WorldWideScience

Sample records for active solute transport

  1. A Mathematical Model of Solute Coupled Water Transport in Toad Intestine Incorporating Recirculation of the Actively Transported Solute

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Sørensen, Jakob Balslev; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2000-01-01

    A mathematical model of an absorbing leaky epithelium is developed for analysis of solute coupled water transport. The non-charged driving solute diffuses into cells and is pumped from cells into the lateral intercellular space (lis). All membranes contain water channels with the solute passing...... those of tight junction and interspace basement membrane by convection-diffusion. With solute permeability of paracellular pathway large relative to paracellular water flow, the paracellular flux ratio of the solute (influx/outflux) is small (2-4) in agreement with experiments. The virtual solute...... concentration of fluid emerging from lis is then significantly larger than the concentration in lis. Thus, in absence of external driving forces the model generates isotonic transport provided a component of the solute flux emerging downstream lis is taken up by cells through the serosal membrane and pumped...

  2. Dynamic Loading of Deformable Porous Media Can Induce Active Solute Transport

    Albro, Michael B.; Chahine, Nadeen O; Li, Roland; Yeager, Keith; Hung, Clark T.; Ateshian, Gerard A.

    2008-01-01

    Active solute transport mediated by molecular motors across porous membranes is a well-recognized mechanism for transport across the cell membrane. In contrast, active transport mediated by mechanical loading of porous media is a non-intuitive mechanism that has only been predicted recently from theory, but not yet observed experimentally. This study uses agarose hydrogel and dextran molecules as a model experimental system to explore this mechanism. Results show that dynamic loading can enha...

  3. Modeling preferential water flow and solute transport in unsaturated soil using the active region model

    Sheng, F.; Wang, K.; Zhang, R.; Liu, H.H.

    2009-03-15

    Preferential flow and solute transport are common processes in the unsaturated soil, in which distributions of soil water content and solute concentrations are often characterized as fractal patterns. An active region model (ARM) was recently proposed to describe the preferential flow and transport patterns. In this study, ARM governing equations were derived to model the preferential soil water flow and solute transport processes. To evaluate the ARM equations, dye infiltration experiments were conducted, in which distributions of soil water content and Cl{sup -} concentration were measured. Predicted results using the ARM and the mobile-immobile region model (MIM) were compared with the measured distributions of soil water content and Cl{sup -} concentration. Although both the ARM and the MIM are two-region models, they are fundamental different in terms of treatments of the flow region. The models were evaluated based on the modeling efficiency (ME). The MIM provided relatively poor prediction results of the preferential flow and transport with negative ME values or positive ME values less than 0.4. On the contrary, predicted distributions of soil water content and Cl- concentration using the ARM agreed reasonably well with the experimental data with ME values higher than 0.8. The results indicated that the ARM successfully captured the macroscopic behavior of preferential flow and solute transport in the unsaturated soil.

  4. Solute transport in soil

    Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.; Leijnse, A.

    2013-01-01

    Solute transport is of importance in view of the movement of nutrient elements, e.g. towards the plant root system, and because of a broad range of pollutants. Pollution is not necessarily man induced, but may be due to geological or geohydrological causes, e.g. in the cases of pollution with arseni

  5. Thermodynamic and transport properties of some biologically active compounds in aqueous solutions at different temperatures

    Dhondge, Sudhakar S., E-mail: s_dhondge@hotmail.co [P.G. Department of Chemistry, S.K. Porwal College, Kamptee, Nagpur 441 002 (India); Zodape, Sangesh P.; Parwate, Dilip V. [Department of Chemistry, R.T.M. Nagpur University, Nagpur 440 033 (India)

    2011-01-15

    The experimental data of density and viscosity have been obtained for aqueous solutions of biologically active compounds like salbutamol sulphate (SS), diethylcarbamazine citrate (DEC), and chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) in the concentration range (0 to 0.15) mol . kg{sup -1} at three different temperatures. The derived parameters, such as apparent molar volume of solute ({phi}{sub V})), limiting apparent molar volume of solute ({phi}{sub V}{sup 0}), limiting apparent molar expansivity ({phi}{sub E}{sup 0}), thermal expansion coefficient ({alpha}*) and Jones-Dole equation viscosity A and B coefficients, were obtained using the density and viscosity results. It has been observed that the electrolyte-salt (SS) as well as adducts exhibit a positive viscosity B coefficient having negative ((dB)/(dT)). These results are interpreted in the light of possible solute-solute and solute-solvent interactions.

  6. Thermodynamic and transport properties of some biologically active compounds in aqueous solutions at different temperatures

    The experimental data of density and viscosity have been obtained for aqueous solutions of biologically active compounds like salbutamol sulphate (SS), diethylcarbamazine citrate (DEC), and chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) in the concentration range (0 to 0.15) mol . kg-1 at three different temperatures. The derived parameters, such as apparent molar volume of solute (φV)), limiting apparent molar volume of solute (φV0), limiting apparent molar expansivity (φE0), thermal expansion coefficient (α*) and Jones-Dole equation viscosity A and B coefficients, were obtained using the density and viscosity results. It has been observed that the electrolyte-salt (SS) as well as adducts exhibit a positive viscosity B coefficient having negative ((dB)/(dT) ). These results are interpreted in the light of possible solute-solute and solute-solvent interactions.

  7. Transport solutions for cleaner air.

    Kelly, Frank J; Zhu, Tong

    2016-05-20

    In cities across the globe, road transport remains an important source of air pollutants that are linked with acute and chronic health effects. Decreasing vehicle emissions--while maintaining or increasing commuter journeys--remains a major challenge for city administrators. In London, congestion-charging and a citywide low-emission zone failed to bring nitrogen dioxide concentrations under control. In Beijing, controls on the purchase and use of cars have not decreased transport emissions to a sufficient extent. As cities continue to grow, not even zero-emission vehicles are the solution. Moving increasingly large numbers of people efficiently around a city can only be achieved by expanding mass transit systems. PMID:27199415

  8. Column Holdup Formula of Soil Solute Transport

    2000-01-01

    The shortcomings of the present two formulae for describing column holdup are analyzed and deductions are made to find a new formula. The column holdup, Hw, described by the new formula is dimensional,and related to soil solute transport kinesis and column physical properties. Compared with the other two column holdups, Hw is feasible to describe dimensional column holdup during solute transport process. The relationships between Hw and retardation factor, R, in different solute transport boundary conditions are established.

  9. Solute transport by a volatile solvent

    Brown, Glenn O.; McWhorter, David B.

    1990-05-01

    In relatively dry porous media, water is transported as both liquid and vapor. Exact knowledge of this two-phase transport, and the phase transfer of water associated with it, is required for the prediction of solute transport. Combined liquid and vapor transport is examined starting from basic principles. An analytic solution is presented for the case of isothermal, transient, one-dimensional sorption of water with constant liquid content boundaries. A relation is also obtained for the evaporation and condensation within the flow field. A numerical solution for the solute transport is obtained which takes maximum advantage of the analytical flow solution. Using the properties of Lurgi retorted oil shale, several special cases are examined which show the relative importance of the separate phases in the total transport of water, the effects on the phase transfer, and the solute transport. It is expected that these methods and results can be applied to other problems in multiple phase transport, such as hazardous waste disposal and pesticide transport.

  10. Types of solutions improving passenger transport interconnectivity

    Monika BĄK

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to present different types of solutions which could improve interconnectivity of passenger transport especially within interconnections between long and short transport distance. The topic has particular relevance at the European level because the European transport networks’ role as integrated international networks is compromised by poor interconnectivity and because the next generation of European transport policies will have to be sensitive to the differences between short, medium and long-term transport markets and the market advantages of each transport mode. In this context, a realistic assessment of intermodal opportunities is a key ingredient to future policy development.Effective interconnection requires the provision of integrated networks and services which are attractive to potential users and this is likely to require co-operation between a range of authorities and providers in the public and private sectors and may necessitate a wider vision than might otherwise prevail.The paper is based on the results of the project realised by the team of the University of Gdansk in the EU funded 7 Framework Programme - INTERCONNECT (Interconnection between short- and long-distance transport networks with partners in the UK, Germany, Denmark, Poland, Spain and Italy. Different types of solutions will be summarized in the paper including e.g. local link infrastructure solutions, improved local public transport services, improvements at the interchange, solutions involving improved procedures for check-in or luggage transfer & documentation, pricing and ticketing solutions, solutions involving marketing, information and sales.

  11. BACTERIAL SOLUTE TRANSPORT PROTEINS IN THEIR LIPID ENVIRONMENT

    TVELD, GI; DRIESSEN, AJM; KONINGS, WN; Veld, Gerda in 't

    1993-01-01

    The cytoplasmic membrane of bacteria is a selective barrier that restricts entry and exit of solutes. Transport of solutes across this membrane is catalyzed by specific membrane proteins. Integral membrane proteins usually require specific lipids for optimal activity and are inhibited by other lipid

  12. Microforces and the Theory of Solute Transport

    Fried, Eliot; Sellers, Shaun

    1999-01-01

    A generalized continuum framework for the theory of solute transport in fluids is proposed and systematically developed. This framework rests on the introduction of a generic force balance for the solute, a balance distinct from the macroscopic momentum balance associated with the mixture. Special forms of such a force balance have been proposed and used going back at least as far as Nernst's 1888 theory of diffusion. Under certain circumstances, this force balance yields a Fickian constituti...

  13. Solute transport through a deforming porous medium

    Peters, Glen P.; Smith, David W.

    2002-06-01

    Solute transport through a porous medium is typically modelled assuming the porous medium is rigid. However, many applications exist where the porous medium is deforming, including, municipal landfill liners, mine tailings dams, and land subsidence. In this paper, mass balance laws are used to derive the flow and transport equations for a deforming porous medium. The equations are derived in both spatial and material co-ordinate systems. Solute transport through an engineered landfill liner is used as an illustrative example to show the differences between the theory for a rigid porous medium, and small and large deformation analysis of a deforming porous medium. It is found that the large deformation model produces shorter solute breakthrough times, followed by the small deformation model, and then the rigid porous medium model. It is also found that it is important to include spatial and temporal void ratio variations in the large deformation analysis. It is shown that a non-linear large deformation model may greatly reduce the solute breakthrough time, compared to a standard transport analysis typically employed by environmental engineers.

  14. Linear transport models for adsorbing solutes

    Roth, K.; Jury, W. A.

    1993-04-01

    A unified linear theory for the transport of adsorbing solutes through soils is presented and applied to analyze movement of napropamide through undisturbed soil columns. The transport characteristics of the soil are expressed in terms of the travel time distribution of the mobile phase which is then used to incorporate local interaction processes. This approach permits the analysis of all linear transport processes, not only the small subset for which a differential description is known. From a practical point of view, it allows the direct use of measured concentrations or fluxes of conservative solutes to characterize the mobile phase without first subjecting them to any model. For complicated flow regimes, this may vastly improve the identification of models and estimation of their parameters for the local adsorption processes.

  15. On the solution of ion transport equation

    Two different techniques have been used to solve the Boltzmann-transport equation describing the penetration of light ions through solids in the continuous slowing down approximation (CSDA), namely maximum entropy and flux-limited.The solution- obtained for the scalar flux function θο(ξ,s) by using the flux-limited as well by means of the maximum entropy are agree with obtained by Chandrasekhar method

  16. Numerical solution of the radionuclide transport equation

    A numerical solution of the one-dimensional geospheric radionuclide chain transport equation based on the pseudospectral method is developed. The advantages of this approach are flexibility in incorporating space and time dependent migration parameters, arbitrary boundary conditions and solute rock interactions as well as efficiency and reliability. As an application the authors investigate the impact of non-linear sorption isotherms on migration in crystalline rock. It is shown that non-linear sorption, in the present case a Freundlich isotherm, may reduce concentration at the geosphere outlet by orders of magnitude provided the migration time is comparable or larger than the half-life of the nuclide in question. The importance of fixing dispersivity within the continuum approach is stressed. (Auth.)

  17. Transportation activity analysis using smartphones

    Xiao, Yu; Low, David; Bandara, Thusitha; Pathak, Parth; Lim, Hock Beng; Goyal, Devendra; Santos, Jorge Oliveira; Cottrill, Caitlin; Pereira, Francisco C.; Zegras, P. Christopher; Ben-Akiva, Moshe E.

    2012-01-01

    Transportation activity surveys investigate when, where and how people travel in urban areas to provide information necessary for urban transportation planning. In Singapore, the Land Transport Authority (LTA) carries out such a survey amongst households every four years. The survey is conducted through conventional questionnaires and travel diaries. However, the conventional surveys are problematic and error-prone. We are developing a smartphone-based transportation activity survey system to...

  18. Analytical solutions for anomalous dispersion transport

    O'Malley, D.; Vesselinov, V. V.

    2014-06-01

    Groundwater flow and transport often occur in a highly heterogeneous environment (potentially heterogeneous at multiple spatial scales) and is impacted by geochemical reactions, advection, diffusion, and other pore scale processes. All these factors can give rise to large-scale anomalous dispersive behavior that can make complex model representation and prediction of plume concentrations challenging due to difficulties unraveling all the complexities associated with the governing processes, flow medium, and their parameters. An alternative is to use upscaled stochastic models of anomalous dispersion, and this is the approach used here. Within a probabilistic framework, we derive a number of analytical solutions for several anomalous dispersion models. The anomalous dispersion models are allowed to be either non-Gaussian (α-stable Lévy), correlated, or nonstationary from the Lagrangian perspective. A global sensitivity analysis is performed to gain a greater understanding of the extent to which uncertainty in the parameters associated with the anomalous behavior can be narrowed by examining concentration measurements from a network of monitoring wells and to demonstrate the computational speed of the solutions. The developed analytical solutions are encoded and available for use in the open source computational framework MADS (http://mads.lanl.gov).

  19. Modeling reactive geochemical transport of concentrated aqueous solutions

    Zhang, Guoxiang; Zheng, Zuoping; Wan, Jiamin

    2005-02-01

    Aqueous solutions with ionic strength larger than 1 M are usually considered concentrated aqueous solutions. These solutions can be found in some natural systems and are also industrially produced and released into accessible natural environments, and as such, they pose a big environmental problem. Concentrated aqueous solutions have unique thermodynamic and physical properties. They are usually strongly acidic or strongly alkaline, with the ionic strength possibly reaching 30 M or higher. Chemical components in such solutions are incompletely dissociated. The thermodynamic activities of both ionic and molecular species in these solutions are determined by the ionic interactions. In geological media the problem is further complicated by the interactions between the solutions and sediments and rocks. The chemical composition of concentrated aqueous solutions when migrating through the geological media may be drastically altered by these strong fluid-rock interactions. To effectively model reactive transport of concentrated aqueous solutions, we must take into account the ionic interactions. For this purpose we substantially extended an existing reactive transport code, BIO-CORE2D©, by incorporating a Pitzer ion interaction model to calculate the ionic activity. In the present paper, the model and two test cases of the model are briefly introduced. We also simulate a laboratory column experiment in which the leakage of highly alkaline waste fluid stored at Hanford (a U.S. Department of Energy site, located in Washington State) was studied. Our simulation captures the measured pH evolution and indicates that all the reactions controlling the pH evolution, including cation exchanges and mineral dissolution/precipitation, are coupled.

  20. Fuzzy Optimal Solution to Fuzzy Transportation Problem: A New Approach

    S. Mohanaselvi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a new algorithm for the initial fuzzy feasible solution to a fully fuzzy transportation problem. Then by using fuzzy version of modified distribution method, we obtain the fuzzy optimal solution for the fully fuzzy transportation problem without converting to a classical transportation problem. A numerical example is provided to illustrate the proposed algorithm. It can be seen that the proposed algorithm gives a better fuzzy optimal solution to the given fuzzy transportation problem.

  1. Modeling flow and solute transport in irrigation furrows

    This paper presents an internally coupled flow and solute transport model for free-draining irrigation furrows. Furrow hydraulics is simulated with a numerical zero-inertia model and solute transport is computed with a model based on a numerical solution of the cross-section averaged advection-dispe...

  2. Analytical Solutions for Sequentially Reactive Transport with Different Retardation Factors

    Sun, Y; Buscheck, T A; Mansoor, K; Lu, X

    2001-08-01

    Integral transforms have been widely used for deriving analytical solutions for solute transport systems. Often, analytical solutions can only be written in closed form in frequency domains and numerical inverse-transforms have to be involved to obtain semi-analytical solutions in the time domain. For this reason, previously published closed form solutions are restricted either to a small number of species or to the same retardation assumption. In this paper, we applied the solution scheme proposed by Bauer et al. in the time domain. Using available analytical solutions of a single species transport with first-order decay without coupling with its parent species concentration as fundamental solutions, a daughter species concentration can be expressed as a linear function of those fundamental solutions. The implementation of the solution scheme is straight forward and exact analytical solutions are derived for one- and three-dimensional transport systems.

  3. Fuzzy Optimal Solution to Fuzzy Transportation Problem: A New Approach

    S. Mohanaselvi; K. Ganesan

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we propose a new algorithm for the initial fuzzy feasible solution to a fully fuzzy transportation problem. Then by using fuzzy version of modified distribution method, we obtain the fuzzy optimal solution for the fully fuzzy transportation problem without converting to a classical transportation problem. A numerical example is provided to illustrate the proposed algorithm. It can be seen that the proposed algorithm gives a better fuzzy optimal solution to the given fuzzy transp...

  4. A Finite-Difference Solution of Solute Transport through a Membrane Bioreactor

    B. Godongwana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The current paper presents a theoretical analysis of the transport of solutes through a fixed-film membrane bioreactor (MBR, immobilised with an active biocatalyst. The dimensionless convection-diffusion equation with variable coefficients was solved analytically and numerically for concentration profiles of the solutes through the MBR. The analytical solution makes use of regular perturbation and accounts for radial convective flow as well as axial diffusion of the substrate species. The Michaelis-Menten (or Monod rate equation was assumed for the sink term, and the perturbation was extended up to second-order. In the analytical solution only the first-order limit of the Michaelis-Menten equation was considered; hence the linearized equation was solved. In the numerical solution, however, this restriction was lifted. The solution of the nonlinear, elliptic, partial differential equation was based on an implicit finite-difference method (FDM. An upwind scheme was employed for numerical stability. The resulting algebraic equations were solved simultaneously using the multivariate Newton-Raphson iteration method. The solution allows for the evaluation of the effect on the concentration profiles of (i the radial and axial convective velocity, (ii the convective mass transfer rates, (iii the reaction rates, (iv the fraction retentate, and (v the aspect ratio.

  5. Solute Transport Across a Contact Interface in Deformable Porous Media

    Ateshian, Gerard A.; Maas, Steve; Weiss, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    A finite element formulation of neutral solute transport across a contact interface between deformable porous media is implemented and validated against analytical solutions. By reducing the integral statements of external virtual work on the two contacting surfaces into a single contact integral, the algorithm automatically enforces continuity of solute molar flux across the contact interface, whereas continuity of the effective solute concentration (a measure of the solute mechano-chemical ...

  6. Transport of Liquid Phase Organic Solutes in Liquid Crystalline Membranes

    Han, Sangil

    2010-01-01

    Porous cellulose nitrate membranes were impregnated with 8CB and PCH5 LCs (liquid crystals) and separations of solutes dissolved in aqueous phases were performed while monitoring solute concentration via UV-VIS spectrometry. The diffusing organic solutes, which consist of one aromatic ring and various functional groups, were selected to exclude molecular size effects on the diffusion and sorption. We studied the effects on solute transport of solute intra-molecular hydrogen bonding and so...

  7. An adaptive approach to implementing innovative urban transport solutions

    Marchau, V.; Walker, W; Van Duin, R.

    2009-01-01

    Urban transport is facing an increasing number of problems. Innovative technological solutions have been proposed for many of these problems. The implementation of these solutions, however, is surrounded by many uncertainties—for example, future relevant developments for urban transport demand and supply, the possible consequences of these developments for urban transportation system performance, and the way crucial stakeholders will value these consequences. In order to deal with these uncer...

  8. Modelling multicomponent solute transport in structured soils

    Beinum, van G.W.

    2007-01-01

    The mobility of contaminants in soil is an important factor in determining their ability to spread into the wider environment. For non-volatile substances, transport within the soil is generally dominated by transport of dissolved fractions in the soil water phase, via either diffusion or convection

  9. Regulators of Slc4 bicarbonate transporter activity

    Ian M. Thornell

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Slc4 family of transporters is comprised of anion exchangers (AE1-4, Na-coupled bicarbonate transporters (NCBTs including electrogenic Na/bicarbonate cotransporters (NBCe1 and NBCe2, electroneutral Na/bicarbonate cotransporters (NBCn1 and NBCn2, and the electroneutral Na-driven Cl-bicarbonate exchanger (NDCBE, as well as a borate transporter (BTR1. These transporters regulate intracellular pH (pHi and contribute to steady-state pHi, but are also involved in other physiological processes including CO2 carriage by red blood cells and solute secretion/reabsorption across epithelia. Acid-base transporters function as either acid extruders or acid loaders, with the Slc4 proteins moving HCO3– either into or out of cells. According to results from both molecular and functional studies, multiple Slc4 proteins and/or associated splice variants with similar expected effects on pHi are often found in the same tissue or cell. Such apparent redundancy is likely to be physiologically important. In addition to regulating pHi, a HCO3– transporter contributes to a cell’s ability to fine tune the intracellular regulation of the cotransported/exchanged ion(s (e.g., Na+ or Cl–. In addition, functionally similar transporters or splice variants with different regulatory profiles will optimize pH physiology and solute transport under various conditions or within subcellular domains. Such optimization will depend on activated signaling pathways and transporter expression profiles. In this review, we will summarize and discuss both classical and more recently identified regulators of the Slc4 proteins. Some of these regulators include traditional second messengers, lipids, binding proteins, autoregulatory domains, and less conventional regulators. The material presented will provide insight into the diversity and physiological significance of multiple members within the Slc4 gene family.

  10. Specific transport and storage solutions for residues return programs

    France, like other countries including Japan, UK, Russia and China, has chosen the closed fuel cycle, where Spent Fuel is recycled at 96% of its content. This treatment, performed in France at AREVA's La Hague plant allows recovering uranium 95% and plutonium 1% for recycling, the remaining 4% being considered as ultimate waste. Most of the ultimate waste can be sorted into two categories: - High level activity waste (HLW) composed of fission products and minor actinides, which account for the largest share of radioactivity; this type of waste is vitrified. - Long-lived intermediate level waste (ILW) composed of structural elements of used nuclear fuel (hulls and end pieces); this type of waste is compacted. Whether vitrified or compacted, the waste is conditioned in the same universal and multipurpose container, named the Universal Canister. The resulting residue is named CSD-V for vitrified waste and CSD-C for compacted waste, they both remain property of the utilities and must be returned to countries of origin. In order to transport Universal Canisters in the best technical and economical conditions, TN International designs two cask solutions for its customers, either for transport only or for dual purpose, storage and transport, depending on the facility receiving the canisters. Since the mid-1990's, TN International has transported CSD-V waste to Belgium, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Germany and Japan. As most of these CSD-V return programs are nearing completion, TN International is now preparing the CSD-C return program which is scheduled to begin in 2009 for the first three countries and within several years for Germany and Japan. The purpose of this paper is to explain how the experience gained during the return program of CSD-V has been used to optimize the CSD-C return organization, in terms of design and licensing of casks and of transport organization, suited to the specific constraints of each country. In some cases, casks developed for CSD

  11. Reactive solute transport in variable density

    Sáinz García, Álvaro M.

    2009-01-01

    A pesar del gran avance que ha vivido la modelaci on del transporte reactivo en las ultimas d ecadas, s olo unos pocos estudios han abordado el problema del transporte reactivo en un ujo con densidad variable. En este trabajo se han desarrollado dos aproximaciones num ericas capaces de simular los procesos complejos comprendidos en este problema: decoupled conser- vative salinity (DCS), que no tiene en cuenta el efecto de las reacciones qu micas en el ujo y time lagged r...

  12. A viscosity solution approach to the Monge-Ampere formulation of the Optimal Transportation Problem

    Benamou, Jean-David; Froese, Brittany D.; Oberman, Adam M.

    2012-01-01

    In this work we present a numerical method for the Optimal Mass Transportation problem. Optimal Mass Transportation (OT) is an active research field in mathematics.It has recently led to significant theoretical results as well as applications in diverse areas. Numerical solution techniques for the OT problem remain underdeveloped. The solution is obtained by solving the second boundary value problem for the MA equation, a fully nonlinear elliptic partial differential equation (PDE). Instead o...

  13. THE GENERATION OF METABOLIC ENERGY BY SOLUTE TRANSPORT

    Konings, W.N; Lolkema, J.S.; Poolman, B.

    1995-01-01

    Secondary metabolic-energy-generating systems generate a proton motive force (pmf) or a sodium ion motive force (smf) by a process that involves the action of secondary transporters. The (electro)chemical gradient of the solute(s) is converted into the electrochemical gradient of protons or sodium i

  14. Radioactive solutions and reagents with certified activity

    An international directory of radioactive solutions and reagents with certified activity is compiled. Data are given in tables on radioactivity concentration, uncertainty, volume, supplier, availability and form of solutions and reagents

  15. Sustainable freight transport in South Africa:Domestic intermodal solutions

    Jan H. Havenga

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to the rapid deregulation of freight transport in South Africa two decades ago, and low historical investment in rail (with resultant poor service delivery, an integrated alternative to road and rail competition was never developed. High national freight logistics costs, significant road infrastructure challenges and environmental impact concerns of a road-dominated freight transport market have, however, fuelled renewed interest in intermodal transport solutions. In this article, a high-level business case for domestic intermodal solutions in South Africa is presented. The results demonstrate that building three intermodal terminals to connect the three major industrial hubs (i.e. Gauteng, Durban and Cape Town through an intermodal solution could reduce transport costs (including externalities for the identified 11.5 million tons of intermodalfriendly freight flows on the Cape and Natal corridors by 42% (including externalities.

  16. A stochastic method of solution of the Parker transport equation

    Wawrzynczak, A; Gil, A

    2015-01-01

    We present the stochastic model of the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) particles transport in the heliosphere. Based on the solution of the Parker transport equation we developed models of the short-time variation of the GCR intensity, i.e. the Forbush decrease (Fd) and the 27-day variation of the GCR intensity. Parker transport equation being the Fokker-Planck type equation delineates non-stationary transport of charged particles in the turbulent medium. The presented approach of the numerical solution is grounded on solving of the set of equivalent stochastic differential equations (SDEs). We demonstrate the method of deriving from Parker transport equation the corresponding SDEs in the heliocentric spherical coordinate system for the backward approach. Features indicative the preeminence of the backward approach over the forward is stressed. We compare the outcomes of the stochastic model of the Fd and 27-day variation of the GCR intensity with our former models established by the finite difference method. Both ...

  17. Semianalytical Solutions of Radioactive or Reactive Transport in Variably-Fractured Layered Media: 1. Solutes

    In this paper, semianalytical solutions are developed for the problem of transport of radioactive or reactive solute tracers through a layered system of heterogeneous fractured media with misaligned fractures. The tracer transport equations in the non-flowing matrix account for (a) diffusion, (b) surface diffusion, (c) mass transfer between the mobile and immobile water fractions, (d) linear kinetic or equilibrium physical, chemical, or combined solute sorption or colloid filtration, and (e) radioactive decay or first-order chemical reactions. The tracer-transport equations in the fractures account for the same processes, in addition to advection and hydrodynamic dispersion. Any number of radioactive decay daughter products (or products of a linear, first-order reaction chain) can be tracked. The solutions, which are analytical in the Laplace space, are numerically inverted to provide the solution in time and can accommodate any number of fractured and/or porous layers. The solutions are verified using analytical solutions for limiting cases of solute and colloid transport through fractured and porous media. The effect of important parameters on the transport of 3H, 237Np and 239Pu (and its daughters) is investigated in several test problems involving layered geological systems of varying complexity

  18. End-Member Formulation of Solid Solutions and Reactive Transport

    Lichtner, Peter C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    A model for incorporating solid solutions into reactive transport equations is presented based on an end-member representation. Reactive transport equations are solved directly for the composition and bulk concentration of the solid solution. Reactions of a solid solution with an aqueous solution are formulated in terms of an overall stoichiometric reaction corresponding to a time-varying composition and exchange reactions, equivalent to reaction end-members. Reaction rates are treated kinetically using a transition state rate law for the overall reaction and a pseudo-kinetic rate law for exchange reactions. The composition of the solid solution at the onset of precipitation is assumed to correspond to the least soluble composition, equivalent to the composition at equilibrium. The stoichiometric saturation determines if the solid solution is super-saturated with respect to the aqueous solution. The method is implemented for a simple prototype batch reactor using Mathematica for a binary solid solution. Finally, the sensitivity of the results on the kinetic rate constant for a binary solid solution is investigated for reaction of an initially stoichiometric solid phase with an undersaturated aqueous solution.

  19. Photoinduced thermoelectric transport in solution-processed semiconductors

    Coates, Nelson; Yang, Fan; Sahu, Ayaskanta; Urban, Jeffrey

    The ability to fabricate semiconductor materials directly from solution offers a number of advantages over traditional semiconductor processing routes. In addition to the generally lower costs of manufacturing and ability to scale device to large areas, solution-based fabrication techniques also easily allow for extensive physical and chemical tuning of the processed materials. Here, we examine ways to tune the photoinduced thermoelectric transport in solution-processed semiconductors, and in particular explore ways to leverage some of the inherent characteristics of solution processed semiconductors (such as electronic inhomogeneity and large trap densities) to improve the photoinduced thermoelectric response in these materials.

  20. The separation of radionuclide migration by solution and particle transport in LLRW repository buffer material

    Laboratory-scale lysimeter experiments were performed with simulated waste forms placed in candidate buffer materials which have been chosen for a low-level radioactive waste repository. Radionuclide releases into the effluent water and radionuclide capture by the buffer material were determined. The results could not be explained by traditional solution transport mechanisms, and transport by particles released from the waste form and/or transport by buffer particles were suspected as the dominant mechanism for radionuclide release from the lysimeters. To elucidate the relative contribution of particle and solution transport, the waste forms were replaced by a wafer of neutron-activated buffer soaked with selected soluble isotopes. Particle transport was determined by the movement of gamma-emitting neutron-activation products through the lysimeter. Solution transport was quantified by comparing the migration of soluble radionuclides relative to the transport of neutron activation products. The new approach for monitoring radionuclide migration in soil is presented. It facilitates the determination of most of the fundamental coefficients required to model the transport process

  1. Fundamental solution of an integro-differential transport equation

    The problems connected with the construction of generalized functions of the fundamental solution of a stationary single-velocity integro-differential neutron transport equation on the basis of the integral transformation technique and its applications are analyzed. A number of concrete expressions for the fundamental solutions in the tree-dimensional (spherical coordinates) and two-dimensional (cylindrical coordinates) geometries are derived. The most of the formula are apparently published for the first time

  2. Political activity for physical activity: health advocacy for active transport

    Amun Qa-t-a

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Effective health advocacy is a priority for efforts to increase population participation in physical activity. Local councils are an important audience for this advocacy. The aim of the current study was to describe features of advocacy for active transport via submissions to city council annual plans in New Zealand, and the impact of an information sheet to encourage the health sector to be involved in this process. Written submissions to city council's annual consultation process were requested for 16 city councils over the period of three years (2007/08, 2008/09, and 2009/10. Submissions were reviewed and categories of responses were created. An advocacy information sheet encouraging health sector participation and summarising some of the evidence-base related to physical activity, active transport and health was released just prior to the 2009/10 submission time. Over the period of the study, city councils received 47,392 submissions, 17% of which were related to active transport. Most submissions came from city residents, with a small proportion (2% from the health sector. The largest category of submissions was in support of pedestrian and cycling infrastructure, design and maintenance of facilities and additional features to support use of these transport modes. Health arguments featured prominently in justifications for active transport initiatives, including concerns about injury risk, obesity, physical inactivity, personal safety and facilities for people with disabilities. There was evidence that the information sheet was utilised by some health sector submitters (12.5%, providing tentative support for initiatives of this nature. In conclusion, the study provides novel information about the current nature of health advocacy for active transport and informs future advocacy efforts about areas for emphasis, such as health benefits of active transport, and potential alliances with other sectors such as environmental

  3. Transport-constrained extensions of collision and track length estimators for solutions of radiative transport problems

    Kong, Rong, E-mail: kongr413@yahoo.com [Veros Software Inc., 2333 N. Broadway, Santa Ana, CA 92706 (United States); Spanier, Jerome, E-mail: jspanier@uci.edu [Beckman Laser Institute and Medical Clinic, 1002 Health Science Road E., University of California, Irvine, CA 92612 (United States)

    2013-06-01

    In this paper we develop novel extensions of collision and track length estimators for the complete space-angle solutions of radiative transport problems. We derive the relevant equations, prove that our new estimators are unbiased, and compare their performance with that of more conventional estimators. Such comparisons based on numerical solutions of simple one dimensional slab problems indicate the the potential superiority of the new estimators for a wide variety of more general transport problems.

  4. Transport of reactive solutes in heterogeneous porous formation.

    Bosma, W.J.P.

    1994-01-01

    Transport and spreading behaviour of reactive solutes in heterogeneous porous formations is considered. Spatial variability is modeled by assuming a random space function (RSF) for the spatially variable properties. In the available literature, the effect of random spatial variability is mostly limi

  5. Solute transport through porous media using asymptotic dispersivity

    P K Sharma; Teodrose Atnafu Abgaze

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, multiprocess non-equilibrium transport equation has been used, which accounts for both physical and chemical non-equilibrium for reactive transport through porous media. An asymptotic distance dependent dispersivity is used to embrace the concept of scale-dependent dispersion for solute transport in heterogeneous porous media. Semi-analytical solution has been derived of the governing equations with an asymptotic distance dependent dispersivity by using Laplace transform technique and the power series method. For application of analytical model, we simulated observed experimental breakthrough curves from 1500 cm long soil column experiments conducted in the laboratory. The simulation results of break-through curves were found to deviate from the observed breakthrough curves for both mobile–immobile and multiprocess non-equilibrium transport with constant dispersion models. However, multiprocess non-equilibrium with an asymptotic dispersion model gives better fit of experimental breakthrough curves through long soil column and hence it is more useful for describing anomalous solute transport through hetero-geneous porous media. The present model is simpler than the stochastic numerical method.

  6. Win-Win transportation solutions price reforms with multiple benefits

    Reform strategies in the transportation market, such as the Win-Win Transportation Solutions, can provide several economic, social and environmental benefits. The strategies are cost effective, technically feasible reforms based on market principles which help create a more equitable and efficient transportation system that supports sustainable economic development. The benefits they provide include reduced traffic congestion, road and parking facility savings, consumer savings, equity, safety and environmental protection. They also increase economic productivity. If fully implemented, they could reduce motor vehicle impacts by 15 to 30 per cent and could help achieve the Kyoto emission reduction targets. Examples of Win-Win strategies at the federal level include: (1) removal of subsidies to oil production and internalized costs, and (2) tax exempt employer provided transfer benefits. Examples of Win-Win strategies at the state/provincial level include: (1) distance-based vehicle insurance and registration fees, (2) least-coast transportation planning and funding, (3) revenue-neutral tax shifting, (4) road pricing, (5) reform motor carrier regulations for competition and efficiency, (6) local and regional transportation demand management programs, (7) more efficient land use, (8) more flexible zoning requirements, (9) parking cash out, (10) transportation management associations, (11) location-efficient housing and mortgages, (12) school and campus trip management, (13) car sharing, (14) non-motorized transport improvements, and (15) traffic calming. It was noted that any market reform that leads to more efficient use of existing transportation systems can provide better economic development benefits. 9 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  7. Effect of proteolytic enzymes on transepithelial solute transport

    The effects of proteases on air-space clearance (AC) of small ([14C]sucrose, 342 daltons) and large (125I-neutral dextran, 70,000 daltons) solutes were studied in isolated, fluid-filled hamster lungs that were perfused in a nonrecirculating system. When instilled into the air spaces, porcine pancreatic elastase (0.1-0.4 mg/ml) and bovine pancreatic trypsin (BPT) (0.5-2.0 mg/ml), but neither Clostridium histolyticum collagenase (5.0 mg/ml) nor phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride-inactivated BPT caused large increases in the AC of both tracer molecules. BPT-induced solute clearance was further characterized functionally and morphologically. The functional characteristics of solute AC under steady-state conditions did not indicate that transepithelial transport was diffusion-limited. Inhibition by millimolar concentrations of Zn2+ and by lung cooling, along with electron microscopic studies employing horseradish peroxidase as a macromolecule tracer, were consistent with epithelial solute transport by a vesicular mechanism (transcytosis). Solute transport from the interstitial compartment to the lung exterior was shown to occur via two pathways. By unknown mechanisms BPT caused small amounts of water to flow through an incompletely identified, extravascular pathway. In BPT-exposed lungs efflux of 125I-dextran 70 occurred almost exclusively through this pathway, whereas [14C]sucrose was transported to the lung exterior partly through this same pathway and partly through the vasculature. The large differences in the diffusion coefficients of the two tracers may have accounted for these observed patterns of solute efflux from the lung. The possible significance of our findings to the pathogenesis of experimental emphysema are discussed

  8. Activity assay of membrane transport proteins

    Hao Xie

    2008-01-01

    Membrane transport proteins are integral membrane proteins and considered as potential drug targets. Activity assay of transport proteins is essential for developing drugs to target these proteins. Major issues related to activity assessment of transport proteins include availability of transporters,transport activity of transporters, and interactions between ligands and transporters. Researchers need to consider the physiological status of proteins (bound in lipid membranes or purified), availability and specificity of substrates, and the purpose of the activity assay (screening, identifying, or comparing substrates and inhibitors) before choosing appropriate assay strategies and techniques. Transport proteins bound in vesicular membranes can be assayed for transporting substrate across membranes by means of uptake assay or entrance counterflow assay. Alternatively, transport proteins can be assayed for interactions with ligands by using techniques such as isothermal titration calorimetry, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, or surface plasmon resonance. Other methods and techniques such as fluorometry, scintillation proximity assay, electrophysiological assay, or stopped-flow assay could also be used for activity assay of transport proteins. In this paper the major strategies and techniques for activity assessment of membrane transport proteins are reviewed.

  9. TRACKING AND TRACING SOLUTION FOR DANGEROUS GOODS CARRIED BY INTERMODAL TRANSPORT

    Marek Kvet

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the problem of designing a complex tracking and tracing solution for dangerous goods transportation with the support of modern information technologies. This research activity presents a part of the “ChemLogTT” [2] project solved at the University of Žilina. The main goal of our contribution is to present basic conception of a complex developed software tool for monitoring and analyzing mentioned dangerous goods transportation.

  10. Conservative and reactive solute transport in constructed wetlands

    Keefe, S.H.; Barber, L.B.; Runkel, R.L.; Ryan, J.N.; McKnight, Diane M.; Wass, R.D.

    2004-01-01

    The transport of bromide, a conservative tracer, and rhodamine WT (RWT), a photodegrading tracer, was evaluated in three wastewater-dependent wetlands near Phoenix, Arizona, using a solute transport model with transient storage. Coupled sodium bromide and RWT tracer tests were performed to establish conservative transport and reactive parameters in constructed wetlands with water losses ranging from (1) relatively impermeable (15%), (2) moderately leaky (45%), and (3) significantly leaky (76%). RWT first-order photolysis rates and sorption coefficients were determined from independent field and laboratory experiments. Individual wetland hydraulic profiles influenced the extent of transient storage interaction in stagnant water areas and consequently RWT removal. Solute mixing and transient storage interaction occurred in the impermeable wetland, resulting in 21% RWT mass loss from main channel and storage zone photolysis (10%) and sorption (11%) reactions. Advection and dispersion governed solute transport in the leaky wetland, limiting RWT photolysis removal (1.2%) and favoring main channel sorption (3.6%). The moderately leaky wetland contained islands parallel to flow, producing channel flow and minimizing RWT losses (1.6%).

  11. Solute transport in dual-permeability porous media

    Leij, Feike J.; Toride, Nobuo; Field, Malcolm S.; Sciortino, Antonella

    2012-04-01

    A dual-advection dispersion equation (DADE) is presented and solved to describe solute transport in structured or layered porous media with different nonzero flow rates in two distinct pore domains with linear solute transfer between them. This dual-permeability model constitutes a generalized version of the advection-dispersion equation (ADE) for transport in uniform porous media and the mobile-immobile model (MIM) for transport in media with a mobile and an immobile pore domain. Analytical tools for the DADE have mostly been lacking. An analytical solution has therefore been derived using Laplace transformation with time and modal decomposition based on matrix diagonalization, assuming the same dispersivity for both domains. Temporal moments are derived for the DADE and contrasted with those for the ADE and the MIM. The effective dispersion coefficient for the DADE approaches that of the ADE for a similar velocity in both pore domains and large values for the first-order transfer parameter, and approaches that of the MIM for the opposite conditions. The solution of the DADE is used to illustrate how differences in pore water velocity between the domains and low transfer rates will lead to double peaks in the volume- or flux-averaged concentration profiles versus time or position. The DADE is applied to optimize experimental breakthrough curves for an Andisol with a distinct intra- and interaggregate porosity. The DADE improved the description of the breakthrough data compared to the ADE and the MIM.

  12. Antitubercular Agent Delamanid and Metabolites as Substrates and Inhibitors of ABC and Solute Carrier Transporters.

    Sasabe, Hiroyuki; Shimokawa, Yoshihiko; Shibata, Masakazu; Hashizume, Kenta; Hamasako, Yusuke; Ohzone, Yoshihiro; Kashiyama, Eiji; Umehara, Ken

    2016-06-01

    Delamanid (Deltyba, OPC-67683) is the first approved drug in a novel class of nitro-dihydro-imidazooxazoles developed for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Patients with tuberculosis require treatment with multiple drugs, several of which have known drug-drug interactions. Transporters regulate drug absorption, distribution, and excretion; therefore, the inhibition of transport by one agent may alter the pharmacokinetics of another, leading to unexpected adverse events. Therefore, it is important to understand how delamanid affects transport activity. In the present study, the potencies of delamanid and its main metabolites as the substrates and inhibitors of various transporters were evaluated in vitro Delamanid was not transported by the efflux ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters P-glycoprotein (P-gp; MDR1/ABCB1) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2), solute carrier (SLC) transporters, organic anion-transporting polypeptides, or organic cation transporter 1. Similarly, metabolite 1 (M1) was not a substrate for any of these transporters except P-gp. Delamanid showed no inhibitory effect on ABC transporters MDR1, BCRP, and bile salt export pump (BSEP; ABCB11), SLC transporters, or organic anion transporters. M1 and M2 inhibited P-gp- and BCRP-mediated transport but did so only at the 50% inhibitory concentrations (M1, 4.65 and 5.71 μmol/liter, respectively; M2, 7.80 and 6.02 μmol/liter, respectively), well above the corresponding maximum concentration in plasma values observed following the administration of multiple doses in clinical trials. M3 and M4 did not affect the activities of any of the transporters tested. These in vitro data suggest that delamanid is unlikely to have clinically relevant interactions with drugs for which absorption and disposition are mediated by this group of transporters. PMID:27021329

  13. EFFECTIVE POROSITY IMPLIES EFFECTIVE BULK DENSITY IN SORBING SOLUTE TRANSPORT

    Flach, G.

    2012-02-27

    The concept of an effective porosity is widely used in solute transport modeling to account for the presence of a fraction of the medium that effectively does not influence solute migration, apart from taking up space. This non-participating volume or ineffective porosity plays the same role as the gas phase in single-phase liquid unsaturated transport: it increases pore velocity, which is useful towards reproducing observed solute travel times. The prevalent use of the effective porosity concept is reflected by its prominent inclusion in popular texts, e.g., de Marsily (1986), Fetter (1988, 1993) and Zheng and Bennett (2002). The purpose of this commentary is to point out that proper application of the concept for sorbing solutes requires more than simply reducing porosity while leaving other material properties unchanged. More specifically, effective porosity implies the corresponding need for an effective bulk density in a conventional single-porosity model. The reason is that the designated non-participating volume is composed of both solid and fluid phases, both of which must be neglected for consistency. Said another way, if solute does not enter the ineffective porosity then it also cannot contact the adjoining solid. Conceptually neglecting the fluid portion of the non-participating volume leads to a lower (effective) porosity. Likewise, discarding the solid portion of the non-participating volume inherently leads to a lower or effective bulk density. In the author's experience, practitioners virtually never adjust bulk density when adopting the effective porosity approach.

  14. Radial reactive solute transport in an aquifer-aquitard system

    Wang, Quanrong; Zhan, Hongbin

    2013-11-01

    Radial reactive transport is investigated in an aquifer-aquitard system considering the important processes such as advection, radial and vertical dispersions for the aquifer, vertical advection and dispersion for the aquitards, and first-order biodegradation or radioactive decay. We solved the coupled governing equations of transport in the aquifer and the aquitards by honoring the continuity of concentration and mass flux across the aquifer-aquitard interfaces and recognizing the concentration variation along the aquifer thickness. This effort improved the averaged-approximation (AA) model, which dealt with radial dispersion in an aquifer-aquitard system by excluding the aquitard advection. To compare with our new solution, we expanded the AA model by including the aquitard advection. The expanded AA model considerably overestimated the mass in the upper aquitard when an upward advection existed there. The rates of mass change in the upper aquitard from the new solution and the AA model solution increased with time following sub-linear fashions. The times corresponding to the peak values of the residence time distributions for the AA model, the expanded AA model, and the new model were almost the same. The residence time distributions seemed to follow the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution closely when plotting the time in logarithmic scale. In addition, we developed a finite-element COMSOL Multiphysics simulation of the problem, and found that the COMSOL solution agreed with the new solution well.

  15. Transport processes in space physics and astrophysics problems and solutions

    Dosch, Alexander

    2016-01-01

     This is the problems and solution manual for the graduate text with the same title and published as Lecture Notes in Physics Vol 877 which provides the necessary mathematical and physics background to understand the transport of gases, charged particle gases, energetic charged particles, turbulence, and radiation in an astrophysical and space physics context. The very detailed and self-contained problems and solutions will be an essential part of the training of any graduate student wishing to enter and pursuing research in this field. .

  16. Health Impacts of Active Transportation in Europe.

    Rojas-Rueda, David; de Nazelle, Audrey; Andersen, Zorana J; Braun-Fahrländer, Charlotte; Bruha, Jan; Bruhova-Foltynova, Hana; Desqueyroux, Hélène; Praznoczy, Corinne; Ragettli, Martina S; Tainio, Marko; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2016-01-01

    Policies that stimulate active transportation (walking and bicycling) have been related to heath benefits. This study aims to assess the potential health risks and benefits of promoting active transportation for commuting populations (age groups 16-64) in six European cities. We conducted a health impact assessment using two scenarios: increased cycling and increased walking. The primary outcome measure was all-cause mortality related to changes in physical activity level, exposure to fine particulate matter air pollution with a diameter reduce carbon dioxide emissions in the six cities by 1,139 to 26,423 (metric tonnes per year). Policies to promote active transportation may produce health benefits, but these depend of the existing characteristics of the cities. Increased collaboration between health practitioners, transport specialists and urban planners will help to introduce the health perspective in transport policies and promote active transportation. PMID:26930213

  17. Sn approach applied to the solution of transport equation

    In this work the origin of the Transport Theory is considered and the Transport Equation for the movement of the neutron in a system is established in its more general form, using the laws of nuclear physics. This equation is used as the starting point for development, under adequate assumptions, of simpler models that render the problem suitable for numerical solution. Representation of this model in different geometries is presented. The different processes of nuclear physics are introduced briefly and discussed. In addition, the boundary conditions for the different cases and a general procedure for the application of the Conservation Law are stated. The last chapter deals specifically with the Sn method, its development, definitions and generalities. Computational schemes for obtaining the Sn solution in spherical and cylindrical geometry, and convergence acceleration methods are also developed. (author)

  18. General approach for modeling solute transport in structured soils

    Classical convective-dispersive type transport models are often found to be of limited use for predicting in structured soils or fractured aquifer systems. Recently a number of deterministic two-region type models have appeared in the literature that consider transport in structured soils from a microscopic (macropore-scale) point of view. In these models, the chemical is assumed to be transported through a single pore or crack of known geometry, or through the voids between well-defined, uniformly-sized aggregates. In addition, diffusion-type equations are used to describe solute transfer from the larger pores into the soil matrix. This paper describes a method that extends the two-region modeling approach to more general conditions involving aggregates of arbitrary geometry. The method is based on the use of a geometry-dependent shape factor (f) that transforms an aggregate of given shape and size (platy, columnar, prismatic) into an equivalent sphere with similar diffusion characteristics as the original aggregate. Using conversions between known analytical solutions as test cases, the transformation was found to very accurate for most aggregate geometries commonly encountered in the field. A similar transformation was also used to quantify the unknown mass transfer coefficient in a previously employed first-order rate expression for solute exchange between mobile (interaggregate) and immobile (intra-aggregate) regions. 19 references, 8 figures, 1 table

  19. Analytical solutions of transport problems in anisotropic media

    Recently, the problem of neutron transport in anisotropic media has received new attention in connection with safety studies of water reactors and design of gas-cooled systems. In situations presenting large voided regions, as the axial streaming is dominating with respect to the transverse one, the average properties of the homogenized material should physically account for such macroscopic anisotropy. Hence, it is suggested that cell calculations produce anisotropic average cross sections, e.g., axial (σA) and transverse (σT) values. Since material anisotropy is due to leakage, as a first-step approximation, the medium can be considered isotropic with respect to scattering phenomena. Transport codes are currently being adapted to include anisotropic cross sections. An important aspect of code development is the validation of algorithms by analytical benchmarks. For that purpose, the present work is devoted to the fully analytical solution of transport problems in slab geometry

  20. Solute transport benchmark studies for TRACR3D code verification

    A three-dimensional code called TRACR3D, which is applicable to solute transport in both unsaturated and saturated media, is being used to model hypothetical transport of radioactive and nonradioactive constituents from calcined high-level radioactive waste (HLW) at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). The modeling studies are part of a documentation process which will be required for evaluation of onsite disposal in a near-surface facility as a possible alternative strategy for the long-term management of ICPP HLW. This report discusses the results of a benchmark study for code verification. The problems modeled were: (1) A one-dimensional problem involving the transport of the pertechnetate ion (TcO4-) through a 5-cm diameter by 30-cm-long soil column at ICPP. (2) A one-dimensional problem involving the transport of the iodide ion (I-) through a large caisson (3-m diameter by 6-m depth) at LANL. (3) A three-dimensional problem involving the transport of radioactive ruthenium (Ru-106) from a single-shell tank leak into the vadose zone at the Hanford site. For the three benchmark studies performed, it was concluded that the predicted results from TRACR3D were in agreement with documented and reported solute transport problems, that the input data files were properly configured, and that the code correctly performed the mathematical operations specified in the numerical models. These results will provide a greater degree of confidence in results obtained for planned modeling studies at ICPP. 6 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Political activity for physical activity: health advocacy for active transport

    Amun Qa-t-a; Reeder Anthony I; Murdoch Linda; Richards Rosalina

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Effective health advocacy is a priority for efforts to increase population participation in physical activity. Local councils are an important audience for this advocacy. The aim of the current study was to describe features of advocacy for active transport via submissions to city council annual plans in New Zealand, and the impact of an information sheet to encourage the health sector to be involved in this process. Written submissions to city council's annual consultation process w...

  2. Time dependent linear transport II Properties of weak solutions

    In this paper properties of weak solutions of the time-dependent linear transport equation posed in a multidimensional rectangular parallelepiped with partially reflecting walls are established. Nonnegative constituent functions are shown to guarantee that a weak solution is nonnegative. This implies a monotnoicity principle which is established. Sufficient continuity properties of the constituent functions are shown to guarantee that a weak solution will be uniformly continuous in each of its variables independently of the others on compact subsets of the interior of its domain of definition. Continuity with respect to time follows from continuity with respect to space; but continuity with respect to velocity seems to require continuity with respect to space as a precondition

  3. Hydrophilic solute transport across the rat blood-brain barrier

    Brain capillary permeability-surface area products (PS) of hydrophilic solutes ranging in size from 180 to 5,500 Daltons were measured in rats according to the method of Ohno, Pettigrew and Rapoport. The distribution volume of 70 KD dextran at 10 minutes after i.v. injection was also measured to determine the residual volume of blood in brain tissue at the time of sacrifice. Small test solutes were injected in pairs in order to elucidate whether their transfer into the brain proceeds by diffusion through water- or lipid-filled channels or by vesicular transport. This issue was examined in rats whose blood-brain barrier (BBB) was presumed to be intact (untreated) and in rats that received intracarotid infusions to open the BBB (isosmotic salt (ISS) and hyperosmolar arabinose). Ohno PS values of 3H-inulin and 14C-L-glucose in untreated rats were found to decrease as the labelling time was lengthened. This was evidence that a rapidly equilibrating compartment exists between blood and brain that renders the Ohno two-compartment model inadequate for computing true transfer rate constants. When the data were reanalyzed using a multi-compartment graphical analysis, solutes with different molecular radii were found to enter the brain at approximately equal rates. Furthermore, unidirectional transport is likely to be initiated by solute adsorption to a glycocalyx coat on the luminal surface of brain capillary endothelium. Apparently, more inulin than L-glucose was adsorbed, which may account for its slightly faster transfer across the BBB. After rats were treated with intracarotid infusions of ISS or hyperosmolar arabinose, solute PS values were significantly increased, but the ratio of PS for each of the solute pairs approached that of their free-diffusion coefficients

  4. Hydrogeochemistry and simulated solute transport, Piceance Basin, northwestern Colorado

    Robson, Stanley G.; Saulnier, George J.

    1980-01-01

    Oil-shale mining activities in Piceance basin in northwestern Colorado could adversely affect the ground- and surface-water quality in the basin. This study of the hydrology and geochemistry of the area used groundwater solute-transport-modeling techniques to investigate the possible impact of the mines on water quality. Maps of the extent and structure of the aquifer were prepared and show that a saturated thickness of 2,000 feet occurs in the northeast part of the basin. Ground-water recharge in the upland areas in the east, south, and west parts of the basin moves down into deeper zones in the aquifer and laterally to the discharge areas along Piceance and Yellow Creeks. The saline zone and the unsaturated zone provide the majority of the dissolved solids found in the ground water. Precipitation, ion-exchange, and oxidation-reduction reactions are also occurring in the aquifer. Model simulations of groundwater pumpage in tracts C-a and C-b indicate that the altered direction of groundwater movement near the pumped mines will cause an improvement in groundwater quality near the mines and a degradation of water quality downgradient from the tracts. Model simulations of mine leaching in tract C-a and C-b indicate that equal rates of mine leaching in the tracts will produce much different effects on the water quality in the basin. Tract C-a, by virtue of its remote location from perennial streams, will primarily degrade the groundwater quality over a large area to the northeast of the tract. Tract C-b, by contrast, will primarily degrade the surface-water quality in Piceance Creek, with only localized effects on the groundwater quality. (USGS)

  5. JOVIAN STRATOSPHERE AS A CHEMICAL TRANSPORT SYSTEM: BENCHMARK ANALYTICAL SOLUTIONS

    We systematically investigated the solvable analytical benchmark cases in both one- and two-dimensional (1D and 2D) chemical-advective-diffusive systems. We use the stratosphere of Jupiter as an example but the results can be applied to other planetary atmospheres and exoplanetary atmospheres. In the 1D system, we show that CH4 and C2H6 are mainly in diffusive equilibrium, and the C2H2 profile can be approximated by modified Bessel functions. In the 2D system in the meridional plane, analytical solutions for two typical circulation patterns are derived. Simple tracer transport modeling demonstrates that the distribution of a short-lived species (such as C2H2) is dominated by the local chemical sources and sinks, while that of a long-lived species (such as C2H6) is significantly influenced by the circulation pattern. We find that an equator-to-pole circulation could qualitatively explain the Cassini observations, but a pure diffusive transport process could not. For slowly rotating planets like the close-in extrasolar planets, the interaction between the advection by the zonal wind and chemistry might cause a phase lag between the final tracer distribution and the original source distribution. The numerical simulation results from the 2D Caltech/JPL chemistry-transport model agree well with the analytical solutions for various cases.

  6. JOVIAN STRATOSPHERE AS A CHEMICAL TRANSPORT SYSTEM: BENCHMARK ANALYTICAL SOLUTIONS

    Zhang Xi; Shia Runlie; Yung, Yuk L., E-mail: xiz@gps.caltech.edu [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2013-04-20

    We systematically investigated the solvable analytical benchmark cases in both one- and two-dimensional (1D and 2D) chemical-advective-diffusive systems. We use the stratosphere of Jupiter as an example but the results can be applied to other planetary atmospheres and exoplanetary atmospheres. In the 1D system, we show that CH{sub 4} and C{sub 2}H{sub 6} are mainly in diffusive equilibrium, and the C{sub 2}H{sub 2} profile can be approximated by modified Bessel functions. In the 2D system in the meridional plane, analytical solutions for two typical circulation patterns are derived. Simple tracer transport modeling demonstrates that the distribution of a short-lived species (such as C{sub 2}H{sub 2}) is dominated by the local chemical sources and sinks, while that of a long-lived species (such as C{sub 2}H{sub 6}) is significantly influenced by the circulation pattern. We find that an equator-to-pole circulation could qualitatively explain the Cassini observations, but a pure diffusive transport process could not. For slowly rotating planets like the close-in extrasolar planets, the interaction between the advection by the zonal wind and chemistry might cause a phase lag between the final tracer distribution and the original source distribution. The numerical simulation results from the 2D Caltech/JPL chemistry-transport model agree well with the analytical solutions for various cases.

  7. Soil properties and preferential solute transport at the field scale

    Koestel, J K; Minh, Luong Nhat; Nørgaard, Trine;

    An important fraction of water flow and solute transport through soil takes place through preferential flow paths. Although this had been already observed in the nineteenth century, it had been forgotten by the scientific community until it was rediscovered during the 1970s. The awareness of the...... relevance of preferential flow was broadly re-established in the community by the early 1990s. However, since then, the notion remains widespread among soil scientists that the occurrence and strength of preferential flow cannot be predicted from measurable proxy variables such as soil properties or land...

  8. Phononic heat transport in the transient regime: An analytic solution

    Tuovinen, Riku; Säkkinen, Niko; Karlsson, Daniel; Stefanucci, Gianluca; van Leeuwen, Robert

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the time-resolved quantum transport properties of phonons in arbitrary harmonic systems connected to phonon baths at different temperatures. We obtain a closed analytic expression of the time-dependent one-particle reduced density matrix by explicitly solving the equations of motion for the nonequilibrium Green's function. This is achieved through a well-controlled approximation of the frequency-dependent bath self-energy. Our result allows for exploring transient oscillations and relaxation times of local heat currents, and correctly reduces to an earlier known result in the steady-state limit. We apply the formalism to atomic chains, and benchmark the validity of the approximation against full numerical solutions of the bosonic Kadanoff-Baym equations for the Green's function. We find good agreement between the analytic and numerical solutions for weak contacts and baths with a wide energy dispersion. We further analyze relaxation times from low to high temperature gradients.

  9. Proton-associated sucrose transport of mammalian solute carrier family 45: an analysis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Bartölke, Rabea; Heinisch, Jürgen J; Wieczorek, Helmut; Vitavska, Olga

    2014-12-01

    The members of the solute carrier 45 (SLC45) family have been implicated in the regulation of glucose homoeostasis in the brain (SLC45A1), with skin and hair pigmentation (SLC45A2), and with prostate cancer and myelination (SLC45A3). However, apart from SLC45A1, a proton-associated glucose transporter, the function of these proteins is still largely unknown, although sequence similarities to plant sucrose transporters mark them as a putative sucrose transporter family. Heterologous expression of the three members SLC45A2, SLC45A3 and SLC45A4 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae confirmed that they are indeed sucrose transporters. [(14)C]Sucrose-uptake measurements revealed intermediate transport affinities with Km values of approximately 5 mM. Transport activities were best under slightly acidic conditions and were inhibited by the protonophore carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, demonstrating an H(+)-coupled transport mechanism. Na(+), on the other hand, had no effect on sucrose transport. Competitive inhibition assays indicated a possible transport also of glucose and fructose. Real-time PCR of mouse tissues confirmed mRNA expression of SLC45A2 in eyes and skin and of SLC45A3 primarily in the prostate, but also in other tissues, whereas SLC45A4 showed a predominantly ubiquitous expression. Altogether the results provide new insights into the physiological significance of SLC45 family members and challenge existing concepts of mammalian sugar transport, as they (i) transport a disaccharide, and (ii) perform secondary active transport in a proton-dependent manner. PMID:25164149

  10. Health Impacts of Active Transportation in Europe

    Rojas-Rueda, David; de Nazelle, Audrey; Andersen, Zorana J;

    2016-01-01

    reduce carbon dioxide emissions in the six cities by 1,139 to 26,423 (metric tonnes per year). Policies to promote active transportation may produce health benefits, but these depend of the existing characteristics of the cities. Increased collaboration between health practitioners, transport specialists...

  11. TRANSPORT OF SOLUTES IN THE FIELD AS AFFECTED BY IRRIGATION

    Alessandro Comegna

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This study documents and compares the transport of a conservative solute in near saturated soil profiles under flood and sprinkler irrigation. The experiments were carried out on a clay Vertic-Usthortens soil located near Potenza (Italy. Two 2x2 m2 plots were clipped of their native grass vegetation. After spraying on the surface a Cl- pulse as KCl salt; water was applied in five increments over two months as flood irrigation on the first plot and as sprinkler irrigation on the second one. Chloride resident concentration Cr, was sampled by soil coring at four different days after chemical application. Cr(z,t profiles were analyzed by spatial moment method. The recovered mass of Cl- and location of center of mass were comparable for the two types of irrigation. The spread around the center of mass, however, was higher for the flood-irrigated plot. In the flood-irrigated plot, more mass leached below the depth of 90 cm. The velocity of the center of mass was consistently 10-20% larger than the piston displacement velocity. To evaluate the nature of transport, the Cr(z,t distributions were modelled using quasi-steady solution of convection-dispersion equation(CDE. At the scale of our experiments the profiles of Cl- resident concentration are well-simulated.

  12. Flow and solute transport in a single fracture

    A two-dimensional model for a single fracture with variable apertures is presented. The spatial variation of the apertures in the fracture is defined by the aperture density distribution and the spatial correlation length. Flow and solute transport in the generated fractures are simulated. The simulated flow is unevenly distributed in the fracture and the flow rates may vary by several orders of magnitude. Cubic law fracture apertures are also calculated and are smaller than the mass balance fracture apertures. The pressure field in the fracture is calculated, in which great differences exist between this pressure and the pressure field for a fracture with constant aperture. The solute transport is studied using the particle tracking technique. Breakthrough curves for nonsorbing and sorbing species are simulated. The sensitivity of the two-dimensional model is studied by generating fractures with different parameters in the density distribution function, different correlation lengths, and different number of nodes used in one correlation length. The flow is strongly reduced when the simulated normal stress is increased. The cubic law fracture aperture may be several orders of magnitude smaller than the mass balance fracture aperture. (orig.)

  13. Modeling solute transport by DLA in soils of northeastern Egypt.

    Hamed, Yasser Ahmed; Yasuda, Hiroshi; Persson, Magnus; Berndtsson, Ronny; Wang, Xin-ping

    2015-01-01

    Arid soils in Egypt display large variability in solute transport properties, causing problems in soil management. To characterize this variability, dye infiltration experiments were conducted on four plots representing three main soil types in northeastern Egypt. The plots represented both cultivated and uncultivated land use. The observed dye patterns displayed a large variability and especially the clay soils indicated a high degree of preferential flow. The loamy sand and sandy soils displayed a more uniform dye distribution indicating more homogeneous soil properties. The observed dye patterns were modeled using a diffusion limited aggregation (DLA) model. The DLA is a random walk model where model parameters can be optimized using genetic algorithms (GA). The DLA model reproduced the observed dye patterns for all soils in an excellent way. The best fit was obtained with a specific combination of directional random walk probabilities Pu, Pd, Pr, and Pl for each plot (correlation 0.97-0.99). To account for soil layers with different hydraulic properties a two layer DLA model was developed. For all plots the Pu (upward random walk probability) was higher for the upper more homogeneous soil layer. The overall results showed that spatial variability resulting from solute transport for the investigated soils can be modeled using a DLA approach. PMID:25790463

  14. Modeling solute transport by DLA in soils of northeastern Egypt.

    Yasser Ahmed Hamed

    Full Text Available Arid soils in Egypt display large variability in solute transport properties, causing problems in soil management. To characterize this variability, dye infiltration experiments were conducted on four plots representing three main soil types in northeastern Egypt. The plots represented both cultivated and uncultivated land use. The observed dye patterns displayed a large variability and especially the clay soils indicated a high degree of preferential flow. The loamy sand and sandy soils displayed a more uniform dye distribution indicating more homogeneous soil properties. The observed dye patterns were modeled using a diffusion limited aggregation (DLA model. The DLA is a random walk model where model parameters can be optimized using genetic algorithms (GA. The DLA model reproduced the observed dye patterns for all soils in an excellent way. The best fit was obtained with a specific combination of directional random walk probabilities Pu, Pd, Pr, and Pl for each plot (correlation 0.97-0.99. To account for soil layers with different hydraulic properties a two layer DLA model was developed. For all plots the Pu (upward random walk probability was higher for the upper more homogeneous soil layer. The overall results showed that spatial variability resulting from solute transport for the investigated soils can be modeled using a DLA approach.

  15. Transport Visualization for Studying Mass Transfer and Solute Transport in Permeable Media

    Understanding and predicting mass transfer coupled with solute transport in permeable media is central to several energy-related programs at the US Department of Energy (e.g., CO2 sequestration, nuclear waste disposal, hydrocarbon extraction, and groundwater remediation). Mass transfer is the set of processes that control movement of a chemical between mobile (advection-dominated) domains and immobile (diffusion- or sorption-dominated) domains within a permeable medium. Consequences of mass transfer on solute transport are numerous and may include (1) increased sequestration time within geologic formations; (2) reduction in average solute transport velocity by as much as several orders of magnitude; (3) long ''tails'' in concentration histories during removal of a solute from a permeable medium; (4) poor predictions of solute behavior over long time scales; and (5) changes in reaction rates due to mass transfer influences on pore-scale mixing of solutes. Our work produced four principle contributions: (1) the first comprehensive visualization of solute transport and mass transfer in heterogeneous porous media; (2) the beginnings of a theoretical framework that encompasses both macrodispersion and mass transfer within a single set of equations; (3) experimental and analytical tools necessary for understanding mixing and aqueous reaction in heterogeneous, granular porous media; (4) a clear experimental demonstration that reactive transport is often not accurately described by a simple coupling of the convection-dispersion equation with chemical reaction equations. The work shows that solute transport in heterogeneous media can be divided into 3 regimes--macrodispersion, advective mass transfer, and diffusive mass transfer--and that these regimes can be predicted quantitatively in binary media. We successfully predicted mass transfer in each of these regimes and verified the prediction by completing quantitative visualization experiments in each of the regimes, the

  16. Soil properties and preferential solute transport at the field scale

    Koestel, J. K.; Luong, N. M.; Nørgaard, T.; Vendelboe, A. L.; Moldrup, P.; Jarvis, N. J.; Lamandé, M.; Iversen, B. V.; Wollesen de Jonge, L.

    2012-04-01

    An important fraction of water flow and solute transport through soil takes place through preferential flow paths. Although this had been already observed in the nineteenth century, it had been forgotten by the scientific community until it was rediscovered during the 1970s. The awareness of the relevance of preferential flow was broadly re-established in the community by the early 1990s. However, since then, the notion remains widespread among soil scientists that the occurrence and strength of preferential flow cannot be predicted from measurable proxy variables such as soil properties or land management practices (e.g. Beven, K., 1991, Modeling preferential flow - an uncertain future, Preferential Flow, 1-11). In our study, we present evidence that disproves this notion. We evaluated breakthrough curve experiments under a constant irrigation rate of 1 cm/h conducted on 65 soil columns (20 cm diameter and 20 height) which had been sampled from an approximately 1 ha large loamy field-site in Silstrup, Denmark. We show that the holdback factor, which is an indicator for the strength of preferential transport, is strongly correlated to the bulk density, which in turn is correlated to the organic matter content. By applying multiple linear regression in a bootstrapping framework, we could estimate the holdback factor from the bulk density and the very fine sand fraction with a coefficient of determination of 0.65. Our results raise hopes that it is indeed possible to establish pedotransfer functions for soil susceptibility to preferential flow and transport.

  17. Modeling activity transport in the CANDU heat transport system

    The release and transport of corrosion products from the surfaces of primary coolant system components is a serious concern for all water-cooled nuclear power plants. The consequences of high levels of corrosion product transport are twofold: a) increased corrosion product (crud) deposition on fuel cladding surfaces, leading to reduced heat transfer and the possibility of fuel failures, and b) increased production of radioactive species by neutron activation, resulting in increased out-of-core radiation fields and worker dose. In recent years, a semi-empirical activity transport model has been successfully developed to predict the deposition of radionuclides, including 60Co, 95Zr, 124Sb and fission products, around the CANDU® primary Heat Transport System (HTS), and to predict radiation fields at the steam generators and reactor face. The model links corrosion of the carbon steel outlet feeders to magnetite and radionuclide deposition on steam generator and inlet piping surfaces. This paper will describe the model development, key assumptions, required inputs, and model validation. The importance of reactor artefact characterization in the model development will be highlighted, and some key results will be presented, including oxide morphology and loadings, and radionuclide distributions within the oxide. The predictive capabilities of the model will also be described, including predictions of oxide thickness and the effects of changes in chemistry parameters such as alkalinity. While the model was developed primarily for the CANDU® HTS, the information gained during model development regarding corrosion product and radionuclide transport and deposition can also provide insights into activity transport in other water-cooled reactor systems. (author)

  18. TURBULENCE TRANSPORT OF SURFACTANT SOLUTION FLOW DURING DRAG REDUCTION DEGENERATION

    GU Wei-guo; WANG De-zhong

    2012-01-01

    Turbulence transport of surfactant solution flow during drag reduction degeneration is investigated experimentally in a two-dimensional channel.Particle Image Velocimetry (P1V) system is used to take two-dimensional velocity frames in the streamwise and wall-normal plane.The additive of surfactant is cetyltrimethyl ammonium chloride (CTAC) with the mass concentration of 25 ppm.Drag reduction degeneration happens in the CTAC solution flow,exhibiting the maximal drag reduction at Re =25000and losing drag reduction completely at Re =40 000.The velocity frames are statistically analyzed in four quadrants which are divided by the u -axis and v-axis.It is found that the phenomenon of“Zero Reynolds shear stress” is caused by the decrease of wallnormal fluctuations and its symmetrical distribution in quadrants.The increase of Reynolds number leads to the enhancement of turbulence burst phenomenon.During thc drag reduction degeneration,the CTAC solution flow contains both high turbulence intensity and drag reduction states.

  19. Analytical solutions of the one-dimensional advection-dispersion solute transport equation subject to time-dependent boundary conditions

    Analytical solutions of the advection-dispersion solute transport equation remain useful for a large number of applications in science and engineering. In this paper we extend the Duhamel theorem, originally established for diffusion type problems, to the case of advective-dispersive transport subj...

  20. Modeling water flow and solute transport in unsaturated zone inside NSRAWD project

    The NSRAWD project (2010-2013) - Numerical Simulations for Radioactive Waste Disposal was initiated under a collaboration agreement between the Institute for Nuclear Research and the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA). The context of the project was favorable to combine the modeling activities with an experimental part in order to improve and validate the numerical models used so far to simulate water flow and solute transport at Saligny site, Romania. The numerical models developed in the project were refined and validated on new hydrological data gathered between 2010-2012 by a monitoring station existent on site which performs automatic determination of soil water content and matrix potential, as well as several climate parameters (wind, temperature and precipitations). Water flow and solute transport was modeled in transient conditions, by taking into consideration, as well as neglecting the evapotranspiration phenomenon, on the basis of a tracer test launched on site. The determination of dispersivities for solute transport was targeted from the solute plume. The paper presents the main results achieved in the NSRAWD project related to water flow and solute transport in the unsaturated area of the Saligny site. The results indicated satisfactory predictions for the simulation of water flow in the unsaturated area, in steady state and transient conditions. In the case of tracer transport modeling, dispersivity coefficients could not be finally well fitted for the data measured on site and in order to obtain a realistic preview over the values of these parameters, further investigations are recommended. The article is followed by the slides of the presentation

  1. Solute transport theory in application of deep geological disposal of high level radioactive waste

    Study of nuclide transport is an important subject in deep geological disposal system of high-level radioactive waste. The transport and distribution of solute are influenced by groundwater movement in the porous media. In order to understand the advances in underground water movement, the process, the mechanism and practical application of solute transport in groundwater system are reviewed. The theories and numerical simulations on dispersion, adsorption, transport of solutes in groundwater system are discussed in the presented paper. (authors)

  2. KCNQ1, KCNE2, and Na+-coupled solute transporters form reciprocally regulating complexes that affect neuronal excitability.

    Abbott, Geoffrey W; Tai, Kwok-Keung; Neverisky, Daniel L; Hansler, Alex; Hu, Zhaoyang; Roepke, Torsten K; Lerner, Daniel J; Chen, Qiuying; Liu, Li; Zupan, Bojana; Toth, Miklos; Haynes, Robin; Huang, Xiaoping; Demirbas, Didem; Buccafusca, Roberto; Gross, Steven S; Kanda, Vikram A; Berry, Gerard T

    2014-03-01

    Na(+)-coupled solute transport is crucial for the uptake of nutrients and metabolic precursors, such as myo-inositol, an important osmolyte and precursor for various cell signaling molecules. We found that various solute transporters and potassium channel subunits formed complexes and reciprocally regulated each other in vitro and in vivo. Global metabolite profiling revealed that mice lacking KCNE2, a K(+) channel β subunit, showed a reduction in myo-inositol concentration in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) but not in serum. Increased behavioral responsiveness to stress and seizure susceptibility in Kcne2(-/-) mice were alleviated by injections of myo-inositol. Suspecting a defect in myo-inositol transport, we found that KCNE2 and KCNQ1, a voltage-gated potassium channel α subunit, colocalized and coimmunoprecipitated with SMIT1, a Na(+)-coupled myo-inositol transporter, in the choroid plexus epithelium. Heterologous coexpression demonstrated that myo-inositol transport by SMIT1 was augmented by coexpression of KCNQ1 but was inhibited by coexpression of both KCNQ1 and KCNE2, which form a constitutively active, heteromeric K(+) channel. SMIT1 and the related transporter SMIT2 were also inhibited by a constitutively active mutant form of KCNQ1. The activities of KCNQ1 and KCNQ1-KCNE2 were augmented by SMIT1 and the glucose transporter SGLT1 but were suppressed by SMIT2. Channel-transporter signaling complexes may be a widespread mechanism to facilitate solute transport and electrochemical crosstalk. PMID:24595108

  3. Coupling of solute transport and cell expansion in pea stems

    Schmalstig, J. G.; Cosgrove, D. J.

    1990-01-01

    As cells expand and are displaced through the elongation zone of the epicotyl of etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L. var Alaska) seedlings, there is little net dilution of the cell sap, implying a coordination between cell expansion and solute uptake from the phloem. Using [14C] sucrose as a phloem tracer (applied to the hypogeous cotyledons), the pattern of label accumulation along the stem closely matched the growth rate pattern: high accumulation in the growing zone, little accumulation in nongrowing regions. Several results suggest that a major portion of phloem contents enters elongating cells through the symplast. We propose that the coordination between phloem transport and cell expansion is accomplished via regulatory pathways affecting both plasmodesmata conductivity and cell expansion.

  4. The quasi-diffusive approximation in transport theory: Local solutions

    The one velocity, plane geometry integral neutron transport equation is transformed into a system of two equations, one of them being the equation of continuity and the other a generalized Fick's law, in which the usual diffusion coefficient is replaced by a self-adjoint integral operator. As the kernel of this operator is very close to the Green function of a diffusion equation, an approximate inversion by means of a second order differential operator allows to transform these equations into a purely differential system which is shown to be equivalent, in the simplest case, to a diffusion-like equation. The method, the principles of which have been exposed in a previous paper, is here extended and applied to a variety of problems. If the inversion is properly performed, the quasi-diffusive solutions turn out to be quite accurate, even in the vicinity of the interface between different material regions, where elementary diffusion theory usually fails. 16 refs., 3 tabs

  5. Approximate solution to neutron transport equation with linear anisotropic scattering

    A method to obtain an approximate solution to the transport equation, when both sources and collisions show a linearly anisotropic behavior, is outlined and the possible implications for numerical calculations in applied neutronics as well as shielding evaluations are investigated. The form of the differential system of equations taken by the method is quite handy and looks simpler and more manageable than any other today available technique. To go deeper into the efficiency of the method, some typical calculations concerning critical dimension of multiplying systems are then performed and the results are compared with the ones coming from the classical Ssub(N) approximations. The outcome of such calculations leads us to think of interesting developments of the method which could be quite useful in alternative to other today widespread approximate procedures, for any geometry, but especially for curved ones. (author)

  6. Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analyses of Model Predictions of Solute Transport

    Skaggs, T. H.; Suarez, D. L.; Goldberg, S. R.

    2012-12-01

    Soil salinity reduces crop production on about 50% of irrigated lands worldwide. One roadblock to increased use of advanced computer simulation tools for better managing irrigation water and soil salinity is that the models usually do not provide an estimate of the uncertainty in model predictions, which can be substantial. In this work, we investigate methods for putting confidence bounds on HYDRUS-1D simulations of solute leaching in soils. Uncertainties in model parameters estimated with pedotransfer functions are propagated through simulation model predictions using Monte Carlo simulation. Generalized sensitivity analyses indicate which parameters are most significant for quantifying uncertainty. The simulation results are compared with experimentally observed transport variability in a number of large, replicated lysimeters.

  7. Activity transport models for PWR primary circuits

    The corrosion products activated in the primary circuit form a major source of occupational radiation dose in the PWR reactors. Transport of corrosion activity is a complex process including chemistry, reactor physics, thermodynamics and hydrodynamics. All the mechanisms involved are not known and there is no comprehensive theory for the process, so experimental test loops and plant data are very important in research efforts. Several activity transport modelling attempts have been made to improve the water chemistry control and to minimise corrosion in PWR's. In this research report some of these models are reviewed with special emphasis on models designed for Soviet VVER type reactors. (51 refs., 16 figs., 4 tabs.)

  8. Modelling activity transport behavior in PWR plant

    The activation and transport of corrosion products around a PWR circuit is a major concern to PWR plant operators as these may give rise to high personnel doses. The understanding of what controls dose rates on ex-core surfaces and shutdown releases has improved over the years but still several questions remain unanswered. For example the relative importance of particle and soluble deposition in the core to activity levels in the plant is not clear. Wide plant to plant and cycle to cycle variations are noted with no apparent explanations why such variations are observed. Over the past few years this group have been developing models to simulate corrosion product transport around a PWR circuit. These models form the basis for the latest version of the BOA code and simulate the movement of Fe and Ni around the primary circuit. Part of this development is to include the activation and subsequent transport of radioactive species around the circuit and this paper describes some initial modelling work in this area. A simple model of activation, release and deposition is described and then applied to explain the plant behaviour at Sizewell B and Vandellos II. This model accounts for activation in the core, soluble and particulate activity movement around the circuit and for activity capture ex-core on both the inner and outer oxides. The model gives a reasonable comparison with plant observations and highlights what controls activity transport in these plants and importantly what factors can be ignored. (authors)

  9. Fluid and solute transport in a network of channels

    A three-dimensional channel network model is presented. The fluid flow and solute transport are assumed to take place through a network of connected channels. The channels are generated assuming that the conductances are lognormally distributed. The flow is calculated resolving the pressure distribution and the sole transport is calculated by using a particle tracking technique. The model includes diffusion into the rock matrix and sorption within the matrix in addition to advection along the channel network. Different approaches are used to describe the channel volume and its relation to the conductivity. To quantify the diffusion into the rock matrix the size of the flow wetted surface (contact surface between the channel and the rock) is needed in addition to the diffusion properties and the sorption capacity of the rock. Two different geometries were simulated: regional parallel flow and convergent flow toward a tunnel. In the generation of the channel network, it is found that its connectivity is reduced when the standard deviation in conductances is increased. For large standard deviations, the water conducting channels are found to be few. Standard deviations for the distribution of the effluent channel flowrates were calculated. Comparisons were made with experimental data from drifts and tunnels as well as boreholes as a means to validate the model. (au) (31 refs.)

  10. Use of adjoint transport solutions for inverse problems

    Inverse problems represent a third major class of transport problems (after criticality-type problems and shielding-type problems). For the purpose of discussion here, an inverse problem is defined to be one in which a medium of interest emits some particular type of radiation, either spontaneously or when exposed to some other type of radiation. From a knowledge of the emitted radiation characteristics, one wishes to infer something about the medium that emits the detected radiation. An important example of a practical inverse problem is the geophysical logging of geological formations to determine the presence of minerals or hydrocarbons in the vicinity of a borehole. Proposals have also been made to detect hidden explosives by these methods. For a complete understanding of the apparatus used to solve inverse problems, it is important to know the characteristic interrogation distance of the method. Phrased more precisely, What is the relative contribution to the detector signal due to radiation particles emitted by different elements of volume in the medium being interrogated? As shown in the paper, it is possible to address this question with a computational procedure that utilizes adjoint transport solutions

  11. Transportation activities for BWR fuels at NFI

    Nuclear Fuel Industries, LTD. (NFI) supplies fuel assemblies for both PWR and BWR in Japan. We can also manage transportation of the fuel assemblies from our fabrication facilities to the nuclear power plants of Japanese utilities. For the transportation of fuel assembly, we designed and fabricated the transportation containers to meet the requirements of the IAEA regulations, and licensed in Japan. This paper introduced the recent activity and R and D of NFI concerning transportation of BWR fuel assembly. NT-XII transportation container was developed for fresh BWR fuel assemblies. NT-XII container consists of inner container and outer container. Two BWR fuel assemblies with up to 5 wt.-% 235-U enriched are enclosed in an inner container. In the concept of NT-XII container design, we made the best priority to transportation efficiency, as well as ensuring fuel integrity during transportation. NT-XII has been used since 2002 in Japan. Thanks to the lightening weight of containers, the number of containers to be loaded to one transportation truck was increased up to 9 containers (equivalent to 18 fuel assemblies) compared with former type container (NT-IV transportation container) which can be loaded up to 6 containers (equivalent to 12 fuel assemblies). In addition to the design of brand-new container, we promote the improvement of the packaging methods. In Japan, in order to reduce the damage to the fuel rod and fuel spacer while transporting, polyethylene sleeves which are called 'packing separators' are inserted in the rod-to-rod gap of fuel assembly. However, packing separators requires time and cost for the installation at fuel fabrication facility. In the same way, huge time and cost are needed for removal of packing separators at nuclear power plant. For the improvement of preparation efficiency before and after transportation, we investigated the influence of vibration to fuel integrity in case of transportation without packing separators. Based on the above

  12. Improved parallel solution techniques for the integral transport matrix method

    Alternative solution strategies to the parallel block Jacobi (PBJ) method for the solution of the global problem with the integral transport matrix method operators have been designed and tested. The most straightforward improvement to the Jacobi iterative method is the Gauss-Seidel alternative. The parallel red-black Gauss-Seidel (PGS) algorithm can improve on the number of iterations and reduce work per iteration by applying an alternating red-black color-set to the subdomains and assigning multiple sub-domains per processor. A parallel GMRES(m) method was implemented as an alternative to stationary iterations. Computational results show that the PGS method can improve on the PBJ method execution time by up to 10´ when eight sub-domains per processor are used. However, compared to traditional source iterations with diffusion synthetic acceleration, it is still approximately an order of magnitude slower. The best-performing cases are optically thick because sub-domains decouple, yielding faster convergence. Further tests revealed that 64 sub-domains per processor was the best performing level of sub-domain division. An acceleration technique that improves the convergence rate would greatly improve the ITMM. The GMRES(m) method with a diagonal block pre conditioner consumes approximately the same time as the PBJ solver but could be improved by an as yet undeveloped, more efficient pre conditioner. (author)

  13. Diffusion/transport hybrid discrete method for Monte Carlo solution of the neutron transport equation

    Monte Carlo method is widely used for solving neutron transport equation. Basically Monte Carlo method treats continuous angle, space and energy. It gives very accurate solution when enough many particle histories are used, but it takes too long computation time. To reduce computation time, discrete Monte Carlo method was proposed. It is called Discrete Transport Monte Carlo (DTMC) method. It uses discrete space but continuous angle in mono energy one dimension problem and uses lump, linear-discontinuous (LLD) equation to make probabilities of leakage, scattering, and absorption. LLD may cause negative angular fluxes in highly scattering problem, so two scatter variance reduction method is applied to DTMC and shows very accurate solution in various problems. In transport Monte Carlo calculation, the particle history does not end for scattering event. So it also takes much computation time in highly scattering problem. To further reduce computation time, Discrete Diffusion Monte Carlo (DDMC) method is implemented. DDMC uses diffusion equation to make probabilities and has no scattering events. So DDMC takes very short computation time comparing with DTMC and shows very well-agreed results with cell-centered diffusion results. It is known that diffusion result may not be good in boundaries. So in hybrid method of DTMC and DDMC, boundary regions are calculated by DTMC and the other regions are calculated by DDMC. In this thesis, DTMC, DDMC and hybrid methods and their results of several problems are presented. The results show that DDMC and DTMC are well agreed with deterministic diffusion and transport results, respectively. The hybrid method shows transport-like results in problems where diffusion results are poor. The computation time of hybrid method is between DDMC and DTMC, as expected

  14. Stochastic steps in secondary active sugar transport.

    Adelman, Joshua L; Ghezzi, Chiara; Bisignano, Paola; Loo, Donald D F; Choe, Seungho; Abramson, Jeff; Rosenberg, John M; Wright, Ernest M; Grabe, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Secondary active transporters, such as those that adopt the leucine-transporter fold, are found in all domains of life, and they have the unique capability of harnessing the energy stored in ion gradients to accumulate small molecules essential for life as well as expel toxic and harmful compounds. How these proteins couple ion binding and transport to the concomitant flow of substrates is a fundamental structural and biophysical question that is beginning to be answered at the atomistic level with the advent of high-resolution structures of transporters in different structural states. Nonetheless, the dynamic character of the transporters, such as ion/substrate binding order and how binding triggers conformational change, is not revealed from static structures, yet it is critical to understanding their function. Here, we report a series of molecular simulations carried out on the sugar transporter vSGLT that lend insight into how substrate and ions are released from the inward-facing state of the transporter. Our simulations reveal that the order of release is stochastic. Functional experiments were designed to test this prediction on the human homolog, hSGLT1, and we also found that cytoplasmic release is not ordered, but we confirmed that substrate and ion binding from the extracellular space is ordered. Our findings unify conflicting published results concerning cytoplasmic release of ions and substrate and hint at the possibility that other transporters in the superfamily may lack coordination between ions and substrate in the inward-facing state. PMID:27325773

  15. Pedometer-determined physical activity and active transport in girls

    Schofield Grant

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well established that the risk of insufficient physical activity is greater in girls than in boys, especially during the adolescent years. The promotion of active transport (AT to and from school has been posited as a practical and convenient solution for increasing girls' total daily activity. However, there is limited information describing the associations between AT choices and girls' physical activity across a range of age, ethnic, and socioeconomic groups. The objectives of this study were to (1 investigate physical activity patterns in a large multiethnic sample of female children and adolescents, and to (2 estimate the physical activity associated with AT to and from school. Methods A total of 1,513 girls aged 5–16 years wore sealed multiday memory (MDM pedometers for three weekdays and two weekend days. The ethnic composition of this sample was 637 European (42.1%, 272 Pacific Island (18.0%, 207 East Asian (13.7%, 179 Maori (11.8%, 142 South Asian (9.4%, and 76 from other ethnic groups (5%. Pedometer compliance and school-related AT were assessed by questionnaire. Results Mean weekday step counts (12,597 ± 3,630 were higher and less variable than mean weekend steps (9,528 ± 4,407. A consistent decline in daily step counts was observed with age: after adjustment for ethnicity and SES, girls in school years 9–10 achieved 2,469 (weekday and 4,011 (weekend fewer steps than girls in years 1–2. Daily step counts also varied by ethnicity, with Maori girls the most active and South Asian girls the least active. Overall, 44.9% of participants used AT for school-related travel. Girls who used AT to and from school averaged 1,052 more weekday steps than those who did not use AT. However, the increases in steps associated with AT were significant only in older girls (school years 5–10 and in those of Maori or European descent. Conclusion Our data suggest that adolescent-aged girls and girls of Asian descent are

  16. Stochastic PDE's for water flow, solute transport and wave propagation phenomena in heterogeneous geologic media.

    Ababou, Rachid

    2013-01-01

    This lecture will present stochastic PDE's (Partial Differential Equations) to model various "transport" phenomena like water flow, solute transport and wave propagation, in heterogeneous geologic porous media. The material properties are represented by random functions of space F(x) (random fields). The resulting transport PDE’s contain random field coefficients, and their solutions are stochastic (randomly heterogeneous).

  17. Development of novel active transport membrande devices

    Laciak, D.V.

    1994-11-01

    Air Products has undertaken a research program to fabricate and evaluate gas separation membranes based upon promising ``active-transport`` (AT) materials recently developed in our laboratories. Active Transport materials are ionic polymers and molten salts which undergo reversible interaction or reaction with ammonia and carbon dioxide. The materials are useful for separating these gases from mixtures with hydrogen. Moreover, AT membranes have the unique property of possessing high permeability towards ammnonia and carbon dioxide but low permeability towards hydrogen and can thus be used to permeate these components from a gas stream while retaining hydrogen at high pressure.

  18. Diffusion Dominant Solute Transport Modelling In Deep Repository Under The Effect of Emplacement Media Degradation - 13285

    Deep geologic disposal of high activity and long-lived radioactive waste is being actively considered and pursued in many countries, where low permeability geological formations are used to provide long term waste contaminant with minimum impact to the environment and risk to the biosphere. A multi-barrier approach that makes use of both engineered and natural barriers (i.e. geological formations) is often used to further enhance the containment performance of the repository. As the deep repository system subjects to a variety of thermo-hydro-chemo-mechanical (THCM) effects over its long 'operational' lifespan (e.g. 0.1 to 1.0 million years, the integrity of the barrier system will decrease over time (e.g. fracturing in rock or clay)). This is broadly referred as media degradation in the present study. This modelling study examines the effects of media degradation on diffusion dominant solute transport in fractured media that are typical of deep geological environment. In particular, reactive solute transport through fractured media is studied using a 2-D model, that considers advection and diffusion, to explore the coupled effects of kinetic and equilibrium chemical processes, while the effects of degradation is studied using a pore network model that considers the media diffusivity and network changes. Model results are presented to demonstrate the use of a 3D pore-network model, using a novel architecture, to calculate macroscopic properties of the medium such as diffusivity, subject to pore space changes as the media degrade. Results from a reactive transport model of a representative geological waste disposal package are also presented to demonstrate the effect of media property change on the solute migration behaviour, illustrating the complex interplay between kinetic biogeochemical processes and diffusion dominant transport. The initial modelling results demonstrate the feasibility of a coupled modelling approach (using pore-network model and reactive

  19. Health Impacts of Active Transportation in Europe

    Rojas-Rueda, David; de Nazelle, Audrey; Andersen, Zorana J.; Braun-Fahrländer, Charlotte; Bruha, Jan; Bruhova-Foltynova, Hana; Desqueyroux, Hélène; Praznoczy, Corinne; Ragettli, Martina S.; Tainio, Marko; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    Policies that stimulate active transportation (walking and bicycling) have been related to heath benefits. This study aims to assess the potential health risks and benefits of promoting active transportation for commuting populations (age groups 16–64) in six European cities. We conducted a health impact assessment using two scenarios: increased cycling and increased walking. The primary outcome measure was all-cause mortality related to changes in physical activity level, exposure to fine particulate matter air pollution with a diameter <2.5 μm, as well as traffic fatalities in the cities of Barcelona, Basel, Copenhagen, Paris, Prague, and Warsaw. All scenarios produced health benefits in the six cities. An increase in bicycle trips to 35% of all trips (as in Copenhagen) produced the highest benefits among the different scenarios analysed in Warsaw 113 (76–163) annual deaths avoided, Prague 61 (29–104), Barcelona 37 (24–56), Paris 37 (18–64) and Basel 5 (3–9). An increase in walking trips to 50% of all trips (as in Paris) resulted in 19 (3–42) deaths avoided annually in Warsaw, 11(3–21) in Prague, 6 (4–9) in Basel, 3 (2–6) in Copenhagen and 3 (2–4) in Barcelona. The scenarios would also reduce carbon dioxide emissions in the six cities by 1,139 to 26,423 (metric tonnes per year). Policies to promote active transportation may produce health benefits, but these depend of the existing characteristics of the cities. Increased collaboration between health practitioners, transport specialists and urban planners will help to introduce the health perspective in transport policies and promote active transportation. PMID:26930213

  20. Health Impacts of Active Transportation in Europe.

    David Rojas-Rueda

    Full Text Available Policies that stimulate active transportation (walking and bicycling have been related to heath benefits. This study aims to assess the potential health risks and benefits of promoting active transportation for commuting populations (age groups 16-64 in six European cities. We conducted a health impact assessment using two scenarios: increased cycling and increased walking. The primary outcome measure was all-cause mortality related to changes in physical activity level, exposure to fine particulate matter air pollution with a diameter <2.5 μm, as well as traffic fatalities in the cities of Barcelona, Basel, Copenhagen, Paris, Prague, and Warsaw. All scenarios produced health benefits in the six cities. An increase in bicycle trips to 35% of all trips (as in Copenhagen produced the highest benefits among the different scenarios analysed in Warsaw 113 (76-163 annual deaths avoided, Prague 61 (29-104, Barcelona 37 (24-56, Paris 37 (18-64 and Basel 5 (3-9. An increase in walking trips to 50% of all trips (as in Paris resulted in 19 (3-42 deaths avoided annually in Warsaw, 11(3-21 in Prague, 6 (4-9 in Basel, 3 (2-6 in Copenhagen and 3 (2-4 in Barcelona. The scenarios would also reduce carbon dioxide emissions in the six cities by 1,139 to 26,423 (metric tonnes per year. Policies to promote active transportation may produce health benefits, but these depend of the existing characteristics of the cities. Increased collaboration between health practitioners, transport specialists and urban planners will help to introduce the health perspective in transport policies and promote active transportation.

  1. Modelling of activity transport in PHWR

    The modelling of mass and activity transport in PHWR is of importance in predicting the build up of radiation field in and around the Primary Heat Transport system which will consequently help in planning the Dilute Chemical Decontamination and man rem budgeting. Modeling also helps in understanding the different parameters controlling the transport behaviour. Some of the important parameters include coolant chemistry like pH, physical parameters like temperature, the nature of the corrosion film and hence the effect of passivation techniques. VVER code for activity transport uses six nodes for the primary system and is essentially devised for stainless steel system. In the present work though based on this model, major modifications have been incorporated to suit the PHWR conditions. In the code, the PHT system of PHWR is suitably divided into 14 nodes, 5 in-core and 9 out of core nodes based on material and heat transfer properties. This paper describes the mechanisms involved in the various processes like generation of corrosion products, their release as well as their transport into the primary coolant, the activation of inactive corrosion product nuclides and the build up of radiation field due to 60Co around the PHT system. (author)

  2. Ionizing radiation affects active ileal electrolyte transport

    Exposure to ionizing radiation has pronounced effects on gastrointestinal physiology eliciting the fluid and electrolyte loss of the gastrointestinal syndrome. This study reports on the effect of whole-body cobalt-60 exposure on active electrolyte transport by rabbit ileum in an effort to quantify these changes and to define the mechanism by which electrolyte transport is altered. The short-circuit current (lsc), a measure of active electrolyte transport, was determined for ileal segments isolated from rabbits radiated with 5 to 100 Gy and compared to those from sham irradiated control 1 to 96 hours after exposure. One hour after exposure there was no apparent effect of radiation. However by 24 hours, there was a significant increase in lsc of segments from animals exposed to doses of 7.5 Gy and greater. The lsc remained elevated during the 96 hours for 10 and 12 Gy whereas at 7.5 Gy it returned to control values by 72 hours. The response of the tissue to a secretagogue, theophylline, was reduced 72 hours post-irradiation. By 96 hours after exposure, the response to an actively transported amino acid, alanine, was also reduced. These results indicate that radiation-induced fluid and electrolyte loss is not simply a consequence of denudiation of the intestine but due in part to alterations in cellular transport processes

  3. Separation of ionic solutes by transport extraction based on solvent sublation

    The solvent sublation technique is an option to ion-flotation, in which the surface active solute in water is adsorbed on the bubble surfaces of an ascending gas stream and then collected in an immiscible liquid layer placed on top of the water column. This can be viewed as a process of transport extraction. The transport extraction technique, as a non-equilibrium alternative to the normal solvent extraction technique in a liquid-liquid system, where mass-transfer is realized by means of a carrier gas employing the adsorption of the separated analytes on the immeasurably large surface of small bubbles formed in aqueous phase (with or without addition of surface active agents). The comparison of these two techniques was made on the basis of both theoretical considerations and the experimental studies. Supposing a Langmuir type isotherm for the adsorption of trace colligends in terms of an equilibrium adsorption, i.e., transport extraction constant, an equation has been derived for the calculation of the efficiency of the separation in transport extraction. By comparison of this equation with the equation for the separation efficiency of conventional solvent extraction under static (batch) conditions it is possible to evaluate the theoretical separation and/or preconcentration potentials of these two techniques. The theoretical principles of transport extraction have been revealed and the basic difference between these two extractive separations has been explained. The results showed that the non-equilibrium nature of the transport extraction gives distinctive advantages over equilibrium solvent extraction. The experimental possibilities of transport extraction and its intercomparison with conventional liquid-liquid solvent extraction, with regard to both the separation and preconcentration efficiency, have been verified in the separation of I-131. The advantages of transport extraction over conventional solvent extraction are the independence of extraction

  4. A parabolic flow toward solutions of the optimal transportation problem on domains with boundary

    Kitagawa, Jun

    2010-01-01

    We consider a parabolic version of the mass transport problem, and show that it converges to a solution of the original mass transport problem under suitable conditions on the cost function, and initial and target domains.

  5. Final Technical Report Transport Task Force Activities

    The Transport Task Force has functioned as the primary scientific organization in the area of magnetic-fusion confinement and transport since its inception in 1988. It has defined and set research directions, coordinated broad research efforts, advocated new funding initiatives, and created a highly successful and widely admired interactive culture between experiment, theory and modeling. The Transport Task Force carries out its activities under the direction of its chair and the Executive Committee. The Executive Committee is comprised of the leaders and deputy leaders of the scientific working groups. The working groups are structured and organized according to research needs and priorities and have been organized around the areas of Core Transport, H Mode and Pedestal, Fast Particle Transport, Transient Transport Phenomena, and Modeling and Simulation. A steering committee provides advise on TTF activities. Further information on the working groups and the structure and management of the TTF can be found at http://psfcwww2.psfc.mit.edu/ttf/index.html. The TTF holds an annual workshop. A summary of the workshops held during the period of this report is given in Appendix I. During the period of this report the Transport Task Force was involved in several significant activities. Foremost of these was a sweeping review of the status of transport science, the key research tasks for progress during the next 5-10 years, and a proposal for a funding initiative to ensure application of adequate resources to these problems. The conclusions of this study were incorporated into a white paper, which is copied below in Appendix II. Other significant activities have included the introduction of an extended, ongoing discussion on verification and validation as a requisite for defining and codifying the path toward predictive capability, the orchestration of a gradual shift of focus from ion thermal confinement to electron thermal confinement, and a joining of efforts on edge

  6. Finite element based composite solution for neutron transport problems

    A finite element treatment for solving neutron transport problems is presented. The employs region-wise discontinuous finite elements for the spatial representation of the neutron angular flux, while spherical harmonics are used for directional dependence. Composite solutions has been obtained by using different orders of angular approximations in different parts of a system. The method has been successfully implemented for one dimensional slab and two dimensional rectangular geometry problems. An overall reduction in the number of nodal coefficients (more than 60% in some cases as compared to conventional schemes) has been achieved without loss of accuracy with better utilization of computational resources. The method also provides an efficient way of handling physically difficult situations such as treatment of voids in duct problems and sharply changing angular flux. It is observed that a great wealth of information about the spatial and directional dependence of the angular flux is obtained much more quickly as compared to Monte Carlo method, where most of the information in restricted to the locality of immediate interest. (author)

  7. Study of reactive solutes transport and PAH migration in unsaturated soils

    Experimental studies about solute transport in soil have most of the time been conducted under saturated conditions, whereas studies with unsaturated media are usually limited to hydrodynamic analysis. Those are mainly concerning the prediction of water flow, which is the main vector for the transport of contaminants in soil. Only a few studies have made the link between unsaturated flow and physical, chemical and biological interactions, which are controlling the availability of pollutants. However, the presence of a gaseous phase in soil can modify not only the movement of soil solution, but also chemical interactions and exchanges between soil aggregates and solution. Study of reactive solute transport in the vadose zone seems thus to be a necessary stage to predict contaminant fate in natural soils, for risk assessment as well as for the design of effective processes for the remediation of contaminated soils. This question is the main objective of the present work developed in the frame of our French Scientific Interest Group Industrial Wastelands called 'GISFI' (www.gisfi.prd.fr), based around a scientific and technological project dedicated to acquisition of knowledge for sustainable requalification of degraded sites polluted by past industrial activities. We will focus here on Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH), which are among the most widely discussed environmental contaminants because of their toxicity for human health and ecosystems. They are present in large quantities in soils polluted by former industrial activities, especially in relation to the coal extraction, exploitation and treatment. An experimental system has been specifically designed at the laboratory scale to carry out experiments under controlled conditions, with an unsaturated steady-state flow. The first experiments are performed on model soils, in order to investigate unsaturated steady-state flow in relation to interactions mechanisms. We have thus chosen to use a sandy

  8. Semianalytical solutions of radioactive or reactive tracer transport in layered fractured media

    In this paper, semianalytical solutions are developed for the problem of transport of radioactive or reactive tracers (solutes or colloids) through a layered system of heterogeneous fractured media with misaligned fractures. The tracer transport equations in the matrix account for (a) diffusion, (b) surface diffusion (for solutes only), (c) mass transfer between the mobile and immobile water fractions, (d) linear kinetic or equilibrium physical, chemical, or combined solute sorption or colloid filtration, and (e) radioactive decay or first order chemical reactions. Any number of radioactive decay daughter products (or products of a linear, first-order reaction chain) can be tracked. The tracer-transport equations in the fractures account for the same processes, in addition to advection and hydrodynamic dispersion. Additionally, the colloid transport equations account for straining and velocity adjustments related to the colloidal size. The solutions, which are analytical in the Laplace space, are numerically inverted to provide the solution in time and can accommodate any number of fractured and/or porous layers. The solutions are verified using analytical solutions for limiting cases of solute and colloid transport through fractured and porous media. The effect of important parameters on the transport of 3H, 237Np and 239Pu (and its daughters) is investigated in several test problems involving layered geological systems of varying complexity. 239Pu colloid transport problems in multilayered systems indicate significant colloid accumulations at straining interfaces but much faster transport of the colloid than the corresponding strongly sorbing solute species

  9. Semianalytical solutions of radioactive or reactive tracer transport in layered fractured media

    Moridis, G.J.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    2001-10-10

    In this paper, semianalytical solutions are developed for the problem of transport of radioactive or reactive tracers (solutes or colloids) through a layered system of heterogeneous fractured media with misaligned fractures. The tracer transport equations in the matrix account for (a) diffusion, (b) surface diffusion (for solutes only), (c) mass transfer between the mobile and immobile water fractions, (d) linear kinetic or equilibrium physical, chemical, or combined solute sorption or colloid filtration, and (e) radioactive decay or first order chemical reactions. Any number of radioactive decay daughter products (or products of a linear, first-order reaction chain) can be tracked. The tracer-transport equations in the fractures account for the same processes, in addition to advection and hydrodynamic dispersion. Additionally, the colloid transport equations account for straining and velocity adjustments related to the colloidal size. The solutions, which are analytical in the Laplace space, are numerically inverted to provide the solution in time and can accommodate any number of fractured and/or porous layers. The solutions are verified using analytical solutions for limiting cases of solute and colloid transport through fractured and porous media. The effect of important parameters on the transport of {sup 3}H, {sup 237}Np and {sup 239}Pu (and its daughters) is investigated in several test problems involving layered geological systems of varying complexity. {sup 239}Pu colloid transport problems in multilayered systems indicate significant colloid accumulations at straining interfaces but much faster transport of the colloid than the corresponding strongly sorbing solute species.

  10. Links between soil properties and steady-state solute transport through cultivated topsoil at the field scale

    Koestel, J. K.; Norgaard, T.; Minh, Luong Nhat;

    2013-01-01

    consequence to larger water saturation and the activation of larger macropores. Our study provides further evidence that it should be possible to estimate solute transport properties from soil properties such as soil texture or bulk density. We also demonstrated that estimation approaches established for the......It is known that solute transport through soil is heterogeneous at all spatial scales. However, little data are available to allow quantification of these heterogeneities at the field scale or larger. In this study, we investigated the spatial patterns of soil properties, hydrologic state variables...... transport was positively correlated with the bulk density and the degree of water saturation. The latter suggests that preferential macropore transport was the dominating transport process. Increased bulk densities were presumably related with a decrease in near-saturated hydraulic conductivities and as a...

  11. Peritoneal Fluid Transport rather than Peritoneal Solute Transport Associates with Dialysis Vintage and Age of Peritoneal Dialysis Patients

    Jacek Waniewski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During peritoneal dialysis (PD, the peritoneal membrane undergoes ageing processes that affect its function. Here we analyzed associations of patient age and dialysis vintage with parameters of peritoneal transport of fluid and solutes, directly measured and estimated based on the pore model, for individual patients. Thirty-three patients (15 females; age 60 (21–87 years; median time on PD 19 (3–100 months underwent sequential peritoneal equilibration test. Dialysis vintage and patient age did not correlate. Estimation of parameters of the two-pore model of peritoneal transport was performed. The estimated fluid transport parameters, including hydraulic permeability (LpS, fraction of ultrasmall pores (αu, osmotic conductance for glucose (OCG, and peritoneal absorption, were generally independent of solute transport parameters (diffusive mass transport parameters. Fluid transport parameters correlated whereas transport parameters for small solutes and proteins did not correlate with dialysis vintage and patient age. Although LpS and OCG were lower for older patients and those with long dialysis vintage, αu was higher. Thus, fluid transport parameters—rather than solute transport parameters—are linked to dialysis vintage and patient age and should therefore be included when monitoring processes linked to ageing of the peritoneal membrane.

  12. Peritoneal Fluid Transport rather than Peritoneal Solute Transport Associates with Dialysis Vintage and Age of Peritoneal Dialysis Patients.

    Waniewski, Jacek; Antosiewicz, Stefan; Baczynski, Daniel; Poleszczuk, Jan; Pietribiasi, Mauro; Lindholm, Bengt; Wankowicz, Zofia

    2016-01-01

    During peritoneal dialysis (PD), the peritoneal membrane undergoes ageing processes that affect its function. Here we analyzed associations of patient age and dialysis vintage with parameters of peritoneal transport of fluid and solutes, directly measured and estimated based on the pore model, for individual patients. Thirty-three patients (15 females; age 60 (21-87) years; median time on PD 19 (3-100) months) underwent sequential peritoneal equilibration test. Dialysis vintage and patient age did not correlate. Estimation of parameters of the two-pore model of peritoneal transport was performed. The estimated fluid transport parameters, including hydraulic permeability (LpS), fraction of ultrasmall pores (α u), osmotic conductance for glucose (OCG), and peritoneal absorption, were generally independent of solute transport parameters (diffusive mass transport parameters). Fluid transport parameters correlated whereas transport parameters for small solutes and proteins did not correlate with dialysis vintage and patient age. Although LpS and OCG were lower for older patients and those with long dialysis vintage, αu was higher. Thus, fluid transport parameters--rather than solute transport parameters--are linked to dialysis vintage and patient age and should therefore be included when monitoring processes linked to ageing of the peritoneal membrane. PMID:26989432

  13. Transportation problem by Monalisha\\'s approximation method for optimal solution (mamos

    Monalisha Pattnaik

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: This paper finds initial basic feasible solution and optimal solution to the transportation problem by using MAM's (Monalisha's Approximation Method. Methods: Using the concept of comparison of the transportation problem by other methods of solution, the paper introduces a very effective method in terms of cost and time for solving these problems. This paper extends transportation problem by using different method of obtaining both initial basic feasible solution and optimal solution simultaneously other than existing methods. Results and conclusions:  It is presented a cost saving and less time consuming and accurate method for obtaining the best optimal solution of the transportation problem . With the problem assumptions, the optimal solution can still be theoretically solved using the existing methods. Finally, numerical examples and sensitivity analysis are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the theoretical results, and to gain additional managerial insights.  

  14. Field-scale water flow and solute transport : Swap model concepts, parameter estimation and case studies

    Dam, van J.C.

    2000-01-01

    Water flow and solute transport in top soils are important elements in many environmental studies. The agro- and ecohydrological model SWAP (Soil-Water-Plant-Atmosphere) has been developed to simulate simultaneously water flow, solute transport, heat flow and crop growth at field scale level. The ma

  15. Activity transport in nuclear generating stations

    The objective of this paper is to give a basic understanding of the operational limitations caused by radiation fields in the present design of CANDU-PHW reactors. A simple model of activity transport is described, and the significance of various radioisotopes identified. The impact which radiation fields have at the Divisional, Station Manager and Operation levels, is outlined in the context of typical work situations. (author)

  16. Specific transport and storage solutions: Waste management facing current and future stakes of the nuclear fuel cycle

    With major projects ongoing or being planned, and also with the daily management of radioactive waste from nuclear facilities, the role of transport and/or storage packaging has been often overlooked. Indeed, the packaging development process and transport solutions implemented are a key part of the waste management challenge: protection of people and environment. During over four decades, the AREVA Group has developed a complete and coherent system for the transport of waste produced by nuclear industries. The transport solutions integrate the factors to consider, as industrial transportation needs, various waste forms, associated hazards and current regulations. Thus, COGEMA LOGISTICS has designed, licensed and manufactured a large number of different transport, storage and dual purpose cask models for residues and all kinds of radioactive wastes. The present paper proposes to illustrate how a company acting both as a cask designer and a carrier is key to the waste management issue and how it can support the waste management policy of nuclear producers through their operational choices. We will focus on the COGEMA LOGISTICS technical solutions implemented to guarantee safe and secure transportation and storage solutions. We will describe different aspects of the cask design process, insisting on how it enables to fulfill both customer needs and regulation requirements. We will also mention the associated services developed by the AREVA Business Unit Logistics (COGEMA LOGISTICS, TRANSNUCLEAR, MAINCO, and LEMARECHAL CELESTIN) in order to manage transportation of liquid and solid waste towards interim or final storage sites. The paper has the following contents: About radioactive waste; - Radioactive waste classification; - High level activity waste and long-lived intermediate level waste; - Long-lived low level waste; - Short-lived low- and intermediate level waste; - Very low level waste; - The radioactive waste in nuclear fuel cycle; - Packaging design and

  17. A modified two-state empirical valence bond model for proton transport in aqueous solutions

    A detailed analysis of the proton solvation structure and transport properties in aqueous solutions is performed using classical molecular dynamics simulations. A refined two-state empirical valence bond (aTS-EVB) method, which is based on the EVB model of Walbran and Kornyshev and the anharmonic water force field, is developed in order to describe efficiently excess proton transport via the Grotthuss mechanism. The new aTS-EVB model clearly satisfies the requirement for simpler and faster calculation, because of the simplicity of the two-state EVB algorithm, while providing a better description of diffusive dynamics of the excess proton and water in comparison with the previous two-state EVB models, which significantly improves agreement with the available experimental data. The results of activation energies for the excess proton and water calculated between 300 and 340 K (the temperature range used in this study) are also found to be in good agreement with the corresponding experimental data

  18. A modified two-state empirical valence bond model for proton transport in aqueous solutions

    Mabuchi, Takuya, E-mail: mabuchi@nanoint.ifs.tohoku.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan); Fukushima, Akinori; Tokumasu, Takashi [Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan)

    2015-07-07

    A detailed analysis of the proton solvation structure and transport properties in aqueous solutions is performed using classical molecular dynamics simulations. A refined two-state empirical valence bond (aTS-EVB) method, which is based on the EVB model of Walbran and Kornyshev and the anharmonic water force field, is developed in order to describe efficiently excess proton transport via the Grotthuss mechanism. The new aTS-EVB model clearly satisfies the requirement for simpler and faster calculation, because of the simplicity of the two-state EVB algorithm, while providing a better description of diffusive dynamics of the excess proton and water in comparison with the previous two-state EVB models, which significantly improves agreement with the available experimental data. The results of activation energies for the excess proton and water calculated between 300 and 340 K (the temperature range used in this study) are also found to be in good agreement with the corresponding experimental data.

  19. Hydrodynamics of steady state phloem transport with radial leakage of solute

    Paulo eCabrita; Michael eThorpe; Gregor Johannes Huber

    2013-01-01

    Long-distance phloem transport occurs under a pressure gradient generated by the osmotic exchange of water associated with solute exchange in source and sink regions. But these exchanges also occur along the pathway, and yet their physiological role has almost been ignored in mathematical models of phloem transport. Here we present a steady state model for transport phloem which allows solute leakage, based on the Navier-Stokes and convection-diffusion equations which describe fluid motion ri...

  20. High Order Numerical Solution of Integral Transport Equation in Slab Geometry

    沈智军; 袁光伟; 沈隆钧

    2002-01-01

    @@ There are some common numerical methods for solving neutron transport equation, which including the well-known discrete ordinates method, PN approximation and integral transport methods[1]. There exists certain singularities in the solution of transport equation near the boundary and interface[2]. It gives rise to the difficulty in the construction of high order accurate numerical methods. The numerical solution obtained by now can not attain the second order convergent accuracy[3,4].

  1. Water flow and solute transport in floating fen root mats

    Stofberg, Sija F.; EATM van der Zee, Sjoerd

    2015-04-01

    be very similar and likely functionally related. Our experimental field data were used for modelling water flow and solute transport in floating fens, using HYDRUS 2D. Fluctuations of surface water and root mat, as well as geometry and unsaturated zone parameters can have a major influence on groundwater fluctuations and the exchange between rain and surface water and the water in the root mats. In combination with the duration of salt pulses in surface water, and sensitivity of fen plants to salinity (Stofberg et al. 2014, submitted), risks for rare plants can be anticipated.

  2. Comparison of three stream tube models predicting field-scale solute transport

    D. Jacques

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the relation between local- and field-scale solute transport parameters in an unsaturated soil profile is investigated. At two experimental sites, local-scale steady-state solute transport was measured in-situ using 120 horizontally installed TDR probes at 5 depths. Local-scale solute transport parameters determined from BTCs were used to predict field-scale solute transport using stochastic stream tube models (STM. Local-scale solute transport was described by two transport models: (1 the convection-dispersion transport model (CDE, and (2 the stochastic convective lognormat transfer model (CLT. The parameters of the CDE-model were found to be lognormally distributed, whereas the parameters of the CLT model were normally distributed. Local-scale solute transport heterogeneity within the measurement volume of a TDR-probe was an important factor causing field-scale solute dispersion. The study of the horizontal scale-dependency revealed that the variability in the solute transport parameters contributes more to the field-scale dispersion at deeper depths than at depths near the surface. Three STMs were used to upscale the local transport parameters: (i the stochastic piston flow STM-I assuming local piston flow transport, (ii the convective-dispersive STM-II assuming local CDE transport, and (iii the stochastic convective lognormal STM-III assuming local CLT. The STM-I considerably underpredicted the field-scale solute dispersion indicating that local-scale dispersion processes, which are captured within the measurement volume of the TDR-probe, are important to predict field-scale solute transport. STM-II and STM-III both described the field-scale breakthrough curves (BTC accurately if depth dependent parameters were used. In addition, a reasonable description of the horizontal variance of the local BTCs was found. STM-III was (more superior to STM-II if only one set of parameters from one depth is used to predict the field

  3. Uniqueness and Monge solutions in the multi-marginal optimal transportation problem

    Pass, Brendan, Department Of Mathematics

    2010-01-01

    We study a multi-marginal optimal transportation problem. Under certain conditions on the cost function and the first marginal, we prove that the solution to the relaxed, Kantorovich version of the problem induces a solution to the Monge problem and that the solutions to both problems are unique.

  4. Diffusion Dominant Solute Transport Modelling in Fractured Media Under Deep Geological Environment - 12211

    Deep geologic disposal of high activity and long-lived radioactive waste is gaining increasing support in many countries, where suitable low permeability geological formation in combination with engineered barriers are used to provide long term waste contaminant and minimise the impacts to the environment and risk to the biosphere. This modelling study examines the solute transport in fractured media under low flow velocities that are relevant to a deep geological environment. In particular, reactive solute transport through fractured media is studied using a 2-D model, that considers advection and diffusion, to explore the coupled effects of kinetic and equilibrium chemical processes. The effects of water velocity in the fracture, matrix porosity and diffusion on solute transport are investigated and discussed. Some illustrative modelled results are presented to demonstrate the use of the model to examine the effects of media degradation on solute transport, under the influences of hydrogeological (diffusion dominant) and microbially mediated chemical processes. The challenges facing the prediction of long term degradation such as cracks evolution, interaction and coalescence are highlighted. The potential of a novel microstructure informed modelling approach to account for these effects is discussed, particularly with respect to investigating multiple phenomena impact on material performance. The GRM code is used to examine the effects of media degradation for a geological waste disposal package, under the combined hydrogeological (diffusion dominant) and chemical effects in low groundwater flow conditions that are typical of deep geological disposal systems. An illustrative reactive transport modelling application demonstrates the use of the code to examine the interplay of kinetic controlled biogeochemical reactive processes with advective and diffusive transport, under the influence of media degradation. The initial model results are encouraging which show the

  5. Quadrature of an integral solution of slowing down transport equation

    Full text: Numerical solution of the slowing-down equation is derived from analytical solution for neutron flux for given values of energy. It is shown in this paper that the application of Newton interpolation for obtaining effective cross sections as well as Gauss quadrature formula for numerical integration is justified

  6. Molecular transport across fluid interfaces: Coupling between solute dynamics and interface fluctuations

    Gupta, Ashish; Chauhan, Anuj; Kopelevich, Dmitry I.

    2008-10-01

    We investigate the transport mechanism of a small hydrophobic solute molecule across two types of fluid interfaces, (i) an interface between two immiscible liquids and (ii) a surfactant-covered liquid-liquid interface. These systems are modeled by coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations. It is demonstrated that the dynamics of the solute molecule near the interface significantly deviates from Markovian Brownian motion. Specifically, the correlation time of the random force acting on the solute strongly depends on the distance between the solute and the interface and increases by two orders of magnitude within a very narrow (less than 1nm wide) region near the interface. The slow fluctuations of the random force in this narrow region are caused by capillary waves. The region location and width are determined by interface protrusions caused by attraction between the solute and the hydrophobic phase. We use results of molecular dynamics simulations to develop a stochastic model for the coupled solute-interface dynamics and estimate the rate of the solute transport across the interface. The observed phenomenon appears to be a general feature of mass transport across fluid or flexible membranes. The coupling between the solute transport and the interface fluctuations is the strongest in areas corresponding to a large free energy gradient or near a free energy barrier for the solute transport. This suggests a strong influence of the coupled solute-interface dynamics on the rate of mass transfer across interfaces.

  7. Solute transport and storage mechanisms in wetlands of the Everglades, south Florida

    Harvey, Judson W.; Saiers, James E.; Newlin, Jessica T.

    2005-05-01

    Solute transport and storage processes in wetlands play an important role in biogeochemical cycling and in wetland water quality functions. In the wetlands of the Everglades, there are few data or guidelines to characterize transport through the heterogeneous flow environment. Our goal was to conduct a tracer study to help quantify solute exchange between the relatively fast flowing water in the open part of the water column and much more slowly moving water in thick floating vegetation and in the pore water of the underlying peat. We performed a tracer experiment that consisted of a constant-rate injection of a sodium bromide (NaBr) solution for 22 hours into a 3 m wide, open-ended flume channel in Everglades National Park. Arrival of the bromide tracer was monitored at an array of surface water and subsurface samplers for 48 hours at a distance of 6.8 m downstream of the injection. A one-dimensional transport model was used in combination with an optimization code to identify the values of transport parameters that best explained the tracer observations. Parameters included dimensions and mass transfer coefficients describing exchange with both short (hours) and longer (tens of hours) storage zones as well as the average rates of advection and longitudinal dispersion in the open part of the water column (referred to as the ``main flow zone''). Comparison with a more detailed set of tracer measurements tested how well the model's storage zones approximated the average characteristics of tracer movement into and out of the layer of thick floating vegetation and the pore water in the underlying peat. The rate at which the relatively fast moving water in the open water column was exchanged with slowly moving water in the layer of floating vegetation and in sediment pore water amounted to 50 and 3% h-1, respectively. Storage processes decreased the depth-averaged velocity of surface water by 50% relative to the water velocity in the open part of the water column. As a

  8. Road Transport System in Southeast Asia; Problems and Economic Solutions

    Sara Kaffashi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In Southeast Asian countries (SEA, road transport accounts for the main energy consumption and CO2 emission. Air pollution is a major concern in densely populated cities such as Bangkok, Manila, and Kuala Lumpur. The main objective of this paper is to give insights on trends of transport development, car ownership, and CO2 emissions in Southeast Asia. This study also attempts to review the successful transportation policies around the globe and to introduce the possible instruments that can help reduce air pollution in Southeast Asian countries. Economic instruments to estimate the benefits of a cleaner environment due to new policies are introduced as well. The results of this research could help policy makers consider approaches that could internalize external costs of transportation and maximize the societal welfare.

  9. Finite-bias electronic transport of molecules in water solution

    Sanvito, Stefano; RUNGGER, IVAN; Chen, Xihua

    2010-01-01

    The effects of water wetting conditions on the transport properties of molecular nanojunctions are investigated theoretically by using a combination of empirical-potential molecular-dynamics and first-principles electronic-transport calculations. These are at the level of the nonequilibrium Green?s-function method implemented for self-interaction corrected density-functional theory. We find that water effectively produces electrostatic gating to the molecular junction with a gatin...

  10. Designing Electronic Waybill Solutions for Road Freight Transport

    Bakhtyar, Shoaib

    2016-01-01

    In freight transportation, a waybill is an important document that contains essential information about a consignment. The focus of this thesis is on a multi-purpose electronic waybill (e-Waybill) service, which can provide the functions of a paper waybill, and which is capable of storing, at least, the information present in a paper waybill. In addition, the service can be used to support other existing Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) services by utilizing on synergies with the exist...

  11. FASTREACT – An efficient numerical framework for the solution of reactive transport problems

    Highlights: • We present a tool for the efficient solution of reactive transport problems. • The tool is used to simulate radionuclide transport in a two-dimensional medium. • The results are successfully compared with those obtained using an Eulerian approach. • A large-scale application example is also solved. • The results show that the proposed tool can efficiently solve large-scale models. - Abstract: In the framework of safety assessment studies for geological disposal, large scale reactive transport models are powerful inter-disciplinary tools aiming at supporting regulatory decision making as well as providing input to repository engineering activities. Important aspects of these kinds of models are their often very large temporal and spatial modelling scales and the need to integrate different non-linear processes (e.g., mineral dissolution and precipitation, adsorption and desorption, microbial reactions and redox transformations). It turns out that these types of models may be computationally highly demanding. In this work, we present a Lagrangian-based framework, denoted as FASTREACT, that aims at solving multi-component-reactive transport problems with a computationally efficient approach allowing complex modelling problems to be solved in large spatial and temporal scales. The tool has been applied to simulate radionuclide migration in a synthetic heterogeneous transmissivity field and the results have been successfully compared with those obtained using a standard Eulerian approach. Finally, the same geochemical model has been coupled to an ensemble of realistic three-dimensional transport pathways to simulate the migration of a set of radionuclides from a hypothetical repository for spent nuclear fuel to the surface. The results of this modelling exercise, which includes key processes such as the exchange of mass between the conductive fractures and the matrix, show that FASTREACT can efficiently solve large-scale reactive transport models

  12. Solute transport predicts scaling of surface reaction rates in porous media: Applications to silicate weathering

    Hunt, Allen G; Ghanbarian, Behzad

    2013-01-01

    We apply our theory of conservative solute transport, based on concepts from percolation theory, directly and without modification to reactive solute transport. This theory has previously been shown to predict the observed range of dispersivity values for conservative solute transport over ten orders of magnitude of length scale. We now show that the temporal dependence derived for the solute velocity accurately predicts the time-dependence for the weathering of silicate minerals over nine orders of magnitude of time scale, while its predicted length dependence agrees with data obtained for reaction rates over five orders of magnitude of length scale. In both cases, it is possible to unify lab and field results. Thus, net reaction rates appear to be limited by solute transport velocities. We suggest the possible relevance of our results to landscape evolution of the earth's terrestrial surface.

  13. Dynamics of water and solute transport in polymeric reverse osmosis membranes via molecular dynamics simulations

    Shen, Meng; Lueptow, Richard M

    2016-01-01

    The Angstrom-scale transport characteristics of water and six different solutes, methanol, ethanol, 2-propanol, urea, Na+, and Cl-, were studied for a polyamide reverse osmosis (RO) membrane, FT-30, using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) simulations. Results indicate that water transport increases with an increasing fraction of connected percolated free volume, or water-accessible open space, in the membrane polymer structure. This free volume is enhanced by the dynamic structure of the membrane at the molecular level as it swells when hydrated and vibrates due to molecular collisions allowing a continuous path connecting the opposite membrane surfaces. The tortuous paths available for transport of solutes result in Brownian motion of solute molecules and hopping from pore to pore as they pass through the polymer network structure of the membrane. The transport of alcohol solutes decreases for solutes with larger Van der Waals volume, which corresponds to less available percolated free volume, or sol...

  14. Effect of chelating agents on the transport of radioactive solutes in subsurface porous media

    The effect of chelating agents on the transport of radioactive solutes in subsurface porous media is analyzed by formulating an advective-dispersive transport model which incorporates chelate formation, adsorption, decay, and degradation of transporting radioactive solutes. The governing equations are formulated by introducing the concept of a tenad. Particularly the governing equation for the tenad of a radioactive solute, is presented as a linear partial differential form and solved analytically by introducing an extended concept of distribution coefficient, KD. The calculated results from the model show that the transport rate of the tenad of a chelating agent, is much greater than that of the tenad. This faster transport of may be due to the low retardation factor of comparing to that of. Therefore, it is concluded that presence of chelating agents even in a small amount greatly accelerates the transport of radioactive wastes from a geologic radioactive waste repository

  15. Solute or Heat Transport in a Flat Duct

    Elijah Johnson

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Steady state solute and heat transfer for laminar flow in a flat duct has been widely studied[1-4]. The same problem in a circular tube is called the Graetz Problem[5,6]. The transfer rate of solute and heat from fluids is of importance in a number of processes, such as diffusion of drugs in the blood stream and the uptake of environmental contaminants by animals in aquatic media[7]. In this study the rate of solute or heat transfer from fluids was determined by solving the associated differential equation. Solution by the series approach in the complex plane was used with a series that had a gaussian factor. The eigenfunctions and eigenvalues involved were examined for two different sets of boundary conditions.

  16. Pore connectivity effects on solute transport in rocks

    Retardation of nuclear contaminants in rock matrices can lead to long retention times, allowing substantial radionuclide decay prior to eventual release. Imbibition and diffusion into the rock matrix can move contaminants away from an active fracture, thereby contributing to their retardation. However, diffusive transport in some rocks may behave anomalously because of their sparsely connected porespace, in contrast to diffusion in rocks with denser pore connections. We examined imbibition of weakly sorbing tracers into welded tuff and Indiana sandstone, and water imbibition into metagraywacke and Berea sandstone. Tuff samples were initially equilibrated to 12% and 76% water (v/v) within controlled humidity chambers, while the other rocks were air-dried. For imbibition, one face was exposed to water, with or without tracer, and uptake was measured over time. Following imbibition, tracer concentration measurements were made at fine (1 mm) increments. Three anomalous results were observed: (1) Indiana sandstone and metagraywacke showed mass of imbibed water scaling as time0.26, while tuff and Berea sandstone showed the more classical scaling with time0.5; (2) tracer movement into dry (2% initial saturation) Indiana sandstone showed a dispersion pattern similar to that expected during tracer movement into moist (76% initial saturation) tuff; and (3) tracer concentrations at the inlet face of the tuff sample were approximately twice those deeper inside the sample. The experiment was then modeled using random walk methods on a 3-D lattice with different values of pore coordination. Network model simulations that used a pore coordination of 1.49 for Indiana sandstone and 1.56 for metagraywacke showed similar temporal scaling, a result of their porespace being close to the percolation threshold. Tracer concentration profiles in Indiana sandstone and tuff were closely matched by simulations that used pore coordinations of 1.49 and 1.68, respectively, because of how low

  17. Pore Connectivity Effects on Solute Transport in Rocks

    Retardation of nuclear contaminants in rock matrices can lead to long retention times, allowing substantial radionuclide decay prior to eventual release. Imbibition and diffusion into the rock matrix can move contaminants away from an active fracture, thereby contributing to their retardation. However, diffusive transport in some rocks may behave anomalously because of their sparsely connected porespace, in contrast to diffusion in rocks with denser pore connections. We examined imbibition of weakly sorbing tracers into welded tuff and Indiana sandstone, and water imbibition into metagraywacke and Berea sandstone. Tuff samples were initially equilibrated to 12% and 76% water (v/v) within controlled humidity chambers, while the other rocks were air-dried. For imbibition, one face was exposed to water, with or without tracer, and uptake was measured over time. Following imbibition, tracer concentration measurements were made at fine (1 mm) increments. Three anomalous results were observed: (1) Indiana sandstone and metagraywacke showed mass of imbibed water scaling as time0.26, while tuff and Berea sandstone showed the more classical scaling with time0.05; (2) tracer movement into dry (2% initial saturation) Indiana sandstone showed a dispersion pattern similar to that expected during tracer movement into moist (76% initial saturation) tuft and (3) tracer concentrations at the inlet face of the tuff sample were approximately twice those deeper inside the sample. The experiment was then modeled using random walk methods on a 3-D lattice with different values of pore coordination. Network model simulations that used a pore coordination of 1.49 for Indiana sandstone and 1.56 for metagraywacke showed similar temporal scaling, a result of their porespace being close to the percolation threshold. Tracer concentration profiles in Indiana sandstone and tuff were closely matched by simulations that used pore coordinations of 1.49 and 1.68, respectively, because of how low

  18. Symmetry and Solution of Neutron Transport Equations in Nonhomogeneous Media

    2014-01-01

    We propose the group-theoretical approach which enables one to generate solutions of equations of mathematical physics in nonhomogeneous media from solutions of the same problem in a homogeneous medium. The efficiency of this method is illustrated with examples of thermal neutron diffusion problems. Such problems appear in neutron physics and nuclear geophysics. The method is also applicable to nonstationary and nonintegrable in quadratures differential equations.

  19. Active urea transport by the skin of Bufo viridis: Amiloride- and phloretin-sensitive transport sites

    Urea is actively transported inwardly (Ji) across the skin of the green toad Bufo viridis. Ji is markedly enhanced in toads adapted to hypertonic saline. The authors studied urea transport across the skin of Bufo viridis under a variety of experimental conditions, including treatment with amiloride and phloretin, agents that inhibit urea permeability in the bladder of Bufo marinus. Amiloride (10-4 M) significantly inhibited Ji in both adapted and unadapted animals and was unaffected by removal of sodium from the external medium. Phloretin (10-4 M) significantly inhibited Ji in adapted animals by 23-46%; there was also a reduction in Ji in unadapted toads at 10-4 and 5 x 10-4 M phloretin. A dose-response study revealed that the concentration of phloretin causing half-maximal inhibition (K1/2) was 5 x 10-4 M for adapted animals. Ji was unaffected by the substitution of sucrose for Ringer solution or by ouabain. They conclude (1) the process of adaptation appears to involve an increase in the number of amiloride- and phloretin-inhibitable urea transport sites in the skin, with a possible increase in the affinity of the sites for phloretin; (2) the adapted skin resembles the Bufo marinus urinary bladder with respect to amiloride and phloretin-inhibitable sites; (3) they confirm earlier observations that Ji is independent of sodium transport

  20. Geomorphic and substrate controls on spatial variability in river solute transport and biogeochemical cycling

    Blaen, Phillip; Kurz, Marie; Knapp, Julia; Mendoza-Lera, Clara; Lee-Cullin, Joe; Klaar, Megan; Drummond, Jen; Jaeger, Anna; Zarnetske, Jay; Lewandowski, Joerg; Marti, Eugenia; Ward, Adam; Fleckenstein, Jan; Datry, Thibault; Larned, Scott; Krause, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Nutrient concentrations in surface waters and groundwaters are increasing in many agricultural catchments worldwide as a result of anthropogenic activities. Increasing geomorphological heterogeneity in river channels may help to attenuate nutrient pollution by facilitating water exchange fluxes with the hyporheic zone; a site of intense microbial activity where biogeochemical transformation rates (e.g. denitrification) can be high. However, the controls on spatial variability in biogeochemical cycling, particularly at scales relevant for river managers, are not well understood. Here, we aimed to assess: 1) how differences in geomorphological heterogeneity control river solute transport and rates of biogeochemical cycling at sub-reach scales (102 m); and 2) the relative magnitude of these differences versus those relating to reach scale substrate variability (103 m). We used the reactive 'smart' tracer resazurin (Raz), a weakly fluorescent dye that transforms to highly fluorescent resorufin (Rru) under mildly reducing conditions, as a proxy to assess rates of biogeochemical cycling in a lowland river in southern England. Solute tracer tests were conducted in two reaches with contrasting substrates: one sand-dominated and the other gravel-dominated. Each reach was divided into sub-reaches that varied in geomorphic complexity (e.g. by the presence of pool-riffle sequences or the abundance of large woody debris). Slug injections of Raz and the conservative tracer fluorescein were conducted in each reach during baseflow conditions (Q ≈ 80 L/s) and breakthrough curves monitored using in-situ fluorometers. Preliminary results indicate overall Raz:Rru transformation rates in the gravel-dominated reach were more than 50% higher than those in the sand-dominated reach. However, high sub-reach variability in Raz:Rru transformation rates and conservative solute transport parameters suggests small-scale targeted management interventions to alter geomorphic heterogeneity may be

  1. Impact of thin aquitards on two-dimensional solute transport in an aquifer.

    Rezaei, Abolfazl; Zhan, Hongbin; Zare, Mohammad

    2013-09-01

    The influence of aquitards on solute transport in an aquifer is an important and often overlooked process for subsurface contaminant transport. In particular, slow advection (leakage) into an aquitard is often neglected in previous analytical treatment of solute transport, making such analytical solutions unsuitable for benchmarking numerical simulations of transport when aquitard leakage exists. In this study, a semi-analytical solution to the two-dimensional conservative solute transport in an aquifer bounded by thin aquitards is derived in the Laplace domain. The governing equation in the aquifer (not aquitard) incorporates terms accounting for advection, longitudinal dispersion, and transverse vertical dispersion. Both one-dimensional vertical advection and molecular diffusion are considered for aquitard transport. The solutions are derived under conditions of steady-state flow and the first- and third-type transport boundary conditions in the aquifer along with assuming the continuity of concentration and vertical mass flux at aquifer and aquitard interfaces. The solutions in the real time domain are obtained by numerically inverting the solutions in the Laplace domain using the Stehfest (1970) algorithm. The semi-analytical solutions are compared with those from Zhan et al. (2009b), which considered aquitard leakage in infinitively thick aquitards. The concentration profiles, breakthrough curves and distribution profiles in the aquifer are different from those of Zhan et al. (2009b) at small ratios of the aquitard/aquifer thickness; whereas, the results of both are consistent for thick bounding aquitards. This study reveals that the residence time distribution (RTD) in the main aquifer is related to the aquitard/aquifer thickness ratios, Peclet numbers and porosities of adjacent aquitards. The results also suggest that MT3DMS (a commonly applied transport code) cannot successfully simulate solute transport at the aquifer-aquitard interfaces. The presented

  2. Introduction to the determination of transport numbers in electrolytic solutions. Effect of the activity coefficient in the coupled scattering and self-scattering processes. Electric mobility of the Na+ ion in water-THF mixture - Measurements of transport numbers by means of radio-tracers

    Within the frame of a study of ion preferential solvation in hydro-organic media, the author reports some measurements of ionic conductivities of the Na+ ion in mixtures of different proportions of water and THF (tetrahydrofuran), and more specifically the use of a recently developed method of transport number measurement. The author explains the general definition of the transport number, recalls usual measurement methods (Hittorf method, moving boundary method), describes the method principle, the measurement process, reports the assessment of corrective terms in the calculation of the transport number, and presents and comments the obtained results. A second part addresses the influence of activity coefficient gradient on the couple scattering and self-scattering phenomenon: self-scattering measurement with a tracer, theoretical aspects of coupled scattering, experimental results and discussion

  3. A Polymer "Pollution Solution" Classroom Activity.

    Helser, Terry L.

    1996-01-01

    Explains an approach to presenting polymer chemistry to nonmajors that employs polystyrene foam, foam peanuts made from water soluble starch, and water soluble plastic bags. Students are presented with a pollution scenario and are guided to the discovery of solutions. (DDR)

  4. Approximate Solutions for Local Fractional Linear Transport Equations Arising in Fractal Porous Media

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the local fractional linear transport equations arising in fractal porous media by using the local fractional variational iteration method. Their approximate solutions within the nondifferentiable functions are obtained and their graphs are also shown.

  5. Quadrature of one integral solution of transport slowing down equation

    Analytical solution of neutron slowing down equation leads to numerical calculation of neutron flux for estimated energy values. This paper shows that Newton interpolation for obtaining tabulated values of effective cross sections and application of Gauss quadrature formula for numerical integration are valid

  6. Pore-network modeling of solute transport and biofilm growth in porous media

    Qin, Chao Zhong; Hassanizadeh, S. Majid

    2015-01-01

    In this work, a pore-network (PN) model for solute transport and biofilm growth in porous media was developed. Compared to previous studies of biofilm growth, it has two new features. First, the constructed pore network gives a better representation of a porous medium. Second, instead of using a constant mass exchange coefficient for solute transport between water phase and biofilm, a variable coefficient as a function of biofilm volume fraction and Damköhler number was employed. This PN mode...

  7. Solute transport in nearly saturated porous media under landfill clay liners: A finite deformation approach

    Zhang, H. J.; Jeng, Dong-Sheng; Barry, David Andrew; Seymour, Brian R.; Li, Ling

    2013-01-01

    For solute transport in a deformable clay liner, the importance of consolidation in the presence of sorption and consolidation-induced advection are well known. Here a one-dimensional coupled consolidation and solute transport model for a partially saturated porous medium, including the new features of finite strain and geometric and material nonlinearity, is proposed. A new boundary condition at the compacted clay liner base is also introduced. A comprehensive comparison demonstrates the sig...

  8. Field-scale water flow and solute transport : Swap model concepts, parameter estimation and case studies

    Van Dam

    2000-01-01

    Water flow and solute transport in top soils are important elements in many environmental studies. The agro- and ecohydrological model SWAP (Soil-Water-Plant-Atmosphere) has been developed to simulate simultaneously water flow, solute transport, heat flow and crop growth at field scale level. The main features and theoretical concepts of SWAP are described.A serious limitation of many model applications is the availability of accurate input parameters. With the rapid increase of processor cal...

  9. Monte Carlo solution of a semi-discrete transport equation

    The authors present the S∞ method, a hybrid neutron transport method in which Monte Carlo particles traverse discrete space. The goal of any deterministic/stochastic hybrid method is to couple selected characters from each of the methods in hopes of producing a better method. The S∞ method has the features of the lumped, linear-discontinuous (LLD) spatial discretization, yet it has no ray-effects because of the continuous angular variable. They derive the S∞ method for the solid-state, mono-energetic transport equation in one-dimensional slab geometry with isotropic scattering and an isotropic internal source. They demonstrate the viability of the S∞ method by comparing their results favorably to analytic and deterministic results

  10. A transportronic solution to the problem of interorbital transportation

    Brown, William C.

    1992-01-01

    An all-electronic transportation system described by the term 'transportronics' is examined as a means of solving the current problem of the high cost of transporting material from low-Earth orbit (LEO) to geostationary orbit (GEO). In this transportation system, low cost electric energy at the surface of the Earth is efficiently converted into microwave power which is then efficiently formed into a narrow beam which is kept incident upon the orbital transfer vehicles (OTV's) by electronic tracking. The incident beam is efficiently captured and converted into DC power by a device which has a very high ratio of DC power output to its mass. Because the mass of the electric thruster is also low, the resulting acceleration is unprecedented for electric-propelled vehicles. However, the performance of the system in terms of transit times from LEO to GEO is penalized by the short time of contact between the beam and the vehicle in low-Earth orbits. This makes it necessary to place the Earth based transmitters and the vehicles in the equatorial plane thus introducing many geopolitical factors. Technically, however, such a system as described in the report may out-perform any other approach to transportation in the LEO to GEO regime. The report describes and analyzes all portions of the beamed microwave power transmission system in considerable detail. An economic analysis of the operating and capital costs is made with the aid of a reference system capable of placing about 130,000 kilograms of payload into GEO each year. More mature states of the system are then examined, to a level in which 60,000 metric tons per year could be placed into GEO.

  11. Transport anb Structural Properties of Aqueous Solutions of Organic Solvents.

    Nieto Draghi, Carlos Eduardo

    2003-01-01

    Molecular Dynamics simulation technique has been used in this work to obtain equilibrium as well as transport properties of different aqueoussolutions. The peculiar behavior observed in pure water and its mixtures with other substances at different thermodynamic conditions, and the knowledge and understanding of the properties of these systems are the motivations of this work. We have made a direct connection between the local tetrahedral structure of water, created by the presence of hydroge...

  12. Solution of neutron transport equation by Method of Characteristics

    Highlights: • A neutron transport theory code, based on Method of Characteristics (MOC), is developed. • The code is able to simulate square, circular, hexagonal geometries and their combinations. • Delaunay triangulation together with Bower–Watson algorithm is used for mesh generation. • The code is benchmarked against different geometry and boundary conditions. • Results corroborate well with the results available in literature. - Abstract: A computer code based on Method of Characteristics (MOC) is developed to solve neutron transport equation for mainly assembly level lattice calculation with reflective and periodic boundary conditions and to some extent core level calculation with vacuum boundary condition. The code is able to simulate square, circular and hexagonal geometries and their combinations. Delaunay triangulation together with the Bower–Watson algorithm is used to divide the problem geometry into triangular meshes. Ray tracing technique is developed to draw characteristics lines along different directions over the geometry and the transport equation is solved over these lines to obtain neutron flux distribution and multiplication factor for the geometry. A number of benchmark problems available in literature are analyzed to demonstrate the capability and validity of the code

  13. Influence of detergents on the activity of the ABC transporter LmrA

    Infed, Nacera; Hanekop, Nils; Driessen, Arnold J. M.; Smits, Sander H. J.; Schmitt, Lutz

    2011-01-01

    The ABC transporter LmrA from Lactococcus lactis has been intensively studied and a role in multidrug resistance was proposed. Here, we performed a comprehensive detergent screen to analyze the impact of detergents for a successful solubilization, purification and retention of functional properties of this ABC transporter. Our screen revealed the preference of LmrA for zwitterionic detergents. In detergent solution, LmrA purified with FC-16 was highly active with respect to ATPase activity, w...

  14. One-dimensional LTChN solution generalization for the multidimensional transport problem

    In this work, we present a formal approximated solution at the closed form for the three-dimensional transport problem at a parallelepiped. The proposed method is based on the idea of the spectral method and transform this multidimensional problem at a set of one-dimensional transport problems without azimuthal symmetry. (author). 24 refs

  15. Iterative solution to the non-LTE line transport problem

    In the case of a slab geometry the authors have tested an iteration scheme which gives a fast convergence to the solution. In the spirit of Cannon's approach an approximate lambda operator Λ* is inverted and the difference (Λ-Λ*)S is treated as a small correction. The approximate Λ* operator is basically the first order escape probability plus an artificial diffusion term added for numerical stabilization. An extension to the two-dimensional problem is in progress

  16. Solute transport in the unsaturated zone of the Chalk

    Groundwater is a major source of public supply in England and Wales, where it meets about 30% of the demand. In some areas, particularly south-east England, it is the major source. Much concern has been expressed in recent years about the pollution of groundwater resources by nitrates, and the Water Research Centre has undertaken an extensive programme of drilling and sampling to determine the reason for the rise in nitrate levels and to assess future trends. To assist with the interpretation of field data, mechanisms of water and solute movement through the unsaturated zone have been investigated, and the Chalk, our major aquifer, has received particular attention. The dating of groundwater by tritium measurements has led to considerable speculation regarding flow processes in the Chalk, and the additional information gained from the nitrates investigations has led to the formulation of a flow model in which water and its solutes move at very different velocities. It has been deduced that in the unsaturated zone water moves downwards through the fissure system at about 0.7 m/d, while any solutes carried from the land surface move downwards at about 1 m/a. Laboratory experiments have yielded evidence in support of this hypothesis, though further research is needed before a comprehensive model of the flow mechanism can be established. A similar flow mechanism is expected to be operative in many other aquifers, and has important implications for groundwater pollution trends. (author)

  17. A note on the solution of fuzzy transportation problem using fuzzy linear system

    Senthilkumar, P.; S. Vengataasalam

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the solution of a fuzzy transportation problem, with fuzzy quantities. The problem is solved in two stages. In the first stage, the fuzzy transportation problem is reduced to crisp system by using the lower and upper bounds of fuzzy quantities. In the second stage, the crisp transportation problems are solved by usual simplex method. The procedure is illustrated with numerical examples.

  18. Solution of modified neutron transport equation in plane geometry

    Neutron transport equation was formulated for universal anisotropic scattering function with integration over variable μ carried out segment (0,1) instead of segment (-1,1). A modified system of DPN equations was derived and solved by applying flux expansion in double Legendre polynomials over variable μ. As an example, case of neutron isotropic scattering was treated in detail and Green functions for infinitive medium were computed. The application of the eighth order analytical approximation achieved the accuracy to the unit on the sixth significant digit in the whole range of parameter c, angle cosine μ and distances x up ten optical lengths from the neutron source. 13 refs., 5 tabs

  19. On the LTSN solution of the transport equation in a slab for c=1

    In this work we present a LTSN formulation for the isotropic neutron transport problem in a slab assuming c = 1. We modify the LTSN solution encoding the Case solution for c = 1 by the application of the combined Schur decomposition and Heaviside expansion techniques. We also report numerical results. (author)

  20. General Solution of a Fractional Diffusion-Advection Equation for Solar Cosmic-Ray Transport

    Rocca, M C; Plastino, A; De Paoli, A L

    2016-01-01

    In this effort we exactly solve the fractional diffusion-advection equation for solar cosmic-ray transport proposed in \\cite{LE2014} and give its {\\it general solution} in terms of hypergeometric distributions. Also, we regain all the results and approximations given in \\cite{LE2014} as {\\it particular cases} of our general solution.

  1. Reflection of slow ions from solids; exact solution of transport equation

    Reflection of low energy light ions from solids has been calculated in a multiple collision model. Exact solutions of the Boltzmann transport equation have been found for the reflected energy spectra, particle and energy reflection coefficients, as well as analytical formulas derived from these solutions (author)

  2. Exact analytical solutions for contaminant transport in rivers 1. The equilibrium advection-dispersion equation

    Analytical solutions of the advection-dispersion equation and related models are indispensable for predicting or analyzing contaminant transport processes in streams and rivers, as well as in other surface water bodies. Many useful analytical solutions originated in disciplines other than surface-w...

  3. Propagator solutions of partial differential equations applied to plasma transport

    A variety of partial differential equations may be solved efficiently and easily, using a single algorithm which is based on the propagator (or Green's function) for equations of the Fokker-Planck type. The numerical method employed is always at least as fast as finite differencing, but is especially efficient in cases where flow dominates over diffusion, and is consequently potentially widely applicable in fluid dynamics. Two transport problems in a small toroidal magnetic confinement device (IMS) have been considered. First, the ion distribution function and the potential in the sheath were calculated in the presence of charge exchange collisions for a wide range of neutral densities. Second, radial particle transport was modeled allowing for strong convection in the bulk plasma, and the density n(r,θ) was obtained for various plausible forms of the flow velocity, consistent with the observed average radial velocity. The best agreement with experiment is obtained with a vertical flow, which is also suggested by the measured potential profiles. 17 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab

  4. ab initio Electronic Transport Model with Explicit Solution to the Linearized Boltzmann Transport Equation

    Faghaninia, Alireza; Ager III, Joel W.; Lo, Cynthia S.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate models of carrier transport are essential for describing the electronic properties of semiconductor materials. To the best of our knowledge, the current models following the framework of the Boltzmann transport equation (BTE) either rely heavily on experimental data (i.e., semi-empirical), or utilize simplifying assumptions, such as the constant relaxation time approximation (BTE-cRTA). While these models offer valuable physical insights and accurate calculations of transport propert...

  5. BWR startup and shutdown activity transport control

    This paper summarizes BWR industry experience on good practices for controlling the transport of corrosion product activity during shutdowns, particularly refueling outages, and for startup chemistry control to minimize IGSCC (intergranular stress corrosion cracking). For shutdown, overall goals are to minimize adverse impacts of crud bursts and the time required to remove activated corrosion products from the reactor coolant during the shutdown process prior to refueling, and to assist plants in predicting and controlling radiation exposure during outages. For startup, the overall goals are to highlight conditions during early heatup and startup when sources of reactor coolant oxidants are high, when there is a greater likelihood for chemical excursions associated with refueling outage work activities, and when hydrogen injection is not available to mitigate IGSCC due to system design limitations. BWR water chemistry has changed significantly in recent years with the adoption of hydrogen water chemistry, zinc addition and noble metal chemical applications. These processes have, in some instances, resulted in significant activity increases during shutdown evolutions, which together with reduced time for cleanup because of shorter outages, has consequently increased outage radiation exposure. A review several recent outages shows that adverse effects from these conditions can be minimized, leading to the set of good practice recommendations for shutdown chemistry control. Most plants lose the majority of their hydrogen availability hours during early startup because feedwater hydrogen injection systems were not originally designed to inject hydrogen below 20% power. Hydrogen availability has improved through modifications to inject hydrogen at lower power levels, some near 5%. However, data indicate that IGSCC is accelerated during early startup, when dissolved oxygen and hydrogen peroxide levels are high and reactor coolant temperatures are in the 300 to 400 oF (

  6. Simulation of chemically reactive solute transport under conditions of changing temperature

    A numerical code, THCC, has been developed for simulation of multicomponent solute transport in saturated porous media with aqueous complexation and precipitation/dissolution of stable solid phases in the presence of variable temperature. THCC evolved from the isothermal code CHEMTRN and is capable of simulating the diffusion of solutes along a steady gradient of temperature and the mixing of fluids having different initial compositions and temperatures. Example calculations demonstrate the close coupling that can exist between temperature variations and the transport of chemically reactive solutes. This coupling can be an important consideration in the assessment of performance of nuclear waste repositories

  7. Associations between street connectivity and active transportation

    Pickle Linda W

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Past studies of associations between measures of the built environment, particularly street connectivity, and active transportation (AT or leisure walking/bicycling have largely failed to account for spatial autocorrelation of connectivity variables and have seldom examined both the propensity for AT and its duration in a coherent fashion. Such efforts could improve our understanding of the spatial and behavioral aspects of AT. We analyzed spatially identified data from Los Angeles and San Diego Counties collected as part of the 2001 California Health Interview Survey. Results Principal components analysis indicated that ~85% of the variance in nine measures of street connectivity are accounted for by two components representing buffers with short blocks and dense nodes (PRIN1 or buffers with longer blocks that still maintain a grid like structure (PRIN2. PRIN1 and PRIN2 were positively associated with active transportation (AT after adjustment for diverse demographic and health related variables. Propensity and duration of AT were correlated in both Los Angeles (r = 0.14 and San Diego (r = 0.49 at the zip code level. Multivariate analysis could account for the correlation between the two outcomes. After controlling for demography, measures of the built environment and other factors, no spatial autocorrelation remained for propensity to report AT (i.e., report of AT appeared to be independent among neighborhood residents. However, very localized correlation was evident in duration of AT, particularly in San Diego, where the variance of duration, after accounting for spatial autocorrelation, was 5% smaller within small neighborhoods (~0.01 square latitude/longitude degrees = 0.6 mile diameter compared to within larger zip code areas. Thus a finer spatial scale of analysis seems to be more appropriate for explaining variation in connectivity and AT. Conclusions Joint analysis of the propensity and duration of AT behavior and an

  8. Integrated compartmental model for describing the transport of solute in a fractured porous medium

    This report documents a model, FRACPORT, that simulates the transport of a solute through a fractured porous matrix. The model should be useful in analyzing the possible transport of radionuclides from shallow-land burial sites in humid environments. The use of the model is restricted to transport through saturated zones. The report first discusses the general modeling approach used, which is based on the Integrated Compartmental Method. The basic equations of solute transport are then presented. The model, which assumes a known water velocity field, solves these equations on two different time scales; one related to rapid transport of solute along fractures and the other related to slower transport through the porous matrix. FRACPORT is validated by application to a simple example of fractured porous medium transport that has previously been analyzed by other methods. Then its utility is demonstrated in analyzing more complex cases of pulses of solute into a fractured matrix. The report serves as a user's guide to FRACPORT. A detailed description of data input, along with a listing of input for a sample problem, is provided. 16 references, 18 figures, 3 tables

  9. Active transport and accumulation of bicarbonate by a unicellular cyanobacterium.

    Miller, A G; Colman, B

    1980-09-01

    The rates of inorganic carbon accumulation and carbon fixation in light by the unicellular cyanobacterim Coccohloris peniocystis have been determined. Cells incubated in the light in medium containing H14CO3- were rapidly separated from the medium by centrifugation through silicone oil into a strongly basic terminating solution. Samples of these inactivated cells were assayed to determine total 14C accumulation, and acid-treated samples were assayed to determine 14C fixation. The rate of transport of inorganic into illuminated cells was faster than the rate of CO2 production in the medium from HCO3- dehydration. This evidence for HCO3- transport in these cells is in agreement with our previous results based upon measurements of photosynthetic O2 evolution. A substantial pool of inorganic carbon was bulit up within the cells presumably as HCO3- before the onset of the maximum rate of photosynthesis. Large accumulation ratios were observed, greater than 1,000 times the external HCO3- concentration. Accumulation did not occur in the dark and was greatly suppressed by the photosynthesis inhibitors 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethyl urea and 3-chloro-carbonylcyanide phenylhydrazone. These results indicate that the accumulation of inorganic carbon in these cells involves a light-dependent active transport process. PMID:6773925

  10. Determination of the activity of a molecular solute in saturated solution

    Prediction of the solubility of a solid molecular compound in a solvent, as well as, estimation of the solution activity coefficient from experimental solubility data both require estimation of the activity of the solute in the saturated solution. The activity of the solute in the saturated solution is often defined using the pure melt at the same temperature as the thermodynamic reference. In chemical engineering literature also the activity of the solid is usually defined on the same reference state. However, far below the melting temperature, the properties of this reference state cannot be determined experimentally, and different simplifications and approximations are normally adopted. In the present work, a novel method is presented to determine the activity of the solute in the saturated solution (=ideal solubility) and the heat capacity difference between the pure supercooled melt and solid. The approach is based on rigorous thermodynamics, using standard experimental thermodynamic data at the melting temperature of the pure compound and solubility measurements in different solvents at various temperatures. The method is illustrated using data for ortho-, meta-, and para-hydroxybenzoic acid, salicylamide and paracetamol. The results show that complete neglect of the heat capacity terms may lead to estimations of the activity that are incorrect by a factor of 12. Other commonly used simplifications may lead to estimations that are only one-third of the correct value

  11. Determination of the activity of a molecular solute in saturated solution

    Nordstroem, Fredrik L. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, 100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Rasmuson, Ake C. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, 100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)], E-mail: rasmuson@ket.kth.se

    2008-12-15

    Prediction of the solubility of a solid molecular compound in a solvent, as well as, estimation of the solution activity coefficient from experimental solubility data both require estimation of the activity of the solute in the saturated solution. The activity of the solute in the saturated solution is often defined using the pure melt at the same temperature as the thermodynamic reference. In chemical engineering literature also the activity of the solid is usually defined on the same reference state. However, far below the melting temperature, the properties of this reference state cannot be determined experimentally, and different simplifications and approximations are normally adopted. In the present work, a novel method is presented to determine the activity of the solute in the saturated solution (=ideal solubility) and the heat capacity difference between the pure supercooled melt and solid. The approach is based on rigorous thermodynamics, using standard experimental thermodynamic data at the melting temperature of the pure compound and solubility measurements in different solvents at various temperatures. The method is illustrated using data for ortho-, meta-, and para-hydroxybenzoic acid, salicylamide and paracetamol. The results show that complete neglect of the heat capacity terms may lead to estimations of the activity that are incorrect by a factor of 12. Other commonly used simplifications may lead to estimations that are only one-third of the correct value.

  12. Mass transfer processes and field-scale transport of organic solutes

    The influence of mass transfer processes, such as sorption/desorption and mass transfer between immiscible liquids and water, on the transport of organic solutes is discussed. Rate-limited sorption of organic solutes caused by a diffusion-constrained mechanism is shown to be significant under laboratory conditions. The significance of the impact of nonequilibrium sorption on field-scale transport is scale dependent. The impact of organic liquids on mass transfer and transport of organic solutes depends upon the nature of the solute and the nature and form of the organic liquid. For example, while retardation of nonionic solutes is decreased in mixed-solvent systems, (i.e. systems comprised of water and a miscible organic liquid or an immiscible liquid present in concentrations below phase separation), the retardation of organic acids may, in some cases, increase with addition of a cosolvent. While the presence of an immiscible liquid existing as a mobile phase will reduce retention of organic solutes, the presence of residual saturation of an immiscible liquid can significantly increase retention. A model is presented that incorporates the effects of retention resulting from residual saturation, as well as nonequilibrium sorption, on the transport of organic solutes. (Author) (70 refs., 3 figs.)

  13. Role of ABC and Solute Carrier Transporters in the Placental Transport of Lamivudine.

    Ceckova, Martina; Reznicek, Josef; Ptackova, Zuzana; Cerveny, Lukas; Müller, Fabian; Kacerovsky, Marian; Fromm, Martin F; Glazier, Jocelyn D; Staud, Frantisek

    2016-09-01

    Lamivudine is one of the antiretroviral drugs of choice for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) in HIV-positive women. In this study, we investigated the relevance of drug efflux transporters P-glycoprotein (P-gp) (MDR1 [ABCB1]), BCRP (ABCG2), MRP2 (ABCC2), and MATE1 (SLC47A1) for the transmembrane transport and transplacental transfer of lamivudine. We employed in vitro accumulation and transport experiments on MDCK cells overexpressing drug efflux transporters, in situ-perfused rat term placenta, and vesicular uptake in microvillous plasma membrane (MVM) vesicles isolated from human term placenta. MATE1 significantly accelerated lamivudine transport in MATE1-expressing MDCK cells, whereas no transporter-driven efflux of lamivudine was observed in MDCK-MDR1, MDCK-MRP2, and MDCK-BCRP monolayers. MATE1-mediated efflux of lamivudine appeared to be a low-affinity process (apparent Km of 4.21 mM and Vmax of 5.18 nmol/mg protein/min in MDCK-MATE1 cells). Consistent with in vitro transport studies, the transplacental clearance of lamivudine was not affected by P-gp, BCRP, or MRP2. However, lamivudine transfer across dually perfused rat placenta and the uptake of lamivudine into human placental MVM vesicles revealed pH dependency, indicating possible involvement of MATE1 in the fetal-to-maternal efflux of the drug. To conclude, placental transport of lamivudine does not seem to be affected by P-gp, MRP2, or BCRP, but a pH-dependent mechanism mediates transport of lamivudine in the fetal-to-maternal direction. We suggest that MATE1 might be, at least partly, responsible for this transport. PMID:27401571

  14. CFEST Coupled Flow, Energy & Solute Transport Version CFEST005 Theory Guide

    Freedman, Vicky L.; Chen, Yousu; Gupta, Sumant K.

    2005-11-01

    This document presents the mathematical theory implemented in the CFEST (Coupled Flow, Energy, and Solute Transport) simulator. The simulator is a three-dimensional finite element model that can be used for evaluating flow and solute mass transport. Although the theory for thermal transport is presented in this guide, it has not yet been fully implemented in the simulator. The flow module is capable of simulating both confined and unconfined aquifer systems, as well as constant and variable density fluid flows. For unconfined aquifers, the model uses a moving boundary for the water table, deforming the numerical mesh so that the uppermost nodes are always at the water table. For solute transport, changes in concentration of a single dissolved chemical constituent are computed for advective and hydrodynamic transport, linear sorption represented by a retardation factor, and radioactive decay. Once fully implemented, transport of thermal energy in the groundwater and solid matrix of the aquifer can also be used to model aquifer thermal regimes. Mesh construction employs “collapsible”, hexahedral finite elements in a three-dimensional coordinate system. CFEST uses the Galerkin finite element method to convert the partial differential equations to algebraic form. To solve the coupled equations for momentum, solute and heat transport, either Picard or Newton-Raphson iterative schemes are used to treat nonlinearities. An upstream weighted residual finite-element method is used to solve the advective-dispersive transport and energy transfer equations, which circumvents problems of numerical oscillation problems. Matrix solutions of the flow and transport problems are performed using efficient iterative solvers available in ITPACK and PETSc, solvers that are available in the public domain. These solvers are based on the preconditioned conjugate gradient and ORTHOMIN methods for symmetric and a nonsymmetric matrices, respectively.

  15. Use of Emulsions with Surfactant Solutions for Viscous Fluids Transportation

    Erich Martínez Martín

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The needs for improving the fluidity of fluids is present in the industry, because of the expenses that it takes and its relation with the achievement of the consumers’ demand according to volumes required for its different uses. In this way, the Oil Industry shows several methods to achieve this purpose, taking into account the characteristics of this substance. A method that can be used is the oil emulsions. Emulsions provide good results if they gather certain requirements for its use. In thispaper are shown the results of a research about the use of surfactant solutions in emulsions W/O. Oil transmission is used in this work because of its similar properties to oil.

  16. Stochastic models of solute transport in highly heterogeneous geologic media

    Semenov, V.N.; Korotkin, I.A.; Pruess, K.; Goloviznin, V.M.; Sorokovikova, O.S.

    2009-09-15

    A stochastic model of anomalous diffusion was developed in which transport occurs by random motion of Brownian particles, described by distribution functions of random displacements with heavy (power-law) tails. One variant of an effective algorithm for random function generation with a power-law asymptotic and arbitrary factor of asymmetry is proposed that is based on the Gnedenko-Levy limit theorem and makes it possible to reproduce all known Levy {alpha}-stable fractal processes. A two-dimensional stochastic random walk algorithm has been developed that approximates anomalous diffusion with streamline-dependent and space-dependent parameters. The motivation for introducing such a type of dispersion model is the observed fact that tracers in natural aquifers spread at different super-Fickian rates in different directions. For this and other important cases, stochastic random walk models are the only known way to solve the so-called multiscaling fractional order diffusion equation with space-dependent parameters. Some comparisons of model results and field experiments are presented.

  17. Flow dynamics and solute transport in unsaturated rock fractures

    Su, G. W.

    1999-10-01

    Rock fractures play an important role in flow and contaminant transport in fractured aquifers, production of oil from petroleum reservoirs, and steam generation from geothermal reservoirs. In this dissertation, phenomenological aspects of flow in unsaturated fractures were studied in visualization experiments conducted on a transparent replica of a natural, rough-walled rock fracture for inlet conditions of constant pressure and flow rate over a range of angles of inclination. The experiments demonstrated that infiltrating liquid proceeds through unsaturated rock fractures along non-uniform, localized preferential flow paths. Even in the presence of constant boundary conditions, intermittent flow was a persistent flow feature observed, where portions of the flow channel underwent cycles of snapping and reforming. Two modes of intermittent flow were observed, the pulsating blob mode and the rivulet snapping mode. A conceptual model for the rivulet snapping mode was proposed and examined using idealized, variable-aperture fractures. The frequency of intermittent flow events was measured in several experiments and related to the capillary and Bond numbers to characterize this flow behavior.

  18. Molecular cell biology and physiology of solute transport

    Caplan, Michael J.; Seo-Mayer, Patricia; Zhang, Li

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review An enormous body of research has been focused on exploring the mechanisms through which epithelial cells establish their characteristic polarity. It is clear that under normal circumstances cell–cell contacts mediated by the calcium-dependent adhesion proteins of the intercellular adhesion junctions are required to initiate complete polarization. Furthermore, formation of the tight, or occluding, junctions that limit paracellular permeability has long been thought to help to establish polarity by preventing the diffusion of membrane proteins between the two plasmalemmal domains. This review will discuss several selected kinases and protein complexes and highlight their relevance to transporting epithelial cell polarization. Recent findings Recent work has shed new light on the roles of junctional complexes in establishing and maintaining epithelial cell polarity. In addition, work from several laboratories, suggests that the formation of these junctions is tied to processes that regulate cellular energy metabolism. Summary Junctional complexes and energy sensing kinases constitute a novel class of machinery whose capacity to generate and modulate epithelial cell polarity is likely to have wide ranging and important physiological ramifications. PMID:18695392

  19. Air pollution exposure: An activity pattern approach for active transportation

    Adams, Matthew D.; Yiannakoulias, Nikolaos; Kanaroglou, Pavlos S.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the calculation of personal air pollution exposure during trips made by active transportation using activity patterns without personal monitors. We calculate exposure as the inhaled dose of particulate matter 2.5 μg or smaller. Two modes of active transportation are compared, and they include cycling and walking. Ambient conditions are calculated by combining mobile and stationary monitoring data in an artificial neural network space-time model. The model uses a land use regression framework and has a prediction accuracy of R2 = 0.78. Exposure is calculated at 10 m or shorter intervals during the trips using inhalation rates associated with both modes. The trips are children's routes between home and school. The average dose during morning cycling trips was 2.17 μg, during morning walking trips was 3.19 μg, during afternoon cycling trips was 2.19 μg and during afternoon walking trips was 3.23 μg. The cycling trip dose was significantly lower than the walking trip dose. The air pollution exposure during walking or cycling trips could not be strongly predicted by either the school or household ambient conditions, either individually or in combination. Multiple linear regression models regressing both the household and school ambient conditions against the dose were only able to account for, at most, six percent of the variance in the exposure. This paper demonstrates that incorporating activity patterns when calculating exposure can improve the estimate of exposure compared to its calculation from ambient conditions.

  20. Automodel solutions for Lévy flight-based transport on a uniform background

    Kukushkin, A. B.; Sdvizhenskii, P. A.

    2016-06-01

    A wide class of non-stationary superdiffusive transport on a uniform background with a power-law decay at large distances of the step-length probability distribution function (PDF) is shown to possess an approximate automodel solution. The solution for the Green’s function is constructed using the scaling laws for the propagation front (relevant-to-superdiffusion average displacement) and asymptotic solutions far beyond and far in advance of the propagation front. These scaling laws are determined essentially by the long-free-path carriers (Lévy flights). The validity of the suggested automodel solution is proved by its comparison with numerical solutions in the one-dimensional (1D) case of the transport equation with a simple long-tailed PDF with various power-law exponents and in the 3D case of the Biberman–Holstein equation of the resonance radiation transfer for various (Doppler, Lorentz, Voigt and Holtsmark) spectral line shapes.

  1. A Simple Laboratory Exercise Illustrating Active Transport in Yeast Cells.

    Stambuk, Boris U.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a simple laboratory activity illustrating the chemiosmotic principles of active transport in yeast cells. Demonstrates the energy coupling mechanism of active a-glucoside uptake by Saccaromyces cerevisiae cells with a colorimetric transport assay using very simple equipment. (Contains 22 references.) (Author/YDS)

  2. A fully resolved active musculo-mechanical model for esophageal transport

    Kou, Wenjun; Griffith, Boyce E; Pandolfino, John E; Kahrilas, Peter J; Patankar, Neelesh A

    2015-01-01

    Esophageal transport is a physiological process that mechanically transports an ingested food bolus from the pharynx to the stomach via the esophagus, a multi-layered muscular tube. This process involves interactions between the bolus, the esophagus, and the neurally coordinated activation of the esophageal muscles. In this work, we use an immersed boundary (IB) approach to simulate peristaltic transport in the esophagus. The bolus is treated as a viscous fluid that is actively transported by the muscular esophagus, which is modeled as an actively contracting, fiber-reinforced tube. A simplified version of our model is verified by comparison to an analytic solution to the tube dilation problem. Three different complex models of the multi-layered esophagus, which differ in their activation patterns and the layouts of the mucosal layers, are then extensively tested. To our knowledge, these simulations are the first of their kind to incorporate the bolus, the multi-layered esophagus tube, and muscle activation i...

  3. From shale gas to renewable energy based transportation solutions

    We present an energy roadmap for the US light duty vehicle (LDV) sector that efficiently utilizes natural gas (NG) and transitions to renewable energy and carbon sources as they become economical. We use well-to-wheels (WTW) efficiency to compare alternative NG transportation pathways. If internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs) remain prevalent, then compressed natural gas (CNG) is the favored fuel. Among electric powertrains, centralized electricity generation with battery electric vehicle (BEV) is more efficient than on-board generation with fuel-cell vehicles (FCV). Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) balance driving range against WTW efficiency, and provide flexibility in sourcing electricity from different energy sources. Despite these efficient WTW pathways, supplying NG for the LDV sector is estimated to decrease the lifetime of current US NG reserves to about 60 years. Beyond this period, compressed methane derived from biomass can replace CNG, and utilize the would-be developed CNG infrastructure. The LDV biomass requirement depends on the biomass to methane carbon conversion and battery storage capacity of CNG PHEVs. Converting biomass to methane using solar heat/H2 leads to ∼65% lower LDV biomass requirement compared to standalone processes recovering ∼30% biomass carbon as methane. The resulting biomass amounts compare favorably with future US biomass supply projections. - Highlights: • Energy roadmap for US Light Duty Vehicle (LDV) sector using natural gas and biomass. • Use compressed natural gas (CNG) which transitions to biomass-derived methane. • Use of CNG with plug-in hybrid electric vehicle reduces LDV biomass requirement

  4. FLUID-SOLID COUPLING MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF CONTAMINANT TRANSPORT IN UNSATURATED ZONE AND ITS ASYMPTOTICAL SOLUTION

    薛强; 梁冰; 刘晓丽; 李宏艳

    2003-01-01

    The process of contaminant transport is a problem of multicomponent and multiphase flow in unsaturated zone. Under the presupposition that gas existence affects water transport , a coupled mathematical model of contaminant transport in unsaturated zone has been established based on fluid-solid interaction mechanics theory. The asymptotical solutions to the nonlinear coupling mathematical model were accomplished by the perturbation and integral transformation method. The distribution law of pore pressure,pore water velocity and contaminant concentration in unsaturated zone has been presented under the conditions of with coupling and without coupling gas phase. An example problem was used to provide a quantitative verification and validation of the model. The asymptotical solution was compared with Faust model solution. The comparison results show reasonable agreement between asymptotical solution and Faust solution, and the gas effect and media deformation has a large impact on the contaminant transport. The theoretical basis is provided for forecasting contaminant transport and the determination of the relationship among pressure-saturation-permeability in laboratory.

  5. Analytically-derived sensitivities in one-dimensional models of solute transport in porous media

    Knopman, D.S.

    1987-01-01

    Analytically-derived sensitivities are presented for parameters in one-dimensional models of solute transport in porous media. Sensitivities were derived by direct differentiation of closed form solutions for each of the odel, and by a time integral method for two of the models. Models are based on the advection-dispersion equation and include adsorption and first-order chemical decay. Boundary conditions considered are: a constant step input of solute, constant flux input of solute, and exponentially decaying input of solute at the upstream boundary. A zero flux is assumed at the downstream boundary. Initial conditions include a constant and spatially varying distribution of solute. One model simulates the mixing of solute in an observation well from individual layers in a multilayer aquifer system. Computer programs produce output files compatible with graphics software in which sensitivities are plotted as a function of either time or space. (USGS)

  6. Water flow and solute transport using environmental isotopes and modeling

    The deep unsaturated zone may be a useful hydrological archive in desert environments characterized by scant or sporadic rainfall and slow percolation of rainwater over decades or even centuries. This moisture archive provides a useful way to distinguish the net downward flow of recharge water, whereas the isotopic composition and concentration of the conservative solutes of the preserved moisture could be used to reconstruct the history of recharge under the prevailing deficient water balance. The major advantage of such coupled approach is to obtain independent estimates of groundwater recharge rates which are normally difficult to evaluate using the hydrological methods applied in the temperate zones. The study was conducted in the Shiekh-Zoweid/Raffa area in the northeastern coastal strip of Sinai Peninsula. Bore-holes were dry-drilled in a line perpendicular to the sea shoreline (using an 8-inch diameter hand-operated rotary rig) for the unsaturated sediment collection from successive 0.5m thick layers down to a depth of 20m. Samples were investigated for the moisture contents and the chemical and isotope composition of this moisture was determined. Physical parameters were also assessed including porosity and volumetric moisture content. Chloride mass-balance was used to calculate recharge rates through the unsaturated zone by predicting the position of the 1963-Tritium peak in the unsaturated column. Analysis of moisture, chloride and deuterium profiles showed three principle peaks (along with minor ones) in Karafin site indicating few major recharge events that have taken place during the last few decades. Adjustment of these episodes has also been attempted using two historical major rainfall events (known from nearby meteorological stations). Application of the methodology in water resources management in arid regions is discussed. (author)

  7. Temporal moment analysis of solute transport in a coupled fracture-skin-matrix system

    V Renu; G Suresh Kumar

    2014-04-01

    In the present study, method of temporal moments has been used to analyse the transport characteristics of reactive solute along fracture in a coupled fracture-skin-matrix system. In order to obtain the concentration distribution within the fracture, a system of coupled partial differential equations for fracture, fractureskin and rock-matrix has been solved numerically in a pseudo two-dimensional domain using implicit finite difference method. Subsequently, lower order temporal moments of solute have been computed from the concentration distribution to analyse the transport characteristics of solutes in the fracture. This study has been done by considering an inlet boundary condition of constant continuous source in a single fracture. The effect of various fracture-skin parameters like porosity, thickness and diffusion coefficient on the transport of solutes have been studied by doing sensitivity analyses. The effect of nonlinear sorption and radioactive decay of solutes have also been analysed by carrying out simulations for different sorption intensities and decay constants. Numerical results suggested that the presence of fracture-skin significantly influences the transport characteristics of reactive solutes along the fracture.

  8. Active transport among Czech school-aged children

    Jan Pavelka

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Active transport is a very important factor for increasing the level of physical activity in children, which is significant for both their health and positive physical behaviour in adult age. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to establish the proportion of Czech children aged 11 to 15 who select active transport to and from school and, at the same time, describe socio-economic and socio-demographic factors influencing active transport to and from school among children. METHODS: To establish the socio-demographic factors affecting active transport, data of a national representative sample of 11 to 15 year-old elementary school children in the Czech Republic (n = 4,425. Research data collection was performed within an international research study called Health Behaviour in School Aged Children in June 2010. Statistical processing of the results was made using a logistic regression analysis in the statistical programme IBM SPSS v 20. RESULTS: Active transport to and from school is opted for in the Czech Republic by approximately 2/3 of children aged 11 to 15. Differences between genders are not statistically significant; most children opting for active transport are aged 11 (69%. An important factor increasing the probability of active transport as much as 16 times is whether a child's place of residence is in the same municipality as the school. Other factors influencing this choice include BMI, time spent using a computer or a privateroom in a family. A significant factor determining active transport by children is safety; safe road crossing, opportunity to leave a bicycle safely at school, no fear of being assaulted on the way or provision of school lockers where children can leave their items. CONCLUSIONS: Active transport plays an important role in increasing the overall level of physical activity in children. Promotion of active transport should focus on children who spend more time using a computer; attention should also be

  9. Continuous time random walk analysis of solute transport in fractured porous media

    Cortis, Andrea; Cortis, Andrea; Birkholzer, Jens

    2008-06-01

    The objective of this work is to discuss solute transport phenomena in fractured porous media, where the macroscopic transport of contaminants in the highly permeable interconnected fractures can be strongly affected by solute exchange with the porous rock matrix. We are interested in a wide range of rock types, with matrix hydraulic conductivities varying from almost impermeable (e.g., granites) to somewhat permeable (e.g., porous sandstones). In the first case, molecular diffusion is the only transport process causing the transfer of contaminants between the fractures and the matrix blocks. In the second case, additional solute transfer occurs as a result of a combination of advective and dispersive transport mechanisms, with considerable impact on the macroscopic transport behavior. We start our study by conducting numerical tracer experiments employing a discrete (microscopic) representation of fractures and matrix. Using the discrete simulations as a surrogate for the 'correct' transport behavior, we then evaluate the accuracy of macroscopic (continuum) approaches in comparison with the discrete results. However, instead of using dual-continuum models, which are quite often used to account for this type of heterogeneity, we develop a macroscopic model based on the Continuous Time Random Walk (CTRW) framework, which characterizes the interaction between the fractured and porous rock domains by using a probability distribution function of residence times. A parametric study of how CTRW parameters evolve is presented, describing transport as a function of the hydraulic conductivity ratio between fractured and porous domains.

  10. Impact of biofilm-induced heterogeneities on solute transport in porous media

    Kone, T.; Golfier, F.; Orgogozo, L.; Oltéan, C.; Lefèvre, E.; Block, J. C.; Buès, M. A.

    2014-11-01

    In subsurface systems, biofilm may degrade organic or organometallic pollutants contributing to natural attenuation and soil bioremediation techniques. This increase of microbial activity leads to change the hydrodynamic properties of aquifers. The purpose of this work was to investigate the influence of biofilm-induced heterogeneities on solute transport in porous media and more specifically on dispersivity. We pursued this goal by (i) monitoring both spatial concentration fields and solute breakthrough curves from conservative tracer experiments in a biofilm-supporting porous medium, (ii) characterizing in situ the changes in biovolume and visualizing the dynamics of the biological material at the mesoscale. A series of experiments was carried out in a flow cell system (60 cm3) with a silica sand (Φ = 50-70 mesh) as solid carrier and Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 as bacterial strain. Biofilm growth was monitored by image acquisition with a digital camera. The biofilm volume fraction was estimated through tracer experiments with the Blue Dextran macromolecule as in size-exclusion chromatography, leading to a fair picture of the biocolonization within the flow cell. Biofilm growth was achieved in the whole flow cell in 29 days and up to 50% of void space volume was plugged. The influence of biofilm maturation on porous medium transport properties was evaluated from tracer experiments using Brilliant Blue FCF. An experimental correlation was found between effective (i.e., nonbiocolonized) porosity and biofilm-affected dispersivity. Comparison with values given by the theoretical model of Taylor and Jaffé (1990b) yields a fair agreement.

  11. Ab initio electronic transport model with explicit solution to the linearized Boltzmann transport equation

    Faghaninia, Alireza; Ager, Joel W.; Lo, Cynthia S.

    2015-06-01

    Accurate models of carrier transport are essential for describing the electronic properties of semiconductor materials. To the best of our knowledge, the current models following the framework of the Boltzmann transport equation (BTE) either rely heavily on experimental data (i.e., semiempirical), or utilize simplifying assumptions, such as the constant relaxation time approximation (BTE-cRTA). While these models offer valuable physical insights and accurate calculations of transport properties in some cases, they often lack sufficient accuracy—particularly in capturing the correct trends with temperature and carrier concentration. We present here a transport model for calculating low-field electrical drift mobility and Seebeck coefficient of n -type semiconductors, by explicitly considering relevant physical phenomena (i.e., elastic and inelastic scattering mechanisms). We first rewrite expressions for the rates of elastic scattering mechanisms, in terms of ab initio properties, such as the band structure, density of states, and polar optical phonon frequency. We then solve the linear BTE to obtain the perturbation to the electron distribution—resulting from the dominant scattering mechanisms—and use this to calculate the overall mobility and Seebeck coefficient. Therefore, we have developed an ab initio model for calculating mobility and Seebeck coefficient using the Boltzmann transport (aMoBT) equation. Using aMoBT, we accurately calculate electrical transport properties of the compound n -type semiconductors, GaAs and InN, over various ranges of temperature and carrier concentration. aMoBT is fully predictive and provides high accuracy when compared to experimental measurements on both GaAs and InN, and vastly outperforms both semiempirical models and the BTE-cRTA. Therefore, we assert that this approach represents a first step towards a fully ab initio carrier transport model that is valid in all compound semiconductors.

  12. Passenger transport and household activity patterns

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1997-01-01

    Review of Danish passenger transport patterns and analysis of energy consumption, emissions and safety impacts for selected typical households' travelling......Review of Danish passenger transport patterns and analysis of energy consumption, emissions and safety impacts for selected typical households' travelling...

  13. Analytical Solutions of a Fractional Diffusion-advection Equation for Solar Cosmic-Ray Transport

    Litvinenko, Yuri E.; Effenberger, Frederic

    2014-12-01

    Motivated by recent applications of superdiffusive transport models to shock-accelerated particle distributions in the heliosphere, we analytically solve a one-dimensional fractional diffusion-advection equation for the particle density. We derive an exact Fourier transform solution, simplify it in a weak diffusion approximation, and compare the new solution with previously available analytical results and with a semi-numerical solution based on a Fourier series expansion. We apply the results to the problem of describing the transport of energetic particles, accelerated at a traveling heliospheric shock. Our analysis shows that significant errors may result from assuming an infinite initial distance between the shock and the observer. We argue that the shock travel time should be a parameter of a realistic superdiffusive transport model.

  14. Analytical solutions of a fractional diffusion-advection equation for solar cosmic-ray transport

    Litvinenko, Yuri E

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by recent applications of superdiffusive transport models to shock-accelerated particle distributions in the heliosphere, we solve analytically a one-dimensional fractional diffusion-advection equation for the particle density. We derive an exact Fourier transform solution, simplify it in a weak diffusion approximation, and compare the new solution with previously available analytical results and with a semi-numerical solution based on a Fourier series expansion. We apply the results to the problem of describing the transport of energetic particles, accelerated at a traveling heliospheric shock. Our analysis shows that significant errors may result from assuming an infinite initial distance between the shock and the observer. We argue that the shock travel time should be a parameter of a realistic superdiffusive transport model.

  15. Modeling reactive geochemical transport of concentrated aqueous solutions in variably saturated media

    Zhang, Guoxiang; Zheng, Zuoping; Wan, Jiamin

    2004-01-28

    Concentrated aqueous solutions (CAS) have unique thermodynamic and physical properties. Chemical components in CAS are incompletely dissociated, especially those containing divalent or polyvalent ions. The problem is further complicated by the interaction between CAS flow processes and the naturally heterogeneous sediments. As the CAS migrates through the porous media, the composition may be altered subject to fluid-rock interactions. To effectively model reactive transport of CAS, we must take into account ion-interaction. A combination of the Pitzer ion-interaction and the ion-association model would be an appropriate way to deal with multiple-component systems if the Pitzer' parameters and thermodynamic data of dissolved components and the related minerals are available. To quantify the complicated coupling of CAS flow and transport, as well as the involved chemical reactions in natural and engineered systems, we have substantially extended an existing reactive biogeochemical transport code, BIO-CORE{sup 2D}{copyright}, by incorporating a comprehensive Pitzer ion-interaction model. In the present paper, the model, and two test cases against measured data were briefly introduced. Finally we present an application to simulate a laboratory column experiment studying the leakage of the high alkaline waste fluid stored in Hanford (a site of the U.S. Department of Energy, located in Washington State, USA). With the Pitzer ion-interaction ionic activity model, our simulation captures measured pH evolution. The simulation indicates that all the reactions controlling the pH evolution, including cation exchanges, mineral precipitation and dissolution, are coupled.

  16. Nanoporous activated carbon cloth for capacitive deionization of aqueous solution

    Oh, Han-Jun [Department of Materials Science, Hanseo University, Seosan, 352-820 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong-Ho [Department of Chemistry, Hanseo University, Seosan, 352-820 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Hong-Joo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon, 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Yongsoo [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Changwon, 641-010 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young-Jig [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Chi, Choong-Soo [School of Advanced Materials Engineering, Kookmin University, Seoul, 136-702 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: cschi@kookmin.ac.kr

    2006-09-25

    Activated nanostructured-carbon cloths with a high ratio of surface area to volume are used as electrode for capacitive deionization. The electrochemical properties on capacitive deionization for NaCl solution have been investigated to improve efficiency of capacitive deionization properties from aqueous solution, employing chemical surface-modification by etching in alkaline and acidic solution. The removal efficiency of inorganic salts of activated carbon cloths by chemical modification significantly increased. Specially the carbon cloth surface modified in HNO{sub 3} showed an effect of improvement in the CDI efficiency due to not only ion adsorption by an electric double layer, but also electron transfer by Faradaic reaction.

  17. Identification of key target markets for intermodal freight transport solutions in South Africa

    Joubert van Eeden

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The Accelerated and Shared Growth Initiative for South Africa (AsgiSA identified South Africa's freight logistics challenges as among the key binding constraints on the country's growth aspirations. The research presented here points to the structural imbalance between road and rail freight transport as one of the key contributors to this state of affairs. Most long-distance corridor transport has been captured by road. However, long-distance transport is a market segment that is very suitable for intermodal transportation : rail is utilised for the high-density, long-distance component and road for the feeder and distribution services at the corridor end points. A market segmentation approach is developed to identify the corridors and industries that are natural candidates for such solutions, thereby paving the way for role-players and stakeholders to initiate a dialogue on the development of appropriate solutions.

  18. Improvement of the axial diffusion solver of DeCART employing 1-D transport solution

    Instead of the 3-D transport equation, DeCART solves a transverse leakage coupled radial transport and axial diffusion equations to obtain an approximate 3-D transport solution. In this paper, two of the approximations contained in DeCART related with diffusion constants and cell homogenization are exmained, and practical improvement schemes are suggested. To overcome the diffusion approximation used in the axial direction, a current conservation scheme based on the axial 1-D transport solution is introduced. To overcome the cell homogenization effect, a plane height refinement scheme is employed near the axial core/reflector boundary where homogenization constants vary significantly in the axial direction within the plane. These schemes are evaluated by solving the 3-D VENUS-2 MOX core benchmark. The current conservation and plane height refinement schemes bring about 280 pcm and 100 pcm improvement in k-eff, respectively, and about 390 pcm in total, but trivial effects in the power distribution

  19. Modeling of water and solute transport under variably saturated conditions: state of the art

    This paper reviews the equations used in deterministic models of mass and energy transport in variably saturated porous media. Analytic, quasi-analytic, and numerical solution methods to the nonlinear forms of transport equations are discussed with respect to their advantages and limitations. The factors that influence the selection of a modeling method are discussed in this paper; they include the following: (1) the degree of coupling required among the equations describing the transport of liquids, gases, solutes, and energy; (2) the inclusion of an advection term in the equations; (3) the existence of sharp fronts; (4) the degree of nonlinearity and hysteresis in the transport coefficients and boundary conditions; (5) the existence of complex boundaries; and (6) the availability and reliability of data required by the models

  20. Nutrition of the intervertebral disc: effect of fluid flow on solute transport

    Adult dogs were injected intravenously with 35S-sulphate, and moderately exercised for one to six hours to measure isotope concentrations and profiles throughout the intervertebral discs. The isotope profiles were also observed in control animals that had been under anesthesia between injections and death. In both sets of animals, the profiles were in agreement with those expected for isotope transport by diffusion. This agreement indicates that fluid pumping during movement has an insignificant effect on transport of nutrients into the disc. Small solutes, e.g., O2, glucose, and sulphate, are transported into the disc chiefly by diffusion. However, calculations show that because of their low diffusivities, pumping may increase the rate of transport of large solutes into the disc, as it does in articular cartilage

  1. Simulation of unsaturated flow and nonreactive solute transport in a heterogeneous soil at the field scale

    A field-scale, unsaturated flow and solute transport experiment at the Las Cruces trench site in New Mexico was simulated as part of a ''blind'' modeling exercise to demonstrate the ability or inability of uncalibrated models to predict unsaturated flow and solute transport in spatially variable porous media. Simulations were conducted using a recently developed multiphase flow and transport simulator. Uniform and heterogeneous soil models were tested, and data from a previous experiment at the site were used with an inverse procedure to estimate water retention parameters. A spatial moment analysis was used to provide a quantitative basis for comparing the mean observed and simulated flow and transport behavior. The results of this study suggest that defensible predictions of waste migration and fate at low-level waste sites will ultimately require site-specific data for model calibration

  2. Peritoneal Fluid Transport rather than Peritoneal Solute Transport Associates with Dialysis Vintage and Age of Peritoneal Dialysis Patients

    Jacek Waniewski; Stefan Antosiewicz; Daniel Baczynski; Jan Poleszczuk; Mauro Pietribiasi; Bengt Lindholm; Zofia Wankowicz

    2016-01-01

    During peritoneal dialysis (PD), the peritoneal membrane undergoes ageing processes that affect its function. Here we analyzed associations of patient age and dialysis vintage with parameters of peritoneal transport of fluid and solutes, directly measured and estimated based on the pore model, for individual patients. Thirty-three patients (15 females; age 60 (21–87) years; median time on PD 19 (3–100) months) underwent sequential peritoneal equilibration test. Dialysis vintage and patient ag...

  3. Adsorption of EDTA on activated carbon from aqueous solutions

    In this study, the adsorption of EDTA on activated carbon from aqueous solutions has been investigated in a batch stirred cell. Experiments have been carried out to investigate the effects of temperature, EDTA concentration, pH, activated carbon mass and particle size on EDTA adsorption. The experimental results manifest that the EDTA adsorption rate increases with its concentration in the aqueous solutions. EDTA adsorption also increases with temperature. The EDTA removal from the solution increases as activated carbon mass increases. The Langmuir and Freundlich equilibrium isotherm models are found to provide a good fitting of the adsorption data, with R2 = 0.9920 and 0.9982, respectively. The kinetic study shows that EDTA adsorption on the activated carbon is in good compliance with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The thermodynamic parameters (Ea, ΔG0, ΔH0, ΔS0) obtained indicate the endothermic nature of EDTA adsorption on activated carbon.

  4. Kinetic theory the Chapman-Enskog solution of the transport equation for moderately dense gases

    Brush, S G

    1972-01-01

    Kinetic Theory, Volume 3: The Chapman-Enskog Solution of the Transport Equation for Moderately Dense Gases describes the Chapman-Enskog solution of the transport equation for moderately dense gases. Topics covered range from the propagation of sound in monatomic gases to the kinetic theory of simple and composite monatomic gases and generalizations of the theory to higher densities. The application of kinetic theory to the determination of intermolecular forces is also discussed. This volume is divided into two sections and begins with an introduction to the work of Hilbert, Chapman, and Ensko

  5. Analytical solution of electrohydrodynamic flow and transport in rectangular channels: inclusion of double layer effects

    Joekar-Niasar, V.

    2013-01-25

    Upscaling electroosmosis in porous media is a challenge due to the complexity and scale-dependent nonlinearities of this coupled phenomenon. "Pore-network modeling" for upscaling electroosmosis from pore scale to Darcy scale can be considered as a promising approach. However, this method requires analytical solutions for flow and transport at pore scale. This study concentrates on the development of analytical solutions of flow and transport in a single rectangular channel under combined effects of electrohydrodynamic forces. These relations will be used in future works for pore-network modeling. The analytical solutions are valid for all regimes of overlapping electrical double layers and have the potential to be extended to nonlinear Boltzmann distribution. The innovative aspects of this study are (a) contribution of overlapping of electrical double layers to the Stokes flow as well as Nernst-Planck transport has been carefully included in the analytical solutions. (b) All important transport mechanisms including advection, diffusion, and electromigration have been included in the analytical solutions. (c) Fully algebraic relations developed in this study can be easily employed to upscale electroosmosis to Darcy scale using pore-network modeling. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  6. Spectroscopic and transport measurements of single molecules in solution using an electrokinetic trap

    Wang, Quan; Moerner, W. E.

    2014-03-01

    In aqueous solution, diffusion generally limits the observation window of a nano-meter sized single molecule to milliseconds and prevents quantitative determination of spectroscopic and transport properties molecule-by-molecule. The anti-Brownian electrokinetic (ABEL) trap is a feedback-based microfluidic device that enables prolonged (multiseconds) observation of single molecules in solution. The amount of information that can be extracted from each molecule in solution is thus boosted by three orders of magnitude. We describe recent advances in extending the ABEL trap to conduct both spectroscopic and transport measurements of single trapped molecules. First, by combining the trap with multi-parameter fluorescence detection, synchronized dynamics in different observables can be visualized in solution. We use single molecules of Atto 633 as an example and show that this popular label switches between different emissive states under common imaging conditions. Next, we show how transport properties of trapped single molecules can be extracted in addition to spectroscopic readouts. Due to their direct sensitivity to molecular size and charge, measured transport coefficients can be used to distinguish different molecular species and trace biomolecular interactions in solution. We demonstrate this new paradigm by monitoring DNA hybridization/melting in real-time.

  7. Collocation method for the solution of the neutron transport equation with both symmetric and asymmetric scattering

    Morel, J.E.

    1981-01-01

    A collocation method is developed for the solution of the one-dimensional neutron transport equation in slab geometry with both symmetric and polarly asymmetric scattering. For the symmetric scattering case, it is found that the collocation method offers a combination of some of the best characteristics of the finite-element and discrete-ordinates methods. For the asymmetric scattering case, it is found that the computational cost of cross-section data processing under the collocation approach can be significantly less than that associated with the discrete-ordinates approach. A general diffusion equation treating both symmetric and asymmetric scattering is developed and used in a synthetic acceleration algorithm to accelerate the iterative convergence of collocation solutions. It is shown that a certain type of asymmetric scattering can radically alter the asymptotic behavior of the transport solution and is mathematically equivalent within the diffusion approximation to particle transport under the influence of an electric field. The method is easily extended to other geometries and higher dimensions. Applications exist in the areas of neutron transport with highly anisotropic scattering (such as that associated with hydrogenous media), charged-particle transport, and particle transport in controlled-fusion plasmas. 23 figures, 6 tables.

  8. Strategic network design of Java Island fuel supply with production-transportation solution

    Dianawati, Fauzia; Farizal, -; Surjandari, Isti; Marzuli, Rully

    2011-10-01

    This study aims to find more efficient supply network, from refineries / imports to fuel terminal, which still uses the Tanker, Tank Trucks or Rail Tank Wagon with an alternative pipeline that are considered more efficient than other transport modes, as well as gaining pipeline transportation network optimization analysis tailored to the capabilities/ capacity of refinery production and capacity of the pipe mode. With the complexity of the number of 3 point sources of supply, 19 destination of terminal, 4 kinds of products and 4 types of transport modes, transport-production model modified by adding multi-modal transport and investment costs of new pipeline. Then coded in Lingo program which adopts Branch & Bound technique and input the processed data in order to obtain an optimal distribution pattern produced the lowest distribution costs. This B&B solution was also compared with SCO solution which is a metaheuristic method. The results of this study lead to the development of new modes of pipeline connections in amount of 4 alternatives, generated from the optimal solution, but still potentially earned savings of about IDR 1 Trillion per year from cost-efficiency of product procurement and transportation costs.

  9. Three-dimensional Solute Transport Modeling in Coupled Soil and Plant Root Systems

    Schröder, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    Many environmental and agricultural challenges rely on the proper understanding of water flow and solute transport in soils, for example the carbon cycle, crop growth, irrigation scheduling or fate of pollutants in subsoil. Current modeling approaches typically simulate plant uptake via empirical approaches, which neglect the three-dimensional (3D) root architecture. Yet, nowadays 3D soil-root water and solute models on plant-scale exist, which can be used for assessing the impact of root arc...

  10. On the Boltzmann Equation with Stochastic Kinetic Transport: Global Existence of Renormalized Martingale Solutions

    Punshon-Smith, Samuel; Smith, Scott

    2016-01-01

    This article studies the Cauchy problem for the Boltzmann equation with stochastic kinetic transport. Under a cut-off assumption on the collision kernel and a coloring hypothesis for the noise coefficients, we prove the global existence of renormalized (in the sense of DiPerna/Lions) martingale solutions to the Boltzmann equation for large initial data with finite mass, energy, and entropy. Our analysis includes a detailed study of weak martingale solutions to a class of linear stochastic kin...

  11. Estimates for solutions to the transport equation under the perturbation of its attenuation and scattering terms

    Daiki Tanaka; Nobuyuki Higashimori; Yuusuke Iso

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to give $L^p$-estimates for the weak solution to the transport equation with $L^\\infty$-perturbation both of the attenuation coefficient and of the scattering kernel. We try to clarify the constants in our estimates, and we show the estimates by a direct calculation. We introduce the albedo operator for the solutions, and we show stability of perturbed albedo operators.

  12. Estimates for solutions to the transport equation under the perturbation of its attenuation and scattering terms

    Daiki Tanaka

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to give $L^p$-estimates for the weak solution to the transport equation with $L^\\infty$-perturbation both of the attenuation coefficient and of the scattering kernel. We try to clarify the constants in our estimates, and we show the estimates by a direct calculation. We introduce the albedo operator for the solutions, and we show stability of perturbed albedo operators.

  13. The single-sink fixed-charge transportation problem: Applications and solution methods

    Goertz, Simon; Klose, Andreas

    The single-sink fixed-charge transportation problem (SSFCTP) consists in finding a minimum cost flow from a number of supplier nodes to a single demand node. Shipping costs comprise costs proportional to the amount shipped as well as a fixed-charge. Although the SSFCTP is an important special case...... of the well-known fixed-charge transportation problem, just a few methods for solving this problem have been proposed in the literature. After summarising some applications of this problem arising in manufacturing and transportation, we give an overview on approximation algorithms and worst......-case results. Finally, we briefly compare some exact solution algorithms for this problem....

  14. Impact of Soil Water Flux on Vadose Zone Solute Transport Parameters

    2000-01-01

    The transport processes of solutes in two soil columns filled with undisturbed soil material collected from an unsaturated sandy aquifer formation in Belgium subjected to a variable upper boundary condition were identified from breakthrough curves measured by means of time domain refiectometry (TDR). Solute breakthrough was measured with 3 TDR probes inserted into each soil column at three different depths at a 10 minutes time interval. In addition, soil water content and pressure head were measured at 3 different depths. Analytical solute transport models were used to estimate the solute dispersion coefficient and average pore-water velocity from the observed breakthrough curves. The results showed that the analytical solutions were suitable in fitting the observed solute transport. The dispersion coefficient was found to be a function of the soil depth and average pore-water velocity, imposed by the soil water flux. The mobile moisture content on the other hand was not correlated with the average pore-water velocity and the dispersion coefficient.

  15. Dealing with transport emissions. An emission trading system for the transport sector, a viable solution

    This report assesses the possibilities for CO2 emission trading schemes for the transport sector as a whole and for specific transport modes (road, railways, maritime shipping and aviation). Specific schemes have been assessed, based on the following types: Cap and trade (C and T) systems, setting emission ceilings in combination with tradable emission rights, and Baseline and credit (B and C) systems, setting a baseline emission standard in combination with bankable/tradable emission credits. In this type of scheme absolute CO2 emissions are not regulated directly, only the relative emissions, such as for example the CO2 emissions per vehicle kilometre. The main conclusions regarding road transport, the mode with the largest share in CO2 emissions of transport are as follows: C and T schemes in which end consumers (vehicle drivers) or fuel suppliers are the trading entity both seem feasible. However, if end consumers are the trading entity, transaction costs may be very high. B and C schemes for vehicle manufacturers seem feasible for passenger cars and light commercial vehicles. Transaction costs will be relatively low. With a C and T scheme, meeting a specified CO2 emission (reduction) target can be ensured. C and T systems generally encourage all means of CO2 mitigation, whereas a B and C scheme only affects engine and vehicle technology. However flanking instruments could specifically enhance B and C schemes, such as for example a driver awareness program to stimulate environmentally friendly driving. From the point of view of ensuring emission reductions in the sector itself, a closed system (i.e. not linked to EU ETS) may provide several benefits. As (domestic) transport does not face severe international competition, the risk of carbon leakage is small. A closed scheme can thus be economically justified. For political reasons there may also be an interest to guarantee that measures are taken to ensure reduced emissions, or at least to slow down emission

  16. Nodal Solutions of the SP{sub N} Transport Equation for the DeCART Code

    Cho, J. Y.; Kim, K. S.; Joo, H. G

    2007-06-15

    This report discusses how to improve the axial solution of the DeCART code and how to introduce the transport solution effectively. This report includes: (1) The conventional solution using radial CMFD and axial NEM kernel for the diffusion approximation and its extension to the SPN transport equation. (2) The axial SANM kernel for the diffusion approximation within the conventional CMFD framework. This work is performed for the future application of the SANM solution to the SPN approximation (3) The axial lower order polynomial expansion nodal (LPEN) kernel for the diffusion and the SP3 transport equations. This work is performed to reduce the memory requirement and to remove the transverse leakage effect. (4) A new transverse leakage approximation using intra-nodal flux distribution to improve NEM and SANM solution accuracy. (5) Sub-plane scheme to obtain the DeCART solutions efficiently. (6) Radial MOC solution without the transverse leakage and its application to obtain the equivalent parameters. This work is performed to eliminate the negative scalar flux and finally to remove convergence problem of the DeCART code. (7) Examination of the DeCART solution for a demonstrative problem and the C5G7MOX 3-D Extension problems. The results of the examination can be summarized as: (1) The SANM solution with a new transverse leakage approximation shows a very good accuracy when comparing with the NEM solution. (2) Introduction of the sub-plane scheme eliminates most of the nodal error with a little bit increased computational burden. (3) Introduction of the NEM solution for the SP3 transport equation eliminate most of the diffusion effect. (4) NEM solution for the SP3 transport equation by using a few sub-planes and a new transverse leakage approximation produces a compatible solution with the MCNP code. (5) LPEN kernel requires about 3 times more sub-planes than the NEM or SANM kernels to remove the nodal errors. However, this method requires less computational memory

  17. Nodal Solutions of the SPN Transport Equation for the DeCART Code

    This report discusses how to improve the axial solution of the DeCART code and how to introduce the transport solution effectively. This report includes: (1) The conventional solution using radial CMFD and axial NEM kernel for the diffusion approximation and its extension to the SPN transport equation. (2) The axial SANM kernel for the diffusion approximation within the conventional CMFD framework. This work is performed for the future application of the SANM solution to the SPN approximation (3) The axial lower order polynomial expansion nodal (LPEN) kernel for the diffusion and the SP3 transport equations. This work is performed to reduce the memory requirement and to remove the transverse leakage effect. (4) A new transverse leakage approximation using intra-nodal flux distribution to improve NEM and SANM solution accuracy. (5) Sub-plane scheme to obtain the DeCART solutions efficiently. (6) Radial MOC solution without the transverse leakage and its application to obtain the equivalent parameters. This work is performed to eliminate the negative scalar flux and finally to remove convergence problem of the DeCART code. (7) Examination of the DeCART solution for a demonstrative problem and the C5G7MOX 3-D Extension problems. The results of the examination can be summarized as: (1) The SANM solution with a new transverse leakage approximation shows a very good accuracy when comparing with the NEM solution. (2) Introduction of the sub-plane scheme eliminates most of the nodal error with a little bit increased computational burden. (3) Introduction of the NEM solution for the SP3 transport equation eliminate most of the diffusion effect. (4) NEM solution for the SP3 transport equation by using a few sub-planes and a new transverse leakage approximation produces a compatible solution with the MCNP code. (5) LPEN kernel requires about 3 times more sub-planes than the NEM or SANM kernels to remove the nodal errors. However, this method requires less computational memory

  18. Alkaline pH activates the transport activity of GLUT1 in L929 fibroblast cells.

    Gunnink, Stephen M; Kerk, Samuel A; Kuiper, Benjamin D; Alabi, Ola D; Kuipers, David P; Praamsma, Riemer C; Wrobel, Kathryn E; Louters, Larry L

    2014-04-01

    The widely expressed mammalian glucose transporter, GLUT1, can be acutely activated in L929 fibroblast cells by a variety of conditions, including glucose deprivation, or treatment with various respiration inhibitors. Known thiol reactive compounds including phenylarsine oxide and nitroxyl are the fastest acting stimulators of glucose uptake, implicating cysteine biochemistry as critical to the acute activation of GLUT1. In this study, we report that in L929 cells glucose uptake increases 6-fold as the pH of the uptake solution is increased from 6 to 9 with the half-maximal activation at pH 7.5; consistent with the pKa of cysteine residues. This pH effect is essentially blocked by the pretreatment of the cells with either iodoacetamide or cinnamaldehyde, compounds that form covalent adducts with reduced cysteine residues. In addition, the activation by alkaline pH is not additive at pH 8 with known thiol reactive activators such as phenylarsine oxide or hydroxylamine. Kinetic analysis in L929 cells at pH 7 and 8 indicate that alkaline conditions both increases the Vmax and decreases the Km of transport. This is consistent with the observation that pH activation is additive to methylene blue, which activates uptake by increasing the Vmax, as well as to berberine, which activates uptake by decreasing the Km. This suggests that cysteine biochemistry is utilized in both methylene blue and berberine activation of glucose uptake. In contrast a pH increase from 7 to 8 in HCLE cells does not further activate glucose uptake. HCLE cells have a 25-fold higher basal glucose uptake rate than L929 cells and the lack of a pH effect suggests that the cysteine biochemistry has already occurred in HCLE cells. The data are consistent with pH having a complex mechanism of action, but one likely mediated by cysteine biochemistry. PMID:24333987

  19. PERSiST: the precipitation, evapotranspiration and runoff simulator for solute transport

    M. N. Futter

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available While runoff is often a first-order control on water quality, runoff generation processes and pathways can vary widely between catchments. Credible simulations of solute and pollutant transport in surface waters are dependent on models which facilitate appropriate representations of perceptual models of the runoff generation process. With a few exceptions, models used in solute transport simulations enforce a single, potentially inappropriate representation of the runoff generation process. Here, we present a flexible, semi-distributed landscape scale rainfall-runoff model suitable for simulating a broad range of user-specified perceptual models of runoff generation and stream flow occurring in different climatic regions and landscape types. PERSiST, the Precipitation, Evapotranspiration and Runoff Simulator for Solute Transport; is designed for simulating present day conditions and projecting possible future effects of climate or land use change on runoff, catchment water storage and solute transport. PERSiST has limited data requirements and is calibrated using observed time series of precipitation, air temperature and runoff at one or more points in a river network. Here, we present a first application of the model to the Thames River in the UK and describe a Monte Carlo tool for parameter optimization and sensitivity analysis.

  20. About the Influence of Randomness of Hydraulic Conductivity on Solute Transport in Saturated Soil: Numerical Experiments

    Noack, Klaus; Prigarin, S. M.

    2010-01-01

    Up-to-date methods of numerical modelling of random fields were applied to investigate some features of solute transport in saturated porous media with stochastic hydraulic conductivity. The paper describes numerical experiments which were performed and presents the first results.

  1. Pore-network modeling of solute transport and biofilm growth in porous media

    Qin, Chao Zhong; Hassanizadeh, S. Majid

    2015-01-01

    In this work, a pore-network (PN) model for solute transport and biofilm growth in porous media was developed. Compared to previous studies of biofilm growth, it has two new features. First, the constructed pore network gives a better representation of a porous medium. Second, instead of using a con

  2. Analytical solution for the advection-dispersion transport equation in layered media

    The advection-dispersion transport equation with first-order decay was solved analytically for multi-layered media using the classic integral transform technique (CITT). The solution procedure used an associated non-self-adjoint advection-diffusion eigenvalue problem that had the same form and coef...

  3. Transport and fate of microorganisms in soils with preferential flow under different solution chemistry conditions

    [1] Laboratory and numerical studies were conducted to investigate the transport and fate of Escherichia coli D21g and coliphage f174 in saturated soils with preferential flow under different solution ionic strength (IS'='1, 5, 20, and 100 mM) conditions. Preferential flow systems were created by em...

  4. A solution of the linear transport equation using Chebyshev polynomials and Laplace transform

    A new approximate solution of the one-group linear transport equation with anisotropic scattering is established utilizing the Chebyshev polynomials. The resulting system of linear differential equations is solved analytically using the Laplace transform technique. Numerical results are presented. (orig.)

  5. Symbolic computation of polyhomogeneous asymptotic solutions of Einstein's equations in null characteristic transport form

    Full text: Calculational methods and Reduce software are described for determining polyhomogeneous asymptotic expansions of solutions of Einstein's equations in null characteristic transport form. As an example, results concerning peeling of gravitational radiation in Null Quasi-Spherical (NQS) spacetimes are presented

  6. Analytical solution of the linear transport equation AN approach with plane symmetry

    This work presents a new derivation of the AN approximation of the one-dimensional linear transport equation. The Kuznetsov transformation and Gaussian Quadrature scheme are employed. An analytical solution of the AN equations are also obtained using the Laplace transform. Numerical simulations are presented. (author). 8 refs, 3 tabs

  7. Solution of continuity equations by the method of flux-corrected transport

    The chapter is devoted to discussion of a set of numerical techniques for solution of plasma continuity equations. The method is flux-corrected transport (FCT) using positivity to construct algorithms. The elements of FCT algorithms, optimization, errors, and applications are treated. A bibliography of 34 references is included

  8. Parallel PENTRAN solutions of the 'TIEL' steady state neutron transport benchmark problems

    The TIEL benchmarks include a set of analytical benchmark solutions to the transport equation in infinite media. In this paper, we present solutions for the infinite planar, point, spherical shell, and solid spherical sources solved using the PENTRAN 3-D Parallel SN code compared to reference solutions of the TIEL benchmark problems. Excellent agreement (less than 0.7% difference) was achieved when comparing reference solutions with PENTRAN scalar fluxes in the case of planar, shell and solid sphere sources. Depending on the scattering properties and the geometry of the system, Legendre-Chebychev quadratures as high as S34 for the planar or S54 for the spherical symmetry sources, with appropriate spatial discretization, were needed to properly represent the flux. Inherent numerical difficulties were encountered when finding the solution in the very close proximity (< 0.1 mfp) of the sources. (authors)

  9. Active K transport across rabbit distal colon: relation to Na absorption and Cl secretion

    The authors measured isotopic unidirectional fluxes of K to elucidate the mechanisms of active K transport across the distal colon of the rabbit. Separate pathways for active K absorption and active K secretion were detected using various transport inhibitors and stimulators. The rate and direction of net 42K transport depend on the activities of these two pathways. K absorption was reduced by orthovanadate (both solutions) or serosal Ba, consistent with ATPase-dependent uptake of K across the apical membrane and exit via a Ba-sensitive basolateral K conductance. K secretion was inhibited by serosal ouabain or mucosal Ba, indicating that K secretion involves basolateral uptake via the Na-K pump and apical exit via a Ba-sensitive K conductance. Active K secretion appears to be electrogenic, since inhibition by ouabain produced equivalent changes in the net K flux and short-circuit current. Addition of bumetanide to the serosal solution or the removal of either Na or Cl from the serosal solution inhibited K secretion; mucosal solutions amiloride was without effect. These results indicate that this K secretory process is independent of electrogenic Na absorption but is mechanistically similar to 36Cl secretory processes. Both epinephrine and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) stimulate K secretion, but only PGE2 also stimulates Cl secretion. The response to these secretogogues suggest that the mechanisms underlying K and Cl secretion are closely linked but can be regulated independently

  10. A complete NUHOMS registered solution for storage and transport of high burnup spent fuel

    The discharge burnups of spent fuel from nuclear power plants keep increasing with plants discharging or planning to discharge fuel with burnups in excess of 60,000 MWD/MTU. Due to limited capacity of spent fuel pools, transfer of older cooler spent fuel from fuel pool to dry storage, and very limited options for transport of spent fuel, there is a critical need for dry storage of high burnup, higher heat load spent fuel so that plants could maintain their full core offload reserve capability. A typical NUHOMS registered solution for dry spent fuel storage is shown in the Figure 1. Transnuclear, Inc. offers two advanced NUHOMS registered solutions for the storage and transportation of high burnup fuel. One includes the NUHOMS registered 24PTH system for plants with 90.7 Metric Ton (MT) crane capacity; the other offers the higher capacity NUHOMS registered 32PTH system for higher crane capacity. These systems include NUHOMS registered - 24PTH and -32PTH Transportable Canisters stored in a concrete storage overpack (HSM-H). These canisters are designed to meet all the requirements of both storage and transport regulations. They are designed to be transported off-site either directly from the spent fuel pool or from the storage overpack in a suitable transport cask

  11. Control and optimization of solute transport in a thin porous tube

    Griffiths, I. M.

    2013-03-01

    Predicting the distribution of solutes or particles in flows within porous-walled tubes is essential to inform the design of devices that rely on cross-flow filtration, such as those used in water purification, irrigation devices, field-flow fractionation, and hollow-fibre bioreactors for tissue-engineering applications. Motivated by these applications, a radially averaged model for fluid and solute transport in a tube with thin porous walls is derived by developing the classical ideas of Taylor dispersion. The model includes solute diffusion and advection via both radial and axial flow components, and the advection, diffusion, and uptake coefficients in the averaged equation are explicitly derived. The effect of wall permeability, slip, and pressure differentials upon the dispersive solute behaviour are investigated. The model is used to explore the control of solute transport across the membrane walls via the membrane permeability, and a parametric expression for the permeability required to generate a given solute distribution is derived. The theory is applied to the specific example of a hollow-fibre membrane bioreactor, where a uniform delivery of nutrient across the membrane walls to the extra-capillary space is required to promote spatially uniform cell growth. © 2013 American Institute of Physics.

  12. Exact solutions to the interfacial surfactant transport equation on a droplet in a Stokes flow regime

    Kallendorf, Christina; Fath, Anja; Oberlack, Martin; Wang, Yongqi

    2015-08-01

    In the research literature there exist very rare analytical solutions of the surfactant transport equation on an interface. In the present article, we derive sets of exact solutions to interfacial convection-diffusion equations which describe the interfacial transport of insoluble surfactants in a two-phase flow. The investigated model is based on a Stokes flow setting where a spherical shaped inner phase is dispersed in an outer phase. Under the assumption of the small capillary number, the deformation of the spherical phase interface is not taken into account. Neglecting the dependence of the surface tension on the interfacial surfactant concentration, hence neglecting the Marangoni effect, general exact solutions to the surfactant conservation law on the spherical surface with both convective and diffusive terms are provided by means of Heun's confluent function. For the steady case, it is shown that these solutions collapse to a simple exponential form. Furthermore, for the purely diffusive problem, exact solutions are constructed using Legendre polynomials. Such analytical solutions are very valuable as benchmark problems in numerical investigations.

  13. Subsurface solute transport with one-, two-, and three-dimensional arbitrary shape sources.

    Chen, Kewei; Zhan, Hongbin; Zhou, Renjie

    2016-07-01

    Solutions with one-, two-, and three-dimensional arbitrary shape source geometries will be very helpful tools for investigating a variety of contaminant transport problems in the geological media. This study proposed a general method to develop new solutions for solute transport in a saturated, homogeneous aquifer (confined or unconfined) with a constant, unilateral groundwater flow velocity. Several typical source geometries, such as arbitrary line sources, vertical and horizontal patch sources, circular and volumetric sources, were considered. The sources can sit on the upper or lower aquifer boundary to simulate light non-aqueous-phase-liquids (LNAPLs) or dense non-aqueous-phase-liquids (DNAPLs), respectively, or can be located anywhere inside the aquifer. The developed new solutions were tested against previous benchmark solutions under special circumstances and were shown to be robust and accurate. Such solutions can also be used as a starting point for the inverse problem of source zone and source geometry identification in the future. The following findings can be obtained from analyzing the solutions. The source geometry, including shape and orientation, generally played an important role for the concentration profile through the entire transport process. When comparing the inclined line sources with the horizontal line sources, the concentration contours expanded considerably along the vertical direction, and shrank considerably along the groundwater flow direction. A planar source sitting on the upper aquifer boundary (such as a LNAPL pool) would lead to significantly different concentration profiles compared to a planar source positioned in a vertical plane perpendicular to the flow direction. For a volumetric source, its dimension along the groundwater flow direction became less important compared to its other two dimensions. PMID:27153362

  14. Low band gap polymeric solar cells using solution-processable copper iodide as hole transporting layer

    Chaudhary, Neeraj; Kesari, J. P.; Chaudhary, Rajiv; Patra, Asit

    2016-08-01

    In the present work, we have shown the performance of solution-processable copper iodide (CuI) as an alternative hole transporting layer (HTL) for polymeric solar cells. Optical spectra of the CuI thin film reveal highly transparent and practically no absorption in the range vis-NIR region (450-1110 nm). X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of CuI exhibits as a p-type semiconductor as well as crystalline nature. The photovoltaic devices were fabricated using PCDTBT and PTB7 as donor materials blended with PC71BM as an acceptor material. The power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) based on CuI as an HTL have been achieved to up to 3.04% and 4.48% for PCDTBT and PTB7 based donor materials respectively with a configuration based on ITO/CuI(40 nm)/active layer (60 nm)/Al (120 nm). This study clearly indicated that the devices made with CuI as an HTL showed superior performance than the device fabricated from PEDOT:PSS layer as an HTL. Morphological characterization of the HTL using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) were carried for better understanding.

  15. Classification of alpha-active workplace aerosols based on coefficient of transportability as measured by the dialysis method

    This report describes a method by which potentially inhaled workplace aerosols containing plutonium compounds are classified on the basis of measured transportability in Ringer's solution. It is suggested that the criterion 'transportability' be used in the ICRP respiratory tract model. Transportability is measured as the fraction of plutonium alpha activity, deposited on a collecting filter, that passes through a semi-permeable membrane in Ringer's physiological solution during two days of dialysis. First order kinetic equations are used for explanation of dialysis results. The dissolution characteristics of alpha-active aerosols are important in interpretation of their passage from the lungs after inhalation. (author)

  16. Laboratory experiments on solute transport in bimodal porous media under cyclic precipitation-evaporation boundary conditions

    Cremer, Clemens; Neuweiler, Insa

    2016-04-01

    Flow and solute transport in the shallow subsurface is strongly governed by atmospheric boundary conditions. Erratically varying infiltration and evaporation cycles lead to alternating upward and downward flow, as well as spatially and temporally varying water contents and associated hydraulic conductivity of the prevailing materials. Thus presenting a highly complicated, dynamic system. Knowledge of subsurface solute transport processes is vital to assess e.g. the entry of, potentially hazardous, solutes to the groundwater and nutrient uptake by plant roots and can be gained in many ways. Besides field measurements and numerical simulations, physical laboratory experiments represent a way to establish process understanding and furthermore validate numerical schemes. With the aim to gain a better understanding and to quantify solute transport in the unsaturated shallow subsurface under natural precipitation conditions in heterogeneous media, we conduct physical laboratory experiments in a 22 cm x 8 cm x 1 cm flow cell that is filled with two types of sand and apply cyclic infiltration-evaporation phases at the soil surface. Pressure at the bottom of the domain is kept constant. Following recent studies (Lehmann and Or, 2009; Bechtold et al., 2011a), heterogeneity is introduced by a sharp vertical interface between coarse and fine sand. Fluorescent tracers are used to i) qualitatively visualize transport paths within the domain and ii) quantify solute leaching at the bottom of the domain. Temporal and spatial variations in water content during the experiment are derived from x-ray radiographic images. Monitored water contents between infiltration and evaporation considerably changed in the coarse sand while the fine sand remained saturated throughout the experiments. Lateral solute transport through the interface in both directions at different depths of the investigated soil columns were observed. This depended on the flow rate applied at the soil surface and

  17. Numerical Investigations of Vadose Zone Transport of Saturated Sodium Thiosulfate Solutions

    White, M. D.; Ward, A. L.

    2001-12-01

    Compared with water, hypersaline liquid wastes ([NaNO3] > 10 N) from the reduction-oxidation (REDOX) process at the Hanford site have elevated viscosity (μ > 1.2 cP), density (ρ > 1.4 gm/cm3), and surface tension (σ > 100 dyn/cm). Such liquids have infiltrated into the vadose zone at Hanford from leaking underground storage tanks. The migration behavior of saturated or hypersaline salt solutions through unsaturated soils is largely unknown. Laboratory tests with tank-waste simulants suggest that the elevated density, viscosity, and surface tension properties of these liquids can influence the wetting front behavior, altering its shape and migration rate. Conditions under which these mechanisms are active in the field and the extent to which they contribute to transport through the vadose zone are largely unknown, making it impossible to accurately predict the post-leak distribution of these fluids in the field. To investigate the effects of fluid properties on subsurface migration of hypersaline saline solutions, numerical simulations were conducted of a field-scale, tank-leak experiment. The field experiments consisted of five 4000-L injections, at a depth of 5 m, of saturated sodium thiosulfate brine (used as a surrogate for REDOX type wastes) over a 5-week period, followed by three 4000-L injections of Columbia River water. Pre-test modeling of river water injections at this Hanford field site predicted significant lateral spreading of the moisture plume and were confirmed by geophysical logging. A series of three-dimensional, multifluid (i.e., aqueous and gas phases) numerical simulations were conducted that systematically considered the effects of elevated density, viscosity, and surface tension, and reduced vapor pressure on vadose-zone transport. Hydrologic properties were determined from cores collected at the field site and calibrated using river-water injection experiments. Isothermal conditions were assumed for the simulations, however, the effects of

  18. Simplified Solutions for Activity Deposited on Moving Filter Media.

    Smith, David L; Chabot, George E

    2016-10-01

    Simplified numerical solutions for particulate activity viewed on moving filter continuous air monitors are developed. The monitor configurations include both rectangular window (RW) and circular window (CW) types. The solutions are demonstrated first for a set of basic airborne radioactivity cases, for a series of concentration pulses, and for indicating the effects of step changes in reactor coolant system (RCS) leakage for a pressurized water reactor. The method is also compared to cases from the prior art. These simplified solutions have additional benefits: They are easily adaptable to multiple radionuclides, they will accommodate collection and detection efficiencies that vary in known ways across the collection area, and they also ease the solution programming. PMID:27575345

  19. Interpretation and nonuniqueness of CTRW transition distributions: Insights from an alternative solute transport formulation

    Hansen, Scott K.; Berkowitz, Brian

    2014-12-01

    The continuous time random walk (CTRW) has both an elegant mathematical theory and a successful record at modeling solute transport in the subsurface. However, there are some interpretation ambiguities relating to the relationship between the discrete CTRW transition distributions and the underlying continuous movement of solute that have not been addressed in existing literature. These include the exact definition of "transition", and the extent to which transition probability distributions are unique/quantifiable from data. Here, we present some theoretical results which address these uncertainties in systems with an advective bias. Simultaneously, we present an alternative, reduced parameter CTRW formulation for general advective transport in heterogeneous porous media, which models early- and late-time transport by use of random transition times between sparse, imaginary planes normal to flow. We show that even in the context of this reduced-parameter formulation there is nonuniqueness in the definitions of both transition lengths and waiting time distributions, and that neither may be uniquely determined from experimental data. For practical use of this formulation, we suggest Pareto transition time distributions, leading to a two-degree-of-freedom modeling approach. We then demonstrate the power of this approach in fitting two sets of existing experimental data. While the primary focus is the presentation of new results, the discussion is designed to be pedagogical and to provide a good entry point into practical modeling of solute transport with the CTRW.

  20. Numerical solution of the neutron transport equation using cellular neural networks

    Various methods have been used for solving the neutron transport equation in the past, and a number of computer codes have been developed based on these solution methods. This paper describes a novel method for the solution of the steady-state and time-dependent neutron transport equation using the duality between neutronic parameters in the method of characteristic (MOC) and the electrical parameters in the cellular neural networks (CNN). The relevant electrical circuit can be simulated by professional electrical circuit simulator software, HSPICE. This software is used for numerical solution of the transport equation only by preparation of appropriate inputs. This method does not need inner and outer iterations, which is a necessary step in the other deterministic methods. One of the main applications of the proposed method may be the development of a new hardware by VLSI technology for online spatio-temporal calculations of the transport equation for nuclear reactor core. The accuracy and capability of this method are examined in a 2D steady-state problem for a BWR fuel assembly, and a 2D time-dependent TWIGL seed/blanket problem

  1. Benchmarking the Solution Accuracy of 3-Dimensional Transport Codes and Methods Over a Range in Parameter Space

    Under the auspices of the NEA Nuclear Science Committee (NSC), the Working Party on Scientific Issues of Reactor Systems (WPRS) has been established to study the reactor physics, fuel performance, radiation transport and shielding, and the uncertainties associated with modelling of these phenomena in present and future nuclear power systems. The WPRS has different expert groups to cover a wide range of scientific issues in these fields. The Expert Group on Radiation Transport and Shielding (EGRTS) was created in 2011 to perform specific tasks associated with radiation transport and shielding aspects of present and future nuclear systems and accelerator-based irradiation facilities. The EGRTS provides expert advice to the WPRS and the nuclear/accelerator communities on the development needs (data and methods, models and codes, validation experiments) for various nuclear and accelerator systems and scenarios and also provides specific technical information regarding : - 3D radiation transport codes and methods; - Pressure vessel surveillance; - Shielding and dosimetry aspects of accelerator, target and irradiation facilities; - Neutron activation and shielding. This report aims to compare the results of advanced three-dimensional transport methods and codes to high quality reference solutions

  2. Activation of Sphalerite by Ammoniacal Copper Solution in Froth Flotation

    Xian Xie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The activation of sphalerite particles by ammoniacal copper solution (ACS was investigated in this study. This microflotation study was conducted on a single sphalerite mineral with the particles size of 38 μm to 75 μm. Results showed that ACS has somewhat better activation effect than copper sulphate (a traditional activator with sodium isobutyl xanthate as the collector. Agglomeration observation, contact angle measurement, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurement results of sphalerite particles verified the superiority of this new activator. Therefore, the substitution of copper sulphate with ACS would increase the separation efficiency not only in marmatite flotation but also in sphalerite flotation.

  3. Unsteady solute-transport simulation in streamflow using a finite-difference model

    Land, Larry F.

    1978-01-01

    This report documents a rather simple, general purpose, one-dimensional, one-parameter, mass-transport model for field use. The model assumes a well-mixed conservative solute that may be coming from an unsteady source and is moving in unsteady streamflow. The quantity of solute being transported is in the units of concentration. Results are reported as such. An implicit finite-difference technique is used to solve the mass transport equation. It consists of creating a tridiagonal matrix and using the Thomas algorithm to solve the matrix for the unknown concentrations at the new time step. The computer program pesented is designed to compute the concentration of a water-quality constituent at any point and at any preselected time in a one-dimensional stream. The model is driven by the inflowing concentration of solute at the upstream boundary and is influenced by the solute entering the stream from tributaries and lateral ground-water inflow and from a source or sink. (Woodard-USGS)

  4. Hydrodynamics of steady state phloem transport with radial leakage of solute

    Paulo eCabrita

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Long-distance phloem transport occurs under a pressure gradient generated by the osmotic exchange of water associated with solute exchange in source and sink regions. But these exchanges also occur along the pathway, and yet their physiological role has almost been ignored in mathematical models of phloem transport. Here we present a steady state model for transport phloem which allows solute leakage, based on the Navier-Stokes and convection-diffusion equations which describe fluid motion rigorously. Sieve tube membrane permeability Ps for passive solute exchange (and correspondingly, membrane reflection coefficient influenced model results strongly, and had to lie in the bottom range of the values reported for plant cells for the results to be realistic. This smaller permeability reflects the efficient specialization of sieve tube elements, minimizing any diffusive solute loss favoured by the large concentration difference across the sieve tube membrane. We also found there can be a specific reflection coefficient for which pressure profiles and sap velocities can both be similar to those predicted by the Hagen-Poiseuille equation for a completely impermeable tube.

  5. One-dimensional unsteady solute transport along unsteady flow through inhomogeneous medium

    Sanjay K Yadav; Atul Kumar; Dilip K Jaiswal; Naveen Kumar

    2011-04-01

    The one-dimensional linear advection–diffusion equation is solved analytically by using the Laplace integral transform. The solute transport as well as the flow field is considered to be unsteady, both of independent patterns. The solute dispersion occurs through an inhomogeneous semi-infinite medium. Hence, velocity is considered to be an increasing function of the space variable, linearly interpolated in a finite domain in which solute dispersion behaviour is studied. Dispersion is considered to be proportional to the square of the spatial linear function. Thus, the coefficients of the advection–diffusion equation are functions of both the independent variables, but the expression for each coefficient is considered in degenerate form. These coefficients are reduced into constant coefficients with the help of a new space variable, introduced in our earlier works, and new time variables. The source of the solute is considered to be a stationary uniform point source of pulse type.

  6. Significance of neutron activation analysis in landscape geochemistry problem solution

    Employment of neutron activation analysis is of interest for solution of many theoretical and applied problems of landscape geochemistry. The role of the analysis in the study of rare and scattered element migration is quite significant. It is shown using gold, bromine, yttrium and rare earths as examples. 1 tab

  7. Asymptotic solution of light transport problems in optically thick luminescent media

    We study light transport in optically thick luminescent random media. Using radiative transport theory for luminescent media and applying asymptotic and computational methods, a corrected diffusion approximation is derived with the associated boundary conditions and boundary layer solution. The accuracy of this approach is verified for a plane-parallel slab problem. In particular, the reduced system models accurately the effect of reabsorption. The impacts of varying the Stokes shift and using experimentally measured luminescence data are explored in detail. The results of this study have application to the design of luminescent solar concentrators, fluorescence medical imaging, and optical cooling using anti-Stokes fluorescence

  8. Approximate solutions for the two-dimensional integral transport equation. The critically mixed methods of resolution

    This work is divided into two part the first part (note CEA-N-2165) deals with the solution of complex two-dimensional transport problems, the second one treats the critically mixed methods of resolution. These methods are applied for one-dimensional geometries with highly anisotropic scattering. In order to simplify the set of integral equation provided by the integral transport equation, the integro-differential equation is used to obtain relations that allow to lower the number of integral equation to solve; a general mathematical and numerical study is presented

  9. Electroosmotic fluid motion and late-time solute transport at non-negligible zeta potentials

    S. K. Griffiths; R. H. Nilson

    1999-12-01

    Analytical and numerical methods are employed to determine the electric potential, fluid velocity and late-time solute distribution for electroosmotic flow in a tube and channel when the zeta potential is not small. The electric potential and fluid velocity are in general obtained by numerical means. In addition, new analytical solutions are presented for the velocity in a tube and channel in the extremes of large and small Debye layer thickness. The electroosmotic fluid velocity is used to analyze late-time transport of a neutral non-reacting solute. Zeroth and first-order solutions describing axial variation of the solute concentration are determined analytically. The resulting expressions contain eigenvalues representing the dispersion and skewness of the axial concentration profiles. These eigenvalues and the functions describing transverse variation of the concentration field are determined numerically using a shooting technique. Results are presented for both tube and channel geometries over a wide range of the normalized Debye layer thickness and zeta potential. Simple analytical approximations to the eigenvalues are also provided for the limiting cases of large and small values of the Debye layer thickness. The methodology developed here for electroosmotic flow is also applied to the Taylor problem of late-time transport and dispersion in pressure-driven flows.

  10. A new algorithm for generating highly accurate benchmark solutions to transport test problems

    We present a new algorithm for solving the neutron transport equation in its discrete-variable form. The new algorithm is based on computing the full matrix relating the scalar flux spatial moments in all cells to the fixed neutron source spatial moments, foregoing the need to compute the angular flux spatial moments, and thereby eliminating the need for sweeping the spatial mesh in each discrete-angular direction. The matrix equation is solved exactly in test cases, producing a solution vector that is free from iteration convergence error, and subject only to truncation and roundoff errors. Our algorithm is designed to provide method developers with a quick and simple solution scheme to test their new methods on difficult test problems without the need to develop sophisticated solution, e.g. acceleration, algorithms before establishing the worthiness of their innovation. We demonstrate the utility of the new algorithm by applying it to the Arbitrarily High Order Transport Nodal (AHOT-N) method, and using it to solve Burre's Test Problem, a suite of benchmark problems that covers a large region in parameter space. Our results provide highly accurate benchmark solutions, that can be distributed electronically and used to verify the pointwise accuracy of other solution methods and algorithms

  11. Consistent comparison of Monte Carlo and whole-core transport solutions for cores with thermal feedback

    For systematic and consistent comparison of Monte Carlo and whole-core transport solutions in various core states including power generating conditions, a test problem set that spans from two-dimensional uniform temperature pin cell problems to three-dimensional core problems involving thermal feedback is solved by a continuous energy Monte Carlo code MCCARD and a multigroup whole-core transport code DeCART. The neutron spectra, k-effective, pin-wise power distribution, fuel temperature distribution, and Doppler coefficients obtained from the two solutions are compared taking the MCCARD solution as the reference. For the uniform temperature problems, excellent agreement between the two solutions is observed in every solution aspect. The pin power distribution error is less than 1% and the k-effective error is within 100 pcm in most cases. For the problems with thermal feedback, the discrepancy becomes larger, yet within the tolerable range. In the hot-full-power mini-core calculation, a maximum of 3.7% error in the radial pin power distribution and the k-effective error of about 260 pcm are observed. Through this comparison, it is demonstrated that accurate multigroup direct whole-core calculations are possible even at power generating conditions with a much less computing time than the corresponding Monte Carlo calculations. (authors)

  12. Flux-Averaged and Volume-Averaged Concentrations in Continuum Approaches to Solute Transport

    Parker, J. C.; van Genuchten, M. Th.

    1984-07-01

    Transformations between volume-averaged pore fluid concentrations and flux-averaged concentrations are presented which show that both modes of concentration obey convective-dispersive transport equations of identical mathematical form for nonreactive solutes. The pertinent boundary conditions for the two modes, however, do not transform identically. Solutions of the convection-dispersion equation for a semi-infinite system during steady flow subject to a first-type inlet boundary condition is shown to yield flux concentrations, while solutions subject to a third-type boundary condition yield volume-averaged concentrations. These solutions may be applied with reasonable impunity to finite as well as semi-infinite media if back mixing at the exit is precluded. Implications of the distinction between resident and flux concentrations to laboratory and field studies of solute transport are discussed. It is suggested that perceived limitations of the convection-dispersion model for media with large variations in pore water velocities may in certain cases be attributable to a failure to distinguish between volume-averaged and flux-averaged concentrations.

  13. An analytical solution to contaminant transport through composite liners with geomembrane defects

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the performance of landfill composite liner system,a one-dimensional model was developed for solute transport through composite liners containing geomembrane defects.An analytical solution to the model was obtained by the method of Laplace transformation.The results obtained by the presented solution agree well with those obtained by the numerical method.Results show that leachate head and construction quality of geomembrane(GM) have significant influences on the performance of the composite liners for heavy metal ions.The breakthrough time of lead decreases from 50 a to 19 a when the leachate head increases from 0.3 m to 10 m.It is also indicated that the contaminant mass flux of volatile organic compounds(VOCs) induced by leakage can not be neglected in case of poor construction quality of the landfill barrier system.It is shown that diffusion coefficient and partition coefficient of GM have great influences on solute transport through composite liners for VOCs.The breakthrough time of heavy metal ions will be greatly overestimated if the effects of diffusion and adsorption of clay and geosynthetic clay liner(GCL) are neglected.The composite liner consisting of a geomembrane and a GCL provides a poor barrier for VOCs.The presented analytical solution is relatively simple to apply and can be used for preliminary design of composite liners,evaluating experimental results,and verifying more complex numerical models.

  14. Small correlation length solutions for planar symmetry beam transport in a stochastic medium

    This paper considers planar symmetry, steady-state, monoenergetic linear transport of a normally incident particle beam through a purely scattering thin slab, composed of a stochastic mixture of two immiscible materials. The scattering process is assumed sufficiently forward peaked so that the Fokker-Planck description is valid. If the material mixing obeys Markovian statistics, and ignoring particle backscattering, this situation is a joint Markov process. As such, the stochastic Liouville master equation is valid, and we obtain a set of two coupled linear transport equations describing exactly the ensemble-averaged solution for the particle intensity. An asymptotic expansion is used to reduce these two equations, in the small correlation length limit, to a single renormalized equation. This equation is treated by an angular moments method, exploiting the assumed peakedness in angle of the solution. An analytic solution of these moment equations provides a simple and explicit solution for the spatial distribution of the particle density. The effect of stochasticity is to increase the solution over the corresponding nonstochastic result recently reported in the literature. (Author)

  15. Eutectic fusion used for the survey of transport of mass in metallic solutions

    The phenomenon of eutectic fusion could be used for the survey of transport of mass in metallic solutions, which allows to determine the part of the ionic conductibility in the solutions. The survey done in the system In2Bi Bi-In at a temperature of 72 deg. C with a current of 4A allowed to find a ionic current of 2,6.10-3 which constitutes about 0,07% of the total current. So the part of ionic conductibility in the eutectic fusion of the system In2Bi Bi-In is of 0,07%. (author)

  16. Constructing Soliton and Kink Solutions of PDE Models in Transport and Biology

    Vsevolod A. Vladimirov

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a review of our recent works directed towards discovery of a periodic, kink-like and soliton-like travelling wave solutions within the models of transport phenomena and the mathematical biology. Analytical description of these wave patterns is carried out by means of our modification of the direct algebraic balance method. In the case when the analytical description fails, we propose to approximate invariant travelling wave solutions by means of an infinite series of exponential functions. The effectiveness of the method of approximation is demonstrated on a hyperbolic modification of Burgers equation.

  17. Effects of a Danish multicomponent physical activity intervention on active school transport

    Breum, Lars; Toftager, Mette; Ersbøll, Annette K.;

    2014-01-01

    activity, active transport and after-school fitness program. Transport mode to school was assessed through a 5-day transportation diary. Results The proportion of active transport was high at baseline (86.0%) and was maintained at the two-year follow-up (87.0%). There was no difference in active travel......AbstractIntroduction Walking and bicycling to school yields great potential in increasing the physical activity levels of adolescents, but to date very few intervention studies have been evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a multicomponent school-based physical activity...... intervention on adolescent active school transport (AST) and three intermediate outcomes: perceived school route safety, parent support and attitude towards bicycling. Methods In total, 1014 adolescents at 14 schools filled in a transport diary at baseline and at a two-year follow-up and were included in the...

  18. THE TIME FACTOR IN MARITIME TRANSPORT AND PORT LOGISTICS ACTIVITIES

    Florin NICOLAE

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Execution of the carriage contract requires compliance to all the conditions in it, by all those involved in the transport. Main obligations incumbent upon the vessel, and obviously, to other transporters, who must provide transportation according to deadlines and safety. Contract compliance is certifying transport participants about their seriousness and an appropriate market quotation. Therefore, present work pragmatically sets schematics reference time associated implementation of the carriage contract. Also, are demonstrated relationships established between maritime transport “players” and sequence of activities related to the operation of the vessel in port. The authors propose a set of concepts and terms whose utility is established to solve practical problems in this area of activity.

  19. Domain decomposition PN solutions to the 3D transport benchmark over a range in parameter space

    The objectives of this contribution are twofold. First, the Domain Decomposition (DD) method used in the PARAFISH parallel transport solver is re-interpreted as a Generalized Schwarz Splitting as defined by Tang [SIAM J Sci Stat Comput, vol.13 (2), pp. 573-595, 1992]. Second, PARAFISH provides spherical harmonic (i.e., PN) solutions to the NEA benchmark suite for 3D transport methods and codes over a range in parameter space. To the best of the author's knowledge, these are the first spherical harmonic solutions provided for this demanding benchmark suite. They have been obtained using 512 CPU cores of the JuRoPa machine installed at the Juelich Computing Center (Germany). (author)

  20. Solution of stochastic media transport problems using a numerical quadrature-based method

    We present a new conceptual framework for analyzing transport problems in random media. We decompose such problems into stratified subproblems according to the number of material pseudo-interfaces within realizations. For a given subproblem we assign pseudo-interface locations in each realization according to product quadrature rules, which allows us to deterministically generate a fixed number of realizations. Quadrature integration of the solutions of these realizations thus approximately solves each subproblem; the weighted superposition of solutions of the subproblems approximately solves the general stochastic media transport problem. We revisit some benchmark problems to determine the accuracy and efficiency of this approach in comparison to randomly generated realizations. We find that this method is very accurate and fast when the number of pseudo-interfaces in a problem is generally low, but that these advantages quickly degrade as the number of pseudo-interfaces increases. (authors)

  1. Physicochemical Characteristics and Biological Activity of Irradiated Pectin Solution

    Pectin was dissolved in HCI, citric acid, and deionized distilled water (DW, 2%, v/v) and irradiated at different irradiation doses (2.5-50 kGy) by gamma ray to investigate its physicochemical characteristics and biological activity. Viscosity of pectin solution was significantly decreased by irradiation up to 10 kGy, then remained constant thereafter. Gamma-irradiation increased monosaccharide and polysaccharide levels up to 30-40 kDa. Electron donating ability of pectin solution was highest when DW was added was increased by increasing irradiation dose (p less than 0.05)

  2. Exact Solution for Long-Term Size Exclusion Suspension-Colloidal Transport in Porous Media

    You, Z.; Bedrikovetsky, P.; L. Kuzmina

    2013-01-01

    Long-term deep bed filtration in porous media with size exclusion particle capture mechanism is studied. For monodispersed suspension and transport in porous media with distributed pore sizes, the microstochastic model allows for upscaling and the exact solution is derived for the obtained macroscale equation system. Results show that transient pore size distribution and nonlinear relation between the filtration coefficient and captured particle concentration during suspension filtration and ...

  3. Benchmark solutions for the galactic heavy-ion transport equations with energy and spatial coupling

    Ganapol, Barry D.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Lamkin, Stanley L.; Wilson, John W.

    1991-01-01

    Nontrivial benchmark solutions are developed for the galactic heavy ion transport equations in the straightahead approximation with energy and spatial coupling. Analytical representations of the ion fluxes are obtained for a variety of sources with the assumption that the nuclear interaction parameters are energy independent. The method utilizes an analytical LaPlace transform inversion to yield a closed form representation that is computationally efficient. The flux profiles are then used to predict ion dose profiles, which are important for shield design studies.

  4. Benchmarking the invariant embedding method against analytical solutions in model transport problems

    Wahlberg Malin; Pázsit Imre

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the use of the invariant embedding method in a few model transport problems for which it is also possible to obtain an analytical solution. The use of the method is demonstrated in three different areas. The first is the calculation of the energy spectrum of sputtered particles from a scattering medium without absorption, where the multiplication (particle cascade) is generated by recoil production. Both constant and energy dependent cross-sections ...

  5. Solute transport through fractured rocks : the influence of geological heterogeneities and stagnant water zones

    Mahmoudzadeh, Batoul

    2016-01-01

    To describe reactive solute transport and retardation through fractured rocks, three models are developed in the study with different focuses on the physical processes involved and different simplifications of the basic building block of the heterogeneous rock domain. The first model evaluates the effects of the heterogeneity of the rock matrix and the stagnant water zones in part of the fracture plane. The second and the third models are dedicated to different simplifications of the flow cha...

  6. Convergent radial tracing of viral and solute transport in Gneiss Saprolite

    Taylor, R.; Tindmugaya, C.; Barker, John; MacDonald, David; Kulabako, R.

    2010-01-01

    Deeply weathered crystalline rock aquifer systems comprising unconsolidated saprolite and underlying fractured bedrock (saprock) underlie 40% of sub-Saharan Africa. The vulnerability of this aquifer system to contamination, particularly in rapidly urbanizing areas, remains poorly understood. In order to assess solute and viral transport in saprolite derived from Precambrian gneiss, forced-gradient tracer experiments using chloride and Escherichia coli phage ΦX174 were conducted in southeaster...

  7. Solution, surface, and single molecule platforms for the study of DNA-mediated charge transport

    Muren, Natalie B.; Olmon, Eric D.; Barton, Jacqueline K.

    2012-01-01

    The structural core of DNA, a continuous stack of aromatic heterocycles, the base pairs, which extends down the helical axis, gives rise to the fascinating electronic properties of this molecule that is so critical for life. Our laboratory and others have developed diverse experimental platforms to investigate the capacity of DNA to conduct charge, termed DNA-mediated charge transport (DNA CT). Here, we present an overview of DNA CT experiments in solution, on surfaces, and with single molecu...

  8. Long-term solute transport through thick Cretaceous shale in the Williston Basin Canada using naturally-occurring tracer profiles

    Document available in abstract form only. The hydrogeologic evolution of sedimentary basins is generally determined from hydraulic and chemical data collected from aquifers. Hydraulic and chemical data from aquitards, which constitute a much greater volume of basins than aquifers and provide important controls on water and solute transport in the basins, are generally not collected nor studied. In this study we characterized the paleo-groundwater flow and solute transport controls through a vertical section of Cretaceous sediments in the Williston Basin, Canada located near Esterhazy, Saskatchewan. It consists of 384 m of thick argillaceous sediment (aquitard) overlying 93 m of heterogeneous calcareous silt, shale and sandstone (Mannville Fm.; aquifer). Paleo-hydrologic conditions were determined by interpreting high-resolution depth profiles of natural tracers of water isotopes (δ18O and (δ2H) and Cl- measured on (1) continuous core samples through the aquitard, upper aquifer, and thin Quaternary sediments, (2) water samples collected from monitoring wells installed in the aquifer and the Quaternary sediments, and (3) water samples collected from mine shaft inflows to 900 m below ground. 1D numerical transport modeling reproduced the measured profiles and yielded valuable information on the large-scale and long-term transport behavior in both the Cretaceous aquitard and the Basin. In the modeling, the shapes of the tracer profiles was explained by diffusion with paleo-events identified from the modeling including the introduction of fresher water into the aquifer possibly from the onset of glaciation (activation of the lower boundary) about 1 Ma ago and the impact of the most recent deglaciation about 10 ka ago (activation of the upper boundary). These findings show that the hydrogeologic conditions in deep, extensive basins, such as the Williston Basin, cannot be assumed to be static over geologic time. (authors)

  9. An Equivalent Homogeneous Continuum Approach to Modeling Solute Transport and Water Flow in Regularly Structured Porous Media

    Parker, J. C.; Barry, D. A.

    1986-01-01

    Theoretical investigations and numerical and laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the feasibility and limitations of describing solute transport and water flow in regularly structured porous media with an equivalent homogeneous continuum approach. For the analysis of solute transport, it is shown that distinguishing between resident and flux concentration detection modes is of fundamental importance to obtain physically meaningful solutions of the governing equations in situation...

  10. An inquiry into the characteristics, applicability and prerequisites of Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID solutions in transport networks and logistics

    Antoniu Ovidiu Balint

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of intelligent solution represents the key factor for developing both the logistics sector and the economic environment. This paper analyses the Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID technology and its role in the Supply Chain Management (SCM especially in logistics and transport networks. The main objective is to demonstrate that RFID represents a solution for improving the transport networks and logistics sector by implementing various complex and intelligent solutions that can improve the actual economic environment

  11. Regional flow and solute transport modeling for site suitability. Part I

    The nature of regional flow systems in large sedimentary basins will largely determine the effectiveness of regional flow as a barrier to radionuclide escape from deep geologic repositories. The purpose of the work reported herein and the proposed future work is to develop a methodology for evaluating regional flow barriers by using numerical models. The Williston Basin was chosen as an archetype case for the regional modeling study. However, due to the simplified nature of the study, the results are not meant to represent the behavior of a repository actually placed within the Williston Basin. The major components of this Phase I study are: (1) assembly and reduction of available data; (2) formulation of a simplified geohydrologic model; (3) computer simulation of fluid flow; and (4) computer simulation of solute transport. As of this report, the first two items are essentially completed. Computer simulation of fluid flow will require some revision and further study, which will be done in the second phase of this study. Computer simulation of solute transport has been considered only on a very preliminary basis. Important conclusions of this Phase I study are as follows. Assembly and reduction of data require an extensive work effort. Generally, the parameters describing fluid flow are poorly known on a regional basis and those describing solute transport are unknown

  12. Upscaling solute transport in naturally fractured porous media with the continuous time random walk method

    Geiger, S.; Cortis, A.; Birkholzer, J.T.

    2010-04-01

    Solute transport in fractured porous media is typically 'non-Fickian'; that is, it is characterized by early breakthrough and long tailing and by nonlinear growth of the Green function-centered second moment. This behavior is due to the effects of (1) multirate diffusion occurring between the highly permeable fracture network and the low-permeability rock matrix, (2) a wide range of advection rates in the fractures and, possibly, the matrix as well, and (3) a range of path lengths. As a consequence, prediction of solute transport processes at the macroscale represents a formidable challenge. Classical dual-porosity (or mobile-immobile) approaches in conjunction with an advection-dispersion equation and macroscopic dispersivity commonly fail to predict breakthrough of fractured porous media accurately. It was recently demonstrated that the continuous time random walk (CTRW) method can be used as a generalized upscaling approach. Here we extend this work and use results from high-resolution finite element-finite volume-based simulations of solute transport in an outcrop analogue of a naturally fractured reservoir to calibrate the CTRW method by extracting a distribution of retention times. This procedure allows us to predict breakthrough at other model locations accurately and to gain significant insight into the nature of the fracture-matrix interaction in naturally fractured porous reservoirs with geologically realistic fracture geometries.

  13. Solutes transport in unsaturated double-porosity medium. Modelling by homogenization and applications

    This Ph.D thesis presents the development of the solute transport models in unsaturated double-porosity medium, by using the asymptotic homogenization method. The obtained macroscopic models concern diffusion, diffusion-convection and dispersion-convection, according to the transport regime which is characterized by the non-dimensional numbers. The models consist of two coupled equations that show the local non-equilibrium of concentrations. The double-porosity transport models were numerically implemented using the code COMSOL Multiphysics (finite elements method), and compared with the solution of the same problem at the fine scale. The implementation allows solving the coupled equations in the macro- and micro-porosity domains (two-scale computations). The calculations of the dispersion tensor as a solution of the local boundary value problems, were also conducted. It was shown that the dispersivity depends on the saturation, the physical properties of the macro-porosity domain and the internal structure of the double-porosity medium. Finally, two series of experiments were performed on a physical model of double-porosity that is composed of a periodic assemblage of sintered clay spheres in Hostun sand HN38. The first experiment was a drainage experiment, which was conducted in order to validate the unsaturated flow model. The second series was a dispersion experiment in permanent unsaturated water flow condition (water content measured by gamma ray attenuation technique). A good agreement between the numerical simulations and the experimental observations allows the validation of the developed models. (author)

  14. Three-dimensional transport theory: An analytical solution of an internal beam searchlight problem, III

    We describe a method for obtaining analytical solutions and numerical results for three-dimensional one-speed neutron transport problems in a half-space containing a variety of source shapes which emit neutrons mono-directionally in the direction away from the surface. Thus this paper is a supplement to Williams [Williams, M.M.R., 2009, Three-dimensional transport theory: an analytical solution for the internal beam searchlight problem I. Annals of Nuclear Energy 36, 767-783]. For example, we consider a point source, a ring source and a disk source, and calculate the surface scalar flux as a function of the radial co-ordinate when the source is at a fixed distance from the surface. The results are in full agreement with the work of Ganapol and Kornreich [Ganapol, B.D., Kornreich, D.E., this issue. Three-dimensional transport theory: an analytical solution for the internal beam searchlight problem II. Annals of Nuclear Energy]. Diffusion theory results are also included.

  15. Final Technical Report - Investigation into the Relationship between Heterogeneity and Heavy-Tailed Solute Transport

    Weissmann, Gary S

    2013-12-06

    The objective of this project was to characterize the influence that naturally complex geologic media has on anomalous dispersion and to determine if the nature of dispersion can be estimated from the underlying heterogeneous media. The UNM portion of this project was to provide detailed representations of aquifer heterogeneity through producing highly-resolved models of outcrop analogs to aquifer materials. This project combined outcrop-scale heterogeneity characterization (conducted at the University of New Mexico), laboratory experiments (conducted at Sandia National Laboratory), and numerical simulations (conducted at Sandia National Laboratory and Colorado School of Mines). The study was designed to test whether established dispersion theory accurately predicts the behavior of solute transport through heterogeneous media and to investigate the relationship between heterogeneity and the parameters that populate these models. The dispersion theory tested by this work was based upon the fractional advection-dispersion equation (fADE) model. Unlike most dispersion studies that develop a solute transport model by fitting the solute transport breakthrough curve, this project explored the nature of the heterogeneous media to better understand the connection between the model parameters and the aquifer heterogeneity. We also evaluated methods for simulating the heterogeneity to see whether these approaches (e.g., geostatistical) could reasonably replicate realistic heterogeneity. The UNM portion of this study focused on capturing realistic geologic heterogeneity of aquifer analogs using advanced outcrop mapping methods.

  16. On Existence of $L^2$-solutions of Coupled Boltzmann Continuous Slowing Down Transport Equation System

    Tervo, J; Frank, M; Herty, M

    2016-01-01

    The paper considers a coupled system of linear Boltzmann transport equation (BTE), and its Continuous Slowing Down Approximation (CSDA). This system can be used to model the relevant transport of particles used e.g. in dose calculation in radiation therapy. The evolution of charged particles (e.g. electrons and positrons) are in practice often modelled using the CSDA version of BTE because of the so-called forward peakedness of scattering events contributing to the particle fluencies (or particle densities), which causes severe problems for numerical methods. First, we prove the existence and uniqueness of solutions, under sufficient criteria and in appropriate $L^2$-based spaces, of a single (particle) CSDA-equation by using two complementary techniques, the Lions-Lax-Milgram Theorem (variational approach), and the theory evolution operators (semigroup approach). The necessary a priori estimates are shown. In addition, we prove the corresponding results and estimates for the system of coupled transport equat...

  17. Finite element simulation of moisture movement and solute transport in a large caisson

    The results of the solute transport experiments performed on compacted, crushed Bandelier Tuff in caisson B of the experimental cluster described by DePoorter (1981) are simulated. Both one- and three-dimensional simulations of solute transport have been performed using two selected finite element codes. Results of bromide and iodide tracer experiments conducted during near-steady flow conditions have been analyzed for pulse additions made on December 6, 1984, and followed over a period of up to 60 days. In addition, a pulse addition of nonconservative strontium tracer on September 28, 1984, during questionably steady flow conditions has been analyzed over a period of 240 days. One-dimensional finite element flow and transport simulations were carried out assuming the porous medium to be homogeneous and the injection source uniformly distributed. To evaluate effects of the nonuniform source distribution and also to investigate effects of inhomogeneous porous medium properties, three dimensional finite element analyses of transport were carried out. Implications of the three-dimensional effects for the design and analysis of future tracer studies are discussed

  18. Characterization of solute transport parameters in leach ore:inverse modeling based on column experiments

    Sheng PENG

    2009-01-01

    Heap leaching is essentially a process in which metals are extracted from mine ores with lixiant. For a better understanding and modeling of this process, solute transport parameters are required to characterize the solute transport system of the leach heap. For porous media like leach ores, which contain substantial gravelly particles and have a broad range of particle size distributions, traditional small-scale laboratory experimental apparatus is not appropriate. In this paper, a 2.44m long, 0.3 m inner diameter column was used for tracer test with boron as the tracer. Tracer tests were conducted for 2 bulk densities (1.92 and 1.62g/cm3) and 2 irrigation rates (2 and 5 L/(mE. h-i)). Inverse modeling with two-region transport model using computer code CXTFIT was conducted based on the measured breakthrough curves to estimate the transport parameters. Fitting was focused on three parameters: dispersion coefficient D, partition coefficient r, and mass transfer coefficient ω. The results turned out to fall within reasonable ranges. Sensitivity analysis was conducted for the three parameters and showed that the order of sensitivity is β > ω > D. In addition, scaling of these parameters was discussed and applied to a real scale heap leach to predict the tracer breakthrough.

  19. Stochastic approach to the numerical solution of the non-stationary Parker's transport equation

    Wawrzynczak, A; Gil, A

    2015-01-01

    We present the newly developed stochastic model of the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) particles transport in the heliosphere. Mathematically Parker transport equation (PTE) describing non-stationary transport of charged particles in the turbulent medium is the Fokker-Planck type. It is the second order parabolic time-dependent 4-dimensional (3 spatial coordinates and particles energy/rigidity) partial differential equation. It is worth to mention that, if we assume the stationary case it remains as the 3-D parabolic type problem with respect to the particles rigidity R. If we fix the energy it still remains as the 3-D parabolic type problem with respect to time. The proposed method of numerical solution is based on the solution of the system of stochastic differential equations (SDEs) being equivalent to the Parker's transport equation. We present the method of deriving from PTE the equivalent SDEs in the heliocentric spherical coordinate system for the backward approach. The obtained stochastic model of the Forbu...

  20. Effect of the background solution and material composition on the transport of silver nanoparticles in saturated aquifer materials

    Adrian, Yorck; Schneidewind, Uwe; Fernandez-Steeger, Tomas; Azzam, Rafig

    2016-04-01

    Engineered silver nanoparticles (AgNP) are used in various consumer products such as cloth or personal care products due to their antimicrobial properties (Benn et al., 2010). Their transport behavior in the environment is still under investigation. Previous studies have been focusing on the transport of AgNP in simple test systems with glass beads or soil materials (Braun et al., 2015), but studies investigating aquifer material are rare. However, the protection of fresh water resources in the subsurface is an important part in the protection of human health and the assurance of future economic activities. Therefore, expert knowledge regarding the transport and fate of engineered nanoparticles as potential contaminants in aquifers is essential. Within the scope of the research project NanoMobil funded by German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, the transport and retention behavior of AgNP in aquifer material was investigated under saturated conditions in laboratory columns for different flow velocities, ionic strengths (IS) and background solutions. The used aquifer material consisted mainly of quartz and albite. The quartz grains were partially coated with iron hydroxides and oxides. Furthermore, 1% hematite was present in the silicate dominated aquifer material. The experiments were conducted using NaNO3 and Ca(NO3)2 background solutions to examine the effects of monovalent and divalent cations on the transport of AgNP. Flow velocities in the columns were chosen to represent typical flow velocities of groundwater in the subsurface. For the experiments two mean grain sizes of 0.3 and 0.7 mm were used to investigate the effect of the grain size on the transport behavior. Particle concentration was measured using ICP-MS and particle size was determined using flow field-flow fractionation (FlFFF). HYDRUS-1D (Šimůnek et al., 2013) was used to elucidate the transport and retention processes of the AgNP in the aquifer material. The obtained results show

  1. Representing solute transport through the multi-barrier disposal system by simplified concepts

    Poteri, A.; Nordman, H.; Pulkkanen, V-M. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Kekaelaeinen, P. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland). Dept. pf Physics; Hautojaervi, A.

    2012-02-15

    The repository system chosen in Finland for spent nuclear fuel is composed of multiple successive transport barriers. If a waste canister is leaking, this multi-barrier system retards and limits the release rates of radionuclides into the biosphere. Analysis of radionuclide migration in the previous performance assessments has largely been based on numerical modelling of the repository system. The simplified analytical approach introduced here provides a tool to analyse the performance of the whole system using simplified representations of the individual transport barriers. This approach is based on the main characteristics of the individual barriers and on the generic nature of the coupling between successive barriers. In the case of underground repository the mass transfer between successive transport barriers is strongly restricted by the interfaces between barriers leading to well-mixed conditions in these barriers. The approach here simplifies the barrier system so that it can be described with a very simple compartment model, where each barrier is represented by a single, or in the case of buffer, by not more than two compartments. This system of compartments could be solved in analogy with a radioactive decay chain. The model of well mixed compartments lends itself to a very descriptive way to represent and analyse the barrier system because the relative efficiency of the different barriers in hindering transport of solutes can be parameterised by the solutes half-times in the corresponding compartments. In a real repository system there will also be a delay between the start of the inflow and the start of the outflow from the barrier. This delay can be important for the release rates of the short lived and sorbing radionuclides, and it was also included in the simplified representation of the barrier system. In a geological multi-barrier system, spreading of the outflowing release pulse is often governed by the typical behaviour of one transport barrier

  2. Numerical investigations of solute transport in bimodal porous media under dynamic boundary conditions

    Cremer, Clemens; Neuweiler, Insa; Bechtold, Michel; Vanderborght, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Quantification of flow and solute transport in the shallow subsurface adjacent to the atmosphere is decisive to prevent groundwater pollution and conserve groundwater quality, to develop successful remediation strategies and to understand nutrient cycling. In nature, due to erratic precipitation-evaporation patterns, soil moisture content and related hydraulic conductivity in the vadose zone are not only variable in space but also in time. Flow directions and flow paths locally change between precipitation and evaporation periods. This makes the identification and description of solute transport processes in the vadose zone a complex problem. Recent studies (Lehmann and Or, 2009; Bechtold et al., 2011a) focused on the investigation of upward transport of solutes during evaporation in heterogeneous soil columns, where heterogeneity was introduced by a sharp vertical material interface between two types of sand. Lateral solute transport through the interface in both (lateral) directions was observed at different depths of the investigated soil columns. Following recent approaches, we conduct two-dimensional numerical simulations in a similar setup which is composed of two sands with a sharp vertical material interface. The investigation is broadened from the sole evaporation to combined precipitation-evaporation cycles in order to quantify transport processes resulting from the combined effects of heterogeneous soil structure and dynamic flow conditions. Simulations are performed with a coupled finite volume and random walk particle tracking algorithm (Ippisch et al., 2006; Bechtold et al., 2011b). By comparing scenarios with cyclic boundary conditions and stationary counterparts with the same net flow rate, we found that duration and intensity of precipitation and evaporation periods potentially have an influence on lateral redistribution of solutes and thus leaching rates. Whether or not dynamic boundary conditions lead to significant deviations in the transport

  3. The Method of Manufactured Solutions for RattleSnake A SN Radiation Transport Solver Inside the MOOSE Framework

    The Method of Manufactured Solutions (MMS) is an accepted technique to verify that a numerical discretization for the radiation transport equation has been implemented correctly. This technique offers a few advantages over other methods such as benchmark problems or analytical solutions. The solution can be manufactured such that properties for the angular flux are either stressed or preserved. For radiation transport, these properties can include desired smoothness, positiveness and arbitrary order of anisotropy in angle. Another advantage is that the angular flux solution can be manufactured for multidimensional problems where analytical solutions are difficult to obtain in general.

  4. Analytical solution of neutron transport equation in an annular reactor with a rotating pulsed source

    In this study, an analytical solution of the neutron transport equation in an annular reactor is presented with a short and rotating neutron source of the type S(x) δ (x- Vt), where V is the speed of annular pulsed reactor. The study is an extension of a previous study by Williams [12] carried out with a pulsed source of the type S(x) δ (t). In the new concept of annular pulsed reactor designed to produce continuous high flux, the core consists of a subcritical annular geometry pulsed by a rotating modulator, producing local super prompt critical condition, thereby giving origin to a rotating neutron pulse. An analytical solution is obtained by opening up of the annular geometry and applying one energy group transport theory in one dimension using applied mathematical techniques of Laplace transform and Complex Variables. The general solution for the flux consists of a fundamental mode, a finite number of harmonics and a transient integral. A condition which limits the number of harmonics depending upon the circumference of the annular geometry has been obtained. Inverse Laplace transform technique is used to analyse instability condition in annular reactor core. A regenerator parameter in conjunction with perimeter of the ring and nuclear properties is used to obtain stable and unstable harmonics and to verify if these exist. It is found that the solution does not present instability in the conditions stated in the new concept of annular pulsed reactor. (author)

  5. Catchment travel and residence time distributions: a theoretical framework for solute transport modeling

    Botter, G.; Bertuzzo, E.; Rinaldo, A.

    2011-12-01

    The probability density functions (pdf's) of travel and residence times are key descriptors of the mechanisms through which catchments retain and release old and event water, transporting solutes to receiving water bodies. In this contribution we derive a general stochastic framework applicable to arbitrary catchment control volumes, where time-variable precipitation, evapotranspiration and discharge are assumed to be the major hydrological drivers for water and solutes. A master equation for the residence time pdf is derived and solved analytically, providing expressions for travel and residence time pdf's as a function of input/output fluxes and of the relevant mixing processes occurring along streamflow production and plant upatke. Our solutions suggest intrinsically time variant travel and residence time pdf's through a direct dependence on the underlying hydrological forcings and soil vegetation dynamics. The proposed framework highlights the dependence of water/solute travel times on eco-hydrological processes (especially transpiration and uptake), and integrates age-dating and tracer hydrology techniques by providing a coherent framework for catchment transport models. An application to the release of pesticides from an agricultural watershead is also discussed.

  6. Impact of space-time mesh adaptation on solute transport modeling in porous media

    Esfandiar, Bahman; Porta, Giovanni; Perotto, Simona; Guadagnini, Alberto

    2015-02-01

    We implement a space-time grid adaptation procedure to efficiently improve the accuracy of numerical simulations of solute transport in porous media in the context of model parameter estimation. We focus on the Advection Dispersion Equation (ADE) for the interpretation of nonreactive transport experiments in laboratory-scale heterogeneous porous media. When compared to a numerical approximation based on a fixed space-time discretization, our approach is grounded on a joint automatic selection of the spatial grid and the time step to capture the main (space-time) system dynamics. Spatial mesh adaptation is driven by an anisotropic recovery-based error estimator which enables us to properly select the size, shape, and orientation of the mesh elements. Adaptation of the time step is performed through an ad hoc local reconstruction of the temporal derivative of the solution via a recovery-based approach. The impact of the proposed adaptation strategy on the ability to provide reliable estimates of the key parameters of an ADE model is assessed on the basis of experimental solute breakthrough data measured following tracer injection in a nonuniform porous system. Model calibration is performed in a Maximum Likelihood (ML) framework upon relying on the representation of the ADE solution through a generalized Polynomial Chaos Expansion (gPCE). Our results show that the proposed anisotropic space-time grid adaptation leads to ML parameter estimates and to model results of markedly improved quality when compared to classical inversion approaches based on a uniform space-time discretization.

  7. Solute transport in fractured media - The important mechanisms for performance assessment

    The most important mechanisms that control the release of contaminants from a repository for nuclear or chemical waste have been studied. For the time scale of interest for the disposal of nuclear or even chemical waste, diffusion into the rock matrix is an important factor which retards and dilutes the contaminants. It is found that the water flow-rate distribution and the flow-wetted surface are the entities that primarily determine the solute transport. If the diffusion in the rock matrix is negligible, the solute transport is determined by the water flow-rate and the flow porosity. This is shown by simulations using analytical solutions obtained for simple geometries, such as the flow in a fracture or a channel. Similar results are obtained for more complex systems, such as flow in a fracture with variable aperture and through a network of channels. It is also found that the use of a retardation factor relating the travel times of interacting and noninteracting solutes is inappropriate and may be misleading. 11 refs, 9 figs, 1 tab

  8. Analytical solutions for multidimensional transport of a four-member radionuclide decay chain in ground water

    Analytical solutions based on the Laplace and Fourier transformation techniques are presented for the two- and three-dimensional space-time-dependent convective-dispersive transport of a four-member radionuclide decay chain in homogeneous porous media. The longitudinal dispersion-free solution is also reported. The computation was executed using the MASCOT model on a VAX/VMS-Version 4.1. The solutions are designed for an unbounded medium flow field assumed to be semi-infinite in the direction normal to the source, and infinite orthogonal to the source, with a variety of boundary conditions (single or multiple finite line source or a Gaussian distributed source in the two-dimensional case; single or multiple patch source or bivariate normally distributed source in the three-dimensional case). Radionuclide release modes of the constant and nuclide-dependent type are taken into account. An optimization of the convergence of the integration required by these solutions is achieved after operating a transformation of the infinite interval into the sum of two finite ones. The efficiency of two quadrature formulas (Gauss-Legendre and a fourth-order Newton-Cotes based on an iterative approach) was investigated. Solution accuracy was verified against available one- and two-dimensional analytical solutions. 15 refs

  9. Benchmarking the invariant embedding method against analytical solutions in model transport problems

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the use of the invariant embedding method in a series of model transport problems, for which it is also possible to obtain an analytical solution. Due to the non-linear character of the embedding equations, their solution can only be obtained numerically. However, this can be done via a robust and effective iteration scheme. In return, the domain of applicability is far wider than the model problems investigated in this paper. The use of the invariant embedding method is demonstrated in three different areas. The first is the calculation of the energy spectrum of reflected (sputtered) particles from a multiplying medium, where the multiplication arises from recoil production. Both constant and energy dependent cross sections with a power law dependence were used in the calculations. The second application concerns the calculation of the path length distribution of reflected particles from a medium without multiplication. This is a relatively novel and unexpected application, since the embedding equations do not resolve the depth variable. The third application concerns the demonstration that solutions in an infinite medium and a half-space are interrelated through embedding-like integral equations, by the solution of which the reflected flux from a half-space can be reconstructed from solutions in an infinite medium or vice versa. In all cases the invariant embedding method proved to be robust, fast and monotonically converging to the exact solutions. (authors)

  10. Effects of reservoir heterogeneity on scaling of effective mass transfer coefficient for solute transport

    Leung, Juliana Y.; Srinivasan, Sanjay

    2016-09-01

    Modeling transport process at large scale requires proper scale-up of subsurface heterogeneity and an understanding of its interaction with the underlying transport mechanisms. A technique based on volume averaging is applied to quantitatively assess the scaling characteristics of effective mass transfer coefficient in heterogeneous reservoir models. The effective mass transfer coefficient represents the combined contribution from diffusion and dispersion to the transport of non-reactive solute particles within a fluid phase. Although treatment of transport problems with the volume averaging technique has been published in the past, application to geological systems exhibiting realistic spatial variability remains a challenge. Previously, the authors developed a new procedure where results from a fine-scale numerical flow simulation reflecting the full physics of the transport process albeit over a sub-volume of the reservoir are integrated with the volume averaging technique to provide effective description of transport properties. The procedure is extended such that spatial averaging is performed at the local-heterogeneity scale. In this paper, the transport of a passive (non-reactive) solute is simulated on multiple reservoir models exhibiting different patterns of heterogeneities, and the scaling behavior of effective mass transfer coefficient (Keff) is examined and compared. One such set of models exhibit power-law (fractal) characteristics, and the variability of dispersion and Keff with scale is in good agreement with analytical expressions described in the literature. This work offers an insight into the impacts of heterogeneity on the scaling of effective transport parameters. A key finding is that spatial heterogeneity models with similar univariate and bivariate statistics may exhibit different scaling characteristics because of the influence of higher order statistics. More mixing is observed in the channelized models with higher-order continuity. It

  11. Effects of reservoir heterogeneity on scaling of effective mass transfer coefficient for solute transport.

    Leung, Juliana Y; Srinivasan, Sanjay

    2016-09-01

    Modeling transport process at large scale requires proper scale-up of subsurface heterogeneity and an understanding of its interaction with the underlying transport mechanisms. A technique based on volume averaging is applied to quantitatively assess the scaling characteristics of effective mass transfer coefficient in heterogeneous reservoir models. The effective mass transfer coefficient represents the combined contribution from diffusion and dispersion to the transport of non-reactive solute particles within a fluid phase. Although treatment of transport problems with the volume averaging technique has been published in the past, application to geological systems exhibiting realistic spatial variability remains a challenge. Previously, the authors developed a new procedure where results from a fine-scale numerical flow simulation reflecting the full physics of the transport process albeit over a sub-volume of the reservoir are integrated with the volume averaging technique to provide effective description of transport properties. The procedure is extended such that spatial averaging is performed at the local-heterogeneity scale. In this paper, the transport of a passive (non-reactive) solute is simulated on multiple reservoir models exhibiting different patterns of heterogeneities, and the scaling behavior of effective mass transfer coefficient (Keff) is examined and compared. One such set of models exhibit power-law (fractal) characteristics, and the variability of dispersion and Keff with scale is in good agreement with analytical expressions described in the literature. This work offers an insight into the impacts of heterogeneity on the scaling of effective transport parameters. A key finding is that spatial heterogeneity models with similar univariate and bivariate statistics may exhibit different scaling characteristics because of the influence of higher order statistics. More mixing is observed in the channelized models with higher-order continuity. It

  12. Final Report - Montana State University - Microbial Activity and Precipitation at Solution-Solution Mixing Zones in Porous Media

    Gerlach, Robin [Montana State University

    2014-10-31

    Background. The use of biological and chemical processes that degrade or immobilize contaminants in subsurface environments is a cornerstone of remediation technology. The enhancement of biological and chemical processes in situ, involves the transport, displacement, distribution and mixing of one or more reactive agents. Biological and chemical reactions all require diffusive transport of solutes to reaction sites at the molecular scale and accordingly, the success of processes at the meter-scale and larger is dictated by the success of phenomena that occur at the micron-scale. However, current understanding of scaling effects on the mixing and delivery of nutrients in biogeochemically dynamic porous media systems is limited, despite the limitations this imposes on the efficiency and effectiveness of the remediation challenges at hand. Objectives. We therefore proposed to experimentally characterize and computationally describe the growth, evolution, and distribution of microbial activity and mineral formation as well as changes in transport processes in porous media that receive two or more reactive amendments. The model system chosen for this project was based on a method for immobilizing 90Sr, which involves stimulating microbial urea hydrolysis with ensuing mineral precipitation (CaCO3), and co-precipitation of Sr. Studies at different laboratory scales were used to visualize and quantitatively describe the spatial relationships between amendment transport and consumption that stimulate the production of biomass and mineral phases that subsequently modify the permeability and heterogeneity of porous media. Biomass growth, activity, and mass deposition in mixing zones was investigated using two-dimensional micro-model flow cells as well as flow cells that could be analyzed using synchrotron-based x-ray tomography. Larger-scale flow-cell experiments were conducted where the spatial distribution of media properties, flow, segregation of biological activity and

  13. Cadmium uptake from solution by plants and its transport from roots to shoots

    Jarvis, S.C.; Jones, L.H.P.; Hopper, M.J.

    1976-02-01

    The uptake of cadmium by the roots of plants, and its transport to shoots was examined using solution culture. Uptake by the roots of perennial ryegrass over a period of 4 hours from an aqueous solution containing 0.25 ppm cadmium as CdCl/sub 2/ was (i) enhanced by killing the roots and (ii) depressed when Ca/sup 2 +/, Mn/sup 2 +/ or Zn/sup 2 +/ were added to the solution. The distribution of cadmium between the roots and shoots of 23 species was examined at 4 days after a single, 3-day exposure to a nutrient solution containing 0.01 ppm added Cd. In all except 3 species, i.e. kale, lettuce and watercress, more than 50% of that taken up was retained in the shoot, and in fibrous roots of fodder beet, parsnip, carrot and radish it was greater than in the swollen storage roots. When perennial ryegrass was similarly exposed to solutions containing 0.01, 0.05, and 0.25 ppm added cadmium, uptake, as measured at 3 days after adding cadmium, increased with increasing rates of addition, but the proportion retained in the roots was constant (approximately 88%). There was no further transport from roots to shoots during the next 21 days, with the result that the concentration in the shoots decreased progressively with increasing growth. It is concluded that although the roots of several species can take up large quantities of cadmium from solution there are mechanisms which may restrict the movement of cadmium through plants, and thus to animals. 21 references, 7 tables.

  14. A dual-permeability approach to preferential water flow and solute transport in shrinking soils

    Coppola, Antonio; dragonetti, giovanna; Comegna, Alessandro; Gerke, Horst H.; Basile, Angelo

    2016-04-01

    The pore systems in most natural soils is dynamically changing due to alternating swelling and shrinkage processes, which induces changes in pore volume and pore size distribution including deformations in pore geometry. This is a serious difficulty for modeling flow and transport in dual permeability approaches, as it will also require that the geometrical deformation of both the soil matrix and the fracture porous systems be taken into account, as well as the dynamics of soil hydraulic properties in response to the domain deformations. This study follows up a previous work by the same authors extending the classical rigid (RGD) approach formerly proposed by Gerke and van Genuchten, to account for shrinking effects (SHR) in modeling water flow and solute transport in dual-permeability porous media. In this study we considered three SHR scenarios, assuming that aggregate shrinkage may change either: (i) the hydraulic properties of the two pore domains, (ii) their relative fractions, and (iii) both, hydraulic properties and fractions of the two domains. The objective was to compare simulation results obtained under the RGD and the SHR assumptions to illustrate the impact of matrix volume changes on water storage, water fluxes and solute concentrations during: 1) An infiltration process bringing an initially dry soil to saturation, 2) A drainage process starting from an initially saturated soil. For an infiltration process, the simulated wetting front and the solute concentration propagation velocity, as well as the water fluxes, water and solute exchange rates, for the three SHR scenarios significantly deviated from the RGD. By contrast, relatively similar water content profiles evolved under all scenarios during drying. Overall, compared to the RGD approach, the effect of changing the hydraulic properties and the weight of the two domains according to the shrinkage behavior of the soil aggregates induced a much more rapid response in terms of water fluxes and

  15. Expression of human solute carrier family transporters in skin: possible contributor to drug-induced skin disorders

    Ryoichi Fujiwara; Saya Takenaka; Mitsuhiro Hashimoto; Tomoya Narawa; Tomoo Itoh

    2014-01-01

    Solute carrier (SLC) transporters play important roles in absorption and disposition of drugs in cells; however, the expression pattern of human SLC transporters in the skin has not been determined. In the present study, the expression patterns of 28 human SLC transporters were determined in the human skin. Most of the SLC transporter family members were either highly or moderately expressed in the liver, while their expression was limited in the skin and small intestine. Treatment of human k...

  16. Sintering as a process of transport of activated volume

    Nikolić Nataša S.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Starting with the fact that sintering is the consequence of the process of transport of activated volume, it has been shown how the kinetics of the sintering process can be defined. The activated volume was in principle defined as a parameter which describes a system’s deffectivity on an atomic level.

  17. Modelling transport of water and solutes in future wetlands in Forsmark

    Vikstroem, Maria; Gustafsson, Lars-Goeran [DHI Water and Environment AB, Vaexjoe (Sweden)

    2006-03-15

    been analyzed. Results from the transport modelling show that a solute in the bedrock is transported quickly towards the peat surface in discharge areas for Bolundsfjaerden. After around 10 years, a stationary condition is reached. For the recharge area that develops in large parts of the mire, the solute is transported through horizontal dispersion, which results in much lower concentrations. The solute concentration is at the lowest where the overland water pressure is at the highest close to the south western inlet. Puttan has a vertical flow pattern that differs from Bolundsfjaerden. The pressure from water on the peat surface is considerably lower and for a major part of the year Puttan is a discharge area with an upwards flow direction. The spatial distribution of solutes is more even over the surface than for Bolundsfjaerden, but higher concentrations are found around today's shoreline. A solute reaching the wetland through surface runoff is transported relatively slow through the mire at Bolundsfjaerden. Due to the recharge conditions, the solute is spread to the underlying soil layers. The vertical solute transport follows the discharge and recharge areas, where high concentrations, up to the source strength, are reached in major parts of the formation, while lower concentrations are reached in the discharge areas and underneath clay sediment.

  18. Modelling transport of water and solutes in future wetlands in Forsmark

    analyzed. Results from the transport modelling show that a solute in the bedrock is transported quickly towards the peat surface in discharge areas for Bolundsfjaerden. After around 10 years, a stationary condition is reached. For the recharge area that develops in large parts of the mire, the solute is transported through horizontal dispersion, which results in much lower concentrations. The solute concentration is at the lowest where the overland water pressure is at the highest close to the south western inlet. Puttan has a vertical flow pattern that differs from Bolundsfjaerden. The pressure from water on the peat surface is considerably lower and for a major part of the year Puttan is a discharge area with an upwards flow direction. The spatial distribution of solutes is more even over the surface than for Bolundsfjaerden, but higher concentrations are found around today's shoreline. A solute reaching the wetland through surface runoff is transported relatively slow through the mire at Bolundsfjaerden. Due to the recharge conditions, the solute is spread to the underlying soil layers. The vertical solute transport follows the discharge and recharge areas, where high concentrations, up to the source strength, are reached in major parts of the formation, while lower concentrations are reached in the discharge areas and underneath clay sediment

  19. Control of colloid transport via solute gradients in dead-end channels

    Shin, Sangwoo; Um, Eujin; Warren, Patrick; Stone, Howard

    2015-11-01

    Transport of colloids in dead-end channels is involved in widespread applications ranging from drug delivery to geophysical flows. In such geometries, Brownian motion may be considered as the sole mechanism that enables transport of colloidal particles into or out of the channels, which is, unfortunately, an extremely inefficient transport mechanism for microscale particles. Here, we explore the possibility of diffusiophoresis as a means to control the colloid transport by introducing a solute gradient along the dead-end channels. We demonstrate that the transport of colloidal particles into the dead-end channels can be either enhanced or completely prevented via diffusiophoresis. We also observe a size-dependent focusing of the particles where, as the particle size increases, the particles tend to concentrate more, and they tend to reside deeper in the channel. Our findings have implications for all manners of controlled release processes, especially for site-specific drug delivery systems where localized targeting of drugs with minimal dispersion to the non-target is essential.

  20. Modeling variably saturated multispecies reactive groundwater solute transport with MODFLOW-UZF and RT3D

    Bailey, Ryan T.; Morway, Eric D.; Niswonger, Richard G.; Gates, Timothy K.

    2013-01-01

    A numerical model was developed that is capable of simulating multispecies reactive solute transport in variably saturated porous media. This model consists of a modified version of the reactive transport model RT3D (Reactive Transport in 3 Dimensions) that is linked to the Unsaturated-Zone Flow (UZF1) package and MODFLOW. Referred to as UZF-RT3D, the model is tested against published analytical benchmarks as well as other published contaminant transport models, including HYDRUS-1D, VS2DT, and SUTRA, and the coupled flow and transport modeling system of CATHY and TRAN3D. Comparisons in one-dimensional, two-dimensional, and three-dimensional variably saturated systems are explored. While several test cases are included to verify the correct implementation of variably saturated transport in UZF-RT3D, other cases are included to demonstrate the usefulness of the code in terms of model run-time and handling the reaction kinetics of multiple interacting species in variably saturated subsurface systems. As UZF1 relies on a kinematic-wave approximation for unsaturated flow that neglects the diffusive terms in Richards equation, UZF-RT3D can be used for large-scale aquifer systems for which the UZF1 formulation is reasonable, that is, capillary-pressure gradients can be neglected and soil parameters can be treated as homogeneous. Decreased model run-time and the ability to include site-specific chemical species and chemical reactions make UZF-RT3D an attractive model for efficient simulation of multispecies reactive transport in variably saturated large-scale subsurface systems.

  1. Modeling variably saturated multispecies reactive groundwater solute transport with MODFLOW-UZF and RT3D.

    Bailey, Ryan T; Morway, Eric D; Niswonger, Richard G; Gates, Timothy K

    2013-01-01

    A numerical model was developed that is capable of simulating multispecies reactive solute transport in variably saturated porous media. This model consists of a modified version of the reactive transport model RT3D (Reactive Transport in 3 Dimensions) that is linked to the Unsaturated-Zone Flow (UZF1) package and MODFLOW. Referred to as UZF-RT3D, the model is tested against published analytical benchmarks as well as other published contaminant transport models, including HYDRUS-1D, VS2DT, and SUTRA, and the coupled flow and transport modeling system of CATHY and TRAN3D. Comparisons in one-dimensional, two-dimensional, and three-dimensional variably saturated systems are explored. While several test cases are included to verify the correct implementation of variably saturated transport in UZF-RT3D, other cases are included to demonstrate the usefulness of the code in terms of model run-time and handling the reaction kinetics of multiple interacting species in variably saturated subsurface systems. As UZF1 relies on a kinematic-wave approximation for unsaturated flow that neglects the diffusive terms in Richards equation, UZF-RT3D can be used for large-scale aquifer systems for which the UZF1 formulation is reasonable, that is, capillary-pressure gradients can be neglected and soil parameters can be treated as homogeneous. Decreased model run-time and the ability to include site-specific chemical species and chemical reactions make UZF-RT3D an attractive model for efficient simulation of multispecies reactive transport in variably saturated large-scale subsurface systems. PMID:23131109

  2. Platelet Serotonin Transporter Function Predicts Default-Mode Network Activity

    Christian Scharinger; Ulrich Rabl; Christian H. Kasess; Meyer, Bernhard M.; Tina Hofmaier; Kersten Diers; Lucie Bartova; Gerald Pail; Wolfgang Huf; Zeljko Uzelac; Beate Hartinger; Klaudius Kalcher; Thomas Perkmann; Helmuth Haslacher; Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg

    2014-01-01

    Background The serotonin transporter (5-HTT) is abundantly expressed in humans by the serotonin transporter gene SLC6A4 and removes serotonin (5-HT) from extracellular space. A blood-brain relationship between platelet and synaptosomal 5-HT reuptake has been suggested, but it is unknown today, if platelet 5-HT uptake can predict neural activation of human brain networks that are known to be under serotonergic influence. Methods A functional magnetic resonance study was performed in 48 healthy...

  3. Nature of Non-Fickian Solute Transport in Complex Heterogeneous Porous Media - Carbonates

    Bijeljic, B.; Mostaghimi, P.; Blunt, M. J.

    2011-12-01

    Despite the range of significant practical applications of solute transport, including the long-term fate of nuclear waste repositories, secure storage of CO2 and improved oil recovery, even the qualitative behavior of most rocks is uncertain: vast carbonate sedimentary basins contain more than half the world's current oil reserves yet experimental data on transport in carbonates is scant. The relationship between pore structure, velocity field and transport remains unknown, particularly for heterogeneous carbonates. We simulate solute transport through 3D μ-CT images of different rock samples, representing geological media of increasing pore-scale complexity: a sandpack, a Berea sandstone and a Portland limestone. A finite-difference Stokes solver is employed to compute the flow field and transport particles semi-analytically along streamlines to represent advection with a random motion to model diffusion. We predict the propagators measured on similar cores in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) experiments. Dispersion coefficient dependence on Peclet number is shown to have different scaling for complex carbonates. The behavior is explained using continuous time random walks with a truncated power-law distribution of travel times: transport is qualitatively different for the complex limestone compared to the sandstone or sandpack, with long tailing, an almost immobile peak concentration and a very slow approach to asymptotic dispersion. We demonstrate the different nature of non-Fickian transport in carbonates by analyzing the transit time probabilities ψ(τ) of traveling between two neighboring voxels for Portland carbonate that show an approximately power-law dependence of travel times ψ(τ) ~ τ -1-β with a slope corresponding to β = 0.7, as shown in Fig.1. The comparison with ψ(τ) of the sandpack and Berea sandstone for Pe = ∝ indicates quantitatively different generic behavior, as the sandpack and sandstone have slope corresponding to β = 1.8 (two

  4. Hierarchical simulation of aquifer heterogeneity: implications of different simulation settings on solute-transport modeling

    Comunian, Alessandro; De Micheli, Leonardo; Lazzati, Claudio; Felletti, Fabrizio; Giacobbo, Francesca; Giudici, Mauro; Bersezio, Riccardo

    2016-03-01

    The fine-scale heterogeneity of porous media affects the large-scale transport of solutes and contaminants in groundwater and it can be reproduced by means of several geostatistical simulation tools. However, including the available geological information in these tools is often cumbersome. A hierarchical simulation procedure based on a binary tree is proposed and tested on two real-world blocks of alluvial sediments, of a few cubic meters volume, that represent small-scale aquifer analogs. The procedure is implemented using the sequential indicator simulation, but it is so general that it can be adapted to various geostatistical simulation tools, improving their capability to incorporate geological information, i.e., the sedimentological and architectural characterization of heterogeneity. When compared with a standard sequential indicator approach on bi-dimensional simulations, in terms of proportions and connectivity indicators, the proposed procedure yields reliable results, closer to the reference observations. Different ensembles of three-dimensional simulations based on different hierarchical sequences are used to perform numerical experiments of conservative solute transport and to obtain ensembles of equivalent pore velocity and dispersion coefficient at the scale length of the blocks (meter). Their statistics are used to estimate the impact of the variability of the transport properties of the simulated blocks on contaminant transport modeled on bigger domains (hectometer). This is investigated with a one-dimensional transport modeling based on the Kolmogorov-Dmitriev theory of branching stochastic processes. Applying the proposed approach with diverse binary trees and different simulation settings provides a great flexibility, which is revealed by the differences in the breakthrough curves.

  5. Global sensitivity analysis and Bayesian parameter inference for solute transport in porous media colonized by biofilms

    Younes, A.; Delay, F.; Fajraoui, N.; Fahs, M.; Mara, T. A.

    2016-08-01

    The concept of dual flowing continuum is a promising approach for modeling solute transport in porous media that includes biofilm phases. The highly dispersed transit time distributions often generated by these media are taken into consideration by simply stipulating that advection-dispersion transport occurs through both the porous and the biofilm phases. Both phases are coupled but assigned with contrasting hydrodynamic properties. However, the dual flowing continuum suffers from intrinsic equifinality in the sense that the outlet solute concentration can be the result of several parameter sets of the two flowing phases. To assess the applicability of the dual flowing continuum, we investigate how the model behaves with respect to its parameters. For the purpose of this study, a Global Sensitivity Analysis (GSA) and a Statistical Calibration (SC) of model parameters are performed for two transport scenarios that differ by the strength of interaction between the flowing phases. The GSA is shown to be a valuable tool to understand how the complex system behaves. The results indicate that the rate of mass transfer between the two phases is a key parameter of the model behavior and influences the identifiability of the other parameters. For weak mass exchanges, the output concentration is mainly controlled by the velocity in the porous medium and by the porosity of both flowing phases. In the case of large mass exchanges, the kinetics of this exchange also controls the output concentration. The SC results show that transport with large mass exchange between the flowing phases is more likely affected by equifinality than transport with weak exchange. The SC also indicates that weakly sensitive parameters, such as the dispersion in each phase, can be accurately identified. Removing them from calibration procedures is not recommended because it might result in biased estimations of the highly sensitive parameters.

  6. Global sensitivity analysis and Bayesian parameter inference for solute transport in porous media colonized by biofilms.

    Younes, A; Delay, F; Fajraoui, N; Fahs, M; Mara, T A

    2016-08-01

    The concept of dual flowing continuum is a promising approach for modeling solute transport in porous media that includes biofilm phases. The highly dispersed transit time distributions often generated by these media are taken into consideration by simply stipulating that advection-dispersion transport occurs through both the porous and the biofilm phases. Both phases are coupled but assigned with contrasting hydrodynamic properties. However, the dual flowing continuum suffers from intrinsic equifinality in the sense that the outlet solute concentration can be the result of several parameter sets of the two flowing phases. To assess the applicability of the dual flowing continuum, we investigate how the model behaves with respect to its parameters. For the purpose of this study, a Global Sensitivity Analysis (GSA) and a Statistical Calibration (SC) of model parameters are performed for two transport scenarios that differ by the strength of interaction between the flowing phases. The GSA is shown to be a valuable tool to understand how the complex system behaves. The results indicate that the rate of mass transfer between the two phases is a key parameter of the model behavior and influences the identifiability of the other parameters. For weak mass exchanges, the output concentration is mainly controlled by the velocity in the porous medium and by the porosity of both flowing phases. In the case of large mass exchanges, the kinetics of this exchange also controls the output concentration. The SC results show that transport with large mass exchange between the flowing phases is more likely affected by equifinality than transport with weak exchange. The SC also indicates that weakly sensitive parameters, such as the dispersion in each phase, can be accurately identified. Removing them from calibration procedures is not recommended because it might result in biased estimations of the highly sensitive parameters. PMID:27182791

  7. Reactive transport in a partially molten system with binary solid solution

    Jordan, Jacob S.; Hesse, Marc A.

    2015-12-01

    Melt extraction from the Earth's mantle through high-porosity channels is required to explain the composition of the oceanic crust. Feedbacks from reactive melt transport are thought to localize melt into a network of high-porosity channels. Recent studies invoke lithological heterogeneities in the Earth's mantle to seed the localization of partial melts. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the reaction fronts that form as melt flows across the lithological interface between the heterogeneity and the ambient mantle. Here we present a chromatographic analysis of reactive melt transport across lithological boundaries, using the theory of hyperbolic conservation laws. This is an extension of linear trace element chromatography to the coupling of major elements and energy transport. Our analysis allows the prediction of the nonlinear feedbacks that arise in reactive melt transport due to changes in porosity. This study considers the special case of a partially molten porous medium with binary solid solution. As melt traverses a lithological contact, binary solid solution leads to the formation of a reacted zone between an advancing reaction front and the initial contact. The analysis also shows that the behavior of a fertile heterogeneity depends on its absolute concentration, in addition to compositional differences between itself and the refractory background. We present a regime diagram that predicts if melt emanating from a fertile heterogeneity localizes into high-porosity channels or develops a zero porosity shell. The theoretical framework presented here provides a useful tool for understanding nonlinear feedbacks in reactive melt transport, because it can be extended to more complex and realistic phase behaviors.

  8. Modeling watershed-scale solute transport using an integrated, process-based hydrologic model with applications to bacterial fate and transport

    Niu, Jie; Phanikumar, Mantha S.

    2015-10-01

    Distributed hydrologic models that simulate fate and transport processes at sub-daily timescales are useful tools for estimating pollutant loads exported from watersheds to lakes and oceans downstream. There has been considerable interest in the application of integrated process-based hydrologic models in recent years. While the models have been applied to address questions of water quantity and to better understand linkages between hydrology and land surface processes, routine applications of these models to address water quality issues are currently limited. In this paper, we first describe a general process-based watershed-scale solute transport modeling framework, based on an operator splitting strategy and a Lagrangian particle transport method combined with dispersion and reactions. The transport and the hydrologic modules are tightly coupled and the interactions among different hydrologic components are explicitly modeled. We test transport modules using data from plot-scale experiments and available analytical solutions for different hydrologic domains. The numerical solutions are also compared with an analytical solution for groundwater transit times with interactions between surface and subsurface flows. Finally, we demonstrate the application of the model to simulate bacterial fate and transport in the Red Cedar River watershed in Michigan and test hypotheses about sources and transport pathways. The watershed bacterial fate and transport model is expected to be useful for making near real-time predictions at marine and freshwater beaches.

  9. Active Reflectors: Possible Solutions Based on Reflectarrays and Fresnel Reflectors

    Lorena Cabria

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An overview about some of the recent Spanish developments on active reflectors is presented. In the first part, a novel beamsteering active reflectarray is deeply studied. It is based on implementing in each elementary radiator an IQ modulator structure, in which amplitude and phase control of the scattered field is achieved. Finally, a special effort is made in offering solutions to overcome the active antenna integration problems. In the second part, the active concept is firstly extended to Fresnel reflectors. Thanks to the development of a proper simulator, this special structure can be easily analysed. This simulator allows the study of performance of this kind of reflectors and, applying evolutionary algorithms, to find optimal configurations of reflector in accordance with the given specifications for the conformal radiation pattern.

  10. Update of Nuclear Waste Policy Act transportation activities

    As directed by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA), the Department of Energy (DOE) is developing a nationwide system for transporting spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste from commercial power plants to deep geologic repositories for disposal. Plans for the transportation system will consider the following factors: the President's 1985 decision to co-locate some defense high-level waste with commercial waste in a repository, the NWPA requirement that the private sector be used to the fullest extent possible in developing and operating the system, and the possible approval by Congress of the DOE's proposal for a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility, submitted in March 1987. (The MRS, if approved, would provide for the consolidation, packaging, and perhaps the temporary storage of spent fuel from reactors.) The ''Transportation Business Plan'', published in January 1986, reflects these considerations. The transportation system, when operational, will consist of two elements: (1) the cask system, which includes the transportation casks, the vehicular conveyances, tie-downs, and associated equipment for handling the casks; and (2) the transportation support system which is comprised of facilities, equipment, and services to support waste transportation. Development of the transportation system incorporates the following work elements: operational planning, support systems development, cash system development, systems analysis, and institutional activities. This paper focusses on the technical aspects of the system

  11. Substrate regulation of ascorbate transport activity in astrocytes

    Astrocytes possess a concentrative L-ascorbate (vitamin C) uptake mechanism involving a Na(+)-dependent L-ascorbate transporter located in the plasma membrane. The present experiments examined the effects of deprivation and supplementation of extracellular L-ascorbate on the activity of this transport system. Initial rates of L-ascorbate uptake were measured by incubating primary cultures of rat astrocytes with L-[14C]ascorbate for 1 min at 37 degrees C. We observed that the apparent maximal rate of uptake (Vmax) increased rapidly (less than 1 h) when cultured cells were deprived of L-ascorbate. In contrast, there was no change in the apparent affinity of the transport system for L-[14C]ascorbate. The increase in Vmax was reversed by addition of L-ascorbate, but not D-isoascorbate, to the medium. The effects of external ascorbate on ascorbate transport activity were specific in that preincubation of cultures with L-ascorbate did not affect uptake of 2-deoxy-D-[3H(G)]glucose. We conclude that the astroglial ascorbate transport system is modulated by changes in substrate availability. Regulation of transport activity may play a role in intracellular ascorbate homeostasis by compensating for regional differences and temporal fluctuations in external ascorbate levels

  12. Heterogeneous nucleation promotes carrier transport in solution-processed organic field-effect transistors

    Li, Ruipeng

    2012-09-04

    A new way to investigate and control the growth of solution-cast thin films is presented. The combination of in situ quartz crystal microbalance measurements with dissipation capabilities (QCM-D) and in situ grazing-incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering (GIWAXS) in an environmental chamber provides unique quantitative insights into the time-evolution of the concentration of the solution, the onset of nucleation, and the mode of growth of the organic semiconductor under varied drying conditions. It is demonstrated that careful control over the kinetics of solution drying enhances carrier transport significantly by promoting phase transformation predominantly via heterogeneous nucleation and sustained surface growth of a highly lamellar structure at the solid-liquid interface at the expense of homogeneous nucleation. A new way to investigate and control the growth of drop-cast thin films is presented. The solution-processing of small-molecule thin films of TIPS-pentacene is investigated using time-resolved techniques to reveal the mechanisms of nucleation and growth leading to solid film formation. By tuning the drying speed of the solution, the balance between surface and bulk growth modes is altered, thereby controlling the lamellar formation and tuning the carrier mobility in organic field-effect transistors Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Benchmarking the invariant embedding method against analytical solutions in model transport problems

    Wahlberg Malin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the use of the invariant embedding method in a few model transport problems for which it is also possible to obtain an analytical solution. The use of the method is demonstrated in three different areas. The first is the calculation of the energy spectrum of sputtered particles from a scattering medium without absorption, where the multiplication (particle cascade is generated by recoil production. Both constant and energy dependent cross-sections with a power law dependence were treated. The second application concerns the calculation of the path length distribution of reflected particles from a medium without multiplication. This is a relatively novel application, since the embedding equations do not resolve the depth variable. The third application concerns the demonstration that solutions in an infinite medium and in a half-space are interrelated through embedding-like integral equations, by the solution of which the flux reflected from a half-space can be reconstructed from solutions in an infinite medium or vice versa. In all cases, the invariant embedding method proved to be robust, fast, and monotonically converging to the exact solutions.

  14. External intermittency prediction using AMR solutions of RANS turbulence and transported PDF models

    External intermittency in turbulent round jets is predicted using a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes modelling approach coupled to solutions of the transported probability density function (pdf) equation for scalar variables. Solutions to the descriptive equations are obtained using a finite-volume method, combined with an adaptive mesh refinement algorithm, applied in both physical and compositional space. This method contrasts with conventional approaches to solving the transported pdf equation which generally employ Monte Carlo techniques. Intermittency-modified eddy viscosity and second-moment turbulence closures are used to accommodate the effects of intermittency on the flow field, with the influence of intermittency also included, through modifications to the mixing model, in the transported pdf equation. Predictions of the overall model are compared with experimental data on the velocity and scalar fields in a round jet, as well as against measurements of intermittency profiles and scalar pdfs in a number of flows, with good agreement obtained. For the cases considered, predictions based on the second-moment turbulence closure are clearly superior, although both turbulence models give realistic predictions of the bimodal scalar pdfs observed experimentally.

  15. Solute transport in coupled inland-coastal water systems. General conceptualisation and application to Forsmark

    We formulate a general theoretical conceptualisation of solute transport from inland sources to downstream recipients, considering main recipient load contributions from all different nutrient and pollutant sources that may exist within any catchment. Since the conceptualisation is model independent, its main hydrological factors and mass delivery factors can be quantified on the basis of inputs to and outputs from any considered analytical or numerical model. Some of the conceptually considered source contribution and transport pathway combinations are however commonly neglected in catchment-scale solute transport and attenuation modelling, in particular those related to subsurface sources, diffuse sources at the land surface and direct groundwater transport into the recipient. The conceptual framework provides a possible tool for clarification of underlying and often implicit model assumptions, which can be useful for e.g. inter-model comparisons. In order to further clarify and explain research questions that may be of particular importance for transport pathways from deep groundwater surrounding a repository, we concretise and interpret some selected transport scenarios for model conditions in the Forsmark area. Possible uncertainties in coastal discharge predictions, related to uncertain spatial variation of evapotranspiration within the catchment, were shown to be small for the relatively large, focused surface water discharges from land to sea, because local differences were averaged out along the length of the main water flow paths. In contrast, local flux values within the diffuse groundwater flow field from land to sea are more uncertain, although estimates of mean values and total sums of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) along some considerable coastline length may be robust. The present results show that 80% to 90% of the total coastal discharge of Forsmark occurred through focused flows in visible streams, whereas the remaining 10% to 20% was

  16. Numerical simulation of solute transport instantaneously injected in a single rock fracture system: Inclusion of a nonlinear sorption term

    The effect of nonlinear Freundlich sorption isotherm on the transport of sorptive solute in a system of fracture and porous matrix was investigated through numerical simulation. To solve a set of partial differential equations of solute transport with nonlinear term, use of the Laplace transform Galerkin (LTG) technique was investigated. It was shown that the LTG method could be applied successfully to solve quasi-linearized transport equation. Sensitivity analysis showed that nonlinear sorption in porous matrix with order less than 1 increased the skewness of the breakthrough curve. The fitting of experimental effluent data using a transport model with nonlinear isotherms was also conducted

  17. Eulerian Lagrangian Adaptive Fup Collocation Method for solving the conservative solute transport in heterogeneous porous media

    Gotovac, Hrvoje; Srzic, Veljko

    2014-05-01

    Contaminant transport in natural aquifers is a complex, multiscale process that is frequently studied using different Eulerian, Lagrangian and hybrid numerical methods. Conservative solute transport is typically modeled using the advection-dispersion equation (ADE). Despite the large number of available numerical methods that have been developed to solve it, the accurate numerical solution of the ADE still presents formidable challenges. In particular, current numerical solutions of multidimensional advection-dominated transport in non-uniform velocity fields are affected by one or all of the following problems: numerical dispersion that introduces artificial mixing and dilution, grid orientation effects, unresolved spatial and temporal scales and unphysical numerical oscillations (e.g., Herrera et al, 2009; Bosso et al., 2012). In this work we will present Eulerian Lagrangian Adaptive Fup Collocation Method (ELAFCM) based on Fup basis functions and collocation approach for spatial approximation and explicit stabilized Runge-Kutta-Chebyshev temporal integration (public domain routine SERK2) which is especially well suited for stiff parabolic problems. Spatial adaptive strategy is based on Fup basis functions which are closely related to the wavelets and splines so that they are also compactly supported basis functions; they exactly describe algebraic polynomials and enable a multiresolution adaptive analysis (MRA). MRA is here performed via Fup Collocation Transform (FCT) so that at each time step concentration solution is decomposed using only a few significant Fup basis functions on adaptive collocation grid with appropriate scales (frequencies) and locations, a desired level of accuracy and a near minimum computational cost. FCT adds more collocations points and higher resolution levels only in sensitive zones with sharp concentration gradients, fronts and/or narrow transition zones. According to the our recent achievements there is no need for solving the large

  18. Advocacy for active transport: advocate and city council perspectives

    Rosenby Marieah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective advocacy is an important part of efforts to increase population participation in physical activity. Research about effective health advocacy is scarce, however, the health sector can learn from the experiences and knowledge of community advocates and those who are on the receiving end of this advocacy. The aim of this study is to explore advocacy for active transport from the perspectives of community advocates and representatives from City councils. Methods Cycling and walking advocates were identified from the local contact list of Cycling Advocates Network and Living Streets Aotearoa. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with cycle and walking advocates from throughout New Zealand. Advocates also nominated a suitable council officer at their local City council to be interviewed. Interviews were recorded and transcribed and categories of responses for each of the questions created. Results Several processes were used by advocates to engage with council staff, including formal council submissions, meetings, stakeholder forums and partnership in running community events promoting active transport. Several other agencies were identified as being influential for active transport, some as potential coalition partners and others as potential adversaries. Barriers to improving conditions for active transport included a lack of funding, a lack of will-power among either council staff or councillors, limited council staff capacity (time or training and a culture of providing infrastructure for motor vehicles instead of people. Several suggestions were made about how the health sector could contribute to advocacy efforts, including encouraging political commitment, engaging the media, communicating the potential health benefits of active transport to the general public and being role models in terms of personal travel mode choice and having workplaces that support participation in active transport

  19. Presentation and exhibition activities for promoting theexportof transport services

    Darya Vladimirovna Nesterova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Development of presentation and exhibition activities is considered as an important factor in providing new competitive advantages at the strategic markets for exporting of transportation services. A specific role for exhibition activities as a factor to overcome market failures arose from imperfect information and incomplete markets is displayed. Exhibitions are considered as a true reflection of most market parameters, as a means to get correct information concerning market capacity and its borders, as an instrument to access to new markets. At the firm level presentation and branding activities should be considered as a modern technology (especially it concerns Russian companies which provide to hold up already existed markets and to conquer new ones. Presentation and branding activities are an effective technology to promote company trade-mark, competitive advantages for market demand increasing. Comparative analysis of the main exhibitions on transport and logistics issues is fulfilled on the data basecollected by authors. Data observes geographical distribution of transport exhibition and exhibition facilities development at several regions for the last years. The analyses allow to revealing a geographical structure of the exhibitions and its distribution by type of transport. The most promising and economically favorable exhibition areas for the promotion of Russian transport services are shown.

  20. Regulation of human hepatic drug transporter activity and expression by diesel exhaust particle extract.

    Marc Le Vee

    Full Text Available Diesel exhaust particles (DEPs are common environmental air pollutants primarily affecting the lung. DEPs or chemicals adsorbed on DEPs also exert extra-pulmonary effects, including alteration of hepatic drug detoxifying enzyme expression. The present study was designed to determine whether organic DEP extract (DEPe may target hepatic drug transporters that contribute in a major way to drug detoxification. Using primary human hepatocytes and transporter-overexpressing cells, DEPe was first shown to strongly inhibit activities of the sinusoidal solute carrier (SLC uptake transporters organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATP 1B1, 1B3 and 2B1 and of the canalicular ATP-binding cassette (ABC efflux pump multidrug resistance-associated protein 2, with IC50 values ranging from approximately 1 to 20 μg/mL and relevant to environmental exposure situations. By contrast, 25 μg/mL DEPe failed to alter activities of the SLC transporter organic cation transporter (OCT 1 and of the ABC efflux pumps P-glycoprotein and bile salt export pump (BSEP, whereas it only moderately inhibited those of sodium taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide and of breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP. Treatment by 25 μg/mL DEPe was next demonstrated to induce expression of BCRP at both mRNA and protein level in cultured human hepatic cells, whereas it concomitantly repressed mRNA expression of various transporters, including OATP1B3, OATP2B1, OCT1 and BSEP. Such changes in transporter expression were found to be highly correlated to those caused by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, a reference activator of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR pathway. This suggests that DEPe, which is enriched in known ligands of AhR like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, alters drug transporter expression via activation of the AhR cascade. Taken together, these data established human hepatic transporters as targets of organic chemicals containing in DEPs, which may contribute

  1. Active transport and cluster formation on 2D networks

    Greulich, Philip

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a model for active transport on inhomogeneous networks embedded in a diffusive environment and investigate the formation of particle clusters. In the presence of a hard-core interaction, cluster sizes exhibit an algebraically decaying distribution in a large parameter regime, indicating the existence of clusters on all scales. The results are compared with a diffusion limited aggregation model and active transport on a regular network. For both models we observe aggregation of particles to clusters which are characterized by a finite size-scale if the relevant time-scales and particle densities are considered.

  2. Approximate analytic transport problem solution of particle reflection from solid target

    The first part of thesis deals with the analytic investigation of the energy and time independent particle transport in plane geometry described by a common anisotropic scattering function. Regarding particles with specific diffusion histories in infinite or semi-infinite medium, new particular solutions of the corresponding transport equations are exactly derived by means of the Fourier inversion technique. Aiming at preserving the analytic outcome, the two groups of particles scattered after each successive collision into directions μ0, were considered. Its Fourier transformed transport equations have solutions without logarithmic singular points, in the upper part or the down part of the complex k-plane. Consequently, the Fourier inversion of solutions are carried out analytically and the closing expressions in real space are acquired as a compound of the elementary exponential functions over space coordinate x. Opposite to the exact solution for the whole angular flux density - being a key result of the rigorous transport theory, these particular solutions do not comprise elements with the exponential singular integrals and could be easily applied in subsequent calculations. It has been shown that these formulae represent a valid generalization of the expressions for the flux of once scattered particles. Moreover, they incorporate a great fraction of all particles and, at least in the case of a small multiplication constant c, they closely approach the entire angular flux density. Using the particular solutions previously derived, an approximate analytic method for solving the energy and time independent transport equation in plane geometry is developed. The procedure is based on the particle flux decomposition in two components. The first component is exactly obtained and the second one is determined approximately by the ordinary DPN method of low order. The infinite medium Green's function and the half-space reflection coefficient were calculated. A careful

  3. [Structure and Activity of Fungal Lipases in Bile Salt Solutions].

    Bogdanova, L R; Bakirova, D R; Valiullina, Yu A; Idiyatullin, B Z; Faizullin, D A; Zueva, O S; Zuev, Yu F

    2016-01-01

    The changes in structure and catalytic properties of fungal lipases (Candida rugosa, Rhizomucor miehei, Mucor javanicus) were investigated in micellar solutions of bile salts that differ in hydrophilic-lypophilic balance and reaction medium properties. The methods of circular dichroism and tryptophan fluorescence were applied to estimate the changes in peptide structure within complexes with bile salt micelles. Bile salts do not exert a significant influence on the structure of the enzymes under study: in Rh. miehei and M. javanicus lipases the alpha helix content slightly decreased, the influence of bile salts on the C. rugosa structure was not revealed. Despite negligible structural modifications in the enzymes, in bile salt solutions a considerable change in their catalytic properties was observed: an abrupt decrease in catalytic effectiveness. Substrate-bile salts micelles complex formation was demonstrated by the NMR self-diffusion method. The model of a regulation of fungal lipase activity was proposed. PMID:27192825

  4. A lithofacies approach for modeling non-Fickian solute transport in a heterogeneous alluvial aquifer

    Bianchi, Marco; Zheng, Chunmiao

    2016-01-01

    Stochastic realizations of lithofacies assemblage based on lithological data from a relatively small number of boreholes were used to simulate solute transport at the well-known Macrodispersion Experiment (MADE) site in Mississippi (USA). With sharp vertical contrasts and lateral connectivity explicitly accounted for in the corresponding hydraulic conductivity fields, experimental results from a large-scale tracer experiment were adequately reproduced with a relatively simple model based on advection and local dispersion. The geologically based model of physical heterogeneity shows that one well-interconnected lithofacies, with a significantly higher hydraulic conductivity and accounting for 12% of the total aquifer volume, may be responsible for the observed non-Fickian transport behavior indicated by the asymmetric shape of the plumes and by variations of the dispersion rate in both space and time. This analysis provides a lithological basis to the hypothesis that transport at MADE site is controlled by a network of high-conductivity sediments embedded in a less permeable matrix. It also explains the calibrated value of the ratio of mobile to total porosities used in previous modeling studies based on the dual-domain mass transfer approach. The results of this study underscore the importance of geologically plausible conceptualizations of the subsurface for making accurate predictions of the fate and transport of contaminants in highly heterogeneous aquifers. These conceptualizations may be developed through integration of raw geological data with expert knowledge, interpretation, and appropriate geostatistical methods.

  5. The Influence of Calcium Chloride Salt Solution on the Transport Properties of Cementitious Materials

    Yaghoob Farnam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical interaction between calcium chloride (CaCl2 and cementitious binder may alter the transport properties of concrete which are important in predicting the service life of infrastructure elements. This paper presents a series of fluid and gas transport measurements made on cementitious mortars before and after exposure to various solutions with concentrations ranging from 0% to 29.8% CaCl2 by mass. Fluid absorption, oxygen diffusivity, and oxygen permeability were measured on mortar samples prepared using Type I and Type V cements. Three primary factors influence the transport properties of mortar exposed to CaCl2: (1 changes in the degree of saturation, (2 calcium hydroxide leaching, and (3 formation of chemical reaction products (i.e., Friedel’s salt, Kuzel’s salt, and calcium oxychloride. It is shown that an increase in the degree of saturation decreases oxygen permeability. At lower concentrations (~12%, the formation of chemical reaction products (mainly calcium oxychloride is a dominant factor decreasing the fluid and gas transport in concrete.

  6. Comparison of alternative models for simulating anomalous solute transport in a large heterogeneous soil column

    Gao, Guangyao; Zhan, Hongbin; Feng, Shaoyuan; Huang, Guanhua; Mao, Xiaomin

    2009-10-01

    SummaryThis study compared five different models for evaluating solute transport in a 1250-cm long, saturated and highly heterogeneous soil column. The five models were: the convection-dispersion equation (CDE), the mobile-immobile model (MIM), the convective lognormal transfer function model (CLT), the spatial fractional advection-dispersion equation (FADE) and the continuous time random walk model (CTRW). Each of these models was used to fit the breakthrough curve (BTC) at each distance individually and was also used to fit the BTCs at different distances simultaneously. Dependence of estimated parameters on distance was investigated. The estimated parameters at 200 cm were used to make predictions at subsequent distances. Highly anomalous transport behavior was observed in the column as the BTCs demonstrated significantly irregular shape and long tailing. This study indicated that CDE, CLT and FADE were unable to describe the anomalous BTCs adequately and their parameters changed with transport distance significantly. Compared to CDE, CLT and FADE, MIM better captured the evolution of anomalous BTCs. However, MIM did not explain the distinct BTC tailing satisfactorily. In contrast to MIM, CTRW better simulated the long tails of BTCs. The spreading parameter ( β) of CTRW was close to one and remained approximately constant at different travel distances. To make the comparison of these five models more general beyond the specific transport condition in the soil column, a generic evaluation of the advantages and disadvantages of these five models was presented in terms of their theory framework and a priori knowledge of the model behaviors.

  7. Benchmark solution for the Spencer-Lewis equation of electron transport theory

    As integrated circuits become smaller, the shielding of these sensitive components against penetrating electrons becomes extremely critical. Monte Carlo methods have traditionally been the method of choice in shielding evaluations primarily because they can incorporate a wide variety of relevant physical processes. Recently, however, as a result of a more accurate numerical representation of the highly forward peaked scattering process, S/sub n/ methods for one-dimensional problems have been shown to be at least as cost-effective in comparison with Monte Carlo methods. With the development of these deterministic methods for electron transport, a need has arisen to assess the accuracy of proposed numerical algorithms and to ensure their proper coding. It is the purpose of this presentation to develop a benchmark to the Spencer-Lewis equation describing the transport of energetic electrons in solids. The solution will take advantage of the correspondence between the Spencer-Lewis equation and the transport equation describing one-group time-dependent neutron transport

  8. Modeling study of solute transport in the unsaturated zone: Workshop proceedings

    Springer, E.P.; Fuentes, H.R. (eds.)

    1987-04-01

    Issues addressed were the adequacy of the data for the various models, effectiveness of the models to represent the data, particular information provided by the models, the role of caisson experiments in providing fundamental knowledge of porous-media water flow and solute transport, and the importance of geochemistry to the transport of nonconservative tracers. These proceedings include the presentations made by each of the modelers; the summary document written by the panel; and a transcript of the discussions, both the discussions that followed individual presentations and the general discussion held on the second day. This publication completes the series on the workshop. Volume I in the series (NUREG/CR-4615, Vol. I) contains background information and the data sets provided each modeler.

  9. Transport and dosimetric solutions for the ELIMED laser-driven beam line

    Cirrone, G.A.P. [INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62 - 95125 Catania (Italy); Romano, F. [INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62 - 95125 Catania (Italy); Medical Physics School, University of Catania, Via S. Sofia 64 - 95125 Catania (Italy); Scuderi, V. [INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62 - 95125 Catania (Italy); Institute of Physics ASCR, v.v.i. (FZU), ELI-Beamlines Project, Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague (Czech Republic); Amato, A. [INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62 - 95125 Catania (Italy); Candiano, G. [INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62 - 95125 Catania (Italy); Medical Physics School, University of Catania, Via S. Sofia 64 - 95125 Catania (Italy); Cuttone, G. [INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62 - 95125 Catania (Italy); Giove, D. [INFN Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, Milano (Italy); Korn, G.; Krasa, J. [Institute of Physics ASCR, v.v.i. (FZU), ELI-Beamlines Project, Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague (Czech Republic); Leanza, R. [INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62 - 95125 Catania (Italy); Universitá degli Studi di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Via S. Sofia 64, Catania (Italy); Manna, R. [INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62 - 95125 Catania (Italy); Maggiore, M. [INFN-LNL, Viale dell' Universitá 2 - 35020 Legnaro (PD) (Italy); Marchese, V. [INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62 - 95125 Catania (Italy); Margarone, D. [Institute of Physics ASCR, v.v.i. (FZU), ELI-Beamlines Project, Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague (Czech Republic); Milluzzo, G. [INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62 - 95125 Catania (Italy); Universitá degli Studi di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Via S. Sofia 64, Catania (Italy); Petringa, G. [INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62 - 95125 Catania (Italy); Sabini, M.G. [INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62 - 95125 Catania (Italy); Azienda Ospedaliera Cannizzaro, Via Messina 829 - 95100 Catania (Italy); Schillaci, F. [INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62 - 95125 Catania (Italy); Medical Physics School, University of Catania, Via S. Sofia 64 - 95125 Catania (Italy); and others

    2015-10-01

    Within 2017, the ELIMED (ELI-Beamlines MEDical applications) transport beam-line and dosimetric systems for laser-generated beams will be installed at the ELI-Beamlines facility in Prague (CZ), inside the ELIMAIA (ELI Multidisciplinary Applications of laser–Ion Acceleration) interaction room. The beam-line will be composed of two sections: one in vacuum, devoted to the collecting, focusing and energy selection of the primary beam and the second in air, where the ELIMED beam-line dosimetric devices will be located. This paper briefly describes the transport solutions that will be adopted together with the main dosimetric approaches. In particular, the description of an innovative Faraday Cup detector with its preliminary experimental tests will be reported.

  10. Signature of non-Fickian solute transport in complex heterogeneous porous media.

    Bijeljic, Branko; Mostaghimi, Peyman; Blunt, Martin J

    2011-11-11

    We simulate transport of a solute through three-dimensional images of different rock samples, with resolutions of a few microns, representing geological media of increasing pore-scale complexity: a sandpack, a Berea sandstone, and a Portland limestone. We predict the propagators (concentration as a function of distance) measured on similar cores in nuclear magnetic resonance experiments and the dispersion coefficient as a function of Péclet number and time. The behavior is explained using continuous time random walks with a truncated power-law distribution of travel times: transport is qualitatively different for the complex limestone compared to the sandstone or sandpack, with long tailing, an almost immobile peak concentration, and a very slow approach to asymptotic dispersion. PMID:22181735

  11. Modeling study of solute transport in the unsaturated zone: Workshop proceedings

    Issues addressed were the adequacy of the data for the various models, effectiveness of the models to represent the data, particular information provided by the models, the role of caisson experiments in providing fundamental knowledge of porous-media water flow and solute transport, and the importance of geochemistry to the transport of nonconservative tracers. These proceedings include the presentations made by each of the modelers; the summary document written by the panel; and a transcript of the discussions, both the discussions that followed individual presentations and the general discussion held on the second day. This publication completes the series on the workshop. Volume I in the series (NUREG/CR-4615, Vol. I) contains background information and the data sets provided each modeler

  12. The Bicycle – Future’s Solution for an Eco-friendly Urban Transport

    Cristina Ciovică

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Even though more and more cities across the globe impose restrictive measures regarding theuse of cars and offer instead incentives in order to choose alternative means of transport, they do not slowdown their economic growth, but on the contrary they prove their skills towards providing citizens a betterlife. Under these circumstances, the bicycle appears as a viable solution for most of us, and the publicprograms that support its use have started to develop globally, at European level, and in Romania as well.The current paper wishes to point out the stimulating perspectives brought by the slight increase in thenumber of bicycles sold in our country in recent years towards the future of urban transport.

  13. Signature of Non-Fickian Solute Transport in Complex Heterogeneous Porous Media

    Bijeljic, Branko; Mostaghimi, Peyman; Blunt, Martin J.

    2011-11-01

    We simulate transport of a solute through three-dimensional images of different rock samples, with resolutions of a few microns, representing geological media of increasing pore-scale complexity: a sandpack, a Berea sandstone, and a Portland limestone. We predict the propagators (concentration as a function of distance) measured on similar cores in nuclear magnetic resonance experiments and the dispersion coefficient as a function of Péclet number and time. The behavior is explained using continuous time random walks with a truncated power-law distribution of travel times: transport is qualitatively different for the complex limestone compared to the sandstone or sandpack, with long tailing, an almost immobile peak concentration, and a very slow approach to asymptotic dispersion.

  14. Solute transport in fractured media – analysis of non-reversibility in tracer tests

    N. E. V. Rodrigues

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes several small-scale (laboratory experiments designed to simulate solute transport through fractured formations. A block of granite was broken to produce a fracture similar to those found in natural environments. Seven holes were drilled in the block to intersect the fracture. Later these holes functioned as either inlet or outlet points. All the possible combinations of pairs of inlet-outlet points were used to set up the tracer tests that provided the data analysed in this paper.

    The results indicate that reverse tracer tests do not necessarily provide symmetric results. Under some circumstances, the non-reversibility might be used to detect differences in the morphology of the fracture. The results also indicate that it is possible to estimate reasonably well the volume available for the circulation of the fluid by using transport models that neglect diffusion.

  15. Solute transport in a well under slow-purge and no-purge conditions

    Plummer, M. A.; Britt, S. L.; Martin-Hayden, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    Non-purge sampling techniques, such as diffusion bags and in-situ sealed samplers, offer reliable and cost-effective groundwater monitoring methods that are a step closer to the goal of real-time monitoring without pumping or sample collection. Non-purge methods are, however, not yet completely accepted because questions remain about how solute concentrations in an unpurged well relate to concentrations in the adjacent formation. To answer questions about how undisturbed well water samples compare to formation concentrations, and to provide the information necessary to interpret results from non-purge monitoring systems, we have conducted a variety of physical experiments and numerical simulations of flow and transport in and through monitoring wells under low-flow and ambient flow conditions. Previous studies of flow and transport in wells used a Darcy’s law - based continuity equation for flow, which is often justified under the strong, forced-convection flow caused by pumping or large vertical hydraulic potential gradients. In our study, we focus on systems with weakly forced convection, where density-driven free convection may be of similar strength. We therefore solved Darcy’s law for porous media domains and the Navier Stokes equations for flow in the well, and coupled solution of the flow equations to that of solute transport. To illustrate expected in-well transport behavior under low-flow conditions, we present results of three particular studies: (1) time-dependent effluent concentrations from a well purged at low-flow pumping rates, (2) solute-driven density effects in a well under ambient horizontal flow and (3) temperature-driven mixing in a shallow well subject to seasonal temperature variations. Results of the first study illustrate that assumptions about the nature of in-well flow have a significant impact on effluent concentration curves even during pumping, with Poiseuille-type flow producing more rapid removal of concentration differences

  16. Phase-space finite elements in a least-squares solution of the transport equation

    The linear Boltzmann transport equation is solved using a least-squares finite element approximation in the space, angular and energy phase-space variables. The method is applied to both neutral particle transport and also to charged particle transport in the presence of an electric field, where the angular and energy derivative terms are handled with the energy/angular finite elements approximation, in a manner analogous to the way the spatial streaming term is handled. For multi-dimensional problems, a novel approach is used for the angular finite elements: mapping the surface of a unit sphere to a two-dimensional planar region and using a meshing tool to generate a mesh. In this manner, much of the spatial finite-elements machinery can be easily adapted to handle the angular variable. The energy variable and the angular variable for one-dimensional problems make use of edge/beam elements, also building upon the spatial finite elements capabilities. The methods described here can make use of either continuous or discontinuous finite elements in space, angle and/or energy, with the use of continuous finite elements resulting in a smaller problem size and the use of discontinuous finite elements resulting in more accurate solutions for certain types of problems. The work described in this paper makes use of continuous finite elements, so that the resulting linear system is symmetric positive definite and can be solved with a highly efficient parallel preconditioned conjugate gradients algorithm. The phase-space finite elements capability has been built into the Sceptre code and applied to several test problems, including a simple one-dimensional problem with an analytic solution available, a two-dimensional problem with an isolated source term, showing how the method essentially eliminates ray effects encountered with discrete ordinates, and a simple one-dimensional charged-particle transport problem in the presence of an electric field. (authors)

  17. Hydration and proton transport in solid solutions based on Ba2CaWO6

    Hydrated alkaline earth metal tungstates Ba4Ca2+xW2-xO12-2x with perovskite like structure have been investigated by methods of thermal gravimetric analysis, NMR H1, IR spectroscopy and Raman scattering; measurements of electric conductivity and transfer numbers have been conducted with variations of T, pO2, pH2O. Solid solutions are capable reversibly intercalated water and show high temperature neutron transport. Proton localization at oxygen leads to the appearance of energetically nonequivalent OH-groups, small part of protons are present in the forms H2O and H3O+

  18. Magnetic Modulation of the Transport of Organophilic Solutes through Supported Magnetic Ionic Liquid Membranes.

    Daniel, C.L.; Rubio, A.M.; Sebastião, P.J.; Afonso, C.A.M.; Storch, Jan; Izák, Pavel; Portugal, C.A.M.; Crespo, J.G.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 505, MAY 1 (2016), s. 36-43. ISSN 0376-7388 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP106/12/0569 Grant ostatní: ERANET(PT) ERA-CHEM/0001/2008; EUI(ES) 2008- 03857; FCT-MCTES(PT) SFRH/BD/81552/2011 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : magnetic ionic liquids (MILs) * solute transport modulation * magnetic field Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 5.056, year: 2014

  19. Range profile calculations by direct numerical solution of linearized Boltzmann transport equations

    A new method to determine the depth distributions of implanted ions and recoil target atoms in amorphous targets is developed. Our procedure is based on the direct numerical solution of one-dimensional linearized Boltzmann transport equations for the scalar fluxes of the ions and the recoils. We consider characteristic examples of ion implantation into homogeneous and layered targets. The profiles calculated by the new method are compared with range distributions obtained from TRIM Monte Carlo simulations. Our program BOTE is up to two orders of magnitude faster than the TRIM calculations. (author)

  20. Activation of ion transport systems during cell volume regulation

    This review discusses the activation of transport pathways during volume regulation, including their characteristics, the possible biochemical pathways that may mediate the activation of transport pathways, and the relations between volume regulation and transepithelial transport in renal cells. Many cells regulate their volume when exposed to an anisotonic medium. The changes in cell volume are caused by activation of ion transport pathways, plus the accompanying osmotically driven water movement such that cell volume returns toward normal levels. The swelling of hypertonically shrunken cells is termed regulatory volume increase (RVI) and involves an influx of NaCl into the cell via either activation of Na-Cl, Na-K-2Cl cotransport systems, or Na+-H+ and Cl--HCO3- exchangers. The reshrinking of hypotonically swollen cells is termed regulatory volume decrease (RVD) and involves an efflux of KCl and water from the cell by activation of either separate K+ and Cl- conductances, a K-Cl cotransport system, or parallel K+-H+ and Cl--HCO3- exchangers. The biochemical mechanisms involved in the activation of transport systems are largely unknown, however, the phosphoinositide pathway may be implicated in RVI; phorbol esters, cGMP, and Ca2+ affect the process of volume regulation. Renal tubular cells, as well as the blood cells that transverse the medulla, are subjected to increasing osmotic gradients from the corticomedullary junction to the papillary tip, as well as changing interstitial and tubule fluid osmolarity, depending on the diuretic state of the animal. Medullary cells from the loop of Henle and the papilla can volume regulate by activating Na-K-2Cl cotransport or Na+-H+ and Cl--HCO3- exchange systems

  1. Solution to the transport equation for electron backscattering on massive materials

    The scattering of a monoenergetic electron beam (Albedo problem) vertical to the plane of the boundary layer of a massive material is treated as transportproblem using the Boltzmann Transport Equation (BTE). The strong anistropic to 1 standardized differential effective cross section (DEC) of the single scattering of the electrons enters into the integral term. A complete, orthogonal set of solution units of the BTE can be given by a new type of approximation of the DEC in a generalization of a solution method from CASE 1960. By continuously changing an anisotropy parameter, the region of strong anisotropic and isotropic single scattering is simultaneously determined, the case results are taken as special case. (orig./RW)

  2. The solution of the multigroup neutron transport equation using spherical harmonics

    A solution of the multi-group neutron transport equation in up to three space dimensions is presented. The flux is expanded in a series of unnormalised spherical harmonics. Using the various recurrence formulae a linked set of first order differential equations is obtained for the moments psisup(g)sub(lm)(r), γsup(g)sub(lm)(r). Terms with odd l are eliminated resulting in a second order system which is solved by two methods. The first is a finite difference formulation using an iterative procedure, secondly, in XYZ and XY geometry a finite element solution is given. Results for a test problem using both methods are exhibited and compared. (orig./RW)

  3. Analysis of the sodium recirculation theory of solute-coupled water transport in small intestine

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Sørensen, Jakob Balslev; Sørensen, Jens Nørkaer

    2002-01-01

    Our previous mathematical model of solute-coupled water transport through the intestinal epithelium is extended for dealing with electrolytes rather than electroneutral solutes. A 3Na+-2K+ pump in the lateral membranes provides the energy-requiring step for driving transjunctional and translateral...... flows of water across the epithelium with recirculation of the diffusible ions maintained by a 1Na+-1K+-2Cl- cotransporter in the plasma membrane facing the serosal compartment. With intracellular non-diffusible anions and compliant plasma membranes, the model describes the dependence on membrane...... permeabilities and pump constants of fluxes of water and electrolytes, volumes and ion concentrations of cell and lateral intercellular space (lis), and membrane potentials and conductances. Simulating physiological bioelectrical features together with cellular and paracellular fluxes of the sodium ion...

  4. Core-scale solute transport model selection using Monte Carlo analysis

    Malama, Bwalya; James, Scott C

    2013-01-01

    Model applicability to core-scale solute transport is evaluated using breakthrough data from column experiments conducted with conservative tracers tritium (H-3) and sodium-22, and the retarding solute uranium-232. The three models considered are single-porosity, double-porosity with single-rate mobile-immobile mass-exchange, and the multirate model, which is a deterministic model that admits the statistics of a random mobile-immobile mass-exchange rate coefficient. The experiments were conducted on intact Culebra Dolomite core samples. Previously, data were analyzed using single- and double-porosity models although the Culebra Dolomite is known to possess multiple types and scales of porosity, and to exhibit multirate mobile-immobile-domain mass transfer characteristics at field scale. The data are reanalyzed here and null-space Monte Carlo analysis is used to facilitate objective model selection. Prediction (or residual) bias is adopted as a measure of the model structural error. The analysis clearly shows ...

  5. A conservative, positivity preserving scheme for reactive solute transport problems in moving domains

    Mabuza, Sibusiso; Kuzmin, Dmitri; Čanić, Sunčica; Bukač, Martina

    2014-11-01

    We study the mathematical models and numerical schemes for reactive transport of a soluble substance in deformable media. The medium is a channel with compliant adsorbing walls. The solutes are dissolved in the fluid flowing through the channel. The fluid, which carries the solutes, is viscous and incompressible. The reactive process is described as a general physico-chemical process taking place on the compliant channel wall. The problem is modeled by a convection-diffusion adsorption-desorption equation in moving domains. We present a conservative, positivity preserving, high resolution ALE-FCT scheme for this problem in the presence of dominant transport processes and wall reactions on the moving wall. A Patankar type time discretization is presented, which provides conservative treatment of nonlinear reactive terms. We establish CFL-type constraints on the time step, and show the mass conservation of the time discretization scheme. Numerical simulations are performed to show validity of the schemes against effective models under various scenarios including linear adsorption-desorption, irreversible wall reaction, infinite adsorption kinetics, and nonlinear Langmuir kinetics. The grid convergence of the numerical scheme is studied for the case of fixed meshes and moving meshes in fixed domains. Finally, we simulate reactive transport in moving domains under linear and nonlinear chemical reactions at the wall, and show that the motion of the compliant channel wall enhances adsorption of the solute from the fluid to the channel wall. Consequences of this result are significant in the area of, e.g., nano-particle cancer drug delivery. Our result shows that periodic excitation of the cancerous tissue using, e.g., ultrasound, may enhance adsorption of cancer drugs carried by nano-particles via the human vasculature. For Taylor dispersion and for other convection dominated flows, numerical schemes for solute transport may lead to undesirable numerical artefacts. These

  6. Water, solute and heat transport in the soil: the Australian connection

    Knight, John

    2016-04-01

    The interest of Peter Raats in water, solute and heat transport in the soil has led to scientific and/or personal interactions with several Australian scientists such as John Philip, David Smiles, Greg Davis and John Knight. Along with John Philip and Robin Wooding, Peter was an early user of the Gardner (1958) linearised model of soil water flow, which brought him into competition with John Philip. I will discuss some of Peter's solutions relevant to infiltration from line and point sources, cavities and basins. A visit to Canberra, Australia in the early 1980s led to joint work on soil water flow, and on combined water and solute movement with David Smiles and others. In 1983 Peter was on the PhD committee for Greg Davis at the University of Wollongong, and some of the methods in his thesis 'Mathematical modelling of rate-limiting mechanisms of pyritic oxidation in overburden dumps' were later used by Peter's student Sjoerd van der Zee. David Smiles and Peter wrote a survey article 'Hydrology of swelling clay soils' in 2005. In the last decade Peter has been investigating the history of groundwater and vadose zone hydrology, and recently he and I have been bringing to light the largely forgotten work of Lewis Fry Richardson on finite difference solution of the heat equation, drainage theory, soil physics, and the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum.

  7. Transport of ions in mesoporous carbon electrodes during capacitive deionization of high-salinity solutions.

    Sharma, K; Kim, Y-H; Gabitto, J; Mayes, R T; Yiacoumi, S; Bilheux, H Z; Walker, L M H; Dai, S; Tsouris, C

    2015-01-27

    Desalination of high-salinity solutions has been studied using a novel experimental technique and a theoretical model. Neutron imaging has been employed to visualize lithium ions in mesoporous carbon materials, which are used as electrodes in capacitive deionization (CDI) for water desalination. Experiments were conducted with a flow-through CDI cell designed for neutron imaging and with lithium-6 chloride ((6)LiCl) as the electrolyte. Sequences of neutron images have been obtained at a relatively high concentration of (6)LiCl solution to provide information on the transport of ions within the electrodes. A new model that computes the individual ionic concentration profiles inside mesoporous carbon electrodes has been used to simulate the CDI process. Modifications have also been introduced into the simulation model to calculate results at high electrolyte concentrations. Experimental data and simulation results provide insight into why CDI is not effective for desalination of high ionic-strength solutions. The combination of experimental information, obtained through neutron imaging, with the theoretical model will help in the design of CDI devices, which can improve the process for high ionic-strength solutions. PMID:25533167

  8. Solute transport in coupled inland-coastal water systems. General conceptualisation and application to Forsmark

    Jarsjoe, Jerker; Destouni, Georgia; Persson, Klas; Prieto, Carmen (Dept. of Physical Geography, Quaternary Geology, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden))

    2007-12-15

    We formulate a general theoretical conceptualisation of solute transport from inland sources to downstream recipients, considering main recipient load contributions from all different nutrient and pollutant sources that may exist within any catchment. Since the conceptualisation is model independent, its main hydrological factors and mass delivery factors can be quantified on the basis of inputs to and outputs from any considered analytical or numerical model. Some of the conceptually considered source contribution and transport pathway combinations are however commonly neglected in catchment-scale solute transport and attenuation modelling, in particular those related to subsurface sources, diffuse sources at the land surface and direct groundwater transport into the recipient. The conceptual framework provides a possible tool for clarification of underlying and often implicit model assumptions, which can be useful for e.g. inter-model comparisons. In order to further clarify and explain research questions that may be of particular importance for transport pathways from deep groundwater surrounding a repository, we concretise and interpret some selected transport scenarios for model conditions in the Forsmark area. Possible uncertainties in coastal discharge predictions, related to uncertain spatial variation of evapotranspiration within the catchment, were shown to be small for the relatively large, focused surface water discharges from land to sea, because local differences were averaged out along the length of the main water flow paths. In contrast, local flux values within the diffuse groundwater flow field from land to sea are more uncertain, although estimates of mean values and total sums of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) along some considerable coastline length may be robust. The present results show that 80% to 90% of the total coastal discharge of Forsmark occurred through focused flows in visible streams, whereas the remaining 10% to 20% was

  9. Measured and computed solute transport behaviour in the saturated zone of a fractured and slightly karstified chalk aquifer

    Dassargues, Alain; Goderniaux, Pascal; Daoudi, Moubarak; Orban, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Solute transport in the saturated zone of a micro-fissured, fractured and even locally slightly karstified aquifer has been studied by multi-tracer tests in groundwater convergent flow conditions to pumping wells or towards a collecting gallery. Different behaviour has been detected that can be described by three kinds of typical breakthrough curves: (a) transport with a dominant advective component, producing narrow and symmetrical observed breakthrough curves, characteristic of solute trans...

  10. KCNQ1, KCNE2, and Na+-Coupled Solute Transporters Form Reciprocally Regulating Complexes that Affect Neuronal Excitability

    Abbott, Geoffrey W.; Tai, Kwok-Keung; Neverisky, Daniel; Hansler, Alex; Hu, Zhaoyang; Torsten K. Roepke; Lerner, Daniel J.; Chen, Qiuying; Liu, Li; Zupan, Bojana; Toth, Miklos; Haynes, Robin; Huang, Xiaoping; Demirbas, Didem; Buccafusca, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Na+-coupled solute transport is crucial for the uptake of nutrients and metabolic precursors, such as myo-inositol, an important osmolyte and precursor for various cell signaling molecules. Here, we found that various solute transporters and potassium channel subunits formed complexes and reciprocally regulated each other in vitro and in vivo. Global metabolite profiling revealed that mice lacking KCNE2, a K+ channel β subunit, showed a reduction in the myo-inositol concentration in cerebrosp...

  11. KCNQ1, KCNE2, and Na+-coupled solute transporters form reciprocally regulating complexes that affect neuronal excitability

    Abbott, GW; Tai, KK; Neverisky, DL; Hansler, A; Hu, Z; Roepke, TK; Lerner, DJ; Chen, Q.; Liu, L.; B. Zupan; Toth, M; Haynes, R; Huang, X.; Demirbas, D; Buccafusca, R

    2014-01-01

    Na+-coupled solute transport is crucial for the uptake of nutrients and metabolic precursors, such as myo-inositol, an important osmolyte and precursor for various cell signaling molecules. We found that various solute transporters and potassium channel subunits formed complexes and reciprocally regulated each other in vitro and in vivo. Global metabolite profiling revealed that mice lacking KCNE2, a K+ channel β subunit, showed a reduction in myo-inositol concentration in cerebrospinal fluid...

  12. A laboratory study of colloid and solute transport in surface runoff on saturated soil

    Yu, Congrong; Gao, Bin; Muñoz-Carpena, Rafael; Tian, Yuan; Wu, Lei; Perez-Ovilla, Oscar

    2011-05-01

    SummaryColloids in surface runoff may pose risks to the ecosystems not only because some of them (e.g., pathogens) are toxic, but also because they may facilitate the transport of other contaminants. Although many studies have been conducted to explore colloid fate and transport in the environment, current understanding of colloids in surface runoff is still limited. In this study, we conducted a range of laboratory experiments to examine the transport behavior of colloids in a surface runoff system, made of a soil box packed with quartz sand with four soil drainage outlets and one surface flow outlet. A natural clay colloid (kaolinite) and a conservative chemical tracer (bromide) were applied to the system under a simulated rainfall event (64 mm/h). Effluent soil drainage and surface flow samples were collected to determine the breakthrough concentrations of bromide and kaolinite. Under the experimental conditions tested, our results showed that surface runoff dominated the transport processes. As a result, kaolinite and bromide were found more in surface flow than in soil drainage. Comparisons between the breakthrough concentrations of bromide and kaolinite showed that kaolinite had lower mobility than bromide in the subsurface flow (i.e., soil drainage), but behaved almost identical to bromide in the surface runoff. Student's t-test confirmed the difference between kaolinite and bromide in subsurface flow ( p = 0.02). Spearman's test and linear regression analysis, however, showed a strong 1:1 correlation between kaolinite and bromide in surface runoff ( p < 0.0001). Our result indicate that colloids and chemical solutes may behave similarly in overland flow on bare soils with limited drainage when surface runoff dominates the transport processes.

  13. Berberine acutely activates the glucose transport activity of GLUT1

    Cok, Alexandra; Plaisier, Christina; Salie, Matthew J.; Oram, Daniel S.; Chenge, Jude; Louters, Larry L.

    2011-01-01

    Berberine, which has a long history of use in Chinese medicine, has recently been shown to have efficacy in the treatment of diabetes. While the hypoglycemic effect of berberine has been clearly documented in animal and cell line models, such as 3T3-L1 adipocytes and L6 myotube cells, the mechanism of action appears complex with data implicating activation of the insulin signaling pathway as well as activation of the exercise or AMP kinase-mediated pathway. There have been no reports of the a...

  14. Advocacy for active transport: advocate and city council perspectives

    Rosenby Marieah; Reeder Anthony I; Murdoch Linda; Richards Rosalina

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Effective advocacy is an important part of efforts to increase population participation in physical activity. Research about effective health advocacy is scarce, however, the health sector can learn from the experiences and knowledge of community advocates and those who are on the receiving end of this advocacy. The aim of this study is to explore advocacy for active transport from the perspectives of community advocates and representatives from City councils. Methods Cycl...

  15. Selective transport of Sr2+ from simulated nuclear waste solution by polymer inclusion membrane containing a crown ether carrier

    The extraction of Sr2+ from acidic nitrate solution with polymer inclusion membranes (PIMs) made from cellulose tri acetate (CTA), Di-tert-butyl-cyclohexano-18-crown-6 (DtBuCH18C6) and nitrophenyl n-octyl ether (NPOE) was studied. Transport rates were calculated at varying feed acidities. Selective transport of Sr2+ over other fission products was observed. (author)

  16. Transportation Problems in Special Education Programs in Rural Areas - A Specific Solution and Some Suggestions for Delivery System Development.

    Brody, Z. H.

    The paper describes transportation problems encountered and solutions employed in delivering systems of comprehensive services to handicapped children in Anderson County, Tennessee, a predominantly rural area with considerable mountain area. Detailed are methods of transportation utilized in the four different program areas of the county special…

  17. A Method for Specific Activity Measurement of 241Am Solution

    According to the principle of coincidence theory, the specific activity of 241Am solution was determined on 4πα+4πγ counting standard device by γ efficiency extrapolation, and the problems of constant correction coefficients of self-absorption and scattering in α ionization chamber method were solved. The method was based on the alteration of detection efficiency when the height of elevator was altered, and the activity was obtained by γ fitting extrapolation according to detection efficiency. The results of more than 20 alpha radioactive sources by this method in our work are accordant with those of 2πα ionization chamber, and their uncertainties are improved to 0.4%. (authors)

  18. Arbitrary quadrature: its application in the solution of one-dimensional, planar neutron transport problems

    A standard numerical procedure for the solution of singular integral equations is applied to the one-dimensional transport equation for monoenergetic neutrons. As is usual in quadrature methods, the procedure yields an Eigen system whose solution provide, for the critical slab, both the eigenvalue which is proportional to the number of secondary neutrons per collision, and the density as a function of position. The results obtained with two versions of the procedure, differing only in the extent of the basic region to which they are applied, are compared with analytically derived results available for benchmarking. The procedures considered yield consistent results for the calculated neutron densities and eigenvalues. Since the one-dimensional transport kernel and its spatial moments are integrable and their integrals can be put in terms of exponential integral functions, the resulting approximations to the neutron density yield somewhat lengthy but closed, forms. These approximate expressions of the neutron density can be used to render, after they are operated on, closed-form formulas for build-up factors, extrapolation distances or angular densities or employed for other purposes that require an analytical expression of the neutron density. As an example of this latter capability, the results of the calculation of the angular density at the surface of the slab are provided. (Author)

  19. Sediment and solute transport in a mountainous watershed in Valle del Cauca, Colombia

    Guzman, Christian; Hoyos Villada, Fanny; Morales Vargas, Amalia; Rivera, Baudelino; Da Silva, Mayesse; Moreno Padilla, Pedro; Steenhuis, Tammo

    2015-04-01

    Sediment samples and solute concentrations were measured from the La Vega micro watershed in the southwestern region of the Colombian Andes. A main goal of this study was to improve prediction of soil surface and soil nutrient changes, based on field measurements, within small basin of the Aguaclara watershed network receiving different types of conservation measures. Two modeling approaches for stream discharge and sediment transport predictions were used with one of these based on infiltration-excess and the other on saturation-excess runoff. These streams are a part of a recent initiative from a water fund established by Asobolo, Asocaña, and Cenicaña in collaboration with the Natural Capital Project to improve conservation efforts and monitor their effects. On-site soil depth changes, groundwater depth measurements, and soil nutrient concentrations were also monitored to provide more information about changes within this mountainous watershed during one part of the yearly rainy season. This information is being coupled closely with the outlet sediment concentration and solute concentration patterns to discern correlations between scales. Lateral transects in the upper, middle, and lower part of the hillsides in the La Vega micro watershed showed differences in soil nutrient status and soil surface depth changes. The model based on saturation-excess, semi-distributed hydrology was able to reproduce discharge and sediment transport rates as well as the initially used infiltration excess model indicating available options for comparison of conservation changes in the future.

  20. Pseudospectral Methods of Solution of the Linear and Linearized Boltzmann Equations; Transport and Relaxation

    Shizgal, Bernie D.

    2011-05-01

    The study of the solution of the linearized Boltzmann equation has a very long history arising from the classic work by Chapman and Cowling. For small departures from a Maxwellian, the nonlinear Boltzmann equation can be linearized and the transport coefficients calculated with the Chapman-Enskog approach. This procedure leads to a set of linear integral equations which are generally solved with the expansion of the departure from Maxwellian in Sonine polynomials. The method has been used successfully for many decades to compare experimental transport data in atomic gases with theory generally carried out for realistic atom-atom differential cross sections. There are alternate pseudospectral methods which involve the discretization of the distribution function on a discrete grid. This paper considers a pseudospectral method of solution of the linearized hard sphere Boltzmann equation for the viscosity in a simple gas. The relaxation of a small departure from a Maxwellian is also considered for the linear test particle problem with unit mass ratio which is compared with the relaxation for the linearized one component Boltzmann equation.

  1. Advanced method of solution of neutron transport equation in nuclear reactor cell - 361

    Method of solution of neutron transport integral equation has been developed. It is aimed into calculation analysis of neutron flux in nuclear reactor cell with complicated geometry and different boundary conditions. On this stage of nuclear reactor calculation it is important to take into account special futures of neutron flux behavior included anisotropy scattering. Modern computational strategy requires the ability to accurately solution of Boltzmann transport equation in the shortest possible time. This approach is based on neutron flux expansion with orthogonal polynomial system in every uniform mesh of the cell. As result of this approximation the system of linear integral equation is reduced to algebraic system with coefficients that are the six-fold integrals over the cell area in general case. In this paper formulae for calculation of these values are given. The algorithm of computer code for neutron flux calculation is described. The results obtained with general version of collision probabilities method code are given. The advantage of above described approach has been demonstrated. (authors)

  2. Unraveling fatty acid transport and activation mechanisms in Yarrowia lipolytica.

    Dulermo, Rémi; Gamboa-Meléndez, Heber; Ledesma-Amaro, Rodrigo; Thévenieau, France; Nicaud, Jean-Marc

    2015-09-01

    Fatty acid (FA) transport and activation have been extensively studied in the model yeast species Saccharomyces cerevisiae but have rarely been examined in oleaginous yeasts, such as Yarrowia lipolytica. Because the latter begins to be used in biodiesel production, understanding its FA transport and activation mechanisms is essential. We found that Y. lipolytica has FA transport and activation proteins similar to those of S. cerevisiae (Faa1p, Pxa1p, Pxa2p, Ant1p) but mechanism of FA peroxisomal transport and activation differs greatly with that of S. cerevisiae. While the ScPxa1p/ScPxa2p heterodimer is essential for growth on long-chain FAs, ΔYlpxa1 ΔYlpxa2 is not impaired for growth on FAs. Meanwhile, ScAnt1p and YlAnt1p are both essential for yeast growth on medium-chain FAs, suggesting they function similarly. Interestingly, we found that the ΔYlpxa1 ΔYlpxa2 ΔYlant1 mutant was unable to grow on short-, medium-, or long-chain FAs, suggesting that YlPxa1p, YlPxa2p, and YlAnt1p belong to two different FA degradation pathways. We also found that YlFaa1p is involved in FA storage in lipid bodies and that FA remobilization largely depended on YlFat1p, YlPxa1p and YlPxa2p. This study is the first to comprehensively examine FA intracellular transport and activation in oleaginous yeast. PMID:25887939

  3. Getting the tail to wag the dog: Incorporating groundwater transport into catchment solute transport models using rank StorAge Selection (rSAS) functions

    Harman, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    Surface water hydrologic models are increasingly used to analyze the transport of solutes through the landscape, such as nitrate. However, many of these models cannot adequately capture the effect of groundwater flow paths, which can have long travel times and accumulate legacy contaminants, releasing them to streams over decades. If these long lag times are not accounted for, the short-term efficacy of management activities to reduce nitrogen loads may be overestimated. Models that adopt a simple 'well-mixed' assumption, leading to an exponential transit time distribution at steady state, cannot adequately capture the broadly skewed nature of groundwater transit times in typical watersheds. Here I will demonstrate how StorAge Selection functions can be used to capture the long lag times of groundwater in a typical subwatershed-based hydrologic model framework typical of models like SWAT, HSPF, HBV, PRMS and others. These functions can be selected and calibrated to reproduce historical data where available, but can also be fitted to the results of a steady-state groundwater transport model like MODFLOW/MODPATH, allowing those results to directly inform the parameterization of an unsteady surface water model. The long tails of the transit time distribution predicted by the groundwater model can then be completely captured by the surface water model. Examples of this application in the Chesapeake Bay watersheds and elsewhere will be given.

  4. Determining rates of chemical weathering in soils - Solute transport versus profile evolution

    Stonestrom, D.A.; White, A.F.; Akstin, K.C.

    1998-01-01

    SiO2 fluxes associated with contemporary solute transport in three deeply weathered granitoid profiles are compared to bulk SiO2 losses that have occurred during regolith development. Climates at the three profiles range from Mediterranean to humid to tropical. Due to shallow impeding alluvial layers at two of the profiles, and seasonally uniform rainfall at the third, temporal variations in hydraulic and chemical state variables are largely attenuated below depths of 1-2 m. This allows current SiO2 fluxes below the zone of seasonal variations to be estimated from pore-water concentrations and average hydraulic flux densities. Mean-annual SiO2 concentrations were 0.1-1.5 mM. Hydraulic conductivities for the investigated range of soil-moisture saturations ranged from 10-6 m s-1. Estimated hydraulic flux densities for quasi-steady portions of the profiles varied from 6 x 10-9 to 14 x 10-9 m s-1 based on Darcy's law and field measurements of moisture saturations and pressure heads. Corresponding fluid-residence times in the profiles ranged from 10 to 44 years. Total SiO2 losses, based on chemical and volumetric changes in the respective profiles, ranged from 19 to 110 kmoles SiO2 m-2 of land surface as a result of 0.2-0.4 Ma of chemical weathering. Extrapolation of contemporary solute fluxes to comparable time periods reproduced these SiO2 losses to about an order of magnitude. Despite the large range and non-linearity of measured hydraulic conductivities, solute transport rates in weathering regoliths can be estimated from characterization of hydrologic conditions at sufficiently large depths. The agreement suggests that current weathering rates are representative of long-term average weathering rates in the regoliths.SiO2 fluxes associated with contemporary solute transport in three deeply weathered granitoid profiles are compared to bulk SiO2 losses during regolith development. Due to shallow impeding alluvial layers at two of the profiles, and seasonally uniform

  5. Quantum transport in one-dimensional systems via a master equation approach: Numerics and an exact solution

    Marko Žnidarič

    2011-11-01

    We discuss recent findings about properties of quantum nonequilibrium steady states. In particular we focus on transport properties. It is shown that the time-dependent density matrix renormalization method can be used successfully to find a stationary solution of Lindblad master equation. Furthermore, for a specific model an exact solution is presented.

  6. Solute transport modeling under cultivated sandy soils and transient water regime.

    Gasser, M O; Caron, J; Laverdière, M R; Lagacé, R

    2002-01-01

    Drainable lysimeters offer the possibility to integrate heterogeneous solute leaching conditions caused by row crops and transient water regime, and to conveniently measure water and solute fluxes at the drainage outlet. To compare solute leaching behavior in and around drainable lysimeters operating under a transient water regime in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) fields, parameters of the convective lognormal transfer (CLT) function model were fitted using bromide (Br-) flux concentrations (Cf) measured in lysimeters and from Br- resident concentrations (Cr) measured in adjacent soil cores. Expected mean values Ez(I) obtained from Cr and Cf CLT parameters were equivalent and well correlated (R2 = 0.78). However, estimated median values mu of the CLT function were smaller when derived from Cr (1.05 to 1.28) compared with Cf (1.23 to 2.14). Most mu values were also smaller than previously reported values for a 30-cm reference depth, indicating that 50% of solute mass would leach more readily in these coarse sandy soils. Higher variance and dispersion of Cr compared with those of Cf could be related to a smaller sampling support (sample size/sampling area) in the case of Cr measured by soil coring, or to disruption of solute transport mechanisms in the repacked lysimeter. Retained Br- in the top soil layer after 12 to 17 cm of cumulative drainage was indicated by measured Cr. Neither CLT function simulated well residual topsoil Cr values, indicating that Br- plant cycling or preferential flow probably interfered even though tuber Br- uptake was relatively small. PMID:12371192

  7. Engineering intracellular active transport systems as in vivo biomolecular tools.

    Bachand, George David; Carroll-Portillo, Amanda

    2006-11-01

    Active transport systems provide essential functions in terms of cell physiology and metastasis. These systems, however, are also co-opted by invading viruses, enabling directed transport of the virus to and from the cell's nucleus (i.e., the site of virus replication). Based on this concept, fundamentally new approaches for interrogating and manipulating the inner workings of living cells may be achievable by co-opting Nature's active transport systems as an in vivo biomolecular tool. The overall goal of this project was to investigate the ability to engineer kinesin-based transport systems for in vivo applications, specifically the collection of effector proteins (e.g., transcriptional regulators) within single cells. In the first part of this project, a chimeric fusion protein consisting of kinesin and a single chain variable fragment (scFv) of an antibody was successfully produced through a recombinant expression system. The kinesin-scFv retained both catalytic and antigenic functionality, enabling selective capture and transport of target antigens. The incorporation of a rabbit IgG-specific scFv into the kinesin established a generalized system for functionalizing kinesin with a wide range of target-selective antibodies raised in rabbits. The second objective was to develop methods of isolating the intact microtubule network from live cells as a platform for evaluating kinesin-based transport within the cytoskeletal architecture of a cell. Successful isolation of intact microtubule networks from two distinct cell types was demonstrated using glutaraldehyde and methanol fixation methods. This work provides a platform for inferring the ability of kinesin-scFv to function in vivo, and may also serve as a three-dimensional scaffold for evaluating and exploiting kinesin-based transport for nanotechnological applications. Overall, the technology developed in this project represents a first-step in engineering active transport system for in vivo

  8. Conservative solute approximation to the transport of a remedial reagent in a vertical circulation flow field

    Chen, Jui-Sheng; Jang, Cheng-Shin; Cheng, Chung-Ting; Liu, Chen-Wuing

    2010-09-01

    SummaryThis study presents a novel mathematical model for describing the transport of the remedial reagent in a vertical circulation flow field in an anisotropic aquifer. To develop the mathematical model, the radial and vertical components of the pore water velocity are calculated first by using an analytical solution for steady-state drawdown distribution near a vertical circulation well. Next, the obtained radial and vertical components of the pore water velocity are then incorporated into a three-dimensional axisymmetrical advection-dispersion equation in cylindrical coordinates from which to build the reagent transport equation. The Laplace transform finite difference technique is applied to solve the three-dimensional axisymmetrical advection-dispersion equation with spatial variable-dependent coefficients. The developed mathematical model is used to investigate the effects of various parameters such as hydraulic conductivity anisotropy, longitudinal and transverse dispersivities, the placement of the extraction and injection screened intervals of the vertical circulation well and the injection modes on the transport regime of the remedial reagent. Results show that those parameters have different degrees of impacts on the distribution of the remedial reagent. The mathematical model provides an effective tool for designing and operating an enhanced groundwater remediation in an anisotropic aquifer using the vertical circulation well technology.

  9. Concentration statistics of solute transport for the near field zone of an estuary

    Galesic, Morena; Andricevic, Roko; Gotovac, Hrvoje; Srzic, Veljko

    2016-08-01

    Rivers are considered as one of the most influential hydrological pathways for the waterborne transport and therefore estuaries are critical areas for a pollution hazard that might lead to eutrophication and general water quality deterioration. This paper is investigating the near field mixing in the estuary as the result of a combination of small scale turbulent diffusion and a larger scale variation of the advective mean velocities. In this work concentration moments were developed directly from the fundamental advection-diffusion equation for the case of continuous, steady, conservative solute transport with the dominant stream flow mean velocity. The concentration statistics were developed considering depth integrated velocity field with mean velocity attenuation due to the wind induced currents and sea tides. In order to perform further studies of developed concentration moments, a set of velocity measurements in the local river Žrnovnica estuary near Split, Croatia, was conducted and numerical random walk particle tracking model was used to run the transport simulations based on measured velocity fields. The numerical model has confirmed quantitatively first two concentration moments, which are utilized to calculate the point concentration probability density function (pdf) often needed to assess the risk of exceeding the allowed concentration values in the estuary.

  10. Modelling The Transport Of Solutes And Colloids In The Grimsel Migration Shear Zone

    This report describes modelling of the transport of solutes and colloids in an experimental system comprising an artificial dipole flow field in a water-conducting shear zone at Nagra's Grimsel Test Site (GTS) in the central Swiss Alps. The modelling work forms part of the Colloid and Radionuclide Retardation Project (CRR), which includes a series of field transport experiments and a supporting laboratory programme, as well as modelling studies. Four independent groups representing different organisations or research institutes have conducted the modelling, with each group employing its own modelling approach or approaches. Only the work conducted at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) is described in the present report. The modelling approaches used in the present study may not be directly applicable to safety assessment problems and the direct implications of the results of this study for safety assessment are limited. It can, however, be said that the study has demonstrated the high degree of mobility of bentonite and other colloids in a system that is at least in some ways comparable to those of interest in safety assessment, and has shown that bentonite colloids can at least potentially affect the transport of some safety relevant radionuclides over longer temporal and spatial scales than those addressed here. (author)

  11. Modelling The Transport Of Solutes And Colloids In The Grimsel Migration Shear Zone

    Kosakowski, G.; Smith, P

    2005-02-01

    This report describes modelling of the transport of solutes and colloids in an experimental system comprising an artificial dipole flow field in a water-conducting shear zone at Nagra's Grimsel Test Site (GTS) in the central Swiss Alps. The modelling work forms part of the Colloid and Radionuclide Retardation Project (CRR), which includes a series of field transport experiments and a supporting laboratory programme, as well as modelling studies. Four independent groups representing different organisations or research institutes have conducted the modelling, with each group employing its own modelling approach or approaches. Only the work conducted at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) is described in the present report. The modelling approaches used in the present study may not be directly applicable to safety assessment problems and the direct implications of the results of this study for safety assessment are limited. It can, however, be said that the study has demonstrated the high degree of mobility of bentonite and other colloids in a system that is at least in some ways comparable to those of interest in safety assessment, and has shown that bentonite colloids can at least potentially affect the transport of some safety relevant radionuclides over longer temporal and spatial scales than those addressed here. (author)

  12. Solute transport and extraction by a single root in unsaturated soils: model development and experiment

    A contaminant transport model was developed to simulate the fate and transport of organic compounds such as TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene), using the single-root system. Onions were planted for this system with 50-ml plastic tubes. Mass in the soil, soil solution, root and leaf was monitored using 14C-TNT. Model parameters were acquired from the experiments in the single-root system and were used to simulate total TNT concentration in soil, providing the average concentrations in the rhizosphere and bulk soil as well as root and leaf compartments. Because the existing RCF (root concentration factor) and TSCF (transpiration stream concentration factor) equations based on log Kow (octanol-water partition coefficient) were not correlated to TNT uptake, a new term, root uptake rate (Rur), and a new Tscf equation, based on the experimental data, were introduced in the proposed model. The results from both modeling and experimental studies showed higher concentrations of TNT in the rhizosphere than in the bulk soil, because mass transported from the surrounding soil into the rhizosphere was higher than that by root uptake

  13. Averaged Description of Flow (Steady and Transient) and Nonreactive Solute Transport in Random Porous Media

    Schvidler, M.; Karasaki, K.

    2011-06-15

    In previous papers (Shvidler and Karasaki, 1999, 2001, 2005, and 2008) we presented and analyzed an approach for finding the general forms of exactly averaged equations of flow and transport in porous media. We studied systems of basic equations for steady flow with sources in unbounded domains with stochastically homogeneous conductivity fields. A brief analysis of exactly averaged equations of nonsteady flow and nonreactive solute transport was also presented. At the core of this approach is the existence of appropriate random Green's functions. For example, we showed that in the case of a 3-dimensional unbounded domain the existence of appropriate random Green's functions is sufficient for finding the exact nonlocal averaged equations for flow velocity using the operator with a unique kernel-vector. Examination of random fields with global symmetry (isotropy, transversal isotropy and orthotropy) makes it possible to describe significantly different types of averaged equations with nonlocal unique operators. It is evident that the existence of random Green's functions for physical linear processes is equivalent to assuming the existence of some linear random operators for appropriate stochastic equations. If we restricted ourselves to this assumption only, as we have done in this paper, we can study the processes in any dimensional bounded or unbounded fields and in addition, cases in which the random fields of conductivity and porosity are stochastically nonhomogeneous, nonglobally symmetrical, etc.. It is clear that examining more general cases involves significant difficulty and constricts the analysis of structural types for the processes being studied. Nevertheless, we show that we obtain the essential information regarding averaged equations for steady and transient flow, as well as for solute transport.

  14. Separation of Th from aqueous solutions using activated carbon

    Since the last century, thorium has been extensively used in a variety of applications. These applications produce various gaseous, liquid and solid wastes containing isotopes of thorium. Liquid wastes are freed into the surface or the underground waters of mines. Solid and liquid wastes are also produced during nuclear fuel production. Direct toxicity of thorium is low due to its stability at ambient temperatures; however thorium fine powder is self-ignitable to thorium oxide. When thorium nitrate enters living organisms it is mainly localized in liver, spleen and marrow and it precipitates in a hydroxide form. Investigations concerning the removal or minimization of the thorium concentration in the waste waters are of considerable importance environmental point of view. Adsorption is an important technique in separation and purification processes. Among many types of adsorbent materials, activated carbons are the most widely used, because of their large adsorptive capacity and low cost. Activated carbons are unique adsorbents because of their extended surface area, microporous structure, high adsorption capacity and high degree of surface reactivity. Separation and purification processes based on adsorption technique are also important in nuclear industry where activated carbon is often used for the separation of metal ions from solutions, due to its selective adsorption, high radiation stability and high purity. The activated carbons used in this study were prepared by the chemical activation of acrylic fiber. The chemical composition of acrylic fiber is a copolymer of acrylonitrile-vinyl acetate is called also poliacrylonitryl fiber. The effects of carbonization conditions resulting activated carbon were examined. Precursor/activating agent (KOH and ZnCl2) ratio and carbonization temperature were investigated for the preparation of adsorbent. Adsorption experiments were carried out by a batch technique. The adsorption of thorium was studied as a function of

  15. Sugar transport and nitrate reductase activity rate in roots affect plant adaptation to cold and warm climate plants

    Kafkafi, Uzi

    2009-01-01

    Nitrogen metabolism in the root is controlled by 2 fluxes: 1) nitrate intake from the external solution. 2) Transport of sugar from the leaves. Nitrate reduction to ammonium or direct ammonium uptake produce ammonia in the root cell. When the rate of sugar transport to root cells is slower than their sugar consumption for respiration, ammonia will accumulate and the root cells will die from ammonia toxicity. In nature, plants can be defined with regard to the activity of their root nitrate re...

  16. Glucose Transport into Everted Sacks of Intestine of Mice: A Model for the Study of Active Transport.

    Deyrup-Olsen, Ingrith; Linder, Alison R.

    1979-01-01

    Described is a laboratory procedure which uses the small intestines of mice as models for the transport of glucose and other solutes. Demonstrations are suitable for either introductory or advanced physiology courses. (RE)

  17. Dopamine transporter SPECT imaging of the peroral addicts of compound codeine phosphate solution

    Objective: To study the damage to striatum in patients perorally addicted to compound codeine phosphate solution by using the brain dopamine transporter SPECT imaging. Methods: Patients perorally addicted to compound codeine phosphate solution (n = 29) and addicted to heroin (n = 27), as well as healthy volunteers (n = 31) were included in the study. Each of them underwent dopamine transporter (DAT) SPECT imaging with 99Tcm-2β-[N, N'-bis-( 2- mercaptoethyl ) ethylenediamino] methyl, 3β-(4-chlorophenyl)tropane (99Tcm-TRODAT-1). The striatum volume (V, cm3), mass (m, g) and radioactivity ratio (Ra) of striatum to whole brain were calculated using physio-mathematical modeling method. Results: Bilateral striatum of healthy volunteers showed typical 'panda eyes' pattern and the distribution of DAT was uniform and symmetrical. Bilateral striatum of patients addicted to compound codeine phosphate showed impaired tracer uptake, similar to those addicted to heroin. The V, m and Ra of bilateral striatum of patients addicted to compound codeine phosphate were (23.68±4.94) cm3, (24.87±5.19) g and (5.01±0.88) %, respectively, which were significantly lower than those of healthy controls: (35.39 ±4.42) cm3,(37.16±4.64) g and (7.93±0.86)% (t =-9.69, -9.69, - 13.01, all P =0.000), but significantly higher than those addicted to heroin: (18.87±4.66) cm3, (19.81±4.90) g and (4.26±1.02) % (t =3.74, 3.74, 2.96, P = 0.000, 0.000, 0.005). Conclusion: Long-term peroral intake of compound codeine phosphate solution may damage the function of cerebral striatum, which is someway similar to though less severe than, the impairment caused by heroin. (authors)

  18. Experimental investigation on rainfall infiltration and solute transport in layered porous and fractured media

    WANG Hui-fang; WANG Ming-yu

    2012-01-01

    Layered structures with upper porous and lower fractured media are widely distributed in the world.An experimental investigation on rainfall infiltration and solute transport in such layered structures can provide the necessary foundation for effectively preventing and forecasting water bursting in mines,controlling contamination of mine water,and accomplishing ecological restoration of mining areas.A typical physical model of the layered structures with porous and fractured media was created in this study.Then rainfall infiltration experiments were conducted after salt solution was sprayed on the surface of the layered structure.The volumetric water content and concentration of chlorine ions at different specified positions along the profile of the experiment system were measured in real-time.The experimental results showed that the lower fractured media,with a considerably higher permeability than that of the upper porous media,had significant effects on preventing water infiltration.Moreover,although the porous media were homogeneous statistically in the whole domain,spatial variations in the features of effluent concentrations with regards to time,or so called breakthrough curves,at various sampling points located at the horizontal plane in the porous media near the porous-fractured interface were observed,indicating the diversity of solute transport at small scales.Furthermore,the breakthrough curves of the outflow at the bottom,located beneath the underlying fractured rock,were able to capture and integrate features of the breakthrough curves of both the upper porous and fractured media,which exhibited multiple peaks,while the peak values were reduced one by one with time.

  19. Low-density lipoprotein transport through an arterial wall under hyperthermia and hypertension conditions--An analytical solution.

    Iasiello, Marcello; Vafai, Kambiz; Andreozzi, Assunta; Bianco, Nicola

    2016-01-25

    An analytical solution for Low-Density Lipoprotein transport through an arterial wall under hyperthermia conditions is established in this work. A four-layer model is used to characterize the arterial wall. Transport governing equations are obtained as a combination between Staverman-Kedem-Katchalsky membrane equations and volume-averaged porous media equations. Temperature and solute transport fields are coupled by means of Ludwig-Soret effect. Results are in excellent agreement with numerical and analytical literature data under isothermal conditions, and with numerical literature data for the hyperthermia case. Effects of hypertension combined with hyperthermia, are also analyzed in this work. PMID:26806687

  20. A fully resolved active musculo-mechanical model for esophageal transport

    Kou, Wenjun; Bhalla, Amneet Pal Singh; Griffith, Boyce E.; Pandolfino, John E.; Kahrilas, Peter J.; Patankar, Neelesh A.

    2015-10-01

    Esophageal transport is a physiological process that mechanically transports an ingested food bolus from the pharynx to the stomach via the esophagus, a multi-layered muscular tube. This process involves interactions between the bolus, the esophagus, and the neurally coordinated activation of the esophageal muscles. In this work, we use an immersed boundary (IB) approach to simulate peristaltic transport in the esophagus. The bolus is treated as a viscous fluid that is actively transported by the muscular esophagus, and the esophagus is modeled as an actively contracting, fiber-reinforced tube. Before considering the full model of the esophagus, however, we first consider a standard benchmark problem of flow past a cylinder. Next a simplified version of our model is verified by comparison to an analytic solution to the tube dilation problem. Finally, three different complex models of the multi-layered esophagus, which differ in their activation patterns and the layouts of the mucosal layers, are extensively tested. To our knowledge, these simulations are the first of their kind to incorporate the bolus, the multi-layered esophagus tube, and muscle activation into an integrated model. Consistent with experimental observations, our simulations capture the pressure peak generated by the muscle activation pulse that travels along the bolus tail. These fully resolved simulations provide new insights into roles of the mucosal layers during bolus transport. In addition, the information on pressure and the kinematics of the esophageal wall resulting from the coordination of muscle activation is provided, which may help relate clinical data from manometry and ultrasound images to the underlying esophageal motor function.

  1. Analysis of Charge Carrier Transport in Organic Photovoltaic Active Layers

    Han, Xu; Maroudas, Dimitrios

    2015-03-01

    We present a systematic analysis of charge carrier transport in organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices based on phenomenological, deterministic charge carrier transport models. The models describe free electron and hole transport, trapping, and detrapping, as well as geminate charge-pair dissociation and geminate and bimolecular recombination, self-consistently with Poisson's equation for the electric field in the active layer. We predict photocurrent evolution in devices with active layers of P3HT, P3HT/PMMA, and P3HT/PS, as well as P3HT/PCBM blends, and photocurrent-voltage (I-V) relations in these devices at steady state. Charge generation propensity, zero-field charge mobilities, and trapping, detrapping, and recombination rate coefficients are determined by fitting the modeling predictions to experimental measurements. We have analyzed effects of the active layer morphology for layers consisting of both pristine drop-cast films and of nanoparticle (NP) assemblies, as well as effects on device performance of insulating NP doping in conducting polymers and of specially designed interlayers placed between an electrode and the active layer. The model predictions provide valuable input toward synthesis of active layers with prescribed morphology that optimize OPV device performance.

  2. Fluctuation driven active molecular transport in passive channel proteins

    Kosztin, Ioan

    2006-03-01

    Living cells interact with their extracellular environment through the cell membrane, which acts as a protective permeability barrier for preserving the internal integrity of the cell. However, cell metabolism requires controlled molecular transport across the cell membrane, a function that is fulfilled by a wide variety of transmembrane proteins, acting as either passive or active transporters. In this talk it is argued that, contrary to the general belief, in active cell membranes passive and spatially asymmetric channel proteins can act as active transporters by consuming energy from nonequilibrium fluctuations fueled by cell metabolism. This assertion is demonstrated in the case of the E. coli aquaglyceroporin GlpF channel protein, whose high resolution crystal structure is manifestly asymmetric. By calculating the glycerol flux through GlpF within the framework of a stochastic model, it is found that, as a result of channel asymmetry, glycerol uptake driven by a concentration gradient is enhanced significantly in the presence of non-equilibrium fluctuations. Furthermore, the enhancement caused by a ratchet-like mechanism is larger for the outward, i.e., from the cytoplasm to the periplasm, flux than for the inward one, suggesting that the same non-equilibrium fluctuations also play an important role in protecting the interior of the cell against poisoning by excess uptake of glycerol. Preliminary data on water and sugar transport through aquaporin and maltoporin channels, respectively, are indicative of the universality of the proposed nonequilibrium-fluctuation-driven active transport mechanism. This work was supported by grants from the Univ. of Missouri Research Board, the Institute for Theoretical Sciences and the Department of Energy (DOE Contract W-7405-ENG-36), and the National Science Foundation (FIBR-0526854).

  3. Reactive transport modeling of column experiments on the evolution of saline-alkaline waste solutions.

    Zheng, Zuoping; Zhang, Guoxiang; Wan, Jiamin

    2008-04-01

    Leakage of saline-alkaline tank waste solutions often creates a serious environmental contamination problem. To better understand the mechanisms controlling the fate of such waste solutions in the Hanford vadose zone, we simulated reactive transport in columns designed to represent local site conditions. The Pitzer ion interaction module was used, with principal geochemical processes considered in the simulation including quartz dissolution, precipitation of brucite, calcite, and portlandite, multi-component cation exchange, and aqueous complexation reactions. Good matches were observed between the simulated and measured column data at ambient temperature ( approximately 21 degrees C). Relatively good agreement was also obtained at high temperature ( approximately 70 degrees C). The decrease of pH at the plume front is examined through formation of secondary mineral phases and/or quartz dissolution. Substantial formation of secondary mineral phases resulting from multi-component cation exchange suggests that these phases are responsible for a decrease in pH within the plume front. In addition, a sensitivity analysis was conducted with respect to cation exchange capacity, selectivity coefficient, mineral assemblage, temperature, and ionic strength. This study could serve as a useful guide to subsequent experimental work, to thermodynamic models developed for the concentrated solutions at high ionic strength and to other types of waste plume studies. PMID:18313795

  4. Reactive transport modeling of column experiments on the evolution of saline alkaline waste solutions

    Zheng, Zuoping; Zhang, Guoxiang; Wan, Jiamin

    2008-04-01

    Leakage of saline-alkaline tank waste solutions often creates a serious environmental contamination problem. To better understand the mechanisms controlling the fate of such waste solutions in the Hanford vadose zone, we simulated reactive transport in columns designed to represent local site conditions. The Pitzer ion interaction module was used, with principal geochemical processes considered in the simulation including quartz dissolution, precipitation of brucite, calcite, and portlandite, multi-component cation exchange, and aqueous complexation reactions. Good matches were observed between the simulated and measured column data at ambient temperature (˜ 21 °C). Relatively good agreement was also obtained at high temperature (˜ 70 °C). The decrease of pH at the plume front is examined through formation of secondary mineral phases and/or quartz dissolution. Substantial formation of secondary mineral phases resulting from multi-component cation exchange suggests that these phases are responsible for a decrease in pH within the plume front. In addition, a sensitivity analysis was conducted with respect to cation exchange capacity, selectivity coefficient, mineral assemblage, temperature, and ionic strength. This study could serve as a useful guide to subsequent experimental work, to thermodynamic models developed for the concentrated solutions at high ionic strength and to other types of waste plume studies.

  5. The next generation in optical transport semiconductors: IC solutions at the system level

    Gomatam, Badri N.

    2005-02-01

    In this tutorial overview, we survey some of the challenging problems facing Optical Transport and their solutions using new semiconductor-based technologies. Advances in 0.13um CMOS, SiGe/HBT and InP/HBT IC process technologies and mixed-signal design strategies are the fundamental breakthroughs that have made these solutions possible. In combination with innovative packaging and transponder/transceiver architectures IC approaches have clearly demonstrated enhanced optical link budgets with simultaneously lower (perhaps the lowest to date) cost and manufacturability tradeoffs. This paper will describe: *Electronic Dispersion Compensation broadly viewed as the overcoming of dispersion based limits to OC-192 links and extending link budgets, *Error Control/Coding also known as Forward Error Correction (FEC), *Adaptive Receivers for signal quality monitoring for real-time estimation of Q/OSNR, eye-pattern, signal BER and related temporal statistics (such as jitter). We will discuss the theoretical underpinnings of these receiver and transmitter architectures, provide examples of system performance and conclude with general market trends. These Physical layer IC solutions represent a fundamental new toolbox of options for equipment designers in addressing systems level problems. With unmatched cost and yield/performance tradeoffs, it is expected that IC approaches will provide significant flexibility in turn, for carriers and service providers who must ultimately manage the network and assure acceptable quality of service under stringent cost constraints.

  6. Effect of linear sorption on solute transport in a coupled fracture-matrix system with sinusoidal fracture geometry

    N.Natarajan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Modeling of solute transport through fractured rock is an important component of in many disciplines especially groundwater contamination and nuclear waste disposal. Several studies have been conducted on single rock fracture using parallel plate model and recently solute and thermal transport has been numerically modeled in the sinusoidal fracture matrix coupled system. The effect of linear sorption has been studied on the same. Results suggest the high matrix porosity and matrix diffusion coefficient enhance the sorption process and reduce the matrix diffusion of solutes. The velocity of the fluid reduces with increment in fracture aperture.

  7. An analytical model for solute transport in an infiltration tracer test in soil with a shallow groundwater table

    Liang, Ching-Ping; Hsu, Shao-Yiu; Chen, Jui-Sheng

    2016-09-01

    It is recommended that an in-situ infiltration tracer test is considered for simultaneously determining the longitudinal and transverse dispersion coefficients in soil. Analytical solutions have been derived for two-dimensional advective-dispersive transport in a radial geometry in the literature which can be used for interpreting the result of such a tracer test. However, these solutions were developed for a transport domain with an unbounded-radial extent and an infinite thickness of vadose zone which might not be realistically manifested in the actual solute transport during a field infiltration tracer test. Especially, the assumption of infinite thickness of vadose zone should be invalid for infiltration tracer tests conducted in soil with a shallow groundwater table. This paper describes an analytical model for interpreting the results of an infiltration tracer test based on improving the transport domain with a bounded-radial extent and a finite thickness of vadose zone. The analytical model is obtained with the successive application of appropriate integral transforms and their corresponding inverse transforms. A comparison of the newly derived analytical solution against the previous analytical solutions in which two distinct sets of radial extent and thickness of vadose zone are considered is conducted to determine the influence of the radial and exit boundary conditions on the solute transport. The results shows that both the radial and exit boundary conditions substantially affect the trailing segment of the breakthrough curves for a soil medium with large dispersion coefficients. Previous solutions derived for a transport domain with an unbounded-radial and an infinite thickness of vadose zone boundary conditions give lower concentration predictions compared with the proposed solution at late times. Moreover, the differences between two solutions are amplified when the observation positions are near the groundwater table. In addition, we compare our

  8. Radioprotector modifying influence upon the ion transport ATPase activities

    The effects of aminothiol and biogenic amine radioprotectors (β-mercaptoethylamine, AET, serotonin, dopamine, histamine) on the basic ion transport enzymes, such as Na, K-ATP ase and Mg, Ca-ATPase activities were investigated in the tissues of numerous organs, with different radiosensitivity in the wistar rats. Experimental results showed that intraperitoneal injection of the used radioprotectors caused preliminary inhibition of the Na, K-ATPase activity in tissues from organs with different radioresistance, but had no influence on the Mg, Ca-ATPase activity in membranes of erythrocytes and rat brain cells. (2 tabs.)

  9. Validation testing of solute transport modelling using SHETRAN. The Calder Hollow experiments

    Hill-slope plot experiments were conducted at Calder Hollow, near Sellafield in West Cumbria, using lanthanum chloride (strongly sorbing) and strontium chloride (weakly sorbing) tracers in solution. Water and solute were injected via boreholes into a sand layer in a sequence of Quaternary drift deposits and the resulting subsurface transport plumes studied using core extraction and laboratory measurement of lanthanum, and fluid conductivity and bulk resistivity monitoring of strontium in an array of observation boreholes. Simulations of the field experiments were run using the SHETRAN hydrological modelling system. SHETRAN is a physically based, spatially distributed system. It was used to simulate the combined subsurface water flow (calibrated against field observations of piezometric head) and solute transport (uncalibrated, and run without any knowledge of the field observations for solute) taking place during the experiments. The results of the simulations were used to gauge the ability of SHETRAN to predict the subsurface transport of the lanthanum chloride and strontium chloride tracers in a validation exercise. The validation approach is based on the 'blind' method of Ewen and Parkin (1996), and involved using SHETRAN as it would be used in a real application. Ranges were established for the measured values of the physical properties of the porous media, supplemented by values from the literature, and these were used in conjunction with an analysis of calibrated flow simulations to create 48 SHETRAN parameter datasets for the lanthanum experiment and 16 for the strontium experiment. The datasets each led to a physically plausible simulation consistent with all the available information. A number of 'tests' were defined to compare model simulation results against field measurements. The simulations were used as a starting point to derive upper and lower 'bounds' for the model generated results, in order to incorporate uncertainty. Two teams produced distinct

  10. Numerical solution of neutron transport equations in discrete ordinates and slab geometry

    An unified formalism to solve numerically, between other equation, the neutron transport in discrete ordinates, slab geometry, several energy groups and independents of time, has been developed recently. Such a formalism cover some of the conventional schemes as diamond difference, (WDD) characteristic step (SC) lineal characteristic (LC), quadratic characteristic (QC) and lineal discontinuous. Unified formation gives before hand the convergence order of the previously selected scheme. In fact it allows besides to generate a big amount of numerical schemes, with which is also possible to solve numerical equations as soon as neutron transport. The essential purpose of this work was to solve the neutron transport equations in slab geometry and discrete ordinates considering several energy groups without to take under advisement time dependence based in the above mentioned unified formalism. To reach this purpose it was necesary to design a computer code with the name TNOD1 (Neutron transport in discrete ordinates and 1 dimension) which includes each one of the schemes already pointed out. there exist two numerical schemes, also recently developed, quadratic continuous (QC) and cubic continuous (CN), although covered by unified formalism, it has been possible to include them inside this computer code without make substantial changes in its structure. In chapter I, derivative of neutron transport equation independent of time is taken, for angular flux, including boundary conditions and discontinuity. In chapter II the neutron transport equations are obtained in multigroups, independents of time, for approximation of discrete ordinates. Description of theory related with unified formalism and its relationship with mentioned discretization schemes is presented in chapter III. Chapter IV describes the computer code developed and finally, in chapter V different numerical results obtained with TNOD1 program are shown. In Appendix A theorems and mathematical arguments used

  11. Whole-core transport solution via deterministic SN transport/p-CMFD overlapping local/global calculation in hexagonal geometry problem

    Highlights: • Overlapping local/global (OLG) iteration method is extended to hexagonal geometry. • The local solution is obtained by deterministic SN transport method. • The local problems are embedded in the global p-CMFD equation solver. • OLG iteration method reproduces whole-core transport solution within few iterations. - Abstract: In this paper, the overlapping local/global (OLG) iteration method based on deterministic SN transport/p-CMFD calculations was extended to hexagonal core geometry. For this framework, a deterministic SN transport code and p-CMFD equation solver was implemented on triangular cell base. These two calculations are iteratively performed with proper boundary condition update until it reaches converged solution, which is then compared with the direct whole-core transport solution. Two variations from the original overlapping local/global iterative scheme are also introduced and tested: (1) zeroth local calculation of fixed-k problem type with initially guessed incoming angular flux and multiplication factor, and (2) local calculation with non-overlapping region (nonoverlapping local/global iteration). Several numerical test results show OLG system has been successfully implemented on hexagonal core geometry and its variations improve the computational efficiency

  12. Investigating the effect of compression on solute transport through degrading municipal solid waste

    Highlights: • The influence of compression on MSW flushing was evaluated using 13 tracer tests. • Compression has little effect on solute diffusion times in MSW. • Lithium tracer was conservative in non-degrading waste but not in degrading waste. • Bromide tracer was conservative, but deuterium was not. - Abstract: The effect of applied compression on the nature of liquid flow and hence the movement of contaminants within municipal solid waste was examined by means of thirteen tracer tests conducted on five separate waste samples. The conservative nature of bromide, lithium and deuterium tracers was evaluated and linked to the presence of degradation in the sample. Lithium and deuterium tracers were non-conservative in the presence of degradation, whereas the bromide remained effectively conservative under all conditions. Solute diffusion times into and out of less mobile blocks of waste were compared for each test under the assumption of dominantly dual-porosity flow. Despite the fact that hydraulic conductivity changed strongly with applied stress, the block diffusion times were found to be much less sensitive to compression. A simple conceptual model, whereby flow is dominated by sub-parallel low permeability obstructions which define predominantly horizontally aligned less mobile zones, is able to explain this result. Compression tends to narrow the gap between the obstructions, but not significantly alter the horizontal length scale. Irrespective of knowledge of the true flow pattern, these results show that simple models of solute flushing from landfill which do not include depth dependent changes in solute transport parameters are justified

  13. Simple solution-processed titanium oxide electron transport layer for efficient inverted polymer solar cells

    Titanium oxide (TiOX) is an effective electron transport layer (ETL) in polymer solar cells (PSCs). We report efficient inverted PSCs with a simple solution-processed amorphous TiOX (s-TiOX) film as an ETL. The s-TiOX film with high light transmittance was prepared by spin-coating titanium (IV) isopropoxide isopropanol solution on indium tin oxide coated glass in inert and then placed in air under room temperature for 60 min. The introduction of s-TiOX ETL greatly improved the short circuit current density of the devices. PSCs based on poly(3-hexylthiophene):[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester and poly(4,8-bis-alkyloxy-benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene-alt-alkylcarbonyl -thieno[3,4-b]thiophene):[6,6]-phenyl- C71-butyric acid methyl ester using s-TiOX film as ETL shows high power conversion efficiency of 4.29% and 6.7% under the illumination of AM 1.5G, 100 mW/cm2, which shows enhancements compared to the conventional PSCs with poly(styrenesulfonate)-doped poly(ethylenedioxythiophene) as anode buffer layer. In addition, the device exhibits good stability in a humid ambient atmosphere without capsulation. The results indicate that the annealing-free, simple solution processed s-TiOX film is an efficient ETL for high-performance PSCs. - Highlights: • High quality s-TiOX films were prepared by a simple, solution method without thermal treatment. • The s-TiOX films with high transmittance are very smooth. • The organic photovoltaic performance with s-TiOX film improved greatly and exhibited good stability. • The annealing-free, simple prepared s-TiOX film will be much compatible with flexible substrates

  14. Electrically facilitated molecular transport. Analysis of the relative contributions of diffusion, migration, and electroosmosis to solute transport in an ion-exchange membrane.

    Bath, B D; White, H S; Scott, E R

    2000-02-01

    Electrically facilitated molecular transport in an ion-exchange membrane (Nafion, 1100 equiv wt) has been studied using a scanning electrochemical microscope. The transport rates of ferrocenylmethyltrimethylammonium (a cation), acetaminophen (a neutral molecule), and ascorbate (an anion) through approximately 120-micron-thick membranes were measured as a function of the iontophoretic current passed across the membrane (-1.0 to +1.0 A/cm2). Transport rates were analyzed by employing the Nernst-Planck equation, modified to account for electric field-driven convective transport. Excellent agreement between experimental and theoretical values of the molecular flux was obtained using a single fitting parameter for each molecule (electroosmotic drag coefficient). The electroosmotic velocity of the neutral molecule, acetaminophen, was shown to be a factor of approximately 500 larger than that of the cation ferrocenylmethyltrimethylammonium, a consequence of the electrostatic interaction of the cation with the negatively charged pore walls of the ion-exchange membrane. Electroosmotic transport of ascorbate occurred at a negligible rate due to repulsion of the anion by the cation-selective membrane. These results suggest that electroosmotic velocities of solute molecules are determined by specific chemical interactions of the permeant and membrane and may be very different from the average solution velocity. The efficiency of electroosmotic transport was also shown to be a function of the membrane thickness, in addition to membrane/solute interactions. PMID:10695125

  15. The effects of surfactants and solution chemistry on the transport of multiwalled carbon nanotubes in quartz sand-packed columns

    The effect of different surfactants on the transport of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in quartz sand-packed columns was firstly investigated under various conditions. The stable plateau values (Cmax) of the breakthrough curves (BTCs), critical PVs (the number of pore volumes of infusions needed to reach the Cmax), maximum transport distances (Lmax), deposition rate coefficients (kd) and retention rates were calculated to compare the transport and retention of MWCNTs under various conditions. Stability of the MWCNT suspensions as a function of the influencing factors was examined to reveal the underlying mechanism of the MWCNT retention. Results showed that MWCNTs suspended by different surfactants presented different BTCs; the MWCNT transport increased with increasing sand size and MWCNT concentration; high flow velocity was favorable for the MWCNT transport, while high Ca2+ concentration and low pH were unfavorable for the transport; hetero-aggregation, straining and site blocking occurred during the transport. -- Highlights: •MWCNTs suspended by different surfactants presented different BTCs. •MWCNT transport increased with increasing sand size and MWCNT concentration. •High flow velocity was favorable for the MWCNT transport. •High Ca2+ concentration and low pH were unfavorable for the MWCNT transport. •Hetero-aggregation, straining and site blocking occurred during the transport. -- The MWCNT transport through porous media varied with surfactant property and solution chemistry

  16. Adsorption of phenol by activated carbon: Influence of activation methods and solution pH

    Cherry stone based activated carbon derived from a canning industry was evaluated for its ability to remove phenol from an aqueous solution in a batch process. A comparative adsorption on the uptake of phenol by using commercial activated carbon (Chemviron CPG-LF), and two non-functional commercial polymeric adsorbents (MN-200 and XAD-2) containing a styrene-divinylbenzene macroporous hyperreticulated network have been also examined. Equilibrium studies were conducted in 25 mg L-1 initial phenol concentrations, 6.5-9 solution pH and at temperature of 30 deg. C. The experimental data were analyzed by the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. Besides, the cherry stone based activated carbons were carried out by using zinc chloride and KOH activation agents at different chemical ratios (activating agent/precursor), to develop carbons with well-developed porosity. The cherry stone activated carbon prepared using KOH as a chemical agent showed a high surface area. According to the results, activated carbons had excellent adsorptive characteristics in comparison with polymeric sorbents and commercial activated carbon for the phenol removal from the aqueous solutions.

  17. Adsorption of phenol by activated carbon: Influence of activation methods and solution pH

    Beker, Ulker, E-mail: ubeker@gmail.co [Yildiz Technical University, Chemical Engineering Department, Davutpasa Campus, 34210 Esenler, Istanbul (Turkey); Ganbold, Batchimeg [National University of Mongolia, Faculty of Organic Chemistry, Ikh Surguuliin Gudamj 1, P.O. Box 46a/523, 210646 Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia); Dertli, Halil [Istanbul Technical University, Chemical Engineering Department, Maslak, Istanbul (Turkey); Guelbayir, Dilek Duranoglu [Yildiz Technical University, Chemical Engineering Department, Davutpasa Campus, 34210 Esenler, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2010-02-15

    Cherry stone based activated carbon derived from a canning industry was evaluated for its ability to remove phenol from an aqueous solution in a batch process. A comparative adsorption on the uptake of phenol by using commercial activated carbon (Chemviron CPG-LF), and two non-functional commercial polymeric adsorbents (MN-200 and XAD-2) containing a styrene-divinylbenzene macroporous hyperreticulated network have been also examined. Equilibrium studies were conducted in 25 mg L{sup -1} initial phenol concentrations, 6.5-9 solution pH and at temperature of 30 deg. C. The experimental data were analyzed by the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. Besides, the cherry stone based activated carbons were carried out by using zinc chloride and KOH activation agents at different chemical ratios (activating agent/precursor), to develop carbons with well-developed porosity. The cherry stone activated carbon prepared using KOH as a chemical agent showed a high surface area. According to the results, activated carbons had excellent adsorptive characteristics in comparison with polymeric sorbents and commercial activated carbon for the phenol removal from the aqueous solutions.

  18. Electrochemical activation of a tetrathiafulvalene halogen bond donor in solution.

    Oliveira, R; Groni, S; Fave, C; Branca, M; Mavré, F; Lorcy, D; Fourmigué, M; Schöllhorn, B

    2016-06-21

    The halogen bond donor properties of iodo-tetrathiafulvalene (I-TTF) can be electrochemically switched and controlled via reversible oxidation in the solution phase. Interestingly the activation of only one single halogen bond yielded already a strong and selective interaction, quantified by cyclic voltammetry. The standard potentials of the redox couples I-TTF(0/1+) and I-TTF(1+/2+) were observed to shift upon the addition of halides. These anions selectively stabilize the cationic I-TTF species through halogen bonding in polar liquid electrolytes. The thermodynamic affinity constants for chloride and bromide binding to the oxidized species have been determined. Competition in halide binding between I-TTF(1+) and other halogen bond donors allowed for comparing the relative donor strength of the respective electrophilic species. Furthermore it has been shown that halogen bonding can prevail over hydrogen bonding in the investigated system. PMID:27231819

  19. Activation of CFTR-mediated Cl- Transport by Magnolin

    JIN Ling-ling; LIU Xin; SUN Yan; LIN Sen; ZHOU Na; XU Li-na; YU BO; HOU Shu-guang; YANG Hong

    2008-01-01

    Magnolin is a herbal compound from Magnolia biondii Pamp.It possesses numerous biological activities.Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator(CFTR)is all epithelial chloride channel that plays a key role in the fluid secretion of various exocrine organs.In the present study,the activation of CFTR-mediated chloride transport by magnolin is indentified and characterized.In CFTR stably trailsfected FRT cells.magnolin increases CFTR Cl- currents in a concentration-dependent manner.The activation of magnolin on CFTR is rapid,reversible,and cAMP-dependent.Magnolin does not elevate cellular cAMP level.indicating that it activates CFTR by direct binding and interaction with CFTR protein.Magnolin selectively activates wildtype CFTR rather than mutant CFTIL Magnolin may present a novel class of therapeutic lead compound for the treatment of diseases associated with reduced CFTR function such as keratoconjunctivitis sicca,idiopathic chronic pancreatiti,and chromc constipation.

  20. Reactive solute transport in physically and chemically heterogeneous porous media with multimodal reactive mineral facies: the Lagrangian approach.

    Soltanian, Mohamad Reza; Ritzi, Robert W; Dai, Zhenxue; Huang, Chao Cheng

    2015-03-01

    Physical and chemical heterogeneities have a large impact on reactive transport in porous media. Examples of heterogeneous attributes affecting reactive mass transport are the hydraulic conductivity (K), and the equilibrium sorption distribution coefficient (Kd). This paper uses the Deng et al. (2013) conceptual model for multimodal reactive mineral facies and a Lagrangian-based stochastic theory in order to analyze the reactive solute dispersion in three-dimensional anisotropic heterogeneous porous media with hierarchical organization of reactive minerals. An example based on real field data is used to illustrate the time evolution trends of reactive solute dispersion. The results show that the correlation between the hydraulic conductivity and the equilibrium sorption distribution coefficient does have a significant effect on reactive solute dispersion. The anisotropy ratio does not have a significant effect on reactive solute dispersion. Furthermore, through a sensitivity analysis we investigate the impact of changing the mean, variance, and integral scale of K and Kd on reactive solute dispersion. PMID:25532767

  1. Leveraging Anderson Acceleration for improved convergence of iterative solutions to transport systems

    In this note we demonstrate that using Anderson Acceleration (AA) in place of a standard Picard iteration can not only increase the convergence rate but also make the iteration more robust for two transport applications. We also compare the convergence acceleration provided by AA to that provided by moment-based acceleration methods. Additionally, we demonstrate that those two acceleration methods can be used together in a nested fashion. We begin by describing the AA algorithm. At this point, we will describe two application problems, one from neutronics and one from plasma physics, on which we will apply AA. We provide computational results which highlight the benefits of using AA, namely that we can compute solutions using fewer function evaluations, larger time-steps, and achieve a more robust iteration

  2. Leveraging Anderson Acceleration for improved convergence of iterative solutions to transport systems

    Willert, Jeffrey; Taitano, William T.; Knoll, Dana

    2014-09-15

    In this note we demonstrate that using Anderson Acceleration (AA) in place of a standard Picard iteration can not only increase the convergence rate but also make the iteration more robust for two transport applications. We also compare the convergence acceleration provided by AA to that provided by moment-based acceleration methods. Additionally, we demonstrate that those two acceleration methods can be used together in a nested fashion. We begin by describing the AA algorithm. At this point, we will describe two application problems, one from neutronics and one from plasma physics, on which we will apply AA. We provide computational results which highlight the benefits of using AA, namely that we can compute solutions using fewer function evaluations, larger time-steps, and achieve a more robust iteration.

  3. Water and solute transport in agricultural soils predicted by volumetric clay and silt contents

    Karup, Dan; Møldrup, Per; Paradelo Pérez, Marcos;

    2016-01-01

    -and-eighty-seven undisturbed soil columns 20 cm in height and 20 cm in diameter were sampled from six conventionally managed agricultural fields in Denmark. The soils exhibited a wide range in texture, with clay contents and organic carbon (OC) contents ranging from 0.03 to 0.41 kg kg-1 and 0.01 to 0.08 kg kg-1, respectively...... (particles ≤ 50 μm). The results showed that the mineral fines content was strongly correlated to functional soil structure and the derived tracer breakthrough curve (BTC), whereas the OC content appeared less important for the shape of the BTC. Organic carbon was believed to support the stability of the......Solute transport through the soil matrix is heterogeneous and greatly affected by soil texture, soil structure, and macropore networks. This study examined the relationship between tracer breakthrough characteristics, soil hydraulic properties, and basic soil properties. Hundred...

  4. Corrosion in systems for storage and transportation of petroleum products and biofuels identification, monitoring and solutions

    Groysman, Alec

    2014-01-01

    This book treats corrosion as it occurs and affects processes in real-world situations, and thus points the way to practical solutions. Topics described include the conditions in which petroleum products are corrosive to metals; corrosion mechanisms of petroleum products; which parts of storage tanks containing crude oils and petroleum products undergo corrosion; dependence of corrosion in tanks on type of petroleum products; aggressiveness of petroleum products to polymeric material; how microorganisms take part in corrosion of tanks and pipes containing petroleum products; which corrosion monitoring methods are used in systems for storage and transportation of petroleum products; what corrosion control measures should be chosen; how to choose coatings for inner and outer surfaces of tanks containing petroleum products; and how different additives (oxygenates, aromatic solvents) to petroleum products and biofuels influence metallic and polymeric materials. The book is of interest to corrosion engineers, mat...

  5. Smart Energy Systems for coherent 100% renewable energy and transport solutions

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik; Connolly, David;

    2015-01-01

    The hypothesis of this paper is that in order to identify least cost solutions of the integration of fluctuating renewable energy sources into current or future 100% renewable energy supplies one has to take a Smart Energy Systems approach. This paper outline why and how to do so. Traditionally......, significant focus is put on the electricity sector alone to solve the renewable energy integration puzzle. Smart grid research traditionally focuses on ICT, smart meters, electricity storage technologies, and local (electric) smart grids. In contrast, the Smart Energy System focuses on merging the electricity......, heating and transport sectors, in combination with various intra-hour, hourly, daily, seasonal and biannual storage options, to create the flexibility necessary to integrate large penetrations of fluctuating renewable energy. However, in this paper we present the development and design of coherent Smart...

  6. Cumulant solution of the elastic Boltzmann transport equation in an infinite uniform medium

    We consider an analytical solution of the time-dependent elastic Boltzmann transport equation in an infinite uniform isotropic medium with an arbitrary phase function. We obtain (1) the exact distribution in angle, (2) the exact first and second spatial cumulants at any angle, and (3) an approximate combined distribution in position and angle and a spatial distribution whose central position and half-width of spread are always exact. The resulting Gaussian distribution has a center that advances in time, and an ellipsoidal contour that grows and changes shape providing a clear picture of the time evolution of the particle migration from near ballistic, through snakelike and into the final diffusive regime. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  7. Active flow control systems architectures for civil transport aircraft

    Jabbal, M; Liddle, SC; Crowther, WJ

    2010-01-01

    Copyright @ 2010 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics This paper considers the effect of choice of actuator technology and associated power systems architecture on the mass cost and power consumption of implementing active flow control systems on civil transport aircraft. The research method is based on the use of a mass model that includes a mass due to systems hardware and a mass due to the system energy usage. An Airbus A320 aircraft wing is used as a case-study applicatio...

  8. The Asymmetric Active Coupler: Stable Nonlinear Supermodes and Directed Transport

    Kominis, Yannis; Flach, Sergej

    2016-01-01

    We consider the asymmetric active coupler (AAC) consisting of two coupled dissimilar waveguides with gain and loss. We show that under generic conditions, not restricted by parity-time symmetry, there exist finite-power, constant-intensity nonlinear supermodes (NS), resulting from the balance between gain, loss, nonlinearity, coupling and dissimilarity. The system is shown to possess nonreciprocal dynamics enabling directed power transport and optical isolation functionality.

  9. Bacteriology testing of cardiovascular tissues: comparison of transport solution versus tissue testing.

    Díaz Rodríguez, R; Van Hoeck, B; Mujaj, B; Ngakam, R; Fan, Y; Bogaerts, K; Jashari, R

    2016-06-01

    Bacteriology testing is mandatory for quality control of recovered cardiovascular allografts (CVA). In this paper, two different bacteriology examinations (A tests) performed before tissue antibiotic decontamination were compared: transport solution filtration analysis (A1) and tissue fragment direct incubation (A2). For this purpose, 521 CVA (326 heart and 195 artery tissues) from 280 donors were collected and analyzed by the European Homograft Bank (EHB). Transport solution (A1) tested positive in 43.25 % of hearts and in 48.21 % of arteries, whereas the tissue samples (A2) tested positive in 38.34 % of hearts and 33.85 % of arteries. The main species identified in both A1 and A2 were Staphylococcus spp. in 55 and 26 % of cases, and Propionibacterium spp. in 8 and 19 %, respectively. Mismatches in bacteriology results between both initial tests A1 and A2 were found. 18.40 % of the heart valves were identified as positive by A1 whilst 13.50 % were considered positive by A2. For arteries, 20.51 % of cases were positive in A1 and negative in A2, and just 6.15 % of artery allografts presented contamination in the A2 test but were considered negative for the A1 test. Comparison between each A test with the B and C tests after antibiotic treatment of the allograft was also performed. A total decontamination rate of 70.8 % of initial positive A tests was obtained. Due to the described mismatches and different bacteria identification percentage, utilization of both A tests should be implemented in tissue banks in order to avoid false negatives. PMID:26662518

  10. Mechanistic analysis of solute transport in an in vitro physiological two-phase dissolution apparatus.

    Mudie, Deanna M; Shi, Yi; Ping, Haili; Gao, Ping; Amidon, Gordon L; Amidon, Gregory E

    2012-10-01

    In vitro dissolution methodologies that adequately capture the oral bioperformance of solid dosage forms are critical tools needed to aid formulation development. Such methodologies must encompass important physiological parameters and be designed with drug properties in mind. Two-phase dissolution apparatuses, which contain an aqueous phase in which the drug dissolves (representing the dissolution/solubility component) and an organic phase into which the drug partitions (representing the absorption component), have the potential to provide meaningful predictions of in vivo oral bioperformance for some BCS II, and possibly some BCS IV drug products. Before such an apparatus can be evaluated properly, it is important to understand the kinetics of drug substance partitioning from the aqueous to the organic medium. A mass transport analysis was performed of the kinetics of partitioning of drug substance solutions from the aqueous to the organic phase of a two-phase dissolution apparatus. Major assumptions include pseudo-steady-state conditions, a dilute aqueous solution and diffusion-controlled transport. Input parameters can be measured or estimated a priori. This paper presents the theory and derivation of our analysis, compares it with a recent kinetic approach, and demonstrates its effectiveness in predicting in vitro partitioning profiles of three BCS II weak acids in four different in vitro two-phase dissolution apparatuses. Very importantly, the paper discusses how a two-phase apparatus can be scaled to reflect in vivo absorption kinetics and for which drug substances the two-phase dissolution systems may be appropriate tools for measuring oral bioperformance. PMID:22847296

  11. Mechanistic analysis of solute transport in an in vitro physiological two-phase dissolution apparatus

    Mudie, Deanna M.; Shi, Yi; Ping, Haili; Gao, Ping; Amidon, Gordon L.; Amidon, Gregory E.

    2015-01-01

    In vitro dissolution methodologies that adequately capture the oral bioperformance of solid dosage forms are critical tools needed to aid formulation development. Such methodologies must encompass important physiological parameters and be designed with drug properties in mind. Two-phase dissolution apparatuses, which contain an aqueous phase in which the drug dissolves (representing the dissolution/solubility component) and an organic phase into which the drug partitions (representing the absorption component), have the potential to provide meaningful predictions of in vivo oral bioperformance for some BCS II, and possibly some BCS IV drug products. Before such an apparatus can be evaluated properly, it is important to understand the kinetics of drug substance partitioning from the aqueous to the organic medium. A mass transport analysis was performed of the kinetics of partitioning of drug substance solutions from the aqueous to the organic phase of a two-phase dissolution apparatus. Major assumptions include pseudo-steady-state conditions, a dilute aqueous solution and diffusion-controlled transport. Input parameters can be measured or estimated a priori. This paper presents the theory and derivation of our analysis, compares it with a recent kinetic approach, and demonstrates its effectiveness in predicting in vitro partitioning profiles of three BCS II weak acids in four different in vitro two-phase dissolution apparatuses. Very importantly, the paper discusses how a two-phase apparatus can be scaled to reflect in vivo absorption kinetics and for which drug substances the two-phase dissolution systems may be appropriate tools for measuring oral bioperformance. PMID:22847296

  12. Calculation of radiation effects in solids by direct numerical solution of the adjoint transport equation

    The 'adjoint transport equation in its integro-differential form' is derived for the radiation damage produced by atoms injected into solids. We reduce it to the one-dimensional form and prepare it for a numerical solution by: --discretizing the continuous variables energy, space and direction, --replacing the partial differential quotients by finite differences and --evaluating the collision integral by a double sum. By a proper manipulation of this double sum the adjoint transport equation turns into a (very large) set of linear equations with tridiagonal matrix which can be solved by a special (simple and fast) algorithm. The solution of this set of linear equations contains complete information on a specified damage type (e.g. the energy deposited in a volume V) in terms of the function D(i,E,c,x) which gives the damage produced by all particles generated in a cascade initiated by a particle of type i starting at x with energy E in direction c. It is essential to remark that one calculation gives the damage function D for the complete ranges of the variables {i,E,c and x} (for numerical reasons of course on grid-points in the {E,c,x}-space). This is most useful to applications where a general source-distribution S(i,E,c,x) of particles is given by the experimental setup (e.g. beam-window and and target in proton accelerator work. The beam-protons along their path through the window--or target material generate recoil atoms by elastic collisions or nuclear reactions. These recoil atoms form the particle source S). The total damage produced then is eventually given by: D = (Σ)i ∫ ∫ ∫ S(i, E, c, x)*D(i, E, c, x)*dE*dc*dx A Fortran-77 program running on a PC-486 was written for the overall procedure and applied to some problems

  13. Convergent radial tracing of viral and solute transport in gneiss saprolite.

    Taylor, Richard; Tindimugaya, Callist; Barker, John; Macdonald, David; Kulabako, Robinah

    2010-01-01

    Deeply weathered crystalline rock aquifer systems comprising unconsolidated saprolite and underlying fractured bedrock (saprock) underlie 40% of sub-Saharan Africa. The vulnerability of this aquifer system to contamination, particularly in rapidly urbanizing areas, remains poorly understood. In order to assess solute and viral transport in saprolite derived from Precambrian gneiss, forced-gradient tracer experiments using chloride and Escherichia coli phage PhiX174 were conducted in southeastern Uganda. The bacteriophage tracer was largely unrecovered; adsorption to the weathered crystalline rock matrix is inferred and enabled by the low pH (5.7) of site ground water and the bacteriophage's relatively high isoelectric point (pI = 6.6). Detection of the applied PhiX174 phage in the pumping well discharge at early times during the experiment traces showed, however, that average ground water flow velocities exceed that of the inert solute tracer, chloride. This latter finding is consistent with observations in other hydrogeological environments where statistically extreme sets of microscopic flow velocities are considered to transport low numbers of fecal pathogens and their proxies along a selected range of linked ground water pathways. Application of a radial advection-dispersion model with an exponentially decaying source term to the recovered chloride tracer estimates a dispersivity (alpha) of 0.8 +/- 0.1 m over a distance of 4.15 m. Specific yield (S(y)) is estimated to be 0.02 from volume balance calculations based on tracer experiments. As single-site observations, our estimates of saprolite S(y) and alpha are tentative but provide a starting point for assessing the vulnerability of saprolite aquifers in sub-Saharan Africa to contamination and estimating quantitatively the impact of climate and abstraction on ground water storage. PMID:19245374

  14. Block-scale laboratory experiments of solute transport through a natural rock fracture

    Full text of publication follows: Crystalline rock is being considered as a host medium for repository of highly radioactive spent nuclear fuel in Finland and elsewhere. Rock-block migration experiments were introduced to evaluate the simplified radionuclide transport concept used in assessing the safety of the underground waste repositories. Objective of this study was to examine the processes causing retention in solute transport through rock fractures, especially focused on the matrix diffusion. Results of this work can be used to estimate importance of the retention processes during transport in different scales and flow conditions. Experimental set-up and instrumentation has been developed and tested using a granite block (0.9 m x 0.9 m x 0.7 m) having a horizontally planar natural fracture. Drill-holes drilled orthogonal to the fracture were equipped with sealing packers or tracer injection facilities. The outer upper and vertical surfaces are surrounded with water pools in order to maintain rock matrix saturated and to ensure constant hydraulic head around the outer boundary during the tracer tests. Description of the experimental set up of the rock-block, characterisation of the hydrological properties of the fracture and preliminary tracer experiments are given in Hoelttae et al. (2004). Preliminary tracer tests with dye tracer uranin showed that radionuclide migration take place through distinct channels. In this work a more complete set of tracer experiments were carried out applying flow fields and required flow conditions estimated on the basis of hydraulic characterisation and uranin tests in order to get matrix diffusion as an observable retention process. Tracer experiments were performed for a maximum length of the flow path using dye tracer uranin, and radioactive non-sorbing and sorbing tracers (22Na, 85Sr). All tracer tests were performed in radial diverging flow field. Water was pumped to a borehole and tracers were injected to the pumped

  15. Carrier Transport Enhancement in Conjugated Polymers through Interfacial Self-Assembly of Solution-State Aggregates

    Zhao, Kui

    2016-07-13

    We demonstrate that local and long range orders of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) semicrystalline films can be synergistically improved by combining chemical functionalization of the dielectric surface with solution-state disentanglement and pre-aggregation of P3HT in a theta solvent, leading to a very significant enhancement of the field effect carrier mobility. The pre-aggregation and surface functionalization effects combine to enhance the carrier mobility nearly 100-fold as compared with standard film preparation by spin-coating, and nearly 10-fold increase over the benefits of pre-aggregation alone. In situ quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) experiments reveal enhanced deposition of pre-aggregates on surfaces modified with an alkyl-terminated self-assembled monolayer (SAM) in comparison to un-aggregated polymer chains. Additional investigations reveal the combined pre-aggregation and surface functionalization significantly enhances local order of the conjugated polymer through planarization and extension of the conjugated backbone of the polymer which clearly translate to significant improvements of carrier transport at the semiconductor-dielectric interface in organic thin film transistors. This study points to opportunities in combining complementary routes, such as well-known pre-aggregation with substrate chemical functionalization, to enhance the polymer self-assembly and improve its interfacial order with benefits for transport properties.

  16. Discontinuous finite element and characteristics methods for neutrons transport equation solution in heterogeneous grids

    The principal goal of this manuscript is devoted to the investigation of a new type of heterogeneous mesh adapted to the shape of the fuel pins (fuel-clad-moderator). The new heterogeneous mesh guarantees the spatial modelling of the pin-cell with a minimum of regions. Two methods are investigated for the spatial discretization of the transport equation: the discontinuous finite element method and the method of characteristics for structured cells. These methods together with the new representation of the pin-cell result in an appreciable reduction of calculation points. They allow an exact modelling of the fuel pin-cell without spatial homogenization. A new synthetic acceleration technique based on an angular multigrid is also presented for the speed up of the inner iterations. These methods are good candidates for transport calculations for a nuclear reactor core. A second objective of this work is the application of method of characteristics for non-structured geometries to the study of double heterogeneity problem. The letters is characterized by fuel material with a stochastic dispersion of heterogeneous grains, and until now was solved with a model based on collision probabilities. We propose a new statistical model based on renewal-Markovian theory, which makes possible to take into account the stochastic nature of the problem and to avoid the approximations of the collision probability model. The numerical solution of this model is guaranteed by the method of characteristics. (author)

  17. Finite-bias electronic transport of molecules in a water solution

    Rungger, Ivan

    2010-06-04

    The effects of water wetting conditions on the transport properties of molecular nanojunctions are investigated theoretically by using a combination of empirical-potential molecular-dynamics and first-principles electronic-transport calculations. These are at the level of the nonequilibrium Green’s-function method implemented for self-interaction corrected density-functional theory. We find that water effectively produces electrostatic gating to the molecular junction with a gating potential determined by the time-averaged water dipole field. Such a field is large for the polar benzene-dithiol molecule, resulting in a transmission spectrum shifted by about 0.6 eV with respect to that of the dry junction. The situation is drastically different for carbon nanotubes (CNTs). In fact, because of their hydrophobic nature the gating is almost negligible so that the average transmission spectrum of wet Au/CNT/Au junctions is essentially the same as that in dry conditions. This suggests that CNTs can be used as molecular interconnects also in water-wet situations, for instance, as tips for scanning tunnel microscopy in solution or in biological sensors.

  18. Soil heterogeneity effects on water and solute transport. Methodological comparison in different climates

    Yasuda, Hiroshi

    1996-11-01

    Spatial heterogeneity of soils is important to consider for soil water and solute transport. The results of the present work indicated that spatial heterogeneity affects all investigated soils and for widely varying climates. Both soil water content and temperature patterns for a bare and vegetated transect in a typical sand dune area in China indicated preferential transport of soil water after rainfall. Infiltrating soil water appeared to follow paths that had high water content before the rainfall. The effect of rainfall was therefore not a larger uniformity of soil water, but rather increasing variability. Preferential flow was observed by tracer and dye in Tunisia. The experimental data indicated a high degree of bypass or preferential flow within small plots and non-sigmoid breakthrough curves suggesting tailing phenomena and immobile fractions of soil water. The groundwater tracer concentration increased up to twice the concentration of the water in the unsaturated zone withdrawn from different depths. This consequently shows that bypass directly to the groundwater occurred also for unsaturated conditions. Soil layering appeared to be a significant cause for preferential flow for both sand and clay soils. The results also showed great variability for hydraulic properties in terms of van Genuchten parameters for a small plot in a temperate climate. The present work supports the dual-porosity hypothesis. But findings also indicate that the observation scale is important to consider when averaging the process in time and space. 95 refs, 7 figs, 1 tab

  19. Numerical solution of the Neutron Transport Equation using discontinuous nodal methods at X-Y geometry

    The purpose of this work is to solve the neutron transport equation in discrete-ordinates and X-Y geometry by developing and using the strong discontinuous and strong modified discontinuous nodal finite element schemes. The strong discontinuous and modified strong discontinuous nodal finite element schemes go from two to ten interpolation parameters per cell. They are describing giving a set Dc and polynomial space Sc corresponding for each scheme BDMO, RTO, BL, BDM1, HdV, BDFM1, RT1, BQ and BDM2. The solution is obtained solving the neutron transport equation moments for each nodal scheme by developing the basis functions defined by Pascal triangle and the Legendre moments giving in the polynomial space Sc and, finally, looking for the non singularity of the resulting linear system. The linear system is numerically solved using a computer program for each scheme mentioned . It uses the LU method and forward and backward substitution and makes a partition of the domain in cells. The source terms and angular flux are calculated, using the directions and weights associated to the SN approximation and solving the angular flux moments to find the effective multiplication constant. The programs are written in Fortran language, using the dynamic allocation of memory to increase efficiently the available memory of the computing equipment. (Author)

  20. First-Principles Studies of Conformation and Solution Effects on DNA Transport

    Tan, Bikan

    DNA charge transport (CT) has attracted considerable attention by the scientific community over the past 20 years. This interest reflects the potential of DNA CT to provide a sensitive route for signaling, whether in the construction of a nano-scale biosensor or as an enzymatic tool to detect damage in the genome. Research in DNA CT began as a quest to determine whether the DNA double helix with pi-stacked base pairs might share the conductive characteristics of pi-stacked solids. Physicists carried out sophisticated experiments to measure the conductivity of DNA. But the means to connect DNA to the electrodes, as well as the conditions under which the conductivity was measured are different among many experiments, as the results of the current measurements. DNA CT was seen to depend upon the connection between electrodes and DNA, and coupling between the DNA base pair stacks. Importantly, for those studies that utilized well-characterized connections to the DNA and preserved the duplex native conformation in buffered solution, significant electron conductivities were achieved. Certainly, the debate among researches has shifted from "Is DNA CT possible?" to "How does it work?". To investigate the remarkable characteristics of the double-helix molecule, we use a first-principle technique combined with molecular dynamics simulations to calculate the transport properties of B-DNA sandwiched between carbon nanotubes via alkane linkers. The quantum results using the NEGF method are calculated from snapshots recorded in MD trajectories. In chapter 1, we will go through the basic quantum and classic theories on which our calculations are based. The subject of DNA structure, electronic properties and its potential application in many fields will be introduced in chapter 2. In chapter 3, we discuss our results towards the understanding of the mechanism of DNA charge transport.

  1. 78 FR 68908 - Proposed Information Collection (Veterans Transportation Service Data Collection); Activity...

    2013-11-15

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Veterans Transportation Service Data Collection); Activity... needed to evaluate the Veterans Transportation Service Data Collection program to ensure Veterans... Control No. 2900-NEW (Veterans Transportation Service Data Collection)'' in any correspondence. During...

  2. Chloride transport in human fibroblasts is activated by hypotonic shock

    Incubation of human skin fibroblasts in hypotonic media induced the activation of 36Cl- efflux which was roughly proportional to the decrease in the osmolality of the media. The efflux of 36Cl- was insensitive to DIDS plus furosemide and inhibited by addition of a Cl- channel blocker such as 5-nitro-2-(3-phenyl propylamino) benzoic acid (NPPB). We propose that a conductive pathway for Cl- transport, almost silent in isotonic conditions, is activated by exposing human fibroblasts to hypotonic shock, this conclusion being supported by evidence that also 36Cl- influx was enhanced by hypotonic medium

  3. Physical activity parenting measurement and research: challenges, explanations, and solutions.

    Davison, Kirsten K; Mâsse, Louise C; Timperio, Anna; Frenn, Marilyn D; Saunders, Julie; Mendoza, Jason A; Gobbi, Erica; Hanson, Phillip; Trost, Stewart G

    2013-08-01

    Physical activity (PA) parenting research has proliferated over the past decade, with findings verifying the influential role that parents play in children's emerging PA behaviors. This knowledge, however, has not translated into effective family-based PA interventions. During a preconference workshop to the 2012 International Society for Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity annual meeting, a PA parenting workgroup met to: (1) Discuss challenges in PA parenting research that may limit its translation, (2) identify explanations or reasons for such challenges, and (3) recommend strategies for future research. Challenges discussed by the workgroup included a proliferation of disconnected and inconsistently measured constructs, a limited understanding of the dimensions of PA parenting, and a narrow conceptualization of hypothesized moderators of the relationship between PA parenting and child PA. Potential reasons for such challenges emphasized by the group included a disinclination to employ theory when developing measures and examining predictors and outcomes of PA parenting as well as a lack of agreed-upon measurement standards. Suggested solutions focused on the need to link PA parenting research with general parenting research, define and adopt rigorous standards of measurement, and identify new methods to assess PA parenting. As an initial step toward implementing these recommendations, the workgroup developed a conceptual model that: (1) Integrates parenting dimensions from the general parenting literature into the conceptualization of PA parenting, (2) draws on behavioral and developmental theory, and (3) emphasizes areas which have been neglected to date including precursors to PA parenting and effect modifiers. PMID:23944918

  4. Treatment and solidification of high active fission product solutions

    On reprocessing spent fuel elements, > 97% of the fission products are found in the high active waste (HAW) solution. In order to avoid large amounts of sludge formation arising from phosphates produced by TBP degradation during evaporation and storage of these high level wastes, the suspended and dissolved TBP must be removed immediately from the HAW. It is proposed to separate the TBP by steam-stripping. The the HAW will be concentrated in an evaporator, the concentration factor depending on the amount of sludge formation and the heat content of the concentrate. These concentrates may be stored for short periods in stainless steel tanks. Acid concentration and waste volume may be further reduced by in-tank denitration and evaporation. For vitrification of the HAW liquid feed, ceramic melters are being developed universally. The first active plant to use a liquid feed ceramic melter is the German plant PAMELA, which is being built at Mol in Belgium, with an operational date of 1985

  5. Solution Procedure for Transport Modeling in Effluent Recharge Based on Operator-Splitting Techniques

    Shutang Zhu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The coupling of groundwater movement and reactive transport during groundwater recharge with wastewater leads to a complicated mathematical model, involving terms to describe convection-dispersion, adsorption/desorption and/or biodegradation, and so forth. It has been found very difficult to solve such a coupled model either analytically or numerically. The present study adopts operator-splitting techniques to decompose the coupled model into two submodels with different intrinsic characteristics. By applying an upwind finite difference scheme to the finite volume integral of the convection flux term, an implicit solution procedure is derived to solve the convection-dominant equation. The dispersion term is discretized in a standard central-difference scheme while the dispersion-dominant equation is solved using either the preconditioned Jacobi conjugate gradient (PJCG method or Thomas method based on local-one-dimensional scheme. The solution method proposed in this study is applied to the demonstration project of groundwater recharge with secondary effluent at Gaobeidian sewage treatment plant (STP successfully.

  6. Solution-printed organic semiconductor blends exhibiting transport properties on par with single crystals

    Niazi, Muhammad R.

    2015-11-23

    Solution-printed organic semiconductors have emerged in recent years as promising contenders for roll-to-roll manufacturing of electronic and optoelectronic circuits. The stringent performance requirements for organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) in terms of carrier mobility, switching speed, turn-on voltage and uniformity over large areas require performance currently achieved by organic single-crystal devices, but these suffer from scale-up challenges. Here we present a new method based on blade coating of a blend of conjugated small molecules and amorphous insulating polymers to produce OTFTs with consistently excellent performance characteristics (carrier mobility as high as 6.7 cm2 V−1 s−1, low threshold voltages of<1 V and low subthreshold swings <0.5 V dec−1). Our findings demonstrate that careful control over phase separation and crystallization can yield solution-printed polycrystalline organic semiconductor films with transport properties and other figures of merit on par with their single-crystal counterparts.

  7. Structure and Transport Properties of the BiCuSeO-BiCuSO Solid Solution

    David Berardan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we report on the crystal structure and the electrical and thermal transport properties of the BiCuSe1−xSxO series. From the evolution of the structural parameters with the substitution rate, we can confidently conclude that a complete solid solution exists between the BiCuSeO and BiCuSO end members, without any miscibility gap. However, the decrease of the stability of the materials when increasing the sulfur fraction, with a simultaneous volatilization, makes it difficult to obtain S-rich samples in a single phase. The band gap of the materials linearly increases between 0.8 eV for BiCuSeO and 1.1 eV in BiCuSO, and the covalent character of the Cu-Ch (Ch = chalcogen element, namely S or Se here bond slightly decreases when increasing the sulfur fraction. The thermal conductivity of the end members is nearly the same, but a significant decrease is observed for the samples belonging to the solid solution, which can be explained by point defect scattering due to atomic mass and radii fluctuations between Se and S. When increasing the sulfur fraction, the electrical resistivity of the samples strongly increases, which could be linked to an evolution of the energy of formation of copper vacancies, which act as acceptor dopants in these materials.

  8. Comparison of some popular Monte Carlo solution for proton transportation within pCT problem

    Evseev, Ivan; Assis, Joaquim T. de; Yevseyeva, Olga [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil). Inst. Politecnico], E-mail: evseev@iprj.uerj.br, E-mail: joaquim@iprj.uerj.br, E-mail: yevseyeva@iprj.uerj.br; Lopes, Ricardo T.; Cardoso, Jose J.B.; Silva, Ademir X. da [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear], E-mail: ricardo@lin.ufrj.br, E-mail: jjbrum@oi.com.br, E-mail: ademir@con.ufrj.br; Vinagre Filho, Ubirajara M. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear IEN/CNEN-RJ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: bira@ien.gov.br; Hormaza, Joel M. [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biociencias], E-mail: jmesa@ibb.unesp.br; Schelin, Hugo R.; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Setti, Joao A.P.; Milhoretto, Edney [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)], E-mail: schelin@cpgei.cefetpr.br, E-mail: sergei@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: jsetti@gmail.com, E-mail: edneymilhoretto@yahoo.com

    2007-07-01

    The proton transport in matter is described by the Boltzmann kinetic equation for the proton flux density. This equation, however, does not have a general analytical solution. Some approximate analytical solutions have been developed within a number of significant simplifications. Alternatively, the Monte Carlo simulations are widely used. Current work is devoted to the discussion of the proton energy spectra obtained by simulation with SRIM2006, GEANT4 and MCNPX packages. The simulations have been performed considering some further applications of the obtained results in computed tomography with proton beam (pCT). Thus the initial and outgoing proton energies (3 / 300 MeV) as well as the thickness of irradiated target (water and aluminum phantoms within 90% of the full range for a given proton beam energy) were considered in the interval of values typical for pCT applications. One from the most interesting results of this comparison is that while the MCNPX spectra are in a good agreement with analytical description within Fokker-Plank approximation and the GEANT4 simulated spectra are slightly shifted from them the SRIM2006 simulations predict a notably higher mean energy loss for protons. (author)

  9. Whole-core transport solutions to a stylized CANDU-6 core problem

    A stylized CANDU half core with adjuster rods was used to test the accuracy and efficiency of the coarse mesh transport (COMET) code. The benchmark problem consists of 2280 fuel bundles in 190 fuel channels with 8 different burnups. The model includes a total of 21 adjuster rods of 1 type perpendicular to the fuel channels and located on three axial locations. A modified version of the MCNP code was used to generate the response function library in the pre-computation phase, and the COMET was used to compute the global eigenvalue and bundle/pin power distribution. In these calculations, a set of tensor products of orthogonal polynomials were used to expand the neutron angular phase space distributions on the interfaces between coarse meshes. The COMET calculations were compared with the MCNP reference solutions. The comparison showed both the global eigenvalue and bundle/pin power distributions predicated by COMET agrees very well with the MCNP reference solution if the orders of expansion in the two spatial variables and the polar and azimuth angles are 4, 4, 2 and 2. These comparisons indicate that COMET can achieve accuracy comparable to Monte Carlo methods while maintaining computational efficiency significantly (orders of magnitude) faster than that of MCNP. (author)

  10. Modeling of Macroscopic/Microscopic Transport and Growth Phenomena in Zeolite Crystal Solutions Under Microgravity Conditions

    Gatsonis, Nikos A.; Alexandrou, Andreas; Shi, Hui; Ongewe, Bernard; Sacco, Albert, Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Crystals grown from liquid solutions have important industrial applications. Zeolites, for instance, a class of crystalline aluminosilicate materials, form the backbone of the chemical process industry worldwide, as they are used as adsorbents and catalysts. Many of the phenomena associated with crystal growth processes are not well understood due to complex microscopic and macroscopic interactions. Microgravity could help elucidate these phenomena and allow the control of defect locations, concentration, as well as size of crystals. Microgravity in an orbiting spacecraft could help isolate the possible effects of natural convection (which affects defect formation) and minimize sedimentation. In addition, crystals will stay essentially suspended in the nutrient pool under a diffusion-limited growth condition. This is expected to promote larger crystals by allowing a longer residence time in a high-concentration nutrient field. Among other factors, the crystal size distribution depends on the nucleation rate and crystallization. These two are also related to the "gel" polymerization/depolymerization rate. Macroscopic bulk mass and flow transport and especially gravity, force the crystals down to the bottom of the reactor, thus forming a sedimentation layer. In this layer, the growth rate of the crystals slows down as crystals compete for a limited amount of nutrients. The macroscopic transport phenomena under certain conditions can, however, enhance the nutrient supply and therefore, accelerate crystal growth. Several zeolite experiments have been performed in space with mixed results. The results from our laboratory have indicated an enhancement in size of 30 to 70 percent compared to the best ground based controls, and a reduction of lattice defects in many of the space grown crystals. Such experiments are difficult to interpret, and cannot be easily used to derive empirical or other laws since many physical parameters are simultaneously involved in the process

  11. Analytical traveling wave solutions for transport with nonlinear and nonequilibrium adsorption

    Van Der Zee, S.E.A.T.M. (Agricultural Univ., Wageningen (Netherlands))

    1990-10-01

    Transport was modeled for a soil with dual porosity, or with chemical nonequilibrium, assuming first-order kinetics. The equilibrium sorption equation in the immobile region is nonlinear. Two equilibrium equations for sorption were considered, that is, the Langmuir and the Van Bemmelen-Freundlich equations. The sorption equation in the mobile region is assumed to be linear. Analytical solutions were obtained that describe the traveling wave displacement found for initial resident concentrations that are smaller than the feed concentration and for infinite displacement times, neglecting the coupled effects of dispersion and nonequilibrium conditions. These waves travel with a fixed shape and a fixed velocity through the homogeneous flow domain. Besides expressions for the front shape, expressions for the front thickness and the front position were also presented. Differences with respect to the linear sorption case are the smaller front thickness and the non-Fickian type of displacement. The non-Fickian behavior is intrinsic to the traveling wave assumption as the front does not spread with the square root of time. The analytical solutions obtained for the equilibrium and for the nonequilibrium situations are mathematically equivalent. Only the effective diffusion/dispersion coefficient needs to be adapted to account for nonequilibrium effects, as for linear dual-porosity models. Apart from early time behavior, the traveling wave solutions agree well with numerical approximations. The front steepness depends sensitively on the degree of nonlinearity. The sensitivity on the dispersion coefficient and first-order rate coefficient may be large but depends on which mechanism controls front spreading.

  12. Analytical Traveling Wave Solutions for Transport With Nonlinear and Nonequilibrium Adsorption

    van der Zee, Sjoerd E. A. T. M.

    1990-10-01

    Transport was modeled for a soil with dual porosity, or with chemical nonequilibrium, assuming first-order kinetics. The equilibrium sorption equation in the immobile region is nonlinear. Two equilibrium equations for sorption were considered, that is, the Langmuir and the Van Bemmelen-Freundlich equations. The sorption equation in the mobile region is assumed to be linear. Analytical solutions were obtained that describe the traveling wave displacement found for initial resident concentrations that are smaller than the feed concentration and for infinite displacement times, neglecting the coupled effects of dispersion and nonequilibrium conditions. These waves travel with a fixed shape and a fixed velocity through the homogeneous flow domain. Besides expressions for the front shape, expressions for the front thickness and the front position were also presented. Differences with respect to the linear sorption case are the smaller front thickness and the non-Fickian type of displacement. The non-Fickian behavior is intrinsic to the traveling wave assumption as the front does not spread with the square root of time. The analytical solutions obtained for the equilibrium and for the nonequilibrium situations are mathematically equivalent. Only the effective diffusion/dispersion coefficient needs to be adapted to account for nonequilibrium effects, as for linear dual-porosity models. Apart from early time behavior, the traveling wave solutions agree well with numerical approximations. The front steepness depends sensitively on the degree of nonlinearity. The sensitivity on the dispersion coefficient and first-order rate coefficient may be large but depends on which mechanism controls front spreading.

  13. Rapid calculation of hydrodynamic and transport properties in concentrated solutions of colloidal particles and macromolecules

    Swan, James W.; Wang, Gang

    2016-01-01

    A new method for calculating the resistance tensors of arbitrarily shaped particles and the translational and rotational self-diffusivity in suspensions of such particles is developed. This approach can be harnessed to efficiently and accurately predict the hydrodynamic and transport properties of large macromolecules such as antibodies in solution. Particles are modeled as a rigid composite of spherical beads, and the continuum equations for low Reynolds number fluid mechanics are used to calculate the drag on the composite or its diffusivity in a solution of other composites. The hydrodynamic calculations are driven by a graphics processing unit (GPU) implementation of the particle-mesh-Ewald technique which offers log-linear scaling with respect to the complexity of the composite-bead particles modeled as well as high speed execution leveraging the hyper-parallelization of the GPU. Matrix-free expressions for the hydrodynamic resistance and translational and rotational diffusivity of composite bead particles are developed, which exhibit substantial improvements in computational complexity over existing approaches. The effectiveness of these methods is demonstrated through a series of calculations for composite-bead particles having a spherical geometry, and the results are compared to exact solutions for spheres. Included in the supplementary material is an implementation of the proposed algorithm which functions as a plug-in for the GPU molecular dynamics suite HOOMD-blue (http://codeblue.umich.edu/hoomd-blue) [J. A. Anderson, C. D. Lorenz, and A. Travesset, "General purpose molecular dynamics simulations fully implemented on graphics processing units," J. Comput. Phys. 227(10), 5342-5359 (2008) and Glaser et al., "Strong scaling of general-purpose molecular dynamics simulations on GPUs," Comput. Phys. Commun. 192, 97-107 (2015)].

  14. Transport properties of long straight nano-channels in electrolyte solutions: a systematic approach.

    Yaroshchuk, Andriy E

    2011-10-14

    The principle of local thermodynamic equilibrium is systematically employed for obtaining various transport properties of long straight nano-channels. The concept of virtual solution is used to describe situations of non-negligible overlap of diffuse parts of electric double layers (EDLs) in nano-channels. Generic expressions for a variety of transport properties of long straight nano-channels are obtained in terms of quasi-equilibrium distribution coefficients of ions and functionals of quasi-equilibrium distribution of electrostatic potential. Further, the Poisson-Boltzmann approach is used to specify these expressions for long straight slit-like nano-channels. In the approximation of non-overlapped diffuse parts of double electric layers in nano-channels, simple analytical expressions are obtained for the apparent electrophoretic mobilities of (trace) analytes of arbitrary charge as well as for the salt reflection coefficient (osmotic pressure), salt diffusion permeability and electro-viscosity (electrokinetic energy conversion). The approximate solutions are compared with the results of rigorous solution of non-linearized Poisson-Boltzmann equation, and the accuracy of approximation is shown to be typically excellent when the nano-channel half-height exceeds ca.3 Debye screening lengths. Due to non-negligible electrostatic adsorption of ions by nano-channels, the apparent electrophoretic mobilities of counter-ionic analytes in nano-channels are smaller than in micro-channels whereas those of co-ionic analytes are larger. This dependence on the charge is useful for the separation of analytes of close electrophoretic mobilities. The osmotic pressure is shown to be positive, negative or pass through maxima as a function of applied salt-concentration difference within a fairly narrow range of ratios of nano-channel height to the Debye screening length. The diffusion permeability of charged nano-channels to single salts is demonstrated (for the first time) to be

  15. Carbohydrate Electrolyte Solutions Enhance Endurance Capacity in Active Females

    Feng-Hua Sun

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of supplementation with a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (CES in active females during a prolonged session of submaximal running to exhaustion. Eight healthy active females volunteered to perform a session of open-ended running to exhaustion at 70% of their maximal oxygen consumption on a treadmill during the follicular phase of their menstrual cycle on two occasions. During each run, the subjects consumed either 3mL·kg−1 body mass of a 6% CES or a placebo drink (PL every 20 min during exercise. The trials were administered in a randomized double-blind, cross-over design. During the run, the subjects ingested similar volumes of fluid in two trials (CES: 644 ± 75 mL vs. PL: 593 ± 66 mL, p > 0.05. The time to exhaustion was 16% longer during the CES trial (106.2 ± 9.4 min than during the PL trial (91.6 ± 5.9 min (p < 0.05. At 45 min during exercise, the plasma glucose concentration in the CES trial was higher than that in PL trial. No differences were observed in the plasma lactate level, respiratory exchange ratio, heart rate, perceived rate of exertion, sensation of thirst, or abdominal discomfort between the two trials (p > 0.05. The results of the present study confirm that CES supplementation improves the moderate intensity endurance capacity of active females during the follicular phases of the menstrual cycle. However, the exogenous oxidation of carbohydrate does not seem to explain the improved capacity after CES supplementation.

  16. The use of laboratory experiments for the study of conservative solute transport in heterogeneous porous media

    Silliman, S. E.; Zheng, L.; Conwell, P.

    Laboratory experiments on heterogeneous porous media (otherwise known as intermediate scale experiments, or ISEs) have been increasingly relied upon by hydrogeologists for the study of saturated and unsaturated groundwater systems. Among the many ongoing applications of ISEs is the study of fluid flow and the transport of conservative solutes in correlated permeability fields. Recent advances in ISE design have provided the capability of creating correlated permeability fields in the laboratory. This capability is important in the application of ISEs for the assessment of recent stochastic theories. In addition, pressure-transducer technology and visualization methods have provided the potential for ISEs to be used in characterizing the spatial distributions of both hydraulic head and local water velocity within correlated permeability fields. Finally, various methods are available for characterizing temporal variations in the spatial distribution (and, thereby, the spatial moments) of solute concentrations within ISEs. It is concluded, therefore, that recent developments in experimental techniques have provided an opportunity to use ISEs as important tools in the continuing study of fluid flow and the transport of conservative solutes in heterogeneous, saturated porous media. Résumé Les hydrogéologues se sont progressivement appuyés sur des expériences de laboratoire sur des milieux poreux hétérogènes (connus aussi par l'expression "Expériences àéchelle intermédiaire", ISE) pour étudier les zones saturées et non saturées des aquifères. Parmi les nombreuses applications en cours des ISE, il faut noter l'étude de l'écoulement de fluide et le transport de solutés conservatifs dans des champs aux perméabilités corrélées. Les récents progrès du protocole des ISE ont donné la possibilité de créer des champs de perméabilités corrélées au laboratoire. Cette possibilité est importante dans l'application des ISE pour l'évaluation des th

  17. Solution of the within-group multidimensional discrete ordinates transport equations on massively parallel architectures

    Zerr, Robert Joseph

    2011-12-01

    The integral transport matrix method (ITMM) has been used as the kernel of new parallel solution methods for the discrete ordinates approximation of the within-group neutron transport equation. The ITMM abandons the repetitive mesh sweeps of the traditional source iterations (SI) scheme in favor of constructing stored operators that account for the direct coupling factors among all the cells and between the cells and boundary surfaces. The main goals of this work were to develop the algorithms that construct these operators and employ them in the solution process, determine the most suitable way to parallelize the entire procedure, and evaluate the behavior and performance of the developed methods for increasing number of processes. This project compares the effectiveness of the ITMM with the SI scheme parallelized with the Koch-Baker-Alcouffe (KBA) method. The primary parallel solution method involves a decomposition of the domain into smaller spatial sub-domains, each with their own transport matrices, and coupled together via interface boundary angular fluxes. Each sub-domain has its own set of ITMM operators and represents an independent transport problem. Multiple iterative parallel solution methods have investigated, including parallel block Jacobi (PBJ), parallel red/black Gauss-Seidel (PGS), and parallel GMRES (PGMRES). The fastest observed parallel solution method, PGS, was used in a weak scaling comparison with the PARTISN code. Compared to the state-of-the-art SI-KBA with diffusion synthetic acceleration (DSA), this new method without acceleration/preconditioning is not competitive for any problem parameters considered. The best comparisons occur for problems that are difficult for SI DSA, namely highly scattering and optically thick. SI DSA execution time curves are generally steeper than the PGS ones. However, until further testing is performed it cannot be concluded that SI DSA does not outperform the ITMM with PGS even on several thousand or tens of

  18. Examining Changes in Radioxenon Isotope Activity Ratios during Subsurface Transport

    Annewandter, Robert

    2014-05-01

    The Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE) has demonstrated and modelled the usefulness of barometric pumping induced gas transport and subsequent soil gas sampling during On-Site inspections. Generally, gas transport has been widely studied with different numerical codes. However, gas transport of radioxenons and radioiodines in the post-detonation regime and their possible fractionation is still neglected in the open peer-reviewed literature. Atmospheric concentrations of the radioxenons Xe-135, Xe-133m, Xe-133 and Xe-131m can be used to discriminate between civilian releases (nuclear power plants or medical isotope facilities), and nuclear explosion sources. It is based on the multiple isotopic activity ratio method. Yet it is not clear whether subsurface migration of the radionuclides, with eventual release into the atmosphere, can affect the activity ratios due to fractionation. Fractionation can be caused by different mass diffusivities due to mass differences between the radionuclides. Cyclical changes in atmospheric pressure can drive subsurface gas transport. This barometric pumping phenomenon causes an oscillatoric flow in upward trending fractures or highly conductive faults which, combined with diffusion into the porous matrix, leads to a net transport of gaseous components - a so-called ratcheting effect. We use a general purpose reservoir simulator (Complex System Modelling Platform, CSMP++) which is recognized by the oil industry as leading in Discrete Fracture-Matrix (DFM) simulations. It has been applied in a range of fields such as deep geothermal systems, three-phase black oil simulations, fracture propagation in fractured, porous media, and Navier-Stokes pore-scale modelling among others. It is specifically designed to account for structurally complex geologic situation of fractured, porous media. Parabolic differential equations are solved by a continuous Galerkin finite-element method, hyperbolic differential equations by a complementary finite

  19. Pore-scale analysis on the effects of compound-specific dilution on transient transport and solute breakthrough

    Rolle, Massimo; Kitanidis, Peter

    media we show that compound-specific effects are important not only at steady-state and for the lateral displacement of solutes with different diffusivities but also for transient transport and solute breakthrough [2]. We performed flow and transport simulations in two-dimensional pore-scale domains......Compound-specific diffusivities significantly impact solute transport and mixing at different scales. Although diffusive processes occur at the small pore scale, their effects propagate and remain important at larger macroscopic scales [1]. In this pore-scale modeling study in saturated porous...... with different arrangement of the solid grains leading to distinct characteristics of flow variability and connectivity, representing mildly and highly heterogeneous porous media, respectively. The results obtained for a range of average velocities representative of groundwater flow (0.1–10 m...

  20. Bayesian estimation of the hydraulic and solute transport properties of a small-scale unsaturated soil column

    Moreira Paulo H. S.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study the hydraulic and solute transport properties of an unsaturated soil were estimated simultaneously from a relatively simple small-scale laboratory column infiltration/outflow experiment. As governing equations we used the Richards equation for variably saturated flow and a physical non-equilibrium dual-porosity type formulation for solute transport. A Bayesian parameter estimation approach was used in which the unknown parameters were estimated with the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC method through implementation of the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm. Sensitivity coefficients were examined in order to determine the most meaningful measurements for identifying the unknown hydraulic and transport parameters. Results obtained using the measured pressure head and solute concentration data collected during the unsaturated soil column experiment revealed the robustness of the proposed approach.

  1. Optimization of the indirect at neutron activation technique for the determination of boron in aqueous solutions

    The purpose of this work was the development of an instrumental method for the optimization of the indirect neutron activation analysis of boron in aqueous solutions. The optimization took into account the analytical parameters under laboratory conditions: activation carried out with a 241Am/Be neutron source and detection of the activity induced in vanadium with two NaI(Tl) gamma spectrometers. A calibration curve was thus obtained for a concentration range of 0 to 5000 ppm B. Later on, experimental models were built in order to study the feasibility of automation. The analysis of boron was finally performed, under the previously established conditions, with an automated system comprising the operations of transport, irradiation and counting. An improvement in the quality of the analysis was observed, with boron concentrations as low as 5 ppm being determined with a precision level better than 0.4%. The experimental model features all basic design elements for an automated device for the analysis of boron in agueous solutions wherever this is required, as in the operation of nuclear reactors. (Author)

  2. Ride On! Mini-Units and Learning Activities on Public Transportation for Grades 6 through 9.

    Finn, Peter; And Others

    One of a series of eleven curriculum manuals which cover the four transportation topics of public transportation, transportation and the environment, transportation safety, and bicycles for elementary, secondary, and adult levels, this manual covers the public transportation topic for grades 6-9. It contains forty-two learning activities grouped…

  3. Ride On! Mini-Units and Learning Activities on Public Transportation for Grades 9 through 12.

    Finn, Peter; And Others

    One of a series of eleven curriculum manuals which cover the four transportation topics of public transportation, transportation and the environment, transportation safety, and bicycles for elementary, secondary, and adult levels, this manual covers the public transportation topic for grades 9-12. It contains forty-nine learning activities grouped…

  4. Platelet serotonin transporter function predicts default-mode network activity.

    Christian Scharinger

    Full Text Available The serotonin transporter (5-HTT is abundantly expressed in humans by the serotonin transporter gene SLC6A4 and removes serotonin (5-HT from extracellular space. A blood-brain relationship between platelet and synaptosomal 5-HT reuptake has been suggested, but it is unknown today, if platelet 5-HT uptake can predict neural activation of human brain networks that are known to be under serotonergic influence.A functional magnetic resonance study was performed in 48 healthy subjects and maximal 5-HT uptake velocity (Vmax was assessed in blood platelets. We used a mixed-effects multilevel analysis technique (MEMA to test for linear relationships between whole-brain, blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD activity and platelet Vmax.The present study demonstrates that increases in platelet Vmax significantly predict default-mode network (DMN suppression in healthy subjects independent of genetic variation within SLC6A4. Furthermore, functional connectivity analyses indicate that platelet Vmax is related to global DMN activation and not intrinsic DMN connectivity.This study provides evidence that platelet Vmax predicts global DMN activation changes in healthy subjects. Given previous reports on platelet-synaptosomal Vmax coupling, results further suggest an important role of neuronal 5-HT reuptake in DMN regulation.

  5. Quantitative and Mechanistic Assessment of Model Lipophilic Drugs in Micellar Solutions in the Transport Kinetics Across MDR1-MDCK Cell Monolayers.

    Ho, Norman F H; Nielsen, James; Peterson, Michelle; Burton, Philip S

    2016-02-01

    An approach to characterizing P-glycoprotein (Pgp) interaction potential for sparingly water-soluble compounds was developed using bidirectional transport kinetics in MDR1-MDCK cell monolayers. Paclitaxel, solubilized in a dilute polysorbate 80 (PS80) micellar solution, was used as a practical example. Although the passage of paclitaxel across the cell monolayer was initially governed by the thermodynamic activity of the micelle-solubilized drug solution, Pgp inhibition was sustained by the thermodynamic activity (i.e., critical micelle concentration) of the PS80 micellar solution bathing the apical (ap) membrane. The mechanistic understanding of the experimental strategies and treatment of data was supported by a biophysical model expressed in the form of transport events occurring at the ap and basolateral (bl) membranes in series whereas the vectorial directions of the transcellular kinetics were accommodated. The derived equations permitted the stepwise quantitative delineation of the Pgp efflux activity (inhibited and uninhibited by PS80) and the passive permeability coefficient of the ap membrane, the passive permeability at the bl membrane and, finally, the distinct coupling of these with efflux pump activity to identify the rate-determining steps and mechanisms. The Jmax/KM(∗) for paclitaxel was in the order of 10(-4) cm/s and the ap- and bl-membrane passive permeability coefficients were asymmetric, with bl-membrane permeability significantly greater than ap. PMID:26869435

  6. Modelling of electron transport and of sawtooth activity in tokamaks

    Angioni, C

    2001-10-01

    Transport phenomena in tokamak plasmas strongly limit the particle and energy confinement and represent a crucial obstacle to controlled thermonuclear fusion. Within the vast framework of transport studies, three topics have been tackled in the present thesis: first, the computation of neoclassical transport coefficients for general axisymmetric equilibria and arbitrary collisionality regime; second, the analysis of the electron temperature behaviour and transport modelling of plasma discharges in the Tokamak a configuration Variable (TCV); third, the modelling and simulation of the sawtooth activity with different plasma heating conditions. The work dedicated to neoclassical theory has been undertaken in order to first analytically identify a set of equations suited for implementation in existing Fokker-Planck codes. Modifications of these codes enabled us to compute the neoclassical transport coefficients considering different realistic magnetic equilibrium configurations and covering a large range of variation of three key parameters: aspect ratio, collisionality, and effective charge number. A comparison of the numerical results with an analytical limit has permitted the identification of two expressions for the trapped particle fraction, capable of encapsulating the geometrical effects and thus enabling each transport coefficient to be fitted with a single analytical function. This has allowed us to provide simple analytical formulae for all the neoclassical transport coefficients valid for arbitrary aspect ratio and collisionality in general realistic geometry. This work is particularly useful for a correct evaluation of the neoclassical contribution in tokamak scenarios with large bootstrap cur- rent fraction, or improved confinement regimes with low anomalous transport and for the determination of the plasma current density profile, since the plasma conductivity is usually assumed neoclassical. These results have been included in the plasma transport code

  7. Modelling of electron transport and of sawtooth activity in tokamaks

    Transport phenomena in tokamak plasmas strongly limit the particle and energy confinement and represent a crucial obstacle to controlled thermonuclear fusion. Within the vast framework of transport studies, three topics have been tackled in the present thesis: first, the computation of neoclassical transport coefficients for general axisymmetric equilibria and arbitrary collisionality regime; second, the analysis of the electron temperature behaviour and transport modelling of plasma discharges in the Tokamak a configuration Variable (TCV); third, the modelling and simulation of the sawtooth activity with different plasma heating conditions. The work dedicated to neoclassical theory has been undertaken in order to first analytically identify a set of equations suited for implementation in existing Fokker-Planck codes. Modifications of these codes enabled us to compute the neoclassical transport coefficients considering different realistic magnetic equilibrium configurations and covering a large range of variation of three key parameters: aspect ratio, collisionality, and effective charge number. A comparison of the numerical results with an analytical limit has permitted the identification of two expressions for the trapped particle fraction, capable of encapsulating the geometrical effects and thus enabling each transport coefficient to be fitted with a single analytical function. This has allowed us to provide simple analytical formulae for all the neoclassical transport coefficients valid for arbitrary aspect ratio and collisionality in general realistic geometry. This work is particularly useful for a correct evaluation of the neoclassical contribution in tokamak scenarios with large bootstrap cur- rent fraction, or improved confinement regimes with low anomalous transport and for the determination of the plasma current density profile, since the plasma conductivity is usually assumed neoclassical. These results have been included in the plasma transport code

  8. Upscaling of solute transport in heterogeneous media : theories and experiments to compare and validate Fickian and non-Fickian approaches/

    Frippiat, Christophe

    2006-01-01

    The classical Fickian model for solute transport in porous media cannot correctly predict the spreading (the dispersion) of contaminant plumes in a heterogeneous subsoil unless its structure is completely characterized. Although the required precision is outside the reach of current field characterization methods, the classical Fickian model remains the most widely used model among practitioners. Two approaches can be adopted to solve the effect of physical heterogeneity on transport. Firs...

  9. Classification of the Group Invariant Solutions for Contaminant Transport in Saturated Soils under Radial Uniform Water Flows

    M. M. Potsane

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The transport of chemicals through soils to the groundwater or precipitation at the soils surfaces leads to degradation of these resources. Serious consequences may be suffered in the long run. In this paper, we consider macroscopic deterministic models describing contaminant transport in saturated soils under uniform radial water flow backgrounds. The arising convection-dispersion equation given in terms of the stream functions is analyzed using classical Lie point symmetries. A number of exotic Lie point symmetries are admitted. Group invariant solutions are classified according to the elements of the one-dimensional optimal systems. We analyzed the group invariant solutions which satisfy the physical boundary conditions.

  10. Reactive solute transport in physically and chemically heterogeneous porous media with multimodal reactive mineral facies: The Lagrangian approach

    Soltanian, Mohamad Reza; Dai, Zhenxue; Huang, Chaocheng

    2014-01-01

    Physical and chemical heterogeneities have a large impact on reactive transport in porous media. Examples of heterogeneous attributes affecting reactive mass transport are the hydraulic conductivity (K), and the equilibrium sorption distribution coefficient (Kd). This paper uses the Deng et al. (2013) conceptual model for multimodal reactive mineral facies and a Lagrangian-based stochastic theory in order to analyze the reactive solute dispersion in three-dimensional anisotropic heterogeneous porous media with hierarchical organization of reactive minerals. An example based on real field data is used to illustrate the time evolution trends of reactive solute dispersion. The results show that the correlation between the hydraulic conductivity and the equilibrium sorption distribution coefficient does have a significant effect on reactive solute dispersion. The anisotropy ratio does not have a significant effect on reactive solute dispersion. Furthermore, through a sensitivity analysis we investigate the impact...

  11. Geochemical and numerical modelling of interactions between solid solutions and an aqueous solution. Extension of a reactive transport computer code called Archimede and application to reservoirs diagenesis; Modelisation geochimique et numerique des interactions entre des solutions solides et une solution aqueuse: extension du logiciel de reaction-transport archimede et application a la diagenese des reservoirs

    Nourtier-Mazauric, E.

    2003-03-15

    This thesis presents a thermodynamic and kinetic model of interactions between a fluid and ideal solid solutions represented by several end-members. The reaction between a solid solution and the aqueous solution results from the competition between the stoichiometric dissolution of the initial solid solution and the co-precipitation of the least soluble solid solution in the fluid at considered time. This model was implemented in ARCHIMEDE, a computer code of reactive transport in porous media, then applied to various examples. In the case of binary solid solutions, a graphical method allowed to determine the compositions of the precipitating solid solutions, with the aid of the end-member chemical potentials. The obtained program could be used to notably model the diagenesis of clayey or carbonated oil reservoirs, or the ground pollutant dispersion. (author)

  12. A solution of the monoenergetic neutral particle transport equation for adjacent half-spaces with anisotropic scattering

    Ganapol, B. D.; Mostacci, D.; Previti, A.

    2016-07-01

    We present highly accurate solutions to the neutral particle transport equation in a half-space. While our initial motivation was in response to a recently published solution based on Chandrasekhar's H-function, the presentation to follow has taken on a more comprehensive tone. The solution by H-functions certainly did achieved high accuracy but was limited to isotropic scattering and emission from spatially uniform and linear sources. Moreover, the overly complicated nature of the H-function approach strongly suggests that its extension to anisotropic scattering and general sources is not at all practical. For this reason, an all encompassing theory for the determination of highly precise benchmarks, including anisotropic scattering for a variety of spatial source distributions, is presented for particle transport in a half-space. We illustrate the approach via a collection of cases including tables of 7-place flux benchmarks to guide transport methods developers. The solution presented can be applied to a considerable number of one and two half-space transport problems with variable sources and represents a state-of-the-art benchmark solution.

  13. Application of synthetic diffusion method in the numerical solution of the equations of neutron transport in slab geometry

    One of the main problems in reactor physics is to determine the neutron distribution in reactor core, since knowing that, it is possible to calculate the rapidity of occurrence of different nuclear reaction inside the reactor core. Within different theories existing in nuclear reactor physics, is neutron transport the one in which equation who govern the exact behavior of neutronic distribution are developed even inside the proper neutron transport theory, there exist different methods of solution which are approximations to exact solution; still more, with the purpose to reach a more precise solution, the majority of methods have been approached to the obtention of solutions in numerical form with the aim of take the advantages of modern computers, and for this reason a great deal of effort is dedicated to numerical solution of the equations of neutron transport. In agreement with the above mentioned, in this work has been developed a computer program which uses a relatively new techniques known as 'acceleration of synthetic diffusion' which has been applied to solve the neutron transport equation with 'classical schemes of spatial integration' obtaining results with a smaller quantity of interactions, if they compare to done without using such equation (Author)

  14. Simple solution-processed titanium oxide electron transport layer for efficient inverted polymer solar cells

    Sun, Liang [CAS Key Laboratory of Bio-based Materials, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266101 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Shen, Wenfei [CAS Key Laboratory of Bio-based Materials, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266101 (China); Institute of Hybrid Materials, Laboratory of New Fiber Materials and Modern Textile—The Growing Base for State Key Laboratory, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071 (China); Chen, Weichao [CAS Key Laboratory of Bio-based Materials, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266101 (China); Bao, Xichang, E-mail: baoxc@qibebt.ac.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Bio-based Materials, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266101 (China); Wang, Ning; Dou, Xiaowei; Han, Liangliang; Wen, Shuguang [CAS Key Laboratory of Bio-based Materials, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266101 (China)

    2014-12-31

    Titanium oxide (TiO{sub X}) is an effective electron transport layer (ETL) in polymer solar cells (PSCs). We report efficient inverted PSCs with a simple solution-processed amorphous TiO{sub X} (s-TiO{sub X}) film as an ETL. The s-TiO{sub X} film with high light transmittance was prepared by spin-coating titanium (IV) isopropoxide isopropanol solution on indium tin oxide coated glass in inert and then placed in air under room temperature for 60 min. The introduction of s-TiO{sub X} ETL greatly improved the short circuit current density of the devices. PSCs based on poly(3-hexylthiophene):[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester and poly(4,8-bis-alkyloxy-benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene-alt-alkylcarbonyl -thieno[3,4-b]thiophene):[6,6]-phenyl- C71-butyric acid methyl ester using s-TiO{sub X} film as ETL shows high power conversion efficiency of 4.29% and 6.7% under the illumination of AM 1.5G, 100 mW/cm{sup 2}, which shows enhancements compared to the conventional PSCs with poly(styrenesulfonate)-doped poly(ethylenedioxythiophene) as anode buffer layer. In addition, the device exhibits good stability in a humid ambient atmosphere without capsulation. The results indicate that the annealing-free, simple solution processed s-TiO{sub X} film is an efficient ETL for high-performance PSCs. - Highlights: • High quality s-TiO{sub X} films were prepared by a simple, solution method without thermal treatment. • The s-TiO{sub X} films with high transmittance are very smooth. • The organic photovoltaic performance with s-TiO{sub X} film improved greatly and exhibited good stability. • The annealing-free, simple prepared s-TiO{sub X} film will be much compatible with flexible substrates.

  15. Curcumin directly inhibits the transport activity of GLUT1.

    Gunnink, Leesha K; Alabi, Ola D; Kuiper, Benjamin D; Gunnink, Stephen M; Schuiteman, Sam J; Strohbehn, Lauren E; Hamilton, Kathryn E; Wrobel, Kathryn E; Louters, Larry L

    2016-06-01

    Curcumin, a major ingredient in turmeric, has a long history of medicinal applications in a wide array of maladies including treatment for diabetes and cancer. Seemingly counterintuitive to the documented hypoglycemic effects of curcumin, however, a recent report indicates that curcumin directly inhibits glucose uptake in adipocytes. The major glucose transporter in adipocytes is GLUT4. Therefore, this study investigates the effects of curcumin in cell lines where the major transporter is GLUT1. We report that curcumin has an immediate inhibitory effect on basal glucose uptake in L929 fibroblast cells with a maximum inhibition of 80% achieved at 75 μM curcumin. Curcumin also blocks activation of glucose uptake by azide, glucose deprivation, hydroxylamine, or phenylarsine oxide. Inhibition does not increase with exposure time and the inhibitory effects reverse within an hour. Inhibition does not appear to involve a reaction between curcumin and the thiol side chain of a cysteine residue since neither prior treatment of cells with iodoacetamide nor curcumin with cysteine alters curcumin's inhibitory effects. Curcumin is a mixed inhibitor reducing the Vmax of 2DG transport by about half with little effect on the Km. The inhibitory effects of curcumin are not additive to the effects of cytochalasin B and 75 μM curcumin actually reduces specific cytochalasin B binding by 80%. Taken together, the data suggest that curcumin binds directly to GLUT1 at a site that overlaps with the cytochalasin B binding site and thereby inhibits glucose transport. A direct inhibition of GLUT proteins in intestinal epithelial cells would likely reduce absorption of dietary glucose and contribute to a hypoglycemic effect of curcumin. Also, inhibition of GLUT1 activity might compromise cancer cells that overexpress GLUT1 and be another possible mechanism for the documented anticancer effects of curcumin. PMID:27039889

  16. Active plasma resonance spectroscopy: eigenfunction solutions in spherical geometry

    Oberrath, J.; Brinkmann, R. P.

    2014-12-01

    The term active plasma resonance spectroscopy denotes a class of related techniques which utilize, for diagnostic purposes, the natural ability of plasmas to resonate on or near the electron plasma frequency ωpe: a radio frequent signal (in the GHz range) is coupled into the plasma via an antenna or probe, the spectral response is recorded, and a mathematical model is used to determine plasma parameters like the electron density. The mathematical model of an arbitrarily shaped probe-plasma system can be written in an abstract but very compact equation. It contains an appropriate operator, which describes the dynamical behavior and can be split into a conservative and a dissipative part. Based on the cold plasma model, this manuscript provides a solution strategy to determine the electrical admittance of a specific probe-plasma system derived from the abstract dynamical equation. Focusing on probes with a spherical-shaped probe tip the general admittance can be derived analytically. Therefore, the matrix representation of the resolvent of the dynamical operator is determined. This matrix representation is derived by means of the eigenfunctions and eigenvalues of the conservative operator. It can be shown that these eigenvalues represent the resonance frequencies of the probe-plasma system which are simply connected to the electron density. As an example, the result is applied to established probe designs: the spherical impedance probe and the multipole resonance probe.

  17. Active plasma resonance spectroscopy: eigenfunction solutions in spherical geometry

    The term active plasma resonance spectroscopy denotes a class of related techniques which utilize, for diagnostic purposes, the natural ability of plasmas to resonate on or near the electron plasma frequency ωpe: a radio frequent signal (in the GHz range) is coupled into the plasma via an antenna or probe, the spectral response is recorded, and a mathematical model is used to determine plasma parameters like the electron density. The mathematical model of an arbitrarily shaped probe–plasma system can be written in an abstract but very compact equation. It contains an appropriate operator, which describes the dynamical behavior and can be split into a conservative and a dissipative part. Based on the cold plasma model, this manuscript provides a solution strategy to determine the electrical admittance of a specific probe–plasma system derived from the abstract dynamical equation. Focusing on probes with a spherical-shaped probe tip the general admittance can be derived analytically. Therefore, the matrix representation of the resolvent of the dynamical operator is determined. This matrix representation is derived by means of the eigenfunctions and eigenvalues of the conservative operator. It can be shown that these eigenvalues represent the resonance frequencies of the probe–plasma system which are simply connected to the electron density. As an example, the result is applied to established probe designs: the spherical impedance probe and the multipole resonance probe. (paper)

  18. ADSORPTION FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION ONTO NATURAL AND ACID ACTIVATED BENTONITE

    Laila Al-Khatib

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dyes have long been used in dyeing, paper and pulp, textiles, plastics, leather, paint, cosmetics and food industries. Nowadays, more than 100,000 commercial dyes are available with a total production of 700,000 tones manufactured all over the world annually. About 10-15% of dyes are being disposed off as a waste into the environment after dyeing process. This poses certain hazards and environmental problems. The objective of this study is to investigate the adsorption behavior of Methylene Blue (MB from aqueous solution onto natural and acid activated Jordanian bentonite. Both bentonites are firstly characterized using XRD, FTIR and SEM techniques. Then batch adsorption experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of initial MB concentration, contact time, pH and temperature. It was found that the percentage of dye removal was improved from 75.8% for natural bentonite to reach 99.6% for acid treated bentonite. The rate of MB removal followed the pseudo second order model with a high correlation factor. The Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models were applied to describe the equilibrium isotherms. The Langmuir isotherm model was found more representative. The results indicate that bentonite could be employed as a low cost adsorbent in wastewater treatment for the removal of colour and dyes.

  19. Solution of the neutron transport equation in one-dimensional cartesian geometry for bounded and unbounded domain

    In this work we report an analytical solution for the time-dependent one-dimensional neutron transport equation in cartesian geometry for bounded and unbounded domain. The main idea consists in the application of the Laplace transform technique in time variable, solution of the resulting equation by the LTSN method and reconstruction of the angular flux in time-variable by numerical inversion scheme. We report numerical simulations and results validations with the ones of literature. (author)

  20. Saharan Dust, Transport Processes, and Possible Impacts on Hurricane Activities

    Lau, William K. M.; Kim, K. M.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present observational evidence of significant relationships between Saharan dust outbreak, and African Easterly wave activities and hurricane activities. We found two dominant paths of transport of Saharan dust: a northern path, centered at 25degN associated with eastward propagating 6-19 days waves over northern Africa, and a southern path centered at 15degN, associated with the AEW, and the Atlantic ITCZ. Seasons with stronger dust outbreak from the southern path are associated with a drier atmosphere over the Maximum Development Region (MDR) and reduction in tropical cyclone and hurricane activities in the MDR. Seasons with stronger outbreak from the northern path are associated with a cooler N. Atlantic, and suppressed hurricane in the western Atlantic basin.

  1. Quasi 3D modeling of water flow and solute transport in vadose zone and groundwater

    Yakirevich, A.; Kuznetsov, M.; Weisbrod, N.; Pachepsky, Y. A.

    2013-12-01

    The complexity of subsurface flow systems calls for a variety of concepts leading to the multiplicity of simplified flow models. One commonly used simplification is based on the assumption that lateral flow and transport in unsaturated zone is insignificant unless the capillary fringe is involved. In such cases the flow and transport in the unsaturated zone above groundwater level can be simulated as a 1D phenomenon, whereas through groundwater they are viewed as 2D or 3D phenomena. A new approach for a numerical scheme for 3D variably saturated flow and transport is presented. A Quasi-3D approach allows representing flow in the 'vadose zone - aquifer' system by a series of 1D Richards' equations solved in variably-saturated zone and by 3D-saturated flow equation in groundwater (modified MODFLOW code). The 1D and 3D equations are coupled at the phreatic surface in a way that aquifer replenishment is calculated using the Richards' equation, and solving for the moving water table does not require definition of the specific yield parameter. The 3D advection-dispersion equation is solved in the entire domain by the MT3D code. Using implicit finite differences approximation to couple processes in the vadose zone and groundwater provides mass conservation and increase of computational efficiency. The above model was applied to simulate the impact of irrigation on groundwater salinity in the Alto Piura aquifer (Northern Peru). Studies on changing groundwater quality in arid and semi-arid lands show that irrigation return flow is one of the major factors contributing to aquifer salinization. Existing mathematical models do not account explicitly for the solute recycling during irrigation on a daily scale. Recycling occurs throughout the unsaturated and saturated zones, as function of the solute mass extracted from pumping wells. Salt concentration in irrigation water is calculated at each time step as a function of concentration of both surface water and groundwater

  2. Finite-difference solution of the space-angle-lethargy-dependent slowing-down transport equation

    A procedure has been developed for solving the slowing-down transport equation for a cylindrically symmetric reactor system. The anisotropy of the resonance neutron flux is treated by the spherical harmonics formalism, which reduces the space-angle-Iethargy-dependent transport equation to a matrix integro-differential equation in space and lethargy. Replacing further the lethargy transfer integral by a finite-difference form, a set of matrix ordinary differential equations is obtained, with lethargy-and space dependent coefficients. If the lethargy pivotal points are chosen dense enough so that the difference correction term can be ignored, this set assumes a lower block triangular form and can be solved directly by forward block substitution. As in each step of the finite-difference procedure a boundary value problem has to be solved for a non-homogeneous system of ordinary differential equations with space-dependent coefficients, application of any standard numerical procedure, for example, the finite-difference method or the method of adjoint equations, is too cumbersome and would make the whole procedure practically inapplicable. A simple and efficient approximation is proposed here, allowing analytical solution for the space dependence of the spherical-harmonics flux moments, and hence the derivation of the recurrence relations between the flux moments at successive lethargy pivotal points. According to the procedure indicated above a computer code has been developed for the CDC -3600 computer, which uses the KEDAK nuclear data file. The space and lethargy distribution of the resonance neutrons can be computed in such a detailed fashion as the neutron cross-sections are known for the reactor materials considered. The computing time is relatively short so that the code can be efficiently used, either autonomously, or as part of some complex modular scheme. Typical results will be presented and discussed in order to prove and illustrate the applicability of the

  3. Np(V) transport in clayey porous medium: study of solution chemistry, sorption and flow coupling

    To assess the safety of radioactive waste disposal, the behaviour of radionuclides in porous media has to be known. The solute transport is controlled by hydrodynamics, physicochemical interactions and aqueous chemistry. When each main term is known independently, their coupling can be predicted. The aim is to study the migration of Np(V). Experiments are carried out on chromatography columns packed with a mixture of sand and Fo-Ca-7 clay. Column hydrodynamics is characterised with RTD measurements and is modelled thanks to a cell network model. Sorption properties of the clay are determined thanks to sodium/calcium and sodium/caesium exchange experiments. The sorption is modelled with ion exchange on three sites. The Na+/H+, Na+/Ca2+ and Na+/Cs+ exchange constants have been determined. Transport experiments of Np(V) have been carried out in IM Na+ bicarbonate/carbonate media and is interpreted with H+/NpO2+/Na+ cationic exchanges on the third site of the clay, and NpO2CO3-, NpO2(CO3)23- and NpO2(CO3)35- formation. This mechanism has been validated by varying pH and carbonate concentration. An anion exchange site of low exchange capacity has been found through 14C experiments. A selective elimination of goethite contained in Fo-Ca-7 shows that this iron oxide is not responsible for the anions retention. As expected, temperature influence on calcium and neptunium migration is quite small. It is used to estimate entropy and enthalpy changes for the corresponding ionic exchange reactions. (author)

  4. Water and solute transport in agricultural soils predicted by volumetric clay and silt contents

    Karup, Dan; Moldrup, Per; Paradelo, Marcos; Katuwal, Sheela; Norgaard, Trine; Greve, Mogens H.; de Jonge, Lis W.

    2016-09-01

    Solute transport through the soil matrix is non-uniform and greatly affected by soil texture, soil structure, and macropore networks. Attempts have been made in previous studies to use infiltration experiments to identify the degree of preferential flow, but these attempts have often been based on small datasets or data collected from literature with differing initial and boundary conditions. This study examined the relationship between tracer breakthrough characteristics, soil hydraulic properties, and basic soil properties. From six agricultural fields in Denmark, 193 intact surface soil columns 20 cm in height and 20 cm in diameter were collected. The soils exhibited a wide range in texture, with clay and organic carbon (OC) contents ranging from 0.03 to 0.41 and 0.01 to 0.08 kg kg- 1, respectively. All experiments were carried out under the same initial and boundary conditions using tritium as a conservative tracer. The breakthrough characteristics ranged from being near normally distributed to gradually skewed to the right along with an increase in the content of the mineral fines (particles ≤ 50 μm). The results showed that the mineral fines content was strongly correlated to functional soil structure and the derived tracer breakthrough curves (BTCs), whereas the OC content appeared less important for the shape of the BTC. Organic carbon was believed to support the stability of the soil structure rather than the actual formation of macropores causing preferential flow. The arrival times of 5% and up to 50% of the tracer mass were found to be strongly correlated with volumetric fines content. Predicted tracer concentration breakthrough points as a function of time up to 50% of applied tracer mass could be well fitted to an analytical solution to the classical advection-dispersion equation. Both cumulative tracer mass and concentration as a function of time were well predicted from the simple inputs of bulk density, clay and silt contents, and applied tracer

  5. Artemisinin inhibits chloroplast electron transport activity: mode of action.

    Adyasha Bharati

    Full Text Available Artemisinin, a secondary metabolite produced in Artemisia plant species, besides having antimalarial properties is also phytotoxic. Although, the phytotoxic activity of the compound has been long recognized, no information is available on the mechanism of action of the compound on photosynthetic activity of the plant. In this report, we have evaluated the effect of artemisinin on photoelectron transport activity of chloroplast thylakoid membrane. The inhibitory effect of the compound, under in vitro condition, was pronounced in loosely and fully coupled thylakoids; being strong in the former. The extent of inhibition was drastically reduced in the presence of uncouplers like ammonium chloride or gramicidin; a characteristic feature described for energy transfer inhibitors. The compound, on the other hand, when applied to plants (in vivo, behaved as a potent inhibitor of photosynthetic electron transport. The major site of its action was identified to be the Q(B; the secondary quinone moiety of photosystemII complex. Analysis of photoreduction kinetics of para-benzoquinone and duroquinone suggest that the inhibition leads to formation of low pool of plastoquinol, which becomes limiting for electron flow through photosystemI. Further it was ascertained that the in vivo inhibitory effect appeared as a consequence of the formation of an unidentified artemisinin-metabolite rather than by the interaction of the compound per se. The putative metabolite of artemisinin is highly reactive in instituting the inhibition of photosynthetic electron flow eventually reducing the plant growth.

  6. Comparison of solutions of bi-Maxwellian and Maxwellian transport equations for subsonic flows

    A systematic comparison has been conducted of the solutions to the bi-Maxwellian-based 16-moment and the Maxwellian-based 13-moment transport equations for conditions corresponding to the steady state subsonic flow of a fully ionized electron-proton plasma in the terrestrial ionosphere. The bi-Maxwellian-based equations can account for large temperature anisotropies and the flow of both parallel and perpendicular thermal energy, while the Maxwellian-based equations account for small temperature anisotropies and only a total heat flow. The comparison was conducted for a range of lower boundary temperatures (2,000-10,000 K) and temperature gradients (1-4 K km-1) over the altitude range 1,500-13,000 km. These boundary parameters are the most important in the subsonic flow regime since they produce different temperature anisotropies and heat flows, which are handled differently in the two formulations. The systematic comparison has led to the following conclusions: (1) For low boundary temperatures (T ∼ 2,000 K) and low boundary temperature gradients (∇T approx-lt 2 K km-1), the differences between the bi-Maxwellian-based 16-moment and Maxwellian-based 13-moment solutions are negligibly small, (2) For intermediate boundary temperatures and temperature gradients, both the 16-moment and the 13-moment formulations predict electron and proton temperature anisotropies with perpendicular temperatures (T perpendicular) greater than parallel temperatures (T parallel). However, there are significant differences with regard to the magnitude of the anisotropies predicted by the two formulations, (3) For high boundary temperatures (T approx-gt 8,000 K) and high boundary temperature gradients (∇T ∼ 4 K km-1), the two formulations predict different thermal structures for both the electrons and the protons

  7. Kinesin KIFC1 actively transports bare double-stranded DNA

    Farina, Francesca; Pierobon, Paolo; Delevoye, Cédric; Monnet, Jordan; Dingli, Florent; Loew, Damarys; Quanz, Maria; Dutreix, Marie; Cappello, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    During the past years, exogenous DNA molecules have been used in gene and molecular therapy. At present, it is not known how these DNA molecules reach the cell nucleus. We used an in cell single-molecule approach to observe the motion of exogenous short DNA molecules in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. Our observations suggest an active transport of the DNA along the cytoskeleton filaments. We used an in vitro motility assay, in which the motion of single-DNA molecules along cytoskeleton fi...

  8. CFD Model of Water Droplet Transport for ISS Hygiene Activity

    Son, Chang H.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the study is to assess the impacts of free water propagation in the Waste and Hygiene Compartment (WHC). Free water can be generated inside the WHC in small quantities due to crew hygiene activity. To mitigate potential impact of free water in Node 3 cabin the WHC doorway is enclosed by a waterproof bump-out, Kabin, with openings at the top and bottom. At the overhead side of the rack, there is a screen that prevents large drops of water from exiting. However, as the avionics fan in the WHC causes airflow toward the deck side of the rack, small quantities of free water may exit at the bottom of the Kabin. A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis of Node 3 cabin airflow made possible to identify the paths of water transport. The Node 3 airflow was computed for several ventilation scenarios. To simulate the droplet transport the Lagrangian discrete phase approach was used. Various initial droplet distributions were considered in the study. The droplet diameter was varied in the range of 2-20 mm. The results of the computations showed that most of the drops fall to the rack surface not far from the WHC curtain. The probability of the droplet transport to the adjacent rack surface with electronic equipment was predicted.

  9. Adult active transport in the Netherlands: an analysis of its contribution to physical activity requirements.

    Elliot Fishman

    Full Text Available Modern, urban lifestyles have engineered physical activity out of everyday life and this presents a major threat to human health. The Netherlands is a world leader in active travel, particularly cycling, but little research has sought to quantify the cumulative amount of physical activity through everyday walking and cycling.Using data collected as part of the Dutch National Travel Survey (2010 - 2012, this paper determines the degree to which Dutch walking and cycling contributes to meeting minimum level of physical activity of 150 minutes of moderate intensity aerobic activity throughout the week. The sample includes 74,465 individuals who recorded at least some travel on the day surveyed. As physical activity benefits are cumulative, all walking and cycling trips are analysed, including those to and from public transport. These trips are then converted into an established measure of physical activity intensity, known as metabolic equivalents of tasks. Multivariate Tobit regression models were performed on a range of socio-demographic, transport resources, urban form and meteorological characteristics.The results reveal that Dutch men and women participate in 24 and 28 minutes of daily physical activity through walking and cycling, which is 41% and 55% more than the minimum recommended level. It should be noted however that some 57% of the entire sample failed to record any walking or cycling, and an investigation of this particular group serves as an important topic of future research. Active transport was positively related with age, income, bicycle ownership, urban density and air temperature. Car ownership had a strong negative relationship with physically active travel.The results of this analysis demonstrate the significance of active transport to counter the emerging issue of sedentary lifestyle disease. The Dutch experience provides other countries with a highly relevant case study in the creation of environments and cultures that

  10. Verification of Monte Carlo transport codes by activation experiments

    With the increasing energies and intensities of heavy-ion accelerator facilities, the problem of an excessive activation of the accelerator components caused by beam losses becomes more and more important. Numerical experiments using Monte Carlo transport codes are performed in order to assess the levels of activation. The heavy-ion versions of the codes were released approximately a decade ago, therefore the verification is needed to be sure that they give reasonable results. Present work is focused on obtaining the experimental data on activation of the targets by heavy-ion beams. Several experiments were performed at GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung. The interaction of nitrogen, argon and uranium beams with aluminum targets, as well as interaction of nitrogen and argon beams with copper targets was studied. After the irradiation of the targets by different ion beams from the SIS18 synchrotron at GSI, the γ-spectroscopy analysis was done: the γ-spectra of the residual activity were measured, the radioactive nuclides were identified, their amount and depth distribution were detected. The obtained experimental results were compared with the results of the Monte Carlo simulations using FLUKA, MARS and SHIELD. The discrepancies and agreements between experiment and simulations are pointed out. The origin of discrepancies is discussed. Obtained results allow for a better verification of the Monte Carlo transport codes, and also provide information for their further development. The necessity of the activation studies for accelerator applications is discussed. The limits of applicability of the heavy-ion beam-loss criteria were studied using the FLUKA code. FLUKA-simulations were done to determine the most preferable from the radiation protection point of view materials for use in accelerator components.

  11. Groundwater Flow and Solute Transport in Fractured Lacustrine Clay Near Mexico City

    Rudolph, D. L.; Cherry, J. A.; Farvolden, R. N.

    1991-09-01

    A network of piezometers was installed in a surficial lacustrine clay aquitard overlying a thin saline water aquifer of volcanoclastic origin at a study site near Mexico City in the Basin of Mexico. The aquifer is underlain by additional lacustrine sediments which in turn overlie a thick regional freshwater aquifer. The regional aquifer provides approximately 70% of the water supply for 20 million people in the Basin of Mexico. In the study area, major ions, oxygen 18, and deuterium in the pore water of the surficial aquitard exhibit large variations with depth. The nature of these variations suggests that the saline pore water is being displaced downward by infiltrating meteoric water. The infiltration has been induced by strong downward hydraulic gradients imposed two to three decades ago when heavy aquifer pumping of the thin saline water aquifer began. One-dimensional analytical models representing solute transport in both fractured and unfractured porous media were used to simulate the geochemical profiles in the surficial aquitard. The fractured porous medium model, using a realistic mean hydraulic gradient and fracture spacing (1.5 m) and small but significant fracture aperture (30 μm) provide nearly an exact match to the field data. From this we infer that, because of vertical fractures, there is a much greater potential for downward leakage of water and contaminants through the Mexico City clay into underlying aquifers than has been previously thought.

  12. Integrating Water Flow, Solute Transport and Crop Production Models At The Farm-scale

    Assinck, F. B. T.; de Vos, J. A.

    Minimising nitrate pollution of ground and surface water and optimising agricultural yields are problems which have to be addressed at the farm-scale. However, simulation models usually operate at the field-scale. We coupled the subsurface hydrology model SWAP with other existing deterministic (sub)models for solute transport, organic mat- ter dynamics, crop growth, and dairy farm management at the farm-scale, resulting in the model WATERPAS. The (sub)models are coupled in a Framework environment obeying the principles of object oriented modelling. Based on daily weather data, groundwater regimes, soil and farm characteristics WATERPAS is able to simulate the water and nutrient balances, grass production, economical benefits, nitrate leaching and greenhouse gas emissions at a farm. Problems of coupling, such as data-transfer, quality checks, over-parameterisation, complexity and sensitivity of the systems are discussed. Application of deducted simpler models and expert judgement can be use- ful for practical use. However, we believe that integrated models are a powerful tool to understand the complex relationships between the different processes. It also gives opportunities to perform scenario analysis for future boundary conditions, i.e. due to changing farm management, (sea) water levels and climate change.

  13. Measuring the combinatorial expression of solute transporters and metalloproteinases transcripts in colorectal cancer

    Cosgrove Leah

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It was hypothesised that colorectal cancer (CRC could be diagnosed in biopsies by measuring the combined expression of a small set of well known genes. Genes were chosen based on their role in either the breakdown of the extracellular matrix or with changes in cellular metabolism both of which are associated with CRC progression Findings Gene expression data derived from quantitative real-time PCR for the solute transporter carriers (SLCs and the invasion-mediating matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs were examined using a Linear Descriminant Analysis (LDA. The combination of MMP-7 and SLC5A8 was found to be the most predictive of CRC. Conclusion A combinatorial analysis technique is an effective method for both furthering our understanding on the molecular basis of some aspects of CRC, as well as for leveraging well defined cancer-related gene sets to identify cancer. In this instance, the combination of MMP-7 and SLC5A8 were optimal for identifying CRC.

  14. Technical Note: Simple formulations and solutions of the dual-phase diffusive transport for biogeochemical modeling

    J. Y. Tang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Representation of gaseous diffusion in variably saturated near-surface soils is becoming more common in land biogeochemical models, yet the formulations and numerical solution algorithms applied vary widely. We present three different but equivalent formulations of the dual-phase (gaseous and aqueous tracer diffusion transport problem that is relevant to a wide class of volatile tracers in land biogeochemical models. Of these three formulations (i.e., the gas-primary, aqueous-primary, and bulk tracer based formulations, we contend the gas-primary formulation is the most convenient for modeling tracer dynamics in biogeochemical models. We then provide finite volume approximation to the gas-primary equation and evaluate its accuracy against three analytical models: one for steady-state soil CO2 dynamics, one for steady-state soil CO2 dynamics, and one for transient tracer diffusion from a constant point source into two different sequentially aligned medias. All evaluations demonstrated good accuracy of the numerical approximation. We expect our result will standardize an efficient mechanistic numerical method for solving relatively simple, multi-phase, one-dimensional diffusion problems in land models.

  15. Coupled effects of solution chemistry and hydrodynamics on the mobility and transport of quantum dot nanomaterials in the Vadose Zone

    To investigate the coupled effects of solution chemistry and vadose zone processes on the mobility of quantum dot (QD) nanoparticles, laboratory scale transport experiments were performed. The complex coupled effects of ionic strength, size of QD aggregates, surface tension, contact angle, infiltrat...

  16. Model Simulations of a Field Experiment on Cation Exchange-affected Multicomponent Solute Transport in a Sandy Aquifer

    Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup; Ammentorp, Hans Christian; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    1993-01-01

    strength. Information on geology, hydrogeology and the transient conservative solute transport behaviour was obtained from a dispersion study in the same aquifer. The geochemical input parameters were carefully examined. CEC and selectivity coefficients were determined on the actual aquifer material by...

  17. DSMC method consistent with the Pauli exclusion principle and comparison with deterministic solutions for charge transport in graphene

    Romano, Vittorio; Majorana, Armando; Coco, Marco

    2015-12-01

    A new algorithm for Monte Carlo simulations of charge transport in semiconductors is devised in order to properly deal with Pauli's exclusion principle in the degenerate case. Applications are presented in the case of monolayer graphene and comparisons with solutions of the Boltzmann equation obtained by using a discontinuous Galerkin method furnish a cross-validation of the proposed approach.

  18. Facilitated transport of Cu with hydroxyapatite nanoparticles in saturated sand: Effects of solution ionic strength and composition

    Column experiments were conducted to investigate the facilitated transport of Cu in association with hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (nHAP) in water-saturated quartz sand at different solution concentrations of NaCl (0 to 100 mM) or CaCl2 (0.1 to 1.0 mM). The experimental breakthrough curves and retent...

  19. A screening model based on the solution of the transport equation for the preliminary assessment of a near surface repository

    This paper presents a screening model based on the solution of the transport equation in order to determine the radionuclides of importance for the safety assessment of a repository identifying those who have maximum impact on man taking into consideration the main hydrodynamic parameters and a water pathway. (author)

  20. The Influence of Urban Land-Use and Public Transport Facilities on Active Commuting in Wellington, New Zealand: Active Transport Forecasting Using the WILUTE Model

    Joreintje Dingena Mackenbach; Edward Randal; Pengjun Zhao; Philippa Howden-Chapman

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity has numerous physical and mental health benefits, and active commuting (walking or cycling to work) can help meet physical activity recommendations. This study investigated socioeconomic differences in active commuting, and assessed the impact of urban land-use and public transport policies on active commuting in the Wellington region in New Zealand. We combined data from the New Zealand Household Travel Survey and GIS data on land-use and public transport facilities with th...

  1. A three-dimensional finite-volume Eulerian-Lagrangian Localized Adjoint Method (ELLAM) for solute-transport modeling

    Heberton, C.I.; Russell, T.F.; Konikow, L.F.; Hornberger, G.Z.

    2000-01-01

    This report documents the U.S. Geological Survey Eulerian-Lagrangian Localized Adjoint Method (ELLAM) algorithm that solves an integral form of the solute-transport equation, incorporating an implicit-in-time difference approximation for the dispersive and sink terms. Like the algorithm in the original version of the U.S. Geological Survey MOC3D transport model, ELLAM uses a method of characteristics approach to solve the transport equation on the basis of the velocity field. The ELLAM algorithm, however, is based on an integral formulation of conservation of mass and uses appropriate numerical techniques to obtain global conservation of mass. The implicit procedure eliminates several stability criteria required for an explicit formulation. Consequently, ELLAM allows large transport time increments to be used. ELLAM can produce qualitatively good results using a small number of transport time steps. A description of the ELLAM numerical method, the data-input requirements and output options, and the results of simulator testing and evaluation are presented. The ELLAM algorithm was evaluated for the same set of problems used to test and evaluate Version 1 and Version 2 of MOC3D. These test results indicate that ELLAM offers a viable alternative to the explicit and implicit solvers in MOC3D. Its use is desirable when mass balance is imperative or a fast, qualitative model result is needed. Although accurate solutions can be generated using ELLAM, its efficiency relative to the two previously documented solution algorithms is problem dependent.

  2. Active-active and active-sterile neutrino oscillation solutions to the atmospheric neutrino anomaly

    González-Garciá, M Concepción; Peres, O L G; Valle, José W F

    1999-01-01

    We perform a fit to the full data set corresponding to 25.5 kt-yr of data of the Super-Kamiokande experiment as well as to all other experiments in order to compare the two most likely solutions to the atmospheric neutrino anomaly in terms of oscillations in the $\

  3. Socioeconomic and regional differences in active transportation in Brazil

    de Sá, Thiago Hérick; Pereira, Rafael Henrique Moraes; Duran, Ana Clara; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To present national estimates regarding walking or cycling for commuting in Brazil and in 10 metropolitan regions. METHODS By using data from the Health section of 2008’s Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílio (Brazil’s National Household Sample Survey), we estimated how often employed people walk or cycle to work, disaggregating our results by sex, age range, education level, household monthly income per capita, urban or rural address, metropolitan regions, and macro-regions in Brazil. Furthermore, we estimated the distribution of this same frequency according to quintiles of household monthly income per capita in each metropolitan region of the country. RESULTS A third of the employed men and women walk or cycle from home to work in Brazil. For both sexes, this share decreases as income and education levels rise, and it is higher among younger individuals, especially among those living in rural areas and in the Northeast region of the country. Depending on the metropolitan region, the practice of active transportation is two to five times more frequent among low-income individuals than among high-income individuals. CONCLUSIONS Walking or cycling to work in Brazil is most frequent among low-income individuals and the ones living in less economically developed areas. Active transportation evaluation in Brazil provides important information for public health and urban mobility policy-making PMID:27355465

  4. Body Composition, Physical Activity and Active Transportation in Adolescents of Metropolitan Region of Curitiba, Brazil

    Leandra Ulbrict

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical activity is a part of a healthy lifestyle, however sed entary habits are currently prevalent among adolescents which impacts rates of overweight and obesity in this group. This study aims to describe the relationship of physical activity with the use of active transportation to school (ATS and its relationshi p with body composition in adolescents. Materials and Methods: Information about physical activity, sedentary behavior and active transportation were collected through two survey instruments, one completed by a responsible parent/guardian and other by the adolescent. Body composition was assessed by dual - energy x - ray absorptiometry (DXA. Excess body fat was defined as ≥ 25% in male and ≥ 30% among female adolescents. Less than 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous daily physical activity defined one as sede ntary and greater than 2 hours of screen time per day was defined as excessive. Results: The prevalence of excess body fat was 46.5%. Only 24.7% of the sample performed recommended amounts of physical activity and 92.3% engaged in excess screen time. Appro ximately one - fifth of our sample (19.2% used ATS. The main barriers to active transport were traffic, distance and safety. Those that used ATS had lower body fat and fewer hours of sedentary behavior.

  5. Entanglements in Marginal Solutions: A Means of Tuning Pre-Aggregation of Conjugated Polymers with Positive Implications for Charge Transport

    Hu, Hanlin

    2015-06-17

    The solution-processing of conjugated polymers, just like commodity polymers, is subject to solvent and molecular weight-dependent solubility, interactions and chain entanglements within the polymer, all of which can influence the crystallization and microstructure development in semi-crystalline polymers and consequently affect charge transport and optoelectronic properties. Disentanglement of polymer chains in marginal solvents was reported to work via ultrasonication, facilitating the formation of photophysically ordered polymer aggregates. In this contribution, we explore how a wide range of technologically relevant solvents and formulations commonly used in organic electronics influence chain entanglement and the aggregation behaviour of P3HT using a combination of rheological and spectrophotometric measurements. The specific viscosity of the solution offers an excellent indication of the degree of entanglements in the solution, which is found to be related to the solubility of P3HT in a given solvent. Moreover, deliberately disentangling the solution in the presence of solvophobic driving forces, leads consistently to formation of photophysically visible aggregates which is indicative of local and perhaps long range order in the solute. We show for a broad range of solvents and molecular weights that disentanglement ultimately leads to significant ordering of the polymer in the solid state and a commensurate increase in charge transport properties. In doing so we demonstrate a remarkable ability to tune the microstructure which has important implications for transport properties. We discuss its potential implications in the context of organic photovoltaics.

  6. X-ray CT-Derived Soil Characteristics Explain Varying Air, Water, and Solute Transport Properties across a Loamy Field

    Paradelo Pérez, Marcos; Katuwal, Sheela; Møldrup, Per;

    2016-01-01

    The characterization of soil pore space geometry is important for explaining fluxes of air, water, and solutes through soil and understanding soil hydrogeochemical functions. X-ray computed tomography (CT) can be applied for this characterization, and in this study CT-derived parameters were used...... to explain water, air, and solute transport through soil. Forty-five soil columns (20 by 20 cm) were collected from an agricultural field in Estrup, Denmark, and subsequently scanned using a medical CT scanner. Nonreactive tracer leaching experiments were performed in the laboratory along with...... improved when the limiting macroporosity (the minimum macroporosity for every 0.6-mm layer along the soil column) was used, suggesting that soil layers with the narrowest macropore section restricted the flow through the whole soil column. Water, air, and solute transport were related with the CT...

  7. Numerical methods for solution of the stochastic differential equations equivalent to the non-stationary Parker's transport equation

    Wawrzynczak, A; Kluczek, M

    2015-01-01

    We derive the numerical schemes for the strong order integration of the set of the stochastic differential equations (SDEs) corresponding to the non-stationary Parker transport equation (PTE). PTE is 5-dimensional (3 spatial coordinates, particles energy and time) Fokker- Planck type equation describing the non-stationary the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) particles transport in the heliosphere. We present the formulas for the numerical solution of the obtained set of SDEs driven by a Wiener process in the case of the full three-dimensional diffusion tensor. We introduce the solution applying the strong order Euler-Maruyama, Milstein and stochastic Runge-Kutta methods. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the presented numerical methods in the context of increasing the accuracy of the solution of the PTE.

  8. Meta-analysis of the effects of soil properties, site factors and experimental conditions on solute transport

    J. K. Koestel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Preferential flow is a widespread phenomenon that is known to strongly affect solute transport in soil, but our understanding and knowledge is still poor of the site factors and soil properties that promote it. To investigate these relationships, we assembled a database from the peer-reviewed literature containing information on 733 breakthrough curve experiments under steady-state flow conditions. Most of the collected experiments (585 of the 733 datasets had been conducted on undisturbed soil columns, although some experiments on repacked soil, clean sands, and glass beads were also included. In addition to the apparent dispersivity, we focused our attention on three indicators of preferential solute transport: namely the 5%-arrival time, the holdback factor, and the ratio of piston-flow and average transport velocities. Our results suggest that, in contrast to the 5%-arrival time and the holdback factor, the piston-flow to transport velocity ratio is not related to preferential macropore transport but rather to the exclusion or retardation of the applied tracer. Confirming that the apparent longitudinal dispersivity is positively correlated with the travel distance of the tracer, our results also illustrate that this relationship is refined if the normalized 5%-tracer arrival time is also taken into account. In particular, we found that the degree of preferential solute transport increases with apparent dispersivity and decreases with travel distance. A similar but weaker relationship was observed between apparent dispersivity, 5%-tracer arrival time, and lateral observation scale, such that the degree of preferential transport increases with lateral observation scale. However, we also found that the travel distance and the lateral observation scale in the investigated dataset are correlated, which makes it difficult to distinguish their influence on these transport characteristics. We also found that the strength of preferential transport

  9. Measuring Solution Viscosity and its Effect on Enzyme Activity

    Uribe Salvador; Sampedro José G.

    2003-01-01

    In proteins, some processes require conformational changes involving structural domain diffusion. Among these processes are protein folding, unfolding and enzyme catalysis. During catalysis some enzymes undergo large conformational changes as they progress through the catalytic cycle. According to Kramers theory, solvent viscosity results in friction against proteins in solution, and this should result in decreased motion, inhibiting catalysis in motile enzymes. Solution viscosity was increas...

  10. The Influence of Active Transport Systems on Morphine -6-Glucuronide Transport in MDCKII and MDCK-PGP Cells

    SO. Mashayekhi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and the purpose of the study: Morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G is a potent metabolite of morphine which has high penetration into the brain despite its high polarity, which could be the result of an active transport system involved in M6G transport through blood brain barrier. Examples of such transporters are p-glycoprotein (PGP, probenecid-sensitive transport mechanism, multidrug resistance related protein 1-3, the organic anion transporter family, and the organic anion transporter polypeptide family. The aim of present study was to elucidate the mechanisms involved in transporting morphine's potent metabolite, M6G.Methods: M6G permeability via two cell lines; MDCKII and MDCK-PGP, was compared with that of sucrose. M6G transport was examined in different concentrations and in the presence of inhibitors of different transport systems such as cyclosporine, digoxin and probenecid. M6G concentration was measured using ELISA assay. The method was sensitive, reliable and reproducible.Results: The results confirmed that M6G could cross a layer of MDCK II or MDR-PGP cells more than sucrose could. It was also observed that M6G is a PGP transporter substrate. Its permeability was increased by the use of a PGP expressed cell line, and also in the presence of a strong PGP inhibitor. Digoxin related transporters such as Oatp2 may also involved in transport of M6G. M6G seemed to be a glucose transporter 1 substrate, but was not a substrate to probenecid sensitive transporters.Major conclusion: It is concluded that different transporters are responsible for M6G transports via different membrane, which could have effects on its pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics.

  11. Water flow and solute transport in the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum: Upscaling from rhizosphere to root zone

    Lazarovitch, Naftali; Perelman, Adi; Guerra, Helena; Vanderborght, Jan; Pohlmeier, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Root water and nutrient uptake are among the most important processes considered in numerical models simulating water content and fluxes in the subsurface, as they control plant growth and production as well as water flow and nutrient transport out of the root zone. Root water uptake may lead to salt accumulation at the root-soil interface, resulting in rhizophere salt concentrations much higher than in the bulk soil. This salt accumulation is caused by soluble salt transport towards the roots by mass flow through the soil, followed by preferential adsorption of specific nutrients by active uptake, thereby excluding most other salts at the root-soil interface or in the root apoplast. The salinity buildup can lead to large osmotic pressure gradients across the roots thereby effectively reducing root water uptake. The initial results from rhizoslides (capillary paper growth system) show that sodium concentration is decreasing with distance from the root, compared with the bulk that remained more stable. When transpiration rate was decreased under high salinity levels, sodium concentration was more homogenous compared with low salinity levels. Additionally, sodium and gadolinium distributions were measured nondestructively around tomato roots using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This technique could also observe the root structure and water content around single roots. Results from the MRI confirm the solutes concentration pattern around roots and its relation to their initial concentration. We conclude that local water potentials at the soil-root interface differ from bulk potentials. These relative differences increase with decreasing root density, decreasing initial salt concentration and increasing transpiration rate. Furthermore, since climate may significantly influence plant response to salinity a dynamic climate-coupled salinity reduction functions are critical in while using macroscopic numerical models.

  12. Prediction of multi-component radioactive waste migration in clay barrier via coupled solute transport and chemical equilibrium speciation

    Risk assessment of radioactive waste sites require an accurate prediction of geochemical interactions during transport. The prediction of the long-term leaching behaviour of radioactive substances is an increasingly important issue as awareness of the potential future pollution risks associated with management of such wastes grows. An adequate understanding of the numerous and complex processes which may act to retard or mobilise radioactive contaminants along the transport pathway form the repository to the biosphere is necessary. Modelling of the physicochemical processes which take place between the radioactive substances and soil is an invaluable tool as it is often not possible to conduct experiments over sufficiently long time scales in order to observe the long term leaching behaviour of wastes. A COupled Solute Transport and CHemical Equilibrium SPeciation (COSTCHESP) model has been developed. The model has the capability for simulating transport of multiple components of radioactive substances, thermodynamically reacting chemical, through the clay barrier systems. It consists of two main modules, a finite difference transport module (COST), and an equilibrium geochemistry module (CHESP) which is modified version of MINTEQA2. This linearizes the coupling between the physical and chemical processes and leads to a simple and efficient model to simulate the simultaneous processes of advective-dispersive transport (advection; diffusion, osmotic and ion restriction effect) and geochemical reactions (complexation, exchange, precipitation, adsorption and desorption) under different temperature and pressure. The model will lead to proper identification of the form of specific ions ( i.e., adsorbed and precipitated on solid, and available in solution). The proposed model has been simulated for the transport of strontium through compacted bentonite in a multi-component solution at two different temperature. (author)

  13. Reliability and validity of the transport and physical activity questionnaire (TPAQ for assessing physical activity behaviour.

    Emma J Adams

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: No current validated survey instrument allows a comprehensive assessment of both physical activity and travel behaviours for use in interdisciplinary research on walking and cycling. This study reports on the test-retest reliability and validity of physical activity measures in the transport and physical activity questionnaire (TPAQ. METHODS: The TPAQ assesses time spent in different domains of physical activity and using different modes of transport for five journey purposes. Test-retest reliability of eight physical activity summary variables was assessed using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC and Kappa scores for continuous and categorical variables respectively. In a separate study, the validity of three survey-reported physical activity summary variables was assessed by computing Spearman correlation coefficients using accelerometer-derived reference measures. The Bland-Altman technique was used to determine the absolute validity of survey-reported time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA. RESULTS: In the reliability study, ICC for time spent in different domains of physical activity ranged from fair to substantial for walking for transport (ICC = 0.59, cycling for transport (ICC = 0.61, walking for recreation (ICC = 0.48, cycling for recreation (ICC = 0.35, moderate leisure-time physical activity (ICC = 0.47, vigorous leisure-time physical activity (ICC = 0.63, and total physical activity (ICC = 0.56. The proportion of participants estimated to meet physical activity guidelines showed acceptable reliability (k = 0.60. In the validity study, comparison of survey-reported and accelerometer-derived time spent in physical activity showed strong agreement for vigorous physical activity (r = 0.72, p<0.001, fair but non-significant agreement for moderate physical activity (r = 0.24, p = 0.09 and fair agreement for MVPA (r = 0.27, p = 0.05. Bland

  14. A solution-doped small molecule hole transport layer for efficient ITO-free organic solar cells (Presentation Recording)

    Bormann, Ludwig; Selzer, Franz; Leo, Karl; Mueller-Meskamp, Lars

    2015-10-01

    Indium-tin-oxide-free (ITO-free) organic solar cells are an important, emerging research field because ITO transparent electrodes are a bottleneck for cheap large area devices on flexible substrates. Among highly conductive PEDOT:PSS and metal grids, percolation networks made of silver nanowires (AgNW) with a diameter in the nanoscale show a huge potential due to easy processing (e.g. spray coating), high aspect ratios and excellent electrical and optical properties like 15 Ohm/sq with a transmission of 83.5 % including the substrate. However, the inherent surface roughness of the AgNW film impedes the implementation as bottom electrode in organic devices, especially fully vacuum deposited ones, where often shunts are obtained. Here, we report about the solution processing of a small molecule hole transport layer (s-HTL) comprising N,N'-((Diphenyl-N,N'-bis)9,9,-dimethyl-fluoren-2-yl)-benzidine (BF-DPB, host material) and the proprietary NDP9 (p-dopant) deposited from tetrahydrofuran (THF) as non-halogenated, "green" solvent. We show, that the doping process already takes place in solution and that conductivities, achieved with this process at high doping efficiencies (4 * 10^-4 S/cm at 10 wt% doping concentration), are comparable to thermal co-evaporation of BF-DPB:NDP9 under high vacuum, which is the proven deposition method for doped small molecule films. Applying this s-HTL to AgNW films leads to well smoothened electrodes, ready for application in organic devices. Vacuum-deposited organic p-i-n solar cells with DCV2-5T-Me(3:3):C60 as active layer show a power conversion efficiency of 4.4% and 3.7% on AgNW electrode with 35nm and 90 nm wire diameter, compared to 4.1% on ITO with the s-HTL.

  15. Core2D. A code for non-isothermal water flow and reactive solute transport. Users manual version 2

    Understanding natural groundwater quality patterns, quantifying groundwater pollution and assessing the effects of waste disposal, require modeling tools accounting for water flow, and transport of heat and dissolved species as well as their complex interactions with solid and gases phases. This report contains the users manual of CORE ''2D Version V.2.0, a COde for modeling water flow (saturated and unsaturated), heat transport and multicomponent Reactive solute transport under both local chemical equilibrium and kinetic conditions. it is an updated and improved version of CORE-LE-2D V0 (Samper et al., 1988) which in turns is an extended version of TRANQUI, a previous reactive transport code (ENRESA, 1995). All these codes were developed within the context of Research Projects funded by ENRESA and the European Commission. (Author)

  16. Core 2D. A code for non-isothermal water flow and reactive solute transport. Users manual version 2

    Samper, J.; Juncosa, R.; Delgado, J.; Montenegro, L. [Universidad de A Coruna (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    Understanding natural groundwater quality patterns, quantifying groundwater pollution and assessing the effects of waste disposal, require modeling tools accounting for water flow, and transport of heat and dissolved species as well as their complex interactions with solid and gases phases. This report contains the users manual of CORE ''2D Version V.2.0, a COde for modeling water flow (saturated and unsaturated), heat transport and multicomponent Reactive solute transport under both local chemical equilibrium and kinetic conditions. it is an updated and improved version of CORE-LE-2D V0 (Samper et al., 1988) which in turns is an extended version of TRANQUI, a previous reactive transport code (ENRESA, 1995). All these codes were developed within the context of Research Projects funded by ENRESA and the European Commission. (Author)

  17. An analytical model for solute transport through a GCL-based two-layered liner considering biodegradation

    An analytical model for solute advection and dispersion in a two-layered liner consisting of a geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) and a soil liner (SL) considering the effect of biodegradation was proposed. The analytical solution was derived by Laplace transformation and was validated over a range of parameters using the finite-layer method based software Pollute v7.0. Results show that if the half-life of the solute in GCL is larger than 1 year, the degradation in GCL can be neglected for solute transport in GCL/SL. When the half-life of GCL is less than 1 year, neglecting the effect of degradation in GCL on solute migration will result in a large difference of relative base concentration of GCL/SL (e.g., 32% for the case with half-life of 0.01 year). The 100-year solute base concentration can be reduced by a factor of 2.2 when the hydraulic conductivity of the SL was reduced by an order of magnitude. The 100-year base concentration was reduced by a factor of 155 when the half life of the contaminant in the SL was reduced by an order of magnitude. The effect of degradation is more important in approving the groundwater protection level than the hydraulic conductivity. The analytical solution can be used for experimental data fitting, verification of complicated numerical models and preliminary design of landfill liner systems. - Highlights: •Degradation of contaminants was considered in modeling solute transport in GCL/SL. •Analytical solutions were derived for assessment of GCL/SL with degradation. •Degradation in GCL can be ignored as half-life is larger than 1 year. •Base concentration is more sensitive to half-life of SL than to permeability of SL

  18. Variability and seasonality of active transportation in USA: evidence from the 2001 NHTS

    Bingham C Raymond

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Active transportation including walking and bicycling is an important source of physical activity. Promoting active transportation is a challenge for the fields of public health and transportation. Descriptive data on the predictors of active transportation, including seasonal patterns in active transportation in the US as a whole, is needed to inform interventions and policies. Methods This study analyzed monthly variation in active transportation for the US using National Household Travel Survey 2001 data. For each age group of children, adolescents, adults and elderly, logistic regression models were used to identify predictors of the odds of active transportation including gender, race/ethnicity, household income level, geographical region, urbanization level, and month. Results The probability of engaging in active transportation was generally higher for children and adolescents than for adults and the elderly. Active transportation was greater in the lower income groups (except in the elderly, was lower in the South than in other regions of the US, and was greater in areas with higher urbanization. The percentage of people using active transportation exhibited clear seasonal patterns: high during summer months and low during winter months. Children and adolescents were more sensitive to seasonality than other age groups. Women, non-Caucasians, persons with lower household income, who resided in the Midwest or Northeast, and who lived in more urbanized areas had greater seasonal variation. Conclusions These descriptive results suggest that interventions and policies that target the promotion of active transportation need to consider socio-demographic factors and seasonality.

  19. Coupling between geochemical reactions and multicomponent gas and solute transport in unsaturated media: A reactive transport modeling study

    Molins, S.; Mayer, K. U.

    2007-05-01

    The two-way coupling that exists between biogeochemical reactions and vadose zone transport processes, in particular gas phase transport, determines the composition of soil gas. To explore these feedback processes quantitatively, multicomponent gas diffusion and advection are implemented into an existing reactive transport model that includes a full suite of geochemical reactions. Multicomponent gas diffusion is described on the basis of the dusty gas model, which accounts for all relevant gas diffusion mechanisms. The simulation of gas attenuation in partially saturated landfill soil covers, methane production, and oxidation in aquifers contaminated by organic compounds (e.g., an oil spill site) and pyrite oxidation in mine tailings demonstrate that both diffusive and advective gas transport can be affected by geochemical reactions. Methane oxidation in landfill covers reduces the existing upward pressure gradient, thereby decreasing the contribution of advective methane emissions to the atmosphere and enhancing the net flux of atmospheric oxygen into the soil column. At an oil spill site, methane oxidation causes a reversal in the direction of gas advection, which results in advective transport toward the zone of oxidation both from the ground surface and the deeper zone of methane production. Both diffusion and advection contribute to supply atmospheric oxygen into the subsurface, and methane emissions to the atmosphere are averted. During pyrite oxidation in mine tailings, pressure reduction in the reaction zone drives advective gas flow into the sediment column, enhancing the oxidation process. In carbonate-rich mine tailings, calcite dissolution releases carbon dioxide, which partly offsets the pressure reduction caused by O2 consumption.

  20. Effects of solution P H on the adsorption of aromatic compounds from aqueous solutions by activated carbon

    Absorption of p-Cresol, Benzoic acid and Nitro Benzene by activated carbon from dilute aqueous solutions was carried out under controlled ph conditions at 310 k. In acidic conditions, well below the pKa of all solutes, it was observed that the adsorbate solubility and the electron density of its aromatic ring were the influencing factors on the extent of the adsorption by affecting the extent of London dispersion forces. In higher solution ph conditions, on the other hand, it was found that the electrostatic forces played a significant role on the extent of adsorption. The Effect of ph must be considered from its combined effects on the carbon surface and on the solute molecules. It was found that the uptake of the molecular forms of the aromatic solutes was dependent on the substituents of the aromatic ring. Adsorption of the solutes in higher P H values was found to be dependent on the concentration of anionic form of the solutes. All isotherms were fitted into Freundlich Isotherm Equations