This paper presents an integrative approach to suicidal behavior in terms of search activity concept. Search activity concept displays a broad and holistic approach to behavior, adaptation to environment, body resistance, brain amine metabolism, and REM-sleep functions. Search activity is defined as activity that is oriented to change the situation (or at least the subject's attitude to it) in the absence of a precise prediction of the outcome of such activity, but taking into consideration outcomes at all previous stages of activity. According to the proposed hypothesis, renunciation of search (a state opposed to search activity) leads to a feeling of helplessness, problem-solution deficits, inefficient coping, dreams that represent renunciation of search, and a drop in the activity of amines. All these factors further exacerbate the state of renunciation of search and elevate suicidal risk. In addition, the remnants of search activity are misdirected to self-defeating behaviors that increase mental pain and contribute to renunciation of search. This hypothesis integrates findings from a number of fields of study of suicidal behavior, resolves some paradoxes, suggests new lines of research, and raises suggestions for assessment and treatment of suicidal behavior. PMID:10940437
... a person's risk. Suicide attempts are not harmless bids for attention. A person who seems suicidal should not be left alone and needs immediate mental health treatment. You can call the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline , or call 911. ...
Melhem, Nadine M; Keilp, John G; Porta, Giovanna; Oquendo, Maria A; Burke, Ainsley; Stanley, Barbara; Cooper, Thomas B; Mann, J John; Brent, David A
Studies looking at the relationship of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis to suicidal behavior and its risk factors, such as depression, childhood abuse, and impulsive aggression, report inconsistent results. These studies also do not always differentiate between subjects who go on to attempt suicide, suicidal subjects who never attempted suicide, and non-suicidal subjects with psychiatric disorders. In this study, we examined cortisol responses to an experimental stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), in 208 offspring of parents with mood disorder. Offspring suicide attempters showed lower total cortisol output (β=-0.47, 95% CI (-0.83, -0.11), p=0.01) compared with offspring with suicide-related behavior (SRB) but never attempted, non-suicidal offspring, and a healthy control group. The result remained significant even after controlling for sex, age, race, ethnicity, site, socio-economic status, and hour of the day when the TSST was conducted. Suicide attempters also showed lower baseline cortisol before the TSST (β=-0.45, 95% CI (-0.74, -0.17), p=0.002). However, there were no significant differences between the groups on cortisol reactivity to stress (β=4.5, 95% CI (-12.9, 22), p=0.61). Although subjects with suicide attempt and SRB have similar clinical and psychosocial characteristics, this is the first study to differentiate them biologically on HPA axis indices. Blunted HPA axis activity may increase risk for suicide attempt among individuals with psychopathology by reducing their ability to respond adaptively to ongoing stressors. These results may help better identify subjects at high risk for suicidal behavior for targeted prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:26450815
... their problems. Often it's related to serious depression, alcohol or substance abuse, or a major stressful event. People who have the highest risk of suicide are white men. But women and teens report more suicide attempts. If someone ...
Suicide is the tenth most common cause of death in the United States. People may consider suicide when they are hopeless and can't see ... event. People who have the highest risk of suicide are white men. But women and teens report ...
... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection Activity (Veteran Suicide Prevention Online Quantitative Surveys...). Type of Review: New collection. Abstract: VA's top priority is the prevention of Veterans suicide. It... better understand Veterans and their families' awareness of VA's suicide prevention and mental...
... and act with good judgment. previous continue Substance Abuse Teens with alcohol and drug problems are also ... a school counselor, a religious leader, or a teacher. Call a suicide crisis line (such as 1- ...
Bjerregaard, Peter; Lynge, Inge
the capital, a later peak in the rest of West Greenland, and high and increasing rates in remote East Greenland. Suicidal thoughts occur more often in young people who grew up in homes with a poor emotional environment, alcohol problems and violence. There is a definite correlation with several...
Duval, Fabrice; Mokrani, Marie-Claude; Lopera, Felix Gonzalez; Diep, Thanh Son; Rabia, Hassen; Fattah, Saïd
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between suicidal behavior and hypothalamic-pituitary thyroid (HPT) axis activity in depressed patients. The serum levels of thyrotropin (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), and free triiodothyronine (FT3) were evaluated before and after 0800 and 2300 h thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) challenges, on the same day, in 95 medication-free DSM-IV euthyroid major depressed inpatients and 44 healthy hospitalized controls. Compared to controls: (1) patients with a positive suicide history (PSH; n=53) showed lower basal FT4 (at 0800 h: p<0.005; at 2300 h: p<0.03), but normal FT3 levels, while patients with a negative suicide history (NSH; n=42) showed normal FT4 and FT3 levels; (2) TSH responses to TRH (DeltaTSH) were blunted in NSHs (at 0800 h: p<0.03; at 2300 h: p<0.00001), but not in PSHs; (3) both NSHs and PSHs showed lower DeltaDeltaTSH values (differences between 2300 h-DeltaTSH and 0800 h-DeltaTSH) (p<0.000001 and p<0.003, respectively). Compared to NSHs, basal FT4 levels were reduced in PSHs (at 0800 h: p<0.002; at 2300h: p<0.006). HPT parameters were not significantly different between recent suicide attempters (n=32) and past suicide attempters (n=21). However, compared to controls, recent suicide attempters showed lower 2300 h-DeltaTSH (p<0.04) and DeltaDeltaTSH (p<0.002) values, and lower basal FT4 values (at 0800 h: p<0.006; at 2300 h: p<0.02). Our results, obtained in a large sample of depressed inpatients, indicate that various degrees of HPT axis dysregulation are associated with the history of suicide. PMID:20129737
... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Veteran Suicide Prevention Online Quantitative Surveys) Activity... outreach efforts on the prevention of suicide among Veterans and their families. DATES: Written comments...). Type of Review: New collection. Abstract: VA's top priority is the prevention of Veterans suicide....
Villatte, Jennifer L.; O’Connor, Stephen S.; Leitner, Rebecca; Kerbrat, Amanda H.; Johnson, Lora L.; Gutierrez, Peter M.
Past suicidal behaviors are among the strongest and most consistent predictors of eventual suicide and may be particularly salient in military suicide. The current study compared characteristics of suicide attempts in veterans (N = 746) and active-duty service members (N = 1,013) receiving treatment for acute suicide risk. Baseline data from six randomized controlled trials were pooled and analyzed using robust regression. Service members had greater odds of having attempted suicide relative ...
The institution of active euthanasia has been legal in Colombia since 2015. In California, the regulation on physician-assisted suicide will come into effect on January 1, 2016. The legal institution of active euthanasia is not accepted under the law of the United States of America, however, physician-assisted suicide is accepted in an increasing number of member states. The related regulation in Oregon is imitated in other member states. In South America, Colombia is not the first country to legalize active euthanasia: active euthanasia has been legal in Uruguay since 1932. The North American legal tradition markedly differs from the South American one and both are incompatible with the Central European rule of law. In Hungary and in most European Union countries, solely the passive form of euthanasia is legal. In the Benelux countries, the active form of euthanasia is legal because the supranational law of the European Union does not prohibit it. Notwithstanding, European Union law does not prescribe legalization of either the active form of euthanasia, or the physician-assisted suicide. PMID:26801362
Trofimovich, Lily; Reger, Mark A.; Luxton, David D.; Oetjen-Gerdes, Lynne A.
Suicide risk based on occupational cohorts within the U.S. military was investigated. Rates of suicide based on military occupational categories were computed for the Department of Defense (DoD) active component population between 2001 and 2010. The combined infantry, gun crews, and seamanship specialist group was at increased risk of suicide…
Park, S M
The recognition of suicide as a major public health problem has suggested the need to identify risk factors that have implications for preventive intervention. In the suicidal process, suicidal ideation is a key stage in the pathway leading to eventual suicide. This study investigated the influence of physical activity and functional limitations on suicidal ideation among young and middle-aged adults in a high suicidal society. Data for the current study were obtained from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2009 (KNHANES), a cross-sectional study conducted by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The survey conducted face-to-face interviews with young adults (n = 2326) and middle-aged adults (n = 3396). Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, the relationship of physical activity and functional limitations with suicidal ideation in young and middle-aged adults was assessed. A notable outcome was that the absence of a regular walking was correlated with increased suicidal ideation in middle-aged women. The other major finding was that young women and middle-aged adults with functional limitations had a high rate of suicidal thoughts. Multiple intervention approaches, including informational, social and behavioural approaches, are needed to promote regular walking in middle-aged women. For instance, mass media campaigns, community walking groups and individually adapted health behaviour modification may provide opportunities for positive intervention. Additionally, another important public health implication from these findings is the need for a suicide-intervention support system that includes screening for suicide risk in healthcare settings, especially among young women with physical limitations. PMID:25434531
Haußmann, R; Bauer, M; Lewitzka, U; Müller-Oerlinghausen, B
Suicidality represents a frequent phenomenon in affective and psychotic disorders but the treatment of acute and chronic suicidality is still a controversial issue. Especially the efficacy of antidepressant and neuroleptic drugs for prevention of suicide continues to be debated. There is a lack of evidence due to limitations of methodological studies and ethical concerns are a major issue. Considering methodological problems in the conducted studies the often insufficiently valued differentiation between suicidal thoughts and actual suicidal behavior has to be emphasized. With the exception of lithium and clozapine suicide-preventing effects of antidepressants and neuroleptics could not yet be demonstrated. Regarding new antidepressant drugs, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRI) even the possible new onset of suicidal thoughts and ideations as an adverse effect needs to be stressed. Considering the frequent occurrence of suicidality the currently available evidence is undoubtedly insufficient. The improvement of study concepts and especially a more differentiated consideration of the vague term "suicidality" seems to be essential. An underrepresentation of the evidence-based therapeutic options with lithium and clozapine in the treatment of suicidal patients needs to be avoided. PMID:26952239
Wong, WHS; Chiu, IWS
Introduction: Youth suicide is one of the top three causes of death among age group between 15 and 24 years old. The known risk factors include depression, hopelessness, dysfunctional families, substance abuse, school failure and harassment. However, research reports in relation to the protective factors to prevent adolescent from suicidal attempts are still lacking. The purpose of this study is to detect (if any) the protective effect of physical activity and the habit of eating breakfast on...
Law Chi-kin; Leung Candi MC
Abstract Background Charcoal burning in a sealed room has recently emerged as the second most common suicide means in Hong Kong, causing approximately 200 deaths each year. As charcoal burning suicide victims have a unique sociodemographic profile (i.e., predominantly economically active men), they may commit suicide at specific times. However, little is known about the temporal patterns of charcoal burning suicides. Methods Suicide data from 2001 to 2008 on victims of usual working age (20–5...
... of taking one's own life on purpose. Suicidal behavior is any action that could cause a person ... Suicide and suicidal behaviors usually occur in people with one or more of the following: Bipolar disorder Borderline personality disorder Depression Drug or ...
Kaplan, Kalman J.; Harrow, Martin; Faull, Robert N.
Are there gender-specific risk factors for suicidal activity among patients with schizophrenia and depression? A total of 74 schizophrenia patients (51 men, 23 women) and 77 unipolar nonpsychotic depressed patients (26 men, 51 women) from the Chicago Follow-up Study were studied prospectively at 2 years posthospitalization and again at 7.5 years.…
Taliaferro, Lindsay A.; Rienzo, Barbara A.; Pigg, R. Morgan; Miller, M. David; Dodd, Virginia J.
Objective: The authors explored associations among types of physical activity and hopelessness, depression, and suicidal behavior among college students. Participants: Participants included 43,499 college students aged 18 to 25 who completed the 2005 National College Health Assessment conducted by the American College Health Association. Methods:…
Mieczysław Szyszkowicz; Willey, Jeff B.; Eric Grafstein; Rowe, Brian H; Ian Colman
Background: Comorbidity of depression, heart disease, and migraine has been observed in clinical practice, while ambient air pollution has been identified among different risk factors for these health conditions. Suicide attempts and ideations as the result of depression may be linked to air pollution exposure. Therefore the effects of ambient air pollution on emergency department (ED) visits for suicide attempts were investigated. Methods: Emergency visit data were collected in a hospital in...
Turecki, Gustavo; Brent, David A
Suicide is a complex public health problem of global importance. Suicidal behaviour differs between sexes, age groups, geographic regions, and sociopolitical settings, and variably associates with different risk factors, suggesting aetiological heterogeneity. Although there is no effective algorithm to predict suicide in clinical practice, improved recognition and understanding of clinical, psychological, sociological, and biological factors might help the detection of high-risk individuals and assist in treatment selection. Psychotherapeutic, pharmacological, or neuromodulatory treatments of mental disorders can often prevent suicidal behaviour; additionally, regular follow-up of people who attempt suicide by mental health services is key to prevent future suicidal behaviour. PMID:26385066
Suicide is the leading cause of death among South Korean adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between suicidal thoughts (ST) and suicidal attempts (SA) with the level of physical activity (PA) among South Korean adolescents. Based on data from the eighth Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-Based Survey, 74,186 South Korean adolescents were evaluated in terms of their relationship between meeting guidelines for vigorous PA (VPA), moderate PA (MPA), and low PA (LPA)...
Pan, Lisa A.; Batezati-Alves, Silvia C.; Almeida, Jorge R. C.; Segreti, AnnaMaria; Akkal, Dalila; Hassel, Stefanie; Lakdawala, Sara; Brent, David A.; Phillips, Mary L.
Objectives: Impaired attentional control and behavioral control are implicated in adult suicidal behavior. Little is known about the functional integrity of neural circuitry supporting these processes in suicidal behavior in adolescence. Method: Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used in 15 adolescent suicide attempters with a history of…
Taliaferro, Lindsay A.; Rienzo, Barbara A.; Miller, M. David; Pigg, R. Morgan, Jr.; Dodd, Virginia J.
Background: Suicide ranks as the third leading cause of death for adolescents. Recent data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) indicate that the adolescent suicide rate increased 18% between 2003 and 2004. Sport may represent a promising protective factor against adolescent suicide. This study examined the relative risk of…
Helping callers to the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline who are at imminent risk of suicide: the importance of active engagement, active rescue, and collaboration between crisis and emergency services.
Draper, John; Murphy, Gillian; Vega, Eduardo; Covington, David W; McKeon, Richard
In 2012, the SAMHSA-funded National Suicide Prevention Lifeline (Lifeline) completed implementation of the first national Policy for Helping Callers at Imminent Risk of Suicide across its network of crisis centers. The policy sought to: (1) provide a clear definition of imminent risk; (2) reflect the state of evidence, field experience, and promising practices related to reducing imminent risk through hotline interventions; and (3) provide a uniform policy and approach that could be applied across crisis center settings. The resulting policy established three essential principles: active engagement, active rescue, and collaboration between crisis and emergency services. A sample of the research and rationale that underpinned the development of this policy is provided here. In addition, policy implementation, challenges and successes, and implications for interventions to help Lifeline callers at imminent risk of suicide are detailed. PMID:25270689
Elderly Suicide Fact Sheet Based on 2012 Data (2014) Overview • The elderly (ages 65 and older) made up 13. ... population; they accounted for 16.37% of all suicides in the US. • The rate of suicides for ...
Suicidal behaviour is a serious public health issue. Suicidal behaviour includes completed suicide, suicide attempts, suicidal intent and/or plans and suicide ideation. Two prominent mechanisms, behavioural deficits, in particular poor problem-solving skills, and a certain cognitive style with overgeneralization, distortion and lack of positive expectations, have been identified in suicidal patients so far. Besides general therapy strategies, including the diagnostic process and a collaborative, confident relationship and strengthening of protective factors, specific behavioural strategies should aim at the modification of the behavioural repertoire and of cognitive strategies. The modification of the behavioural repertoire includes the direct modification of the behaviour, acquiring techniques for stress reduction and learning problem-solving strategies. Applied cognitive techniques comprise such as thought-stopping, examining options and alternatives, fantasizing consequences, externalizing inner voices, and reattribution. Psychotherapy with suicidal patients has a specific feature: It requires high activity of the therapist in terms of motivation and guidance of the patient. Regular assessment of the suicide risk at every session is a must. Nevertheless, the therapist should always be aware that it is impossible to prevent all suicidal acts. PMID:22926057
Henry, Kimberly L; Lovegrove, Peter J; Steger, Michael F; Chen, Peter Y; Cigularov, Konstantin P; Tomazic, Rocco G
Adolescent bullying is a common problem in schools across America. The consequences of bullying are significant, and can include severe psychological trauma and suicide. A better understanding of the mechanisms that link bullying and suicidal ideation is needed in order to develop effective prevention and intervention initiatives. Meaning in life is a potential mechanism that has not been studied in this context. It was hypothesized that meaning in life could serve as both a mediator and a moderator of the relationship between bullying victimization and suicidal ideation. As a mediator, meaning in life is considered to explain why bullying victimization leads to suicidal ideation. As a moderator, meaning in life is considered to buffer the ill effect of bullying victimization on suicidal ideation. Data collected from an ethnically diverse sample of 2,936 (50% female), 6th-12th grade students from one urban school district in the Northeastern US were used to examine the hypotheses. The model for girls was consistent with mediation (i.e., meaning in life may explain how victimization leads to suicidal ideation). The model for boys was consistent with moderation (i.e., the ill effect of victimization on suicidal ideation was attenuated as meaning in life increased). Implications for prevention are discussed. PMID:23695412
Report on first case of suicide with radioactive substance in Bulgaria is given. A defectoscopist with cyclothymic structure of character and psychotraumatic family environment made a second and successful attempt at suicide, this time by means of external irradiation with 137Cs with an activity of 5.3 C in the course of two hours. He irradiated his heart region and the first three fingers of his right hand. A grave picture of acute, local irradiation injury lasting four months with lethal outcome. The authors treat the psychological motives in the behaviour of these suicides and the reasons which determine the small number of suicide carried out with radioactive substance. (author)
Suicide is the leading cause of death among South Korean adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between suicidal thoughts (ST) and suicidal attempts (SA) with the level of physical activity (PA) among South Korean adolescents. Based on data from the eighth Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-Based Survey, 74,186 South Korean adolescents were evaluated in terms of their relationship between meeting guidelines for vigorous PA (VPA), moderate PA (MPA), and low PA (LPA) and in respect of ST and SA status. The adjusted odds ratio in adolescents who thought about suicide increased significantly with PA levels (1.02 in males, 1.21 in females with VPA, 1.10 in males, 1.18 in females with MPA, and 1.16 in males, 1.20 in females with LPA) compared to participants who did not think about suicide. In addition, the AOR in adolescents who attempted suicide increased significantly with PA levels (1.16 in males, 1.36 in females with VPA, 1.13 in males, 1.15 in females with MPA, and 1.26 in males, 1.15 in females with LPA) compared to participants who did not attempt suicide. These results show that VPA, MPA, and LPA are positively associated with ST and SA prevention in South Korean adolescents. Therefore, to prevent suicide of South Korean adolescents, we support public health program including PA participation. Key PointsSouth Korean male adolescents, compared to female adolescents, showed relatively high values for physical activity-related variables such as vigorous, moderate, and low PA.Regardless of gender, more physical activity participation is positively associated with prevention of suicidal thought and attempts of South Korean adolescents.To prevent suicide of South Korean adolescents, we support public health program including meeting guidelines for vigorous, moderate, and low physical activity. PMID:25435782
Tomasula, Jessica L.; Anderson, Laura M.; Littleton, Heather L.; Riley-Tillman, T. Chris
Sexual violence is a potential key risk factor for adolescent suicidal behavior but has not been studied extensively. Thus, the current study examined the extent to which sexual assault predicted suicide attempts among adolescent students in the national Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System survey (2007 data). Gender differences in suicidal…
Full Text Available Suicide is the leading cause of death among South Korean adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between suicidal thoughts (ST and suicidal attempts (SA with the level of physical activity (PA among South Korean adolescents. Based on data from the eighth Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-Based Survey, 74,186 South Korean adolescents were evaluated in terms of their relationship between meeting guidelines for vigorous PA (VPA, moderate PA (MPA, and low PA (LPA and in respect of ST and SA status. The adjusted odds ratio in adolescents who thought about suicide increased significantly with PA levels (1.02 in males, 1.21 in females with VPA, 1.10 in males, 1.18 in females with MPA, and 1.16 in males, 1.20 in females with LPA compared to participants who did not think about suicide. In addition, the AOR in adolescents who attempted suicide increased significantly with PA levels (1.16 in males, 1.36 in females with VPA, 1.13 in males, 1.15 in females with MPA, and 1.26 in males, 1.15 in females with LPA compared to participants who did not attempt suicide. These results show that VPA, MPA, and LPA are positively associated with ST and SA prevention in South Korean adolescents. Therefore, to prevent suicide of South Korean adolescents, we support public health program including PA participation.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to better understand the phenomenon of suicidal behavior of adolescents by establishing relations between characteristics of a family system and suicidal ideation, as well as determining the influence of family and individual factors on suicidal ideation in adolescents. The systemic family therapy was used as the theoretical framework for this investigation. The study sample included 96 adolescents, aged 14-21 years, who assessed the functionality of their own families that were in the adolescent phase of a family life cycle at the time of the study. Participants were assigned to one of the three groups: the first consisted of adolescents who had previously attempted suicide, the second of adolescents who had another psychiatric problem at the time of the study, and the third was made up of adolescents who had never had psychiatric or psychological problems. The following instruments were used: Self-report Family Inventory (SFI, Beck’s Depression Inventory (BDI, Rosenberg’s Self-Esteem Scale, and Beck’s Suicidal Ideation Scale (SIS. The results suggest that family has a significant, but indirect influence on suicidal ideation in adolescents. Suicidal ideation is primarily related to adolescents’ individual characteristics, which are indeed strongly influenced by family functionality.
Full Text Available Context: Suicide is a major public health problem and ranks second among the leading causes of death in both genders in 15-34 years. Suicidal attempts are 20 times higher than the completed suicides. Aims: The aim was to identify background risk factors and precipitating factors for suicide attempts in Pondicherry district and to find out the reporting status of suicide attempts. Settings and Design: Hospital-based descriptive study. Subjects and Methods: 200 subjects who have attempted suicide from JIPMER and Indira Gandhi Government Hospital and Post Graduate Institute Pondicherry were interviewed. Monthly data on attempted suicide were collected from Crime Record Bureau of Pondicherry and Villupuram district and Medical Records Department of these two hospitals was collected. Statistical Analysis Used: SPSS version 16.0 was used. Chi-square test was used to test the significance of the difference between two proportions. Results: Most common precipitating factor found among those who attempted suicide was verbal abuse, most often by parents (31.9%. The most common mode of suicide attempt was consumption of chemical poison in 56% of subjects followed by plant poison 41.5%. The suicide intention was high in 81.5% of subjects. No significant difference in risk factors could be found between subjects from Pondicherry and villupuram district. It was found that there was gross under-reporting of attempted suicides to Crime Records Bureau. Conclusions: Measurement of suicide intention enables us to predict the future suicidal behavior in adults; individuals with a high suicide intent index pose a major public health problem. Hence, there is a need for opportunistic screening of those with suicidal ideations as well as counseling and follow-up of those with suicide attempts to prevent further attempts.
Gooding, Patricia; Tarrier, Nicholas; Dunn, Graham; Shaw, Jennifer; Awenat, Yvonne; Ulph, Fiona; Pratt, Daniel
The aim of this study was to examine the impact of two risk factors working together on a measure of suicide probability in a highly vulnerable group who were male prisoners identified as being at risk of self harm. The first risk factor was psychiatric symptoms, including general psychiatric symptoms and symptoms of personality disorder. The second risk factor was psychological precursors of suicidal thoughts and behaviours which were defeat, entrapment, and hopelessness. Sixty-five male prisoners from a high secure prison in NW England, UK, were recruited, all of whom were considered at risk of suicide by prison staff. General psychiatric symptoms and symptoms of personality disorders predicted the probability of suicide. Hopelessness amplified the strength of the positive relationship between general psychiatric symptoms and suicide probability. These amplification effects acted most strongly on suicidal ideation as opposed to negative self evaluations or hostility. In contrast, defeat, entrapment and hopelessness did not affect the relationship between personality disorders and suicide probability. Clinical assessments of highly vulnerable individuals, as exemplified by prisoners, should include measures of a range of general psychiatric symptoms, together with measures of psychological components, in particular perceptions of hopelessness. PMID:26429147
Abstract: Background: Epidemiological research has demonstrated that suicidal ideation is a relatively frequent complication of pregnancy in both developed and developing countries. Hence, the aims of this study are: to assess whether or not pregnancy may be considered a period highly susceptible to suicidal acts; to recognize potential contributing factors to suicidal behaviors; to describe the repercussions of suicide attempts on maternal, fetal, and neonatal outcome; to identify a typical ...
The human epidermis holds an autocrine acetylcholine production and degradation including functioning membrane integrated and cytosolic butyrylcholinesterase (BuchE). Here we show that BuchE activities increase 9-fold in the presence of calcium (0.5 x 10-3M) via a specific EF-hand calcium binding site, whereas acetylcholinesterase (AchE) is not affected. 45Calcium labelling and computer simulation confirmed the presence of one EF-hand binding site per subunit which is disrupted by H2O2-mediated oxidation. Moreover, we confirmed the faster hydrolysis by calcium-activated BuchE using the neurotoxic organophosphate O-ethyl-O-(4-nitrophenyl)-phenylphosphonothioate (EPN). Considering the large size of the human skin with 1.8 m2 surface area with its calcium gradient in the 10-3M range, our results implicate calcium-activated BuchE as a major protective mechanism against suicide inhibition of AchE by organophosphates in this non-neuronal tissue
-Prevention of suicidal behaviour remains difficult, despite increasing knowledge of its determinants. Health service efforts hardly affect suicide rates. -Recent shifts in the epidemiology of suicidal behaviour are rising rates among the young and increasing use of violent methods. these can be lin
Hedge, R. S.
SUMMARY 51 suicides in a rural community of Northern Karnataka were studied for incidence, age and sex distribution, methods adopted for suicides, and causes of suicides. Suicides in rural area did not show any difference from urban suicide pattern.
Atigari, Onome Victor; Hogan, Carys; Healy, David
A case series outlining three young individuals with no history of mental disorder who were treated for skin conditions with doxycycline, but developed suicidal ideation with an outcome of suicide in two of the cases. One of these individuals had CYP2C19*2 heterozygote genotype associated with a diminished cytochrome p450 enzyme activity and two of his siblings had developed severe anxiety previously while on doxycycline. Another had previously developed mood difficulties on a lower dose of d...
Full Text Available Background: Epidemiological research has demonstrated that suicidal ideation is a relatively frequent complication of pregnancy in both developed and developing countries. Hence, the aims of this study are: to assess whether or not pregnancy may be considered a period highly susceptible to suicidal acts; to recognize potential contributing factors to suicidal behaviors; to describe therepercussions of suicide attempts on maternal, fetal, and neonatal outcome; to identify a typical profile of women at high risk of suicide during pregnancy.Methods: Medical literature information published in any language since 1950 was identified using MEDLINE/PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases. Search terms were: “pregnancy”,(antenatal “depression”, “suicide”. Searches were last updated on 28 September 2010. Forty-six articles assessing the suicidal risk during pregnancy and obstetrical outcome of pregnancies complicated by suicide attempts were analyzed, without methodological limitations.Results: Worldwide, frequency of suicidal attempts and the rate of death by suicidal acts are low. Although this clinical event is rare, the consequences of a suicidal attempt are medically andpsychologically devastating for the mother-infant pair. We also found that common behaviors exist in women at high risk for suicide during pregnancy. Review data indeed suggest that a characteristicprofile can prenatally identify those at highest risk for gestational suicide attempts.Conclusions: Social and health organizations should make all possible efforts to identify women at high suicidal risk, in order to establish specific programs to prevent this tragic event. The available data informs health policy makers with a typical profile to screen women at high risk ofsuicide during pregnancy. Those women who have a current or past history of psychiatric disorders,are young, unmarried, unemployed, have incurred an unplanned pregnancy (eventually terminated with an
Ammerman, Brooke A; Burke, Taylor A; Alloy, Lauren B; McCloskey, Michael S
Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) has been identified as a correlate and predictor of suicidal ideation and attempts. Given the high-rates of NSSI presence among adolescents and young adults, it is important to identify specific characteristics of NSSI that might place individuals who engage in this behavior at highest risk for suicidal behavior. NSSI is thought to increase the acquired capability for suicide via habituation to self-harm, though the NSSI characteristics most responsible for this relationship are unclear. The current study examined three characteristics of NSSI (frequency, number of methods, and subjective pain) that may help to elucidate this risk relationship. University students (N=997) with a history of NSSI completed measures assessing lifetime NSSI frequency, number of NSSI methods employed, and subjective experience of pain during NSSI, as well as suicide attempt (SA) history. Results indicated that NSSI frequency, number of NSSI methods, and subjective pain experienced during NSSI were each positively associated with SA history. Further, subjective pain experienced during NSSI moderated the relationship between NSSI frequency and SA history, such that the association between NSSI frequency and SA history was stronger for individuals who experienced lower levels of subjective pain. PMID:26747213
Full Text Available
The article presents data on risk factors that contribute to the development of suicidal behavior. The development of suicidal behavior is infuenced by a number of factors. These include — gender, age, residence, occupation, marital status, health status, etc. A number of studies indicated the impact of economic and social factors on the level of suicidal activity of the population. Observed relationship between mental disorders, substance abuse (particularly alcohol and suicide. In this case, the presence of numerous investigations in the feld of Suicidology, a number of problems still remains unsolved. Further study of issues relating to risk factors that infuence the development of suicidal behavior. Of particular note is the importance of “regional” risk factors that most infuence on the formation of suicidal behavior in a particular region.
Jollant, Fabrice; Lawrence, Natalia S; Olie, Emilie; O'Daly, Owen; Malafosse, Alain; Courtet, Philippe; Phillips, Mary L
Decision-making impairment has been linked to orbitofrontal cortex lesions and to different disorders including substance abuse, aggression and suicidal behavior. Understanding the neurocognitive mechanisms of these impairments could facilitate the development of effective treatments. In the current study, we aimed to explore the neural and cognitive basis of poor decision-making ability associated with the vulnerability to suicidal behavior, a public health issue in most western countries. Twenty-five not currently depressed male patients, 13 of whom had a history of suicidal acts (suicide attempters) and 12 of whom had none (affective controls), performed an adapted version of the Iowa Gambling Task during functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Task-related functional Regions-of-Interest were independently defined in 15 male healthy controls performing the same task (Lawrence et al., 2009). In comparison to affective controls, suicide attempters showed 1) poorer performance on the gambling task 2) decreased activation during risky relative to safe choices in left lateral orbitofrontal and occipital cortices 3) no difference for the contrast between wins and losses. Altered processing of risk under conditions of uncertainty, associated with left lateral orbitofrontal cortex dysfunction, could explain the decision-making deficits observed in suicide attempters. These impaired cognitive and neural processes may represent future predictive markers and therapeutic targets in a field where identification of those at risk is poor and specific treatments are lacking. These results also add to our growing understanding of the role of the orbitofrontal cortex in decision-making and psychopathology. PMID:20302946
Qi Xin; Hu Wenbiao; Page Andrew; Tong Shilu
Abstract Background Understanding the spatial distribution of suicide can inform the planning, implementation and evaluation of suicide prevention activity. This study explored spatial clusters of suicide in Australia, and investigated likely socio-demographic determinants of these clusters. Methods National suicide and population data at a statistical local area (SLA) level were obtained from the Australian Bureau of Statistics for the period of 1999 to 2003. Standardised mortality ratios (S...
Suicide attempts and suicidal behaviours represent a complex problem, with high prevalence in adolescence. The management of youth suicidal behaviour may occur in diverse contexts of child and adolescent psychiatric activity, not only in the emergency room, but also in liaison work and ambulatory consultation. In suicidal crisis intervention it ́s fundamental to involve the youth and the family as this represents a crucial moment for clinical assessment and treatment compliance. This review o...
Researchers say the best way to prevent suicide is to find and treat kids with depression and substance-abuse problems. Schools should also develop a suicide-prevention policy, make curriculum decisions wisely, train staff as detectives, notify parents, make sure affected children get help, and attend to survivors. (Contains 13 references.) (MLH)
Ray, Lynda Y.; Johnson, Norbert
Explores the causes and symptoms of adolescent suicide including depression, loss of parent, alienation from family, and a mystical concept of death. Treatment procedures with unsuccessful suicide attempters and their parents are described and prevention strategies are discussed which involve teachers and counselors as well as parents. (JAC)
Perry, Yael; Werner-Seidler, Aliza; Calear, Alison L.; Christensen, Helen
Objective: Suicide is a significant public health issue, and is especially concerning in adolescents and young adults, who are over-represented both in attempts and completed suicide. Emerging technologies represent a promising new approach to deliver suicide prevention interventions to these populations. The current systematic review aims to identify online and mobile psychosocial suicide prevention interventions for young people, and evaluate the effectiveness of these interventions. Method: PsycINFO, Medline, Embase and The Cochrane Library were electronically searched for all articles published between January, 2000 and May, 2015. Peer-reviewed journal articles reporting on interventions for young people aged 12–25 years with suicidality as a primary outcome were eligible for inclusion. No exclusions were placed on study design. Results: One study met inclusion criteria, and found significant reductions in the primary outcome of suicidal ideation, as well as depression and hopelessness. Two relevant protocol papers of studies currently underway were also identified. Conclusions: There is a paucity of current evidence for online and mobile interventions for suicide prevention in youth. More high quality empirical evidence is required to determine the effectiveness of these novel approaches to improving suicide outcomes in young people.
Tsypes, Aliona; Gibb, Brandon E
Although children of depressed parents are at heightened risk for suicidal ideation, little is known about specific risk factors. This study focused on the relation between a broad range of cognitive vulnerabilities proposed by the leading cognitive theories and the development of suicidal ideation in children. Participants were 209 mothers (aged 24-55) and their 8-14 year old children. Children of depressed mothers who had previously experienced suicidal ideation themselves reported higher levels of brooding rumination than children of depressed mothers who had not experienced suicidal ideation as well as children of never depressed mothers who had not experienced suicidal ideation. Further, among children of depressed mothers with no prior history of suicidal ideation, higher levels of hopelessness and lower global self-worth predicted first onset of suicidal ideation over a 2-year follow-up. Importantly, these results were maintained even after taking the occurrence of major depressive disorder in children during the follow-up into account. The findings highlight specific cognitive vulnerabilities that could be targeted in early suicide prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:27137968
Barker, Emma; Kõlves, Kairi; De Leo, Diego
The purpose of this study was to systematically analyze existing literature testing the effectiveness of programs involving the management of suicidal and self-harming behaviors in prisons. For the study, 545 English-language articles published in peer reviewed journals were retrieved using the terms "suicid*," "prevent*," "prison," or "correctional facility" in SCOPUS, MEDLINE, PROQUEST, and Web of Knowledge. In total, 12 articles were relevant, with 6 involving multi-factored suicide prevention programs, and 2 involving peer focused programs. Others included changes to the referral and care of suicidal inmates, staff training, legislation changes, and a suicide prevention program for inmates with Borderline Personality Disorder. Multi-factored suicide prevention programs appear most effective in the prison environment. Using trained inmates to provide social support to suicidal inmates is promising. Staff attitudes toward training programs were generally positive. PMID:24611725
Capra, Carina; Kavanagh, David J; Hides, Leanne; Scott, James G
Psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) have been associated with increased risk of suicidality, but it is unclear whether the level of risk varies with different types of PLE. A cross-sectional online survey was completed by 1610 university students. Respondents completed the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences-15 (CAPE-P15) assessing PLEs on three subscales: Perceptual Abnormalities (PA), Persecutory Ideation (PI) and Bizarre Experiences (BE). Lifetime suicidal ideation, plans and attempts, cannabis, ecstasy and methamphetamine use and family history of mental disorder were also assessed. Multinomal logistic regression was used to examine unique determinants of lifetime suicidality, defined as any history of (i) suicidal ideation or plans and (ii) any attempt, relative to no lifetime history of suicidality. A lifetime history of PA and PI provided significant unique contributions to the prediction of suicide risk, after control for other significant predictors. BE were not associated with any suicide variable demonstrating the variation in risk of suicidality with different types of PLEs. Perceptual abnormalities and persecutory ideation as measured by the CAPE-P15 are the PLEs associated with a higher risk of lifetime suicidality. PMID:26050011
Lindner, R; Schneider, B
Psychotherapy is an important therapeutic option in the treatment of suicidality. Irrespective of the different treatment settings the psychotherapeutic attitudes, strategies and techniques are presented as they were developed on the basis of cognitive behavioral therapy and psychoanalysis. Starting from the common basic attitude of an active, approachable and for the patient recognizable therapist, the cognitive behavioral attitude is defined by the concept of a "team" involving patient and therapist, which fights against suicidality. The problems that led to suicidal ideation have to be exactly defined and specific behavioral strategies should aim at a modification of the behavioral repertoire and of cognitive strategies. A psychodynamic strategy starting from the analysis of the therapist's inner reaction, the countertransference comes from a primary involvement of both patient and therapist, which the therapist has to recognize and interpret to the patient in a "digestible" way. The experience of an approachable therapist who unexpectedly behaves differently than usual or feared, enables the patient to come to insights and new relational patterns which make suicidal destruction unnecessary. Finally, empirical evidence for the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral and psychodynamic treatment of suicidality is presented. PMID:27056189
Preti, A; De Biasi, F; Miotto, P
The different abilities involved in artistic creativity may be mirrored by differences among mental disorders prevalent in each artistic profession, taking poets, painters, and composers as examples. Using suicide rates as a proxy for the prevalence of mental disorders in groups of artists, we investigated the percentage of deaths by suicide in a sample of 4,564 eminent artists who died in the 19th and 20th centuries. Of the sample, 2,259 were primarily involved in activities of a linguistic nature, e.g., poets and writers; 834 were primarily visual artists, such as painters and sculptors; and 1,471 were musicians (composers and instrumentalists). There were 63 suicides in the sample (1.3% of total deaths). Musicians as a group had lower suicide rates than literary and visual artists. Beyond socioeconomic reasons, which might favour interpretations based on effects of health selection, the lower rate of suicides among musicians may reflect some protective effect arising from music. PMID:11824743
Fortuna, Lisa R.; Perez, Debra Joy; Canino, Glorisa; Sribney, William; Alegria, Margarita
Objective Limited data is available to understand the prevalence and correlates of suicidal behavior among U.S. Latino subgroups. This paper compares the prevalence of lifetime suicide ideation and suicide attempts among major U.S. Latino ethnic subgroups and identifies psycho-sociocultural factors associated with suicidal behaviors. Method The National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS) includes Spanish and English speaking Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, Cubans and other Latinos. Descriptive statistics and logistic models were used to determine demographic, clinical, cultural and social correlates of lifetime suicide ideation and attempts. Results The lifetime prevalence of suicidal ideation and attempts among Latinos was 10.2% and 4.4%, respectively. Puerto Ricans were more likely to report ideation as compared to other Latino subgroups but this difference was eliminated after adjustments for psychiatric and sociocultural factors. Most lifetime suicidal attempts described by Latinos were reported as occurring when they were under the age of 18 years. Any lifetime DSM-IV diagnoses, including dual diagnoses, were associated with an increased risk of lifetime suicidal ideation and attempts among Latinos. In addition, female gender, acculturation (born in U.S. and English speaking) and high levels of family conflict were independently and positively correlated with suicide attempts among Latinos, even among those without any psychiatric disorder. Conclusions These findings reinforce the importance of understanding the process of acculturation, the role of family and sociocultural context for suicide risk among Latinos. These should be considered in addition to psychiatric diagnoses and symptoms in Latino suicide research, treatment and prevention, especially among young individuals. PMID:17474813
Although apparently easy to define, the suicidal act or attempt raises complex and difficult problems due to the multitude of conditions and situations that can lead to it. In all cases the suicide's definition has always centred on the intention of one person to deliberately cause his or her death in an active manner. Defining suicide has been consecutively the temptation of philosophers, sociologists, theologians, psychologists and psychiatrists. From an epistemological point of view the suicide is an open concept without precise borders, yet not incoherent. Scientists have constantly tried to establish evaluation criteria of suicidal acts but these are variable. One can even assume that there is an infinity of combinations of characteristics that would legit- imize the label of suicide, although none of them can be particularized in any way. Not even death itself represents a necessary condition for the evaluation of an act as suicide. PMID:27125089
Giddens, Jennifer M.; Sheehan, David V.
Objective: The United States Food and Drug Administration’s newest classification system for suicidality assessment anchors suicidal ideation to various combinations of passive suicidal ideation, active suicidal ideation, method, intent, and plan. This is based upon the suicidal ideation categories in the Columbia–Suicide Severity Rating Scale. Although there are 32 possible combinations of these suicidal ideation phenomena, the Food and Drug Administration’s 2012 system and the Columbia–Suic...
In the fight of the cell against the damages caused to its DNA by genotoxic agents and specially by ionizing radiations, the p53 protein plays a central part. It intervenes in the proliferation control and the differentiation but also in the keeping of genome integrity. It can direct the damages cells toward suicide, or apoptosis, to avoid the risk of tumor appearance that would be fatal to the whole organism. That is by the disordered state of cells suicide programs that the tumor cells are going to develop. The knowledge of apoptosis mechanisms, to eventually start them on demand, rises up broad hopes in the cancer therapy. (N.C.)
Coder, Tamara L.; And Others
Investigated incidence of adolescent suicide in Kansas and assessed prevention guidelines and services dealing with adolescent suicide, and perceived needs of Kansas secondary school counselors in the area of teenage suicide. Findings from 484 school counselors indicated increase in suicide rates with age and need for suicide prevention programing…
Pirkis, Jane; Burgess, Philip; Blood, R. Warwick; Francis, Catherine
There is a paucity of studies examining which suicides are considered newsworthy. By combining data on media reports of individuals' suicides with routinely collected suicide data, it was found that 1% of Australian suicides were reported over a 1-year period. There was evidence of over-reporting of suicides by older people and females, and those…
Vannoy, Steven D; Robins, Lynne S
Objective To characterise suicide-risk discussions in depressed primary-care patients. Design Secondary analysis of recordings and self reports by physicians and patients. Descriptive statistics of depression and suicide-related discussion, with qualitative extraction of disclosure, enquiry and physician response. Setting 12 primary-care clinics between July 2003 and March 2005. Participants 48 primary-care physicians and 1776 adult patients. Measures Presence of depression or suicide-related discussions during the encounter; patient and physician demographics; depression symptom severity and suicide ideation as measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ9); physician's decision-making style as measured by the Medical Outcomes Study Participatory Decision-Making Scale; support for autonomy as measured by the Health Care Climate Questionnaire; trust in their physician as measured by the Primary Care Assessment Survey; physician response to suicide-related enquiry or disclosure. Results Of the 1776 encounters, 128 involved patients scoring >14 on the PHQ9. These patients were seen by 43 of the 48 physicians. Suicide ideation was endorsed by 59% (n=75). Depression was discussed in 52% of the encounters (n=66). Suicide-related discussion occurred in only 11% (n=13) of encounters. 92% (n=12) of the suicide discussions occurred with patients scoring strategies. Conclusions Suicide ideation is present in a significant proportion of depressed primary care patients but rarely discussed. Men, who carry the highest risk for suicide, are unlikely to disclose their ideation or be asked about it. Patient-centred communication and positive healthcare climate do not appear to increase the likelihood of suicide related discussion. Physicians should be encouraged to ask about suicide ideation in their depressed patients and, when disclosure occurs, facilitate discussion and develop targeted treatment plans. PMID:22021884
Baek, Ji Hyun; Park, Jong-Ik; Ahn, Jeonghoon; Roh, Sung-won; Heo, Jung-Yoon; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David; Jeon, Hong Jin
Suicide is a tragedy that has massive impact on society. In order to prevent suicide, active government intervention is necessary. The suicide rate in Seoul is rapidly increasing and is more than five times higher than that in the state of Massachusetts (MA) during the last decade, especially in the elderly. The suicide prevention program of MA is one of the most effective suicide prevention programs in the United States. The program views suicide as a preventable public health problem, and e...
... suicide never seek professional care. New Suicide Prevention Awareness Ribbon For this year's World Suicide Prevention (WSPD), ... Suicide Prevention has launched a universal suicide prevention awareness ribbon. The ribbon colors - yellow and orange - were ...
Koka, Sai Sudha
Malaria is one of the most devastating diseases with lethal outcome in more than 1 million humans per year. The course of the disease is not only a function of the pathogen but is heavily influenced by properties of the host. Mechanisms possibly conferring protection against a severe course of malaria include suicidal death of the infected cell. A particular form of suicidal erythrocyte death is eryptosis, which is characterized by Ca2+-entry with subsequent activation of Ca2+-sensitive K+ ch...
... Sign-Up Save. Suicide Awareness Voices of Education Suicide and Depression Q&A Why do people kill ... does not become an option. Do people attempt suicide to prove something or to get sympathy? No. ...
Tran Thi Thanh, Huong
Suicide and attempted suicide is currently a major public health problem in rapidly developing countries but there are limited studies on this field in Asian countries. These are the first studies on suicidal behavior in Vietnam. The aim of the studies was to: 1) investigate the prevalence of suicide attempts, plans, ideation and medical attention following a suicide attempt in Vietnam and in nine other countries, 2) investigate the relation between lifetime suicidal tho...
Helping Callers to the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline Who Are at Imminent Risk of Suicide: The Importance of Active Engagement, Active Rescue, and Collaboration Between Crisis and Emergency Services
Draper, John; Murphy, Gillian; Vega, Eduardo; Covington, David W; McKeon, Richard
In 2012, the SAMHSA-funded National Suicide Prevention Lifeline (Lifeline) completed implementation of the first national Policy for Helping Callers at Imminent Risk of Suicide across its network of crisis centers. The policy sought to: (1) provide a clear definition of imminent risk; (2) reflect the state of evidence, field experience, and promising practices related to reducing imminent risk through hotline interventions; and (3) provide a uniform policy and approach that could be applied a...
Full Text Available Suicide attempts and suicidal behaviours represent a complex problem, with high prevalence in adolescence. The management of youth suicidal behaviour may occur in diverse contexts of child and adolescent psychiatric activity, not only in the emergency room, but also in liaison work and ambulatory consultation. In suicidal crisis intervention it ́s fundamental to involve the youth and the family as this represents a crucial moment for clinical assessment and treatment compliance. This review on child and adolescent suicidal behaviour focuses on characterizing and understanding the developmental features of these behaviours, risk and protection factors and it offers orientations about assessment and acute management of children and adolescents who present with suicidal behaviour.
Goldston, David B.; Walrath, Christine M.; McKeon, Richard; Puddy, Richard W.; Lubell, Keri M.; Potter, Lloyd B.; Rodi, Michael S.
In response to calls for greater efforts to reduce youth suicide, the Garrett Lee Smith (GLS) Memorial Act has provided funding for 68 state, territory, and tribal community grants, and 74 college campus grants for suicide prevention efforts. Suicide prevention activities supported by GLS grantees have included education, training programs…
Neiger, Brad L.; Hopkins, Rodney W.
Examines personality traits and life circumstances which place adolescents at higher risk for suicide. Discusses depression, acute suicidal behavior, poor family relationships, alcohol and drug use, recent loss, failure in school, and other characteristics. Urges parents and professionals to know suicide signs and be active in prevention and…
This study among 274 Dutch lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youth showed that victimization at school was associated with suicidal ideation and actual suicide attempts. Homophobic rejection by parents was also associated with actual suicide attempts. Suicidality in this population could be reduced by supporting coping strategies of LGB youth who are confronted with stigmatization by peers and parents, and by schools actively promoting acceptance of same-sex sexuality.
Definis-Gojanović, Marija; Gugić, Dijana; Sutlović, Davorka
Depression and suicide present a serious health problem especially for teenagers as they are increasingly diagnosed with mood disorders of different severity, possibly leading to suicidal activity. Reported here is a misfortunate young girl who committed suicide by jumping from high altitude. She left a suicide note which, together with her behavior in the death-preceding period, pointed to her apparently belonging to an Emo subculture. Although few and scarce, most existing articles and repo...
Lester, David; Leenaars, Antoon A.
Debates the question of suicide as a defensible choice, particularly for the terminally ill, examining the relevance of such issues as the mortality, rationality, and dynamics of the suicidal act, and the legitimacy of physician-assisted suicide. Contrasting perspectives are articulated by two prominent suicidologists as a spur to the reader's…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the spatial distribution of suicide can inform the planning, implementation and evaluation of suicide prevention activity. This study explored spatial clusters of suicide in Australia, and investigated likely socio-demographic determinants of these clusters. Methods National suicide and population data at a statistical local area (SLA level were obtained from the Australian Bureau of Statistics for the period of 1999 to 2003. Standardised mortality ratios (SMR were calculated at the SLA level, and Geographic Information System (GIS techniques were applied to investigate the geographical distribution of suicides and detect clusters of high risk in Australia. Results Male suicide incidence was relatively high in the northeast of Australia, and parts of the east coast, central and southeast inland, compared with the national average. Among the total male population and males aged 15 to 34, Mornington Shire had the whole or a part of primary high risk cluster for suicide, followed by the Bathurst-Melville area, one of the secondary clusters in the north coastal area of the Northern Territory. Other secondary clusters changed with the selection of cluster radius and age group. For males aged 35 to 54 years, only one cluster in the east of the country was identified. There was only one significant female suicide cluster near Melbourne while other SLAs had very few female suicide cases and were not identified as clusters. Male suicide clusters had a higher proportion of Indigenous population and lower median socio-economic index for area (SEIFA than the national average, but their shapes changed with selection of maximum cluster radii setting. Conclusion This study found high suicide risk clusters at the SLA level in Australia, which appeared to be associated with lower median socio-economic status and higher proportion of Indigenous population. Future suicide prevention programs should focus on these high risk areas.
The concept of memes is analyzed, and its applicability to suicidology explored. Proposals are made for possible memes implicated in suicidal behavior. A classification of suicidal memes is proposed and the relationship between memes and archetypes of suicide is discussed. It is suggested that the terminology of meme theory can sharpen research into imitation effects in suicide. PMID:19810429
Wortzel, Hal S; Binswanger, Ingrid A; Anderson, C Alan; Adler, Lawrence E
Both veterans and jail/prison inmates face an increased risk of suicide. The incarcerated veteran sits at the intersection of these two groups, yet little is known about this subpopulation, particularly its risk of suicide. A Pubmed/Medline/PsycINFO search anchored to incarcerated veteran suicide, veteran suicide, suicide in jails/prisons, and veterans incarcerated from 2000 to the present was performed. The currently available literature does not reveal the suicide risk of incarcerated veterans, nor does it enable meaningful estimates. However, striking similarities and overlapping characteristics link the data on veteran suicide, inmate suicide, and incarcerated veterans, suggesting that the veteran in jail or prison faces a level of suicide risk beyond that conferred by either veteran status or incarceration alone. There is a clear need for a better characterization of the incarcerated veteran population and the suicide rate faced by this group. Implications for clinical practice and future research are offered. PMID:19297638
Ak, Mehmet; Gülsün, Murat; Özmenler, K. Nahit
Many factors may play role in the emergence of suicidal behavior. Familial tendency including some features of personality structure, hopelessness, affective disorder, and suicide behavior have attracted close attention recently. Personality disorders seem to be prevalent in individuals who attempt suicide. Beside it has been reported that personality disorders and other psychiatric disorder comorbidity increase the risk of suicide. To present the relationship between suicide and personalit...
The suicide prevention continuum illustrates a practical approach to the complex issue of suicide prevention. The continuum evolved from discussions with two Aboriginal communities in Atlantic Canada about suicide and the different types of interventions available. The continuum offers a framework and reference tool to differentiate between the different stages of suicide risk. It illustrates where the Aboriginal Community Youth Resilience Network (ACYRN) fits into suicide prevention and how ...
Asmaee, S; Mosavi, N; R Abdul Rashid; H Habi; Seghatoleslam, T; Naseri, A.
Background: The current study aimed to test the hypothesis: Is suicide predictable? And try to classify the predictive factors in multiple suicide attempts. Methods: A cross-sectional study was administered to 223 multiple attempters, women who came to a medical poison centre after a suicide attempt. The participants were young, poor, and single. A Logistic Regression Analiysis was used to classify the predictive factors of suicide. Results: Women who had multiple suicide attempts exhibited a...
Ozlem Cetin; Salih Saygin Eker
Suicide is one of the major causes of premature death among patients with schizophrenia. Follow-up studies have estimated that 4-5% of these patients die by suicide. Reducing the high rates of suicide in schizophrenia is possible with understanding of predictive risk factors. Various studies have identified risk factors for suicide in schizophrenia patients. Clinical risk factors include previous suicide attempts, comorbid depression, feelings of hopelessness, concept of insight and substance...
Çetin, Özlem; Eker, Salih Saygın
Suicide is one of the major causes of premature death among patients with schizophrenia. Follow-up studies have estimated that 4-5% of these patients die by suicide. Reducing the high rates of suicide in schizophrenia is possible with understanding of predictive risk factors. Various studies have identified risk factors for suicide in schizophrenia patients. Clinical risk factors include previous suicide attempts, comorbid depression, feelings of hopelessness, concept of insight and substanc...
Radeloff, Daniel; Lempp, Thomas; Rauf, Amna; Bennefeld-Kersten, Katharina; Kettner, Mattias; Freitag, Christine M
Following accidents, suicide is the second leading cause of death in adolescence. This stage of life has the most suicide attempts of all age groups. In addition to mentally ill juveniles, adolescent delinquents represent a high-risk group for suicidal behavior and completed suicide. In particular, the population of detainees, an extreme form of juvenile delinquency, have a 16- to 18-fold higher risk of suicidal behavior and suicide compared to the general population. Because the composition of juvenile detainees differs greatly from that of detained adults, age-specific scientific approaches and prevention programs are needed. This task cannot be addressed by juvenile detention staff alone, but rather demands close cooperation between adolescent psychiatrists, psychologists, prison medical staff, legal experts and prison officers to use the opportunity for suicide prevention in juvenile detention facilities. PMID:26864223
recommended to pay attention to escorting patients to psychiatric emergency in order to ensure that the patient actually attends the planned consultation. We found that patients who were referred after psychiatric evaluation to psychiatric treatment at outpatient facilities only received the planned treatment in approximately two-thirds of the cases; therefore, like Hawton et al. [Hawton et al., 1998; Hawton et al., 1999], we recommend that outpatient facilities adopt an assertive approach to patients who have attempted suicide. Danish suicide research is strong, primarily due to the possibilities for linking complete national registers providing detailed data and large sample sizes for suicide research, which is so far unique for the Nordic countries. This, combined with skilful use of epidemiological methods, had resulted in a remarkable series of papers highlighting risk of suicide in different risk groups, risk factors and protective factors. This activity must continue. In this work it is important to be aware of limitations in naturalistic studies such as the risk of interchanging cause and effect and the necessity to carry out control for confounders. Meta-analysis is a strong tool for summing up results of previous research. Meta-analyses can be used in reporting the evidence for effectiveness of interventions, but also for determining risk or identifying risk factors. A meta-analysis of risk factors of repetition of suicide attempt has not been carried out, and the quality of the identified studies did not allow a formal meta-analysis. Large randomised clinical trials examining the effectiveness of interventions on reducing rate of suicide attempt and suicide should have high priority. Suicide is a major public health problem and should be given high priority with regard to prevention and research. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED) PMID:18208680
... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy About Teen Suicide KidsHealth > For Parents > About Teen Suicide Print ... take action to help a troubled teenager. About Teen Suicide The reasons behind a teen's suicide or ...
Beautrais, Annette L.
Analysis of rates of further suicidal behavior among individuals making medically serious suicide attempts may help to predict suicide and suicide attempt from baseline characteristics of the individual and the index suicide attempt. Data are drawn from a 5-year study of 302 individuals making medically serious suicide attempts with information…
Kim, Su Hyun
This study aimed to examine the associations between suicidal behavior in older Korean adults and chronic illnesses, functional limitations, and pain. Data were obtained and analyzed for 8500 adults over 65 years of age from the 2007-2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV and V. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the associations between suicidal behavior, chronic illness, functional limitations, and pain. The presence of arthritis and renal failure were significantly associated with a higher risk of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Moderate limitation in usual activities and extreme pain significantly increased the risk of both suicidal ideation and suicide attempts, over and above the existence of chronic illnesses and depression status. PMID:26318163
Coombs, David W.; Hodges, Debra K.; Kohler, Connie
This article presents an overview of adult suicide in the United States and Alabama. This includes the latest available information on the prevalence of suicide in the US and Alabama, demographic characteristics of suicide victims, trends in suicide, and known reasons behind adult suicide. With respect to adult suicide in Alabama, it focuses on…
The relationship between suicides and suicide attempts and two biological measures, platelet monoamine oxidase levels (MAO) and average evoked response (AER) augmenting was examined in 79 off-medication psychiatric patients and in 68 college student volunteers chosen from the upper and lower deciles of MAO activity levels. In the patient sample, male individuals with low MAO and AER augmenting, a pattern previously associated with bipolar affective disorders, showed a significantly increased incidence of suicide attempts in comparison with either non-augmenting low MAO or high MAO patients. Within the normal volunteer group, all male low MAO probands with a family history of suicide or suicide attempts were AER augmenters themselves. Four completed suicides were found among relatives of low MAO probands whereas no high MAO proband had a relative who committed suicide. These findings suggest that the combination of low platelet MAO activity and AER augmenting may be associated with a possible genetic vulnerability to psychiatric disorders. (author)
Limon, Agenor; Mamdani, Firoza; Hjelm, Brooke E; Vawter, Marquis P; Sequeira, Adolfo
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a leading cause of disability worldwide characterized by altered neuronal activity in brain regions involved in the control of stress and emotion. Although multiple lines of evidence suggest that altered stress-coping mechanisms underlie the etiology of MDD, the homeostatic control of neuronal excitability in MDD at the molecular level is not well established. In this review, we examine past and current evidence implicating dysregulation of the polyamine system as a central factor in the homeostatic response to stress and the etiology of MDD. We discuss the cellular effects of abnormal metabolism of polyamines in the context of their role in sensing and modulation of neuronal, electrical, and synaptic activity. Finally, we discuss evidence supporting an allostatic model of depression based on a chronic elevation in polyamine levels resulting in self-sustained stress response mechanisms maintained by maladaptive homeostatic mechanisms. PMID:27108532
Research on suicide by jumping is summarized. The incidence of suicide by this method varies but tends to be higher in cities, city states, or countries that have extensive high-rise housing. Most suicides by jumping occur from high-rise residential housing units. However, our knowledge about suicide by jumping tends to be limited to a small number of reports from sites, often bridges, which become well-known as places from which to take one's life. Media reports of newsworthy suicides from these sites appear to encourage imitative behavior. Prevention strategies have focused upon limiting suicides from iconic sites by surveillance, barriers, muted media reporting, and signage offering help and telephone hotlines. A small number of studies provides evidence that installing barriers at popular jumping sites reduces suicides from those sites. There are few reports of efforts to reduce suicides from high-rise residential buildings. PMID:26212196
Full Text Available Suicide is one of the major causes of premature death among patients with schizophrenia. Follow-up studies have estimated that 4-5% of these patients die by suicide. Reducing the high rates of suicide in schizophrenia is possible with understanding of predictive risk factors. Various studies have identified risk factors for suicide in schizophrenia patients. Clinical risk factors include previous suicide attempts, comorbid depression, feelings of hopelessness, concept of insight and substance abuse. Biopsychosocial factors, such as a high intelligence quotient and high level of premorbid functioning, have also been associated with an increased risk of suicide in patients with schizophrenia. The risk of suicide is considered to be highest in the early course of illness. Antipsychotic drugs, in particular clozapine and antidepressants may be helpful in reducing the risk of suicide in schizophrenia.
... Health Issues Listen Text Size Email Print Share Teen Suicide and Guns Page Content Article Body Protect ... thinking of a passing problem, not the outcome! Teen Suicide—A Big Problem Suicide is one of ...
Sheikhmoonesi, Fatemeh; Zarghami, Mehran
Suicide rate in physicians has been reported to be higher than general population or other academics. Previous studies found that 85-90% of people who commit suicide had been suffering from some type of psychiatric disorder. Suicide prevention is the key element in lowering the numbers of physicians who destroy themselves and end their lives each year. It is needed to provide some educational programs to increase physicians’ awareness of warning signs of suicidal ideation such as observable s...
Suicidal behavior is a leading cause of injury and death worldwide. Suicide has been associated with psychiatric illnesses such as depression and schizophrenia, as well as economic uncertainty, and social/cultural factors. This study proposes a neuroeconomic framework of suicide. Neuroeconomic parameters (e.g., risk-attitude, probability weighting, time discounting in intertemporal choice, and loss aversion) are predicted to be related to suicidal behavior. Neurobiological and neuroendocrinol...
A suicide attempt constitutes not only a risk factor for suicide, but also an expression of human suffering. As therapists, physicians and caring personnel we have an opportunity to reach out to this suffering individual and offer help. However, suicidal individuals often decline psychiatric follow-up or drop out of treatment prematurely. An improved understanding of these patients’ needs and problems may enhance our capability to treat them. This thesis is focusing on attempted suicide...
African American Suicide Fact Sheet Based on 2012 Data (2014) Overview • In 2012, 2,357 African Americans completed suicide in the U.S. Of these, ... 46 per 100,000. • The suicide rate for African Americans ages 10-19 was 2.98 per ...
Reports figures indicating a rise in teenage suicide in Canada. Shows how the problem is compounded by silence resulting from official and parent reactions and social taboo. Discusses some of the causes of teenage suicide and explains the role of the school and family in suicide intervention and prevention. (SB)
Moore, Pamela S.
This document presents information on suicide intended for a general audience who want to understand and prevent suicide. The history of suicide in ancient cultures and its incidence in industrialized countries is discussed first. Especially concerned people, i.e, survivors, families at risk, individuals at risk, and caregivers, are defined.…
Explores relationships among culture, character, and suicide, drawing on author's research in Scandinavia and his studies of suicide among United States urban blacks and college students. Varying psychodynamic ways suicidal individuals in differing cultures and subcultures conceive of, use, and absorb death tell us much about how we live. (Author)
Zenere, Frank J.
Youth suicide is one of the most serious preventable health problems in the United States. It is the third leading cause of death among adolescents. According to a recent national survey of students in grades 9-12, nearly 15% of respondents had seriously considered suicide and 7% actually had attempted suicide in the previous 12 months. Moreover,…
Taub, Deborah J.; Thompson, Jalonda
Suicide is the second-leading cause of death among college students, and it is estimated that 1,088 college students die by suicide each year (National Mental Health Association and the Jed Foundation, 2002). This chapter presents the context of college student mental health within which the problem of college student suicide is situated. Because…
Sudak, Howard S.; Sudak, Donna M.
Objective: The authors aim to inform readers of the theory that when newspapers, film, and television describe suicidal deaths, additional suicides may result by virtue of contagion or copy-cat effects; to review data that support and refute this theory; to present some promising and recommended ways to prevent copy-cat suicide; and to cite…
K. Nahit Ozmenler
Full Text Available Many factors may play role in the emergence of suicidal behavior. Familial tendency including some features of personality structure, hopelessness, affective disorder, and suicide behavior have attracted close attention recently. Personality disorders seem to be prevalent in individuals who attempt suicide. Beside it has been reported that personality disorders and other psychiatric disorder comorbidity increase the risk of suicide. To present the relationship between suicide and personality is quite important for developing strategies in order to prevent suicide attempt. In this field, the data show variability based on scales used for the evaluation of personality, its definition and classification in the research. For example, while some authors used DSM criteria or ICD criteria, others preferred to focus on the temperament and character dimensions of personality. In studies based on diagnostic criteria; B group personality disorders, such as antisocial and borderline personality disorders were found to be most common comorbid personality disorder diagnosis. In studies aiming to investigate the relationship among suicide attempt, temperament and character features, the suicide attempters were found to have lower levels of self directedness, cooperativeness, and higher scores for self transcendence. Suicidal patients were inclined to have higher scores in several temperament groups like harm avoidance, novelty seeking, and reward dependence. Tendency to impulsive behavior is reported as a common denominator for suicidal patients. Individuals, who have familial or acquired tendency of impulsivity, could react more dramatically and present with depressive and pessimistic mood when they have difficulties and encounter stress factors in their daily routine and could easily develop depressive disorders. These factors as a whole could lead to self destructive actions like suicide. Individual or familial history of suicide attempts or completed
Werth, James L., Jr.
Reviews the concept of rational suicide and compares it with one researcher's list of commonalities of suicide. Claims that the list cannot accommodate rational suicide. Suggests that the list is biased against rational suicide and should be renamed so it cannot be maintained that suicide must be irrational. (RJM)
Goldston, David B.; Walrath, Christine M.; McKeon, Richard; Puddy, Richard W.; Lubell, Keri M; Potter, Lloyd B.; Rodi, Michael S.
Responding to calls for greater efforts to reduce youth suicide, the Garrett Lee Smith (GLS) Memorial Act to date has provided funding for 68 state, territory, and tribal community grants, and 74 college campus grants for suicide prevention efforts. Suicide prevention activities supported by GLS grantees have included education, training programs including gatekeeper training, screening activities, infrastructure for improved linkages to services, crisis hotlines, and community partnerships. ...
Alphs, Larry D.; Mao, Lian; Li, Qin; May, Roberta S.; Bruer, Emily H.; Mccullumsmith, Cheryl B.; Gray, Christopher R.; Li, Xiaohua; Williamson, David J.
Objective: This exploratory study examines the concurrent validity for mapping symptoms of suicidal ideation, self-harm, and suicidal behavior as recorded on the InterSePT Scale for Suicidal Thinking-Plus, the Sheehan-Suicidality Tracking Scale (clinician- and patient-rated and reconciled patient/clinician versions), and the Columbia–Suicide Severity Rating Scale to the 11 United States Food and Drug Administration-Classification Algorithm of Suicide Assessment (September 2012) categories. Method: Forty subjects with varying degrees of suicidal ideation and behavior severity (from not present to extremely severe) were recruited from inpatient, outpatient, and emergency room settings. Each patient was interviewed using all three scales (InterSePT Scale for Suicidal Thinking-Plus, the Sheehan-Suicidality Tracking Scale, and the Columbia–Suicide Severity Rating Scale) on the same day. The scales were administered in a random sequence by three independent raters who were blind to the ratings on the other scales. Results: The Sheehan-Suicidality Tracking Scale and the InterSePT Scale for Suicidal Thinking-Plus show acceptable agreement with the Columbia–Suicide Severity Rating Scale in detecting the presence or absence of the 2012 Food and Drug Administration-Classification Algorithm of Suicide Assessment categories 1, 5, 6, 10, and 11 (passive ideation; active ideation with method, intent, and plan; completed suicide; preparatory actions; and self-injurious behavior) but not of categories 2, 3, and 4 (3 other active suicidal ideation combination categories) or to 8 and 9 (aborted and interrupted attempt). Despite the significant disagreement between the Columbia–Suicide Severity Rating Scale on the one side and the InterSePT Scale for Suicidal Thinking-Plus and the Sheehan-Suicidality Tracking Scale on the other in the ability to accurately map to the 2012 Food and Drug Administration-Classification Algorithm of Suicide Assessment categories on some items
Oquendo, Maria A
This issue of Focus on Suicide brings us new data about risk assessment, with 2 articles examining the utility of rating scales for assessment of suicidal behavior. Youngstrom et al conduct a careful comparison of 3 suicide rating scales: the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS), the Suicide Tracking Scale (STS), and the Sheehan Suicidality Tracking Scale (S-STS). While the scales did comparably in 2 broad categories, suicidal ideation and suicide attempts, the study suggests that some subtypes of suicidal behavior/ideation are not captured as well by the S-STS. PMID:26717527
Teodor T. Postolache
Full Text Available A seasonal suicide peak in spring is highly replicated, but its specific cause is unknown. We reviewed the literature on suicide risk factors which can be associated with seasonal variation of suicide rates, assessing published articles from 1979 to 2011. Such risk factors include environmental determinants, including physical, chemical, and biological factors. We also summarized the influence of potential demographic and clinical characteristics such as age, gender, month of birth, socioeconomic status, methods of prior suicide attempt, and comorbid psychiatric and medical diseases. Comprehensive evaluation of risk factors which could be linked to the seasonal variation in suicide is important, not only to identify the major driving force for the seasonality of suicide, but also could lead to better suicide prevention in general.
Ohnishi, Masaru; Koyama, Shihomi; Senoo, Akiko; Kawahara, Hiroko; Shimizu, Yukito
According to the nationwide survey of the National University students in Japan, the annual suicide rate in 2012 was 15.7 per 100,000 undergraduate students. In many universities, suicide prevention is an important issue regarding mental health measures, and each university is actively examining this. The current situation concerning measures for suicide prevention in the Japanese National Universities was investigated in 2009. In 2010, the "college student's suicide prevention measures guideline, 2010" was established based on the results of this investigation. This guideline refers to the basic philosophy of suicide prevention in Chapter 1, risk factors for suicide in Chapter 2, and systems and activities for suicide prevention in Chapter 3. The Health Service Center, Okayama University plays central roles in mental health and suicide prevention measures on the Medical Campus. The primary prevention includes a mini-lecture on mental health, classes on mental health, and periodic workshops and lectures for freshmen. The secondary prevention includes interviews with students with mental health disorders by a psychiatrist during periodic health check-ups and introducing them to a hospital outside the university. The tertiary prevention includes support for students taking a leave of absence to return to school, periodic consultation with such students with mental disorders, and postvention following a suicide. We believe that for mental health measures on the university campus, it is important to efficiently make use of limited resources, and that these efforts will eventually lead to suicide prevention. PMID:27192788
Susukida, Ryoko; Wilcox, Holly C; Mendelson, Tamar
While perceived support from caregivers in the early stages of life is an aspect of family environment that is increasingly recognized as important for understanding lifetime suicidal behaviors, it is not well understood whether the relationship between perceived support from caregivers during childhood and lifetime suicidal behaviors holds regardless of family structure. This study examined the association between perceived love from caregivers in childhood and lifetime suicidal ideation in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (N=5,692, 2001-2003). Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the association between lifetime suicidal ideation and retrospectively ascertained data on perceived love from caregivers during childhood as well as clinical and sociodemographic characteristics of study participants. Regression analyses were stratified by family structure, namely, whether or not study participants lived with two biological parents during childhood. Regardless of whether or not they lived with two biological parents during childhood, individuals who perceived love from caregivers during childhood had significantly 42-43% lower odds of lifetime suicide ideation as compared with those who did not perceive love from caregivers. Results suggest that perceived support from caregivers during childhood is an important correlate of lifetime suicidal ideation, regardless of family structure. PMID:26803361
... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159213.html Among U.S. Military, Army Members Face Highest Suicide Risk Firearms ... Suicide rates have been increasing among all active U.S. Navy, Air Force and Army personnel, but those ...
Yip, Paul S. F.; Kevin Chien-Chang Wu; Ying-Yeh Chen
As the largest continent in the World, Asia accounts for about 60% of World suicides. Preventing suicide by restricting access to suicide methods is one of the few evidence-based suicide prevention strategies. However, there has been a lack of systematic exploration of suicide methods in Asian countries. To amend this shortage, the current review examines the leading suicide methods in different Asian countries, their trend, their age- and sex- specific characteristics, and their implications...
Bridge, Jeffrey A.; Horowitz, Lisa M.; Fontanella, Cynthia A.; Grupp-Phelan, Jackie; Campo, John V.
The goal of the National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention (Action Alliance) is to reduce suicide and suicide attempts in the U.S. by 40% in the next decade. In this paper, a public health approach is applied to suicide prevention to illustrate how reductions in youth suicide and suicidal behavior might be achieved by prioritizing research in two areas: (1) increasing access to primary care–based behavioral health interventions for depressed youth; and (2) improving continuity of care fo...
Teodor T. Postolache; Komarow, Hirsh; Tonelli, Leonardo H.
The rates of depression, anxiety, and sleep disturbance (suicide risk factors) are greater in patients with allergic rhinitis than in the general population. The rate of allergy is also greater in patients with depression. Preliminary data suggest that patients with a history of allergy may have an increased rate of suicide. Clinicians should actively inquire to diagnose allergy in patients with depression and depression in patients with allergy.
Korczak, Daphne J
Suicide is a leading cause of death among Canadian adolescents. The present practice point provides paediatricians and child health professionals with a framework for assessing the adolescent with suicidal thoughts and/or behaviours. The epidemiological context, general considerations and practical suggestions for how to approach the suicidal adolescent are reviewed. Paediatricians can and should screen youth for mental illness and significant psychosocial stressors. Early identification and ...
Hari D. Maharajh; Abdool, Petal S.
Undefined cultural factors cannot be dismissed and significantly contribute to the worldwide incidence of death by suicide. Culture is an all embracing term and defines the relationship of an individual to his environment. This study seeks to investigate the effect of culture on suicide both regionally and internationally. Culture-bound syndrome with suicidal behaviours specific to a particular culture or geographical region are discussed. Opinions are divided as to the status of religious ma...
The high radiosensitivity to killing of undifferentiated primordial cells (Bergonie and Tribondeau 1906) can be described as a manifestation of the suicide of injured cells for the benefit of an organism as a whole if their suicide stimulates proliferation of healthy cells to replace them, resulting in complete elimination of injury. This process is called cell-replacement repair, to distinguish it from DNA repair which is rarely complete. 'Cell suicide', 'programmed death' and 'apoptosis' are terms used for the same type of active cell death. Cell suicide is not always altruistic. Altruistic suicide in Drosophila, mice, humans, plants, and E. coli is reviewed in this paper to illustrate its widely different facets. The hypothesis that in animals, radiation hormesis results from altruistic cell suicide is proposed. This hypothesis can explain the hormetic effect of low doses of radiation on the immune system in mice. In contrast, in plants, radiation hormesis seems to be mainly due to non-altruistic cell death. (author)
Full Text Available Background:The current study aimed to test the hypothesis: Is suicide predictable? And try to classify the predictive factors in multiple suicide attempts.Methods:A cross-sectional study was administered to 223 multiple attempters, women who came to a medical poison centre after a suicide attempt.The participants were young, poor, and single.A Logistic Regression Analiysis was used to classify the predictive factors of suicide.Results:Women who had multiple suicide attempts exhibited a significant tendency to attempt suicide again. They had a history for more than two years of multiple suicide attempts, from three to as many as 18 times, plus mental illnesses such as depression and substance abuse.They also had a positive history of mental illnesses.Conclusion:Results indicate that contributing factors for another suicide attempt include previous suicide attempts, mental illness (depression,or a positive history of mental illnesses in the family affecting them at a young age, and substance abuse.
Stenager, E N; Stenager, Egon; Koch-Henriksen, N;
with an onset of the disease within the period 1953-85, or for whom MS was diagnosed in the same period. Fifty three of the 5525 cases in the onset cohort group committed suicide. Using the figures from the population death statistics by adjustment to number of subjects, duration of observation, sex......, age, and calendar year at the start of observation, the expected number of suicides was calculated to be nearly 29. The cumulative lifetime risk of suicide from onset of MS, using an actuarial method of calculation, was 1.95%. The standard mortality ratio (SMR) of suicide in MS was 1.83. It was...
Linnoila, V M; Virkkunen, M
Studies from several countries, representing diverse cultures, have reported an association between violent suicide attempts by patients with unipolar depression and personality disorders and low concentrations of the major serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Related investigations have documented a similar inverse correlation between impulsive, externally directed aggressive behavior and CSF 5-HIAA in a subgroup of violent offenders. In these individuals, low CSF 5-HIAA concentrations are also associated with a predisposition to mild hypoglycemia, a history of early-onset alcohol and substance abuse, a family history of type II alcoholism, and disturbances in diurnal activity rhythm. These data are discussed in the context of a proposed model for the pathophysiology of a postulated "low serotonin syndrome." PMID:1385390
Wang, A G; Nielsen, B; Bille-Brahe, U;
features for the repeaters were previous suicidal behaviour and suicidal behaviour among relatives. Many had a psychiatric record and expressed chronic somatic complaints. Around the time of the attempt, many expressed hopelessness, isolation and suicidal ideation. Pierce's Suicide Intent Scale performed...
Krahn, Lois E.; Miller, Bernard W.; Bergstrom, Larry R.
Patients with insomnia may develop suicidal ideation; however, we know of no reports of suicidal ideation associated with obstructive sleep apnea. We report on a 74-year-old man who presented to his primary care physician with excessive daytime sleepiness, poor quality nocturnal sleep, depressed mood, and suicidal ideation with active suicide plans. An emergency outpatient psychiatry consultation was arranged. The patient declined psychiatric hospitalization. He agreed to a trial of continuou...
Shipman, Fred C.
Suicide is the second (behind accidents) leading cause of death for 15- to 24-year-olds. Schools are in a unique position to make a difference in suicide prevention by addressing three distinct phases of the problem: prevention, intervention, and post factum. Factors are identified that have a direct bearing on level of risk and should be…
... in a variety of roles take action to prevent suicide. These resources are available free of charge for you to reproduce and distribute in your workplace or community. The Role of High School Teachers in Preventing Suicide The Role of High ...
Lester, David; Wilson, C.
The teenage suicide rate in Zimbabwe did not change much during the 1970s, though the rate rose for female teenagers. Female teenagers used poison as a method of suicide more often than did adults, and self-immolation had increased in frequency among young women by the mid-1980s. (Author)
Christiansen, Erik; Jensen, Børge Frank
The Register for Suicide Attempts (RSA) is a product of the WHO research project "WHO/Euro Multicentre Study on Parasuicide", which, among other things, had the purpose of collecting data on suicide attempts from 13 European countries. Data is collected in order to calculate trends and identify...... high-risk groups. Data collection for the RSA started in 1989....
Kral, Michael J.
Argues that suicide is an idea, having much in common with societal beliefs/norms. Discusses evidence supportive of suicide as idea, based on knowledge from study of history and culture, and about contagion/cluster phenomena, media/communication, and choice of method. Suggests that certain individuals are more vulnerable to incorporate idea/act of…
Weisse, Dan E.
Begins by presenting definitions of adolescence, suicide, and gifted, then goes on to examine issues related to suicide among gifted adolescents. Precipitating events for the gifted adolescent are identified, including perfectionism, disappointments, insecurities, career identity issues, and depression. Outlines warning signs and risk factors to…
Full Text Available Relationship of diabetes mellitus (DM with metal health disorders such as depression has been explored extensively in the published literatures. However, association of diabetes mellitus with suicidal tendencies has been evaluated less extensively. The present narrative review aimed to assess the literature relating to diabetes mellitus and suicide. As a part of the review, Pubmed and Google Scholar databases were searched for English language peer reviewed published studies with keywords relating to diabetes and suicide. Additional references were identified using cross-references. The available literature suggests that suicidal ideas and attempts are more frequent in patients with diabetes mellitus than healthy or medically ill controls. Although, a few studies report evidence to the contrary. Suicide accounts for a large proportion of deaths in patients with diabetes mellitus type I (T1DM, and their mortality rate is higher than that of age matched control population. Psychological morbidity, including depression, precedes suicidal ideas and attempts; though many other factors can be hypothesized to impact and modulate this association. A common method of suicide attempt in patients with diabetes includes uses of high doses of insulin and its congeners or medications to treat the disease. Regular screening and prompt treatment of depression and suicidality is suggested for patients with DM.
AAS 2011 Youth Suicidal Behavior Fact Sheet 4,822 youth age 15-24 died by suicide. i We want to change that. Su icid eRat ... death in 2011. The 2011 Youth Risk and Behavior Survey found that in the previous 12 months ...
Perrone, Philip A.
Summarizes major research findings on adolescent suicide, presents a suicide chronology developed by Hawton (1986), and provides a selected list of references. Discusses five goals for counselor intervention with students at risk for suicide and explains how school personnel can work to prevent adolescent suicide. (NB)
Altindag, Abdurrahman; Ozkan, Mustafa; Oto, Remzi
The southeastern part of Turkey has comparatively high female suicide rates. We aimed to research social, economic, cultural, and psychiatric reasons of suicides in Batman in a case-controlled psychological autopsy study comparing suicides with matched community controls. The female suicide rate was 9.3 per 100.000 and the female/male ratio was…
Vidal, John A.
Outlines important considerations for establishing suicide prevention programs in high schools. Teenage suicide rate has doubled since 1970. To deal with this crisis schools must develop procedures for detecting potential victims and for helping students and staff cope after a suicide. Schools must not be afraid to talk about suicide; avoiding the…
Cha, Christine B.; Najmi, Sadia; Park, Jennifer M.; Finn, Christine T.; Nock, Matthew K.
A long-standing challenge for scientific and clinical work on suicidal behavior is that people often are motivated to deny or conceal suicidal thoughts. We proposed that people considering suicide would possess an objectively measurable attentional bias toward suicide-related stimuli, and that this bias would predict future suicidal behavior. Participants were 124 adults presenting to a psychiatric emergency department who were administered a modified emotional Stroop task and followed for si...
Ram, Dushad; Darshan, M. S.; Rao, T S S; Honagodu, Abhijit R.
Background: Suicide is a preventable cause of death, inspite of which its incidence is increasing worldwide. Very few studies are done to know the perception of suicide attempters regarding prevention of their suicide attempt. Such information may be helpful in implementing preventive strategies. This study was done to find out whether those who attempted suicide and recovered perceived that their suicide attempt could have been prevented or not. Materials and Methods: Fifty consecutive subje...
Bolton, James M; Gunnell, David; Turecki, Gustavo
Suicide is the 15th most common cause of death worldwide. Although relatively uncommon in the general population, suicide rates are much higher in people with mental health problems. Clinicians often have to assess and manage suicide risk. Risk assessment is challenging for several reasons, not least because conventional approaches to risk assessment rely on patient self reporting and suicidal patients may wish to conceal their plans. Accurate methods of predicting suicide therefore remain elusive and are actively being studied. Novel approaches to risk assessment have shown promise, including empirically derived tools and implicit association tests. Service provision for suicidal patients is often substandard, particularly at times of highest need, such as after discharge from hospital or the emergency department. Although several drug based and psychotherapy based treatments exist, the best approaches to reducing the risk of suicide are still unclear. Some of the most compelling evidence supports long established treatments such as lithium and cognitive behavioral therapy. Emerging options include ketamine and internet based psychotherapies. This review summarizes the current science in suicide risk assessment and provides an overview of the interventions shown to reduce the risk of suicide, with a focus on the clinical management of people with mental disorders. PMID:26552947
Full Text Available Introduction. The risk of suicide among war veterans is a controversial issue, where findings so far have been contradictory. Objective. This study focusses on suicide in Serbian veterans from the wars in former Yugoslavia in the 1990s in order to create appropriate preventive measures and reduce the number of these fatal cases. Methods. The autopsy protocols of all 44 suicides committed by war veterans in the Belgrade District population over a period between 1992 and 2000 were investigated. Data were obtained from autopsy records, results of toxicological investigations and psychological autopsy protocols. Results. Symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder were present in 27.3%, major depression in 9.1% and schizophrenia in 6.8% of veterans. The majority of suicides (84.1% were committed by recruits in the Yugoslav National Army, spending between three and eight months in the zone of war operations. Six committed suicide during the first 30 days after their war activities, while the majority of suicides occurred between five and six years after combat. The most frequent manner of suicide was the use of handguns (56.8% and bombs (18.2%. Conclusion. The results of this research may give useful information about the individuals with the highest suicidal risk in order to alleviate the consequences of war psychotraumas in veterans and prevent their growth into a permanent handicap or suicide. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI 175093
Glucksman, Myron L
The prediction of suicidal intent remains a clinical problem. This presentation illustrates that a distinction may be made between the manifest dream reports of patients who are potentially or acutely suicidal and those who are not. A review of the literature reveals that the manifest dream reports of clinically depressed, non-suicidal individuals differ from those who are depressed and acutely suicidal. The former contain themes of loss, disappointment, rejection, helplessness, hopelessness, failure, and death. The latter contain themes of dying, death, destruction, and violence directed toward the dreamer or others, as well as hopelessness and helplessness. The author collected manifest dream reports from three clinically depressed, non-suicidal patients and three clinically depressed, potentially or acutely suicidal patients. There are apparent differences between the themes of manifest dream reports in the clinically depressed, non-suicidal patients and the clinically depressed, potentially or acutely suicidal patients. The former contain themes of death, loss, rejection, vulnerability, hopelessness, and helplessness. The latter contain themes of active harm or violence (specifically toward the dreamer), dying or being dead, aloneness, vulnerability, hopelessness, and helplessness. Clinical cases and corresponding manifest dream reports are presented. Although this is a preliminary study, it is possible that manifest dream content may be used as one of the predictors of suicidality, in conjunction with latent dream content, diagnosis, life circumstance, and clinical status. PMID:25494585
Conclusions: Suicidal ideation severity is higher on students who are far from home and living alone; students with weak social/familiar support networks (less involvement on social activities and intimate relationships. These results allow us to conclude that a frail social support network positively associates with ideation and suicidal risk.
Full Text Available This paper explores and questions some of the notions associated with suicide including mental illness. On average, about two-thirds of suicide cases do not come into contact with mental health services, therefore, we have no objective assessment of their mental status or their life events. One method of improving our objective understanding of suicide would be to use data mining techniques in order to build life event histories on all deaths due to suicide. Although such an exercise would require major funding, partial case histories became publicly available from a coroner's inquest on cases of suicide during a period of three months in Christchurch, New Zealand. The case histories were accompanied by a newspaper article reporting comments from some of the families involved. A straightforward contextual analysis of this information suggests that (i only five cases had contact with mental health services, in two of the cases this was due to a previous suicide attempt and in the other three it was due to drug and alcohol dependency; (ii mental illness as the cause of suicide is fixed in the public mindset, (iii this in turn makes psychological autopsy type studies that seek information from families and friends questionable; (iv proportionally more females attempt, but more men tend to complete suicide; and (v not only is the mental health-suicide relationship tenuous, but suicide also appears to be a process outcome. It is hoped that this will stimulate debate and the collaboration of international experts regardless of their school of thought.
Bryan, Craig J.; Dhillon-Davis, Luther E.; Dhillon-Davis, Kieran K.
In light of continuing concerns about iatrogenic effects associated with suicide prevention efforts utilizing video-based media, the impact of emotionally-charged videos on two vulnerable subgroups--suicidal viewers and suicide survivors--was explored. Following participation in routine suicide education as a part of the U.S. Air Force Suicide…
Maurizio Pompili; Gianluca Serafini; Marco Innamorati; Giovanni Dominici; Stefano Ferracuti; Kotzalidis, Giorgio D.; Giulia Serra; Paolo Girardi; Luigi Janiri; Roberto Tatarelli; Leo Sher; David Lester
Suicide is an escalating public health problem, and alcohol use has consistently been implicated in the precipitation of suicidal behavior. Alcohol abuse may lead to suicidality through disinhibition, impulsiveness and impaired judgment, but it may also be used as a means to ease the distress associated with committing an act of suicide. We reviewed evidence of the relationship between alcohol use and suicide through a search of MedLine and PsychInfo electronic databases. Multiple genetically...
Jørs, Erik; Christoffersen, Mette; Veirum, Nikoline Høgsgaard;
. RESULTS: Hospital data showed that more females (403/657, 61%) than males (254/657, 39%) attempted suicide, and females attempted suicide at a younger age than males (p<0.05). In contrast to this, more males (208/293, 70.5%) than females (85/293, 29.5%) committed suicide, and furthermore it was most...... seemed to be hidden due to cultural and religious reasons. CONCLUSION: More females attempted suicide, whereas more males realized suicide. Suicide attempts were most numerous among adolescents in contrast to suicides being most prevalent in the older age groups. Self-poisoning with pesticides was the......BACKGROUND: Suicide attempts and suicides constitute a significant burden on communities and health systems, especially in low income countries. However, many low income countries lack epidemiological information on which to base future preventive strategies. This study reports on gender and age...
Kral, M J
Although suicide is not viewed as a mental disorder per se, it is viewed by many if not most clinicians, researchers, and lay people as a real or natural symptom of depression. It is at least most typically seen as the unfortunate, severe, yet logical end result of a chain of negative self-appraisals, negative events, and hopelessness. Extending an approach articulated by the early French sociologist Gabriel Tarde, in this paper I argue that suicide is merely an idea, albeit a very bad one, having more in common with societal beliefs and norms regarding such things as divorce, abortion, sex, politics, consumer behavior, and fashion. I make a sharp contrast between perturbation and lethality, concepts central to Edwin S. Shneidman's theory of suicide. Evidence supportive of suicide as an idea is discussed based on what we are learning from the study of history and culture, and about contagion/cluster phenomena, media/communication, and choice of method. It is suggested that certain individuals are more vulnerable to incorporate the idea and act of suicide into their concepts of self, based on the same principles by which ideas are spread throughout society. Just as suicide impacts on society, so does society impact on suicide. PMID:7825197
Full Text Available Studies aiming to identify if war veterans are at higher risk of suicide have often produced inconsistent results; this could be due to the complexity of comparisons and different methodological approaches. It should be noted that this contingent has many risk factors, such as stressful exposures, wounds, brain trauma and pain syndrome. Most recent observations confirm that veterans are really more likely to die of suicide as compared to the general population; they are also more likely to experience suicidal ideation and suffer from mental health problems. Suicides are more frequent in those who develop PTSD, depression and comorbid states due to war exposure. Combat stress and its’ frequency may be an important factor leading to suicide within the frame of the stress-vulnerability model. According to this model, the effects of stress may interact with social factors, interpersonal relations and psychological variables producing suicidal tendencies. Modern understanding of stress-vulnerability mechanisms based on genetic predispositions, early life development, level of exposure to stress and stress-reactivity together with interpersonal aspects may help to build more effective suicide prevention programs based on universal/selective/indicated prevention principles.
Paul S. F. Yip
Full Text Available As the largest continent in the World, Asia accounts for about 60% of World suicides. Preventing suicide by restricting access to suicide methods is one of the few evidence-based suicide prevention strategies. However, there has been a lack of systematic exploration of suicide methods in Asian countries. To amend this shortage, the current review examines the leading suicide methods in different Asian countries, their trend, their age- and sex- specific characteristics, and their implications for suicide prevention. In total, 42 articles with leading suicide methods data in 17 Asian countries/regions were retrieved. The epidemiologic characteristics and recent trends of common suicide methods reflect specific socio-cultural, economic, and religious situations in the region. Common suicide methods shift with the introduction of technologies and constructions, and have specific age- or sex-characteristics that may render the restriction of suicide methods not equally effective for all sex and age sub-groups. Charcoal burning, pesticide poisoning, native plant poisoning, self-immolation, and jumping are all prominent examples. In the information society, suicide prevention that focuses on suicide methods must monitor and control the innovation and spread of knowledge and practices of suicide “technologies”. It may be more cost-effective to design safety into technologies as a way of suicide prevention while there is no rash of suicides yet by the new technologies. Further research on suicide methods is important for public health approaches to suicide prevention with sensitivity to socio-cultural, economic, and religious factors in different countries.
Full Text Available Introduction: Over the past 20 years the WHO has considerably improved world mortality data. There are still shortcomings but more countries now report data and world-wide estimates are regularly made. Methods: Data about mortality have been retrieved from the WHO world database. Worldwide injury mortality estimates for 2008 as well as trends of the suicide rate from 1950 to 2009 were analysed. Results: Suicides in the world amount to 782 thousand in 2008 according to the WHO estimate, which is 1.4% of total mortality and 15% of injury mortality. The suicide rate for the world as a whole is estimated at 11.6 per 100,000 inhabitants. The male–female rate ratio of suicide is estimated to be highest in the European Region (4.0 and the lowest in the Eastern Mediterranean region (1.1. Among males the highest suicide rate in the 15–29 age group is in the SE Asian region, in the 45–59 age group in European males and for ages above 60 in the Western Pacific region. Females from SE Asia have a remarkably high suicide rate among 15–29-year-olds and from age 45 in the Western Pacific region. The leading country is currently Lithuania, with a suicide rate of 34.1 per 100,000 inhabitants. Also among males the suicide rate is the highest in Lithuania at 61.2. Among females South Korea with 22.1 is at the top of world suicide rates. Conclusions: During the past six decades, according to the WHO Japan, Hungary, and Lithuania have topped the list of world countries by suicide rate, but if the current trends continue South Korea will overtake all others in a few years. The heart of the problem of suicide mortality has shifted from Western Europe to Eastern Europe and now seems to be shifting to Asia. China and India are the biggest contributors to the absolute number of suicides in the world.
Kantha, S S
2400 years have passed since the occurrence in Athens, Greece of one of the famous suicides recorded in human history. This autobiographical essay provides a montage on the history of suicide, with snippets from the final hours of Socrates, as described by Plato. Suicide in contemporary Japanese culture is also explored briefly, with reference to the deaths of internationally acclaimed movie directors Akira Kurosawa and Juzo Itami. The author also questions why no researcher has yet been honoured for the past 99 years with a Medicine Nobel prize for his or her work on suicidology or thanatology. PMID:11006616
Ahuja, Amir Kumar; Biesaga, Krystine; Sudak, Donna M; Draper, John; Womble, Ashley
Current suicide assessment relies primarily on the patient's oral history. This article describes the case of a patient who was hospitalized after making an impulsive suicide attempt. Subsequently, social media was used to identify the events leading up to the attempt and to reconstruct a timeline. This evidence helped the patient gain more insight into the severity of his condition and agree to participate in treatment. Facebook and other social media may prove to be helpful adjuncts to suicide prevention efforts both in treatment and in screening for high-risk individuals who may not voluntarily come to clinical attention. PMID:24638049
Pregelj, Peter; Ziherl, Slavko
Background: The prevalence of suicide is increasing worldwide and nowadays approximately one million people commit suicide every year. In Slovenia, suicide is a major public health and social problem. Suicide rate in Slovenia is among the highest in Europe. Despite intensive research work on suicide in the countries with high suicide rates and despite all new data on risk factors, the suicide rates do not decline (with few exceptions). Nevertheless,suicide prevention is possible if it is base...
Jager-Hyman, Shari; Cunningham, Amy; Wenzel, Amy; Mattei, Stephanie; Brown, Gregory K; Beck, Aaron T
Although theorists have posited that suicidal individuals are more likely than non-suicidal individuals to experience cognitive distortions, little empirical work has examined whether those who recently attempted suicide are more likely to engage in cognitive distortions than those who have not recently attempted suicide. In the present study, 111 participants who attempted suicide in the 30 days prior to participation and 57 psychiatric control participants completed measures of cognitive distortions, depression, and hopelessness. Findings support the hypothesis that individuals who recently attempted suicide are more likely than psychiatric controls to experience cognitive distortions, even when controlling for depression and hopelessness. Fortune telling was the only cognitive distortion uniquely associated with suicide attempt status. However, fortune telling was no longer significantly associated with suicide attempt status when controlling for hopelessness. Findings underscore the importance of directly targeting cognitive distortions when treating individuals at risk for suicide. PMID:25294949
Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously studied unintentional as well as intentional injury deaths among teenagers living in the four northernmost counties, forming approximately 55% of Sweden with 908,000 inhabitants in 1991. During this work, we found what we suspected to be a suicide cluster among teenagers and we also suspected contagion since there were links between these cases. In this present study, we investigate the occurrence of suicide clustering among teenagers, analyze cluster definitions, and suggest preventive measures. Methods A retrospective study of teenager suicides autopsied at the Department of Forensic Medicine in Umeå, Sweden, during 1981 through 2000. Police reports, autopsy protocols, and medical records were studied in all cases, and the police officers that conducted the investigation at the scene were interviewed in all cluster cases. Parents of the suicide victims of the first cluster were also interviewed. Two aggregations of teenager suicides were detected and evaluated as possible suicide clusters using the US Centers for Disease Control definition of a suicide cluster. Results Two clusters including six teenagers were confirmed, and contagion was established within each cluster. Conclusion The general practitioner is identified as a key person in the aftermath of a teenage suicide since the general practitioner often meet the family, friends of the deceased, and other acquaintances early in the process after a suicide. This makes the general practitioner suitable to initiate contacts with others involved in the well-being of the young, in order to prevent suicide cluster formation and para-suicidal activities.
Baek, Ji Hyun; Park, Jong-Ik; Ahn, Jeonghoon; Roh, Sung-Won; Heo, Jung-Yoon; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David; Jeon, Hong Jin
Suicide is a tragedy that has massive impact on society. In order to prevent suicide, active government intervention is necessary. The suicide rate in Seoul is rapidly increasing and is more than five times higher than that in the state of Massachusetts (MA) during the last decade, especially in the elderly. The suicide prevention program of MA is one of the most effective suicide prevention programs in the United States. The program views suicide as a preventable public health problem, and emphasizes treatment of depression and de-stigmatization of mental health illnesses to prevent suicide. Also, through active collaboration with mental health professionals, they try to identify at-risk populations and help them to get medical interventions. The program also actively collaborates with the regional coalition program and the Samaritans in taking care of the elderly, and supports the elderly in feeling worthwhile after retirement by helping them to work for communities as volunteers. For its part, the Seoul suicide prevention program puts more emphasis on "life respect culture" and "emotional support to high risk individuals by regular visiting". The annual budget of the Seoul suicide prevention program is one-quarter and that for mental health is about one-twentieth that of MA. Considering the high suicide rate and lower mental health service usage in Seoul, it is crucial to raise awareness of depression and decrease the stigma on mental illnesses. Furthermore, educational efforts with long-term investment in research on suicide are necessary. PMID:26207119
Depression and Suicide Risk (2014) Definition: A mood disorder that causes a persistent feeling of sadness and ... i Prevalence: 1. Ranges of lifetime risk for depression: from 6.7% overall to 40% in men, ...
Youth suicide prevention programs are described that promote the identification and referral of at-risk youth, address risk factors, and promote protective factors. Emphasis is on programs that are both effective and sustainable in applied settings.
Shah, Ajit; Zarate-Escudero, Sofia; Bhat, Ravi;
interval 5.1-8.5) per 100,000 person years in women. CONCLUSIONS: Suicide rates were sufficiently large amongst centenarians for there to constitute a public health concern given the anticipated rise in the centenarian population and the paucity of data on risk and protective factors for suicide in this....... The number of centernarians for the corresponding years was estimated for each country using data provided by the United Nations website. RESULTS: Data were available from 17 countries. The suicide rate was 57 (95% confidence interval 45-69) per 100, 000 person years in men and 6.8 (95% confidence....... METHODS: Data on the number of suicides (ICD-10 codes, X60-84) in entenarians of both gender for as many years as possible from 2000 were ascertained from three sources: colleagues, national statisics office websites and e-mail contact with the national statistics offices of as many countries as possible...
Drug abuse has been widely linked to suicide risk. We examined the factors that affect adolescent drug users' suicide attempts in South Korea. This study analyzed the data of 311 adolescents who had used drugs such as inhalants, psychotropic drugs, and marijuana (195 males and 116 females). Among 311 subjects, 109 (35.0%) had attempted suicide during the last 12 months. After adjusting for other variables, depressive mood (OR=19.79) and poly-drug use (OR=2.79), and low/middle levels of academic achievement compared with a high level (OR=3.72 and 4.38) were independently associated with increased odds of a suicide attempt, while better perceived health (OR=0.32) was independently associated with reduced odds of a suicide attempt. For adolescent drug users, preventive work should be directed toward the active treatment of drug use, depression, and physical health and reinforcing proper coping strategies for academic and other stress. PMID:27247604
Park, Subin; Song, Hokwang
Drug abuse has been widely linked to suicide risk. We examined the factors that affect adolescent drug users' suicide attempts in South Korea. This study analyzed the data of 311 adolescents who had used drugs such as inhalants, psychotropic drugs, and marijuana (195 males and 116 females). Among 311 subjects, 109 (35.0%) had attempted suicide during the last 12 months. After adjusting for other variables, depressive mood (OR=19.79) and poly-drug use (OR=2.79), and low/middle levels of academic achievement compared with a high level (OR=3.72 and 4.38) were independently associated with increased odds of a suicide attempt, while better perceived health (OR=0.32) was independently associated with reduced odds of a suicide attempt. For adolescent drug users, preventive work should be directed toward the active treatment of drug use, depression, and physical health and reinforcing proper coping strategies for academic and other stress. PMID:27247604
Introduction: Over the past 20 years the WHO has considerably improved world mortality data. There are still shortcomings but more countries now report data and world-wide estimates are regularly made. Methods: Data about mortality have been retrieved from the WHO world database. Worldwide injury mortality estimates for 2008 as well as trends of the suicide rate from 1950 to 2009 were analysed. Results: Suicides in the world amount to 782 thousand in 2008 according to the WHO estimate, which ...
Vsevolod Rozanov; Vladimir Carli
Studies aiming to identify if war veterans are at higher risk of suicide have often produced inconsistent results; this could be due to the complexity of comparisons and different methodological approaches. It should be noted that this contingent has many risk factors, such as stressful exposures, wounds, brain trauma and pain syndrome. Most recent observations confirm that veterans are really more likely to die of suicide as compared to the general population; they are also more likely to ex...
Narang, R.L.; Mishra, B.P.; Nitesh, Mohan
This study assesses the various socio-demographic correlates, the method adopted and the psychiatric disorders in patients with attempted suicide. Out of 208 cases presented to the hospital, one hundred individuals with suicide attempt were included in the present study. They were evaluated for socio-demographic profile and psychiatric illness on the basis of ICD-10 criteria. Analysis of the results showed that single males outnumbered single females, whereas married females outnumbered marri...
Bokowiec, Mark; Wilson-Bokowiec, Julie
The Suicided Voice (for performer/vocalist, the Bodycoder System, live MSP, video streaming & computer graphics) The Suicided Voice is the second piece in the Vox Circuit Trilogy, a series of interactive vocal works completed in 2007. In this piece the acoustic voice of the performer is “suicided” and given up to digital processing and physical re-embodiment. Dialogues are created between acoustic and digital voices. Gender specific registers are willfully subverted and fractured...
Penberthy, J Kim; Penberthy, J Morgan; Harris, Marcus R; Nanda, Sonali; Ahn, Jennifer; Martinez, Caridad Ponce; Osika, Apule O; Slepian, Zoe A; Forsyth, Justin C; Starr, J Andrew; Farrell, Jennifer E; Hook, Joshua N
Risk of suicidality during smoking cessation treatment is an important, but often overlooked, aspect of nicotine addiction research and treatment. We explore the relationship between smoking cessation interventions and suicidality and explore common treatments, their associated risks, and effectiveness in promoting smoking reduction and abstinence. Although active smokers have been reported to have twofold to threefold increased risk of suicidality when compared to nonsmokers,1-4 research regarding the safest way to stop smoking does not always provide clear guidelines for practitioners wishing to advise their patients regarding smoking cessation strategies. In this article, we review pharmacological and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) options that are available for people seeking to quit smoking, focusing on the relationship between the ability of these therapies to reduce smoking behavior and promote abstinence and suicidality risks as assessed by reported suicidality on validated measures, reports of suicidal ideation, behaviors, actual attempts, or completed suicides. Pharmacotherapies such as varenicline, bupropion, and nicotine replacement, and CBTs, including contextual CBT interventions, have been found to help reduce smoking rates and promote and maintain abstinence. Suicidality risks, while present when trying to quit smoking, do not appear to demonstrate a consistent or significant rise associated with use of any particular smoking cessation pharmacotherapy or CBT/contextual CBT intervention reviewed. PMID:27081311
O'Connor, Daryl B; Ferguson, Eamonn; Green, Jessica A; O'Carroll, Ronan E; O'Connor, Rory C
Suicide is a major cause of death worldwide, responsible for 1.5% of all mortality. The causes of suicidal behavior are not fully understood. Dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, as measured by cortisol levels, is one potential risk factor. This meta-analytic review aimed (i) to estimate the strength and variability of the association between naturally fluctuating cortisol levels and suicidal behavior and (ii) to identify moderators of this relationship. A systematic literature search identified 27 studies (N=2226; 779 suicide attempters and 1447 non-attempters) that met the study eligibility criteria from a total of 417 unique records initially examined. Estimates of effect sizes (r) obtained from these studies were analysed using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis. In these analyses, we compared participants identified as having a past history of suicide attempt(s) to those with no such history. Study quality, mean age of sample and percentage of male participants were examined as potential moderators. Overall, there was no significant effect of suicide group on cortisol. However, significant associations between cortisol and suicide attempts were observed as a function of age. In studies where the mean age of the sample was below 40 years the association was positive (i.e., higher cortisol was associated with suicide attempts; r=.234, psuicide attempts; r=-.129, psuicidal behavior. The challenge for theory and clinical practice is to explain the complete reversal of the association with age and to identify its clinical implications. PMID:26555430
Penberthy, J. Kim; Penberthy, J. Morgan; Harris, Marcus R.; Nanda, Sonali; Ahn, Jennifer; Martinez, Caridad Ponce; Osika, Apule O.; Slepian, Zoe A.; Forsyth, Justin C.; Starr, J. Andrew; Farrell, Jennifer E.; Hook, Joshua N.
Risk of suicidality during smoking cessation treatment is an important, but often overlooked, aspect of nicotine addiction research and treatment. We explore the relationship between smoking cessation interventions and suicidality and explore common treatments, their associated risks, and effectiveness in promoting smoking reduction and abstinence. Although active smokers have been reported to have twofold to threefold increased risk of suicidality when compared to nonsmokers,1–4 research regarding the safest way to stop smoking does not always provide clear guidelines for practitioners wishing to advise their patients regarding smoking cessation strategies. In this article, we review pharmacological and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) options that are available for people seeking to quit smoking, focusing on the relationship between the ability of these therapies to reduce smoking behavior and promote abstinence and suicidality risks as assessed by reported suicidality on validated measures, reports of suicidal ideation, behaviors, actual attempts, or completed suicides. Pharmacotherapies such as varenicline, bupropion, and nicotine replacement, and CBTs, including contextual CBT interventions, have been found to help reduce smoking rates and promote and maintain abstinence. Suicidality risks, while present when trying to quit smoking, do not appear to demonstrate a consistent or significant rise associated with use of any particular smoking cessation pharmacotherapy or CBT/contextual CBT intervention reviewed. PMID:27081311
Walter, Garry; Pridmore, Saxby
Background: Current clinical wisdom is that the vast majority of those who complete suicide suffer from a mental disorder. Uncritical adherence to this belief may limit our understanding and restrict the full range of prevention activities. We aimed to examine the public record for accounts of suicide by men who had been, or were about to be, investigated or apprehended for “sex only” child sex offences, with a view to presenting a collection of case histories, and identifying examples of suicide in the apparent absence of mental disorder other than pedophilia. Methods: The public record (hard and electronic copy) was examined. Results: Twenty case histories were identified of men with no apparent mental disorder (other than pedophilia) who completed suicide shortly after exposure or threatened public exposure and/or early or potential legal punishment. Conclusion: This evidence strongly suggests that exposure or threatened public exposure of pedophilia and/or early or potential legal punishment creates a predicament, which may lead to completed suicide. PMID:23613648
Dimitrov, B. D.; Atanassova, P. A.; Rachkova, M. I.
Multicomponent cyclicity in monthly suicides (periods T = 18, 46 and 198 months) was found and close similarity with heliogeophysical activity (HGA) suggested by Dimitrov in 1999. The current report aimed at scrutinizing the results on suicide annual cyclicity (seasonality) in Slovenia as reported by Oravecz et al in 2007 as well as at analyzing suicide data from Finland in this regard. We postulated that: (i) trans-year (12-24 months) or far-trans-year long-term cycles of suicides might interfere with their seasonality; and (ii) associations to environmental factors with alike cyclicity (e.g. HGA, temperature) could exist. Annual suicide incidence from Oulu, Finland over years 1987-1999 was analyzed. Annual data on solar activity (sunspot index Rz or Wolf number), planetary geomagnetic activity (aa-index) and local daily mean temperatures were used. The exploration of underlying chronomes (time structures) was done by periodogram regression analysis with trigonometric approximation. We analyzed temporal dynamics, revealed cyclicity, decomposed and reconstructed significant cycles and correlated the time series data. Suicide seasonality in Slovenia during the years 1971-2002 (n=384 months, peak May-June) was considered and, although some discrepancies and methodological weaknesses were suspected, we further hypothesized about trans-year and/or longer (far-transyear) cyclic components. Suicide incidence data from Finland indicated that the 12.5-year cyclic component (or trend) was almost parallel (coherent) to the cyclic heliogeophysical parameters and similar to local decreasing temperature dynamics. Also, 8-year and 24.5-year cycles were revealed. A correlation between the 12.5-year suicide cycle and 11-year solar cycle was found (R=0.919, p=0.000009). Above findings on cyclicity and temporal correlations of suicides with cyclic environmental factors, even being still preliminary, might not only allow for further more specific analyses. They might also corroborate
This article reviews research into suicide in women during the last 25 years. National rates vary between the extremes of 19/10(5) per year in Sri Lanka and China, which report higher rates in young married women. The reproductive process has some influence. While menstruation, hormonal treatment, pregnancy and the puerperium have no major effect, unwanted pregnancy may still lead to suicide under certain circumstances, and severe labour can occasionally do so. Having children protects, but the relative risk is no more than 2.0 in nulliparous women. Social factors also have a limited effect. There are higher rates of suicide in divorced women, but the evidence on widowhood is equivocal. Prosperity and employment have no effect. Sexual abuse, rape and domestic violence undoubtedly lead to suicide attempts, but the evidence on completed suicide is lacking. There are many unanswered questions, especially why rates of completed suicide for women (with a greater prevalence of overt depression) are lower than for men, and why Chinese and Indian women have higher rates. More research is required, especially from developing nations. PMID:11349759
Hinduja, Sameer; Patchin, Justin W
Empirical studies and some high-profile anecdotal cases have demonstrated a link between suicidal ideation and experiences with bullying victimization or offending. The current study examines the extent to which a nontraditional form of peer aggression--cyberbullying--is also related to suicidal ideation among adolescents. In 2007, a random sample of 1,963 middle-schoolers from one of the largest school districts in the United States completed a survey of Internet use and experiences. Youth who experienced traditional bullying or cyberbullying, as either an offender or a victim, had more suicidal thoughts and were more likely to attempt suicide than those who had not experienced such forms of peer aggression. Also, victimization was more strongly related to suicidal thoughts and behaviors than offending. The findings provide further evidence that adolescent peer aggression must be taken seriously both at school and at home, and suggest that a suicide prevention and intervention component is essential within comprehensive bullying response programs implemented in schools. PMID:20658375
Zhang, Jie; Jia, Cunxian
To understand psychometric characteristics of Beck Suicide Intent Scale (SIS) and different characteristics of suicides between high and low intent in Chinese culture. Data of 386 suicides and 416 living controls aged 15-34 years were used to analyze psychometric characteristics of SIS with 6 items. SIS with 6 items had high reliability and validity. Different characteristics were found between suicides with high intent and low intent. Hopelessness, depression, impulsivity, and approach coping skill were common factors of suicide with high and low intent. Education years, marriage, social support, and mental disorders were specific factors of suicide with low intent. High intent suicides had different characteristics from low intent suicides. SIS with 6 items is suitable for use in young rural China. PMID:21541859
Laios, K; Tsoukalas, G; Kontaxaki, M-I; Karamanou, M; Androutsos, G
The theme of suicide appears several times in ancient Greek literature. However, each such reference acquires special significance depending on the field from which it originates. Most of the information found in mythology, but the suicide in a mythological tale, although in terms of motivation and mental situation of heroes may be in imitation of similar incidents of real life, in fact is linked with the principles of the ancient Greek religion. In ancient drama and mainly in tragedies suicide conduces to the tragic hypostasis of the heroes and to the evolution of the plot and also is a tool in order to be presented the ideas of poets for the relations of the gods, the relation among gods and men and the relation among the men. In ancient Greek philosophy there were the deniers of suicide, who were more concerned about the impact of suicide on society and also these who accepted it, recognizing the right of the individual to put an end to his life, in order to avoid personal misfortunes. Real suicides will be found mostly from historical sources, but most of them concern leading figures of the ancient world. Closer to the problem of suicide in the everyday life of antiquity are ancient Greek medicines, who studied the phenomenon more general without references to specific incidents. Doctors did not approve in principal the suicide and dealt with it as insane behavior in the development of the mental diseases, of melancholia and mania. They considered that the discrepancy of humors in the organ of logic in the human body will cause malfunction, which will lead to the absurdity and consequently to suicide, either due to excessive concentration of black bile in melancholia or due to yellow bile in mania. They believed that greater risk to commit suicide had women, young people and the elderly. As therapy they used the drugs of their time with the intention to induce calm and repression in the ill person, therefore they mainly used mandragora. In general, we would say
Zhang, Jie; Jia, Cunxian
To understand psychometric characteristics of Beck Suicide Intent Scale (SIS) and different characteristics of suicides between high and low intent in Chinese culture. Data of 386 suicides and 416 living controls aged 15–34 years were used to analyze psychometric characteristics of SIS with 6 items. SIS with 6 items had high reliability and validity. Different characteristics were found between suicides with high intent and low intent. Hopelessness, depression, impulsivity, and approach copin...
Liem, Marieke; Nieuwbeerta, Paul
Homicide-suicides are a rare yet very serious form of lethal violence which mainly occurs in partnerships and families. The extent to which homicide-suicide can be understood as being primarily a homicide or a suicide event, or rather a category of its own is examined. In total, 103 homicide-suicides were compared to 3,203 homicides and 17,751…
Jang, Soo Ah; Sung, Ji Min; Park, Jin Young; Jeon, Woo Taek
Objective Throughout the past several years, there have been a number of entertainment celebrity suicides in South Korea. The aim of this study was to investigate the clustering of suicides following celebrities' suicides in South Korea from 2005 to 2008, particularly according to certain characteristics. Methods Seven celebrity suicides were examined and defined using the Korean Integrated Newspaper Database System (KINDS) and from these, we considered four affected periods occurring 28 days...
Tchernookov, Martin; Nemenman, Ilya
While active, controlled cellular suicide (autolysis) in bacteria is commonly observed, it has been hard to argue that autolysis can be beneficial to an individual who commits it. We propose a theoretical model that predicts that bacterial autolysis is evolutionarily advantageous to an individualand would fixate in physically structured environments for stationary phase colonies. We perform spatially resolved agent-based simulations of the model, which predict that lower mixing in the environment results in fixation of a higher autolysis rate from a single mutated cell, regardless of the colony's genetic diversity. We argue that quorum sensing will fixate as well, even if initially rare, if it is coupled to controlling the autolysis rate. The model does not predict a strong additional competitive advantage for cells where autolysis is controlled by quorum sensing systems that distinguish self from nonself. These predictions are broadly supported by recent experimental results in B. subtilisand S. pneumoniae. Research partially supported by the James S McDonnell Foundation grant No. 220020321 and by HFSP grant No. RGY0084/2011.
Walker Rheeda L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Suicide officially kills approximately 30,000 annually in the United States. Analysis of this leading public health problem is complicated by undercounting. Despite persisting socioeconomic and health disparities, non-Hispanic Blacks and Hispanics register suicide rates less than half that of non-Hispanic Whites. Methods This cross-sectional study uses multiple cause-of-death data from the US National Center for Health Statistics to assess whether race/ethnicity, psychiatric comorbidity documentation, and other decedent characteristics were associated with differential potential for suicide misclassification. Subjects were 105,946 White, Black, and Hispanic residents aged 15 years and older, dying in the US between 2003 and 2005, whose manner of death was recorded as suicide or injury of undetermined intent. The main outcome measure was the relative odds of potential suicide misclassification, a binary measure of manner of death: injury of undetermined intent (includes misclassified suicides versus suicide. Results Blacks (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.38; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.22-2.57 and Hispanics (1.17, 1.07-1.28 manifested excess potential suicide misclassification relative to Whites. Decedents aged 35-54 (AOR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.84-0.93, 55-74 (0.52, 0.49-0.57, and 75+ years (0.51, 0.46-0.57 showed diminished misclassification potential relative to decedents aged 15-34, while decedents with 0-8 years (1.82, 1.75-1.90 and 9-12 years of education (1.43, 1.40-1.46 showed excess potential relative to the most educated (13+ years. Excess potential suicide misclassification was also apparent for decedents without (AOR, 3.12; 95% CI, 2.78-3.51 versus those with psychiatric comorbidity documented on their death certificates, and for decedents whose mode of injury was "less active" (46.33; 43.32-49.55 versus "more active." Conclusions Data disparities might explain much of the Black-White suicide rate gap, if not the
Bedriye Oncu; Direnc Sakarya
Suicide associated mortality rates are notable for eating disorders. Crude mortality rate associated with suicide, varies between 0% and 5.3% in patients with eating disorders. Prominent risk factors for suicidal behavior among these patients are subtype of the eating disorders, comorbid psychiatric diagnosis (e.g. depression, alcohol and substance abuse, personality disorders), ultrarapid drug metabolism, history of childhood abuse and particular family dynamics. In this article, suicidal be...
Full Text Available Suicide associated mortality rates are notable for eating disorders. Crude mortality rate associated with suicide, varies between 0% and 5.3% in patients with eating disorders. Prominent risk factors for suicidal behavior among these patients are subtype of the eating disorders, comorbid psychiatric diagnosis (e.g. depression, alcohol and substance abuse, personality disorders, ultrarapid drug metabolism, history of childhood abuse and particular family dynamics. In this article, suicidal behavior and associated factors in eating disorders are briefly reviewed.
Bogdanović Ljiljana; Savić Slobodan; Basta-Jovanović Gordana
Introduction Suicide is a conscious and intentional destruction of one’s own life, which occurs as a result of mutual influence of a person’s disposition and motives (facts inspiring the commitment of suicide). It is well known that various diseases, including malignancies, could be important and in some cases the only motive for committing suicide. Objective The purpose of the study was to analyze in detail suicides of persons whose only motive was an established malignant disease. Method Th...
Schwartz-Lifshitz, Maya; Zalsman, Gil; Giner, Lucas; Oquendo, Maria A
Every year, suicide is among the top 20 leading causes of death globally for all ages. Unfortunately, suicide is difficult to prevent, in large part because the prevalence of risk factors is high among the general population. In this review, clinical and psychological risk factors are examined and methods for suicide prevention are discussed. Prevention strategies found to be effective in suicide prevention include means restriction, responsible media coverage, and general public education, a...
By the final decade of the twentieth century, rates of suicide in Sri Lanka ranked among the highest in the world. However, in 1996 the suicide rate began to fall and was soon at its lowest level in almost 30 years. This decline poses problems for classic sociological theories of suicide and forces us to question some fundamental assumptions underlying social scientific approaches to the suicide rate. Drawing from sociological, medical epidemiological, historical, and anthropological secondar...
This article reviews the prevalence of suicide and suicidal ideation among American Indian adolescents. Unique risk and protective factors, and historical trauma and associated symptoms, are explored in the context of American Indian adolescent suicide. The need for culturally-sensitive interventions are necessary, and an example of a…
Morrison, James L.
Suggests school and university intervention strategies for preventing suicides among youths, proposed following a series of teenage suicides in Minnesota: closer liaison and backup for the school counselor, peer counseling services, in-school support groups, faculty in-service on suicide, curricular introduction to coping skills and identification…
Gover, F. Jill
There is a great deal of concern about teenage suicide. This study obtained a prevalence rate of suicidal behaviors among non-psychiatric early adolescents (ages 11-16) and investigated personal and family variables that may characterize the young teenagers who report varying degrees of suicidal behavior. A self-report questionnaire was…
NJEA Review, 1982
Suicide and attempted suicide among teenagers has risen dramatically since 1960, especially among girls. Three theories of the causes of suicide (emotional crises, brain chemistry and nonexpression of grief) are discussed. Depression and other first stage warning signals, and the nature of second stage "cries for help," are considered. (CM)
Draws on studies in different cultures and subcultures and in different age groups to develop a psychosocial perspective for viewing youthful suicide. Uses disciplines ranging from demography to psychodynamics to discuss relationship of violence to suicide; role of families in producing youngsters who become preoccupied with death and suicide; and…
Canino, Glorisa; Roberts, Robert E.
Reviews the scientific literature related to suicidal behavior among Latino youth. Discusses the conceptualizations of culture, and how culture may influence behavior and psychopathology, in particular, suicidal behavior. Reviews the literature that discusses rates of suicidal behavior, risk, and protective factors associated with this behavior…
Full Text Available Suicide is the second most common cause of death in young adults worldwide. Teens in Southern India have the world's highest suicide rates. Suicide is often committed out of despair, or attributed to some underlying mental disorder which includes depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and alcoholism and drug abuse.
Phenomenology studies conscious experience as experienced from the subjective or first-person point of view. This paper was developed with the aim of shedding light on the phenomenology of suicide; that is, to focus on suicide as a phenomenon affecting a unique individual with unique motives for the suicidal act. To explore this topic, the author…
Sheikholeslami, Homayoun; Kani, Camellia; Ziaee, Amir
Predictors of suicide attempts in Iran, to distinguish any similarities and differences of these predictors between suicide attempts in Iran and other developed and developing countries and to investigate the relation between general psychiatric symptoms and repetition of suicidal attempts were assessed. The validated Farsi version of the General…
Baby, Sanjush; P, Manju; KF, Yesudas
This is a retrospective study which assesses the various socio-demographic correlates, the methods adopted to commit suicide and the psychiatric disorders in patients attempting suicide. The most common psychiatric diagnosis was found to be Adjustment disorder followed by Depressive disorder. Organo-phosphorous compounds were the most frequent agent used among suicide attempt patients.
Mehrabian, Albert; Weinstein, Lisa
In a preliminary study of a single group of suicide attempters, male and female subjects did not differ in temperament characteristics. Data from both sexes indicated that suicide-prone individuals have unpleasant, arousable, and submissive temperaments, with arousability a strong discriminator of suicide attempters relative to the general…
Johnson, R. Bradley; Oxendine, Symphony; Taub, Deborah J.; Robertson, Jason
Extensive media coverage of the suicide deaths of several gay and lesbian youth has highlighted lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth as a population at-risk for suicide. In addition, it has caused colleges and universities to address mental health and suicide behavior among this very diverse college population. One issue that…
From social work perspective, considers ethics of assisted suicide. Discusses traditional social work value of client self-determination and identifies tensions in this ideal and conflicts with value of client well-being. Finds assisted suicide unethical, arguing that studies have shown judgment of most suicidal people to be impaired as result of…
Contends that old age, in and of itself, should never need to be a cause for self-destruction. Further argues that suicide and assisted suicide carried out in the face of terminal illness causing unbearable suffering should be ethically and legally acceptable. Outlines a perspective on rational suicide among the elderly. (Author/NB)
Jena, S.; Sidhartha, T.
In the USA, suicide ranked as the third leading cause of death for adolescents in 1999. Non-fatal suicidal behaviours are suicidal thought, specific suicidal plan and suicide attempt. Prospective studies have emphasized the high subsequent suicide rates in clinically presenting suicide attempters. This study was planned to critically review the existing international literature on this area, and compare, if possible, with the Indian data. Both electronic and manual search for published and un...
Namratha, P.; Kishor, M.; Sathyanarayana Rao, T. S.; Raman, Rajesh
Background: Suicide is one of the leading causes of preventable deaths. Recent data suggest South India as one of the regions with highest suicide rates in the world. In 2013, 134,799 people committed suicide in India according to the statistics released by the National Crime Records Bureau. Suicide note is one of the most important sources to understand suicide, which may be beneficial in suicide prevention. Studies on suicidal notes from this part of the world are sparse. Objective: The aim...
Suicide and attempted suicide are major health problems. Approximately 1400 people die from suicide every year in Sweden and ten times more attempt suicide. Patients with schizophrenia spectrum psychosis have an increased risk of suicide and suicide rates have been suggested to be as high as 10%. Important risk factors include a prior suicide attempt and depressive disorder. Low concentrations of monoamine metabolites in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) have been related to suicida...
Objective The aims of this study were to determine whether childhood maltreatment contributes to the occurrence of major depressive disorder (MDD) with bipolarity, and whether there is a relationship between central serotonergic activity, as assessed using loudness dependence of auditory evoked potentials (LDAEP), and childhood maltreatment. Methods Thirty-five MDD patients were stratified according to the presence or absence of childhood trauma into two subgroups, childhood trauma (CT) and no childhood trauma (NCT), using the Korean version of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (K-CTQ). The CT group was subjected to further analysis. Several psychometric ratings were also applied. In addition, auditory processing for the loudness dependence of auditory evoked potentials (LDAEP), which was used as a marker of serotonergic activity, was measured before beginning medication. Results There was a significant difference in total Korean Bipolar Spectrum Disorder Scale score between the CT and NCT groups (t=-2.14, p=0.04). The total K-CTQ score was positively correlated with the total Beck Scale for Suicidal Ideation (BSS) score (r=0.36, p=0.036). In particular, emotional abuse was positively correlated with the total Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (r=0.38, p=0.026), BSS (r=0.38, p=0.025), and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) (r=0.36, p=0.035) scores. There was also a positive correlation between LDAEP and total Hypomania Personality Scale (r=0.49, p=0.02) and HAMD (r=0.58, p=0.004) scores within CT group. Conclusion The findings of this study support that there is a relationship between childhood maltreatment and bipolarity in patients with MDD. PMID:27081379
Lim, Meerae; Lee, Sang Uk; Park, Jong-Ik
Background In light of the increased suicide rate in Korea, it has become important for researchers to examine the various factors associated with it. The purpose of this study is to compare and analyze the difference between suicide attempters and completers in terms of the suicide methods used and the lethality of these methods. In addition, we investigated certain demographic factors that are associated with the choice of suicide method by evaluating their lethality. Finding The most frequ...
Christiansen, Erik; Jensen, Børge Frank
This study was undertaken in order to estimate the incidence of repetition of suicide attempt, suicide and all deaths, and to analyse the influence of psychiatric illness and socio-demographic factors on these.......This study was undertaken in order to estimate the incidence of repetition of suicide attempt, suicide and all deaths, and to analyse the influence of psychiatric illness and socio-demographic factors on these....
Jokinen, Jussi; Nordström, Anna-Lena; Nordström, Peter
Prospective studies of the serotonergic system and suicide report that low 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and a history of attempted suicide predict suicide risk. Low CSF homovanillic acid (HVA) is reported to be associated with past and future lethality of suicide attempts but not with suicide. The interrelationships between monoamine metabolites, violent method, suicide intent and lethality of suicidal behaviour are complex. We hypothesized that CSF 5-HIAA and HVA levels are related to suicide intent, violence and lethality of suicidal behaviour. Fifteen male suicide attempters admitted to a psychiatric ward at the Karolinska University Hospital and eight healthy male volunteers were submitted to lumbar puncture and CSF 5-HIAA and HVA were assayed. Suicide intent with the Beck Suicide Intent Scale (SIS), lethality and violence of suicidal behaviour were assessed. All patients were followed up for causes of death. Six suicides and one fatal accident were identified with death certificates. Mean CSF 5-HIAA but not CSF HVA differed between suicides and survivors. Violent suicides had higher suicide intent and CSF 5-HIAA than non-violent suicides. In violent suicides, CSF 5-HIAA levels were negatively correlated with SIS. Greater suicide intent may be associated with greater aggressive intent and predicts a violent suicide method. PMID:19034712
Carretta, Carrie M; Burgess, Ann W; Welner, Michael
Gaps in crises of mental health emerge from poor distinction between the qualities of people who suicide and those who murder and then kill themselves. The role, if any, that substance use has in such lethal violence is an example of such a lack of distinction. In this study, a sample of medical examiner investigative and toxicology reports from Los Angeles and Orange counties in California were available for analysis for 432 suicide cases and 193 homicide-suicide cases. This informed clearer toxicological and pharmacological distinction of suicide from homicide-suicide. Blood alcohol levels were higher in persons committing suicide than in homicide-suicide perpetrators (p=.004). Homicide-suicide perpetrators had almost twice the level of stimulants in their system than people who suicide (p=.022) but did not have comparatively elevated levels of drugs or alcohol. Predictors of suicide included the following: substance abuse history, high number of drugs in system, death inside a house, and legal impairment by alcohol. Predictors of homicide-suicide included gunshot as the cause of death, female gender, domestic conflict, children living in the home, and prior arrest for substance abuse. PMID:26397439
Wang, A G; Bille-Brahe, U; Hansen, W;
Ninety-nine patients, randomly chosen among hospital admitted suicide attempters, were initially interviewed at the Department of Psychiatry, Odense University Hospital, Denmark, and then followed up for a period of about 3 years. Half of the patients repeated the attempt in the follow-up period......, mostly in the first year. Ten patients committed suicide, half of them in the first 3 months after the interview, shortly after discharge from hospital. The majority of the repeaters were living alone, while those that committed suicide were mostly married women aged 50-60 years. Other characteristic...... features for the repeaters were previous suicidal behaviour and suicidal behaviour among relatives. Many had a psychiatric record and expressed chronic somatic complaints. Around the time of the attempt, many expressed hopelessness, isolation and suicidal ideation. Pierce's Suicide Intent Scale performed...
Full Text Available Background: Restricting access to common means of suicide, such as firearms, toxic gas, pesticides and other, has been shown to be effective in reducing rates of death in suicide. In the present review we aimed to summarize the empirical and clinical literature on controlling the access to means of suicide. Methods: This review made use of both MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science and the Cochrane library databases, identifying all English articles with the keywords “suicide means”, “suicide method”, “suicide prediction” or “suicide prevention” and other relevant keywords. Results: A number of factors may influence an individual’s decision regarding method in a suicide act, but there is substantial support that easy access influences the choice of method. In many countries, restrictions of access to common means of suicide has lead to lower overall suicide rates, particularly regarding suicide by firearms in USA, detoxification of domestic and motor vehicle gas in England and other countries, toxic pesticides in rural areas, barriers at jumping sites and hanging, by introducing “safe rooms” in prisons and hospitals. Moreover, decline in prescription of barbiturates and tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs, as well as limitation of drugs pack size for paracetamol and salicylate has reduced suicides by overdose, while increased prescription of SSRIs seems to have lowered suicidal rates. Conclusions: Restriction to means of suicide may be particularly effective in contexts where the method is popular, highly lethal, widely available, and/or not easily substituted by other similar methods. However, since there is some risk of means substitution, restriction of access should be implemented in conjunction with other suicide prevention strategies.
Wong, Paul W. C.; Liu, Patricia M. Y.; Chan, Wincy S. C.; Law, Y. W.; Law, Steven C. K.; Fu, King-Wa; Li, Hana S. H.; Tso, M. K.; Beautrais, Annette L.; Yip, Paul S. F.
An integrative suicide prevention program was implemented to tackle an outbreak of visitor charcoal burning suicides in Cheung Chau, an island in Hong Kong, in 2002. This study evaluated the effectiveness of the program. The numbers of visitor suicides reduced from 37 deaths in the 51 months prior to program implementation to 6 deaths in the 42…
Talley, Amelia E.; Brown, Sarah L.; Cukrowicz, Kelly; Bagge, Courtney L.
Mechanisms (i.e., thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness, hopelessness) derived from the interpersonal theory of suicide which are hypothesized to account for the relation between sexual orientation self-concept ambiguity and active suicide ideation were examined. Participants included 349 women, among whom 42% currently self-ascribed a non-exclusively heterosexual sexual identity. Among women reporting higher levels of sexual self-concept ambiguity, greater risk for active suicide ...
TSUKAHARA, Teruomi; Arai, Hiroaki; Kamijo, Tomoko; Kobayashi, Yoshikiyo; Washizuka, Shinsuke; Arito, Heihachiro; Nomiyama, Tetsuo
Certain attitudes toward suicide may be a risk factor for suicide among the bereaved. To explore this possibility, we examined the relationship between attitudes toward suicide and family history of suicide. We focused on two specific attitudes indicating resignation in a survey: #1 “When a person chooses to die by suicide, the suicide is inevitable” (i.e., inevitability belief); and #2 “A suicide cannot be stopped by any person, because suicide is unpreventable” (i.e., unpreventable belief)....
Röcker, Sabine; Bachmann, Silke
The great majority of suicides and suicide attempts are related to mental illness. Special risk has been attributed to depression, psychosis, substance use, personality, and trauma-related disorders. Many affected persons seek medical attention prior to taking action. Primary care therefor plays an outstanding role in suicide prevention. Doctors should pay attention to potential risk constellations and actively address the issue. This paper presents possibly helpful models and instruments for everyday use. Most importantly, however, professionals’ empathy and time are required as well as appropriate decisions concerning a referral to a psychiatrist or psychiatric inpatient treatment. PMID:26423879
Alexander, Naomi; Callejero, Carlos; Fiore, Franco; Gómez, Ignacio; Gonzalo, Ramón; Enríquez de Luna, Álvaro; Ederra, Iñigo; Palacios, Inés
The chance of suicide bomber attacks against troops in the Theatre of Operations is currently quite high. Most of the time checkpoints and compound gates are not equipped with the appropriate equipment to screen for potential suicide bombers. The ultimate solution would be to be able to perform stand-off screening under various weather conditions whilst avoiding contact between Force Protection personnel and potential suicide bombers. Radiation in the millimeterwave and the lower Terahertz range, having the useful property of being able to penetrate clothing in addition to fog and rain, makes it a clear candidate for imaging in this situation. A study has been made simulating real case scenarios to test practical detection performance and stand-off distances at a range of frequencies in this band, the results of which will be presented.
Richardson-Vejlgaard, Randall; Sher, Leo; Oquendo, Maria A; Lizardi, Dana; Stanley, Barbara
Understanding the beliefs that protect individuals against suicide can help to enhance suicide prevention strategies. One measure of suicide non-acceptability is the Moral Objections to Suicide (MOS) subscale of the Reasons for Living Inventory (RFLI). This study examined the MOS and suicidal ideation of White, Black, and Hispanic individuals with mood disorders. We expected minority individuals to have stronger objections to suicide.
Ahmad, NoorAni; Cheong, Siew Man; Ibrahim, Nurashikin; Rosman, Azriman
Adolescence is the time of greatest risk for the first onset of suicidal behaviors. This study aimed to identify the risk and protective factors associated with suicidal ideation among Malaysian adolescents. Data from the 2012 Malaysia Global School-based Student Health Survey, a nationwide study using a 2-stage cluster sampling design, were analyzed. The survey used a self-administered validated bilingual questionnaire and the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale. The prevalence of suicidal ideation was 7.9%. Analysis revealed that suicidal ideation was positively associated with depression, anxiety, stress, substance use, being bullied, and being abused at home, either physically or verbally. In addition, suicidal ideation was significantly higher among females and among the Indians and Chinese. Having close friends and married parents were strongly protective against suicidal ideation. Understanding the risk and protective factors is important in providing comprehensive management for suicidal ideation. PMID:25005932
.0%, which was 3.0 times greater than expected. The leading causes overall were heart disease (20.2%, suicide (13.1%, and unintentional injury (12.7%. Whereas suicide was the ninth leading cause of death in the U.S. population overall (1.8% during the study period, suicide was the leading and second leading cause among women (25.0% and men (12.7% in the cohort, respectively. Conclusions Veterans who have attempted suicide face elevated risks of all-cause mortality with suicide being prominent. This represents an important population for prevention activities.
Full Text Available Twitter is increasingly investigated as a means of detecting mental health status, including depression and suicidality, in the population. However, validated and reliable methods are not yet fully established. This study aimed to examine whether the level of concern for a suicide-related post on Twitter could be determined based solely on the content of the post, as judged by human coders and then replicated by machine learning. From 18th February 2014 to 23rd April 2014, Twitter was monitored for a series of suicide-related phrases and terms using the public Application Program Interface (API. Matching tweets were stored in a data annotation tool developed by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO. During this time, 14,701 suicide-related tweets were collected: 14% were randomly (n = 2000 selected and divided into two equal sets (Set A and B for coding by human researchers. Overall, 14% of suicide-related tweets were classified as ‘strongly concerning’, with the majority coded as ‘possibly concerning’ (56% and the remainder (29% considered ‘safe to ignore’. The overall agreement rate among the human coders was 76% (average κ = 0.55. Machine learning processes were subsequently applied to assess whether a ‘strongly concerning’ tweet could be identified automatically. The computer classifier correctly identified 80% of ‘strongly concerning’ tweets and showed increasing gains in accuracy; however, future improvements are necessary as a plateau was not reached as the amount of data increased. The current study demonstrated that it is possible to distinguish the level of concern among suicide-related tweets, using both human coders and an automatic machine classifier. Importantly, the machine classifier replicated the accuracy of the human coders. The findings confirmed that Twitter is used by individuals to express suicidality and that such posts evoked a level of concern that warranted
Popenhagen, Mark P.; Qualley, Roxanne M.
Presents six myths of suicide are discussed. Risk factors, methods of detection of suicidal behavior, intervention techniques, and prevention of adolescent suicide. Characteristics of school-based suicide-prevention programs and appropriate teacher interventions are presented. A list of warning signs and two "no suicide" contracts are appended.…
Full Text Available Philippe CourtetCHRU Montpellier, Inserm U888, University of Montpellier I, Montpellier, FranceAbstract: Suicidal behavior (SB represents a major public health issue. Clinical and basic research suggests that SB is a specific entity in psychiatric nosology involving a combination of personality traits, genetic factors, childhood abuse and neuroanatomical abnormalities. The principal risk factor for suicide is depression. More than 60% of patients who complete suicide are depressed at the time of suicide, most of them untreated. There has been a controversy concerning a possible increased risk of SB in some depressed patients treated with antidepressants. Most recent evidence suggests, however, that treatment of depressed patients is associated with a favorable benefit-risk ratio. A recent study has determined the effects of 6 weeks of antidepressant treatment with the serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, milnacipran, on suicidality in a cohort of 30 patients with mild to moderate depression. At baseline, mild suicidal thoughts were present in 46.7% of patients. Suicidal thoughts decreased progressively throughout the study in parallel with other depressive symptoms and were essentially absent at the end of the study. At no time during treatment was there any indication of an increased suicidal risk. Retardation and psychic anxiety decreased in parallel possibly explaining the lack of any “activation syndrome” in this study.Keywords: suicide, milnacipran, SNRI, activation syndrome
Does the question to be or not to be for Hamlet is whether to continue to exist or not? Is Hamlet contemplating sui-cide? The meaning of this famous speech in Shakespeare’s Hamlet has been given numerous interpretations. This essay focuses on the paradoxical emotion of Hamlet and intends to make a comprehensive analysis of this soliloquy.
Stenager, E N; Stenager, Egon; Koch-Henriksen, Nils;
In a nationwide investigation the risk of death by suicide for patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) was assessed using records kept at the Danish Multiple Sclerosis Registry (DMSR) and the Danish National Register of Cause of Death. The investigation covers all MS patients registered with DSMR...
Rao, A. Venkoba; Devi, S. Parvathi
SUMMARY Evidence from genetic research, monoamine studies and psychopharmacological trials points towards a possible biological predisposition and precipitant for suicidal behaviour. The implications for early detection and management based on a biological model have been discussed. The limitations of the model have been discussed.
Module fourteen of the EPEC-O Self-Study Original Version focuses on the skills that the physician can use to respond both compassionately and confidently to a request, not on the merits of arguments for or against legalizing physician-assisted suicide (PAS) or euthanasia.
... friends, family, and social situations Say goodbyes to family and friends, as if they don’t expect to see them again Abuse alcohol or drugs, or engage in other risky behaviors Have personality changes or mood swings What causes suicidal thoughts? ...
Nørrelykke, Helle; Cohrt, Pernille
and conflicting feelings may result in pathological expansion of grief characterized by extremely reduced quality of life involving severe psychical and social consequences. Suicide a subject of taboo In the 1980s WHO drafted a health policy document (‘Health for all year 2000’) with 38 targets for...
This article briefly outlines possible causes for the prevalence of suicide attempts among college students and then discusses various options for handling such crises: whether to notify the students' closest relatives, whether to obtain medical evaluation and treatment (as opposed to psychological counseling), and whether to allow the student to…
Full Text Available Suicidegirls.com is a website which is both an online community, but also a softcore pin-up site, where the models feature extensive body modifications in the form of tattoos and piercings. The website promotes a democratic approach to the photo shoots, as the models remain in control, not the photographer. Marked by their body modifications, the Suicide Girls (as they call themselves, they actively attempt to subvert the typical pin-up conventions, by transgressing mainstream standards of beauty. In what seems remarkably similar to Judith Butler's account of subversive bodily acts, the pin-up shoots of the Suicide Girls mount a critique of a culture's view of the body as a natural entity. Cultural borders are crossed, as the bodies of the Suicide Girls embed ink into their bodies in the form of tattoos, and gender is played as a subversive game against the expectations of pin-up conventions. Acting as different and impure bodies, the Suicide Girls represent a threat to conventional conceptions of the body.
Full Text Available Suicide is an escalating public health problem, and alcohol use has consistently been implicated in the precipitation of suicidal behavior. Alcohol abuse may lead to suicidality through disinhibition, impulsiveness and impaired judgment, but it may also be used as a means to ease the distress associated with committing an act of suicide. We reviewed evidence of the relationship between alcohol use and suicide through a search of MedLine and PsychInfo electronic databases. Multiple genetically-related intermediate phenotypes might influence the relationship between alcohol and suicide. Psychiatric disorders, including psychosis, mood disorders and anxiety disorders, as well as susceptibility to stress, might increase the risk of suicidal behavior, but may also have reciprocal influences with alcohol drinking patterns. Increased suicide risk may be heralded by social withdrawal, breakdown of social bonds, and social marginalization, which are common outcomes of untreated alcohol abuse and dependence. People with alcohol dependence or depression should be screened for other psychiatric symptoms and for suicidality. Programs for suicide prevention must take into account drinking habits and should reinforce healthy behavioral patterns.
Perez-Rodriguez, M Mercedes; Baca-Garcia, Enrique; Oquendo, Maria A.; Blanco, Carlos
Suicide is one of the leading causes of death, and suicidal ideation and attempts are a major public health problem. However, little is known about the relationship between ethnicity and suicidal behaviors.
Pitman, Alexandra; Osborn, David; King, Michael;
Between 48 million and 500 million people are thought to experience suicide bereavement every year. Over the past decade, increased policy attention has been directed towards suicide bereavement, but with little evidence to describe the effect of exposure or to provide appropriate responses. We...... used a systematic approach to carry out a narrative review of studies of the effect of suicide bereavement on mortality, mental health, and social functioning, and compared them with effects from other bereavements. We found 57 studies that satisfied strict inclusion criteria. Results from these...... studies suggested that exposure to suicide of a close contact is associated with several negative health and social outcomes, depending on an individual's relationship to the deceased. These effects included an increased risk of suicide in partners bereaved by suicide, increased risk of required admission...
In recent years, there have been a number of claims and counterclaims from suicide research using time series and longitudinal data; in particular, the linkage of increased antidepressant prescriptions to a decrease in suicide rates. Suicide time series appear to have a memory compounded with seasonal and cyclic effects. Failure to take into account these properties may lead to misleading conclusions, e.g., a downward blip is interpreted as the result of current knowledge and public health po...
Suicide remains a serious health care problem and a sentinel event tracked by The Joint Commission. Nurses are pivotal in evaluating risk and preventing suicide. Analysis of nurses' barriers to risk management may lead to interventions to improve management of suicidal patients. These data emerged from a random survey of 454 oncology nurses' attitudes, knowledge of suicide, and justifications for euthanasia. Instruments included a vignette of a suicidal patient and a suicide attitude question...
Naresh Nebhinani; Mamta; Achla D Gaikwad; Tamphasana, L.
Background: Preventing suicide depends upon different health professionals’ knowledge regarding suicide, attitude toward suicide attempters, skills to assess and manage suicidal risk. Objectives: This study was aimed to assess the attitude of nursing students toward suicide prevention. Materials and Methods: 308 nursing students were recruited from the two institutions through total enumeration method. Attitude toward suicide prevention scale was administered. Study design was cross-sectional...
Blaauw, E.; Winkel, F.W.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.
Relationships between bullying features and suicidal behavior of inmates were examined. The files of 95 suicide victims in jails and prisons in the Netherlands were examined for reports of bullying. In addition, 221 nonsuicidal jail inmates and 53 suicidal jail inmates were interviewed. The files of 34% of the suicide victims noted that the suicide victim had felt bullied. Bullying, especially serious bullying, was relatively often reported by suicidal inmates and by vulnerable inmates. Diffe...
Suicide is a socio-cultural phenomenon. Reports about suicide from different cultures and eras support the opinion that suicide can be a cultivated and normatively recognized act. International educated and scientific use of the term suicide produces, conveys and suggests a narrowing of reflection. A medical deficit viewpoint has been established, and corresponding theories constructed and ‘verified’ to justify the paternalistic interaction with suicidal people. The suicidal person is discrim...
Wiklander Maria; Samuelsson Mats; Jokinen Jussi; Nilsonne Åsa; Wilczek Alexander; Rylander Gunnar; Åsberg Marie
Abstract Background It has been suggested that shame may be an important feature in suicidal behaviors. The disposition to react with shame, “shame-proneness”, has previously not been investigated in groups of attempted suicide patients. We examined shame-proneness in two groups of attempted suicide patients, one group of non-suicidal patients and one group of healthy controls. We hypothesized that the attempted suicide patients would be more shame-prone than non-suicidal patients and healthy...
Deshpande, Gopikrishna; Baxi, Madhura; Witte, Tracy; Robinson, Jennifer L.
The high rate of fatal suicidal behavior (SB) in men is an urgent issue as highlighted in the public eye via news sources and media outlets. In this study, we have attempted to address this issue and understand the neural substrates underlying the gender differences in the rate of fatal SB. The Interpersonal–Psychological Theory of Suicide has proposed an explanation for the seemingly paradoxical relationship between gender and SB, i.e., greater non-fatal suicide attempts by women but higher number of deaths by suicide in men. This theory states that possessing suicidal desire (due to conditions such as depression) alone is not sufficient for a lethal suicide attempt. It is imperative for an individual to have the acquired capability for suicide (ACS) along with suicidal desire in order to die by suicide. Therefore, higher levels of ACS in men may explain why men are more likely to die by suicide than women, despite being less likely to experience suicidal ideation or depression. In this study, we used activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis to investigate a potential ACS network that involves neural substrates underlying emotional stoicism, sensation-seeking, pain tolerance, and fearlessness of death, along with a potential depression network that involves neural substrates that underlie clinical depression. Brain regions commonly found in ACS and depression networks for males and females were further used as seeds to obtain regions functionally and structurally connected to them. We found that the male-specific networks were more widespread and diverse than the female-specific ones. Also, while the former involved motor regions, such as the premotor cortex and cerebellum, the latter was dominated by limbic regions. This may support the fact that suicidal desire generally leads to fatal/decisive action in males, while, in females, it manifests as depression, ideation, and generally non-fatal actions. The proposed model is a first attempt to characterize
Snarr, Jeffery D.; Heyman, Richard E.; Slep, Amy M. Smith
One-year prevalences of self-reported noteworthy suicidal ideation and nonfatal suicide attempts were assessed in a large sample of U.S. Air Force active duty members (N = 52,780). Participants completed the 2006 Community Assessment, which was conducted online. Over 3% of male and 5.5% of female participants reported having experienced noteworthy…
Bryan, Craig J.; McNaugton-Cassill, Mary; Osman, Augustine; Hernandez, Ann Marie
The associations of various forms of sexual and physical assault with a history of suicide attempts and recent suicide ideation were studied in two distinct samples: active duty military and undergraduate students. A total of 273 active duty Air Force personnel and 309 undergraduate students anonymously completed self-report surveys of assault…
The most common suicide theories share a widely recognized set of social factors that contribute to suicide and suicide attempts. This paper discusses additional suicide risk factors that affect the gay and lesbian community such as: discrimination, gay adolescence, coming out, establishment of a gay identity, HIV/AIDS, intrapersonal stressors, drugs and alcohol, racial/ethnic factors and limited support structures. Poor awareness of these additional risks, both within mainstream society and within the gay and lesbian community, is also discussed. A review of the literature is conducted that examines the impact of these risk factors and the implications of these issues to mental health nursing. PMID:9086933
Darvishi, Nahid; Farhadi, Mehran; Haghtalab, Tahereh; Poorolajal, Jalal
Background Several original studies have investigated the effect of alcohol use disorder (AUD) on suicidal thought and behavior, but there are serious discrepancies across the studies. Thus, a systematic assessment of the association between AUD and suicide is required. Methods We searched PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus until February 2015. We also searched the Psycinfo web site and journals and contacted authors. We included observational (cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional) studies addressing the association between AUD and suicide. The exposure of interest was AUD. The primary outcomes were suicidal ideation, suicide attempt, and completed suicide. We assessed heterogeneity using Q-test and I2 statistic. We explored publication bias using the Egger's and Begg's tests and funnel plot. We meta-analyzed the data with the random-effects models. For each outcome we calculated the overall odds ratio (OR) or risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results We included 31 out of 8548 retrieved studies, with 420,732 participants. There was a significant association between AUD and suicidal ideation (OR=1.86; 95% CI: 1.38, 2.35), suicide attempt (OR=3.13; 95% CI: 2.45, 3.81); and completed suicide (OR=2.59; 95% CI: 1.95, 3.23 and RR=1.74; 95% CI: 1.26, 2.21). There was a significant heterogeneity among the studies, but little concern to the presence of publication bias. Conclusions There is sufficient evidence that AUD significantly increases the risk of suicidal ideation, suicide attempt, and completed suicide. Therefore, AUD can be considered an important predictor of suicide and a great source of premature death. PMID:25993344
Clark, Luke; Dombrovski, Alexander Y; Siegle, Greg J; Butters, Meryl A; Shollenberger, Cori L; Sahakian, Barbara J; Szanto, Katalin
Suicidal behavior is a potentially lethal complication of late-life depression. In younger adults, suicide has been linked to abnormal decision-making ability. Given that there are substantial age-related decreases in decision-making ability, and that older adults experience environmental stressors that require effective decision-making, we reasoned that impaired decision-making may be particularly relevant to suicidal behavior in the elderly. We thus compared performance on a probabilistic decision-making task that does not involve working memory ("Cambridge Gamble Task") in four groups of older adults: (1) individuals with major depression and a history of suicide attempt (n = 25), (2) individuals with major depression with active suicidal ideation but no suicide attempt (n = 13), (3) individuals with major depression without suicidality (n = 35), and (4) nondepressed control subjects (n = 22). There was a significant effect of group on quality of decision-making, whereby the suicide attempters exhibited poorer ability to choose the likely outcome, compared with the nonsuicidal depressed and nondepressed comparison subjects. There were no group differences in betting behavior. The suicide attempters differed in several aspects of social problem-solving on a self-report scale. Quality of decision-making was negatively correlated with the score on the impulsive/careless problem-solving subscale. These data suggest that older suicide attempters have a deficit in risk-sensitive decision-making, extending observations in younger adults. More specifically, older suicide attempters seem to neglect outcome probability and make poor choices. These impairments may precipitate and perpetuate suicidal crisis in depressed elders. Identification of decision-making impairment in suicidal elders may help with designing effective interventions. PMID:21443349
O'Connor, Rory C; Nock, Matthew K
The causes of suicidal behaviour are not fully understood; however, this behaviour clearly results from the complex interaction of many factors. Although many risk factors have been identified, they mostly do not account for why people try to end their lives. In this Review, we describe key recent developments in theoretical, clinical, and empirical psychological science about the emergence of suicidal thoughts and behaviours, and emphasise the central importance of psychological factors. Personality and individual differences, cognitive factors, social aspects, and negative life events are key contributors to suicidal behaviour. Most people struggling with suicidal thoughts and behaviours do not receive treatment. Some evidence suggests that different forms of cognitive and behavioural therapies can reduce the risk of suicide reattempt, but hardly any evidence about factors that protect against suicide is available. The development of innovative psychological and psychosocial treatments needs urgent attention. PMID:26360404
Stenager, Elsebeth Nylev; Jensen, Børge; Stenager, Maria;
The purposes of the study were (1) to estimate the risk of suicide attempts in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients in Denmark and compare the risk to the background population in the County of Funen, Denmark; (2) to estimate the risk of suicide attempts in MS patients receiving immunomodulating...... therapy compared with untreated patients. The Danish MS Registry, the Danish MS Treatment Registry and the Suicide Attempt Registry are linked and merged together using a person identification number given to all persons residing in Denmark. Among 404 MS patients, 15 patients had attempted suicide......, although no increased risk for suicide attempts was found in MS patients. No difference in number of suicide attempts in treated and untreated patients was found....
Lv, Meizhen; Li, Ang; Liu, Tianli; Zhu, Tingshao
Introduction. Suicide has become a serious worldwide epidemic. Early detection of individual suicide risk in population is important for reducing suicide rates. Traditional methods are ineffective in identifying suicide risk in time, suggesting a need for novel techniques. This paper proposes to detect suicide risk on social media using a Chinese suicide dictionary. Methods. To build the Chinese suicide dictionary, eight researchers were recruited to select initial words from 4,653 posts publ...
This paper discusses the phenomenon of suicidality with regard to patient autonomy on the one hand and the obligation of medical professionals to provide support and treatment on the other hand. The continuation of a broad debate on these issues within the whole of society is mandatory also in the future. Suicide and assisted suicide are topics with high relevance for medicine in general and for psychiatry in particular. They can, however, not be handled by medical specialists alone. PMID:26423877
Öncü, Bedriye; Sakarya, Direnç
Suicide associated mortality rates are notable for eating disorders. Crude mortality rate associated with suicide, varies within %0 and %5.3 in eating disorder patients. Prominent risk factors for suicidal behavior among patients with eating disorder are subtype of the eating disorder, comorbid psychiatric diagnoses (e.g. depression, alcohol and substabce abuse, personality disorders), ultrarapid drug metabolism, history of childhood abuse and particular family dynamics. In this article, sui...
Vivian Roxo Borges
Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou identificar a presença de ideação suicida em adolescentes da população geral, da cidade de Porto Alegre, com idades entre 15 e 19 anos; caracterizar os adolescentes com e sem ideação suicida quanto à intensidade de depressão/desesperança; identificar, nos adolescentes com ideação suicida, o nível de associação entre ideação suicida e depressão/desesperança e identificar, nos adolescentes com ideação suicida, quais variáveis foram encontradas como mais associadas à ideação suicida. Utilizou-se uma ficha de dados sócio-demográficos, Escala de Ideação Suicida de Beck, Inventário de Depressão de Beck e Escala de Desesperança de Beck. Os dados foram analisados através do cálculo de freqüências, pelo teste qui-quadrado e regressão logística. Dos 526 adolescentes da amostra, 36% apresentaram ideação suicida. Destes, 36% apresentaram sintomas de depressão e 28,6% de desesperança (moderada e/ou grave. As variáveis mais associadas à ideação suicida foram: sexo feminino, tentativa de suicídio de amigo, depressão e desesperança.This study aimed at identifying suicide ideation among adolescents aged 15 to 19 years old within the general population of Porto Alegre city, Brazil; characterizing adolescents with and without suicide ideation as to depression/hopelessness intensity; identifying suicide ideation, association level between suicide ideation and depression/hopelessness in those youngsters; as well as identifying the variables most associated to suicide ideation in those adolescents showing this behavior. A social-demographic datasheet, Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation, Beck Depression Inventory and Beck Hopelessness Scale were used. Data were submitted to frequency calculation, chi-square test and logistic regression analysis. From the 526 adolescents in the sample, 36% presented suicide ideation. Out of them, 36% showed depression symptoms and 28,6% hopelessness (moderate and
Full Text Available Homicide followed by suicide (H/S is a complex and poorly studied phenomenon. This research aims at identifyingH/S cases occurred in Porto Alegre from 1996 throughout 2004. Information on H/S was extracted from newspapers,police reports and interviews with the informants. From the 14 identified cases, men were the killers/suicides andwomen and children their victims. The most frequently used weapons were firearms. In general, the aggressor was animpulsive, aggressive individual showing problems within its primary supporting group, possibly suffering depressionand alcohol-addicted with criminal backgrounds (violence against the family. Events were mainly triggered by jealousy,threats or the end of a love relationship.
Euthanasia and assisted suicide are not part of French laws of bioethics and lack, for the time being, definition and normative framework other than their criminal prosecution. To transform them into a right, these concepts certainly call for an ethical and legal debate. This paper aims to question the ideas to be considered, the conceptual bases and normative tools that may be useful to the discussion. PMID:27356358
Jenkins, Andrew P.
This paper presents a secondary-level teaching technique that can be used in an integrated English and health education curriculum. The exercise provides students and teachers with a case study of a suicidal person for the purpose of teaching the warning signs of suicide, appropriate questioning, and referral skills. The case study uses Hamlet's…