WorldWideScience

Sample records for activities fostering fear

  1. Teaching Improvisation in Elementary General Music: Facing Fears and Fostering Creativity

    Whitcomb, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Improvisation is a vital part of an elementary general music education. While some music teachers successfully include improvisation in music instruction, others have fears and face challenges when attempting improvisational activities in the classroom. This article acknowledges obstacles facing music educators when attempting to incorporate…

  2. "FearNot!": A Computer-Based Anti-Bullying-Programme Designed to Foster Peer Intervention

    Vannini, Natalie; Enz, Sibylle; Sapouna, Maria; Wolke, Dieter; Watson, Scott; Woods, Sarah; Dautenhahn, Kerstin; Hall, Lynne; Paiva, Ana; Andre, Elizabeth; Aylett, Ruth; Schneider, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Bullying is widespread in European schools, despite multiple intervention strategies having been proposed over the years. The present study investigates the effects of a novel virtual learning strategy ("FearNot!") to tackle bullying in both UK and German samples. The approach is intended primarily for victims to increase their coping skills and…

  3. Psychopaths show enhanced amygdala activation during fear conditioning

    Douglas eSchultz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Psychopathy is a personality disorder characterized by emotional deficits and a failure to inhibit impulsive behavior and is often subdivided into primary and secondary psychopathic subtypes. The maladaptive behavior related to primary psychopathy is thought to reflect constitutional fearlessness, while the problematic behavior related to secondary psychopathy is motivated by other factors. The fearlessness observed in psychopathy has often been interpreted as reflecting a fundamental deficit in amygdala function, and previous studies have provided support for a low-fear model of psychopathy. However, many of these studies fail to use appropriate screening procedures, use liberal inclusion criteria, or have used unconventional approaches to assay amygdala function. We measured brain activity with BOLD imaging in primary and secondary psychopaths and non-psychopathic control subjects during Pavlovian fear conditioning. In contrast to the low-fear model, we observed normal fear expression in primary psychopaths. Psychopaths also displayed greater differential BOLD activity in the amygdala relative to matched controls. Inverse patterns of activity were observed in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC for primary versus secondary psychopaths. Primary psychopaths exhibited a pattern of activity in the dorsal and ventral ACC consistent with enhanced fear expression, while secondary psychopaths exhibited a pattern of activity in these regions consistent with fear inhibition. These results contradict the low-fear model of psychopathy and suggest that the low fear observed for psychopaths in previous studies may be specific to secondary psychopaths.

  4. Familiar Fears: The Assessment of Lesbian and Gay Fostering and Adoption Applicants

    Hicks, Stephen

    1998-01-01

    This thesis considers how local authority social workers go about assessing the suitability of lesbians and gay men to foster or adopt children. It also asks how far a stated lesbian or gay sexuality is problematic within this process. A constructionist approach to social enquiry is used, data being generated by interviews with social workers, as well as a case study of a lesbian couple’s adoption application. Dorothy Smith’s ‘institutional ethnography’ is also employed to examine the ‘relati...

  5. Characterization of fear conditioning and fear extinction by analysis of electrodermal activity.

    Faghih, Rose T; Stokes, Patrick A; Marin, Marie-France; Zsido, Rachel G; Zorowitz, Sam; Rosenbaum, Blake L; Huijin Song; Milad, Mohammed R; Dougherty, Darin D; Eskandar, Emad N; Widge, Alik S; Brown, Emery N; Barbieri, Riccardo

    2015-08-01

    Electrodermal activity (EDA) is a measure of physical arousal, which is frequently measured during psychophysical tasks relevant for anxiety disorders. Recently, specific protocols and procedures have been devised in order to examine the neural mechanisms of fear conditioning and extinction. EDA reflects important responses associated with stimuli specifically administrated during these procedures. Although several previous studies have demonstrated the reproducibility of measures estimated from EDA, a mathematical framework associated with the stimulus-response experiments in question and, at the same time, including the underlying emotional state of the subject during fear conditioning and/or extinction experiments is not well studied. We here propose an ordinary differential equation model based on sudomotor nerve activity, and estimate the fear eliciting stimulus using a compressed sensing algorithm. Our results show that we are able to recover the underlying stimulus (visual cue or mild electrical shock). Moreover, relating the time-delay in the estimated stimulation to the visual cue during extinction period shows that fear level decreases as visual cues are presented without shock, suggesting that this feature might be used to estimate the fear state. These findings indicate that a mathematical model based on electrodermal responses might be critical in defining a low-dimensional representation of essential cognitive features in order to describe dynamic behavioral states. PMID:26738104

  6. Factors Associated with Physical Activity Literacy among Foster Parents

    Dominick, Gregory M.; Friedman, Daniela B.; Saunders, Ruth P.; Hussey, Jim R.; Watkins, Ken W.; W.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To explore associations between physical activity (PA) literacy and psychosocial constructs for providing instrumental social support for youth PA. Methods: Ninety-one foster parents completed surveys assessing PA literacy (overall and specific), perceptions of child PA, coordination, PA enjoyment, psychosocial variables:…

  7. Candesartan ameliorates impaired fear extinction induced by innate immune activation.

    Quiñones, María M; Maldonado, Lizette; Velazquez, Bethzaly; Porter, James T

    2016-02-01

    Patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) tend to show signs of a relatively increased inflammatory state suggesting that activation of the immune system may contribute to the development of PTSD. In the present study, we tested whether activation of the innate immune system can disrupt acquisition or recall of auditory fear extinction using an animal model of PTSD. Male adolescent rats received auditory fear conditioning in context A. The next day, an intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 100 μg/kg) prior to auditory fear extinction in context B impaired acquisition and recall of extinction. LPS (100 μg/kg) given after extinction training did not impair extinction recall suggesting that LPS did not affect consolidation of extinction. In contrast to cued fear extinction, contextual fear extinction was not affected by prior injection of LPS (100 μg/kg). Although LPS also reduced locomotion, we could dissociate the effects of LPS on extinction and locomotion by using a lower dose of LPS (50 μg/kg) which impaired locomotion without affecting extinction. In addition, 15 h after an injection of 250 μg/kg LPS in adult rats, extinction learning and recall were impaired without affecting locomotion. A sub-chronic treatment with candesartan, an angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker, prevented the LPS-induced impairment of extinction in adult rats. Our results demonstrate that activation of the innate immune system can disrupt auditory fear extinction in adolescent and adult animals. These findings also provide direction for clinical studies of novel treatments that modulate the innate immune system for stress-related disorders like PTSD. PMID:26520214

  8. Inhibition of Rac1 Activity in the Hippocampus Impairs the Forgetting of Contextual Fear Memory.

    Jiang, Lizhu; Mao, Rongrong; Zhou, Qixin; Yang, Yuexiong; Cao, Jun; Ding, Yuqiang; Yang, Yuan; Zhang, Xia; Li, Lingjiang; Xu, Lin

    2016-03-01

    Fear is crucial for survival, whereas hypermnesia of fear can be detrimental. Inhibition of the Rac GTPase is recently reported to impair the forgetting of initially acquired memory in Drosophila. Here, we investigated whether inhibition of Rac1 activity in rat hippocampus could contribute to the hypermnesia of contextual fear. We found that spaced but not massed training of contextual fear conditioning caused inhibition of Rac1 activity in the hippocampus and heightened contextual fear. Furthermore, intrahippocampal injection of the Rac1 inhibitor NSC23766 heightened contextual fear in massed training, while Rac1 activator CN04-A weakened contextual fear in spaced training rats. Our study firstly demonstrates that contextual fear memory in rats is actively regulated by Rac1 activity in the hippocampus, which suggests that the forgetting impairment of traumatic events in posttraumatic stress disorder may be contributed to the pathological inhibition of Rac1 activity in the hippocampus. PMID:25613020

  9. Persistent Prelimbic Cortex Activity Contributes to Enhanced Learned Fear Expression in Females

    Fenton, Georgina E.; Pollard, Amelia K.; Halliday, David M.; Mason, Rob; Bredy, Timothy W.; Stevenson, Carl W.

    2014-01-01

    Anxiety disorders, such as post-traumatic stress, are more prevalent in women and are characterized by impaired inhibition of learned fear and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) dysfunction. Here we examined sex differences in fear extinction and mPFC activity in rats. Females showed more learned fear expression during extinction and its recall, but…

  10. Altered resting-state brain activity at functional MRI during automatic memory consolidation of fear conditioning.

    Feng, Tingyong; Feng, Pan; Chen, Zhencai

    2013-07-26

    Investigations of fear conditioning in rodents and humans have illuminated the neural mechanisms of fear acquisition and extinction. However, the neural mechanism of automatic memory consolidation of fear conditioning is still unclear. To address this question, we measured brain activity following fear acquisition using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). In the current study, we used a marker of fMRI, amplitude of low-frequency (0.01-0.08Hz) fluctuation (ALFF) to quantify the spontaneous brain activity. Brain activity correlated to fear memory consolidation was observed in parahippocampus, insula, and thalamus in resting-state. Furthermore, after acquired fear conditioning, compared with control group some brain areas showed ALFF increased in ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in the experimental group, whereas some brain areas showed decreased ALFF in striatal regions (caudate, putamen). Moreover, the change of ALFF in vmPFC was positively correlated with the subjective fear ratings. These findings suggest that the parahippocampus, insula, and thalamus are the neural substrates of fear memory consolidation. The difference in activity could be attributed to a homeostatic process in which the vmPFC and ACC were involved in the fear recovery process, and change of ALFF in vmPFC predicts subjective fear ratings. PMID:23726994

  11. Fostering Innovation through an Active Learning Activity Inspired by the Baghdad Battery

    Lu, Xu; Anariba, Franklin

    2014-01-01

    A hands-on activity based on general electrochemistry concepts with the aim at introducing design science elements is presented. The main goals of the activity are to reinforce electrochemical principles while fostering innovation in the students through the assembly and optimization of a voltaic device and subsequent evaluation by powering…

  12. Foster Mother-Infant Bonding: Associations between Foster Mothers' Oxytocin Production, Electrophysiological Brain Activity, Feelings of Commitment, and Caregiving Quality

    Bick, Johanna; Dozier, Mary; Bernard, Kristin; Grasso, Damion; Simons, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the biological processes associated with foster mother-infant bonding. In an examination of foster mother-infant dyads ("N" = 41, mean infant age = 8.5 months), foster mothers' oxytocin production was associated with their expressions of behavioral delight toward their foster infant and their average P3 response to images of…

  13. Medial Prefrontal Cortex Activation Facilitates Re-Extinction of Fear in Rats

    Chang, Chun-hui; Maren, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    It has been suggested that reduced infralimbic (IL) cortical activity contributes to impairments of fear extinction. We therefore explored whether pharmacological activation of the IL would facilitate extinction under conditions it normally fails (i.e., immediate extinction). Rats received auditory fear conditioning 1 h before extinction training.…

  14. Transgenic Inhibition of Neuronal Protein Kinase A Activity Facilitates Fear Extinction

    Isiegas, Carolina; Park, Alice; Kandel, Eric R.; Abel, Ted; Lattal, K. Matthew

    2006-01-01

    Much is known about the neurobiology of memory storage for learned fear. In contrast, the molecular mechanisms underlying extinction of fear memory are just beginning to be delineated. Here, we investigate the role of protein kinase A (PKA) in extinction of memory for contextual fear by using conventional and temporally regulated transgenic approaches that allow us to inhibit PKA activity in neurons within brain regions thought to be involved in extinction. Strikingly, reduction of PKA activi...

  15. A Discrete Population of Neurons in the Lateral Amygdala Is Specifically Activated by Contextual Fear Conditioning

    Wilson, Yvette M.; Murphy, Mark

    2009-01-01

    There is no clear identification of the neurons involved in fear conditioning in the amygdala. To search for these neurons, we have used a genetic approach, the "fos-tau-lacZ" (FTL) mouse, to map functionally activated expression in neurons following contextual fear conditioning. We have identified a discrete population of neurons in the lateral…

  16. Melanosomes foster a tumour niche by activating CAFs.

    García-Silva, Susana; Peinado, Héctor

    2016-08-30

    Extracellular vesicles, such as exosomes, are important effectors in the formation of tumour-fostering niches. Pigmented melanosomes are now shown to have a relevant role in establishing a tumour niche in primary melanoma by reprogramming dermal fibroblasts into cancer-associated fibroblasts through the transfer of miR-211. PMID:27571736

  17. Fear extinction memory consolidation requires potentiation of pontine-wave activity during REM sleep.

    Datta, Subimal; O'Malley, Matthew W

    2013-03-01

    Sleep plays an important role in memory consolidation within multiple memory systems including contextual fear extinction memory, but little is known about the mechanisms that underlie this process. Here, we show that fear extinction training in rats, which extinguished conditioned fear, increased both slow-wave sleep and rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep. Surprisingly, 24 h later, during memory testing, only 57% of the fear-extinguished animals retained fear extinction memory. We found that these animals exhibited an increase in phasic pontine-wave (P-wave) activity during post-training REM sleep, which was absent in the 43% of animals that failed to retain fear extinction memory. The results of this study provide evidence that brainstem activation, specifically potentiation of phasic P-wave activity, during post-training REM sleep is critical for consolidation of fear extinction memory. The results of this study also suggest that, contrary to the popular hypothesis of sleep and memory, increased sleep after training alone does not guarantee consolidation and/or retention of fear extinction memory. Rather, the potentiation of specific sleep-dependent physiological events may be a more accurate predictor for successful consolidation of fear extinction memory. Identification of this unique mechanism will significantly improve our present understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie the sleep-dependent regulation of emotional memory. Additionally, this discovery may also initiate development of a new, more targeted treatment method for clinical disorders of fear and anxiety in humans that is more efficacious than existing methods such as exposure therapy that incorporate only fear extinction. PMID:23467372

  18. Voluntary exercise during extinction of auditory fear conditioning reduces the relapse of fear associated with potentiated activity of striatal direct pathway neurons.

    Mika, Agnieszka; Bouchet, Courtney A; Bunker, Preston; Hellwinkel, Justin E; Spence, Katie G; Day, Heidi E W; Campeau, Serge; Fleshner, Monika; Greenwood, Benjamin N

    2015-11-01

    Relapse of previously extinguished fear presents a significant, pervasive obstacle to the successful long-term treatment of anxiety and trauma-related disorders. Thus, identification of a novel means to enhance fear extinction to stand the passage of time and generalize across contexts is of the utmost importance. Acute bouts of exercise can be used as inexpensive, noninvasive treatment strategies to reduce anxiety, and have been shown to enhance memory for extinction when performed in close temporal proximity to the extinction session. However, it is unclear whether acute exercise can be used to prevent relapse of fear, and the neural mechanisms underlying this potential effect are unknown. The current study therefore examined whether acute exercise during extinction of auditory fear can protect against the later relapse of fear. Male F344 rats lacking an extended history of wheel running were conditioned to fear a tone CS and subsequently extinguished within either a freely mobile running wheel, a locked wheel, or a control context lacking a wheel. Rats exposed to fear extinction within a freely mobile wheel ran during fear extinction, and demonstrated reduced fear as well as attenuated corticosterone levels during re-exposure to the extinguished CS during the relapse test in a novel context 1week later. Examination of cfos mRNA patterns elicited by re-exposure to the extinguished CS during the relapse test revealed that acute exercise during extinction decreased activation of brain circuits classically involved in driving fear expression and interestingly, increased activity within neurons of the direct striatal pathway involved in reward signaling. These data suggest that exercise during extinction reduces relapse through a mechanism involving the direct pathway of the striatum. It is suggested that a positive affective state could become associated with the CS during exercise during extinction, thus resulting in a relapse-resistant extinction memory. PMID

  19. Activity, balance, learning, and exposure (ABLE): A new intervention for fear of falling

    Wetherell, JL; Johnson, K.; Chang, D; Ward, SR; Bower, ES; Merz, C; Petkus, AJ

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Objective: Fear of falling is an important problem among older adults, even those with relatively low rates of objective fall risk, who are often overlooked as targets for intervention. Method: We developed and pilot tested a new intervention, Activity, Balance, Learning, and Exposure (ABLE), in a sample of 10 older adults with excessive fear of falling. The ABLE intervention integrates exposure therapy and cognitive restructuring with a home safety evaluation a...

  20. Ventromedial prefrontal cortex activity and rapid eye movement sleep are associated with subsequent fear expression in human subjects.

    Spoormaker, V I; Gvozdanovic, G A; Sämann, P G; Czisch, M

    2014-05-01

    In humans, activity patterns in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) have been found to be predictive of subsequent fear memory consolidation. Pioneering work in rodents has further shown that vmPFC-amygdala theta synchronization is correlated with fear memory consolidation. We aimed to evaluate whether vmPFC activity during fear conditioning is (1) correlated with fear expression the subsequent day and whether (2) this relationship is mediated by rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. We analyzed data from 17 young healthy subjects undergoing a fear conditioning task, followed by a fear extinction task 24 h later, both recorded with simultaneous skin conductance response (SCR) and functional magnetic resonance imaging measurements, with a polysomnographically recorded night sleep in between. Our results showed a correlation between vmPFC activity during fear conditioning and subsequent REM sleep amount, as well as between REM sleep amount and SCR to the conditioned stimulus 24 h later. Moreover, we observed a significant correlation between vmPFC activity during fear conditioning and SCR responses during extinction, which was no longer significant after controlling for REM sleep amount. vmPFC activity during fear conditioning was further correlated with sleep latency. Interestingly, hippocampus activity during fear conditioning was correlated with stage 2 and stage 4 sleep amount. Our results provide preliminary evidence that the relationship between REM sleep and fear conditioning and extinction observed in rodents can be modeled in healthy human subjects, highlighting an interrelated set of potentially relevant trait markers. PMID:24452776

  1. Fostering Students' Creativity through Van Hiele's 5 Phase-Based Tangram Activities

    Siew, Nyet Moi; Chong, Chin Lu

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether Van Hiele's 5 phase-based tangrams activities could help to foster creativity among Grade Three primary school students. Students' creativity was investigated in terms of Torrance's Figural Test of creative thinking: Fluency, Originality, Elaboration, Abstractness of title, and Resistance to a…

  2. Neural Activation during Anticipation of Near Pain-Threshold Stimulation among the Pain-Fearful.

    Yang, Zhou; Jackson, Todd; Huang, Chengzhi

    2016-01-01

    Fear of pain (FOP) can increase risk for chronic pain and disability but little is known about corresponding neural responses in anticipation of potential pain. In this study, more (10 women, 6 men) and less (7 women, 6 men) pain-fearful groups underwent whole-brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during anticipation of near pain-threshold stimulation. Groups did not differ in the proportion of stimuli judged to be painful but pain-fearful participants reported significantly more state fear prior to stimulus exposure. Within the entire sample, stronger activation was found in several pain perception regions (e.g., bilateral insula, midcingulate cortex (MCC), thalamus, superior frontal gyrus) and visual areas linked to decoding stimulus valences (inferior orbital cortex) during anticipation of "painful" stimuli. Between groups and correlation analyses indicated pain-fearful participants experienced comparatively more activity in regions implicated in evaluating potential threats and processing negative emotions during anticipation (i.e., MCC, mid occipital cortex, superior temporal pole), though group differences were not apparent in most so-called "pain matrix" regions. In sum, trait- and task-based FOP is associated with enhanced responsiveness in regions involved in threat processing and negative affect during anticipation of potentially painful stimulation. PMID:27489536

  3. Fostering Physical Activity Values in the World of the Future

    Earle F. Zeigler

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The author argues that we are using human physical activity well in some ways, but that we are also abusing it badly in others! In the case of competitive sport, he believes that we gradually and increasingly abused it over the course of the twentieth century. However, he is not against sport! He is arguing that, employed properly and correctly, sport–as one of a number of vital social forces (e.g., nationalism, ecology–could contribute to the improvement of the current situation in human health enormously. Additionally, in the case of related physical activity (i.e., regular exercise or “physical activity education” in the developed world, he believes humans are too often “abusing it by first not understanding it, and then by not using it more intelligently”! (Ironically, in the “undeveloped world,” people often get too much “exercise” just to stay alive! Moreover, he believes that the active use of competitive sport worldwide to promote what have been called moral values–traits or attributes leading to world peace and good will-as opposed to so-called socio-instrumental or material values-are overly self-serving. This would tend to create a social force of such strength and power that humankind might be helped as it confronts the social and physical devastation looming ahead. 

  4. Context Fear Learning Specifically Activates Distinct Populations of Neurons in Amygdala and Hypothalamus

    Trogrlic, Lidia; Wilson, Yvette M.; Newman, Andrew G.; Murphy, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The identity and distribution of neurons that are involved in any learning or memory event is not known. In previous studies, we identified a discrete population of neurons in the lateral amygdala that show learning-specific activation of a c-"fos"-regulated transgene following context fear conditioning. Here, we have extended these studies to…

  5. Blockade of Dopamine Activity in the Nucleus Accumbens Impairs Learning Extinction of Conditioned Fear

    Holtzman-Assif, Orit; Laurent, Vincent; Westbrook, R. Frederick

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments used rats to investigate the role of dopamine activity in learning to inhibit conditioned fear responses (freezing) in extinction. In Experiment 1, rats systemically injected with the D2 dopamine antagonist, haloperidol, froze more across multiple extinction sessions and on a drug-free retention test than control rats. In…

  6. Fostering Engagement Activities To Advance Adaptation And Resiliency

    Dissen, J.; Owen, T.; Brewer, M.; Hollingshead, A.; Mecray, E. L.; Werner, K.

    2015-12-01

    As the understanding of climate risks grows for public and private companies, the dissemination of meaningful climate and environmental information becomes important for improved risk management practices and innovation. In a broader effort to build capacity for adaptation and demonstrate the value of investment in resiliency, NCEI and its partners have made several shifts to showcase an improved understanding of uses and applications of climate and environmental data and information. The NOAA NCEI engagement initiative includes actively exploring ways to: 1) identify opportunities in data use and applications and 2) characterize needs and requirements from customers to help inform investment in the relevant science. This presentation will highlight: 1) NCEI's engagement initiative strategy, 2) our regional and national partnerships as agents of engagement in the region, 3) a few examples of uses of climate information with select stakeholders and 4) justification of customer engagement and requirements as a critical component in informing the science agenda.

  7. Non-Foster Impedance Wideband Matching Technique for Electrically Small Active Antenna

    Wenxing Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates a non-Foster wideband circuit matching technique for an electrically small antenna (ESA. By introducing a negative impedance convertor into an active network, the active network can obtain an equivalent input gain at input port to improve gain, sensitivity and output ratio of signal to noise. In addition, it also increases the effective height of active antenna. The experimental results have verified the proposed method by using a 100 KHz–30 MHz wideband active receiving monopole antenna.

  8. Extinction and Retrieval + Extinction of Conditioned Fear Differentially Activate Medial Prefrontal Cortex and Amygdala in Rats.

    Lee, Hongjoo J; Haberman, Rebecca P; Roquet, Rheall F; Monfils, Marie-H

    2015-01-01

    Pairing a previously neutral conditioned stimulus (CS; e.g., a tone) to an aversive unconditioned stimulus (US; e.g., a footshock) leads to associative learning such that the tone alone comes to elicit a conditioned response (e.g., freezing). We have previously shown that an extinction session that occurs within the reconsolidation window (termed retrieval + extinction) attenuates fear responding and prevents the return of fear in Pavlovian fear conditioning (Monfils et al., 2009). To date, the mechanisms that explain the different behavioral outcomes between standard extinction and retrieval + extinction remain poorly understood. Here we sought to examine the differential temporal engagement of specific neural systems by these two approaches using Arc catFISH (cellular compartment analysis of temporal activity using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)). Our results demonstrate that extinction and retrieval + extinction lead to differential patterns of expression, suggesting that they engage different networks. These findings provide insight into the neural mechanisms that allow extinction during reconsolidation to prevent the return of fear in rodents. PMID:26834596

  9. Fearfulness affects quail maternal care and subsequent offspring development.

    Florent Pittet

    Full Text Available Our study investigated relationships between a precocial bird's fearfulness and maternal care, and the implication of maternal care as a vector for non-genomic transmission of fearfulness to chicks. We compared care given to chicks between two sets of female Japanese quail selected to present either high (LTI or low fearfulness (STI. Chicks, from a broiler line, were adopted by these females following a sensitization procedure. Chicks' fearfulness after separation from their mother was assessed by well-established procedures. LTIs took longer to present maternal responses, pecked chicks more during the first days post-hatch, presented impaired maternal vocal behaviour and were globally less active than STI females. Chicks mothered by LTIs presented more fearful reactions than did chicks mothered by STIs, supporting the hypothesis of a non-genetic maternal transmission of fearfulness. We suggest that the longer latencies required by LTIs to become maternal are a consequence of their greater fear of chicks, and that their lower general and vocal activity could be components of a heightened antipredatory strategy. We discuss the transmission of maternal fearfulness to fostered chicks, taking into account the possible implication of several well-known mechanisms underlying maternal effects.

  10. Corticosterone regulates fear memory via Rac1 activity in the hippocampus.

    Gan, Ping; Ding, Ze-Yang; Gan, Cheng; Mao, Rong-Rong; Zhou, Heng; Xu, Lin; Zhou, Qi-Xin

    2016-09-01

    Stressful events can generate enduring memories, which may induce certain psychiatric disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the underlying molecular mechanisms in these processes remain unclear. In this study, we examined whether the active form of the small G protein Rac1, Rac1-GTP, is involved in fear memory. Firstly, we detected the time course changes of Rac1-GTP after foot shocks (a strong stressor) and exogenous corticosterone (CORT) treatment. The data showed that stress and CORT induced the downregulation of Rac1-GTP in the hippocampus. Changes in the serum CORT level were negatively correlated with the level of Rac1-GTP. Additionally, a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, RU38486, not only recovered the expression of Rac1-GTP but also impaired fear memory. Furthermore, systemic administration of NSC23766, an inhibitor of Rac1-GTP, improved fear memory at 1.5 and 24h. Therefore, Rac1 activity plays a critical role in stress-related cognition and may be a potential target in stress-related disorders. PMID:27249795

  11. Balance control and anti-gravity muscle activity during the experience of fear at heights.

    Wuehr, Max; Kugler, Guenter; Schniepp, Roman; Eckl, Maria; Pradhan, Cauchy; Jahn, Klaus; Huppert, Doreen; Brandt, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    Fear of heights occurs when a visual stimulus causes the apprehension of losing balance and falling. A moderate form of visual height intolerance (vHI) affects about one third of the general population and has relevant consequences for the quality of life. A quantitative evaluation of balance mechanisms in persons susceptible to vHI during height exposure is missing. VHI-related changes in postural control were assessed by center-of-pressure displacements and electromyographic recordings of selected leg, arm, and neck muscles in 16 subjects with vHI while standing at heights on an emergency balcony versus standing in the laboratory at ground level. Characteristics of open- and closed-loop postural control were analyzed. Body sway and muscle activity parameters were correlated with the subjective estimates of fear at heights. During height exposure, (1) open-loop control was disturbed by a higher diffusion activity (P anti-gravity leg and neck muscles, both of which depend on the severity of evoked fear at heights. PMID:24744901

  12. Cannabinoid modulation of prefrontal-limbic activation during fear extinction learning and recall in humans.

    Rabinak, Christine A; Angstadt, Mike; Lyons, Maryssa; Mori, Shoko; Milad, Mohammed R; Liberzon, Israel; Phan, K Luan

    2014-09-01

    Pre-extinction administration of Δ9-tetrahydrocannibinol (THC) facilitates recall of extinction in healthy humans, and evidence from animal studies suggest that this likely occurs via enhancement of the cannabinoid system within the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and hippocampus (HIPP), brain structures critical to fear extinction. However, the effect of cannabinoids on the underlying neural circuitry of extinction memory recall in humans has not been demonstrated. We conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, between-subjects design (N=14/group) coupled with a standard Pavlovian fear extinction paradigm and an acute pharmacological challenge with oral dronabinol (synthetic THC) in healthy adult volunteers. We examined the effects of THC on vmPFC and HIPP activation when tested for recall of extinction learning 24 h after extinction learning. Compared to subjects who received placebo, participants who received THC showed increased vmPFC and HIPP activation to a previously extinguished conditioned stimulus (CS+E) during extinction memory recall. This study provides the first evidence that pre-extinction administration of THC modulates prefrontal-limbic circuits during fear extinction in humans and prompts future investigation to test if cannabinoid agonists can rescue or correct the impaired behavioral and neural function during extinction recall in patients with PTSD. Ultimately, the cannabinoid system may serve as a promising target for innovative intervention strategies (e.g. pharmacological enhancement of exposure-based therapy) in PTSD and other fear learning-related disorders. PMID:24055595

  13. Fear Extinction Memory Consolidation Requires Potentiation of Pontine-Wave Activity during REM Sleep

    Datta, Subimal; O'Malley, Matthew W .

    2013-01-01

    Sleep plays an important role in memory consolidation within multiple memory systems including contextual fear extinction memory, but little is known about the mechanisms that underlie this process. Here, we show that fear extinction training in rats, which extinguished conditioned fear, increased both slow-wave sleep and rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep. Surprisingly, 24 h later, during memory testing, only 57% of the fear-extinguished animals retained fear extinction memory. We found that the...

  14. Fear of Movement and Low Self-Efficacy Are Important Barriers in Physical Activity after Renal Transplantation.

    Dorien M Zelle

    Full Text Available Physical activity (PA and exercise are commonly used as preventive measures for cardiovascular disease in the general population, and could be effective in the management of post-transplantation cardiovascular risk. PA levels are low after renal transplantation and very few renal transplant recipients (RTR meet the PA guidelines. Identification of barriers to regular PA is important to identify targets for intervention to improve PA levels after renal transplantation. We investigated fear of movement and physical self-efficacy as barriers to PA in RTR.RTR were investigated between 2001-2003. The Tampa Score of Kinesiophobia-Dutch Version (TSK-11 was used to assess fear of movement. Physical self-efficacy was measured with the LIVAS-scale. PA was assessed using validated questionnaires (Tecumseh Occupational Activity Questionnaire and the Minnesota Leisure Time Physical Activity Questionnaire.A total of 487 RTR (age 51±12 years, 55% men were studied. Median score [interquartile range] on TSK-11 was 22 [17-26]. Low physical self-efficacy (Exp B:0.41[0.31-0.54], p<0.001 and history of myocardial infarction, transient ischemic attack and cerebrovascular accident (Exp B:1.30[1.03-1.63],p = 0.03 were independent determinants for fear of movement. Fear of movement was associated with lower daily PA, occupational, sports and leisure time PA. Mediation-analysis showed that a large part (73% of the effect of fear of movement on PA was explained by low physical self-efficacy.This study was the first to examine fear of movement and self-efficacy in relation to PA in RTR. Fear of movement was associated with a low PA level, and the larger part of this relation was mediated by low physical self-efficacy. Both fear of movement and physical self-efficacy level are important targets for intervention during rehabilitation after renal transplantation.

  15. Parent and child physical activity and sedentary time: Do active parents foster active children?

    Brockman Rowan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity has many positive effects on children's health while TV viewing has been associated with adverse health outcomes. Many children do not meet physical activity recommendations and exceed TV viewing guidelines. Parents are likely to be an important influence on their children's behaviour. There is an absence of information about the associations between parents' and children's physical activity and TV viewing. Methods Year 6 children and their parent were recruited from 40 primary schools. Results are presented for the 340 parent-child dyads with accelerometer data that met a ≥ 3 day inclusion criteria and the 431 parent-child dyads with complete self-reported TV viewing. Over 80% of the dyads with valid TV viewing data included mothers and their child. Mean minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA, minutes of sedentary time per day and counts per minute were assessed by accelerometer. Self-reported hours of TV viewing were coded into 3 groups (4 hours per day. Linear and multi-nominal regression models were run by child gender to examine parent-child associations. Results In linear regression models there was an association for the overall sedentary time of girls and their parents (t = 2.04. p = .020 but there was no association between girls' and parents' physical activity. There were no associations between parents' and boys' sedentary or physical activity time. For girls, the risk of watching more than 4 hours of TV per day, (reference = 2 hours of TV per day, was 3.67 times higher if the girl's parent watched 2-4 hours of TV per day (p = 0.037. For boys, the risk of watching more than 4 hours of TV per day, was 10.47 times higher if the boy's parent watched more than 4 hours of TV per day (p = 0.038. Conclusions There are associations in the sedentary time of parents and daughters. Higher parental TV viewing was associated with an increased risk of high levels of TV viewing for both boys

  16. Activation of BDNF Signaling Prevents the Return of Fear in Female Mice

    Baker-Andresen, Danay; Flavell, Charlotte R.; Li, Xiang; Bredy, Timothy W.

    2013-01-01

    There are significant sex differences in vulnerability to develop fear-related anxiety disorders. Females exhibit twice the rate of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as males and sex differences have been observed in fear extinction learning in both humans and rodents, with a failure to inhibit fear emerging as a precipitating factor in the…

  17. HybridPLAY: A New Technology to Foster Outdoors Physical Activity, Verbal Communication and Teamwork

    Díaz, Diego José; Boj, Clara; Portalés, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents HybridPLAY, a novel technology composed of a sensor and mobile-based video games that transforms urban playgrounds into game scenarios. With this technology we aim to stimulate physical activity and playful learning by creating an entertaining environment in which users can actively participate and collaborate. HybridPLAY is different from other existing technologies that enhance playgrounds, as it is not integrated in them but can be attached to the different elements of the playgrounds, making its use more ubiquitous (i.e., not restricted to the playgrounds). HybridPLAY was born in 2007 as an artistic concept, and evolved after different phases of research and testing by almost 2000 users around the world (in workshops, artistic events, conferences, etc.). Here, we present the temporal evolution of HybridPLAY with the different versions of the sensors and the video games, and a detailed technical description of the sensors and the way interactions are produced. We also present the outcomes after the evaluation by users at different events and workshops. We believe that HybridPLAY has great potential to contribute to increased physical activity in kids, and also to improve the learning process and monitoring at school centres by letting users create the content of the apps, leading to new narratives and fostering creativity. PMID:27120601

  18. HybridPLAY: A New Technology to Foster Outdoors Physical Activity, Verbal Communication and Teamwork

    Diego José Díaz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents HybridPLAY, a novel technology composed of a sensor and mobile-based video games that transforms urban playgrounds into game scenarios. With this technology we aim to stimulate physical activity and playful learning by creating an entertaining environment in which users can actively participate and collaborate. HybridPLAY is different from other existing technologies that enhance playgrounds, as it is not integrated in them but can be attached to the different elements of the playgrounds, making its use more ubiquitous (i.e., not restricted to the playgrounds. HybridPLAY was born in 2007 as an artistic concept, and evolved after different phases of research and testing by almost 2000 users around the world (in workshops, artistic events, conferences, etc.. Here, we present the temporal evolution of HybridPLAY with the different versions of the sensors and the video games, and a detailed technical description of the sensors and the way interactions are produced. We also present the outcomes after the evaluation by users at different events and workshops. We believe that HybridPLAY has great potential to contribute to increased physical activity in kids, and also to improve the learning process and monitoring at school centres by letting users create the content of the apps, leading to new narratives and fostering creativity.

  19. HybridPLAY: A New Technology to Foster Outdoors Physical Activity, Verbal Communication and Teamwork.

    Díaz, Diego José; Boj, Clara; Portalés, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents HybridPLAY, a novel technology composed of a sensor and mobile-based video games that transforms urban playgrounds into game scenarios. With this technology we aim to stimulate physical activity and playful learning by creating an entertaining environment in which users can actively participate and collaborate. HybridPLAY is different from other existing technologies that enhance playgrounds, as it is not integrated in them but can be attached to the different elements of the playgrounds, making its use more ubiquitous (i.e., not restricted to the playgrounds). HybridPLAY was born in 2007 as an artistic concept, and evolved after different phases of research and testing by almost 2000 users around the world (in workshops, artistic events, conferences, etc.). Here, we present the temporal evolution of HybridPLAY with the different versions of the sensors and the video games, and a detailed technical description of the sensors and the way interactions are produced. We also present the outcomes after the evaluation by users at different events and workshops. We believe that HybridPLAY has great potential to contribute to increased physical activity in kids, and also to improve the learning process and monitoring at school centres by letting users create the content of the apps, leading to new narratives and fostering creativity. PMID:27120601

  20. Increased skin conductance responses and neural activity during fear conditioning are associated with a repressive coping style

    Tim eKlucken

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of individual differences in coping styles in response to fear conditioning is an important issue for a better understanding of the etiology and treatment of psychiatric disorders. It has been assumed that an avoidant (repressive coping style is characterized by increased emotion regulation efforts in context of fearful stimuli as compared to a more vigilant coping style. However, no study so far has investigated the neural correlates of fear conditioning of repressors and sensitizers.In the present fMRI study, 76 participants were classified as repressors or as sensitizers and were exposed to a fear conditioning paradigm, in which the CS+ predicted electrical stimulation, while another neutral stimulus (CS- did not. In addition, skin conductance responses (SCRs were measured continuously.As the main findings, we found increased neural activations in repressors as compared to sensitizers in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex during fear conditioning. In addition, elevated activity to the CS+ in amygdala, insula, occipital, and orbitofrontal cortex as well as conditioned SCRs were found in repressors.The present results demonstrate increased neural activations in structures linked to emotion down-regulation mechanisms like the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, which may reflect the increased coping effort in repressors. At the same time, repressors showed increased activations in arousal and evaluation-associated structures like the amygdala, the occipital cortex, and the orbitofrontal cortex, which is also mirrored in increased SCRs. The present results support recent assumptions about a two-process model of repression postulating a fast vigilant response to fearful stimuli, but also a second emotion down-regulating process.

  1. Are fear-avoidance beliefs in low back pain patients a risk factor for low physical activity or vice versa? A cross-lagged panel analysis

    Leonhardt, C; Lehr, D.; Chenot, JF; Keller, S; Luckmann, J.; Basler, HD; Baum, E.; Donner-Banzhoff, N; Pfingsten, M; Hildebrandt, J; Kochen, MM; Becker, A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The assumption that low back pain (LBP) patients suffer from "disuse" as a consequence of high fear-avoidance beliefs is currently under debate. A secondary analysis served to investigate whether fear-avoidance beliefs are associated cross-sectionally and longitudinally with the physical activity level (PAL) in LBP patients. Methods: A total of 787 individuals (57% acute and 43% chronic LBP) were followed up over a period of one year with measurements of fear-avoidance beli...

  2. Emetophobia: A fear of vomiting.

    Faye, Abhijeet D; Gawande, Sushil; Tadke, Rahul; Kirpekar, Vivek C; Bhave, Sudhir H

    2013-10-01

    Emetophobia is an intense, irrational fear of vomiting including fear of feeling nausea, seeing or hearing another person vomit, or seeing vomitus itself. It may occur at any age and we need to understand its symptomatology. We report a case of emetophobic child whose fear of vomiting started after an attack of acute appendicitis. In the initial stage, fear was limited to vomiting, later it became generalized to a fear of seeing the vomitus, worries that parents may suffer vomiting, fear of vomiting in public places followed by avoiding social activities. Patient improved on short course of anti-anxiety drugs and Graded Exposure Therapy. PMID:24459314

  3. National program for the fostering and development of safety culture in the nuclear activities in Cuba

    Since its appearance, as a result of the investigations of the accident in the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, the term Safety Culture has been considered a key element to achieve a high level of safety in the nuclear installations, becoming a basic safety principle, internationally. The Cuban regulatory authority understood from very early the importance of the promotion and development of attitudes and characteristics in the organizations and personnel involved in the nuclear sector, reflecting a high Safety Culture, in order to propitiate a higher involvement of all employees in safety, contributing this way to the prevention of accidents in the nuclear facilities. Although the Cuban Nuclear Program was significantly reduced in the 90's, the regulatory authority has continued working in this direction and assimilated all the international experience for its application in its strategies for the development of a Safety Culture in the nuclear activities in the country. The present work summarizes the Cuban experience in the establishment of a National Program for the fostering and development of a Safety Culture. (author)

  4. Fostering Student Interaction and Engagement in a Virtual Learning Environment: An Investigation into Activity Design and Implementation

    Hampel, Regine; Pleines, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Online tools, such as forums, wikis, and blogs lend themselves to learners negotiating meaning and co-constructing knowledge through interaction. However, not enough is known about how tasks need to be designed to make best use of the possibilities of complex virtual learning environments (VLEs) to motivate and support learners, foster interaction, and contribute to knowledge construction. This article reports on a twoyear study exploring the design and implementation cycle of online activiti...

  5. Acute tianeptine treatment selectively modulates neuronal activation in the central nucleus of the amygdala and attenuates fear extinction.

    Godsil, B P; Bontempi, B; Mailliet, F; Delagrange, P; Spedding, M; Jay, T M

    2015-11-01

    Antidepressant drugs are commonly prescribed treatments for anxiety disorders, and there is growing interest in understanding how these drugs impact fear extinction because extinction learning is pivotal to successful exposure-based therapy (EBT). A key objective within this domain is understanding how antidepressants alter the activation of specific elements of the limbic-based network that governs such fear processing. Chronic treatment with the antidepressant tianeptine has been shown to reduce the acquisition of extinction learning in rats, yet the drug's acute influence on activation in prefrontal and amygdalar regions, and on extinction learning are not well understood. To assess its influence on cellular activation, rats were injected with tianeptine and Fos immunoreactivity was measured in these regions. Acute tianeptine treatment selectively altered Fos expression within subdivisions of the central nucleus of the amygdala (CEA) in a bidirectional manner that varied in relation to ongoing activation within the capsular subdivision and its prefrontal and intra-amygdalar inputs. This pattern of results suggests that the drug can conditionally modulate the activation of CEA subdivisions, which contain microcircuits strongly implicated in fear processing. The effect of acute tianeptine was also examined with respect to the acquisition, consolidation and expression of fear extinction in rats. Acute tianeptine attenuated extinction learning as well as the recall of extinction memory, which underscores that acute dosing with the drug could alter learning during EBT. Together these findings provide a new perspective for understanding the mechanism supporting tianeptine's clinical efficacy, as well as its potential influence on CEA-based learning mechanisms. PMID:25560759

  6. IAI Capacity Building Activities in the Americas: Fostering Multinational and Multidisciplinary Research

    Ohira, M. S.

    2007-05-01

    The IAI's Training and Education (T&E) activities are designed to encourage capacity building in the Americas and are developed within and in parallel with the IAI research programs in global environmental change (GEC). The IAI has various training priorities: (1) support for graduate students in the form of fellowships through research programs; (2) development of IAI Training Institutes in Interdisciplinary Sciences and Science-Policy Fora; and (3) support for technical workshops, scientific meetings, and seminars. It becomes increasingly evident that institutions such as IAI must provide training and support to policy and decision makers who deal with environmental issues. The IAI Training Institutes emphasize an exchange of information about the various scientific languages, needs, and methodologies of disciplines that study GEC. Particular attention is given to socio-economic impacts and ways in which nations can gain a better understanding of the complex mechanisms, degrees of change, causes, and consequences - and therefore, plan sound public and private policies to minimize problems and maximize opportunities. The IAI has also implemented a Training Institute Seed Grant (TISG) Program as an assessment activity of the Training Institutes to further encourage network building and multinational and multidisciplinary collaboration among its 19 member countries in the Americas. By fostering the development of such new multidisciplinary, multinational teams, the IAI ensures a future generation of professionals who will be engaged in IAI research programs and networks and will lead the integrated science programs in the next decades. Furthermore, IAI has organized Science-Policy Fora, which focus on the science- policy interface and ways to incorporate scientific information into policy and decision-making processes. Participants discussed what scientific information is available, what aspects need to be better understood, translation of scientific information for

  7. Delayed noradrenergic activation in the dorsal hippocampus promotes the long-term persistence of extinguished fear.

    Chai, Ning; Liu, Jian-Feng; Xue, Yan-Xue; Yang, Chang; Yan, Wei; Wang, Hui-Min; Luo, Yi-Xiao; Shi, Hai-Shui; Wang, Ji-Shi; Bao, Yan-Ping; Meng, Shi-Qiu; Ding, Zeng-Bo; Wang, Xue-Yi; Lu, Lin

    2014-07-01

    Fear extinction has been extensively studied, but little is known about the molecular processes that underlie the persistence of extinction long-term memory (LTM). We found that microinfusion of norepinephrine (NE) into the CA1 area of the dorsal hippocampus during the early phase (0 h) after extinction enhanced extinction LTM at 2 and 14 days after extinction. Intra-CA1 infusion of NE during the late phase (12 h) after extinction selectively promoted extinction LTM at 14 days after extinction that was blocked by the β-receptor antagonist propranolol, protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor Rp-cAMPS, and protein synthesis inhibitors anisomycin and emetine. The phosphorylation levels of PKA, cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein (CREB), GluR1, and the membrane GluR1 level were increased by NE during the late phase after extinction that was also blocked by propranolol and Rp-cAMPS. These results suggest that the enhancement of extinction LTM persistence induced by NE requires the activation of the β-receptor/PKA/CREB signaling pathway and membrane GluR1 trafficking. Moreover, extinction increased the phosphorylation levels of Erk1/2, CREB, and GluR1, and the membrane GluR1 level during the late phase, and anisomycin/emetine alone disrupted the persistence of extinction LTM, indicating that the persistence of extinction LTM requires late-phase protein synthesis in the CA1. Propranolol and Rp-cAMPS did not completely disrupt the persistence of extinction LTM, suggesting that another β-receptor/PKA-independent mechanism underlies the persistence of extinction LTM. Altogether, our results showed that enhancing hippocampal noradrenergic activity during the late phase after extinction selectively promotes the persistence of extinction LTM. PMID:24553734

  8. Delayed Noradrenergic Activation in the Dorsal Hippocampus Promotes the Long-Term Persistence of Extinguished Fear

    Chai, Ning; Liu, Jian-Feng; Xue, Yan-Xue; Yang, Chang; Yan, Wei; Wang, Hui-Min; Luo, Yi-Xiao; Shi, Hai-Shui; Wang, Ji-Shi; Bao, Yan-Ping; Meng, Shi-Qiu; Ding, Zeng-Bo; Wang, Xue-Yi; Lu, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Fear extinction has been extensively studied, but little is known about the molecular processes that underlie the persistence of extinction long-term memory (LTM). We found that microinfusion of norepinephrine (NE) into the CA1 area of the dorsal hippocampus during the early phase (0 h) after extinction enhanced extinction LTM at 2 and 14 days after extinction. Intra-CA1 infusion of NE during the late phase (12 h) after extinction selectively promoted extinction LTM at 14 days after extinction that was blocked by the β-receptor antagonist propranolol, protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor Rp-cAMPS, and protein synthesis inhibitors anisomycin and emetine. The phosphorylation levels of PKA, cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein (CREB), GluR1, and the membrane GluR1 level were increased by NE during the late phase after extinction that was also blocked by propranolol and Rp-cAMPS. These results suggest that the enhancement of extinction LTM persistence induced by NE requires the activation of the β-receptor/PKA/CREB signaling pathway and membrane GluR1 trafficking. Moreover, extinction increased the phosphorylation levels of Erk1/2, CREB, and GluR1, and the membrane GluR1 level during the late phase, and anisomycin/emetine alone disrupted the persistence of extinction LTM, indicating that the persistence of extinction LTM requires late-phase protein synthesis in the CA1. Propranolol and Rp-cAMPS did not completely disrupt the persistence of extinction LTM, suggesting that another β-receptor/PKA-independent mechanism underlies the persistence of extinction LTM. Altogether, our results showed that enhancing hippocampal noradrenergic activity during the late phase after extinction selectively promotes the persistence of extinction LTM. PMID:24553734

  9. ACTIVATION OF BASOLATERAL AMYGDALA CRF1 RECEPTORS MODULATES THE CONSOLIDATION OF CONTEXTUAL FEAR

    Hubbard, D. T.; Nakashima, B. R.; Lee, I.; Takahashi, L. K.

    2007-01-01

    The basolateral amygdala complex (BLA) and central amygdala nucleus (CeA) are involved in fear and anxiety. In addition, the BLA contains a high density of corticotropin-releasing factor 1 (CRF1) receptors in comparison to the CeA. However, the role of BLA CRF1 receptors in contextual fear conditioning is poorly understood. In the present study, we first demonstrated that oral administration of DMP696, the selective CRF1 receptor antagonist, had no significant effects on the acquisition of co...

  10. Ten weeks of physical-cognitive-mindfulness training reduces fear-avoidance beliefs about work-related activity: Randomized controlled trial.

    Jay, Kenneth; Brandt, Mikkel; Jakobsen, Markus Due; Sundstrup, Emil; Berthelsen, Kasper Gymoese; Schraefel, Mc; Sjøgaard, Gisela; Andersen, Lars L

    2016-08-01

    People with chronic musculoskeletal pain often experience pain-related fear of movement and avoidance behavior. The Fear-Avoidance model proposes a possible mechanism at least partly explaining the development and maintenance of chronic pain. People who interpret pain during movement as being potentially harmful to the organism may initiate a vicious behavioral cycle by generating pain-related fear of movement accompanied by avoidance behavior and hyper-vigilance.This study investigates whether an individually adapted multifactorial approach comprised of biopsychosocial elements, with a focus on physical exercise, mindfulness, and education on pain and behavior, can decrease work-related fear-avoidance beliefs.As part of a large scale 10-week worksite randomized controlled intervention trial focusing on company initiatives to combat work-related musculoskeletal pain and stress, we evaluated fear-avoidance behavior in 112 female laboratory technicians with chronic neck, shoulder, upper back, lower back, elbow, and hand/wrist pain using the Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire at baseline, before group allocation, and again at the post intervention follow-up 10 weeks later.A significant group by time interaction was observed (P activity-related, fear-avoidance beliefs, as assessed by the Fear-avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire, can be significantly reduced by 10 weeks of physical-cognitive-mindfulness training in female laboratory technicians with chronic pain. PMID:27559939

  11. Post-training gamma irradiation-enhanced contextual fear memory associated with reduced neuronal activation of the infralimbic cortex.

    Kugelman, Tara; Zuloaga, Damian G; Weber, Sydney; Raber, Jacob

    2016-02-01

    The brain might be exposed to irradiation under a variety of situations, including clinical treatments, nuclear accidents, dirty bomb scenarios, and military and space missions. Correctly recalling tasks learned prior to irradiation is important but little is known about post-learning effects of irradiation. It is not clear whether exposure to X-ray irradiation during memory consolidation, a few hours following training, is associated with altered contextual fear conditioning 24h after irradiation and which brain region(s) might be involved in these effects. Brain immunoreactivity patterns of the immediately early gene c-Fos, a marker of cellular activity was used to determine which brain areas might be altered in post-training irradiation memory retention tasks. In this study, we show that post-training gamma irradiation exposure (1 Gy) enhanced contextual fear memory 24h later and is associated with reduced cellular activation in the infralimbic cortex. Reduced GABA-ergic neurotransmission in parvalbumin-positive cells in the infralimbic cortex might play a role in this post-training radiation-enhanced contextual fear memory. PMID:26522840

  12. Modulation of NR2B-regulated contextual fear in the hippocampus by the tissue plasminogen activator system

    Norris, Erin H.; Strickland, Sidney

    2007-01-01

    Contextual fear conditioning is regulated by the hippocampus, and NR2B, a subunit of the NMDA receptor (NR), is involved in this process. We show that acute stress modulates tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) activity in the hippocampus by inducing expression of its inhibitor, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. Acute stress increases NR2B expression and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, a classical marker of postsynaptic plasticity, in the hippocampus. tPA forms a complex with NR2B and is necessary for...

  13. CB1 Cannabinoid Receptors Modulate Kinase and Phosphatase Activity during Extinction of Conditioned Fear in Mice

    Kamprath, Kornelia; Hermann, Heike; Lutz, Beat; Marsicano, Giovanni; Cannich, Astrid; Wotjak, Carsten T.

    2004-01-01

    Cannabinoid receptors type 1 (CB1) play a central role in both short-term and long-term extinction of auditory-cued fear memory. The molecular mechanisms underlying this function remain to be clarified. Several studies indicated extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase with its downstream effector AKT, and…

  14. Differential Involvement of Amygdala and Cortical NMDA Receptors Activation upon Encoding in Odor Fear Memory

    Hegoburu, Chloé; Parrot, Sandrine; Ferreira, Guilaume; Mouly, Anne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Although the basolateral amygdala (BLA) plays a crucial role for the acquisition of fear memories, sensory cortices are involved in their long-term storage in rats. However, the time course of their respective involvement has received little investigation. Here we assessed the role of the glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the…

  15. Resting cerebral metabolism correlates with skin conductance and functional brain activation during fear conditioning.

    Linnman, Clas; Zeidan, Mohamed A; Pitman, Roger K; Milad, Mohammed R

    2012-02-01

    We investigated whether resting brain metabolism can be used to predict autonomic and neuronal responses during fear conditioning in 20 healthy humans. Regional cerebral metabolic rate for glucose was measured via positron emission tomography at rest. During conditioning, autonomic responses were measured via skin conductance, and blood oxygen level dependent signal was measured via functional magnetic resonance imaging. Resting dorsal anterior cingulate metabolism positively predicted differentially conditioned skin conductance responses. Midbrain and insula resting metabolism negatively predicted midbrain and insula functional reactivity, while dorsal anterior cingulate resting metabolism positively predicted midbrain functional reactivity. We conclude that resting metabolism in limbic areas can predict some aspects of psychophysiological and neuronal reactivity during fear learning. PMID:22207247

  16. Cannabinoid modulation of prefrontal-limbic activation during fear extinction learning and recall in humans

    Rabinak, Christine A.; Angstadt, Mike; Lyons, Maryssa; Mori, Shoko; Milad, Mohammed R; Liberzon, Israel; Phan, K. Luan

    2013-01-01

    Pre-extinction administration of ∆9-tetrahydrocannibinol (THC) facilitates recall of extinction in healthy humans, and evidence from animal studies suggest that this likely involves via enhancement of the cannabinoid system within the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and hippocampus (HIPP), brain structures critical to fear extinction. However, the effect of cannabinoids on the underlying neural circuitry of extinction memory recall in humans has not been demonstrated. We conducted a fu...

  17. Resting cerebral metabolism correlates with skin conductance and functional brain activation during fear conditioning

    Linnman, Clas; Zeidan, Mohamed A.; Pitman, Roger K.; Milad, Mohammed R.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated whether resting brain metabolism can be used to predict autonomic and neuronal responses during fear conditioning in 20 healthy humans. Regional cerebral metabolic rate for glucose was measured via positron emission tomography at rest. During conditioning, autonomic responses were measured via skin conductance, and blood oxygen level dependent signal was measured via functional magnetic resonance imaging. Resting dorsal anterior cingulate metabolism positively predicted differ...

  18. Balance control and anti‐gravity muscle activity during the experience of fear at heights

    Wuehr, Max; Kugler, Guenter; Schniepp, Roman; Eckl, Maria; Pradhan, Cauchy; Jahn, Klaus; Huppert, Doreen; Brandt, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Fear of heights occurs when a visual stimulus causes the apprehension of losing balance and falling. A moderate form of visual height intolerance (vHI) affects about one third of the general population and has relevant consequences for the quality of life. A quantitative evaluation of balance mechanisms in persons susceptible to vHI during height exposure is missing. VHI‐related changes in postural control were assessed by center‐of‐pressure displacements and electromyographic record...

  19. Escitalopram prolonged fear induced by simulated public speaking and released hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation.

    Garcia-Leal, C; Del-Ben, C M; Leal, F M; Graeff, F G; Guimarães, F S

    2010-05-01

    Simulated public speaking (SPS) test is sensitive to drugs that interfere with serotonin-mediated neurotransmission and is supposed to recruit neural systems involved in panic disorder. The study was aimed at evaluating the effects of escitalopram, the most selective serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitor available, in SPS. Healthy males received, in a double-blind, randomized design, placebo (n = 12), 10 (n = 17) or 20 (n = 14) mg of escitalopram 2 hours before the test. Behavioural, autonomic and neuroendocrine measures were assessed. Both doses of escitalopram did not produce any effect before or during the speech but prolonged the fear induced by SPS. The test itself did not significantly change cortisol and prolactin levels but under the higher dose of escitalopram, cortisol and prolactin increased immediately after SPS. This fear-enhancing effect of escitalopram agrees with previously reported results with less selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and the receptor antagonist ritanserin, indicating that serotonin inhibits the fear of speaking in public. PMID:19251828

  20. Activation of D1/5 Dopamine Receptors: A Common Mechanism for Enhancing Extinction of Fear and Reward-Seeking Behaviors.

    Abraham, Antony D; Neve, Kim A; Lattal, K Matthew

    2016-07-01

    Dopamine is critical for many processes that drive learning and memory, including motivation, prediction error, incentive salience, memory consolidation, and response output. Theories of dopamine's function in these processes have, for the most part, been developed from behavioral approaches that examine learning mechanisms in appetitive tasks. A parallel and growing literature indicates that dopamine signaling is involved in consolidation of memories into stable representations in aversive tasks such as fear conditioning. Relatively little is known about how dopamine may modulate memories that form during extinction, when organisms learn that the relation between previously associated events is severed. We investigated whether fear and reward extinction share common mechanisms that could be enhanced with dopamine D1/5 receptor activation. Pharmacological activation of dopamine D1/5 receptors (with SKF 81297) enhanced extinction of both cued and contextual fear. These effects also occurred in the extinction of cocaine-induced conditioned place preference, suggesting that the observed effects on extinction were not specific to a particular type of procedure (aversive or appetitive). A cAMP/PKA biased D1 agonist (SKF 83959) did not affect fear extinction, whereas a broadly efficacious D1 agonist (SKF 83822) promoted fear extinction. Together, these findings show that dopamine D1/5 receptor activation is a target for the enhancement of fear or reward extinction. PMID:26763483

  1. The Available Time Scale: Measuring Foster Parents' Available Time to Foster

    Cherry, Donna J.; Orme, John G.; Rhodes, Kathryn W.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a new measure of available time specific to fostering, the Available Time Scale (ATS). It was tested with a national sample of 304 foster mothers and is designed to measure the amount of time foster parents are able to devote to fostering activities. The ATS has excellent reliability, and good support exists for its validity.…

  2. Fostering Entrepreneurship in Azerbaijan

    Kuriakose, Smita

    2013-01-01

    A dynamic and vibrant private sector is crucial to economic growth, with firms making new investments, creating jobs, improving productivity, and promoting growth. Entrepreneurial activity is pivotal to the continued dynamism of the private sector, as the generation of new businesses fosters competition and economic growth. This is particularly relevant for Azerbaijan, whose government fac...

  3. Fostering Entrepreneurship in Armenia

    Kuriakose, Smita

    2013-01-01

    A dynamic and vibrant private sector is crucial to economic growth, with firms making new investments, creating jobs, improving productivity, and promoting growth. Entrepreneurial activity is pivotal to the continued dynamism of the private sector, with the generation of new businesses fostering competition and economic growth. This study uses data from the new 2012 World Bank entrepreneur...

  4. Rapid Activation of Glucocorticoid Receptors in the Prefrontal Cortex Mediates the Expression of Contextual Conditioned Fear in Rats.

    Reis, Fernando M C V; Almada, Rafael C; Fogaça, Manoela V; Brandão, Marcus L

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of glucocorticoids in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) activity and the expression of contextual conditioned fear (freezing). Rats were pretreated with vehicle or metyrapone, a corticosterone synthesis blocker, and exposed to a context previously paired with footshocks. Freezing and Fos-protein expression in different mPFC regions were assessed. Exposure to the aversive context led to increased freezing and Fos expression in the prelimbic (PrL), anterior cingulate areas 1 and 2 (Cg1/Cg2). Pretreatment with metyrapone decreased freezing and Fos expression in these areas. Administration of spironolactone, an MR antagonist, in the PrL before the test decreased freezing. Pretreatment with RU38486, a glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonist, reduced this effect of spironolactone, suggesting that the effects of this MR antagonist may be attributable to a redirection of endogenous corticosterone actions to GRs. Consistent with this result, the decrease in freezing that was induced by intra-PrL injections of corticosterone was attenuated by pretreatment with RU38486 but not spironolactone. These findings indicate that corticosterone release during aversive conditioning influences mPFC activity and the retrieval of conditioned fear memory indicating the importance of balance between MR:GR-mediated effects in this brain region in this process. PMID:25976757

  5. Mouse chronic social stress increases blood and brain kynurenine pathway activity and fear behaviour: Both effects are reversed by inhibition of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase.

    Fuertig, René; Azzinnari, Damiano; Bergamini, Giorgio; Cathomas, Flurin; Sigrist, Hannes; Seifritz, Erich; Vavassori, Stefano; Luippold, Andreas; Hengerer, Bastian; Ceci, Angelo; Pryce, Christopher R

    2016-05-01

    Psychosocial stress is a major risk factor for mood and anxiety disorders, in which excessive reactivity to aversive events/stimuli is a major psychopathology. In terms of pathophysiology, immune-inflammation is an important candidate, including high blood and brain levels of metabolites belonging to the kynurenine pathway. Animal models are needed to study causality between psychosocial stress, immune-inflammation and hyper-reactivity to aversive stimuli. The present mouse study investigated effects of psychosocial stress as chronic social defeat (CSD) versus control-handling (CON) on: Pavlovian tone-shock fear conditioning, activation of the kynurenine pathway, and efficacy of a specific inhibitor (IDOInh) of the tryptophan-kynurenine catabolising enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO1), in reversing CSD effects on the kynurenine pathway and fear. CSD led to excessive fear learning and memory, whilst repeated oral escitalopram (antidepressant and anxiolytic) reversed excessive fear memory, indicating predictive validity of the model. CSD led to higher blood levels of TNF-α, IFN-γ, kynurenine (KYN), 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK) and kynurenic acid, and higher KYN and 3-HK in amygdala and hippocampus. CSD was without effect on IDO1 gene or protein expression in spleen, ileum and liver, whilst increasing liver TDO2 gene expression. Nonetheless, oral IDOInh reduced blood and brain levels of KYN and 3-HK in CSD mice to CON levels, and we therefore infer that CSD increases IDO1 activity by increasing its post-translational activation. Furthermore, repeated oral IDOInh reversed excessive fear memory in CSD mice to CON levels. IDOInh reversal of CSD-induced hyper-activity in the kynurenine pathway and fear system contributes significantly to the evidence for a causal pathway between psychosocial stress, immune-inflammation and the excessive fearfulness that is a major psychopathology in stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:26724575

  6. Anticipatory child fostering and household economic security in Malawi

    Lauren Bachan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: While there is a rich literature on the practice of child fostering in sub-Saharan Africa, little is known about how fostering impacts receiving households, as few studies consider household conditions both before and after fostering. Despite the fact that circumstancessurrounding fostering vary, the literature's key distinction of fostering is often drawn along the simple line of whether or not a household is fostering a child. This paper argues that anticipation of fostering responsibilities, in particular, is a useful dimension to distinguish fostering experiences for receiving households. Objective: This paper examines the relationship between receiving a foster child and subsequent changes in household wealth. Particular emphasis is placed on how these changes are conditioned by differing levels of anticipation of the fostering event. Methods: This study uses data from Tsogolo la Thanzi (TLT, a longitudinal survey in Balaka, Malawi. Using data from 1754 TLT respondents, fixed effects pooled time-series models are estimated to assess whether and how receiving a foster child changes household wealth. Results: This paper demonstrates the heterogeneity of fostering experiences for receiving households.The results show that households that anticipate fostering responsibilities experience a greater increase in household wealth than both households that do not foster and those that are surprised by fostering. Conclusions: Households that anticipate fostering responsibilities exhibit the greatest increase in householdwealth. While fostering households that do not anticipate fostering responsibilities may not experience these gains, there is no evidence to indicate that such households are negatively impacted relative to households that do not foster. This finding suggests that additional childcare responsibilities may not be as detrimental to African households as some researchers have feared.

  7. Food fears

    Radurisation can give a new lease of shelf life to food and cut down contamination, but it is bound to cause problems - even among comparatively tame South African consumers. In this article the facts about radurization are discussed: the labelling of irradiated products, the problem of making a bad product good by using irradiation, consumer pressure, attitudes, fears and resistance. The economics of radurised foodstuffs are also discussed

  8. Testing conditions in shock-based contextual fear conditioning influence both the behavioral responses and the activation of circuits potentially involved in contextual avoidance.

    Viellard, Juliette; Baldo, Marcus Vinicius C; Canteras, Newton Sabino

    2016-12-15

    Previous studies from our group have shown that risk assessment behaviors are the primary contextual fear responses to predatory and social threats, whereas freezing is the main contextual fear response to physically harmful events. To test contextual fear responses to a predator or aggressive conspecific threat, we developed a model that involves placing the animal in an apparatus where it can avoid the threat-associated environment. Conversely, in studies that use shock-based fear conditioning, the animals are usually confined inside the conditioning chamber during the contextual fear test. In the present study, we tested shock-based contextual fear responses using two different behavioral testing conditions: confining the animal in the conditioning chamber or placing the animal in an apparatus with free access to the conditioning compartment. Our results showed that during the contextual fear test, the animals confined to the shock chamber exhibited significantly more freezing. In contrast, the animals that could avoid the conditioning compartment displayed almost no freezing and exhibited risk assessment responses (i.e., crouch-sniff and stretch postures) and burying behavior. In addition, the animals that were able to avoid the shock chamber had increased Fos expression in the juxtadorsomedial lateral hypothalamic area, the dorsomedial part of the dorsal premammillary nucleus and the lateral and dorsomedial parts of the periaqueductal gray, which are elements of a septo/hippocampal-hypothalamic-brainstem circuit that is putatively involved in mediating contextual avoidance. Overall, the present findings show that testing conditions significantly influence both behavioral responses and the activation of circuits involved in contextual avoidance. PMID:27544875

  9. A Systematic Review of Strategies to Foster Activity Engagement in Persons with Dementia

    Trahan, Maranda A.; Kuo, Julie; Carlson, Michelle C.; Gitlin, Laura N.

    2014-01-01

    Dementia is a growing public health issue. Activity, a positive therapeutic modality, has potential to enhance quality of life and reduce behavioral symptoms in persons with dementia--outcomes eluding pharmacological treatments. However, it is unclear how to effectively engage persons with dementia in activities for them to derive desired…

  10. Can Reading Questions Foster Active Learning? A Study of Six College Courses

    Koontz, T. M.; Plank, K. M.

    2011-01-01

    Many instructors strive to encourage student reading outside of class and active learning in class. One pedagogical tool, structured reading questions, can help do both. Using examples from question sets across six courses, the authors illustrate how reading questions can help students achieve the six active-learning principles described by…

  11. Adoption & Foster Care

    ... Children > Family Life > Family Dynamics > Adoption & Foster Care Adoption & Foster Care Article Body ​Each year, many children join families through adoption and foster care. These families may face unique ...

  12. Fear potentiated startle increases phospholipase D (PLD) expression/activity and PLD-linked metabotropic glutamate receptor mediated post-tetanic potentiation in rat amygdala.

    Krishnan, Balaji; Scott, Michael T; Pollandt, Sebastian; Schroeder, Bradley; Kurosky, Alexander; Shinnick-Gallagher, Patricia

    2016-02-01

    Long-term memory (LTM) of fear stores activity dependent modifications that include changes in amygdala signaling. Previously, we identified an enhanced probability of release of glutamate mediated signaling to be important in rat fear potentiated startle (FPS), a well-established translational behavioral measure of fear. Here, we investigated short- and long-term synaptic plasticity in FPS involving metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) and associated downstream proteomic changes in the thalamic-lateral amygdala pathway (Th-LA). Aldolase A, an inhibitor of phospholipase D (PLD), expression was reduced, concurrent with significantly elevated PLD protein expression. Blocking the PLD-mGluR signaling significantly reduced PLD activity. While transmitter release probability increased in FPS, PLD-mGluR agonist and antagonist actions were occluded. In the unpaired group (UNP), blocking the PLD-mGluR increased while activating the receptor decreased transmitter release probability, consistent with decreased synaptic potentials during tetanic stimulation. FPS Post-tetanic potentiation (PTP) immediately following long-term potentiation (LTP) induction was significantly increased. Blocking PLD-mGluR signaling prevented PTP and reduced cumulative PTP probability but not LTP maintenance in both groups. These effects are similar to those mediated through mGluR7, which is co-immunoprecipitated with PLD in FPS. Lastly, blocking mGluR-PLD in the rat amygdala was sufficient to prevent behavioral expression of fear memory. Thus, our study in the Th-LA pathway provides the first evidence for PLD as an important target of mGluR signaling in amygdala fear-associated memory. Importantly, the PLD-mGluR provides a novel therapeutic target for treating maladaptive fear memories in posttraumatic stress and anxiety disorders. PMID:26748024

  13. The learning of fear extinction.

    Furini, Cristiane; Myskiw, Jociane; Izquierdo, Ivan

    2014-11-01

    Recent work on the extinction of fear-motivated learning places emphasis on its putative circuitry and on its modulation. Extinction is the learned inhibition of retrieval of previously acquired responses. Fear extinction is used as a major component of exposure therapy in the treatment of fear memories such as those of the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It is initiated and maintained by interactions between the hippocampus, basolateral amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex, which involve feedback regulation of the latter by the other two areas. Fear extinction depends on NMDA receptor activation. It is positively modulated by d-serine acting on the glycine site of NMDA receptors and blocked by AP5 (2-amino-5-phosphono propionate) in the three structures. In addition, histamine acting on H2 receptors and endocannabinoids acting on CB1 receptors in the three brain areas mentioned, and muscarinic cholinergic fibers from the medial septum to hippocampal CA1 positively modulate fear extinction. Importantly, fear extinction can be made state-dependent on circulating epinephrine, which may play a role in situations of stress. Exposure to a novel experience can strongly enhance the consolidation of fear extinction through a synaptic tagging and capture mechanism; this may be useful in the therapy of states caused by fear memory like PTSD. PMID:25452113

  14. Presenting Theoretical Ideas Prior to Inquiry Activities Fosters Theory-Level Knowledge

    Wecker, Christof; Rachel, Alexander; Heran-Dörr, Eva; Waltner, Christine; Wiesner, Hartmut; Fischer, Frank

    2013-01-01

    In the course of inquiry activities similar to those of real scientists, learners are supposed to develop knowledge both on the level of observable phenomena and on the level of explanatory theories. However, some theories involve theoretical entities (e.g., "Weiss domains") that cannot be observed directly and therefore may be hard to…

  15. Activities to foster training in nuclear and radiochemistry from IACS, IAEA-Vienna

    Uses of radioisotopes and radiation in medicine, industry, agriculture are amongst the most beneficial applications of atomic energy for peaceful purposes. The International Atomic Energy Agency aims - in accordance with its statute - to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world. The various Technical Divisions of the Agency carry out this mandate and enhance, particularly through 'manpower development activities' the nuclear applications of radiation and isotopes. Staff members of the 'Industrial Applications and Chemistry Section' in the Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications of the IAEA have supported more than 600 trainees per year for education in nuclear and radiochemistry through fellowships, training courses and workshops. Provision of printed material in various disciplines is supporting our educational efforts. (author)

  16. Fear of Fear and the Anxiety Disorders.

    Chambless, Dianne L.

    The fear of fear present in agoraphobics can be broken down into a fear of the body sensations associated with the panic attacks that plague agoraphobics and maladaptive thoughts about the possible consequences of panic. In a retrospective examination of clinical files, 32 agoraphobic patients were compared to 36 patients with simple social…

  17. Evaluating an intervention to reduce fear of falling and associated activity restriction in elderly persons: design of a randomised controlled trial [ISRCTN43792817

    van Eijk JThM

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fear of falling and associated activity restriction is common in older persons living in the community. Adverse consequences of fear of falling and associated activity restriction, like functional decline and falls, may have a major impact on physical, mental and social functioning of these persons. This paper presents the design of a trial evaluating a cognitive behavioural group intervention to reduce fear of falling and associated activity restriction in older persons living in the community. Methods/design A two-group randomised controlled trial was developed to evaluate the intervention. Persons 70 years of age or over and still living in the community were eligible for study if they experienced at least some fear of falling and associated activity restriction. A random community sample of elderly people was screened for eligibility; those eligible for study were measured at baseline and were subsequently allocated to the intervention or control group. Follow-up measurements were carried out directly after the intervention period, and then at six months and 12 months after the intervention. People allocated to the intervention group were invited to participate in eight weekly sessions of two hours each and a booster session. This booster session was conducted before the follow-up measurement at six months after the intervention. People allocated to the control group received no intervention as a result of this trial. Both an effect evaluation and a process evaluation were performed. The primary outcome measures of the effect evaluation are fear of falling, avoidance of activity due to fear of falling, and daily activity. The secondary outcome measures are perceived general health, self-rated life satisfaction, activities of daily life, feelings of anxiety, symptoms of depression, social support interactions, feelings of loneliness, falls, perceived consequences of falling, and perceived risk of falling. The outcomes of

  18. 5-HT1A Receptor Activation Reduces Fear-related Behavior Following Social Defeat in Syrian Hamsters

    Bader, Lauren R.; Carboni, Joseph D.; Burleson, Cody A.; Cooper, Matthew A.

    2014-01-01

    Social defeat leads to selective avoidance of familiar opponents as well as general avoidance of novel, non-threatening intruders. Avoidance of familiar opponents represents a fear-related memory whereas generalized social avoidance indicates anxiety-like behavior. We have previously shown that serotonin signaling alters responses to social defeat in Syrian hamsters, although it is unclear whether serotonin modulates defeat-induced fear, anxiety, or both. In this study we focus on 5-HT1A rece...

  19. Active duty female military's experience of fear, embarrassment, and distress during pelvic examinations

    Bakken, April D.

    2011-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Previous research indicates that among civilians and female veterans, a history of sexual violence is associated with negative experiences with gynecological care. We attempt to extend these findings to active duty female U.S. military officers. We hypothesize that in this population (1) sexual violence history status predicts emotional reactions to the pelvic examination; (2) that this relationship is mediated by military rank; and ...

  20. Memory suppression trades prolonged fear and sleep-dependent fear plasticity for the avoidance of current fear

    Kuriyama, Kenichi; Honma, Motoyasu; Yoshiike, Takuya; Kim, Yoshiharu

    2013-07-01

    Sleep deprivation immediately following an aversive event reduces fear by preventing memory consolidation during homeostatic sleep. This suggests that acute insomnia might act prophylactically against the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) even though it is also a possible risk factor for PTSD. We examined total sleep deprivation and memory suppression to evaluate the effects of these interventions on subsequent aversive memory formation and fear conditioning. Active suppression of aversive memory impaired retention of event memory. However, although the remembered fear was more reduced in sleep-deprived than sleep-control subjects, suppressed fear increased, and seemed to abandon the sleep-dependent plasticity of fear. Active memory suppression, which provides a psychological model for Freud's ego defense mechanism, enhances fear and casts doubt on the potential of acute insomnia as a prophylactic measure against PTSD. Our findings bring into question the role of sleep in aversive-memory consolidation in clinical PTSD pathophysiology.

  1. Temporal and Regional Regulation of Gene Expression by Calcium-Stimulated Adenylyl Cyclase Activity during Fear Memory

    Wieczorek, Lindsay; Maas, James W.; Muglia, Lisa M.; Vogt, Sherri K.; Muglia, Louis J.

    2010-01-01

    Background The Ca2+-stimulated adenylyl cyclases (ACs), AC1 and AC8, are key components of long-term memory processing. AC1 and AC8 double knockout mice (Adcy1−/−Adcy8−/−; DKO) display impaired fear memory processing; the mechanism of this impairment is largely unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings We hypothesize that the Ca2+-stimulated ACs modulate long-lasting transcriptional changes essential for fear memory consolidation and maintenance. Here, we report a genome-wide study of gene expr...

  2. Foster Parent Stress.

    Jones, Graham; Morrissette, Patrick J.

    1999-01-01

    Research findings regarding foster-parent stress and implications for counselors and counselor educators are discussed. Eleven significant themes are reported from a qualitative and quantitative study of rural foster parents (N=156). Stressful events that affect the well-being of foster parents and their relationships with children and…

  3. Could hands-on activities and smartphone in science CLIL teaching foster motivation and positive attitudes in students?

    Ercolino, Immacolata; Maraffi, Sabina; Sacerdoti, Francesco M.

    2016-04-01

    Motivating students is one of the most challenging things we do as educators. We know that students need to be engaged to fully appreciate and learn what has been taught; the secret consists in nurturing student engagement. One of the newer ways to involve students and foster motivation in their Science learning consists in focusing on their usage and on applying knowledge and skills in their real-life. Students usually are engaged in authentic teaching pathway. Learning focusing on the experience helps teachers to improve classroom management by gathering students around a common organized activity. Hands-on activities support problem-based approaches to learning by focusing on the experience and process of investigating, proposing and creating solutions developing critical thinking skills and enlarge student's scientific glossary. We utilized in our classroom some lab activities that we learned at an ESA/GTTP Teacher training Workshop 2014 program at the Lorentz Center Leiden, Netherlands. "Cooking a comet - Ingredients for life" "Demonstration of the second Kepler's law using marbles" New media equipment, as student's own smartphones, can increase the teaching impact speaking the same language used by the students every day. They can measure magnetic fields, their GPS coordinates (longitude and latitude), and so on. In this way we can measure distances as parallax using mobile devices and simulating distance measurements in the classroom, on the school campus. The smartphone is the device with which the students answer questions, take decisions, and solve quests. Students infact can observe the Universe from their classroom and scientifically they can watch the Sun with "Google sky map" or "Star walk" are excellent tools to learn your way around the night sky .As teachers we used these apps in the classroom when Sun goes through the constellations so our students don't believe in horoscopes. This paper is focused on hands on activities and the effects of the

  4. Modeling fear-conditioned bradycardia in humans

    Castegnetti, G.; Tzovara, A.; Staib, M.; Paulus, P. C.; Hofer, N.; Bach, D R

    2016-01-01

    Across species, cued fear conditioning is a common experimental paradigm to investigate aversive Pavlovian learning. While fear-conditioned stimuli (CS+) elicit overt behavior in many mammals, this is not the case in humans. Typically, autonomic nervous system activity is used to quantify fear memory in humans, measured by skin conductance responses (SCR). Here, we investigate whether heart period responses (HPR) evoked by the CS, often observed in humans and small mammals, are suitable to co...

  5. p300/CBP Histone Acetyltransferase Activity Is Required for Newly Acquired and Reactivated Fear Memories in the Lateral Amygdala

    Maddox, Stephanie A.; Watts, Casey S.; Schafe, Glenn E.

    2013-01-01

    Modifications in chromatin structure have been widely implicated in memory and cognition, most notably using hippocampal-dependent memory paradigms including object recognition, spatial memory, and contextual fear memory. Relatively little is known, however, about the role of chromatin-modifying enzymes in amygdala-dependent memory formation.…

  6. Trace and Contextual Fear Conditioning Require Neural Activity and NMDA Receptor-Dependent Transmission in the Medial Prefrontal Cortex

    Gilmartin, Marieke R.; Helmstetter, Fred J.

    2010-01-01

    The contribution of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) to the formation of memory is a subject of considerable recent interest. Notably, the mechanisms supporting memory acquisition in this structure are poorly understood. The mPFC has been implicated in the acquisition of trace fear conditioning, a task that requires the association of a…

  7. Pre-test metyrapone impairs memory recall in fear conditioning tasks: lack of interaction with β-adrenergic activity

    Mariella B.L. Careaga

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive processes, such as learning and memory, are essential for our adaptation to environmental changes and consequently for survival. Numerous studies indicate that hormones secreted during stressful situations, such as glucocorticoids (GCs, adrenaline and noradrenaline, regulate memory functions, modulating aversive memory consolidation and retrieval, in an interactive and complementary way. Thus, the facilitatory effects of GCs on memory consolidation as well as their suppressive effects on retrieval are substantially explained by this interaction. On the other hand, low levels of GCs are also associated with negative effects on memory consolidation and retrieval and the mechanisms involved are not well understood. The present study sought to investigate the consequences of blocking the rise of GCs on fear memory retrieval in multiple tests, assessing the participation of β-adrenergic signaling on this effect. Metyrapone (GCs synthesis inhibitor, administered 90 min before the first test of contextual or auditory fear conditioning, negatively affected animals’ performances, but this effect did not persist on a subsequent test, when the conditioned response was again expressed. This result suggested that the treatment impaired fear memory retrieval during the first evaluation. The administration immediately after the first test did not affect the animals’ performances in contextual fear conditioning, suggesting that the drug did not interfere with processes triggered by memory reactivation. Moreover, metyrapone effects were independent of β-adrenergic signaling, since concurrent administration with propranolol, a β-adrenergic antagonist, did not modify the effects induced by metyrapone alone. These results demonstrate that pre-test metyrapone administration led to negative effects on fear memory retrieval and this action was independent of a β-adrenergic signaling.

  8. Understanding amygdala responsiveness to fearful expressions through the lens of psychopathy and altruism.

    Marsh, Abigail A

    2016-06-01

    Because the face is the central focus of human social interactions, emotional facial expressions provide a unique window into the emotional lives of others. They play a particularly important role in fostering empathy, which entails understanding and responding to others' emotions, especially distress-related emotions such as fear. This Review considers how fearful facial as well as vocal and postural expressions are interpreted, with an emphasis on the role of the amygdala. The amygdala may be best known for its role in the acquisition and expression of conditioned fear, but it also supports the perception and recognition of others' fear. Various explanations have been supplied for the amygdala's role in interpreting and responding to fearful expressions. They include theories that amygdala responses to fearful expressions 1) reflect heightened vigilance in response to uncertain danger, 2) promote heightened attention to the eye region of faces, 3) represent a response to an unconditioned aversive stimulus, or 4) reflect the generation of an empathic fear response. Among these, only empathic fear explains why amygdala lesions would impair fear recognition across modalities. Supporting the possibility of a link between fundamental empathic processes and amygdala responses to fear is evidence that impaired fear recognition in psychopathic individuals results from amygdala dysfunction, whereas enhanced fear recognition in altruistic individuals results from enhanced amygdala function. Empathic concern and caring behaviors may be fostered by sensitivity to signs of acute distress in others, which relies on intact functioning of the amygdala. PMID:26366635

  9. Fears and Phobias

    ... the situation calls for. Many people have a fear of public speaking . Whether it's giving a report in class, speaking ... cloudy. A guy with social phobia experiences intense fear of public speaking or interacting, and may be afraid to answer ...

  10. Equal pain—Unequal fear response: enhanced susceptibility of tooth pain to fear conditioning

    Meier, Michael L.; de Matos, Nuno M. P.; Brügger, Mike; Ettlin, Dominik A.; Lukic, Nenad; Cheetham, Marcus; Jäncke, Lutz; Lutz, Kai

    2014-01-01

    Experimental fear conditioning in humans is widely used as a model to investigate the neural basis of fear learning and to unravel the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders. It has been observed that fear conditioning depends on stimulus salience and subject vulnerability to fear. It is further known that the prevalence of dental-related fear and phobia is exceedingly high in the population. Dental phobia is unique as no other body part is associated with a specific phobia. Therefore, we hypothesized that painful dental stimuli exhibit an enhanced susceptibility to fear conditioning when comparing to equal perceived stimuli applied to other body sites. Differential susceptibility to pain-related fear was investigated by analyzing responses to an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) applied to the right maxillary canine (UCS-c) vs. the right tibia (UCS-t). For fear conditioning, UCS-c and USC-t consisted of painful electric stimuli, carefully matched at both application sites for equal intensity and quality perception. UCSs were paired to simple geometrical forms which served as conditioned stimuli (CS+). Unpaired CS+ were presented for eliciting and analyzing conditioned fear responses. Outcome parameter were (1) skin conductance changes and (2) time-dependent brain activity (BOLD responses) in fear-related brain regions such as the amygdala, anterior cingulate cortex, insula, thalamus, orbitofrontal cortex, and medial prefrontal cortex. A preferential susceptibility of dental pain to fear conditioning was observed, reflected by heightened skin conductance responses and enhanced time-dependent brain activity (BOLD responses) in the fear network. For the first time, this study demonstrates fear-related neurobiological mechanisms that point toward a superior conditionability of tooth pain. Beside traumatic dental experiences our results offer novel evidence that might explain the high prevalence of dental-related fears in the population. PMID:25100974

  11. Equal pain – Unequal fear response: Enhanced susceptibility of tooth pain to fear conditioning

    Michael Lukas Meier

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Experimental fear conditioning in humans is widely used as a model to investigate the neural basis of fear learning and to unravel the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders. It has been observed that fear conditioning depends on stimulus salience and subject vulnerability to fear. It is further known that the prevalence of dental-related fear and phobia is exceedingly high in the population. Dental phobia is unique as no other body part is associated with a specific phobia. Therefore, we hypothesized that painful dental stimuli exhibit an enhanced susceptibility to fear conditioning when comparing to equal perceived stimuli applied to other body sites. Differential susceptibility to pain-related fear was investigated by analyzing responses to an unconditioned stimulus (UCS applied to the right maxillary canine (UCS-c versus the right tibia (UCS-t. For fear conditioning, UCS-c and USC-t consisted of painful electric stimuli, carefully matched at both application sites for equal intensity and quality perception. UCSs were paired to simple geometrical forms which served as conditioned stimuli (CS+. Unpaired CS+ were presented for eliciting and analyzing conditioned fear responses. Outcome parameter were 1 skin conductance changes and 2 time-dependent brain activity (BOLD responses in fear-related brain regions such as the amygdala, anterior cingulate cortex, insula, thalamus, orbitofrontal cortex and medial prefrontal cortex.A preferential susceptibility of dental pain to fear conditioning was observed, reflected by heightened skin conductance responses and enhanced time-dependent brain activity (BOLD responses in the fear network. For the first time, this study demonstrates fear-related neurobiological mechanisms that point towards a superior conditionability of tooth pain. Beside traumatic dental experiences our results offer novel evidence that might explain the high prevalence of dental-related fears in the population.

  12. Perceived Community Disorder Moderates the Relation between Victimization and Fear of Crime

    Roccato, Michele; Russo, Silvia; Vieno, Alessio

    2011-01-01

    In a representative sample of the Italian population (N=2,002), surveyed in January 2008, we studied the direct and interactive effects exerted on fear of crime by direct and indirect victimization, on the one hand, and perceived level of disorder of participants' community, on the other hand. Indirect victimization fostered fear of crime among…

  13. The advances of fear

    This book treats of four sensible topics of the last decade - the nuclear industry, the cloning, Internet and the greenhouse effect - in order to analyze the irrational or organized fears among the public: what do we fear and why? How this fear is shown? Which questions need to be answered and how? (J.S.)

  14. A climate of fear

    Garner, Tom Alexander; Grimshaw, Mark Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a framework that incorporates fear, acoustics, thought processing and digital game sound theory; with the potential to not only improve understanding of our relationship with fear, but also generate a foundation for reliable and significant manipulation of the fear experience....

  15. Trace and contextual fear conditioning require neural activity and NMDA receptor-dependent transmission in the medial prefrontal cortex

    Gilmartin, Marieke R.; Helmstetter, Fred J.

    2010-01-01

    The contribution of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) to the formation of memory is a subject of considerable recent interest. Notably, the mechanisms supporting memory acquisition in this structure are poorly understood. The mPFC has been implicated in the acquisition of trace fear conditioning, a task that requires the association of a conditional stimulus (CS) and an aversive unconditional stimulus (UCS) across a temporal gap. In both rat and human subjects, frontal regions show increase...

  16. Activation of NF-κB in Basolateral Amygdala Is Required for Memory Reconsolidation in Auditory Fear Conditioning

    Si, Jijian; Yang, Jianli; Xue, Lifen; Yang, Chenhao; Luo, Yixiao; Shi, Haishui; Lu, Lin

    2012-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by acute and chronic changes in the stress response, manifested as conditioned fear memory. Previously formed memories that are susceptible to disruption immediately after retrieval undergo a protein synthesis-dependent process to become persistent, termed reconsolidation, a process that is regulated by many distinct molecular mechanisms that control gene expression. Increasing evidence supports the participation of the transcription facto...

  17. Reduced Gamma Range Activity at REM Sleep Onset and Termination in Fear-Conditioned Wistar-Kyoto Rats

    Laitman, Benjamin M.; DaSilva, Jamie K.; Ross, Richard J.; Tejani-Butt, Shanaz; Morrison, Adrian R.

    2011-01-01

    Recent investigations of rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) continuity have emphasized the importance of transitions both into and out of REMS. We have previously reported that, compared to Wistar rats (WIS), Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) responded to fear conditioning (FC) with more fragmented REMS. Gamma oscillations in the electroencephalogram (EEG) are synchronized throughout the brain in periods of focused attention, and such synchronization of cell assemblies in the brain may represent a tempora...

  18. Development of fearfulness in birds: genetic factors modulate non-genetic maternal influences

    Houdelier, C.; Lumineau, S.; BERTIN, Aline; Guibert, F.; De Margerie, E.; Augery, M.; Richard-Yris, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    The development of fearfulness and the capacity of animals to cope with stressful events are particularly sensitive to early experience with mothers in a wide range of species. However, intrinsic characteristics of young animals can modulate maternal influence. This study evaluated the effect of intrinsic fearfulness on non-genetic maternal influence. Quail chicks, divergently selected for either higher (LTI) or lower fearfulness (STI) and from a control line (C), were cross-fostered by LTI o...

  19. The nuclear energy: law and fear

    This document mentions the feeling of fear which goes along the idea of nuclear energy, as well as ethics and law. Technological aspects, political choices and financial matters are responsible for the nuclear energy development. Then it is shown that the consequences of this development is the continuous feeling of fear and risk which goes with every nuclear activities. (TEC)

  20. Does Religious Involvement Generate or Inhibit Fear of Crime?

    Todd Matthews

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In victimology, fear of crime is understood as an emotional response to the perceived threat of crime. Fear of crime has been found to be affected by several variables besides local crime rates and personal experiences with victimization. This study examines the relationship between religion and fear of crime, an underexplored topic in the criminological literature. This gap is rather surprising given the central role religion has been found to play in shaping the attitudes and perceptions of congregants. In particular, religion has been found to foster generalized trust, which should engender lower levels of distrust or misanthropy, including that which is directed towards a general fear of crime. OLS regression was performed using data from the West Georgia Area Survey (n = 380. Controlling for demographic, community involvement, and political ideology variables, frequency of religious attendance was significantly and negatively associated with fear of property crime. This relationship remained even after a perceived neighborhood safety variable was introduced to the model. However, religious attendance was not significantly related to fear of violent crime, and religious orientation was unrelated to fear of property and violent crime. These results suggest that religious involvement conditionally reduces fear of crime, and the authors recommend that future research explore relationships between religion and fear of crime.

  1. Activity dependent protein degradation is critical for the formation and stability of fear memory in the amygdala.

    Timothy J Jarome

    Full Text Available Protein degradation through the ubiquitin-proteasome system [UPS] plays a critical role in some forms of synaptic plasticity. However, its role in memory formation in the amygdala, a site critical for the formation of fear memories, currently remains unknown. Here we provide the first evidence that protein degradation through the UPS is critically engaged at amygdala synapses during memory formation and retrieval. Fear conditioning results in NMDA-dependent increases in degradation-specific polyubiquitination in the amygdala, targeting proteins involved in translational control and synaptic structure and blocking the degradation of these proteins significantly impairs long-term memory. Furthermore, retrieval of fear memory results in a second wave of NMDA-dependent polyubiquitination that targets proteins involved in translational silencing and synaptic structure and is critical for memory updating following recall. These results indicate that UPS-mediated protein degradation is a major regulator of synaptic plasticity necessary for the formation and stability of long-term memories at amygdala synapses.

  2. Normalization of EEG activity among previously institutionalized children placed into foster care: A 12-year follow-up of the Bucharest Early Intervention Project.

    Vanderwert, Ross E; Zeanah, Charles H; Fox, Nathan A; Nelson, Charles A

    2016-02-01

    Extreme social and cognitive deprivation as a result of institutional care has profound effects on developmental outcomes across multiple domains for many abandoned or orphaned children. The Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP) examines the outcomes for children originally placed in institutions who were assessed comprehensively and then randomized to foster care (FCG) or care as usual (CAUG) and followed longitudinally. Here we report on the brain electrical activity (electroencephalogram: EEG) of 12-year-old children enrolled in the BEIP. Previous reports suggested improvement in resting EEG activity for the group of children placed in the foster care intervention, particularly those placed before 24 months of age compared to children who were randomized to CAUG or those placed into families after this age. At 12 years, differences between those in the FCG and those in the CAUG persist in the alpha band (8-13 Hz), but not in higher frequency bands (i.e. in the beta band; 15-30 Hz), except in those children placed into the FCG who remained in high quality care environments over the course of the study. These findings highlight the importance of maintaining a stable high quality caregiving environment, particularly for children exposed to early psychosocial deprivation, for promoting healthy brain development. PMID:26724564

  3. Normalization of EEG activity among previously institutionalized children placed into foster care: A 12-year follow-up of the Bucharest Early Intervention Project

    Ross E. Vanderwert

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Extreme social and cognitive deprivation as a result of institutional care has profound effects on developmental outcomes across multiple domains for many abandoned or orphaned children. The Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP examines the outcomes for children originally placed in institutions who were assessed comprehensively and then randomized to foster care (FCG or care as usual (CAUG and followed longitudinally. Here we report on the brain electrical activity (electroencephalogram: EEG of 12-year-old children enrolled in the BEIP. Previous reports suggested improvement in resting EEG activity for the group of children placed in the foster care intervention, particularly those placed before 24 months of age compared to children who were randomized to CAUG or those placed into families after this age. At 12 years, differences between those in the FCG and those in the CAUG persist in the alpha band (8–13 Hz, but not in higher frequency bands (i.e. in the beta band; 15–30 Hz, except in those children placed into the FCG who remained in high quality care environments over the course of the study. These findings highlight the importance of maintaining a stable high quality caregiving environment, particularly for children exposed to early psychosocial deprivation, for promoting healthy brain development.

  4. Neuroticism modifies psychophysiological responses to fearful films.

    Emmanuelle Reynaud

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neuroticism is a personality component frequently found in anxious and depressive psychiatric disorders. The influence of neuroticism on negative emotions could be due to its action on stimuli related to fear and sadness, but this remains debated. Our goal was thus to better understand the impact of neuroticism through verbal and physiological assessment in response to stimuli inducing fear and sadness as compared to another negative emotion (disgust. METHODS: Fifteen low neurotic and 18 high neurotic subjects were assessed on an emotional attending task by using film excerpts inducing fear, disgust, and sadness. We recorded skin conductance response (SCR and corrugator muscle activity (frowning as indices of emotional expression. RESULTS: SCR was larger in high neurotic subjects than in low neurotics for fear relative to sadness and disgust. Moreover, corrugator activity and SCR were larger in high than in low neurotic subjects when fear was induced. CONCLUSION: After decades of evidence that individuals higher in neuroticism experience more intense emotional reactions to even minor stressors, our results indicate that they show greater SCR and expressive reactivity specifically to stimuli evoking fear rather than to those inducing sadness or disgust. Fear processing seems mainly under the influence of neuroticism. This modulation of autonomic activity by neurotics in response to threat/fear may explain their increased vulnerability to anxious psychopathologies such as PTSD (post traumatic stress disorder.

  5. Prefrontal NMDA receptors expressed in excitatory neurons control fear discrimination and fear extinction.

    Vieira, Philip A; Corches, Alex; Lovelace, Jonathan W; Westbrook, Kevin B; Mendoza, Michael; Korzus, Edward

    2015-03-01

    N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are critically involved in various learning mechanisms including modulation of fear memory, brain development and brain disorders. While NMDARs mediate opposite effects on medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) interneurons and excitatory neurons, NMDAR antagonists trigger profound cortical activation. The objectives of the present study were to determine the involvement of NMDARs expressed specifically in excitatory neurons in mPFC-dependent adaptive behaviors, specifically fear discrimination and fear extinction. To achieve this, we tested mice with locally deleted Grin1 gene encoding the obligatory NR1 subunit of the NMDAR from prefrontal CamKIIα positive neurons for their ability to distinguish frequency modulated (FM) tones in fear discrimination test. We demonstrated that NMDAR-dependent signaling in the mPFC is critical for effective fear discrimination following initial generalization of conditioned fear. While mice with deficient NMDARs in prefrontal excitatory neurons maintain normal responses to a dangerous fear-conditioned stimulus, they exhibit abnormal generalization decrement. These studies provide evidence that NMDAR-dependent neural signaling in the mPFC is a component of a neural mechanism for disambiguating the meaning of fear signals and supports discriminative fear learning by retaining proper gating information, viz. both dangerous and harmless cues. We also found that selective deletion of NMDARs from excitatory neurons in the mPFC leads to a deficit in fear extinction of auditory conditioned stimuli. These studies suggest that prefrontal NMDARs expressed in excitatory neurons are involved in adaptive behavior. PMID:25615540

  6. NYS Foster Parent Manual

    McBride, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    This manual was developed for use in foster parents' day-to-day life with the children in their care. It gives them practical information on topics like medical care, payments, and the role of the court, and also provides guidance on areas like welcoming a child, discipline, and parent visits. The manual emphasizes the role of foster parents in…

  7. Phobias and preparedness: the selective, automatic, and encapsulated nature of fear.

    Mineka, Susan; Ohman, Arne

    2002-11-15

    We describe evidence for an evolved module for fear elicitation and fear learning with four primary characteristics. First, it is preferentially activated by stimuli related to survival threats in evolutionary history. Thus, fear-relevant stimuli lead to superior conditioning of aversive associations compared with fear-irrelevant stimuli. Second, the module is automatically activated by fear-relevant stimuli, meaning that fear activation occurs before conscious cognitive analysis of the stimulus can occur. Third, the fear module is relatively impenetrable to conscious cognitive control, and fear conditioning with fear-relevant stimuli can occur even with subliminal conditioned stimuli. Fourth, the amygdala seems to be the central brain area dedicated to the fear module. Finally, we propose that there are two levels of fear conditioning, with an emotional level that is relatively independent of the cognitive contingency level, each mediated by different brain areas. PMID:12437934

  8. Qualitative Analysis of Emotions: Fear and Thrill.

    Buckley, Ralf C

    2016-01-01

    People can speak, and this provides opportunities to analyze human emotions using perceived experiences communicated via language, as well as through measurement and imaging techniques that are also applicable to other higher animal species. Here I compare four qualitative methodological approaches to test if, and how, thrill depends on fear. I use eight high-risk, high-skill, real-life outdoor adventure recreation activities to provide the test circumstances. I present data from: >4000 person-days of participant observation; interviews with 40 expert practitioners; retrospective autoethnography of 50 critical incidents over 4 decades; and experimental autoethnography of 60 events. Results from different methods are congruent, but different approaches yield different insights. The principal findings are as follows. Individuals differ in their fear and thrill responses. The same individual may have different responses on different occasions. Fear boosts performance, but panic causes paralysis. Anxiety or apprehension prior to a risky action or event differs from fear experienced during the event itself. The intensity of pre-event fear generally increases with the immediacy of risk to life, and time to contemplate that risk. Fear must be faced, assessed and overcome in order to act. Thrill can occur either during or after a high-risk event. Thrill can occur without fear, and fear without thrill. Below a lower threshold of perceived risk, thrill can occur without fear. Between a lower and upper threshold, thrill increases with fear. Beyond the upper threshold, thrill vanishes but fear remains. This there is a sawtooth relation between fear and thrill. Perceived danger generates intense focus and awareness. Fear and other emotions can disappear during intense concentration and focus. Under high risk, the usual emotional sequence is fear before the action or event, then focus during the action or event, then thrill, relief, or triumph afterward. The emotionless state

  9. Foster Parents Speak: Preferred Characteristics of Foster Children and Experiences in the Role of Foster Parent

    Rosenwald, Mitchell; Bronstein, Laura

    2008-01-01

    Foster parents play a pivotal role in the child welfare system. A study that employed focus groups with foster parents was conducted at a private foster care agency with the initial purpose of understanding the characteristics of foster children that foster parents both preferred and not preferred. In the qualitative research tradition, their…

  10. Fear in horses

    Christensen, Janne Winther

    2006-01-01

    Fear is generally considered to be an undesirable emotional state that may reduce welfare, growth and reproductive performance in animals. Fear in horses is additionally problematic, because fear reactions can cause serious injury to both horse and human. Horses are primarily used for sports and leisure for a large number of children and young women. Unfortunately, horse riding ranks as one of the most dangerous sports in terms of the number and seriousness of accidents, and the ability of a ...

  11. Attachment Without Fear

    Bell, David C.

    2009-01-01

    John Bowlby hypothesized an attachment system that interacts with caregiving, exploration, and fear systems in the brain, with a particular emphasis on fear. Neurobiological research confirms many of his hypotheses and also raises some new questions. A psychological model based on this neurobiological research is presented here. The model extends conventional attachment theory by describing additional attachment processes independent of fear. In this model, the attachment elements of trust, o...

  12. Fear Extinction in Rodents

    Chang, Chun-hui; Knapska, Ewelina; Orsini, Caitlin A.; Rabinak, Christine A.; Zimmerman, Joshua M; Maren, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Pavlovian conditioning paradigms have become important model systems for understanding the neuroscience of behavior. In particular, studies of the extinction of Pavlovian fear responses are yielding important information about the neural substrates of anxiety disorders in humans. These studies are germane to understanding the neural mechanisms underlying behavioral interventions that suppress fear, including exposure therapy. This chapter described detailed behavioral protocols for examining ...

  13. Murine GRPR and Stathmin Control in Opposite Directions both Cued Fear Extinction and Neural Activities of the Amygdala and Prefrontal Cortex

    Guillaume Martel; Charles Hevi; Alexandra Wong; Ko Zushida; Shusaku Uchida; Shumyatsky, Gleb P.

    2012-01-01

    Extinction is an integral part of normal healthy fear responses, while it is compromised in several fear-related mental conditions in humans, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Although much research has recently been focused on fear extinction, its molecular and cellular underpinnings are still unclear. The development of animal models for extinction will greatly enhance our approaches to studying its neural circuits and the mechanisms involved. Here, we describe two gene-knockou...

  14. Memory suppression trades prolonged fear and sleep-dependent fear plasticity for the avoidance of current fear

    Kenichi Kuriyama; Motoyasu Honma; Takuya Yoshiike; Yoshiharu Kim

    2013-01-01

    Sleep deprivation immediately following an aversive event reduces fear by preventing memory consolidation during homeostatic sleep. This suggests that acute insomnia might act prophylactically against the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) even though it is also a possible risk factor for PTSD. We examined total sleep deprivation and memory suppression to evaluate the effects of these interventions on subsequent aversive memory formation and fear conditioning. Active suppress...

  15. Effect of D-cycloserine in conjunction with fear extinction training on extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation in the medial prefrontal cortex and amygdala in rat.

    Gupta, Subhash C; Hillman, Brandon G; Prakash, Anand; Ugale, Rajesh R; Stairs, Dustin J; Dravid, Shashank M

    2013-06-01

    D-cycloserine (DCS) is currently under clinical trials for a number of neuropsychiatric conditions and has been found to augment fear extinction in rodents and exposure therapy in humans. However, the molecular mechanism of DCS action in these multiple modalities remains unclear. Here, we describe the effect of DCS administration, alone or in conjunction with extinction training, on neuronal activity (c-fos) and neuronal plasticity [phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK)] markers using immunohistochemistry. We found that intraperitoneal administration of DCS in untrained young rats (24-28 days old) increased c-fos- and pERK-stained neurons in both the prelimbic and infralimbic division of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and reduced pERK levels in the lateral nucleus of the central amygdala. Moreover, DCS administration significantly increased GluA1, GluN1, GluN2A, and GluN2B expression in the mPFC. In a separate set of animals, we found that DCS facilitated fear extinction and increased pERK levels in the infralimbic prefrontal cortex, prelimbic prefrontal cortex intercalated cells and lateral nucleus of the central amygdala, compared with saline control. In the synaptoneurosomal preparation, we found that extinction training increased iGluR protein expression in the mPFC, compared with context animals. No significant difference in protein expression was observed between extinction-saline and extinction-DCS groups in the mPFC. In contrast, in the amygdala DCS, the conjunction with extinction training led to an increase in iGluR subunit expression, compared with the extinction-saline group. Our data suggest that the efficacy of DCS in neuropsychiatric disorders may be partly due to its ability to affect neuronal activity and signaling in the mPFC and amygdala subnuclei. PMID:23551217

  16. Modeling fear-conditioned bradycardia in humans.

    Castegnetti, Giuseppe; Tzovara, Athina; Staib, Matthias; Paulus, Philipp C; Hofer, Nicolas; Bach, Dominik R

    2016-06-01

    Across species, cued fear conditioning is a common experimental paradigm to investigate aversive Pavlovian learning. While fear-conditioned stimuli (CS+) elicit overt behavior in many mammals, this is not the case in humans. Typically, autonomic nervous system activity is used to quantify fear memory in humans, measured by skin conductance responses (SCR). Here, we investigate whether heart period responses (HPR) evoked by the CS, often observed in humans and small mammals, are suitable to complement SCR as an index of fear memory in humans. We analyze four datasets involving delay and trace conditioning, in which heart beats are identified via electrocardiogram or pulse oximetry, to show that fear-conditioned heart rate deceleration (bradycardia) is elicited and robustly distinguishes CS+ from CS-. We then develop a psychophysiological model (PsPM) of fear-conditioned HPR. This PsPM is inverted to yield estimates of autonomic input into the heart. We show that the sensitivity to distinguish CS+ and CS- (predictive validity) is higher for model-based estimates than peak-scoring analysis, and compare this with SCR. Our work provides a novel tool to investigate fear memory in humans that allows direct comparison between species. PMID:26950648

  17. THE FEAR OF FEAR CONCEPT - EVIDENCE IN FAVOR OF MULTIDIMENSIONALITY

    ARRINDELL, WA

    1993-01-01

    In recent years, questions have been raised regarding the dimensionality of existing measures of fear of fear. This is an important issue that needs to be addressed if the dimensions(s) of any scale purporting to assess fear of fear are to guide theory and research. One of the most widely used measu

  18. The Biology of Fear

    Adolphs, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    Each of us has felt afraid, and we can all recognize fear in many animal species. Yet there is no consensus in the scientific study of fear. Some argue that “fear” is a psychological construct rather than discoverable through scientific investigation. Others argue that the term “fear” cannot properly be applied to animals because we cannot know whether they feel afraid. Studies in rodents show that there are highly specific brain circuits for fear, whereas findings from human neuroimaging see...

  19. Encoding of fear learning and memory in distributed neuronal circuits.

    Herry, Cyril; Johansen, Joshua P

    2014-12-01

    How sensory information is transformed by learning into adaptive behaviors is a fundamental question in neuroscience. Studies of auditory fear conditioning have revealed much about the formation and expression of emotional memories and have provided important insights into this question. Classical work focused on the amygdala as a central structure for fear conditioning. Recent advances, however, have identified new circuits and neural coding strategies mediating fear learning and the expression of fear behaviors. One area of research has identified key brain regions and neuronal coding mechanisms that regulate the formation, specificity and strength of fear memories. Other work has discovered critical circuits and neuronal dynamics by which fear memories are expressed through a medial prefrontal cortex pathway and coordinated activity across interconnected brain regions. Here we review these recent advances alongside prior work to provide a working model of the extended circuits and neuronal coding mechanisms mediating fear learning and memory. PMID:25413091

  20. Activated monocytes in peritumoral stroma of hepatocellular carcinoma foster immune privilege and disease progression through PD-L1

    Kuang, Dong-Ming; Zhao, Qiyi; Peng, Chen; Xu, Jing; Zhang, Jing-Ping; Wu, Changyou; Zheng, Limin

    2009-01-01

    Macrophages (Mφ) are prominent components of solid tumors and exhibit distinct phenotypes in different microenvironments. We have recently found that tumors can alter the normal developmental process of Mφ to trigger transient activation of monocytes in peritumoral stroma. We showed that a fraction of monocytes/Mφ in peritumoral stroma, but not in cancer nests, expresses surface PD-L1 (also termed B7-H1) molecules in tumors from patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Monocytes activate...

  1. Fear: The Teachers' Teacher.

    Agne, Karen

    1996-01-01

    Looks at the effects of fear in the classroom and offers suggestions for teachers in dealing with the issue: self-acceptance, other-orientation, trust, patience, self-awareness, and journal writing. (JOW)

  2. The Fears of Adolescents

    Bamber, James H.

    1974-01-01

    This study investigated the self-reported fears and some personality characteristics of a sample of 1112 adolescents ranging in age from 12 to 18 years (attending grammar and secondary schools in Northern Ireland). (CS)

  3. Intergenerational transmission of emotional trauma through amygdala-dependent mother-to-infant transfer of specific fear

    Debiec, Jacek; Sullivan, Regina Marie

    2014-01-01

    Despite clinical evidence that specific fear is transmitted across generations, we have little understanding of mechanisms. Here, we model social transmission of mother-to-infant fear in rodents. We show that maternal fear responses to a conditioned fear odor are sufficient to induce robust fear learning throughout infancy, with robust retention. Assessment of mechanism showed that maternal fear expression increases pups’ stress hormone corticosterone and amygdala activation to induce this cu...

  4. Fear of Injury With Physical Activity Is Greater in Adults With Diabetes Than in Adults Without Diabetes

    Huebschmann, Amy G.; Crane, Lori A.; Belansky, Elaine S.; Scarbro, Sharon; Marshall, Julie A; Regensteiner, Judith G.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Physical activity is a cornerstone of treatment for diabetes, yet people with diabetes perform less moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA) than people without diabetes. In contrast, whether differences in walking activity exist has been understudied. Diabetes-specific barriers to physical activity are one possible explanation for lower MVPA in diabetes. We hypothesized that people with diabetes would perform less walking and combined MVPA and would be less likely to anticipa...

  5. Foster Parent College: Interactive Multimedia Training for Foster Parents

    Pacifici, Caesar; Delaney, Richard; White, Lee; Cummings, Kelli; Nelson, Carol

    2005-01-01

    Foster Parent College was recently developed through Northwest Media, Inc. as an interactive multimedia training venue for foster parents. Users can take brief parenting courses, either online (http://www.FosterParentCollege.com) or on DVD, on a variety of topics dealing with serious child behavior problems. Currently, these problems include…

  6. Job Loss Fears and (Extreme) Party Identification: First Evidence from Panel Data

    Geishecker, Ingo; Siedler, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    There is a large body of literature analyzing the relationship between objective economic conditions and voting behavior, but there is very little evidence of how perceived economic insecurity impacts on political preferences. Using seventeen years of household panel data from the German Socio-Economic Panel, we examine whether job loss fears impact on individuals' party identification. Consistent with rational choice theory, we find strong and robust evidence that job loss fears foster affin...

  7. Prefrontal neuronal assemblies temporally control fear behaviour.

    Dejean, Cyril; Courtin, Julien; Karalis, Nikolaos; Chaudun, Fabrice; Wurtz, Hélène; Bienvenu, Thomas C M; Herry, Cyril

    2016-07-21

    Precise spike timing through the coordination and synchronization of neuronal assemblies is an efficient and flexible coding mechanism for sensory and cognitive processing. In cortical and subcortical areas, the formation of cell assemblies critically depends on neuronal oscillations, which can precisely control the timing of spiking activity. Whereas this form of coding has been described for sensory processing and spatial learning, its role in encoding emotional behaviour remains unknown. Fear behaviour relies on the activation of distributed structures, among which the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) is known to be critical for fear memory expression. In the dmPFC, the phasic activation of neurons to threat-predicting cues, a spike-rate coding mechanism, correlates with conditioned fear responses and supports the discrimination between aversive and neutral stimuli. However, this mechanism does not account for freezing observed outside stimuli presentations, and the contribution of a general spike-time coding mechanism for freezing in the dmPFC remains to be established. Here we use a combination of single-unit and local field potential recordings along with optogenetic manipulations to show that, in the dmPFC, expression of conditioned fear is causally related to the organization of neurons into functional assemblies. During fear behaviour, the development of 4 Hz oscillations coincides with the activation of assemblies nested in the ascending phase of the oscillation. The selective optogenetic inhibition of dmPFC neurons during the ascending or descending phases of this oscillation blocks and promotes conditioned fear responses, respectively. These results identify a novel phase-specific coding mechanism, which dynamically regulates the development of dmPFC assemblies to control the precise timing of fear responses. PMID:27409809

  8. Lithuania 1940 / Herbert Foster Anderson

    Foster Anderson, Herbert

    2004-01-01

    Stseenid Leedu ennesõjaaegsest pealinnast Kaunasest briti ärimehe H. Foster Andersoni silme läbi 1940. aastal. Lühikokkuvõte raamatust: Foster Anderson, Herbert. Borderline Russia. London : Cresset press, 1942

  9. In the vicious circle of fear

    Fear is the great driving force, the basic effect, without which there would be no adaption to new living conditions, and no provision for the future. But fear has a positive influence only as long as it does not gain the upper hand, for then it makes human beings blind and stifles activity. What is important, and will remain so, is the equilibrium between fear and courage, caution and the desire for action, optimism und pessimism. This equilibrium has now been disturbed in the western countries - and only here. Our present fears give rise to hardly any positive measures, but prevent provision for the future. We are threatened with failure due to the manipulated conversion of fear from the maintenance of life to an effect which destroys life. In this way we got into a vicious circle of fear: we must try to weaken the imagined dangers by emphasising the true conditions. The author discusses how the viscious circle can be broken. (orig.) 891 UA/orig. 892 MKO

  10. Activity-induced synaptic delivery of the GluN2A-containing NMDA receptor is dependent on endoplasmic reticulum chaperone Bip and involved in fear memory.

    Zhang, Xiao-min; Yan, Xun-yi; Zhang, Bin; Yang, Qian; Ye, Mao; Cao, Wei; Qiang, Wen-bin; Zhu, Li-jun; Du, Yong-lan; Xu, Xing-xing; Wang, Jia-sheng; Xu, Fei; Lu, Wei; Qiu, Shuang; Yang, Wei; Luo, Jian-hong

    2015-07-01

    The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) in adult forebrain is a heterotetramer mainly composed of two GluN1 subunits and two GluN2A and/or GluN2B subunits. The synaptic expression and relative numbers of GluN2A- and GluN2B-containing NMDARs play critical roles in controlling Ca(2+)-dependent signaling and synaptic plasticity. Previous studies have suggested that the synaptic trafficking of NMDAR subtypes is differentially regulated, but the precise molecular mechanism is not yet clear. In this study, we demonstrated that Bip, an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone, selectively interacted with GluN2A and mediated the neuronal activity-induced assembly and synaptic incorporation of the GluN2A-containing NMDAR from dendritic ER. Furthermore, the GluN2A-specific synaptic trafficking was effectively disrupted by peptides interrupting the interaction between Bip and GluN2A. Interestingly, fear conditioning in mice was disrupted by intraperitoneal injection of the interfering peptide before training. In summary, we have uncovered a novel mechanism for the activity-dependent supply of synaptic GluN2A-containing NMDARs, and demonstrated its relevance to memory formation. PMID:26088419

  11. Men fear other men most: gender specific brain activations in perceiving threat from dynamic faces and bodies - an FMRI study

    Mariska Esther Kret; Swann ePichon; Julie eGrezes; Beatrice eDe Gelder

    2011-01-01

    Gender differences are an important factor regulating our daily interactions. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging we show that brain areas involved in processing social signals are activated differently by threatening signals send from male and female facial and bodily expressions and that their activation patterns are different for male and female observers. Male participants pay more attention to the female face as shown by increased amygdala activity. But a host of other areas show...

  12. Creative Stories: A Storytelling Game Fostering Creativity

    Koukourikos, Antonis; Karampiperis, Pythagoras; Panagopoulos, George

    2014-01-01

    The process of identifying techniques for fostering creativity, and applying these theoretical constructs in real-world educational activities, is, by nature, multifaceted and not straightforward, pertaining to several fields such as cognitive theory and psychology. Furthermore, the quantification of the impact of different activities on…

  13. Ex vivo dissection of optogenetically activated mPFC and hippocampal inputs to neurons in the basolateral amygdala: implications for fear and emotional memory

    Cora Hübner

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Many lines of evidence suggest that a reciprocally interconnected network comprising the amygdala, ventral hippocampus (vHC, and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC participates in different aspects of the acquisition and extinction of conditioned fear responses and fear behavior. This could at least in part be mediated by direct connections from mPFC or vHC to amygdala to control amygdala activity and output. However, currently the interactions between mPFC and vHC afferents and their specific targets in the amygdala are still poorly understood. Here, we use an ex-vivo optogenetic approach to dissect synaptic properties of inputs from mPFC and vHC to defined neuronal populations in the basal amygdala (BA, the area that we identify as a major target of these projections. We find that BA principal neurons (PNs and local BA interneurons (INs receive monosynaptic excitatory inputs from mPFC and vHC. In addition, both these inputs also recruit GABAergic feedforward inhibition in a substantial fraction of PNs, in some neurons this also comprises a slow GABAB-component. Amongst the innervated PNs we identify neurons that project back to subregions of the mPFC, indicating a loop between neurons in mPFC and BA, and a pathway from vHC to mPFC via BA. Interestingly, mPFC inputs also recruit feedforward inhibition in a fraction of INs, suggesting that these inputs can activate dis-inhibitory circuits in the BA. A general feature of both mPFC and vHC inputs to local INs is that excitatory inputs display faster rise and decay kinetics than in PNs, which would enable temporally precise signaling. However, mPFC and vHC inputs to both PNs and INs differ in their presynaptic release properties, in that vHC inputs are more depressing. In summary, our data describe novel wiring, and features of synaptic connections from mPFC and vHC to amygdala that could help to interpret functions of these interconnected brain areas at the network level.

  14. The development of a fear of falling interdisciplinary intervention program

    Gomez, Fernando; Curcio, Carmen-Lucia

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To describe the development process of a protocol for a fear of falling interdisciplinary intervention program based on the main factors associated with fear of falling. Design/methods: The process of developing a protocol consisted of defining the target population, selecting the initial assessment components, adapting the intervention program based on findings about fear of falling and restriction of activities in this population. Settings: University-affiliated outpatient vertig...

  15. Cultural Worldviews of Foster Parents

    Brown, Jason D.; George, Natalie; St. Arnault, David; Sintzel, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    A random sample of Canadian foster parents were asked about the importance of culture in fostering. In response to the question "What values, beliefs and traditions were you raised with and feel are important?," a total of 74 different responses were received. These responses were grouped together by foster parents and the groupings analyzed using…

  16. Beyond Knowledge: Service Learning and Local Climate Change Research Engagement Activities that Foster Action and Behavior Change

    Low, R.; Mandryk, C.; Gosselin, D. C.; Haney, C.

    2013-12-01

    environment and support teachers in the creation of lessons and units that promote both inquiry science and service learning in the community. Course participants connect the dots from their newly acquired theoretical science knowledge to concrete examples of change taking place locally, and see the value of promoting awareness as well as behavioral changes that contribute to adaptation and mitigation of local climate change impacts. We describe the assessments used and the research outcomes associated with NRES 832, Human Dimensions of Climate Change, where participants conduct archival research to create a climate change chronicle for their community, and NRES 830 Climate Research Applications, where teachers lead and evaluate the impacts of student-designed service learning activities as a capstone project for a unit on climate change. We also showcase community-based initiatives resulting from this work that seed the behavioral changes we need to live sustainably in our communities and on our planet.

  17. Fearing religious satire

    Brink, Dennis Meyhoff

    The article examines the history of the fear of religious satire in modern Europe. The article argues that this fear primarily concerns the potential dissolution of 'the social bond of society' or 'the moral and social order'. From the 17th Century until today, censorship measures and blasphemy...... legislations are Thus primarily founded on arguments concerning moral, social or public order. The article furthermore argues that although anti-censorship satire gradually weakened the legitimacy of censorship, the notion of religion as 'the social bond of society' is still operative in contemporary blasphemy...

  18. Rat exposure in mice with neuropathic pain induces fear and antinociception that is not reversed by 5-HT2C receptor activation in the dorsal periaqueductal gray.

    Furuya-da-Cunha, Elke Mayumi; Souza, Rimenez Rodrigues de; Canto-de-Souza, Azair

    2016-07-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that serotonin 5-HT2C receptors in the dorsal periaqueductal gray (dPAG) mediate both anxiety and antinociception in mice submitted to the elevated plus maze. The present study examined the effects of intra-dPAG infusion of the serotonin 5-HT2C receptor agonist (MK-212) in the defensive reactions and antinociception in mice with neurophatic pain confronted by a predator. Neuropathic pain was induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve, and predator confrontation was performed using the rat exposure test (RET). Our results demonstrated that both sham-operated and CCI mice exhibited intense defensive reactions when confronted by rats. However, rat-exposed CCI mice showed reduced pain reactivity in comparison to CCI mice exposed to a toy rat. Intra-dPAG infusion of MK-212 prior to predator exposure did not significantly alter defensive or antinociceptive responses. To our knowledge, our results represent the first evidence of RET-induced antinociception in mice. Moreover, the results of the present study suggest that 5-HT2C receptor activation in the dPAG is not critically involved in the control of predator-evoked fearful or antinociceptive responses. PMID:27059332

  19. Physical Activity in the Acute Ward Following Hip Fracture Surgery is Associated With Less Fear of Falling

    Kronborg, Lise; Bandholm, Thomas; Palm, Henrik;

    2016-01-01

    Early mobilization following hip fracture surgery reduces medical complications and mortality, but may increase the risk of falling. The aim was to measure objectively the physical activity (time spent upright) the first week after hip fracture surgery, and relate it to functional performance and...... of falling (r=-0.48, p=0.01, n=27), which also was associated with fast gait speed (r=-0.50, p=0.02, n=23) and a faster Timed Up and Go test time (r=0.54, p < 0.01, n=22), indicating a need for further studies on motivation and limitations for more physical activity following hip fracture surgery....

  20. Activation of CREB in the nucleus accumbens shell produces anhedonia and resistance to extinction of fear in rats

    Muschamp, John W.; Van’t Veer, Ashlee; Parsegian, Aram; Gallo, Miranda S.; Chen, Melissa; Neve, Rachael L; Meloni, Edward G.; Carlezon, William A.

    2011-01-01

    Stress triggers psychiatric conditions including depressive and anxiety disorders. The mechanisms by which stress produces persistent changes in behavior are not fully understood. Here we show in rats that stress (footshock) activates the transcription factor CREB (cAMP response element binding protein) within the nucleus accumbens shell (NAS), a brain area involved in encoding reward and aversion. To examine the behavioral significance of altered CREB function in the NAS, we used viral vecto...

  1. Dorky Poll Scientific Fears

    2008-01-01

    The questions posed in yesterday's posts about hopes for 2008 were half of what we were asked by the Powers That Be. The other half: What scientific development do you fear you'll be blogging or reading about in 2008?

  2. Fear of the Formal

    du Gay, Paul; Lopdrup-Hjorth, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    term this ‘fear of the formal’, outlining key elements of its genealogy and exploring its contemporary manifestation in relation to recent and ongoing reforms of organisational life in a range of contexts. At the same time, we seek to indicate the continuing constitutive significance of formality...

  3. Animal Models of Fear Relapse

    Goode, Travis D.; Maren, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Whereas fear memories are rapidly acquired and enduring over time, extinction memories are slow to form and are susceptible to disruption. Consequently, behavioral therapies that involve extinction learning (e.g., exposure therapy) often produce only temporary suppression of fear and anxiety. This review focuses on the factors that are known to influence the relapse of extinguished fear. Several phenomena associated with the return of fear after extinction are discussed, including renewal, sp...

  4. Aromatized testosterone attenuates contextual generalization of fear in male rats.

    Lynch, Joseph F; Vanderhoof, Tyler; Winiecki, Patrick; Latsko, Maeson S; Riccio, David C; Jasnow, Aaron M

    2016-08-01

    Generalization is a common symptom of many anxiety disorders, and females are 60% more likely to suffer from an anxiety disorder than males. We have previously demonstrated that female rats display significantly accelerated rates of contextual fear generalization compared to male rats; a process driven, in part, by activation of ERβ. The current study was designed to determine the impact of estrogens on contextual fear generalization in male rats. For experiment 1, adult male rats were gonadectomized (GDX) and implanted with a capsule containing testosterone proprionate, estradiol, dihydrotestosterone proprionate (DHT), or an empty capsule. Treatment with testosterone or estradiol maintained memory precision when rats were tested in a different (neutral) context 1day after training. However, male rats treated with DHT or empty capsules displayed significant levels of fear generalization, exhibiting high levels of fear in the neutral context. In Experiment 2, we used acute injections of gonadal hormones at a time known to elicit fear generalization in female rats (e.g. 24h before testing). Injection treatment followed the same pattern of results seen in Experiment 1. Finally, animals given daily injections of the aromatase inhibitor, Fadrozole, displayed significant fear generalization. These data suggest that testosterone attenuates fear generalization likely through the aromatization testosterone into estradiol as animals treated with the non-aromatizable androgen, DHT, or animals treated with Fadrozole, displayed significant generalized fear. Overall, these results demonstrate a sex-dependent effect of estradiol on the generalization of contextual fear. PMID:27368147

  5. Fear and Aggression in German Shepherd, Boxer and Rottweiler Dogs

    Krassimira Uzunova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available As a result of long-term active fear, variable moods can occur – howling, whimpering, crying, tremor, tics, manias, depressions, etc. It is now acknowledged that fear and aggression are closely related. It is also known that the different dog breeds manifest a various extent of fear and aggression. The study aimed to provide answers to two questions - classification of factors invoking fear and aggression according to their significance and which of investigated dog breeds – German Shepherd, Rottweiler or Boxer is the most resistant to fear and aggression episodes? The exclusion of all factors on the cultivation of three breeds of dogs / they complied with the norms / found that the causes of fear aggressive conditions are listed as follows – first of fear and aggression depend on the temperament of the dog and on the second place of the breed origin, growing conditions and the associated level of primary and secondary socialization. Fear aggressive manifestations occur at least in dogs with sanguine and choleric temperament. Representatives of the breed "Boxer" and "German Shepherd" are at the same level on the manifestations of fear and aggression. Rottweiler breed is in third place in this direction.

  6. Oxytocin Facilitates Pavlovian Fear Learning in Males.

    Eckstein, Monika; Scheele, Dirk; Patin, Alexandra; Preckel, Katrin; Becker, Benjamin; Walter, Annika; Domschke, Katharina; Grinevich, Valery; Maier, Wolfgang; Hurlemann, René

    2016-03-01

    In human evolution, social group living and Pavlovian fear conditioning have evolved as adaptive mechanisms promoting survival and reproductive success. The evolutionarily conserved hypothalamic peptide oxytocin is a key modulator of human sociality, but its effects on fear conditioning are still elusive. In the present randomized controlled study involving 97 healthy male subjects, we therefore employed functional magnetic resonance imaging and simultaneous skin conductance response (SCR) measures to characterize the modulatory influence of intranasal oxytocin (24 IU) on Pavlovian fear conditioning. We found that the peptide strengthened conditioning on both the behavioral and neural levels. Specifically, subjects exhibited faster task-related responses and enhanced SCRs to fear-associated stimuli in the late phase of conditioning, which was paralleled by heightened activity in cingulate cortex subregions in the absence of changes in amygdala function. This speaks against amygdalocentric views of oxytocin having pure anxiolytic-like effects. Instead, it suggests that the peptide enables extremely rapid and flexible adaptation to fear signals in social contexts, which may confer clear evolutionary advantages but could also elevate vulnerability for the pathological sequelae of interpersonal trauma. PMID:26272050

  7. Sex differences in fear extinction and involvements of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK).

    Matsuda, Shingo; Matsuzawa, Daisuke; Ishii, Daisuke; Tomizawa, Haruna; Sutoh, Chihiro; Shimizu, Eiji

    2015-09-01

    Stress-related disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and panic disorders, are disproportionately prevalent in females. However, the biological mechanism underlying these sex differences in the prevalence rate remains unclear. In the present study, we examined sex differences in fear memory, fear extinction, and spontaneous recovery of fear. We investigated the presence of sex differences in recent and remote fear memory in mice using contextual fear conditioning, as well as sex differences in spontaneous recovery of fear memory using a consecutive fear extinction paradigm. We examined the number of fear extinction days required to prevent spontaneous recovery of fear in either sex. We investigated whether ovariectomy affected fear extinction and spontaneous recovery. We also measured the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1 and 2 in the dorsal hippocampus and the medial prefrontal cortex following fear extinction sessions. In our results, we found no sex difference in recent or remote fear memory. However, females required more fear extinction sessions compared to males to prevent spontaneous recovery. Within-extinction freezing also differed between males and females. Moreover, females required more extinction sessions than males to increase ERK2 phosphorylation in the dorsal hippocampus. Our data suggest that contextual fear extinction was unstable in females compared to males and that such sex differences may be related to the ERK2 phosphorylation in the hippocampus. PMID:26079214

  8. Fifty million Frenchmen have few nuclear fears

    DuPont, R.L.

    A psychiatrist examines why France chose the nuclear power option in 1974 and expects for it to generate 75% of its power by 1990 in contrast to the US rejection and fear of nuclear power. The fear dominating US media coverage since 1968 is classic phobic thinking. A comparison of US and French attitudes reveals that French nuclear plants are tourist attractions, accepted by residents as both safe and of economic benefit. Accidents are examined realistically in France without the what if drama given to US incidents. Some political problems have developed and recent anti-nuclear activities are taken seriously, but the opposition was not based on fear. Public acceptance in France is partly due to a lack of energy alternatives and a pragmatism that works against phobias. (DCK)

  9. Fifty million Frenchmen have few nuclear fears

    A psychiatrist examines why France chose the nuclear power option in 1974 and expects for it to generate 75% of its power by 1990 in contrast to the US rejection and fear of nuclear power. The fear dominating US media coverage since 1968 is classic phobic thinking. A comparison of US and French attitudes reveals that French nuclear plants are tourist attractions, accepted by residents as both safe and of economic benefit. Accidents are examined realistically in France without the what if drama given to US incidents. Some political problems have developed and recent anti-nuclear activities are taken seriously, but the opposition was not based on fear. Public acceptance in France is partly due to a lack of energy alternatives and a pragmatism that works against phobias

  10. Serotonin, Amygdala and Fear: Assembling the Puzzle

    Bocchio, Marco; McHugh, Stephen B.; Bannerman, David M.; Sharp, Trevor; Capogna, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The fear circuitry orchestrates defense mechanisms in response to environmental threats. This circuitry is evolutionarily crucial for survival, but its dysregulation is thought to play a major role in the pathophysiology of psychiatric conditions in humans. The amygdala is a key player in the processing of fear. This brain area is prominently modulated by the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT). The 5-HT input to the amygdala has drawn particular interest because genetic and pharmacological alterations of the 5-HT transporter (5-HTT) affect amygdala activation in response to emotional stimuli. Nonetheless, the impact of 5-HT on fear processing remains poorly understood.The aim of this review is to elucidate the physiological role of 5-HT in fear learning via its action on the neuronal circuits of the amygdala. Since 5-HT release increases in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) during both fear memory acquisition and expression, we examine whether and how 5-HT neurons encode aversive stimuli and aversive cues. Next, we describe pharmacological and genetic alterations of 5-HT neurotransmission that, in both rodents and humans, lead to altered fear learning. To explore the mechanisms through which 5-HT could modulate conditioned fear, we focus on the rodent BLA. We propose that a circuit-based approach taking into account the localization of specific 5-HT receptors on neurochemically-defined neurons in the BLA may be essential to decipher the role of 5-HT in emotional behavior. In keeping with a 5-HT control of fear learning, we review electrophysiological data suggesting that 5-HT regulates synaptic plasticity, spike synchrony and theta oscillations in the BLA via actions on different subcellular compartments of principal neurons and distinct GABAergic interneuron populations. Finally, we discuss how recently developed optogenetic tools combined with electrophysiological recordings and behavior could progress the knowledge of the mechanisms underlying 5

  11. Fear of holes.

    Cole, Geoff G; Wilkins, Arnold J

    2013-10-01

    Phobias are usually described as irrational and persistent fears of certain objects or situations, and causes of such fears are difficult to identify. We describe an unusual but common phobia (trypophobia), hitherto unreported in the scientific literature, in which sufferers are averse to images of holes. We performed a spectral analysis on a variety of images that induce trypophobia and found that the stimuli had a spectral composition typically associated with uncomfortable visual images, namely, high-contrast energy at midrange spatial frequencies. Critically, we found that a range of potentially dangerous animals also possess this spectral characteristic. We argue that although sufferers are not conscious of the association, the phobia arises in part because the inducing stimuli share basic visual characteristics with dangerous organisms, characteristics that are low level and easily computed, and therefore facilitate a rapid nonconscious response. PMID:23982244

  12. 社区老年人活动和害怕跌倒与骨质疏松知识水平的关系%Correlation between osteoporosis knowledge and activities and fear of falling in the community elderly

    高昶; 张翠翠; 高然; 张妍; 刘宁

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between osteoporosis knowledge and activities and fear of falling of elderly in the community.Method 420 elders in community were investigated with osteoporosis knowledge assessment tool (OKAT) and the modified survey of activities and fear of falling in the elderly (MSAFFE).Result The overall average score of MSAFFE was (25.36±4.58),and exercise capacity dimension scored higher (13.89±2.41).The overall average score of OKAT was (9.11±3.81).The correlation coefficient of MSAFFE and OKAT was-0.11~ 0.58(P<0.05).The level of knowledge osteoporosis could explain 24%,18%,16% variation of activities and fear of falling in each dimension.Conclusion The level of knowledge osteoporosis in the elderly is closely related to activity and fear of falling.Health education should be strengthened to improve the life quality of older people.%目的 了解社区老年人活动和害怕跌倒与骨质疏松知识水平的现状,探讨两者的关系.方法 采用《修订版老年人活动和害怕跌倒量表》(the modified survey of activities and fear of falling in the elderly,mSAFFE)和《骨质疏松知识评价工具》(osteoporosis knowledge assessment tool,OKAT)对420名社区老年人进行问卷调查.结果 社区老年人mSAFFE评分为(25.36±4.58)分,得分较高的维度为运动能力[(13.89±2.41)分];社区老年人OKAT评分(9.11±3.81)分.老年人的活动和害怕跌倒与骨质疏松知识水平相关系数r=-0.11~-0.58(P<0.05).骨质疏松知识水平可解释老年人活动和害怕跌倒各维度的变异量为24%、18%、16%.结论 老年人骨质疏松知识水平与老年人活动害怕跌倒相关,医护人员应加强老年人健康教育,提高老年人的生活质量.

  13. Controllable versus uncontrollable stressors bi-directionally modulate conditioned but not innate fear.

    Baratta, M V; Christianson, J P; Gomez, D M; Zarza, C M; Amat, J; Masini, C V; Watkins, L R; Maier, S F

    2007-06-01

    Fear conditioning and fear extinction play key roles in the development and treatment of anxiety-related disorders, yet there is little information concerning experiential variables that modulate these processes. Here we examined the impact of exposure to a stressor in a different environment on subsequent fear conditioning and extinction, and whether the degree of behavioral control that the subject has over the stressor is of importance. Rats received a session of either escapable (controllable) tail shock (ES), yoked inescapable (uncontrollable) tail shock (IS), or control treatment (home cage, HC) 7 days before fear conditioning in which a tone and foot shock were paired. Conditioning was measured 24 h later. In a second experiment rats received ES, IS or HC 24 h after contextual fear conditioning. Extinction then occurred every day beginning 7 days later until a criterion was reached. Spontaneous recovery of fear was assessed 14 days after extinction. IS potentiated fear conditioning when given before fear conditioning, and potentiated fear responding during extinction when given after conditioning. Importantly, ES potently interfered with later fear conditioning, decreased fear responding during fear extinction, and prevented spontaneous recovery of fear. Additionally, we examined if the activation of the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (mPFCv) by ES is critical for the protective effects of ES on later fear conditioning. Inactivation of the mPFCv with muscimol at the time of the initial experience with control prevented ES-induced reductions in later contextual and auditory fear conditioning. Finally, we explored if the protective effects of ES extended to an unconditioned fear stimulus, ferret odor. Unlike conditioned fear, prior ES increased the fear response to ferret odor to the same degree as did IS. PMID:17478046

  14. Cortisol modifies extinction learning of recently acquired fear in men.

    Merz, Christian Josef; Hermann, Andrea; Stark, Rudolf; Wolf, Oliver Tobias

    2014-09-01

    Exposure therapy builds on the mechanism of fear extinction leading to decreased fear responses. How the stress hormone cortisol affects brain regions involved in fear extinction in humans is unknown. For this reason, we tested 32 men randomly assigned to receive either 30 mg hydrocortisone or placebo 45 min before fear extinction. In fear acquisition, a picture of a geometrical figure was either partially paired (conditioned stimulus; CS+) or not paired (CS-) with an electrical stimulation (unconditioned stimulus; UCS). In fear extinction, each CS was presented again, but no UCS occurred. Cortisol increased conditioned skin conductance responses in early and late extinction. In early extinction, higher activation towards the CS- than to the CS+ was found in the amygdala, hippocampus and posterior parahippocampal gyrus. This pattern might be associated with the establishment of a new memory trace. In late extinction, the placebo compared with the cortisol group displayed enhanced CS+/CS- differentiation in the amygdala, medial frontal cortex and nucleus accumbens. A change from early deactivation to late activation of the extinction circuit as seen in the placebo group seems to be needed to enhance extinction and to reduce fear. Cortisol appears to interfere with this process thereby impairing extinction of recently acquired conditioned fear. PMID:23945999

  15. Visualization of Plasticity in Fear-Evoked Calcium Signals in Midbrain Dopamine Neurons

    Gore, Bryan B.; Soden, Marta E.; Zweifel, Larry S.

    2014-01-01

    Dopamine is broadly implicated in fear-related processes, yet we know very little about signaling dynamics in these neurons during active fear conditioning. We describe the direct imaging of calcium signals of dopamine neurons during Pavlovian fear conditioning using fiber-optic confocal microscopy coupled with the genetically encoded calcium…

  16. Cognitive vulnerability and dental fear

    Spencer A John

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Cognitive Vulnerability Model proposes that perceptions of certain characteristics of a situation are critical determinants of fear. Although the model is applicable to all animal, natural environment and situational fears, it has not yet been applied specifically to dental fear. This study therefore aimed to examine the association between dental fear and perceptions of dental visits as uncontrollable, unpredictable and dangerous. Methods The study used a clustered, stratified national sample of Australians aged 15 years and over. All participants were asked in a telephone interview survey to indicate their level of dental fear. Participants who received an oral examination were subsequently provided with a self-complete questionnaire in which they rated their perceptions of uncontrollability, unpredictability and dangerousness associated with dental visiting. Results 3937 participants were recruited. Each of the three vulnerability-related perceptions was strongly associated with the prevalence of high dental fear. In a logistic regression analysis, uncontrollability and dangerousness perceptions were significantly associated with high dental fear after controlling for age and sex. However, unpredictability perceptions did not have a statistically significant independent association with dental fear after controlling for all other variables. Conclusion Results are mostly consistent with the Cognitive Vulnerability Model of the etiology of fear, with perceptions of uncontrollability, unpredictability and dangerousness each showing a strong bivariate relationship with high dental fear prevalence. However, more extensive measures of vulnerability perceptions would be valuable in future investigations.

  17. Pain-related fear and movement : Implications for physiotherapy and public health

    Buer, Nina

    2003-01-01

    Long-term musculoskeletal pain is a large public health problem with serious consequences both for the individual and society. Fear-avoidance beliefs and catastrophizing are powerful cognitions in the process of developing chronic pain problems. Fear-avoidance refers to the avoidance of movement or activities based on fear. The overall aim of this thesis was to delineate the role of fear-avoidance beliefs in relation to the concept of movement. The specific aim of study ...

  18. ERK-Associated Changes of AP-1 Proteins During Fear Extinction

    Guedea, Anita L.; Schrick, Christina; Guzman, Yomayra F.; Leaderbrand, Katie; Jovasevic, Vladimir; Corcoran, Kevin A.; Tronson, Natalie C; Radulovic, Jelena

    2011-01-01

    Extensive research has unraveled the molecular basis of learning processes underlying contextual fear conditioning, but the mechanisms of fear extinction remain less known. Contextual fear extinction occurs when an aversive stimulus that initially caused fear is no longer present and depends on the activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), among other molecules. Here we investigated how ERK signaling triggered by extinction affects its downstream targets belonging to the ...

  19. Fostering collective intelligence education

    Jaime Meza

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available New educational models are necessary to update learning environments to the digitally shared communication and information. Collective intelligence is an emerging field that already has a significant impact in many areas and will have great implications in education, not only from the side of new methodologies but also as a challenge for education. This paper proposes an approach to a collective intelligence model of teaching using Internet to combine two strategies: idea management and real time assessment in the class. A digital tool named Fabricius has been created supporting these two elements to foster the collaboration and engagement of students in the learning process. As a result of the research we propose a list of KPI trying to measure individual and collective performance. We are conscious that this is just a first approach to define which aspects of a class following a course can be qualified and quantified.

  20. Fostering Creative Engineers

    Zhou, Chunfang

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have argued a shift of thinking about engineering practice from a linear conception to a system understanding. The complexity of engineering practice has been thought of as the root of challenges for engineers. Moreover, creativity has been emphasised as one key capability that...... engineering students should master. This paper aims to illustrate deeply why engineering education needs to foster creative students to face the challenges of complex engineering work. So a literature review will be provided by focusing on the necessity of developing creativity in engineering education. As...... the literature demonstrates, this paper reveals the understanding of complexity in engineering practice and the roles of creativity in engineering practice. In addition, the barriers to creativity in current engineering education and some implications of pedagogic strategies will be discussed. So this...

  1. Fostering a Democratic Culture among Participants in the Educational Process

    Ludmila Baiborodova

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is dedicated to the issue of fostering a democratic culture among participants in the educational process. The author provides the conceptual fundamentals of fostering a democratic culture in a person, examines the system of pedagogical means facilitating the effective organization of the process of fostering a democratic culture, the leading role among which is played by the methodology of collective creative activity and the fostering of self-management. The author looks into ways of organizing effective interaction between all participants in the educational process. The article also analyzes the potential of the educational process in terms of fostering the major components of democratic culture in students and instructors through the use of the content of academic subjects and the development of the system of relations between instructors and students.

  2. Educating Students in Foster Care

    Heffernan, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Students who are in foster care need principals who are informed about policy, aware of their needs, and willing to be advocates for them. Multiple school placements often result in significant gaps in the education of students in foster care. If they also have disabilities, they may lose special programs and services when they change placements.…

  3. Last Orders for Foster's Group

    Michael O' Neill

    2006-01-01

    @@ Tempted by an unddderdeveloped market and a growing taste for beer, Foster's saw big potential in the Chinese brewing sector. But this potential has come tomothing and the Australian brewer has finally rang time on its China investments After over ten years, several failed partnerships and millions of dollars in losses, Australia's Foster's Group has finally called last orders on its expensive dip into the Chinese brewing market. In a decision announced in June, Foster's sold its Shanghai brewery for an undisclosed amount to Japan's Suntory. Speaking shortly after the sale, a Foster's spokesperson was optimistic that the salewould not affect the brewer's intemational ambitions: "As we look to growing the Foster's brand as an international premium brand rather than being a local brewer, Shanghai no longer fits."

  4. Animal models of fear relapse.

    Goode, Travis D; Maren, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Whereas fear memories are rapidly acquired and enduring over time, extinction memories are slow to form and are susceptible to disruption. Consequently, behavioral therapies that involve extinction learning (e.g., exposure therapy) often produce only temporary suppression of fear and anxiety. This review focuses on the factors that are known to influence the relapse of extinguished fear. Several phenomena associated with the return of fear after extinction are discussed, including renewal, spontaneous recovery, reacquisition, and reinstatement. Additionally, this review describes recent work, which has focused on the role of psychological stress in the relapse of extinguished fear. Recent developments in behavioral and pharmacological research are examined in light of treatment of pathological fear in humans. PMID:25225304

  5. Transforming a Traditional Hands-On Activity into an Enquiry Activity to Foster More In-Depth Understanding of the Concept of Density

    Lee, Yeung Chung; Kwok, Ping Wai

    2010-01-01

    Traditional methods used to teach the concept of density that employ solid objects of different masses and volumes can be supplemented by enquiry activities in which students vary the mass-to-volume ratio of the same object to test ideas about density and flotation. A simple substance, Blu-Tack, is an ideal material to use in this case. The…

  6. Fear extinction causes target-specific remodeling of perisomatic inhibitory synapses.

    Trouche, Stéphanie; Sasaki, Jennifer M; Tu, Tiffany; Reijmers, Leon G

    2013-11-20

    A more complete understanding of how fear extinction alters neuronal activity and connectivity within fear circuits may aid in the development of strategies to treat human fear disorders. Using a c-fos-based transgenic mouse, we found that contextual fear extinction silenced basal amygdala (BA) excitatory neurons that had been previously activated during fear conditioning. We hypothesized that the silencing of BA fear neurons was caused by an action of extinction on BA inhibitory synapses. In support of this hypothesis, we found extinction-induced target-specific remodeling of BA perisomatic inhibitory synapses originating from parvalbumin and cholecystokinin-positive interneurons. Interestingly, the predicted changes in the balance of perisomatic inhibition matched the silent and active states of the target BA fear neurons. These observations suggest that target-specific changes in perisomatic inhibitory synapses represent a mechanism through which experience can sculpt the activation patterns within a neural circuit. PMID:24183705

  7. Extinction in human fear conditioning

    Hermans, Dirk; Craske, Michelle G.; Mineka, Susan; Lovibond, Peter F.

    2006-01-01

    Although most extinction research is conducted in animal laboratories, the study of extinction learning in human fear conditioning has gained increasing attention over the last decade. The most important findings from human fear extinction are reviewed in this article. Specifically, we review experimental investigations of the impact of conditioned inhibitors, conditioned exciters, context renewal, and reinstatement on fear extinction in human samples. We discuss data from laboratory studies ...

  8. Reflection of Foster Parents on Caring for Foster and Adopted Children and Their Suggestions to Teachers

    Nowak-Fabrykowski, Krystyna; Helinski, Monica; Buchstein, Fred

    2009-01-01

    In this research project we investigated the process of adoption of foster children by foster parents and the foster parents' ideas of how to help foster children going through the process of adoption or those who have been adopted. We sent questionnaires to 200 foster parents living in the Cleveland area, but just 23 foster parents replied.…

  9. 4-Hz oscillations synchronize prefrontal-amygdala circuits during fear behavior.

    Karalis, Nikolaos; Dejean, Cyril; Chaudun, Fabrice; Khoder, Suzana; Rozeske, Robert R; Wurtz, Hélène; Bagur, Sophie; Benchenane, Karim; Sirota, Anton; Courtin, Julien; Herry, Cyril

    2016-04-01

    Fear expression relies on the coordinated activity of prefrontal and amygdala circuits, yet the mechanisms allowing long-range network synchronization during fear remain unknown. Using a combination of extracellular recordings, pharmacological and optogenetic manipulations, we found that freezing, a behavioral expression of fear, temporally coincided with the development of sustained, internally generated 4-Hz oscillations in prefrontal-amygdala circuits. 4-Hz oscillations predict freezing onset and offset and synchronize prefrontal-amygdala circuits. Optogenetic induction of prefrontal 4-Hz oscillations coordinates prefrontal-amygdala activity and elicits fear behavior. These results unravel a sustained oscillatory mechanism mediating prefrontal-amygdala coupling during fear behavior. PMID:26878674

  10. Are fear memories erasable? –reconsolidation of learned fear with fear relevant and fear-irrelevant stimuli

    Armita Golkar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in the field of fear learning have demonstrated that a single reminder exposure prior to extinction training can prevent the return of extinguished fear by disrupting the process of reconsolidation. These findings have however proven hard to replicate in humans. Given the significant implications of preventing the return of fear, the purpose of the present study was to further study the prerequisites for the putative effects of disrupting reconsolidation. In two experiments, we assessed whether extinction training initiated within the reconsolidation time window could abolish the return of fear using fear-relevant (experiment 1 or fear-irrelevant (experiment 2 conditioned stimuli (CS. In both experiments, participants went through conditioning, extinction and reinstatement testing on three consecutive days, with one of two reinforced CS being reactivated 10 minutes prior to extinction. We found that a single reminder exposure prior to extinction training did not prevent the return of extinguished fear responding using either fear-relevant or fear-irrelevant CSs. Our findings point to the need to further study the specific parameters that enable disruption of reconsolidation.

  11. Initiating a Program of Foster Parent Education

    Dorgan, Marsha P.

    1974-01-01

    Special skills are required for foster parenting adequate to the needs of today's foster children. This paper describes how one agency planned and implemented the first components of a comprehensive, long-range program of foster parent education. (SDH)

  12. Attachment Theory, Foster Parents and Diversity Tolerance

    Kenny, Michael; Fleming, Ted

    2009-01-01

    relevance to attachment within the biological and foster family. Yet every foster parent has a childhood attachment history that influences their interpersonal relationships in adulthood. The primary concern of the foster parent and their supports is with the foster child. But as a result the foster parent may distract or block reflection on their own attachment history. This presentation will focus on attachment theory and the adult, with particular reference to the foster parent. The pre...

  13. Exploring Fear: Rousseau, Dewey, and Freire on Fear and Learning

    English, Andrea; Stengel, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Fear is not the first feature of educational experience associated with the best-known progressive educational theorists--Jean-Jacques Rousseau, John Dewey, and Paolo Freire. But each of these important thinkers did, in fact, have something substantive to say about how fear functions in the processes of learning and growth. Andrea English and…

  14. Fear but not fright: re-evaluating traumatic experience attenuates anxiety-like behaviors after fear conditioning

    Marco eCostanzi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Fear allows organisms to cope with dangerous situations and remembering these situations has an adaptive role preserving individuals from injury and death. However, recalling traumatic memories can induce re-experiencing the trauma, thus resulting in a maladaptive fear. A failure to properly regulate fear responses has been associated with anxiety disorders, like Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD. Thus, re-establishing the capability to regulate fear has an important role for its adaptive and clinical relevance. Strategies aimed at erasing fear memories have been proposed, although there are limits about their efficiency in treating anxiety disorders. To re-establish fear regulation, here we propose a new approach, based on the re-evaluation of the aversive value of traumatic experience. Mice were submitted to a contextual-fear-conditioning paradigm in which a neutral context was paired with an intense electric footshock. Three weeks after acquisition, conditioned mice were treated with a less intense footshock (pain threshold. The effectiveness of this procedure in reducing fear expression was assessed in terms of behavioral outcomes related to PTSD (e.g. hyper-reactivity to a neutral tone, anxiety levels in a plus maze task, social avoidance, and learning deficits in a spatial water maze and of amygdala activity by evaluating c-fos expression. Furthermore, a possible role of lateral orbitofrontal cortex (lOFC in mediating the behavioral effects induced by the re-evaluation procedure was investigated. We observed that this treatment (i significantly mitigates the abnormal behavioral outcomes induced by trauma, (ii persistently attenuates fear expression without erasing contextual memory, (iii prevents fear reinstatement, (iv reduces amygdala activity and (v requires an intact lOFC to be effective.The results suggest that an effective strategy to treat pathological anxiety should address cognitive re-evaluation of traumatic experiences

  15. Prior fear conditioning and reward learning interact in fear and reward networks

    Dominik R Bach

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The ability to flexibly adapt responses to changes in the environment is important for survival. Previous research in humans separately examined the mechanisms underlying acquisition and extinction of aversive and appetitive conditioned responses. It is yet unclear how aversive and appetitive learning interact on a neural level during counterconditioning in humans. This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study investigated the interaction of fear conditioning and subsequent reward learning. In the first phase (fear acquisition, images predicted aversive electric shocks or no aversive outcome. In the second phase (counterconditioning, half of the CS+ and CS- were associated with monetary reward in the absence of electric stimulation. The third phase initiated reinstatement of fear through presentation of electric shocks, followed by CS presentation in the absence of shock or reward. Results indicate that participants were impaired at learning the reward contingencies for stimuli previously associated with shock. In the counterconditioning phase, prior fear association interacted with reward representation in the amygdala, where activation was decreased for rewarded compared to unrewarded CS- trials, while there was no reward-related difference in CS+ trials. In the reinstatement phase, an interaction of previous fear association and previous reward status was observed in a reward network consisting of substantia nigra / ventral tegmental area (SN/VTA, striatum and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC, where activation was increased by previous reward association only for CS- but not for CS+ trials. These findings suggest that during counterconditioning, prior fear conditioning interferes with reward learning, subsequently leading to lower activation of the reward network.

  16. Controlled cortical impact before or after fear conditioning does not affect fear extinction in mice.

    Sierra-Mercado, Demetrio; McAllister, Lauren M; Lee, Christopher C H; Milad, Mohammed R; Eskandar, Emad N; Whalen, Michael J

    2015-05-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized in part by impaired extinction of conditioned fear. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is thought to be a risk factor for development of PTSD. We tested the hypothesis that controlled cortical impact (CCI) would impair extinction of fear learned by Pavlovian conditioning, in mice. To mimic the scenarios in which TBI occurs prior to or after exposure to an aversive event, severe CCI was delivered to the left parietal cortex at one of two time points: (1) Prior to fear conditioning, or (2) after conditioning. Delay auditory conditioning was achieved by pairing a tone with a foot shock in "context A". Extinction training involved the presentation of tones in a different context (context B) in the absence of foot shock. Test for extinction memory was achieved by presentation of additional tones alone in context B over the following two days. In pre- or post-injury paradigms, CCI did not influence fear learning and extinction. Furthermore, CCI did not affect locomotor activity or elevated plus maze testing. Our results demonstrate that, within the time frame studied, CCI does not impair the acquisition and expression of conditioned fear or extinction memory. PMID:25721797

  17. Heritability of fear: Ukrainian experience

    O.V. Filiptsova

    2014-10-01

    Conclusions: The conducted research demonstrated genetic component presence for nine types of fear – psychic disorder development, complications in personal life, making responsible decisions, senility, closed spaces, sexual dysfunction, suicide commission, speaking in public, and aggressive behavior possibility to relatives. It helps to consider these fear perspectives for further molecular-genetic analysis in Ukraine.

  18. Immunization against social fear learning.

    Golkar, Armita; Olsson, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    Social fear learning offers an efficient way to transmit information about potential threats; little is known, however, about the learning processes that counteract the social transmission of fear. In three separate experiments, we found that safety information transmitted from another individual (i.e., demonstrator) during preexposure prevented subsequent observational fear learning (Experiments 1-3), and this effect was maintained in a new context involving direct threat confrontation (Experiment 3). This protection from observational fear learning was specific to conditions in which information about both safety and danger was transmitted from the same demonstrator (Experiments 2-3) and was unaffected by increasing the number of the safety demonstrators (Experiment 3). Collectively, these findings demonstrate that observational preexposure can limit social transmission of fear. Future research is needed to better understand the conditions under which such effects generalize across individual demonstrators. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27077756

  19. EXISTENTIAL FEAR AS ONTOLOGICALLY BACKGROUND OF MEDIOCRITY

    Гіоргадзе, Галина Василівна

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with the phenomenon of fear in terms of the influence of its varieties (fear as a biological defense mechanism, fear as a psychological phenomenon, the varieties of existential fears) on human life and the possibility of creative self. It is determined the protective function of fear, its inhibitory effect on personal development and the limit effect of domestic and social freedom. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of existential fear as a (mostly unconscious) "br...

  20. Memory consolidation of fear conditioning: bi-stable amygdala connectivity with dorsal anterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortex.

    Feng, Pan; Feng, Tingyong; Chen, Zhencai; Lei, Xu

    2014-11-01

    Investigations of fear conditioning in rodents and humans have illuminated the neural mechanisms of fear acquisition and extinction. However, the neural mechanism of memory consolidation of fear conditioning is not well understood. To address this question, we measured brain activity and the changes in functional connectivity following fear acquisition using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. The amygdala-dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and hippocampus-insula functional connectivity were enhanced, whereas the amygdala-medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) functional coupling was decreased during fear memory consolidation. Furthermore, the amygdala-mPFC functional connectivity was negatively correlated with the subjective fear ratings. These findings suggest the amygdala functional connectivity with dACC and mPFC may play an important role in memory consolidation of fear conditioning. The change of amygdala-mPFC functional connectivity could predict the subjective fear. Accordingly, this study provides a new perspective for understanding fear memory consolidation. PMID:24194579

  1. Hidden sources of joy, fear, and sadness

    Bogert, Brigitte; Numminen-Kontti, Taru; Gold, Benjamin;

    2016-01-01

    to be associated with the cognitive processing of music and emotion recognition and regulation. Moreover, happiness in music was associated with activity in the bilateral auditory cortex, left parahippocampal gyrus, and supplementary motor area, whereas the negative emotions of sadness and fear corresponded......Music is often used to regulate emotions and mood. Typically, music conveys and induces emotions even when one does not attend to them. Studies on the neural substrates of musical emotions have, however, only examined brain activity when subjects have focused on the emotional content of the music....... Here we address with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) the neural processing of happy, sad, and fearful music with a paradigm in which 56 subjects were instructed to either classify the emotions (explicit condition) or pay attention to the number of instruments playing (implicit condition...

  2. Changing Fear: The Neurocircuitry of Emotion Regulation

    Hartley, Catherine A.; Phelps, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to alter emotional responses as circumstances change is a critical component of normal adaptive behavior and is often impaired in psychological disorders. In this review, we discuss four emotional regulation techniques that have been investigated as means to control fear: extinction, cognitive regulation, active coping, and reconsolidation. For each technique, we review what is known about the underlying neural systems, combining findings from animal models and human neuroscience....

  3. Cannabinoid facilitation of fear extinction memory recall in humans

    Rabinak, Christine A.; Angstadt, Mike; Sripada, Chandra S.; James L. Abelson; Liberzon, Israel; Milad, Mohammed R; Phan, K. Luan

    2012-01-01

    A first-line approach to treat anxiety disorders is exposure-based therapy, which relies on extinction processes such as repeatedly exposing the patient to stimuli (conditioned stimuli; CS) associated with the traumatic, fear-related memory. However, a significant number of patients fail to maintain their gains, partly attributed to the fact that this inhibitory learning and its maintenance is temporary and conditioned fear responses can return. Animal studies have shown that activation of th...

  4. Effects of sleep on memory for conditioned fear and fear extinction.

    Pace-Schott, Edward F; Germain, Anne; Milad, Mohammed R

    2015-07-01

    Learning and memory for extinction of conditioned fear is a basic mammalian mechanism for regulating negative emotion. Sleep promotes both the consolidation of memory and the regulation of emotion. Sleep can influence consolidation and modification of memories associated with both fear and its extinction. After brief overviews of the behavior and neural circuitry associated with fear conditioning, extinction learning, and extinction memory in the rodent and human, interactions of sleep with these processes will be examined. Animal and human studies suggest that sleep can serve to consolidate both fear and extinction memory. In humans, sleep also promotes generalization of extinction memory. Time-of-day effects on extinction learning and generalization are also seen. Rapid eye movement (REM) may be a sleep stage of particular importance for the consolidation of both fear and extinction memory as evidenced by selective REM deprivation experiments. REM sleep is accompanied by selective activation of the same limbic structures implicated in the learning and memory of fear and extinction. Preliminary evidence also suggests extinction learning can take place during slow wave sleep. Study of low-level processes such as conditioning, extinction, and habituation may allow sleep effects on emotional memory to be identified and inform study of sleep's effects on more complex, emotionally salient declarative memories. Anxiety disorders are marked by impairments of both sleep and extinction memory. Improving sleep quality may ameliorate anxiety disorders by strengthening naturally acquired extinction. Strategically timed sleep may be used to enhance treatment of anxiety by strengthening therapeutic extinction learned via exposure therapy. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25894546

  5. Public fear of nuclear technology

    Excessive fear of nuclear technology (EFONT) is estimated to affect from 35-50 percent of the U.S. public, EFONT is defined as an unpleasant state of fear with components of stress and anxiety, threat to security, and anger. The cognitive aspect of EFONT involves perception of risks, benefits, and values which reinforce and perpetuate the fear. EFONT can be reduced through communications and outreach programs by providing basic information, encouraging participation, and targeting misinformation. Risks need to be put in perspective and benefits made explicit. Safety messages should be combined with other information. Understanding and patience are indispensable in dealing with those who are afraid

  6. MODERN IDEOLOGIES OF MANAGING FEAR

    Oksana Konstantinovna Vasilchenko

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the article is a studying of modern ideologies of managing fear. The purpose of the article is to examine the managing fear practice and explain how it is used in the policy of homeland security. The research methodology is based on the general scientific methods such as analysis and synthesis, induction and deduction and special kind of theoretical me-thods such as studying literature about the problem. The study can be used in courses on social philosophy and political science. The author concludes that social fears are very effective instrument of influence with mass consciousness. The authorities need to legitimize their political decisions through public opinion. But before that they should form it. The author shows how policy of homeland security helps to produce fears in society and how politicians intentionally exaggerate them. In this regard the author considers a concept of homeland security which can eliminate the negative sides of homeland security in future.

  7. Adversity-induced relapse of fear: neural mechanisms and implications for relapse prevention from a study on experimentally induced return-of-fear following fear conditioning and extinction.

    Scharfenort, R; Menz, M; Lonsdorf, T B

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of current treatments for anxiety disorders is limited by high relapse rates. Relapse of anxiety disorders and addiction can be triggered by exposure to life adversity, but the underlying mechanisms remain unexplored. Seventy-six healthy adults were a priori selected for the presence or absence of adverse experiences during childhood (CA) and recent past (RA; that is, past 12 months). Participants underwent fear conditioning (day 1) and fear extinction and experimental return-of-fear (ROF) induction through reinstatement (a model for adversity-induced relapse; day 2). Ratings, autonomic (skin conductance response) and neuronal activation measures (functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)) were acquired. Individuals exposed to RA showed a generalized (that is, not CS- specific) fear recall and ROF, whereas unexposed individuals showed differential (that is, CS+ specific) fear recall and ROF on an autonomic level despite no group differences during fear acquisition and extinction learning. These group differences in ROF were accompanied by corresponding activation differences in brain areas known to be involved in fear processing and differentiability/generalization of ROF (that is, hippocampus). In addition, dimensional measures of RA, CA and lifetime adversity were negatively correlated with differential skin conductance responses (SCRs) during ROF and hippocampal activation. As discriminating signals of danger and safety, as well as a tendency for overgeneralization, are core features in clinically anxious populations, these deficits may specifically contribute to relapse risk following exposure to adversity, in particular to recent adversity. Hence, our results may provide first and novel insights into the possible mechanisms mediating enhanced relapse risk following exposure to (recent) adversity, which may guide the development of effective pre- and intervention programs. PMID:27434492

  8. Examining the Fears of Gifted Children

    Tippey, Jacalyn G.; Burnham, Joy J.

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have considered the fears of gifted children. Using the American Fear Survey Schedule for Children (FSSC-AM; Burnham, 1995), a modified version of the Australian Fear Survey Schedule for Children-II (Gullone & King, 1992, 1993), this study focused on the fears of 287 gifted children ages 7-10. This study is a first step in developing…

  9. Fear Conditioning Increases NREM Sleep

    HELLMAN, Kevin; Abel, Ted

    2007-01-01

    To understand the role that sleep may play in memory storage, the authors investigated how fear conditioning affects sleep–wake states by performing electroencephalographic (EEG) and electromyographic recordings of C57BL/6J mice receiving fear conditioning, exposure to conditioning stimuli, or immediate shock treatment. This experimental design allowed us to examine the effects of associative learning, presentation of the conditioning stimuli, and presentation of the unconditioned stimuli on ...

  10. Commentary about fear of movement

    K. Meyer

    2010-01-01

    Chronic pain influences many aspects of a patient’s life and often results in physical disability. There are many concepts to explain this condition of disability. For example, several psychological variables like coping with pain, depression, hypervigilance, catastrophizing and fear avoidance are considered in literature to play an important role. In Vlaeyen’s model of fear avoidance, he proposes that in a first step negative affectivity and threatening illness information could trigger the ...

  11. Understanding of motivation to foster in Hong Kong: predictors of foster parenthood satisfaction and foster parent retention

    周翠琴.; Chow, Chui-kam, Jean.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify satisfaction levels and retention intention of Chinese foster parents in Hong Kong. Foster parents are one of the major caregivers of children in out-of-home care services. However, in recent years, there has been a decreasing number of foster parents. The aim of the study is to discover what aspects foster parents value in fostering, and in what way they perceive value fulfillment through fostering and what their wants are. Finally, the relations...

  12. Computerized Dental Injection Fear Treatment

    Heaton, L.J.; Leroux, B.G.; Ruff, P.A.; Coldwell, S.E.

    2013-01-01

    One in four adults reports a clinically significant fear of dental injections, leading many to avoid dental care. While systematic desensitization is the most common therapeutic method for treating specific phobias such as fear of dental injections, lack of access to trained therapists, as well as dentists’ lack of training and time in providing such a therapy, means that most fearful individuals are not able to receive the therapy needed to be able to receive necessary dental treatment. Computer Assisted Relaxation Learning (CARL) is a self-paced computerized treatment based on systematic desensitization for dental injection fear. This multicenter, block-randomized, dentist-blind, parallel-group study conducted in 8 sites in the United States compared CARL with an informational pamphlet in reducing fear of dental injections. Participants completing CARL reported significantly greater reduction in self-reported general and injection-specific dental anxiety measures compared with control individuals (p < .001). Twice as many CARL participants (35.3%) as controls (17.6%) opted to receive a dental injection after the intervention, although this was not statistically significant. CARL, therefore, led to significant changes in self-reported fear in study participants, but no significant differences in the proportion of participants having a dental injection (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00609648). PMID:23690352

  13. Unconditioned responses and functional fear networks in human classical conditioning.

    Linnman, Clas; Rougemont-Bücking, Ansgar; Beucke, Jan Carl; Zeffiro, Thomas A; Milad, Mohammed R

    2011-08-01

    Human imaging studies examining fear conditioning have mainly focused on the neural responses to conditioned cues. In contrast, the neural basis of the unconditioned response and the mechanisms by which fear modulates inter-regional functional coupling have received limited attention. We examined the neural responses to an unconditioned stimulus using a partial-reinforcement fear conditioning paradigm and functional MRI. The analysis focused on: (1) the effects of an unconditioned stimulus (an electric shock) that was either expected and actually delivered, or expected but not delivered, and (2) on how related brain activity changed across conditioning trials, and (3) how shock expectation influenced inter-regional coupling within the fear network. We found that: (1) the delivery of the shock engaged the red nucleus, amygdale, dorsal striatum, insula, somatosensory and cingulate cortices, (2) when the shock was expected but not delivered, only the red nucleus, the anterior insular and dorsal anterior cingulate cortices showed activity increases that were sustained across trials, and (3) psycho-physiological interaction analysis demonstrated that fear led to increased red nucleus coupling to insula but decreased hippocampus coupling to the red nucleus, thalamus and cerebellum. The hippocampus and the anterior insula may serve as hubs facilitating the switch between engagement of a defensive immediate fear network and a resting network. PMID:21377494

  14. 10 CFR 708.6 - What constitutes “a reasonable fear of serious injury?”

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What constitutes âa reasonable fear of serious injury?â... Provisions § 708.6 What constitutes “a reasonable fear of serious injury?” Participation in an activity, policy, or practice may cause an employee to have a reasonable fear of serious injury that justifies...

  15. Fostering Communicative Competence through Technology

    Muhammad Aslam Sipra

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the use of technology in EFL classes to promote communicative competence. It elucidates communicative competence and explicates obstructions in communicative tasks. Moreover, it interprets the use of technology in fostering and supporting the development of communicative competence and explains how it is pragmatic in maintaining learners’ level of motivation and interest in learning a foreign language. The present article identifies the significance and use of mobile phone, camera, computer and internet, tape recorder, projector, and language labs in EFL classes. Besides, it discusses the use of technology as an educational tool in language teaching and learning.Keywords: Educational technology, fostering, communicative competence, language teaching, learning

  16. Neural correlates of individual differences in fear learning.

    MacNamara, Annmarie; Rabinak, Christine A; Fitzgerald, Daniel A; Zhou, Xiaohong Joe; Shankman, Stewart A; Milad, Mohammed R; Phan, K Luan

    2015-01-01

    Variability in fear conditionability is common, and clarity regarding the neural regions responsible for individual differences in fear conditionability could uncover brain-based biomarkers of resilience or vulnerability to trauma-based psychopathologies (e.g., post-traumatic stress disorder). In recent years, neuroimaging work has yielded a detailed understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying fear conditioning common across participants, however only a minority of studies have investigated the brain basis of inter-individual variation in fear learning. Moreover, the majority of these studies have employed small sample sizes (mean n=17; range n=5-27) and all have failed to meet the minimum recommended sample size for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of individual differences. Here, using fMRI, we analyzed blood-oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) response recorded simultaneously with skin conductance response (SCR) and ratings of unconditioned stimulus (US) expectancy in 49 participants undergoing Pavlovian fear conditioning. On average, participants became conditioned to the conditioned stimulus (CS+; higher US expectancy ratings and SCR for the CS+ compared to the unpaired conditioned stimulus, CS-); the CS+ also robustly increased activation in the bilateral insula. Amygdala activation was revealed from a regression analysis that incorporated individual differences in fear conditionability (i.e., a between-subjects regressor of mean CS+>CS- SCR). By replicating results observed using much smaller sample sizes, the results confirm that variation in amygdala reactivity covaries with individual differences in fear conditionability. The link between behavior (SCR) and brain (amygdala reactivity) may be a putative endophenotype for the acquisition of fear memories. PMID:25819422

  17. Glucocorticoids reduce phobic fear in humans

    Soravia, Leila M; Heinrichs, Markus; Aerni, Amanda; Maroni, Caroline; Schelling, Gustav; Ehlert, Ulrike; Roozendaal, Benno; de Quervain, Dominique J.-F.

    2006-01-01

    Phobias are characterized by excessive fear, cued by the presence or anticipation of a fearful situation. Whereas it is well established that glucocorticoids are released in fearful situations, it is not known whether these hormones, in turn, modulate perceived fear. As extensive evidence indicates that elevated glucocorticoid levels impair the retrieval of emotionally arousing information, they might also inhibit retrieval of fear memory associated with phobia and, thereby, reduce phobic fea...

  18. Dental Fear among Medical and Dental Undergraduates

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To assess the prevalence and level of dental fear among health related undergraduates and to identify factors causing such fear using Kleinknecht's Dental Fear Survey (DFS) questionnaire. Methods. Kleinknecht's DFS questionnaire was used to assess dental fear and anxiety among the entire enrollment of the medical and dental undergraduates' of the University of Malaya. Results. Overall response rate was 82.2%. Dental students reported higher prevalence of dental fear (96.0% versus 9...

  19. M-Type Potassium Channels Modulate the Intrinsic Excitability of Infralimbic Neurons and Regulate Fear Expression and Extinction

    Santini, Edwin; James T. Porter

    2010-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates that the activity of infralimbic prefrontal cortex (IL) is critical for inhibiting inappropriate fear responses following extinction learning. Recently, we showed that fear conditioning and extinction alter the intrinsic excitability and bursting of IL pyramidal neurons in brain slices. IL neurons from Sprague Dawley rats expressing high fear had lower intrinsic excitability and bursting than those from rats expressing low fear, suggesting that regulating the intrin...

  20. Neuropeptide S reduces fear and avoidance of con-specifics induced by social fear conditioning and social defeat, respectively.

    Zoicas, Iulia; Menon, Rohit; Neumann, Inga D

    2016-09-01

    Neuropeptide S (NPS) has anxiolytic effects and facilitates extinction of cued fear in rodents. Here, we investigated whether NPS reverses social fear and social avoidance induced by social fear conditioning (SFC) and acute social defeat (SD), respectively, in male CD1 mice. Our results revealed that intracerebroventricular NPS (icv; 10 and 50 nmol/2 μl) reversed fear of unknown con-specifics induced by SFC and dose-dependently reduced avoidance of known aggressive con-specifics induced by SD. While 50 nmol of NPS completely reversed social avoidance and reinstated social preference, 10 nmol of NPS reduced social avoidance, but did not completely reinstate social preference in socially-defeated mice. Further, a lower dose (1 nmol/2 μl) of NPS facilitated the within-session extinction of cued fear, while a higher dose (10 nmol/2 μl) reduced the expression of cued fear. We could also confirm the anxiolytic effects of NPS (1, 10 and 50 nmol/2 μl) on the elevated plus-maze (EPM), which were not accompanied by alterations in locomotor activity either on the EPM or in the home cage. Finally, we could show that icv infusion of the NPS receptor 1 antagonist D-Cys((t)Bu)(5)-NPS (10 nmol/2 μl) did not alter SFC-induced social fear, general anxiety and locomotor activity. Taken together, our study extends the potent anxiolytic profile of NPS to a social context by demonstrating the reduction of social fear and social avoidance, thus providing the framework for studies investigating the involvement of the NPS system in the regulation of different types of social behaviour. PMID:27044664

  1. Foster Creative Engineers by PBL

    Zhou, Chunfang; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard; Kolmos, Anette

    2011-01-01

    student satellite project (AAUSAT3) in the department of electronic systems at Aalborg University in Denmark. Multiple methods including interviews and observation were employed. The analysis of the empirical data leads to the findings and discussions that PBL can foster creative engineers by providing...

  2. Supporting Foster Parents: Caring Voices.

    Hudson, Pete; Levasseur, Karen

    2002-01-01

    This study used mailed questionnaires to obtain 66 foster parents' views on the supports needed to maintain their caring role. An overarching finding was the need for respect and recognition, manifested in many ways, which appeared to be in short supply. The presence of several ambiguities in the relationships between agency, children in care, and…

  3. Fostering Sound Financial Sector Development

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    This note outlines a short, to medium-term reform agenda to foster sound financial sector development. Mexico needs to broaden and deepen its financial system without compromising the financial stability gains of the last decade. Much more private investment is needed to transform the economy to boost productivity, and despite improvements in recent years, many households and firms still l...

  4. Central HIV-1 Tat exposure elevates anxiety and fear conditioned responses of male mice concurrent with altered mu-opioid receptor-mediated G-protein activation and β-arrestin 2 activity in the forebrain.

    Hahn, Yun K; Paris, Jason J; Lichtman, Aron H; Hauser, Kurt F; Sim-Selley, Laura J; Selley, Dana E; Knapp, Pamela E

    2016-08-01

    Co-exposure to opiates and HIV/HIV proteins results in enhanced CNS morphological and behavioral deficits in HIV(+) individuals and in animal models. Opiates with abuse liability, such as heroin and morphine, bind preferentially to and have pharmacological actions through μ-opioid-receptors (MORs). The mechanisms underlying opiate-HIV interactions are not understood. Exposure to the HIV-1 transactivator of transcription (Tat) protein causes neurodegenerative outcomes that parallel many aspects of the human disease. We have also observed that in vivo exposure to Tat results in apparent changes in morphine efficacy, and thus have hypothesized that HIV proteins might alter MOR activation. To test our hypothesis, MOR-mediated G-protein activation was determined in neuroAIDS-relevant forebrain regions of transgenic mice with inducible CNS expression of HIV-1 Tat. G-protein activation was assessed by MOR agonist-stimulated [(35)S]guanosine-5'-O-(3-thio)triphosphate ([(35)S]GTPγS) autoradiography in brain sections, and in concentration-effect curves of MOR agonist-stimulated [(35)S]GTPγS binding in membranes isolated from specific brain regions. Comparative studies were done using the MOR-selective agonist DAMGO ([D-Ala(2), N-MePhe(4), Gly-ol]-enkephalin) and a more clinically relevant agonist, morphine. Tat exposure reduced MOR-mediated G-protein activation in an agonist, time, and regionally dependent manner. Levels of the GPCR regulatory protein β-arrestin-2, which is involved in MOR desensitization, were found to be elevated in only one affected brain region, the amygdala; amygdalar β-arrestin-2 also showed a significantly increased association with MOR by co-immunoprecipitation, suggesting decreased availability of MOR. Interestingly, this correlated with changes in anxiety and fear-conditioned extinction, behaviors that have substantial amygdalar input. We propose that HIV-1 Tat alters the intrinsic capacity of MOR to signal in response to agonist binding

  5. Stimulus fear-relevance and the vicarious learning pathway to childhood fears

    Askew, C.; Dunne, G.; Ozdil, A; Reynolds, G; Field, A.P.

    2013-01-01

    Enhanced fear learning for fear-relevant stimuli has been demonstrated in procedures with adults in the laboratory. Three experiments investigated the effect of stimulus fear-relevance on vicarious fear learning in children (aged 6-11 years). Pictures of stimuli with different levels of fear-relevance (flowers, caterpillars, snakes, worms, and Australian marsupials) were presented alone or together with scared faces. In line with previous studies, children's fear beliefs and avoidance prefere...

  6. Fear of hypoglycaemia in patients with type 1 diabetes

    Evgeniia Mikhaylovna Patrakeeva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Independently of causes and risk factors of hypoglycaemia, its manifestations are always unfavourable and evoke fear and other negative emotions that lead to negative consequences connected with quality of diabetes control. The fear of hypoglycaemia creates an internal conflict by diminishing patients’ motivation to adhere to intensive treatment regimes. In addition to the severity of hypoglycaemia and its negative consequences, quality of life is one of the main criteria for evaluating the physical, psychological and social components of patient's life as a whole. Fear of hypoglycaemia is one of the most important factors; it either directly or indirectly affects quality of life and influences all aspects of the patient's life. Fear of hypoglycaemia is also a source of anxiety for the patient's relatives, causing damage to their familial and social relations. The negative consequences of hypoglycaemia can affect the relationship between spouses, as well as between parents and children with type 1 diabetes. The qualitative and quantitative data demonstrate that non-severe nocturnal hypoglycaemia causes more anxiety and fear in patients than daytime hypoglycaemia does. To quantify the fear of hypoglycaemia in adults with type 1 diabetes, the hypoglycaemia fear scale (HFS was developed and still is the most commonly used instrument. To assess the fear of hypoglycaemia in children and their parents, the HFS scale was adapted to be used in the paediatric population: HFS for parents (PHFS and HFS for children (CHFS. From a clinical point of view, these scales for measuring the level of fear of hypoglycaemia may be useful for monitoring adult patients and families who may need additional support, training or assistance in dealing with issues related to hypoglycaemia. The methods for regulating the fear of hypoglycaemia range from behavioural to pharmaceutical and surgical ones, and include a broad range of activities. Nevertheless, the problem

  7. Caregiver Involvement in the Education of Youth in Foster Care: An Exploratory Study

    Beisse, Kay; Tyre, Ashli

    2013-01-01

    This study was an exploratory investigation of caregiver involvement in the education of youth in foster care. In this study, foster caregivers reported that they are involved in the education of children in their care and participate in at-home involvement activities more often than at-school involvement activities. Caregivers in this study…

  8. Memory-emotional interactions as revealed by fear generalization in animal-fearful individuals.

    Kopp, Bruno; Schlimm, Mike; Hermann, Christiane

    2005-06-01

    Discriminative fear learning and fear generalization were examined in animal-fearful individuals and in control participants. Electrical shocks were administered contingent upon discriminative pictures of spiders or snakes, respectively, in a generalization-after-discrimination paradigm. Neither discriminative fear learning nor extinction was affected by the individual fear status of the animal categories. Novel feared stimuli, which resembled discriminative stimuli, were treated as more shock predictive than novel non-feared stimuli during generalization testing. Neither preparedness theory nor selective sensitization theory was capable to account for these observations. The findings are commensurable with the hypothesis that phobic fear interferes with the retrieval of memory traces. PMID:15814082

  9. Fear of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and fear of other illness in suicide

    Aro, A R; Jallinoja, P T; Henriksson, M M; Lönnqvist, J K

    1994-01-01

    other suicides. Suicidal fear of AIDS calls for evaluation of sexual and other risk behaviour, but fear of AIDS was largely generated by the extensive media coverage. Fear of other somatic illness was more diverse in origin and related to illness experiences. Suicidal fear of illness calls for......Suicide victims with fear of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or other somatic illness were compared for psychosocial and health-related characteristics, triggers and content of fear. Fear of AIDS cases (n = 28), 2% of the 1-year Finnish suicide population (n = 1397), were younger and...... recognition of depression and differentiation of the origin and content of fear....

  10. Health behaviours and fear of cancer recurrence in 10 969 colorectal cancer (CRC) patients

    Fisher, A.; Beeken, R.J.; Heinrich, M.; Williams, K.; Wardle, J.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study aimed to examine whether fear of cancer recurrence (FCR) was related to two important health behaviours (physical activity and smoking) in a large sample of colorectal cancer patients. METHODS: Ten thousand nine hundred sixty nine patients, diagnosed in 2010-11, and in remission in 2013, completed the 'Living with and Beyond Colorectal Cancer' survey. The survey included purpose-designed questions on fear of recurrence ('I have fear about my cancer coming back'), demogr...

  11. Intervention Effects on Foster Parent Stress: Associations With Children's Cortisol Levels

    Fisher, Philip A.; Stoolmiller, Mike

    2008-01-01

    Foster children exhibit high rates of atypical neuroendocrine functioning compared to children in the general population. In particular, alterations in the daytime diurnal activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis have been observed in foster children, often characterized by blunted salivary cortisol levels (i.e., low morning levels that remain low throughout the day). There is emerging evidence that therapeutic interventions for foster children can affect this pattern of HPA ...

  12. Caffeine fostering of mycoparasitic fungi against phytopathogens.

    Sugiyama, Akifumi; Sano, Cecile M; Yazaki, Kazufumi; Sano, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Caffeine (1,3,7-trimethixanthine) is a typical purine alkaloid produced in more than 80 plant species. Its biological role is considered to strengthen plant's defense capabilities, directly as a toxicant to biotic attackers (allelopathy) and indirectly as an activator of defense system (priming). Caffeine is actively secreted into rhizosphere through primary root, and possibly affects the structure of microbe community nearby. The fungal community in coffee plant rhizosphere is enriched with particular species, including Trichoderma family, a mycoparasite that attacks and kills phytopathogens by coiling and destroying their hyphae. In the present study, the caffeine response of 8 filamentous fungi, 4 mycoparasitic Trichoderma, and 4 prey phytopathogens, was examined. Results showed that allelopathic effect of caffeine on fungal growth and development was differential, being stronger on pathogens than on Trichoderma species. Upon confronting, the prey immediately ceased the growth, whereas the predator continued to grow, indicating active mycoparasitism to have occurred. Caffeine enhanced mycoparasitism up to 1.7-fold. Caffeine thus functions in a double-track manner against fungal pathogens: first by direct suppression of growth and development, and second by assisting their natural enemy. These observations suggest that caffeine is a powerful weapon in the arms race between plants and pathogens by fostering enemy's enemy, and we propose the idea of "caffeine fostering" as the third role of caffeine. PMID:26529400

  13. Regulating Critical Period Plasticity: Insight from the Visual System to Fear Circuitry for Therapeutic Interventions

    Elisa M. Nabel

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Early temporary windows of heightened brain plasticity called critical periods developmentally sculpt neural circuits and contribute to adult behavior. Regulatory mechanisms of visual cortex development –the preeminent model of experience-dependent critical period plasticity- actively limit adult plasticity and have proved fruitful therapeutic targets to reopen plasticity and rewire faulty visual system connections later in life. Interestingly, these molecular mechanisms have been implicated in the regulation of plasticity in other functions beyond vision. Applying mechanistic understandings of critical period plasticity in the visual cortex to fear circuitry may provide a conceptual framework for developing novel therapeutic tools to mitigate aberrant fear responses in post traumatic stress disorder. In this review, we turn to the model of experience-dependent visual plasticity to provide novel insights for the mechanisms regulating plasticity in the fear system. Fear circuitry, particularly fear memory erasure, also undergoes age-related changes in experience-dependent plasticity. We consider the contributions of molecular brakes that halt visual critical period plasticity to circuitry underlying fear memory erasure. A major molecular brake in the visual cortex, perineuronal net formation, recently has been identified in the development of fear systems that are resilient to fear memory erasure. The roles of other molecular brakes, myelin-related Nogo receptor signaling and Lynx family proteins– endogenous inhibitors for nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, are explored in the context of fear memory plasticity. Such fear plasticity regulators, including epigenetic effects, provide promising targets for therapeutic interventions.

  14. Fear experience reading: women reading

    Sofia VALDIVIESO GÁMEZ

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the assumptions the patriarchal paradigm has used in the construction of male and female identity, the changes experienced by women in the last century and the statements about fear undergone by more than twenty-five women from different ages and nationalities through their own life cycle, the author gives us an account on what women fear and how they live and overcome it. These ideas are based on the hypothesis that if patriarchy as a social organization is a cultural constant, the fears experienced by women in the process of constructing themselves as such are also constant. She concludes that the only course to follow is necessarily a way where feminine consciousness must be integrated, both in men and women, as a previous step in the construction of a reality based on equals, though, at the same time, different. This would allow us to discover the masculine and feminine dimension in all of us.

  15. Improving Flood Risk Maps as a Capacity Building Activity: Fostering Public Participation and Raising Flood Risk Awareness in the German Mulde Region (project RISK MAP)

    Luther, J.; Meyer, V.; Kuhlicke, C.; Scheuer, S.; Unnerstall, H.

    2012-04-01

    The EU Floods Directive requires the establishment of flood risk maps for high risk areas in all EU Member States by 2013. However, if existing at all, the current practice of risk mapping still shows some deficits: Risk maps are often seen as an information tool rather than a communication tool. This means that e.g. important local knowledge is not incorporated and forms a contrast to the understanding of capacity building which calls for engaging individuals in the process of learning and adapting to change and for the establishment of a more interactive public administration that learns equally from its actions and from the feedback it receives. Furthermore, the contents of risk maps often do not match the requirements of the end users, so that risk maps are often designed and visualised in a way which cannot be easily understood by laypersons and/or which is not suitable for the respective needs of public authorities in risk and flood event management. The project RISK MAP aimed at improving flood risk maps as a means to foster public participation and raising flood risk awareness. For achieving this aim, RISK MAP (1) developed rules for appropriate stakeholder participation enabling the incorporation of local knowledge and preferences; (2) improved the content of risk maps by considering different risk criteria through the use of a deliberative multicriteria risk mapping tool; and (3) improved the visualisation of risk maps in order to produce user-friendly risk maps by applying the experimental graphic semiology (EGS) method that uses the eye tracking approach. The research was carried out in five European case studies where the status quo of risk mapping and the legal framework was analysed, several stakeholder interviews and workshops were conducted, the visual perception of risk maps was tested and - based on this empirical work - exemplary improved risk maps were produced. The presentation and paper will outline the main findings of the project which

  16. Measuring Foster Parent Potential: Casey Foster Applicant Inventory-Worker Version (CFAI-W)

    Cuddeback, Gary S.; Buehler, Cheryl; Orme, John G.; Le Prohn, Nicole S.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This article examines the psychometric properties of the Casey Foster Applicant Inventory-Worker Version (CFAI-W), a questionnaire designed to assess the potential of foster family care applicants to provide foster care. Method: Retrospective data were collected from 208 foster care workers who completed two copies of the CFAI-W, one…

  17. Fear experience reading: women reading

    Sofia VALDIVIESO GÁMEZ

    2009-01-01

    Starting from the assumptions the patriarchal paradigm has used in the construction of male and female identity, the changes experienced by women in the last century and the statements about fear undergone by more than twenty-five women from different ages and nationalities through their own life cycle, the author gives us an account on what women fear and how they live and overcome it. These ideas are based on the hypothesis that if patriarchy as a social organization is a cultural constant,...

  18. Fear Not: Neurobiological Mechanisms of Fear and Anxiety

    Klumpers, F.

    2012-01-01

    Fear is a common, core emotion. Moreover, anxiety disorders are among the most common form of psychiatric disease. In this thesis neuroimaging, genetic, pharmacological, brain stimulation and behavioral techniques were used in healthy subjects and specific patient populations to shed more light on t

  19. Elites and Panic: More to Fear than Fear Itself

    Clarke, Lee; Chess, Caron

    2008-01-01

    Attributions of panic are almost exclusively directed at members of the general public. Here, we inquire into the relationships between elites and panic. We review current research and theorizing about panic, including problems of identifying when it has occurred. We propose three relationships: elites fearing panic, elites causing panic and…

  20. Fear of blushing : fearful preoccupation irrespective of facial coloration

    Mulkens, S; de Jong, Peter; Dobbelaar, A; Bogels, SM

    1999-01-01

    Women, with high (n = 29) and low (n = 28) fear of blushing, were exposed to a mild social stressor (watching a television test card in the presence of two male confederates) and to an intense social stressor (watching their own prerecorded 'sing' video, in the presence of two male confederates). Fa

  1. Fostering Technical Innovation in Libraries

    Bailey, Jr., Charles W.

    1992-01-01

    Grant funding offers one way to foster innovation, and, for large-scale projects, it may be essential; however, there are limited opportunities to secure such funding and many small projects may not warrant it. When grant funding is sought, the library's proposal is strengthened if it can demonstrate prior effort and expertise in the proposal area. Every opportunity to secure grant funding should be seized; however, libraries should not limit themselves to this funding option. This paper p...

  2. Fear extinction requires Arc/Arg3.1 expression in the basolateral amygdala

    Onoue, Kousuke; Nakayama, Daisuke; Ikegaya, Yuji; Matsuki, Norio; Nomura, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Background Prolonged re-exposure to a fear-eliciting cue in the absence of an aversive event extinguishes the fear response to the cue, and has been clinically used as an exposure therapy. Arc (also known as Arg3.1) is implicated in synaptic and experience-dependent plasticity. Arc is regulated by the transcription factor cAMP response element binding protein, which is upregulated with and necessary for fear extinction. Because Arc expression is also activated with fear extinction, we hypothe...

  3. Intergenerational pathways leading to foster care placement of foster care alumni’s children

    Jackson Foster, Lovie J.; Beadnell, Blair; Pecora, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined a path model that postulated intergenerational relationships between biological parent psychosocial functioning and foster care alumni mental health, economic status, and social support; and from these to the likelihood of children of foster care alumni being placed in foster care. The sample included 742 adults who spent time in foster care as children with a private foster care agency and who reported having at least one biological child. A full pathway was found between...

  4. Blindness Biggest Fear for Many Americans

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160254.html Blindness Biggest Fear for Many Americans Losing vision would ... 4, 2016 THURSDAY, Aug. 4, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Blindness is what many Americans fear most, a new ...

  5. Laterodorsal tegmentum interneuron subtypes oppositely regulate olfactory cue-induced innate fear.

    Yang, Hongbin; Yang, Junhua; Xi, Wang; Hao, Sijia; Luo, Benyan; He, Xiaobin; Zhu, Liya; Lou, Huifang; Yu, Yan-Qin; Xu, Fuqiang; Duan, Shumin; Wang, Hao

    2016-02-01

    Innate fear has a critical role in survival of animals. Unlike conditioned fear, the neuronal circuitry underlying innate fear is largely unknown. We found that the laterodorsal tegmentum (LDT) and lateral habenula (LHb) are specifically activated by the mouse predator odorant trimethylthiazoline (TMT). Using optogenetics to selectively stimulate GABAergic neurons in the LDT immediately produced fear-like responses (freezing, accelerated heart rate and increased serum corticosterone), whereas prolonged stimulation caused anxiety-like behaviors. Notably, although selective stimulation of parvalbumin (PV)-positive interneurons similarly induced fear-like responses, stimulation of somatostatin-positive interneurons or inhibition of PV neurons in the LDT suppressed TMT-induced fear-like responses without affecting conditioned fear. Finally, activation of LHb glutamatergic inputs to LDT interneurons was sufficient to generate fear-like responses. Thus, the LHb-LDT pathway is important for regulating olfactory cue-induced innate fear. Our results provide a potential target for therapeutic intervention for anxiety disorder. PMID:26727549

  6. Fear at the Great Wall

    CHARLOTTE; SPIRES

    2011-01-01

    "i’m not going on anything that takes me more than two feet off the ground," Grace was saying.This was classic Grace: She has a morbid fear of—well, everything actually,but in this particular case it was her phobia of heights, heights and cable cars combined specifically.

  7. Fear at the Great Wall

    CHARLOTTE SPIRES

    2011-01-01

    “I’m not going on anything that takes me more than two feet off the ground," Grace was saying.This was classic Grace:She has a morbid fear of-well,everything actually,but in this particular case it was her phobia of heights,heights and cable cars combined specifically.

  8. Different Mechanisms of Fear Extinction Dependent on Length of Time since Fear Acquisition

    Davis, Michael; Myers, Karyn M.; Ressler, Kerry J.

    2006-01-01

    Fear extinction is defined as a decline in conditioned fear responses (CRs) following nonreinforced exposure to a feared conditioned stimulus (CS). Behavioral evidence indicates that extinction is a form of inhibitory learning: Extinguished fear responses reappear with the passage of time (spontaneous recovery), a shift of context (renewal), and…

  9. When the mind forms fear: embodied fear knowledge potentiates bodily reactions

    S. Oosterwijk; M. Topper; M. Rotteveel; A.H. Fischer

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, the authors tested whether conceptual fear knowledge can (a) evoke bodily reactions and (b) enhance subsequent bodily reactions to fearful stimuli. Participants unscrambled neutral or fear sentences and subsequently viewed fearful and neutral pictures in combination with startl

  10. Fears of American Children Following Terrorism

    Burnham, Joy J.; Hooper, Lisa M.

    2008-01-01

    Two months after 9/11, the fears of children and adolescents in Grades 2-12 were examined utilizing the American Fear Survey Schedule for Children and Adolescents (FSSC-AM). Fear intensity scores and age and gender differences are reported. Terrorist-related content on the FSSC-AM (e.g., terrorist attacks, our country being invading by enemies)…

  11. Placing prediction into the fear circuit

    McNally, Gavan P.; Johansen, Joshua P.; Blair, Hugh T.

    2011-01-01

    Pavlovian fear conditioning depends on synaptic plasticity at amygdala neurons. Here we review recent electrophysiological, molecular, and behavioral evidence suggesting the existence of a distributed neural circuitry regulating amygdala synaptic plasticity during fear learning. This circuitry, which involves projections from the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) region, can be linked to prediction error and expectation modulation of fear learning as described by associative and computationa...

  12. Gun Attitudes and Fear of Crime.

    Heath, Linda; Weeks, Kyle; Murphy, Marie Mackay

    1997-01-01

    Using three studies, examined the relationship between attitudes toward guns and fear of crime. Findings indicate a connection between fear of crime and attitudes toward guns: people higher in fear of crime favored gun control. Results also established a relationship between stereotypical beliefs about gun victims and support for gun control. (RJM)

  13. Anxiety, Fears, and Phobias (For Parents)

    ... fears that stem from childhood experiences. An adult's fear of public speaking may be the result of embarrassment in front of peers many years before. It's important for parents to recognize and identify the signs and symptoms of kids' anxieties so that fears don't get in the way of everyday ...

  14. Functional co-activation within the prefrontal cortex supports the maintenance of behavioural performance in fear-relevant situations before an iTBS modulated virtual reality challenge in participants with spider phobia.

    Deppermann, S; Notzon, S; Kroczek, A; Rosenbaum, D; Haeussinger, F B; Diemer, J; Domschke, K; Fallgatter, A J; Ehlis, A-C; Zwanzger, P

    2016-07-01

    A number of studies/meta-analyses reported moderate antidepressant effects of activating repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Regarding the treatment of anxiety, study outcomes are inconsistent, probably because of the heterogenity of anxiety disorders/study designs. To specifically evaluate the impact of rTMS on emotion regulation in fear-relevant situations we applied a sham-controlled activating protocol (intermittent Theta Burst Stimulation/iTBS) over the left PFC (F3) succeeded by a virtual reality (VR) challenge in n=41 participants with spider phobia and n=42 controls. Prior to/after iTBS and following VR prefrontal activation was assessed by functional near-infrared spectroscopy during an emotional Stroop paradigm. Performance (reaction times/error rates) was evaluated. Stimuli were rated regarding valence/arousal at both measurements. We found diminished activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) of participants with spider phobia compared to controls, particularly elicited by emotionally-irrelevant words. Simultaneously, a functional connectivity analysis showed increased co-activation between the left IFG and the contra-lateral hemisphere. Behavioural performance was unimpaired. After iTBS/VR no significant differences in cortical activation between the phobic and control group remained. However, verum-iTBS did not cause an additional augmentation. We interpreted our results in terms of a prefrontal network which gets activated by emotionally-relevant stimuli and supports the maintenance of adequate behavioural reactions. The missing add-on effects of iTBS might be due to a ceiling effect of VR, thereby supporting its potential during exposure therapy. Concurrently, it implies that the efficient application of iTBS in the context of emotion regulation still needs to be studied further. PMID:26996315

  15. Recognizing Student Fear: The Elephant in the Classroom

    Bledsoe, T. Scott; Baskin, Janice J.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding fear, its causes, and its impact on students can be important for educators who seek ways to help students manage their fears. This paper explores common types of student fears such as performance-based anxiety, fear of failure, fear of being laughed at, and cultural components of fear that impact learning. The cognitive, emotional,…

  16. Development of fearfulness in birds: genetic factors modulate non-genetic maternal influences.

    Cécilia Houdelier

    Full Text Available The development of fearfulness and the capacity of animals to cope with stressful events are particularly sensitive to early experience with mothers in a wide range of species. However, intrinsic characteristics of young animals can modulate maternal influence. This study evaluated the effect of intrinsic fearfulness on non-genetic maternal influence. Quail chicks, divergently selected for either higher (LTI or lower fearfulness (STI and from a control line (C, were cross-fostered by LTI or STI mothers. Behavioural tests estimated the chicks' emotional profiles after separation from the mother. Whatever their genotype, the fearfulness of chicks adopted by LTI mothers was higher than that of chicks adopted by STI mothers. However, genetic background affected the strength of maternal effects: the least emotional chicks (STI were the least affected by early experience with mothers. We demonstrated that young animal's intrinsic fearfulness affects strongly their sensitivity to non-genetic maternal influences. A young animal's behavioural characteristics play a fundamental role in its own behavioural development processes.

  17. Fostering Kinship with Animals: Animal Portraiture in Humane Education

    Kalof, Linda; Zammit-Lucia, Joe; Bell, Jessica; Granter, Gina

    2016-01-01

    Visual depictions of animals can alter human perceptions of, emotional responses to, and attitudes toward animals. Our study addressed the potential of a slideshow designed to activate emotional responses to animals to foster feelings of kinship with them. The personal meaning map measured changes in perceptions of animals. The participants were…

  18. Optimization of Hydroacoustic Equipment Deployment at Foster Dam, 2013

    Hughes, James S.; Johnson, Gary E.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Hennen, Matthew J.; Fischer, Eric S.; Zimmerman, Shon A.

    2013-03-01

    The goal of the study was to optimize performance of the fixed-location hydroacoustic systems at Foster Dam (FOS) by determining deployment and data acquisition methods that minimized structural, electrical, and acoustic interference. Optimization of the hydroacoustic systems will establish methodology for sampling by active acoustic methods during this year-long evaluation of juvenile salmonid passage at FOS.

  19. A comparative experimental evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of Premna obtusifolia Linn and Premna latifolia Roxb leaves in Charles foster rats

    Kumari, Harshitha; Shrikanth, P.; Chaithra; Pushpan, Reshmi; Nishteswar, K.

    2011-01-01

    Agnimantha, a classical Ayurvedic drug is one among the dashamoolas, i.e., group of ten plants whose roots form the useful part. It is a main ingredient of many Ayurvedic preparations. Various source plants from the genus Clerodendrum and Premna are used in different regions of the country. In this study, two species of Premna were selected and evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan induced rat hind paw edema. The selected animals were divided into four groups and test d...

  20. Anti-arthritic Activity of Dashanga Ghana (An Ayurvedic Compound Formulation) Against Freund's Adjuvant Induced Arthritis in Charles Foster Albino Rats

    Ruknuddin, Galib; B J Patgiri; Prajapati, P. K.; Ashok, B.K.; Ravishankar, B.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Arthritis is the most common cause of disability, limiting the activities of adults throughout the world. Apart from the conventional treatment strategies using non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs, and glucocorticoids, newer and safer drugs are continuously being searched, as long-term usage of these drugs have resulted in adverse effects. Besides this, currently a number of medicinal plants are under scientific evaluation to develop a p...

  1. Foster care in Croatia from the perspective of foster parents and professionals

    Teodor Sabolić

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In many official documents of the Croatian Government and relevant government departments concerning the process of deinstitutionalization, foster care is cited as a priority form of non-institutional care. The purpose of this paper is to describe the process of foster care for children in Croatia and to present the results of research conducted with foster parents and experts, in the form of improving foster care. The entering into foster care process begins with a motivation and a decision of potential foster parents to embark upon the journey, followed by completing of an application to the local social welfare center, selection carried out by the team which oversees the foster care process, training of foster parents before they obtain a license to perform foster care, and finally – the placement of the foster child in the foster family. The research was conducted with foster parents (N=6, social workers (N=3 and psychologists (N=3, thereby respecting the plurality of various viewpoints. Data was collected with a semi-structured interview and then qualitatively analyzed using the thematic analysis. Analysis of the data showed that foster parents and experts are generally satisfied with the actual process of adopting and that foster parents have help and support from their family and friends. Some of the guidelines that participants in the study pointed out as possibilities of improving foster care are related to the increase of available information on foster care, the change of legislative framework, the professionalisation of foster care, and as an important problem they highlighted the lack of experts working in the foster care system.

  2. Worrying Affects Associative Fear Learning: A Startle Fear Conditioning Study

    Gazendam, F.J.; Kindt, M

    2012-01-01

    A valuable experimental model for the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders is that they originate from a learned association between an intrinsically non-aversive event (Conditioned Stimulus, CS) and an anticipated disaster (Unconditioned Stimulus, UCS). Most anxiety disorders, however, do not evolve from a traumatic experience. Insights from neuroscience show that memory can be modified post-learning, which may elucidate how pathological fear can develop after relatively mild aversive events. W...

  3. Medial prefrontal cortex stimulation modulates the processing of conditioned fear

    Anne Guhn

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The extinction of conditioned fear is dependent on an efficient interplay between the amygdala and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC. In rats, high-frequency electrical mPFC stimulation was shown to improve extinction by a reduction of amygdala activity. However, so far it is unclear whether stimulation of homologues regions in humans might have similar beneficial effects.Healthy volunteers received one-session of either active or sham repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS covering the mPFC while undergoing a two-day fear conditioning and extinction paradigm. rTMS was applied offline after fear acquisition in which one of two faces (CS+ but not CS- was associated with an aversive scream (UCS. Immediate extinction learning (day 1 and extinction recall (day 2 were conducted without UCS delivery. Conditioned responses were assessed in a multimodal approach using fear-potentiated startle (FPS, skin conductance responses (SCR, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS and self-report scales. Consistent with the hypothesis of a modulated processing of conditioned fear after high-frequency rTMS, the active group showed a reduced CS+/CS- discrimination during extinction learning as evident in FPS as well as in SCR and arousal ratings. FPS responses to CS+ further showed a linear decrement throughout both extinction sessions. This study describes the first experimental approach of influencing conditioned fear by using rTMS which can be a basis for future studies investigating a complementation of mPFC stimulation to cognitive behavioral therapy.

  4. The Fear of Contact

    Dumas, S.

    The search for intelligent alien civilisation is one of the great challenges for mankind. The project to explore the thousand of nearby stars has just begun and may take a long time to be completed. It is not certain that a civilisation at a communication distance exists but the search has to be done. Another similar activity is concerned by the transmission of messages to alien civilisation. It is not an answer to a detected message by SETI but a transmission of messages to potential candidates. Over the past years, questions have been raised to the potential danger for Earth of such activity. It is not a secret that METI goal is to attract attention and invite an answer from a nearby civilisation. It is not a physical answer such as a visiting star ship but a simple radio signal. This paper will present arguments to support METI and refute the idea of danger.

  5. More knowledge less fear

    APO-Hazardous Waste Management Agency is publicly owned national agency established to organize and perform activities related to the hazardous waste management in the Republic of Croatia and to assist the governmental bodies in the implementation of the environmental protection policy. APO's public information and education activities are: Issuing publications which would help the public to improve its education and information levels in ts field; Issuing bulletins distributed free; Recording video tapes for public information and education (distributed free of charge especially in schools); Organizing conferences, round tables and lectures by domestic and foreign experts which are referring to activities of the APO; Tours for particular groups (experts, journalist) to facilities of interest in Croatia and abroad, aimed at getting acquainted with relevant experiences and practices in the world; Sponsoring environmentally related project; Informing mass media about all relevant activities of APO; Establishment of Information (Visitor) Centre. Agency as well as similar organizations are required to organize comprehensive and realistic educational programmes, promoting the public into respectful party, expected to be competent for decision making in any of numerous sensitive issues related to waste management specially hazardous and radioactive waste. It is supposed to be the most acceptable approach which contributes to improvement of mutual confidence and respect between experts and the public. At the same time it is also a prerequisite for implementation of better and more efficient environmental protection programmes. It is obvious that such a positive tendency cannot be maintained without creation and performance of an honest, correct, synchronous and complete public information and education programme

  6. Dental Fear among Medical and Dental Undergraduates

    H. Hakim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the prevalence and level of dental fear among health related undergraduates and to identify factors causing such fear using Kleinknecht’s Dental Fear Survey (DFS questionnaire. Methods. Kleinknecht’s DFS questionnaire was used to assess dental fear and anxiety among the entire enrollment of the medical and dental undergraduates’ of the University of Malaya. Results. Overall response rate was 82.2%. Dental students reported higher prevalence of dental fear (96.0% versus 90.4%. However, most of the fear encountered among dental students was in the low fear category as compared to their medical counterpart (69.2 versus 51.2%. Significantly more medical students cancelled dental appointment due to fear compared to dental students (P=0.004. “Heart beats faster” and “muscle being tensed” were the top two physiological responses experienced by the respondents. “Drill” and “anesthetic needle” were the most fear provoking objects among respondents of both faculties. Conclusion. Dental fear and anxiety are a common problem encountered among medical and dental undergraduates who represent future health care professionals. Also, high level of dental fear and anxiety leads to the avoidance of the dental services.

  7. Hippocampal hyperexcitability underlies enhanced fear memories in TgNTRK3, a panic disorder mouse model.

    Santos, Mónica; D'Amico, Davide; Spadoni, Ornella; Amador-Arjona, Alejandro; Stork, Oliver; Dierssen, Mara

    2013-09-18

    Panic attacks are a hallmark in panic disorder (PAND). During the panic attack, a strong association with the surrounding context is established suggesting that the hippocampus may be critically involved in the pathophysiology of PAND, given its role in contextual processing. We previously showed that variation in the expression of the neurotrophin tyrosine kinase receptor type 3 (NTRK3) in both PAND patients and a transgenic mouse model (TgNTRK3) may have a role in PAND pathophysiology. Our study examines hippocampal function and activation of the brain fear network in TgNTRK3 mice. TgNTRK3 mice showed increased fear memories accompanied by impaired extinction, congruent with an altered activation pattern of the amygdala-hippocampus-medial prefrontal cortex fear circuit. Moreover, TgNTRK3 mice also showed an unbalanced excitation-to-inhibition ratio in the hippocampal cornu ammonis 3 (CA3)-CA1 subcircuit toward hyperexcitability. The resulting hippocampal hyperexcitability underlies the enhanced fear memories, as supported by the efficacy of tiagabine, a GABA reuptake inhibitor, to rescue fear response. The fearful phenotype appears to be the result of hippocampal hyperexcitability and aberrant fear circuit activation. We conclude that NTRK3 plays a role in PAND by regulating hippocampus-dependent fear memories. PMID:24048855

  8. Enhanced discriminative fear learning of phobia-irrelevant stimuli in spider-fearful individuals

    Carina eMosig

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Avoidance is considered as a central hallmark of all anxiety disorders. The acquisition and expression of avoidance which leads to the maintenance and exacerbation of pathological fear is closely linked to Pavlovian and operant conditioning processes. Changes in conditionability might represent a key feature of all anxiety disorders but the exact nature of these alterations might vary across different disorders. To date, no information is available on specific changes in conditionability for disorder-irrelevant stimuli in specific phobia (SP. The first aim of this study was to investigate changes in fear acquisition and extinction in spider-fearful individuals as compared to non-fearful participants by using the de novo fear conditioning paradigm. Secondly, we aimed to determine whether differences in the magnitude of context-dependent fear retrieval exist between spider-fearful and non-fearful individuals. Our findings point to an enhanced fear discrimination in spider-fearful individuals as compared to non-fearful individuals at both the physiological and subjective level. The enhanced fear discrimination in spider-fearful individuals was neither mediated by increased state anxiety, depression, nor stress tension. Spider-fearful individuals displayed no changes in extinction learning and/or fear retrieval. Surprisingly, we found no evidence for context-dependent modulation of fear retrieval in either group. Here we provide first evidence that spider-fearful individuals show an enhanced discriminative fear learning of phobia-irrelevant (de novo stimuli. Our findings provide novel insights into the role of fear acquisition and expression for the development and maintenance of maladaptive responses in the course of SP.

  9. Postextinction Infusion of a Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Inhibitor into the Medial Prefrontal Cortex Impairs Memory of the Extinction of Conditioned Fear

    Hugues, Sandrine; Deschaux, Olivier; Garcia, Rene

    2004-01-01

    We investigated whether postextinction training infusion of PD098059, a selective inhibitor of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation, into the medial prefrontal cortex, would impair retention of extinction learning in rats. We found that immediate, but not late (2 or 4 h), postextinction infusion of PD098059 provoked a full return of…

  10. Adrenergic Transmission Facilitates Extinction of Conditional Fear in Mice

    Barad, Mark; Cain, Christopher K.; Blouin, Ashley M.

    2004-01-01

    Extinction of classically conditioned fear, like its acquisition, is active learning, but little is known about its molecular mechanisms. We recently reported that temporal massing of conditional stimulus (CS) presentations improves extinction memory acquisition, and suggested that temporal spacing was less effective because individual CS…

  11. Unemployment (Fears) and Deflationary Spirals

    Den Haan, Wouter; Rendahl, Pontus; Riegler, Markus

    2015-01-01

    The interaction of incomplete markets and sticky nominal wages is shown to magnify business cycles even though these two features – in isolation – dampen them. During recessions, fears of unemployment stir up precautionary sentiments which induces agents to save more. The additional savings may be used as investments in both a productive asset (equity) and an unproductive asset (money). But even a small rise in money demand has important consequences. The desire to hold money puts deflationar...

  12. Unemployment (fears) and deflationary spirals

    Den Haan, Wouter J; Rendah, Pontus; Riegler, Markus

    2015-01-01

    The interaction of incomplete markets and sticky nominal wages is shown to magnify business cycles even though these two features ??? in isolation ??? dampen them. During recessions, fears of unemployment stir up precautionary sentiments which induces agents to save more. The additional savings may be used as investments in both a productive asset (equity) and an unproductive asset (money). But even a small rise in money demand has important consequences. The desire to hold money puts deflati...

  13. Unemployment (Fears) and Deflationary Spirals

    Wouter Den Haan; Pontus Rendahl; Markus Riegler

    2015-01-01

    The interaction of incomplete markets and sticky nominal wages is shown to magnify business cycles even though these two features - in isolation - dampen them. During recessions, fears of unemployment stir up precautionary sentiments which induces agents to save more. The additional savings may be used as investments which induces agents to save more. The additional savings may be used as investments in both a productive asset (equity) and an unproductive asset (money). But even a small rise ...

  14. Trace Fear Conditioning in Mice

    Lugo, Joaquin N.; Smith, Gregory D; Holley, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    In this experiment we present a technique to measure learning and memory. In the trace fear conditioning protocol presented here there are five pairings between a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus. There is a 20 sec trace period that separates each conditioning trial. On the following day freezing is measured during presentation of the conditioned stimulus (CS) and trace period. On the third day there is an 8 min test to measure contextual memory. The representative results are f...

  15. Sleep Disruption in Young Foster Children

    Tininenko, Jennifer R.; Fisher, Philip A.; Bruce, Jacqueline; Pears, Katherine C.

    2010-01-01

    In the current study, sleep actigraphy and parent-report measures were used to investigate differences in sleeping behavior among four groups of 3- to 7-year-olds (N = 79): children in regular foster care (n = 15); children receiving a therapeutic intervention in foster care (n = 17); low income community children (n = 18); and upper middle income community children (n = 29). The children in therapeutic foster care exhibited longer sleep latency and increased variability of sleep duration tha...

  16. Indiscriminate Friendliness in Maltreated Foster Children

    Pears, Katherine C.; Bruce, Jacqueline; Fisher, Philip A.; Kim, Hyoun K.

    2009-01-01

    Indiscriminate friendliness is well documented in children adopted internationally following institutional rearing but is less studied in maltreated foster children. Precursors and correlates of indiscriminate friendliness were examined in 93 preschool-aged maltreated children residing in foster care and 60 age-matched, nonmaltreated children living with their biological parents. Measures included parent reports, official case record data, and standardized laboratory assessments. Foster child...

  17. Mental health and foster carer training

    Minnis, H; Pelosi, A.; Knapp, M.; Dunn, J

    2001-01-01

    AIMS—To evaluate the impact of training foster carers on children's emotional and behavioural functioning.
METHODS—In a randomised controlled trial in 17 Scottish local council areas, with immediate and nine month follow up, 182 children and their foster families were randomly allocated to either standard services alone or standard services plus extra training for foster carers on communication and attachment. Main outcome measures were child psychopathology, attachment diso...

  18. FOSTERING MULTI-LATERAL COOPERATION BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENTS OF MEXICO, COLOMBIA, AND THE UNITED STATES TO ENHANCE THE PROTECTION OF HIGH-ACTIVITY RADIOACTIVE SOURCES

    Butler, Nicholas; Watson, Erica E.; Wright, Kyle A.

    2009-10-07

    The Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) reduces and protects vulnerable nuclear and radiological material located at civilian sites worldwide from sabotage, theft or diversion. The GTRI program has worked successfully with foreign countries to remove and protect nuclear and radioactive materials including high-activity sources used in medical, commercial, and research applications. There are many barriers to successful bilateral cooperation that must be overcome including language, preconceived perceptions, long distances, and different views on the threat and protection requirements. Successful cooperation is often based on relationships and building trusting relationships takes time. In the case of Mexico, GTRI first made contact in 2005. The project then lost momentum and stalled. At the same time, GTRI’s cooperation with the Republic of Colombia was a resounding success resulting in the securing of forty sites; the consolidation of numerous disused/orphan sources at a secure national storage facility; and, the development of a comprehensive approach to security including, inter alia, training and sustainability. The government of Colombia also showcased this comprehensive approach to thirteen Central American and Caribbean countries at a GTRI regional security conference held in Panama in October 2004. Representatives from the Colombian government were aware of GTRI’s interest in initiating cooperation with the Government of Mexico and to facilitate this cooperation, they offered to invite their Mexican counterparts to Colombia to observe its successful cooperation with GTRI. Shortly after that visit, the Government of Mexico agreed to move forward and requested that the cooperative efforts in Mexico be performed in a tripartite manner, leveraging the skills, experience, and resources of the Colombians. As a result, 22 of Mexico’s largest radioactive sites have had security upgrades in place within 18 months of cooperation.

  19. Fostering Multi-Lateral Cooperation Between The Governments Of Mexico, Colombia, And The United States To Enhance The Protection Of High-Activity Radioactive Sources

    The Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) reduces and protects vulnerable nuclear and radiological material located at civilian sites worldwide from sabotage, theft or diversion. The GTRI program has worked successfully with foreign countries to remove and protect nuclear and radioactive materials including high-activity sources used in medical, commercial, and research applications. There are many barriers to successful bilateral cooperation that must be overcome including language, preconceived perceptions, long distances, and different views on the threat and protection requirements. Successful cooperation is often based on relationships and building trusting relationships takes time. In the case of Mexico, GTRI first made contact in 2005. The project then lost momentum and stalled. At the same time, GTRI's cooperation with the Republic of Colombia was a resounding success resulting in the securing of forty sites; the consolidation of numerous disused/orphan sources at a secure national storage facility; and, the development of a comprehensive approach to security including, inter alia, training and sustainability. The government of Colombia also showcased this comprehensive approach to thirteen Central American and Caribbean countries at a GTRI regional security conference held in Panama in October 2004. Representatives from the Colombian government were aware of GTRI's interest in initiating cooperation with the Government of Mexico and to facilitate this cooperation, they offered to invite their Mexican counterparts to Colombia to observe its successful cooperation with GTRI. Shortly after that visit, the Government of Mexico agreed to move forward and requested that the cooperative efforts in Mexico be performed in a tripartite manner, leveraging the skills, experience, and resources of the Colombians. As a result, 22 of Mexico's largest radioactive sites have had security upgrades in place within 18 months of cooperation.

  20. Fluoxetine Facilitates Fear Extinction Through Amygdala Endocannabinoids.

    Gunduz-Cinar, Ozge; Flynn, Shaun; Brockway, Emma; Kaugars, Katherine; Baldi, Rita; Ramikie, Teniel S; Cinar, Resat; Kunos, George; Patel, Sachin; Holmes, Andrew

    2016-05-01

    Pharmacologically elevating brain endocannabinoids (eCBs) share anxiolytic and fear extinction-facilitating properties with classical therapeutics, including the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine. There are also known functional interactions between the eCB and serotonin systems and preliminary evidence that antidepressants cause alterations in brain eCBs. However, the potential role of eCBs in mediating the facilitatory effects of fluoxetine on fear extinction has not been established. Here, to test for a possible mechanistic contribution of eCBs to fluoxetine's proextinction effects, we integrated biochemical, electrophysiological, pharmacological, and behavioral techniques, using the extinction-impaired 129S1/Sv1mJ mouse strain. Chronic fluoxetine treatment produced a significant and selective increase in levels of anandamide in the BLA, and an associated decrease in activity of the anandamide-catabolizing enzyme, fatty acid amide hydrolase. Slice electrophysiological recordings showed that fluoxetine-induced increases in anandamide were associated with the amplification of eCB-mediated tonic constraint of inhibitory, but not excitatory, transmission in the BLA. Behaviorally, chronic fluoxetine facilitated extinction retrieval in a manner that was prevented by systemic or BLA-specific blockade of CB1 receptors. In contrast to fluoxetine, citalopram treatment did not increase BLA eCBs or facilitate extinction. Taken together, these findings reveal a novel, obligatory role for amygdala eCBs in the proextinction effects of a major pharmacotherapy for trauma- and stressor-related disorders and anxiety disorders. PMID:26514583

  1. Fluoxetine Facilitates Fear Extinction Through Amygdala Endocannabinoids

    Gunduz-Cinar, Ozge; Flynn, Shaun; Brockway, Emma; Kaugars, Katherine; Baldi, Rita; Ramikie, Teniel S; Cinar, Resat; Kunos, George; Patel, Sachin; Holmes, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacologically elevating brain endocannabinoids (eCBs) share anxiolytic and fear extinction-facilitating properties with classical therapeutics, including the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine. There are also known functional interactions between the eCB and serotonin systems and preliminary evidence that antidepressants cause alterations in brain eCBs. However, the potential role of eCBs in mediating the facilitatory effects of fluoxetine on fear extinction has not been established. Here, to test for a possible mechanistic contribution of eCBs to fluoxetine's proextinction effects, we integrated biochemical, electrophysiological, pharmacological, and behavioral techniques, using the extinction-impaired 129S1/Sv1mJ mouse strain. Chronic fluoxetine treatment produced a significant and selective increase in levels of anandamide in the BLA, and an associated decrease in activity of the anandamide-catabolizing enzyme, fatty acid amide hydrolase. Slice electrophysiological recordings showed that fluoxetine-induced increases in anandamide were associated with the amplification of eCB-mediated tonic constraint of inhibitory, but not excitatory, transmission in the BLA. Behaviorally, chronic fluoxetine facilitated extinction retrieval in a manner that was prevented by systemic or BLA-specific blockade of CB1 receptors. In contrast to fluoxetine, citalopram treatment did not increase BLA eCBs or facilitate extinction. Taken together, these findings reveal a novel, obligatory role for amygdala eCBs in the proextinction effects of a major pharmacotherapy for trauma- and stressor-related disorders and anxiety disorders. PMID:26514583

  2. Fostering Multi-Lateral Cooperation Between The Governments Of Dominican Republic, Colombia, And The United States To Enhance The Protection Of High-Activity Radioactive Sources

    The Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) reduces and protects vulnerable nuclear and radiological material located at civilian sites worldwide from sabotage, theft or diversion. The GTRI has worked successfully with foreign countries to remove and protect nuclear and radioactive materials including high-activity sources used in medical, commercial, and research applications. There are many barriers to successful bilateral cooperation that must be overcome including language, preconceived perceptions, long distances, and different views on the threat and protection requirements. Successful cooperation is often based on relationships and building trusting relationships takes time. In the case of Dominican Republic, the GTRI first received contact in 2008 from the Government of Dominican Republic. They requested cooperation that was similar to the tri-partite cooperation between Colombia, Mexico and the United States. Throughout the region it was widely known that the GTRI's cooperation with the Government of Colombia was a resounding success resulting in the securing of forty sites; the consolidation of numerous disused/orphan sources at a secure national storage facility; and, the development of a comprehensive approach to security including, inter alia, training and sustainability. The Government of Colombia also showcased this comprehensive approach to thirteen Central American and Caribbean countries at a GTRI regional security conference held in Panama in October 2004. In 2007, Colombia was an integral component of GTRI multi-lateral cooperation initiation in Mexico. As a result, twenty two of Mexico's largest radioactive sites have been upgraded in the past eighteen months. These two endeavors served as catalysts for cooperation opportunities in the Dominican Republic. Representatives from the Colombian government were aware of GTRI's interest in initiating cooperation with the Government of Dominican Republic and to facilitate this cooperation, they

  3. FOSTERING MULTI-LATERAL COOPERATION BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENTS OF DOMINICAN REPUBLIC, COLOMBIA, AND THE UNITED STATES TO ENHANCE THE PROTECTION OF HIGH-ACTIVITY RADIOACTIVE SOURCES

    Butler, Nicholas; McCaw, Erica E.; Wright, Kyle A.; Medina, Maximo

    2009-10-06

    The Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) reduces and protects vulnerable nuclear and radiological material located at civilian sites worldwide from sabotage, theft or diversion. The GTRI has worked successfully with foreign countries to remove and protect nuclear and radioactive materials including high-activity sources used in medical, commercial, and research applications. There are many barriers to successful bilateral cooperation that must be overcome including language, preconceived perceptions, long distances, and different views on the threat and protection requirements. Successful cooperation is often based on relationships and building trusting relationships takes time. In the case of Dominican Republic, the GTRI first received contact in 2008 from the Government of Dominican Republic. They requested cooperation that was similar to the tri-partite cooperation between Colombia, Mexico and the United States. Throughout the region it was widely known that the GTRI’s cooperation with the Government of Colombia was a resounding success resulting in the securing of forty sites; the consolidation of numerous disused/orphan sources at a secure national storage facility; and, the development of a comprehensive approach to security including, inter alia, training and sustainability. The Government of Colombia also showcased this comprehensive approach to thirteen Central American and Caribbean countries at a GTRI regional security conference held in Panama in October 2004. In 2007, Colombia was an integral component of GTRI multi-lateral cooperation initiation in Mexico. As a result, twenty two of Mexico’s largest radioactive sites have been upgraded in the past eighteen months. These two endeavors served as catalysts for cooperation opportunities in the Dominican Republic. Representatives from the Colombian government were aware of GTRI’s interest in initiating cooperation with the Government of Dominican Republic and to facilitate this cooperation, they

  4. Social defeat or social resistance? Reaction to fear of crime and violence among people with severe mental illness living in urban 'recovery communities'.

    Whitley, Rob

    2011-12-01

    This article is propelled by recent theory positing that 'social defeat' is a common experience for people with severe mental illness, potentially affecting course and outcome. The primary objective is to investigate how far fear of crime and violence contributes toward 'social defeat' among people with mental illness. This is done through examining 6 years of ethnographic data collected from a sample of urban-dwelling people with severe mental illness, all securely-housed in apartments located in small scale "recovery communities." Findings suggest that many participants living in the highest crime neighborhoods report that they deliberately restrict their temporal and spatial movement as a consequence of such crime. This hinders aspects of their recovery. Nevertheless, participants actively confront the nefarious affects of neighborhood crime by engaging in various empowering strategies of resistance. These include confronting disruptive people, fortifying homes, moving around the neighborhood in small groups and carrying objects such as umbrellas and canes that can be used in self-defense. Some reported that fear of crime directly contributed to the development of a rich and gratifying domestic life, centered on hospitality and religion. I conclude that participants partake in valiant and durable "social resistance," and may better be perceived as imaginative and resourceful resistors, rather than passive victims of "social defeat." An influential factor fostering such resistance is the "recovery community' itself, which creates secure and reliable housing within a micro-community in which participants could thrive. PMID:21701942

  5. Determining the focus of driving fears.

    Taylor, J E; Deane, F P; Podd, J V

    2000-01-01

    Fear of driving has been recognized as a complex diagnostic entity. Studies on flying phobia have drawn similar conclusions, although increasing clarity has been gained through research that indicates that there may be subtypes of flying phobia based on the focus of fear. However, it is unclear if similar subtypes exist for fear of driving. The aim of the present study was to conduct a preliminary investigation of driving fear subtypes and to clarify further whether there were differences between driving-fearful respondents who had been in a motor vehicle accident (MVA) and those who had not. Eighty-five driving-fearful, media-recruited respondents completed a questionnaire that assessed anxiety, avoidance, and concerns related to their driving fears. The sample had high expectations of negative events while driving. There were no significant differences between those who had experienced an MVA and those who had not on various measures of fear severity. Cluster analysis revealed two main foci of fear, one characterized by danger expectancies and the other based on anxiety expectancies and unpleasant driving situations. This emphasizes the importance of assessing both internal and external foci of fear. Although this finding is consistent with the results obtained for flying phobia, more research is required to replicate and extend these results and to develop and evaluate differential treatment programs. PMID:11095540

  6. Men fear other men most: Gender specific brain activations in perceiving threat from dynamic faces and bodies. An fMRI study.

    Mariska Esther Kret

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Gender differences are an important factor regulating daily interactions. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI we show that areas involved in processing social signals are activated differently by threatening signals send from male or female facial and bodily expressions and these activity patterns are different for male and female participants. Male participants pay more attention to the female face as shown by increased amygdala activity. But a host of other areas indicate a selective sensitivity for male observers attending to male bodily expressions (extrastriate body area, superior temporal sulcus, fusiform gyrus, pre-supplementary motor area and premotor cortex. This is the first study investigating gender differences in processing dynamic female and male facial and bodily expressions and it illustrates the importance of gender differences in affective communication.

  7. The use of cognitive enhancers in animal models of fear extinction.

    Kaplan, Gary B; Moore, Katherine A

    2011-08-01

    In anxiety disorders, such as posttraumatic stress disorders and phobias, classical conditioning pairs natural (unconditioned) fear-eliciting stimuli with contextual or discrete cues resulting in enduring fear responses to multiple stimuli. Extinction is an active learning process that results in a reduction of conditioned fear responses after conditioned stimuli are no longer paired with unconditioned stimuli. Fear extinction often produces incomplete effects and this highlights the relative permanence of bonds between conditioned stimuli and conditioned fear responses. The animal research literature is rich in its demonstration of cognitive enhancing agents that alter fear extinction. This review specifically examines the fear extinguishing effects of cognitive enhancers that act on gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamatergic, cholinergic, adrenergic, dopaminergic, and cannabinoid signaling pathways. It also examines the effects of compounds that alter epigenetic and neurotrophic mechanisms in fear extinction. Of these cognitive enhancers, glutamatergic N-methyl d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor agonists, such as D-cycloserine, have enhanced fear extinction in a context-, dose- and time-dependent manner. Agents that function as glutamatergic α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor agonists, alpha2-adrenergic receptor antagonists (such as yohimbine), neurotrophic factors (brain derived neurotrophic factor or BDNF) and histone deacetylase inhibitors (valproate and sodium butyrate) also improve fear extinction in animals. However, some have anxiogenic effects and their contextual and temporal effects need to be more reliably demonstrated. Various cognitive enhancers produce changes in cortico-amygdala synaptic plasticity through multiple mechanisms and these neural changes enhance fear extinction. We need to better define the changes in neural plasticity produced by these agents in order to develop more effective compounds. In the clinical

  8. Role Perceptions of Foster Care in African American Kinship and Nonkinship Foster Parents: A Quantitative Analysis

    Warde, Bryan

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on a study that examined a cohort of African American kinship (n = 57) and nonkinship (n = 53) foster parents' perceptions of their role responsibilities as a foster care provider. The Foster Parent Role Perception (FPRP) scale was used to measure perceived role responsibility. Results indicated that both the kinship and…

  9. Measuring Foster Parent Potential: Casey Foster Parent Inventory-Applicant Version

    Orme, John G.; Cuddeback, Gary S.; Buehler, Cheryl; Cox, Mary Ellen; Le Prohn, Nicole S.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The Casey Foster Applicant Inventory-Applicant Version (CFAI-A) is a new standardized self-report measure designed to assess the potential to foster parent successfully. The CFAI-A is described, and results concerning its psychometric properties are presented. Method: Data from a sample of 304 foster mothers from 35 states are analyzed.…

  10. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Foster Care Alumni: The Role of Race, Gender, and Foster Care Context

    Jackson, Lovie J.; O'Brien, Kirk; Pecora, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adult alumni of foster care and its demographic and contextual correlates. This is one of the first studies to report on racial/ethnic and gender differences and the influence of foster care experiences (i.e., revictimization during foster care, placement change rate,…

  11. Fear information and the development of fears during childhood: effects on implicit fear responses and behavioural avoidance

    Field, A. P.; Lawson, J

    2003-01-01

    Field, Argyris and Knowles (Behav Res Ther 39 (2001) 1259), and Field, Hamilton, Knowles and Plews (Behav Res Thera 41 (2003) 113) have developed a prospective paradigm for testing Rachman’s (Behav Res Ther 15 (1977) 375) proposition that fear information is important in the development of fears and phobias in children. Despite this paradigm being an advance on retrospective reports, the research so far has been restricted to self-reported fear beliefs measured after the information is given....

  12. Cannabinoid facilitation of fear extinction memory recall in humans.

    Rabinak, Christine A; Angstadt, Mike; Sripada, Chandra S; Abelson, James L; Liberzon, Israel; Milad, Mohammed R; Phan, K Luan

    2013-01-01

    A first-line approach to treat anxiety disorders is exposure-based therapy, which relies on extinction processes such as repeatedly exposing the patient to stimuli (conditioned stimuli; CS) associated with the traumatic, fear-related memory. However, a significant number of patients fail to maintain their gains, partly attributed to the fact that this inhibitory learning and its maintenance is temporary and conditioned fear responses can return. Animal studies have shown that activation of the cannabinoid system during extinction learning enhances fear extinction and its retention. Specifically, CB1 receptor agonists, such as Δ9-tetrahydrocannibinol (THC), can facilitate extinction recall by preventing recovery of extinguished fear in rats. However, this phenomenon has not been investigated in humans. We conducted a study using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, between-subjects design, coupling a standard Pavlovian fear extinction paradigm and simultaneous skin conductance response (SCR) recording with an acute pharmacological challenge with oral dronabinol (synthetic THC) or placebo (PBO) 2 h prior to extinction learning in 29 healthy adult volunteers (THC = 14; PBO = 15) and tested extinction retention 24 h after extinction learning. Compared to subjects that received PBO, subjects that received THC showed low SCR to a previously extinguished CS when extinction memory recall was tested 24 h after extinction learning, suggesting that THC prevented the recovery of fear. These results provide the first evidence that pharmacological enhancement of extinction learning is feasible in humans using cannabinoid system modulators, which may thus warrant further development and clinical testing. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Cognitive Enhancers'. PMID:22796109

  13. Different brain networks underlying the acquisition and expression of contextual fear conditioning: a metabolic mapping study.

    González-Pardo, H; Conejo, N M; Lana, G; Arias, J L

    2012-01-27

    The specific brain regions and circuits involved in the acquisition and expression of contextual fear conditioning are still a matter of debate. To address this issue, regional changes in brain metabolic capacity were mapped during the acquisition and expression of contextual fear conditioning using cytochrome oxidase (CO) quantitative histochemistry. In comparison with a group briefly exposed to a conditioning chamber, rats that received a series of randomly presented footshocks in the same conditioning chamber (fear acquisition group) showed increased CO activity in anxiety-related brain regions like the ventral periaqueductal gray, the ventral hippocampus, the lateral habenula, the mammillary bodies, and the laterodorsal thalamic nucleus. Another group received randomly presented footshocks, and it was re-exposed to the same conditioning chamber one week later (fear expression group). The conditioned group had significantly higher CO activity as compared with the matched control group in the following brain regions: the ventral periaqueductal gray, the central and lateral nuclei of the amygdala, and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. In addition, analysis of functional brain networks using interregional CO activity correlations revealed different patterns of functional connectivity between fear acquisition and fear expression groups. In particular, a network comprising the ventral hippocampus and amygdala nuclei was found in the fear acquisition group, whereas a closed reciprocal dorsal hippocampal network was detected in the fear expression group. These results suggest that contextual fear acquisition and expression differ as regards to the brain networks involved, although they share common brain regions involved in fear, anxiety, and defensive behavior. PMID:22173014

  14. Pain, fatigue and fear-avoidance beliefs in relation to physical activity and body awareness in persons diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis

    Lööf, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Pain and fatigue are highly common and a major concern for persons diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Having physical limitations, which have a significant effect on daily life, is also described as a major problem for persons with RA. Research findings show that a minority of persons with RA perform maintained health-enhancing physical activity (HEPA), and that psychosocial factors seem to be the most salient and consistent factors to explain variations in HEPA. Furtherm...

  15. Cdk5 Kinase Activity, Caspase-3 Expression and Synaptic Structural Plasticity in Infra-limbic Cortex of Rats with Conditioned Fear%条件性恐惧大鼠边缘下区Cdk5激酶活性、caspase-3表达以及突触结构的变化

    李培培; 张丽丽; 韦美; 李敏

    2011-01-01

    Classical fear conditioning is a behavioral paradigm that is widely used to study the neuronal mechanisms of post-traumatic stress disorder. Previous studies have clearly identified the medial prefrontal cortex as a key brain area for fear memory traces, but the molecules involving are poorly understood. Recently, the neuronal cyclin dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) has been implicated in both functional and structural plasticity through affecting ion channel conductance, dendritic spine formation. protein expressions and transcriptions in the postsynaptic neurons. Importantly, dysregulation of Cdk5 has been linked to cell apoptosis, which involves perturbation in synaptic function. How the kinase activity, expression of caspase-3 and synaptic structure have changed in infra-limbic cortex (IL) of conditioned fear? The present study is aimed to answer this question by two experiments.Male adult SD rats were randomly divided into fear group and naive group. Conditioned fear model of rats was established by tone paired foot shock. At the 2nd, 4th and 8th days after fear conditioning, the Cdk5 activity,and expressions of P35 or P25 and caspase-3 in IL area were studied by immunoprecipitation and kinase assay,Western blotting and immunnohistochemical assay. Then the change of synaptic structure at the 8th and 22nd days after conditioned fear was observed with electron microscopy. The results of our experiment 1 showed that Cdk5 activity and expressions of P25 and caspase-3 were all higher in fear group than naive group. In experiment 2, the postsynaptic density (PSD) was thinner in fear group than naive group at the 8th and 22nd days after fear conditioning, but the numerical densities of IL synapse was decreased in fear group at the 22nd day after fear conditioning.Our date suggested that at 8th days after conditioned fear established, the expression of P25 and Cdk5 activity in fear group were higher than naive group, which may lead to the change of synaptic structural

  16. Fear of death, mortality communication, and psychological distress among secular and religiously observant family caregivers of terminal cancer patients.

    Bachner, Yaacov G; O'Rourke, Norm; Carmel, Sara

    2011-02-01

    Previous research suggests that caregivers and terminally ill patients face substantial difficulties discussing illness and death. Existing research, however, has focused primarily on the experience of patients. The current study compared responses as well as the relative strength of association between mortality comunication, fear of death, and psychological distress (i.e., depressive symptomatology, emotional exhaustion) among secular and religiously observant family caregivers of terminally ill cancer patients. A total of 236 participants were recruited over 18 months within the first year of caregiver bereavement. Retrospectively reported mortality communication was statistically greater among secular caregivers; in contrast, both fear of death and depressive symptoms were greater among the religiously observant. Path analyses subsequently revealed notable differences between groups. Among secular caregivers, a significant inverse relationship between mortality communication and the two indices of caregiver distress emerged. In contrast, the association between mortality communication and psychological distress among the religious was moderated by these caregivers' fear of death. The results of this study suggest that fear of death is a significant predictor of psychological distress among religiously observant caregivers of terminal cancer patients (i.e., fear of their own death as elicited by the caregiving role). Fostering morality communication between secular caregivers and patients would appear to be one means of reducing the likelihood of clinically significant psychological distress. This may be insufficient among religiously observant caregivers, however, for whom fear of death may first need to be redressed. PMID:24501834

  17. Fear of pain and movement in a patient with musculoskeletal chronic pain.

    Raudenska, Jaroslava; Javurkova, Alena; Kozak, Jiri

    2013-01-01

    Pain-related fear may pose a serious barrier in the management of patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain, resulting in severe functional impairment in many cases. The paper describes the cognitive-behavioural therapy of a patient with a specific phobia (fear of pain and movement). The principal objective of the therapy was to educate the patient in strategies and skills to manage his fear and to verify the effect of the therapy. Both group and individual therapy was used. Group multimodal therapy of pain was provided by an interdisciplinary team of health care providers, specialising in pain management (psychotherapist, doctors and physiotherapists). The programme was based on operant therapy principles and included pacing and graded exercising and walking, relaxation, group education about ergonomics, and fear and pain relapse prevention. Reduction in the fear of pain and movement was achieved, and social bonds and physical and social activities improved after the psychotherapy, while the results were stable for two years. PMID:24378448

  18. Fostering social innovation for active ageing

    Sharma, Dhruv; Clune, Stephen John; Blair, Lynne

    2016-01-01

    Age-related loneliness is a major social issue as it is increasing alongside an upward global population trend which predicts that nearly 22% of the world population will be aged 60 years or over by 2050 (Rutherford, 2012). This ‘silver tsunami’ (Cacioppo and Patrick, 2008) represents an unprecedented growth of the elderly population and is likely to exert socioeconomic pressures globally in the form of healthcare needs etc. (Dychtwald and Flower, 1989, O'Connor, 2014). Recent surveys conduct...

  19. A Promising Parenting Intervention in Foster Care

    Linares, L. Oriana; Montalto, Daniela; Li, MinMin; Oza, Vikash S.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a 2-component intervention for biological and foster parent (pairs) to improve parenting practices, co-parenting, and child externalizing problems. Participants were biological and foster parents (N = 128) of primarily neglected children (ages 3 to 10 years) placed in regular foster…

  20. Sleep Disruption in Young Foster Children

    Tininenko, Jennifer R.; Fisher, Philip A.; Bruce, Jacqueline; Pears, Katherine C.

    2010-01-01

    In the current study, sleep actigraphy and parent-report measures were used to investigate differences in sleeping behavior among four groups of 3- to 7-year-olds (N = 79): children in regular foster care (n = 15); children receiving a therapeutic intervention in foster care (n = 17); low income community children (n = 18); and upper middle income…

  1. Privatized Child Welfare Services: Foster Parents' Perspectives.

    Friesen, Larry D.

    2001-01-01

    Foster parents were surveyed concerning their attitudes toward the privatization of family foster care services in Kansas. Respondents reported their current level of satisfaction, opinions about privatization, and their experiences with new community-based treatment teams. Responses indicated that satisfaction remained high, but also variances in…

  2. 77 FR 5186 - Medical Foster Homes

    2012-02-02

    ... representative of the medical foster home facility must agree upon the charge and payment procedures for medical... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 17 RIN 2900-AN80 Medical Foster Homes AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This document amends the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA)...

  3. Fostering Passion among First Year Engineering Students

    Mazumder, Quamrul H.

    2010-01-01

    Engineering is a complex field of study. Declining enrollment in engineering programs in the United States is of concern and understanding the various factors that contribute to this decline is in order. Fostering a higher level of student engagement with the content may foster passion towards engineering which could increase academic competency…

  4. Care and Commitment: Foster Parent Adoption Decisions.

    Meezan, William; Shireman, Joan F.

    Foster homes have traditionally been considered transitional homes, where children receive good care for a limited time period. However, in recent years, many children have been drifting in foster care. Child welfare agencies are using new criteria for evaluating services, including the 1970s permanency planning idea--asserting the importance of…

  5. Nurturing Development of Foster and Adopted Children

    Nowak-Fabrykowski, Krystyna Teresa

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study is to investigate early childhood teachers' perspective of teaching foster and adopted children. The main purpose is to seek suggestions how teachers can nurture the development of foster and adopted children. A 6 question survey was sent to 44 teachers pursuing graduate studies in early childhood education. Of this 50%…

  6. Fear-avoidance beliefs and pain avoidance in low back pain--translating research into clinical practice

    Rainville, James; Smeets, Rob J E M; Bendix, Tom; Tveito, Torill H; Poiraudeau, Serge; Indahl, Aage J

    2011-01-01

    For patients with low back pain, fear-avoidance beliefs (FABs) represent cognitions and emotions that underpin concerns and fears about the potential for physical activities to produce pain and further harm to the spine. Excessive FABs result in heightened disability and are an obstacle for recov...... recovery from acute, subacute, and chronic low back pain.......For patients with low back pain, fear-avoidance beliefs (FABs) represent cognitions and emotions that underpin concerns and fears about the potential for physical activities to produce pain and further harm to the spine. Excessive FABs result in heightened disability and are an obstacle for...

  7. Neural correlates of the mother-to-infant social transmission of fear.

    Chang, Da-Jeong; Debiec, Jacek

    2016-06-01

    Although clinical and basic studies show that parental trauma, fear, and anxiety may be transmitted to offspring, the neurobiology of this transmission is still not well understood. We recently demonstrated in an animal model that infant rats acquire threat responses to a distinct cue when a mother expresses fear to this cue in their presence. This ability to acquire maternal fear through social learning is present at birth and, as we previously reported, depends on the pup's amygdala. However, the remaining neural mechanisms underlying social fear learning (SFL) in infancy remain elusive. Here, by using [(14) C]2-deoxyglucose autoradiography, we show that the mother-to-infant transmission of fear in preweaning rats is associated with a significant increase of activity in the subregions of the lateral septum, nucleus accumbens, bed nucleus of stria terminalis, retrosplenial cortex, paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus, mediodorsal and intralaminar thalamic nuclei, medial and the lateral preoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus, and the lateral periaqueductal gray. In contrast to studies of adult SFL demonstrating the role of the anterior cingulate cortex and possibly the insular cortex or research of infant classical fear conditioning showing the role of the posterior piriform cortex, no changes of activation in these areas were observed. Our results indicate that the pup's exposure to maternal fear activates a number of areas involved in processing threat, stress, or pain. This pattern of activation suggests a unique set of neural mechanisms underlying SFL in the developing brain. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27091313

  8. Fear Inhibition in High Trait Anxiety

    Merel Kindt; Marieke Soeter

    2014-01-01

    Trait anxiety is recognized as an individual risk factor for the development of anxiety disorders but the neurobiological mechanisms remain unknown. Here we test whether trait anxiety is associated with impaired fear inhibition utilizing the AX+/BX- conditional discrimination procedure that allows for the independent evaluation of startle fear potentiation and inhibition of fear [1]. Sixty undergraduate students participated in the study - High Trait Anxious: n = 28 and Low Trait Anxious: n =...

  9. Methylphenidate enhances extinction of contextual fear

    Abraham, Antony D.; Cunningham, Christopher L.; Lattal, K. Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH, Ritalin) is a norepinephrine and dopamine transporter blocker that is widely used in humans for treatment of attention deficit disorder and narcolepsy. Although there is some evidence that targeted microinjections of MPH may enhance fear acquisition, little is known about the effect of MPH on fear extinction. Here, we show that MPH, administered before or immediately following extinction of contextual fear, will enhance extinction retention in C57BL/6 mice. Animals that ...

  10. ON PSYCHOLOGICAL DISTRESS AND FEAR OF DENTISTRY

    Magdalena IORGA; Tudor CIUHODARU

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety and fear are normal reactions in humans when situations are evaluating as being painful. In medical dentistry, anxiety and fear characterize in fact o problematic patient with special reactions during dental interventions and avoidance behavior, both behaviors having a great impact on patient’s dental health. The paper presents some aspects on the psychological profile of odontophobics, causes and consequences of dental fear on patient’s dental health, and some considerations on psych...

  11. The role of the medial prefrontal cortex in the conditioning and extinction of fear

    Thomas Francis Giustino

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Once acquired, a fearful memory can persist for a lifetime. Although learned fear can be extinguished, extinction memories are fragile. The resilience of fear memories to extinction may contribute to the maintenance of disorders of fear and anxiety, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. As such, considerable effort has been placed on understanding the neural circuitry underlying the acquisition, expression, and extinction of emotional memories in rodent models as well as in humans. A triad of brain regions, including the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and amygdala, form an essential brain circuit involved in fear conditioning and extinction. Within this circuit, the prefrontal cortex is thought to exert top-down control over subcortical structures to regulate appropriate behavioral responses. Importantly, a division of labor has been proposed in which the prelimbic (PL and infralimbic (IL subdivisions of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC regulate the expression and suppression of fear in rodents, respectively. Here we critically review the anatomical and physiological evidence that has led to this proposed dichotomy of function within mPFC. We propose that under some conditions, the PL and IL act in concert, exhibiting similar patterns of neural activity in response to aversive conditioned stimuli and during the expression or inhibition of conditioned fear. This may stem from common synaptic inputs, parallel downstream outputs, or cortico-cortical interactions. Despite this functional covariation, these mPFC subdivisions may still be coding for largely opposing behavioral outcomes, with PL biased towards fear expression and IL towards suppression.

  12. Sex differences, gonadal hormones and the fear extinction network: implications for anxiety disorders.

    Lebron-Milad, Kelimer; Milad, Mohammed R

    2012-01-01

    Convergent data from rodents and human studies have led to the development of models describing the neural mechanisms of fear extinction. Key components of the now well-characterized fear extinction network include the amygdala, hippocampus, and medial prefrontal cortical regions. These models are fueling novel hypotheses that are currently being tested with much refined experimental tools to examine the interactions within this network. Lagging far behind, however, is the examination of sex differences in this network and how sex hormones influence the functional activity and reactivity of these brain regions in the context of fear inhibition. Indeed, there is a large body of literature suggesting that sex hormones, such as estrogen, do modulate neural plasticity within the fear extinction network, especially in the hippocampus.After a brief overview of the fear extinction network, we summarize what is currently known about sex differences in fear extinction and the influence of gonadal hormones on the fear extinction network. We then go on to propose possible mechanisms by which sex hormones, such as estrogen, may influence neural plasticity within the fear extinction network. We end with a discussion of how knowledge to be gained from developing this line of research may have significant ramifications towards the etiology, epidemiology and treatment of anxiety disorders. PMID:22738383

  13. The effects of repeated exposure to graphic fear appeals on cigarette packages: A field experiment.

    Dijkstra, Arie; Bos, Colin

    2015-03-01

    Experimental studies on the effects of graphic fear appeals on cigarette packages typically expose smokers in a single session to a fear appeal, although in practice the exposure is always repeated. The present study applied an improved study design with repeated exposure to fear appeals on cigarette packages. In this field-experiment, 118 smokers were assigned to 1 of 2 conditions with either graphic fear appeals or textual warnings on their cigarette packages. During 3 weeks, fear and disgust were assessed 6 times. The intention to quit smoking after 3 weeks and quitting activity during the 3 weeks were the dependent measures. The effects of 3 pretest individual difference moderators were tested: disengagement beliefs, number of cigarettes smoked a day, and readiness to quit. Three weeks of exposure to the graphic fear appeals led to a stronger intention to quit, but only when smokers scored low on disengagement beliefs, or were heavier smokers. In addition, smokers low in disengagement more often reported to have cut down on smoking in the graphic condition. There were no indications of habituation of fear and disgust over the 3 weeks. The effects of graphic fear appeals depended on smokers' characteristics: The moderators may explain the mixed findings in the literature. The lack of habituation may be caused by the renewal of the graphics every few days. The used field-experimental design with natural repeated exposure to graphics is promising. PMID:25621418

  14. [AMYGDALA: NEUROANATOMY AND NEUROPHYSIOLOGY OF FEAR].

    Tsvetkov, E A; Krasnoshchekova, E I; Vesselkin, N P; Kharazova, A D

    2015-01-01

    This work describes neuroanatomical and neurophysiological mechanisms of Pavlovian fear conditioning, focusing on contributions of the amygdala, a subcortical nuclear group, to control of conditioned fear responses. The mechanisms of synaptic plasticity at projections to the amygdala and within amygdala were shown to mediate the formation and retention of fear memory. This work reviews current data on anatomical organization of the amygdala, as well as its afferent and efferent projections, in respect to the role of the amygdala in auditory fear conditioning during which acoustic signals serve as the conditioned stimulus. PMID:26983275

  15. Immediate extinction promotes the return of fear.

    Merz, Christian J; Hamacher-Dang, Tanja C; Wolf, Oliver T

    2016-05-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that immediate extinction is less effective than delayed extinction in attenuating the return of fear. This line of fear conditioning research impacts the proposed onset of psychological interventions after threatening situations. In the present study, forty healthy men were investigated in a differential fear conditioning paradigm with fear acquisition in context A, extinction in context B, followed by retrieval testing in both contexts 24h later to test fear renewal. Differently coloured lights served as conditioned stimuli (CS): two CS (CS+) were paired with an electrical stimulation that served as unconditioned stimulus, the third CS was never paired (CS-). Extinction took place immediately after fear acquisition or 24h later. One CS+ was extinguished whereas the second CS+ remained unextinguished to control for different time intervals between fear acquisition and retrieval testing. Immediate extinction led to larger skin conductance responses during fear retrieval to both the extinguished and unextinguished CS relative to the CS-, indicating a stronger return of fear compared to delayed extinction. Taken together, immediate extinction is less potent than delayed extinction and is associated with a stronger renewal effect. Thus, the time-point of psychological interventions relative to the offset of threatening situations needs to be carefully considered to prevent relapses. PMID:26995309

  16. ON PSYCHOLOGICAL DISTRESS AND FEAR OF DENTISTRY

    Magdalena IORGA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety and fear are normal reactions in humans when situations are evaluating as being painful. In medical dentistry, anxiety and fear characterize in fact o problematic patient with special reactions during dental interventions and avoidance behavior, both behaviors having a great impact on patient’s dental health. The paper presents some aspects on the psychological profile of odontophobics, causes and consequences of dental fear on patient’s dental health, and some considerations on psychological interventions meant at reducing anxiety and fear during dental treatment.

  17. Factors of Child Dental Fear : A Literature Review of Dental Fear in Children

    Nakata, Ayumi; Sato, Yoko

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. To provide an overview of the literature investigating dental fear in children during the past ten years and to review factors of child dental fear. Methods. The literature was systematically retrieved from an electronic database. The thirty four literatures which were written about the fear of dentistry, psychology and behavior during dental treatment were chosen. Results. The terms of fear being used were “Shika-kyoufu”, “Dental fear”, etc. However, the terms were not de...

  18. Impact of Psychological Interventions on Reducing Anxiety, Fear and the Need for Sedation in Children Undergoing Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Maria Pia Viggiano; Fiorenza Giganti; Arianna Rossi; Daniele Di Feo; Laura Vagnoli; Giovanna Calcagno; Claudio Defilippi

    2015-01-01

    Children undergoing magnetic resonance imaging examination frequently experience anxiety and fear before and during the scanning. The aim of the present study was to assess: i) whether and to what extent psychological interventions might reduce anxiety and fear levels; ii) whether the intervention is related to a decrease in the need for sedation. The interventions consisted of three activities: a clown show, dog interaction and live music. The emotional status (anxiety and fear) of the child...

  19. Forming Competing Fear Learning and Extinction Memories in Adolescence Makes Fear Difficult to Inhibit

    Baker, Kathryn D.; Richardson, Rick

    2015-01-01

    Fear inhibition is markedly impaired in adolescent rodents and humans. The present experiments investigated whether this impairment is critically determined by the animal's age at the time of fear learning or their age at fear extinction. Male rats (n = 170) were tested for extinction retention after conditioning and extinction at different ages.…

  20. Hippocampal Structural Plasticity Accompanies the Resulting Contextual Fear Memory Following Stress and Fear Conditioning

    Giachero, Marcelo; Calfa, Gaston D.; Molina, Victor A.

    2013-01-01

    The present research investigated the resulting contextual fear memory and structural plasticity changes in the dorsal hippocampus (DH) following stress and fear conditioning. This combination enhanced fear retention and increased the number of total and mature dendritic spines in DH. Intra-basolateral amygdala (BLA) infusion of midazolam prior to…

  1. Generalization of Conditioned Fear along a Dimension of Increasing Fear Intensity

    Dunsmoor, Joseph E.; Mitroff, Stephen R.; LaBar, Kevin S.

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the extent to which fear generalization in humans is determined by the amount of fear intensity in nonconditioned stimuli relative to a perceptually similar conditioned stimulus. Stimuli consisted of graded emotionally expressive faces of the same identity morphed between neutral and fearful endpoints. Two…

  2. I can see, hear, and smell your fear : Comparing olfactory and audiovisual media in fear communication

    De Groot, Jasper H B; Semin, Gün R.; Smeets, Monique A M

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that humans can become fearful after exposure to olfactory fear signals, yet these studies have reported the effects of fear chemosignals without examining emotion-relevant input from traditional communication modalities (i.e., vision, audition). The question that we pursued

  3. Fear of Pain Mediates the Association between MC1R Genotype and Dental Fear.

    Randall, C L; McNeil, D W; Shaffer, J R; Crout, R J; Weyant, R J; Marazita, M L

    2016-09-01

    Fear of pain is experienced in acute and chronic pain populations, as well as in the general population, and it affects numerous aspects of the orofacial pain experience, including pain intensity, pain-related disability, and pain behavior (e.g., avoidance). A related but separate construct-dental fear-is also experienced in the general population, and it influences dental treatment-seeking behavior and oral and systemic health. Minimal work has addressed the role of genetics in the etiologies of fear of pain and dental fear. Limited available data suggest that variants of the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene may predict greater levels of dental fear. The MC1R gene also may be etiologically important for fear of pain. This study aimed to replicate the finding that MC1R variant status predicts dental fear and to determine, for the first time, whether MC1R variant status predicts fear of pain. Participants were 817 Caucasian participants (62.5% female; mean ± SD age: 34.7 ± 8.7 y) taking part in a cross-sectional project that identified determinants of oral diseases at the community, family, and individual levels. Participants were genotyped for single-nucleotide polymorphisms on MC1R and completed self-report measures of fear of pain and dental fear. Presence of MC1R variant alleles predicted higher levels of dental fear and fear of pain. Importantly, fear of pain mediated the relation between MC1R variant status and dental fear (B = 1.60, 95% confidence interval: 0.281 to 3.056). MC1R variants may influence orofacial pain perception and, in turn, predispose individuals to develop fears about pain. Such fears influence the pain experience and associated pain behaviors, as well as fears about dental treatment. This study provides support for genetic contributions to the development/maintenance of fear of pain and dental fear, and it offers directions for future research to identify potential targets for intervention in the treatment of fear of pain and dental

  4. Functional imaging of stimulus convergence in amygdalar neurons during Pavlovian fear conditioning.

    Sabiha K Barot

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Associative conditioning is a ubiquitous form of learning throughout the animal kingdom and fear conditioning is one of the most widely researched models for studying its neurobiological basis. Fear conditioning is also considered a model system for understanding phobias and anxiety disorders. A fundamental issue in fear conditioning regards the existence and location of neurons in the brain that receive convergent information about the conditioned stimulus (CS and unconditioned stimulus (US during the acquisition of conditioned fear memory. Convergent activation of neurons is generally viewed as a key event for fear learning, yet there has been almost no direct evidence of this critical event in the mammalian brain. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we used Arc cellular compartmental analysis of temporal gene transcription by fluorescence in situ hybridization (catFISH to identify neurons activated during single trial contextual fear conditioning in rats. To conform to temporal requirements of catFISH analysis we used a novel delayed contextual fear conditioning protocol which yields significant single- trial fear conditioning with temporal parameters amenable to catFISH analysis. Analysis yielded clear evidence that a population of BLA neurons receives convergent CS and US information at the time of the learning, that this only occurs when the CS-US arrangement is supportive of the learning, and that this process requires N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation. In contrast, CS-US convergence was not observed in dorsal hippocampus. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Based on the pattern of Arc activation seen in conditioning and control groups, we propose that a key requirement for CS-US convergence onto BLA neurons is the potentiation of US responding by prior exposure to a novel CS. Our results also support the view that contextual fear memories are encoded in the amygdala and that the role of dorsal hippocampus is to process and

  5. Durable fear memories require PSD-95.

    Fitzgerald, P J; Pinard, C R; Camp, M C; Feyder, M; Sah, A; Bergstrom, H C; Graybeal, C; Liu, Y; Schlüter, O M; Grant, S G; Singewald, N; Xu, W; Holmes, A

    2015-07-01

    Traumatic fear memories are highly durable but also dynamic, undergoing repeated reactivation and rehearsal over time. Although overly persistent fear memories underlie anxiety disorders, such as posttraumatic stress disorder, the key neural and molecular mechanisms underlying fear memory durability remain unclear. Postsynaptic density 95 (PSD-95) is a synaptic protein regulating glutamate receptor anchoring, synaptic stability and certain types of memory. Using a loss-of-function mutant mouse lacking the guanylate kinase domain of PSD-95 (PSD-95(GK)), we analyzed the contribution of PSD-95 to fear memory formation and retrieval, and sought to identify the neural basis of PSD-95-mediated memory maintenance using ex vivo immediate-early gene mapping, in vivo neuronal recordings and viral-mediated knockdown (KD) approaches. We show that PSD-95 is dispensable for the formation and expression of recent fear memories, but essential for the formation of precise and flexible fear memories and for the maintenance of memories at remote time points. The failure of PSD-95(GK) mice to retrieve remote cued fear memory was associated with hypoactivation of the infralimbic (IL) cortex (but not the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) or prelimbic cortex), reduced IL single-unit firing and bursting, and attenuated IL gamma and theta oscillations. Adeno-associated virus-mediated PSD-95 KD in the IL, but not the ACC, was sufficient to impair recent fear extinction and remote fear memory, and remodel IL dendritic spines. Collectively, these data identify PSD-95 in the IL as a critical mechanism supporting the durability of fear memories over time. These preclinical findings have implications for developing novel approaches to treating trauma-based anxiety disorders that target the weakening of overly persistent fear memories. PMID:25510511

  6. Representation of patients’ hand modulates fear reactions of patients with spider phobia in virtual reality

    Henrik Moriz Peperkorn

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Embodiment (i.e., the involvement of a bodily representation is thought to be relevant in emotional experiences. Virtual reality (VR is a capable means of activating phobic fear in patients. The representation of the patient’s body (e.g., the right hand in VR enhances immersion and increases presence, but its effect on phobic fear is still unknown. We analyzed the influence of the presentation of the participant’s hand in VR on presence and fear responses in 32 women with spider phobia and 32 matched controls. Participants sat in front of a table with an acrylic glass container within reaching distance. During the experiment this setup was concealed by a head-mounted display (HMD. The VR scenario presented via HMD showed the same setup, i.e. a table with an acrylic glass container. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two experimental groups. In one group, fear responses were triggered by fear-relevant visual input in VR (virtual spider in the virtual acrylic glass container, while information about a real but unseen neutral control animal (living snake in the acrylic glass container was given. The second group received fear-relevant information of the real but unseen situation (living spider in the acrylic glass container, but visual input was kept neutral VR (virtual snake in the virtual acrylic glass container. Participants were instructed to touch the acrylic glass container with their right hand in 20 consecutive trials. Visibility of the hand was varied randomly in a within-subjects design. We found for all participants that visibility of the participant’s hand increased presence independently of the fear trigger. However, in patients, the influence of the virtual hand on fear depended on the fear trigger. When fear was triggered perceptually, i.e., by a virtual spider, the virtual hand increased fear. When fear was triggered by information about a real spider, the virtual hand had no effect on fear. Our results shed light

  7. Representation of Patients' Hand Modulates Fear Reactions of Patients with Spider Phobia in Virtual Reality.

    Peperkorn, Henrik M; Diemer, Julia E; Alpers, Georg W; Mühlberger, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Embodiment (i.e., the involvement of a bodily representation) is thought to be relevant in emotional experiences. Virtual reality (VR) is a capable means of activating phobic fear in patients. The representation of the patient's body (e.g., the right hand) in VR enhances immersion and increases presence, but its effect on phobic fear is still unknown. We analyzed the influence of the presentation of the participant's hand in VR on presence and fear responses in 32 women with spider phobia and 32 matched controls. Participants sat in front of a table with an acrylic glass container within reaching distance. During the experiment this setup was concealed by a head-mounted display (HMD). The VR scenario presented via HMD showed the same setup, i.e., a table with an acrylic glass container. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two experimental groups. In one group, fear responses were triggered by fear-relevant visual input in VR (virtual spider in the virtual acrylic glass container), while information about a real but unseen neutral control animal (living snake in the acrylic glass container) was given. The second group received fear-relevant information of the real but unseen situation (living spider in the acrylic glass container), but visual input was kept neutral VR (virtual snake in the virtual acrylic glass container). Participants were instructed to touch the acrylic glass container with their right hand in 20 consecutive trials. Visibility of the hand was varied randomly in a within-subjects design. We found for all participants that visibility of the participant's hand increased presence independently of the fear trigger. However, in patients, the influence of the virtual hand on fear depended on the fear trigger. When fear was triggered perceptually, i.e., by a virtual spider, the virtual hand increased fear. When fear was triggered by information about a real spider, the virtual hand had no effect on fear. Our results shed light on the

  8. Representation of Patients’ Hand Modulates Fear Reactions of Patients with Spider Phobia in Virtual Reality

    Peperkorn, Henrik M.; Diemer, Julia E.; Alpers, Georg W.; Mühlberger, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Embodiment (i.e., the involvement of a bodily representation) is thought to be relevant in emotional experiences. Virtual reality (VR) is a capable means of activating phobic fear in patients. The representation of the patient’s body (e.g., the right hand) in VR enhances immersion and increases presence, but its effect on phobic fear is still unknown. We analyzed the influence of the presentation of the participant’s hand in VR on presence and fear responses in 32 women with spider phobia and 32 matched controls. Participants sat in front of a table with an acrylic glass container within reaching distance. During the experiment this setup was concealed by a head-mounted display (HMD). The VR scenario presented via HMD showed the same setup, i.e., a table with an acrylic glass container. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two experimental groups. In one group, fear responses were triggered by fear-relevant visual input in VR (virtual spider in the virtual acrylic glass container), while information about a real but unseen neutral control animal (living snake in the acrylic glass container) was given. The second group received fear-relevant information of the real but unseen situation (living spider in the acrylic glass container), but visual input was kept neutral VR (virtual snake in the virtual acrylic glass container). Participants were instructed to touch the acrylic glass container with their right hand in 20 consecutive trials. Visibility of the hand was varied randomly in a within-subjects design. We found for all participants that visibility of the participant’s hand increased presence independently of the fear trigger. However, in patients, the influence of the virtual hand on fear depended on the fear trigger. When fear was triggered perceptually, i.e., by a virtual spider, the virtual hand increased fear. When fear was triggered by information about a real spider, the virtual hand had no effect on fear. Our results shed light on the

  9. Fear of Movement Is Related to Trunk Stiffness in Low Back Pain.

    Karayannis, Nicholas V.; Smeets, Rob J. E. M.; Wolbert van den Hoorn; Paul W Hodges

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Psychological features have been related to trunk muscle activation patterns in low back pain (LBP). We hypothesised higher pain-related fear would relate to changes in trunk mechanical properties, such as higher trunk stiffness. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the relationship between trunk mechanical properties and psychological features in people with recurrent LBP. METHODS: The relationship between pain-related fear (Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia, TSK; Photograph Series of Daily Activ...

  10. Fear and Reward Circuit Alterations in Pediatric CRPS.

    Simons, Laura E; Erpelding, Nathalie; Hernandez, Jessica M; Serrano, Paul; Zhang, Kunyu; Lebel, Alyssa A; Sethna, Navil F; Berde, Charles B; Prabhu, Sanjay P; Becerra, Lino; Borsook, David

    2015-01-01

    In chronic pain, a number of brain regions involved in emotion (e.g., amygdala, hippocampus, nucleus accumbens, insula, anterior cingulate, and prefrontal cortex) show significant functional and morphometric changes. One phenotypic manifestation of these changes is pain-related fear (PRF). PRF is associated with profoundly altered behavioral adaptations to chronic pain. For example, patients with a neuropathic pain condition known as complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) often avoid use of and may even neglect the affected body area(s), thus maintaining and likely enhancing PRF. These changes form part of an overall maladaptation to chronic pain. To examine fear-related brain circuit alterations in humans, 20 pediatric patients with CRPS and 20 sex- and age-matched healthy controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in response to a well-established fearful faces paradigm. Despite no significant differences on self-reported emotional valence and arousal between the two groups, CRPS patients displayed a diminished response to fearful faces in regions associated with emotional processing compared to healthy controls. Additionally, increased PRF levels were associated with decreased activity in a number of brain regions including the right amygdala, insula, putamen, and caudate. Blunted activation in patients suggests that (a) individuals with chronic pain may have deficits in cognitive-affective brain circuits that may represent an underlying vulnerability or consequence to the chronic pain state; and (b) fear of pain may contribute and/or maintain these brain alterations. Our results shed new light on altered affective circuits in patients with chronic pain and identify PRF as a potentially important treatment target. PMID:26834606

  11. Modulation of anxiety and fear via distinct intrahippocampal circuits.

    Engin, Elif; Smith, Kiersten S; Gao, Yudong; Nagy, David; Foster, Rachel A; Tsvetkov, Evgeny; Keist, Ruth; Crestani, Florence; Fritschy, Jean-Marc; Bolshakov, Vadim Y; Hajos, Mihaly; Heldt, Scott A; Rudolph, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    Recent findings indicate a high level of specialization at the level of microcircuits and cell populations within brain structures with regards to the control of fear and anxiety. The hippocampus, however, has been treated as a unitary structure in anxiety and fear research despite mounting evidence that different hippocampal subregions have specialized roles in other cognitive domains. Using novel cell-type- and region-specific conditional knockouts of the GABAA receptor α2 subunit, we demonstrate that inhibition of the principal neurons of the dentate gyrus or CA3 via α2-containing GABAA receptors (α2GABAARs) is required to suppress anxiety, while the inhibition of CA1 pyramidal neurons is required to suppress fear responses. We further show that the diazepam-modulation of hippocampal theta activity shows certain parallels with our behavioral findings, suggesting a possible mechanism for the observed behavioral effects. Thus, our findings demonstrate a double dissociation in the regulation of anxiety versus fear by hippocampal microcircuitry. PMID:26971710

  12. Fear of Violent Victimization among the Foreign-Born

    Viviana ANDREESCU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In general, most studies that examined the relationship immigrants – criminal behavior focused on the immigrants’ involvement in criminal activities as offenders and/or the effects of immigration on crime rates. Only limited research looked at the levels of victimization and perceived safety experienced by immigrants in their receiving countries. Using the most recent available data from the European Social Survey (Round 5/2010, the present quantitative analysis conducted on a representative sample of residents in United Kingdom (N=2422 tries to determine the levels of criminal victimization and fear of violent crime associated with foreign nationals living in a European country, where immigration is generally unpopular. Although foreign-born persons living in United Kingdom appear to have a higher degree of victimization (vicarious and direct than natives, the inter-group difference is not sufficiently large to be significant at p< .05.Nevertheless, compared to natives, first-generation immigrants manifest a significantly higher level of fear of violent victimization. Results also show that in addition to inter-group differences in the levels of perceived unsafety and experiences with victimization, the effects of fear-of-crime correlates vary in intensity among respondents differentiated by their country of birth. In addition, one’s level of acculturation contributes to differences in fear of crime among immigrants.

  13. Inhibition and enhancement of contextual fear memory destabilization

    Jonathan L C Lee

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The reactivation of a memory can result in its destabilization, necessitating a process of memory reconsolidation to maintain its persistence. Here we show that the destabilization of a contextual fear memory is potentiated by the cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist ACEA. Co-infusion of ACEA and the IKK inhibitor sulfasalazine into the dorsal hippocampus impaired contextual fear memory reconsolidation. This observation was achieved under behavioural conditions that, by themselves, did not result in either a reconsolidation impairment by sulfasalazine alone or reactivation-induced upregulation of Zif268 expression. Moreover, we show that the destabilization of a contextual fear memory is dependent upon neuronal activity in the dorsal hippocampus, but not memory expression per se. The effect on contextual fear memory destabilization of intra-hippocampal ACEA was replicated by systemic injections, allowing an amnestic effect of MK-801. These results indicate that memory expression and destabilization, while being independent from one another, are both dependent upon memory reactivation. Moreover, memory destabilization can be enhanced pharmacologically, which may be of therapeutic potential.

  14. Permanency and the Foster Care System.

    Lockwood, Katie K; Friedman, Susan; Christian, Cindy W

    2015-10-01

    Each year over 20,000 youth age out of the child welfare system without reaching a permanent placement in a family. Certain children, such as those spending extended time in foster care, with a diagnosed disability, or adolescents, are at the highest risk for aging out. As young adults, this population is at and increased risk of incarceration; food, housing, and income insecurity; unemployment; educational deficits; receipt of public assistance; and mental health disorders. We reviewed the literature on foster care legislation, permanency, outcomes, and interventions. The outcomes of children who age out of the child welfare system are poor. Interventions to increase permanency include training programs for youth and foster parents, age extension for foster care and insurance coverage, an adoption tax credit, and specialized services and programs that support youth preparing for their transition to adulthood. Future ideas include expanding mentoring, educational support, mental health services, and post-permanency services to foster stability in foster care placements and encourage permanency planning. Children in the child welfare system are at a high risk for physical, mental, and emotional health problems that can lead to placement instability and create barriers to achieving permanency. Failure to reach the permanency of a family leads to poor outcomes, which have negative effects on the individual and society. Supporting youth in foster care throughout transitions may mediate the negative outcomes that have historically followed placement in out-of-home care. PMID:26403649

  15. Stress-induced enhancement of fear conditioning and sensitization facilitates extinction-resistant and habituation-resistant fear behaviors in a novel animal model of posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Corley, Michael J; Caruso, Michael J; Takahashi, Lorey K

    2012-01-18

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by stress-induced symptoms including exaggerated fear memories, hypervigilance and hyperarousal. However, we are unaware of an animal model that investigates these hallmarks of PTSD especially in relation to fear extinction and habituation. Therefore, to develop a valid animal model of PTSD, we exposed rats to different intensities of footshock stress to determine their effects on either auditory predator odor fear extinction or habituation of fear sensitization. In Experiment 1, rats were exposed to acute footshock stress (no shock control, 0.4 mA, or 0.8 mA) immediately prior to auditory fear conditioning training involving the pairing of auditory clicks with a cloth containing cat odor. When presented to the conditioned auditory clicks in the next 5 days of extinction testing conducted in a runway apparatus with a hide box, rats in the two shock groups engaged in higher levels of freezing and head out vigilance-like behavior from the hide box than the no shock control group. This increase in fear behavior during extinction testing was likely due to auditory activation of the conditioned fear state because Experiment 2 demonstrated that conditioned fear behavior was not broadly increased in the absence of the conditioned auditory stimulus. Experiment 3 was then conducted to determine whether acute exposure to stress induces a habituation resistant sensitized fear state. We found that rats exposed to 0.8 mA footshock stress and subsequently tested for 5 days in the runway hide box apparatus with presentations of nonassociative auditory clicks exhibited high initial levels of freezing, followed by head out behavior and culminating in the occurrence of locomotor hyperactivity. In addition, Experiment 4 indicated that without delivery of nonassociative auditory clicks, 0.8 mA footshock stressed rats did not exhibit robust increases in sensitized freezing and locomotor hyperactivity, albeit head out vigilance

  16. Methylphenidate Enhances Extinction of Contextual Fear

    Abraham, Antony D.; Cunningham, Christopher L.; Lattal, K. Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH, Ritalin) is a norepinephrine and dopamine transporter blocker that is widely used in humans for treatment of attention deficit disorder and narcolepsy. Although there is some evidence that targeted microinjections of MPH may enhance fear acquisition, little is known about the effect of MPH on fear extinction. Here, we show…

  17. The Old English Language of Fear

    Carlson, Erik A.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines the development of the Old English vocabulary for fear under the influence of the Latinate discourse of Christian doctrine. The first chapter arranges the Old English words for fear into etymologically organized families and describes their incidence and usage across attested corpus of Old English, using the Dictionary…

  18. Remembering the object you fear: brain potentials during recognition of spiders in spider-fearful individuals.

    Jaroslaw M Michalowski

    Full Text Available In the present study we investigated long-term memory for unpleasant, neutral and spider pictures in 15 spider-fearful and 15 non-fearful control individuals using behavioral and electrophysiological measures. During the initial (incidental encoding, pictures were passively viewed in three separate blocks and were subsequently rated for valence and arousal. A recognition memory task was performed one week later in which old and new unpleasant, neutral and spider pictures were presented. Replicating previous results, we found enhanced memory performance and higher confidence ratings for unpleasant when compared to neutral materials in both animal fearful individuals and controls. When compared to controls high animal fearful individuals also showed a tendency towards better memory accuracy and significantly higher confidence during recognition of spider pictures, suggesting that memory of objects prompting specific fear is also facilitated in fearful individuals. In line, spider-fearful but not control participants responded with larger ERP positivity for correctly recognized old when compared to correctly rejected new spider pictures, thus showing the same effects in the neural signature of emotional memory for feared objects that were already discovered for other emotional materials. The increased fear memory for phobic materials observed in the present study in spider-fearful individuals might result in an enhanced fear response and reinforce negative beliefs aggravating anxiety symptomatology and hindering recovery.

  19. Arousal and Associative Processes in Reinstatement of Fear

    Glenn, Daniel Erik

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation is a two-paper investigation of the basic associative and arousal-based processes involved in reinstatement of conditional fear. Clarifying the factors involved in reinstatement of fear--a behavioral phenomenon in which the experience of an aversive event following fear extinction produces a return of fear--provides a better understanding of the factors that contribute to the waxing and waning of untreated fear and the return of fear following exposure treatment. Shedding li...

  20. Representation of patients’ hand modulates fear reactions of patients with spider phobia in virtual reality

    Peperkorn, Henrik M.; Diemer, Julia E.; Alpers, Georg W; Mühlberger, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Embodiment (i.e., the involvement of a bodily representation) is thought to be relevant in emotional experiences. Virtual reality (VR) is a capable means of activating phobic fear in patients. The representation of the patient’s body (e.g., the right hand) in VR enhances immersion and increases presence, but its effect on phobic fear is still unknown. We analyzed the influence of the presentation of the participant’s hand in VR on presence and fear responses in 32 women with spider phobia and...

  1. European Union: fears and hopes

    Gilles ROUET

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This contribution analyses some data from Eurobarometer 83, spring 2015, especially to draw a map of Fears. The European Union is a divided space and one of the main consequences of the budget (financial crisis of Greece, followed by the crisis caused by the arrival of thousands of immigrants is an enhanced communication difficulty between the Western and Eastern parts of the EU But all citizens have some new rights with the European Citizenship, which are additional. One of the main issues for the future could be to change the fundamental basis of the Union, thus trying to organize a new articulation between local and supranational, with another role for States, for example to change the organisation of European elections, and to pursue the connection of public spaces with mobility.

  2. National Foster Care and Adoption Directory Search

    ... Abuse & Neglect Fatalities Preventing Child Abuse & Neglect National Child Abuse Prevention Month Overview Promoting Child & Family Well-Being Public ... Supervision Systemwide National Initiatives National Adoption ... Month National Foster Care Month Publications Publications Series ...

  3. Fostering perceptual skills in medical diagnosis

    Jarodzka, Halszka; Balslev, Thomas; Holmqvist, Kenneth; Nyström, Marcus; Scheiter, Katharina; Gerjets, Peter; Eika, Berit

    2011-01-01

    Jarodzka, H., Balslev, T., Holmqvist, K., Nyström, M., Scheiter, K., Gerjets, P., & Eika, B. (2011, April). Fostering perceptual skills in medical diagnosis. Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New Orleans, USA.

  4. Why Being Cold Might Foster a Cold

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159805.html Why Being Cold Might Foster a Cold Healthy body temperature boosts ability of immune system ... proving Mom right: Your odds of avoiding a cold get better if you bundle up and stay ...

  5. Norman Foster jako integrátor

    Švácha, Rostislav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 6 (2008), s. 62. ISSN 1210-9568 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80330511 Keywords : architecture * Norman Foster * 20th century Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  6. ANALYSIS OF UNCONSCIOUS BEHAVIOR PATTERNS OF FOSTER MOTHERS IN FOSTER FAMILIES

    Shcherbina S. M.

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with the unconscious patterns of an adoptive mother’s behavior in foster families. It considers unconscious purposes of a mother, causing certain coping strategies and leading defense mechanisms of adoptive mothers influencing the success of family socialization of foster children. It describes the conflict of the image I mother of the adopted child and the controversy caused by the incompatibility of the requirements of the society to foster mother to be an Ideal Mother, he...

  7. Underserved parents, underserved youth: Considering foster parent willingness to foster substance-using adolescents

    Meyers, Kathleen; Kaynak, Övgü; Clements, Irene; Bresani, Elena; White, Tammy

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents involved with foster care are five times more likely to receive a drug dependence diagnosis when compared to adolescents in the general population. Prior research has shown that substance use is often hidden from providers, negating any chance for treatment and almost guaranteeing poor post-foster care outcomes. There are virtually no studies that examine the willingness (and its determinants) to foster youth with substance abuse problems. The current study conducted a nationally-...

  8. Living with foster siblings: the adjustment of adolescent sons and daughters in families who foster.

    Richardson, J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims to review how fostering affects the adjustment of adolescent sons and daughters in families who foster. The research is presented within a developmental psychopathology framework, addressing individual, parent-child and sibling factors that affect adolescents' adjustment. These factors are initially discussed in the context of 'normative' families and stepfamilies, as a prelude for understanding the adjustment of adolescents in reconstituted foster families. Secondly, fifteen ...

  9. Effects of Dark Brooders on Behavior and Fearfulness in Layers

    Anja B. Riber; Guzman, Diego A.

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Chicks require heat to maintain body temperature during the first weeks after hatch. Heat is normally provided by use of heating lamps or whole-house heating, but an alternative is dark brooders, i.e. horizontal heating elements equipped with curtains. The effects of providing layer chicks with dark brooders during the brooding period on behavior and fearfulness were investigated. Brooders resulted in chicks showing less locomotive activity, feather pecking and fleeing. Also, a...

  10. Prefrontal inputs to the amygdala instruct fear extinction memory formation

    Bukalo, Olena; Pinard, Courtney R.; Silverstein, Shana; Brehm, Christina; Hartley, Nolan D.; Whittle, Nigel; Colacicco, Giovanni; Busch, Erica; Patel, Sachin; Singewald, Nicolas; Holmes, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Persistent anxiety after a psychological trauma is a hallmark of many anxiety disorders. However, the neural circuits mediating the extinction of traumatic fear memories remain incompletely understood. We show that selective, in vivo stimulation of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC)–amygdala pathway facilitated extinction memory formation, but not retrieval. Conversely, silencing the vmPFC-amygdala pathway impaired extinction formation and reduced extinction-induced amygdala activity....

  11. Fearfulness moderates the link between childhood social withdrawal and adolescent reward response.

    Morgan, Judith K; Shaw, Daniel S; Forbes, Erika E

    2015-06-01

    Withdrawal from peers during childhood may reflect disruptions in reward functioning that heighten vulnerability to affective disorders during adolescence. The association between socially withdrawn behavior and reward functioning may depend on traits that influence this withdrawal, such as fearfulness or unsociability. In a study of 129 boys, we evaluated how boys' fearfulness and sociability at age 5 and social withdrawal at school at ages 6 to 10 and during a summer camp at age 9/10 were associated with their neural response to reward at age 20. Greater social withdrawal during childhood was associated with heightened striatal and mPFC activation when anticipating rewards at age 20. Fearfulness moderated this effect to indicate that social withdrawal was associated with heightened reward-related response in the striatum for boys high on fearfulness. Altered striatal response associated with social withdrawal and fearfulness predicted greater likelihood to have a lifetime history of depression and social phobia at age 20. These findings add greater specificity to previous findings that children high in traits related to fear of novelty show altered reward responses, by identifying fearfulness (but not low levels of sociability) as a potential underlying mechanism that contributes to reward alterations in withdrawn children. PMID:25193948

  12. Fear-avoidance beliefs and pain avoidance in low back pain--translating research into clinical practice

    Rainville, James; Smeets, Rob J E M; Bendix, Tom; Tveito, Torill H; Poiraudeau, Serge; Indahl, Aage J

    2011-01-01

    For patients with low back pain, fear-avoidance beliefs (FABs) represent cognitions and emotions that underpin concerns and fears about the potential for physical activities to produce pain and further harm to the spine. Excessive FABs result in heightened disability and are an obstacle for...... recovery from acute, subacute, and chronic low back pain....

  13. Impact of psychological interventions on reducing anxiety, fear and the need for sedation in children undergoing magnetic resonance imaging

    Maria Pia Viggiano

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Children undergoing magnetic resonance imaging examination frequently experience anxiety and fear before and during the scanning. The aim of the present study was to assess: i whether and to what extent psychological interventions might reduce anxiety and fear levels; ii whether the intervention is related to a decrease in the need for sedation. The interventions consisted of three activities: a clown show, dog interaction and live music. The emotional status (anxiety and fear of the children was evaluated before and after the activities through a rating scale questionnaire. The results showed that the activities had high effectiveness in reducing the level of anxiety and fear and decreased the need for sedation in the experimental group compared to the control group. This approach proved to be a positive patient experience, helping to alleviate children’s anxiety and fear, decreasing the need for sedation, and was cost-effective.

  14. Fostering Indigenous Students’ Participation in Business Education

    Peter Vitartas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the Australian higher education context Indigenous students have consistently been under-represented in business education compared to other disciplines, such as education and arts, and compared to non-Indigenous students. According to Asmar, Page and Radloff (2011. “Compared with non-Indigenous students, Indigenous students… were more likely to be studying in the humanities; slightly more likely to be studying education, in a field of health, or in the creative arts; and less likely to be studying science, engineering or business” (p. 4. Progress on participation rates in business education has been slow as evidenced by Schwab making similar observations of the pattern of Indigenous participation in higher education in 1996 (Schwab 1996. The literature has revealed various attempts to increase overall Indigenous commencement and completion rates at universities (see e.g., Asmar et al., 2011; Barney, 2013; Behrendt et al., 2012; Raciti et al., 2014; Rahman, 2013. Nevertheless, little research has been undertaken on the topic of improving the uptake of higher education in business courses in particular (see Behrendt et al., 2012 and Rkein & Norris 2012 for exceptions. Among various measures, fostering Indigenous students’ participation in business education is ‘crucial for [indirectly] fostering [economic] independence’ (Foley, 2013, p. 25 and required if more Indigenous businesses are to be created. Against this backdrop, this paper contributes to our understanding of the complex issue of Indigenous students’ participation in business education. It begins by providing a brief review of the literature exploring enrolment and completion rates in business disciplines at the tertiary level. The paper then presents a case study of an innovative intervention developed by an Australian higher educational institution designed to inspire young Indigenous students to consider tertiary business studies as a viable option which would result

  15. Guess the Score, fostering collective intelligence in the class

    Josep M. Monguet

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the use of serious games as a tool to enhance collective intelligence of undergraduate and graduate students. The development of social skills of individuals in a group is related to the performance of the collective intelligence of the group manifested through the shared and collaborative development of intellectual tasks [1]. Guess the Score GS, is a serious game implemented by means of an online tool, created to foster the development, collaboration and engagement of students. It's has been designed with the intention of facilitating the development of individual’s social skills in a group in order to promote education of collective intelligence. This paper concludes that the design of learning activities using serious games as a support tool in education, generate awareness about of utilities of gaming in the collective learning environment and the fostering of collective intelligence education.

  16. The Power of Play: Fostering Creativity and Innovation in Libraries

    Ann Medaille

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Play is a powerful method of fostering creativity and innovation in organizations. As libraries confront a rapidly changing information landscape, the need for innovation in meeting user needs is paramount. Libraries can embrace organizational play as a means of stimulating employee creativity and developing innovative products and services. This article discusses the work-play dichotomy, the definition of play, and the Millennial generation’s attitude toward play. Several important characteristics of play are discussed, including time and space, transformation potential, safety, and intrinsic motivation. Various types of play activities are explored, and the psychological links that exist between play and creativity are examined. Several successful businesses have made bold moves to embrace organizational play. Examinations of Google, 37signals, IDEO, and Pixar Animation Studios provide lessons about the ways that play can be integrated into the library workplace. Finally, this article poses questions that should be answered by libraries wishing to foster a culture of innovation through play.

  17. Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis, Fear Generalization, and Stress.

    Besnard, Antoine; Sahay, Amar

    2016-01-01

    The generalization of fear is an adaptive, behavioral, and physiological response to the likelihood of threat in the environment. In contrast, the overgeneralization of fear, a cardinal feature of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), manifests as inappropriate, uncontrollable expression of fear in neutral and safe environments. Overgeneralization of fear stems from impaired discrimination of safe from aversive environments or discernment of unlikely threats from those that are highly probable. In addition, the time-dependent erosion of episodic details of traumatic memories might contribute to their generalization. Understanding the neural mechanisms underlying the overgeneralization of fear will guide development of novel therapeutic strategies to combat PTSD. Here, we conceptualize generalization of fear in terms of resolution of interference between similar memories. We propose a role for a fundamental encoding mechanism, pattern separation, in the dentate gyrus (DG)-CA3 circuit in resolving interference between ambiguous or uncertain threats and in preserving episodic content of remote aversive memories in hippocampal-cortical networks. We invoke cellular-, circuit-, and systems-based mechanisms by which adult-born dentate granule cells (DGCs) modulate pattern separation to influence resolution of interference and maintain precision of remote aversive memories. We discuss evidence for how these mechanisms are affected by stress, a risk factor for PTSD, to increase memory interference and decrease precision. Using this scaffold we ideate strategies to curb overgeneralization of fear in PTSD. PMID:26068726

  18. Risk perception, safety fears and health

    There is significant evidence from a range of studies that fears of nuclear exposure or radiological threat may become associated with health preoccupations and potentially psychiatric disorders. These include somatisation, anxiety and depressive syndromes. There are findings from our own and others research that knowledge may lessen fear. Nevertheless, concerns exist despite recognition that radiotherapy and other use of radiation technology for investigation have significant benefits for health. These background vulnerabilities in terms of health fears, especially concerning cancer and potential genetic impacts will be reviewed. In current studies we have examined fears related to radiation and nuclear issues and a range of health variables and social capital. This paper will examine health issues in these non-exposed populations, and whether fear levels correlate with mental health, or other health related variables. The degree to which such fears may have been exacerbated by the nuclear incident in Japan, or other adverse disaster circumstances will be reviewed. The influence of fear per se, without exposure, may indicate pre-existing vulnerabilities and the degree to which resilience indicators may be protective. Findings relevant to prevention and management will be reviewed.

  19. Gagging and Associations with Dental Care-Related Fear, Fear of Pain, and Beliefs about Treatment

    Randall, Cameron L.; Shulman, Grant P.; Crout, Richard J.; McNeil, Daniel W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Gagging is a behavioral response that interferes with oral health care and has been suggested to relate to dental care-related fear. Little is known, however, about the epidemiology of gagging during dental treatment. Methods To explore this phenomenon, 478 participants were recruited from the waiting area of an oral diagnosis clinic. Participants completed the Dental Fear Survey, the Short Form-Fear of Pain Questionnaire, Dental Beliefs Scale, and a demographics questionnaire that included items about problems with gagging. Results Over half of the participants reported gagging on at least one occasion during dental visits, with 7.5% almost always, or always gagging. With higher frequency of problems with gagging, patients were more likely to have greater levels of dental care-related fear, fear of pain, and more negative beliefs of dental professionals and dental treatment. Further, participants who gagged more readily had greater dental care-related fear than other gaggers. Conclusion Gagging in the dental clinic is a prevalent problem, and dental care-related fear and fear of pain are associated with more frequent gagging. Clinical Implications Given the prevalence of patients reporting problem gagging, it may be helpful for providers to assess for this barrier to treatment. By targeting dental care-related fear, fear of pain, and negative beliefs about dental care in patients who often gag in the clinic, gagging may be reduced in frequency or intensity, potentially making treatment more comfortable for patients and easier for dental care providers. PMID:24789238

  20. Strengthening Foster Parent-Adolescent Relationships through Filial Therapy

    Capps, Jennifer E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore the application of filial therapy as a means of strengthening relationships between foster parents and adolescent foster children. Adolescents in foster care experience a number of placement disruptions and while a number of therapeutic interventions are implemented to assist adolescents in foster care,…

  1. 76 FR 25519 - National Foster Care Month, 2011

    2011-05-05

    ...#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8661 of April 29, 2011 National Foster Care Month, 2011 By the President of the... children. For nearly half a million youth in foster care across our country, the best path to success we... National Foster Care Month, we renew our commitment to ensuring a brighter future for foster youth, and...

  2. 75 FR 23557 - National Foster Care Month, 2010

    2010-05-04

    ...;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8505 of April 28, 2010 National Foster Care... children and youth are in foster care in America, all entering the system through no fault of their own. During National Foster Care Month, we recognize the promise of children and youth in foster care, as...

  3. Identifying Divergent Foster Care Careers for Danish Children

    Fallesen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Foster care children who experience placement disruption and foster care instability are at elevated risk for a host of poor outcomes, yet little work considers what these unstable foster care careers look like or what causes them. In this article, I start by using previous studies on foster care...

  4. TO FEAR OR NOT TO FEAR ON CYBERCRIME

    Igor Bernik

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available To understand cybercrime and its various forms, one must be familiar with criminality in general. How individuals perceive crime, and how much they fear it is further influenced by news media (Crawford, 2007. Van Duyne (2009, who monitored criminality, wrote about changes which started to be noticed twenty years ago and have shaped a new Europe, a territory without inner borders, and so with more mobility and opportunities for the Europeans. But these novelties and changes in the way we work have also caused certain new problems. It can be said that perpetrators of crimes, who are no longer hindered by state borders, now know no geographical limitations. Vander Baken and Van Daele (2009, for example, have researched mobility in connection to transnational criminality. Von Lampe (2007 has established that perpetrators no longer act individually, but frequently work in cooperation with one another. Crime and mobility are being “greased” by money, and have become a part of everyday life (Van Duyne, 2009. An individual’s perception and understanding of criminality is also biased on certain cultural myths in regard to crime (Meško and Eman, 2009.

  5. Fear extinction and BDNF: Translating animal models of PTSD to the clinic

    Andero, Raül; Ressler, Kerry J.

    2012-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is the most studied neurotrophin involved in synaptic plasticity processes that are required for long-term learning and memory. Specifically, BDNF gene expression and activation of its high-affinity TrkB receptor are necessary in the amygdala, hippocampus and prefrontal cortex for the formation of emotional memories, including fear memories. Among the psychiatric disorders with altered fear processing there is Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) whic...

  6. Early Preferential Responses to Fear Stimuli in Human Right Dorsal Visual Stream - A Meg Study

    Meeren, Hanneke K. M.; Hadjikhani, Nouchine; Ahlfors, Seppo P.; Hamalainen, Matti S.; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2015-01-01

    Emotional expressions of others are salient biological stimuli that automatically capture attention and prepare us for action. We investigated the early cortical dynamics of automatic visual discrimination of fearful body expressions by monitoring cortical activity using magnetoencephalography. We show that right parietal cortex distinguishes between fearful and neutral bodies as early as 80-ms after stimulus onset, providing the first evidence for a fast emotion-attention-action link through...

  7. The polo-like kinase Cdc5 interacts with FEAR network components and Cdc14

    Rahal, Rami; Amon, Angelika

    2008-01-01

    Exit from mitosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is triggered by activation of the phosphatase Cdc14. Throughout interphase and early mitosis, Cdc14 is sequestered in the nucleolus by its inhibitor Cfi1/Net1. In anaphase, the Cdc Fourteen Early Anaphase Release (FEAR) network and the Mitotic Exit Network (MEN) coordinately trigger the release of Cdc14 from the nucleolus. Here we show that the FEAR network component Cdc5 physically associates with two other members of the pathway, the Separase Es...

  8. Fear of crime in urban parks

    Maruthaveeran, Sreetheran; Konijnendijk, Cecil Cornelis

    2015-01-01

    -structured in-depth interviews. The interview consists of respondents from various age, gender and race. The results revealed universal similarities to other cultures on fear of crime in urban green spaces. This study has highlighted eight themes on the attributes which evoke fear among the residents of Kuala...... behaviour towards crime in urban parks but this was only observed among the women. This paper has also highlighted the implications on park planning and management from the comments given by the respondents. Though the aspect of fear towards crime in urban green spaces is not a major focus in Malaysia, this...

  9. Fear expression and return of fear following threat instruction with or without direct contingency experience.

    Mertens, Gaëtan; Kuhn, Manuel; Raes, An K; Kalisch, Raffael; De Houwer, Jan; Lonsdorf, Tina B

    2016-08-01

    Prior research showed that mere instructions about the contingency between a conditioned stimulus (CS) and an unconditioned stimulus (US) can generate fear reactions to the CS. Little is known, however, about the extent to which actual CS-US contingency experience adds anything beyond the effect of contingency instructions. Our results extend previous studies on this topic in that it included fear potentiated startle as an additional dependent variable and examined return of fear (ROF) following reinstatement. We observed that CS-US pairings can enhance fear reactions beyond the effect of contingency instructions. Moreover, for all measures of fear, instructions elicited immediate fear reactions that could not be completely overridden by subsequent situational safety information. Finally, ROF following reinstatement for instructed CS+s was unaffected by actual experience. In summary, our results demonstrate the power of contingency instructions and reveal the additional impact of actual experience of CS-US pairings. PMID:25966279

  10. Blinded by fear? Prior exposure to fearful faces enhances attentional processing of task-irrelevant stimuli.

    Berggren, Nick; Derakshan, Nazanin

    2013-01-01

    Threatening information has been shown to both capture attention and enhance sensory processing. Recent evidence has also suggested that exposure to fearful stimuli may enhance perceptual processing of subsequently presented information, as well as increase attentional capacity. However, these results are inconsistent with other findings that fearful stimuli reduce task-irrelevant distraction and improve selective attention. Here, we investigated the effect of prior exposure to fearful faces on performance in the Eriksen flanker task. Across experiments, fearful cues led to increased task-irrelevant distraction for items positioned across visual space, in contrast to other emotional expressions and inverted face items, and under conditions of attentional load. Findings support the view that fearful images enhance attentional capacity, allowing one to attend to as much visual information as possible when danger is implied. Conflicting findings on the effect of fear and selective attention are discussed. PMID:23510073

  11. Development of an Intervention for Foster Parents of Young Foster Children with Externalizing Behavior: Theoretical Basis and Program Description

    Vanschoonlandt, Femke; Vanderfaeillie, Johan; Van Holen, Frank; De Maeyer, Skrallan

    2012-01-01

    Foster parents are often faced with serious externalizing behaviors of their foster child. These behavioral problems may induce family stress and are related to less effective parenting and often increase. Foster children with behavioral problems are also more at risk of placement breakdown. An intervention to support foster parents of young…

  12. Welfare and labour-force participation of kinship foster mothers

    Holtan, Amy; Thørnblad, Renee

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Kinship foster care has become the placement of choice in the Western world. This article explores the welfare, labour-force participation, and caregiving role of kinship foster mothers in Norway. Method: The study supplements a quantitative study of Norwegian long-term kinship and nonkinship foster care with a qualitative study of parenting in formal kinship foster care. A total of 123 kinship and 88 nonkinship foster mothers participated in the quantitative study. The qualitat...

  13. Fear extinction and BDNF: translating animal models of PTSD to the clinic.

    Andero, R; Ressler, K J

    2012-07-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is the most studied neurotrophin involved in synaptic plasticity processes that are required for long-term learning and memory. Specifically, BDNF gene expression and activation of its high-affinity tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) receptor are necessary in the amygdala, hippocampus and prefrontal cortex for the formation of emotional memories, including fear memories. Among the psychiatric disorders with altered fear processing, there is post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) which is characterized by an inability to extinguish fear memories. Since BDNF appears to enhance extinction of fear, targeting impaired extinction in anxiety disorders such as PTSD via BDNF signalling may be an important and novel way to enhance treatment efficacy. The aim of this review is to provide a translational point of view that stems from findings in the BDNF regulation of synaptic plasticity and fear extinction. In addition, there are different systems that seem to alter fear extinction through BDNF modulation like the endocannabinoid system and the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis. Recent work also finds that the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide and PAC1 receptor, which are upstream of BDNF activation, may be implicated in PTSD. Especially interesting are data that exogenous fear extinction enhancers such as antidepressants, histone deacetylases inhibitors and D-cycloserine, a partial N-methyl d-aspartate agonist, may act through or in concert with the BDNF-TrkB system. Finally, we review studies where recombinant BDNF and a putative TrkB agonist, 7,8-dihydroxyflavone, may enhance extinction of fear. These approaches may lead to novel agents that improve extinction in animal models and eventually humans. PMID:22530815

  14. Perspectives of Foster Parents and Social Workers on Foster Placement Disruption

    Taylor, Brian J.; McQuillan, Karen

    2014-01-01

    The potential human and financial costs of foster placement disruption for the children, families, professionals and agencies involved are widely accepted. This service evaluation identified and described perspectives of foster parents and social workers regarding placement disruptions in order to identify the main issues of concern and to derive…

  15. An Exploration of How Foster Parents Educationally Assist Foster Children: A Qualitative Phenomenological Study

    Zarate, Grace

    2013-01-01

    Foster children are academically at risk as a result of abuse, neglect and family disruptions. Findings from previous studies have underscored the critical role played by foster parents in monitoring the academic progress of the children placed in the home. The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological research study was to identify the skill…

  16. Health and Mental Health Services for Children in Foster Care: The Central Role of Foster Parents

    Pasztor, Eileen Mayers; Hollinger, David Swanson; Inkelas, Moira; Halfon, Neal

    2006-01-01

    It is well documented that children enter foster care with special health and mental health needs and, while in care, those conditions are often exacerbated. However, less attention has been given to foster parents who have the most contact with these children. Results are presented from a national study on the developmental, health and mental…

  17. Foster Care and College: The Educational Aspirations and Expectations of Youth in the Foster Care System

    Kirk, Chris M.; Lewis, Rhonda K.; Nilsen, Corinne; Colvin, Deltha Q.

    2013-01-01

    Despite an overall increase in college attendance, low-income youth and particularly those in the foster care system are less likely to attend college (Wolanin, 2005). Although youth in foster care report high educational aspirations, as little as 4% obtain a 4-year college degree (Nixon & Jones, 2007). The purpose of this study is to explore…

  18. Foster Care Experiences and Educational Outcomes of Young Adults Formerly Placed in Foster Care

    Havalchak, Anne; White, Catherine Roller; O'Brien, Kirk; Pecora, Peter J.; Sepulveda, Martin

    2009-01-01

    This study contributes to the body of research on the educational outcomes of young adults who were formerly placed in foster care. Telephone interviews were conducted with 359 young adults (a 54.6% response rate). Participants must have been served for at least one year by one private foster care agency in one of its twenty-two offices. Results…

  19. Exiting Foster Care: A Case Study of Former Foster Children Enrolled in Higher Education in Kansas

    Schwandt, Jamie R.

    2013-01-01

    In the United States, foster care is provided to children to avert maltreatment and abuse of children in distressed families by providing a temporary home or a foster home. Courts with jurisdiction over families have been charged by Congress to find appropriate homes when necessary circumstances occur. In fiscal year 2009, there were 423,773…

  20. Effects of sleep on memory for conditioned fear and fear extinction

    Pace-Schott, Edward F.; Germain, Anne; Milad, Mohammed R

    2015-01-01

    Learning and memory for extinction of conditioned fear is a basic mammalian mechanism for regulating negative emotion. Sleep promotes both the consolidation of memory and the regulation of emotion. Sleep can influence consolidation and modification of memories associated with both fear and its extinction. After brief overviews of the behavior and neural circuitry associated with fear conditioning, extinction learning and extinction memory in the rodent and human, interactions of sleep with th...

  1. Fear Assessment: Cost-Benefit Analysis and the Pricing of Fear and Anxiety

    Adler, Matthew D.

    2003-01-01

    "Risk assessment" is now a common feature of regulatory practice, but "fear assessment" is not.In particular, environmental, health and safety agencies such as EPA, FDA, OSHA, NHTSA, and CPSC, commonly count death, illness and injury as "costs" for purposes of cost-benefit analysis, but almost never incorporate fear, anxiety or other welfare-reducing mental states into the analysis.This is puzzling, since fear and anxiety are welfare setbacks, and since the very hazards regulated by these age...

  2. The history of nuclear fear

    The history of military and civilian nuclear energy is not only a matter of hard technology, politics, and economics. Our thinking about bombs and reactors is also affected by images with a curious and sometimes overwhelming power. Weird rays that can transform flesh or create monsters, the atom-powered marvels of a future uptopia, the mad scientist who plots to destroy the world: all have an influence on the way people think. Already decades before scientists had discovered how to exploit nuclear energy, a web of interconnected symbols was fully formed in the public mind. These images can be traced back to primitive imagery and, still deeper, into common human experiences, but they were often connected specifically to nuclear energy by nuclear scientists themselves. After the actual development of nuclear technology, a variety of groups used the old symbolism for their propaganda. Since nuclear energy was the most impressive case of the application of the arcane mysteries of science by modern technological authorities, it came to stand for all that people hoped, and still more what they feared, from such authorities

  3. Psychology: Fear and hope in climate messages

    Stern, Paul C.

    2012-08-01

    Scientists often expect fear of climate change and its impacts to motivate public support of climate policies. A study suggests that climate change deniers don't respond to this, but that positive appeals can change their views.

  4. Part 2: Fear of contagion, fear of intimacy.

    Botnick, M R

    2000-01-01

    In this second part of the trilogy, I review the concepts of panic, the Theory of Cognitive Dissonance, and how internally inconsistent opinions and attitudes can be made consistent (or consonant). The theory explains, in some measure, how AIDS has been socialized into our thinking about identity, and goes beyond a medical condition. The pervasive identification of gay men with HIV and AIDS has resulted for many in an over-identification with fears of contagion and on a societal level in a fear of all gays as pools of contagion. The conversion of dissonance to consonance has taken many forms; within the gay community it has resulted in the rejection of the "100% safe-100% of the time" safe-sex message, and the adoption (for many) of a new form of deviant label-someone who is not in conformity with the social norm of gay community sexual behavior. However, we shall see that this so-called norm is a sham-that many gay men do not, as a rule, practice safe(r) sex on a consistent basis. This information indicates that the educational efforts of the last decade have at best lost their potency, and at worst were less than efficacious to begin with. The dissonant messages have also informed both the construction of the gay community and its interpretation of what it means to be gay. The result has been a tri-lateral perception of HIV and AIDS as either a medical, political or a social phenomenon. This fragmented understanding has exacerbated the already polarized ASOs and GSOs in that each has determined its ideology based on a particular interpretation of HIV and AIDS. This polarization has been operationalized by the GSOs and ASOs primarily in the manner by which they define their target markets, and more importantly, in the manner by which they exclude certain gays from participation. At the extreme, some gay men feel entirely left out of the community, and are consequently unable to convert their dissonance regarding being gay into consonance, if only by developing

  5. Social Factors That Predict Fear of Academic Success

    Gore, Jonathan S.; Thomas, Jessica; Jones, Stevy; Mahoney, Lauren; Dukes, Kristina; Treadway, Jodi

    2016-01-01

    Fear of academic success is ultimately a fear of social exclusion. Therefore, various forms of social inclusion may alleviate this fear. Three studies tested the hypothesis that social inclusion variables negatively predict fear of success. In Study 1, middle and high school students (n = 129) completed surveys of parental involvement, parental…

  6. Fear conditioning by proxy: social transmission of fear during memory retrieval

    Bruchey, Aleksandra K.; Jones, Carolyn E.; Monfils, Marie-H.

    2010-01-01

    After fear conditioning (e.g., by pairing a tone to a shock), memory retrieval typically leads to fear expression (e.g., freezing to the tone). Here, we examined the effect of a conditioned rat's fear memory retrieval on a naïve cage-mate's behavior to the conditioned stimulus. We show that rats exposed to a novel tone in the presence of a cage-mate previously conditioned to that same tone selectively showed increased freezing to the stimulus the next day (fear conditioning by-proxy). In addi...

  7. Recent fear is resistant to extinction

    Maren, Stephen; Chang, Chun-hui

    2006-01-01

    In some individuals, fearful experiences (e.g., combat) yield persistent and debilitating psychological disturbances, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Early intervention (e.g., debriefing) after psychological trauma is widely practiced and argued to be an effective strategy for limiting subsequent psychopathology, although there has been considerable debate on this point. Here we show in an animal model of traumatic fear that early intervention shortly after an aversive experie...

  8. Stressor controllability modulates fear extinction in humans

    Hartley, Catherine A.; Gorun, Alyson; Reddan, Marianne C.; Ramirez, Franchesca; Phelps, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic events are proposed to play a role in the development of anxiety disorders, however not all individuals exposed to extreme stress experience a pathological increase in fear. Recent studies in animal models suggest that the degree to which one is able to control an aversive experience is a critical factor determining its behavioral consequences. In this study, we examined whether stressor controllability modulates subsequent conditioned fear expression in humans. Participants were ra...

  9. Fear of pain potentiates nocebo hyperalgesia

    Aslaksen PM

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Per M Aslaksen,1 Peter S Lyby2 1Department of Psychology, Research Group for Cognitive Neuroscience, The Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Tromsø, The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway; 2Catosenteret Rehabilitation Center, Son, Norway Abstract: Nocebo hyperalgesia has received sparse experimental attention compared to placebo analgesia. The aim of the present study was to investigate if personality traits and fear of pain could predict experimental nocebo hyperalgesia. One hundred and eleven healthy volunteers (76 females participated in an experimental study in which personality traits and fear of pain were measured prior to induction of thermal heat pain. Personality traits were measured by the Big-Five Inventory-10. Fear of pain was measured by the Fear of Pain Questionnaire III. Heat pain was induced by a PC-controlled thermode. Pain was measured by a computerized visual analog scale. Stress levels during the experiment were measured by numerical rating scales. The participants were randomized to a Nocebo group or to a no-treatment Natural History group. The results revealed that pain and stress levels were significantly higher in the Nocebo group after nocebo treatment. Mediation analysis showed that higher levels of the Fear of Pain Questionnaire III factor "fear of medical pain" significantly increased stress levels after nocebo treatment and that higher stress levels were associated with increased nocebo hyperalgesic responses. There were no significant associations between any of the personality factors and the nocebo hyperalgesic effect. The results from the present study suggest that dispositional fear of pain might be a useful predictor for nocebo hyperalgesia and emotional states concomitant with expectations of increased pain. Furthermore, measurement of traits that are specific to pain experience is probably better suited for prediction of nocebo hyperalgesic responses compared to broad measures of personality

  10. Fear of Floating and Social Welfare

    Demosthenes N. Tambakis

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies the welfare implications of financial stability and inflation stabilization as distinct monetary policy objectives. Introducing asymmetric aversion to exchange rate depreciation in the Barro-Gordon model mitigates inflation bias due to credibility problems. The net welfare impact of fear of floating depends on the economy's recent track record, the credibility of monetary policy, and the central bank's discount factor. It is shown that fear of floating is more appropriate f...

  11. Visually depicting cancer fears: Beyond biomedical concerns

    Carolyn Brooks; Jennifer Poudrier; Roanne Thomas

    2014-01-01

    This manuscript is a reaction to the high prevalence of breast cancer amongst Aboriginal women. Our work calls for more attention to the effects of race, gender, and class on cancer fears and related experiences. The shock of a cancer diagnosis and fears of recurrence can leave patients feeling that their lives are out of control. Combining the visual method of photovoice with focus groups and in-depth interviews, we develop an understanding of cancer experiences that includes fea...

  12. Individual differences in recovery from traumatic fear

    Holmes, Andrew; Singewald, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Although exposure to major psychological trauma is unfortunately common, risk for related neuropsychiatric conditions, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), varies greatly among individuals. Fear extinction offers a tractable and translatable behavioral readout of individual differences in learned recovery from trauma. Studies in rodent substrains and subpopulations are providing new insights into neural system dysfunctions associated with impaired fear extinction. Rapid progress is ...

  13. Prevalence and correlates of childhood fears in Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates.

    Mohammed, N A; Eapen, V; Bener, A

    2001-05-01

    The prevalence of fear was explored in 340 adolescents in Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates. More than 50% reported feeling extremely frightened of 6 out of 60 fear items surveyed. These items were: someone dying in the family (66.5%), parents getting divorced (65.3%), the devil (63.8%), breaking a religious law (61.5%), being kidnapped (53.2%) and being adopted (49.9%). The level of fear showed a significant positive correlation with female gender, parental death/divorce, living with a single parent/relatives, living in low income families and an adverse home environment. Nearly half of the children reported that the fear caused considerable distress and interfered with daily activities. PMID:12690762

  14. Conceptualizing the Step-Down for Foster Youth Approaching Adulthood: Perceptions of Service Providers, Caseworkers, and Foster Parents

    Havlicek, Judy; McMillen, J. Curtis; Fedoravicius, Nicole; McNelly, David; Robinson, Debra

    2012-01-01

    Studies find considerable movement between residential treatment and less restrictive foster home settings, with approximately half of foster youth who are stepped down eventually returning to a higher level of care. Very little is known about the step down for foster youth who are approaching adulthood in locked residential facilities. A qualitative study of stepping down a small sample of foster youth, as perceived by team members delivering a model of treatment foster care, is presented. T...

  15. Olfactory instruction for fear: neural system analysis.

    Newton Sabino Canteras

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Studies using cat odor have led to detailed mapping of neural sites engaged in innate and contextual fear responses. Here, we reviewed three lines of work examining the dynamics of the neural systems that organize innate and learned fear responses to cat odor. In the first, we explored the neural systems involved in innate fear responses and in the different stages of fear conditioning to cat odor (i.e., acquisition and expression, with a particular emphasis on the role of the dorsal premammillary nucleus (PMd and the dorsolateral periaqueductal gray (PAGdl as key sites that influence innate and contextual conditioning. In the second line of studies, we reviewed how chemical stimulation of these sites (i.e., the PMd and PAGdl may serve as a useful unconditioned stimulus in an olfactory fear conditioning paradigm; these experiments provide an interesting perspective for the understanding of learned fear to predator odor. Finally, in the third line of studies, we explored the fact that neutral odors that acquire an aversive valence in a shock-paired conditioning paradigm may mimic predator odor and mobilize elements of the hypothalamic predator-responsive circuit.

  16. Energy, Ecology and Psychology of Fear

    The fear of highly industrialized societies from industrial and technological systems, from power plants is partially founded on rational reasons and partially on irrational which can be characterized as antitechnological and antiindustrial paranoia. The fear from nuclear accidents, disease and death, which are impossible to run away from, could be characterised as a fear and stress of living and working in complex and highly technological system the man is alienated from. The fear from air pollution and intoxicated environment, nuclear power plants, coal, that can cause biological dying and extinction must and can become subject of rational and objective analysis. The prediction of the near future climate and anxiety about our planet in the near future have to be separated from predicting the far future climate. The human technique and the anthropogenic sources are major factors of the near future climate (next few hundred years), but the far future climate (0000 years) of our planet is determined by long-term variations in the earth's orbital parameters; eccentricity of ellipse, precession and tilt, and the long term process on the Sun. The irrational fear from power plants and industry beside the rational and logical fear could be sublimated and directed toward the full control of technique dealing with the nature and environment, creating acceptable international laws for sustainable development. (author)

  17. Incidental fear cues increase monetary loss aversion.

    Schulreich, Stefan; Gerhardt, Holger; Heekeren, Hauke R

    2016-04-01

    In many everyday decisions, people exhibit loss aversion-a greater sensitivity to losses relative to gains of equal size. Loss aversion is thought to be (at least partly) mediated by emotional-in particular, fear-related-processes. Decision research has shown that even incidental emotions, which are unrelated to the decision at hand, can influence decision making. The effect of incidental fear on loss aversion, however, is thus far unclear. In two studies, we experimentally investigated how incidental fear cues, presented during (Study 1) or before (Study 2) choices to accept or reject mixed gambles over real monetary stakes, influence monetary loss aversion. We find that the presentation of fearful faces, relative to the presentation of neutral faces, increased risk aversion-an effect that could be attributed to increased loss aversion. The size of this effect was moderated by psychopathic personality: Fearless dominance, in particular its interpersonal facet, but not self-centered impulsivity, attenuated the effect of incidental fear cues on loss aversion, consistent with reduced fear reactivity. Together, these results highlight the sensitivity of loss aversion to the affective context. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26595436

  18. Rapid stress system drives chemical transfer of fear from sender to receiver.

    Jasper H B de Groot

    Full Text Available Humans can register another person's fear not only with their eyes and ears, but also with their nose. Previous research has demonstrated that exposure to body odors from fearful individuals elicited implicit fear in others. The odor of fearful individuals appears to have a distinctive signature that can be produced relatively rapidly, driven by a physiological mechanism that has remained unexplored in earlier research. The apocrine sweat glands in the armpit that are responsible for chemosignal production contain receptors for adrenalin. We therefore expected that the release of adrenalin through activation of the rapid stress response system (i.e., the sympathetic-adrenal medullary system is what drives the release of fear sweat, as opposed to activation of the slower stress response system (i.e., hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. To test this assumption, sweat was sampled while eight participants prepared for a speech. Participants had higher heart rates and produced more armpit sweat in the fast stress condition, compared to baseline and the slow stress condition. Importantly, exposure to sweat from participants in the fast stress condition induced in receivers (N = 31 a simulacrum of the state of the sender, evidenced by the emergence of a fearful facial expression (facial electromyography and vigilant behavior (i.e., faster classification of emotional facial expressions.

  19. The roots of physics students' motivations: Fear and integrity

    Van Dusen, Ben

    Too often, physics students are beset by feelings of failure and isolation rather than experiencing the creative joys of discovery that physics has to offer. This dissertation research was founded on the desire of a teacher to make physics class exciting and motivating to his students. This work explores how various aspects of learning environments interact with student motivation. This work uses qualitative and quantitative methods to explore how students are motivated to engage in physics and how they feel about themselves while engaging in physics. The collection of four studies in this dissertation culminates in a sociocultural perspective on motivation and identity. This perspective uses two extremes of how students experience physics as a lens for understanding motivation: fear and self-preservation versus integrity and self-expression. Rather than viewing motivation as a property of the student, or viewing students as inherently interested or disinterested in physics, the theoretical perspective on motivation and identity helps examine features of the learning environments that determine how students' experience themselves through physics class. This perspective highlights the importance of feeling a sense of belonging in the context of physics and the power that teachers have in shaping students' motivation through the construction of their classroom learning environments. Findings demonstrate how different ways that students experience themselves in physics class impact their performance and interest in physics. This dissertation concludes with a set of design principles that can foster integration and integrity among students in physics learning environments.

  20. Fear and panic in humans with bilateral amygdala damage

    Feinstein, Justin S.; Buzza, Colin; Hurlemann, Rene; Follmer, Robin L.; Dahdaleh, Nader S.; Coryell, William H.; Welsh, Michael J.; Tranel, Daniel; Wemmie, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Decades of research have highlighted the amygdala’s influential role in fear. Surprisingly, we found that inhalation of 35% CO2 evoked not only fear, but also panic attacks, in three rare patients with bilateral amygdala damage. These results indicate that the amygdala is not required for fear and panic, and make an important distinction between fear triggered by external threats from the environment versus fear triggered internally by CO2.

  1. Molecular Specificity of Multiple Hippocampal Processes Governing Fear Extinction

    Radulovic, Jelena; Tronson, Natalie C

    2010-01-01

    Over many years, fear extinction has been conceptualized as one dominant process, new inhibitory learning, which serves to dampen previously acquired fear. Here we present an alternative view, that brain region-specific processing of representations, expectations and emotional attributes of the fear-provoking event, recruits unique mechanisms that interdependently contribute to the conditioning and extinction of fear. The co-occurrence of these mechanisms within the fear circuit can thus be t...

  2. Fear of pain potentiates nocebo hyperalgesia.

    Aslaksen, Per M; Lyby, Peter S

    2015-01-01

    Nocebo hyperalgesia has received sparse experimental attention compared to placebo analgesia. The aim of the present study was to investigate if personality traits and fear of pain could predict experimental nocebo hyperalgesia. One hundred and eleven healthy volunteers (76 females) participated in an experimental study in which personality traits and fear of pain were measured prior to induction of thermal heat pain. Personality traits were measured by the Big-Five Inventory-10. Fear of pain was measured by the Fear of Pain Questionnaire III. Heat pain was induced by a PC-controlled thermode. Pain was measured by a computerized visual analog scale. Stress levels during the experiment were measured by numerical rating scales. The participants were randomized to a Nocebo group or to a no-treatment Natural History group. The results revealed that pain and stress levels were significantly higher in the Nocebo group after nocebo treatment. Mediation analysis showed that higher levels of the Fear of Pain Questionnaire III factor "fear of medical pain" significantly increased stress levels after nocebo treatment and that higher stress levels were associated with increased nocebo hyperalgesic responses. There were no significant associations between any of the personality factors and the nocebo hyperalgesic effect. The results from the present study suggest that dispositional fear of pain might be a useful predictor for nocebo hyperalgesia and emotional states concomitant with expectations of increased pain. Furthermore, measurement of traits that are specific to pain experience is probably better suited for prediction of nocebo hyperalgesic responses compared to broad measures of personality. PMID:26491370

  3. Does Watching the News Affect Fear of Terrorism? The Importance of Media Exposure on Terrorism Fear

    Nellis, Ashley Marie; Savage, Joanne

    2012-01-01

    Several authors have proposed that media hype elevates perceptions of risk and fear of crime. Research suggests that fear of crime is related to the overall amount of media consumption, resonance of news reports, how much attention the individual pays to the news, and how credible he or she believes it to be. The present study examines whether the…

  4. Zinc Transporter 3 Is Involved in Learned Fear and Extinction, but Not in Innate Fear

    Martel, Guillaume; Hevi, Charles; Friebely, Olivia; Baybutt, Trevor; Shumyatsky, Gleb P.

    2010-01-01

    Synaptically released Zn[superscript 2+] is a potential modulator of neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity in fear-conditioning pathways. Zinc transporter 3 (ZnT3) knock-out (KO) mice are well suited to test the role of zinc in learned fear, because ZnT3 is colocalized with synaptic zinc, responsible for its transport to synaptic vesicles,…

  5. An experimental demonstration that fear, but not disgust, is associated with return of fear in phobias.

    Edwards, Sarah; Salkovskis, Paul M

    2006-01-01

    It has been suggested that disgust, rather than anxiety, may be important in some phobias. Correlational studies have been ambiguous, indicating either that disgust increases phobic anxiety or that phobic anxiety potentiates disgust. In the experimental study reported here, disgust and phobic anxiety were manipulated in the context of habituation to phobic stimuli. Spider fearful participants were randomly allocated to conditions in which neutral, disgusting, and phobic anxiety provoking stimuli were introduced into a video-based spider phobic habituation sequence. Exposure to the phobic stimulus resulted in a return of self-reported fear and disgust levels. However, exposure to disgusting stimulus increased disgust levels, but not anxiety levels. Results are most consistent with the hypothesis that fear enhances the disgust response in phobias, but that disgust alone does not enhance the fear response. Previously observed links between disgust and spider phobia may be a consequence of fear enhancing disgust. PMID:16325114

  6. Could stress contribute to pain-related fear in chronic pain?

    Sigrid Elsenbruch

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Learning to predict pain based on internal or external cues constitutes a fundamental and highly adaptive process aimed at self-protection. Pain-related fear is an essential component of this response, which is formed by associative and instrumental learning processes. In chronic pain, pain-related fear may become maladaptive, drive avoidance behaviors and contribute to symptom chronicity. Pavlovian fear conditioning has proven fruitful to elucidate associative learning and extinction involving aversive stimuli, including pain, but studies in chronic pain remain scarce. Stress demonstrably exerts differential effects on emotional learning and memory processes, but this has not been transferred to pain-related fear. Within this perspective, we propose that stress could contribute to impaired pain-related associative learning and extinction processes and call for interdisciplinary research. Specifically, we suggest to test the hypotheses that (1 extinction-related phenomena inducing a re-activation of maladaptive pain-related fear (e.g., reinstatement, renewal likely occur in everyday life of chronic pain patients and may alter pain processing, impair perceptual discrimination and favour overgeneralization; (2 acute stress prior to or during acquisition of pain-related fear may facilitate the formation and/or consolidation of pain-related fear memories, (3 stress during or after extinction may impair extinction efficacy resulting in greater reinstatement or context-dependent renewal of pain-related fear; and (4 these effects could be amplified by chronic stress due to early adversity and/or psychiatric comorbidity such as depression or anxiety in patients with chronic pain.

  7. Device-based brain stimulation to augment fear extinction: implications for PTSD treatment and beyond.

    Marin, Marie-France; Camprodon, Joan A; Dougherty, Darin D; Milad, Mohammed R

    2014-04-01

    Conditioned fear acquisition and extinction paradigms have been widely used both in animals and humans to examine the neurobiology of emotional memory. Studies have also shown that patients suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) exhibit deficient extinction recall along with dysfunctional activation of the fear extinction network, including the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and hippocampus. A great deal of overlap exists between this fear extinction network and brain regions associated with symptom severity in PTSD. This suggests that the neural nodes of fear extinction could be targeted to reduce behavioral deficits that may subsequently translate into symptom improvement. In this article, we discuss potential applications of brain stimulation and neuromodulation methods, which, combined with a mechanistic understanding of the neurobiology of fear extinction, could be used to further our understanding of the pathophysiology of anxiety disorders and develop novel therapeutic tools. To this end, we discuss the following stimulation approaches: deep-brain stimulation, vagus nerve stimulation, transcranial direct current stimulation, and transcranial magnetic stimulation. We propose new translational research avenues that, from a systems neuroscience perspective, aim to expand our understanding of circuit dynamics and fear processing toward the practical development of clinical tools, to be used alone or in combination with behavioral therapies. PMID:24634247

  8. Does internationalization foster firm performance?

    van den Berg, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    The research in this dissertation concerns the impact of internationalization of business activities on several dimensions of firm performance. We show that the productivity ranking by trade status of Dutch manufacturing firms in increasing order of productivity is: non-traders, importers, exporters

  9. Fears of Children in the United States: An Examination of the American Fear Survey Schedule with 20 New Contemporary Fear Items

    Burnham, Joy J.

    2005-01-01

    Twenty contemporary fears (e.g., terrorist attacks, drive-by shootings, having to fight in a war) were added to E. Gullone and N. J. King's (1992) Australian Fear Survey Schedule for Children-II for use in the United States. The revised survey, the American Fear Survey Schedule for Children (J. J. Burnham, 1995), was investigated. The component…

  10. To Foster Students' Creativity through Classroom Teaching

    YangHuai'en

    2004-01-01

    Creativity is a working process in which human beings use their intelligence and ability to collect, arrange, and process materials, information and data to produce new and sophisticated ones. In the 21 century, university education,while giving the students access to modern scientific knowledge, should as well attach great importance to the fostering of students' ability of thinking creatively and independently.

  11. Extending Transitional Services to Former Foster Children

    Kerman, Ben; Barth, Richard P.; Wildfire, Judy

    2004-01-01

    This article describes what a private agency expended while addressing the transitional needs of former long-term foster youth and examines the association between expenditures and adult outcomes. Not all young adults accepted supports extended to them. In the sample, 41% of the young adults incurred expenses after age 19. Of those using supports,…

  12. Measuring Parent Engagement in Foster Care

    Alpert, Lily T.; Britner, Preston A.

    2009-01-01

    Today, child welfare agencies widely endorse a family-centered approach to foster care casework. This approach centers on a collaborative parent-caseworker relationship as a mechanism for maintaining parents' engagement in services and presumes that continued engagement will propel parents toward reunification. However, despite the importance of…

  13. Leveraging Online Communities in Fostering Adaptive Schools

    Hung, David; Lim, Kenneth Y. T.; Chen, Der-Thanq Victor; Koh, Thiam Seng

    2008-01-01

    There has long been a call for schools to prepare students for the twenty-first century where skills and dispositions differ significantly from much of what has historically characterized formal education. The knowledge based economy calls for policy and pedagogical efforts that would transform schools. Schools are to foster communities of…

  14. Fostering Preservice Reflection through Response Journals

    Lee, Icy

    2008-01-01

    Journal writing is a kind of reflective writing that requires prospective teachers to construct knowledge through questioning their own assumptions about teaching and learning, and hence in line with the general direction of education reform in Hong Kong. This article describes a study that uses response journals as a tool for fostering reflection…

  15. Prereading Deficits in Children in Foster Care

    Pears, Katherine C.; Heywood, Cynthia V.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Fisher, Philip A.

    2011-01-01

    Reading skills are core competencies in children's readiness to learn and may be particularly important for children in foster care, who are at risk for academic difficulties and higher rates of special education placement. In this study, prereading skills (phonological awareness, alphabetic knowledge, and oral language ability) and kindergarten…

  16. Fostering reflective practice with mobile technologies

    Tabuenca, Bernardo; Verpoorten, Dominique; Stefaan, Ternier; Westera, Wim; Specht, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    Tabuenca, B., Verpoorten, D., Stefaan, T., Westera, W., & Specht, M. (2012, September). Fostering reflective practice with mobile technologies. Presentation held at the 2nd Workshop on Awareness and Reflection in Technology-Enhanced Learning (ARTEL)/EC-TEL 2012, Saarbrücken, Germany.

  17. Fostering reflective practice with mobile technologies

    Tabuenca, Bernardo; Verpoorten, Dominique; Ternier, Stefaan; Westera, Wim; Specht, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    Tabuenca, B., Verpoorten, D., Ternier, S., Westera, W., & Specht, M. (2012). Fostering reflective practice with mobile technologies. In A. Moore, V. Pammer, L. Pannese, M. Prilla, K. Rajagopal, W. Reinhardt, Th. D. Ullman, & Ch. Voigt (Eds.), Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Awareness and Reflecti

  18. Does venture capital really foster innovation?

    Faria, Ana Paula; Barbosa, Natália

    2013-01-01

    Using panel data of 17 European Union countries, we find robust empirical support for a positive impact of venture capital on innovation. After controlling for the potential endogenous relationship between venture capital and innovation, the results indicate that venture capital fosters innovation but mainly on a later stage.

  19. Toward Reducing Recidivism in Foster Care.

    Block, Norman H.

    1981-01-01

    Explores the problem of recidivism among children discharged from foster care by the Jewish Child Care Association (JCCA). Results presented from this first stage of the study focus on the relationship of child and family attributes to recidivism. (Author/RH)

  20. Mild to severe social fears: ranking types of feared social situations using item response theory.

    Crome, Erica; Baillie, Andrew

    2014-06-01

    Social anxiety disorder is one of the most common mental disorders, and is associated with long term impairment, distress and vulnerability to secondary disorders. Certain types of social fears are more common than others, with public speaking fears typically the most prevalent in epidemiological surveys. The distinction between performance- and interaction-based fears has been the focus of long-standing debate in the literature, with evidence performance-based fears may reflect more mild presentations of social anxiety. This study aims to explicitly test whether different types of social fears differ in underlying social anxiety severity using item response theory techniques. Different types of social fears were assessed using items from three different structured diagnostic interviews in four different epidemiological surveys in the United States (n=2261, n=5411) and Australia (n=1845, n=1497); and ranked using 2-parameter logistic item response theory models. Overall, patterns of underlying severity indicated by different fears were consistent across the four samples with items functioning across a range of social anxiety. Public performance fears and speaking at meetings/classes indicated the lowest levels of social anxiety, with increasing severity indicated by situations such as being assertive or attending parties. Fears of using public bathrooms or eating, drinking or writing in public reflected the highest levels of social anxiety. Understanding differences in the underlying severity of different types of social fears has important implications for the underlying structure of social anxiety, and may also enhance the delivery of social anxiety treatment at a population level. PMID:24873885

  1. Demographic factors predict magnitude of conditioned fear.

    Rosenbaum, Blake L; Bui, Eric; Marin, Marie-France; Holt, Daphne J; Lasko, Natasha B; Pitman, Roger K; Orr, Scott P; Milad, Mohammed R

    2015-10-01

    There is substantial variability across individuals in the magnitudes of their skin conductance (SC) responses during the acquisition and extinction of conditioned fear. To manage this variability, subjects may be matched for demographic variables, such as age, gender and education. However, limited data exist addressing how much variability in conditioned SC responses is actually explained by these variables. The present study assessed the influence of age, gender and education on the SC responses of 222 subjects who underwent the same differential conditioning paradigm. The demographic variables were found to predict a small but significant amount of variability in conditioned responding during fear acquisition, but not fear extinction learning or extinction recall. A larger differential change in SC during acquisition was associated with more education. Older participants and women showed smaller differential SC during acquisition. Our findings support the need to consider age, gender and education when studying fear acquisition but not necessarily when examining fear extinction learning and recall. Variability in demographic factors across studies may partially explain the difficulty in reproducing some SC findings. PMID:26151498

  2. [Mechanisms for regulation of fear conditioning and memory].

    Kida, Satoshi

    2014-11-01

    Pavlovian fear conditioning is a model of fear learning and memory. The mechanisms regulating fear conditioning and memory have been investigated in humans and rodents. In this paradigm, animals learn and memorize an association between a conditioned stimulus (CS), such as context, and an unconditioned stimulus (US), such as an electrical footshock that induces fear. Fear memory generated though fear conditioning is stabilized via a memory consolidation process. Moreover, recent studies have shown the existence of memory processes that control fear memory following the retrieval of consolidated memory. Indeed, when fear memory is retrieved by re-exposure to the CS, the retrieved memory is re-stabilized via the reconsolidation process. On the other hand, the retrieval of fear memory by prolonged re-exposure to the CS also leads to fear memory extinction, new inhibitory learning against the fear memory, in which animals learn that they do not need to respond to the CS. Importantly, the reinforcement of fear memory after retrieval (i.e., re-experience such as flashbacks or nightmares) has been thought to be associated with the development of emotional disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In this review, I summarize recent progress in studies on the mechanism of fear conditioning and memory consolidation, reconsolidation and extinction, and furthermore, introduce our recent establishment of a mouse PTSD model that shows enhancement of fear memory after retrieval. PMID:25536762

  3. The emotional experience of short–term foster carers when foster children leave their care / Herbst M.J.

    Herbst, Michelle Jacqueline.

    2012-01-01

    The researcher has worked in the field of foster care in social work for a few years in Ireland and England and during this time has seen that foster carers experience some kind of grief and loss when children leave their care. The researcher wanted to explore the emotional experience of foster carers when foster children leave their care. The aim of this study was to explore the emotional experience of short–term foster carers when foster children leave their care. This research aim resul...

  4. Open Government Data: Fostering Innovation

    Ivan Bedini; Feroz Farazi; David Leoni; Juan Pane; Ivan Tankoyeu; Stefano Leucci

    2014-01-01

    The provision of public information contributes to the enrichment and enhancement of the data produced by the government as part of its activities, and the transformation of heterogeneous data into information and knowledge. This process of opening changes the operational mode of public administrations, leveraging the data management, encouraging savings and especially in promoting the development of services in subsidiary and collaborative form between public and private entities. The demand...

  5. Sex differences in the neurobiology of fear conditioning and extinction: a preliminary fMRI study of shared sex differences with stress-arousal circuitry

    Lebron-Milad Kelimer; Abbs Brandon; Milad Mohammed R; Linnman Clas; Rougemount-Bücking Ansgar; Zeidan Mohammed A; Holt Daphne J; Goldstein Jill M

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The amygdala, hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and brain-stem subregions are implicated in fear conditioning and extinction, and are brain regions known to be sexually dimorphic. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate sex differences in brain activity in these regions during fear conditioning and extinction. Methods Subjects were 12 healthy men comparable to 12 healthy women who underwent a 2-day experiment in a 3 T MR scanner. Fear...

  6. Allopregnanolone in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis modulates contextual fear in rats

    Naomi eNagaya

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Trauma- and stress-related disorders are among the most common types of mental illness affecting the U.S. population. For many of these disorders, there is a striking sex difference in lifetime prevalence; for instance, women are twice as likely as men to be affected by posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Gonadal steroids and their metabolites have been implicated in sex differences in fear and anxiety. One example, allopregnanolone (ALLO, is a neuroactive metabolite of progesterone that allosterically enhances GABAA receptor activity and has anxiolytic effects. Like other ovarian hormones, it not only occurs at different levels in males and females but also fluctuates over the female reproductive cycle. One brain structure that may be involved in neuroactive steroid regulation of fear and anxiety is the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST. To explore this question, we examined the consequences of augmenting or reducing ALLO activity in the BNST on the expression of Pavlovian fear conditioning in rats. In Experiment 1, intra-BNST infusions of ALLO in male rats suppressed freezing behavior (a fear response to the conditioned context, but did not influence freezing to a discrete tone conditioned stimulus (CS. In Experiment 2, intra-BNST infusion of either finasteride, an inhibitor of ALLO synthesis, or 17-phenyl-(3α,5α-androst-16-en-3-ol, an ALLO antagonist, in female rats enhanced contextual freezing; neither treatment affected freezing to the tone CS. These findings support a role for ALLO in modulating contextual fear via the BNST and suggest that sex differences in fear and anxiety could arise from differential steroid regulation of BNST function. The susceptibility of women to disorders such as PTSD may be linked to cyclic declines in neuroactive steroid activity within fear circuitry.

  7. Familialization in Welfare State Arrangements: Foster Families in the Life Course of Foster Children

    Monika Götzö

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently enforced discourses on the significance of familial resources as a precondition for education, employability and social mobility reveal aspects of the interplay between state and families in terms of social integration. Foster families are of special interest when studying the drifts in discourses toward a familialization of life course regimes. The research on foster family care highlights the ambiguous negotiations on responsibilities, competencies, expertise and professionalisation, as well as the call to not colonise the intimate familial context. The authors analyse the interplay of the involved persons in the everyday practices, such as local authorities, legal guardians, therapists, parents of origin, foster parents and foster children. In the article, the beginning and the end of the child protection measure is discussed to see how trajectories and transitions are shaped by those involved, and how their acting can be interpreted in terms of life course regimes

  8. Visually depicting cancer fears: Beyond biomedical concerns

    Carolyn Brooks

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript is a reaction to the high prevalence of breast cancer amongst Aboriginal women. Our work calls for more attention to the effects of race, gender, and class on cancer fears and related experiences. The shock of a cancer diagnosis and fears of recurrence can leave patients feeling that their lives are out of control. Combining the visual method of photovoice with focus groups and in-depth interviews, we develop an understanding of cancer experiences that includes fears related to: socio-economic realities; supporting families both emotionally and financially; environmental concerns, especially those that arise from living on reserve; race and racism; and cultural beliefs. Breast cancer experiences are shown to be significantly linked to history and the impact of colonization, neo-colonialism and point to the importance of a postcolonial feminist framework and cancer support policies informed by a lens of cultural safety.

  9. Who fears and who welcomes population decline?

    Hendrik P. Van Dalen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available European countries are experiencing population decline and the tacit assumption in most analyses is that the decline may have detrimental welfare effects. In this paper we use a survey among the population in the Netherlands to discover whether population decline is always met with fear. A number of results stand out: population size preferences differ by geographic proximity: at a global level the majority of respondents favors a (global population decline, but closer to home one supports a stationary population. Population decline is clearly not always met with fear: 31 percent would like the population to decline at the national level and they generally perceive decline to be accompanied by immaterial welfare gains (improvement environment as well as material welfare losses (tax increases, economic stagnation. In addition to these driving forces it appears that the attitude towards immigrants is a very strong determinant at all geographical levels: immigrants seem to be a stronger fear factor than population decline.

  10. Sustainability and Entrepreneurship: Fostering Indigenous Entrepreneurship in the Brazilian Amazon Region

    Raul Gouvea

    2014-01-01

    This article elaborates on the diverse entrepreneurial activities of indigenous communities in the Brazilian Amazon region. This article argues that further sustainability of the Brazilian Amazonian region is intrinsically linked to the entrepreneurial activities by indigenous communities in the Amazon region. Amazonian indigenous communities are under increasing economic and social pressure. Fostering sustainable indigenous entrepreneurship in these disadvantaged indigenous communities has t...

  11. In search of connection: The foster youth and caregiver relationship

    Storer, Heather L.; Barkan, Susan E.; Stenhouse, Linnea L.; Eichenlaub, Caroline; Mallillin, Anastasia; Haggerty, Kevin P.

    2014-01-01

    Placement instability is an ongoing challenge for the 125,000 foster youth aged 14 – 18 that are living in foster care, with youth living in approximately 3 placements before aging out of the system. Despite the importance caring adult relationships can play in promoting positive youth development and resiliency, there has been limited inquiry into the characteristics of the foster youth and caregiver relationship. The goal of this paper is to provide a descriptive account of the foster youth...

  12. Foster parent's responsiveness to the child's emotional and behavioural problems

    Poglajen Ručigaj, Katja

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the challenge foster parents face in being able to give their foster children a good parenting experience. Namely, prior to placement foster children are often victims of abuse and neglect, which is why they sometimes develop various psychosocial problems. Therefore, foster parents need to acquire a range of skills to help them meet the child's developmental needs. It is a well known fact that some parents have more parenting qualities than others. The aim of this study i...

  13. An Evaluation of Foster Parents' Attitudes Towards Birth Parents

    Browne, Deborah C.

    2002-01-01

    Although foster care involves many different relationships that have been examined for many years, few researchers have paid attention to the relationship that must inevitably develop between the foster parents and the child's birth parents. Foster parents have, nonetheless, been noted to express negative feelings about the behaviour of the foster child's natural family. This may have negative effects on the development of the child's self esteem and on the outcome of the entire placement. Th...

  14. Effects of Dark Brooders on Behavior and Fearfulness in Layers

    Riber, Anja B.; Guzman, Diego A.

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Chicks require heat to maintain body temperature during the first weeks after hatch. Heat is normally provided by use of heating lamps or whole-house heating, but an alternative is dark brooders, i.e. horizontal heating elements equipped with curtains. The effects of providing layer chicks with dark brooders during the brooding period on behavior and fearfulness were investigated. Brooders resulted in chicks showing less locomotive activity, feather pecking and fleeing. Also, a long-term reduction of fearfulness in brooder birds was found. Results support the suggestion that rearing with dark brooders can be a successful method of reducing or preventing some of the major welfare problems in layers. Abstract Chicks require heat to maintain body temperature during the first weeks after hatch. This may be provided by dark brooders; i.e., horizontal heating elements equipped with curtains. The objective was to test effects of rearing layer chicks with dark brooders on time budget and fearfulness. Behavioral observations were performed during the first six weeks of age. Three different fear tests were conducted when the birds were age 3–6, 14–15 and 26–28 weeks. During the first four days, brooder chicks rested more than control chicks whereas they spent less time drinking, feather pecking and on locomotion (p ≤ 0.009). On days 16, 23, 30 and 42, brooder chicks spent less time on feather pecking, locomotion and fleeing (p ≤ 0.01) whereas foraging and dust bathing occurred more often on day 42 (p ≤ 0.032). Brooder birds had shorter durations of tonic immobility at all ages (p = 0.0032), moved closer to the novel object at age 15 weeks (p < 0.0001), and had shorter latencies to initiate locomotion in the open-field test at age 28 weeks (p < 0.0001). Results support the suggestion that dark brooders can be a successful method of reducing or preventing fear and feather pecking in layers. PMID:26751482

  15. Developmental aspects of fear: Comparing the acquisition and generalization of conditioned fear in children and adults.

    Schiele, Miriam A; Reinhard, Julia; Reif, Andreas; Domschke, Katharina; Romanos, Marcel; Deckert, Jürgen; Pauli, Paul

    2016-05-01

    Most research on human fear conditioning and its generalization has focused on adults whereas only little is known about these processes in children. Direct comparisons between child and adult populations are needed to determine developmental risk markers of fear and anxiety. We compared 267 children and 285 adults in a differential fear conditioning paradigm and generalization test. Skin conductance responses (SCR) and ratings of valence and arousal were obtained to indicate fear learning. Both groups displayed robust and similar differential conditioning on subjective and physiological levels. However, children showed heightened fear generalization compared to adults as indexed by higher arousal ratings and SCR to the generalization stimuli. Results indicate overgeneralization of conditioned fear as a developmental correlate of fear learning. The developmental change from a shallow to a steeper generalization gradient is likely related to the maturation of brain structures that modulate efficient discrimination between danger and (ambiguous) safety cues. © 2016 The Authors. Developmental Psychobiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 58: 471-481, 2016. PMID:26798984

  16. Wage bargaining, job loss fears and offshoring

    Riedl, Maximilian

    2013-01-01

    In this paper I present a simple theoretical model where firms and trade unions negotiate over wages. Firms have the possibility to offshore parts of the ir production and trade union members have a disutility from individual job loss fears. I show that higher job loss fears result in lower wages. As a Nash bargaining result, firms can use potential but non realized offshoring as a threat to enforce lower wages. Using a large German household survey, I can show evidence that increasing potent...

  17. News Media, Crime and Fear of Violence

    Mirka Smolej

    2011-01-01

    Finland witnessed a surge in crime news reporting during the 1990s. At the same time, there was a significant rise in the levels of fear of crime reported by surveys. This research examines whether and how the two phenomena: news media and fear of violence were associated with each other. The dissertation consists of five sub-studies and a summary article. The first sub-study is a review of crime reporting trends in Finland, in which I have reviewed prior research and used existing Finni...

  18. [Emetophobia: morbid fear of vomiting and nausea].

    Snaebjarnardottir, Kolfinna; Sigurdsson, Engilbert

    2014-05-01

    Emetophobia is an intense, irrational fear or anxiety of or pertaining to vomiting. It is classified among specific phobias in ICD-10 and DSM-IV. This disorder is often hidden because of the shame associated with it among sufferers. As a result emetophobia has been studied less than most other anxiety disorders. Not much is known about the epidemiology, treatment and outcome of this disorder. We describe a woman in her thirties who has been living with emetophobia since she experienced emesis two successive Christmas Eves as a child. Subsequently her fear of vomiting has influenced many aspects of her daily life. PMID:24846951

  19. An Investigation of Empathy of Foster Families, Turkey

    Vural, Bilgin Kiray; Körükçü, Özlem; Aral, Neriman; Körükçü, Gökhan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: empathy brings people closer and facilitates communication in almost all the fields of daily life. Having been an important dimension of foster care, empathetic skills should be developed in a foster family. In this study, we aimed to determine the empathic level of the foster families. Methods: this cross-sectional study on foster…

  20. Helping Foster Parents Cope with Separation, Loss, and Grief.

    Edelstein, Susan B.; Burge, Dorli; Waterman, Jill

    2001-01-01

    Discusses ways foster parents encounter loss and grief in their foster care experiences. Considers factors that affect the intensity of the loss and the healthy expression and resolution of the foster parents' grief; problems that can result when grief is not properly addressed; and ways professionals can help these caregivers with grief issues.…

  1. Empower Foster Parents toward Caring Relations with Children

    Swick, Kevin James

    2007-01-01

    Foster parents face many challenges in caring for children in foster care. Perhaps the major challenge is to achieve a caring environment for children who have experienced trauma and much change. Thus, this article provides ideas and strategies for nurturing foster parents toward a caring relationship with their children.

  2. Re-Imagining Language, Culture, and Family in Foster Care

    Puig, Victoria I.

    2013-01-01

    Nearly half a million children in the United States are currently being served by the foster care system. Infants and toddlers represent the largest single group entering foster care. While these very young children are at the greatest peril for physical, mental health, and developmental issues and tend to spend the longest time in the foster care…

  3. The Loneliest Babies: Foster Care in the Hospital

    Dicker, Sheryl

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses an ignored problem--the plight of infants and toddlers in foster care who find themselves hospitalized. A majority of the children in foster care will be hospitalized for medical treatment while in foster care because they are more likely to have serious medical problems or developmental disabilities than their age peers.…

  4. Project Iris - Caring for a sexually abused foster child.

    Wubs, Dorijn; Grietens, Hans; Batstra, Laura

    2014-01-01

    The traumatizing effects of child sexual abuse are generally acknowledged. Successfully fostering a child with a history of sexual abuse requires specific skills and knowledge. What expertise do foster families caring for these vulnerable children have? What do they need to succeed? What do foster c

  5. Gamification in Fostering Creativity: Player Type Approach

    Marius Kalinauskas

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – to analyze gamification, as the method for promoting creativity in individual and collective levels with the respect to player types.Design/methodology/approach – This research serves as a general review/viewpoint which seeks to examine collective creativity as a phenomenon and gamification as the tool for promoting individual and collective creativity. The paper is based on the comparative analysis of scientific literature and related sources from game design, psychology, business and entertainment.Findings – Although the gamification is gaining more public attention, there is a lack of studies which would reveal its relations in fostering individual and collective creativity. One of the main goals of any gamified content is to raise the engagement into activities in non-game contexts. The objective of creative work is to come up with some ideas, methods or tools which would be significantly new and innovative in the case of a certain issue. The theory of “flow” is used widely in explaining the working principles of gamification. In this state, the information absorption rates are increased and the group or individual is immersed into performed activities. This may lead to prolonged periods while accumulating knowledge, and thus, improving creative capabilities in the specific domain. However, creative performance in different fields has various approaches. It is also related to personal characteristics. The success of gamification is also dependent on the types of “players” which participate in the activity. Having the common picture of personality type in creative performance and in game based tasks may allow creating gamification strategy for optimal engagement into creative work according to the features of a person.Research limitations/implications – There are very few empirical studies which would support correlation between experiencing the “flow” state and a raise of creativity. The idea of unified

  6. Fear and safety engage competing patterns of theta-gamma coupling in the basolateral amygdala

    Stujenske, Joseph M.; Likhtik, Ekaterina; A.Topiwala, Mihir; Gordon, Joshua A.

    2014-01-01

    Theta oscillations synchronize the basolateral amygdala (BLA) with the hippocampus (HPC) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) during fear expression. The role of gamma-frequency oscillations in the BLA is less well characterized. We examined gamma- and theta-frequency activity in recordings of neural activity from the BLA-HPC-mPFC circuit during fear conditioning, extinction, and exposure to an open field. In the BLA, slow (40-70 Hz) and fast (70-120 Hz) gamma oscillations were coupled to dist...

  7. The Power of Community: How Foster Parents, Teachers, and Community Members Support Academic Achievement for Foster Youth

    Morton, Brenda M.

    2016-01-01

    Foster children have been identified as one of the most high-risk groups for academic failure in schools today. However, a small number of foster youth are beating the odds by achieving academically. How are they able to overcome tremendous barriers and succeed? This phenomenological study reports the findings of former foster youth and their P-12…

  8. Support and Conflict in the Foster Family and Children's Well-Being: A Comparison between Foster and Birth Children

    Denuwelaere, Mieke; Bracke, Piet

    2007-01-01

    Data on 96 foster families with a foster child and a birth child between the ages of 10 and 21 years were used to analyze the association between support and conflict processes within the foster family and youths' reports on four indexes of well-being: self-esteem, self-efficacy, emotional problems, and behavioral problems. The self-esteem of…

  9. Foster care - short or long term solution?

    Ferlin, Anja

    2013-01-01

    The family is the core structure, especially in the primary socialization. It ensures that the child grows in socially acceptable human being. In some cases, the family home environment is not suitable for the healthy development of children. The center for social work decides to remove the child from the family and gives him up in foster family. In the theoretical part of the thesis the role of the family for each individual is presented and the fundamental reasons for the alienation of ...

  10. MOTIVATION OF PERSONALITY OF FOSTER CHILD PARENT

    O. A. MARKINA

    2016-01-01

    In modern society the question of social protection of orphans and children who are left without parental care is actual. Such children should be transferred to a foster family. Every year increases the number of people willing to take orphans. In the matter of adoption the study of the motivational structure of personality of adoptive parents is a distinguishing novelty and sufficient complexity in the theoretical and practical relations. Due to the increasing secondary orphanhood it becomes...

  11. Development of foster mother-child attachment

    Korhonen, J

    2014-01-01

    The impact of early attachment relationships and child-adult attachment relationships to children’s social and emotional development has been recognised for a long time. Since the pioneering attachment theories of John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth highlighting the importance of secure child-adult attachments, many other theories from various perspectives have risen to fill in the gaps. These theories are examined with the framework of foster care in mind. In Finland, the primary solution fo...

  12. Aberrant neurocognitive processing of fear in young girls with Turner syndrome

    Bray, Signe; Haas, Brian W.; Hoeft, Fumiko; Reiss, Allan L.

    2014-01-01

    Appraisal of fearful stimuli is an integral aspect of social cognition. Neural circuitry underlying this phenomenon has been well-described and encompasses a distributed network of affective and cognitive nodes. Interestingly, this ability to process fearful faces is impaired in Turner syndrome (TS), a genetic disorder of females in which all or part of an X chromosome is missing. However, neurofunctional correlates for this impairment have not been well-studied, particularly in young girls. Given that the core features of TS include X chromosome gene haploinsufficiency and secondary sex hormone deficiencies, investigation of fearful face processing may provide insights into the influence of X chromosome gene expression on this network. Therefore, we examined behavioral and neural responses during an explicit emotional face labeling task in 14 prepubertal girls with TS and 16 typically developing age-matched controls (6–13 years). We demonstrate that girls with TS have a specific impairment in the identification of fearful faces and show decreased activation in several cognitive control regions, including the anterior dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and posterior cingulate gyrus. Our results indicate that aberrant functional activation in dorsal cognitive regions plays an integral role in appraisal of, and regulation of response to fear in TS. PMID:23171616

  13. Sleep supports cued fear extinction memory consolidation independent of circadian phase.

    Melo, Irene; Ehrlich, Ingrid

    2016-07-01

    Sleep promotes memory, particularly for declarative learning. However, its role in non-declarative, emotional memories is less well understood. Some studies suggest that sleep may influence fear-related memories, and thus may be an important factor determining the outcome of treatments for emotional disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder. Here, we investigated the effect of sleep deprivation and time of day on fear extinction memory consolidation. Mice were subjected to a cued Pavlovian fear and extinction paradigm at the beginning of their resting or active phase. Immediate post-extinction learning sleep deprivation for 5h compromised extinction memory when tested 24h after learning. Context-dependent extinction memory recall was completely prevented by sleep-manipulation during the resting phase, while impairment was milder during the active phase and extinction memory retained its context-specificity. Importantly, control experiments excluded confounding factors such as differences in baseline locomotion, fear generalization and stress hormone levels. Together, our findings indicate that post-learning sleep supports cued fear extinction memory consolidation in both circadian phases. The lack of correlation between memory efficacy and sleep time suggests that extinction memory may be influenced by specific sleep events in the early consolidation period. PMID:27109918

  14. Race, Education, and the Politics of Fear

    Jackson, Barbara Loomis

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the legacies of the 1954 "Brown v. Board of Education" Supreme Court decision within the historical context of race relations in the United States. The pursuit by African Americans to exercise their rights of citizenship is described as influenced by the changing face of fear. The Supreme Court decisions that determined the…

  15. Stereotyping in Fear of Success Cues.

    Juran, Shelley

    Prior studies suggest that sex-role stereotypes influence responses to Horner's fear of success cue. This study investigates stereotypes about both sex roles and achievement settings. One hundred sixty college males and females wrote stories to different cues, then rated the masculinity-femininity of their story characters. Both "John and "Anne"…

  16. Mass Media and the Fear of Crime.

    Heath, Linda; Gilbert, Kevin

    1996-01-01

    Provides an overview of the research on mass media effects on perceptions of crime danger, personal fear of crime, and reactions to crime risk. Discovers that mass media effects involve a number of variables and moderators. These include audience characteristics, degree and type of coverage, and location. (MJP)

  17. Fears in Czech Adolescents: A Longitudinal Study

    Michalcáková, Radka; Lacinová, Lenka; Kyjonková, Hana; Bouša, Ondrej; Jelínek, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates developmental patterns of fear in adolescence. It is based on longitudinal data collected as a part of the European Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood (ELSPAC) project. A total of 186 Czech adolescents (43% girls) were assessed repeatedly at the age of 11, 13, and 15 years. The free-response method was…

  18. Pride and fear during major organisational change

    Riel, Cees; Berens, Guido

    2015-01-01

    textabstractOrganisational behaviour experts have known for a long time that when employees identify closely with their company, the company functions better. People quit less often, they work harder, and they tend to be more supportive of their employer. And in a volatile time, such as during a merger, corporate success may depend on nurturing employees’ pride and alleviating their fears.

  19. Effects of fear factors in disease propagation

    Wang, Yubo; Wong, Limsoon; Fu, Xiuju; Ma, Stefan; Cheng, Tee Hiang; 10.1088/1751-8113/44/35/355101

    2011-01-01

    Upon an outbreak of a dangerous infectious disease, people generally tend to reduce their contacts with others in fear of getting infected. Such typical actions apparently help slow down the spreading of infection. Thanks to today's broad public media coverage, the fear factor may even contribute to prevent an outbreak from happening. We are motivated to study such effects by adopting a complex network approach. Firstly we evaluate the simple case where connections between individuals are randomly removed due to fear factor. Then we consider a different case where each individual keeps at least a few connections after contact reduction. Such a case is arguably more realistic since people may choose to keep a few social contacts, e.g., with their family members and closest friends, at any cost. Finally a study is conducted on the case where connection removals are carried out dynamically while the infection is spreading out. Analytical and simulation results show that the fear factor may not easily prevent an ...

  20. Effects of fear factors in disease propagation

    Upon an outbreak of a dangerous infectious disease, people generally tend to reduce their contacts with others in fear of getting infected. Such typical actions apparently help slow down the spreading of infection. Thanks to today's broad public media coverage, the fear factor may even contribute to preventing an outbreak from happening. We are motivated to study such effects by adopting a complex network approach. First we evaluate the simple case where connections between individuals are randomly removed due to the fear factor. Then we consider a different case where each individual keeps at least a few connections after contact reduction. Such a case is arguably more realistic since people may choose to keep a few social contacts, e.g., with their family members and closest friends, at any cost. Finally, a study is conducted on the case where connection removals are carried out dynamically while the infection is spreading out. Analytical and simulation results show that the fear factor may not easily prevent an epidemic outbreak from happening in scale-free networks. However, it significantly reduces the fraction of the nodes ever getting infected during the outbreak. (paper)

  1. Fearfulness Affects Quail Maternal Care and Subsequent Offspring Development

    Pittet, Florent; Houdelier, Cécilia; Le Bot, Océane; Leterrier, Christine; Lumineau, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    Our study investigated relationships between a precocial bird's fearfulness and maternal care, and the implication of maternal care as a vector for non-genomic transmission of fearfulness to chicks. We compared care given to chicks between two sets of female Japanese quail selected to present either high (LTI) or low fearfulness (STI). Chicks, from a broiler line, were adopted by these females following a sensitization procedure. Chicks' fearfulness after separation from their mother was asse...

  2. NMDA receptors and fear extinction: implications for cognitive behavioral therapy

    Davis, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Based primarily on studies that employ Pavlovian fear conditioning, extinction of conditioned fear has been found to be mediated by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex. This led to the discovery that an NMDA partial agonist, D-cycloserine, could facilitate fear extinction when given systemically or locally into the amygdala. Because many forms of cognitive behavioral therapy depend on fear extinction, this led to the successful use of D-cycloseri...

  3. Joy, Distress, Hope, and Fear in Reinforcement Learning (Extended Abstract)

    Jacobs, E. J.; Broekens, J.; Jonker, C.M.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present a mapping between joy, distress, hope and fear, and Reinforcement Learning primitives. Joy / distress is a signal that is derived from the RL update signal, while hope/fear is derived from the utility of the current state. Agent-based simulation experiments replicate psychological and behavioral dynamics of emotion including: joy and distress reactions that develop prior to hope and fear; fear extinction; habituation of joy; and, task randomness that increases the int...

  4. Prefrontal Cortex in Learning to Overcome Generalized Fear

    Edward Korzus

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Normal brain functioning relies critically on the ability to control appropriate behavioral responses to fearful stimuli. Overgeneralized fear is the major symptom of anxiety disorders including posttraumatic stress disorder. This review describes recent data demonstrating that the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) plays a critical role in the refining of cues that drive the acquisition of fear response. Recent studies on molecular mechanisms that underlie the role of mPFC in fear discr...

  5. Rapid amygdala responses during trace fear conditioning without awareness.

    Nicholas L Balderston

    Full Text Available The role of consciousness in learning has been debated for nearly 50 years. Recent studies suggest that conscious awareness is needed to bridge the gap when learning about two events that are separated in time, as is true for trace fear conditioning. This has been repeatedly shown and seems to apply to other forms of classical conditioning as well. In contrast to these findings, we show that individuals can learn to associate a face with the later occurrence of a shock, even if they are unable to perceive the face. We used a novel application of magnetoencephalography (MEG to non-invasively record neural activity from the amygdala, which is known to be important for fear learning. We demonstrate rapid (∼ 170-200 ms amygdala responses during the stimulus free period between the face and the shock. These results suggest that unperceived faces can serve as signals for impending threat, and that rapid, automatic activation of the amygdala contributes to this process. In addition, we describe a methodology that can be applied in the future to study neural activity with MEG in other subcortical structures.

  6. Fear memory formation can affect a different memory: fear conditioning affects the extinction, but not retrieval, of conditioned taste aversion (CTA) memory

    Joels, Gil; Lamprecht, Raphael

    2014-01-01

    The formation of fear memory to a specific stimulus leads to subsequent fearful response to that stimulus. However, it is not apparent whether the formation of fear memory can affect other memories. We study whether specific fearful experience leading to fear memory affects different memories formation and extinction. We revealed that cued fear conditioning, but not unpaired or naïve training, inhibited the extinction of conditioned taste aversion (CTA) memory that was formed after fear condi...

  7. Does antenatal fear of childbirth predict postnatal fear of childbirth? - A study of Japanese women

    Takegata, Mizuki; Haruna, Megumi; Matsuzaki, Masayo; Shiraishi, Mie; Okano, Tadaharu; Severinsson, Ingeborg Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to determine whether antenatal fear of childbirth (expectation) could predict postnatal fear of childbirth (experience) by taking account of other antenatal psychological variables(anxiety and depression) as well as birth outcomes in Japanese women. A longitudinal observational study was conducted at a clinic in Tokyo, Japan, in 2011. Self-report questionnaires were distributed to 240 Japanese women at 37 gestational weeks (Time 1) and on the second day after delivery (Time 2)...

  8. Use of the ABA Fear Renewal Paradigm to Assess the Effects of Extinction with Co-Present Fear Inhibitors or Excitors: Implications for Theories of Extinction and for Treating Human Fears and Phobias

    Thomas, Brian L.; Ayres, John J. B.

    2004-01-01

    In four experiments using albino rats in an ABA fear renewal paradigm, we studied conditioned fear in the A test context following extinction in Context B. Conditioned suppression of operant responding was the index of fear. In Experiments 1-3, we found that extinguishing a feared cue in compound with a putative conditioned inhibitor of fear led…

  9. Attitude, interest, and motivation for adoption and foster care.

    Tyebjee, Tyzoon

    2003-01-01

    This survey compares prospective foster and adoptive parents' attitudes, willingness, and motivations, and discusses implications for media campaigns. The results show that demographic profiles of targets for adoption and foster placements are the same, an opportunity exists to shape positive attitudes toward foster care in immigrant populations, the most compelling way to attract parents is to focus on the child in need, and testimonials of personal experiences of foster and adoptive parents should address perceived barriers to adopting or fostering. Political, religious, and environmental ideology were unrelated to attitudes or willingness to adopt or foster. Respondents with strong identifications with gay or lesbian lifestyles exhibited a higher than average willingness to adopt or foster. PMID:14736030

  10. Parsing fear: A reassessment of the evidence for fear deficits in psychopathy.

    Hoppenbrouwers, Sylco S; Bulten, Berend H; Brazil, Inti A

    2016-06-01

    Psychopathy is a personality disorder characterized by interpersonal manipulation and callousness, and reckless and impulsive antisocial behavior. It is often seen as a disorder in which profound emotional disturbances lead to antisocial behavior. A lack of fear in particular has been proposed as an etiologically salient factor. In this review, we employ a conceptual model in which fear is parsed into separate subcomponents. Important historical conceptualizations of psychopathy, the neuroscientific and empirical evidence for fear deficits in psychopathy are compared against this model. The empirical evidence is also subjected to a meta-analysis. We conclude that most studies have used the term "fear" generically, amassing different methods and levels of measurement under the umbrella term "fear." Unlike earlier claims that psychopathy is related to general fearlessness, we show there is evidence that psychopathic individuals have deficits in threat detection and responsivity, but that the evidence for reduced subjective experience of fear in psychopathy is far less compelling. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26854867

  11. The vicious cycle of dental fear: exploring the interplay between oral health, service utilization and dental fear

    Spencer A John; Stewart Judy F; Armfield Jason M

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Based on the hypothesis that a vicious cycle of dental fear exists, whereby the consequences of fear tend to maintain that fear, the relationship between dental fear, self-reported oral health status and the use of dental services was explored. Methods The study used a telephone interview survey with interviews predominantly conducted in 2002. A random sample of 6,112 Australian residents aged 16 years and over was selected from 13 strata across all States and Territories....

  12. Fear versus humor: the impact of sensation seeking on physiological, cognitive, and emotional responses to antialcohol abuse messages.

    Lee, Moon J; Shin, Mija

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the differences in physiological, cognitive, and emotional responses to existing emotional antialcohol abuse advertisements (fear vs. humor appeal) between high and low sensation seekers. A 2 (Message Type) x 2 (Sensation-Seeking Tendency) x 4 (Message Repetition) mixed-model experiment with repeated measures was conducted with 71 college students. The results, based on self-reports, indicated that fear messages generated more interest and perceived danger of excessive drinking regardless of sensation-seeking tendency, whereas humorous messages were rated as more likeable than fear messages, and the difference was bigger among low sensation seekers than among high sensation seekers. One interesting finding was that for both fear and humor appeals, low sensation seekers showed greater emotional responses (greater corrugators activities and greater zygomatic activities) than high sensation seekers overall. The implications of the current study as well as suggestions for future study were discussed. PMID:21449245

  13. Differential Dynamics of Amino Acid Release in the Amygdala and Olfactory Cortex during Odor Fear Acquisition as Revealed with Simultaneous High Temporal Resolution Microdialysis

    Hegoburu, Chloe; Sevelinges, Yannick; Thevenet, Marc; Gervais, Remi; Parrot, Sandrine; Mouly, Anne-Marie

    2009-01-01

    Although the amygdala seems to be essential to the formation and storage of fear memories, it might store only some aspects of the aversive event and facilitate the storage of more specific sensory aspects in cortical areas. We addressed the time course of amygdala and cortical activation in the context of odor fear conditioning in rats. Using…

  14. 45 CFR 1356.71 - Federal review of the eligibility of children in foster care and the eligibility of foster care...

    2010-10-01

    ... foster care and the eligibility of foster care providers in title IV-E programs. 1356.71 Section 1356.71..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FOSTER CARE... § 1356.71 Federal review of the eligibility of children in foster care and the eligibility of foster...

  15. AX+, BX- Discrimination Learning in the Fear-Potentiated Startle Paradigm: Possible Relevance to Inhibitory Fear Learning in Extinction

    Myers, Karyn M.; Davis, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The neural mechanisms of fear suppression most commonly are studied through the use of extinction, a behavioral procedure in which a feared stimulus (i.e., one previously paired with shock) is nonreinforced repeatedly, leading to a reduction or elimination of the fear response. Although extinction is perhaps the most convenient index of fear…

  16. Mild Traumatic Brain Injury with Social Defeat Stress Alters Anxiety, Contextual Fear Extinction, and Limbic Monoamines in Adult Rats

    Davies, Daniel R.; Olson, Dawne; Meyer, Danielle L.; Scholl, Jamie L.; Watt, Michael J.; Manzerra, Pasquale; Renner, Kenneth J.; Forster, Gina L.

    2016-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) produces symptoms similar to those typifying posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in humans. We sought to determine whether a rodent model of stress concurrent with mTBI produces characteristics of PTSD such as impaired contextual fear extinction, while also examining concurrent alterations to limbic monoamine activity in brain regions relevant to fear and anxiety states. Male rats were exposed to social stress or control conditions immediately prior to mTBI...

  17. Mild traumatic brain injury with social defeat stress alters anxiety, contextual fear extinction, and limbic monoamines in adult rats

    Daniel eDavies; Dawne eOlson; Danielle eMeyer; Jamie eScholl; Michael eWatt; Pasquale eManzerra; Kenneth eRenner; Forster, Gina L.

    2016-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) produces symptoms similar to those typifying posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in humans. We sought to determine whether a rodent model of stress concurrent with mTBI produces characteristics of PTSD such as impaired contextual fear extinction, while also examining concurrent alterations to limbic monoamine activity in brain regions relevant to fear and anxiety states. Male rats were exposed to social stress or control conditions immediately prior to mT...

  18. Being feared: masculinity and race in public space

    Kristen Day

    2006-01-01

    Research on fear of crime typically examines the perceptions of those who fear, emphasizing women’s experiences of vulnerability in public space. In this paper, I invert this practice to examine instead men’s experiences of being feared in public spaces. Drawing on interviews with 82 male college students, I use a social constructionist approach to examine how men’s experiences of being feared interact with men’s formation of racial identities and the racialization of public places. Fear is a...

  19. Threat visibility modulates the defensive brain circuit underlying fear and anxiety.

    Rigoli, Francesco; Ewbank, Michael; Dalgleish, Tim; Calder, Andrew

    2016-01-26

    Recent theories distinguish anxiety from fear in the brain. Anxiety is associated with activation in ventromedial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, while fear is associated with activation in periaqueductal gray, with amygdala involved in processing aspects of both emotional responses. These theories propose that the amount of information available about threat determines which of the two defensive responses is elicited, with fear and anxiety associated with well-defined and uncertain threats respectively. However, a direct test of this hypothesis is lacking. Here we provide such a test using fMRI to record participants' brain activity while they performed a computer-based task which required to press a button to move an artificial agent to a target position while an artificial predator chased the agent. In one condition (associated with fear) the predator was visible, while in another condition (associated with anxiety) the predator was invisible. Ventromedial prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and amygdala showed increased activity when the predator was invisible compared to visible, while the opposite effect was observed in periaqueductal gray. We also observed that participants with high but not low trait-anxiety showed an hippocampal activation with invisible threat at an earlier time stage during the trial. These findings help clarify the neural mechanisms that underlie different defensive emotions and shed light on how these mechanisms may contribute to exaggerated anxiety. PMID:26655466

  20. Identification of Parvalbumin Interneurons as Cellular Substrate of Fear Memory Persistence.

    Çalışkan, Gürsel; Müller, Iris; Semtner, Marcus; Winkelmann, Aline; Raza, Ahsan S; Hollnagel, Jan O; Rösler, Anton; Heinemann, Uwe; Stork, Oliver; Meier, Jochen C

    2016-05-01

    Parvalbumin-positive (PV) basket cells provide perisomatic inhibition in the cortex and hippocampus and control generation of memory-related network activity patterns, such as sharp wave ripples (SPW-R). Deterioration of this class of fast-spiking interneurons has been observed in neuropsychiatric disorders and evidence from animal models suggests their involvement in the acquisition and extinction of fear memories. Here, we used mice with neuron type-targeted expression of the presynaptic gain-of-function glycine receptor RNA variant GlyR α3L(185L)to genetically enhance the network activity of PV interneurons. These mice showed reduced extinction of contextual fear memory but normal auditory cued fear memory. They furthermore displayed increase of SPW-R activity in area CA3 and CA1 and facilitated propagation of this particular network activity pattern, as determined in ventral hippocampal slice preparations. Individual freezing levels during extinction and SPW-R propagation were correlated across genotypes. The same was true for parvalbumin immunoreactivity in the ventral hippocampus, which was generally augmented in the GlyR mutant mice and correlated with individual freezing levels. Together, these results identify PV interneurons as critical cellular substrate of fear memory persistence and associated SPW-R activity in the hippocampus. Our findings may be relevant for the identification and characterization of physiological correlates for posttraumatic stress and anxiety disorders. PMID:26908632

  1. Threat visibility modulates the defensive brain circuit underlying fear and anxiety

    Rigoli, Francesco; Ewbank, Michael; Dalgleish, Tim; Calder, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Highlights • We used human fMRI and a novel computer-based task to study the effects of visual threat uncertainty on brain activity. • Lack of visual threat information increased activity in hippocampus, ventromedial prefrontal cortex and amygdala (regions involved in anxiety). • Presence of visual threat information increased activity in periaqueductal gray (involved in fear). • High trait-anxiety participants anticipated hippocampal activation when visual threat information was not provided...

  2. The Zen of Unit One: Residential Learning Communities Can Foster Liberal Learning at Large Universities

    Schein, Howard K.

    2005-01-01

    A residential learning community that melds academic affairs and student affairs concerns can address the whole student through fostering liberal learning experiences. Students can explore innovative and controversial ideas and activities designed to challenge their personal and intellectual growth in a community of faculty and student affairs…

  3. Cross-fostering in gray wolves (Canis lupus lupus).

    Scharis, Inger; Amundin, Mats

    2015-01-01

    Cross-fostering in canids, with captive-bred pups introduced into endangered wild populations, might aid conservation efforts by increasing genetic diversity and lowering the risk of inbreeding depression. The gray wolf (Canis lupus lupus) population in Scandinavia suffers from severe inbreeding due to a narrow genetic base and geographical isolation. This study aimed at evaluating the method to cross-foster wolf pups from zoo-born to zoo-born litters. The following was assessed: female initial acceptance of foster pups, growth rate in relation to age difference between foster pups and pups in recipient litters and survival over the first 33 weeks. The study included four litters added by two foster pups in each. The age differences between the foster pups and the recipient litters were 2-8 days. After augmentation, all four females accepted the foster pups, demonstrated by her moving the entire litter to a new den site. Growth rate was dependent on the age difference of the pups in the foster litters, with a considerably slower growth rate in the 8 days younger pups. However, these pups later appeared to be at no disadvantage. Foster pups had a higher survival rate than females' pups, however, the causes of death were probably not kin or non-kin related. The results indicate that cross-fostering works in gray wolves and that this might be a plausible way to increase genetic variation in the wild population. PMID:25773058

  4. Fear load: The psychophysiological over-expression of fear as an intermediate phenotype associated with trauma reactions.

    Norrholm, Seth Davin; Glover, Ebony M; Stevens, Jennifer S; Fani, Negar; Galatzer-Levy, Isaac R; Bradley, Bekh; Ressler, Kerry J; Jovanovic, Tanja

    2015-11-01

    Psychophysiological measures of fear expression provide observable intermediate phenotypes of fear-related symptoms. Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) advocate using neurobiological intermediate phenotypes that provide dimensional correlates of psychopathology. Negative Valence Systems in the RDoC matrix include the construct of acute threat, which can be measured on a physiological level using potentiation of the acoustic startle reflex assessed via electromyography recordings of the orbicularis oculi muscle. Impairments in extinction of fear-potentiated startle due to high levels of fear (termed fear load) during the early phases of extinction have been observed in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The goals of the current work were to examine dimensional associations between fear-related symptoms of PTSD and fear load variables to test their validity as an intermediate phenotype. We examined extinction of fear-potentiated startle in a cohort (n=269) of individuals with a broad range of civilian trauma exposure (range 0-13 traumatic events per person, mean=3.5). Based on previously reported findings, we hypothesized that fear load would be significantly associated with intrusion and fear memories of an index traumatic event. The results indicated that early extinction was correlated with intrusive thoughts (p=0.0007) and intense physiological reactions to trauma reminders (p=0.036). Degree of adult or childhood trauma exposure, and depression severity were not associated with fear load. After controlling for age, sex, race, income, level of prior trauma, and level of fear conditioning, fear load during extinction was still significantly predictive of intrusive thoughts (p=0.004). The significance of these findings is that they support dimensional associations with symptom severity rather than diagnostic category and, as such, fear load may emerge as a transdiagnostic intermediate phenotype expressed across fear-related disorders (e.g., specific phobia, social

  5. Fear recognition ability predicts differences in social cognitive and neural functioning in men

    Corden, B.; & Critchley, H.D.; Skuse, D; Dolan, R. J.

    2006-01-01

    By testing the facial fear-recognition ability of 341 men in the general population, we show that 8.8% have deficits akin to those seen with acquired amygdala damage. Using psychological tests and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) we tested the hypothesis that poor fear recognition would predict deficits in other domains of social cognition and, in response to socially relevant stimuli, abnormal activation in brain regions that putatively reflect engagement of the “social brain.” O...

  6. Acquisition of blood, injury, and needle fears and phobias.

    Kleinknecht, R A

    1994-11-01

    The origins of fear and phobia of blood, injury, and injections were investigated in a sample of 128 fearful university students. Based on Mutilation Questionnaire scores, subjects were designated as common fear, high fear, or phobic. Ss reports of their onset experiences obtained from structured interviews were categorized into one or more acquisition pathways of conditioning, vicarious observation, and information. Of the 73% of Ss who recalled one or more onset experiences, 76% reported conditioning-like events as the primary pathway with the majority reporting fear-related UCSs. Vicarious experiences were reported as primary by 20% and 3% reported information as being primary in their fear onset. Severity of fear was unrelated to the pathway by which it was acquired, to whether the onset was recalled, and if recalled, whether it was due to a single or to multiple traumatic events. Results are discussed in terms of methodological problems of memory issues and means by which data are collected. PMID:7993325

  7. Brain c-Fos immunocytochemistry and cytochrome oxidase histochemistry after a fear conditioning task.

    Conejo, Nélida M; González Pardo, Héctor; López, Matías; Cantora, Raúl; Arias, Jorge L

    2007-05-01

    The involvement of the basolateral and the medial amygdala in fear conditioning was evaluated using different markers of neuronal activation. The method described here is a combination of cytochrome oxidase (CO) histochemistry and c-Fos immunocytochemistry on fresh frozen brain sections. Freezing behavior was used as an index of auditory and contextual fear conditioning. As expected, freezing scores were significantly higher in rats exposed to tone-shock pairings in a distinctive environment (conditioned; COND), as compared to rats that did not receive any shocks (UNCD). CO labeling was increased in the basolateral and medial amygdala of the COND group. Conversely, c-Fos expression in the basolateral and medial amygdala was lower in the COND group as compared to the UNCD group. Furthermore, c-Fos expression was particularly high in the medial amygdala of the UNCD group. The data provided by both techniques indicate that these amygdalar nuclei could play different roles on auditory and contextual fear conditioning. PMID:17425902

  8. Does learning performance in horses relate to fearfulness, baseline stress hormone, and social rank?

    Christensen, Janne Winther; Ahrendt, Line Peerstrup; Lintrup, Randi;

    2012-01-01

    affect neurons within the hippocampus; a brain region central to learning and memory. In a series of experiments, we aimed to investigate the link between performance in two learning tests, the baseline level of stress hormones, measured as faecal cortisol metabolites (FCM), fearfulness, and social rank...... in the novel environment (e.g. object alertness and final stage: rS = −0.43, P = 0.04), suggesting that performance under unfamiliar, stressful conditions may be predicted by behavioural responses in a fear test. There was a negative correlation between social rank and baseline stress hormones (r......S = −0.43, P = 0.04), i.e. high rank corresponded to low FCM concentrations, whereas neither rank nor FCM correlated with fearfulness or learning performance. We conclude that performance under stressful conditions is affected by activation of the sympathetic nervous system during training and related to...

  9. MOTIVATION OF PERSONALITY OF FOSTER CHILD PARENT

    O. A. MARKINA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In modern society the question of social protection of orphans and children who are left without parental care is actual. Such children should be transferred to a foster family. Every year increases the number of people willing to take orphans. In the matter of adoption the study of the motivational structure of personality of adoptive parents is a distinguishing novelty and sufficient complexity in the theoretical and practical relations. Due to the increasing secondary orphanhood it becomes necessary to study this psychological component of the individual candidate who wants to take for education the orphan for prevent repeated failure of child. Psychological studies confirm that secondary orphanhood is traumatic for the child and leads to moral and psychological degradation. The article presents an actual problem of modern society – features of motivation of successful parent who has a foster child. It is revealed that in modern psychology there are no single diagnostic tools to determine the motivation of a parent. Thus, there are needs to describe the leading motives of adoptive parents: altruistic, pragmatic, normative, critical. The structure of the author's questionnaire for diagnosing these motifs has been marked. At the same time the disclosure of the individual orientation – manner and working – has been made with the help of diagnostics of the motivational structure of personality (V. D. Milman. Has been presented the results of the research of motivation of parents-women who live with adopted children longer than 1.5 years (children not over 14 years. As a result, it has been founded that successful foster parents have a manner orientation of the personality as a dominating and altruistic (and less normative motivation of the person is identified as a leading.

  10. Creating environments that foster academic integrity.

    Tippitt, Michelle Pixley; Ard, Nell; Kline, Juanita Reese; Tilghman, Joan; Chamberlain, Barbara; Meagher, P Gail

    2009-01-01

    A number of studies related to academic dishonesty within the nursing student population have been published; however, little has been written in the nursing literature regarding academic integrity and means of promoting this value. In addition to the many short-term solutions to prevent cheating and dissuade academic misconduct that are offered, solutions that promote long-term affective changes underlying the acquisition of academic integrity are needed. This article provides a context for discussions related to academic integrity, explores issues facing faculty when dealing with this challenge, and offers short-term and long-term strategies for creating environments that foster academic integrity. PMID:19753858

  11. The Ways of Fostering Student's Autonomous Learning

    赖湲

    2016-01-01

    With the development of science and technology, knowledge is being replaced faster and faster. The students nowadays must be cultivated into lifelong learners to adjust themselves to the times of knowledge explosion. This study is to arouse students to be aware of the importance of autonomy in English learning and to enable them to have assistive attitude toward English learning. After gaining the knowledge of autonomy, this thesis give the whole society, including schools, parents, and students themselves some ways to foster and develop their autonomous learning.

  12. Neonatal Odor-Shock Conditioning Alters the Neural Network Involved in Odor Fear Learning at Adulthood

    Sevelinges, Yannick; Sullivan, Regina M.; Messaoudi, Belkacem; Mouly, Anne-Marie

    2008-01-01

    Adult learning and memory functions are strongly dependent on neonatal experiences. We recently showed that neonatal odor-shock learning attenuates later life odor fear conditioning and amygdala activity. In the present work we investigated whether changes observed in adults can also be observed in other structures normally involved, namely…

  13. Social Media Use and the Fear of Missing out (FoMO) While Studying Abroad

    Hetz, Patricia R.; Dawson, Christi L.; Cullen, Theresa A.

    2015-01-01

    Fear of Missing Out (FoMO) is a social construct that examines whether students are concerned that they are missing out on experiences that others are having, and we examined this relation to their concerns over missing activities in their home culture. This mixed-methods pilot study sought to determine how social media affects the study abroad…

  14. A Bout of Voluntary Running Enhances Context Conditioned Fear, Its Extinction, and Its Reconsolidation

    Siette, Joyce; Reichelt, Amy C.; Westbrook, R. Frederick

    2014-01-01

    Three experiments used rats to examine the effect of a single bout of voluntary activity (wheel running) on the acquisition, extinction, and reconsolidation of context conditioned fear. In Experiment 1, rats provided with access to a wheel for 3 h immediately before or after a shocked exposure to a context froze more when tested in that context…

  15. Fear of Movement Is Related to Trunk Stiffness in Low Back Pain.

    Karayannis, N.V.; Smeets, R.J.P.; Hoorn, W. van den; Hodges, P.W.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Psychological features have been related to trunk muscle activation patterns in low back pain (LBP). We hypothesised higher pain-related fear would relate to changes in trunk mechanical properties, such as higher trunk stiffness. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the relationship between trunk mec

  16. Fear of pain potentiates nocebo hyperalgesia

    Aslaksen PM; Lyby PS

    2015-01-01

    Per M Aslaksen,1 Peter S Lyby2 1Department of Psychology, Research Group for Cognitive Neuroscience, The Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Tromsø, The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway; 2Catosenteret Rehabilitation Center, Son, Norway Abstract: Nocebo hyperalgesia has received sparse experimental attention compared to placebo analgesia. The aim of the present study was to investigate if personality traits and fear of pain could predict experimental nocebo hype...

  17. Fear of pain potentiates nocebo hyperalgesia

    Aslaksen, Per

    2015-01-01

    Per M Aslaksen,1 Peter S Lyby2 1Department of Psychology, Research Group for Cognitive Neuroscience, The Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Tromsø, The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway; 2Catosenteret Rehabilitation Center, Son, Norway Abstract: Nocebo hyperalgesia has received sparse experimental attention compared to placebo analgesia. The aim of the present study was to investigate if personality traits and fear of pain could predict experimental noc...

  18. Rollers smell the fear of nestlings

    Parejo, D.; Amo, L.; Rodríguez, J.; Avilés, J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Many animals react to danger by producing chemical cues that can be smelled by others, which is called the smell of fear. Some bird species produce chemical compounds when threatened, such as nestlings of the Eurasian roller Coracias garrulus that vomit an odorous orange liquid when scared in their nests. Here, we experimentally explore the possibility that parents were informed about recent predation attempts at their nests through the olfaction of this vomit. Parents of nests treated with n...

  19. False Context Fear Memory in Rats

    Bae, Sarah; Holmes, Nathan M.; Westbrook, R. Frederick

    2015-01-01

    Four experiments used rats to study false context fear memories. In Experiment 1, rats were pre-exposed to a distinctive chamber (context A) or to a control environment (context C), shocked after a delay in a second chamber (context B) and tested either in B or A. Rats pre-exposed to A froze just as much as control rats in B but more than control…

  20. Risk, fear and public safety

    Part 1 of the paper advocates a rational approach to public safety based on unbiassed quantitative assessment of overall risks and benefits of any technological activity. It shows that improved safety should be attainable at less cost than is the case at present. Part 2 offers an explanation of why so little has been achieved in this direction and outlines the major errors in present practices. Part 3 suggests what might realistically be done towards the achievement of some of the possible benefits. Factors which are important in the study of safety and evidence supporting the arguments are discussed in six appendices. It is urged that the scientific and technological community should improve its understanding of safety as a specialization and should endeavour to lead rather than follow in our present political system

  1. Foster children's attachment behavior and representation: Influence of children's pre-placement experiences and foster caregiver's sensitivity.

    Bovenschen, Ina; Lang, Katrin; Zimmermann, Janin; Förthner, Judith; Nowacki, Katja; Roland, Inga; Spangler, Gottfried

    2016-01-01

    Although the majority of foster children have been exposed to early adversity in their biological families and have experienced one or more disruptions of attachment relationships, most studies surprisingly found foster children to be as securely attached as children in low-risk samples. However, attention has been paid almost exclusively to attachment formation in young children up to two years of age, and the majority of studies solely investigated attachment behavior whereas few is known about foster children's representations about attachment relationships. To extend findings on attachment in foster children and its predictors, our study examined both attachment behavior and representations in foster children aged between 3 and 8 years. Diverse potential predictors including child variables, birth parents' variables, pre-placement experiences, and foster caregiver's behavior were included in the analyses. Results revealed that foster children showed both lower attachment security and higher disorganization scores than children in low-risk samples. Attachment behavior and representation were found to be widely independent from each other. Different factors contributed to attachment behavior and representation: whereas foster children's attachment behavior was mainly influenced by foster parents' behavior, pre-placement experiences did predict hyperactivation and disorganization on the representational level. The results indicate that, when intervening with foster families, it seems crucial to focus not exclusively on the promotion of secure attachment behavior but also to develop interventions enhancing secure and organized attachment representations. PMID:26412616

  2. Optimizing foster family placement for infants and toddlers: A randomized controlled trial on the effect of the foster family intervention.

    Van Andel, Hans; Post, Wendy; Jansen, Lucres; Van der Gaag, Rutger Jan; Knorth, Erik; Grietens, Hans

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between foster children and their foster carers comes with many risks and may be very stressful both for parents and children. We developed an intervention (foster family intervention [FFI]) to tackle these risks. The intervention focuses on foster children below the age of 5 years. The objective was to investigate the effects of FFI on the interactions between foster parents and foster children. A randomized control trial was carried out with a sample of 123 preschool aged children (mean age 18.8 months; 51% boys) and their foster carers. A pretest was carried out 6 to 8 weeks after placement and a posttest one half year later. Interactions were videotaped and coded using the Emotional Availability Scales (EAS). Foster carers were asked to fill in the Dutch version of the Parenting Stress Index. Morning and evening samples of children's salivary cortisol were taken. In the posttest, significantly positive effects were found on the following EAS subscales: Sensitivity, Structuring, Nonintrusiveness, and Responsiveness. We found no significant differences on stress levels of foster carers and children (Nijmeegse Ouderlijke Stress Index domains and salivary cortisol). This study shows that the FFI has a significant positive effect on parenting skills as measured with EAS and on Responsiveness of the foster child. Findings are discussed in terms of impact and significance relating to methodology and design of the study and to clinical relevance. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27196390

  3. Fear and its implications for stock markets

    Simonsen, I; Jensen, M H; Donangelo, R; Sneppen, K; Simonsen, Ingve; Ahlgren, Peter Toke Heden; Jensen, Mogens H.; Donangelo, Raul; Sneppen, Kim

    2006-01-01

    The value of stocks indices, and other assets, are examples of stochastic processes that drop and raise in unpredictable ways. In this paper, we discuss certain asymmetries in short term price movements that can not be attributed to a long term increasing trend. These empirical asymmetries predict that price drops in stock indices on a relatively short time scale are more common than the corresponding price raises, and we present several empirical examples of such asymmetries. Furthermore, a simple model is introduced with the aim of explaining these facts. The prime idea is to introduce occasional, short periods of dropping stock prices that are synchronized for all stocks of the index. These collective negative price movements are imagined to be triggered by external factors in our society that create fear for the future among the investors. In the model this is parameterized by a ``fear factor'' defining how often such events take place. It is demonstrated that such a simple fear factor model can reproduce...

  4. Tactile Stimulation Reduces Fear in Fish

    Annett Schirmer

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Being groomed or touched can counter stress and negative affect in mammals. In two experiments we explored whether a similar phenomenon exists in non-mammals like zebrafish. In Experiment 1, we exposed zebrafish to a natural stressor, a chemical alarm signal released by injured conspecifics. Before moving them into an observation tank, one group of fish was washed and then subjected to a water current that served as the tactile stimulus. The other group was simply washed. Fish with tactile treatment demonstrated fewer fear behaviors (e.g., bottom dwelling and lower cortisol levels than fish without. In Experiment 2, we ascertained a role of somatosensation in these effects. Using a similar paradigm as in Experiment 1, we recorded fear behaviors of intact fish and fish with damaged lateral line hair cells. Relative to the former, the latter benefited less from the tactile stimulus during fear recovery. Together these findings show that tactile stimulation can calm fish and that tactile receptors, evolutionarily older than those present in mammals, contribute to this phenomenon.

  5. Delay and trace fear conditioning in a complex virtual learning environment - neural substrates of extinction

    Heike eEwald

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Extinction is an important mechanism to inhibit initially acquired fear responses. There is growing evidence that the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC inhibits the amygdala and therefore plays an important role in the extinction of delay fear conditioning. To our knowledge, there is no evidence on the role of the prefrontal cortex in the extinction of trace conditioning up to now. Thus, we compared brain structures involved in the extinction of human delay and trace fear conditioning in a between-subjects-design in an fMRI study. Participants were passively guided through a virtual environment during learning and extinction of conditioned fear. Two different lights served as conditioned stimuli (CS; as unconditioned stimulus (US a mildly painful electric stimulus was delivered. In the delay conditioning group (DCG the US was administered with offset of one light (CS+, whereas in the trace conditioning group (TCG the US was presented 4s after CS+ offset. Both groups showed insular and striatal activation during early extinction, but differed in their prefrontal activation. The vmPFC was mainly activated in the DCG, whereas the TCG showed activation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC during extinction. These results point to different extinction processes in delay and trace conditioning. VmPFC activation during extinction of delay conditioning might reflect the inhibition of the fear response. In contrast, dlPFC activation during extinction of trace conditioning may reflect modulation of working memory processes which are involved in bridging the trace interval and hold information in short term memory.

  6. Delay and trace fear conditioning in a complex virtual learning environment-neural substrates of extinction.

    Ewald, Heike; Glotzbach-Schoon, Evelyn; Gerdes, Antje B M; Andreatta, Marta; Müller, Mathias; Mühlberger, Andreas; Pauli, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Extinction is an important mechanism to inhibit initially acquired fear responses. There is growing evidence that the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) inhibits the amygdala and therefore plays an important role in the extinction of delay fear conditioning. To our knowledge, there is no evidence on the role of the prefrontal cortex in the extinction of trace conditioning up to now. Thus, we compared brain structures involved in the extinction of human delay and trace fear conditioning in a between-subjects-design in an fMRI study. Participants were passively guided through a virtual environment during learning and extinction of conditioned fear. Two different lights served as conditioned stimuli (CS); as unconditioned stimulus (US) a mildly painful electric stimulus was delivered. In the delay conditioning group (DCG) the US was administered with offset of one light (CS+), whereas in the trace conditioning group (TCG) the US was presented 4 s after CS+ offset. Both groups showed insular and striatal activation during early extinction, but differed in their prefrontal activation. The vmPFC was mainly activated in the DCG, whereas the TCG showed activation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) during extinction. These results point to different extinction processes in delay and trace conditioning. VmPFC activation during extinction of delay conditioning might reflect the inhibition of the fear response. In contrast, dlPFC activation during extinction of trace conditioning may reflect modulation of working memory processes which are involved in bridging the trace interval and hold information in short term memory. PMID:24904363

  7. The Potential for Successful Family Foster Care: Conceptualizing Competency Domains for Foster Parents

    Buehler, Cheryl; Rhodes, Kathryn W.; Orme, John G.; Cuddeback, Gary

    2006-01-01

    The potential to foster successfully starts with developing and supporting competency in 12 domains: (1) providing a safe and secure environment; (2) providing a nurturing environment; (3) promoting educational attainment and success; (4) meeting physical and mental healthcare needs; (5) promoting social and emotional development; (6) supporting…

  8. Reducing Sibling Conflict in Maltreated Children Placed in Foster Homes

    Linares, L. Oriana; Jimenez, Jessica; Nesci, Cristina; Pearson, Eva; Beller, Sarah; Edwards, Nancy; Levin-Rector, Alison

    2015-01-01

    Sibling aggression among maltreated children placed in foster homes is linked to other externalizing problems and placement disruption. The reduction of sibling conflict and aggression may be achieved via a multicomponent ecologically focused intervention for families in the foster care system. The focus of the study is to evaluate the feasibility and short-term effectiveness of a transtheoretical intervention model targeting sibling pairs and their foster parent that integrates family system...

  9. Scared chaste? Fear-based educational curricula.

    Kantor, L M

    1993-01-01

    The Far Right has exerted influence on sexuality education programs in public schools to use curriculum that is fear based and promotes only an abstinence technique for expression of premarital adolescent sexuality. Other abstinence programs do exist such as the Grady Memorial Hospital's Postponing Sexual Involvement that do not rely on scare tactics. A listing of programs and addresses are provided for those programs that have a goal of abstinence but do not rely on fear to teach. The account of a North Carolina school board which effectively prevented fear-based education from replacing responsible education is presented. The thrust of this article is to provide a detailed critical examination of fear-based curriculum in the following published documents: Sex Respect by Coleen Mast, Facing Reality by James Coughlin, Me and My World and My Future by LeAnna Benn, Sexuality and Commitment and Family by Steve Potter, Family Accountability in Communicating Teen Sexuality by Rose Fuller, Learning About Myself and Others by Anne Nesbit, An Alternative National Curriculum on Responsibility by Terrance Olson and Christopher Wallace, Families and Decision Making and Human Development by Terrance Olson et al., Responsible Sexual Values Program by April Thoms, The Art of Loving Well by Ronald Goldman et al., and Free Teens by Richard Panzer. The common features of the fear-based curriculum reviewed are as follows: 1) scare tactics, 2) contraceptive method information omissions, 3) exclusively negative consequences of sexual behavior images, 4) misinformation on medical issues, 5) sexual orientation omissions or distortions, 6) distortions of people with disabilities, 7) insensitivity to race or class, 8) religious bias, and 9) omissions in diversity of family structures. This review is part of a Ford Foundation grant to establish a Community Advocacy Project which documents community battles on sexuality education nationally, creating a Community Action Kit to teach citizens

  10. Eliminating Barriers to the Adoption of Children from Foster Care

    Kamarck, Elaine; Hansen, Mary Eschelbach; Wilson, Julie Boatright Boatright; Katz, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    For children in foster care who cannot be reunified with their families of origin, there is no question that adoption is preferable to “aging out†. Moreover, every dollar spent on adoption for a child from foster care yields three dollars in benefits. Yet, 27,854 youth aged out of foster care in FY2010, and, for each child who was adopted during the year, two children with a goal of adoption continued to wait in foster care. Research shows that there are more than enough families interest...

  11. Overcoming Fear of Speaking in English through Meaningful Activities: A Study with Teenagers* Superación del temor a hablar en inglés a través de actividades significativas: un estudio con adolescentes

    Ruth Ayala Contreras

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on a study implemented in a public school to explore some learning strategies to overcome speaking fears and anxiety. After a preliminary inquiry to find out the possible causes of the problem, we proposed an artistic and academic space called Cultural Moment, adapted from the Spanish class. It is a task-based cooperative learning environment. The students have the possibility to try their aesthetic abilities and interact in English within an unstressful and enjoyable atmosphere. To gather information we used interviews, field notes, and audio and video recordings. This study suggests some possible strategies to reduce language anxiety and promote oral interaction in the classroom.Este artículo da cuenta de un estudio que se realizó en un colegio oficial para explorar algunas estrategias de aprendizaje con el propósito de superar el miedo y la angustia al hablar. A partir de una indagación respecto a las posibles causas del problema se abre un espacio artístico y académico denominado Momento Cultural, inspirado en la clase de español. Las actividades de clase se desarrollan en un ambiente de aprendizaje cooperativo basado en tareas. Los estudiantes tienen la posibilidad de mostrar sus habilidades estéticas e interactuar en inglés en una atmósfera de confianza y alegría. La recolección de información se hizo a través de entrevistas, grabaciones de video y audio y notas de campo. El estudio sugiere algunas posibles estrategias para reducir la ansiedad y promover la interacción oral.

  12. Measuring Evaluation Fears in Adolescence: Psychometric Validation of the Portuguese Versions of the Fear of Positive Evaluation Scale and the Specific Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale

    Vagos, Paula; Salvador, Maria do Céu; Rijo, Daniel; Santos, Isabel M.; Weeks, Justin W.; Heimberg, Richard G.

    2016-01-01

    Modified measures of Fear of Negative Evaluation and Fear of Positive Evaluation were examined among Portuguese adolescents. These measures demonstrated replicable factor structure, internal consistency, and positive relationships with social anxiety and avoidance. Gender differences were found. Implications for evaluation and intervention are…

  13. Effects of rapid eye movement sleep deprivation on fear extinction recall and prediction error signaling.

    Spoormaker, Victor I; Schröter, Manuel S; Andrade, Kátia C; Dresler, Martin; Kiem, Sara A; Goya-Maldonado, Roberto; Wetter, Thomas C; Holsboer, Florian; Sämann, Philipp G; Czisch, Michael

    2012-10-01

    In a temporal difference learning approach of classical conditioning, a theoretical error signal shifts from outcome deliverance to the onset of the conditioned stimulus. Omission of an expected outcome results in a negative prediction error signal, which is the initial step towards successful extinction and may therefore be relevant for fear extinction recall. As studies in rodents have observed a bidirectional relationship between fear extinction and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, we aimed to test the hypothesis that REM sleep deprivation impairs recall of fear extinction through prediction error signaling in humans. In a three-day design with polysomnographically controlled REM sleep deprivation, 18 young, healthy subjects performed a fear conditioning, extinction and recall of extinction task with visual stimuli, and mild electrical shocks during combined functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and skin conductance response (SCR) measurements. Compared to the control group, the REM sleep deprivation group had increased SCR scores to a previously extinguished stimulus at early recall of extinction trials, which was associated with an altered fMRI time-course in the left middle temporal gyrus. Post-hoc contrasts corrected for measures of NREM sleep variability also revealed between-group differences primarily in the temporal lobe. Our results demonstrate altered prediction error signaling during recall of fear extinction after REM sleep deprivation, which may further our understanding of anxiety disorders in which disturbed sleep and impaired fear extinction learning coincide. Moreover, our findings are indicative of REM sleep related plasticity in regions that also show an increase in activity during REM sleep. PMID:21826762

  14. Blockade of endogenous opioid neurotransmission enhances acquisition of conditioned fear in humans.

    Eippert, Falk; Bingel, Ulrike; Schoell, Eszter; Yacubian, Juliana; Büchel, Christian

    2008-05-21

    The endogenous opioid system is involved in fear learning in rodents, as opioid agonists attenuate and opioid antagonists facilitate the acquisition of conditioned fear. It has been suggested that an opioidergic signal, which is engaged through conditioning and acts inhibitory on unconditioned stimulus input, is the source of these effects. To clarify whether blockade of endogenous opioid neurotransmission enhances acquisition of conditioned fear in humans, and to elucidate the neural underpinnings of such an effect, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging in combination with behavioral recordings and a double-blind pharmacological intervention. All subjects underwent the same classical fear-conditioning paradigm, but subjects in the experimental group received the opioid antagonist naloxone before and during the experiment, in contrast to subjects in the control group, who received saline. Blocking endogenous opioid neurotransmission with naloxone led to more sustained responses to the unconditioned stimulus across trials, evident in both behavioral and blood oxygen level-dependent responses in pain responsive cortical regions. This effect was likely caused by naloxone blocking conditioned responses in a pain-inhibitory circuit involving opioid-rich areas such as the rostral anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala, and periaqueductal gray. Most importantly, naloxone enhanced the acquisition of fear on the behavioral level and changed the activation profile of the amygdala: whereas the control group showed rapidly decaying conditioned responses across trials, the naloxone group showed sustained conditioned responses in the amygdala. Together, these results demonstrate that in humans the endogenous opioid system has an inhibitory role in the acquisition of fear. PMID:18495880

  15. PSYCHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF REPRESENTATIVES OF THE CHECHEN YOUTH PROFESSING ISLAM AND EXPERIENCING MYTHOLOGICAL FEARS

    Razet Grimsoltanova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article described the study of the relevance of the role and place of religious contents among young people in the postconflict areas of the South of Russia, the rate of experiences of mythological fear had been explored with the help of the survey, as well as individual psychological characteristics of subjects had been studied by methods of  Eysenck, Schmieschek, J. Rotter and Taylor. Those representatives of the surveyed youth sample experiencing a high level of mythological fear could fall into the danger zone of initiation in the group of non-traditional religious sects, as well as come under extremists’ influence, since manip-ulation of consciousness and human behavior, depending on individual psychological characteristics and by using of mythological content, such as fear of possession by jinni, is most effective. The study was attended by representatives of Islam at the age of 19-21, divided by gender: 100 young men and 100 girls. The study was aimed at identifying indi-vidual personality characteristics of temperament, character accentuations, locus of control, the level of personal anxiety and the results of a content analysis of the survey done by the author of the article were identified in accordance with five scales. Results of the study revealed that about 80% of subjects experiencing a high level of mythological fears had the same peculiar correlation indices. In connection with the results of research, we had worked out and suggested a complex of psycho-pedagogical support consisting of four modules for the purpose of education, preventive and corrective activities with young people experiencing a high level of mythological fear (fear of possession by jinni.

  16. Social buffering enhances extinction of conditioned fear responses in male rats.

    Mikami, Kaori; Kiyokawa, Yasushi; Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji

    2016-09-01

    In social species, the phenomenon in which the presence of conspecific animals mitigates stress responses is called social buffering. We previously reported that social buffering in male rats ameliorated behavioral fear responses, as well as hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation, elicited by an auditory conditioned stimulus (CS). However, after social buffering, it is not clear whether rats exhibit fear responses when they are re-exposed to the same CS in the absence of another rat. In the present study, we addressed this issue using an experimental model of extinction. High stress levels during extinction training impaired extinction, suggesting that extinction is enhanced when stress levels during extinction training are low. Therefore, we hypothesized that rats that had received social buffering during extinction training would not show fear responses to a CS, even in the absence of another rat, because social buffering had enhanced the extinction of conditioned fear responses. To test this, we subjected male fear-conditioned rats to extinction training either alone or with a non-conditioned male rat. The subjects were then individually re-exposed to the CS in a recall test. When the subjects individually underwent extinction training, no responses were suppressed in the recall test. Conversely, when the subjects received social buffering during extinction training, freezing and Fos expression in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and lateral amygdala were suppressed. Additionally, the effects of social buffering were absent when the recall test was conducted in a different context from the extinction training. The present results suggest that social buffering enhances extinction of conditioned fear responses. PMID:27158024

  17. Behavior problems of children in foster care: Associations with foster mothers' representations, commitment, and the quality of mother-child interaction.

    Dubois-Comtois, Karine; Bernier, Annie; Tarabulsy, George M; Cyr, Chantal; St-Laurent, Diane; Lanctôt, Anne-Sophie; St-Onge, Janie; Moss, Ellen; Béliveau, Marie-Julie

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated different environmental and contextual factors associated with maltreated children's adjustment in foster care. Participants included 83 children (52 boys), ages 1-7 years, and their foster caregivers. Quality of interaction with the foster caregiver was assessed from direct observation of a free-play situation; foster caregiver attachment state of mind and commitment toward the child were assessed using two interviews; disruptive behavior symptoms were reported by foster caregivers. Results showed that quality of interaction between foster caregivers and children were associated with behavior problems, such that higher-quality interactions were related to fewer externalizing and internalizing problems. Foster caregivers' state of mind and commitment were interrelated but not directly associated with behavior problems of foster children. Type of placement moderated the association between foster caregiver commitment and foster child behavior problems. Whereas greater foster caregiver commitment was associated with higher levels of adjustment for children in foster families (kin and non-kin), this was not the case in foster-to-adopt families. Finally, the associations between foster child behavior problems and history of maltreatment and placement related-risk conditions fell below significance after considering child age and quality of interaction with the foster caregiver. Findings underscore the crucial contribution of the foster caregiver-child relationship to fostering child adjustment and, thereby, have important implications for clinical services offered to this population. PMID:26187685

  18. Role of the hippocampus in contextual modulation of fear extinction

    Lingzhi Kong; Xihong Wu; Liang Li

    2008-01-01

    Fear extinction is an important form of emotional learning, and affects neural plasticity. Cue fear extinction is a classical form of inhibitory learning that can be used as an exposure-based treatment for phobia, because the long-term extinction memory produced during cue fear extinction can limit the over-expression of fear. The expression of this inhibitory memory partly depends on the context in which the extinction learning occurs. Studies such as transient inhibition, electrophysiology and brain imaging have proved that the hippocampus - an important structure in the limbic system - facilitates memory retrieval by contextual cues.Mediation of the hippocampus-medial prefrontal lobe circuit may be the neurobiological basis of this process.This article has reviewed the role of the hippocampus in the learning and retrieval of fear extinction.Contextual modulation of fear extinction may rely on a neural network consisting of the hippocampus, the medial prefrontal cortex and the amygdala.

  19. Fear of rape among college women: a social psychological analysis.

    Pryor, Douglas W; Hughes, Marion R

    2013-01-01

    This article examines social psychological underpinnings of fear of rape among college women. We analyze data from a survey of 1,905 female undergraduates to test the influence of 5 subjective perceptions about vulnerability and harm: unique invulnerability, gender risk, defensibility, anticipatory shame, and attribution of injury. We include 3 sources of crime exposure in our models: past sexual victimization, past noncontact violent victimization, and structural risk measured by age, parent's income, and race. Separate measures of fear of stranger and acquaintance rape are modeled, including variables tapping current versus anticipatory fear, fear on campus versus everywhere, and fear anytime versus at night. The data show that fear of rape among college women appears more grounded in constructed perceptions of harm and danger than in past violent experiences. PMID:23862309

  20. Emotion and affect in mental imagery: Do fear and anxiety manipulate mental rotation performance?

    Sandra eKaltner

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the effects of fear as a basic emotion on mental rotation performance. We expected that the emotional arousal evoked by fearful stimuli presented prior to each mental rotation trial would enhance mental rotation performance. Regarding the influence of anxiety, high anxious participants are supposed to show slower responses and higher error rates in this specific visuo-spatial ability. Furthermore, with respect to the embodied cognition viewpoint we wanted to investigate if the influence of fear on mental rotation performance is the same for egocentric and object-based transformations. Results show that fear enhances mental rotation performance, expressed by a higher mental rotation speed. Interestingly, this influence is stimulus-specific: it is restricted to egocentric transformations. Both observation of emotional stimuli and egocentric strategies are associated with left hemisphere activation which could explain a stronger influence on this type of transformation during observation. Another possible notion is the conceptual link between visuo-spatial perspective taking and empathy based on the co-activation of parietal areas. Stronger responses in egocentric transformations could result from this specific link. Regarding the influence of anxiety, participants with high scores on the trait-anxiety scale showed poor results in both reaction time and mental rotation speed. Findings of impoverished recruitment of prefrontal attentional control in patients with high scores in trait anxiety could be the explanation for this reduced performance.