see it, you can become better and sure that you are giving to your users the best service possible.

  16. From Apathy to Action : Promoting Active Citizenship and Global Responsibility Amongst Populations in the Global North

    Wilson, Erin

    2010-01-01

    Efforts to address social and global problems such as poverty, mass hunger and mass-atrocity crimes are hindered significantly by apathy and low levels of active civil and political engagement amongst populations in developed countries. Social change non-government organisations (NGOs), such as Oxfa

  17. The global existence problem and cosmic censorship in general relativity

    Two global existence conjectures for the Einstein equations are formulated and their relevance to the cosmic censorship conjecture discussed. It is argued that the reformulation of the cosmic censorship conjecture as a global existence problem renders it more amenable to direct analytical attack. To demonstrate the facility of this approach the cosmological version of the global existence conjecture is proved for the Gowdy spacetimes on T3 X R. (author)

  18. Public relations activities at JAPC

    The Japan Atomic Power Company (JAPC) is the only electric power company in Japan solely engaged in nuclear energy. In order to fulfill our role as a pioneer in nuclear power generation, various projects have been undertaken, including the construction of the first commercial nuclear power plant in Japan and the construction, operation and decommissioning of power plants in Tokaimura in Ibaraki prefecture and in Tsuruga city in Fukui prefecture. JAPC is an electric nuclear power generation company which sells electricity directly to the electric companies. Since JAPC doesn't have retail customers, it has limited opportunities to come in contact with local residents. It is essential to gain the confidence and understanding of nuclear power by local residents in order to promote our projects and to manage our nuclear power plants. Under these circumstances, JAPC has steadily developed public relations in local areas and surrounding neighborhoods through an action policy of two-way communication. In this presentation, the two-way communication public relations policy will be explained. I would like to describe the achievements of the two-way communication policy by referring to the results of public opinion surveys conducted in Ibaraki and Fukui prefectures. (author)

  19. Activating Digital-Media-Global Literacies and Learning

    Jacobs, Heidi Hayes

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author states: "It doesn't matter how many computer-related devices we have in school, what matters is how we employ technology toward a large learning goal, toward a new vision of education." She continues, "When I suggest the cultivation and integration of digital, media, and global literacies, I do so…

  20. Record Of Both Tectonic Related Vertical Motions and Global Sea Level Rise by Marine Terraces along an Active Arc Volcano. Example of Basse-Terre, Lesser Antilles (French West-Indies).

    Fabre, M.; Moysan, M.; Graindorge, D.; Jean-Frederic, L.; Philippon, M. M.; Marcaillou, B.; Léticée, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    Volcano-tectonic history of the Caribbean plate provides direct insight onto the dynamic of the North American Plate westward subduction. Basse-Terre Island is a volcanic chain that belongs to the Lesser Antilles active volcanic arc with a southward decreasing age of volcanism from 3 Ma to present day.We investigate records of vertical motion along Basse-Terre through a morphostructural analysis of the Pleistocene-Holocene shallow-water carbonate platforms and associated terraces that surround Basse-Terre Island. This study is based on new high-resolution bathymetric and dense seismic data acquired during the GEOTREF oceanographic survey (2015, February). Our bathymetric and topographic Digital Terrain Model together with the "Litto3D" Lidar data (IGN/SHOM) images the island topography and the platform bathymetry to a depth of 200m with horizontal and vertical resolutions of 5m and ~cm respectively. This detailed study highlights the morphostructure of terraces built during the last transgression in order to identify and quantify their vertical motions. We analyze inherited morphology and structures of the forearc that affect the platform to discuss effects of the regional tectonics context. A particular emphasis is put on the influence of the NW-SE arc parallel transtensive Montserrat-Bouillante fault system onto the platform geometry. At last, the distribution of Basse-Terre terraces is compared with terraces distribution around other Lesser Antilles island and the Bahamas stable margin platform. We aim at discriminating the influence of the Pleistocene global sea-level rise from the one of tectonic vertical deformations.

  1. Sequential Reinstatement of Neocortical Activity during Slow Oscillations Depends on Cells’ Global Activity

    Peyrache, Adrien; Benchenane, Karim; Khamassi, Mehdi; Wiener, Sidney I.; Battaglia, Francesco P.

    2009-01-01

    During Slow Wave Sleep (SWS), cortical activity is dominated by endogenous processes modulated by slow oscillations (0.1–1 Hz): cell ensembles fluctuate between states of sustained activity (UP states) and silent epochs (DOWN states). We investigate here the temporal structure of ensemble activity during UP states by means of multiple single unit recordings in the prefrontal cortex of naturally sleeping rats. As previously shown, the firing rate of each PFC cell peaks at a distinct time lag after the DOWN/UP transition in a consistent order. We show here that, conversely, the latency of the first spike after the UP state onset depends primarily on the session-averaged firing rates of cells (which can be considered as an indirect measure of their intrinsic excitability). This latency can be explained by a simple homogeneous process (Poisson model) of cell firing, with sleep averaged firing rates employed as parameters. Thus, at DOWN/UP transitions, neurons are affected both by a slow process, possibly originating in the cortical network, modulating the time course of firing for each cell, and by a fast, relatively stereotyped reinstatement of activity, related mostly to global activity levels. PMID:20130754

  2. Global spatial ecology of three closely-related gadfly petrels

    Ramos, Raül; Ramírez, Iván; Paiva, Vitor H.; Militão, Teresa; Biscoito, Manuel; Menezes, Dília; Phillips, Richard A.; Zino, Francis; González-Solís, Jacob

    2016-03-01

    The conservation status and taxonomy of the three gadfly petrels that breed in Macaronesia is still discussed partly due to the scarce information on their spatial ecology. Using geolocator and capture-mark-recapture data, we examined phenology, natal philopatry and breeding-site fidelity, year-round distribution, habitat usage and at-sea activity of the three closely-related gadfly petrels that breed in Macaronesia: Zino’s petrel Pterodroma madeira, Desertas petrel P. deserta and Cape Verde petrel P. feae. All P. feae remained around the breeding area during their non-breeding season, whereas P. madeira and P. deserta dispersed far from their colony, migrating either to the Cape Verde region, further south to equatorial waters in the central Atlantic, or to the Brazil Current. The three taxa displayed a clear allochrony in timing of breeding. Habitat modelling and at-sea activity patterns highlighted similar environmental preferences and foraging behaviours of the three taxa. Finally, no chick or adult was recaptured away from its natal site and survival estimates were relatively high at all study sites, indicating strong philopatry and breeding-site fidelity for the three taxa. The combination of high philopatry, marked breeding asynchrony and substantial spatio-temporal segregation of their year-round distribution suggest very limited gene flow among the three taxa.

  3. Global burden of human papillomavirus and related diseases.

    Forman, David; de Martel, Catherine; Lacey, Charles J; Soerjomataram, Isabelle; Lortet-Tieulent, Joannie; Bruni, Laia; Vignat, Jerome; Ferlay, Jacques; Bray, Freddie; Plummer, Martyn; Franceschi, Silvia

    2012-11-20

    consistently declining by approximately 2% per annum. There is, however, a lack of information from low HDI countries where screening is less likely to have been successfully implemented. Estimates of the projected incidence of cervical cancer in 2030, based solely on demographic factors, indicate a 2% increase in the global burden of cervical cancer, i.e., in balance with the current rate of decline. Due to the relative small numbers involved, it is difficult to discern temporal trends for the other cancers associated with HPV infection. Genital warts represent a sexually transmitted benign condition caused by HPV infection, especially HPV6 and HPV11. Reliable surveillance figures are difficult to obtain but data from developed countries indicate an annual incidence of 0.1 to 0.2% with a peak occurring at teenage and young adult ages. This article forms part of a special supplement entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases" Vaccine Volume 30, Supplement 5, 2012. PMID:23199955

  4. Global scale ionospheric irregularities associated with thunderstorm activity

    Pulinets, S A

    2002-01-01

    The potential difference near 280 kV exists between ground and ionosphere. This potential difference is generated by thunderstorm discharges all over the world, and return current closes the circuit in the areas of fair weather (so-called fair weather current). The model calculations and experimental measurements clearly demonstrate non-uniform latitude-longitude distribution of electric field within the atmosphere. The recent calculations show that the strong large scale vertical atmospheric electric field can penetrate into the ionosphere and create large scale irregularities of the electron concentration. To check this the global distributions of thunderstorm activity obtained with the satellite monitoring for different seasons were compared with the global distributions of ionosphere critical frequency (which is equivalent to peak electron concentration) obtained with the help of satellite topside sounding. The similarity of the obtained global distributions clearly demonstrates the effects of thunderstor...

  5. Global scale ionospheric irregularities associated with thunderstorm activity

    The potential difference near 280 kV exists between ground and ionosphere. This potential difference is generated by thunderstorm discharges all over the world, and return current closes the circuit in the areas of fair weather (so-called fair weather current). The model calculations and experimental measurements clearly demonstrate non-uniform latitude-longitude distribution of electric field within the atmosphere. The recent calculations show that the strong large scale vertical atmospheric electric field can penetrate into the ionosphere and create large scale irregularities of the electron concentration. To check this the global distributions of thunderstorm activity obtained with the satellite monitoring for different seasons were compared with the global distributions of ionosphere critical frequency (which is equivalent to peak electron concentration) obtained with the help of satellite topside sounding. The similarity of the obtained global distributions clearly demonstrates the effects of thunderstorm electric fields onto the Earth's ionosphere. (author)

  6. Constructing Global Production Activity Indices: The Chemical Industry

    Saswati Mahapatra; Thomas K Swift

    2012-01-01

    This article first presents the challenges involved in constructing consistent, timely, and reliable short-term measures of national, regional, and global industry activity. The chemical industry is used as a case study. Second, this article presents the comparison of the movement or fluctuations in industrial production indices and chemical production indices that aid in determining if production in the chemical industry can be used as a proxy for total production in an economy. The American...

  7. Using Game Theory to Qualitatively Analyze Global Relations

    Tacosa, Corliss A.; Cuper, Taryn

    2010-01-01

    As the world becomes smaller, the importance of global education increases. Technological advancements have made news instantaneous. The advent of the Internet has made contact with another part of the world just a click away. Such achievements have put pressure on educational institutions to prepare students for the global community in which they already live. !ey must not only e taug about the world and the interactions among countries, but also, how the decIsions are made which facilltae. these interactions and what factors might contribute to the chain reactions which might erupt from such declsl?n. It is critical that students learn the skills of decision-making and analysis in order to be able to operate Within a world where threats and crises abound. As tomorrow's leaders, today's students must be exposed to the global world and its mechanisms and learn the tools to navigate within it.

  8. Characteristics and laws of MODS coupling relation in arid zone under global change

    WANG Ranghui; ZHANG Huizhi; HUANG Qing

    2006-01-01

    Global change has influenced the distribution pattern and spatio-temporal changes of resources in arid zone, and has restrained the land use and land cover change, which is shown by water-heat state, landscape structure, climate effect, and human activities. The above-mentioned characteristics have a close coupling relation with the mountain-oasisdesert system (MODS). The climate in Central Asia arid zone is warm and wet, which is different from that in northern China which takes a tendency of aridity, and the mechanism has restricted the characteristics and laws of MODS. Systematic interface characteristics and process, especially the formation,transformation and consumption laws of water resource reflect directly MODS's response to global change in arid zone. Spatio-temporal pattern, dynamic change, scale change and coupling mode of MODS reflect the ecology mechanism between the systems and within the systems.

  9. Global synchronization of two Ghostburster neurons via active control

    Sun Li [School of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Wang Jiang [School of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)], E-mail: jiangwang@tju.edu.cn; Deng Bin [School of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2009-05-15

    In this paper, active control law is derived and applied to control and synchronize two unidirectional coupled Ghostburster neurons under external electrical stimulation. Firstly, the dynamical behavior of the nonlinear Ghostburster model responding to various external electrical stimulations is studied. Then, using the results of the analysis, the active control strategy is designed for global synchronization of the two unidirectional coupled neurons and stabilizing the chaotic bursting trajectory of the slave system to desired tonic firing of the master system. Numerical simulations demonstrate the validity and feasibility of the proposed method.

  10. Global Activism: Dawn of a Trans-state Citizen.

    De la Torre-Oropeza V.

    2010-01-01

    This report focuses on presenting new shade transnational networks, organizations and social movements of the past fifteen years. In particular concerns incidence of those who make up these new forms of citizen mobilization across state borders. The article highlights the work of transnational activists in the promotion of ideas, values, principles and standards, in defense of issues directly related to human experience. Global or transnational activists are a factor in transforming the ideas...

  11. College Students' Misconceptions of Environmental Issues Related to Global Warming.

    Groves, Fred H.; Pugh, Ava F.

    Students are currently exposed to world environmental problems--including global warming and the greenhouse effect--in science classes at various points during their K-12 and college experience. However, the amount and depth of explosure to these issues can be quite variable. Students are also exposed to sources of misinformation leading to…

  12. Phase relation between global temperature and atmospheric carbon dioxide

    Stallinga, Peter; Khmelinskii, Igor

    2013-01-01

    The primary ingredient of Anthropogenic Global Warming hypothesis is the assumption that atmospheric carbon dioxide variations are the cause for temperature variations. In this paper we discuss this assumption and analyze it on basis of bi-centenary measurements and using a relaxation model which causes phase shifts and delays.

  13. Linking subsistence activities to global marketing systems: the role of institutions

    Kolk, A.

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to improve the understanding of how micro-level subsistence activities might be related to higher-level phenomena to increase the well-being of individuals and communities in contexts characterized by institutional gaps. Using coffee as illustrative case, it explores the link between local entrepreneurial activities in developing countries and global marketing systems, with specific attention to the role of institutions. In this way, the article also sheds some light on broa...

  14. US/Japan workshop on mitigation and adaptation technologies related to global climate change

    Bernthal, F.M.

    1993-12-31

    It is a great pleasure for me to have the honor of delivering the keynote address for this important gathering, an honor enhanced further because of the many activities and historic relationships represented by this workshop. First of all, it represents the spirit of continuing cooperation and good relations between the United States and Japan. With the aid of the framework provided by the U.S./Japan Science and Technology Agreement, our two nations can come together to address a problem that has no national boundaries {hor_ellipsis} and we can think about solutions of potential benefit to all citizens of the global community. This workshop also symbolizes the spirit of cooperation so characteristic of the conduct of research in science and technology -- cooperation between us as individual scientists and engineers, between the various institutions we represent, and across our diverse disciplines. This workshop is only the second of its kind. The first US/Japan Workshop on global climate change was held last year in Japan. That workshop focused on cooperative scientific research in the United States and Japan. Out of it came a general agreement to continue collaborative work and to extend cooperation into the area of global change-related technologies, in particular those technologies that hold promise for mitigation and adaptation.

  15. Global assessment of deforestation related to tobacco farming

    Geist, H.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To assess the global amount of forest and woodland consumed annually for curing tobacco between 1990 and 1995; to estimate tobacco's share in total deforestation; to rank tobacco-growing countries by the degree of impact of tobacco deforestation; and to indicate environmental criticality emerging from tobacco's impact on forest resources. 
DESIGN—Production of country-specific estimates of forests/woodlands needed and depleted on the basis of growing stock/increment of woody biomas...

  16. Global projects and Astronomy awareness activities in Nepal

    Gautam, Suman

    2015-08-01

    Modern astronomy is a crowning achievement of human civilization which inspires teenagers to choose career in science and technology and is a stable of adult education. It is a unique and cost effective tool for furthering sustainable global development because of its technological, scientific and cultural dimensions which allow us to reach with the large portion of the community interact with children and inspire with our wonderful cosmos.Using astronomy to stimulate quality and inspiring education for disadvantaged children is an important goal of Nepal Astronomical Society (NASO) since its inception. NASO is carrying out various awareness activities on its own and in collaboration with national and international organizations like Central Department of Physics Tribhuvan University (TU), International astronomical Union (IAU), Department of Physics Prithvi Narayan Campus Pokhara, Nepal academy of science and technology (NAST), Global Hands on Universe (GHOU), EU- UNAWE and Pokhara Astronomical Society (PAS) to disseminate those activities for the school children and teachers in Nepal. Our experiences working with kids, students, teachers and public in the field of universe Awareness Activities for the school children to minimize the abstruse concept of astronomy through some practical approach and the project like Astronomy for the visually impaired students, Galileo Teacher Training program and International School for young astronomers (ISYA) outskirts will be explained which is believed to play vital role in promoting astronomy and space science activities in Nepal.

  17. Understanding climate change and farming: scientific and farmers' constructions of 'global warming' in relation to agriculture

    L Holloway

    1999-01-01

    The construction and translation of 'global warming' in relation to agriculture is discussed. Scientific construction of global warming as an issue is examined in relation to farmers' understanding of scientific discourse and their translation of that understanding through lay knowledge of their own locally specific experiences and contexts. The author demonstrates that scientific researchers construct environmental issues such as global warming in ways which effectively, if unintentionally, ...

  18. Active listening in medical consultations: development of the Active Listening Observation Scale (ALOS-global).

    Fassaert, T.; van Dulmen, S.; Schellevis, F.; BENSING, J

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Active listening is a prerequisite for a successful healthcare encounter, bearing potential therapeutic value especially in clinical situations that require no specific medical intervention. Although generally acknowledged as such, active listening has not been studied in depth. This paper describes the development of the Active Listening Observation Scale (ALOS-global), an observation instrument measuring active listening and its validation in a sample of general practice consulta...

  19. Global Positioning System Synchronized Active Light Autonomous Docking System

    Howard, Richard T. (Inventor); Book, Michael L. (Inventor); Bryan, Thomas C. (Inventor); Bell, Joseph L. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A Global Positioning System Synchronized Active Light Autonomous Docking System (GPSSALADS) for automatically docking a chase vehicle with a target vehicle comprising at least one active light emitting target which is operatively attached to the target vehicle. The target includes a three-dimensional array of concomitantly flashing lights which flash at a controlled common frequency. The GPSSALADS further comprises a visual tracking sensor operatively attached to the chase vehicle for detecting and tracking the target vehicle. Its performance is synchronized with the flash frequency of the lights by a synchronization means which is comprised of first and second internal clocks operatively connected to the active light target and visual tracking sensor, respectively, for providing timing control signals thereto, respectively. The synchronization means further includes first and second Global Positioning System receivers operatively connected to the first and second internal clocks, respectively, for repeatedly providing simultaneous synchronization pulses to the internal clocks, respectively. In addition, the GPSSALADS includes a docking process controller means which is operatively attached to the chase vehicle and is responsive to the visual tracking sensor for producing commands for the guidance and propulsion system of the chase vehicle.

  20. Global and photospheric physical parameters of active dwarf stars

    Physical parameters (temperature, luminosity, radius, mass and chemical abundance) of the photospheres of red dwarf flare stars and spotted stars are determined for quiescent conditions. The interrelations between these quantities are compared to the results of theoretical investigation for low mass stars. The evolutionary state of flare stars is discussed. Observational results from spectroscopic and photometric methods to determine the rotation of active dwarfs are reviewed. The possibilities of global oscillations in dwarf stars are considered and preliminary results of a photometric search for oscillation in red dwarf luminosities are presented. (orig.)

  1. Global gray water footprint and water pollution levels related to anthropogenic nitrogen loads to fresh water

    Mesfin M Mekonnen; Hoekstra, Arjen Y

    2015-01-01

    This is the first global assessment of nitrogen-related water pollution in river basins with a specification of the pollution by economic sector, and by crop for the agricultural sector. At a spatial resolution of 5 by 5 arc minute, we estimate anthropogenic nitrogen (N) loads to freshwater, calculate the resultant gray water footprints (GWFs), and relate the GWFs per river basin to runoff to calculate the N-related water pollution level (WPL) per catchment. The accumulated global GWF related...

  2. Global Citizenship Instruction through Active Participation: What Is Being Learned about Global Citizenship?

    Leduc, Rhonda

    2013-01-01

    If the definitions of global citizenship are varied and contestable, how do teachers conceptualize and make meaning of global citizenship when required to teach global citizenship in the classroom? For this study, twenty-nine grade six social studies teachers in British Columbia, Canada, were surveyed on their definitions of global citizenship…

  3. Creative communication in public relations activities

    Dalibor Jakus

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses several approaches to new waves of public relations. Emphasis is given to the creative impulse since many public relations professionals are less familiar with it than other forms of communication. Five criteria are suggested for structuring creative communications: 1. learning how to be a good storyteller; 2. visual communication is the content that could increasingly build strong relationships with audiences; 3. the PR practitioner’s challenge is to evaluate what people are discussing and identify the recurring issues in their marketplace; 4. recognizing that local is new global; and 5. predicate that PR is constantly changing. People who work in public relations possess the skill of offering arguments that will convince the people themselves of something. However, these skills can be offered in traditional or creative forms of expression. If we define public relations as the management of an organization’s communication with its public, then we are referring to the traditional dimension of public relations, the basis and ultimate goal of which are to cultivate relationships with the participants of the process in order to obtain support and to build trust and reputation.

  4. International Economic Relations and Information Communication Technologies (ICT) Use: Economic Globalization via Economic Digitalization

    Athanasios I. Bozinis

    2007-01-01

    The definition of globalization refers to the unification of the countries international economies, as an even system distinctive for its intense mutual reliant association. Globalization does not demand natural presence of the countries in order to conduct product exportation or importation, since all economical procedures may be achieved through the propagation of information and financial capitals. The scope of this research was to analyze the relation between economic globalization and th...

  5. Thai Youths and Global Warming: Media Information, Awareness, and Lifestyle Activities

    Chokriensukchai, Kanchana; Tamang, Ritendra

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the exposure of Thai youths to media information on global warming, the relationship between exposure to global warming information and awareness of global warming, and the relationship between that awareness and lifestyle activities that contribute to global warming. A focus group of eight Thai youths provided information that…

  6. Retrieval of global atmospheric electrical activity at a polluted urban site

    The atmospheric electrical Potential Gradient (PG) arises from global thunderstorm activity, but surface measurements of the atmospheric Potential Gradient (PG) are influenced by global thunderstorms and local aerosol concentration changes. The local aerosol change can be monitored independently, and in some cases the concentration changes are closely related to PG changes. For these circumstances, a general theory to remove the local aerosol influence on PG measurements has been developed. Continuous measurements of PG and aerosol mass concentration were made during 24-31 Dec, 2005 within an urban environment at Reading, UK. The average diurnal variation of PG showed a double diurnal cycle, with maxima in the early morning and evening hours. The aerosol concentration has similar double maxima. Removing the aerosol using from the PG and aerosol correlation returns a single diurnal cycle, suggestive of the more global PG diurnal cycle.

  7. U.S. – E.U. ECONOMIC RELATIONS IN THE CONTEXT OF ECONOMIC GLOBALIZATION

    Gabriel-Andrei Donici; Andreea Maha

    2010-01-01

    Traditionally, U.S. and E.U. are the major economic forces in the world. Today, in the context of economic globalization, relations between the U.S. and E.U. continue to guide the world. Yet the economic crisis and the rise of third world countries are affecting their global share.

  8. Metaphors of Primary School Students Relating to the Concept of Global Warming

    Dogru, Mustafa; Sarac, Esra

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to reveal the metaphors of primary school students (n = 362) relating to the concept of global warming. Data collected by completing the expression of "global warming is like..., because..." of the students were analysed by use of qualitative and quantitative data analysis techniques. According to findings of…

  9. Global suppression of electrocortical activity in unilateral perinatal thalamic stroke.

    Kharoshankaya, Liudmila

    2014-07-01

    We present an unusual case of persistent generalized electroencephalography (EEG) suppression and right-sided clonic seizures in a male infant born at 40(+2) weeks\\' gestation, birthweight 3240g, with an isolated unilateral thalamic stroke. The EEG at 13 hours after birth showed a generalized very low amplitude background pattern, which progressed to frequent electrographic seizures over the left hemisphere. The interictal background EEG pattern remained grossly abnormal over the next 48 hours, showing very low background amplitudes (<10μV). Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an isolated acute left-sided thalamic infarction. This is the first description of severe global EEG suppression caused by an isolated unilateral thalamic stroke and supports the role of the thalamus as the control centre for cortical electrical activity.

  10. Globalization

    范玮丽

    2008-01-01

    This paper mainly talks about the currently hot topic-globalization. Firstly, it brings out the general trend about globalization and how to better understand its implication. Secondly, it largely focuses on how to deal with it properly, especially for international marketers. Then, facing with the overwhelming trend, it is time for us to think about seriously what has globalization brought to us. Last but not least, it summarized the author's personal view about the future of globalization and how should we go.

  11. WIN Global. 1977/98 Activities at a First Glance

    WIN is a worldwide association of women working professionally in the fields of nuclear energy and applications of radiation. The goal of WIN is to contribute to objectively inform the public on nuclear and radiation. WIN's principal objective is to emphasis and support the role that women can and do have in addressing the general public's concerns about nuclear energy and the application of radiation and nuclear technology. WIN is doing this through educational programmes, information exchange and arranging study visits. Members of WIN all have one thing in common: they want the general public to have a better understanding of nuclear and radiation matters. Membership status as ao April 21, 1998 was 605 members from 39 countries. During the year 7 new countries have joined to WIN ant two national WIN groups have been formed. Purpose of this paper is to present, to the Spanish Nuclear Society members, the WIN Global activities all over the world for the period 1997/98. The information included herein comes from different sources and WIN members and is, of course, a quick look over those activities. Win Spain activities for the period will be presented in a different paper of this Annual Meeting. (Author) 2 refs

  12. Gender relations in global agri-food value chains – a review

    Schumacher, Kim Philip

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the research literature on gender relations in global agri-food value chains. The main focus is on the production side in countries of the Global South, with most examples from sub-Saharan Africa. After a short presentation of the underlying concepts and a review of the existing research literature, an outline is given of the major insights the analysis of gender issues in global value chains has offered. What is striking is the heterogeneity of the findings and proposed actions, as well as the scarcity of conceptual approaches that would integrate gender analyses further into the concept of global value chains.

  13. Science and technology related global problems: An international survey of science educators

    Bybee, Rodger W.; Mau, Teri

    This survey evaluated one aspect of the Science-Technology-Society theme, namely, the teaching of global problems related to science and technology. The survey was conducted during spring 1984. Two hundred sixty-two science educators representing 41 countries completed the survey. Response was 80%. Findings included a ranking of twelve global problems (the top six were: World Hunger and Food Resources, Population Growth, Air Quality and Atmosphere, Water Resources, War Technology, and Human Health and Disease). Science educators generally indicated the following: the science and technology related global problems would be worse by the year 2000; they were slightly or moderately knowledgeable about the problems; print, audio-visual media, and personal experiences were their primary sources of information; it is important to study global problems in schools; emphasis on global problems should increase with age/grade level; an integrated approach should be used to teach about global problems; courses including global problems should be required of all students; most countries are in the early stages of developing programs including global problems; there is a clear trend toward S-T-S; there is public support for including global problems; and, the most significant limitations to implementation of the S-T-S theme (in order of significance) are political, personnel, social, psychological, economic, pedagogical, and physical. Implications for research and development in science education are discussed.

  14. Will Global Warming Cause a Rise in Sea Level? A Simple Activity about the States of Water

    Oguz, Ayse

    2009-01-01

    In this activity, a possible problem related to global warming is clarified by the principle of states of water. The activity consists of an experiment that includes three scientific principles: Archimedes' Principle, the Law of Conservation of Matter, and the fluidity of liquids. The experiment helps students raise questions and open new horizons…

  15. The performance implications of strategic fit of relational norm governance strategies in global supply chain relationships

    Griffith, David A; Matthew B Myers

    2005-01-01

    The search for strategic fit has become a core concept in normative models of strategy formation. The issue of strategic fit is becoming increasingly important in global supply chain relationships as managers and academics examine the effectiveness of culturally founded relational governance strategies across multiple supply chain relationships. This study empirically examines the performance implications of strategic fit of relational norm governance strategies in global supply chain relatio...

  16. The global transformation: history, modernity and the making of international relations

    Barry BUZAN; Lawson, George

    2015-01-01

    The 'long nineteenth century' (1776–1914) was a period of political, economic, military and cultural revolutions that re-forged both domestic and international societies. Neither existing international histories nor international relations texts sufficiently register the scale and impact of this 'global transformation', yet it is the consequences of these multiple revolutions that provide the material and ideational foundations of modern international relations. Global modernity reconstituted...

  17. The new relations between global economy, international trade and financial system

    Popa, Catalin C.

    2009-01-01

    The new tendencies of global economy can be more efficiently detailed, explained and understood, on the base of those internal functional relations established in contemporary economical global dimension, between economy, international trade and monetary-financial system. Starting with the idea of a new economies’ typology will be clearly possible to analyze the mechanism of international outturn results in relation with trade dynamics connected to the new particularities of international mon...

  18. Relative outcomes of climate change mitigation related to global temperature versus sea-level rise

    Meehl, Gerald A.; Hu, Aixue; Tebaldi, Claudia; Arblaster, Julie M.; Washington, Warren M.; Teng, Haiyan; Sanderson, Benjamin M.; Ault, Toby; Strand, Warren G.; White, James B.

    2012-08-01

    There is a common perception that, if human societies make the significant adjustments necessary to substantively cut emissions of greenhouse gases, global temperature increases could be stabilized, and the most dangerous consequences of climate change could be avoided. Here we show results from global coupled climate model simulations with the new representative concentration pathway mitigation scenarios to 2300 to illustrate that, with aggressive mitigation in two of the scenarios, globally averaged temperature increase indeed could be stabilized either below 2 °C or near 3 °C above pre-industrial values. However, even as temperatures stabilize, sea level would continue to rise. With little mitigation, future sea-level rise would be large and continue unabated for centuries. Though sea-level rise cannot be stopped for at least the next several hundred years, with aggressive mitigation it can be slowed down, and this would buy time for adaptation measures to be adopted.

  19. Using global positioning systems to study health-related mobility and participation.

    Brusilovskiy, Eugene; Klein, Louis A; Salzer, Mark S

    2016-07-01

    Community participation, as indicated by mobility and engagement in socially meaningful activities, is a central component of health based on the International Classification of Health, Functioning, and Disease (WHO, 2001). Global positioning systems (GPS) technology is emerging as a tool for tracking mobility and participation in health and disability-related research. This paper fills a gap in the literature and provides a thorough description of a method that can be used to generate a number of different variables related to the constructs of mobility and participation from GPS data. Here, these variables are generated with the help of ST-DBSCAN, a spatiotemporal data mining algorithm. The variables include the number of unique destinations, activity space area, distance traveled, time in transit, and time at destinations. Data obtained from five individuals with psychiatric disabilities who carried GPS-enabled cell phones for two weeks are presented. Within- and across- individual variability on these constructs was observed. Given the feasibility of gathering data with GPS, larger scale studies of mobility and participation employing this method are warranted. PMID:27289268

  20. Turkey-USA relations in an age of regional and global turmoil: challenges and prospects introduction

    Öniş, Ziya; Yılmaz, Şuhnaz

    2013-01-01

    TURKEY-US RELATIONS IN AN AGE OF REGIONAL AND GLOBAL TURMOIL: CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTS EDITORIAL INTRODUCTION Ziya Öniş and Şuhnaz Yılmaz This special issue on Turkish-American relations with a specific focus on the Middle East aims to analyze a complex web of relations at a critical regional and global juncture, with important implications well beyond bilateral relations. The idea for this special issue emerged during the “Turkish-American Alliance in a Volatile Region: ...

  1. Summary of activities on CSS related issues

    In the Netherlands there are two nuclear power plants. One 60Mw BWR for research purposes in Dodewaard, and one PWR 450 Mw IN Borssele. Both of these NPPs are undergoing an extensive upgrading. These plants use several CSS-like systems. These systems are primarily aimed to support and monitor safe and correct operation of the process or to detect specific (e.g. mechanical) problems in an early stage. The NPP in Dodewaard is upgrading its training simulator and process presentation system (''Datalogger''). The activities related to the CRP are mainly within the framework of the Dodewaard plant. This final national report will give an overview of these activities with particular emphasis on the replacement of the Datalogger system. Some additional information is given on trends in CSSs as used in fossil power plants. (author). 2 figs

  2. Comparison of relative illuminance, relative photosynthetic photon flux and relative cumulative amount of global solar radiation in apple [Malus pumila] tree canopy

    Relative light intensities in an apple (Malus domestice Borkh.) tree canopy were determined by measuring light quantity: Photometrically (illuminance, lx), radiometrically (radiation, W. m-2), and in quantum terms (photosynthetic photon flux, mumol. m-2. s-1). There was a strong positive correlation between relative illuminance and relative photosynthetic photon flux, measured on an overcast day. Relative photosynthetic photon flux was, however, 6.0 % higher than relative illuminance. A strong correlation was also found between relative illuminance and relative cumulative photosynthetic photon for one day; the latter was higher by 6.7 % on an overcast day and 6.8 % on a clear day. There was a strong positive correlation between the relative cumulative photosynthetic photon and the relative cumulative amount of global solar radiation for one day, while that of relative cumulative photosynthetic photon was 11 % lower than relative cumulative amount of global solar radiation

  3. Punctuated global tropical cyclone activity over the past 5,000 years

    Nott, Jonathan; Forsyth, Anthony

    2012-07-01

    There are now a substantial number of millennial scale records of tropical cyclones from a variety of locations globally. Some of these, such as those in the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico, show patterns of long-term, generally intense, tropical cyclone (TC) behaviour that have been suggested to be due to either variations in ENSO or shifts in the position of the Atlantic High pressure system and the jet stream. Comparisons are made here of the sedimentary overwash records from the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean Basin with the overwash records from the north-west Pacific and beach ridge records from the south-west Pacific and south east Indian Ocean basins. There is a substantial degree of synchroneity in global intense TC behaviour over the past 3,000 to 5,000 years. One of the most striking aspects of these records is they all display extended alternating periods (centuries to millennia) of relative quiescence and heightened intense TC activity irrespective of both the resolution and type of long-term TC record. The cause(s) of this punctuated activity are at present difficult to identify but are likely exogenic in origin rather than due to an intrinsic aspect of the records or the methods used to derive them. The identification of punctuated global long-term TC behaviour is important for understanding future TC activity and for assessing risk to coastal communities.

  4. Event-related potentials reveal increased distraction by salient global objects in older adults

    Wiegand, Iris; Finke, Kathrin; Töllner, Thomas;

    Age-related changes in visual functions influence how older individuals perceive and react upon objects in their environment. In particular, older individuals might be more distracted by highly salient, irrelevant information. Kanizsa figures induce a ‘global precedence’ effect, which reflects a ...... global-local asymmetries originates from early processing stages, where the dissociation of hierarchical levels is less distinct, and inhibition of the salient irrelevant global object information is less effective......Age-related changes in visual functions influence how older individuals perceive and react upon objects in their environment. In particular, older individuals might be more distracted by highly salient, irrelevant information. Kanizsa figures induce a ‘global precedence’ effect, which reflects a...... search. Older participants detected target stimuli slower and less accurate than younger participants did. ERPs indicated that the general performance decline originated at multiple stages within the information-processing stream, from sensory coding to spatial allocation of attention: The P1 was...

  5. The Enemy is Still Below: The Global Diffusion of Submarines and Related Technology

    Weiss, K G

    2012-06-05

    The spread of submarines and related technology is an end product of globalization. Globalization is not a new story. By one estimate, our ancestors first crossed out of Africa roughly 80,000 years ago, and began the process that they now call globalization. With the dispersion of people around the world came the development of culture and civilization as well as the spread of ideas, goods, and technology. The process of globalization then is a long-standing one, not an innovation of the late 20th and early 21st centuries. Over the millennia, this process has been an uneven one. Globalization has often cuased great disruptions even to the societies that initiated various innovations in culture and civilization, including science and technology. Indeed, many cultures and civilizations have disappeared while some regions failed to advance as rapidly as others, so the process of globalization is not just one of continuing progress. Globalization in the current era seems to be penetrating the most remote corners of the world at a remarkable rate as a result of advances in science and technology, particularly information technology. The diffusion of science and technology is not necessarily a benign development. It could increase the potential for a global military industrial base that may have an adverse affect on world stability in the future. For example, the spread of key military capabilities, like submarines, could still have an impact, especially over the longer term, on the US capability to project power overseas.

  6. The unfinished global revolution: intellectuals and the new politics of international relations

    Shaw, Martin

    2002-01-01

    More than a decade after the revolutions of 1989, we can see these as a highpoint of a new, worldwide and increasingly global wave of democratic revolution and counter-revolution. Violent struggles between the political forces unleashed have produced genocidal wars and stimulated global state formation. These developments present concerned citizens and students of international relations and politics with new challenges. This article criticises two trends in the responses of political intelle...

  7. Data Revisions and the Statistical Relation of Global Mean Sea-Level and Temperature

    Hillebrand, Eric; Johansen, Søren; Schmith, Torben

    2015-01-01

    We study the stability of the estimated statistical relation of global mean temperature and global mean sea-level with regard to data revisions. Using three different model specifications proposed in the literature, we compare coefficient estimates and forecasts using two different vintages of the annual time series. We find that two out of the three models, proposed in [1] and in [2], are very sensitive to the revisions. The magnitude of the estimated coefficient of influence as well as the ...

  8. Agglomeration Economies and Global Cities: The case of London, New York and relativity

    Michael, L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper evaluates the manner in which agglomeration influenced formation of cities and how this has changed with the evolution of ‘global cities’. Furthermore, a study of global cities concentrating on London and New York, investigating the sales turnover of commercial real estate, is undertaken to investigate any changes in relativity. Changes in capital flows recorded in commercial real estate transactions over time will be analysed using market data supplied by RCA for each city sector ...

  9. OECD Nuclear Energy Agency Activities Related to Fast Reactor Development

    The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), whose role is to assist its member countries to develop, through international cooperation, the scientific and technological bases required for the safe, environmentally friendly and economical use of nuclear energy, conducts work related to fast reactor systems in two areas of activity: one focused on scientific research and technology development needs and one dedicated to strategic and policy issues. Recent, scientifically oriented, fast reactor related activities coordinated by the NEA comprise: -A coordinated effort to evaluate basic nuclear data needed for the development of fast reactor systems; -A recently initiated review of Integral Experiments for Minor Actinide Management; -An ongoing study on Homogeneous versus Heterogeneous Recycle of Transuranic Isotopes in Fast Reactors; -A comparative analysis of the safety characteristics of sodium cooled fast reactors; -A series of workshops on Advanced Reactors with Innovative Fuels; -A series of information exchange meetings on actinide and fission product partitioning and transmutation. The NEA has also conducted two reviews on issues related to the transition from thermal to fast neutron nuclear systems. One study was devoted to technical issues, including benchmark studies on: (i) the performance of scenario analysis codes, (ii) a regional (European) scenario and (iii) a global transition scenario. The other study emphasized issues of interest to policymakers, such as key parameters affecting the cost-benefit analysis of transitioning, including the size and age of the nuclear reactor fleet, the expected future reliance on nuclear energy, access to uranium resources, domestic nuclear infrastructure and technology development, and radioactive waste management policy in place. The NEA is also an active player in many other international activities related to fast neutron systems, such as the Generation IV International Forum, where the NEA acts as technical secretariat for

  10. EFFECTS OF HIGHER EDUCATION ON GLOBAL COMPETITIVENESS: REVIEWS IN RELATION WITH EUROPEAN COUNTRIES AND THE MIDDLE EAST COUNTRIES

    HILAL YILDIRIR KESER

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is investigate the effects of higher education on global competitiveness One of the most widely accepted definition of global competitiveness is in the form of " efficiency level encompassing all of the institutions that will ensure sustainable growth in a country, policies and factors of production". Therefore the competitiveness of a country depends on the factors such as; The level of development of R & D activities and productivity, performance of various sectors, the country's trade surplus, producing goods hosting high-tech in their nature, availability of expert and skilled labor force. But one of the main points in the realization of these factors is the quality of the higher education. Higher education has an important role in the formation of qualified labour. And the qualified labour carries the competitiveness firstly of the sector and then of the country up to higher ranks by increasing the performance and productivity of the companies. The study will be discussed in the following way: firstly the context of the global competitiveness will be mentioned, secondly, the role and importance of higher education will be put forth by explaining the basic determinants of competitivenes particularly within the World Economic Forum Global Competitiveness Index. Finally, assessments will be made in relation with the situation of higher education in global competitiveness in European countries and Middle Eastern countries.

  11. Global Indicators Analysis and Consultancy Experience Insights into Correlation between Entrepreneurial Activities and Business Environment

    Jovan Krivokapić

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Many researches and practical experiences clearly indicate the existence of a strong relationship between entrepreneurial activities and the business environment in which these activities are initiated. Although this topic has been quite ignored until the late twentieth century, a lot of studies and consulting practice have contributed to the fact that there are now a number of theories concerning mentioned correlation. These theories aim to offer a model that would provide better utilization of the possibilities from the business environment which could be very important for the development from both macroeconomic and microeconomic aspects. An increasing number of articles on this topic says enough about its importance, and numerous researches by many reputable globally recognized institutions go in favor of this claim. There are many indicators that observe the economic situation in a country or a region from different aspects, so the analyses of these indicators make it possible to determine the specific relationships between entrepreneurial activities and the local and the global business environment. Given the complexity of these relations, the impact cannot be observed partially, without taking into consideration other important factors, but more detailed analyses, however, result in some useful conclusions, which in the proper context can have a positive impact on many economic factors. It is very important to emphasize the fact that the correlation between the business environment and entrepreneurial activities is bidirectional, since this influence is mutual, so that changes in one of these factors can and usually cause some modifications in the other. Frequent series of such iterations actually lead to changes in the business environment, while entrepreneurial activity changes its shape and affects the economy of a country or a region, which is of particular importance for its competitiveness in the era of globalization.

  12. Globalization

    F. Gerard Adams

    2008-01-01

    The rapid globalization of the world economy is causing fundamental changes in patterns of trade and finance. Some economists have argued that globalization has arrived and that the world is “flat†. While the geographic scope of markets has increased, the author argues that new patterns of trade and finance are a result of the discrepancies between “old†countries and “new†. As the differences are gradually wiped out, particularly if knowledge and technology spread worldwide, the t...

  13. Globalization

    Plum, Maja

    Globalization is often referred to as external to education - a state of affair facing the modern curriculum with numerous challenges. In this paper it is examined as internal to curriculum; analysed as a problematization in a Foucaultian sense. That is, as a complex of attentions, worries, ways of...... reasoning, producing curricular variables. The analysis is made through an example of early childhood curriculum in Danish Pre-school, and the way the curricular variable of the pre-school child comes into being through globalization as a problematization, carried forth by the comparative practices of PISA...

  14. The influence of globalization processes on the banking activity in Ukraine

    Dmytro Kretov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the article has been disclosed the contemporary approaches to the definition of the concepts of "globalization" and "financial globalization"; characterized their relationship and offered their periodization process development; defined effect of financial globalization on the world economy and its banking sector; classified the factors that affect the ability of the national banking systems to function in the international financial markets; analyzed the impact of the last global crisis on the Ukrainian bank's activities and determined the effect of globalization on the modern banking sector development in the national economy; implemented the comparative analysis of different calculation methods of the index of economic globalization; offered recommendations for improving the approaches of regulating the banks activities in the context of financial globalization.

  15. Global self-esteem in relation to structural models of personality and affectivity.

    Watson, David; Suls, Jerry; Haig, Jeffrey

    2002-07-01

    Three studies examined global self-esteem in relation to structural models of personality and affectivity. In every study, self-esteem was strongly negatively correlated with Neuroticism/Negative Affectivity and moderately to strongly related to Extraversion/Positive Affectivity. Additional findings, however, revealed that self-esteem is better viewed at the lower order level. For instance, global self-esteem correlated -.79 with the Depression facet of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (P. T. Costa, Jr., & R. R. McCrae, 1992) in Study 3. Moreover, confirmatory factor analyses produced very strong correlations between self-esteem and depression in both Study 2 (r = -.82) and Study 3 (r = -.86). Taken together, the data suggest that global self-esteem measures define one end of a bipolar continuum, with trait indicators of depression defining the other. PMID:12088125

  16. WATCH IP. Water and Global Change. Third year Activity report to the European Commission.

    Warnaars, Tanya; Harding, Richard; Blyth, Eleanor; Weedon, Graham; Hagemann, Stefan; Tallaksen, Lena; Van Lanen, Henny; Ludwig, Fulco

    2010-01-01

    The Integrated Project (WATCH) brings together the hydrological, water resources and climate communities to analyse, quantify and predict the components of the current and future global water cycles and related water resources, evaluate their uncertainties and clarify the overall vulnerability of global water resources related to the main societal and economic sectors. The WATCH project will analyse and describe the current global water cycle, especially changes in extremes (droughts...

  17. GLOBAL COUPLING OF AN INTERFACE PROBLEM IN AN ACTIVATOR-INHIBITOR SYSTEM

    YoonMee Ham

    2003-01-01

    An activator-inhibitor reaction system with global coupling was introduced in [1]. The authors showed that global couplingsuppresses the breathing motion and enhances the propagation of the localized solution. The collision between two traveling waves for a sufficiently strong global coupling is discussed in [2]. If the width of layers is infinitesimally thin, the equation of motion for a pair of the interfaces is derived. We shall study the dynamics of interfaces in the free boundary problem with global coupling and with a strong global coupling.

  18. Adult global DNA methylation in relation to pre-natal nutrition

    Lumey, LH; Terry, Mary Beth; Delgado-Cruzata, Lissette; Liao, Yuyan; Wang, Qiao; Susser, Ezra; McKeague, Ian; Santella, Regina M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Exposure to a pre-natal famine environment has been associated with a persistent decrease in DNA methylation of the IGF2 gene, although study findings on other loci have been highly variable. There have been no studies to date of the relation between pre-natal famine and overall global DNA methylation in adulthood.

  19. Forest and Temperature Associations of Russia Relating to Global Climate Warming.

    V. Stolbovoi; Nilsson, S.

    1999-01-01

    We have developed forest and temperature associations for Russia that relate forest communities of Russia with mean annual temperature, standard deviation of mean annual temperature, and temperature tolerance limits. These associations are derived from analysis of the frequency of forest occurrence in different temperature regimes, and were interpreted in order to develop a framework for adaptation strategies for Global Climate Warming (GCW).

  20. An Analysis of the Vulnerability of Global Drinking Water Access to Climate-related Hazards

    Elliott, M.; Banerjee, O.; Christenson, E.; Holcomb, D.; Hamrick, L.; Bartram, J.

    2014-12-01

    Global drinking water access targets are formulated around "sustainable access." Global climate change (GCC) and associated hazards threaten the sustainability of drinking water supply. Extensive literature exists on the impacts of GCC on precipitation and water resources. However, the literature lacks a credible analysis of the vulnerability of global drinking water access. This research reports on an analysis of the current vulnerability of drinking water access due to three climate-related hazardous events: cyclone, drought and flood. An ArcGIS database was built incorporating the following: population density, hazardous event frequency, drinking water technologies in use and adaptive capacity. Two global grids were incorporated first: (1) LandScanTM global population distribution; and (2) frequency of cyclone, drought and flood from ~1980-2000 from Columbia University Center for Hazards Risk Research (CHRR). Population density was used to characterize cells as urban or rural and country-level urban/rural drinking water technologies in use were added based on the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme data. Expert assessment of the resilience of each technology to each hazardous event based on WHO/DFID Vision 2030 were quantified and added to the database. Finally, country-level adaptive capacity was drawn from the "readiness" parameter of the Global Adaptation Index (GaIn). ArcGIS Model Builder and Python were used to automate the addition of datasets. This presentation will report on the results of this analysis, the first credible attempt to assess the vulnerability of global drinking water access to climate-related hazardous events. This analysis has yielded country-level scores and maps displaying the ranking of exposure score (for flood, drought, cyclone, and all three in aggregate) and the corresponding country-level vulnerability scores and rankings incorporating the impact of drinking water technologies and adaptive capacity (Figure 1).

  1. Response of global particulate-matter-related mortality to changes in local precursor emissions.

    Lee, Colin J; Martin, Randall V; Henze, Daven K; Brauer, Michael; Cohen, Aaron; Donkelaar, Aaron van

    2015-04-01

    Recent Global Burden of Disease (GBD) assessments estimated that outdoor fine-particulate matter (PM2.5) is a causal factor in over 5% of global premature deaths. PM2.5 is produced by a variety of direct and indirect, natural and anthropogenic processes that complicate PM2.5 management. This study develops a proof-of-concept method to quantify the effects on global premature mortality of changes to PM2.5 precursor emissions. Using the adjoint of the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model, we calculated sensitivities of global PM2.5-related premature mortality to emissions of precursor gases (SO2, NOx, NH3) and carbonaceous aerosols. We used a satellite-derived ground-level PM2.5 data set at approximately 10 × 10 km(2) resolution to better align the exposure with population density. We used exposure-response functions from the GBD project to relate mortality to exposure in the adjoint calculation. The response of global mortality to changes in local anthropogenic emissions varied spatially by several orders of magnitude. The largest reductions in mortality for a 1 kg km(-2) yr(-1) decrease in emissions were for ammonia and carbonaceous aerosols in Eastern Europe. The greatest reductions in mortality for a 10% decrease in emissions were found for secondary inorganic sources in East Asia. In general, a 10% decrease in SO2 emissions was the most effective source to control, but regional exceptions were found. PMID:25730303

  2. Measuring the bioenergetic cost of fish activity in situ using a globally dispersed radiotracer (137Cs)

    The energetic cost of activity is an important component of the bioenergetic budget of fish, yet this parameter has rarely been quantified for wild populations. Using a 137Cs mass balance approach, we estimated the annual bioenergetic budgets for individual age-classes of 19 species of North American freshwater fish. Immature fish have low activity-related metabolic costs that agree with estimates based on swimming speed or integer multipliers. Mature fish have 2- to 4-fold higher activity than immature fish and 2- to 4-fold higher activity than estimates based on swimming speed or integer multipliers. The higher activity in mature fish may be due to reproductive efforts. Underestimation of activity in conventional bioenergetics models leads to underestimation of consumption rates. Thus, our in situ and age-specific estimates of activity costs provide a means to improve bioenergetic predictions. Although our analysis was done on an annual basis, it is possible to use the 137Cs technique over shorter intervals (weeks). The 137Cs method has general applicability to aquatic systems because 137Cs is globally dispersed and can be accurately measured in all aquatic organisms using gamma spectrometry. (author). 62 refs., 4 tabs., 4 figs

  3. Understanding decreases in land relative humidity with global warming: conceptual model and GCM simulations

    Byrne, Michael P.; O'Gorman, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Climate models simulate a strong land-ocean contrast in the response of near-surface relative humidity to global warming: relative humidity tends to increase slightly over oceans but decrease substantially over land. Surface energy balance arguments have been used to understand the response over ocean but are difficult to apply over more complex land surfaces. Here, a conceptual box model is introduced, involving moisture transport between the land and ocean boundary layers and evapotranspira...

  4. Tsunami related to solar and geomagnetic activity

    Cataldi, Gabriele; Cataldi, Daniele; Straser, Valentino

    2016-04-01

    The authors of this study wanted to verify the existence of a correlation between earthquakes of high intensity capable of generating tsunami and variations of solar and Earth's geomagnetic activity. To confirming or not the presence of this kind of correlation, the authors analyzed the conditions of Spaceweather "near Earth" and the characteristics of the Earth's geomagnetic field in the hours that preceded the four earthquakes of high intensity that have generated tsunamis: 1) Japan M9 earthquake occurred on March 11, 2011 at 05:46 UTC; 2) Japan M7.1 earthquake occurred on October 25, 2013 at 17:10 UTC; 3) Chile M8.2 earthquake occurred on April 1, 2014 at 23:46 UTC; 4) Chile M8.3 earthquake occurred on September 16, 2015 at 22:54 UTC. The data relating to the four earthquakes were provided by the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The data on ion density used to realize the correlation study are represented by: solar wind ion density variation detected by ACE (Advanced Composition Explorer) Satellite, in orbit near the L1 Lagrange point, at 1.5 million of km from Earth, in direction of the Sun. The instrument used to perform the measurement of the solar wind ion density is the Electron, Proton, and Alpha Monitor (EPAM) instrument, equipped on the ACE Satellite. To conduct the study, the authors have taken in consideration the variation of the solar wind protons density of three different energy fractions: differential proton flux 1060-1900 keV (p/cm^2-sec-ster-MeV); differential proton flux 761-1220 keV (p/cm^2-sec-ster-MeV); differential proton flux 310-580 keV (p/cm^2-sec-ster-MeV). Geomagnetic activity data were provided by Tromsø Geomagnetic Observatory (TGO), Norway; by Scoresbysund Geomagnetic Observatory (SCO), Greenland, Denmark and by Space Weather Prediction Center of Pushkov Institute of terrestrial magnetism, ionosphere and radio wave propagation (IZMIRAN), Troitsk, Moscow Region. The results of the study, in agreement with what already

  5. Avoidance of singularity and global non-conservation of energy in general relativity

    We show that the singularity in the General Theory of Relativity (GTR) is the expression of a non-Machian feature. It can be avoided with a scale-invariant dynamical theory, a property lacking in GTR. It is further argued that the global non-conservation of energy in GTR also results from the lack of scale-invariance, and the field formulation presented by several authors can only partly resolve the problem. Assuming the global energy conservation, we propose a negative energy density component with a positive equation of state that can drive the late-time acceleration in the universe, while the positive component confines to smaller scales. (author)

  6. Globalización y relaciones internacionales en el entramado de un naciente tiempo global Globalization and international relations in the framework of a global nascent time

    Hugo Fazio Vengoa

    Full Text Available ¿Qué es la globalización y cómo se pueden interpretar las transformaciones que ha producido en el escenario mundial?. El presente artículo propone que para aprehender la radicalidad de los cambios actuales se debe recurrir a la noción de globalización y a la manera como este proceso ha entrañado un cambio en el panorama mundial. Las transformaciones que tienen lugar en el campo de las relaciones internacionales sugieren que ya es hora de sustituir aquellas perspectivas que concebía el mundo pasado y/o presente a partir de un idealizado o normativo sistema westfaliano por una representación más abarcadora, rica y compleja como puede ser el de una formación social globalizada , la cual, además, de poner en evidencia las articulaciones históricas de los espacios nacionales con lugares distantes, alude a la realización de lo "nacional/internacional" como una dimensión espacial transnacional.What is globalization and how can the transformations it has produced worldwide be interpreted? This article suggests that to understand the roots of the current changes one must consider the concept of globalization and how this process is bringing about change in the world. The transformations taking place in the field of international relations suggest that it is time to replace the idealized or normalized Westphalian world view with a more encompassing perspective, one that is richer and more complex, such as that of globalized social formation, which, as well as making evident the historical ties between distant nations, alludes to the rise of the "national/international" as a transnational social dimension.

  7. Patterns of Activity in a Global Model of a Solar Active Region

    Bradshaw, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    In this work we investigate the global activity patterns predicted from a model active region heated by distributions of nanoflares that have a range of frequencies. What differs is the average frequency of the distributions. The activity patterns are manifested in time lag maps of narrow-band instrument channel pairs. We combine hydrodynamic and forward modeling codes with a magnetic field extrapolation to create a model active region and apply the time lag method to synthetic observations. Our aim is not to reproduce a particular set of observations in detail, but to recover some typical properties and patterns observed in active regions. Our key findings are the following. 1. cooling dominates the time lag signature and the time lags between the channel pairs are generally consistent with observed values. 2. shorter coronal loops in the core cool more quickly than longer loops at the periphery. 3. all channel pairs show zero time lag when the line-of-sight passes through coronal loop foot-points. 4. there ...

  8. Global Night-Time Lights for Observing Human Activity

    Hipskind, Stephen R.; Elvidge, Chris; Gurney, K.; Imhoff, Mark; Bounoua, Lahouari; Sheffner, Edwin; Nemani, Ramakrishna R.; Pettit, Donald R.; Fischer, Marc

    2011-01-01

    We present a concept for a small satellite mission to make systematic, global observations of night-time lights with spatial resolution suitable for discerning the extent, type and density of human settlements. The observations will also allow better understanding of fine scale fossil fuel CO2 emission distribution. The NASA Earth Science Decadal Survey recommends more focus on direct observations of human influence on the Earth system. The most dramatic and compelling observations of human presence on the Earth are the night light observations taken by the Defence Meteorological System Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS). Beyond delineating the footprint of human presence, night light data, when assembled and evaluated with complementary data sets, can determine the fine scale spatial distribution of global fossil fuel CO2 emissions. Understanding fossil fuel carbon emissions is critical to understanding the entire carbon cycle, and especially the carbon exchange between terrestrial and oceanic systems.

  9. Overview of global space activities in 2007/2008

    Peter, Nicolas; Delmotte, Raphaëlle

    2009-08-01

    The period ranging from July 2007 to June 2008 has been marked by significant trends and issues in the space sector, particularly under the impulsion of space-faring countries. The internationalisation and globalisation of the space sector which started a few years ago have been gaining momentum as well. As a consequence, the size of the space sector has been growing, as well as the global competition for market shares.

  10. Gender and Activism in the Czech Anti-Globalization Movement

    Kolářová, Marta

    Lausanne : University of Lausanne, 2004, s. 40KB. [Gender and Activism. Lausanne (CH), 26.11.2004-27.11.2004] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7028912 Keywords : gender * social movement * activism Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography

  11. What contribution can international relations make to the evolving global health agenda?

    Davies, Sara E

    2010-01-01

    This article presents two approaches that have dominated International Relations in their approach to the international politics of health. The statist approach, which is primarily security-focused, seeks to link health initiatives to a foreign or defence policy remit. The globalist approach, in contrast, seeks to advance health not because of its intrinsic security value but because it advances the well-being and rights of individuals. This article charts the evolution of these approaches and demonstrates why both have the potential to shape our understanding of the evolving global health agenda. It examines how the statist and globalist perspectives have helped shape contemporary initiatives in global health governance and suggests that there is evidence of an emerging convergence between the two perspectives. This convergence is particularly clear in the articulation of a number of UN initiatives in this area - especially the One World, One Health Strategic Framework and the Oslo Ministerial Declaration (2007) which inspired the first UN General Assembly resolution on global health and foreign policy in 2009 and the UN Secretary-General's note "Global health and foreign policy: strategic opportunities and challenges". What remains to be seen is whether this convergence will deliver on securing states' interest long enough to promote the interests of the individuals who require global efforts to deliver local health improvements. PMID:20882709

  12. Global CO2-consumption by chemical weathering: What is the contribution of highly active weathering regions?

    Hartmann, Jens; Jansen, N; Dürr, H. H.; Kempe, S.; Köhler, Peter

    2009-01-01

    CO2-consumption by chemical weathering of silicates and resulting silicate/carbonate weathering ratios influences the terrestrial lateral inorganic carbon flux to the ocean and long-term climate changes. However, little is known of the spatial extension of highly active weathering regions and their proportion of global CO2-consumption. As those regions may be of significant importance for global climate change, global CO2-consumption is calculated here at high resolution, to adequately repres...

  13. The transformation of the global oil industry and its impact on international relations

    The transformations of ownership and control in the global oil industry since the first oil shock of 1974 are discussed and the impact of that change on several interconnected issues is explored. It is argued that structural changes in the industry affect interstate relations in ways that are of central concern to the discipline of international relations. Any likely future oil industry scenario will have considerable political and economic repercussions for both producer and consumer states, with a concommitant impact on the relations between those states more generally. There is a danger that interstate conflicts among oil producers will increase with perodic changes in the global supply and demand conditions for oil. Ways are suggested for international relations studies to take into account the change in the global oil industry and its impact on the distribution of power and on international order and justice. It is contended that a growing number of states must be considered as behaving much like firms in a competitive market, and the new international oil order both constrains and provides opportunities for those firm-like states. 20 refs

  14. The globalization of energy activities: what are the issues?

    Globalization in many sectors such as information, research and development, finance, technology, etc. led to the implementation of transnational networks to facilitate decision-making. The result is that governments are left to regulation functions. This globalization also led to a larger gap between North and South. Developing countries represent 80 per cent of world population, yet only produce less than 33 per cent of gross domestic product (GDP). In the energy sector, developing countries have limited access to energy and use it less efficiently, since they do not master the latest technologies. States must retain their power to regulate this sector to ensure competition takes place in a fair environment within specified guidelines. Licenses must be issued through bidding or auctioned off, but in every case the State must ensure that commitments are met. It must also ensure that pricing is fair. Access for third parties to the power distribution system must be adequate, especially when the company operates in a monopoly environment. The State ends up managing a new category of risks (called major risks) that the private sector is not willing to consider, for example global warming or the management of nuclear waste. Confidence in market mechanisms is limited. Energy exchanges and others represent an economic growth factor and a potential guarantee for world peace. Who is responsible for the social costs associated with economic growth, and what are the solutions? A major issue left to decision-makers is the sharing of wealth within humankind and nations, and the State has a vital role to play. 5 refs., 5 tabs

  15. Business-Government relations in a global economy: broadening the conceptual map

    DAVID BACH

    2004-01-01

    While most work on corporate political activity focuses on the domestic arena, globalization has raised the business salience of international policymaking such that firms increasingly engage in international political processes as well. Political dynamics in the two arenas follow different logics whose management implications have been largely overlooked. This paper integrates management theory and institutional analysis in political science to develop two contrasting models, and to delineat...

  16. The Inaugural Elijah B. Saunders Memorial Lecture: The Global Consequences of Hypertension and Related Disparities.

    Mensah, George A

    2016-01-01

    This inaugural memorial lecture provides an opportunity to celebrate the life of Elijah B. Saunders, MD, FACC and pays tribute to his pioneering spirit in the quest to advance health equity in the prevention and control of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. It also enables an assessment of the state of the global burden of hypertension and related disparities. Despite the remarkable biomedical research progress made over the last half-century, hypertension remains the leading risk factor for global disease burden and the major preventable contributor to cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. Additionally, disparities in hypertension-related morbidity and mortality remain pervasive worldwide. National hypertension control rates showing progress often mask important suboptimal treatment and control in population groups defined by sex, race, ethnicity, geography, and social and environmental determinants. Within these groups, many hypertension-related disparities remain largely unchanged while other gaps have widened. In essence, current research has been relatively ineffective in guiding large-scale, sustained elimination of hypertension-related disparities. An important explanation for these observations may be the significant advances made in observational epidemiological research, especially in improved surveillance and data collection that document the extent of disparities in marked contrast to the relative paucity of interventional disparities research. The paucity of these interventional research studies remains a continuing challenge. The time has come for renewed efforts in building strategic partnerships that leverage transdisciplinary, multi-sectoral expertise to provide global leadership in interventional implementation research for hypertension control and elimination of related disparities. Developing an appropriately skilled implementation research workforce will be crucial. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and its biomedical

  17. Using Global Geo-information for Disaster Risk Reduction Following the UN Sendai Framework: Climate Change and Disruptions to Global Fire Activity

    Ganz, D.

    2015-12-01

    Despite the knowledge that climate induced fire activity will threaten ecosystems and human well-being throughout the world, there are few fire projections at global scales and almost none from a broad range of global climate models (GCMs). The following study presents global fire datasets and environmental variables used to build spatial statistical baseline models of fire probability and examine the environmental controls on fire activity. As the UN Sendai Framework requires an update of hazard databases and an integration additional manmade hazards in the calculation of risks, this global fire study examines the magnitude and direction of change over two projection periods, 2010-2039 and 2070-2099. From the GCM ensemble results, the study identified areas of consensus for increases or decreases in fires. This type of information may inform policies and strategies of fire-prone nations to better utilize baseline and projection geo-information for enhancing disaster preparedness for what the Sendai Framework is calling an effective response, and to "Build Back Better" in recovery, rehabilitation and reconstruction. Certain biomes are sensitive to constraints on biomass productivity while others to atmospheric conditions promoting combustion. Substantial and rapid shifts are projected for future fire activity across vast portions of the globe. In the near term, the most consistent increases in fire activity occur in biomes with already somewhat warm climates; decreases are less pronounced and concentrated primarily in a few tropical and subtropical biomes. However, models do not agree on the direction of near-term changes across more than 50% of terrestrial lands. Although these models demonstrated that long-term environmental norms captured chronic fire probability patterns, future work is needed to assess how annual variation in climate variables could add more explanatory power. This study provides an examination of global disruptions to fire activity using a

  18. Locating REDD: A global survey and analysis of REDD readiness and demonstration activities

    Mechanisms that support reduced emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD/REDD+) have potential to counteract a large share of global greenhouse gas emissions if implemented effectively across the tropics. In 2007 the conference of parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change called upon parties and international organizations to promote REDD through investments in capacity building and demonstration activities. This prompted many new actors to become involved in REDD activities at a variety of locations and scales. A global survey of REDD activities was undertaken in 2009 to enable better understanding of the intensity and geographic distribution of these activities. Existing compilations, literature review, web-based sources, face-to-face and telephone interviews, and e-mail questionnaires were used to compile data for the inventory. Inter alia, data were collected on the location of activities and official and unofficial factors influencing location choices. Inventory data were combined with secondary data to estimate a statistical count model (Poisson) of factors affecting the number of REDD activities undertaken in the 64 developing countries that experienced significant emissions from deforestation. The results show that there were at least 79 REDD readiness activities and 100 REDD demonstration activities as of October 2009. Of these, the largest shares of REDD readiness and demonstration activities were implemented in Indonesia (7 and 15 respectively) and Brazil (4 and 13 respectively), countries widely agreed to have the greatest potential for reducing forest-based emissions. The statistical results found no national characteristic to have a statistically-significant effect on the number of REDD readiness activities, but five national characteristics to have significant effects on the number of REDD demonstration projects. Baseline CO2 emissions, forest carbon stock, number of threatened species, quality of

  19. Aerosol activation and cloud processing in the global aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM

    G. J. Roelofs

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A parameterization for cloud processing is presented that calculates activation of aerosol particles to cloud drops, cloud drop size, and pH-dependent aqueous phase sulfur chemistry. The parameterization is implemented in the global aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM. The cloud processing parameterization uses updraft speed, temperature, and aerosol size and chemical parameters simulated by ECHAM5-HAM to estimate the maximum supersaturation at the cloud base, and subsequently the cloud drop number concentration (CDNC due to activation. In-cloud sulfate production occurs through oxidation of dissolved SO2 by ozone and hydrogen peroxide. The model simulates realistic distributions for annually averaged CDNC although it is underestimated especially in remote marine regions. On average, CDNC is dominated by cloud droplets growing on particles from the accumulation mode, with smaller contributions from the Aitken and coarse modes. The simulations indicate that in-cloud sulfate production is a potentially important source of accumulation mode sized cloud condensation nuclei, due to chemical growth of activated Aitken particles and to enhanced coalescence of processed particles. The strength of this source depends on the distribution of produced sulfate over the activated modes. This distribution is affected by uncertainties in many parameters that play a direct role in particle activation, such as the updraft velocity, the aerosol chemical composition and the organic solubility, and the simulated CDNC is found to be relatively sensitive to these uncertainties.

  20. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission Applications: Activities, Challenges, and Vision

    Kirschbaum, Dalia; Hou, Arthur

    2012-01-01

    Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) is an international satellite mission to provide nextgeneration observations of rain and snow worldwide every three hours. NASA and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) will launch a "Core" satellite carrying advanced instruments that will set a new standard for precipitation measurements from space. The data they provide will be used to unify precipitation measurements made by an international network of partner satellites to quantify when, where, and how much it rains or snows around the world. The GPM mission will help advance our understanding of Earth's water and energy cycles, improve the forecasting of extreme events that cause natural disasters, and extend current capabilities of using satellite precipitation information to directly benefit society. Building upon the successful legacy of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), GPM's next-generation global precipitation data will lead to scientific advances and societal benefits within a range of hydrologic fields including natural hazards, ecology, public health and water resources. This talk will highlight some examples from TRMM's IS-year history within these applications areas as well as discuss some existing challenges and present a look forward for GPM's contribution to applications in hydrology.

  1. A Relational Database of WHO Mortality Data Prepared to Facilitate Global Mortality Research

    Albert de Roos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Detailed world mortality data such as collected by the World Health Organization gives a wealth of information about causes of death worldwide over a time span of 60 year. However, the raw mortality data in text format as provided by the WHO is not directly suitable for systematic research and data mining. In this Data Paper, a relational database is presented that is created from the raw WHO mortality data set and includes mortality rates, an ICD-code table and country reference data. This enriched database, as a corpus of global mortality data, can be readily imported in relational databases but can also function as the data source for other types of databases. The use of this database can therefore greatly facilitate global epidemiological research that may provide new clues to genetic or environmental factors in the origins of diseases.

  2. Investigate M2M-related communication standards that exist on the global market today

    Albretsen, Aleksander

    2006-01-01

    Most M2M applications use well-known communication technologies to interconnect the devices. Even though they use well-known communication technologies there are no widely used and well-defined M2M standards regarding the data exchange (application layer). This thesis investigates and identifies M2M related communication standards that exist on the global market today, and are applicable for M2M standardisation. This thesis is limited to the following segments within M2M: Security, Automat...

  3. Rethinking the "diseases of affluence" paradigm: global patterns of nutritional risks in relation to economic development.

    Majid Ezzati; Stephen Vander Hoorn; Lawes, Carlene M.M.; Rachel Leach; James, W.Philip T.; Alan D Lopez; Anthony Rodgers; Christopher J L Murray

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases and their nutritional risk factors--including overweight and obesity, elevated blood pressure, and cholesterol--are among the leading causes of global mortality and morbidity, and have been predicted to rise with economic development. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We examined age-standardized mean population levels of body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure, and total cholesterol in relation to national income, food share of household expenditure, and urbani...

  4. Rethinking the "Diseases of Affluence" Paradigm: Global Patterns of Nutritional Risks in Relation to Economic Development

    Ezzati Majid; Vander Hoorn Stephen; Lawes Carlene M. M; Leach Rachel; James W. Philip T; Lopez Alan D; Rodgers Anthony; Murray Christopher J. L

    2005-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular diseases and their nutritional risk factors-including overweight and obesity, elevated blood pressure, and cholesterol-are among the leading causes of global mortality and morbidity, and have been predicted to rise with economic development. Methods and Findings We examined age-standardized mean population levels of body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure, and total cholesterol in relation to national income, food share of household expenditure, and urbaniz...

  5. Uranium related activities in the Russian Federation

    Russia plans to accelerate uranium exploration and production activities to guarantee steady development of mining enterprises. The amount and quality of known uranium resources and current production rates cannot provide the planned requirements. The basic directions in uranium production development are development of active mining facilities, revaluation of stand by uranium deposits, uranium joint production in Kazakhstan. To provide effective mining for the next 30 years at Priargunsky center modernization of mining and technological equipment is conducted currently. Two new uranium producing centers Dalur and Khiagda are under construction. Both operate sandstone basal channel deposits using sulfuric acid ISL technology. Large uranium deposits in Aldan district will be studied for high-grade mineralization distribution and effective ore processing. Realization of presented activities on uranium production development must considerably reduce the rates of stocks depletion and provide fuel requirements of the Russian nuclear industry up to 2025-2030. (author)

  6. Auroral Electrojet Index Designed to Provide a Global Measure, Hourly Intervals, of Auroral Zone Magnetic Activity

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Auroral Electrojet (AE) index is designed to provide a global quantitative measure of auroral zone magnetic activity produced by enhanced ionospheric currents...

  7. THE INFLUENCE OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS, IN THE CONTEXT OF INTENSIFYING GLOBALIZATION PROCESSES, ON THE LABOUR MARKET OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    M. V. POLYAKOVA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the research of the impacts of international relations on the Russian labor market, positive and negative consequences of its functioning in the conditions of globalization and the development of recommendations for overcoming the tensions and reducing negative impacts of external determinants on labor market in the Russian Federation. Intensification of globalization processes and strengthening of international cooperation and international relations of the Russian Federation make an ambiguous influence on the functioning of national labor market. On the one hand, expansion of international relations and communications enhances the creation of new jobs, the growth of gross domestic product, the increase of employment and decrease of unemployment;  on the other hand - there is a great reduction of potential labor force, what makes a negative impact on the economic system of the state. In the course of the research the author made a detailed analysis of positive and negative moments accompanying the activization of international relations of Russia and formulated the list of measures aimed at reduction and elimination of negative consequences and influences on labor market of the expanded presence of the Russian Federation on the  nternational arena.

  8. Understanding decreases in land relative humidity with global warming: conceptual model and GCM simulations

    Byrne, Michael P

    2016-01-01

    Climate models simulate a strong land-ocean contrast in the response of near-surface relative humidity to global warming: relative humidity tends to increase slightly over oceans but decrease substantially over land. Surface energy balance arguments have been used to understand the response over ocean but are difficult to apply over more complex land surfaces. Here, a conceptual box model is introduced, involving moisture transport between the land and ocean boundary layers and evapotranspiration, to investigate the decreases in land relative humidity as the climate warms. The box model is applied to idealized and full-complexity (CMIP5) general circulation model simulations, and it is found to capture many of the features of the simulated changes in land relative humidity. The box model suggests there is a strong link between fractional changes in specific humidity over land and ocean, and the greater warming over land than ocean then implies a decrease in land relative humidity. Evapotranspiration is of sec...

  9. Active and passive beam application design guide for global application

    Rimmer, Julian

    2015-01-01

    The Active and Passive Beam Application Design Guide is the result of collaboration by worldwide experts to give system designers a current, authoritative guide on successfully applying active and passive beam technology. Active and Passive Beam Application Design Guide provide energy-efficient methods of cooling, heating, and ventilating indoor areas, especially spaces that require individual zone control and where internal moisture loads are moderate. The systems are simple to operate, with low maintenance requirements. This book is an essential resource for consulting engineers, architects, owners, and contractors who are involved in the design, operation, and installation of these systems. Building on REHVA’s Chilled Beam Application Guidebook, this new guide provides up-to-date tools and advice for designing, commissioning, and operating chilled-beam systems to achieve a determined indoor climate, and includes examples of active and passive beam calculations and selections. Dual units (SI and I-P) are...

  10. RUSSIAN-UKRAINIAN RELATIONS IN THE FRAMEWORK OF THE VALUES RESHAPED BY THE GLOBALIZED COMMUNITY

    Natalia Nikolaevna SHEVCHENKO

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presented a description of the current standing of the globalizing world community assumed to settle on the shared scale of values. The study examined the chang-es in the scale of values Ukraine has undergone, taking for instance the Russian-Ukrainian relations. The paper re-vealed discrepancy in the values NATO declared with their factual actions aimed at inciting the Ukrainian conflict, and inferred that stabilizing the Russian-Ukrainian relations in prospect would depend on commitments the both coun-tries could make to mutual understanding and bilateral cooperation on the shared value basis.

  11. Environmental impact assessement related to metallurgical industry activities

    Cirtina, D.; Ionescu, N; L. M. Cirtina

    2016-01-01

    In this work is presented the impact assess of metallurgical specific activities on the environment through global pollution index calculation. The pollution index value calculated for environmental components: air, water, soil, vegetation, noise, waste, population health status indicated an environment subject to human effect within acceptable limits.

  12. Entrepreneur-related constructs explaining the emergence of born global firms: A Systematic Literature Review

    Elena Pawęta

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The paper is aimed at structuring entrepreneur-related constructs and building a conceptual framework that can serve as a foundation for future international entrepreneurship research and theory building. Research Design & Methods: The author conducted the systematic literature review of 94 empirical studies and conceptual papers on the entrepreneur-related determinants of early internationalization in the international management journals in the years 1966 – 2015. Findings: This article discusses and groups the existing knowledge on entrepreneur-related determinants of born globals successful international performance. The major theoretical contribution of the study is the conceptual framework of the main entrepreneur-level determinants of rapid internationalization. Implications & Recommendations: The results of the study are exploratory and there is a need in validating the theoretical framework through an advanced quantitative study. Future research might try to integrate the reviewed entrepreneur-related constructs with organizational characteristics and external characteristics which determine born globals emergence. Contribution & Value added: This paper provides the conceptual framework that groups entrepreneur-related constructs into 6 main constructs which can enrich future international entrepreneurship research.

  13. A Comparison Between Global Proxies of the Sun's Magnetic Activity Cycle: Inferences from Helioseismology

    Broomhall, A -M

    2015-01-01

    The last solar minimum was, by recent standards, unusually deep and long. We are now close to the maximum of the subsequent solar cycle, which is relatively weak. In this article we make comparisons between different global (unresolved) measures of the Sun's magnetic activity, to investigate how they are responding to this weak-activity epoch. We focus on helioseismic data, which are sensitive to conditions, including the characteristics of the magnetic field, in the solar interior. Also considered are measures of the magnetic field in the photosphere (sunspot number and sunspot area), the chromosphere and corona (10.7cm radio flux and 530.3nm green coronal index), and two measures of the Sun's magnetic activity closer to Earth (the interplanetary magnetic field and the galactic cosmic-ray intensity). Scaled versions of the activity proxies diverge from the helioseismic data around 2000, indicating a change in relationship between the proxies. The degree of divergence varies from proxy to proxy with sunspot a...

  14. Future role and significance of space activities in reflection of global social, technological and economic trends

    Diekmann, Andreas; Richarz, Hans.-Peter

    The paper describes the interrelation of space activities and global socio-economic trends like "globalisation of markets" and "renaissance of fine arts". The interrelation reveals the economic strategic, technological and scientific dimension of space activities and their benefits to mankind. Then, the significance and perspectives of space activities in these dimensions are examined in more detail. The paper calls (1) for a more visible initiative to employ space activities to tackle urgent questions of global change and development, and (2) for a stronger impetus to secure European economic position in space sector as a key industry of the 21st century.

  15. Global search tool for the Advanced Photon Source Integrated Relational Model of Installed Systems (IRMIS) database

    The Integrated Relational Model of Installed Systems (IRMIS) is a relational database tool that has been implemented at the Advanced Photon Source to maintain an updated account of approximately 600 control system software applications, 400,000 process variables, and 30,000 control system hardware components. To effectively display this large amount of control system information to operators and engineers, IRMIS was initially built with nine Web-based viewers: Applications Organizing Index, IOC, PLC, Component Type, Installed Components, Network, Controls Spares, Process Variables, and Cables. However, since each viewer is designed to provide details from only one major category of the control system, the necessity for a one-stop global search tool for the entire database became apparent. The user requirements for extremely fast database search time and ease of navigation through search results led to the choice of Asynchronous JavaScript and XML (AJAX) technology in the implementation of the IRMIS global search tool. Unique features of the global search tool include a two-tier level of displayed search results, and a database data integrity validation and reporting mechanism.

  16. 29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses.

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Activities relating to race horses. 780.122 Section 780.122... Activities relating to race horses. Employees engaged in the breeding, raising, and training of horses on..., employees engaged in the racing, training, and care of horses and other activities performed off the farm...

  17. 12 CFR 225.129 - Activities closely related to banking.

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Activities closely related to banking. 225.129 Section 225.129 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL... Holding Companies Interpretations § 225.129 Activities closely related to banking. Courier activities....

  18. Effectiveness of Corporate Social Media Activities to Increase Relational Outcomes

    Risius, Marten; Beck, Roman

    2015-01-01

    This study applies social media analytics to investigate the impact of different corporate social media activities on user word of mouth and attitudinal loyalty. We conduct a multilevel analysis of approximately 5 million tweets regarding the main Twitter accounts of 28 large global companies. We...... effects of social media management tools, broadcasting accounts, and conversational communication on public perception.......This study applies social media analytics to investigate the impact of different corporate social media activities on user word of mouth and attitudinal loyalty. We conduct a multilevel analysis of approximately 5 million tweets regarding the main Twitter accounts of 28 large global companies. We...... empirically identify different social media activities in terms of social media management strategies (using social media management tools or the web-frontend client), account types (broadcasting or receiving information), and communicative approaches (conversational or disseminative). We find positive...

  19. Chart of nuclides relating to neutron activation

    This chart is for frequent use in the prediction of the product species of neutron activation. The first edition of the chart has been made in 1976 after the repeated trial preparation. It has the following good points. (1) Any letter in chart is as large as one can read easily. [This condition has been obtained by the selection of items to be shown in chart. They are the name (the symbol of element, mass number, and half-life) of nuclide or of isomer, and the type of decay.]. (2) Decay product has been shown indirectly for branchings with two-step decay via short-lived daughter in an excited state. [This matter has been realized by use of the new mode of indication.] (3) Nuclides shown in chart are (a) naturally occurring nuclides and (b) nuclides formed from naturally occurring nuclides through one of the following reactions: (n, γ), (n, n'), (n, p), (n, α), (n, 2n), (n, pn), (n, 3n), (n, αn), (n, t), (n, 3He), (n, 2p), and (n, γ)(n, γ). In the revision of the first edition, some modes of indication have become a little simpler, and the isomers of shorter half-lives (0.1 - 1 μs) have been added. (author)

  20. Geomechanical Simulations Related to UCG Activities

    Vorobiev, O; Morris, J; Antoun, T; Friedmann, S J

    2008-07-11

    This paper presents results from a recent investigation into a range of geomechanical processes induced by UCG activities. The mechanical response of the coal and host rock mass plays a role in every stage of UCG operations. For example, cavity collapse during the burn has significant effect upon the rate of the burn itself. In the vicinity of the cavity, collapse and fracturing may result in enhanced hydraulic conductivity of the rock matrix above the burn chamber. Even far from the cavity, stresses due to subsidence may be sufficient to induce new fractures linking previously isolated aquifers. These mechanical processes are very important in understanding the risk of unacceptable subsidence and the potential for groundwater contamination. The mechanical processes are inherently non-linear, involving significant inelastic response, especially in the region closest to the cavity. in addition, the response of the rock mass involves both continuum and discrete mechanical behavior. To better understand these effects, they have applied a suite of highly non-linear computational tools in both two and three dimensions to a series of UCG scenarios. The calculations include combinations of continuum and discrete mechanical responses by employing fully coupled finite element and discrete element capabilities.

  1. Physical Activity and Alzheimer's-Related Hippocampal Atrophy

    ... Plan National Alzheimer's Project Act (NAPA) About ADEAR Physical activity and Alzheimer’s-related hippocampal atrophy August 4, 2014 Physical activity may help prevent atrophy of the hippocampus, a ...

  2. The Global Health Dimensions of Asbestos and Asbestos-Related Diseases.

    Takahashi, Ken; Landrigan, Philip J

    2016-01-01

    The Collegium Ramazzini (CR) reaffirms its long-standing position that responsible public health action is to ban all extraction and use of asbestos, including chrysotile. This current statement updates earlier statements by the CR with a focus on global health dimensions of asbestos and asbestos-related diseases (ARDs). The ARD epidemic will likely not peak for at least a decade in most industrialized countries and for several decades in industrializing countries. Asbestos and ARDs will continue to present challenges in the arena of occupational medicine and public health, as well as in clinical research and practice, and have thus emerged as a global health issue. Industrialized countries that have already gone through the transition to an asbestos ban have learned lessons and acquired know-how and capacity that could be of great value if deployed in industrializing countries embarking on the transition. The accumulated wealth of experience and technologies in industrialized countries should thus be shared internationally through global campaigns to eliminate ARDs. PMID:27325079

  3. Health-related rehabilitation services: assessing the global supply of and need for human resources

    Landry Michel D

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human resources for rehabilitation are often a neglected component of health services strengthening and health workforce development. This may be partly related to weaknesses in the available research and evidence to inform advocacy and programmatic strategies. The objective of this study was to quantitatively describe the global situation in terms of supply of and need for human resources for health-related rehabilitation services, as a basis for strategy development of the workforce in physical and rehabilitation medicine. Methods Data for assessing supply of and need for rehabilitative personnel were extracted and analyzed from statistical databases maintained by the World Health Organization and other national and international health information sources. Standardized classifications were used to enhance cross-national comparability of findings. Results Large differences were found across countries and regions between assessed need for services requiring health workers associated to physical and rehabilitation medicine against estimated supply of health personnel skilled in rehabilitation services. Despite greater need, low- and middle-income countries tended to report less availability of skilled health personnel, although the strength of the supply-need relationship varied across geographical and economic country groupings. Conclusion The evidence base on human resources for health-related rehabilitation services remains fragmented, the result of limited availability and use of quality, comparable data and information within and across countries. This assessment offered the first global baseline, intended to catalyze further research that can be translated into evidence to support human resources for rehabilitation policy and practice.

  4. Error characterisation of global active and passive microwave soil moisture datasets

    W. A. Dorigo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the error structures of remotely sensed soil moisture observations is essential for correctly interpreting observed variations and trends in the data or assimilating them in hydrological or numerical weather prediction models. Nevertheless, a spatially coherent assessment of the quality of the various globally available datasets is often hampered by the limited availability over space and time of reliable in-situ measurements. As an alternative, this study explores the triple collocation error estimation technique for assessing the relative quality of several globally available soil moisture products from active (ASCAT and passive (AMSR-E and SSM/I microwave sensors. The triple collocation is a powerful statistical tool to estimate the root mean square error while simultaneously solving for systematic differences in the climatologies of a set of three linearly related data sources with independent error structures. Prerequisite for this technique is the availability of a sufficiently large number of timely corresponding observations. In addition to the active and passive satellite-based datasets, we used the ERA-Interim and GLDAS-NOAH reanalysis soil moisture datasets as a third, independent reference. The prime objective is to reveal trends in uncertainty related to different observation principles (passive versus active, the use of different frequencies (C-, X-, and Ku-band for passive microwave observations, and the choice of the independent reference dataset (ERA-Interim versus GLDAS-NOAH. The results suggest that the triple collocation method provides realistic error estimates. Observed spatial trends agree well with the existing theory and studies on the performance of different observation principles and frequencies with respect to land cover and vegetation density. In addition, if all theoretical prerequisites are fulfilled (e.g. a sufficiently large number of common observations is available and errors of the different

  5. Political Education. The Global Education of Citizen through Active Citizenship

    Edi Puka

    2014-01-01

    The human being grows in relationship with others of its fellows, and it is by virtue of this relationship that it receives a particular cultural heritage and acquires its own identity, differentiating itself, finding its own space of freedom and autonomy allowing it to interact and extend its own network of relations. In such a dynamic of reciprocity, the man realizes himself as such as a conscious member of a “social body”, i.e. of a radical society in an organic human context, which has be...

  6. Activity Based Learning in a Freshman Global Business Course: Analyses of Preferences and Demographic Differences

    Levine, Mark F.; Guy, Paul W.

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigates pre-business students' reaction to Activity Based Learning in a lower division core required course entitled Introduction to Global Business in the business curriculum at California State University Chico. The study investigates students' preference for Activity Based Learning in comparison to a more traditional…

  7. Global partnering related to nuclear materials safeguards and security - A pragmatic approach to international safeguards work

    This paper documents issues Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc. has addressed in the performance of international work to safeguards and security work. It begins with a description of the package we put together for a sample proposal for the Global Threat Reduction Initiative, for which we were ranked number one for technical approach and cost, and concludes with a discussion of approaches that we have taken to performing this work, including issues related to performing the work as part of a team. The primary focus is on communication, workforce, equipment, and coordination issues. Finally, the paper documents the rules that we use to assure the work is performed safely and successfully. (author)

  8. On relation between local transport coefficient and global confinement scaling law

    The relation between the local thermal transport coefficient and the scaling law of the global energy confinement time is discussed. It is found that the parameter dependence of the scaling law is modified strongly by the density profile and is often dictated by the transport coefficient near the plasma boundary. When the plasma has the steep gradient near edge, the effect is enhanced. The representation of the empirical scaling law by the averaged quantities of the plasma (such as the beta value, effective collision frequency etc.) could be misleading in this respect. (author)

  9. Global CO2-consumption by chemical weathering: What is the contribution of highly active weathering regions?

    Hartmann, Jens; Jansen, Nils; Dürr, Hans H.; Kempe, Stephan; Köhler, Peter

    2010-05-01

    CO2-consumption by chemical weathering of silicates and resulting silicate/carbonate weathering ratios influences the terrestrial lateral inorganic carbon flux to the ocean and long-term climate changes. However, little is known of the spatial extension of highly active weathering regions and their proportion of global CO2-consumption. As those regions may be of significant importance for global climate change, global CO2-consumption is calculated here at high resolution, to adequately represent them. In previous studies global CO2-consumption is estimated using two different approaches: i) a reverse approach based on hydrochemical fluxes from large rivers and ii) a forward approach applying spatially explicit a function for CO2-consumption. The first approach results in an estimate without providing a spatial resolution for highly active regions and the second approach applied six lithological classes while including three sediment classes (shale, sandstone and carbonate rock) based at a 1° or 2° grid resolution. It remained uncertain, if the applied lithological classification schemes represent adequately CO2-consumption from sediments on a global scale (as well as liberation of other elements like phosphorus or silicon by chemical weatheirng). This is due to the large variability of sediment properties, their diagenetic history and the contribution from carbonates apparent in silicate dominated lithological classes. To address these issues, a CO2-consumption model, trained at high-resolution data, is applied here to a global vector based lithological map with 15 lithological classes. The calibration data were obtained from areas representing a wide range of weathering rates. Resulting global CO2-consumption by chemical weathering is similar to earlier estimates (237 Mt C a-1) but the proportion of silicate weathering is 63%, and thus larger than previous estimates (49 to 60%). The application of the enhanced lithological classification scheme reveals that it

  10. GLOBAL THRESHOLD AND REGION-BASED ACTIVE CONTOUR MODEL FOR ACCURATE IMAGE SEGMENTATION

    Nuseiba M. Altarawneh; Suhuai Luo; Brian Regan; Changming Sun; Fucang Jia

    2014-01-01

    In this contribution, we develop a novel global threshold-based active contour model. This model deploys a new edge-stopping function to control the direction of the evolution and to stop the evolving contour at weak or blurred edges. An implementation of the model requires the use of selective binary and Gaussian filtering regularized level set (SBGFRLS) method. The method uses either a selective local or global segmentation property. It penalizes the level set function to force ...

  11. Speech Writing--A Major Public Relations Activity?

    Baskin, Otis

    The magnitude and importance of nonpolitical speech ghostwriting as a public relations activity was investigated. Corporate public relations departments and public relations counseling firms with more than five members that are listed in the directory of the Public Relations Society of America received a questionnaire asking seven questions about…

  12. The role of public relations activities in hospital choice.

    Tengilimoglu, Dilaver; Yesiltas, Mehmet; Kisa, Adnan; Dziegielewski, Sophia F

    2007-01-01

    Public relations activities for all organizations can have an important effect on consumer decision-making when buying goods or services. This study examines the effect that public relations activities can have regarding consumer decisions and choice. To explore exemplify this relationship a questionnaire was given to 971 patients within public, university and private hospitals in Ankara, Turkey. Study results show that public relations activities were a crucial factor in determining consumer hospital choice. The majority of respondents reported that the behaviors and attitude of personnel as public relations activities that support the hospital's reputation within the public were the primary variables in hospital choice. Health care managers can use these findings to further understand how patients make informed choices related to usage of a health care facility and to develop and/or improve public relations activities. PMID:19042526

  13. The local in the global – creating ethical relations between producers and consumers

    Hanne Torjusen

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Cet article propose d’explorer comment les produits locaux et localisés jouent un rôle dans la créations de relations « équitables » entre producteurs et consommateurs, dans le système alimentaire globalisé actuel. Dans un premier temps nous discuterons les termes de « local » et de « produits locaux ». Dans un second temps nous présenterons trois exemples de stratégies fondées sur les produits locaux et l’équitabilité : le commerce équitable, Slow Food et les associations pour le maintien de l’agriculture paysanne (AMAP. A partir des ces exemples nous discuterons de l’impact d’un système alimentaire globalisé sur le développement d’un système alimentaire localisé, soulignant le fait que considérer le « local dans le global » offre à la fois une perspective de transformation, de mouvement et de résistance.In this paper we explore how “local” food plays a role in creating ethical relations between producers and consumers in today’s globalized food system. First, understandings of local and local food will be discussed. Second, we will present and reflect on three examples of local food strategies for creating ethical links between producers and consumers: Fair trade, Slow Food and Community Supported Agriculture (CSA. We argue that the process of globalisation of the food system creates space for various local food initiatives, indicating that the local in the global offers both a potential for transformation, movement and site of resistance.

  14. The Global Politics of Gay Rights: The Straining Relations between the West and Africa

    Hakeem Onapajo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the contemporary global politics of gay rights as it relates to the straining relations between the Western powers and many African states that oppose sexual minorities’ rights. While the West (with emphasis on the United States, EU, and Britain advocates for the protection of gay rights in the world, Africa provides the largest concentration of states opposed to them. Therefore, there has been rising tension between both regions. This became more apparent after Nigeria and Uganda, respectively, signed their anti-gay bills into law in January and February 2014. In response to this, the Western powers decided to take some punitive measures, especially imposition of sanctions, against the countries to pressurise them to repeal their laws. In an unusual manner, the African states are radically determined to go ahead with their anti-gay laws in open defiance to the demands of the Western powers. This development, which is informed by a number of factors, shows a rather new pattern of behaviour by African states in global politics.

  15. Political Education. The Global Education of Citizen through Active Citizenship

    Edi Puka

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The human being grows in relationship with others of its fellows, and it is by virtue of this relationship that it receives a particular cultural heritage and acquires its own identity, differentiating itself, finding its own space of freedom and autonomy allowing it to interact and extend its own network of relations. In such a dynamic of reciprocity, the man realizes himself as such as a conscious member of a “social body”, i.e. of a radical society in an organic human context, which has become nowadays a clearly planetary one, by virtue of the unpublished migration flows and obvious interdependence of the Planet. The education is a line of human civility and it causes that grounds of anonymity, fears, consumerism, prejudice, haste, indifference, abuse, insecurity, solitude, become grounds of hospitality, trust, sharing, security, friendship, and brotherhood. The patterns of political education having prevailed so far are: the academic model with its explanation and dissent in the abstract of a great deal of knowledge, and that of the laboratory, which tilts and leans over, even by moments of simulation, toward vital worlds of operational policy. It is now manifested a widespread social demand about the necessity to provide to everybody, but especially in the range of basic youth socio-political information, an equipment of historical and values’ nature, and by providing comparative elements on the different socio-political matrices and traditions, raising the incentive at a renewing and increasingly conscious commitment in the face of growing difficulties, inherent to the political perspectives disputed so far in the world. It is necessary to refocus and reestablish a political culture uniting the breath of the ideal with the reality of administrative experience, supporting this political culture with the contribution of a dynamic and open reflection, capable of understanding the reality.

  16. Global maps of climate change impacts on the favourability for human habitation and economic activity

    Füssel, Hans-Martin

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the statistical relationship between climatic factors and the global distribution of population and economic activity. Building on this analysis, a new method is developed for assessing geographically explicit impacts of climate change on the suitability of regions for human habitation and economic activity. This method combines information about differences in the conditional distributions of population density and economic activity across climate categories with climate ...

  17. Animal Related Activities as Determinants of Species Knowledge

    Randler, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    Previous work has established a relationship between knowledge and environmental concern. Different factors may contribute to this knowledge and animal-related leisure activities may also contribute to this knowledge. 390 participants in Leipzig, Germany were interviewed to assess their animal-related leisure activities, their demographic status…

  18. 12 CFR 225.131 - Activities closely related to banking.

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Activities closely related to banking. 225.131 Section 225.131 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL... Holding Companies Interpretations § 225.131 Activities closely related to banking. (a) Bank...

  19. 12 CFR 225.123 - Activities closely related to banking.

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Activities closely related to banking. 225.123 Section 225.123 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL... Holding Companies Interpretations § 225.123 Activities closely related to banking. (a) Effective June...

  20. Coupling Strength and System Size Induce Firing Activity of Globally Coupled Neural Network

    WEI Du-Qu; LUO Xiao-Shu; ZOU Yan-Li

    2008-01-01

    We investigate how firing activity of globally coupled neural network depends on the coupling strength C and system size N.Network elements are described by space-clamped FitzHugh-Nagumo (SCFHN) neurons with the values of parameters at which no firing activity occurs.It is found that for a given appropriate coupling strength,there is an intermediate range of system size where the firing activity of globally coupled SCFHN neural network is induced and enhanced.On the other hand,for a given intermediate system size level,there ex/sts an optimal value of coupling strength such that the intensity of firing activity reaches its maximum.These phenomena imply that the coupling strength and system size play a vital role in firing activity of neural network.

  1. Nature–Culture Relations: Early Globalization, Climate Changes, and System Crisis

    Sing C. Chew

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Globalization has been on everyone’s lips in light of the contemporary conditions. It has been viewed mostly as a stage reached as a result of long-term societal changes over the course of world history. For us, globalization has been an ongoing process for at least the last 5000 years. Little attention has been paid to the socioeconomic and natural processes that led to the current transformation. With the exception of historical sociologists, there is less interest in examining the long-term past as it is often assumed that the past has nothing to teach us, and it is the future that we have to turn our intellectual gaze. This paper will argue the opposite. We believe a long-term tracing of the socioeconomic and political processes of the making of the modern world will allow us to have a more incisive understanding of the current trajectory of world development and transformations. To plead our case, we outline the emergence of the first Eurasian World Economy linking seven regions (Europe, the Arabian Peninsula, East Africa, the Persian Gulf, Central Asia, South Asia, Ceylon, Southeast Asia, and China of the world, with the exception of the Americas, starting as early as 200 BC, and the sequence of structural crises and transformations (trading networks and commodities that has circumscribed the structures and trends of the current global system. Such consideration in our view is limited if we do not also include the relations between social systems and Nature, and the rhythms of the climate. For the latter, an awareness of the natural rhythms of the climate as well as human induced changes or climate forcing have triggered system-wide level collapses during certain early historical periods.

  2. Are secular correlations between sunspots, geomagnetic activity, and global temperature significant?

    Love, J.J.; Mursula, K.; Tsai, V.C.; Perkins, D.M.

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have led to speculation that solar-terrestrial interaction, measured by sunspot number and geomagnetic activity, has played an important role in global temperature change over the past century or so. We treat this possibility as an hypothesis for testing. We examine the statistical significance of cross-correlations between sunspot number, geomagnetic activity, and global surface temperature for the years 1868-2008, solar cycles 11-23. The data contain substantial autocorrelation and nonstationarity, properties that are incompatible with standard measures of cross-correlational significance, but which can be largely removed by averaging over solar cycles and first-difference detrending. Treated data show an expected statistically- significant correlation between sunspot number and geomagnetic activity, Pearson p global temperature and sunspot number (geomagnetic activity) are not significant, p = 0.9954, (p = 0.8171). In other words, straightforward analysis does not support widely-cited suggestions that these data record a prominent role for solar-terrestrial interaction in global climate change. With respect to the sunspot-number, geomagnetic-activity, and global-temperature data, three alternative hypotheses remain difficult to reject: (1) the role of solar-terrestrial interaction in recent climate change is contained wholly in long-term trends and not in any shorter-term secular variation, or, (2) an anthropogenic signal is hiding correlation between solar-terrestrial variables and global temperature, or, (3) the null hypothesis, recent climate change has not been influenced by solar-terrestrial interaction. ?? 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  3. Global Groundwater related Risk Indicators: quantifying groundwater stress and groundwater table decline (1990-2010) at global scale

    Faneca Sanchez, Marta; Sutanudjaja, Edwin; Kuijper, Marijn; Bierkens, Marc

    2016-04-01

    Groundwater is an invisible but indispensable resource for the economic development of many countries. Due to the need for this resource, in many cases it is exploited under severe pressure and the exploitation can become not sustainable. The non-sustainable exploitation of water is a well-known problem on both regional and global scales. However, most currently-available assessments on water stress still mostly focus on surface water and on water balances. In this work, we presented two global maps of groundwater risk indicators: an updated version of the groundwater stress (Gleeson et al., 2011, DOI: 10.1038/nature11295) and an indicator on groundwater table decline for the period 1990-2010. To calculate both indicators, we used the updated PCR-GLOBWB model output at 5 arcmin resolution (about 10 km at the equator), that is extended with an offline coupling to a global groundwater MODFLOW model. PCR-GLOBWB simulates daily river discharge and groundwater recharge, as well as surface water and groundwater abstraction rates. The latter are estimated internally within the model based on the simulation of their availabilities and water demands for irrigation and other sectors. The daily output of PCR-GLOBWB would then be aggregated to the monthly resolution and used to force the MODFLOW groundwater model resolving spatio-temporal groundwater table dynamics, incorporating the simulated groundwater abstraction of PCR-GLOBWB. Using the PCR-GLOBWB and MODFLOW simulation results from the period 1990-2010, we then quantified groundwater stress and assessed the groundwater table decline. Results are presented on four different spatial scales: 5 arcmin pixel, drainage/sub-catchment unit, state level, and major aquifer unit. The maps clearly show where groundwater is under stress, where there is a trend in the drop of the groundwater table, the slope of the drop and the significance of it.

  4. New precipitation and temperature grids for northern Patagonia: Advances in relation to global climate grids

    Bianchi, Emilio; Villalba, Ricardo; Viale, Maximiliano; Couvreux, Fleur; Marticorena, Rocio

    2016-02-01

    Climate data of mean monthly temperature and total monthly precipitation compiled from different sources in northern Patagonia were interpolated to 20-km resolution grids over the period 1997-2010. This northern Patagonian climate grid (NPCG) improves upon previous gridded products in terms of its spatial resolution and number of contributing stations, since it incorporates 218 and 114 precipitation and temperature records, respectively. A geostatistical method using surface elevation from a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) as the ancillary variable was used to interpolate station data into even spaced points. The maps provided by NPCG are consistent with the broad spatial and temporal patterns of the northern Patagonian climate, showing a comprehensive representation of the latitudinal and altitudinal gradients in temperature and precipitation, as well as their related patterns of seasonality and continentality. We compared the performance of NPCG and various other datasets available to the climate community for northern Patagonia. The grids used for the comparison included those of the Global Precipitation Climatology Project, ERAInterim, Climate Research Unit (University of East Anglia), and University of Delaware. Based on three statistics that quantitatively assess the spatial coherence of gridded data against available observations (bias, MAE, and RMSE), NPCG outperforms other global grids. NPCG represents a useful tool for understanding climate variability in northern Patagonia and a valuable input for regional models of hydrological and ecological processes. Its resolution is optimal for validating data from the general circulation models and working with raster data derived from remote sensing, such as vegetation indices.

  5. Global Health Diplomacy: A 'Deus ex Machina' for International Development and Relations

    Sebastian Kevany

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Brugha and Bruen (2014 raise a number of compelling issues related to the interaction between politics and policy in the global health context. The first question that their views invite is whether this is, at heart, best characterized as a benign or malign influence. Many commentators have suggested that this overlap should be discouraged (see, for example, Marseille et al 2002; Thomas & Weber 2004; Fidler 2011, while others advocate a decrease in 'stove-piped' or 'siloed' approaches to government, politics, and academia (Lee et al 2010; Feldbaum 2011. To use a parallel example, the world of sport has indirectly contributed a number of notable political advances, not least the end of apartheid in South Africa as a partial result of the ban imposed on their international teams (Nixon 2002. In spite of this, organizations such as FIFA refuse to be drawn into sanctioning international football teams on non-sporting grounds (Sobolev & Gazeta 2014. The future scope and role of global health will, inevitably, face corresponding challenges.

  6. Differential neural activity patterns for spatial relations in humans: a MEG study.

    Scott, Nicole M; Leuthold, Arthur; Sera, Maria D; Georgopoulos, Apostolos P

    2016-02-01

    Children learn the words for above-below relations earlier than for left-right relations, despite treating these equally well in a simple visual categorization task. Even as adults--conflicts in congruency, such as when a stimulus is depicted in a spatially incongruent manner with respect to salient global cues--can be challenging. Here we investigated the neural correlates of encoding and maintaining in working memory above-below and left-right relational planes in 12 adults using magnetoencephalography in order to discover whether above-below relations are represented by the brain differently than left-right relations. Adults performed perfectly on the task behaviorally, so any differences in neural activity were attributed to the stimuli's cognitive attributes. In comparing above-below to left-right relations during stimulus encoding, we found the greatest differences in neural activity in areas associated with space and movement. In comparing congruent to incongruent trials, we found the greatest differential activity in premotor areas. For both contrasts, brain areas involved in the encoding phase were also involved in the maintenance phase, which provides evidence that those brain areas are particularly important in representing the relational planes or congruency types throughout the trial. When comparing neural activity associated with the relational planes during working memory, additional right posterior areas were implicated, whereas the congruent-incongruent contrast implicated additional bilateral frontal and temporal areas. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis left-right relations are represented differently than above-below relations. PMID:26514809

  7. Error characterisation of global active and passive microwave soil moisture data sets

    W. A. Dorigo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the error structures of remotely sensed soil moisture products is essential for correctly interpreting observed variations and trends in the data or assimilating them in hydrological or numerical weather prediction models. Nevertheless, a spatially coherent assessment of the quality of the various globally available data sets is often hampered by the limited availability over space and time of reliable in-situ measurements. This study explores the triple collocation error estimation technique for assessing the relative quality of several globally available soil moisture products from active (ASCAT and passive (AMSR-E and SSM/I microwave sensors. The triple collocation technique is a powerful tool to estimate the root mean square error while simultaneously solving for systematic differences in the climatologies of a set of three independent data sources. In addition to the scatterometer and radiometer data sets, we used the ERA-Interim and GLDAS-NOAH reanalysis soil moisture data sets as a third, independent reference. The prime objective is to reveal trends in uncertainty related to different observation principles (passive versus active, the use of different frequencies (C-, X-, and Ku-band for passive microwave observations, and the choice of the independent reference data set (ERA-Interim versus GLDAS-NOAH.

    The results suggest that the triple collocation method provides realistic error estimates. Observed spatial trends agree well with the existing theory and studies on the performance of different observation principles and frequencies with respect to land cover and vegetation density. In addition, if all theoretical prerequisites are fulfilled (e.g. a sufficiently large number of common observations is available and errors of the different data sets are uncorrelated the errors estimated for the remote sensing products are hardly influenced by the choice of the third independent data set. The results obtained in this

  8. The effects of solar activity on the global solar radiation measured at Khargha Oasis in the Western Dessert of Egypt

    Shaltout, M.; Mohamed, A.

    Khargha is an Oasis in the Western Desert of Egypt of coordinates lat. 25 o 27/ N, long. 30 o 32 / E, and elevation 77.8 meter over the sea level. It is one of the driest areas in the world, the global solar radiation measured starting from January 1976 till now by station belong to the Egyptian Meteorological Authority. We used the data for the last 25 years of the 20"' Century on the daily bases, it is more than two solar cycles. The annual mean of relative humidity for Khargha is 30, and the total rainfall in mms as annual mean is less than one. Where, the evaporation in mms per day as annual mean is about 16. The total sky cover in oktas as annual mean is 0.4 at the midnight, while it is one oktas at the noon as 2annual mean, and 0.7 oktas on the mean of the day. The annual mean is 6.5 Kwh/rn /day for global solar radiation. Fourier analysis technique used to analysis the time series to show any reflection for the 11-year cycle of the solar activity on the measured global radiation in remote, clean, and dry desert area. The results indicate periodicity's similar to the solar activity periodicities, especially that of the eleven year cycle, in a good indication for the effect of solar activity on the climate change.

  9. Changes in geomagnetic activity and global temperature during the past 40 years

    Bucha, Václav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 4 (2012), s. 1095-1107. ISSN 0039-3169 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : geomagnetic activity * polar vortex * climate indices * global temperature Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 0.975, year: 2012

  10. Boundary Activities of Middle School Teacher Teams in a Global Era: Empirical Evidence from China

    Liu, Shengnan; Feng, Daming

    2016-01-01

    With the tide of globalization, the external environment that schools face turns uncertain and complex. In response to the new challenges, teacher teams need to manage boundaries to maintain the sustainable development. The two studies reported in this paper, aimed to examine the boundary activities of teacher teams of middle schools in China. In…

  11. Global self-esteem, perceived athletic competence, and physical activity in children : A longitudinal cohort study

    Noordstar, Johannes J.; van der Net, Janjaap; Jak, Suzanne; Helders, Paul J M; Jongmans, Marian J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The Exercise and Self-Esteem Model is used as a theoretical framework to describe associations between global self-esteem and physical activity, mediated by perceived athletic competence. We know little about how these associations develop over time in elementary school children. We exam

  12. The MUSIC of Galaxy Clusters II: X-ray global properties and scaling relations

    Biffi, Veronica; De Petris, Marco; Valdarnini, Riccardo; Yepes, Gustavo; Gottlöber, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    We present the X-ray properties and scaling relations of a large sample of clusters extracted from the Marenostrum MUltidark SImulations of galaxy Clusters (MUSIC) dataset. We focus on a sub-sample of 179 clusters at redshift z~0.11, with 3.2e14M_sun/hglobal properties of the intracluster medium (ICM), as X-ray temperature (T_X) and luminosity (L_X). T_X is found to slightly under-estimate the true mass-weighted temperature, although tracing fairly well the cluster total mass. We also study the effects of T_X on scaling relations with cluster intrinsic properties: total (M_500) and gas (M_g500) mass; integrated Compton parameter (Y_SZ) of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) thermal effect; Y_X=M_g500 T_X. We confirm that Y_X is a very good mass proxy, with a scatter on M_500-Y_X and Y_SZ-Y_X lower than 5%. The study of scaling relations among X-ray, intrinsic and S...

  13. Influence of Decadal Variability of Global Oceans on South Asian Monsoon and ENSO-Monsoon Relation

    Krishnamurthy, Lakshmi

    This study has investigated the influence of the decadal variability associated with global oceans on South Asian monsoon and El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-monsoon relation. The results are based on observational analysis using long records of monsoon rainfall and circulation and coupled general circulation model experiments using the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Climate System Model (CCSM) version 4 model. The multi-channel singular spectrum analysis (MSSA) of the observed rainfall over India yields three decadal modes. The first mode (52 year period) is associated with the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), the second one (21 year) with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and the third mode (13 year) with the Atlantic tripole. The existence of these decadal modes in the monsoon was also found in the control simulation of NCAR CCSM4. The regionally de-coupled model experiments performed to isolate the influence of North Pacific and North Atlantic also substantiate the above results. The relation between the decadal modes in the monsoon rainfall with the known decadal modes in global SST is examined. The PDO has significant negative correlation with the Indian Monsoon Rainfall (IMR). The mechanism for PDO-monsoon relation is hypothesized through the seasonal footprinting mechanism and further through Walker and Hadley circulations. The model results also confirm the negative correlation between PDO and IMR and the mechanism through which PDO influences monsoon. Both observational and model analysis show that droughts (floods) are more likely over India than floods (droughts) when ENSO and PDO are in their warm (cold) phase. This study emphasizes the importance of carefully distinguishing the different decadal modes in the SST in the North Atlantic Ocean as they have different impacts on the monsoon. The AMO exhibits significant positive correlation with the IMR while the Atlantic tripole has significant negative

  14. Automated time activity classification based on global positioning system (GPS) tracking data

    Wu Jun; Jiang Chengsheng; Houston Douglas; Baker Dean; Delfino Ralph

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Air pollution epidemiological studies are increasingly using global positioning system (GPS) to collect time-location data because they offer continuous tracking, high temporal resolution, and minimum reporting burden for participants. However, substantial uncertainties in the processing and classifying of raw GPS data create challenges for reliably characterizing time activity patterns. We developed and evaluated models to classify people's major time activity patterns fr...

  15. Activity Theory applied to Global Software Engineering: Theoretical Foundations and Implications for Tool Builders

    Tell, Paolo; Ali Babar, Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    Although a plethora of tools are available for Global Software Engineering (GSE) teams, it is being realized increasingly that the most prevalent desktop metaphor underpinning the majority of tools have several inherent limitations. We have proposed that Activity-Based Computing (ABC) can be a...... applying activity theory to GSE. We analyze and explain the fundamental concepts of activity theory, and how they can be applied by using examples of software architecture design and evaluation processes. We describe the kind of data model and architectural support required for applying activity theory in...

  16. Human activities and climate and environment changes: an inevitable relation

    The human interference in the environment and the consequent climate change is today a consensus. The climate change can be local, regional and global. The global climate change is mainly caused by the greenhouse gases, and consequently the climate change intervenes in the environment. The interference cycle emerges in several forms and results in several consequences. However, the Global Warming has certainly the most import global impact. The main cause of the increase in the temperature (Greenhouse Effect) is the intensive use of the fossil fuels. Thus, to minimize the climatic changes actions are necessary to reduce, to substitute and to use with more efficient the fossil fuels. Looking at the past, the old agriculturists may have released greenhouse gases since thousand years ago, thus, modifying slowly but in significant form the earth climate much before the Industrial Age. If this theory is confirmed, its consequences would be decisive for the man history in the planet. For example, in parts of the North America and Europe the current temperatures could be even four Celsius degrees smaller. This change in temperature is enough to hinder agricultural used of these regions and consequently to diminish the human development. The main focus of this work is to perform a retrospective in some of civilizations who collapse due to environmental problems and make a historical description of the human activities (agriculture and livestock) since the primordium of the man up to the Industrial Age, aiming at the man interference on the natural dynamics of the global climate and the environment. This work will show through data comparisons and inferences that the gases emissions from these activities had a significant magnitude comparatively by the emissions after the Industrial Age. It is also demonstrated that the climate and environment interference was inevitable because the human evolution was caused by these activities. Another important point of this work is to

  17. Statistical Modelling of Global Tectonic Activity and some Physical Consequences of its Results

    Konstantin Statnikov

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on the analysis of global earthquake data bank for the last thirty years, a global tectonic activity indicator was proposed comprising a weekly globally averaged mean earthquake magnitude value. It was shown that 84% of indicator variability is a harmonic oscillation with a fundamental period of 37.2 years, twice the maximum period in the tidal oscillation spectrum (18.6 years. From this observation, a conclusion was drawn that parametric resonance (PR exists between global tectonic activity and low-frequency tides. The conclusion was also confirmed by the existence of the statistically significant PR response at the second lowest tidal frequency i.e. 182.6 days. It was shown that the global earthquake flow, with a determination factor 93%, is a sum of two Gaussian streams, nearly equally intense, with mean values of 23 and 83 events per week and standard deviations of 9 and 30 events per week, respectively. The Earth periphery to 'mean time interval between earthquakes' ratios in the first and the second flow modes described above match, by the order of magnitude, the sound velocity in the fluid (~1500 m/s and in elastic medium (5500 m/s.

  18. Some aspects of public relation activities at Russian NPPs

    Full text: Since 1992 Rosenergoatom has managed most of the Russian NPPs. Here in this report we present its main public relations activities. 1. The leading role of the management of Rosenergoatom (Direction of Public Relations) is in relations with the public. 2. The main public relations activities are: - contact with the selected and administrative authorities of different levels, - interaction with mass media, - information of employees, - information of, and interaction with, the people of the areas close to the NPPs and especially of the nearby towns, - organising and carrying out opinion polls, - celebration campaigns at NPPs. 3. The use of NPPs' information centers and groups for PR activities: - construction and equipping of NPPs' public information centers; organising excursions, lectures, debates at NPPs; - publishing of news papers at NPPs and at NPPs' towns. 4. Public information in the regions close to the NPPs construction sites (Far East, Kostroma, Rostov, Veronezh regions). 5. Conclusions on the activities and plans for the future. (author)

  19. Leveraging HIV-related human rights achievements through a Framework Convention on Global Health.

    Buse, Kent; Eba, Patrick; Sigurdson, Jason; Thomson, Kate; Timberlake, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Although AIDS remains a leading cause of death, especially in low- and middle-income countries, the movement to address it has greatly contributed to changing the world's response to health challenges. By fusing activism, political leadership, domestic and international investment, and accountability for results, the course of the epidemic has been radically shifted. People living with HIV and others directly affected by the epidemic have exerted immense leadership since the first days of the response: they have fought to end discrimination on the basis of sero-status, gender, sexual orientation, disability, migration status, drug use, or participation in sex work. Some of this mobilization has taken the form of strategic litigation, drawing human rights down into concrete demands and defining social, health, legal, and economic policy. The global AIDS response has shown that at the core of health lie considerations of social justice, human rights, and accountability. As momentum builds for a Framework Convention on Global Health (FCGH), we believe there is an opportunity to take stock of lessons learned from the response to HIV and ensure that they are replicated and institutionalized in an eventual Convention. We argue that the most critical aspect to the success of the HIV response has been the leadership and activism of civil society. Conventions do not lead to results on their own, and there should be every expectation that the FCGH will be no different. Success requires active monitoring of progress and shortcomings, combined with political and social mobilization to expand investment and access to the services and underlying conditions that protect and advance health. While the FCGH must make civil society support and engagement an indispensable principle, the AIDS movement can contribute substantive content and mobilization for its adoption. A broad international legal framework for health can help address some of the key legal, policy, regulatory, and

  20. Predicting daily photosynthetically active radiation from global solar radiation in the Contiguous United States

    Highlights: • Relationships between the daily PAR and Rs are explored across the United States. • Ten existing models for the PAR fraction estimation are analyzed by 3 years data. • Validation of all obtained models by four statistical parameters. • Introduce the best model of the daily PAR prediction for seven SURFRAD sites. - Abstract: An investigation on the daily photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) with the global solar radiation (Rs) is conducted at 7 surface radiation budget monitoring stations across the Mainland United States by exploiting a 3 years (2009–2011) data achieve. The clearness index, the diffuse fraction and the skylight brightness along with the dew point temperature and the cosine of solar zenith angle are used to generate empirical relationships for predicting PAR from Rs. Records of 2009 and 2010 are employed for model establishment, while records of 2011 are used for validation. The accuracy of the models’ predictions is evaluated by four statistics parameters, including the coefficient of determination, the root mean square error, the mean percentage error and the relative standard deviation. Results show that the polynomial model taking the clearness index as main parameter plus the cosine of solar zenith angle has the best performance out of ten proposed models. And the clearness index is capable to be the indicator for PAR prediction, as a substitute of the combination of the diffuse fraction and the skylight brightness

  1. Global-scale pattern of peatland Sphagnum growth driven by photosynthetically active radiation and growing season length

    Z. Yu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available High-latitude peatlands contain about one third of the world's soil organic carbon, most of which is derived from partly decomposed Sphagnum (peat moss plants. We conducted a meta-analysis based on a global dataset of Sphagnum growth measurements collected from published literature to investigate the effects of bioclimatic variables on Sphagnum growth. Analysis of variance and general linear models were used to relate Sphagnum magellanicum and S. fuscum growth rates to photosynthetically active radiation integrated over the growing season (PAR0 and a moisture index. We found that PAR0 was the main predictor of Sphagnum growth for the global dataset, and effective moisture was only correlated with moss growth at continental sites. The strong correlation between Sphagnum growth and PAR0 suggests the existence of a global pattern of growth, with slow rates under cool climate and short growing seasons, highlighting the important role of temperature and growing season length in explaining peatland biomass production. Large-scale patterns of cloudiness during the growing season might also limit moss growth. Although considerable uncertainty remains over the carbon balance of peatlands under a changing climate, our results suggest that increasing PAR0 as a result of global warming and lengthening growing seasons could promote Sphagnum growth. Assuming that production and decomposition have the same sensitivity to temperature, this enhanced growth could lead to greater peat-carbon sequestration, inducing a negative feedback to climate change.

  2. Global-scale pattern of peatland Sphagnum growth driven by photosynthetically active radiation and growing season length

    Z. Yu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available High-latitude peatlands contain about one third of the world's soil organic carbon, most of which is derived from partly decomposed Sphagnum (peat moss plants. We conducted a meta-analysis based on a global data set of Sphagnum growth measurements collected from published literature to investigate the effects of bioclimatic variables on Sphagnum growth. Analysis of variance and general linear models were used to relate Sphagnum magellanicum and S. fuscum growth rates to photosynthetically active radiation integrated over the growing season (PAR0 and a moisture index. We found that PAR0 was the main predictor of Sphagnum growth for the global data set, and effective moisture was only correlated with moss growth at continental sites. The strong correlation between Sphagnum growth and PAR0 suggests the existence of a global pattern of growth, with slow rates under cool climate and short growing seasons, highlighting the important role of growing season length in explaining peatland biomass production. Large-scale patterns of cloudiness during the growing season might also limit moss growth. Although considerable uncertainty remains over the carbon balance of peatlands under a changing climate, our results suggest that increasing PAR0 as a result of global warming and lengthening growing seasons, without major change in cloudiness, could promote Sphagnum growth. Assuming that production and decomposition have the same sensitivity to temperature, this enhanced growth could lead to greater peat-carbon sequestration, inducing a negative feedback to climate change.

  3. Global robust dissipativity of interval recurrent neural networks with time-varying delay and discontinuous activations

    Duan, Lian; Huang, Lihong; Guo, Zhenyuan

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, the problems of robust dissipativity and robust exponential dissipativity are discussed for a class of recurrent neural networks with time-varying delay and discontinuous activations. We extend an invariance principle for the study of the dissipativity problem of delay systems to the discontinuous case. Based on the developed theory, some novel criteria for checking the global robust dissipativity and global robust exponential dissipativity of the addressed neural network model are established by constructing appropriate Lyapunov functionals and employing the theory of Filippov systems and matrix inequality techniques. The effectiveness of the theoretical results is shown by two examples with numerical simulations.

  4. Adolescent Sexual Activity: Links between Relational Context and Depressive Symptoms

    Monahan, Kathryn C.; Lee, Joanna M.

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of the relational context of adolescent sexual activity on depressive symptoms. The present study examined trajectories of depressive symptoms among 6,602 adolescents (44% male, 60% White) taken from a nationally representative study (Add Health). Sexually active youth in romantic and casual relationships were…

  5. Stress-related factors in the emergence of transient global amnesia with hippocampal lesion

    Juliane eDöhring

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The transient global amnesia (TGA is a rare amnesic syndrome that is characterized by an acute onset episode of an anterograde and retrograde amnesia. Its origin is still debated, but there is evidence for psychological factors involved in TGA. In neuroimaging, selective lesions in the CA1 fields of the hippocampus can be detected, a region that is particularly involved in the processing of memory, stress and emotion. The aim of this study was to assess the role of psychological stress in TGA by studying the prevalence of stress related precipitating events and individual stress-related personality profiles as well as coping strategies in patients. The hypothesis of a functional differentiation of the hippocampus in mnemonic and stress-related compartments was also evaluated. From all 113 patients, 18 % (n= 24 patients experienced emotional and psychological stress episodes directly before the TGA. In a cohort of 21 acute patients, TGA patients tend to cope with stress less efficiently and less constructively than controls. Patients who experienced a stress related precipitant event exhibited a higher level of anxiety in comparison to non-stress patients and controls. However, there was no difference between the general experience of stress and the number of stress inducing life events. The majority of patients (73% did show typical MRI lesions in the CA1 region of the hippocampal cornu ammonis. There was no clear association between stressful events, distribution of hippocampal CA1 lesions and behavioral patterns during the TGA. Disadvantageous coping strategies and an elevated anxiety level may increase the susceptibility to psychological stress which may facilitate the pathophysiological cascade in TGA. The findings suggest a role of emotional stress factors in the manifestation of TGA in a subgroup of patients. Stress may be one trigger involved in the emergence of transient lesions in the hippocampal CA1 region, which are thought to be the

  6. The Global Location of Biopharmaceutical Knowledge Activity: New Findings, New Questions

    Iain M. Cockburn; Matthew J. Slaughter

    2010-01-01

    Location possibilities for biopharmaceutical firms are expanding, driven by factors such as falling natural and political barriers to trade and communication, extension and strengthening of patent protection through institutions including the World Trade Organization, and growing supplies of skilled labor and related infrastructure in large, relatively low-cost countries. This paper examines the causes and consequences of this global expansion of knowledge discovery by biopharmaceutical firms...

  7. Quality Service and its Relation with Global Satisfaction in Fast Food Consumers. A Case Study

    Luis Enrique IBARRA MORALES

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study analyzes the quality service perception and its relation with the satisfaction for the fast food consumers of hamburgers’ sector of the chain Burger King in Hermosillo, Sonora. By the application of Servperf of Cronin and Taylor methodology and a data regression method, through the coefficient of determination (R2 was determined that the independent variables explain the variability or variance of 82.9% in consumer satisfaction and that the explanatory variable which has the most influence in absolute value over the explained variable is reliability, due to its standardized beta is 0.301, being the highest score among the variables. To achieve the objective of this study, a quantitative and correlation investigation was designed, where data was collected from a survey structured by five dimensions, measured by 22 items. It was applied to a random and representative sample of 385 consumers, with a 95% level confidence and a ±5% of permissible error. An inferential statistical analysis allowed observing a positive relation between consumers’ satisfaction level and quality service. The results showed that Servperf is a valid instrument with psychometric characteristics of high reliability that makes it appropriate to measure quality service. The same way, it was observed an index of service global satisfaction of 69.27%, which according to the scale used implies clients are satisfied with the received service.

  8. Realismo versus globalismo nas relações internacionais Realism versus globalism in international relations

    Tullo Vigevani

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Discute-se a influência que os temas econômicos produzem nas bases do poder mundial, tradicionalmente vinculadas aos temas clássicos da estratégia e das relações de poder. Para isso, discutem-se dois pontos de vista teóricos centrais no debate contemporâneo sobre as relações internacionais, o realismo e o globa-lismo, concluindo-se que as divergências existentes não excluem percepões semelhantes no que toca à visão de mundo. As teorias da estabilidade hegemônica e da interdependência complexa são consideradas no quadro do debate relativo às possíveis ordem ou desordem internacionais.World power, traditionally linked with classic themes of strategy and power relations, is discussed in terms of the influence that economic issues have on its foundations. Two main theoretical approaches in the contemporary debate on international relations - realism and globalism - are examined. Existing divergences between them do not conceal a perceptible similarity in their outlooks, the authors argue. Hegemonic stability and complex interdepence theories ares considered in the context of the debate on international order or disorder.

  9. Global numerical simulations of vortex-mediated pulsar glitches in full general relativity

    Sourie, Aurélie; Novak, Jérôme; Oertel, Micaela

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study in detail the role of general relativity on the global dynamics of giant pulsar glitches as exemplified by Vela. For this purpose, we carry out numerical simulations of the spin up triggered by the sudden unpinning of superfluid vortices. In particular, we compute the exchange of angular momentum between the core neutron superfluid and the rest of the star within a two-fluid model including both (non-dissipative) entrainment effects and (dissipative) mutual friction forces. Our simulations are based on a quasi-stationary approach using realistic equations of state (EoSs) following \\cite{sourie2016numerical}. We show that the evolution of the angular velocities of both fluids can be accurately described by an exponential law. The associated characteristic rise time $\\tau_{\\text{r}}$, which can be precisely computed from stationary configurations only, has a form similar to that obtained in the Newtonian limit. However, general relativity changes the structure of the star and leads to ad...

  10. Globalization of innovation activity by transnational corporations: and its importance in the present economic crisis

    Anna Zorska

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to investigate the process of globalizing innovation activity conducted by transnational corporations (TNCs, in a wider context of economic changes outside and inside companies. The process has been triggered by decentralization and internationalization of R&D, “creative transition” of foreign subsidiaries as well as implementing research networks and the open innovation model of TNCs’ innovation activity. Under the present economic crisis some slowdown and reorientation of innovation programs are implemented in order to reduce their costs and increase effectiveness. The globalization of corporate innovation activity can contribute to reaching some of TNCs’ goals both under the present crisis and the future revival of the world economy.

  11. Alcohol dependence and anxiety increase error-related brain activity.

    Schellekens, A.F.A.; Bruijn, E.R. de; Lankveld, C.A. van; Hulstijn, W.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Jong, C.A.J. de; Verkes, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: Detection of errors is crucial for efficient goal-directed behaviour. The ability to monitor behaviour is found to be diminished in patients with substance dependence, as reflected in decreased error-related brain activity, i.e. error-related negativity (ERN). The ERN is also decreased in othe

  12. Alcohol dependence and anxiety increase error-related brain activity

    Schellekens, A.F.A.; Bruijn, E.R.A. de; Lankveld, C.A.A. van; Hulstijn, W.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Jong, C.A.J. de; Verkes, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    Aims Detection of errors is crucial for efficient goal-directed behaviour. The ability to monitor behaviour is found to be diminished in patients with substance dependence, as reflected in decreased error-related brain activity, i.e. error-related negativity (ERN). The ERN is also decreased in other

  13. Occupational Employment in Nuclear-Related Activities, 1981.

    Baker, Joe G.; Olsen, Kathryn

    Employment in nuclear- and nuclear energy-related activities in 1981 was examined and compared to that in previous years. Survey instruments were returned by 784 establishments. Total 1981 nuclear-related employment was estimated to be 249,500--a growth of 22,600 (10%) workers over the 1977 total. Government-owned, contractor-operated (GOCO)…

  14. Local and global solution for a nonlocal Fokker-Planck equation related to the adaptive biasing force process

    Alrachid, Houssam; Lelièvre, Tony; Talhouk, Raafat

    2016-05-01

    We prove global existence, uniqueness and regularity of the mild, Lp and classical solution of a non-linear Fokker-Planck equation arising in an adaptive importance sampling method for molecular dynamics calculations. The non-linear term is related to a conditional expectation, and is thus non-local. The proof uses tools from the theory of semigroups of linear operators for the local existence result, and an a priori estimate based on a supersolution for the global existence result.

  15. Impact on Asian firms of product-related environmental regulations through global supply chains : a study of firms in Malaysia

    Michida, Etsuyo; Ueki, Yasushi; Nabeshima, Kaoru

    2014-01-01

    This paper sheds light on the important role played by global supply chains in the adaptation to product-related environmental regulations imposed by importing countries, with a focus on chemicals management. By utilizing a unique data collected in Penang, Malaysia, we depict the supply chain structures and how differences among firms in participation to global supply chain link to differences in chemical management. We found that firms belonging to a supply chain are in a better position to ...

  16. Localizing reactions to globalization among Czech beer consumers and their relation to the phenomenon of identity crisis

    Černo, Lukáš

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is to define what globalization is, how the people across the world react to it based on their local context, how the reactions change under the conditions of economic crises and finally how the reactions are reflected in consumption. I answer these goals both from the theoretical and practical perspective. Based on my review of theory I define globalization (1) in economic terms as a recurring phenomenon related to changing power structures of world economy when new e...

  17. Future trends of global atmospheric antimony emissions from anthropogenic activities until 2050

    Zhou, Junrui; Tian, Hezhong; Zhu, Chuanyong; Hao, Jiming; Gao, Jiajia; Wang, Yong; Xue, Yifeng; Hua, Shenbin; Wang, Kun

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents the scenario forecast of global atmospheric antimony (Sb) emissions from anthropogenic activities till 2050. The projection scenarios are built based on the comprehensive global antimony emission inventory for the period 1995-2010 which is reported in our previous study. Three scenarios are set up to investigate the future changes of global antimony emissions as well as their source and region contribution characteristics. Trends of activity levels specified as 5 primary source categories are projected by combining the historical trend extrapolation with EIA International energy outlook 2013, while the source-specific dynamic emission factors are determined by applying transformed normal distribution functions. If no major changes in the efficiency of emission control are introduced and keep current air quality legislations (Current Legislation scenario), global antimony emissions will increase by a factor of 2 between 2010 and 2050. The largest increase in Sb emissions is projected from Asia due to large volume of nonferrous metals production and waste incineration. In case of enforcing the pollutant emission standards (Strengthened Control scenario), global antimony emissions in 2050 will stabilize with that of 2010. Moreover, we can anticipate further declines in Sb emissions for all continents with the best emission control performances (Maximum Feasible Technological Reduction scenario). Future antimony emissions from the top 10 largest emitting countries have also been calculated and source category contributions of increasing emissions of these countries present significant diversity. Furthermore, global emission projections in 2050 are distributed within a 1° × 1°latitude/longitude grid. East Asia, Western Europe and North America present remarkable differences in emission intensity under the three scenarios, which implies that source-and-country specific control measures are necessary to be implemented for abating Sb emissions from

  18. The IGAC activity for the development of global emissions inventories: Description and initial results

    Modeling assessments of the atmospheric chemistry, air quality and climatic conditions of the past, present and future require as input inventories of emissions of the appropriate chemical species constructed on appropriate spatial and temporal scales. The task of the Global Emissions Inventories Activity (GEIA) of the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry Project (IGAC) is the production of global inventories suitable for a range of research applications. Current GEIA programs are generally based on addressing emissions by species; these include CO2, NH3/N2O, SO2/NOx, CFC, volatile organic compounds and radioisotopes. In addition a separate program to inventory emissions from biomass burning is also being structured, plus an additional program to address data management issues for all the developing inventories. Program priorities are based on current knowledge and tasks needed to produce the desired inventories. This paper will discuss the different types of global inventories to be developed by the GEIA programs, their key characteristics, and areas to be addressed in the compilation of such inventories. Results of the first GEIA task, a survey of existing inventories and auxiliary data, will be presented. The survey included status assessments for the available inventory information for nineteen different atmospheric species or groups of species on global and regional scales and over time. Of this entire body of information, the only inventory regarded as satisfactory was that for the global emissions of CFCs. An implication of the results of these assessments is that properly gridded emissions inventories are badly needed to support atmospheric modeling calculations on a variety of spatial and temporal scales. Initial studies in the development of global inventories of sulfur dioxide, currently the most advanced GEIA program, will be presented and discussed

  19. Global screening of potential Candida albicans biofilm-related transcription factors via network comparison

    Murillo Luis A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Candida albicans is a commonly encountered fungal pathogen in humans. The formation of biofilm is a major virulence factor in C. albicans pathogenesis and is related to antidrug resistance of this organism. Although many factors affecting biofilm have been analyzed, molecular mechanisms that regulate biofilm formation still await to be elucidated. Results In this study, from the gene regulatory network perspective, we developed an efficient computational framework, which integrates different kinds of data from genome-scale analysis, for global screening of potential transcription factors (TFs controlling C. albicans biofilm formation. S. cerevisiae information and ortholog data were used to infer the possible TF-gene regulatory associations in C. albicans. Based on TF-gene regulatory associations and gene expression profiles, a stochastic dynamic model was employed to reconstruct the gene regulatory networks of C. albicans biofilm and planktonic cells. The two networks were then compared and a score of relevance value (RV was proposed to determine and assign the quantity of correlation of each potential TF with biofilm formation. A total of twenty-three TFs are identified to be related to the biofilm formation; ten of them are previously reported by literature evidences. Conclusions The results indicate that the proposed screening method can successfully identify most known biofilm-related TFs and also identify many others that have not been previously reported. Together, this method can be employed as a pre-experiment screening approach that reveals new target genes for further characterization to understand the regulatory mechanisms in biofilm formation, which can serve as the starting point for therapeutic intervention of C. albicans infections.

  20. Public perception of global warming and related environmental issues in Kano city, Nigeria

    Iliyasu, Z.; Abubakar, I.; Gajida, A.U.

    2010-07-01

    Sub-Saharan African countries are at an increased risk of the effects of global warming. Unfortunately they have the least capacity to adapt to its untoward effects. We studied public awareness of global warming, its perceived causes, effects and prevention in Kano city, northern Nigeria. Structured questionnaires were administered on a cross section of 181 adults in Kano eliciting their awareness of global warming, as well as perceived causes, effects and ways of prevention. Of the 181 respondents, 132 (72.9%) were aware of global warming mainly from electronic media (44.4%), the Internet (20.5%) and schools (18.7%). They mostly attributed it to air pollution (99.2%), use of fossil fuels (97.7%), toxic waste (78.0%) and chlorofluorocarbons (73.5%). Perceived effects of global warming include extremes of ambient temperature (97.7%), increased disease outbreaks (92.4%), floods (68.2%), droughts (51.5%) and loss of species (50.0%). Respondents opined that global warming could be prevented by using renewable sources of energy such as the sun (53.8%), massive tree planting (44.7%) and phasing out of old automobiles (43.2%). A significantly higher proportion of males, younger and educated respondents were aware of global warming. The high awareness about global warming needs to be reinforced through use of media to encourage advocacy and community action towards preventing global warming and ensuring environmental sustainability.

  1. Global OZone Chemistry And Related trace gas Data records for the Stratosphere (GOZCARDS)

    Froidevaux, L.; Fuller, R.; Santee, M. L.; Schwartz, M. J.; Manney, G. L.; Livesey, N. J.; Anderson, J.; Wang, H.; Cunnold, D.; Bernath, P. F.; Walker, K. A.; Salawitch, R. J.; Canty, T. P.; Fiorucci, I.; Muscari, G.; Nedoluha, G. E.; Connor, B. J.; Pawson, S.

    2009-12-01

    The MEaSUREs GOZCARDS project will provide a commonly-formatted Earth system data record (ESDR) for stratospheric composition, of high relevance to the issue of ozone decline and recovery. The data records are drawn primarily from satellite-derived global stratospheric composition measurements from 1979 to the present, including on-going measurements from Aura MLS and ACE-FTS, as well as temperatures and potential vorticity from GSFC's meteorological reanalyses (GMAO MERRA). These data records will provide time series for stratospheric ozone (O3), hydrogen chloride (HCl), chlorine monoxide (ClO), nitric acid (HNO3), water vapor (H2O), nitrous oxide (N2O), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitrogen oxide (NO), methane (CH4), and hydrogen fluoride (HF). Additional "derived data records", using a constrained photochemical model, will be provided for active chlorine (ClOx) and odd nitrogen (NOx). The data are zonal means versus latitude on a common vertical grid, with time resolution of one month as a standard, and one day when possible (for emission measurements from the Microwave Limb Sounder on both UARS and Aura satellites). Data records binned in equivalent latitude and potential temperature will also be produced. We will provide both instrument-specific records and merged data records, with community access (website and data center) starting in 2010. We highlight some results and issues in this presentation.

  2. Sequential Optimization of Global Sequence Alignments Relative to Different Cost Functions

    Odat, Enas M.

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to present a methodology to model global sequence alignment problem as directed acyclic graph which helps to extract all possible optimal alignments. Moreover, a mechanism to sequentially optimize sequence alignment problem relative to different cost functions is suggested. Sequence alignment is mostly important in computational biology. It is used to find evolutionary relationships between biological sequences. There are many algo- rithms that have been developed to solve this problem. The most famous algorithms are Needleman-Wunsch and Smith-Waterman that are based on dynamic program- ming. In dynamic programming, problem is divided into a set of overlapping sub- problems and then the solution of each subproblem is found. Finally, the solutions to these subproblems are combined into a final solution. In this thesis it has been proved that for two sequences of length m and n over a fixed alphabet, the suggested optimization procedure requires O(mn) arithmetic operations per cost function on a single processor machine. The algorithm has been simulated using C#.Net programming language and a number of experiments have been done to verify the proved statements. The results of these experiments show that the number of optimal alignments is reduced after each step of optimization. Furthermore, it has been verified that as the sequence length increased linearly then the number of optimal alignments increased exponentially which also depends on the cost function that is used. Finally, the number of executed operations increases polynomially as the sequence length increase linearly.

  3. Stringy KLT relations, global symmetries, and E_7(7) violation

    Elvang, Henriette

    2010-01-01

    We study consequences of the Kawai-Lewellen-Tye (KLT) relations applied to tree amplitudes in toroidal compactifications of string theory to four dimensions. The closed string tree amplitudes with massless external states respect a global SU(4)xSU(4) symmetry, which is enhanced to the SU(8) R-symmetry of N=8 supergravity in the field theory limit. Our analysis focuses on two aspects: (i) We provide a detailed account of the simplest SU(8)-violating amplitudes. We classify these processes and derive explicit superamplitudes for all local 5- and 6-point operators with SU(4)xSU(4) symmetry at order alpha'^3. Their origin is the dilatonic operator exp(-6 phi) R^4 in the closed-string effective action. (ii) We expand the 6-point closed string tree amplitudes to order alpha'^3 and use two different methods to isolate the SU(8)-singlet contribution from exp(-6 phi) R^4. This allows us to extract the matrix elements of the unique SU(8)-invariant supersymmetrization of R^4. Their single-soft scalar limits are non-vani...

  4. Stringy KLT relations, global symmetries, and E 7(7)-violation

    Elvang, Henriette; Kiermaier, Michael

    2010-10-01

    We study consequences of the Kawai-Lewellen-Tye (KLT) relations applied to tree amplitudes in toroidal compactifications of string theory to four dimensions. The closed string tree amplitudes with massless external states respect a global SU(4) × SU(4) symmetry, which is enhanced to the SU(8) R -symmetry of mathcal{N} = 8 supergravity in the field theory limit. Our analysis focuses on two aspects: (i) We provide a detailed account of the simplest SU(8)-violating amplitudes. We classify these processes and derive explicit superamplitudes for all local 5-and 6-point operators with SU(4) × SU(4) symmetry at order α'3 . Their origin is the dilatonic operator e-6φ R 4 in the closed-string effective action. (ii) We expand the 6-point closed string tree amplitudes to order α3 and use two different methods to isolate the SU(8)-singlet contribution from e-6φ R 4. This allows us to extract the matrix elements of the unique SU(8)-invariant supersymmetrization of R 4. Their single-soft scalar limits are non-vanishing. This demonstrates that the mathcal{N} = 8 supergravity candidate counterterm R 4 is incompatible with continuous E 7(7) symmetry. From the soft scalar limits, we reconstruct to quadratic order the SU(8)-invariant function of scalars that multiplies R 4, and show that it satisfies the Laplace eigenvalue equation derived recently from supersymmetry and duality constraints.

  5. Transient Global Amnesia following Neural and Cardiac Angiography May Be Related to Ischemia

    Hongzhou Duan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Transient global amnesia (TGA following angiography is rare, and the pathogenesis has not been illustrated clearly till now. The aim of this research is to explore the pathogenesis of TGA following angiography by analyzing our data and reviewing the literature. Methods. We retrospectively studied 20836 cases with angiography in our hospital between 2007 and 2015 and found 9 cases with TGA following angiography. The data of these 9 cases were analyzed. Results. We found all 9 cases with TGA following neural angiography (5 in 4360 or cardiac angiography (4 in 8817 and no case with TGA following peripheral angiography (0 in 7659. Statistical difference was found when comparing the neural and cardiac angiography group with peripheral group (p=0.022. Two cases with TGA were confirmed with small acute infarctions in hippocampus after angiography. This might be related to the microemboli which were rushed into vertebral artery following blood flow during neural angiography or cardiac angiography. There was no statistical difference when comparing the different approaches for angiography (p=0.82 and different contrast agents (p=0.619. Conclusion. Based on the positive findings of imaging study and our analysis, we speculate that ischemia in the medial temporal lobe with the involvement of the hippocampus might be an important reason of TGA following angiography.

  6. Global variability in leaf respiration in relation to climate, plant functional types and leaf traits

    Atkin, O.; Bloomfield, K.; Reich, P.B.; Tjoelker, M.G.; Asner, G.; Bonal, D.; Bönisch, G.; Poorter, L.

    2015-01-01

    Leaf dark respiration (R-dark) is an important yet poorly quantified component of the global carbon cycle. Given this, we analyzed a new global database of R-dark and associated leaf traits. Data for 899 species were compiled from 100 sites (from the Arctic to the tropics). Several woody and nonwood

  7. Global gravity wave activity in the tropopause region from CHAMP radio occultation data

    Schmidt, T.; de la Torre, A.; Wickert, J.

    2008-08-01

    We discuss the global gravity wave (GW) activity expressed by the specific potential energy in the altitude range from 5 km below to 10 km above the tropopause, derived from GPS radio occultation data from CHAMP (2001-2008). The GW analysis is based on vertical detrending of the individual measured temperature profiles by applying a Gaussian filter in two different ways: (i) filtering of the complete temperature profiles and (ii) separate filtering of the profiles for the tropospheric and lower stratospheric parts. The separate filtering method significantly reduces the usually observed wave activity enhancement in the tropopause region which highly depends on the performance of the complete filtering method to reproduce the change in the temperature gradient at the tropopause. We only consider vertical wavelengths less than 10 km. The global mean potential energy in the tropopause region deduced with these different background temperatures will be analyzed, differences will be emphasized and possible error sources of the new method will be considered.

  8. Cultural encounters in a global age : knowledge, alterity and the world in Mexico-China relations (1972-2012)

    Antonio-Alfonso, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Mexico and China established official diplomatic relations in 1972. Since then, their mutual economic, political and social links have been developed in an unprecedented way. However, from the perspective of International Relations, the analytical richness of the relationship is obscured by hegemonic conceptualisations of global power, materiality or teleological truths. The literature dealing with the relation in itself has not prioritised a theoretical or holistic approach. Through an anal...

  9. Globally aligned states and hydrodynamic traffic jams in confined active suspensions

    Lefauve, Adrien; Saintillan, David

    2013-01-01

    Strongly confined active liquids are subject to unique hydrodynamic interactions due to momentum screening and lubricated friction by the confining walls. Using numerical simulations, we demonstrate that 2D dilute suspensions of fore-aft asymmetric polar swimmers in a Hele-Shaw geometry can exhibit a rich variety of novel phase behaviors depending on particle shape, including: coherent polarized density waves with global alignment, stationary asters, persistent counter-rotating vortices, dens...

  10. Global regulator Anr represses PlcH phospholipase activity in Pseudomonas aeruginosa when oxygen is limiting

    Jackson, Angelyca A.; Daniels, Emily F.; Hammond, John H.; Willger, Sven D.; Hogan, Deborah A.

    2014-01-01

    Haemolytic phospholipase C (PlcH) is a potent virulence and colonization factor that is expressed at high levels by Pseudomonas aeruginosa within the mammalian host. The phosphorylcholine liberated from phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin by PlcH is further catabolized into molecules that both support growth and further induce plcH expression. We have shown previously that the catabolism of PlcH-released choline leads to increased activity of Anr, a global transcriptional regulator that pro...