WorldWideScience

Sample records for activities fostering fear

  1. Teaching Improvisation in Elementary General Music: Facing Fears and Fostering Creativity

    Whitcomb, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Improvisation is a vital part of an elementary general music education. While some music teachers successfully include improvisation in music instruction, others have fears and face challenges when attempting improvisational activities in the classroom. This article acknowledges obstacles facing music educators when attempting to incorporate…

  2. "FearNot!": A Computer-Based Anti-Bullying-Programme Designed to Foster Peer Intervention

    Vannini, Natalie; Enz, Sibylle; Sapouna, Maria; Wolke, Dieter; Watson, Scott; Woods, Sarah; Dautenhahn, Kerstin; Hall, Lynne; Paiva, Ana; Andre, Elizabeth; Aylett, Ruth; Schneider, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Bullying is widespread in European schools, despite multiple intervention strategies having been proposed over the years. The present study investigates the effects of a novel virtual learning strategy ("FearNot!") to tackle bullying in both UK and German samples. The approach is intended primarily for victims to increase their coping skills and…

  3. Psychopaths show enhanced amygdala activation during fear conditioning

    Douglas eSchultz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Psychopathy is a personality disorder characterized by emotional deficits and a failure to inhibit impulsive behavior and is often subdivided into primary and secondary psychopathic subtypes. The maladaptive behavior related to primary psychopathy is thought to reflect constitutional fearlessness, while the problematic behavior related to secondary psychopathy is motivated by other factors. The fearlessness observed in psychopathy has often been interpreted as reflecting a fundamental deficit in amygdala function, and previous studies have provided support for a low-fear model of psychopathy. However, many of these studies fail to use appropriate screening procedures, use liberal inclusion criteria, or have used unconventional approaches to assay amygdala function. We measured brain activity with BOLD imaging in primary and secondary psychopaths and non-psychopathic control subjects during Pavlovian fear conditioning. In contrast to the low-fear model, we observed normal fear expression in primary psychopaths. Psychopaths also displayed greater differential BOLD activity in the amygdala relative to matched controls. Inverse patterns of activity were observed in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC for primary versus secondary psychopaths. Primary psychopaths exhibited a pattern of activity in the dorsal and ventral ACC consistent with enhanced fear expression, while secondary psychopaths exhibited a pattern of activity in these regions consistent with fear inhibition. These results contradict the low-fear model of psychopathy and suggest that the low fear observed for psychopaths in previous studies may be specific to secondary psychopaths.

  4. Familiar Fears: The Assessment of Lesbian and Gay Fostering and Adoption Applicants

    Hicks, Stephen

    1998-01-01

    This thesis considers how local authority social workers go about assessing the suitability of lesbians and gay men to foster or adopt children. It also asks how far a stated lesbian or gay sexuality is problematic within this process. A constructionist approach to social enquiry is used, data being generated by interviews with social workers, as well as a case study of a lesbian couple’s adoption application. Dorothy Smith’s ‘institutional ethnography’ is also employed to examine the ‘relati...

  5. Characterization of fear conditioning and fear extinction by analysis of electrodermal activity.

    Faghih, Rose T; Stokes, Patrick A; Marin, Marie-France; Zsido, Rachel G; Zorowitz, Sam; Rosenbaum, Blake L; Huijin Song; Milad, Mohammed R; Dougherty, Darin D; Eskandar, Emad N; Widge, Alik S; Brown, Emery N; Barbieri, Riccardo

    2015-08-01

    Electrodermal activity (EDA) is a measure of physical arousal, which is frequently measured during psychophysical tasks relevant for anxiety disorders. Recently, specific protocols and procedures have been devised in order to examine the neural mechanisms of fear conditioning and extinction. EDA reflects important responses associated with stimuli specifically administrated during these procedures. Although several previous studies have demonstrated the reproducibility of measures estimated from EDA, a mathematical framework associated with the stimulus-response experiments in question and, at the same time, including the underlying emotional state of the subject during fear conditioning and/or extinction experiments is not well studied. We here propose an ordinary differential equation model based on sudomotor nerve activity, and estimate the fear eliciting stimulus using a compressed sensing algorithm. Our results show that we are able to recover the underlying stimulus (visual cue or mild electrical shock). Moreover, relating the time-delay in the estimated stimulation to the visual cue during extinction period shows that fear level decreases as visual cues are presented without shock, suggesting that this feature might be used to estimate the fear state. These findings indicate that a mathematical model based on electrodermal responses might be critical in defining a low-dimensional representation of essential cognitive features in order to describe dynamic behavioral states. PMID:26738104

  6. Factors Associated with Physical Activity Literacy among Foster Parents

    Dominick, Gregory M.; Friedman, Daniela B.; Saunders, Ruth P.; Hussey, Jim R.; Watkins, Ken W.; W.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To explore associations between physical activity (PA) literacy and psychosocial constructs for providing instrumental social support for youth PA. Methods: Ninety-one foster parents completed surveys assessing PA literacy (overall and specific), perceptions of child PA, coordination, PA enjoyment, psychosocial variables:…

  7. Candesartan ameliorates impaired fear extinction induced by innate immune activation.

    Quiñones, María M; Maldonado, Lizette; Velazquez, Bethzaly; Porter, James T

    2016-02-01

    Patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) tend to show signs of a relatively increased inflammatory state suggesting that activation of the immune system may contribute to the development of PTSD. In the present study, we tested whether activation of the innate immune system can disrupt acquisition or recall of auditory fear extinction using an animal model of PTSD. Male adolescent rats received auditory fear conditioning in context A. The next day, an intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 100 μg/kg) prior to auditory fear extinction in context B impaired acquisition and recall of extinction. LPS (100 μg/kg) given after extinction training did not impair extinction recall suggesting that LPS did not affect consolidation of extinction. In contrast to cued fear extinction, contextual fear extinction was not affected by prior injection of LPS (100 μg/kg). Although LPS also reduced locomotion, we could dissociate the effects of LPS on extinction and locomotion by using a lower dose of LPS (50 μg/kg) which impaired locomotion without affecting extinction. In addition, 15 h after an injection of 250 μg/kg LPS in adult rats, extinction learning and recall were impaired without affecting locomotion. A sub-chronic treatment with candesartan, an angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker, prevented the LPS-induced impairment of extinction in adult rats. Our results demonstrate that activation of the innate immune system can disrupt auditory fear extinction in adolescent and adult animals. These findings also provide direction for clinical studies of novel treatments that modulate the innate immune system for stress-related disorders like PTSD. PMID:26520214

  8. Inhibition of Rac1 Activity in the Hippocampus Impairs the Forgetting of Contextual Fear Memory.

    Jiang, Lizhu; Mao, Rongrong; Zhou, Qixin; Yang, Yuexiong; Cao, Jun; Ding, Yuqiang; Yang, Yuan; Zhang, Xia; Li, Lingjiang; Xu, Lin

    2016-03-01

    Fear is crucial for survival, whereas hypermnesia of fear can be detrimental. Inhibition of the Rac GTPase is recently reported to impair the forgetting of initially acquired memory in Drosophila. Here, we investigated whether inhibition of Rac1 activity in rat hippocampus could contribute to the hypermnesia of contextual fear. We found that spaced but not massed training of contextual fear conditioning caused inhibition of Rac1 activity in the hippocampus and heightened contextual fear. Furthermore, intrahippocampal injection of the Rac1 inhibitor NSC23766 heightened contextual fear in massed training, while Rac1 activator CN04-A weakened contextual fear in spaced training rats. Our study firstly demonstrates that contextual fear memory in rats is actively regulated by Rac1 activity in the hippocampus, which suggests that the forgetting impairment of traumatic events in posttraumatic stress disorder may be contributed to the pathological inhibition of Rac1 activity in the hippocampus. PMID:25613020

  9. Persistent Prelimbic Cortex Activity Contributes to Enhanced Learned Fear Expression in Females

    Fenton, Georgina E.; Pollard, Amelia K.; Halliday, David M.; Mason, Rob; Bredy, Timothy W.; Stevenson, Carl W.

    2014-01-01

    Anxiety disorders, such as post-traumatic stress, are more prevalent in women and are characterized by impaired inhibition of learned fear and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) dysfunction. Here we examined sex differences in fear extinction and mPFC activity in rats. Females showed more learned fear expression during extinction and its recall, but…

  10. Altered resting-state brain activity at functional MRI during automatic memory consolidation of fear conditioning.

    Feng, Tingyong; Feng, Pan; Chen, Zhencai

    2013-07-26

    Investigations of fear conditioning in rodents and humans have illuminated the neural mechanisms of fear acquisition and extinction. However, the neural mechanism of automatic memory consolidation of fear conditioning is still unclear. To address this question, we measured brain activity following fear acquisition using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). In the current study, we used a marker of fMRI, amplitude of low-frequency (0.01-0.08Hz) fluctuation (ALFF) to quantify the spontaneous brain activity. Brain activity correlated to fear memory consolidation was observed in parahippocampus, insula, and thalamus in resting-state. Furthermore, after acquired fear conditioning, compared with control group some brain areas showed ALFF increased in ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in the experimental group, whereas some brain areas showed decreased ALFF in striatal regions (caudate, putamen). Moreover, the change of ALFF in vmPFC was positively correlated with the subjective fear ratings. These findings suggest that the parahippocampus, insula, and thalamus are the neural substrates of fear memory consolidation. The difference in activity could be attributed to a homeostatic process in which the vmPFC and ACC were involved in the fear recovery process, and change of ALFF in vmPFC predicts subjective fear ratings. PMID:23726994

  11. Fostering Innovation through an Active Learning Activity Inspired by the Baghdad Battery

    Lu, Xu; Anariba, Franklin

    2014-01-01

    A hands-on activity based on general electrochemistry concepts with the aim at introducing design science elements is presented. The main goals of the activity are to reinforce electrochemical principles while fostering innovation in the students through the assembly and optimization of a voltaic device and subsequent evaluation by powering…

  12. Foster Mother-Infant Bonding: Associations between Foster Mothers' Oxytocin Production, Electrophysiological Brain Activity, Feelings of Commitment, and Caregiving Quality

    Bick, Johanna; Dozier, Mary; Bernard, Kristin; Grasso, Damion; Simons, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the biological processes associated with foster mother-infant bonding. In an examination of foster mother-infant dyads ("N" = 41, mean infant age = 8.5 months), foster mothers' oxytocin production was associated with their expressions of behavioral delight toward their foster infant and their average P3 response to images of…

  13. Medial Prefrontal Cortex Activation Facilitates Re-Extinction of Fear in Rats

    Chang, Chun-hui; Maren, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    It has been suggested that reduced infralimbic (IL) cortical activity contributes to impairments of fear extinction. We therefore explored whether pharmacological activation of the IL would facilitate extinction under conditions it normally fails (i.e., immediate extinction). Rats received auditory fear conditioning 1 h before extinction training.…

  14. Transgenic Inhibition of Neuronal Protein Kinase A Activity Facilitates Fear Extinction

    Isiegas, Carolina; Park, Alice; Kandel, Eric R.; Abel, Ted; Lattal, K. Matthew

    2006-01-01

    Much is known about the neurobiology of memory storage for learned fear. In contrast, the molecular mechanisms underlying extinction of fear memory are just beginning to be delineated. Here, we investigate the role of protein kinase A (PKA) in extinction of memory for contextual fear by using conventional and temporally regulated transgenic approaches that allow us to inhibit PKA activity in neurons within brain regions thought to be involved in extinction. Strikingly, reduction of PKA activi...

  15. A Discrete Population of Neurons in the Lateral Amygdala Is Specifically Activated by Contextual Fear Conditioning

    Wilson, Yvette M.; Murphy, Mark

    2009-01-01

    There is no clear identification of the neurons involved in fear conditioning in the amygdala. To search for these neurons, we have used a genetic approach, the "fos-tau-lacZ" (FTL) mouse, to map functionally activated expression in neurons following contextual fear conditioning. We have identified a discrete population of neurons in the lateral…

  16. Fear extinction memory consolidation requires potentiation of pontine-wave activity during REM sleep.

    Datta, Subimal; O'Malley, Matthew W

    2013-03-01

    Sleep plays an important role in memory consolidation within multiple memory systems including contextual fear extinction memory, but little is known about the mechanisms that underlie this process. Here, we show that fear extinction training in rats, which extinguished conditioned fear, increased both slow-wave sleep and rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep. Surprisingly, 24 h later, during memory testing, only 57% of the fear-extinguished animals retained fear extinction memory. We found that these animals exhibited an increase in phasic pontine-wave (P-wave) activity during post-training REM sleep, which was absent in the 43% of animals that failed to retain fear extinction memory. The results of this study provide evidence that brainstem activation, specifically potentiation of phasic P-wave activity, during post-training REM sleep is critical for consolidation of fear extinction memory. The results of this study also suggest that, contrary to the popular hypothesis of sleep and memory, increased sleep after training alone does not guarantee consolidation and/or retention of fear extinction memory. Rather, the potentiation of specific sleep-dependent physiological events may be a more accurate predictor for successful consolidation of fear extinction memory. Identification of this unique mechanism will significantly improve our present understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie the sleep-dependent regulation of emotional memory. Additionally, this discovery may also initiate development of a new, more targeted treatment method for clinical disorders of fear and anxiety in humans that is more efficacious than existing methods such as exposure therapy that incorporate only fear extinction. PMID:23467372

  17. Melanosomes foster a tumour niche by activating CAFs.

    García-Silva, Susana; Peinado, Héctor

    2016-08-30

    Extracellular vesicles, such as exosomes, are important effectors in the formation of tumour-fostering niches. Pigmented melanosomes are now shown to have a relevant role in establishing a tumour niche in primary melanoma by reprogramming dermal fibroblasts into cancer-associated fibroblasts through the transfer of miR-211. PMID:27571736

  18. Voluntary exercise during extinction of auditory fear conditioning reduces the relapse of fear associated with potentiated activity of striatal direct pathway neurons.

    Mika, Agnieszka; Bouchet, Courtney A; Bunker, Preston; Hellwinkel, Justin E; Spence, Katie G; Day, Heidi E W; Campeau, Serge; Fleshner, Monika; Greenwood, Benjamin N

    2015-11-01

    Relapse of previously extinguished fear presents a significant, pervasive obstacle to the successful long-term treatment of anxiety and trauma-related disorders. Thus, identification of a novel means to enhance fear extinction to stand the passage of time and generalize across contexts is of the utmost importance. Acute bouts of exercise can be used as inexpensive, noninvasive treatment strategies to reduce anxiety, and have been shown to enhance memory for extinction when performed in close temporal proximity to the extinction session. However, it is unclear whether acute exercise can be used to prevent relapse of fear, and the neural mechanisms underlying this potential effect are unknown. The current study therefore examined whether acute exercise during extinction of auditory fear can protect against the later relapse of fear. Male F344 rats lacking an extended history of wheel running were conditioned to fear a tone CS and subsequently extinguished within either a freely mobile running wheel, a locked wheel, or a control context lacking a wheel. Rats exposed to fear extinction within a freely mobile wheel ran during fear extinction, and demonstrated reduced fear as well as attenuated corticosterone levels during re-exposure to the extinguished CS during the relapse test in a novel context 1week later. Examination of cfos mRNA patterns elicited by re-exposure to the extinguished CS during the relapse test revealed that acute exercise during extinction decreased activation of brain circuits classically involved in driving fear expression and interestingly, increased activity within neurons of the direct striatal pathway involved in reward signaling. These data suggest that exercise during extinction reduces relapse through a mechanism involving the direct pathway of the striatum. It is suggested that a positive affective state could become associated with the CS during exercise during extinction, thus resulting in a relapse-resistant extinction memory. PMID

  19. Activity, balance, learning, and exposure (ABLE): A new intervention for fear of falling

    Wetherell, JL; Johnson, K.; Chang, D; Ward, SR; Bower, ES; Merz, C; Petkus, AJ

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Objective: Fear of falling is an important problem among older adults, even those with relatively low rates of objective fall risk, who are often overlooked as targets for intervention. Method: We developed and pilot tested a new intervention, Activity, Balance, Learning, and Exposure (ABLE), in a sample of 10 older adults with excessive fear of falling. The ABLE intervention integrates exposure therapy and cognitive restructuring with a home safety evaluation a...

  20. Ventromedial prefrontal cortex activity and rapid eye movement sleep are associated with subsequent fear expression in human subjects.

    Spoormaker, V I; Gvozdanovic, G A; Sämann, P G; Czisch, M

    2014-05-01

    In humans, activity patterns in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) have been found to be predictive of subsequent fear memory consolidation. Pioneering work in rodents has further shown that vmPFC-amygdala theta synchronization is correlated with fear memory consolidation. We aimed to evaluate whether vmPFC activity during fear conditioning is (1) correlated with fear expression the subsequent day and whether (2) this relationship is mediated by rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. We analyzed data from 17 young healthy subjects undergoing a fear conditioning task, followed by a fear extinction task 24 h later, both recorded with simultaneous skin conductance response (SCR) and functional magnetic resonance imaging measurements, with a polysomnographically recorded night sleep in between. Our results showed a correlation between vmPFC activity during fear conditioning and subsequent REM sleep amount, as well as between REM sleep amount and SCR to the conditioned stimulus 24 h later. Moreover, we observed a significant correlation between vmPFC activity during fear conditioning and SCR responses during extinction, which was no longer significant after controlling for REM sleep amount. vmPFC activity during fear conditioning was further correlated with sleep latency. Interestingly, hippocampus activity during fear conditioning was correlated with stage 2 and stage 4 sleep amount. Our results provide preliminary evidence that the relationship between REM sleep and fear conditioning and extinction observed in rodents can be modeled in healthy human subjects, highlighting an interrelated set of potentially relevant trait markers. PMID:24452776

  1. Fostering Students' Creativity through Van Hiele's 5 Phase-Based Tangram Activities

    Siew, Nyet Moi; Chong, Chin Lu

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether Van Hiele's 5 phase-based tangrams activities could help to foster creativity among Grade Three primary school students. Students' creativity was investigated in terms of Torrance's Figural Test of creative thinking: Fluency, Originality, Elaboration, Abstractness of title, and Resistance to a…

  2. Neural Activation during Anticipation of Near Pain-Threshold Stimulation among the Pain-Fearful.

    Yang, Zhou; Jackson, Todd; Huang, Chengzhi

    2016-01-01

    Fear of pain (FOP) can increase risk for chronic pain and disability but little is known about corresponding neural responses in anticipation of potential pain. In this study, more (10 women, 6 men) and less (7 women, 6 men) pain-fearful groups underwent whole-brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during anticipation of near pain-threshold stimulation. Groups did not differ in the proportion of stimuli judged to be painful but pain-fearful participants reported significantly more state fear prior to stimulus exposure. Within the entire sample, stronger activation was found in several pain perception regions (e.g., bilateral insula, midcingulate cortex (MCC), thalamus, superior frontal gyrus) and visual areas linked to decoding stimulus valences (inferior orbital cortex) during anticipation of "painful" stimuli. Between groups and correlation analyses indicated pain-fearful participants experienced comparatively more activity in regions implicated in evaluating potential threats and processing negative emotions during anticipation (i.e., MCC, mid occipital cortex, superior temporal pole), though group differences were not apparent in most so-called "pain matrix" regions. In sum, trait- and task-based FOP is associated with enhanced responsiveness in regions involved in threat processing and negative affect during anticipation of potentially painful stimulation. PMID:27489536

  3. Fostering Physical Activity Values in the World of the Future

    Earle F. Zeigler

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The author argues that we are using human physical activity well in some ways, but that we are also abusing it badly in others! In the case of competitive sport, he believes that we gradually and increasingly abused it over the course of the twentieth century. However, he is not against sport! He is arguing that, employed properly and correctly, sport–as one of a number of vital social forces (e.g., nationalism, ecology–could contribute to the improvement of the current situation in human health enormously. Additionally, in the case of related physical activity (i.e., regular exercise or “physical activity education” in the developed world, he believes humans are too often “abusing it by first not understanding it, and then by not using it more intelligently”! (Ironically, in the “undeveloped world,” people often get too much “exercise” just to stay alive! Moreover, he believes that the active use of competitive sport worldwide to promote what have been called moral values–traits or attributes leading to world peace and good will-as opposed to so-called socio-instrumental or material values-are overly self-serving. This would tend to create a social force of such strength and power that humankind might be helped as it confronts the social and physical devastation looming ahead. 

  4. Context Fear Learning Specifically Activates Distinct Populations of Neurons in Amygdala and Hypothalamus

    Trogrlic, Lidia; Wilson, Yvette M.; Newman, Andrew G.; Murphy, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The identity and distribution of neurons that are involved in any learning or memory event is not known. In previous studies, we identified a discrete population of neurons in the lateral amygdala that show learning-specific activation of a c-"fos"-regulated transgene following context fear conditioning. Here, we have extended these studies to…

  5. Blockade of Dopamine Activity in the Nucleus Accumbens Impairs Learning Extinction of Conditioned Fear

    Holtzman-Assif, Orit; Laurent, Vincent; Westbrook, R. Frederick

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments used rats to investigate the role of dopamine activity in learning to inhibit conditioned fear responses (freezing) in extinction. In Experiment 1, rats systemically injected with the D2 dopamine antagonist, haloperidol, froze more across multiple extinction sessions and on a drug-free retention test than control rats. In…

  6. Fostering Engagement Activities To Advance Adaptation And Resiliency

    Dissen, J.; Owen, T.; Brewer, M.; Hollingshead, A.; Mecray, E. L.; Werner, K.

    2015-12-01

    As the understanding of climate risks grows for public and private companies, the dissemination of meaningful climate and environmental information becomes important for improved risk management practices and innovation. In a broader effort to build capacity for adaptation and demonstrate the value of investment in resiliency, NCEI and its partners have made several shifts to showcase an improved understanding of uses and applications of climate and environmental data and information. The NOAA NCEI engagement initiative includes actively exploring ways to: 1) identify opportunities in data use and applications and 2) characterize needs and requirements from customers to help inform investment in the relevant science. This presentation will highlight: 1) NCEI's engagement initiative strategy, 2) our regional and national partnerships as agents of engagement in the region, 3) a few examples of uses of climate information with select stakeholders and 4) justification of customer engagement and requirements as a critical component in informing the science agenda.

  7. Non-Foster Impedance Wideband Matching Technique for Electrically Small Active Antenna

    Wenxing Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates a non-Foster wideband circuit matching technique for an electrically small antenna (ESA. By introducing a negative impedance convertor into an active network, the active network can obtain an equivalent input gain at input port to improve gain, sensitivity and output ratio of signal to noise. In addition, it also increases the effective height of active antenna. The experimental results have verified the proposed method by using a 100 KHz–30 MHz wideband active receiving monopole antenna.

  8. Extinction and Retrieval + Extinction of Conditioned Fear Differentially Activate Medial Prefrontal Cortex and Amygdala in Rats.

    Lee, Hongjoo J; Haberman, Rebecca P; Roquet, Rheall F; Monfils, Marie-H

    2015-01-01

    Pairing a previously neutral conditioned stimulus (CS; e.g., a tone) to an aversive unconditioned stimulus (US; e.g., a footshock) leads to associative learning such that the tone alone comes to elicit a conditioned response (e.g., freezing). We have previously shown that an extinction session that occurs within the reconsolidation window (termed retrieval + extinction) attenuates fear responding and prevents the return of fear in Pavlovian fear conditioning (Monfils et al., 2009). To date, the mechanisms that explain the different behavioral outcomes between standard extinction and retrieval + extinction remain poorly understood. Here we sought to examine the differential temporal engagement of specific neural systems by these two approaches using Arc catFISH (cellular compartment analysis of temporal activity using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)). Our results demonstrate that extinction and retrieval + extinction lead to differential patterns of expression, suggesting that they engage different networks. These findings provide insight into the neural mechanisms that allow extinction during reconsolidation to prevent the return of fear in rodents. PMID:26834596

  9. Fearfulness affects quail maternal care and subsequent offspring development.

    Florent Pittet

    Full Text Available Our study investigated relationships between a precocial bird's fearfulness and maternal care, and the implication of maternal care as a vector for non-genomic transmission of fearfulness to chicks. We compared care given to chicks between two sets of female Japanese quail selected to present either high (LTI or low fearfulness (STI. Chicks, from a broiler line, were adopted by these females following a sensitization procedure. Chicks' fearfulness after separation from their mother was assessed by well-established procedures. LTIs took longer to present maternal responses, pecked chicks more during the first days post-hatch, presented impaired maternal vocal behaviour and were globally less active than STI females. Chicks mothered by LTIs presented more fearful reactions than did chicks mothered by STIs, supporting the hypothesis of a non-genetic maternal transmission of fearfulness. We suggest that the longer latencies required by LTIs to become maternal are a consequence of their greater fear of chicks, and that their lower general and vocal activity could be components of a heightened antipredatory strategy. We discuss the transmission of maternal fearfulness to fostered chicks, taking into account the possible implication of several well-known mechanisms underlying maternal effects.

  10. Balance control and anti-gravity muscle activity during the experience of fear at heights.

    Wuehr, Max; Kugler, Guenter; Schniepp, Roman; Eckl, Maria; Pradhan, Cauchy; Jahn, Klaus; Huppert, Doreen; Brandt, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    Fear of heights occurs when a visual stimulus causes the apprehension of losing balance and falling. A moderate form of visual height intolerance (vHI) affects about one third of the general population and has relevant consequences for the quality of life. A quantitative evaluation of balance mechanisms in persons susceptible to vHI during height exposure is missing. VHI-related changes in postural control were assessed by center-of-pressure displacements and electromyographic recordings of selected leg, arm, and neck muscles in 16 subjects with vHI while standing at heights on an emergency balcony versus standing in the laboratory at ground level. Characteristics of open- and closed-loop postural control were analyzed. Body sway and muscle activity parameters were correlated with the subjective estimates of fear at heights. During height exposure, (1) open-loop control was disturbed by a higher diffusion activity (P anti-gravity leg and neck muscles, both of which depend on the severity of evoked fear at heights. PMID:24744901

  11. Corticosterone regulates fear memory via Rac1 activity in the hippocampus.

    Gan, Ping; Ding, Ze-Yang; Gan, Cheng; Mao, Rong-Rong; Zhou, Heng; Xu, Lin; Zhou, Qi-Xin

    2016-09-01

    Stressful events can generate enduring memories, which may induce certain psychiatric disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the underlying molecular mechanisms in these processes remain unclear. In this study, we examined whether the active form of the small G protein Rac1, Rac1-GTP, is involved in fear memory. Firstly, we detected the time course changes of Rac1-GTP after foot shocks (a strong stressor) and exogenous corticosterone (CORT) treatment. The data showed that stress and CORT induced the downregulation of Rac1-GTP in the hippocampus. Changes in the serum CORT level were negatively correlated with the level of Rac1-GTP. Additionally, a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, RU38486, not only recovered the expression of Rac1-GTP but also impaired fear memory. Furthermore, systemic administration of NSC23766, an inhibitor of Rac1-GTP, improved fear memory at 1.5 and 24h. Therefore, Rac1 activity plays a critical role in stress-related cognition and may be a potential target in stress-related disorders. PMID:27249795

  12. Cannabinoid modulation of prefrontal-limbic activation during fear extinction learning and recall in humans.

    Rabinak, Christine A; Angstadt, Mike; Lyons, Maryssa; Mori, Shoko; Milad, Mohammed R; Liberzon, Israel; Phan, K Luan

    2014-09-01

    Pre-extinction administration of Δ9-tetrahydrocannibinol (THC) facilitates recall of extinction in healthy humans, and evidence from animal studies suggest that this likely occurs via enhancement of the cannabinoid system within the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and hippocampus (HIPP), brain structures critical to fear extinction. However, the effect of cannabinoids on the underlying neural circuitry of extinction memory recall in humans has not been demonstrated. We conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, between-subjects design (N=14/group) coupled with a standard Pavlovian fear extinction paradigm and an acute pharmacological challenge with oral dronabinol (synthetic THC) in healthy adult volunteers. We examined the effects of THC on vmPFC and HIPP activation when tested for recall of extinction learning 24 h after extinction learning. Compared to subjects who received placebo, participants who received THC showed increased vmPFC and HIPP activation to a previously extinguished conditioned stimulus (CS+E) during extinction memory recall. This study provides the first evidence that pre-extinction administration of THC modulates prefrontal-limbic circuits during fear extinction in humans and prompts future investigation to test if cannabinoid agonists can rescue or correct the impaired behavioral and neural function during extinction recall in patients with PTSD. Ultimately, the cannabinoid system may serve as a promising target for innovative intervention strategies (e.g. pharmacological enhancement of exposure-based therapy) in PTSD and other fear learning-related disorders. PMID:24055595

  13. Fear Extinction Memory Consolidation Requires Potentiation of Pontine-Wave Activity during REM Sleep

    Datta, Subimal; O'Malley, Matthew W .

    2013-01-01

    Sleep plays an important role in memory consolidation within multiple memory systems including contextual fear extinction memory, but little is known about the mechanisms that underlie this process. Here, we show that fear extinction training in rats, which extinguished conditioned fear, increased both slow-wave sleep and rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep. Surprisingly, 24 h later, during memory testing, only 57% of the fear-extinguished animals retained fear extinction memory. We found that the...

  14. Fear of Movement and Low Self-Efficacy Are Important Barriers in Physical Activity after Renal Transplantation.

    Dorien M Zelle

    Full Text Available Physical activity (PA and exercise are commonly used as preventive measures for cardiovascular disease in the general population, and could be effective in the management of post-transplantation cardiovascular risk. PA levels are low after renal transplantation and very few renal transplant recipients (RTR meet the PA guidelines. Identification of barriers to regular PA is important to identify targets for intervention to improve PA levels after renal transplantation. We investigated fear of movement and physical self-efficacy as barriers to PA in RTR.RTR were investigated between 2001-2003. The Tampa Score of Kinesiophobia-Dutch Version (TSK-11 was used to assess fear of movement. Physical self-efficacy was measured with the LIVAS-scale. PA was assessed using validated questionnaires (Tecumseh Occupational Activity Questionnaire and the Minnesota Leisure Time Physical Activity Questionnaire.A total of 487 RTR (age 51±12 years, 55% men were studied. Median score [interquartile range] on TSK-11 was 22 [17-26]. Low physical self-efficacy (Exp B:0.41[0.31-0.54], p<0.001 and history of myocardial infarction, transient ischemic attack and cerebrovascular accident (Exp B:1.30[1.03-1.63],p = 0.03 were independent determinants for fear of movement. Fear of movement was associated with lower daily PA, occupational, sports and leisure time PA. Mediation-analysis showed that a large part (73% of the effect of fear of movement on PA was explained by low physical self-efficacy.This study was the first to examine fear of movement and self-efficacy in relation to PA in RTR. Fear of movement was associated with a low PA level, and the larger part of this relation was mediated by low physical self-efficacy. Both fear of movement and physical self-efficacy level are important targets for intervention during rehabilitation after renal transplantation.

  15. Parent and child physical activity and sedentary time: Do active parents foster active children?

    Brockman Rowan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity has many positive effects on children's health while TV viewing has been associated with adverse health outcomes. Many children do not meet physical activity recommendations and exceed TV viewing guidelines. Parents are likely to be an important influence on their children's behaviour. There is an absence of information about the associations between parents' and children's physical activity and TV viewing. Methods Year 6 children and their parent were recruited from 40 primary schools. Results are presented for the 340 parent-child dyads with accelerometer data that met a ≥ 3 day inclusion criteria and the 431 parent-child dyads with complete self-reported TV viewing. Over 80% of the dyads with valid TV viewing data included mothers and their child. Mean minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA, minutes of sedentary time per day and counts per minute were assessed by accelerometer. Self-reported hours of TV viewing were coded into 3 groups (4 hours per day. Linear and multi-nominal regression models were run by child gender to examine parent-child associations. Results In linear regression models there was an association for the overall sedentary time of girls and their parents (t = 2.04. p = .020 but there was no association between girls' and parents' physical activity. There were no associations between parents' and boys' sedentary or physical activity time. For girls, the risk of watching more than 4 hours of TV per day, (reference = 2 hours of TV per day, was 3.67 times higher if the girl's parent watched 2-4 hours of TV per day (p = 0.037. For boys, the risk of watching more than 4 hours of TV per day, was 10.47 times higher if the boy's parent watched more than 4 hours of TV per day (p = 0.038. Conclusions There are associations in the sedentary time of parents and daughters. Higher parental TV viewing was associated with an increased risk of high levels of TV viewing for both boys

  16. Activation of BDNF Signaling Prevents the Return of Fear in Female Mice

    Baker-Andresen, Danay; Flavell, Charlotte R.; Li, Xiang; Bredy, Timothy W.

    2013-01-01

    There are significant sex differences in vulnerability to develop fear-related anxiety disorders. Females exhibit twice the rate of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as males and sex differences have been observed in fear extinction learning in both humans and rodents, with a failure to inhibit fear emerging as a precipitating factor in the…

  17. HybridPLAY: A New Technology to Foster Outdoors Physical Activity, Verbal Communication and Teamwork.

    Díaz, Diego José; Boj, Clara; Portalés, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents HybridPLAY, a novel technology composed of a sensor and mobile-based video games that transforms urban playgrounds into game scenarios. With this technology we aim to stimulate physical activity and playful learning by creating an entertaining environment in which users can actively participate and collaborate. HybridPLAY is different from other existing technologies that enhance playgrounds, as it is not integrated in them but can be attached to the different elements of the playgrounds, making its use more ubiquitous (i.e., not restricted to the playgrounds). HybridPLAY was born in 2007 as an artistic concept, and evolved after different phases of research and testing by almost 2000 users around the world (in workshops, artistic events, conferences, etc.). Here, we present the temporal evolution of HybridPLAY with the different versions of the sensors and the video games, and a detailed technical description of the sensors and the way interactions are produced. We also present the outcomes after the evaluation by users at different events and workshops. We believe that HybridPLAY has great potential to contribute to increased physical activity in kids, and also to improve the learning process and monitoring at school centres by letting users create the content of the apps, leading to new narratives and fostering creativity. PMID:27120601

  18. HybridPLAY: A New Technology to Foster Outdoors Physical Activity, Verbal Communication and Teamwork

    Díaz, Diego José; Boj, Clara; Portalés, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents HybridPLAY, a novel technology composed of a sensor and mobile-based video games that transforms urban playgrounds into game scenarios. With this technology we aim to stimulate physical activity and playful learning by creating an entertaining environment in which users can actively participate and collaborate. HybridPLAY is different from other existing technologies that enhance playgrounds, as it is not integrated in them but can be attached to the different elements of the playgrounds, making its use more ubiquitous (i.e., not restricted to the playgrounds). HybridPLAY was born in 2007 as an artistic concept, and evolved after different phases of research and testing by almost 2000 users around the world (in workshops, artistic events, conferences, etc.). Here, we present the temporal evolution of HybridPLAY with the different versions of the sensors and the video games, and a detailed technical description of the sensors and the way interactions are produced. We also present the outcomes after the evaluation by users at different events and workshops. We believe that HybridPLAY has great potential to contribute to increased physical activity in kids, and also to improve the learning process and monitoring at school centres by letting users create the content of the apps, leading to new narratives and fostering creativity. PMID:27120601

  19. HybridPLAY: A New Technology to Foster Outdoors Physical Activity, Verbal Communication and Teamwork

    Diego José Díaz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents HybridPLAY, a novel technology composed of a sensor and mobile-based video games that transforms urban playgrounds into game scenarios. With this technology we aim to stimulate physical activity and playful learning by creating an entertaining environment in which users can actively participate and collaborate. HybridPLAY is different from other existing technologies that enhance playgrounds, as it is not integrated in them but can be attached to the different elements of the playgrounds, making its use more ubiquitous (i.e., not restricted to the playgrounds. HybridPLAY was born in 2007 as an artistic concept, and evolved after different phases of research and testing by almost 2000 users around the world (in workshops, artistic events, conferences, etc.. Here, we present the temporal evolution of HybridPLAY with the different versions of the sensors and the video games, and a detailed technical description of the sensors and the way interactions are produced. We also present the outcomes after the evaluation by users at different events and workshops. We believe that HybridPLAY has great potential to contribute to increased physical activity in kids, and also to improve the learning process and monitoring at school centres by letting users create the content of the apps, leading to new narratives and fostering creativity.

  20. Increased skin conductance responses and neural activity during fear conditioning are associated with a repressive coping style

    Tim eKlucken

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of individual differences in coping styles in response to fear conditioning is an important issue for a better understanding of the etiology and treatment of psychiatric disorders. It has been assumed that an avoidant (repressive coping style is characterized by increased emotion regulation efforts in context of fearful stimuli as compared to a more vigilant coping style. However, no study so far has investigated the neural correlates of fear conditioning of repressors and sensitizers.In the present fMRI study, 76 participants were classified as repressors or as sensitizers and were exposed to a fear conditioning paradigm, in which the CS+ predicted electrical stimulation, while another neutral stimulus (CS- did not. In addition, skin conductance responses (SCRs were measured continuously.As the main findings, we found increased neural activations in repressors as compared to sensitizers in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex during fear conditioning. In addition, elevated activity to the CS+ in amygdala, insula, occipital, and orbitofrontal cortex as well as conditioned SCRs were found in repressors.The present results demonstrate increased neural activations in structures linked to emotion down-regulation mechanisms like the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, which may reflect the increased coping effort in repressors. At the same time, repressors showed increased activations in arousal and evaluation-associated structures like the amygdala, the occipital cortex, and the orbitofrontal cortex, which is also mirrored in increased SCRs. The present results support recent assumptions about a two-process model of repression postulating a fast vigilant response to fearful stimuli, but also a second emotion down-regulating process.

  1. Are fear-avoidance beliefs in low back pain patients a risk factor for low physical activity or vice versa? A cross-lagged panel analysis

    Leonhardt, C; Lehr, D.; Chenot, JF; Keller, S; Luckmann, J.; Basler, HD; Baum, E.; Donner-Banzhoff, N; Pfingsten, M; Hildebrandt, J; Kochen, MM; Becker, A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The assumption that low back pain (LBP) patients suffer from "disuse" as a consequence of high fear-avoidance beliefs is currently under debate. A secondary analysis served to investigate whether fear-avoidance beliefs are associated cross-sectionally and longitudinally with the physical activity level (PAL) in LBP patients. Methods: A total of 787 individuals (57% acute and 43% chronic LBP) were followed up over a period of one year with measurements of fear-avoidance beli...

  2. Emetophobia: A fear of vomiting.

    Faye, Abhijeet D; Gawande, Sushil; Tadke, Rahul; Kirpekar, Vivek C; Bhave, Sudhir H

    2013-10-01

    Emetophobia is an intense, irrational fear of vomiting including fear of feeling nausea, seeing or hearing another person vomit, or seeing vomitus itself. It may occur at any age and we need to understand its symptomatology. We report a case of emetophobic child whose fear of vomiting started after an attack of acute appendicitis. In the initial stage, fear was limited to vomiting, later it became generalized to a fear of seeing the vomitus, worries that parents may suffer vomiting, fear of vomiting in public places followed by avoiding social activities. Patient improved on short course of anti-anxiety drugs and Graded Exposure Therapy. PMID:24459314

  3. National program for the fostering and development of safety culture in the nuclear activities in Cuba

    Since its appearance, as a result of the investigations of the accident in the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, the term Safety Culture has been considered a key element to achieve a high level of safety in the nuclear installations, becoming a basic safety principle, internationally. The Cuban regulatory authority understood from very early the importance of the promotion and development of attitudes and characteristics in the organizations and personnel involved in the nuclear sector, reflecting a high Safety Culture, in order to propitiate a higher involvement of all employees in safety, contributing this way to the prevention of accidents in the nuclear facilities. Although the Cuban Nuclear Program was significantly reduced in the 90's, the regulatory authority has continued working in this direction and assimilated all the international experience for its application in its strategies for the development of a Safety Culture in the nuclear activities in the country. The present work summarizes the Cuban experience in the establishment of a National Program for the fostering and development of a Safety Culture. (author)

  4. Fostering Student Interaction and Engagement in a Virtual Learning Environment: An Investigation into Activity Design and Implementation

    Hampel, Regine; Pleines, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Online tools, such as forums, wikis, and blogs lend themselves to learners negotiating meaning and co-constructing knowledge through interaction. However, not enough is known about how tasks need to be designed to make best use of the possibilities of complex virtual learning environments (VLEs) to motivate and support learners, foster interaction, and contribute to knowledge construction. This article reports on a twoyear study exploring the design and implementation cycle of online activiti...

  5. Acute tianeptine treatment selectively modulates neuronal activation in the central nucleus of the amygdala and attenuates fear extinction.

    Godsil, B P; Bontempi, B; Mailliet, F; Delagrange, P; Spedding, M; Jay, T M

    2015-11-01

    Antidepressant drugs are commonly prescribed treatments for anxiety disorders, and there is growing interest in understanding how these drugs impact fear extinction because extinction learning is pivotal to successful exposure-based therapy (EBT). A key objective within this domain is understanding how antidepressants alter the activation of specific elements of the limbic-based network that governs such fear processing. Chronic treatment with the antidepressant tianeptine has been shown to reduce the acquisition of extinction learning in rats, yet the drug's acute influence on activation in prefrontal and amygdalar regions, and on extinction learning are not well understood. To assess its influence on cellular activation, rats were injected with tianeptine and Fos immunoreactivity was measured in these regions. Acute tianeptine treatment selectively altered Fos expression within subdivisions of the central nucleus of the amygdala (CEA) in a bidirectional manner that varied in relation to ongoing activation within the capsular subdivision and its prefrontal and intra-amygdalar inputs. This pattern of results suggests that the drug can conditionally modulate the activation of CEA subdivisions, which contain microcircuits strongly implicated in fear processing. The effect of acute tianeptine was also examined with respect to the acquisition, consolidation and expression of fear extinction in rats. Acute tianeptine attenuated extinction learning as well as the recall of extinction memory, which underscores that acute dosing with the drug could alter learning during EBT. Together these findings provide a new perspective for understanding the mechanism supporting tianeptine's clinical efficacy, as well as its potential influence on CEA-based learning mechanisms. PMID:25560759

  6. IAI Capacity Building Activities in the Americas: Fostering Multinational and Multidisciplinary Research

    Ohira, M. S.

    2007-05-01

    The IAI's Training and Education (T&E) activities are designed to encourage capacity building in the Americas and are developed within and in parallel with the IAI research programs in global environmental change (GEC). The IAI has various training priorities: (1) support for graduate students in the form of fellowships through research programs; (2) development of IAI Training Institutes in Interdisciplinary Sciences and Science-Policy Fora; and (3) support for technical workshops, scientific meetings, and seminars. It becomes increasingly evident that institutions such as IAI must provide training and support to policy and decision makers who deal with environmental issues. The IAI Training Institutes emphasize an exchange of information about the various scientific languages, needs, and methodologies of disciplines that study GEC. Particular attention is given to socio-economic impacts and ways in which nations can gain a better understanding of the complex mechanisms, degrees of change, causes, and consequences - and therefore, plan sound public and private policies to minimize problems and maximize opportunities. The IAI has also implemented a Training Institute Seed Grant (TISG) Program as an assessment activity of the Training Institutes to further encourage network building and multinational and multidisciplinary collaboration among its 19 member countries in the Americas. By fostering the development of such new multidisciplinary, multinational teams, the IAI ensures a future generation of professionals who will be engaged in IAI research programs and networks and will lead the integrated science programs in the next decades. Furthermore, IAI has organized Science-Policy Fora, which focus on the science- policy interface and ways to incorporate scientific information into policy and decision-making processes. Participants discussed what scientific information is available, what aspects need to be better understood, translation of scientific information for

  7. Delayed noradrenergic activation in the dorsal hippocampus promotes the long-term persistence of extinguished fear.

    Chai, Ning; Liu, Jian-Feng; Xue, Yan-Xue; Yang, Chang; Yan, Wei; Wang, Hui-Min; Luo, Yi-Xiao; Shi, Hai-Shui; Wang, Ji-Shi; Bao, Yan-Ping; Meng, Shi-Qiu; Ding, Zeng-Bo; Wang, Xue-Yi; Lu, Lin

    2014-07-01

    Fear extinction has been extensively studied, but little is known about the molecular processes that underlie the persistence of extinction long-term memory (LTM). We found that microinfusion of norepinephrine (NE) into the CA1 area of the dorsal hippocampus during the early phase (0 h) after extinction enhanced extinction LTM at 2 and 14 days after extinction. Intra-CA1 infusion of NE during the late phase (12 h) after extinction selectively promoted extinction LTM at 14 days after extinction that was blocked by the β-receptor antagonist propranolol, protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor Rp-cAMPS, and protein synthesis inhibitors anisomycin and emetine. The phosphorylation levels of PKA, cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein (CREB), GluR1, and the membrane GluR1 level were increased by NE during the late phase after extinction that was also blocked by propranolol and Rp-cAMPS. These results suggest that the enhancement of extinction LTM persistence induced by NE requires the activation of the β-receptor/PKA/CREB signaling pathway and membrane GluR1 trafficking. Moreover, extinction increased the phosphorylation levels of Erk1/2, CREB, and GluR1, and the membrane GluR1 level during the late phase, and anisomycin/emetine alone disrupted the persistence of extinction LTM, indicating that the persistence of extinction LTM requires late-phase protein synthesis in the CA1. Propranolol and Rp-cAMPS did not completely disrupt the persistence of extinction LTM, suggesting that another β-receptor/PKA-independent mechanism underlies the persistence of extinction LTM. Altogether, our results showed that enhancing hippocampal noradrenergic activity during the late phase after extinction selectively promotes the persistence of extinction LTM. PMID:24553734

  8. Delayed Noradrenergic Activation in the Dorsal Hippocampus Promotes the Long-Term Persistence of Extinguished Fear

    Chai, Ning; Liu, Jian-Feng; Xue, Yan-Xue; Yang, Chang; Yan, Wei; Wang, Hui-Min; Luo, Yi-Xiao; Shi, Hai-Shui; Wang, Ji-Shi; Bao, Yan-Ping; Meng, Shi-Qiu; Ding, Zeng-Bo; Wang, Xue-Yi; Lu, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Fear extinction has been extensively studied, but little is known about the molecular processes that underlie the persistence of extinction long-term memory (LTM). We found that microinfusion of norepinephrine (NE) into the CA1 area of the dorsal hippocampus during the early phase (0 h) after extinction enhanced extinction LTM at 2 and 14 days after extinction. Intra-CA1 infusion of NE during the late phase (12 h) after extinction selectively promoted extinction LTM at 14 days after extinction that was blocked by the β-receptor antagonist propranolol, protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor Rp-cAMPS, and protein synthesis inhibitors anisomycin and emetine. The phosphorylation levels of PKA, cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein (CREB), GluR1, and the membrane GluR1 level were increased by NE during the late phase after extinction that was also blocked by propranolol and Rp-cAMPS. These results suggest that the enhancement of extinction LTM persistence induced by NE requires the activation of the β-receptor/PKA/CREB signaling pathway and membrane GluR1 trafficking. Moreover, extinction increased the phosphorylation levels of Erk1/2, CREB, and GluR1, and the membrane GluR1 level during the late phase, and anisomycin/emetine alone disrupted the persistence of extinction LTM, indicating that the persistence of extinction LTM requires late-phase protein synthesis in the CA1. Propranolol and Rp-cAMPS did not completely disrupt the persistence of extinction LTM, suggesting that another β-receptor/PKA-independent mechanism underlies the persistence of extinction LTM. Altogether, our results showed that enhancing hippocampal noradrenergic activity during the late phase after extinction selectively promotes the persistence of extinction LTM. PMID:24553734

  9. ACTIVATION OF BASOLATERAL AMYGDALA CRF1 RECEPTORS MODULATES THE CONSOLIDATION OF CONTEXTUAL FEAR

    Hubbard, D. T.; Nakashima, B. R.; Lee, I.; Takahashi, L. K.

    2007-01-01

    The basolateral amygdala complex (BLA) and central amygdala nucleus (CeA) are involved in fear and anxiety. In addition, the BLA contains a high density of corticotropin-releasing factor 1 (CRF1) receptors in comparison to the CeA. However, the role of BLA CRF1 receptors in contextual fear conditioning is poorly understood. In the present study, we first demonstrated that oral administration of DMP696, the selective CRF1 receptor antagonist, had no significant effects on the acquisition of co...

  10. Ten weeks of physical-cognitive-mindfulness training reduces fear-avoidance beliefs about work-related activity: Randomized controlled trial.

    Jay, Kenneth; Brandt, Mikkel; Jakobsen, Markus Due; Sundstrup, Emil; Berthelsen, Kasper Gymoese; Schraefel, Mc; Sjøgaard, Gisela; Andersen, Lars L

    2016-08-01

    People with chronic musculoskeletal pain often experience pain-related fear of movement and avoidance behavior. The Fear-Avoidance model proposes a possible mechanism at least partly explaining the development and maintenance of chronic pain. People who interpret pain during movement as being potentially harmful to the organism may initiate a vicious behavioral cycle by generating pain-related fear of movement accompanied by avoidance behavior and hyper-vigilance.This study investigates whether an individually adapted multifactorial approach comprised of biopsychosocial elements, with a focus on physical exercise, mindfulness, and education on pain and behavior, can decrease work-related fear-avoidance beliefs.As part of a large scale 10-week worksite randomized controlled intervention trial focusing on company initiatives to combat work-related musculoskeletal pain and stress, we evaluated fear-avoidance behavior in 112 female laboratory technicians with chronic neck, shoulder, upper back, lower back, elbow, and hand/wrist pain using the Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire at baseline, before group allocation, and again at the post intervention follow-up 10 weeks later.A significant group by time interaction was observed (P activity-related, fear-avoidance beliefs, as assessed by the Fear-avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire, can be significantly reduced by 10 weeks of physical-cognitive-mindfulness training in female laboratory technicians with chronic pain. PMID:27559939

  11. Post-training gamma irradiation-enhanced contextual fear memory associated with reduced neuronal activation of the infralimbic cortex.

    Kugelman, Tara; Zuloaga, Damian G; Weber, Sydney; Raber, Jacob

    2016-02-01

    The brain might be exposed to irradiation under a variety of situations, including clinical treatments, nuclear accidents, dirty bomb scenarios, and military and space missions. Correctly recalling tasks learned prior to irradiation is important but little is known about post-learning effects of irradiation. It is not clear whether exposure to X-ray irradiation during memory consolidation, a few hours following training, is associated with altered contextual fear conditioning 24h after irradiation and which brain region(s) might be involved in these effects. Brain immunoreactivity patterns of the immediately early gene c-Fos, a marker of cellular activity was used to determine which brain areas might be altered in post-training irradiation memory retention tasks. In this study, we show that post-training gamma irradiation exposure (1 Gy) enhanced contextual fear memory 24h later and is associated with reduced cellular activation in the infralimbic cortex. Reduced GABA-ergic neurotransmission in parvalbumin-positive cells in the infralimbic cortex might play a role in this post-training radiation-enhanced contextual fear memory. PMID:26522840

  12. Modulation of NR2B-regulated contextual fear in the hippocampus by the tissue plasminogen activator system

    Norris, Erin H.; Strickland, Sidney

    2007-01-01

    Contextual fear conditioning is regulated by the hippocampus, and NR2B, a subunit of the NMDA receptor (NR), is involved in this process. We show that acute stress modulates tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) activity in the hippocampus by inducing expression of its inhibitor, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. Acute stress increases NR2B expression and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, a classical marker of postsynaptic plasticity, in the hippocampus. tPA forms a complex with NR2B and is necessary for...

  13. CB1 Cannabinoid Receptors Modulate Kinase and Phosphatase Activity during Extinction of Conditioned Fear in Mice

    Kamprath, Kornelia; Hermann, Heike; Lutz, Beat; Marsicano, Giovanni; Cannich, Astrid; Wotjak, Carsten T.

    2004-01-01

    Cannabinoid receptors type 1 (CB1) play a central role in both short-term and long-term extinction of auditory-cued fear memory. The molecular mechanisms underlying this function remain to be clarified. Several studies indicated extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase with its downstream effector AKT, and…

  14. Differential Involvement of Amygdala and Cortical NMDA Receptors Activation upon Encoding in Odor Fear Memory

    Hegoburu, Chloé; Parrot, Sandrine; Ferreira, Guilaume; Mouly, Anne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Although the basolateral amygdala (BLA) plays a crucial role for the acquisition of fear memories, sensory cortices are involved in their long-term storage in rats. However, the time course of their respective involvement has received little investigation. Here we assessed the role of the glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the…

  15. Resting cerebral metabolism correlates with skin conductance and functional brain activation during fear conditioning.

    Linnman, Clas; Zeidan, Mohamed A; Pitman, Roger K; Milad, Mohammed R

    2012-02-01

    We investigated whether resting brain metabolism can be used to predict autonomic and neuronal responses during fear conditioning in 20 healthy humans. Regional cerebral metabolic rate for glucose was measured via positron emission tomography at rest. During conditioning, autonomic responses were measured via skin conductance, and blood oxygen level dependent signal was measured via functional magnetic resonance imaging. Resting dorsal anterior cingulate metabolism positively predicted differentially conditioned skin conductance responses. Midbrain and insula resting metabolism negatively predicted midbrain and insula functional reactivity, while dorsal anterior cingulate resting metabolism positively predicted midbrain functional reactivity. We conclude that resting metabolism in limbic areas can predict some aspects of psychophysiological and neuronal reactivity during fear learning. PMID:22207247

  16. Resting cerebral metabolism correlates with skin conductance and functional brain activation during fear conditioning

    Linnman, Clas; Zeidan, Mohamed A.; Pitman, Roger K.; Milad, Mohammed R.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated whether resting brain metabolism can be used to predict autonomic and neuronal responses during fear conditioning in 20 healthy humans. Regional cerebral metabolic rate for glucose was measured via positron emission tomography at rest. During conditioning, autonomic responses were measured via skin conductance, and blood oxygen level dependent signal was measured via functional magnetic resonance imaging. Resting dorsal anterior cingulate metabolism positively predicted differ...

  17. Cannabinoid modulation of prefrontal-limbic activation during fear extinction learning and recall in humans

    Rabinak, Christine A.; Angstadt, Mike; Lyons, Maryssa; Mori, Shoko; Milad, Mohammed R; Liberzon, Israel; Phan, K. Luan

    2013-01-01

    Pre-extinction administration of ∆9-tetrahydrocannibinol (THC) facilitates recall of extinction in healthy humans, and evidence from animal studies suggest that this likely involves via enhancement of the cannabinoid system within the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and hippocampus (HIPP), brain structures critical to fear extinction. However, the effect of cannabinoids on the underlying neural circuitry of extinction memory recall in humans has not been demonstrated. We conducted a fu...

  18. Balance control and anti‐gravity muscle activity during the experience of fear at heights

    Wuehr, Max; Kugler, Guenter; Schniepp, Roman; Eckl, Maria; Pradhan, Cauchy; Jahn, Klaus; Huppert, Doreen; Brandt, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Fear of heights occurs when a visual stimulus causes the apprehension of losing balance and falling. A moderate form of visual height intolerance (vHI) affects about one third of the general population and has relevant consequences for the quality of life. A quantitative evaluation of balance mechanisms in persons susceptible to vHI during height exposure is missing. VHI‐related changes in postural control were assessed by center‐of‐pressure displacements and electromyographic record...

  19. Escitalopram prolonged fear induced by simulated public speaking and released hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation.

    Garcia-Leal, C; Del-Ben, C M; Leal, F M; Graeff, F G; Guimarães, F S

    2010-05-01

    Simulated public speaking (SPS) test is sensitive to drugs that interfere with serotonin-mediated neurotransmission and is supposed to recruit neural systems involved in panic disorder. The study was aimed at evaluating the effects of escitalopram, the most selective serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitor available, in SPS. Healthy males received, in a double-blind, randomized design, placebo (n = 12), 10 (n = 17) or 20 (n = 14) mg of escitalopram 2 hours before the test. Behavioural, autonomic and neuroendocrine measures were assessed. Both doses of escitalopram did not produce any effect before or during the speech but prolonged the fear induced by SPS. The test itself did not significantly change cortisol and prolactin levels but under the higher dose of escitalopram, cortisol and prolactin increased immediately after SPS. This fear-enhancing effect of escitalopram agrees with previously reported results with less selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and the receptor antagonist ritanserin, indicating that serotonin inhibits the fear of speaking in public. PMID:19251828

  20. Activation of D1/5 Dopamine Receptors: A Common Mechanism for Enhancing Extinction of Fear and Reward-Seeking Behaviors.

    Abraham, Antony D; Neve, Kim A; Lattal, K Matthew

    2016-07-01

    Dopamine is critical for many processes that drive learning and memory, including motivation, prediction error, incentive salience, memory consolidation, and response output. Theories of dopamine's function in these processes have, for the most part, been developed from behavioral approaches that examine learning mechanisms in appetitive tasks. A parallel and growing literature indicates that dopamine signaling is involved in consolidation of memories into stable representations in aversive tasks such as fear conditioning. Relatively little is known about how dopamine may modulate memories that form during extinction, when organisms learn that the relation between previously associated events is severed. We investigated whether fear and reward extinction share common mechanisms that could be enhanced with dopamine D1/5 receptor activation. Pharmacological activation of dopamine D1/5 receptors (with SKF 81297) enhanced extinction of both cued and contextual fear. These effects also occurred in the extinction of cocaine-induced conditioned place preference, suggesting that the observed effects on extinction were not specific to a particular type of procedure (aversive or appetitive). A cAMP/PKA biased D1 agonist (SKF 83959) did not affect fear extinction, whereas a broadly efficacious D1 agonist (SKF 83822) promoted fear extinction. Together, these findings show that dopamine D1/5 receptor activation is a target for the enhancement of fear or reward extinction. PMID:26763483

  1. The Available Time Scale: Measuring Foster Parents' Available Time to Foster

    Cherry, Donna J.; Orme, John G.; Rhodes, Kathryn W.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a new measure of available time specific to fostering, the Available Time Scale (ATS). It was tested with a national sample of 304 foster mothers and is designed to measure the amount of time foster parents are able to devote to fostering activities. The ATS has excellent reliability, and good support exists for its validity.…

  2. Rapid Activation of Glucocorticoid Receptors in the Prefrontal Cortex Mediates the Expression of Contextual Conditioned Fear in Rats.

    Reis, Fernando M C V; Almada, Rafael C; Fogaça, Manoela V; Brandão, Marcus L

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of glucocorticoids in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) activity and the expression of contextual conditioned fear (freezing). Rats were pretreated with vehicle or metyrapone, a corticosterone synthesis blocker, and exposed to a context previously paired with footshocks. Freezing and Fos-protein expression in different mPFC regions were assessed. Exposure to the aversive context led to increased freezing and Fos expression in the prelimbic (PrL), anterior cingulate areas 1 and 2 (Cg1/Cg2). Pretreatment with metyrapone decreased freezing and Fos expression in these areas. Administration of spironolactone, an MR antagonist, in the PrL before the test decreased freezing. Pretreatment with RU38486, a glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonist, reduced this effect of spironolactone, suggesting that the effects of this MR antagonist may be attributable to a redirection of endogenous corticosterone actions to GRs. Consistent with this result, the decrease in freezing that was induced by intra-PrL injections of corticosterone was attenuated by pretreatment with RU38486 but not spironolactone. These findings indicate that corticosterone release during aversive conditioning influences mPFC activity and the retrieval of conditioned fear memory indicating the importance of balance between MR:GR-mediated effects in this brain region in this process. PMID:25976757

  3. Fostering Entrepreneurship in Armenia

    Kuriakose, Smita

    2013-01-01

    A dynamic and vibrant private sector is crucial to economic growth, with firms making new investments, creating jobs, improving productivity, and promoting growth. Entrepreneurial activity is pivotal to the continued dynamism of the private sector, with the generation of new businesses fostering competition and economic growth. This study uses data from the new 2012 World Bank entrepreneur...

  4. Fostering Entrepreneurship in Azerbaijan

    Kuriakose, Smita

    2013-01-01

    A dynamic and vibrant private sector is crucial to economic growth, with firms making new investments, creating jobs, improving productivity, and promoting growth. Entrepreneurial activity is pivotal to the continued dynamism of the private sector, as the generation of new businesses fosters competition and economic growth. This is particularly relevant for Azerbaijan, whose government fac...

  5. Mouse chronic social stress increases blood and brain kynurenine pathway activity and fear behaviour: Both effects are reversed by inhibition of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase.

    Fuertig, René; Azzinnari, Damiano; Bergamini, Giorgio; Cathomas, Flurin; Sigrist, Hannes; Seifritz, Erich; Vavassori, Stefano; Luippold, Andreas; Hengerer, Bastian; Ceci, Angelo; Pryce, Christopher R

    2016-05-01

    Psychosocial stress is a major risk factor for mood and anxiety disorders, in which excessive reactivity to aversive events/stimuli is a major psychopathology. In terms of pathophysiology, immune-inflammation is an important candidate, including high blood and brain levels of metabolites belonging to the kynurenine pathway. Animal models are needed to study causality between psychosocial stress, immune-inflammation and hyper-reactivity to aversive stimuli. The present mouse study investigated effects of psychosocial stress as chronic social defeat (CSD) versus control-handling (CON) on: Pavlovian tone-shock fear conditioning, activation of the kynurenine pathway, and efficacy of a specific inhibitor (IDOInh) of the tryptophan-kynurenine catabolising enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO1), in reversing CSD effects on the kynurenine pathway and fear. CSD led to excessive fear learning and memory, whilst repeated oral escitalopram (antidepressant and anxiolytic) reversed excessive fear memory, indicating predictive validity of the model. CSD led to higher blood levels of TNF-α, IFN-γ, kynurenine (KYN), 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK) and kynurenic acid, and higher KYN and 3-HK in amygdala and hippocampus. CSD was without effect on IDO1 gene or protein expression in spleen, ileum and liver, whilst increasing liver TDO2 gene expression. Nonetheless, oral IDOInh reduced blood and brain levels of KYN and 3-HK in CSD mice to CON levels, and we therefore infer that CSD increases IDO1 activity by increasing its post-translational activation. Furthermore, repeated oral IDOInh reversed excessive fear memory in CSD mice to CON levels. IDOInh reversal of CSD-induced hyper-activity in the kynurenine pathway and fear system contributes significantly to the evidence for a causal pathway between psychosocial stress, immune-inflammation and the excessive fearfulness that is a major psychopathology in stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:26724575

  6. Anticipatory child fostering and household economic security in Malawi

    Lauren Bachan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: While there is a rich literature on the practice of child fostering in sub-Saharan Africa, little is known about how fostering impacts receiving households, as few studies consider household conditions both before and after fostering. Despite the fact that circumstancessurrounding fostering vary, the literature's key distinction of fostering is often drawn along the simple line of whether or not a household is fostering a child. This paper argues that anticipation of fostering responsibilities, in particular, is a useful dimension to distinguish fostering experiences for receiving households. Objective: This paper examines the relationship between receiving a foster child and subsequent changes in household wealth. Particular emphasis is placed on how these changes are conditioned by differing levels of anticipation of the fostering event. Methods: This study uses data from Tsogolo la Thanzi (TLT, a longitudinal survey in Balaka, Malawi. Using data from 1754 TLT respondents, fixed effects pooled time-series models are estimated to assess whether and how receiving a foster child changes household wealth. Results: This paper demonstrates the heterogeneity of fostering experiences for receiving households.The results show that households that anticipate fostering responsibilities experience a greater increase in household wealth than both households that do not foster and those that are surprised by fostering. Conclusions: Households that anticipate fostering responsibilities exhibit the greatest increase in householdwealth. While fostering households that do not anticipate fostering responsibilities may not experience these gains, there is no evidence to indicate that such households are negatively impacted relative to households that do not foster. This finding suggests that additional childcare responsibilities may not be as detrimental to African households as some researchers have feared.

  7. Food fears

    Radurisation can give a new lease of shelf life to food and cut down contamination, but it is bound to cause problems - even among comparatively tame South African consumers. In this article the facts about radurization are discussed: the labelling of irradiated products, the problem of making a bad product good by using irradiation, consumer pressure, attitudes, fears and resistance. The economics of radurised foodstuffs are also discussed

  8. Testing conditions in shock-based contextual fear conditioning influence both the behavioral responses and the activation of circuits potentially involved in contextual avoidance.

    Viellard, Juliette; Baldo, Marcus Vinicius C; Canteras, Newton Sabino

    2016-12-15

    Previous studies from our group have shown that risk assessment behaviors are the primary contextual fear responses to predatory and social threats, whereas freezing is the main contextual fear response to physically harmful events. To test contextual fear responses to a predator or aggressive conspecific threat, we developed a model that involves placing the animal in an apparatus where it can avoid the threat-associated environment. Conversely, in studies that use shock-based fear conditioning, the animals are usually confined inside the conditioning chamber during the contextual fear test. In the present study, we tested shock-based contextual fear responses using two different behavioral testing conditions: confining the animal in the conditioning chamber or placing the animal in an apparatus with free access to the conditioning compartment. Our results showed that during the contextual fear test, the animals confined to the shock chamber exhibited significantly more freezing. In contrast, the animals that could avoid the conditioning compartment displayed almost no freezing and exhibited risk assessment responses (i.e., crouch-sniff and stretch postures) and burying behavior. In addition, the animals that were able to avoid the shock chamber had increased Fos expression in the juxtadorsomedial lateral hypothalamic area, the dorsomedial part of the dorsal premammillary nucleus and the lateral and dorsomedial parts of the periaqueductal gray, which are elements of a septo/hippocampal-hypothalamic-brainstem circuit that is putatively involved in mediating contextual avoidance. Overall, the present findings show that testing conditions significantly influence both behavioral responses and the activation of circuits involved in contextual avoidance. PMID:27544875

  9. Can Reading Questions Foster Active Learning? A Study of Six College Courses

    Koontz, T. M.; Plank, K. M.

    2011-01-01

    Many instructors strive to encourage student reading outside of class and active learning in class. One pedagogical tool, structured reading questions, can help do both. Using examples from question sets across six courses, the authors illustrate how reading questions can help students achieve the six active-learning principles described by…

  10. A Systematic Review of Strategies to Foster Activity Engagement in Persons with Dementia

    Trahan, Maranda A.; Kuo, Julie; Carlson, Michelle C.; Gitlin, Laura N.

    2014-01-01

    Dementia is a growing public health issue. Activity, a positive therapeutic modality, has potential to enhance quality of life and reduce behavioral symptoms in persons with dementia--outcomes eluding pharmacological treatments. However, it is unclear how to effectively engage persons with dementia in activities for them to derive desired…

  11. Adoption & Foster Care

    ... Children > Family Life > Family Dynamics > Adoption & Foster Care Adoption & Foster Care Article Body ​Each year, many children join families through adoption and foster care. These families may face unique ...

  12. Fear potentiated startle increases phospholipase D (PLD) expression/activity and PLD-linked metabotropic glutamate receptor mediated post-tetanic potentiation in rat amygdala.

    Krishnan, Balaji; Scott, Michael T; Pollandt, Sebastian; Schroeder, Bradley; Kurosky, Alexander; Shinnick-Gallagher, Patricia

    2016-02-01

    Long-term memory (LTM) of fear stores activity dependent modifications that include changes in amygdala signaling. Previously, we identified an enhanced probability of release of glutamate mediated signaling to be important in rat fear potentiated startle (FPS), a well-established translational behavioral measure of fear. Here, we investigated short- and long-term synaptic plasticity in FPS involving metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) and associated downstream proteomic changes in the thalamic-lateral amygdala pathway (Th-LA). Aldolase A, an inhibitor of phospholipase D (PLD), expression was reduced, concurrent with significantly elevated PLD protein expression. Blocking the PLD-mGluR signaling significantly reduced PLD activity. While transmitter release probability increased in FPS, PLD-mGluR agonist and antagonist actions were occluded. In the unpaired group (UNP), blocking the PLD-mGluR increased while activating the receptor decreased transmitter release probability, consistent with decreased synaptic potentials during tetanic stimulation. FPS Post-tetanic potentiation (PTP) immediately following long-term potentiation (LTP) induction was significantly increased. Blocking PLD-mGluR signaling prevented PTP and reduced cumulative PTP probability but not LTP maintenance in both groups. These effects are similar to those mediated through mGluR7, which is co-immunoprecipitated with PLD in FPS. Lastly, blocking mGluR-PLD in the rat amygdala was sufficient to prevent behavioral expression of fear memory. Thus, our study in the Th-LA pathway provides the first evidence for PLD as an important target of mGluR signaling in amygdala fear-associated memory. Importantly, the PLD-mGluR provides a novel therapeutic target for treating maladaptive fear memories in posttraumatic stress and anxiety disorders. PMID:26748024

  13. The learning of fear extinction.

    Furini, Cristiane; Myskiw, Jociane; Izquierdo, Ivan

    2014-11-01

    Recent work on the extinction of fear-motivated learning places emphasis on its putative circuitry and on its modulation. Extinction is the learned inhibition of retrieval of previously acquired responses. Fear extinction is used as a major component of exposure therapy in the treatment of fear memories such as those of the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It is initiated and maintained by interactions between the hippocampus, basolateral amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex, which involve feedback regulation of the latter by the other two areas. Fear extinction depends on NMDA receptor activation. It is positively modulated by d-serine acting on the glycine site of NMDA receptors and blocked by AP5 (2-amino-5-phosphono propionate) in the three structures. In addition, histamine acting on H2 receptors and endocannabinoids acting on CB1 receptors in the three brain areas mentioned, and muscarinic cholinergic fibers from the medial septum to hippocampal CA1 positively modulate fear extinction. Importantly, fear extinction can be made state-dependent on circulating epinephrine, which may play a role in situations of stress. Exposure to a novel experience can strongly enhance the consolidation of fear extinction through a synaptic tagging and capture mechanism; this may be useful in the therapy of states caused by fear memory like PTSD. PMID:25452113

  14. Presenting Theoretical Ideas Prior to Inquiry Activities Fosters Theory-Level Knowledge

    Wecker, Christof; Rachel, Alexander; Heran-Dörr, Eva; Waltner, Christine; Wiesner, Hartmut; Fischer, Frank

    2013-01-01

    In the course of inquiry activities similar to those of real scientists, learners are supposed to develop knowledge both on the level of observable phenomena and on the level of explanatory theories. However, some theories involve theoretical entities (e.g., "Weiss domains") that cannot be observed directly and therefore may be hard to…

  15. Activities to foster training in nuclear and radiochemistry from IACS, IAEA-Vienna

    Uses of radioisotopes and radiation in medicine, industry, agriculture are amongst the most beneficial applications of atomic energy for peaceful purposes. The International Atomic Energy Agency aims - in accordance with its statute - to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world. The various Technical Divisions of the Agency carry out this mandate and enhance, particularly through 'manpower development activities' the nuclear applications of radiation and isotopes. Staff members of the 'Industrial Applications and Chemistry Section' in the Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications of the IAEA have supported more than 600 trainees per year for education in nuclear and radiochemistry through fellowships, training courses and workshops. Provision of printed material in various disciplines is supporting our educational efforts. (author)

  16. Fear of Fear and the Anxiety Disorders.

    Chambless, Dianne L.

    The fear of fear present in agoraphobics can be broken down into a fear of the body sensations associated with the panic attacks that plague agoraphobics and maladaptive thoughts about the possible consequences of panic. In a retrospective examination of clinical files, 32 agoraphobic patients were compared to 36 patients with simple social…

  17. Evaluating an intervention to reduce fear of falling and associated activity restriction in elderly persons: design of a randomised controlled trial [ISRCTN43792817

    van Eijk JThM

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fear of falling and associated activity restriction is common in older persons living in the community. Adverse consequences of fear of falling and associated activity restriction, like functional decline and falls, may have a major impact on physical, mental and social functioning of these persons. This paper presents the design of a trial evaluating a cognitive behavioural group intervention to reduce fear of falling and associated activity restriction in older persons living in the community. Methods/design A two-group randomised controlled trial was developed to evaluate the intervention. Persons 70 years of age or over and still living in the community were eligible for study if they experienced at least some fear of falling and associated activity restriction. A random community sample of elderly people was screened for eligibility; those eligible for study were measured at baseline and were subsequently allocated to the intervention or control group. Follow-up measurements were carried out directly after the intervention period, and then at six months and 12 months after the intervention. People allocated to the intervention group were invited to participate in eight weekly sessions of two hours each and a booster session. This booster session was conducted before the follow-up measurement at six months after the intervention. People allocated to the control group received no intervention as a result of this trial. Both an effect evaluation and a process evaluation were performed. The primary outcome measures of the effect evaluation are fear of falling, avoidance of activity due to fear of falling, and daily activity. The secondary outcome measures are perceived general health, self-rated life satisfaction, activities of daily life, feelings of anxiety, symptoms of depression, social support interactions, feelings of loneliness, falls, perceived consequences of falling, and perceived risk of falling. The outcomes of

  18. 5-HT1A Receptor Activation Reduces Fear-related Behavior Following Social Defeat in Syrian Hamsters

    Bader, Lauren R.; Carboni, Joseph D.; Burleson, Cody A.; Cooper, Matthew A.

    2014-01-01

    Social defeat leads to selective avoidance of familiar opponents as well as general avoidance of novel, non-threatening intruders. Avoidance of familiar opponents represents a fear-related memory whereas generalized social avoidance indicates anxiety-like behavior. We have previously shown that serotonin signaling alters responses to social defeat in Syrian hamsters, although it is unclear whether serotonin modulates defeat-induced fear, anxiety, or both. In this study we focus on 5-HT1A rece...

  19. Active duty female military's experience of fear, embarrassment, and distress during pelvic examinations

    Bakken, April D.

    2011-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Previous research indicates that among civilians and female veterans, a history of sexual violence is associated with negative experiences with gynecological care. We attempt to extend these findings to active duty female U.S. military officers. We hypothesize that in this population (1) sexual violence history status predicts emotional reactions to the pelvic examination; (2) that this relationship is mediated by military rank; and ...

  20. Memory suppression trades prolonged fear and sleep-dependent fear plasticity for the avoidance of current fear

    Kuriyama, Kenichi; Honma, Motoyasu; Yoshiike, Takuya; Kim, Yoshiharu

    2013-07-01

    Sleep deprivation immediately following an aversive event reduces fear by preventing memory consolidation during homeostatic sleep. This suggests that acute insomnia might act prophylactically against the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) even though it is also a possible risk factor for PTSD. We examined total sleep deprivation and memory suppression to evaluate the effects of these interventions on subsequent aversive memory formation and fear conditioning. Active suppression of aversive memory impaired retention of event memory. However, although the remembered fear was more reduced in sleep-deprived than sleep-control subjects, suppressed fear increased, and seemed to abandon the sleep-dependent plasticity of fear. Active memory suppression, which provides a psychological model for Freud's ego defense mechanism, enhances fear and casts doubt on the potential of acute insomnia as a prophylactic measure against PTSD. Our findings bring into question the role of sleep in aversive-memory consolidation in clinical PTSD pathophysiology.

  1. Temporal and Regional Regulation of Gene Expression by Calcium-Stimulated Adenylyl Cyclase Activity during Fear Memory

    Wieczorek, Lindsay; Maas, James W.; Muglia, Lisa M.; Vogt, Sherri K.; Muglia, Louis J.

    2010-01-01

    Background The Ca2+-stimulated adenylyl cyclases (ACs), AC1 and AC8, are key components of long-term memory processing. AC1 and AC8 double knockout mice (Adcy1−/−Adcy8−/−; DKO) display impaired fear memory processing; the mechanism of this impairment is largely unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings We hypothesize that the Ca2+-stimulated ACs modulate long-lasting transcriptional changes essential for fear memory consolidation and maintenance. Here, we report a genome-wide study of gene expr...

  2. Foster Parent Stress.

    Jones, Graham; Morrissette, Patrick J.

    1999-01-01

    Research findings regarding foster-parent stress and implications for counselors and counselor educators are discussed. Eleven significant themes are reported from a qualitative and quantitative study of rural foster parents (N=156). Stressful events that affect the well-being of foster parents and their relationships with children and…

  3. Could hands-on activities and smartphone in science CLIL teaching foster motivation and positive attitudes in students?

    Ercolino, Immacolata; Maraffi, Sabina; Sacerdoti, Francesco M.

    2016-04-01

    Motivating students is one of the most challenging things we do as educators. We know that students need to be engaged to fully appreciate and learn what has been taught; the secret consists in nurturing student engagement. One of the newer ways to involve students and foster motivation in their Science learning consists in focusing on their usage and on applying knowledge and skills in their real-life. Students usually are engaged in authentic teaching pathway. Learning focusing on the experience helps teachers to improve classroom management by gathering students around a common organized activity. Hands-on activities support problem-based approaches to learning by focusing on the experience and process of investigating, proposing and creating solutions developing critical thinking skills and enlarge student's scientific glossary. We utilized in our classroom some lab activities that we learned at an ESA/GTTP Teacher training Workshop 2014 program at the Lorentz Center Leiden, Netherlands. "Cooking a comet - Ingredients for life" "Demonstration of the second Kepler's law using marbles" New media equipment, as student's own smartphones, can increase the teaching impact speaking the same language used by the students every day. They can measure magnetic fields, their GPS coordinates (longitude and latitude), and so on. In this way we can measure distances as parallax using mobile devices and simulating distance measurements in the classroom, on the school campus. The smartphone is the device with which the students answer questions, take decisions, and solve quests. Students infact can observe the Universe from their classroom and scientifically they can watch the Sun with "Google sky map" or "Star walk" are excellent tools to learn your way around the night sky .As teachers we used these apps in the classroom when Sun goes through the constellations so our students don't believe in horoscopes. This paper is focused on hands on activities and the effects of the

  4. Modeling fear-conditioned bradycardia in humans

    Castegnetti, G.; Tzovara, A.; Staib, M.; Paulus, P. C.; Hofer, N.; Bach, D R

    2016-01-01

    Across species, cued fear conditioning is a common experimental paradigm to investigate aversive Pavlovian learning. While fear-conditioned stimuli (CS+) elicit overt behavior in many mammals, this is not the case in humans. Typically, autonomic nervous system activity is used to quantify fear memory in humans, measured by skin conductance responses (SCR). Here, we investigate whether heart period responses (HPR) evoked by the CS, often observed in humans and small mammals, are suitable to co...

  5. p300/CBP Histone Acetyltransferase Activity Is Required for Newly Acquired and Reactivated Fear Memories in the Lateral Amygdala

    Maddox, Stephanie A.; Watts, Casey S.; Schafe, Glenn E.

    2013-01-01

    Modifications in chromatin structure have been widely implicated in memory and cognition, most notably using hippocampal-dependent memory paradigms including object recognition, spatial memory, and contextual fear memory. Relatively little is known, however, about the role of chromatin-modifying enzymes in amygdala-dependent memory formation.…

  6. Trace and Contextual Fear Conditioning Require Neural Activity and NMDA Receptor-Dependent Transmission in the Medial Prefrontal Cortex

    Gilmartin, Marieke R.; Helmstetter, Fred J.

    2010-01-01

    The contribution of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) to the formation of memory is a subject of considerable recent interest. Notably, the mechanisms supporting memory acquisition in this structure are poorly understood. The mPFC has been implicated in the acquisition of trace fear conditioning, a task that requires the association of a…

  7. Pre-test metyrapone impairs memory recall in fear conditioning tasks: lack of interaction with β-adrenergic activity

    Mariella B.L. Careaga

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive processes, such as learning and memory, are essential for our adaptation to environmental changes and consequently for survival. Numerous studies indicate that hormones secreted during stressful situations, such as glucocorticoids (GCs, adrenaline and noradrenaline, regulate memory functions, modulating aversive memory consolidation and retrieval, in an interactive and complementary way. Thus, the facilitatory effects of GCs on memory consolidation as well as their suppressive effects on retrieval are substantially explained by this interaction. On the other hand, low levels of GCs are also associated with negative effects on memory consolidation and retrieval and the mechanisms involved are not well understood. The present study sought to investigate the consequences of blocking the rise of GCs on fear memory retrieval in multiple tests, assessing the participation of β-adrenergic signaling on this effect. Metyrapone (GCs synthesis inhibitor, administered 90 min before the first test of contextual or auditory fear conditioning, negatively affected animals’ performances, but this effect did not persist on a subsequent test, when the conditioned response was again expressed. This result suggested that the treatment impaired fear memory retrieval during the first evaluation. The administration immediately after the first test did not affect the animals’ performances in contextual fear conditioning, suggesting that the drug did not interfere with processes triggered by memory reactivation. Moreover, metyrapone effects were independent of β-adrenergic signaling, since concurrent administration with propranolol, a β-adrenergic antagonist, did not modify the effects induced by metyrapone alone. These results demonstrate that pre-test metyrapone administration led to negative effects on fear memory retrieval and this action was independent of a β-adrenergic signaling.

  8. Understanding amygdala responsiveness to fearful expressions through the lens of psychopathy and altruism.

    Marsh, Abigail A

    2016-06-01

    Because the face is the central focus of human social interactions, emotional facial expressions provide a unique window into the emotional lives of others. They play a particularly important role in fostering empathy, which entails understanding and responding to others' emotions, especially distress-related emotions such as fear. This Review considers how fearful facial as well as vocal and postural expressions are interpreted, with an emphasis on the role of the amygdala. The amygdala may be best known for its role in the acquisition and expression of conditioned fear, but it also supports the perception and recognition of others' fear. Various explanations have been supplied for the amygdala's role in interpreting and responding to fearful expressions. They include theories that amygdala responses to fearful expressions 1) reflect heightened vigilance in response to uncertain danger, 2) promote heightened attention to the eye region of faces, 3) represent a response to an unconditioned aversive stimulus, or 4) reflect the generation of an empathic fear response. Among these, only empathic fear explains why amygdala lesions would impair fear recognition across modalities. Supporting the possibility of a link between fundamental empathic processes and amygdala responses to fear is evidence that impaired fear recognition in psychopathic individuals results from amygdala dysfunction, whereas enhanced fear recognition in altruistic individuals results from enhanced amygdala function. Empathic concern and caring behaviors may be fostered by sensitivity to signs of acute distress in others, which relies on intact functioning of the amygdala. PMID:26366635

  9. Fears and Phobias

    ... the situation calls for. Many people have a fear of public speaking . Whether it's giving a report in class, speaking ... cloudy. A guy with social phobia experiences intense fear of public speaking or interacting, and may be afraid to answer ...

  10. Equal pain—Unequal fear response: enhanced susceptibility of tooth pain to fear conditioning

    Meier, Michael L.; de Matos, Nuno M. P.; Brügger, Mike; Ettlin, Dominik A.; Lukic, Nenad; Cheetham, Marcus; Jäncke, Lutz; Lutz, Kai

    2014-01-01

    Experimental fear conditioning in humans is widely used as a model to investigate the neural basis of fear learning and to unravel the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders. It has been observed that fear conditioning depends on stimulus salience and subject vulnerability to fear. It is further known that the prevalence of dental-related fear and phobia is exceedingly high in the population. Dental phobia is unique as no other body part is associated with a specific phobia. Therefore, we hypothesized that painful dental stimuli exhibit an enhanced susceptibility to fear conditioning when comparing to equal perceived stimuli applied to other body sites. Differential susceptibility to pain-related fear was investigated by analyzing responses to an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) applied to the right maxillary canine (UCS-c) vs. the right tibia (UCS-t). For fear conditioning, UCS-c and USC-t consisted of painful electric stimuli, carefully matched at both application sites for equal intensity and quality perception. UCSs were paired to simple geometrical forms which served as conditioned stimuli (CS+). Unpaired CS+ were presented for eliciting and analyzing conditioned fear responses. Outcome parameter were (1) skin conductance changes and (2) time-dependent brain activity (BOLD responses) in fear-related brain regions such as the amygdala, anterior cingulate cortex, insula, thalamus, orbitofrontal cortex, and medial prefrontal cortex. A preferential susceptibility of dental pain to fear conditioning was observed, reflected by heightened skin conductance responses and enhanced time-dependent brain activity (BOLD responses) in the fear network. For the first time, this study demonstrates fear-related neurobiological mechanisms that point toward a superior conditionability of tooth pain. Beside traumatic dental experiences our results offer novel evidence that might explain the high prevalence of dental-related fears in the population. PMID:25100974

  11. Equal pain – Unequal fear response: Enhanced susceptibility of tooth pain to fear conditioning

    Michael Lukas Meier

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Experimental fear conditioning in humans is widely used as a model to investigate the neural basis of fear learning and to unravel the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders. It has been observed that fear conditioning depends on stimulus salience and subject vulnerability to fear. It is further known that the prevalence of dental-related fear and phobia is exceedingly high in the population. Dental phobia is unique as no other body part is associated with a specific phobia. Therefore, we hypothesized that painful dental stimuli exhibit an enhanced susceptibility to fear conditioning when comparing to equal perceived stimuli applied to other body sites. Differential susceptibility to pain-related fear was investigated by analyzing responses to an unconditioned stimulus (UCS applied to the right maxillary canine (UCS-c versus the right tibia (UCS-t. For fear conditioning, UCS-c and USC-t consisted of painful electric stimuli, carefully matched at both application sites for equal intensity and quality perception. UCSs were paired to simple geometrical forms which served as conditioned stimuli (CS+. Unpaired CS+ were presented for eliciting and analyzing conditioned fear responses. Outcome parameter were 1 skin conductance changes and 2 time-dependent brain activity (BOLD responses in fear-related brain regions such as the amygdala, anterior cingulate cortex, insula, thalamus, orbitofrontal cortex and medial prefrontal cortex.A preferential susceptibility of dental pain to fear conditioning was observed, reflected by heightened skin conductance responses and enhanced time-dependent brain activity (BOLD responses in the fear network. For the first time, this study demonstrates fear-related neurobiological mechanisms that point towards a superior conditionability of tooth pain. Beside traumatic dental experiences our results offer novel evidence that might explain the high prevalence of dental-related fears in the population.

  12. Perceived Community Disorder Moderates the Relation between Victimization and Fear of Crime

    Roccato, Michele; Russo, Silvia; Vieno, Alessio

    2011-01-01

    In a representative sample of the Italian population (N=2,002), surveyed in January 2008, we studied the direct and interactive effects exerted on fear of crime by direct and indirect victimization, on the one hand, and perceived level of disorder of participants' community, on the other hand. Indirect victimization fostered fear of crime among…

  13. The advances of fear

    This book treats of four sensible topics of the last decade - the nuclear industry, the cloning, Internet and the greenhouse effect - in order to analyze the irrational or organized fears among the public: what do we fear and why? How this fear is shown? Which questions need to be answered and how? (J.S.)

  14. A climate of fear

    Garner, Tom Alexander; Grimshaw, Mark Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a framework that incorporates fear, acoustics, thought processing and digital game sound theory; with the potential to not only improve understanding of our relationship with fear, but also generate a foundation for reliable and significant manipulation of the fear experience....

  15. Trace and contextual fear conditioning require neural activity and NMDA receptor-dependent transmission in the medial prefrontal cortex

    Gilmartin, Marieke R.; Helmstetter, Fred J.

    2010-01-01

    The contribution of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) to the formation of memory is a subject of considerable recent interest. Notably, the mechanisms supporting memory acquisition in this structure are poorly understood. The mPFC has been implicated in the acquisition of trace fear conditioning, a task that requires the association of a conditional stimulus (CS) and an aversive unconditional stimulus (UCS) across a temporal gap. In both rat and human subjects, frontal regions show increase...

  16. Activation of NF-κB in Basolateral Amygdala Is Required for Memory Reconsolidation in Auditory Fear Conditioning

    Si, Jijian; Yang, Jianli; Xue, Lifen; Yang, Chenhao; Luo, Yixiao; Shi, Haishui; Lu, Lin

    2012-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by acute and chronic changes in the stress response, manifested as conditioned fear memory. Previously formed memories that are susceptible to disruption immediately after retrieval undergo a protein synthesis-dependent process to become persistent, termed reconsolidation, a process that is regulated by many distinct molecular mechanisms that control gene expression. Increasing evidence supports the participation of the transcription facto...

  17. Reduced Gamma Range Activity at REM Sleep Onset and Termination in Fear-Conditioned Wistar-Kyoto Rats

    Laitman, Benjamin M.; DaSilva, Jamie K.; Ross, Richard J.; Tejani-Butt, Shanaz; Morrison, Adrian R.

    2011-01-01

    Recent investigations of rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) continuity have emphasized the importance of transitions both into and out of REMS. We have previously reported that, compared to Wistar rats (WIS), Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) responded to fear conditioning (FC) with more fragmented REMS. Gamma oscillations in the electroencephalogram (EEG) are synchronized throughout the brain in periods of focused attention, and such synchronization of cell assemblies in the brain may represent a tempora...

  18. The nuclear energy: law and fear

    This document mentions the feeling of fear which goes along the idea of nuclear energy, as well as ethics and law. Technological aspects, political choices and financial matters are responsible for the nuclear energy development. Then it is shown that the consequences of this development is the continuous feeling of fear and risk which goes with every nuclear activities. (TEC)

  19. Development of fearfulness in birds: genetic factors modulate non-genetic maternal influences

    Houdelier, C.; Lumineau, S.; BERTIN, Aline; Guibert, F.; De Margerie, E.; Augery, M.; Richard-Yris, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    The development of fearfulness and the capacity of animals to cope with stressful events are particularly sensitive to early experience with mothers in a wide range of species. However, intrinsic characteristics of young animals can modulate maternal influence. This study evaluated the effect of intrinsic fearfulness on non-genetic maternal influence. Quail chicks, divergently selected for either higher (LTI) or lower fearfulness (STI) and from a control line (C), were cross-fostered by LTI o...

  20. Activity dependent protein degradation is critical for the formation and stability of fear memory in the amygdala.

    Timothy J Jarome

    Full Text Available Protein degradation through the ubiquitin-proteasome system [UPS] plays a critical role in some forms of synaptic plasticity. However, its role in memory formation in the amygdala, a site critical for the formation of fear memories, currently remains unknown. Here we provide the first evidence that protein degradation through the UPS is critically engaged at amygdala synapses during memory formation and retrieval. Fear conditioning results in NMDA-dependent increases in degradation-specific polyubiquitination in the amygdala, targeting proteins involved in translational control and synaptic structure and blocking the degradation of these proteins significantly impairs long-term memory. Furthermore, retrieval of fear memory results in a second wave of NMDA-dependent polyubiquitination that targets proteins involved in translational silencing and synaptic structure and is critical for memory updating following recall. These results indicate that UPS-mediated protein degradation is a major regulator of synaptic plasticity necessary for the formation and stability of long-term memories at amygdala synapses.

  1. Does Religious Involvement Generate or Inhibit Fear of Crime?

    Todd Matthews

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In victimology, fear of crime is understood as an emotional response to the perceived threat of crime. Fear of crime has been found to be affected by several variables besides local crime rates and personal experiences with victimization. This study examines the relationship between religion and fear of crime, an underexplored topic in the criminological literature. This gap is rather surprising given the central role religion has been found to play in shaping the attitudes and perceptions of congregants. In particular, religion has been found to foster generalized trust, which should engender lower levels of distrust or misanthropy, including that which is directed towards a general fear of crime. OLS regression was performed using data from the West Georgia Area Survey (n = 380. Controlling for demographic, community involvement, and political ideology variables, frequency of religious attendance was significantly and negatively associated with fear of property crime. This relationship remained even after a perceived neighborhood safety variable was introduced to the model. However, religious attendance was not significantly related to fear of violent crime, and religious orientation was unrelated to fear of property and violent crime. These results suggest that religious involvement conditionally reduces fear of crime, and the authors recommend that future research explore relationships between religion and fear of crime.

  2. Neuroticism modifies psychophysiological responses to fearful films.

    Emmanuelle Reynaud

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neuroticism is a personality component frequently found in anxious and depressive psychiatric disorders. The influence of neuroticism on negative emotions could be due to its action on stimuli related to fear and sadness, but this remains debated. Our goal was thus to better understand the impact of neuroticism through verbal and physiological assessment in response to stimuli inducing fear and sadness as compared to another negative emotion (disgust. METHODS: Fifteen low neurotic and 18 high neurotic subjects were assessed on an emotional attending task by using film excerpts inducing fear, disgust, and sadness. We recorded skin conductance response (SCR and corrugator muscle activity (frowning as indices of emotional expression. RESULTS: SCR was larger in high neurotic subjects than in low neurotics for fear relative to sadness and disgust. Moreover, corrugator activity and SCR were larger in high than in low neurotic subjects when fear was induced. CONCLUSION: After decades of evidence that individuals higher in neuroticism experience more intense emotional reactions to even minor stressors, our results indicate that they show greater SCR and expressive reactivity specifically to stimuli evoking fear rather than to those inducing sadness or disgust. Fear processing seems mainly under the influence of neuroticism. This modulation of autonomic activity by neurotics in response to threat/fear may explain their increased vulnerability to anxious psychopathologies such as PTSD (post traumatic stress disorder.

  3. Normalization of EEG activity among previously institutionalized children placed into foster care: A 12-year follow-up of the Bucharest Early Intervention Project.

    Vanderwert, Ross E; Zeanah, Charles H; Fox, Nathan A; Nelson, Charles A

    2016-02-01

    Extreme social and cognitive deprivation as a result of institutional care has profound effects on developmental outcomes across multiple domains for many abandoned or orphaned children. The Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP) examines the outcomes for children originally placed in institutions who were assessed comprehensively and then randomized to foster care (FCG) or care as usual (CAUG) and followed longitudinally. Here we report on the brain electrical activity (electroencephalogram: EEG) of 12-year-old children enrolled in the BEIP. Previous reports suggested improvement in resting EEG activity for the group of children placed in the foster care intervention, particularly those placed before 24 months of age compared to children who were randomized to CAUG or those placed into families after this age. At 12 years, differences between those in the FCG and those in the CAUG persist in the alpha band (8-13 Hz), but not in higher frequency bands (i.e. in the beta band; 15-30 Hz), except in those children placed into the FCG who remained in high quality care environments over the course of the study. These findings highlight the importance of maintaining a stable high quality caregiving environment, particularly for children exposed to early psychosocial deprivation, for promoting healthy brain development. PMID:26724564

  4. Normalization of EEG activity among previously institutionalized children placed into foster care: A 12-year follow-up of the Bucharest Early Intervention Project

    Ross E. Vanderwert

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Extreme social and cognitive deprivation as a result of institutional care has profound effects on developmental outcomes across multiple domains for many abandoned or orphaned children. The Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP examines the outcomes for children originally placed in institutions who were assessed comprehensively and then randomized to foster care (FCG or care as usual (CAUG and followed longitudinally. Here we report on the brain electrical activity (electroencephalogram: EEG of 12-year-old children enrolled in the BEIP. Previous reports suggested improvement in resting EEG activity for the group of children placed in the foster care intervention, particularly those placed before 24 months of age compared to children who were randomized to CAUG or those placed into families after this age. At 12 years, differences between those in the FCG and those in the CAUG persist in the alpha band (8–13 Hz, but not in higher frequency bands (i.e. in the beta band; 15–30 Hz, except in those children placed into the FCG who remained in high quality care environments over the course of the study. These findings highlight the importance of maintaining a stable high quality caregiving environment, particularly for children exposed to early psychosocial deprivation, for promoting healthy brain development.

  5. Prefrontal NMDA receptors expressed in excitatory neurons control fear discrimination and fear extinction.

    Vieira, Philip A; Corches, Alex; Lovelace, Jonathan W; Westbrook, Kevin B; Mendoza, Michael; Korzus, Edward

    2015-03-01

    N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are critically involved in various learning mechanisms including modulation of fear memory, brain development and brain disorders. While NMDARs mediate opposite effects on medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) interneurons and excitatory neurons, NMDAR antagonists trigger profound cortical activation. The objectives of the present study were to determine the involvement of NMDARs expressed specifically in excitatory neurons in mPFC-dependent adaptive behaviors, specifically fear discrimination and fear extinction. To achieve this, we tested mice with locally deleted Grin1 gene encoding the obligatory NR1 subunit of the NMDAR from prefrontal CamKIIα positive neurons for their ability to distinguish frequency modulated (FM) tones in fear discrimination test. We demonstrated that NMDAR-dependent signaling in the mPFC is critical for effective fear discrimination following initial generalization of conditioned fear. While mice with deficient NMDARs in prefrontal excitatory neurons maintain normal responses to a dangerous fear-conditioned stimulus, they exhibit abnormal generalization decrement. These studies provide evidence that NMDAR-dependent neural signaling in the mPFC is a component of a neural mechanism for disambiguating the meaning of fear signals and supports discriminative fear learning by retaining proper gating information, viz. both dangerous and harmless cues. We also found that selective deletion of NMDARs from excitatory neurons in the mPFC leads to a deficit in fear extinction of auditory conditioned stimuli. These studies suggest that prefrontal NMDARs expressed in excitatory neurons are involved in adaptive behavior. PMID:25615540

  6. NYS Foster Parent Manual

    McBride, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    This manual was developed for use in foster parents' day-to-day life with the children in their care. It gives them practical information on topics like medical care, payments, and the role of the court, and also provides guidance on areas like welcoming a child, discipline, and parent visits. The manual emphasizes the role of foster parents in…

  7. Phobias and preparedness: the selective, automatic, and encapsulated nature of fear.

    Mineka, Susan; Ohman, Arne

    2002-11-15

    We describe evidence for an evolved module for fear elicitation and fear learning with four primary characteristics. First, it is preferentially activated by stimuli related to survival threats in evolutionary history. Thus, fear-relevant stimuli lead to superior conditioning of aversive associations compared with fear-irrelevant stimuli. Second, the module is automatically activated by fear-relevant stimuli, meaning that fear activation occurs before conscious cognitive analysis of the stimulus can occur. Third, the fear module is relatively impenetrable to conscious cognitive control, and fear conditioning with fear-relevant stimuli can occur even with subliminal conditioned stimuli. Fourth, the amygdala seems to be the central brain area dedicated to the fear module. Finally, we propose that there are two levels of fear conditioning, with an emotional level that is relatively independent of the cognitive contingency level, each mediated by different brain areas. PMID:12437934

  8. Qualitative Analysis of Emotions: Fear and Thrill.

    Buckley, Ralf C

    2016-01-01

    People can speak, and this provides opportunities to analyze human emotions using perceived experiences communicated via language, as well as through measurement and imaging techniques that are also applicable to other higher animal species. Here I compare four qualitative methodological approaches to test if, and how, thrill depends on fear. I use eight high-risk, high-skill, real-life outdoor adventure recreation activities to provide the test circumstances. I present data from: >4000 person-days of participant observation; interviews with 40 expert practitioners; retrospective autoethnography of 50 critical incidents over 4 decades; and experimental autoethnography of 60 events. Results from different methods are congruent, but different approaches yield different insights. The principal findings are as follows. Individuals differ in their fear and thrill responses. The same individual may have different responses on different occasions. Fear boosts performance, but panic causes paralysis. Anxiety or apprehension prior to a risky action or event differs from fear experienced during the event itself. The intensity of pre-event fear generally increases with the immediacy of risk to life, and time to contemplate that risk. Fear must be faced, assessed and overcome in order to act. Thrill can occur either during or after a high-risk event. Thrill can occur without fear, and fear without thrill. Below a lower threshold of perceived risk, thrill can occur without fear. Between a lower and upper threshold, thrill increases with fear. Beyond the upper threshold, thrill vanishes but fear remains. This there is a sawtooth relation between fear and thrill. Perceived danger generates intense focus and awareness. Fear and other emotions can disappear during intense concentration and focus. Under high risk, the usual emotional sequence is fear before the action or event, then focus during the action or event, then thrill, relief, or triumph afterward. The emotionless state

  9. Foster Parents Speak: Preferred Characteristics of Foster Children and Experiences in the Role of Foster Parent

    Rosenwald, Mitchell; Bronstein, Laura

    2008-01-01

    Foster parents play a pivotal role in the child welfare system. A study that employed focus groups with foster parents was conducted at a private foster care agency with the initial purpose of understanding the characteristics of foster children that foster parents both preferred and not preferred. In the qualitative research tradition, their…

  10. Attachment Without Fear

    Bell, David C.

    2009-01-01

    John Bowlby hypothesized an attachment system that interacts with caregiving, exploration, and fear systems in the brain, with a particular emphasis on fear. Neurobiological research confirms many of his hypotheses and also raises some new questions. A psychological model based on this neurobiological research is presented here. The model extends conventional attachment theory by describing additional attachment processes independent of fear. In this model, the attachment elements of trust, o...

  11. Fear in horses

    Christensen, Janne Winther

    2006-01-01

    Fear is generally considered to be an undesirable emotional state that may reduce welfare, growth and reproductive performance in animals. Fear in horses is additionally problematic, because fear reactions can cause serious injury to both horse and human. Horses are primarily used for sports and leisure for a large number of children and young women. Unfortunately, horse riding ranks as one of the most dangerous sports in terms of the number and seriousness of accidents, and the ability of a ...

  12. Fear Extinction in Rodents

    Chang, Chun-hui; Knapska, Ewelina; Orsini, Caitlin A.; Rabinak, Christine A.; Zimmerman, Joshua M; Maren, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Pavlovian conditioning paradigms have become important model systems for understanding the neuroscience of behavior. In particular, studies of the extinction of Pavlovian fear responses are yielding important information about the neural substrates of anxiety disorders in humans. These studies are germane to understanding the neural mechanisms underlying behavioral interventions that suppress fear, including exposure therapy. This chapter described detailed behavioral protocols for examining ...

  13. Murine GRPR and Stathmin Control in Opposite Directions both Cued Fear Extinction and Neural Activities of the Amygdala and Prefrontal Cortex

    Guillaume Martel; Charles Hevi; Alexandra Wong; Ko Zushida; Shusaku Uchida; Shumyatsky, Gleb P.

    2012-01-01

    Extinction is an integral part of normal healthy fear responses, while it is compromised in several fear-related mental conditions in humans, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Although much research has recently been focused on fear extinction, its molecular and cellular underpinnings are still unclear. The development of animal models for extinction will greatly enhance our approaches to studying its neural circuits and the mechanisms involved. Here, we describe two gene-knockou...

  14. Memory suppression trades prolonged fear and sleep-dependent fear plasticity for the avoidance of current fear

    Kenichi Kuriyama; Motoyasu Honma; Takuya Yoshiike; Yoshiharu Kim

    2013-01-01

    Sleep deprivation immediately following an aversive event reduces fear by preventing memory consolidation during homeostatic sleep. This suggests that acute insomnia might act prophylactically against the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) even though it is also a possible risk factor for PTSD. We examined total sleep deprivation and memory suppression to evaluate the effects of these interventions on subsequent aversive memory formation and fear conditioning. Active suppress...

  15. Effect of D-cycloserine in conjunction with fear extinction training on extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation in the medial prefrontal cortex and amygdala in rat.

    Gupta, Subhash C; Hillman, Brandon G; Prakash, Anand; Ugale, Rajesh R; Stairs, Dustin J; Dravid, Shashank M

    2013-06-01

    D-cycloserine (DCS) is currently under clinical trials for a number of neuropsychiatric conditions and has been found to augment fear extinction in rodents and exposure therapy in humans. However, the molecular mechanism of DCS action in these multiple modalities remains unclear. Here, we describe the effect of DCS administration, alone or in conjunction with extinction training, on neuronal activity (c-fos) and neuronal plasticity [phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK)] markers using immunohistochemistry. We found that intraperitoneal administration of DCS in untrained young rats (24-28 days old) increased c-fos- and pERK-stained neurons in both the prelimbic and infralimbic division of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and reduced pERK levels in the lateral nucleus of the central amygdala. Moreover, DCS administration significantly increased GluA1, GluN1, GluN2A, and GluN2B expression in the mPFC. In a separate set of animals, we found that DCS facilitated fear extinction and increased pERK levels in the infralimbic prefrontal cortex, prelimbic prefrontal cortex intercalated cells and lateral nucleus of the central amygdala, compared with saline control. In the synaptoneurosomal preparation, we found that extinction training increased iGluR protein expression in the mPFC, compared with context animals. No significant difference in protein expression was observed between extinction-saline and extinction-DCS groups in the mPFC. In contrast, in the amygdala DCS, the conjunction with extinction training led to an increase in iGluR subunit expression, compared with the extinction-saline group. Our data suggest that the efficacy of DCS in neuropsychiatric disorders may be partly due to its ability to affect neuronal activity and signaling in the mPFC and amygdala subnuclei. PMID:23551217

  16. Modeling fear-conditioned bradycardia in humans.

    Castegnetti, Giuseppe; Tzovara, Athina; Staib, Matthias; Paulus, Philipp C; Hofer, Nicolas; Bach, Dominik R

    2016-06-01

    Across species, cued fear conditioning is a common experimental paradigm to investigate aversive Pavlovian learning. While fear-conditioned stimuli (CS+) elicit overt behavior in many mammals, this is not the case in humans. Typically, autonomic nervous system activity is used to quantify fear memory in humans, measured by skin conductance responses (SCR). Here, we investigate whether heart period responses (HPR) evoked by the CS, often observed in humans and small mammals, are suitable to complement SCR as an index of fear memory in humans. We analyze four datasets involving delay and trace conditioning, in which heart beats are identified via electrocardiogram or pulse oximetry, to show that fear-conditioned heart rate deceleration (bradycardia) is elicited and robustly distinguishes CS+ from CS-. We then develop a psychophysiological model (PsPM) of fear-conditioned HPR. This PsPM is inverted to yield estimates of autonomic input into the heart. We show that the sensitivity to distinguish CS+ and CS- (predictive validity) is higher for model-based estimates than peak-scoring analysis, and compare this with SCR. Our work provides a novel tool to investigate fear memory in humans that allows direct comparison between species. PMID:26950648

  17. THE FEAR OF FEAR CONCEPT - EVIDENCE IN FAVOR OF MULTIDIMENSIONALITY

    ARRINDELL, WA

    1993-01-01

    In recent years, questions have been raised regarding the dimensionality of existing measures of fear of fear. This is an important issue that needs to be addressed if the dimensions(s) of any scale purporting to assess fear of fear are to guide theory and research. One of the most widely used measu

  18. The Biology of Fear

    Adolphs, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    Each of us has felt afraid, and we can all recognize fear in many animal species. Yet there is no consensus in the scientific study of fear. Some argue that “fear” is a psychological construct rather than discoverable through scientific investigation. Others argue that the term “fear” cannot properly be applied to animals because we cannot know whether they feel afraid. Studies in rodents show that there are highly specific brain circuits for fear, whereas findings from human neuroimaging see...

  19. Encoding of fear learning and memory in distributed neuronal circuits.

    Herry, Cyril; Johansen, Joshua P

    2014-12-01

    How sensory information is transformed by learning into adaptive behaviors is a fundamental question in neuroscience. Studies of auditory fear conditioning have revealed much about the formation and expression of emotional memories and have provided important insights into this question. Classical work focused on the amygdala as a central structure for fear conditioning. Recent advances, however, have identified new circuits and neural coding strategies mediating fear learning and the expression of fear behaviors. One area of research has identified key brain regions and neuronal coding mechanisms that regulate the formation, specificity and strength of fear memories. Other work has discovered critical circuits and neuronal dynamics by which fear memories are expressed through a medial prefrontal cortex pathway and coordinated activity across interconnected brain regions. Here we review these recent advances alongside prior work to provide a working model of the extended circuits and neuronal coding mechanisms mediating fear learning and memory. PMID:25413091

  20. Activated monocytes in peritumoral stroma of hepatocellular carcinoma foster immune privilege and disease progression through PD-L1

    Kuang, Dong-Ming; Zhao, Qiyi; Peng, Chen; Xu, Jing; Zhang, Jing-Ping; Wu, Changyou; Zheng, Limin

    2009-01-01

    Macrophages (Mφ) are prominent components of solid tumors and exhibit distinct phenotypes in different microenvironments. We have recently found that tumors can alter the normal developmental process of Mφ to trigger transient activation of monocytes in peritumoral stroma. We showed that a fraction of monocytes/Mφ in peritumoral stroma, but not in cancer nests, expresses surface PD-L1 (also termed B7-H1) molecules in tumors from patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Monocytes activate...

  1. Fear: The Teachers' Teacher.

    Agne, Karen

    1996-01-01

    Looks at the effects of fear in the classroom and offers suggestions for teachers in dealing with the issue: self-acceptance, other-orientation, trust, patience, self-awareness, and journal writing. (JOW)

  2. The Fears of Adolescents

    Bamber, James H.

    1974-01-01

    This study investigated the self-reported fears and some personality characteristics of a sample of 1112 adolescents ranging in age from 12 to 18 years (attending grammar and secondary schools in Northern Ireland). (CS)

  3. Intergenerational transmission of emotional trauma through amygdala-dependent mother-to-infant transfer of specific fear

    Debiec, Jacek; Sullivan, Regina Marie

    2014-01-01

    Despite clinical evidence that specific fear is transmitted across generations, we have little understanding of mechanisms. Here, we model social transmission of mother-to-infant fear in rodents. We show that maternal fear responses to a conditioned fear odor are sufficient to induce robust fear learning throughout infancy, with robust retention. Assessment of mechanism showed that maternal fear expression increases pups’ stress hormone corticosterone and amygdala activation to induce this cu...

  4. Fear of Injury With Physical Activity Is Greater in Adults With Diabetes Than in Adults Without Diabetes

    Huebschmann, Amy G.; Crane, Lori A.; Belansky, Elaine S.; Scarbro, Sharon; Marshall, Julie A; Regensteiner, Judith G.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Physical activity is a cornerstone of treatment for diabetes, yet people with diabetes perform less moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA) than people without diabetes. In contrast, whether differences in walking activity exist has been understudied. Diabetes-specific barriers to physical activity are one possible explanation for lower MVPA in diabetes. We hypothesized that people with diabetes would perform less walking and combined MVPA and would be less likely to anticipa...

  5. Foster Parent College: Interactive Multimedia Training for Foster Parents

    Pacifici, Caesar; Delaney, Richard; White, Lee; Cummings, Kelli; Nelson, Carol

    2005-01-01

    Foster Parent College was recently developed through Northwest Media, Inc. as an interactive multimedia training venue for foster parents. Users can take brief parenting courses, either online (http://www.FosterParentCollege.com) or on DVD, on a variety of topics dealing with serious child behavior problems. Currently, these problems include…

  6. Job Loss Fears and (Extreme) Party Identification: First Evidence from Panel Data

    Geishecker, Ingo; Siedler, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    There is a large body of literature analyzing the relationship between objective economic conditions and voting behavior, but there is very little evidence of how perceived economic insecurity impacts on political preferences. Using seventeen years of household panel data from the German Socio-Economic Panel, we examine whether job loss fears impact on individuals' party identification. Consistent with rational choice theory, we find strong and robust evidence that job loss fears foster affin...

  7. Prefrontal neuronal assemblies temporally control fear behaviour.

    Dejean, Cyril; Courtin, Julien; Karalis, Nikolaos; Chaudun, Fabrice; Wurtz, Hélène; Bienvenu, Thomas C M; Herry, Cyril

    2016-07-21

    Precise spike timing through the coordination and synchronization of neuronal assemblies is an efficient and flexible coding mechanism for sensory and cognitive processing. In cortical and subcortical areas, the formation of cell assemblies critically depends on neuronal oscillations, which can precisely control the timing of spiking activity. Whereas this form of coding has been described for sensory processing and spatial learning, its role in encoding emotional behaviour remains unknown. Fear behaviour relies on the activation of distributed structures, among which the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) is known to be critical for fear memory expression. In the dmPFC, the phasic activation of neurons to threat-predicting cues, a spike-rate coding mechanism, correlates with conditioned fear responses and supports the discrimination between aversive and neutral stimuli. However, this mechanism does not account for freezing observed outside stimuli presentations, and the contribution of a general spike-time coding mechanism for freezing in the dmPFC remains to be established. Here we use a combination of single-unit and local field potential recordings along with optogenetic manipulations to show that, in the dmPFC, expression of conditioned fear is causally related to the organization of neurons into functional assemblies. During fear behaviour, the development of 4 Hz oscillations coincides with the activation of assemblies nested in the ascending phase of the oscillation. The selective optogenetic inhibition of dmPFC neurons during the ascending or descending phases of this oscillation blocks and promotes conditioned fear responses, respectively. These results identify a novel phase-specific coding mechanism, which dynamically regulates the development of dmPFC assemblies to control the precise timing of fear responses. PMID:27409809

  8. In the vicious circle of fear

    Fear is the great driving force, the basic effect, without which there would be no adaption to new living conditions, and no provision for the future. But fear has a positive influence only as long as it does not gain the upper hand, for then it makes human beings blind and stifles activity. What is important, and will remain so, is the equilibrium between fear and courage, caution and the desire for action, optimism und pessimism. This equilibrium has now been disturbed in the western countries - and only here. Our present fears give rise to hardly any positive measures, but prevent provision for the future. We are threatened with failure due to the manipulated conversion of fear from the maintenance of life to an effect which destroys life. In this way we got into a vicious circle of fear: we must try to weaken the imagined dangers by emphasising the true conditions. The author discusses how the viscious circle can be broken. (orig.) 891 UA/orig. 892 MKO

  9. Lithuania 1940 / Herbert Foster Anderson

    Foster Anderson, Herbert

    2004-01-01

    Stseenid Leedu ennesõjaaegsest pealinnast Kaunasest briti ärimehe H. Foster Andersoni silme läbi 1940. aastal. Lühikokkuvõte raamatust: Foster Anderson, Herbert. Borderline Russia. London : Cresset press, 1942

  10. Activity-induced synaptic delivery of the GluN2A-containing NMDA receptor is dependent on endoplasmic reticulum chaperone Bip and involved in fear memory.

    Zhang, Xiao-min; Yan, Xun-yi; Zhang, Bin; Yang, Qian; Ye, Mao; Cao, Wei; Qiang, Wen-bin; Zhu, Li-jun; Du, Yong-lan; Xu, Xing-xing; Wang, Jia-sheng; Xu, Fei; Lu, Wei; Qiu, Shuang; Yang, Wei; Luo, Jian-hong

    2015-07-01

    The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) in adult forebrain is a heterotetramer mainly composed of two GluN1 subunits and two GluN2A and/or GluN2B subunits. The synaptic expression and relative numbers of GluN2A- and GluN2B-containing NMDARs play critical roles in controlling Ca(2+)-dependent signaling and synaptic plasticity. Previous studies have suggested that the synaptic trafficking of NMDAR subtypes is differentially regulated, but the precise molecular mechanism is not yet clear. In this study, we demonstrated that Bip, an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone, selectively interacted with GluN2A and mediated the neuronal activity-induced assembly and synaptic incorporation of the GluN2A-containing NMDAR from dendritic ER. Furthermore, the GluN2A-specific synaptic trafficking was effectively disrupted by peptides interrupting the interaction between Bip and GluN2A. Interestingly, fear conditioning in mice was disrupted by intraperitoneal injection of the interfering peptide before training. In summary, we have uncovered a novel mechanism for the activity-dependent supply of synaptic GluN2A-containing NMDARs, and demonstrated its relevance to memory formation. PMID:26088419

  11. Men fear other men most: gender specific brain activations in perceiving threat from dynamic faces and bodies - an FMRI study

    Mariska Esther Kret; Swann ePichon; Julie eGrezes; Beatrice eDe Gelder

    2011-01-01

    Gender differences are an important factor regulating our daily interactions. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging we show that brain areas involved in processing social signals are activated differently by threatening signals send from male and female facial and bodily expressions and that their activation patterns are different for male and female observers. Male participants pay more attention to the female face as shown by increased amygdala activity. But a host of other areas show...

  12. Ex vivo dissection of optogenetically activated mPFC and hippocampal inputs to neurons in the basolateral amygdala: implications for fear and emotional memory

    Cora Hübner

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Many lines of evidence suggest that a reciprocally interconnected network comprising the amygdala, ventral hippocampus (vHC, and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC participates in different aspects of the acquisition and extinction of conditioned fear responses and fear behavior. This could at least in part be mediated by direct connections from mPFC or vHC to amygdala to control amygdala activity and output. However, currently the interactions between mPFC and vHC afferents and their specific targets in the amygdala are still poorly understood. Here, we use an ex-vivo optogenetic approach to dissect synaptic properties of inputs from mPFC and vHC to defined neuronal populations in the basal amygdala (BA, the area that we identify as a major target of these projections. We find that BA principal neurons (PNs and local BA interneurons (INs receive monosynaptic excitatory inputs from mPFC and vHC. In addition, both these inputs also recruit GABAergic feedforward inhibition in a substantial fraction of PNs, in some neurons this also comprises a slow GABAB-component. Amongst the innervated PNs we identify neurons that project back to subregions of the mPFC, indicating a loop between neurons in mPFC and BA, and a pathway from vHC to mPFC via BA. Interestingly, mPFC inputs also recruit feedforward inhibition in a fraction of INs, suggesting that these inputs can activate dis-inhibitory circuits in the BA. A general feature of both mPFC and vHC inputs to local INs is that excitatory inputs display faster rise and decay kinetics than in PNs, which would enable temporally precise signaling. However, mPFC and vHC inputs to both PNs and INs differ in their presynaptic release properties, in that vHC inputs are more depressing. In summary, our data describe novel wiring, and features of synaptic connections from mPFC and vHC to amygdala that could help to interpret functions of these interconnected brain areas at the network level.

  13. Creative Stories: A Storytelling Game Fostering Creativity

    Koukourikos, Antonis; Karampiperis, Pythagoras; Panagopoulos, George

    2014-01-01

    The process of identifying techniques for fostering creativity, and applying these theoretical constructs in real-world educational activities, is, by nature, multifaceted and not straightforward, pertaining to several fields such as cognitive theory and psychology. Furthermore, the quantification of the impact of different activities on…

  14. The development of a fear of falling interdisciplinary intervention program

    Gomez, Fernando; Curcio, Carmen-Lucia

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To describe the development process of a protocol for a fear of falling interdisciplinary intervention program based on the main factors associated with fear of falling. Design/methods: The process of developing a protocol consisted of defining the target population, selecting the initial assessment components, adapting the intervention program based on findings about fear of falling and restriction of activities in this population. Settings: University-affiliated outpatient vertig...

  15. Cultural Worldviews of Foster Parents

    Brown, Jason D.; George, Natalie; St. Arnault, David; Sintzel, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    A random sample of Canadian foster parents were asked about the importance of culture in fostering. In response to the question "What values, beliefs and traditions were you raised with and feel are important?," a total of 74 different responses were received. These responses were grouped together by foster parents and the groupings analyzed using…

  16. Beyond Knowledge: Service Learning and Local Climate Change Research Engagement Activities that Foster Action and Behavior Change

    Low, R.; Mandryk, C.; Gosselin, D. C.; Haney, C.

    2013-12-01

    environment and support teachers in the creation of lessons and units that promote both inquiry science and service learning in the community. Course participants connect the dots from their newly acquired theoretical science knowledge to concrete examples of change taking place locally, and see the value of promoting awareness as well as behavioral changes that contribute to adaptation and mitigation of local climate change impacts. We describe the assessments used and the research outcomes associated with NRES 832, Human Dimensions of Climate Change, where participants conduct archival research to create a climate change chronicle for their community, and NRES 830 Climate Research Applications, where teachers lead and evaluate the impacts of student-designed service learning activities as a capstone project for a unit on climate change. We also showcase community-based initiatives resulting from this work that seed the behavioral changes we need to live sustainably in our communities and on our planet.

  17. Fearing religious satire

    Brink, Dennis Meyhoff

    The article examines the history of the fear of religious satire in modern Europe. The article argues that this fear primarily concerns the potential dissolution of 'the social bond of society' or 'the moral and social order'. From the 17th Century until today, censorship measures and blasphemy...... legislations are Thus primarily founded on arguments concerning moral, social or public order. The article furthermore argues that although anti-censorship satire gradually weakened the legitimacy of censorship, the notion of religion as 'the social bond of society' is still operative in contemporary blasphemy...

  18. Rat exposure in mice with neuropathic pain induces fear and antinociception that is not reversed by 5-HT2C receptor activation in the dorsal periaqueductal gray.

    Furuya-da-Cunha, Elke Mayumi; Souza, Rimenez Rodrigues de; Canto-de-Souza, Azair

    2016-07-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that serotonin 5-HT2C receptors in the dorsal periaqueductal gray (dPAG) mediate both anxiety and antinociception in mice submitted to the elevated plus maze. The present study examined the effects of intra-dPAG infusion of the serotonin 5-HT2C receptor agonist (MK-212) in the defensive reactions and antinociception in mice with neurophatic pain confronted by a predator. Neuropathic pain was induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve, and predator confrontation was performed using the rat exposure test (RET). Our results demonstrated that both sham-operated and CCI mice exhibited intense defensive reactions when confronted by rats. However, rat-exposed CCI mice showed reduced pain reactivity in comparison to CCI mice exposed to a toy rat. Intra-dPAG infusion of MK-212 prior to predator exposure did not significantly alter defensive or antinociceptive responses. To our knowledge, our results represent the first evidence of RET-induced antinociception in mice. Moreover, the results of the present study suggest that 5-HT2C receptor activation in the dPAG is not critically involved in the control of predator-evoked fearful or antinociceptive responses. PMID:27059332

  19. Physical Activity in the Acute Ward Following Hip Fracture Surgery is Associated With Less Fear of Falling

    Kronborg, Lise; Bandholm, Thomas; Palm, Henrik;

    2016-01-01

    Early mobilization following hip fracture surgery reduces medical complications and mortality, but may increase the risk of falling. The aim was to measure objectively the physical activity (time spent upright) the first week after hip fracture surgery, and relate it to functional performance and...... of falling (r=-0.48, p=0.01, n=27), which also was associated with fast gait speed (r=-0.50, p=0.02, n=23) and a faster Timed Up and Go test time (r=0.54, p < 0.01, n=22), indicating a need for further studies on motivation and limitations for more physical activity following hip fracture surgery....

  20. Activation of CREB in the nucleus accumbens shell produces anhedonia and resistance to extinction of fear in rats

    Muschamp, John W.; Van’t Veer, Ashlee; Parsegian, Aram; Gallo, Miranda S.; Chen, Melissa; Neve, Rachael L; Meloni, Edward G.; Carlezon, William A.

    2011-01-01

    Stress triggers psychiatric conditions including depressive and anxiety disorders. The mechanisms by which stress produces persistent changes in behavior are not fully understood. Here we show in rats that stress (footshock) activates the transcription factor CREB (cAMP response element binding protein) within the nucleus accumbens shell (NAS), a brain area involved in encoding reward and aversion. To examine the behavioral significance of altered CREB function in the NAS, we used viral vecto...

  1. Dorky Poll Scientific Fears

    2008-01-01

    The questions posed in yesterday's posts about hopes for 2008 were half of what we were asked by the Powers That Be. The other half: What scientific development do you fear you'll be blogging or reading about in 2008?

  2. Fear of the Formal

    du Gay, Paul; Lopdrup-Hjorth, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    term this ‘fear of the formal’, outlining key elements of its genealogy and exploring its contemporary manifestation in relation to recent and ongoing reforms of organisational life in a range of contexts. At the same time, we seek to indicate the continuing constitutive significance of formality...

  3. Animal Models of Fear Relapse

    Goode, Travis D.; Maren, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Whereas fear memories are rapidly acquired and enduring over time, extinction memories are slow to form and are susceptible to disruption. Consequently, behavioral therapies that involve extinction learning (e.g., exposure therapy) often produce only temporary suppression of fear and anxiety. This review focuses on the factors that are known to influence the relapse of extinguished fear. Several phenomena associated with the return of fear after extinction are discussed, including renewal, sp...

  4. Fear and Aggression in German Shepherd, Boxer and Rottweiler Dogs

    Krassimira Uzunova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available As a result of long-term active fear, variable moods can occur – howling, whimpering, crying, tremor, tics, manias, depressions, etc. It is now acknowledged that fear and aggression are closely related. It is also known that the different dog breeds manifest a various extent of fear and aggression. The study aimed to provide answers to two questions - classification of factors invoking fear and aggression according to their significance and which of investigated dog breeds – German Shepherd, Rottweiler or Boxer is the most resistant to fear and aggression episodes? The exclusion of all factors on the cultivation of three breeds of dogs / they complied with the norms / found that the causes of fear aggressive conditions are listed as follows – first of fear and aggression depend on the temperament of the dog and on the second place of the breed origin, growing conditions and the associated level of primary and secondary socialization. Fear aggressive manifestations occur at least in dogs with sanguine and choleric temperament. Representatives of the breed "Boxer" and "German Shepherd" are at the same level on the manifestations of fear and aggression. Rottweiler breed is in third place in this direction.

  5. Aromatized testosterone attenuates contextual generalization of fear in male rats.

    Lynch, Joseph F; Vanderhoof, Tyler; Winiecki, Patrick; Latsko, Maeson S; Riccio, David C; Jasnow, Aaron M

    2016-08-01

    Generalization is a common symptom of many anxiety disorders, and females are 60% more likely to suffer from an anxiety disorder than males. We have previously demonstrated that female rats display significantly accelerated rates of contextual fear generalization compared to male rats; a process driven, in part, by activation of ERβ. The current study was designed to determine the impact of estrogens on contextual fear generalization in male rats. For experiment 1, adult male rats were gonadectomized (GDX) and implanted with a capsule containing testosterone proprionate, estradiol, dihydrotestosterone proprionate (DHT), or an empty capsule. Treatment with testosterone or estradiol maintained memory precision when rats were tested in a different (neutral) context 1day after training. However, male rats treated with DHT or empty capsules displayed significant levels of fear generalization, exhibiting high levels of fear in the neutral context. In Experiment 2, we used acute injections of gonadal hormones at a time known to elicit fear generalization in female rats (e.g. 24h before testing). Injection treatment followed the same pattern of results seen in Experiment 1. Finally, animals given daily injections of the aromatase inhibitor, Fadrozole, displayed significant fear generalization. These data suggest that testosterone attenuates fear generalization likely through the aromatization testosterone into estradiol as animals treated with the non-aromatizable androgen, DHT, or animals treated with Fadrozole, displayed significant generalized fear. Overall, these results demonstrate a sex-dependent effect of estradiol on the generalization of contextual fear. PMID:27368147

  6. Sex differences in fear extinction and involvements of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK).

    Matsuda, Shingo; Matsuzawa, Daisuke; Ishii, Daisuke; Tomizawa, Haruna; Sutoh, Chihiro; Shimizu, Eiji

    2015-09-01

    Stress-related disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and panic disorders, are disproportionately prevalent in females. However, the biological mechanism underlying these sex differences in the prevalence rate remains unclear. In the present study, we examined sex differences in fear memory, fear extinction, and spontaneous recovery of fear. We investigated the presence of sex differences in recent and remote fear memory in mice using contextual fear conditioning, as well as sex differences in spontaneous recovery of fear memory using a consecutive fear extinction paradigm. We examined the number of fear extinction days required to prevent spontaneous recovery of fear in either sex. We investigated whether ovariectomy affected fear extinction and spontaneous recovery. We also measured the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1 and 2 in the dorsal hippocampus and the medial prefrontal cortex following fear extinction sessions. In our results, we found no sex difference in recent or remote fear memory. However, females required more fear extinction sessions compared to males to prevent spontaneous recovery. Within-extinction freezing also differed between males and females. Moreover, females required more extinction sessions than males to increase ERK2 phosphorylation in the dorsal hippocampus. Our data suggest that contextual fear extinction was unstable in females compared to males and that such sex differences may be related to the ERK2 phosphorylation in the hippocampus. PMID:26079214

  7. Oxytocin Facilitates Pavlovian Fear Learning in Males.

    Eckstein, Monika; Scheele, Dirk; Patin, Alexandra; Preckel, Katrin; Becker, Benjamin; Walter, Annika; Domschke, Katharina; Grinevich, Valery; Maier, Wolfgang; Hurlemann, René

    2016-03-01

    In human evolution, social group living and Pavlovian fear conditioning have evolved as adaptive mechanisms promoting survival and reproductive success. The evolutionarily conserved hypothalamic peptide oxytocin is a key modulator of human sociality, but its effects on fear conditioning are still elusive. In the present randomized controlled study involving 97 healthy male subjects, we therefore employed functional magnetic resonance imaging and simultaneous skin conductance response (SCR) measures to characterize the modulatory influence of intranasal oxytocin (24 IU) on Pavlovian fear conditioning. We found that the peptide strengthened conditioning on both the behavioral and neural levels. Specifically, subjects exhibited faster task-related responses and enhanced SCRs to fear-associated stimuli in the late phase of conditioning, which was paralleled by heightened activity in cingulate cortex subregions in the absence of changes in amygdala function. This speaks against amygdalocentric views of oxytocin having pure anxiolytic-like effects. Instead, it suggests that the peptide enables extremely rapid and flexible adaptation to fear signals in social contexts, which may confer clear evolutionary advantages but could also elevate vulnerability for the pathological sequelae of interpersonal trauma. PMID:26272050

  8. Fifty million Frenchmen have few nuclear fears

    DuPont, R.L.

    A psychiatrist examines why France chose the nuclear power option in 1974 and expects for it to generate 75% of its power by 1990 in contrast to the US rejection and fear of nuclear power. The fear dominating US media coverage since 1968 is classic phobic thinking. A comparison of US and French attitudes reveals that French nuclear plants are tourist attractions, accepted by residents as both safe and of economic benefit. Accidents are examined realistically in France without the what if drama given to US incidents. Some political problems have developed and recent anti-nuclear activities are taken seriously, but the opposition was not based on fear. Public acceptance in France is partly due to a lack of energy alternatives and a pragmatism that works against phobias. (DCK)

  9. Fifty million Frenchmen have few nuclear fears

    A psychiatrist examines why France chose the nuclear power option in 1974 and expects for it to generate 75% of its power by 1990 in contrast to the US rejection and fear of nuclear power. The fear dominating US media coverage since 1968 is classic phobic thinking. A comparison of US and French attitudes reveals that French nuclear plants are tourist attractions, accepted by residents as both safe and of economic benefit. Accidents are examined realistically in France without the what if drama given to US incidents. Some political problems have developed and recent anti-nuclear activities are taken seriously, but the opposition was not based on fear. Public acceptance in France is partly due to a lack of energy alternatives and a pragmatism that works against phobias

  10. Serotonin, Amygdala and Fear: Assembling the Puzzle

    Bocchio, Marco; McHugh, Stephen B.; Bannerman, David M.; Sharp, Trevor; Capogna, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The fear circuitry orchestrates defense mechanisms in response to environmental threats. This circuitry is evolutionarily crucial for survival, but its dysregulation is thought to play a major role in the pathophysiology of psychiatric conditions in humans. The amygdala is a key player in the processing of fear. This brain area is prominently modulated by the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT). The 5-HT input to the amygdala has drawn particular interest because genetic and pharmacological alterations of the 5-HT transporter (5-HTT) affect amygdala activation in response to emotional stimuli. Nonetheless, the impact of 5-HT on fear processing remains poorly understood.The aim of this review is to elucidate the physiological role of 5-HT in fear learning via its action on the neuronal circuits of the amygdala. Since 5-HT release increases in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) during both fear memory acquisition and expression, we examine whether and how 5-HT neurons encode aversive stimuli and aversive cues. Next, we describe pharmacological and genetic alterations of 5-HT neurotransmission that, in both rodents and humans, lead to altered fear learning. To explore the mechanisms through which 5-HT could modulate conditioned fear, we focus on the rodent BLA. We propose that a circuit-based approach taking into account the localization of specific 5-HT receptors on neurochemically-defined neurons in the BLA may be essential to decipher the role of 5-HT in emotional behavior. In keeping with a 5-HT control of fear learning, we review electrophysiological data suggesting that 5-HT regulates synaptic plasticity, spike synchrony and theta oscillations in the BLA via actions on different subcellular compartments of principal neurons and distinct GABAergic interneuron populations. Finally, we discuss how recently developed optogenetic tools combined with electrophysiological recordings and behavior could progress the knowledge of the mechanisms underlying 5

  11. Fear of holes.

    Cole, Geoff G; Wilkins, Arnold J

    2013-10-01

    Phobias are usually described as irrational and persistent fears of certain objects or situations, and causes of such fears are difficult to identify. We describe an unusual but common phobia (trypophobia), hitherto unreported in the scientific literature, in which sufferers are averse to images of holes. We performed a spectral analysis on a variety of images that induce trypophobia and found that the stimuli had a spectral composition typically associated with uncomfortable visual images, namely, high-contrast energy at midrange spatial frequencies. Critically, we found that a range of potentially dangerous animals also possess this spectral characteristic. We argue that although sufferers are not conscious of the association, the phobia arises in part because the inducing stimuli share basic visual characteristics with dangerous organisms, characteristics that are low level and easily computed, and therefore facilitate a rapid nonconscious response. PMID:23982244

  12. 社区老年人活动和害怕跌倒与骨质疏松知识水平的关系%Correlation between osteoporosis knowledge and activities and fear of falling in the community elderly

    高昶; 张翠翠; 高然; 张妍; 刘宁

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between osteoporosis knowledge and activities and fear of falling of elderly in the community.Method 420 elders in community were investigated with osteoporosis knowledge assessment tool (OKAT) and the modified survey of activities and fear of falling in the elderly (MSAFFE).Result The overall average score of MSAFFE was (25.36±4.58),and exercise capacity dimension scored higher (13.89±2.41).The overall average score of OKAT was (9.11±3.81).The correlation coefficient of MSAFFE and OKAT was-0.11~ 0.58(P<0.05).The level of knowledge osteoporosis could explain 24%,18%,16% variation of activities and fear of falling in each dimension.Conclusion The level of knowledge osteoporosis in the elderly is closely related to activity and fear of falling.Health education should be strengthened to improve the life quality of older people.%目的 了解社区老年人活动和害怕跌倒与骨质疏松知识水平的现状,探讨两者的关系.方法 采用《修订版老年人活动和害怕跌倒量表》(the modified survey of activities and fear of falling in the elderly,mSAFFE)和《骨质疏松知识评价工具》(osteoporosis knowledge assessment tool,OKAT)对420名社区老年人进行问卷调查.结果 社区老年人mSAFFE评分为(25.36±4.58)分,得分较高的维度为运动能力[(13.89±2.41)分];社区老年人OKAT评分(9.11±3.81)分.老年人的活动和害怕跌倒与骨质疏松知识水平相关系数r=-0.11~-0.58(P<0.05).骨质疏松知识水平可解释老年人活动和害怕跌倒各维度的变异量为24%、18%、16%.结论 老年人骨质疏松知识水平与老年人活动害怕跌倒相关,医护人员应加强老年人健康教育,提高老年人的生活质量.

  13. Controllable versus uncontrollable stressors bi-directionally modulate conditioned but not innate fear.

    Baratta, M V; Christianson, J P; Gomez, D M; Zarza, C M; Amat, J; Masini, C V; Watkins, L R; Maier, S F

    2007-06-01

    Fear conditioning and fear extinction play key roles in the development and treatment of anxiety-related disorders, yet there is little information concerning experiential variables that modulate these processes. Here we examined the impact of exposure to a stressor in a different environment on subsequent fear conditioning and extinction, and whether the degree of behavioral control that the subject has over the stressor is of importance. Rats received a session of either escapable (controllable) tail shock (ES), yoked inescapable (uncontrollable) tail shock (IS), or control treatment (home cage, HC) 7 days before fear conditioning in which a tone and foot shock were paired. Conditioning was measured 24 h later. In a second experiment rats received ES, IS or HC 24 h after contextual fear conditioning. Extinction then occurred every day beginning 7 days later until a criterion was reached. Spontaneous recovery of fear was assessed 14 days after extinction. IS potentiated fear conditioning when given before fear conditioning, and potentiated fear responding during extinction when given after conditioning. Importantly, ES potently interfered with later fear conditioning, decreased fear responding during fear extinction, and prevented spontaneous recovery of fear. Additionally, we examined if the activation of the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (mPFCv) by ES is critical for the protective effects of ES on later fear conditioning. Inactivation of the mPFCv with muscimol at the time of the initial experience with control prevented ES-induced reductions in later contextual and auditory fear conditioning. Finally, we explored if the protective effects of ES extended to an unconditioned fear stimulus, ferret odor. Unlike conditioned fear, prior ES increased the fear response to ferret odor to the same degree as did IS. PMID:17478046

  14. Cortisol modifies extinction learning of recently acquired fear in men.

    Merz, Christian Josef; Hermann, Andrea; Stark, Rudolf; Wolf, Oliver Tobias

    2014-09-01

    Exposure therapy builds on the mechanism of fear extinction leading to decreased fear responses. How the stress hormone cortisol affects brain regions involved in fear extinction in humans is unknown. For this reason, we tested 32 men randomly assigned to receive either 30 mg hydrocortisone or placebo 45 min before fear extinction. In fear acquisition, a picture of a geometrical figure was either partially paired (conditioned stimulus; CS+) or not paired (CS-) with an electrical stimulation (unconditioned stimulus; UCS). In fear extinction, each CS was presented again, but no UCS occurred. Cortisol increased conditioned skin conductance responses in early and late extinction. In early extinction, higher activation towards the CS- than to the CS+ was found in the amygdala, hippocampus and posterior parahippocampal gyrus. This pattern might be associated with the establishment of a new memory trace. In late extinction, the placebo compared with the cortisol group displayed enhanced CS+/CS- differentiation in the amygdala, medial frontal cortex and nucleus accumbens. A change from early deactivation to late activation of the extinction circuit as seen in the placebo group seems to be needed to enhance extinction and to reduce fear. Cortisol appears to interfere with this process thereby impairing extinction of recently acquired conditioned fear. PMID:23945999

  15. Visualization of Plasticity in Fear-Evoked Calcium Signals in Midbrain Dopamine Neurons

    Gore, Bryan B.; Soden, Marta E.; Zweifel, Larry S.

    2014-01-01

    Dopamine is broadly implicated in fear-related processes, yet we know very little about signaling dynamics in these neurons during active fear conditioning. We describe the direct imaging of calcium signals of dopamine neurons during Pavlovian fear conditioning using fiber-optic confocal microscopy coupled with the genetically encoded calcium…

  16. Cognitive vulnerability and dental fear

    Spencer A John

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Cognitive Vulnerability Model proposes that perceptions of certain characteristics of a situation are critical determinants of fear. Although the model is applicable to all animal, natural environment and situational fears, it has not yet been applied specifically to dental fear. This study therefore aimed to examine the association between dental fear and perceptions of dental visits as uncontrollable, unpredictable and dangerous. Methods The study used a clustered, stratified national sample of Australians aged 15 years and over. All participants were asked in a telephone interview survey to indicate their level of dental fear. Participants who received an oral examination were subsequently provided with a self-complete questionnaire in which they rated their perceptions of uncontrollability, unpredictability and dangerousness associated with dental visiting. Results 3937 participants were recruited. Each of the three vulnerability-related perceptions was strongly associated with the prevalence of high dental fear. In a logistic regression analysis, uncontrollability and dangerousness perceptions were significantly associated with high dental fear after controlling for age and sex. However, unpredictability perceptions did not have a statistically significant independent association with dental fear after controlling for all other variables. Conclusion Results are mostly consistent with the Cognitive Vulnerability Model of the etiology of fear, with perceptions of uncontrollability, unpredictability and dangerousness each showing a strong bivariate relationship with high dental fear prevalence. However, more extensive measures of vulnerability perceptions would be valuable in future investigations.

  17. Pain-related fear and movement : Implications for physiotherapy and public health

    Buer, Nina

    2003-01-01

    Long-term musculoskeletal pain is a large public health problem with serious consequences both for the individual and society. Fear-avoidance beliefs and catastrophizing are powerful cognitions in the process of developing chronic pain problems. Fear-avoidance refers to the avoidance of movement or activities based on fear. The overall aim of this thesis was to delineate the role of fear-avoidance beliefs in relation to the concept of movement. The specific aim of study ...

  18. ERK-Associated Changes of AP-1 Proteins During Fear Extinction

    Guedea, Anita L.; Schrick, Christina; Guzman, Yomayra F.; Leaderbrand, Katie; Jovasevic, Vladimir; Corcoran, Kevin A.; Tronson, Natalie C; Radulovic, Jelena

    2011-01-01

    Extensive research has unraveled the molecular basis of learning processes underlying contextual fear conditioning, but the mechanisms of fear extinction remain less known. Contextual fear extinction occurs when an aversive stimulus that initially caused fear is no longer present and depends on the activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), among other molecules. Here we investigated how ERK signaling triggered by extinction affects its downstream targets belonging to the ...

  19. Fostering collective intelligence education

    Jaime Meza

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available New educational models are necessary to update learning environments to the digitally shared communication and information. Collective intelligence is an emerging field that already has a significant impact in many areas and will have great implications in education, not only from the side of new methodologies but also as a challenge for education. This paper proposes an approach to a collective intelligence model of teaching using Internet to combine two strategies: idea management and real time assessment in the class. A digital tool named Fabricius has been created supporting these two elements to foster the collaboration and engagement of students in the learning process. As a result of the research we propose a list of KPI trying to measure individual and collective performance. We are conscious that this is just a first approach to define which aspects of a class following a course can be qualified and quantified.

  20. Fostering Creative Engineers

    Zhou, Chunfang

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have argued a shift of thinking about engineering practice from a linear conception to a system understanding. The complexity of engineering practice has been thought of as the root of challenges for engineers. Moreover, creativity has been emphasised as one key capability that...... engineering students should master. This paper aims to illustrate deeply why engineering education needs to foster creative students to face the challenges of complex engineering work. So a literature review will be provided by focusing on the necessity of developing creativity in engineering education. As...... the literature demonstrates, this paper reveals the understanding of complexity in engineering practice and the roles of creativity in engineering practice. In addition, the barriers to creativity in current engineering education and some implications of pedagogic strategies will be discussed. So this...

  1. Fostering a Democratic Culture among Participants in the Educational Process

    Ludmila Baiborodova

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is dedicated to the issue of fostering a democratic culture among participants in the educational process. The author provides the conceptual fundamentals of fostering a democratic culture in a person, examines the system of pedagogical means facilitating the effective organization of the process of fostering a democratic culture, the leading role among which is played by the methodology of collective creative activity and the fostering of self-management. The author looks into ways of organizing effective interaction between all participants in the educational process. The article also analyzes the potential of the educational process in terms of fostering the major components of democratic culture in students and instructors through the use of the content of academic subjects and the development of the system of relations between instructors and students.

  2. Educating Students in Foster Care

    Heffernan, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Students who are in foster care need principals who are informed about policy, aware of their needs, and willing to be advocates for them. Multiple school placements often result in significant gaps in the education of students in foster care. If they also have disabilities, they may lose special programs and services when they change placements.…

  3. Last Orders for Foster's Group

    Michael O' Neill

    2006-01-01

    @@ Tempted by an unddderdeveloped market and a growing taste for beer, Foster's saw big potential in the Chinese brewing sector. But this potential has come tomothing and the Australian brewer has finally rang time on its China investments After over ten years, several failed partnerships and millions of dollars in losses, Australia's Foster's Group has finally called last orders on its expensive dip into the Chinese brewing market. In a decision announced in June, Foster's sold its Shanghai brewery for an undisclosed amount to Japan's Suntory. Speaking shortly after the sale, a Foster's spokesperson was optimistic that the salewould not affect the brewer's intemational ambitions: "As we look to growing the Foster's brand as an international premium brand rather than being a local brewer, Shanghai no longer fits."

  4. Animal models of fear relapse.

    Goode, Travis D; Maren, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Whereas fear memories are rapidly acquired and enduring over time, extinction memories are slow to form and are susceptible to disruption. Consequently, behavioral therapies that involve extinction learning (e.g., exposure therapy) often produce only temporary suppression of fear and anxiety. This review focuses on the factors that are known to influence the relapse of extinguished fear. Several phenomena associated with the return of fear after extinction are discussed, including renewal, spontaneous recovery, reacquisition, and reinstatement. Additionally, this review describes recent work, which has focused on the role of psychological stress in the relapse of extinguished fear. Recent developments in behavioral and pharmacological research are examined in light of treatment of pathological fear in humans. PMID:25225304

  5. Fear extinction causes target-specific remodeling of perisomatic inhibitory synapses.

    Trouche, Stéphanie; Sasaki, Jennifer M; Tu, Tiffany; Reijmers, Leon G

    2013-11-20

    A more complete understanding of how fear extinction alters neuronal activity and connectivity within fear circuits may aid in the development of strategies to treat human fear disorders. Using a c-fos-based transgenic mouse, we found that contextual fear extinction silenced basal amygdala (BA) excitatory neurons that had been previously activated during fear conditioning. We hypothesized that the silencing of BA fear neurons was caused by an action of extinction on BA inhibitory synapses. In support of this hypothesis, we found extinction-induced target-specific remodeling of BA perisomatic inhibitory synapses originating from parvalbumin and cholecystokinin-positive interneurons. Interestingly, the predicted changes in the balance of perisomatic inhibition matched the silent and active states of the target BA fear neurons. These observations suggest that target-specific changes in perisomatic inhibitory synapses represent a mechanism through which experience can sculpt the activation patterns within a neural circuit. PMID:24183705

  6. Transforming a Traditional Hands-On Activity into an Enquiry Activity to Foster More In-Depth Understanding of the Concept of Density

    Lee, Yeung Chung; Kwok, Ping Wai

    2010-01-01

    Traditional methods used to teach the concept of density that employ solid objects of different masses and volumes can be supplemented by enquiry activities in which students vary the mass-to-volume ratio of the same object to test ideas about density and flotation. A simple substance, Blu-Tack, is an ideal material to use in this case. The…

  7. Extinction in human fear conditioning

    Hermans, Dirk; Craske, Michelle G.; Mineka, Susan; Lovibond, Peter F.

    2006-01-01

    Although most extinction research is conducted in animal laboratories, the study of extinction learning in human fear conditioning has gained increasing attention over the last decade. The most important findings from human fear extinction are reviewed in this article. Specifically, we review experimental investigations of the impact of conditioned inhibitors, conditioned exciters, context renewal, and reinstatement on fear extinction in human samples. We discuss data from laboratory studies ...

  8. 4-Hz oscillations synchronize prefrontal-amygdala circuits during fear behavior.

    Karalis, Nikolaos; Dejean, Cyril; Chaudun, Fabrice; Khoder, Suzana; Rozeske, Robert R; Wurtz, Hélène; Bagur, Sophie; Benchenane, Karim; Sirota, Anton; Courtin, Julien; Herry, Cyril

    2016-04-01

    Fear expression relies on the coordinated activity of prefrontal and amygdala circuits, yet the mechanisms allowing long-range network synchronization during fear remain unknown. Using a combination of extracellular recordings, pharmacological and optogenetic manipulations, we found that freezing, a behavioral expression of fear, temporally coincided with the development of sustained, internally generated 4-Hz oscillations in prefrontal-amygdala circuits. 4-Hz oscillations predict freezing onset and offset and synchronize prefrontal-amygdala circuits. Optogenetic induction of prefrontal 4-Hz oscillations coordinates prefrontal-amygdala activity and elicits fear behavior. These results unravel a sustained oscillatory mechanism mediating prefrontal-amygdala coupling during fear behavior. PMID:26878674

  9. Are fear memories erasable? –reconsolidation of learned fear with fear relevant and fear-irrelevant stimuli

    Armita Golkar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in the field of fear learning have demonstrated that a single reminder exposure prior to extinction training can prevent the return of extinguished fear by disrupting the process of reconsolidation. These findings have however proven hard to replicate in humans. Given the significant implications of preventing the return of fear, the purpose of the present study was to further study the prerequisites for the putative effects of disrupting reconsolidation. In two experiments, we assessed whether extinction training initiated within the reconsolidation time window could abolish the return of fear using fear-relevant (experiment 1 or fear-irrelevant (experiment 2 conditioned stimuli (CS. In both experiments, participants went through conditioning, extinction and reinstatement testing on three consecutive days, with one of two reinforced CS being reactivated 10 minutes prior to extinction. We found that a single reminder exposure prior to extinction training did not prevent the return of extinguished fear responding using either fear-relevant or fear-irrelevant CSs. Our findings point to the need to further study the specific parameters that enable disruption of reconsolidation.

  10. Reflection of Foster Parents on Caring for Foster and Adopted Children and Their Suggestions to Teachers

    Nowak-Fabrykowski, Krystyna; Helinski, Monica; Buchstein, Fred

    2009-01-01

    In this research project we investigated the process of adoption of foster children by foster parents and the foster parents' ideas of how to help foster children going through the process of adoption or those who have been adopted. We sent questionnaires to 200 foster parents living in the Cleveland area, but just 23 foster parents replied.…

  11. Initiating a Program of Foster Parent Education

    Dorgan, Marsha P.

    1974-01-01

    Special skills are required for foster parenting adequate to the needs of today's foster children. This paper describes how one agency planned and implemented the first components of a comprehensive, long-range program of foster parent education. (SDH)

  12. Attachment Theory, Foster Parents and Diversity Tolerance

    Kenny, Michael; Fleming, Ted

    2009-01-01

    relevance to attachment within the biological and foster family. Yet every foster parent has a childhood attachment history that influences their interpersonal relationships in adulthood. The primary concern of the foster parent and their supports is with the foster child. But as a result the foster parent may distract or block reflection on their own attachment history. This presentation will focus on attachment theory and the adult, with particular reference to the foster parent. The pre...

  13. Exploring Fear: Rousseau, Dewey, and Freire on Fear and Learning

    English, Andrea; Stengel, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Fear is not the first feature of educational experience associated with the best-known progressive educational theorists--Jean-Jacques Rousseau, John Dewey, and Paolo Freire. But each of these important thinkers did, in fact, have something substantive to say about how fear functions in the processes of learning and growth. Andrea English and…

  14. Fear but not fright: re-evaluating traumatic experience attenuates anxiety-like behaviors after fear conditioning

    Marco eCostanzi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Fear allows organisms to cope with dangerous situations and remembering these situations has an adaptive role preserving individuals from injury and death. However, recalling traumatic memories can induce re-experiencing the trauma, thus resulting in a maladaptive fear. A failure to properly regulate fear responses has been associated with anxiety disorders, like Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD. Thus, re-establishing the capability to regulate fear has an important role for its adaptive and clinical relevance. Strategies aimed at erasing fear memories have been proposed, although there are limits about their efficiency in treating anxiety disorders. To re-establish fear regulation, here we propose a new approach, based on the re-evaluation of the aversive value of traumatic experience. Mice were submitted to a contextual-fear-conditioning paradigm in which a neutral context was paired with an intense electric footshock. Three weeks after acquisition, conditioned mice were treated with a less intense footshock (pain threshold. The effectiveness of this procedure in reducing fear expression was assessed in terms of behavioral outcomes related to PTSD (e.g. hyper-reactivity to a neutral tone, anxiety levels in a plus maze task, social avoidance, and learning deficits in a spatial water maze and of amygdala activity by evaluating c-fos expression. Furthermore, a possible role of lateral orbitofrontal cortex (lOFC in mediating the behavioral effects induced by the re-evaluation procedure was investigated. We observed that this treatment (i significantly mitigates the abnormal behavioral outcomes induced by trauma, (ii persistently attenuates fear expression without erasing contextual memory, (iii prevents fear reinstatement, (iv reduces amygdala activity and (v requires an intact lOFC to be effective.The results suggest that an effective strategy to treat pathological anxiety should address cognitive re-evaluation of traumatic experiences

  15. Prior fear conditioning and reward learning interact in fear and reward networks

    Dominik R Bach

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The ability to flexibly adapt responses to changes in the environment is important for survival. Previous research in humans separately examined the mechanisms underlying acquisition and extinction of aversive and appetitive conditioned responses. It is yet unclear how aversive and appetitive learning interact on a neural level during counterconditioning in humans. This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study investigated the interaction of fear conditioning and subsequent reward learning. In the first phase (fear acquisition, images predicted aversive electric shocks or no aversive outcome. In the second phase (counterconditioning, half of the CS+ and CS- were associated with monetary reward in the absence of electric stimulation. The third phase initiated reinstatement of fear through presentation of electric shocks, followed by CS presentation in the absence of shock or reward. Results indicate that participants were impaired at learning the reward contingencies for stimuli previously associated with shock. In the counterconditioning phase, prior fear association interacted with reward representation in the amygdala, where activation was decreased for rewarded compared to unrewarded CS- trials, while there was no reward-related difference in CS+ trials. In the reinstatement phase, an interaction of previous fear association and previous reward status was observed in a reward network consisting of substantia nigra / ventral tegmental area (SN/VTA, striatum and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC, where activation was increased by previous reward association only for CS- but not for CS+ trials. These findings suggest that during counterconditioning, prior fear conditioning interferes with reward learning, subsequently leading to lower activation of the reward network.

  16. Controlled cortical impact before or after fear conditioning does not affect fear extinction in mice.

    Sierra-Mercado, Demetrio; McAllister, Lauren M; Lee, Christopher C H; Milad, Mohammed R; Eskandar, Emad N; Whalen, Michael J

    2015-05-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized in part by impaired extinction of conditioned fear. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is thought to be a risk factor for development of PTSD. We tested the hypothesis that controlled cortical impact (CCI) would impair extinction of fear learned by Pavlovian conditioning, in mice. To mimic the scenarios in which TBI occurs prior to or after exposure to an aversive event, severe CCI was delivered to the left parietal cortex at one of two time points: (1) Prior to fear conditioning, or (2) after conditioning. Delay auditory conditioning was achieved by pairing a tone with a foot shock in "context A". Extinction training involved the presentation of tones in a different context (context B) in the absence of foot shock. Test for extinction memory was achieved by presentation of additional tones alone in context B over the following two days. In pre- or post-injury paradigms, CCI did not influence fear learning and extinction. Furthermore, CCI did not affect locomotor activity or elevated plus maze testing. Our results demonstrate that, within the time frame studied, CCI does not impair the acquisition and expression of conditioned fear or extinction memory. PMID:25721797

  17. Heritability of fear: Ukrainian experience

    O.V. Filiptsova

    2014-10-01

    Conclusions: The conducted research demonstrated genetic component presence for nine types of fear – psychic disorder development, complications in personal life, making responsible decisions, senility, closed spaces, sexual dysfunction, suicide commission, speaking in public, and aggressive behavior possibility to relatives. It helps to consider these fear perspectives for further molecular-genetic analysis in Ukraine.

  18. Immunization against social fear learning.

    Golkar, Armita; Olsson, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    Social fear learning offers an efficient way to transmit information about potential threats; little is known, however, about the learning processes that counteract the social transmission of fear. In three separate experiments, we found that safety information transmitted from another individual (i.e., demonstrator) during preexposure prevented subsequent observational fear learning (Experiments 1-3), and this effect was maintained in a new context involving direct threat confrontation (Experiment 3). This protection from observational fear learning was specific to conditions in which information about both safety and danger was transmitted from the same demonstrator (Experiments 2-3) and was unaffected by increasing the number of the safety demonstrators (Experiment 3). Collectively, these findings demonstrate that observational preexposure can limit social transmission of fear. Future research is needed to better understand the conditions under which such effects generalize across individual demonstrators. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27077756

  19. EXISTENTIAL FEAR AS ONTOLOGICALLY BACKGROUND OF MEDIOCRITY

    Гіоргадзе, Галина Василівна

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with the phenomenon of fear in terms of the influence of its varieties (fear as a biological defense mechanism, fear as a psychological phenomenon, the varieties of existential fears) on human life and the possibility of creative self. It is determined the protective function of fear, its inhibitory effect on personal development and the limit effect of domestic and social freedom. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of existential fear as a (mostly unconscious) "br...

  20. Memory consolidation of fear conditioning: bi-stable amygdala connectivity with dorsal anterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortex.

    Feng, Pan; Feng, Tingyong; Chen, Zhencai; Lei, Xu

    2014-11-01

    Investigations of fear conditioning in rodents and humans have illuminated the neural mechanisms of fear acquisition and extinction. However, the neural mechanism of memory consolidation of fear conditioning is not well understood. To address this question, we measured brain activity and the changes in functional connectivity following fear acquisition using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. The amygdala-dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and hippocampus-insula functional connectivity were enhanced, whereas the amygdala-medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) functional coupling was decreased during fear memory consolidation. Furthermore, the amygdala-mPFC functional connectivity was negatively correlated with the subjective fear ratings. These findings suggest the amygdala functional connectivity with dACC and mPFC may play an important role in memory consolidation of fear conditioning. The change of amygdala-mPFC functional connectivity could predict the subjective fear. Accordingly, this study provides a new perspective for understanding fear memory consolidation. PMID:24194579

  1. Hidden sources of joy, fear, and sadness

    Bogert, Brigitte; Numminen-Kontti, Taru; Gold, Benjamin;

    2016-01-01

    to be associated with the cognitive processing of music and emotion recognition and regulation. Moreover, happiness in music was associated with activity in the bilateral auditory cortex, left parahippocampal gyrus, and supplementary motor area, whereas the negative emotions of sadness and fear corresponded......Music is often used to regulate emotions and mood. Typically, music conveys and induces emotions even when one does not attend to them. Studies on the neural substrates of musical emotions have, however, only examined brain activity when subjects have focused on the emotional content of the music....... Here we address with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) the neural processing of happy, sad, and fearful music with a paradigm in which 56 subjects were instructed to either classify the emotions (explicit condition) or pay attention to the number of instruments playing (implicit condition...

  2. Changing Fear: The Neurocircuitry of Emotion Regulation

    Hartley, Catherine A.; Phelps, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to alter emotional responses as circumstances change is a critical component of normal adaptive behavior and is often impaired in psychological disorders. In this review, we discuss four emotional regulation techniques that have been investigated as means to control fear: extinction, cognitive regulation, active coping, and reconsolidation. For each technique, we review what is known about the underlying neural systems, combining findings from animal models and human neuroscience....

  3. Cannabinoid facilitation of fear extinction memory recall in humans

    Rabinak, Christine A.; Angstadt, Mike; Sripada, Chandra S.; James L. Abelson; Liberzon, Israel; Milad, Mohammed R; Phan, K. Luan

    2012-01-01

    A first-line approach to treat anxiety disorders is exposure-based therapy, which relies on extinction processes such as repeatedly exposing the patient to stimuli (conditioned stimuli; CS) associated with the traumatic, fear-related memory. However, a significant number of patients fail to maintain their gains, partly attributed to the fact that this inhibitory learning and its maintenance is temporary and conditioned fear responses can return. Animal studies have shown that activation of th...

  4. Effects of sleep on memory for conditioned fear and fear extinction.

    Pace-Schott, Edward F; Germain, Anne; Milad, Mohammed R

    2015-07-01

    Learning and memory for extinction of conditioned fear is a basic mammalian mechanism for regulating negative emotion. Sleep promotes both the consolidation of memory and the regulation of emotion. Sleep can influence consolidation and modification of memories associated with both fear and its extinction. After brief overviews of the behavior and neural circuitry associated with fear conditioning, extinction learning, and extinction memory in the rodent and human, interactions of sleep with these processes will be examined. Animal and human studies suggest that sleep can serve to consolidate both fear and extinction memory. In humans, sleep also promotes generalization of extinction memory. Time-of-day effects on extinction learning and generalization are also seen. Rapid eye movement (REM) may be a sleep stage of particular importance for the consolidation of both fear and extinction memory as evidenced by selective REM deprivation experiments. REM sleep is accompanied by selective activation of the same limbic structures implicated in the learning and memory of fear and extinction. Preliminary evidence also suggests extinction learning can take place during slow wave sleep. Study of low-level processes such as conditioning, extinction, and habituation may allow sleep effects on emotional memory to be identified and inform study of sleep's effects on more complex, emotionally salient declarative memories. Anxiety disorders are marked by impairments of both sleep and extinction memory. Improving sleep quality may ameliorate anxiety disorders by strengthening naturally acquired extinction. Strategically timed sleep may be used to enhance treatment of anxiety by strengthening therapeutic extinction learned via exposure therapy. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25894546

  5. Public fear of nuclear technology

    Excessive fear of nuclear technology (EFONT) is estimated to affect from 35-50 percent of the U.S. public, EFONT is defined as an unpleasant state of fear with components of stress and anxiety, threat to security, and anger. The cognitive aspect of EFONT involves perception of risks, benefits, and values which reinforce and perpetuate the fear. EFONT can be reduced through communications and outreach programs by providing basic information, encouraging participation, and targeting misinformation. Risks need to be put in perspective and benefits made explicit. Safety messages should be combined with other information. Understanding and patience are indispensable in dealing with those who are afraid

  6. MODERN IDEOLOGIES OF MANAGING FEAR

    Oksana Konstantinovna Vasilchenko

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the article is a studying of modern ideologies of managing fear. The purpose of the article is to examine the managing fear practice and explain how it is used in the policy of homeland security. The research methodology is based on the general scientific methods such as analysis and synthesis, induction and deduction and special kind of theoretical me-thods such as studying literature about the problem. The study can be used in courses on social philosophy and political science. The author concludes that social fears are very effective instrument of influence with mass consciousness. The authorities need to legitimize their political decisions through public opinion. But before that they should form it. The author shows how policy of homeland security helps to produce fears in society and how politicians intentionally exaggerate them. In this regard the author considers a concept of homeland security which can eliminate the negative sides of homeland security in future.

  7. Adversity-induced relapse of fear: neural mechanisms and implications for relapse prevention from a study on experimentally induced return-of-fear following fear conditioning and extinction.

    Scharfenort, R; Menz, M; Lonsdorf, T B

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of current treatments for anxiety disorders is limited by high relapse rates. Relapse of anxiety disorders and addiction can be triggered by exposure to life adversity, but the underlying mechanisms remain unexplored. Seventy-six healthy adults were a priori selected for the presence or absence of adverse experiences during childhood (CA) and recent past (RA; that is, past 12 months). Participants underwent fear conditioning (day 1) and fear extinction and experimental return-of-fear (ROF) induction through reinstatement (a model for adversity-induced relapse; day 2). Ratings, autonomic (skin conductance response) and neuronal activation measures (functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)) were acquired. Individuals exposed to RA showed a generalized (that is, not CS- specific) fear recall and ROF, whereas unexposed individuals showed differential (that is, CS+ specific) fear recall and ROF on an autonomic level despite no group differences during fear acquisition and extinction learning. These group differences in ROF were accompanied by corresponding activation differences in brain areas known to be involved in fear processing and differentiability/generalization of ROF (that is, hippocampus). In addition, dimensional measures of RA, CA and lifetime adversity were negatively correlated with differential skin conductance responses (SCRs) during ROF and hippocampal activation. As discriminating signals of danger and safety, as well as a tendency for overgeneralization, are core features in clinically anxious populations, these deficits may specifically contribute to relapse risk following exposure to adversity, in particular to recent adversity. Hence, our results may provide first and novel insights into the possible mechanisms mediating enhanced relapse risk following exposure to (recent) adversity, which may guide the development of effective pre- and intervention programs. PMID:27434492

  8. Examining the Fears of Gifted Children

    Tippey, Jacalyn G.; Burnham, Joy J.

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have considered the fears of gifted children. Using the American Fear Survey Schedule for Children (FSSC-AM; Burnham, 1995), a modified version of the Australian Fear Survey Schedule for Children-II (Gullone & King, 1992, 1993), this study focused on the fears of 287 gifted children ages 7-10. This study is a first step in developing…

  9. Commentary about fear of movement

    K. Meyer

    2010-01-01

    Chronic pain influences many aspects of a patient’s life and often results in physical disability. There are many concepts to explain this condition of disability. For example, several psychological variables like coping with pain, depression, hypervigilance, catastrophizing and fear avoidance are considered in literature to play an important role. In Vlaeyen’s model of fear avoidance, he proposes that in a first step negative affectivity and threatening illness information could trigger the ...

  10. Fear Conditioning Increases NREM Sleep

    HELLMAN, Kevin; Abel, Ted

    2007-01-01

    To understand the role that sleep may play in memory storage, the authors investigated how fear conditioning affects sleep–wake states by performing electroencephalographic (EEG) and electromyographic recordings of C57BL/6J mice receiving fear conditioning, exposure to conditioning stimuli, or immediate shock treatment. This experimental design allowed us to examine the effects of associative learning, presentation of the conditioning stimuli, and presentation of the unconditioned stimuli on ...

  11. Computerized Dental Injection Fear Treatment

    Heaton, L.J.; Leroux, B.G.; Ruff, P.A.; Coldwell, S.E.

    2013-01-01

    One in four adults reports a clinically significant fear of dental injections, leading many to avoid dental care. While systematic desensitization is the most common therapeutic method for treating specific phobias such as fear of dental injections, lack of access to trained therapists, as well as dentists’ lack of training and time in providing such a therapy, means that most fearful individuals are not able to receive the therapy needed to be able to receive necessary dental treatment. Computer Assisted Relaxation Learning (CARL) is a self-paced computerized treatment based on systematic desensitization for dental injection fear. This multicenter, block-randomized, dentist-blind, parallel-group study conducted in 8 sites in the United States compared CARL with an informational pamphlet in reducing fear of dental injections. Participants completing CARL reported significantly greater reduction in self-reported general and injection-specific dental anxiety measures compared with control individuals (p < .001). Twice as many CARL participants (35.3%) as controls (17.6%) opted to receive a dental injection after the intervention, although this was not statistically significant. CARL, therefore, led to significant changes in self-reported fear in study participants, but no significant differences in the proportion of participants having a dental injection (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00609648). PMID:23690352

  12. Understanding of motivation to foster in Hong Kong: predictors of foster parenthood satisfaction and foster parent retention

    周翠琴.; Chow, Chui-kam, Jean.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify satisfaction levels and retention intention of Chinese foster parents in Hong Kong. Foster parents are one of the major caregivers of children in out-of-home care services. However, in recent years, there has been a decreasing number of foster parents. The aim of the study is to discover what aspects foster parents value in fostering, and in what way they perceive value fulfillment through fostering and what their wants are. Finally, the relations...

  13. Unconditioned responses and functional fear networks in human classical conditioning.

    Linnman, Clas; Rougemont-Bücking, Ansgar; Beucke, Jan Carl; Zeffiro, Thomas A; Milad, Mohammed R

    2011-08-01

    Human imaging studies examining fear conditioning have mainly focused on the neural responses to conditioned cues. In contrast, the neural basis of the unconditioned response and the mechanisms by which fear modulates inter-regional functional coupling have received limited attention. We examined the neural responses to an unconditioned stimulus using a partial-reinforcement fear conditioning paradigm and functional MRI. The analysis focused on: (1) the effects of an unconditioned stimulus (an electric shock) that was either expected and actually delivered, or expected but not delivered, and (2) on how related brain activity changed across conditioning trials, and (3) how shock expectation influenced inter-regional coupling within the fear network. We found that: (1) the delivery of the shock engaged the red nucleus, amygdale, dorsal striatum, insula, somatosensory and cingulate cortices, (2) when the shock was expected but not delivered, only the red nucleus, the anterior insular and dorsal anterior cingulate cortices showed activity increases that were sustained across trials, and (3) psycho-physiological interaction analysis demonstrated that fear led to increased red nucleus coupling to insula but decreased hippocampus coupling to the red nucleus, thalamus and cerebellum. The hippocampus and the anterior insula may serve as hubs facilitating the switch between engagement of a defensive immediate fear network and a resting network. PMID:21377494

  14. 10 CFR 708.6 - What constitutes “a reasonable fear of serious injury?”

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What constitutes âa reasonable fear of serious injury?â... Provisions § 708.6 What constitutes “a reasonable fear of serious injury?” Participation in an activity, policy, or practice may cause an employee to have a reasonable fear of serious injury that justifies...

  15. Neural correlates of individual differences in fear learning.

    MacNamara, Annmarie; Rabinak, Christine A; Fitzgerald, Daniel A; Zhou, Xiaohong Joe; Shankman, Stewart A; Milad, Mohammed R; Phan, K Luan

    2015-01-01

    Variability in fear conditionability is common, and clarity regarding the neural regions responsible for individual differences in fear conditionability could uncover brain-based biomarkers of resilience or vulnerability to trauma-based psychopathologies (e.g., post-traumatic stress disorder). In recent years, neuroimaging work has yielded a detailed understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying fear conditioning common across participants, however only a minority of studies have investigated the brain basis of inter-individual variation in fear learning. Moreover, the majority of these studies have employed small sample sizes (mean n=17; range n=5-27) and all have failed to meet the minimum recommended sample size for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of individual differences. Here, using fMRI, we analyzed blood-oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) response recorded simultaneously with skin conductance response (SCR) and ratings of unconditioned stimulus (US) expectancy in 49 participants undergoing Pavlovian fear conditioning. On average, participants became conditioned to the conditioned stimulus (CS+; higher US expectancy ratings and SCR for the CS+ compared to the unpaired conditioned stimulus, CS-); the CS+ also robustly increased activation in the bilateral insula. Amygdala activation was revealed from a regression analysis that incorporated individual differences in fear conditionability (i.e., a between-subjects regressor of mean CS+>CS- SCR). By replicating results observed using much smaller sample sizes, the results confirm that variation in amygdala reactivity covaries with individual differences in fear conditionability. The link between behavior (SCR) and brain (amygdala reactivity) may be a putative endophenotype for the acquisition of fear memories. PMID:25819422

  16. Fostering Communicative Competence through Technology

    Muhammad Aslam Sipra

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the use of technology in EFL classes to promote communicative competence. It elucidates communicative competence and explicates obstructions in communicative tasks. Moreover, it interprets the use of technology in fostering and supporting the development of communicative competence and explains how it is pragmatic in maintaining learners’ level of motivation and interest in learning a foreign language. The present article identifies the significance and use of mobile phone, camera, computer and internet, tape recorder, projector, and language labs in EFL classes. Besides, it discusses the use of technology as an educational tool in language teaching and learning.Keywords: Educational technology, fostering, communicative competence, language teaching, learning

  17. Dental Fear among Medical and Dental Undergraduates

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To assess the prevalence and level of dental fear among health related undergraduates and to identify factors causing such fear using Kleinknecht's Dental Fear Survey (DFS) questionnaire. Methods. Kleinknecht's DFS questionnaire was used to assess dental fear and anxiety among the entire enrollment of the medical and dental undergraduates' of the University of Malaya. Results. Overall response rate was 82.2%. Dental students reported higher prevalence of dental fear (96.0% versus 9...

  18. Glucocorticoids reduce phobic fear in humans

    Soravia, Leila M; Heinrichs, Markus; Aerni, Amanda; Maroni, Caroline; Schelling, Gustav; Ehlert, Ulrike; Roozendaal, Benno; de Quervain, Dominique J.-F.

    2006-01-01

    Phobias are characterized by excessive fear, cued by the presence or anticipation of a fearful situation. Whereas it is well established that glucocorticoids are released in fearful situations, it is not known whether these hormones, in turn, modulate perceived fear. As extensive evidence indicates that elevated glucocorticoid levels impair the retrieval of emotionally arousing information, they might also inhibit retrieval of fear memory associated with phobia and, thereby, reduce phobic fea...

  19. M-Type Potassium Channels Modulate the Intrinsic Excitability of Infralimbic Neurons and Regulate Fear Expression and Extinction

    Santini, Edwin; James T. Porter

    2010-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates that the activity of infralimbic prefrontal cortex (IL) is critical for inhibiting inappropriate fear responses following extinction learning. Recently, we showed that fear conditioning and extinction alter the intrinsic excitability and bursting of IL pyramidal neurons in brain slices. IL neurons from Sprague Dawley rats expressing high fear had lower intrinsic excitability and bursting than those from rats expressing low fear, suggesting that regulating the intrin...

  20. Neuropeptide S reduces fear and avoidance of con-specifics induced by social fear conditioning and social defeat, respectively.

    Zoicas, Iulia; Menon, Rohit; Neumann, Inga D

    2016-09-01

    Neuropeptide S (NPS) has anxiolytic effects and facilitates extinction of cued fear in rodents. Here, we investigated whether NPS reverses social fear and social avoidance induced by social fear conditioning (SFC) and acute social defeat (SD), respectively, in male CD1 mice. Our results revealed that intracerebroventricular NPS (icv; 10 and 50 nmol/2 μl) reversed fear of unknown con-specifics induced by SFC and dose-dependently reduced avoidance of known aggressive con-specifics induced by SD. While 50 nmol of NPS completely reversed social avoidance and reinstated social preference, 10 nmol of NPS reduced social avoidance, but did not completely reinstate social preference in socially-defeated mice. Further, a lower dose (1 nmol/2 μl) of NPS facilitated the within-session extinction of cued fear, while a higher dose (10 nmol/2 μl) reduced the expression of cued fear. We could also confirm the anxiolytic effects of NPS (1, 10 and 50 nmol/2 μl) on the elevated plus-maze (EPM), which were not accompanied by alterations in locomotor activity either on the EPM or in the home cage. Finally, we could show that icv infusion of the NPS receptor 1 antagonist D-Cys((t)Bu)(5)-NPS (10 nmol/2 μl) did not alter SFC-induced social fear, general anxiety and locomotor activity. Taken together, our study extends the potent anxiolytic profile of NPS to a social context by demonstrating the reduction of social fear and social avoidance, thus providing the framework for studies investigating the involvement of the NPS system in the regulation of different types of social behaviour. PMID:27044664

  1. Supporting Foster Parents: Caring Voices.

    Hudson, Pete; Levasseur, Karen

    2002-01-01

    This study used mailed questionnaires to obtain 66 foster parents' views on the supports needed to maintain their caring role. An overarching finding was the need for respect and recognition, manifested in many ways, which appeared to be in short supply. The presence of several ambiguities in the relationships between agency, children in care, and…

  2. Fostering Sound Financial Sector Development

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    This note outlines a short, to medium-term reform agenda to foster sound financial sector development. Mexico needs to broaden and deepen its financial system without compromising the financial stability gains of the last decade. Much more private investment is needed to transform the economy to boost productivity, and despite improvements in recent years, many households and firms still l...

  3. Foster Creative Engineers by PBL

    Zhou, Chunfang; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard; Kolmos, Anette

    2011-01-01

    student satellite project (AAUSAT3) in the department of electronic systems at Aalborg University in Denmark. Multiple methods including interviews and observation were employed. The analysis of the empirical data leads to the findings and discussions that PBL can foster creative engineers by providing...

  4. Central HIV-1 Tat exposure elevates anxiety and fear conditioned responses of male mice concurrent with altered mu-opioid receptor-mediated G-protein activation and β-arrestin 2 activity in the forebrain.

    Hahn, Yun K; Paris, Jason J; Lichtman, Aron H; Hauser, Kurt F; Sim-Selley, Laura J; Selley, Dana E; Knapp, Pamela E

    2016-08-01

    Co-exposure to opiates and HIV/HIV proteins results in enhanced CNS morphological and behavioral deficits in HIV(+) individuals and in animal models. Opiates with abuse liability, such as heroin and morphine, bind preferentially to and have pharmacological actions through μ-opioid-receptors (MORs). The mechanisms underlying opiate-HIV interactions are not understood. Exposure to the HIV-1 transactivator of transcription (Tat) protein causes neurodegenerative outcomes that parallel many aspects of the human disease. We have also observed that in vivo exposure to Tat results in apparent changes in morphine efficacy, and thus have hypothesized that HIV proteins might alter MOR activation. To test our hypothesis, MOR-mediated G-protein activation was determined in neuroAIDS-relevant forebrain regions of transgenic mice with inducible CNS expression of HIV-1 Tat. G-protein activation was assessed by MOR agonist-stimulated [(35)S]guanosine-5'-O-(3-thio)triphosphate ([(35)S]GTPγS) autoradiography in brain sections, and in concentration-effect curves of MOR agonist-stimulated [(35)S]GTPγS binding in membranes isolated from specific brain regions. Comparative studies were done using the MOR-selective agonist DAMGO ([D-Ala(2), N-MePhe(4), Gly-ol]-enkephalin) and a more clinically relevant agonist, morphine. Tat exposure reduced MOR-mediated G-protein activation in an agonist, time, and regionally dependent manner. Levels of the GPCR regulatory protein β-arrestin-2, which is involved in MOR desensitization, were found to be elevated in only one affected brain region, the amygdala; amygdalar β-arrestin-2 also showed a significantly increased association with MOR by co-immunoprecipitation, suggesting decreased availability of MOR. Interestingly, this correlated with changes in anxiety and fear-conditioned extinction, behaviors that have substantial amygdalar input. We propose that HIV-1 Tat alters the intrinsic capacity of MOR to signal in response to agonist binding

  5. Stimulus fear-relevance and the vicarious learning pathway to childhood fears

    Askew, C.; Dunne, G.; Ozdil, A; Reynolds, G; Field, A.P.

    2013-01-01

    Enhanced fear learning for fear-relevant stimuli has been demonstrated in procedures with adults in the laboratory. Three experiments investigated the effect of stimulus fear-relevance on vicarious fear learning in children (aged 6-11 years). Pictures of stimuli with different levels of fear-relevance (flowers, caterpillars, snakes, worms, and Australian marsupials) were presented alone or together with scared faces. In line with previous studies, children's fear beliefs and avoidance prefere...

  6. Fear of hypoglycaemia in patients with type 1 diabetes

    Evgeniia Mikhaylovna Patrakeeva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Independently of causes and risk factors of hypoglycaemia, its manifestations are always unfavourable and evoke fear and other negative emotions that lead to negative consequences connected with quality of diabetes control. The fear of hypoglycaemia creates an internal conflict by diminishing patients’ motivation to adhere to intensive treatment regimes. In addition to the severity of hypoglycaemia and its negative consequences, quality of life is one of the main criteria for evaluating the physical, psychological and social components of patient's life as a whole. Fear of hypoglycaemia is one of the most important factors; it either directly or indirectly affects quality of life and influences all aspects of the patient's life. Fear of hypoglycaemia is also a source of anxiety for the patient's relatives, causing damage to their familial and social relations. The negative consequences of hypoglycaemia can affect the relationship between spouses, as well as between parents and children with type 1 diabetes. The qualitative and quantitative data demonstrate that non-severe nocturnal hypoglycaemia causes more anxiety and fear in patients than daytime hypoglycaemia does. To quantify the fear of hypoglycaemia in adults with type 1 diabetes, the hypoglycaemia fear scale (HFS was developed and still is the most commonly used instrument. To assess the fear of hypoglycaemia in children and their parents, the HFS scale was adapted to be used in the paediatric population: HFS for parents (PHFS and HFS for children (CHFS. From a clinical point of view, these scales for measuring the level of fear of hypoglycaemia may be useful for monitoring adult patients and families who may need additional support, training or assistance in dealing with issues related to hypoglycaemia. The methods for regulating the fear of hypoglycaemia range from behavioural to pharmaceutical and surgical ones, and include a broad range of activities. Nevertheless, the problem

  7. Caregiver Involvement in the Education of Youth in Foster Care: An Exploratory Study

    Beisse, Kay; Tyre, Ashli

    2013-01-01

    This study was an exploratory investigation of caregiver involvement in the education of youth in foster care. In this study, foster caregivers reported that they are involved in the education of children in their care and participate in at-home involvement activities more often than at-school involvement activities. Caregivers in this study…

  8. Memory-emotional interactions as revealed by fear generalization in animal-fearful individuals.

    Kopp, Bruno; Schlimm, Mike; Hermann, Christiane

    2005-06-01

    Discriminative fear learning and fear generalization were examined in animal-fearful individuals and in control participants. Electrical shocks were administered contingent upon discriminative pictures of spiders or snakes, respectively, in a generalization-after-discrimination paradigm. Neither discriminative fear learning nor extinction was affected by the individual fear status of the animal categories. Novel feared stimuli, which resembled discriminative stimuli, were treated as more shock predictive than novel non-feared stimuli during generalization testing. Neither preparedness theory nor selective sensitization theory was capable to account for these observations. The findings are commensurable with the hypothesis that phobic fear interferes with the retrieval of memory traces. PMID:15814082

  9. Fear of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and fear of other illness in suicide

    Aro, A R; Jallinoja, P T; Henriksson, M M; Lönnqvist, J K

    1994-01-01

    other suicides. Suicidal fear of AIDS calls for evaluation of sexual and other risk behaviour, but fear of AIDS was largely generated by the extensive media coverage. Fear of other somatic illness was more diverse in origin and related to illness experiences. Suicidal fear of illness calls for......Suicide victims with fear of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or other somatic illness were compared for psychosocial and health-related characteristics, triggers and content of fear. Fear of AIDS cases (n = 28), 2% of the 1-year Finnish suicide population (n = 1397), were younger and...... recognition of depression and differentiation of the origin and content of fear....

  10. Health behaviours and fear of cancer recurrence in 10 969 colorectal cancer (CRC) patients

    Fisher, A.; Beeken, R.J.; Heinrich, M.; Williams, K.; Wardle, J.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study aimed to examine whether fear of cancer recurrence (FCR) was related to two important health behaviours (physical activity and smoking) in a large sample of colorectal cancer patients. METHODS: Ten thousand nine hundred sixty nine patients, diagnosed in 2010-11, and in remission in 2013, completed the 'Living with and Beyond Colorectal Cancer' survey. The survey included purpose-designed questions on fear of recurrence ('I have fear about my cancer coming back'), demogr...

  11. Intervention Effects on Foster Parent Stress: Associations With Children's Cortisol Levels

    Fisher, Philip A.; Stoolmiller, Mike

    2008-01-01

    Foster children exhibit high rates of atypical neuroendocrine functioning compared to children in the general population. In particular, alterations in the daytime diurnal activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis have been observed in foster children, often characterized by blunted salivary cortisol levels (i.e., low morning levels that remain low throughout the day). There is emerging evidence that therapeutic interventions for foster children can affect this pattern of HPA ...

  12. Caffeine fostering of mycoparasitic fungi against phytopathogens.

    Sugiyama, Akifumi; Sano, Cecile M; Yazaki, Kazufumi; Sano, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Caffeine (1,3,7-trimethixanthine) is a typical purine alkaloid produced in more than 80 plant species. Its biological role is considered to strengthen plant's defense capabilities, directly as a toxicant to biotic attackers (allelopathy) and indirectly as an activator of defense system (priming). Caffeine is actively secreted into rhizosphere through primary root, and possibly affects the structure of microbe community nearby. The fungal community in coffee plant rhizosphere is enriched with particular species, including Trichoderma family, a mycoparasite that attacks and kills phytopathogens by coiling and destroying their hyphae. In the present study, the caffeine response of 8 filamentous fungi, 4 mycoparasitic Trichoderma, and 4 prey phytopathogens, was examined. Results showed that allelopathic effect of caffeine on fungal growth and development was differential, being stronger on pathogens than on Trichoderma species. Upon confronting, the prey immediately ceased the growth, whereas the predator continued to grow, indicating active mycoparasitism to have occurred. Caffeine enhanced mycoparasitism up to 1.7-fold. Caffeine thus functions in a double-track manner against fungal pathogens: first by direct suppression of growth and development, and second by assisting their natural enemy. These observations suggest that caffeine is a powerful weapon in the arms race between plants and pathogens by fostering enemy's enemy, and we propose the idea of "caffeine fostering" as the third role of caffeine. PMID:26529400

  13. Regulating Critical Period Plasticity: Insight from the Visual System to Fear Circuitry for Therapeutic Interventions

    Elisa M. Nabel

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Early temporary windows of heightened brain plasticity called critical periods developmentally sculpt neural circuits and contribute to adult behavior. Regulatory mechanisms of visual cortex development –the preeminent model of experience-dependent critical period plasticity- actively limit adult plasticity and have proved fruitful therapeutic targets to reopen plasticity and rewire faulty visual system connections later in life. Interestingly, these molecular mechanisms have been implicated in the regulation of plasticity in other functions beyond vision. Applying mechanistic understandings of critical period plasticity in the visual cortex to fear circuitry may provide a conceptual framework for developing novel therapeutic tools to mitigate aberrant fear responses in post traumatic stress disorder. In this review, we turn to the model of experience-dependent visual plasticity to provide novel insights for the mechanisms regulating plasticity in the fear system. Fear circuitry, particularly fear memory erasure, also undergoes age-related changes in experience-dependent plasticity. We consider the contributions of molecular brakes that halt visual critical period plasticity to circuitry underlying fear memory erasure. A major molecular brake in the visual cortex, perineuronal net formation, recently has been identified in the development of fear systems that are resilient to fear memory erasure. The roles of other molecular brakes, myelin-related Nogo receptor signaling and Lynx family proteins– endogenous inhibitors for nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, are explored in the context of fear memory plasticity. Such fear plasticity regulators, including epigenetic effects, provide promising targets for therapeutic interventions.

  14. Fear experience reading: women reading

    Sofia VALDIVIESO GÁMEZ

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the assumptions the patriarchal paradigm has used in the construction of male and female identity, the changes experienced by women in the last century and the statements about fear undergone by more than twenty-five women from different ages and nationalities through their own life cycle, the author gives us an account on what women fear and how they live and overcome it. These ideas are based on the hypothesis that if patriarchy as a social organization is a cultural constant, the fears experienced by women in the process of constructing themselves as such are also constant. She concludes that the only course to follow is necessarily a way where feminine consciousness must be integrated, both in men and women, as a previous step in the construction of a reality based on equals, though, at the same time, different. This would allow us to discover the masculine and feminine dimension in all of us.

  15. Improving Flood Risk Maps as a Capacity Building Activity: Fostering Public Participation and Raising Flood Risk Awareness in the German Mulde Region (project RISK MAP)

    Luther, J.; Meyer, V.; Kuhlicke, C.; Scheuer, S.; Unnerstall, H.

    2012-04-01

    The EU Floods Directive requires the establishment of flood risk maps for high risk areas in all EU Member States by 2013. However, if existing at all, the current practice of risk mapping still shows some deficits: Risk maps are often seen as an information tool rather than a communication tool. This means that e.g. important local knowledge is not incorporated and forms a contrast to the understanding of capacity building which calls for engaging individuals in the process of learning and adapting to change and for the establishment of a more interactive public administration that learns equally from its actions and from the feedback it receives. Furthermore, the contents of risk maps often do not match the requirements of the end users, so that risk maps are often designed and visualised in a way which cannot be easily understood by laypersons and/or which is not suitable for the respective needs of public authorities in risk and flood event management. The project RISK MAP aimed at improving flood risk maps as a means to foster public participation and raising flood risk awareness. For achieving this aim, RISK MAP (1) developed rules for appropriate stakeholder participation enabling the incorporation of local knowledge and preferences; (2) improved the content of risk maps by considering different risk criteria through the use of a deliberative multicriteria risk mapping tool; and (3) improved the visualisation of risk maps in order to produce user-friendly risk maps by applying the experimental graphic semiology (EGS) method that uses the eye tracking approach. The research was carried out in five European case studies where the status quo of risk mapping and the legal framework was analysed, several stakeholder interviews and workshops were conducted, the visual perception of risk maps was tested and - based on this empirical work - exemplary improved risk maps were produced. The presentation and paper will outline the main findings of the project which

  16. Measuring Foster Parent Potential: Casey Foster Applicant Inventory-Worker Version (CFAI-W)

    Cuddeback, Gary S.; Buehler, Cheryl; Orme, John G.; Le Prohn, Nicole S.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This article examines the psychometric properties of the Casey Foster Applicant Inventory-Worker Version (CFAI-W), a questionnaire designed to assess the potential of foster family care applicants to provide foster care. Method: Retrospective data were collected from 208 foster care workers who completed two copies of the CFAI-W, one…

  17. Fear experience reading: women reading

    Sofia VALDIVIESO GÁMEZ

    2009-01-01

    Starting from the assumptions the patriarchal paradigm has used in the construction of male and female identity, the changes experienced by women in the last century and the statements about fear undergone by more than twenty-five women from different ages and nationalities through their own life cycle, the author gives us an account on what women fear and how they live and overcome it. These ideas are based on the hypothesis that if patriarchy as a social organization is a cultural constant,...

  18. Fear of blushing : fearful preoccupation irrespective of facial coloration

    Mulkens, S; de Jong, Peter; Dobbelaar, A; Bogels, SM

    1999-01-01

    Women, with high (n = 29) and low (n = 28) fear of blushing, were exposed to a mild social stressor (watching a television test card in the presence of two male confederates) and to an intense social stressor (watching their own prerecorded 'sing' video, in the presence of two male confederates). Fa

  19. Fear Not: Neurobiological Mechanisms of Fear and Anxiety

    Klumpers, F.

    2012-01-01

    Fear is a common, core emotion. Moreover, anxiety disorders are among the most common form of psychiatric disease. In this thesis neuroimaging, genetic, pharmacological, brain stimulation and behavioral techniques were used in healthy subjects and specific patient populations to shed more light on t

  20. Elites and Panic: More to Fear than Fear Itself

    Clarke, Lee; Chess, Caron

    2008-01-01

    Attributions of panic are almost exclusively directed at members of the general public. Here, we inquire into the relationships between elites and panic. We review current research and theorizing about panic, including problems of identifying when it has occurred. We propose three relationships: elites fearing panic, elites causing panic and…

  1. Fear extinction requires Arc/Arg3.1 expression in the basolateral amygdala

    Onoue, Kousuke; Nakayama, Daisuke; Ikegaya, Yuji; Matsuki, Norio; Nomura, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Background Prolonged re-exposure to a fear-eliciting cue in the absence of an aversive event extinguishes the fear response to the cue, and has been clinically used as an exposure therapy. Arc (also known as Arg3.1) is implicated in synaptic and experience-dependent plasticity. Arc is regulated by the transcription factor cAMP response element binding protein, which is upregulated with and necessary for fear extinction. Because Arc expression is also activated with fear extinction, we hypothe...

  2. Fostering Technical Innovation in Libraries

    Bailey, Jr., Charles W.

    1992-01-01

    Grant funding offers one way to foster innovation, and, for large-scale projects, it may be essential; however, there are limited opportunities to secure such funding and many small projects may not warrant it. When grant funding is sought, the library's proposal is strengthened if it can demonstrate prior effort and expertise in the proposal area. Every opportunity to secure grant funding should be seized; however, libraries should not limit themselves to this funding option. This paper p...

  3. Intergenerational pathways leading to foster care placement of foster care alumni’s children

    Jackson Foster, Lovie J.; Beadnell, Blair; Pecora, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined a path model that postulated intergenerational relationships between biological parent psychosocial functioning and foster care alumni mental health, economic status, and social support; and from these to the likelihood of children of foster care alumni being placed in foster care. The sample included 742 adults who spent time in foster care as children with a private foster care agency and who reported having at least one biological child. A full pathway was found between...

  4. Blindness Biggest Fear for Many Americans

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160254.html Blindness Biggest Fear for Many Americans Losing vision would ... 4, 2016 THURSDAY, Aug. 4, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Blindness is what many Americans fear most, a new ...

  5. Laterodorsal tegmentum interneuron subtypes oppositely regulate olfactory cue-induced innate fear.

    Yang, Hongbin; Yang, Junhua; Xi, Wang; Hao, Sijia; Luo, Benyan; He, Xiaobin; Zhu, Liya; Lou, Huifang; Yu, Yan-Qin; Xu, Fuqiang; Duan, Shumin; Wang, Hao

    2016-02-01

    Innate fear has a critical role in survival of animals. Unlike conditioned fear, the neuronal circuitry underlying innate fear is largely unknown. We found that the laterodorsal tegmentum (LDT) and lateral habenula (LHb) are specifically activated by the mouse predator odorant trimethylthiazoline (TMT). Using optogenetics to selectively stimulate GABAergic neurons in the LDT immediately produced fear-like responses (freezing, accelerated heart rate and increased serum corticosterone), whereas prolonged stimulation caused anxiety-like behaviors. Notably, although selective stimulation of parvalbumin (PV)-positive interneurons similarly induced fear-like responses, stimulation of somatostatin-positive interneurons or inhibition of PV neurons in the LDT suppressed TMT-induced fear-like responses without affecting conditioned fear. Finally, activation of LHb glutamatergic inputs to LDT interneurons was sufficient to generate fear-like responses. Thus, the LHb-LDT pathway is important for regulating olfactory cue-induced innate fear. Our results provide a potential target for therapeutic intervention for anxiety disorder. PMID:26727549

  6. Fear at the Great Wall

    CHARLOTTE; SPIRES

    2011-01-01

    "i’m not going on anything that takes me more than two feet off the ground," Grace was saying.This was classic Grace: She has a morbid fear of—well, everything actually,but in this particular case it was her phobia of heights, heights and cable cars combined specifically.

  7. Fear at the Great Wall

    CHARLOTTE SPIRES

    2011-01-01

    “I’m not going on anything that takes me more than two feet off the ground," Grace was saying.This was classic Grace:She has a morbid fear of-well,everything actually,but in this particular case it was her phobia of heights,heights and cable cars combined specifically.

  8. When the mind forms fear: embodied fear knowledge potentiates bodily reactions

    S. Oosterwijk; M. Topper; M. Rotteveel; A.H. Fischer

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, the authors tested whether conceptual fear knowledge can (a) evoke bodily reactions and (b) enhance subsequent bodily reactions to fearful stimuli. Participants unscrambled neutral or fear sentences and subsequently viewed fearful and neutral pictures in combination with startl

  9. Different Mechanisms of Fear Extinction Dependent on Length of Time since Fear Acquisition

    Davis, Michael; Myers, Karyn M.; Ressler, Kerry J.

    2006-01-01

    Fear extinction is defined as a decline in conditioned fear responses (CRs) following nonreinforced exposure to a feared conditioned stimulus (CS). Behavioral evidence indicates that extinction is a form of inhibitory learning: Extinguished fear responses reappear with the passage of time (spontaneous recovery), a shift of context (renewal), and…

  10. Fears of American Children Following Terrorism

    Burnham, Joy J.; Hooper, Lisa M.

    2008-01-01

    Two months after 9/11, the fears of children and adolescents in Grades 2-12 were examined utilizing the American Fear Survey Schedule for Children and Adolescents (FSSC-AM). Fear intensity scores and age and gender differences are reported. Terrorist-related content on the FSSC-AM (e.g., terrorist attacks, our country being invading by enemies)…

  11. Placing prediction into the fear circuit

    McNally, Gavan P.; Johansen, Joshua P.; Blair, Hugh T.

    2011-01-01

    Pavlovian fear conditioning depends on synaptic plasticity at amygdala neurons. Here we review recent electrophysiological, molecular, and behavioral evidence suggesting the existence of a distributed neural circuitry regulating amygdala synaptic plasticity during fear learning. This circuitry, which involves projections from the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) region, can be linked to prediction error and expectation modulation of fear learning as described by associative and computationa...

  12. Gun Attitudes and Fear of Crime.

    Heath, Linda; Weeks, Kyle; Murphy, Marie Mackay

    1997-01-01

    Using three studies, examined the relationship between attitudes toward guns and fear of crime. Findings indicate a connection between fear of crime and attitudes toward guns: people higher in fear of crime favored gun control. Results also established a relationship between stereotypical beliefs about gun victims and support for gun control. (RJM)

  13. Anxiety, Fears, and Phobias (For Parents)

    ... fears that stem from childhood experiences. An adult's fear of public speaking may be the result of embarrassment in front of peers many years before. It's important for parents to recognize and identify the signs and symptoms of kids' anxieties so that fears don't get in the way of everyday ...

  14. Functional co-activation within the prefrontal cortex supports the maintenance of behavioural performance in fear-relevant situations before an iTBS modulated virtual reality challenge in participants with spider phobia.

    Deppermann, S; Notzon, S; Kroczek, A; Rosenbaum, D; Haeussinger, F B; Diemer, J; Domschke, K; Fallgatter, A J; Ehlis, A-C; Zwanzger, P

    2016-07-01

    A number of studies/meta-analyses reported moderate antidepressant effects of activating repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Regarding the treatment of anxiety, study outcomes are inconsistent, probably because of the heterogenity of anxiety disorders/study designs. To specifically evaluate the impact of rTMS on emotion regulation in fear-relevant situations we applied a sham-controlled activating protocol (intermittent Theta Burst Stimulation/iTBS) over the left PFC (F3) succeeded by a virtual reality (VR) challenge in n=41 participants with spider phobia and n=42 controls. Prior to/after iTBS and following VR prefrontal activation was assessed by functional near-infrared spectroscopy during an emotional Stroop paradigm. Performance (reaction times/error rates) was evaluated. Stimuli were rated regarding valence/arousal at both measurements. We found diminished activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) of participants with spider phobia compared to controls, particularly elicited by emotionally-irrelevant words. Simultaneously, a functional connectivity analysis showed increased co-activation between the left IFG and the contra-lateral hemisphere. Behavioural performance was unimpaired. After iTBS/VR no significant differences in cortical activation between the phobic and control group remained. However, verum-iTBS did not cause an additional augmentation. We interpreted our results in terms of a prefrontal network which gets activated by emotionally-relevant stimuli and supports the maintenance of adequate behavioural reactions. The missing add-on effects of iTBS might be due to a ceiling effect of VR, thereby supporting its potential during exposure therapy. Concurrently, it implies that the efficient application of iTBS in the context of emotion regulation still needs to be studied further. PMID:26996315

  15. Recognizing Student Fear: The Elephant in the Classroom

    Bledsoe, T. Scott; Baskin, Janice J.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding fear, its causes, and its impact on students can be important for educators who seek ways to help students manage their fears. This paper explores common types of student fears such as performance-based anxiety, fear of failure, fear of being laughed at, and cultural components of fear that impact learning. The cognitive, emotional,…

  16. Development of fearfulness in birds: genetic factors modulate non-genetic maternal influences.

    Cécilia Houdelier

    Full Text Available The development of fearfulness and the capacity of animals to cope with stressful events are particularly sensitive to early experience with mothers in a wide range of species. However, intrinsic characteristics of young animals can modulate maternal influence. This study evaluated the effect of intrinsic fearfulness on non-genetic maternal influence. Quail chicks, divergently selected for either higher (LTI or lower fearfulness (STI and from a control line (C, were cross-fostered by LTI or STI mothers. Behavioural tests estimated the chicks' emotional profiles after separation from the mother. Whatever their genotype, the fearfulness of chicks adopted by LTI mothers was higher than that of chicks adopted by STI mothers. However, genetic background affected the strength of maternal effects: the least emotional chicks (STI were the least affected by early experience with mothers. We demonstrated that young animal's intrinsic fearfulness affects strongly their sensitivity to non-genetic maternal influences. A young animal's behavioural characteristics play a fundamental role in its own behavioural development processes.

  17. A comparative experimental evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of Premna obtusifolia Linn and Premna latifolia Roxb leaves in Charles foster rats

    Kumari, Harshitha; Shrikanth, P.; Chaithra; Pushpan, Reshmi; Nishteswar, K.

    2011-01-01

    Agnimantha, a classical Ayurvedic drug is one among the dashamoolas, i.e., group of ten plants whose roots form the useful part. It is a main ingredient of many Ayurvedic preparations. Various source plants from the genus Clerodendrum and Premna are used in different regions of the country. In this study, two species of Premna were selected and evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan induced rat hind paw edema. The selected animals were divided into four groups and test d...

  18. Anti-arthritic Activity of Dashanga Ghana (An Ayurvedic Compound Formulation) Against Freund's Adjuvant Induced Arthritis in Charles Foster Albino Rats

    Ruknuddin, Galib; B J Patgiri; Prajapati, P. K.; Ashok, B.K.; Ravishankar, B.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Arthritis is the most common cause of disability, limiting the activities of adults throughout the world. Apart from the conventional treatment strategies using non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs, and glucocorticoids, newer and safer drugs are continuously being searched, as long-term usage of these drugs have resulted in adverse effects. Besides this, currently a number of medicinal plants are under scientific evaluation to develop a p...

  19. Fostering Kinship with Animals: Animal Portraiture in Humane Education

    Kalof, Linda; Zammit-Lucia, Joe; Bell, Jessica; Granter, Gina

    2016-01-01

    Visual depictions of animals can alter human perceptions of, emotional responses to, and attitudes toward animals. Our study addressed the potential of a slideshow designed to activate emotional responses to animals to foster feelings of kinship with them. The personal meaning map measured changes in perceptions of animals. The participants were…

  20. Optimization of Hydroacoustic Equipment Deployment at Foster Dam, 2013

    Hughes, James S.; Johnson, Gary E.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Hennen, Matthew J.; Fischer, Eric S.; Zimmerman, Shon A.

    2013-03-01

    The goal of the study was to optimize performance of the fixed-location hydroacoustic systems at Foster Dam (FOS) by determining deployment and data acquisition methods that minimized structural, electrical, and acoustic interference. Optimization of the hydroacoustic systems will establish methodology for sampling by active acoustic methods during this year-long evaluation of juvenile salmonid passage at FOS.

  1. Medial prefrontal cortex stimulation modulates the processing of conditioned fear

    Anne Guhn

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The extinction of conditioned fear is dependent on an efficient interplay between the amygdala and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC. In rats, high-frequency electrical mPFC stimulation was shown to improve extinction by a reduction of amygdala activity. However, so far it is unclear whether stimulation of homologues regions in humans might have similar beneficial effects.Healthy volunteers received one-session of either active or sham repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS covering the mPFC while undergoing a two-day fear conditioning and extinction paradigm. rTMS was applied offline after fear acquisition in which one of two faces (CS+ but not CS- was associated with an aversive scream (UCS. Immediate extinction learning (day 1 and extinction recall (day 2 were conducted without UCS delivery. Conditioned responses were assessed in a multimodal approach using fear-potentiated startle (FPS, skin conductance responses (SCR, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS and self-report scales. Consistent with the hypothesis of a modulated processing of conditioned fear after high-frequency rTMS, the active group showed a reduced CS+/CS- discrimination during extinction learning as evident in FPS as well as in SCR and arousal ratings. FPS responses to CS+ further showed a linear decrement throughout both extinction sessions. This study describes the first experimental approach of influencing conditioned fear by using rTMS which can be a basis for future studies investigating a complementation of mPFC stimulation to cognitive behavioral therapy.

  2. Worrying Affects Associative Fear Learning: A Startle Fear Conditioning Study

    Gazendam, F.J.; Kindt, M

    2012-01-01

    A valuable experimental model for the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders is that they originate from a learned association between an intrinsically non-aversive event (Conditioned Stimulus, CS) and an anticipated disaster (Unconditioned Stimulus, UCS). Most anxiety disorders, however, do not evolve from a traumatic experience. Insights from neuroscience show that memory can be modified post-learning, which may elucidate how pathological fear can develop after relatively mild aversive events. W...

  3. Foster care in Croatia from the perspective of foster parents and professionals

    Teodor Sabolić

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In many official documents of the Croatian Government and relevant government departments concerning the process of deinstitutionalization, foster care is cited as a priority form of non-institutional care. The purpose of this paper is to describe the process of foster care for children in Croatia and to present the results of research conducted with foster parents and experts, in the form of improving foster care. The entering into foster care process begins with a motivation and a decision of potential foster parents to embark upon the journey, followed by completing of an application to the local social welfare center, selection carried out by the team which oversees the foster care process, training of foster parents before they obtain a license to perform foster care, and finally – the placement of the foster child in the foster family. The research was conducted with foster parents (N=6, social workers (N=3 and psychologists (N=3, thereby respecting the plurality of various viewpoints. Data was collected with a semi-structured interview and then qualitatively analyzed using the thematic analysis. Analysis of the data showed that foster parents and experts are generally satisfied with the actual process of adopting and that foster parents have help and support from their family and friends. Some of the guidelines that participants in the study pointed out as possibilities of improving foster care are related to the increase of available information on foster care, the change of legislative framework, the professionalisation of foster care, and as an important problem they highlighted the lack of experts working in the foster care system.

  4. The Fear of Contact

    Dumas, S.

    The search for intelligent alien civilisation is one of the great challenges for mankind. The project to explore the thousand of nearby stars has just begun and may take a long time to be completed. It is not certain that a civilisation at a communication distance exists but the search has to be done. Another similar activity is concerned by the transmission of messages to alien civilisation. It is not an answer to a detected message by SETI but a transmission of messages to potential candidates. Over the past years, questions have been raised to the potential danger for Earth of such activity. It is not a secret that METI goal is to attract attention and invite an answer from a nearby civilisation. It is not a physical answer such as a visiting star ship but a simple radio signal. This paper will present arguments to support METI and refute the idea of danger.

  5. More knowledge less fear

    APO-Hazardous Waste Management Agency is publicly owned national agency established to organize and perform activities related to the hazardous waste management in the Republic of Croatia and to assist the governmental bodies in the implementation of the environmental protection policy. APO's public information and education activities are: Issuing publications which would help the public to improve its education and information levels in ts field; Issuing bulletins distributed free; Recording video tapes for public information and education (distributed free of charge especially in schools); Organizing conferences, round tables and lectures by domestic and foreign experts which are referring to activities of the APO; Tours for particular groups (experts, journalist) to facilities of interest in Croatia and abroad, aimed at getting acquainted with relevant experiences and practices in the world; Sponsoring environmentally related project; Informing mass media about all relevant activities of APO; Establishment of Information (Visitor) Centre. Agency as well as similar organizations are required to organize comprehensive and realistic educational programmes, promoting the public into respectful party, expected to be competent for decision making in any of numerous sensitive issues related to waste management specially hazardous and radioactive waste. It is supposed to be the most acceptable approach which contributes to improvement of mutual confidence and respect between experts and the public. At the same time it is also a prerequisite for implementation of better and more efficient environmental protection programmes. It is obvious that such a positive tendency cannot be maintained without creation and performance of an honest, correct, synchronous and complete public information and education programme

  6. Dental Fear among Medical and Dental Undergraduates

    H. Hakim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the prevalence and level of dental fear among health related undergraduates and to identify factors causing such fear using Kleinknecht’s Dental Fear Survey (DFS questionnaire. Methods. Kleinknecht’s DFS questionnaire was used to assess dental fear and anxiety among the entire enrollment of the medical and dental undergraduates’ of the University of Malaya. Results. Overall response rate was 82.2%. Dental students reported higher prevalence of dental fear (96.0% versus 90.4%. However, most of the fear encountered among dental students was in the low fear category as compared to their medical counterpart (69.2 versus 51.2%. Significantly more medical students cancelled dental appointment due to fear compared to dental students (P=0.004. “Heart beats faster” and “muscle being tensed” were the top two physiological responses experienced by the respondents. “Drill” and “anesthetic needle” were the most fear provoking objects among respondents of both faculties. Conclusion. Dental fear and anxiety are a common problem encountered among medical and dental undergraduates who represent future health care professionals. Also, high level of dental fear and anxiety leads to the avoidance of the dental services.

  7. Hippocampal hyperexcitability underlies enhanced fear memories in TgNTRK3, a panic disorder mouse model.

    Santos, Mónica; D'Amico, Davide; Spadoni, Ornella; Amador-Arjona, Alejandro; Stork, Oliver; Dierssen, Mara

    2013-09-18

    Panic attacks are a hallmark in panic disorder (PAND). During the panic attack, a strong association with the surrounding context is established suggesting that the hippocampus may be critically involved in the pathophysiology of PAND, given its role in contextual processing. We previously showed that variation in the expression of the neurotrophin tyrosine kinase receptor type 3 (NTRK3) in both PAND patients and a transgenic mouse model (TgNTRK3) may have a role in PAND pathophysiology. Our study examines hippocampal function and activation of the brain fear network in TgNTRK3 mice. TgNTRK3 mice showed increased fear memories accompanied by impaired extinction, congruent with an altered activation pattern of the amygdala-hippocampus-medial prefrontal cortex fear circuit. Moreover, TgNTRK3 mice also showed an unbalanced excitation-to-inhibition ratio in the hippocampal cornu ammonis 3 (CA3)-CA1 subcircuit toward hyperexcitability. The resulting hippocampal hyperexcitability underlies the enhanced fear memories, as supported by the efficacy of tiagabine, a GABA reuptake inhibitor, to rescue fear response. The fearful phenotype appears to be the result of hippocampal hyperexcitability and aberrant fear circuit activation. We conclude that NTRK3 plays a role in PAND by regulating hippocampus-dependent fear memories. PMID:24048855

  8. Enhanced discriminative fear learning of phobia-irrelevant stimuli in spider-fearful individuals

    Carina eMosig

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Avoidance is considered as a central hallmark of all anxiety disorders. The acquisition and expression of avoidance which leads to the maintenance and exacerbation of pathological fear is closely linked to Pavlovian and operant conditioning processes. Changes in conditionability might represent a key feature of all anxiety disorders but the exact nature of these alterations might vary across different disorders. To date, no information is available on specific changes in conditionability for disorder-irrelevant stimuli in specific phobia (SP. The first aim of this study was to investigate changes in fear acquisition and extinction in spider-fearful individuals as compared to non-fearful participants by using the de novo fear conditioning paradigm. Secondly, we aimed to determine whether differences in the magnitude of context-dependent fear retrieval exist between spider-fearful and non-fearful individuals. Our findings point to an enhanced fear discrimination in spider-fearful individuals as compared to non-fearful individuals at both the physiological and subjective level. The enhanced fear discrimination in spider-fearful individuals was neither mediated by increased state anxiety, depression, nor stress tension. Spider-fearful individuals displayed no changes in extinction learning and/or fear retrieval. Surprisingly, we found no evidence for context-dependent modulation of fear retrieval in either group. Here we provide first evidence that spider-fearful individuals show an enhanced discriminative fear learning of phobia-irrelevant (de novo stimuli. Our findings provide novel insights into the role of fear acquisition and expression for the development and maintenance of maladaptive responses in the course of SP.

  9. Postextinction Infusion of a Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Inhibitor into the Medial Prefrontal Cortex Impairs Memory of the Extinction of Conditioned Fear

    Hugues, Sandrine; Deschaux, Olivier; Garcia, Rene

    2004-01-01

    We investigated whether postextinction training infusion of PD098059, a selective inhibitor of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation, into the medial prefrontal cortex, would impair retention of extinction learning in rats. We found that immediate, but not late (2 or 4 h), postextinction infusion of PD098059 provoked a full return of…

  10. Adrenergic Transmission Facilitates Extinction of Conditional Fear in Mice

    Barad, Mark; Cain, Christopher K.; Blouin, Ashley M.

    2004-01-01

    Extinction of classically conditioned fear, like its acquisition, is active learning, but little is known about its molecular mechanisms. We recently reported that temporal massing of conditional stimulus (CS) presentations improves extinction memory acquisition, and suggested that temporal spacing was less effective because individual CS…