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Sample records for active softening process

  1. Cyclic softening and thermally activated deformation of titanium and zirconium

    Cyclic softening in commercial purity zirconium and titanium corresponds principally to a decrease in effective stress and to an increase in screw dislocation mobility. This result indicates that the thermally activated deformation of these metals is not controlled by the overcoming of individual interstitial solute atoms by dislocations as usually proposed. (Auth.)

  2. Non-Discharge Methods for Partial Water Softening Using Zeolite Process with Discharge Reagentless Utilization

    G. K. Feyziyev; G. G. Guseynova; R. T. Ismayilov

    2014-01-01

    The paper considers developed technological schemes of non-discharge methods of partial  water softening using zeolite process with discharge reagentless utilization. Various versions of technological schemes of partial water softening are proposed in the paper. 

  3. Texture Softening of Beef and Chicken by Enzyme Injection Process

    Eom, Sung-Hwan; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Chun, Yong-Gi; Kim, Bum-Keun; Park, Dong-June

    2015-01-01

    This research focuses on a new softening technology for use with chicken breast and eye of round beef in order to assist elderly individuals who have difficulty with eating due to changes in their ability to chew (masticatory function) or swallow. We investigated the hardness of chicken breast and eye of round beef through use of a texture analyzer after injection of a commercial enzyme. Among 7 commercial enzymes, bromelain and collupulin exhibited a marked softening effect on the tested chi...

  4. Non-Discharge Methods for Partial Water Softening Using Zeolite Process with Discharge Reagentless Utilization

    G. K. Feyziyev

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers developed technological schemes of non-discharge methods of partial  water softening using zeolite process with discharge reagentless utilization. Various versions of technological schemes of partial water softening are proposed in the paper. 

  5. Water Self-Softening Processes at Waterfall Sites

    CHEN Jing'an; David Dian ZHANG; WANG Shijie; XIAO Tangfu

    2004-01-01

    Many rivers in tropical and subtropical karst regions are supersaturated with respect to CaCO3 and have high water hardness. After flowing through waterfall sites, river water is usually softened, accompanied by tufa formation,which is simply described as a result of water turbulence in fast-flowing water. In this paper, a series of laboratory experiments are designed to simulate the hydrological conditions at waterfall sites. The influences of air-water interface,water flow velocity, aeration and solid-water interface on water softening are compared and evaluated on a quantitative basis. The results show that the enhanced inorganic CO2 outgassing due to sudden hydrological changes occurring at waterfall sites is the principal cause of water softening at waterfall sites. Both air-water interface area and water flow velocity increase as a result of the "aeration effect", "low pressure effect" and "jet-flow effect" at waterfall sites, which greatly accelerates CO2 outgassing and therefore makes natural waters become highly supersaturated with respect to CaCO3, consequently resulting in much CaCO3 deposition and reduction of water hardness. Aeration, rapidly increasing air-water interface area and water flow velocity, proves to be effective in reducing water hardness. This study may provide a cheap, safe and effective way to soften water.

  6. Texture Softening of Beef and Chicken by Enzyme Injection Process.

    Eom, Sung-Hwan; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Chun, Yong-Gi; Kim, Bum-Keun; Park, Dong-June

    2015-01-01

    This research focuses on a new softening technology for use with chicken breast and eye of round beef in order to assist elderly individuals who have difficulty with eating due to changes in their ability to chew (masticatory function) or swallow. We investigated the hardness of chicken breast and eye of round beef through use of a texture analyzer after injection of a commercial enzyme. Among 7 commercial enzymes, bromelain and collupulin exhibited a marked softening effect on the tested chicken breast and eye of round beef given a 1.00% enzyme concentration. The hardness of bromelain-treated chicken breast reached 1.4×10(4) N/m(2), of collupulin-treated chicken breast reached 3.0×10(4) N/m(2), and of bromelain-treated eye of round beef reached 3.2×10(4) N/m(2), respectively, while their original shapes did not change. To find the level of tissue degradation with specific enzyme concentrations, enzyme injections at 0.1%, 0.25%, 0.50%, and 1.00% concentration of bromelain and papain were also evaluated. The results of this research could be useful for softening chicken breast and eye of round beef and will contribute to the development of foods that can be more easily eaten as part of a balanced diet for elderly adults. PMID:26761870

  7. USE OF NATURAL ZEOLITES (KLINOPTILOLIT IN WATER SOFTENING PROCESS

    Yurdanur SABAH

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the potential for the elimination of hardness of the water by using zeolitic tuff (klinoptilolit obtained from the upper layer tuff of Balıkesir-Bigadiç, where the richest deposits are located in our country, has been investigated; as a means of water supply, daily usage water of campus, Selçuk University, was utilized to wich none of the pre-refining process was applied apart from chloring. At first, zeolite samples of -0.85+0.60 mm were regenerated by NaOH and the change in the hardness of water passing through zeolitic bad in ion exchange column at a constant rate was abserved. After optimizing the regeneration conditions in this way, the effect of the velocity of water fed into zeolitic bad and the water left in the column on the elimination of water hardness were also searched. As a result, the lowest value of water hardness was obtained by taking the water feeding rates at 10 ml/sec. and using zeolite regenerated with 0.75 M NaOH. Additionally, it was seen that the highest working capacity will be reached under these circumstances.

  8. Chemo-mechanical softening during in situ nanoindentation of anodic porous alumina with anodization processing

    Cheng, C; Ngan, AHW

    2013-01-01

    Simultaneous application of mechanical stresses on a material as it undergoes an electrochemical reaction can result in interesting coupling effects between the chemical and mechanical responses of the material. In this work, anodic porous alumina supported on Al is found to exhibit significant softening during in situ nanoindentation with anodization processing. Compared with ex situ nanoindentation without anodization processing, the in situ hardness measured on the alumina is found to be m...

  9. Cultivar, harvest location and cold storage influence fruit softening and antioxidative activities of peach fruit (prunus persica (l.) batsch.)

    Fruit softening and quality management is very important to reduce postharvest losses in peach. Present study was conducted to observe the effect of cultivars and harvest locations on peach fruit softening and quality during ripening following cold storage. Fruits of two peach cultivars Prunus persica (L.) Batsch., harvested from two different locations were evaluated at ripening for their postharvest fruit softening and quality after 28 days of low temperature storage. Fruit harvested from Sillanwali exhibited significantly higher ethylene production, respiration rate, fruit weight loss, ascorbic acid contents, activities of fruit softening enzymes (endo-polygalacturonase (endo-PG), exo-polygalacturonase (exo-PG)) and significantly lower fruit firmness, ground colour, soluble solid contents (SSC), SSC:TA, total phenolic contents (TPC), antioxidant scavenging activity (ASA), activities of catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and pectin esterase (PE) enzymes as compared to fruit harvested from Soan Valley. Peach cv Early Grand showed significantly higher ethylene production, respiration rate, ascorbic acid contents, activities of CAT, endo-PG and exo-PG enzymes, whereas lower fruit weight loss, fruit firmness, SSC, SSC:TA, TPC, ASA, activities of POD, SOD, PE and enzymes than Flordaking. Harvest location and cultivar significantly influenced various physico-chemical attributes including activities of various fruit softening and antioxidative enzymes in peach fruit during ripening after low temperature storage. (author)

  10. Influence Mechanism of Endogenous Abscisic Acid on Storage Softening Process of Hardy Kiwifruit

    Li Shuqian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the relation of Abscisic Acid (ABA with other biochemistry factors during hardy kiwifruit softening process. The changing trend of ABA under the fruits storage conditions of 20 and 0C was analyzed. A conclusion is drawn as below: During storage under 20C, it shows the highest content of ABA in 4 days to 222.19 &mu g/L, which reaches the almost same content in 3 and 5 days. The value keeps inclining since 5 days and decline rate is lower in 7 and 8 days. The lowest value is reached to 20.88 &mug/L in 10 days. During storage under 0C, ABA content is at a relatively high level but shows the slow down trend. ABA content falls greatly from 9 to 11 days. After this period, ABA content still follows up-trend and declining then. The peak appears in 15 days to 90.49 &mug/L, but it is lower than that in the first nine days. Moreover, peak during storage in environment under 0C is lower than that during the storage in environment at normal temperature, accordingly delaying fruit softening. As the ABA content rises to the highest level, the fruit hardness drops drastically. When ABA content slightly changes, the hardness decreases gently. ABA content is featured that same changing trend of ethylene content, respiratory intensity, pectase content and amylase content. Moreover, ABA has the same peak appearance time as amylase but it is later than appearance of both pectase and ethylene, they basically match each other. The rule of peak appearance time is not obvious for ABA and amylase. Mutual inhibition exists between peak appearance time of ABA and respiratory intensity. Quick ABA rise is accompanied with slow amylase rise and vice versa.

  11. Significance of homologous temperature in softening behavior and grain size of pure metals processed by high-pressure torsion

    Highlights: → Metals with low melting points (In, Sn, Pb, Zn) were processed by high-pressure torsion (HPT). → An unusual softening behavior was observed in these metals after processing by HPT. → The hardness-strain behavior is represented by homologous temperature in HPTed metals. → The steady-state grain size is significantly influenced by homologous temperature. → The effect of stacking fault energy on grain size is minor at a given homologous temperature. - Abstract: High purity metals with low melting temperatures such as indium (99.999%), tin (99.9%), lead (99%), zinc (99.99%) and aluminum (99.99%) were processed using high-pressure torsion (HPT). An unusual softening behavior was observed in all these metals after processing by HPT at room temperature. Pure copper (99.99%) and palladium (99.95%) were used to simulate the softening behavior due to a thermal effect by processing and subsequently holding at the temperatures equivalent to room temperature of pure Al. It is shown that a hardness peak appears in any metal by static softening after processing by HPT at a homologous temperature of 0.32 which is equivalent to room temperature of pure Al. The contribution of dynamic softening on hardness decrease becomes more important as the homologous temperature and stacking fault energy increase. Microstructural examinations indicate that, although the stacking fault energy influences the rate of the microstructural evolution, the homologous temperature appears to be a dominant parameter to determine the steady-state grain size after processing by HPT.

  12. Simulation Of The Material Softening During Hot Metal Forming

    Bylya O.I.; Sarangi M.K.; Rohit N; Nayak A; Vasin R.A.; Blackwell P.L.

    2015-01-01

    Deformation softening is quite often observed during hot working of different alloys. Steels, aluminium, titanium or nickel alloys can demonstrate a decrease in flow stress under active deformation at constant temperatures and strain rates. Though the background microstructural mechanisms as well as the softening rates can be quite different, the treatment of such processes requires special attention. Deformation softening can cause significant non-uniformity of the metal flow resulting in fl...

  13. The effect of treatment parameters and detergent additions on the softening of radioactively contaminated process wastewater at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    At Oak Ridge National Laboratory, radioactively contaminated process wastewater is sequentially treated by precipitation is critical to the effective performance of the ion exchange process; magnesium and calcium inhibit the ability of the ion exchange resin to adequately remove strontium. A series of laboratory jar tests performed on the wastewater indicate that parameters such as ferric sulfate concentrations, sodium carbonate addition, reaction time, and pH adjustment, have a noticable impact upon the softening reaction. Tests also showed that a detergent used for equipment equipment decontamination at the treatment plant had a detrimental effect on the softening process. Alternative detergents tested were shown to have differing effects on the softening reaction. The results of the experimental program conducted to measure the relative importance of the softening variables will be presented in conjuction with the elevation of the effect various detergents have on softener performance

  14. Simulation Of The Material Softening During Hot Metal Forming

    Bylya O.I.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Deformation softening is quite often observed during hot working of different alloys. Steels, aluminium, titanium or nickel alloys can demonstrate a decrease in flow stress under active deformation at constant temperatures and strain rates. Though the background microstructural mechanisms as well as the softening rates can be quite different, the treatment of such processes requires special attention. Deformation softening can cause significant non-uniformity of the metal flow resulting in flow localization, formation of shear bands and variation of the microstructure across the workpiece. This paper is devoted to the investigation of the specific issues which arise in this respect in FEM simulation of processes involving softening. The possible role of softening in shear band formation is studied using numerical simulation and physical modelling. The effect of the softening rate on the probability of flow localization is discussed. The interplay of deformation softening with the stain rate and temperature sensitivity is demonstrated using as an example the simulation of Equal Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP. An approach to account for the deformation softening in FEM simulations via process modelling of the microstructure refinement is proposed.

  15. Cyclic softening as a parameter for prediction of remnant creep rupture life of a Indian reduced activation ferritic–martensitic (IN-RAFM) steel subjected to fatigue exposures

    Sequential fatigue-creep tests were conducted on Indian reduced activation ferritic–martensitic steel at 823 K leading to sharp decrease in residual creep life with increase in prior fatigue exposures. Extensive recovery of martensitic-lath structure taking place during fatigue deformation, manifested as cyclic softening in the cyclic stress response, shortens the residual creep life. Based on the experimental results, cyclic softening occurring during fatigue stage can be correlated with residual creep life, evolving in an empirical model which predicts residual creep life as a function of cyclic softening. Predicted creep lives for specimens pre-cycled at various strain amplitudes are explained on the basis of mechanism of cyclic softening

  16. Cyclic softening as a parameter for prediction of remnant creep rupture life of a Indian reduced activation ferritic–martensitic (IN-RAFM) steel subjected to fatigue exposures

    Sarkar, Aritra, E-mail: aritra@igcar.gov.in [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102, Tamil Nadu (India); Vijayanand, V.D.; Shankar, Vani; Parameswaran, P.; Sandhya, R.; Laha, K.; Mathew, M.D.; Jayakumar, T. [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102, Tamil Nadu (India); Rajendrakumar, E. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India)

    2014-12-15

    Sequential fatigue-creep tests were conducted on Indian reduced activation ferritic–martensitic steel at 823 K leading to sharp decrease in residual creep life with increase in prior fatigue exposures. Extensive recovery of martensitic-lath structure taking place during fatigue deformation, manifested as cyclic softening in the cyclic stress response, shortens the residual creep life. Based on the experimental results, cyclic softening occurring during fatigue stage can be correlated with residual creep life, evolving in an empirical model which predicts residual creep life as a function of cyclic softening. Predicted creep lives for specimens pre-cycled at various strain amplitudes are explained on the basis of mechanism of cyclic softening.

  17. Softening of infrared-active mode of perovskite BaZrO3 proved by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

    The low-frequency infrared-active optical modes were studied in a barium zirconate, BaZrO3, single crystal with the perovskite structure using terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy (TDS). The real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constants were accurately determined in the frequency range between 0.2 and 2.7 THz. Upon cooling from room temperature to 8 K, the lowest-frequency TO1 mode at 2.32 THz showed a pronounced softening to 1.94 THz. The real part of the dielectric constant at 0.5 THz determined by THz-TDS obeys Barrett's relation, and the existence of a plateau confirms that the quantum effects lead to saturation of the soft mode frequencies of the TO1 and TO2 modes below ≈20 K. This is reminiscent of incipient ferroelectrics with the perovskite structure such as CaTiO3

  18. A two stage model describes radiation softening of carrot

    Irradiation of food continues to be a subject of considerable scientific interest even though its commercial use is still small. A limiting factor in irradiation of horticultural crops is the softening it causes in fruit or vegetable tissue. Doses above about 1 kGy (100 krad) render the product unacceptably soft. Vegetable tissue is also softened greatly during thermal processing. Thermal softening of vegetable occurs in two stages: a rapid first-order process, followed by a second slow first-order process. To better understand the softening problem we studied the kinetics of radiation softening of raw carrot tissue using modern texture measuring equipment and compared it with the kinetics of thermal softening. (author). 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  19. Atividade da celulase e β-galactosidase no estudo da firmeza da polpa de mamões 'golden' e 'gran golden' Cellulase and β-galactosidase activities in 'golden' and 'gran golden' papaya softening

    Camilla Zanotti Gallon

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar a ação das enzimas celulase e β-galactosidase em relação à perda de firmeza dessas cultivares de mamões 'Gran Golden' e 'Golden' devido a relatos de uma perda de firmeza diferenciada entre as cvs. Os frutos foram armazenados a 25ºC e analisados diariamente quanto à firmeza da polpa e à atividade enzimática da celulase e β-galactosidase durante 8 dias. Os resultados de firmeza da polpa e atividade enzimática foram submetidos às análises de correlação e regressão. No 4º dia pós-colheita os mamões 'Golden' apresentaram firmeza média de 60,6 N e os 'Gran Golden' 31,1 N e a um aumento da atividade da celulase e da β-galactosidase. Os dados gerados neste trabalho sugerem que as enzimas celulase e β-galactosidase atuam diferentemente no processo de perda de firmeza dos frutos das cultivares Goldene Gran Golden. Aantecipaçãonaperdade firmezade 'Gran Golden' pode estar relacionada com a maior atividade dessas enzimas.It has been reported by orchards from the north of Espírito Santo state that 'Gran Golden' papaya loses firmness faster than 'Golden'. The goal of this work was to evaluate the action of cellulase and β-galactosidase related to the softening on papaya. The fruits have been stored at 25ºC and firmness and enzymes activities were daily analyzed during 8 days. The results were submitted to correlation and regression analysis. The activity of cellulase and β-galactosidase had increased for both cultivars. The 4th postharvest day showed that 'Golden' firmness was 6.18 while 'Gran Golden' was 31.1 N. Fruit softening in 'Gran Golden' was intense and the fruit was very soft at ripe stage. These works show that hydrolytic enzymes cellulase and β-galactosidase act differently in the softening process in 'Golden'and 'Gran Golden'papaya. The flesh firmness on 'Gran Golden' is related to the increased activity of these enzymes. These results can help to choose which cultivar to produce

  20. Ecological emollients for softening ethnographical objects on collagen support

    Doina Maria Creangă

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of experiments, which form part of the “Complex techniques for investigating, evaluating, conserving and restoring ethnographical collagen materials” project, phase 3/2010, activity 3: The drafting and making of experimental sample of ecological softening agents with preventive and active preservation qualities for ethnographical items made from fur and leather, sub activity 5: The application and evaluation of the experimental results regarding the softening o...

  1. Softening processes in the heat-affected zone of the highly creep-resistant chromium steel X 10 CrMoVNb 9 1 in welded joints and in simulation specimens

    The study reported here investigates the thermal conditions that lead to 'softening' processes in the HAZ of the steel grade X 10 CrMoVNb 9 1. The experiments are carried out with welds encountered in practice and with simulation specimens. The causes of property changes in the HAZ are discussed on the basis of electron microscopic data, and the hardness and maximum tensile strain in short-time creep tests are determined, as well as the creep behaviour of the welds. It is shown that the processes occurring in the HAZ have important effects on the creep behaviour of the welds under transverse stress. (orig.)

  2. Changes in Septic Tank Effluent Due to Water Softener Use

    Hogan, Patrick Lynn

    2012-01-01

    The compatibility of home water softeners and septic tanks is of concern for the on-site wastewater treatment community. Research has shown that high sodium levels in activated sludge plants can lead to deflocculation and poor effluent quality. Therefore, it is logical to assume that high sodium levels that result from the exchange of calcium and magnesium for sodium in home softeners could give rise to poor effluent quality from septic tanks, leading to shortened lives of drain fields. Addit...

  3. Transitive Softening in Russian Conjugation

    Coats, H. S.; Lightner, T. M.

    1975-01-01

    Transitive softening, or the shift of a dental or velar to a palato-alveolar, and the insertion of a palatalized /1/ after a labial, are examined. The older transformational cycle of Halle is set aside in favor of a morphological rule. Productive and non-productive verb classes are analyzed. (SC)

  4. Effect of softening function on the cohesive crack fracture parameters of concrete CT specimen

    Shailendra Kumar; S V Barai

    2009-12-01

    The paper presents numerical study on the fracture parameters of concrete compact tension test specimens of different sizes using cohesive crack model. As softening function is the main ingredient of the cohesive crack model, seven numbers of widely used softening functions are incorporated in the model based on enhanced algorithm. It is found that the difference between the highest and the lowest peak loads obtained using various softening functions (except linear) is less than about 9%. The peak load predicted by the linear softening curve is about 16% larger than that of mean peak load predicted by other softening functions. The cohesive crack model with linear softening yields the fracture process zones lower by approximately 30–50% than those obtained by using the other softening relations for specimen size range 200–600 mm. The numerical results are further compared with a reference test result available in the literature. It is observed that some of softening relations (except linear) predict the experimentally obtained peak load up to 6% of accuracy whereas the linear softening curve overestimates it by about 30%. The numerically gained softening branch of load-displacement curves compare well with the experimental observation.

  5. Particle size distribution dynamics during precipitative softening: declining solution composition.

    Nason, Jeffrey A; Lawler, Desmond F

    2009-02-01

    Particle removal is a critical step in the treatment of surface water for potable use, and the majority of drinking water treatment plants employ precipitative coagulation processes such as alum and iron "sweep-floc" coagulation or lime softening for particle pre-treatment. Unfortunately, little is quantitatively known about how particle size distributions are shaped by simultaneous precipitation and flocculation. In an earlier paper, we demonstrated the effects of the saturation ratio, the mixing intensity and the seed concentration on the rates of homogeneous nucleation, precipitative growth and flocculation during precipitation of calcium carbonate at constant solution composition using electronic particle counting techniques. In this work, we extend those findings to systems more closely emulating the conditions in actual softening processes (i.e., declining solution composition). Key findings include the strong dependence of the rate of flocculation on the initial saturation ratio and demonstration of the benefits of seeding precipitative softening from the perspective of optimizing the effluent particle size distribution. The mixing intensity during precipitation was also shown to strongly influence the final particle size distribution. Implications of the findings with respect to softening practice are discussed. PMID:18976791

  6. Arsenic removal by lime softening

    Kaosol, T.; Suksaroj, C.; Bregnhøj, Henrik

    This paper focuses on the study of arsenic removal for drinking water by lime softening. The initial arsenic (V) concentration was 500 and 1,000 ug/L in synthetic groundwater. The experiments were performed as batch tests with varying lime dosages and mixing time. For the synthetic groundwater......, arsenic (V) removal increased with increasing lime dosage and mixing time, as well as with the resulting pH. The residual arsenic (V) in all cases was lower than the WHO guideline of 10 ug/L at pH higher than 11.5. Kinetic of arsenic (V) removal can be described by a first-order equation as C1 = C0*e......^-k*t. The relation between the constant (k value) and increasing lime dosage was found to be linear, described by k = 0.0034 (Dlime). The results support a theory from the literature that the arsenic (V) was removed by precipitation af Ca3(AsO4)2. The results obtained in the present study suggest that lime...

  7. ARSENIC REMOVAL BY SOFTENING AND COAGULATION

    Drinking water regulations for arsenic (As) and disinfection by-product precursor materials (measured as TOC) are becoming increasingly stringent. Among the modifications to conventional treatment that can improve removal of As and TOC, precipitative softening and coagulation are...

  8. Particle size distribution dynamics during precipitative softening: constant solution composition.

    Nason, Jeffrey A; Lawler, Desmond F

    2008-08-01

    In the treatment of surface water for potable use, precipitative coagulation (e.g., lime softening, alum or iron sweep coagulation) is widely utilized prior to particle removal processes. The particle size distribution (PSD) formed during such processes is a prime determinant of the removal efficiency for suspended and dissolved contaminants, but little is known quantitatively about how PSDs change by simultaneous precipitation and flocculation. Using precipitative softening as an example, detailed measurements of the PSD (using electronic particle counting) were made during precipitation of CaCO(3) under conditions of constant solution composition. Examination of the time-varying PSDs revealed dramatic changes resulting from nucleation, crystal growth, and flocculation. The influence of the saturation ratio, seed concentration, and mixing intensity on those processes was quantified. Implications with respect to the design and operation of water treatment facilities are discussed. PMID:18656223

  9. Mechanism of Annealing Softening of Rolled or Forged Tool Steel

    2003-01-01

    In order to reduce hardness of rolled or forged steels after annealing and improve processability, the diameter and dispersity of carbides were measured by SEM and quantitative metallography. The microstructure of annealed steel was analyzed by TEM. The effects of the factors such as solute atoms, carbides, grain boundary and interphase boundary were studied. The mechanism of annealing softening of steels was analyzed on the examples of steels H13, S5, S7, X45CrNiMo4, which are treated with new technology. The results showed that the softening of H13, S7, S5 is easier obtained by isothermal or slow cooling annealing from slightly below A1, but hardness of X45CrNiMo4 after annealing is reduced effectively by obtaining coarse lamellar pearlite. Economic results can be obtained from good processability.

  10. Softening Behaviour of Selected Commercially Pure Aluminium Model Alloys

    Sande, Gunnar

    2012-01-01

    A characterization of the softening behaviour of four different commercially pure aluminium alloys has been carried out. The work is related to the MOREAL project (Modelling towards value-added recycling friendly aluminium alloys), where the main goal is to quantify the effect of the elements in recyclable aluminium alloys on microstructure and mechanical properties during thermo-mechanical processing. Typical elements are iron (Fe), silicon (Si) and manganese (Mn), and the alloys studied in ...

  11. Two types of softening detected in x-ray afterglows of Swift bursts: internal and external shock origins?

    The softening process observed in the steep decay phase of early x-ray afterglows of Swift bursts has remained a puzzle since its discovery. The softening process can also be observed in the later phase of the bursts and its cause has also been unknown. Recently, it was suggested that, influenced by the curvature effect, emission from high latitudes would shift the Band function spectrum from a higher energy band to a lower band, and this would give rise to the observed softening process accompanied by a steep decay of the flux density. The curvature effect scenario predicts that the terminating time of the softening process would be correlated with the duration of the process. In this paper, on the basis of the data from the UNLV GRB (University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Gamma-Ray Burst) group web-site, we found an obvious correlation between the two quantities. In addition, we found that the softening process can be divided into two classes: the early type softening (ts,max≤'4000' s) and the late type softening (ts,max>'4000' s). The two types of softening show different behaviors in the duration versus terminating time plot. In the relation between the variation rates of the flux density and spectral index during the softening process, a discrepancy between the two types of softening is also observed. According to their timescales and the discrepancy between them, we propose that the two types are of different origins: the early type is of internal shock origin and the late type is of external shock origin. The early softening is related to the steep decay just following the prompt emission, whereas for the late decay one typically conceives the transition from flat decay to late afterglow decay. We suspect that there might be a great difference in Lorentz factor between the two classes, which is responsible for the observed discrepancy

  12. Two types of softening detected in X-ray afterglows of Swift bursts: internal and external shock origins?

    Qin, Y -P; Fan, J H; Lu, R -J

    2008-01-01

    The softening process observed in the steep decay phase of early X-ray afterglows of Swift bursts has remained a puzzle since its discovery. The softening process can also be observed in the later phase of the bursts and its cause has also been unknown. Recently, it was suggested that, influenced by the curvature effect, emission from high latitudes would shift the Band function spectrum from higher energy band to lower band, and this would give rise to the observed softening process accompanied by a steep decay of the flux density. The curvature effect scenario predicts that the terminating time of the softening process would be correlated with the duration of the process. In this paper, based on the data from the UNLV GRB group web-site, we found an obvious correlation between the two quantities. In addition, we found that the softening process can be divided into two classes: the early type softening ($t_{s,max}\\leq "4000"s$) and the late type softening ($t_{s,max} > "4000"s$). The two types of softening s...

  13. Softening and elution of monomers in ethanol

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Asmussen, Erik; Munksgaard, E Christian;

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of light-curing protocol on softening and elution of monomers in ethanol as measured on a model polymer. It was a further aim to correlate the measured values with previously reported data on degree of conversion and glass transition...

  14. Activated Sludge Process Overview

    B. Ahansazan; H. Afrashteh; N. Ahansazan; Z. Ahansazan

    2014-01-01

    In recent years the waste water ministerial regulations have led to a constant ascend in the purification performance demanded of waste water treatment plants. Because of this, the number of waste water treatment plants has been maturing, and technical complexity has also been growing. In order to hold the connected rising costs of capital expenditure and operation within bounds, sagacious process technology solutions have to be found. Besides having a deeper understanding of the individual p...

  15. Lower cell wall pectin solubilisation and galactose loss during early fruit development in apple (Malus x domestica) cultivar 'Scifresh' are associated with slower softening rate.

    Ng, Jovyn K T; Schröder, Roswitha; Brummell, David A; Sutherland, Paul W; Hallett, Ian C; Smith, Bronwen G; Melton, Laurence D; Johnston, Jason W

    2015-03-15

    Substantial differences in softening behaviour can exist between fruit even within the same species. Apple cultivars 'Royal Gala' and 'Scifresh' soften at different rates despite having a similar genetic background and producing similar amounts of ethylene during ripening. An examination of cell wall metabolism from the fruitlet to the ripe stages showed that in both cultivars pectin solubilisation increased during cell expansion, declined at the mature stage and then increased again during ripening. This process was much less pronounced in the slower softening 'Scifresh' than in 'Royal Gala' at every developmental stage examined, consistent with less cell separation and softening in this cultivar. Both cultivars also exhibited a progressive loss of pectic galactan and arabinan side chains during development. The cell wall content of arabinose residues was similar in both cultivars, but the galactose residue content in 'Scifresh' remained higher than that of 'Royal Gala' at every developmental stage. The higher content of cell wall galactose residue in 'Scifresh' cell walls correlated with a lower β-galactosidase activity and more intense immunolabelling of RG-I galactan side chains in both microscopy sections and glycan microarrays. A high cell wall galactan content has been associated with reduced cell wall porosity, which may restrict access of cell wall-modifying enzymes and thus maintain better structural integrity later in development. The data suggest that the composition and structure of the cell wall at very early development stages may influence subsequent cell wall loosening, and may even predispose the wall's ensuing properties. PMID:25602611

  16. Softening processes in the heat-affected zone of the highly creep-resistant chromium steel X 10 CrMoVNb 9 1 in welded joints and in simulation specimens. Erweichungsverhalten der Waermeeinflusszone des hochwarmfesten Chromstahles X 10 CrMoVNb 9 1 in Schweissverbindungen und nach Simulationsbehandlung

    Bruehl, F.; Cerjak, H.; Muesch, H.; Niederhoff, K.

    1990-10-01

    The study reported here investigates the thermal conditions that lead to 'softening' processes in the HAZ of the steel grade X 10 CrMoVNb 9 1. The experiments are carried out with welds encountered in practice and with simulation specimens. The causes of property changes in the HAZ are discussed on the basis of electron microscopic data, and the hardness and maximum tensile strain in short-time creep tests are determined, as well as the creep behaviour of the welds. It is shown that the processes occurring in the HAZ have important effects on the creep behaviour of the welds under transverse stress. (orig.).

  17. Correlation between tension softening relation and crack extension resistance in concrete

    Xiufang ZHANG; Shilang XU

    2009-01-01

    Changes of the material fracture toughness with crack propagation can be described by a crack extension resistance curve, one of the fundamental fracture criteria in crack mechanics. Recently, experimental observation of the fracture behavior in concrete was used to develop a new fracture criterion, the crack extension GR resistance curve, to analyze crack propagation during the entire concrete fracture process. The variation of the crack extension resistance is mainly associated with the energy consumption in the fracture process zone ahead of the stress-free crack tip. The crack extension resistance is then a function of the softening curve, which is a basic mechanical property in the fracture process zone. The relationship between the softening curve and the crack extension GR resistance curve is then analyzed based on results of three-point bending beams tests. The results indicate that the characteristic points of the crack extension resistance GR curve is closely related to the characteristic point on used tension softening curve.

  18. Process optimisation of lime milk leaching and control of cold lime softening at the power plant STEAG Fenne; Optimierung des Kalkansatzes und Regelung der Kalkmilchdosierung in der KZA des STEAG-Kraftwerks Fenne

    Martin, Christian [Steag Kraftwerk Fenne, Voelklingen (Germany). Anlagentechnik; Arenz, Helmut [Steag Kraftwerk Fenne, Voelklingen (Germany). Technischer Service; Wysk, Ralf [NALCO Deutschland GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany). National Account Managing Kraftwerke

    2013-06-01

    An increase in turbidity in the cleaned water of the cold lime softener higher than the raw water input of the river Saar was observed at the Fenne site at some days in 2009. Also the post-installed sand filter could not restrain the fine particles. Under these circumstances the demineralisation water production had serious problems because of heavily fouled membranes in the reverse osmosis system. Only the immense personal actions of the operating staff could enable the reliability of the water preparation system on site. Together with Nalco the power plant service department implemented a plant audit on site. The purpose of the plant audit was to find the reason for the bottleneck in water preparation and to optimise and automate the water treatment system under the aspects of economical reliability and control efficiency. (orig.)

  19. A FRACTURE-ENERGY-BASED ELASTO-SOFTENING-PLASTIC CONSTITUTIVE MODEL FOR JOINTS OF GEOMATERIALS

    沈新普; 沈国晓

    2002-01-01

    On the basis of plasticity and fracture mechanics for quasi- brittle materials, this article presented a constitutive model for gradual softening behavior of joints of geomaterials. Corresponding numerical tests are carried out at the local level. Characteristics of the model proposed are 1 ) plastic softening and dilatancy behavior are directly related to the fracture process of joint, and much less material and model parameters are required compared with those proposed by references; 2) the process of decohesion coupled with friction al sliding at both micro-scale and macro-scale is described.

  20. Water softening by single-bowl ion exchange filter efficiency estimate and improvement

    Kostygin, V A; Kochetov, G M; Tugay, A M; Vashchenko, V N

    2014-01-01

    The article presents results of experimental investigations of the water softener in a laboratory installation of uninterruptible countercurrent ion exchange filter, which has a movable layer of ion exchange material. The installation provides for two simultaneous processes: counter ion sorption and regeneration of the sorbent with the processing capability of the sorbent in the regeneration zone by ultrasonic radiation.

  1. Direct Cytoskeleton Forces Cause Membrane Softening in Red Blood Cells

    Rodríguez-García, Ruddi; López-Montero, Iván; Mell, Michael; Egea, Gustavo; Gov, Nir S.; Monroy, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Erythrocytes are flexible cells specialized in the systemic transport of oxygen in vertebrates. This physiological function is connected to their outstanding ability to deform in passing through narrow capillaries. In recent years, there has been an influx of experimental evidence of enhanced cell-shape fluctuations related to metabolically driven activity of the erythroid membrane skeleton. However, no direct observation of the active cytoskeleton forces has yet been reported to our knowledge. Here, we show experimental evidence of the presence of temporally correlated forces superposed over the thermal fluctuations of the erythrocyte membrane. These forces are ATP-dependent and drive enhanced flickering motions in human erythrocytes. Theoretical analyses provide support for a direct force exerted on the membrane by the cytoskeleton nodes as pulses of well-defined average duration. In addition, such metabolically regulated active forces cause global membrane softening, a mechanical attribute related to the functional erythroid deformability. PMID:26083919

  2. Kinetic of softening of carrot by gamma radiation

    Raw carrots were diced into 9.5 mm cubes, and subjected to gamma radiation between an array of Co60 pencils. A series of doses ranging from 0 to approximately 50 kGy was given. A plot of log (extrusion force) versus dose showed two distinct regions; the first is a rectilinear plot with a steep negative slope for doses up to about 15 kGy. The second is also a rectilinear plot with a shallow negative slope beyond 15 kGy. Sixty-seven percent of the firmness is lost with the first 15 kGy but only 4% of the firmness is lost with the highest 15 kGy increase in dose. This two-stage softening rate curve is consistent with the model of two first-order kinetic rate processes and is qualitatively similar to that for thermal softening of carrot. The term “radiation firmness” is proposed to describe the amount of firmness that is resistant to degradation by irradiation

  3. Cyclic softening of the Ti-10V-2Fe-3Al titanium alloy

    Luquiau, D. [Univ. de Technologie de Compiegne (France). Dept. de Genie Mecanique; Feaugas, X. [Univ. de Technologie de Compiegne (France). Dept. de Genie Mecanique; Clavel, M. [Univ. de Technologie de Compiegne (France). Dept. de Genie Mecanique

    1997-03-31

    The {beta}-metastable Ti-10V-2Fe-3Al alloy is studied in low cycle fatigue (LCF) at room temperature. An acicular and two equiaxed {alpha}{sub p} structures aged at different temperatures were produced and specimens were tested under plastic strain control. The experimental results show that the Ti-10V-2Fe-3Al alloy softens cyclically. The amplitude of the softening is not affected by the microstructure and it decreases as the applied plastic strain increases. The investigations show that this phenomenon proceeds from a decrease in both the isotropic and the kinematic components of the stress. The deformation modes have been analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) after the cyclic softening stage. Homogeneous prismatic slip is mainly observed in the {alpha}-phase. Furthermore, abundant cross-slip of left angle a right angle dislocations and left angle c+a right angle slip are also observed. The kinematic decrease is associated with a process of grain-to-grain homogenization of yielding through the microstructure, and the isotropic softening with dislocations annihilation enhanced by cross-slip in the {alpha}-phase. Quantitative TEM analysis with regard to the crystallographic orientation of {alpha}{sub p} particles indicates that the decrease in the softening amplitude at high levels of the applied plastic strain must be related to the occurrence of left angle c+a right angle slip. (orig.)

  4. Progressive failure analysis of slope with strain-softening behaviour based on strength reduction method

    Ke ZHANG; Ping CAO; Rui BAO

    2013-01-01

    Based on the strength reduction method and strain-softening model,a method for progressive failure analysis of strain-softening slopes was presented in this paper.The mutation is more pronounced in strain-softening analysis,and the mutation of displacement at slope crest was taken as critical failure criterion.An engineering example was provided to demonstrate the validity of the present method.This method was applied to a cut slope in an industry site.The results are as follows: (1) The factor of safety and the critical slip surface obtained by the present method are between those by peak and residual strength.The analysis with peak strength would lead to non-conservative results,but that with residual strength tends to be overly conservative.(2) The thickness of the shear zone considering strain-softening behaviour is narrower than that with non-softening analysis.(3) The failure of slope is the process of the initiation,propagation and connection of potential failure surface.The strength parameters are mobilized to a non-uniform degree while progressive failure occurs in the slope.(4) The factor of safety increases with the increase of residual shear strain threshold and elastic modulus.The failure mode of slope changes from shallow slip to deep slip.Poisson's ratio and dilation angle have little effect on the results.

  5. The Influence of Silicon Compound as Softener in the Finishing Processfor Anti Crease of Polyester-Cotton fabrics

    Nonionic softener were used frequently in the finishing process for anticrease with various resins to decrease the fabric stiffness. In this studythe blend of polyester-cotton fabrics (65% - 35%) were subjected to anticrease process by three kinds of resins namely methylol melamine, urone, anddimethylol dihydroxy ethylene urea (DMDHEU) accompanied by silicon typesoftener (polysiloxane). The concentration of silicon softener were variedfrom 0 to 10 g/l with 2 g/l different, with constant amount of 30 g/l resin.The finishing process were carried out by respected steps of padding, dryingand curing process at 170 oC for 90 seconds. The resin fabrics were thentested to fabric crease resistance before and after washing, fabricappearance, stiffness, tensile strength and dimensional stability afterwashing. It was indicated from the testing results that the higher additionalof silicon softener tend to increase the crease resistance of resin fabrics,increasing the appearance but decreasing stiffness, especially for methylolresin and urone, while for DMDHEU such increase is only up to additional of 2g/l silicon softener. Additional of silicon softener can improve the resinfabrics using the entire three anti crease resins, however, this process didnot give any reasonable changes for dimensional stability of the resinfabrics. In obtaining the best results it is suggested that the use of 30 g/lresins may be accompanied by additional of silicon softener in the respectedcombinations : 8 g/l silicon for methylol, 6 g/l for urone as well as 2 g/lfor DMDHEU resins. (author)

  6. Cyclic softening and strain mode evolution of an alpha/beta two-phase titanium alloy

    This study (that may be applied to zirconium alloys) deals with the identification of the different physical mechanisms at the source of cyclic softening, combining the concepts of internal and effective stresses with the transmission electronic microscopy observations. The influence of non proportional load trajectories on the Ti-6246 is emphasized. Results show that plasticity is mostly confined in the alpha phase, and that shearing of the Ti3Al phase is at the source of the slip localization in prismatic slip bands; slip delocalization is correlated to biased slip action; softening of internal stresses (temperature inferior to 500 K) results from the multiplication of the number of slip bands with respect to cumulative plastic deformation, and softening of effective stresses (temperature superior to 500 K) is associated to the shearing of the Ti3Al phase but also to the activation of the biased slip

  7. Anomalous softening of yield strength in tantalum at high pressures

    Jing, Qiumin, E-mail: j-qm@163.com; Wu, Qiang; Xu, Ji-an; Bi, Yan; Liu, Lei; Liu, Shenggang; Zhang, Yi; Geng, Huayun [National Key Laboratory of Shock Wave and Detonation Physics, Institute of Fluid Physics, CAEP, Mianyang 621900 (China)

    2015-02-07

    The pressure dependence of the yield strength of tantalum was investigated experimentally up to 101 GPa at room temperature using a diamond anvil cell. A yield strength softening is observed between 52 and 84 GPa, whereas a normal trend is observed below 52 GPa and above 84 GPa. The onset pressure of the softening is in agreement with previous results obtained by the pressure gradient method and shock wave experiments. This unusual strength softening in tantalum is not related with structural transformation, preferred orientation, or material damage. Our measurements indicate that microscopic deviatoric strain is the major reason for the observed strength softening in tantalum.

  8. USING AERATION FOR RECARBONATION OF WATER AFTER SOFTENING BY LIME-SODA ASH

    Laith A. Al Anaz

    2013-01-01

    Theresearch focus on using the aeration process as means for water recarbonationafter lime-soda softening. The results indicated that aeration efficientfor  recarbonation of three water sampleswith different characteristics. The lime-soda softening increased the (pH)values of the three samples to  reach(10.08,10.39,10.54) respectively. The aeration decreased these (pH) values to(8.26,8.36,8.23) respectively within (60)minutes. The depression was related tothe convert of the hydroxide and carb...

  9. Hypersensitive ethylene signaling and ZMdPG1 expression lead to fruit softening and dehiscence.

    Min Li

    Full Text Available 'Taishanzaoxia' fruit rapid softening and dehiscence during ripening stage and this process is very sensitive to endogenous ethylene. In this study, we cloned five ethylene signal transcription factors (ZMdEIL1, ZMdEIL2, ZMdEIL3, ZMdERF1 and ZMdERF2 and one functional gene, ZMdPG1, encoding polygalacturonase that could loose the cell connection which associated with fruit firmness decrease and fruit dehiscence to illustrate the reasons for this specific fruit phenotypic and physiological changes. Expression analysis showed that ZMdERF1 and ZMdEIL2 transcription were more abundant in 'Taishanzaoxia' softening fruit and dehiscent fruit and their expression was inhibited by an ethylene inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene. Therefore, ZMdERF1 and ZMdEIL2 expression were responses to endogenous ethylene and associated with fruit softening and dehiscence. ZMdPG1 expression was induced when fruit softening and dehiscence but this induction can be blocked by 1-MCP, indicating that ZMdPG1 was essential for fruit softening and dehiscence and its expression was mediated by the endogenously occurred ethylene. ZMdPG1 overexpression in Arabidopsis led to silique early dehiscence while suppressing ZMdPG1 expression by antisense ZMdPG1 prevented silique naturally opening. The result also suggested that ZMdPG1 related with the connection between cells that contributed to fruit softening and dehiscence. ZMdERF1 was more closely related with ethylene signaling but it was not directly regulated the ZMdPG1, which might be regulated by the synergic pattern of ethylene transcription factors because of both the ZMdERF1 and ZMdERF2 could interact with ZMdEIL2.

  10. Hypersensitive Ethylene Signaling and ZMdPG1 Expression Lead to Fruit Softening and Dehiscence

    Li, Min; Zhang, Yanmin; Zhang, Zongying; Ji, Xiaohao; Zhang, Rui; Liu, Daliang; Gao, Liping; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Biao; Wu, Yusen; Wu, Shujing; Chen, Xiaoliu; Feng, Shouqian; Chen, Xuesen

    2013-01-01

    ‘Taishanzaoxia’ fruit rapid softening and dehiscence during ripening stage and this process is very sensitive to endogenous ethylene. In this study, we cloned five ethylene signal transcription factors (ZMdEIL1, ZMdEIL2, ZMdEIL3, ZMdERF1 and ZMdERF2) and one functional gene, ZMdPG1, encoding polygalacturonase that could loose the cell connection which associated with fruit firmness decrease and fruit dehiscence to illustrate the reasons for this specific fruit phenotypic and physiological changes. Expression analysis showed that ZMdERF1 and ZMdEIL2 transcription were more abundant in ‘Taishanzaoxia’ softening fruit and dehiscent fruit and their expression was inhibited by an ethylene inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene. Therefore, ZMdERF1 and ZMdEIL2 expression were responses to endogenous ethylene and associated with fruit softening and dehiscence. ZMdPG1 expression was induced when fruit softening and dehiscence but this induction can be blocked by 1-MCP, indicating that ZMdPG1 was essential for fruit softening and dehiscence and its expression was mediated by the endogenously occurred ethylene. ZMdPG1 overexpression in Arabidopsis led to silique early dehiscence while suppressing ZMdPG1 expression by antisense ZMdPG1 prevented silique naturally opening. The result also suggested that ZMdPG1 related with the connection between cells that contributed to fruit softening and dehiscence. ZMdERF1 was more closely related with ethylene signaling but it was not directly regulated the ZMdPG1, which might be regulated by the synergic pattern of ethylene transcription factors because of both the ZMdERF1 and ZMdERF2 could interact with ZMdEIL2. PMID:23527016

  11. 优化软化-酶法高黄酮山楂汁制备工艺研究%Study on the Preparation Technology of High-flavone Hawthorn Juice by Optimum Softening-Enzyme Processing

    乔聚林; 陈倩; 朱传合

    2011-01-01

    以山楂汁制取过程中黄酮提取率为主要评价指标,还原糖提取率为次要评价指标,采用单因素试验、析固试验设计、响应面设计法优化山楂汁制取工艺,并建立山楂汁制取数学模型.结果表明:将山楂去核,90℃软化4 min后打浆,冷却,以水用量3 mL/g、酶用量1.1 mL/L加入水和果胶酶,54 ℃下浸提148 min.所得山楂汁营养保存最佳.山楂中黄酮提取率为92.36%,还原糖提取率为96.40%.%In this paper, the hawthorn juice extraction technology was optimized by single factor experiment fraction experimental design and response surface method, using flavonoids extraction rate as main index and reducing sugar extraction rate as secondary index, and the mathematical model of hawthorn juice preparation was established. Results showed that the optimum technology of hawthorn juice preparation were: stoning hawthorn was softened in 90 ℃ hot water for 4 min first, then mashing it, added water and pectinase to cold-mashed hawthorn for 3 mL/g and 1.1 mL/L, and extracted under 54 ℃ for 148 min. Using this extraction technology, hawthorn juice with optimum nutritive retention was obtained, its flavonoids extraction rate was 93.26%, reducing sugar extraction rate reached to 96.40%

  12. Magnetohydrodynamic process in solar activity

    Jingxiu Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetohydrodynamics is one of the major disciplines in solar physics. Vigorous magnetohydrodynamic process is taking place in the solar convection zone and atmosphere. It controls the generating and structuring of the solar magnetic fields, causes the accumulation of magnetic non-potential energy in the solar atmosphere and triggers the explosive magnetic energy release, manifested as violent solar flares and coronal mass ejections. Nowadays detailed observations in solar astrophysics from space and on the ground urge a great need for the studies of magnetohydrodynamics and plasma physics to achieve better understanding of the mechanism or mechanisms of solar activity. On the other hand, the spectacular solar activity always serves as a great laboratory of magnetohydrodynamics. In this article, we reviewed a few key unresolved problems in solar activity studies and discussed the relevant issues in solar magnetohydrodynamics.

  13. Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes Associated with Apple Fruit Ripening and Softening by Suppression Subtractive Hybridization

    Zhang, Zongying; Jiang, Shenghui; Wang, Nan; Li, Min; Ji, Xiaohao; Sun, Shasha; Liu, Jingxuan; Wang, Deyun; Xu, Haifeng; Qi, Sumin; Wu, Shujing; Fei, Zhangjun; Feng, Shouqian; Chen, Xuesen

    2015-01-01

    Apple is one of the most economically important horticultural fruit crops worldwide. It is critical to gain insights into fruit ripening and softening to improve apple fruit quality and extend shelf life. In this study, forward and reverse suppression subtractive hybridization libraries were generated from ‘Taishanzaoxia’ apple fruits sampled around the ethylene climacteric to isolate ripening- and softening-related genes. A set of 648 unigenes were derived from sequence alignment and cluster assembly of 918 expressed sequence tags. According to gene ontology functional classification, 390 out of 443 unigenes (88%) were assigned to the biological process category, 356 unigenes (80%) were classified in the molecular function category, and 381 unigenes (86%) were allocated to the cellular component category. A total of 26 unigenes differentially expressed during fruit development period were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. These genes were involved in cell wall modification, anthocyanin biosynthesis, aroma production, stress response, metabolism, transcription, or were non-annotated. Some genes associated with cell wall modification, anthocyanin biosynthesis and aroma production were up-regulated and significantly correlated with ethylene production, suggesting that fruit texture, coloration and aroma may be regulated by ethylene in ‘Taishanzaoxia’. Some of the identified unigenes associated with fruit ripening and softening have not been characterized in public databases. The results contribute to an improved characterization of changes in gene expression during apple fruit ripening and softening. PMID:26719904

  14. Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes Associated with Apple Fruit Ripening and Softening by Suppression Subtractive Hybridization.

    Zongying Zhang

    Full Text Available Apple is one of the most economically important horticultural fruit crops worldwide. It is critical to gain insights into fruit ripening and softening to improve apple fruit quality and extend shelf life. In this study, forward and reverse suppression subtractive hybridization libraries were generated from 'Taishanzaoxia' apple fruits sampled around the ethylene climacteric to isolate ripening- and softening-related genes. A set of 648 unigenes were derived from sequence alignment and cluster assembly of 918 expressed sequence tags. According to gene ontology functional classification, 390 out of 443 unigenes (88% were assigned to the biological process category, 356 unigenes (80% were classified in the molecular function category, and 381 unigenes (86% were allocated to the cellular component category. A total of 26 unigenes differentially expressed during fruit development period were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. These genes were involved in cell wall modification, anthocyanin biosynthesis, aroma production, stress response, metabolism, transcription, or were non-annotated. Some genes associated with cell wall modification, anthocyanin biosynthesis and aroma production were up-regulated and significantly correlated with ethylene production, suggesting that fruit texture, coloration and aroma may be regulated by ethylene in 'Taishanzaoxia'. Some of the identified unigenes associated with fruit ripening and softening have not been characterized in public databases. The results contribute to an improved characterization of changes in gene expression during apple fruit ripening and softening.

  15. Effect of Submerged Arc Welding Flux Component on Softening Temperature

    2006-01-01

    Based on simplex algorithm of optimal design, the multicomponent mixture regression model was used to investigate physical properties of submerged arc welding flux. The effect of complex interaction of seven components in agglomerated flux on softening temperature was analyzed. The results indicate that the interaction of MgO-TiO2-CaCO3-Al2O3 increases the softening temperature of flux, but the additions of CaF2 and ZrO2 can decrease the softening temperature.

  16. Radiation processing activities at OGFL

    CONCAST group of Industries has set up the first Radiation Processing Plant in Eastern India as 'VIKIRAN' named as Organic Green Foods Ltd., situated at Dankuni (Durgapur Highway Express) 25 km away from central Kolkata on August 21, 2004. Shri Sanjay Sureka, Managing Director of Organic Green Foods Ltd., Kolkata belongs to the famous CONCAST Group of Industries operates the largest plant of West Bengal engaged in manufacturing of Steel Industry. The facility was aimed at improving the quality of healthcare products and devices as well as Laboratory, Spice, Herbal and Ayurvedic Products of large volumes on an industrial scale. The operation of VIKIRAN for the last ten years, has unambiguously proved that both the above objectives have been fully met and now radiation sterilization has emerged as an efficient and effective industrial process. The irradiator is a panoramic wet storage class-IV type. This Facility is designed for 1000 KCi activity of source and is suitable in medium and high dose range application. VIKIRAN offers radiation sterilization service to more than 100 manufacturers

  17. Viscosity and Softening Behavior of Alkali Zinc Sulfophosphate Glasses

    Da, Ning; Krolikowski, Sebastian; Nielsen, Karsten Hansgaard;

    2010-01-01

    We report on the softening properties and viscosity of glasses from the system ZnO-Na2O-SO3-P2O5 for low-temperature sealing applications. Up to a ratio of network-forming ions PO(4)3-:SO(4)2- of about 2:1, a gradual substitution of P2O5 by SO3 results in decreasing glass transition and softening...

  18. Dynamical Crossover in Supercritical Core-Softened Fluids

    Gaiduk, Eu. A.; Fomin, Yu. D.; Ryzhov, V.N.; Tsiok, E. N.; Brazhkin, V. V.

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that some liquids can demonstrate anomalous behavior. Interestingly, this be- havior can be qualitatively reproduced with simple core-softened isotropic pair-potential systems. Although anomalous properties of liquids usually take place at low and moderate temperatures it was recently recognized that many important phenomena can appear in supercritical fuids. However, no studies of supercritical behavior of core-softened fuids is reported. This paper reports a study of dynami...

  19. Calorimetric consequences of thermal softening in Johnson-Cook's model

    RANC, Nicolas; CHRYSOCHOOS, André

    2013-01-01

    International audience At high loading rates, the development of adiabatic shear bands in metals is conventionally attributed to the strong interactions induced by viscoplastic dissipation within the bands and thermal softening effects. The rheological equation proposed by Johnson and Cook takes both viscoplastic hardening and thermal softening into account. The present paper reviews and includes this equation into a thermodynamic framework in order to analyse the energy impacts of thermal...

  20. Pectin modifications and the role of pectin-degrading enzymes during postharvest softening of Jonagold apples.

    Gwanpua, Sunny George; Van Buggenhout, Sandy; Verlinden, Bert E; Christiaens, Stefanie; Shpigelman, Avi; Vicent, Victor; Kermani, Zahra Jamsazzadeh; Nicolai, Bart M; Hendrickx, Marc; Geeraerd, Annemie

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed at understanding softening in Jonagold apple (Malus×domestica Borkh.) fruits, by investigating pectin modifications and the evolution of pectin-modifying enzymes during postharvest storage and ripening. Jonagold apples were harvested at commercial maturity and stored at different temperatures and controlled atmosphere conditions for 6 months, followed by exposure to ambient shelf life conditions (20 °C under air) for 2 weeks. The composition of the pectic material was analysed. Furthermore, the firmness and the ethylene production of the apples were assessed. Generally, the main changes in pectin composition associated with the loss of firmness during ripening in Jonagold apples were a loss of side chains neutral sugars, increased water solubility and decreased molar mass. Also, the activities of four important enzymes possibly involved in apple softening, β-galactosidase, α-arabinofuranosidase, polygalacturonase and pectin methylesterase, were measured. Pectin-related enzyme activities highly correlated with ethylene production, but not always with pectin modifications. PMID:24731343

  1. Influence of ethanol concentration on softening tests for cross-link density evaluation of dental composites

    Rafael Ratto de Moraes; Luis Felipe Jochims Schneider; Lourenço Correr-Sobrinho; Simonides Consani; Mário Alexandre Coelho Sinhoreti

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of ethanol concentration on softening tests for cross-link density evaluation (microhardness) of dental composites. Specimens of Filtek Z100 (3M ESPE) were light-activated by standard or pulse-delay methods. After initial Knoop hardness readings (KHN1), half of specimens (n = 10) for each irradiation method was stored in 100% ethanol, and half in 75% ethanol, during 24 hours, and hardness was determined anew. Hardness deterioration (DKHN) was recorded as ...

  2. Anticipated Activities in Maritime Work, Process Control, and Business Processes

    Andersen, Peter Bøgh

    2004-01-01

    Most activities are anticipated before they are executed. The paper presents methods for describing this anticipated state and the processes that may lead to a new state where the activities are executed. The method builds on linguistic case-theory....

  3. Conductivities and Seebeck coefficients of boron carbides: Softening bipolaron hopping

    Aselage, T. L.; Emin, D.; McCready, S. S.

    2001-08-01

    The electrical conductivities and Seebeck coefficients of boron carbides B12+xC3-x with 0.06function of the composition x. This strong sensitivity to composition indicates that percolation effects, arising from boron carbides having carbon atoms in inequivalent locations, influence the conductivity at low temperature. With x holes per unit cell, boron carbides have very large Seebeck coefficients that depend only weakly on x. The magnitudes and temperature dependences of the Seebeck coefficients are consistent with large contributions from carrier-induced softening of local vibrations. Softening effects can be exceptionally large when singlet bipolarons are stabilized among degenerate electronic energy levels by their softening of symmetry-breaking vibrations: ``softening bipolarons.'' The boron carbide transport properties are generally consistent with those expected of softening bipolarons. Finally, two high-temperature effects are observed in the boron carbide conductivities. The conductivities of samples having high carrier densities, x~1, are suppressed above 700 K. This suppression can arise when the rapid hopping of nearby carriers disrupts the energy coincidence required for a carrier's hop. At even higher temperatures, a sharp increase in the boron carbide conductivities (σ~T4) suggests a radiation-induced excitation of mobile charge carriers.

  4. The Etiology and Treatment of the Softened Phallus after the Radial Forearm Osteocutaneous Free Flap Phalloplasty

    Seok-Kwun Kim

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background The radial forearm osteocutaneous free flap is considered to be the standardtechnique for penile construction. One year after their operation, most patients experience asoftened phallus, so that they suffer from difficulties in sexual intercourse. In this report, wepresent our experience with phalloplasty by radial forearm osteocutaneous free flap, as wellas an evaluation of the etiology and treatment of the softened phallus.Methods Between March 2005 and February 2010, 58 patients underwent phalloplastyby radial forearm osteocutaneous free flap. Most of their neophallus had been softenedsubjectively and among them, 12 patients who wanted correction were investigated. Weperformed repetitive fat injection, artificial dermis grafting, silicone rod insertion, and rib bonewith cartilaginous tip graft. Physical examination, plain radiograph, computed tomography,bone scintigraphy, and satisfaction scores were investigated.Results Most of the participants’ penises have been softened after phalloplasty, and the skinelasticity had been also decreased. On plain radiograph, the distal end of the bone was self-rounded;however, the bone shape of the neophallus had no significant interval changes or resorption.Computed tomography showed equivocal density of cortical bone. On bone scintigraphy, the bonemetabolism was active at 3 months postoperatively, and remained active 9 years postoperatively.Conclusions The use of a rib bone with cartilaginous tip graft could be an option for improvementof the softened phallus. Silicon rod insertion is also worth considering for rigidity of the softenedphallus. Decreased rigidity due to soft tissue atrophy could be alleviated with repeated fat injectionand artificial dermis grafting.

  5. Electrochemical Ion-Exchange Regeneration and Fluidized Bed Crystallization for Zero-Liquid-Discharge Water Softening.

    Chen, Yingying; Davis, Jake R; Nguyen, Chi H; Baygents, James C; Farrell, James

    2016-06-01

    This research investigated the use of an electrochemical system for regenerating ion-exchange media and for promoting the crystallization of hardness minerals in a fluidized bed crystallization reactor (FBCR). The closed-loop process eliminates the creation of waste brine solutions that are normally produced when regenerating ion-exchange media. A bipolar membrane electrodialysis stack was used to generate acids and bases from 100 mM salt solutions. The acid was used to regenerate weak acid cation (WAC) ion-exchange media used for water softening. The base solutions were used to absorb CO2 gas and to provide a source of alkalinity for removing noncarbonate hardness by WAC media operated in H(+) form. The base solutions were also used to promote the crystallization of CaCO3 and Mg(OH)2 in a FBCR. The overall process removes hardness ions from the water being softened and replaces them with H(+) ions, slightly decreasing the pH value of the softened water. The current utilization efficiency for acid and base production was ∼75% over the operational range of interest, and the energy costs for producing acids and bases were an order of magnitude lower than the costs for purchasing acid and base in bulk quantities. Ion balances indicate that the closed-loop system will accumulate SO4(2-), Cl(-), and alkali metal ions. Acid and base balances indicate that for a typical water, small amounts of base will be accumulated. PMID:27161852

  6. Stress Softening Behavior in the Mucosa-Submucosa and Muscle Layers in Normal and Diabetic Rat Esophagus

    Jiang, Hongbo; Liao, Donghua; Zhao, Jingbo;

    2015-01-01

    stress softening behavior in these layers in normal and diabetic rat esophagus and how diabetes affect the reversibility of esophageal stress softening.Methods: Ten Wistar rats were injected with STZ and the average blood glucose level reached 25 mmol/L after 8 weeks. Ten rats were used as the normal......M KCl was added for maximum contraction for 3min. KCl was washed out to permit relaxation and contractions were eliminated by immersion into Ca2+-free solution. After 1h rest, the tubes were exposed to five repeated ramp distensions conformed to the aforesaid two series. Stress-strain curves were used...... softer even after KCl treatment.Conclusion: The stress softening behavior in normal and diabetic esophageal tissue is different. We demonstrated reversible mechanical properties in the normal muscle layer after KCl activation. These adjustable passive mechanical properties may serve as a kind of 'self...

  7. Slow softening of Kanzi apples (Malus×domestica L.) is associated with preservation of pectin integrity in middle lamella.

    Gwanpua, Sunny George; Verlinden, Bert E; Hertog, Maarten L A T M; Nicolai, Bart M; Hendrickx, Marc; Geeraerd, Annemie

    2016-11-15

    Kanzi is a recently developed apple cultivar that has an extremely low ethylene production, and maintains its crispiness during ripening. To identify key determinants of the slow softening behaviour of Kanzi apples, a comparative analysis of pectin biochemistry and tissue fracture pattern during different ripening stages of Kanzi apples was performed against Golden Delicious, a rapid softening cultivar. While substantial pectin depolymerisation and solubilisation was observed during softening in Golden Delicious apples, no depolymerisation or increased solubilisation was observed in Kanzi apples. Moreover, tissue failure during ripening was mainly by cell breakage in Kanzi apples and, in contrast, by cell separation in Golden Delicious apples. Kanzi apples had lower activity of beta-galactosidase, with no decline in the extent of branching of the pectin chain. A sudden decrease in firmness observed during senescence in Kanzi apples was not due to middle lamella dissolution, as tissue failure still occurred by cell breakage. PMID:27283709

  8. Radiochemical processing of activated targets

    The selection or development of an ''appropriate'' radiochemical processing scheme can be a complex and relatively difficult task. A variety of illustrative and alternative approaches to the various steps involved have been outlined. A few representative processing schemes have been examined in some detail. While these examples may serve to highlight the skills and versatility of the radiochemist, the most difficult aspect of radiochemical processing is frequently found in reconciling trade-offs. If the proper facilities are available, and the intended application and the limitations which that application impose on product quality are understood, a safe and reliable ''appropriate'' radiochemical processing scheme can almost always be developed. In the absence of such an understanding, even the best of facilities and technical skills are no guarantee of success

  9. Vibrational Softening of a Protein on Ligand Binding

    Balog, Erica [Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary; Perahia, David [Ecole Normale Superieure de Cachan, Cachan, France; Smith, Jeremy C [ORNL; Merzel, Franci [National Institute of Chemistry, Solvenia

    2011-01-01

    Neutron scattering experiments have demonstrated that binding of the cancer drug methotrexate softens the low-frequency vibrations of its target protein, dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). Here, this softening is fully reproduced using atomic detail normal-mode analysis. Decomposition of the vibrational density of states demonstrates that the largest contributions arise from structural elements of DHFR critical to stability and function. Mode-projection analysis reveals an increase of the breathing-like character of the affected vibrational modes consistent with the experimentally observed increased adiabatic compressibility of the protein on complexation.

  10. Strain-induced softening of glassy and crystalline polymers

    The data on strain-induced softening of glassy and crystalline polymers accompanied by development of the capability of high reversible strains in the samples are analyzed. It is shown that in the first strain cycle, the test sample demonstrates properties typical of glassy or crystalline state, whereas repeated stretching induces transition into a rubber-like high-elasticity state in which the polymer is capable of high reversible strains. It is noted that this transition represents a physical basis of strain-induced softening of glassy and crystalline polymers. The bibliography includes 114 references

  11. DRAINLESS COMBINED METHOD FOR WATER DESALINATION AND ITS PARTIAL SOFTENING

    H. G. Feyziyev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents  an operational mode of the combined technology pertaining to preparation of partially softened water used for thermal networks and deeply softened make-up water for installation of a reverse osmosis with H- and Na-cation exchange. Depending on ionic composition of initial water and a consumption ratio of water fed to a thermal network and a consumption of make-up water which is fed to an installation of the reverse osmosis calculation formulas for regenerations of H- and Na-of ions in the cation-exchange filters have been given in the paper.

  12. Specific Changes of Exocarp and Mesocarp Occurring during Softening Differently Affect Firmness in Melting (MF) and Non Melting Flesh (NMF) Fruits

    E. Onelli; Ghiani, A; Gentili, R; Serra, S; Musacchi, S.; Citterio, S

    2015-01-01

    Melting (MF) and non melting flesh (NMF) peaches differ in their final texture and firmness. Their specific characteristics are achieved by softening process and directly dictate fruit shelf life and quality. Softening is influenced by various mechanisms including cell wall reorganization and water loss. In this work, the biomechanical properties of MF Spring Crest's and NMF Oro A's exocarp and mesocarp along with the amount and localization of hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonoids were invest...

  13. Signal Processing under Active Monitoring

    Mostovyi, Oleksii

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a method of signal preprocessing under active monitoring. Suppose we want to solve the inverse problem of getting the response of a medium to one powerful signal, which is equivalent to obtaining the transmission function of the medium, but do not have an opportunity to conduct such an experiment (it might be too expensive or harmful for the environment). Practically the problem can be reduced to obtaining the transmission function of the medium. In this case ...

  14. Magnetohydrodynamic process in solar activity

    Jingxiu Wang; Jie Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Magnetohydrodynamics is one of the major disciplines in solar physics. Vigorous magnetohydrodynamic process is taking place in the solar convection zone and atmosphere. It controls the generating and structuring of the solar magnetic fields, causes the accumulation of magnetic non-potential energy in the solar atmosphere and triggers the explosive magnetic energy release, manifested as violent solar flares and coronal mass ejections. Nowadays detailed observations in solar astrophysics from s...

  15. Induced mutations in tomato SlExp1 alter cell wall metabolism and delay fruit softening.

    Minoia, Silvia; Boualem, Adnane; Marcel, Fabien; Troadec, Christelle; Quemener, Bernard; Cellini, Francesco; Petrozza, Angelo; Vigouroux, Jacqueline; Lahaye, Marc; Carriero, Filomena; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid

    2016-01-01

    Fruit ripening and softening are key traits for many fleshy fruit. Since cell walls play a key role in the softening process, expansins have been investigated to control fruit over ripening and deterioration. In tomato, expression of Expansin 1 gene, SlExp1, during fruit ripening was associated with fruit softening. To engineer tomato plants with long shelf life, we screened for mutant plants impaired in SlExp1 function. Characterization of two induced mutations, Slexp1-6_W211S, and Slexp1-7_Q213Stop, showed that SlExp1 loss of function leads to enhanced fruit firmness and delayed fruit ripening. Analysis of cell wall polysaccharide composition of Slexp1-7_Q213Stop mutant pointed out significant differences for uronic acid, neutral sugar and total sugar contents. Hemicelluloses chemistry analysis by endo-β-1,4-d-glucanase hydrolysis and MALDI-TOF spectrometry revealed that xyloglucan structures were affected in the fruit pericarp of Slexp1-7_Q213Stop mutant. Altogether, these results demonstrated that SlExp1 loss of function mutants yield firmer and late ripening fruits through modification of hemicellulose structure. These SlExp1 mutants represent good tools for breeding long shelf life tomato lines with contrasted fruit texture as well as for the understanding of the cell wall polysaccharide assembly dynamics in fleshy fruits. PMID:26566837

  16. Characterization of major ripening events during softening in grape: turgor, sugar accumulation, abscisic acid metabolism, colour development, and their relationship with growth.

    Castellarin, Simone D; Gambetta, Gregory A; Wada, Hiroshi; Krasnow, Mark N; Cramer, Grant R; Peterlunger, Enrico; Shackel, Kenneth A; Matthews, Mark A

    2016-02-01

    Along with sugar accumulation and colour development, softening is an important physiological change during the onset of ripening in fruits. In this work, we investigated the relationships among major events during softening in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) by quantifying elasticity in individual berries. In addition, we delayed softening and inhibited sugar accumulation using a mechanical growth-preventing treatment in order to identify processes that are sugar and/or growth dependent. Ripening processes commenced on various days after anthesis, but always at similarly low elasticity and turgor. Much of the softening occurred in the absence of other changes in berry physiology investigated here. Several genes encoding key cell wall-modifying enzymes were not up-regulated until softening was largely completed, suggesting softening may result primarily from decreases in turgor. Similarly, there was no decrease in solute potential, increase in sugar concentration, or colour development until elasticity and turgor were near minimum values, and these processes were inhibited when berry growth was prevented. Increases in abscisic acid occurred early during softening and in the absence of significant expression of the V. vinifera 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenases. However, these increases were coincident with decreases in the abscisic acid catabolite diphasic acid, indicating that initial increases in abscisic acid may result from decreases in catabolism and/or exogenous import. These data suggest that softening, decreases in turgor, and increases in abscisic acid represent some of the earliest events during the onset of ripening. Later, physical growth, further increases in abscisic acid, and the accumulation of sugar are integral for colour development. PMID:26590311

  17. Cyclic softening in the MA956 ODS steel

    Kuběna, Ivo; Polák, Jaroslav; Kruml, Tomáš

    Germany, Karlsruhe, 2015. s. 378. [ICM 12 – International Conference on the Mechanical Behavior of Materials /12./. 10.05.2015-14.05.2015, Karlsruhe] Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : ODS steel * low cycle fatigue, * microstructure * cyclic softening Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics http://icm12.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/Book_of_Abstracts_ICM12.pdf

  18. Strain-softening instability model for the san fernando earthquake

    Stuart, W.D.

    1979-01-01

    Changes in the ground elevation observed before and immediately after the 1971 San Fernando, California, earthquake are consistent with a theoretical model in which fault zone rocks are strain-softening after peak stress. The model implies that the slip rate of the fault increased to about 0.1 meter per year near the focus before the earthquake.

  19. Stress-Softening and Residual Strain Effects in Suture Materials

    Alex Elías-Zúñiga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on the experimental characterization of suture material samples of MonoPlus, Monosyn, polyglycolic acid, polydioxanone 2–0, polydioxanone 4–0, poly(glycolide-co-epsilon-caprolactone, nylon, and polypropylene when subjected to cyclic loading and unloading conditions. It is found that all tested suture materials exhibit stress-softening and residual strain effects related to the microstructural material damage upon deformation from the natural, undistorted state of the virgin suture material. To predict experimental observations, a new constitutive material model that takes into account stress-softening and residual strain effects is developed. The basis of this model is the inclusion of a phenomenological nonmonotonous softening function that depends on the strain intensity between loading and unloading cycles. The theory is illustrated by modifying the non-Gaussian average-stretch, full-network model to capture stress-softening and residual strains by using pseudoelasticity concepts. It is shown that results obtained from theoretical simulations compare well with suture material experimental data.

  20. Experimental study and simulation of cyclic softening of tempered martensite ferritic steels

    The present work focuses on the high temperature mechanical behaviour of 9% Cr tempered martensite steels, considered as potential candidates for structural components in the next Generation IV nuclear power plants. Already used for energy production in fossil power plants, they are sensitive to softening during high-temperature cycling and creep-fatigue. This phenomenon is coupled to a pronounced microstructural degradation: mainly vanishing of subgrain boundaries and decrease in dislocation density. This study aims at (i) linking the macroscopic cyclic softening of 9% Cr steels and their microstructural evolution during cycling and (ii) proposing a physically-based modelling of deformation mechanisms in order to predict the macroscopic mechanical behaviour of these steels during cycling. Mechanical study includes uniaxial tensile and cyclic test at 550 C performed on a Grade 92 steel (9Cr-0,5Mo-1,8W-V-Nb). The effect of both strain amplitude and rate on mechanical behaviour is studied. Examination of tensile specimens suggests that the physical mechanism responsible for slight measured softening is mainly the necking phenomenon and the evolution of mean subgrain size, which increases by more than 15 % compared to the as-received state. The evolution of the macroscopic stress during cycling shows that cyclic softening is due to the decrease in kinematic stress. TEM observations highlights that the mean subgrain size increases by 60 to 100 % while the dislocation density decreases by more than 50 % during cycling, compared to the as-received state. A self-consistent homogenization model based on crystalline elasto-visco-plasticity and dislocation densities, predicting the mechanical behaviour of the material and its microstructural evolution during deformation is proposed. This model takes some of the main physical deformation mechanisms into account and only the two parameters of crystalline visco-plasticity should be adjusted (the effective activation energy and

  1. Cell Membrane Softening in Cancer Cells

    Schmidt, Sebastian; Händel, Chris; Käs, Josef

    Biomechanical properties are useful characteristics and regulators of the cell's state. Current research connects mechanical properties of the cytoskeleton to many cellular processes but does not investigate the biomechanics of the plasma membrane. We evaluated thermal fluctuations of giant plasma membrane vesicles, directly derived from the plasma membranes of primary breast and cervical cells and observed a lowered rigidity in the plasma membrane of malignant cells compared to non-malignant cells. To investigate the specific role of membrane rigidity changes, we treated two cell lines with the Acetyl-CoA carboxylase inhibitor Soraphen A. It changed the lipidome of cells and drastically increased membrane stiffness by up regulating short chained membrane lipids. These altered cells had a decreased motility in Boyden chamber assays. Our results indicate that the thermal fluctuations of the membrane, which are much smaller than the fluctuations driven by the cytoskeleton, can be modulated by the cell and have an impact on adhesion and motility.

  2. Nonlinear softening as a predictive precursor to climate tipping

    Sieber, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Approaching a dangerous bifurcation, from which a dynamical system such as the Earth's climate will jump (tip) to a different state, the current stable state lies within a shrinking basin of attraction. Persistence of the state becomes increasingly precarious in the presence of noisy disturbances. We consider an underlying potential, as defined theoretically for a saddle-node fold and (via averaging) for a Hopf bifurcation. Close to a stable state, this potential has a parabolic form; but approaching a jump it becomes increasingly dominated by softening nonlinearities. If we have already detected a decrease in the linear decay rate, nonlinear information allows us to estimate the propensity for early tipping due to noise. If there is no discernable trend in the linear analysis, nonlinear softening is even more important in showing the proximity to tipping. After extensive normal form calibration studies, we apply our technique to two geological time series from paleo-climate tipping events. For the ending of ...

  3. Solving the Standard Model Problems in Softened Gravity

    Salvio, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The Higgs naturalness problem is solved if the growth of Einstein's gravitational interaction is softened at an energy $ \\lesssim 10^{11}\\,$GeV (softened gravity). We work here within an explicit realization where the Einstein-Hilbert Lagrangian is extended to include terms quadratic in the curvature and a non-minimal coupling with the Higgs. We show that this solution is preserved by adding three right-handed neutrinos with masses below the electroweak scale, accounting for neutrino oscillations, dark matter and the baryon asymmetry. The smallness of the right-handed neutrino masses (compared to the Planck scale) and the QCD $\\theta$-term are also shown to be natural. We prove that a possible gravitational source of CP violation cannot spoil the model, thanks to the presence of right-handed neutrinos. Starobinsky inflation can occur in this context, even if we live in a metastable vacuum.

  4. Electric field-induced softening of alkali silicate glasses

    McLaren, C.; Heffner, W.; Jain, H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015 (United States); Tessarollo, R.; Raj, R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States)

    2015-11-02

    Motivated by the advantages of two-electrode flash sintering over normal sintering, we have investigated the effect of an external electric field on the viscosity of glass. The results show remarkable electric field-induced softening (EFIS), as application of DC field significantly lowers the softening temperature of glass. To establish the origin of EFIS, the effect is compared for single vs. mixed-alkali silicate glasses with fixed mole percentage of the alkali ions such that the mobility of alkali ions is greatly reduced while the basic network structure does not change much. The sodium silicate and lithium-sodium mixed alkali silicate glasses were tested mechanically in situ under compression in external electric field ranging from 0 to 250 V/cm in specially designed equipment. A comparison of data for different compositions indicates a complex mechanical response, which is observed as field-induced viscous flow due to a combination of Joule heating, electrolysis and dielectric breakdown.

  5. Electric field-induced softening of alkali silicate glasses

    Motivated by the advantages of two-electrode flash sintering over normal sintering, we have investigated the effect of an external electric field on the viscosity of glass. The results show remarkable electric field-induced softening (EFIS), as application of DC field significantly lowers the softening temperature of glass. To establish the origin of EFIS, the effect is compared for single vs. mixed-alkali silicate glasses with fixed mole percentage of the alkali ions such that the mobility of alkali ions is greatly reduced while the basic network structure does not change much. The sodium silicate and lithium-sodium mixed alkali silicate glasses were tested mechanically in situ under compression in external electric field ranging from 0 to 250 V/cm in specially designed equipment. A comparison of data for different compositions indicates a complex mechanical response, which is observed as field-induced viscous flow due to a combination of Joule heating, electrolysis and dielectric breakdown

  6. Exploiting material softening in hard PZTs for resonant bandwidth enhancement

    Leadenham, S.; Moura, A.; Erturk, A.

    2016-04-01

    Intentionally designed nonlinearities have been employed by several research groups to enhance the frequency bandwidth of vibration energy harvesters. Another type of nonlinear resonance behavior emerges from the piezoelectric constitutive behavior for high excitation levels and is manifested in the form of softening stiffness. This material nonlinearity does not result in the jump phenomenon in soft piezoelectric ceramics, e.g. PZT-5A and PZT-5H, due to their large internal dissipation. This paper explores the potential for wideband energy harvesting using a hard (relatively high quality factor) PZT-8 bimorph by exploiting its material softening. A wide range of base excitation experiments conducted for a set of resistive electrical loads confirms the frequency bandwidth enhancement.

  7. Hardening by annealing and softening by deformation in nanostructured metals

    Huang, X.; Hansen, N.; Tsuji, N.

    2006-01-01

    We observe that a nanostructured metal can be hardened by annealing and softened when subsequently deformed, which is in contrast to the typical behavior of a metal. Microstructural investigation points to an effect of the structural scale on fundamental mechanisms of dislocation-dislocation and....... As a consequence, the strength decreases and the ductility increases. These observations suggest that for materials such as the nanostructured aluminum studied here, deformation should be used as an optimizing procedure instead of annealing....

  8. Organosilicon Softening Agent%有机硅柔软剂

    韩富; 张高勇; 王军

    2001-01-01

    综述了有机硅柔软剂在织物整理方面的研究与应用情况。介绍了有机硅柔软剂的发展与现状,论述了有机硅柔软剂的柔软机理,详细叙述了有机硅柔软剂的种类、结构及性能特点,展望了有机硅柔软剂的发展前景,提出了有机硅柔软剂存在的主要问题和改进的方向。%The study and application of organosilicon softening - agent in the fabric industry was reviewed. The softening mechanism was disucssed.Their classification, structure and characteristics were expounded. An overview of these products were presented. The main problem and the improving direction of organosilicon softening agents were also discussed.

  9. CRIMINAL PROCESS AND OPERATIONAL AND INVESTIGATIVE ACTIVITY

    Meretukov G. M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors of the article examine the relationship between the criminal process and investigative activity taking into consideration the requirements of the Criminal Procedure Law and the Law on Investigative Activities in the Russian Federation. Such important issues as main tasks and principles of the criminal process and investigative activity are considered in the article. The authors analyze interrelations of some investigative actions and operational search as well as the order of introduction and usage of the results of the investigative activities at the stage of criminal case initializing and in the course of investigative activities. The authors also pay attention to the data which must be submitted in the report or memorandum on the prepared or being committed crime giving grounds for criminal case initializing

  10. Influence of ethanol concentration on softening tests for cross-link density evaluation of dental composites

    Rafael Ratto de Moraes

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the influence of ethanol concentration on softening tests for cross-link density evaluation (microhardness of dental composites. Specimens of Filtek Z100 (3M ESPE were light-activated by standard or pulse-delay methods. After initial Knoop hardness readings (KHN1, half of specimens (n = 10 for each irradiation method was stored in 100% ethanol, and half in 75% ethanol, during 24 hours, and hardness was determined anew. Hardness deterioration (DKHN was recorded as the difference between pre and post-storage values. KHN1 data were submitted to one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (alpha = 0.05, and hardness deterioration was analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (alpha= 0.05. For KHN1, no significant differences were detected between the activation modes (p = 0.697. Samples light-activated by the pulse-delay method presented significantly higher softening compared to the standard mode when samples were immersed in 100% ethanol. Conversely, no significant differences between curing modes were detected for samples stored in 75% ethanol.

  11. Electroweak processes in external active media

    Kuznetsov, Alexander; Mikheev, Nickolay [Yaroslavl State P.G. Demidov Univ. (Russian Federation). Theoretical Physics Dept.

    2013-06-01

    Covers new effects of a pure magnetic field on electroweak processes. Focus lays on the calculation technique for electroweak processes in external active media - hot dense plasma. Useful reference for researchers and for graduate students. Expanding on the concept of the authors' previous book ''Electroweak Processes in External Electromagnetic Fields,'' this new book systematically describes the investigation methods for the effects of external active media, both strong electromagnetic fields and hot dense plasma, in quantum processes. Solving the solar neutrino puzzle in a unique experiment conducted with the help of the heavy-water detector at the Sudbery Neutrino Observatory, along with another neutrino experiments, brings to the fore electroweak physics in an active external medium. It is effectively demonstrated that processes of neutrino interactions with active media of astrophysical objects may lead, under some physical conditions, to such interesting effects as neutrino-driven shockwave revival in a supernova explosion, a ''cherry stone shooting'' mechanism for pulsar natal kick, and a neutrino pulsar. It is also shown how poor estimates of particle dispersion in external active media sometimes lead to confusion. The book will appeal to graduate and post-graduate students of theoretical physics with a prior understanding of Quantum Field Theory (QFT) and the Standard Model of Electroweak Interactions, as well as to specialists in QFT who want to know more about the problems of quantum phenomena in hot dense plasma and external electromagnetic fields.

  12. Dynamic and static softening of sintered MgO-PSZ/TRIP-matrix composites with up to 10 vol.-% ZrO{sub 2}

    Yanina, A.; Guk, S.; Mueller, W.; Kawalla, R. [Institute of Metal Forming, Technische Universitaet Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany); Weigelt, C. [Institute of Ceramic, Glass and Construction Materials, Technische Universitaet Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    A metal matrix composite (MMC) consisting of AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel with up to 10 vol.-% MgO-PSZ was produced by a powder metallurgic process through sintering at 1300 C and 1390 C. The hot working of sintered samples was conducted between 900 C and 1100 C. The behaviour of softening kinetics was investigated using flow curve recording methods (dynamic softening) and the double-hit method (static softening). The influence of the deformation parameters such as temperature, strain rate, inter-pass time and relative density of the samples was determined. The microstructure development of the sintered composite after hot forming was determined by optical microscopy and SEM and was interpreted with the help of qualitative microstructure analysis. The results show a general acceleration of softening processes with increasing temperature and strain rate, with the addition of ZrO{sub 2} particles and a decrease in the density of composite materials. A mathematical-physical model was developed to predict the softening behaviour and optimize the forming processes of the composite in the light of these results. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Shoreline processes, stranded oil and cleanup activities

    The initial character of stranded oil is a function of a large number of interactive variables that include the volume and character of the oil as it reaches the shore zone, nearshore oceanographic conditions at the time of stranding, and the character of the zone substrate. The fate of stranded oil on the shoreline is a function of weathering processes, natural removal, and of treatment activities. The presentation will review each of the major components described above and will present summary models to describe relative rates of natural change for selected scenarios. The role of coastal processes will be considered and used to illustrate how shoreline dynamics can remove or bury stranded oil. Examples will be provided to show some of the characteristic processes that cause changes in the distribution of stranded oil. Some shoreline treatment activities involve disturbance and relocation or removal of beach substrate; the effects of such activities will be illustrated and evaluated

  14. Spherical carbons: Synthesis, characterization and activation processes

    Romero Anaya, Aroldo José; Ouzzine, Mohammed; Lillo Ródenas, María Ángeles; Linares Solano, Ángel

    2014-01-01

    Spherical carbons have been prepared through hydrothermal treatment of three carbohydrates (glucose, saccharose and cellulose). Preparation variables such as treatment time, treatment temperature and concentration of carbohydrate have been analyzed to obtain spherical carbons. These spherical carbons can be prepared with particle sizes larger than 10 μm, especially from saccharose, and have subsequently been activated using different activation processes (H3PO4, NaOH, KOH or physical activati...

  15. A damage-softening statistical constitutive model considering rock residual strength

    Wang, Zhi-liang; Li, Yong-chi; Wang, J. G.

    2007-01-01

    Under stress, the microcracks in rock evolve (initiation, growth and coalescence) from damage to fracture with a continuous process. In order to describe this continuous process, a damage-softening statistical constitutive model for rock was proposed based on the Weibull distribution of mesoscopic element strength. This model usually adopts the Drucker-Prager criterion as its distribution parameter of mesoscopic element strength, which may produce larger damage zone in numerical simulations. This paper mainly studies the effects of strength criteria and residual strength on the performance of this damage-softening statistical constitutive model of rock. Main works include following three aspects: Firstly, the mechanical behaviors of rock are comparatively studied when the Drucker-Prager and the Mohr-Coulomb criteria are employed, respectively, as the distribution parameter. Then, a coefficient is introduced to make this constitutive model be capable of describing the residual strength of rock. Finally, a user-defined subroutine is concisely developed for this model and checked through typical strain paths. The current work lays a good foundation for further application of this model in geotechnics and geosciences.

  16. Process for encapsulating active agents in gels

    Yilmaz, G.; Jongboom, R.O.J.; Oosterhaven, J.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention relates to a process for encapsulating an active agent in a biopolymer in the form of a gel, comprising the steps of: a) forming a dispersion or solution of the biopolymer in water; and b) adding the active agent to the dispersion or solution obtained in step a); wherein the biopolymer is at least partially dissolved before and/or after addition of the active agent. The gels obtained with the present invention are particularly suitable for coating or impregnating packagi...

  17. Softening the supersymmetric flavor problem in orbifold grand unified theories

    The infrared attractive force of the bulk gauge interactions is applied to soften the supersymmetric flavor problem in the orbifold SU(5) grand unified theory of Kawamura. Then this force aligns in the infrared regime the soft supersymmetry breaking terms out of their anarchical disorder at a fundamental scale, in such a way that flavor-changing neutral currents as well as dangerous CP-violating phases are suppressed at low energies. It is found that this dynamical alignment is sufficiently good compared with the current experimental bounds, as long as the diagonalization matrices of the Yukawa couplings are CKM-like

  18. Magnetic evaluation of the hardening and softening of thermally aged iron-copper alloys

    We evaluated the variations of the magnetic hysteretic behaviour of Fe-1wt%Cu model alloy samples due to thermal aging and over-aging. In these alloys, the formation and growth of Cu-precipitates during the thermal aging process results in mechanical hardening, whereas for aging times higher than a certain critical value, mechanical softening occurs. Magnetic hysteretic properties such as permeability, remanence, peak value and width of the local interaction field distribution, which is related to the Preisach model, are measured as a function of various Cu-precipitation stages obtained by time dependent heat treatments at 773 K (500 deg. C). We found that all magnetic parameters exhibit an extremum value for the peak hardening sample. Furthermore, the variation of permeability, remanence, and the peak value of the local interaction field distribution mimics the behaviour of the reciprocal value of the yield stress as a function of aging time. These results suggest that the magnetic domain wall movement is hindered mainly by Cu-precipitates upon thermal aging. The peak hardening values of the investigated magnetic parameters change by approximately 50% when compared with the initial values. This pronounced sensitivity indicates the potential of magnetic non-destructive evaluation for the assessment of the hardening and softening phenomena induced by Cu-precipitation

  19. FraTAct for Transforming A Nescient Process Activity Into an Intelligent Process Activity

    Rafiqul Haque

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Existing business process technologies support defining only nescient activities. Currently there is no solution that underpins transforming a nescient activity into intelligent activity. In this paper, we address this shortcoming of the state of the art. We offer a framework ‘FraTAct’ for transforming regulation intensive nescient activities of a financial service business process into intelligent activities. Financial service industries has been experiencing enormous challenges since the last decade. A recent financial crisis has unearthed various weaknesses in terms of administering the financial service industries. In order to prevent the future crisis, the regulators are constantly formulating new rules and also forcing the financial service industry to enact financial regulations in their financial service based application which automates financial operations. A financial service application underpins the financial service business process that contains activities. A nescient activity within a financial service process is prone to the risk of producing an inconsistent outcome that results in severe legal consequences for a financial institute e.g., a bank. In order to avoid these legal consequences, a financial institute should develop their financial service processes by composing activities that should be intelligent to understand and comply with financial regulations. Intelligent activities will produce outcomes that are consistent to financial regulations. It will reduce the possibility of financial regulation noncompliance in financial service process based application.

  20. Tensile strain-induced softening of iron at high temperature

    Li, Xiaoqing; Schönecker, Stephan; Simon, Eszter; Bergqvist, Lars; Zhang, Hualei; Szunyogh, László; Zhao, Jijun; Johansson, Börje; Vitos, Levente

    2015-11-01

    In weakly ferromagnetic materials, already small changes in the atomic configuration triggered by temperature or chemistry can alter the magnetic interactions responsible for the non-random atomic-spin orientation. Different magnetic states, in turn, can give rise to substantially different macroscopic properties. A classical example is iron, which exhibits a great variety of properties as one gradually removes the magnetic long-range order by raising the temperature towards its Curie point of  = 1043 K. Using first-principles theory, here we demonstrate that uniaxial tensile strain can also destabilise the magnetic order in iron and eventually lead to a ferromagnetic to paramagnetic transition at temperatures far below . In consequence, the intrinsic strength of the ideal single-crystal body-centred cubic iron dramatically weakens above a critical temperature of ~500 K. The discovered strain-induced magneto-mechanical softening provides a plausible atomic-level mechanism behind the observed drop of the measured strength of Fe whiskers around 300-500 K. Alloying additions which have the capability to partially restore the magnetic order in the strained Fe lattice, push the critical temperature for the strength-softening scenario towards the magnetic transition temperature of the undeformed lattice. This can result in a surprisingly large alloying-driven strengthening effect at high temperature as illustrated here in the case of Fe-Co alloy.

  1. Speech perception as an active cognitive process

    Shannon eHeald

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available One view of speech perception is that acoustic signals are transformed into representations for pattern matching to determine linguistic structure. This process can be taken as a statistical pattern-matching problem, assuming realtively stable linguistic categories are characterized by neural representations related to auditory properties of speech that can be compared to speech input. This kind of pattern matching can be termed a passive process which implies rigidity of processingd with few demands on cognitive processing. An alternative view is that speech recognition, even in early stages, is an active process in which speech analysis is attentionally guided. Note that this does not mean consciously guided but that information-contingent changes in early auditory encoding can occur as a function of context and experience. Active processing assumes that attention, plasticity, and listening goals are important in considering how listeners cope with adverse circumstances that impair hearing by masking noise in the environment or hearing loss. Although theories of speech perception have begun to incorporate some active processing, they seldom treat early speech encoding as plastic and attentionally guided. Recent research has suggested that speech perception is the product of both feedforward and feedback interactions between a number of brain regions that include descending projections perhaps as far downstream as the cochlea. It is important to understand how the ambiguity of the speech signal and constraints of context dynamically determine cognitive resources recruited during perception including focused attention, learning, and working memory. Theories of speech perception need to go beyond the current corticocentric approach in order to account for the intrinsic dynamics of the auditory encoding of speech. In doing so, this may provide new insights into ways in which hearing disorders and loss may be treated either through augementation or

  2. Activation of consolidation processes of alumina ceramics

    Matrenin, S. V.; Zenin, B. S.; Tayukin, R. V.

    2016-02-01

    The methods for activating sintering ceramics based on Al2O3 by mechanical activation in the planetary mill, by adding in the mixture of nanopowders (NP) Al, Al2O3, and submicron powder TiO2, and by applying the technology of spark plasma sintering (SPS) are developed. It has been shown that adding the nanopowder up to 20 wt. % Al2O3 in a coarse powder α-Al2O3 activates the sintering process resulting in increased density and hardness of the sintered alumina ceramics. Substantial effect of increasing density of alumina ceramics due to adding the submicron powder TiO2 in the compound of initial powder mixtures has been established.

  3. Investigation of work softening mechanisms and texture in a hot deformed 6061 aluminum alloy at high temperature

    Hot deformation behavior of 6061 aluminum alloy was investigated by performing compression test in the temperature range of 350–500 °C. Equivalent strain rates were selected in the range of 0.0005–0.5 s−1 in order to obtain processing and stability maps of the studied material using a Dynamic Material Model. Microstructure of the samples after deformation was analyzed by light and electron microscopy and the differences were compared together. The stresses obtained from the flow curves were related to strain rate (ε) and temperature (T) by a constitutive equation in hyperbolic sine function with hot deformation activation energy of 274 kJ/mol, and were described by the Zener–Hollomon equation. Microstructure results showed that with decreasing Z value, the elongated grains coarsened and the tendency of dynamic recrystallization enhanced. Correspondingly, the subgrain size increased and the dislocation density decreased. Moreover, the main softening mechanism of the alloy transformed from dynamic recovery to dynamic recrystallization. XRD results showed that the (200) texture has an important role in development of dynamic recystallization at high temperature

  4. Optimal softening for force calculations in collisionless N-body simulations

    Athanassoula, E; Lambert, J C; Bosma, A

    1999-01-01

    In N-body simulations the force calculated between particles representing a given mass distribution is usually softened, to diminish the effect of graininess. In this paper we study the effect of such a smoothing, with the aim of finding an optimal value of the softening parameter. As already shown by Merritt (1996), for too small a softening the estimates of the forces will be too noisy, while for too large a softening the force estimates are systematically misrepresented. In between there is an optimal softening, for which the forces in the configuration approach best the true forces. The value of this optimal softening depends both on the mass distribution and on the number of particles used to represent it. For higher number of particles the optimal softening is smaller. More concentrated mass distributions necessitate smaller softening, but the softened forces are never as good an approximation of the true forces as for not centrally concentrated configurations. We give good estimates of the optimal soft...

  5. Modeling Aspects Of Activated Sludge Processes Part I: Process Modeling Of Activated Sludge Facilitation And Sedimentation

    Process modeling of activated sludge flocculation and sedimentation reviews consider the activated sludge floc characteristics such as: morphology viable and non-viable cell ratio density and water content, bio flocculation and its kinetics were studied considering the characteristics of bio flocculation and explaining theory of Divalent Cation Bridging which describes the major role of cations in bio flocculation. Activated sludge flocculation process modeling was studied considering mass transfer limitations from Clifft and Andrew, 1981, Benefild and Molz 1983 passing Henze 1987, until Tyagi 1996 and G. Ibrahim et aI. 2002. Models of aggregation and breakage of flocs were studied by Spicer and Pratsinis 1996,and Biggs 2002 Size distribution of floes influences mass transfer and biomass separation in the activated sludge process. Therefore, it is of primary importance to establish the role of specific process operation factors, such as sludge loading dynamic sludge age and dissolved oxygen, on this distribution with special emphasis on the formation of primary particles

  6. Modeling of an Active Tablet Coating Process.

    Toschkoff, Gregor; Just, Sarah; Knop, Klaus; Kleinebudde, Peter; Funke, Adrian; Djuric, Dejan; Scharrer, Georg; Khinast, Johannes G

    2015-12-01

    Tablet coating is a common unit operation in the pharmaceutical industry, during which a coating layer is applied to tablet cores. The coating uniformity of tablets in a batch is especially critical for active coating, that is, coating that contains an active pharmaceutical ingredient. In recent years, discrete element method (DEM) simulations became increasingly common for investigating tablet coating. In this work, DEM was applied to model an active coating process as closely as possible, using measured model parameters and non-spherical particles. We studied how operational conditions (rotation speed, fill level, number of nozzles, and spray rate) influence the coating uniformity. To this end, simulation runs were planned and interpreted according to a statistical design of (simulation) experiments. Our general goal was to achieve a deeper understanding of the process in terms of residence times and dimensionless scaling laws. With that regard, the results were interpreted in light of analytical models. The results were presented at various detail levels, ranging from an overview of all variations to in-depth considerations. It was determined that the biggest uniformity improvement in a realistic setting was achieved by increasing the number of spray nozzles, followed by increasing the rotation speed and decreasing the fill level. PMID:26344941

  7. A truly Newtonian softening length for disc simulations

    Huré, Jean-Marc

    2014-01-01

    The softened point mass model is commonly used in simulations of gaseous discs including self-gravity while the value of associated length \\lambda remains, to some degree, controversial. This ``parameter'' is however fully constrained when, in a discretized disc, all fluid cells are demanded to obey Newton's law. We examine the topology of solutions in this context, focusing on cylindrical cells more or less vertically elongated. We find that not only the nominal length depends critically on the cell's shape (curvature, radial extension, height), but it is either a real or an imaginary number. Setting \\lambda as a fraction of the local disc thickness -- as usually done -- is indeed not the optimal choice. We then propose a novel prescription valid irrespective of the disc properties and grid spacings. The benefit, which amounts to 2-3 more digits typically, is illustrated in a few concrete cases. A detailed mathematical analysis is in progress.

  8. Softening in random networks of non-identical beams

    Ban, Ehsan; Barocas, Victor H.; Shephard, Mark S.; Picu, R. Catalin

    2016-02-01

    Random fiber networks are assemblies of elastic elements connected in random configurations. They are used as models for a broad range of fibrous materials including biopolymer gels and synthetic nonwovens. Although the mechanics of networks made from the same type of fibers has been studied extensively, the behavior of composite systems of fibers with different properties has received less attention. In this work we numerically and theoretically study random networks of beams and springs of different mechanical properties. We observe that the overall network stiffness decreases on average as the variability of fiber stiffness increases, at constant mean fiber stiffness. Numerical results and analytical arguments show that for small variabilities in fiber stiffness the amount of network softening scales linearly with the variance of the fiber stiffness distribution. This result holds for any beam structure and is expected to apply to a broad range of materials including cellular solids.

  9. Degradation of corticosteroids during activated sludge processing.

    Miyamoto, Aoi; Kitaichi, Yuko; Uchikura, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory tests of the decomposition of corticosteroids during activated sludge processing were investigated. Corticosteroid standards were added to activated sludge, and aliquots were regularly taken for analysis. The corticosteroids were extracted from the samples using a solid-phase extraction method and analyzed LC-MS. Ten types of corticosteroids were measured and roughly classified into three groups: 1) prednisolone, triamcinolone, betamethasone, prednisolone acetate, and hydrocortisone acetate, which decomposed within 4 h; 2) flunisolide, betamethasone valerate, and budesonide of which more than 50% remained after 4 h, but almost all of which decomposed within 24 h; and 3) triamcinolone acetonide, and fluocinolone acetonide of which more than 50% remained after 24 h. The decomposed ratio was correlated with each corticosteroid's Log P, especially groups 2) and 3). PMID:24390495

  10. Investigation on removal of hardness ions by capacitive deionization (CDI) for water softening applications.

    Seo, Seok-Jun; Jeon, Hongrae; Lee, Jae Kwang; Kim, Gha-Young; Park, Daewook; Nojima, Hideo; Lee, Jaeyoung; Moon, Seung-Hyeon

    2010-04-01

    Capacitive deionization (CDI) for removal of water hardness was investigated for water softening applications. In order to examine the wettability and pore structure of the activated carbon cloth and composites electrodes, surface morphological and electrochemical characteristics were observed. The highly wettable electrode surface exhibited faster adsorption/desorption of ions in a continuous treatment system. In addition, the stack as well as unit cell operations were performed to investigate preferential removal of the hardness ions, showing higher selectivity of divalent ions rather than that of the monovalent ion. Interestingly, competitive substitution was observed in which the adsorbed Na ions were replaced by more strongly adsorptive Ca and Mg ions. The preferential removal of divalent ions was explained in terms of ion selectivity and pore characteristics in electrodes. Finally, optimal pore size and structure of carbon electrodes for efficient removal of divalent ions were extensively discussed. PMID:19897222

  11. A simple model for solute-solvent separation through nanopores based on core-softened potentials

    de Vasconcelos, Cláudia K. B.; Batista, Ronaldo J. C.; da Rocha Régis, McGlennon; Manhabosco, Taíse M.; de Oliveira, Alan B.

    2016-07-01

    We propose an effective model for solute separation from fluids through reverse osmosis based on core-softened potentials. Such potentials have been used to investigate anomalous fluids in several situations under a great variety of approaches. Due to their simplicity, computational simulations become faster and mathematical treatments are possible. Our model aims to mimic water desalination through nano-membranes through reverse osmosis, for which we have found reasonable qualitative results when confronted against all-atoms simulations found in the literature. The purpose of this work is not to replace any fully atomistic simulation at this stage, but instead to pave the first steps towards coarse-grained models for water desalination processes. This may help to approach problems in larger scales, in size and time, and perhaps make analytical theories more viable.

  12. 15 CFR 400.31 - Manufacturing and processing activity; criteria.

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Manufacturing and processing activity... ZONES BOARD Manufacturing and Processing Activity-Reviews § 400.31 Manufacturing and processing activity....” When evaluating zone and subzone manufacturing and processing activity, either as proposed in...

  13. Comparison of shear banding in BMGs due to thermal-softening and free volume creation

    LIU LongFei; DAI LanHong; BAI YiLong; KE FuJiu

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports a comparative study of shear banding in BMGs resulting from thermal softening and free volume creation. Firstly, the effects of thermal softening and free volume creation on shear instability are discussed. It is known that ther-mal softening governs thermal shear banding, hence it is essentially energy related. However, compound free volume creation is the key factor to the other instability, though void-induced softening seems to be the counterpart of thermal softening. So, the driving force for shear instability owing to free volume creation is very dif-ferent from the thermally assisted one. In particular, long wave perturbations are always unstable owing to compound free volume creation. Therefore, the shear instability resulting from coupled compound free volume creation and thermal softening may start more like that due to free volume creation. Also, the compound free volume creation implies a specific and intrinsic characteristic growth time of shear instability. Finally, the mature shear band width is governed by the corre-sponding diffusions (thermal or void diffusion) within the band. As a rough guide, the dimensionless numbers: Thermal softening related number B, Deborah number (denoting the relation of instability growth rate owing to compound free volume and loading time) and Lewis number (denoting the competition of different diffusions) show us their relative importance of thermal softening and free volume creation in shear banding. All these results are of particular significance in understanding the mechanism of shear banding in bulk metallic glasses (BMGs).

  14. Analysis of Balanced Double Lap Joints with a Bi-Linear Softening Adhesive

    Hansen, Christian Skodborg; Stang, Henrik; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup

    The response of a bonded symmetric balanced double lap joint under tensile loading with a bilinear softening adhesive is described with a closed form solution. Since bonded joints in concrete structures undergo softening, a versatile model to describe the response for a wide range of constitutive...

  15. Life cycle assessment of central softening of very hard drinking water

    Godskesen, Berit; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Rygaard, Martin;

    2012-01-01

    Many consumers prefer softened water due to convenience issues such as avoidance of removing limescale deposits from household appliances and surfaces, and to reduce consumption of cleaning agents and laundry detergents leading to lower household expenses. Even though central softening of drinking...... water entailed an increased use of energy, sand and chemicals at the waterworks, the distributed and softened drinking water supported a decrease in consumption of energy and chemical agents in the households along with a prolonged service life of household appliances which heat water. This study used...... Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to quantify the environmental impacts of central softening of drinking water considering both the negative effects at the waterworks and the positive effects imposed by the changed water quality in the households. The LCA modeling considered central softening of drinking...

  16. Correlated activity supports efficient cortical processing

    Chou Po Hung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Visual recognition is a computational challenge that is thought to occur via efficient coding. An important concept is sparseness, a measure of coding efficiency. The prevailing view is that sparseness supports efficiency by minimizing redundancy and correlations in spiking populations. Yet, we recently reported that ‘choristers’, neurons that behave more similarly (have correlated stimulus preferences and spontaneous coincident spiking, carry more generalizable object information than uncorrelated neurons (‘soloists’ in macaque inferior temporal (IT cortex. The rarity of choristers (as low as 6% of IT neurons indicates that they were likely missed in previous studies. Here, we report that correlation strength is distinct from sparseness (choristers are not simply broadly tuned neurons, that choristers are located in non-granular output layers, and that correlated activity predicts human visual search efficiency. These counterintuitive results suggest that a redundant correlational structure supports efficient processing and behavior.

  17. Modeling Aspects of Activated Sludge Processes Part l l: Mathematical Process Modeling and Biokinetics of Activated Sludge Processes

    Mathematical process modeling and biokinetics of activated sludge process were reviewed considering different types of models. It has been evaluated the task group models of ASMI. and 2, and 3 versioned by Henze et al considering the conditions of each model and the different processes of which every model consists. It is revealed that ASMI contains some defects avoided in ASM3. Relied on homogeneity, Models can be classified into homogenous models characterized by taking the activated sludge process as one phase. In this type of models, the internal mass transfer inside the floes was neglected.. Hence, the kinetic parameter produces can be considered inaccurate. The other type of models is the heterogeneous model This type considers the mass transfer operations in addition to the biochemical reaction processes; hence, the resulted kinetic parameters can be considered more accurate than that of homogenous type

  18. An Exploration of Activity Scheduling and Rescheduling Processes

    Chen, Quizi

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this research is to examine processes of activity scheduling and rescheduling by experiments. Activity scheduling processes were examined by using a combination of mail surveys and telephone interviews. It was found that individuals’ schedules are hardly complete. Scheduled activities take place less than 50% of all executed activities. The incompleteness suggests that activity scheduling and execution are a concurrent process and the distiction between is vague. Activities w...

  19. Softening Kinetics in High Al and High Al-Nb-Microalloyed Steels

    Pereda, B.; Aretxabaleta, Z.; López, B.

    2015-03-01

    Double-hit torsion tests were performed in order to study the effect of high Al levels (up to 2 wt.%) and Nb microalloying (up to 0.07 wt.%) on the static softening kinetics of 0.2%C-2%Mn steels. The addition of 1%Al leads to a delay in the softening kinetics due to solute-drag effect, equivalent to that exerted by 0.027%Nb. For the 2%Al steels, at temperatures below 1000 °C, γ → α phase transformation occurs after deformation, resulting in a larger retardation of the softening kinetics. At temperatures higher than 1000 °C, Nb in solid solution also contributes to the retardation of the static softening kinetics, and at lower temperatures NbC strain-induced precipitation leads to incomplete softening for the 1%Al steel, and to a complex interaction between softening, phase transformation, and NbC strain-induced precipitation for the 2%Al-Nb steels. The effect of Al on the static softening kinetics was quantified and introduced in a model developed in previous works for the prediction of the austenite microstructural evolution. In order to validate the results of the model, multipass torsion tests were carried out at conditions representative of hot strip and plate rolling mills. Model predictions show reasonable agreement with the results obtained at different deformation conditions.

  20. Extraction of pectic enzymes from of Lulo (Solanum quitoense lam) involved in softening

    The main problem of post-harvest deterioration of Lulo (Solanum quitoense lam) is the softening is the main problem of post-harvest deterioration of Lulo that is generated mainly by the activity of pectic enzymes, which attack the structural network of the cell wall. this research was based on finding the best conditions structural cell wall network for extraction and measurement of enzyme activity pectinesterase (PE), polygalacturonase (PG) and pectato liasa (PL); tools needed to study the further role of these enzymes in the deterioration of pectatelyase fruit softening, due to various metabolic changes. It was found that the first two enzymes can be extracted simultaneously with 20 mm phosphate buffer pH 7.0, 0.06 m NaCl and 60 minutes of extraction, ratio 1:2 (plant material: extraction buffer), pectatelyase extracted with 20 mm phosphate buffer pH 7.0, 20 mm cysteine and 30 minutes of extraction, ratio 1:3. for quantification of pectinesterase activity is necessary to incubate 15 minutes at 42 Celsius degrade, 2500 μl of crude enzyme extract (EE) in 20 mm phosphate buffer pH 7.0, to 0.15 m NaCl and 1.6% citrus pectin as (CP) substrate with apparent km values of 3.78% CP and vmax 17.95 mol h+/min, mg prot. for the quantification of pectinesterase activity is necessary to incubate 15 minutes to 42 Celsius degrade 2500 μl of crude enzyme extract (EE) in 20 mm phosphate buffer pH 7.0, 0.15 m NaCl and 1.6% citrus pectin as substrate with apparent km values of 3.78% CP and 17.95 μ vmax mol h+/min Mg prot. for the quantification of polygalacturonase activity is necessary to incubate 15 minutes to 37 Celsius degrade 30 μl (EE) in 200 mm acetate buffer pH 4.5, 0.25 m NaCl and 1.0% of APG as substrate, with apparent km values 0.141% of APG and vmax 28.46 nkat/s mg prot. for the quantification of the pectatelyase activity is necessary to incubate 2 minutes to 17 Celsius degrade, 100 μl (EE) in buffer tris: HCl pH 8.5, 50 mm 4 mm CaCl2 and 0.1% PGA as substrate, with

  1. Physical activity (PA) and the disablement process

    Schultz-Larsen, Kirsten; Rahmanfard, Naghmeh; Holst, Claus

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have explored the associations of reported PA (RPA) with the processes underlying the development of disability. The present study was performed to explore RPA among older persons and its association with onset of functional dependence and mortality. Among a probability sample of 1782...... community-living persons, aged 75-83 years, we evaluated the 1021 who reported no disability in basic activities of daily living. Participants were followed for a median of 8.34 years in public registers to determine onset of disability and mortality. RPA predicted mortality in older women (HR=1.77, 95%CI=1.......42-2.19) and men (HR=1.65, 95%CI=1.27-2.14) over long time intervals. The effect of RPA persisted among permanently disabled older women, after adjusting for age, baseline vulnerability and grade of disability. Low RPA was independently associated with risk of incident disability (HR=1.56, 95%CI=1.10-2.23) in...

  2. Experimental evidence of zone-center optical phonon softening by accumulating holes in thin Ge

    Kabuyanagi, Shoichi; Nishimura, Tomonori; Yajima, Takeaki; Toriumi, Akira [Department of Materials Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2016-01-15

    We discuss the impact of free carriers on the zone-center optical phonon frequency in germanium (Ge). By taking advantage of the Ge-on-insulator structure, we measured the Raman spectroscopy by applying back-gate bias. Phonon softening by accumulating holes in Ge film was clearly observed. This fact strongly suggests that the phonon softening in heavily-doped Ge is mainly attributed to the free carrier effect rather than the dopant atom counterpart. Furthermore, we propose that the free carrier effect on phonon softening is simply understandable from the viewpoint of covalent bonding modification by free carriers.

  3. Experimental evidence of zone-center optical phonon softening by accumulating holes in thin Ge

    Shoichi Kabuyanagi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the impact of free carriers on the zone-center optical phonon frequency in germanium (Ge. By taking advantage of the Ge-on-insulator structure, we measured the Raman spectroscopy by applying back-gate bias. Phonon softening by accumulating holes in Ge film was clearly observed. This fact strongly suggests that the phonon softening in heavily-doped Ge is mainly attributed to the free carrier effect rather than the dopant atom counterpart. Furthermore, we propose that the free carrier effect on phonon softening is simply understandable from the viewpoint of covalent bonding modification by free carriers.

  4. Softening and fatigue fracture of Al-Si-X alloy casts

    Oshikiri, Jouji; Umezawa, Osamu; Nakamura, Norio

    2011-01-01

    Ductile manner such as dimple fully covered on fatigue fracture surface of the specimens at 523 K. Softening behavior of eutectic or hyper-eutectic Al-Si-Cu-Mg-(Ni, Fe, Mn) alloy casts has been examined to estimate the influence of heating on their fatigue strength at higher temperature. The hyper-eutectic alloys showed remarkable softening rather than eutectic ones. The softening during heating over 523 K may be related to Al-Cu-Mg-Si precipitation and lowered content of Cu in the matrix.

  5. Hydrodynamic Limit For An Active Exclusion Process

    Clément, Erignoux

    2016-01-01

    Collective dynamics can be observed among many animal species, and have given rise in the last decades to an active and interdisciplinary field of study. Such behaviors are often modeled by active matter, in which each individual is self-driven and tends to update its velocity depending on the one of its neighbors. In a classical model introduced by Vicsek \\and al., as well as in numerous related active matter models, a phase transition between chaotic behavior at high temperature and global ...

  6. The Etiology and Treatment of the Softened Phallus after the Radial Forearm Osteocutaneous Free Flap Phalloplasty

    Seok-Kwun Kim; Tae-Heon Kim; Jin-Il Yang; Myung-Hoon Kim; Min-Soo Kim; Keun-Cheol Lee

    2012-01-01

    Background The radial forearm osteocutaneous free flap is considered to be the standard technique for penile construction. One year after their operation, most patients experience a softened phallus, so that they suffer from difficulties in sexual intercourse. In this report, we present our experience with phalloplasty by radial forearm osteocutaneous free flap, as well as an evaluation of the etiology and treatment of the softened phallus. Methods Between March 2005 and February 2010, 58 pat...

  7. Comparison of shear banding in BMGs due to thermal-softening and free volume creation

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports a comparative study of shear banding in BMGs resulting from thermal softening and free volume creation. Firstly,the effects of thermal softening and free volume creation on shear instability are discussed. It is known that ther-mal softening governs thermal shear banding,hence it is essentially energy related. However,compound free volume creation is the key factor to the other instability,though void-induced softening seems to be the counterpart of thermal softening. So,the driving force for shear instability owing to free volume creation is very dif-ferent from the thermally assisted one. In particular,long wave perturbations are always unstable owing to compound free volume creation. Therefore,the shear instability resulting from coupled compound free volume creation and thermal softening may start more like that due to free volume creation. Also,the compound free volume creation implies a specific and intrinsic characteristic growth time of shear instability. Finally,the mature shear band width is governed by the corre-sponding diffusions (thermal or void diffusion) within the band. As a rough guide,the dimensionless numbers: Thermal softening related number B,Deborah number (denoting the relation of instability growth rate owing to compound free volume and loading time) and Lewis number (denoting the competition of different diffusions) show us their relative importance of thermal softening and free volume creation in shear banding. All these results are of particular significance in understanding the mechanism of shear banding in bulk metallic glasses (BMGs).

  8. Numerical modeling of delayed and progressive failure in stiff clays with two-stage softening behaviour

    Zhan, Zhifeng

    2012-01-01

    Based on the laboratory, field and numerical results, the post-rupture strength defined firstly by Burland (1990) is verified and introduced in this thesis to describe the two-stage post-peak strain-softening characteristics of stiff clays. The first softening stage is induced by the loss of interbonding between particles, i.e. the cohesive component of strength at relatively small displacement and hence termed as cementation loss; while the second is due to the gradual realignment, ...

  9. Low Activity Waste Feed Process Control Strategy

    The primary purpose of this document is to describe the overall process control strategy for monitoring and controlling the functions associated with the Phase 1B high-level waste feed delivery. This document provides the basis for process monitoring and control functions and requirements needed throughput the double-shell tank system during Phase 1 high-level waste feed delivery. This document is intended to be used by (1) the developers of the future Process Control Plan and (2) the developers of the monitoring and control system

  10. Low Activity Waste Feed Process Control Strategy

    STAEHR, T.W.

    2000-06-14

    The primary purpose of this document is to describe the overall process control strategy for monitoring and controlling the functions associated with the Phase 1B high-level waste feed delivery. This document provides the basis for process monitoring and control functions and requirements needed throughput the double-shell tank system during Phase 1 high-level waste feed delivery. This document is intended to be used by (1) the developers of the future Process Control Plan and (2) the developers of the monitoring and control system.

  11. Thermally Activated Processes in Polymer Glasses

    V. Parihar; Drosdoff, D.; Widom, A.; Srivastava, Y. N.

    2005-01-01

    A derivation is given for the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann thermal activation law for the glassy state of a bulk polymer. Our microscopic considerations involve the entropy of closed polymer molecular chains (i.e. polymer closed strings). For thin film polymer glasses, one obtains open polymer strings in that the boundary surfaces serve as possible string endpoint locations. The Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann thermal activation law thereby holds true for a bulk polymer glass but is modified in the neighborho...

  12. Speech perception as an active cognitive process

    Howard Charles Nusbaum

    2014-01-01

    One view of speech perception is that acoustic signals are transformed into representations for pattern matching to determine linguistic structure. This process can be taken as a statistical pattern-matching problem, assuming realtively stable linguistic categories are characterized by neural representations related to auditory properties of speech that can be compared to speech input. This kind of pattern matching can be termed a passive process which implies rigidity of processingd with few...

  13. Quantitative Analysis of Dynamic Softening Behaviors Induced by Dynamic Recrystallization for Ti-10V-2Fe-2Al Alloy

    Quan, Guozheng; Pu, Shiao; Wen, Hairong; Zou, Zhenyu; Zhou, Jie

    2015-10-01

    In order to investigate the effect of dynamic recrystallization (DRX) behavior on dynamic softening behavior of wrought Ti-10V-2Fe-3Al titanium alloy, a series of laboratory scale isothermal hot compression tests with a height reduction of 60% were performed in a temperature range of 948 K 1023 K in the (σ + β) phase field, and a strain rate range of 0.01 10 s-1 on a Gleeble-3500 thermo-mechanical simulator. The flow curves show a continuous softening at all strain rate after peak stress. The constitutive equation and the DRX kinetic mold were established to study the dynamic softening based on the flow curves. By the regression analysis for conventional hyperbolic sine equation, the activation energy was determined as Q = 479.4169 kJ·mol-1, According to the strain hardening rate curves (dσ/dɛ versus σ), two characteristic parameters including the critical strain for DRX initiation (ɛc) and the strain for peak stress (ɛp) were identified, and the linear dependence of the critical strain (ɛc) for DRX initiation on the strain for peak stress (ɛp) can be specified by the equation: ɛc = 0.5667ɛp. A modified Avrami type equation X_{DRX} = 1 - exp[-β_{d}(\\varepsilon - \\varepsilon_c over \\varepsilon_{0.5})k_d] was introduced to characterize the evolution of DRX volume fraction. The evolution of DRX volume was described as the following: for a fixed strain rate, the strain required for the same amount of DRX volume fraction increases with decreasing deformation temperature, in contrast, for a fixed temperature, it increases with increasing strain rate. Finally, the impact of dynamic recrystallized behavior on degree of dynamic softening became weaker and weaker with the increasing of temperature for the strain rate of 0.01 s-1, 0.1 s-1, 1 s-1 and 10 s-1, due to the volume of α phase decreased with the increasing of temperature.

  14. Treatment and conditioning processes for low and medium activity waste

    This chapter reports on experimental studies of precipitation and membrane processes, exchange processes, particular techniques, and immobilization methods. Topics considered include the separation of actinides and fission products from medium activity waste (MAW) concentrate, the decontamination of low activity liquid wastes from fuel fabrication plants by ultrafiltration, active liquid treatment by a combination of precipitation and membrane processes, the treatment of liquid wastes by flocculation, the denitration and chemical precipitation of MAW concentrate, inorganic ion-exchangers prepared via a sol-gel process, liquid waste treatment by electrical processes, the incorporation of low and medium activity wastes in cement, and the conditioning of highly radioactive residues by utilizing a drum-dryer

  15. A program for activation analysis data processing

    An ALGOL program for activation analysis data handling is presented. The program may be used either for single channel spectrometry data or for multichannel spectrometry. The calculation of instrumental error and of analysis standard deviation is carried out. The outliers are tested, and the regression line diagram with the related observations are plotted by the program. (author)

  16. Modelling the Active Hearing Process in Mosquitoes

    Avitabile, Daniele; Homer, Martin; Jackson, Joe; Robert, Daniel; Champneys, Alan

    2011-11-01

    A simple microscopic mechanistic model is described of the active amplification within the Johnston's organ of the mosquito species Toxorhynchites brevipalpis. The model is based on the description of the antenna as a forced-damped oscillator coupled to a set of active threads (ensembles of scolopidia) that provide an impulsive force when they twitch. This twitching is in turn controlled by channels that are opened and closed if the antennal oscillation reaches a critical amplitude. The model matches both qualitatively and quantitatively with recent experiments. New results are presented using mathematical homogenization techniques to derive a mesoscopic model as a simple oscillator with nonlinear force and damping characteristics. It is shown how the results from this new model closely resemble those from the microscopic model as the number of threads approach physiologically correct values.

  17. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Fruit Softening Related Gene Mannanase from Banana Fruit

    ZHUANG Jun-ping; SU Jing; CHEN Wei-xin

    2006-01-01

    A 1 250 bp cDNA fragment encoding β-mannanase, named MaMAN, was cloned from banana (Musa spp cv. Baxi) fruit using degenerate primers designed with reference to the conserved nucleic acid sequences of known β-mannanase genes by RT-PCR. Sequence analysis showed that MaMAN cDNA encompassed a 1 085 bp open-reading frame (ORF), encoding a predicted polypeptide of 395 amino acids. Alignment of the deduced amino acid sequence of MaMAN and other putative β-mannanases showed that MaMAN has an identity of 86, 70, 69, 54, and 57%, respectively, to β-mannanases from tomato, lettuce, arabidopsis, carrot and oryza sativa. The catalytic residues: Asn203, Glu204, Glu318 and the active site residues: Arg86, His277, Tyr279, and Trp360, which were strictly conserved in the glycoside hydrolase family 5 to which all 3-mannanases belonged, were found in MaMAN. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR revealed that the level of MaMAN transcript in the pulp increased during banana fruit ripening, suggesting that MaMAN was likely to be involved highly in banana fruit softening.

  18. Study of Softening and Melting Behaviour of Iron Ore Sinter and Pellets

    Shatokha, Volodymyr; Velychko, Olexandr

    2012-06-01

    Softening and melting behaviour of the iron ore materials was studied towards understanding the mechanism of formation of liquid slag and metal phases in the pre-reduced sinter and pellets. Wide range of the sinter and pellets samples was investigated revealing the effect of gangue amount and composition on temperature indices corresponding to gas permeability loss in the bed (T1) and to the largest portion of liquid products dripping (T2). For both sinter and pellets, the growth of bacisity is followed by T1 increase which is explained by raised temperature of primary liquid phase appearance during the heating-reduction treatment. Relationship of T2 with the bacisity corresponds to the basicity effect on slag liquidus temperature. Both slag and metal phases were only partially evacuated from the crucible with essential portions of both phases captured in the coke bed. Growing divergence of the basicities of effluent slag and of slag captured in crucible was observed with the increase of sinter basicity. Increased share of the effluent metal with the sinter bacisity growth is explained by the decreased adhesion of slag to iron surface which assists carburization. Growth of melt-down temperature with the increase of gangue amount is explained by less active carburization owing to larger quantity of slag minimising direct contact of sponge with carbonaceous materials.

  19. A Combined Softening and Hardening Mechanism for Low Frequency Human Motion Energy Harvesting Application

    Khalis Suhaimi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns the mechanism for harvesting energy from human body motion. The vibration signal from human body motion during walking and jogging was first measured using 3-axes vibration recorder placed at various places on the human body. The measured signal was then processed using Fourier series to investigate its frequency content. A mechanism was proposed to harvest the energy from the low frequency-low amplitude human motion. This mechanism consists of the combined nonlinear hardening and softening mechanism which was aimed at widening the bandwidth as well as amplifying the low human motion frequency. This was realized by using a translation-to-rotary mechanism which converts the translation motion of the human motion into the rotational motion. The nonlinearity in the system was realized by introducing a winding spring stiffness and the magnetic stiffness. Quasi-static and dynamic measurement were conducted to investigate the performance of the mechanism. The results show that, with the right degree of nonlinearity, the two modes can be combined together to produce a wide flat response. For the frequency amplification, the mechanism manages to increase the frequency by around 8 times in terms of rotational speed.

  20. Characterization and occurence of eairly softening disorder in 'golden' papaya fruits

    Angelo Pedro Jacomino

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of green skin and soft pulp in 'Golden' papaya fruit during certain seasons has been reported by farmers in the northern of the state of Espirito Santo, Brazil. The objective of this study was to characterize and determine the occurrence of this disorder, which was referred as "early softening disorder". Fruits were harvested weekly for 11 months (from September to July. The fruits were stored at 10°C, and then fruit flesh firmness and skin color were analyzed. The results of the firmness test were submitted to regression analysis assuming a linear trendline. The slope of the curve was called the 'softening index' (SI. Fruits with early softening are characterized by a loss of firmness in less than 10 days, even when stored under refrigeration. Although softened, the skin of the fruit remains partially green. Fruits with the disorder occurred more frequently from mid-summer to mid-autumn (February to May. It is not possible to distinguish early softening disorder fruits from those without the disorder by skin color and flesh firmness analysis at the time of the harvest.

  1. Capacitive Spring Softening in Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Nanoelectromechanical Resonators

    Wu, Chung Chiang

    2011-03-01

    Due to their low mass density and high Young's modulus, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) offer great promise as nanoelectromechanical (NEM) resonators with applications in ultrasmall mass and force sensing. Nanotube resonators can be actuated and detected simultaneously through electrostatic gate coupling. This gate induced frequency tuning of NEM resonators is known to be governed by two mechanisms: the elastic hardening effect and the capacitive softening effect. Although elastic hardening effect has been widely reported in SWNT resonators, the field-induced capacitive spring softening has rarely been observed. Here we report the capacitive spring softening effect observed in SWNT resonators. The nanotube resonators adopt dual-gate configuration with both bottom-gate and side-gate capable of tuning the resonance frequency through capacitive coupling. Interestingly, downward resonance frequency shifting is observed with increasing side-gate voltage, which can be attributed to the capacitive softening of spring constant. Furthermore, in-plane vibrational modes exhibit much stronger spring softening effect than out-of-plan modes. Our dual-gate design should enable the differentiation between these two types of vibrational modes, and open up new possibility for nonlinear operation of nanotube resonators. Other nonlinear effects in SWNT resonators will also be discussed.

  2. ACTIVE FRONT STEERING DURING BRAKING PROCESS

    CHEN Deling; CHEN Li; YIN Chengliang; ZHANG Yong

    2008-01-01

    An active front steering (AFS) intervention control during braking for vehicle stability is presented. Based on the investigation of AFS mechanism, a simplified model of steering system is established and integrated with vehicle model. Then the AFS control on vehicle handling dynamics during braking is designed. Due to the difficulties associated with the sideslip angle measurement of vehicle, a state observer is designed to provide real time estimation. Thereafter, the controller with the feedback of both sideslip and yaw angle is implemented. To evaluate the system control, the proposed AFS controlled vehicle has been tested in the Hardware-in-the-loop-simulation (HILS) system and compared with that of conventional vehicle. Results show that AFS can improve vehicle lateral stability effectively without reducing the braking performance.

  3. Cyclic softening and strain mode evolution of an alpha/beta two-phase titanium alloy; Adoucissement cyclique et evolution des modes de deformation d`un alliage de titane biphase {alpha}/{beta}

    Feaugas, X.; Clavel, M. [Universite de Technologie de Compiegne, 60 (France)

    1996-12-31

    This study (that may be applied to zirconium alloys) deals with the identification of the different physical mechanisms at the source of cyclic softening, combining the concepts of internal and effective stresses with the transmission electronic microscopy observations. The influence of non proportional load trajectories on the Ti-6246 is emphasized. Results show that plasticity is mostly confined in the alpha phase, and that shearing of the Ti{sub 3}Al phase is at the source of the slip localization in prismatic slip bands; slip delocalization is correlated to biased slip action; softening of internal stresses (temperature inferior to 500 K) results from the multiplication of the number of slip bands with respect to cumulative plastic deformation, and softening of effective stresses (temperature superior to 500 K) is associated to the shearing of the Ti{sub 3}Al phase but also to the activation of the biased slip. 33 refs.

  4. Sintering as a process of transport of activated volume

    Nikolić Nataša S.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Starting with the fact that sintering is the consequence of the process of transport of activated volume, it has been shown how the kinetics of the sintering process can be defined. The activated volume was in principle defined as a parameter which describes a system’s deffectivity on an atomic level.

  5. Constitutive Model for Multiaxial Ratcheting Predictions of Cyclic Softening Weld Metal

    GAO Hong; CHEN Xu; JIAO Rong

    2005-01-01

    A series of fully reversed axial, torsional strain-controlled cyclic tests and two multiaxial ratcheting tests were conducted on weld metal specimens using an Instron8521 tension-torsional servo-controlled testing machine. The weld metal showed clear cyclic softening under axial, torsional and multiaxial loading. A modified kinematic hardening rule was proposed in which a multiaxial-loading-dependent parameter incorporated the radial evanescence term of the Burlet-Cailletaud mode with the Ohno-Wang kinematic hardening rule to predict the multiaxial ratcheting effects. The introduction of yield stress evolved with accumulated plasticity strain enables the model to predict cyclic plasticity behavior of cyclic softening or cyclic hardening materials. Thus modified model considers the isotropic hardening as well as kinematic hardening of yield surface, and it can present description of plasticity behavior and ratcheting of cyclic softening and cyclic hardening materials well under multiaxial loading.

  6. Influence of amino-functional macro and micro silicone softeners on the properties of cotton fabric

    Amino-functional silicone softeners are most widely used type of soft finishes owing to their outstanding permanent softness, smoothness and handle characteristics. These soft finishes are prepared in different emulsion droplet sizes such as macro and micro emulsions providing varying characteristics on the textile on which they are applied. The macroemulsions due to their larger droplet sizes lubricate fabric and yarn surfaces, while the micro-emulsion, thanks to their smaller sizes penetrate inside fiber pores. In this research amino-functional macro and micro emulsions have been applied on dyed cotton fabric in 1:1 combination and compared against their influence on physical properties such as bending length, abrasion resistance, tensile strength, crease resistance and water repellency. These emulsions have also been compared for their influence on colorimetric properties; color difference and color strength (K/S values). The results reveal that the softener application in combination improves the properties deteriorated by each softener when applied separately. (author)

  7. STUDY ON SOFTENING AND DROPPING PROPERTIES OF METALIZED BURDEN INSIDE BLAST FURNACE

    Bi-yang Tuo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The inferences of burden metallization rate on softening-melting dropping properties were investigated through softening-melting dropping test of three kinds of metalized burden pressure drop. The results indicated that the softeningmelting temperature interval of pre-reduction mixed burden is bigger than primeval mixed burden, the melting interval narrow with the rise of metallization rate of ferric burden as well as dropping temperature interval. The average pressure drop, maximum pressure drop and softening-melting dropping properties eigenvalue decrease with the rise of metallization rate of ferric burden. Besides, the dropping temperature of burden reduces with the rise of carbon content of molten iron. The combination high metalized burden and higher carbon content of molten iron is benefit to decreasing thickness of cohesive zone and improve permeability of cohesive zone.

  8. Board composition, process, and activism: evidence within American firms

    Scott SCARBOROUGH; Jeffrey J. HAYNIE; Christopher SHOOK

    2010-01-01

    This study provided an empirical test of the effects of compositional and process variables on board activism. The attributes examined were functional area knowledge, independence, duality, and effort norms. The findings from this study provided support for the positive relationships between both functional area knowledge and effort norms and board activism. The strong relationship between effort norms and activism indicates the importance of process variables in board research and the need f...

  9. Quality Management Activities for Software Architecture and Software Architecture Process

    Hämäläinen, Niina

    2008-01-01

    Architecture processes are considerably new parts of organisations’ processes. These processes have the responsibility to aim at high quality and financially successful architectures. However, the activities which promote this aim are not clearly defined yet. This study reviews literature and practitioners’ experiences on quality management activities that could be suggested to promote the achievement of high quality software architectures and a good quality software a...

  10. Activated Sludge and other Aerobic Suspended Culture Processes.

    Li, Chunying; Wei, Li; Chang, Chein-Chi; Zhang, Yuhua; Wei, Dong

    2016-10-01

    This is a literature review for the year 2015 and contains information specifically associated with suspended growth processes including activated sludge, upflow anaerobic sludge blanket, and sequencing batch reactors. The review encompasses modeling and kinetics, nutrient removal, system design and operation. Compared to past reviews, many topics show increase in activity in 2015. These include, fate and effect of xenobiotics, industrial wastes treatment with sludge, and pretreatment for the activated sludge. These topics are referred to the degradation of constituents in activated sludge. Other sections include population dynamics, process microbiology give an insight into the activated sludge. The subsection in industrial wastes: converting sewage sludge into biogases was also mentioned. PMID:27620082

  11. Optimization of hardening/softening behavior of plane frame structures using nonlinear normal modes

    Dou, Suguang; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    2016-01-01

    Devices that exploit essential nonlinear behavior such as hardening/softening and inter-modal coupling effects are increasingly used in engineering and fundamental studies. Based on nonlinear normal modes, we present a gradient-based structural optimization method for tailoring the hardening....../softening behavior of nonlinear mechanical systems. The iterative optimization procedure consists of calculation of nonlinear normal modes, solving an adjoint equation system for sensitivity analysis and an update of design variables using a mathematical programming tool. We demonstrate the method with examples...

  12. Large elastic strain and elastocaloric effect caused by lattice softening in an iron-palladium alloy.

    Kakeshita, Tomoyuki; Xiao, Fei; Fukuda, Takashi

    2016-08-13

    A Fe-31.2Pd (at.%) alloy exhibits a weak first-order martensitic transformation from a cubic structure to a tetragonal structure near 230 K. This transformation is associated with significant softening of elastic constant C'. Because of the softening, the alloy shows a large elastic strain of more than 6% in the [001] direction. In addition, the alloy has a critical point and shows a high elastocaloric effect in a wide temperature range for both the parent and the martensite phases.This article is part of the themed issue 'Taking the temperature of phase transitions in cool materials'. PMID:27402932

  13. Specific Changes of Exocarp and Mesocarp Occurring during Softening Differently Affect Firmness in Melting (MF and Non Melting Flesh (NMF Fruits.

    E Onelli

    Full Text Available Melting (MF and non melting flesh (NMF peaches differ in their final texture and firmness. Their specific characteristics are achieved by softening process and directly dictate fruit shelf life and quality. Softening is influenced by various mechanisms including cell wall reorganization and water loss. In this work, the biomechanical properties of MF Spring Crest's and NMF Oro A's exocarp and mesocarp along with the amount and localization of hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonoids were investigated during fruit ripening and post-harvest. The objective was to better understand the role played by water loss and cell wall reorganization in peach softening. Results showed that in ripe Spring Crest, where both cell turgor loss and cell wall dismantling occurred, mesocarp had a little role in the fruit reaction to compression and probe penetration response was almost exclusively ascribed to the epidermis which functioned as a mechanical support to the pulp. In ripe Oro A's fruit, where cell wall disassembly did not occur and the loss of cell turgor was observed only in mesocarp, the contribution of exocarp to fruit firmness was consistent but relatively lower than that of mesocarp, suggesting that in addition to cell turgor, the integrity of cell wall played a key role in maintaining NMF fruit firmness. The analysis of phenols suggested that permeability and firmness of epidermis were associated with the presence of flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acids.

  14. Defect Recovery in Severely Deformed Ferrite Lamellae During Annealing and Its Impact on the Softening of Cold-Drawn Pearlitic Steel Wires

    Chen, Y. Z.; Csiszár, G.; Cizek, J.; Shi, X. H.; Borchers, C.; Li, Y. J.; Liu, F.; Kirchheim, R.

    2016-02-01

    Cold-drawn pearlitic steel wires with a drawing true strain of 3 were annealed at temperatures ( T ann) ranging from 423 K to 723 K (150 °C to 450 °C) with an interval of 50 K. Recovery of the lattice defects in the severely deformed ferrite lamellae were characterized by means of high-energy X-ray diffraction and positron annihilation techniques (including positron annihilation spectroscopy and coincidence Doppler broadening spectroscopy). Accordingly, the impact of defect recovery on the softening of the annealed wires was investigated. It is found that at low temperatures [ T ann ≤ 523 K (250 °C)], the recovery of the lattice defects in ferrite lamellae is dominated by the agglomeration and annihilation of vacancy clusters, while at T ann > 523 K (250 °C), the recovery process is controlled by the annihilation of dislocations. Further analyses on the softening of the annealed wires indicate that the evolutions of dislocation density and concentration of vacancy clusters, and the strain age hardening in ferrite lamellae play important roles in changing the strength of the wires. The strain aging hardening leads to a maximum strength at 473 K (150 °C). Above 523 K (250 °C), the annihilations of vacancy clusters and dislocations in ferrite lamellae cause a continuous softening of the wires, where the decrease in dislocation density plays a major role.

  15. Specific Changes of Exocarp and Mesocarp Occurring during Softening Differently Affect Firmness in Melting (MF) and Non Melting Flesh (NMF) Fruits.

    Onelli, E; Ghiani, A; Gentili, R; Serra, S; Musacchi, S; Citterio, S

    2015-01-01

    Melting (MF) and non melting flesh (NMF) peaches differ in their final texture and firmness. Their specific characteristics are achieved by softening process and directly dictate fruit shelf life and quality. Softening is influenced by various mechanisms including cell wall reorganization and water loss. In this work, the biomechanical properties of MF Spring Crest's and NMF Oro A's exocarp and mesocarp along with the amount and localization of hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonoids were investigated during fruit ripening and post-harvest. The objective was to better understand the role played by water loss and cell wall reorganization in peach softening. Results showed that in ripe Spring Crest, where both cell turgor loss and cell wall dismantling occurred, mesocarp had a little role in the fruit reaction to compression and probe penetration response was almost exclusively ascribed to the epidermis which functioned as a mechanical support to the pulp. In ripe Oro A's fruit, where cell wall disassembly did not occur and the loss of cell turgor was observed only in mesocarp, the contribution of exocarp to fruit firmness was consistent but relatively lower than that of mesocarp, suggesting that in addition to cell turgor, the integrity of cell wall played a key role in maintaining NMF fruit firmness. The analysis of phenols suggested that permeability and firmness of epidermis were associated with the presence of flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acids. PMID:26709823

  16. Process of activation of a palladium catalyst system

    Sobolevskiy, Anatoly; Rossin, Joseph A.; Knapke, Michael J.

    2011-08-02

    Improved processes for activating a catalyst system used for the reduction of nitrogen oxides are provided. In one embodiment, the catalyst system is activated by passing an activation gas stream having an amount of each of oxygen, water vapor, nitrogen oxides, and hydrogen over the catalyst system and increasing a temperature of the catalyst system to a temperature of at least 180.degree. C. at a heating rate of from 1-20.degree./min. Use of activation processes described herein leads to a catalyst system with superior NOx reduction capabilities.

  17. Study of the cyclic softening of an under-aged gamma'-precipitated nickel-base superalloy (Waspaloy)

    Risbet, M.; Feaugas, X.; Clavel, M. [Universite de Technologie de Compiegne (France). Lab. Roberval

    2001-09-01

    This study deals with the cyclic behaviour at room temperature of a nickel-base superalloy, strengthened by shearable {gamma}' precipitates. A special attention is paid to the influence of the controlled plastic strain {epsilon}{sub a}. Whatever {epsilon}{sub a}, a softening of the stress amplitude follows the first cycles hardening stage. This phenomenon is discussed in terms of back and effective stress evolutions. The decreasing of the total stress amplitude is mainly carried by the kinematic stress lowering, except for the lowest plastic strain level (0.05%), where the isotropic stress decreasing predominates. With the help of dislocations features, the internal stress is analyzed as a consequence of simultaneous activation of several slip systems. (orig.)

  18. Study of the cyclic softening of an under-aged gamma'-precipitated nickel-base superalloy (Waspaloy)

    This study deals with the cyclic behaviour at room temperature of a nickel-base superalloy, strengthened by shearable γ' precipitates. A special attention is paid to the influence of the controlled plastic strain εa. Whatever εa, a softening of the stress amplitude follows the first cycles hardening stage. This phenomenon is discussed in terms of back and effective stress evolutions. The decreasing of the total stress amplitude is mainly carried by the kinematic stress lowering, except for the lowest plastic strain level (0.05%), where the isotropic stress decreasing predominates. With the help of dislocations features, the internal stress is analyzed as a consequence of simultaneous activation of several slip systems. (orig.)

  19. Solid solution softening at high strain rates in Si- and/or Mn-added interstitial free steels

    In order to understand the high strain rate properties of high strength steel sheets, stress-strain relations of Fe, Fe-Mn and Fe-Si at high strain rates were investigated. The addition of Mn and Si caused both solid solution hardening at lower strain rates and a decrease of strain rate sensitivity of the flow stress. In addition, the ductility at high strain rates was improved by the addition of solute atoms, an effect which can be related to the decrease in the strain rate sensitivity of the flow stress. Thermal activation analysis revealed that the Peierls-Nabarro mechanism controls the strain rate sensitivity of these steels. The effects of solid solution were discussed based on the theories proposed to explain alloy softening at low temperatures

  20. PEDAGOGICAL TOOLS IN PROVIDING INCLUSIVE ACTIVE LEARNING PROCESS

    Tupitsa, E.

    2014-01-01

    In the publication it is described pedagogical tools while providing inclusive active learning process of children with special educational needs; it is defined the key characteristics of the teacher as mediator; it is determined the main hints of cooperative learning

  1. Curvature Effect and the Spectral Softening Phenomenon Detected in GRB Afterglows

    Y.-P. Qin

    2011-03-01

    Detection of radiation from a relativistic fireball would be affected by the so-called curvature effect. I illustrate the expected temporal and spectral behaviours of this effect and show that it can well explain the observed spectral softening in the early GRB afterglows.

  2. Pauli coupling of vector meson and softening of the nuclear equation of state

    Bhattacharyya, Subir; Mazumder, Abhee K. Dutt-; Dutta-Roy, Binayak; Sinha, Bikash

    1998-01-01

    We investigate the equation of state (EOS) for nuclear matter, within the framework of the Relativistic Hartree Fock (RHF) theory, with special emphasis on the role of the Pauli coupling of the vector meson $\\rho$ to the nucleon vis-a-vis the eventual softening of the EOS as revealed through a substantial reduction of the incompressibility parameter ($K_0$) for symmetric nuclear matter.

  3. LEACHING OF METALS FROM HOUSEHOLD PLUMBING MATERIALS: IMPACT OF HOME WATER SOFTENERS

    A pilot plant study was conducted to evaluate the effects of household ion exchange softening on the leaching of metals from home plumbing materials. The study was conducted in two phases on two different water qualities. Phase I was conducted using a finished tap water having a...

  4. The Value of Fighting Irreversible Demise by Softening the Irreversible Cost

    Magis, P.; Sbuelz, A.

    2005-01-01

    We study a novel issue in the real-options-based technology innovation literature by means of double barrier contingent claims analysis.We show how much a ¯rm with the monopoly over a project is willing to spend in investment technology innovation that softens the irreversible cost of accessing the

  5. Basic Chemical Precipitation Softening. Training Module 2.215.2.77.

    McMullen, L. D.

    This document is an instructional module package prepared in objective form for use by an instructor familiar with chemical precipitation softening. Included are objectives, an instructor guide, student handouts and transparency masters. This is the first level of a three module series and is designed for students with little or no operating…

  6. The X-ray Softening of Accreting Black Holes Toward Quiescence

    Plotkin, Richard; Gallo, E.; Jonker, P. G.

    2013-04-01

    There is strong motivation to better understand accretion of matter onto black holes. Black hole accretion is at the heart of phenomena like stellar mass black hole X-ray binaries (BHXBs), Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN), and black hole feedback. In addition, studying black hole accretion can provide broad insight into many other classes of objects where similar physics is at play (e.g., young stars, white dwarfs, neutrons stars, gamma-ray bursts). Unfortunately, we know surprisingly little about black hole accretion at extremely low accretion rates, even though the most common type of black hole accretes very weakly. For example, most transient BHXBs spend the bulk of their time in a quiescent state with mass accretion rates 10^-9 -- 10^-6 L/L_Edd, and many supermassive black holes in the local Universe accrete just as weakly. Here, we present Chandra X-ray spectroscopy for nine quiescent BHXB systems, including multiple observations for several systems as they fade back into quiescence following an outburst. Our systems show softer X-ray spectra in quiescence compared to the canonical "low-hard state". With our dataset, we are in a unique position to track how BHXB X-ray spectra evolve as they return to quiescence following an outburst, both for individual sources and also for the ensemble average. We thus place new constraints on how quickly BHXB X-ray spectra soften as they fade, and we propose a physically meaningful definition for quiescence. Finally, we will discuss implications for the X-ray emission mechanism(s) and accretion flow (and outflow) geometries in quiescence, and we will make comparisons to AGN and neutron star X-ray binaries.

  7. Predictive Active Set Selection Methods for Gaussian Processes

    Henao, Ricardo; Winther, Ole

    2012-01-01

    We propose an active set selection framework for Gaussian process classification for cases when the dataset is large enough to render its inference prohibitive. Our scheme consists of a two step alternating procedure of active set update rules and hyperparameter optimization based upon marginal...... active set parameters that directly control its complexity. We also provide both theoretical and empirical support for our active set selection strategy being a good approximation of a full Gaussian process classifier. Our extensive experiments show that our approach can compete with state...... likelihood maximization. The active set update rules rely on the ability of the predictive distributions of a Gaussian process classifier to estimate the relative contribution of a datapoint when being either included or removed from the model. This means that we can use it to include points with potentially...

  8. Evaluation of the impact of lime softening waste disposal in natural environments

    Blaisi, Nawaf I.; Roessler, Justin; Cheng, Weizhi [Department of Environmental Engineering Sciences, University of Florida, PO Box 116450, Gainesville, FL 32611-6450 (United States); Townsend, Timothy, E-mail: ttown@ufl.edu [Department of Environmental Engineering Sciences, University of Florida, PO Box 116450, Gainesville, FL 32611-6450 (United States); Al-Abed, Souhail R. [National Risk Management Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 26 West Martin Luther King Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Leaching tests conducted on WTR to assess potential for trace element release. • Aluminum leaching found to be elevated with respect to risk threshold. • Release in anaerobic conditions evaluated with column test run in nitrogen chamber. • Increased release of certain elements seen from residues under anaerobic conditions. • Different leaching tests produced results on two sides of regulatory threshold. - Abstract: Drinking water treatment residues (WTR), generated from the lime softening processes, are commonly reused or disposed of in a number of applications; these include use as a soil amendment or a subsurface fill. Recently questions were posed by the Florida regulatory community on whether lime WTR that contained a small percentage of other treatment additives could appropriately be characterized as lime WTR, in terms of total element content and leachability. A study was done using a broad range of leaching tests, including a framework of tests recently adopted by the United States-Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and tests that were modified to account for scenario specific conditions, such as the presence of natural organic matter (NOM). The results of these additional leaching tests demonstrated that certain applications, including disposal in a water body with NOM or in placement anaerobic environment, did result in increased leaching of elements such as Fe, and that a site specific assessment should be conducted prior to using WTR in these types of applications. This study illustrates the importance of leaching test selection when attempting to provide an estimation of release in practice. Although leaching tests are just one component in a beneficial use assessment and other factors including aquifer and soil properties play a significant role in the outcome, leaching tests should be tailored to most appropriately represent the scenario or reuse application being evaluated.

  9. Evaluation of the impact of lime softening waste disposal in natural environments

    Highlights: • Leaching tests conducted on WTR to assess potential for trace element release. • Aluminum leaching found to be elevated with respect to risk threshold. • Release in anaerobic conditions evaluated with column test run in nitrogen chamber. • Increased release of certain elements seen from residues under anaerobic conditions. • Different leaching tests produced results on two sides of regulatory threshold. - Abstract: Drinking water treatment residues (WTR), generated from the lime softening processes, are commonly reused or disposed of in a number of applications; these include use as a soil amendment or a subsurface fill. Recently questions were posed by the Florida regulatory community on whether lime WTR that contained a small percentage of other treatment additives could appropriately be characterized as lime WTR, in terms of total element content and leachability. A study was done using a broad range of leaching tests, including a framework of tests recently adopted by the United States-Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and tests that were modified to account for scenario specific conditions, such as the presence of natural organic matter (NOM). The results of these additional leaching tests demonstrated that certain applications, including disposal in a water body with NOM or in placement anaerobic environment, did result in increased leaching of elements such as Fe, and that a site specific assessment should be conducted prior to using WTR in these types of applications. This study illustrates the importance of leaching test selection when attempting to provide an estimation of release in practice. Although leaching tests are just one component in a beneficial use assessment and other factors including aquifer and soil properties play a significant role in the outcome, leaching tests should be tailored to most appropriately represent the scenario or reuse application being evaluated

  10. Formal Verification of Effectiveness of Control Activities in Business Processes

    Arimoto, Yasuhito; Iida, Shusaku; Futatsugi, Kokichi

    It has been an important issue to deal with risks in business processes for achieving companies' goals. This paper introduces a method for applying a formal method to analysis of risks and control activities in business processes in order to evaluate control activities consistently, exhaustively, and to give us potential to have scientific discussion on the result of the evaluation. We focus on document flows in business activities and control activities and risks related to documents because documents play important roles in business. In our method, document flows including control activities are modeled and it is verified by OTS/CafeOBJ Method that risks about falsification of documents are avoided by control activities in the model. The verification is done by interaction between humans and CafeOBJ system with theorem proving, and it raises potential to discuss the result scientifically because the interaction gives us rigorous reasons why the result is derived from the verification.

  11. Process technology activities at the Software Engineering Institute

    Christie, A.M. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper provides a brief overview of the rationale for, and direction of the software process technology work being pursued at the Software Engineering Institute. The paper then describes some of the activities that the SEI has recently been involved in. Finally, it relates in more detail an example of one specific effort; namely the development of a process modeling formalism and its use in process simulation.

  12. Improvement of enterprise activities based on process management

    Łuczak, Ja.

    2015-01-01

    Process management has been increasingly popular for several years now, yet most frequently it is limited to fragmentary actions, at times even to declarative activity. Few organizations have brought their management systems in conformity with the idea of process management; more frequently some particular actions within the range of process approach may be observed. Specialization allows efficient realizations of tasks; however, it separates individual organizational unities and amount...

  13. Active Shop Scheduling Of Production Process Based On RFID Technology

    Cuihua Chao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In industry 4.0 environment, intelligent technology is almost applied to all parts of the manufacturing process, such as process design, job shop scheduling, etc.. This paper presents an efficient approach to job shop scheduling actively by using RFID to collect real-time manufacturing data. Identified the workpiece by RFID which needs to be machined, it can “ask for” the resource actively for the following process. With these active asking-for strategy, a double genetically encoded improved genetic algorithm is proposed for achieving active job shop scheduling solution during the actual manufacturing process. A case was used to evaluate its effectiveness. Meanwhile, , it can effectively and actively carry out job shop scheduling and has much better convergence effect comparing with basic genetic algorithm. And the job shop scheduler in management center can use the proposed algorithm to get the satisfied scheduling result timely by reducing waiting time and making begin time earlier during transmission between manufacturing process, which makes the scheduling result feasible and accurate.

  14. Regulation of Mining and Mineral Processing Activities in South Africa

    In South Africa, the regulation of mining and mineral processing activities involving radioactive ores commenced in 1990. The paper provides an overview of the regulation of mining and mineral processing activities and the evolution of the authorization process from 1990 until recent times. Key developments in respect of controlling public exposure, occupational exposure, and environmental protection are provided. Future and present challenges are also identified with the resurgence of activities related to nuclear power generation linked to uranium mining. The centrality of nuclear and radiation safety requirements in the context of introducing improvements for effectively regulating mining are also cited and put forward. Reference is made to the role of the South African nuclear regulatory system and the impact of the nuclear safety and security regime. (author)

  15. Aerobic storage under dynamic conditions in activated sludge processes

    Majone, M.; Dircks, K.

    1999-01-01

    In activated sludge processes, several plant configurations (like plug-flow configuration of the aeration tanks, systems with selectors, contact-stabilization processes or SBR processes) impose a concentration gradient of the carbon sources to the biomass. As a consequence, the biomass grows under...... main reference to its relevance on population dynamics in the activated sludge. Possible conceptual approaches to storage modelling are also presented, including both structured and unstructured modelling. (C) 1999 IAWQ Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....... mechanisms can also contribute to substrate removal, depending on the microbial composition and the previous "history" of the biomass. In this paper the type and the extent of this dynamic response is discussed by review of experimental studies on pure cultures, mixed cultures and activated sludges and with...

  16. Sculpting the maturation, softening and ethylene pathway: The influences of microRNAs on tomato fruits

    Zuo Jinhua

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs, a ubiquitous class of short RNAs, play vital roles in physiological and biochemical processes in plants by mediating gene silencing at post-transcriptional (PTGS level. Tomato is a model system to study molecular basis of fleshy fruit ripening and senescence, ethylene biosynthesis and signal transduction owing to its genetic and molecular tractability. To study the functions of miRNAs in tomato fruit ripening and senescence, and their possible roles in ethylene response, the next generation sequencing method was employed to identify miRNAs in tomato fruit. Bioinformatics and molecular biology approaches were combined to profile the miRNAs expression patterns at three different fruit ripening stages and by exogenous ethylene treatment. Results In addition to 7 novel miRNA families, 103 conserved miRNAs belonging to 24 families and 10 non-conserved miRNAs matching 9 families were identified in our libraries. The targets of many these miRNAs were predicted to be transcriptional factors. Other targets are known to play roles in the regulation of metabolic processes. Interestingly, some targets were predicted to be involved in fruit ripening and softening, such as Pectate Lyase, beta-galactosidase, while a few others were predicted to be involved in ethylene biosynthesis and signaling pathway, such as ACS, EIN2 and CTR1. The expression patterns of a number of such miRNAs at three ripening stages were confirmed by stem-loop RT-PCR, which showed a strong negative correlation with that of their targets. The regulation of exogenous ethylene on miRNAs expression profiles were analyzed simultaneously, and 3 down-regulated, 5 up-regulated miRNAs were found in this study. Conclusions A combination of high throughput sequencing and molecular biology approaches was used to explore the involvement of miRNAs during fruit ripening. Several miRNAs showed differential expression profiles during fruit ripening, and a number of

  17. Active Cellular Mechanics and Information Processing in the Living Cell

    Rao, M.

    2014-07-01

    I will present our recent work on the organization of signaling molecules on the surface of living cells. Using novel experimental and theoretical approaches we have found that many cell surface receptors are organized as dynamic clusters driven by active currents and stresses generated by the cortical cytoskeleton adjoining the cell surface. We have shown that this organization is optimal for both information processing and computation. In connecting active mechanics in the cell with information processing and computation, we bring together two of the seminal works of Alan Turing.

  18. Lateralized frontal activity for Japanese phonological processing during child development

    Takaaki Goto

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Phonological awareness is essential for reading, and is common to all language systems, including alphabetic languages and Japanese. This cognitive factor develops during childhood, and is thought to be associated with shifts in brain activity. However, the nature of this neurobiological developmental shift is unclear for speakers of Japanese, which is not an alphabetical language. The present study aimed to reveal a shift in brain functions for processing phonological information in native-born Japanese children. We conducted a phonological awareness task and examined hemodynamic activity in 103 children aged 7 to 12 years. While younger children made mistakes and needed more time to sort phonological information in reverse order, older children completed the task quickly and accurately. Additionally, younger children exhibited increased activity in the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, which may be evidence of immature phonological processing skills. Older children exhibited dominant activity in the left compared with the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, suggesting that they had already acquired phonological processing skills. We also found significant effects of age and lateralized activity on behavioral performance. During earlier stages of development, the degree of left lateralization appears to have a smaller effect on behavioral performance. Conversely, in later stages of development, the degree of left lateralization appears to have a stronger influence on behavioral performance. These initial findings regarding a neurobiological developmental shift in Japanese speakers suggest that common brain regions play a critical role in the development of phonological processing skills among different languages systems, such as Japanese and alphabetical languages.

  19. Low and medium activity solid wastes processing and encapsulation

    This work, carried out under contract with the European Atomic Energy Community, describes the techniques in use for waste management. The activity of low and medium activity solid wastes is from few curies to few tens of curies per cubic meter, they are produced by nuclear facilities and are often complex mixtures. Radioactive wastes are characterized and processing and conditioning are described. Leaching, stability, mechanical resistance and radiolysis of encapsulated wastes are examined. Handling, storage and disposal are treated

  20. Activated sludge process based on artificial neural network

    张文艺; 蔡建安

    2002-01-01

    Considering the difficulty of creating water quality model for activated sludge system, a typical BP artificial neural network model has been established to simulate the operation of a waste water treatment facilities. The comparison of prediction results with the on-spot measurements shows the model, the model is accurate and this model can also be used to realize intelligentized on-line control of the wastewater processing process.

  1. Acoustic softening in metals during ultrasonic assisted deformation via CP-FEM

    Siddiq, Amir

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a phenomenological crystal plasticity model is modified to account for acoustic (ultrasonic) softening effects based on the level of ultrasonic intensity supplied to single and polycrystalline metals. The material parameters are identified using the inverse modeling approach by interfacing the crystal plasticity model with an optimization tool. The proposed model is validated and verified by comparing the microstructure evolution with experimental EBSD results reported in the literature. The model is able to capture the ultrasonic softening effect and the results show that as the ultrasonic intensity increases, the plastic deformation also increases. Differences in the stress-strain response are explained based on the slip system orientation tensor (Schmidt factors) which depends upon the crystal orientation. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects Of Various Parameters On The Thickening Of Softening Plant Sludges

    Peters, Günther H.J.; Baumann, E. R.; Larson, M. A.

    1989-01-01

    Spectroscopic and thermal data for sludges from full-scale softening plants showed calcium and magnesium precipitated as calcite and an amorphous hydrated hydroxide, respectively. Magnesium ions were not incorporated into the calcium lattice to form a magnesian calcite. Scanning electron photomic......Spectroscopic and thermal data for sludges from full-scale softening plants showed calcium and magnesium precipitated as calcite and an amorphous hydrated hydroxide, respectively. Magnesium ions were not incorporated into the calcium lattice to form a magnesian calcite. Scanning electron...... photomicrographs indicated that only the calcium carbonate precipitate has a well-defined crystal structure. The shift of the crystal size distribution (CSD) to greater sizes, observed by comparing the different sludges, may be due to bigger calcite crystals rather than to crystal size changes caused...... by the magnesium hydroxide. The settling rate of the sludges is related to the CSD. Higher fluxes were achieved with an upflow contact clarifier....

  3. Phonon softening in the CDW systems NbSe2 and TiSe2

    We present new results on the soft-mode behaviour of phonons in the Charge Density Wave (CDW) systems NbSe2 and TiSe2. Our theoretical predictions from Density Functional Theory (DFT) based on ab-initio phonon calculations coincide with the CDW instability behaviour that we observed experimentally by means of high resolution Inelastic X-ray Scattering (IXS). While TiSe2 shows a rather sharp phonon anomaly at T=190 K, the anomaly in NbSe2 at T=33 K is much broader than expected for a Fermi surface nesting driven CDW instability. For NbSe2, we exclude Fermi surface nesting as main origin of the phonon softening. For TiSe2, the phonon softening seems to be well described within the framework of DFT.

  4. Optimization of Structure and Material Properties for Solids Composed of Softening Material

    Bendsøe, Martin P.; Guedes, J.M.; J.M., Plaxton; Taylor, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    Recent results on the design of material properties in the context of global structural optimization provide, in analytical form, a prediction of the optimal material tensor distributions for two or three dimensional continuum structures. The model developed for that purpose is extended here to...... cover the design of a structure and associated material properties for a system composed of a generic form of nonlinear softening material. As was established in the earlier study on design with linear materials, the formulation for combined 'material and structure' design with softening materials can...... be expressed as a convex problem. However, the optimal distribution of material properties predicted in the nonlinear problem depends on the magnitude of load, in contrast to the case with linear material. Computational solutions are presented for several example problems, showing how the optimal...

  5. Reentrant softening as precursor to reentrant melting of the vortex-lattice in YBCO single crystal

    A vibrating sample technique was used to study the elastic behavior of the magnetic vortex system in YBa2Cu3O7 single crystal. The setup consists of a system of two weakly coupled mechanical oscillators (transducer, sample), the frequency and Q of which depends sensitively on the frequencies of the two subsystems as well as the coupling between both. By sweeping a magnetic field at temperatures below the superconducting transition temperature Tc the authors observe pronounced attenuation peaks of temperature-dependent characteristic field strengths H1 and H2. These fields mark temperature-dependent points of constant elasticity of the vortex-ensemble. Since softening precedes the melting of the vortex-lattice by approaching Ho1 as well as Ho2, the observed angular dependence of H1 and H2 is interpreted as due to reentrant softening as precursor to reentrant melting

  6. Influence of curing rate on softening in ethanol, degree of conversion, and wear of resin composite

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Peutzfeldt, Anne; Asmussen, Erik;

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of curing rate on softening in ethanol, degree of conversion, and wear of resin composites. METHOD: With a given energy density and for each of two different light-curing units (QTH or LED), the curing rate was reduced by modulating the curing mode. Thus, the...... irradiation of resin composite specimens (Filtek Z250, Tetric Ceram, Esthet-X) was performed in a continuous curing mode and in a pulse-delay curing mode. Wallace hardness was used to determine the softening of resin composite after storage in ethanol. Degree of conversion was determined by infrared...... exposed to the pulse-delay curing mode were softer than resin composites exposed to continuous cure (P<0.0001). Tetric Ceram was the softest material followed by Esthet-X and Filtek Z250 (P<0.001). Only the restorative material had a significant effect on degree of conversion (P<0.001): Esthet-X had the...

  7. INVESTIGATION OF SOFTENING AGENT PREPARATION AND PERFORMANCE OF HANDMADE ECOCOMPOSITES WITH CONIFEROUS WOOD AND BASALT FIBERS

    GuangjianWang; DekuShang; KailiangZhang; LinnaHu; ZhenhuaGuo

    2004-01-01

    In this investigation, basalt mineral fiber softening agent was prepared in order to obtain desirable flexible performance. Stability and physical chemistry natures of softening agent were evaluated by particle size distribution, dilution, storage and folding endurance etc. Constitutes of basalt and wood fibers were determined by energy dispersion analysis X-ray which served as an accessory of scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDAX). Naturally degradable ecocomposite was prepared by basalt and wood fibers. The results of SEM observation illustrated that the wood and basalt fibers were blended uniformly. The impact factors of beating degree, content of wood fibers and adhesive etc. were discussed. The structure of the naturally degradable ecocomposite was contrasted with that of pure wood fibers and the cause of excellent filtration performance was analyzed. Compared with traditional methods, it was of saving wood resource, a large amount of water and reducing second pollution. As a consequence, the ecocomposite harmonized with environment and accorded with requirement of benignly friendly environment.

  8. Thermal softening of metallic shaped-charge jets formed by the collapse of shaped-charge liners in the presence of a magnetic field

    Fedorov, S. V.

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the possibility of increasing the ultimate stretching and penetration capability of metallic shaped-charge jets in the presence of an axial magnetic field in the shaped-charge liner due to heating and thermal softening of the jet material as a result of a sharp increase in the magnetic-field induction in the jet formation region upon liner collapse. This process is studied by numerical simulation in a quasi-two-dimensional formulation taking into account the inertial stretching of the conductive rigid-plastic rod in the presence of a longitudinal magnetic field in it.

  9. PASS-GP: Predictive active set selection for Gaussian processes

    Henao, Ricardo; Winther, Ole

    We propose a new approximation method for Gaussian process (GP) learning for large data sets that combines inline active set selection with hyperparameter optimization. The predictive probability of the label is used for ranking the data points. We use the leave-one-out predictive probability...... the active set selection strategy and marginal likelihood optimization on the active set. We make extensive tests on the USPS and MNIST digit classification databases with and without incorporating invariances, demonstrating that we can get state-of-the-art results (e.g.0.86% error on MNIST) with...

  10. Process for encapsulating active agents obtaining a gel

    Yilmaz, G.; Jongboom, R.O.J.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention relates to a process for encapsulating an active agent in a biopolymer in the form of a gel, comprising the steps of: a) forming a dispersion or solution of the biopolymer in water; and b) adding the active agent to the dispersion or solution obtained in step a); wherein the biopolymer is at least partially dissolved before and/or after addition of the active agent. The gels obtained with the present invention are particularly suitable for coating or impregnating packagi...

  11. Propagation of rarefaction pulses in discrete materials with strain-softening behavior.

    Herbold, E B; Nesterenko, V F

    2013-04-01

    We report on the dynamic behavior of strongly nonlinear discrete materials with anomalous strain-softening behavior. Rarefaction solitary waves found in numerical calculations agree well with the exact solution to the continuum wave equation. Compression pulses generated by impact quickly disintegrate into a leading rarefaction solitary wave followed by an oscillatory wave train containing localized excitations. Such behavior is favorable for metamaterials design of shock absorption layers as well as tunable information transmission lines for scrambling of acoustic information. PMID:25166992

  12. Determination of the strain rate dependent thermal softening behavior of thermoplastic materials for crash simulations

    Hopmann, Christian; Klein, Jan; Schöngart, Maximilian

    2016-03-01

    Thermoplastic materials are increasingly used as a light weight replacement for metal, especially in automotive applications. Typical examples are frontends and bumpers. The loads on these structures are very often impulsive, for example in a crash situation. A high rate of loading causes a high strain rate in the material which has a major impact on the mechanical behavior of thermoplastic materials. The stiffness as well as the rigidity of polymers increases to higher strain rates. The increase of the mechanical properties is superimposed at higher rates of loading by another effect which works reducing on stiffness and rigidity, the increase of temperature caused by plastic deformation. The mechanical behavior of thermoplastic materials is influenced by temperature opposing to strain rate. The stiffness and rigidity are decreased to higher values of temperature. The effect of thermal softening on thermoplastic materials is investigated at IKV. For this purpose high-speed tensile tests are performed on a blend, consisting of Polybutylenterephthalate (PBT) and Polycarbonate (PC). In preliminary investigations the effects of strain rate on the thermomechanical behavior of thermoplastic materials was studied by different authors. Tensile impact as well as split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) tests were conducted in combination with high-speed temperature measurement, though, the authors struggled especially with temperature measurement. This paper presents an approach which uses high-speed strain measurement to transpire the link between strain, strain rate and thermal softening as well as the interdependency between strain hardening and thermal softening. The results show a superimposition of strain hardening and thermal softening, which is consistent to preliminary investigations. The advantage of the presented research is that the results can be used to calibrate damage and material models to perform mechanical simulations using Finite Element Analysis.

  13. A reevaluation of the key factors that influence tomato fruit softening and integrity

    Saladie, M.; Matas, A; Isaacson, T.; Jenks, M.; Goodwin, S.; Niklas, K.; Xiaolin, R.; Labavitch, J.; Shackel, K.; Fernie, A.; Lytovchenko, A.; O'Neill, M.; Watkins, C.; Rose, J.

    2007-01-01

    The softening of fleshy fruits, such as tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), during ripening is generally reported to result principally from disassembly of the primary cell wall and middle lamella. However, unsuccessful attempts to prolong fruit firmness by suppressing the expression of a range of wall-modifying proteins in transgenic tomato fruits do not support such a simple model. 'Delayed Fruit Deterioration' (DFD) is a previously unreported tomato cultivar that provides a unique opportunity t...

  14. Bilinear softening parameters and equivalent LEFM R-curve in quasibrittle failure

    Morel, S.; Lespine, C.; Coureau, J.L.; Planas Rosselló, Jaime; Dourado, N.

    2010-01-01

    For composites and adhesive joints, the determination of the cohesive zone parameters from Double Cantilever Beam specimens loaded with pure moments is now well established and documented. However, for quasibrittle materials used in Civil Engineering such as concrete or wood, the difficulty to apply a pure bending moment lies inappropriated the method used for composites. Nevertheless, the one-to-one correspondence which exists between the R-curve and the softening curve is here revisited and...

  15. Low temperature properties of core-softened models: water vs. silica behavior

    Jagla, E. A.

    2001-01-01

    A core-softened model of a glass forming fluid is numerically studied in the limit of very low temperatures. The model shows two qualitatively different behaviors depending on the strength of the attraction between particles. For no or low attraction, the changes of density as a function of pressure are smooth, although hysteretic due to mechanical metastabilities. For larger attraction, sudden changes of density upon compressing and decompressing occur. This global mechanical instability is ...

  16. Activated Sludge and Other Aerobic Suspended Culture Processes

    Yung-Tse Hung

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A review of the literature published in 2008, 2009 and 2010 relating to activated sludge treatment of wastewater is presented. The review considers information on the topics of modeling and kinetics; process microbiology; nitrogen and phosphorus removal; treatment and effects of xenobiotics; oxygen transfer; and solids separation.

  17. Process cells dismantling of EUREX pant: previous activities

    In the '98-'99 period some process cells of the EUREX pant will be dismantled, in order to place there the liquid wastes conditioning plant 'CORA'. This report resumes the previous activities (plant rinsing campaigns and inactive Cell 014 dismantling), run in the past three years and the drawn experience

  18. Enhanced 3D face processing using an active vision system

    Lidegaard, Morten; Larsen, Rasmus; Kraft, Dirk; Jessen, Jeppe Barsøe; Beck, Richard; Savarimuthu, Thiusius Rajeeth; Gramkow, Claus; Neckelmann, Ole; Haustad, Jonas; Krüger, Norbert

    We present an active face processing system based on 3D shape information extracted by means of stereo information. We use two sets of stereo cameras with different field of views (FOV): One with a wide FOV is used for face tracking, while the other with a narrow FOV is used for face identificati...

  19. Enhanced Passive and Active Processing of Syllables in Musician Children

    Chobert, Julie; Marie, Celine; Francois, Clement; Schon, Daniele; Besson, Mireille

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the influence of musical expertise in 9-year-old children on passive (as reflected by MMN) and active (as reflected by discrimination accuracy) processing of speech sounds. Musician and nonmusician children were presented with a sequence of syllables that included standards and deviants in vowel frequency,…

  20. Ambient and focal visual processing of naturalistic activity.

    Eisenberg, Michelle L; Zacks, Jeffrey M

    2016-01-01

    When people inspect a picture, they progress through two distinct phases of visual processing: an ambient, or exploratory, phase that emphasizes input from peripheral vision and rapid acquisition of low-frequency information, followed by a focal phase that emphasizes central vision, salient objects, and high-frequency information. Does this qualitative shift occur during dynamic scene viewing? If so, when? One possibility is that shifts to exploratory processing are triggered at subjective event boundaries. This shift would be adaptive, because event boundaries typically occur when activity features change and when activity becomes unpredictable. Here, we used a perceptual event segmentation task, in which people identified boundaries between meaningful units of activity, to test this hypothesis. In two studies, an eye tracker recorded eye movements and pupil size while participants first watched movies of actors engaged in everyday activities and then segmented them into meaningful events. Saccade amplitudes and fixation durations during the initial viewings suggest that event boundaries function much like the onset of a new picture during static picture presentation: Viewers initiate an ambient processing phase and then progress to focal viewing as the event progresses. These studies suggest that this shift in processing mode could play a role in the formation of mental representations of the current environment. PMID:27002550

  1. Optimized operation and design of alternating activated sludge processes

    Lukasse, L.J.S.; Keesman, K.J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a simulation study with the scope to optimise the plant design and operation strategy of 2-reactors alternating activated sludge processes with only flow schedule and aeration on/off as control inputs. The methodology is to simulate the application of receding horizon optimal con

  2. Flow Velocity Measurement by Image Processing of Optically Activated Tracers

    Gharib, M.; Hernan, M. A.; Yavrouian, A. H.; Sarohia, V.

    1985-01-01

    A computerized flow visualization technique capable of quantifying the flow field automatically has been developed. This technique uses afterglowing effect of optically activated phosphorescent particles to retrieve vectorial information on each trace. By using this information, in conjunction with computer image processing, the flow field of a free surface transient vortex was investigated.

  3. HIV fusion peptide penetrates, disorders, and softens T-cell membrane mimics.

    Tristram-Nagle, Stephanie; Chan, Rob; Kooijman, Edgar; Uppamoochikkal, Pradeep; Qiang, Wei; Weliky, David P; Nagle, John F

    2010-09-10

    This work investigates the interaction of N-terminal gp41 fusion peptide (FP) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) with model membranes in order to elucidate how FP leads to fusion of HIV and T-cell membranes. FP constructs were (i) wild-type FP23 (23 N-terminal amino acids of gp41), (ii) water-soluble monomeric FP that adds six lysines on the C-terminus of FP23 (FPwsm), and (iii) the C-terminus covalently linked trimeric version (FPtri) of FPwsm. Model membranes were (i) LM3 (a T-cell mimic), (ii) 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, (iii) 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine/30 mol% cholesterol, (iv) 1,2-dierucoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, and (v) 1,2-dierucoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine/30 mol% cholesterol. Diffuse synchrotron low-angle x-ray scattering from fully hydrated samples, supplemented by volumetric data, showed that FP23 and FPtri penetrate into the hydrocarbon region and cause membranes to thin. Depth of penetration appears to depend upon a complex combination of factors including bilayer thickness, presence of cholesterol, and electrostatics. X-ray data showed an increase in curvature in hexagonal phase 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine, which further indicates that FP23 penetrates into the hydrocarbon region rather than residing in the interfacial headgroup region. Low-angle x-ray scattering data also yielded the bending modulus K(C), a measure of membrane stiffness, and wide-angle x-ray scattering yielded the S(xray) orientational order parameter. Both FP23 and FPtri decreased K(C) and S(xray) considerably, while the weak effect of FPwsm suggests that it did not partition strongly into LM3 model membranes. Our results are consistent with the HIV FP disordering and softening the T-cell membrane, thereby lowering the activation energy for viral membrane fusion. PMID:20655315

  4. Physical activity across the curriculum: year one process evaluation results

    Sullivan Debra K

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical Activity Across the Curriculum (PAAC is a 3-year elementary school-based intervention to determine if increased amounts of moderate intensity physical activity performed in the classroom will diminish gains in body mass index (BMI. It is a cluster-randomized, controlled trial, involving 4905 children (2505 intervention, 2400 control. Methods We collected both qualitative and quantitative process evaluation data from 24 schools (14 intervention and 10 control, which included tracking teacher training issues, challenges and barriers to effective implementation of PAAC lessons, initial and continual use of program specified activities, and potential competing factors, which might contaminate or lessen program effects. Results Overall teacher attendance at training sessions showed exceptional reach. Teachers incorporated active lessons on most days, resulting in significantly greater student physical activity levels compared to controls (p Conclusion In the first year of the PAAC intervention, process evaluation results were instrumental in identifying successes and challenges faced by teachers when trying to modify existing academic lessons to incorporate physical activity.

  5. Pseudo-elastic description of polymeric foams at finite deformation with stress softening and residual strain effects

    Polymeric foams are typical materials for energy absorber in such areas as aircraft, car industry and in the field of electronic packaging. Besides the typical hyperelastic behaviour, non-linear stress-strain behaviour in large elastic deformation, polymeric foams may also exhibit some inelastic effects, like stress softening and residual strain. In this paper we first describe some experiment results that illustrate the stress softening in compressible expanded polypropylene (EPP) foams together with associated residual strain effects. Then, based on Ogden and Dorfmann's results, a pseudo-elastic model is introduced to capture the stress softening and residual strain effects by including of two variables in the energy function. Numerical simulations of uniaxial-compression tests of two types of EPP foam are used to determine the material parameters of Ogden's model, stress softening and residual strain effects. The numerical simulations indicate that the pseudo-elastic model provides reasonably accurate predictions of the inelastic behaviour of polymeric foam.

  6. A phenomenological expression to describe the temperature dependence of pressure-induced softening in negative thermal expansion materials

    By exploring a simple model of a negative thermal expansion (NTE) system, we introduce a phenomenological expression to describe the temperature dependence of the pressure-induced softening in NTE structures. (paper)

  7. Stool Softeners

    ... doctor.Take capsules and tablets with a full glass of water. The liquid comes with a specially ... to your pharmacist or contact your local garbage/recycling department to learn about take-back programs in ...

  8. Competition between activating and inhibitory processes in photobiology

    Friedmann, Harry; Lubart, Rachel

    1996-01-01

    We discuss light-induced stimulation and inhibition of biological activity by means of three types of competing processes. In the visible region, these competing processes are the formation by photosensitization of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which stimulate the redox activity of the respiratory chain (RC) on the one hand, and intramolecular electronic- vibrational energy transfer from an endogenous photosensitizer to an enzyme of the RC, thereby bringing this enzyme into an inactive configuration and paralyzing the RC, on the other hand. Moreover, there is competition between stimulation of the redox activity of the RC by the ROS and a slower process where the enzymes of the RC react with the ROS, again paralyzing the RC. This paralysis of the RC plays a dominant role in photodynamic therapy, where exogenous photosensitizers together with a sufficiently large visible light-energy dose lead to overproduction of ROS. Finally, in the far-red region, there is competition between reactivation of the ATPase ion pumps in the cell membrane and inhibition of the enzymes in the RC as a result of vibrational overtone excitation. Photobioactivation is shown to lead to enhanced transient Ca2+ concentration increase (calcium oscillations) in the cytosol, thereby triggering further biological activity such as afflux of intercellular messengers which open gated ion channels in neighboring cells, producing calcium waves. Addition of ROS scavengers or quenchers such as SOD in the presence of catalase neutralizes photobiomodulation induced by visible light.

  9. Piezoelectric softening in ferroelectrics: ferroelectric versus antiferroelectric PbZr$_{1-x}$Ti$_{x}$O$_{3}$

    Cordero, F.; Craciun, F.; Trequattrini, F.; Galassi, C.

    2016-01-01

    The traditional derivation of the elastic anomalies associated with ferroelectric (FE) phase transitions in the framework of the Landau theory is combined with the piezoelectric constitutive relations instead of being explicitly carried out with a definite expression of the FE part of the free energy. In this manner it is shown that the softening within the FE phase is of electrostrictive and hence piezoelectric origin. Such a piezoelectric softening may be canceled by the better known piezoe...

  10. Processing Chinese hand-radicals activates the medial frontal gyrus

    Qing-Lin Wu; Yu-Chen Chan; Joseph P. Lavallee; Hsueh-Chin Chen; Kuo-En Chang; Yao-Ting Sung

    2013-01-01

    Embodied semantics theory asserts that the meaning of action-related words is neural y represented through networks that overlap with or are identical to networks involved in sory-motor processing. While some studies supporting this theory have focused on Chinese cha-racters, less attention has been paid to their semantic radicals. Indeed, there is stil disagreement about whether these radicals are processed independently. The present study investigated whether radicals are processed separately and, if so, whether this processing occurs in sensory-motor gions. Materials consisted of 72 high-frequency Chinese characters, with 18 in each of four ries:hand-action verbs with and without hand-radicals, and verbs not related to hand actions, with and without hand-radicals. Twenty-eight participants underwent functional MRI scans while reading the characters. Compared to characters without hand-radicals, reading characters with hand-radicals activated the right medial frontal gyrus. Verbs involving hand-action activated the left inferior parietal lobule, possibly reflecting integration of information in the radical with the semantic meaning of the verb. The findings may be consistent with embodied semantics theory and suggest that neural representation of radicals is indispensable in processing Chinese characters.

  11. Strain-softening behavior of an Fe-6.5 wt%Si alloy during warm deformation and its applications

    Research highlights: → An Fe-6.5 wt%Si alloy exhibits strain-softening behavior after large deformation. → The decrease of the order degree is responsible for the strain-softening behavior. → The strain-softening behavior of Fe-6.5 wt%Si alloy can be applied in cold rolling. → An Fe-6.5 wt%Si thin strip with thickness of 0.20 mm is fabricated by cold rolling. - Abstract: An Fe-6.5 wt%Si alloy with columnar grains was compressed at a temperature below its recrystallization temperature. The Vickers hardness and structure of the alloy before and after deformation were investigated. The results showed that with an increase in the degree of deformation, Vickers hardness of the alloy initially increased rapidly and then decreased slowly, indicating that the alloy had a strain-softening behavior after a large deformation. Meanwhile, the work-hardening exponent of the alloy decreased significantly. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed that the decrease of the order degree was responsible for the strain-softening behavior of the deformed alloy. Applying its softening behavior, the Fe-6.5 wt%Si alloy with columnar grains was rolled at 400 deg. C and then at room temperature. An Fe-6.5 wt%Si thin strip with thickness of 0.20 mm was fabricated. The surface of the strip was bright and had no obvious edge cracks.

  12. Simple data processing for gamma spectroscopy in activation analysis

    A data processing system was developed for multielement neutron activation analysis. It uses a desk-top programmable calculator that is operated off line. The processing is divided into two main programs. The first one detects the peaks of a series of gamma spectra with a 0.1-keV accuracy. The second program performs the integration of peaks selected by the operator, including those for which he wants a detection limit. Peak intensities corrected for decay and dead time are calculated. This system has many advantages: easy use, great versatility, large possibilities for manual control, and low cost

  13. Enhancement of activated sludge disintegration and dewaterability by Fenton process

    Heng, G. C.; Isa, M. H.

    2016-06-01

    Municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants produce large amounts of sludge. This excess sludge is an inevitable drawback inherent to the activated sludge process. In this study, the waste activated sludge was obtained from the campus wastewater treatment plant at Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (UTP), Malaysia. Fenton pretreatment was optimized by using the response surface methodology (RSM) to study the effects of three operating conditions including the dosage of H2O2 (g H2O2/kg TS), the molar ratio of H2O2/Fe2+ and reaction time. The optimum operating variables to achieve MLVSS removal 65%, CST reduction 28%, sCOD 11000 mg/L and EPS 500 mg/L were: 1000 g H2O2/kg TS, H2O2/Fe2+ molar ratio 70 and reaction time 45 min. Fenton process was proved to be able to enhance the sludge disintegration and dewaterability.

  14. Processed Vietnamese ginseng: Preliminary results in chemistry and biological activity

    Le, Thi Hong Van; Lee, Seo Young; Kim, Tae Ryong; Kim, Jae Young; Kwon, Sung Won; NGUYEN, NGOC KHOI; Park, Jeong Hill; Nguyen, Minh Duc

    2013-01-01

    Background This study was carried out to investigate the effect of the steaming process on chemical constituents, free radical scavenging activity, and antiproliferative effect of Vietnamese ginseng. Methods Samples of powdered Vietnamese ginseng were steamed at 120°C for various times and their extracts were subjected to chemical and biological studies. Results Upon steaming, contents of polar ginsenosides, such as Rb1, Rc, Rd, Re, and Rg1, were rapidly decreased, whereas less polar ginsenos...

  15. Multimodal Hierarchical Dirichlet Process-based Active Perception

    Taniguchi, Tadahiro; Takano, Toshiaki; Yoshino, Ryo

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an active perception method for recognizing object categories based on the multimodal hierarchical Dirichlet process (MHDP). The MHDP enables a robot to form object categories using multimodal information, e.g., visual, auditory, and haptic information, which can be observed by performing actions on an object. However, performing many actions on a target object requires a long time. In a real-time scenario, i.e., when the time is limited, the robot has to determine t...

  16. Refining the Neuberger Model: uracil processing by activated B cells

    Maul, Robert W.; Gearhart, Patricia J.

    2014-01-01

    During the immune response, B cells undergo a programmed mutagenic cascade to promote increased affinity and expanded antibody function. The two processes, somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class switch recombination (CSR), are initiated by the protein activation-induced deaminase (AID), which converts cytosine to uracil in the immunoglobulin loci. The presence of uracil in DNA promotes DNA mutagenesis though a subset of DNA repair proteins. Two distinct mechanisms have been proposed to control...

  17. Brain activity related to integrative processes in visual object recognition

    Gerlach, Christian; Aaside, C T; Humphreys, G W;

    2002-01-01

    involvement of re-entrant activation from stored structural knowledge. Evidence in favor of this interpretation comes from the additional finding that activation of the anterior part of the left fusiform gyrus and a more anterior part of the right inferior temporal gyrus, areas previously associated with......We report evidence from a PET activation study that the inferior occipital gyri (likely to include area V2) and the posterior parts of the fusiform and inferior temporal gyri are involved in the integration of visual elements into perceptual wholes (single objects). Of these areas, the fusiform and...... perceptual and memorial processes can be dissociated on both functional and anatomical grounds. No evidence was obtained for the involvement of the parietal lobes in the integration of single objects....

  18. Controlled movement processing: superior colliculus activity associated with countermanded saccades.

    Paré, Martin; Hanes, Doug P

    2003-07-23

    We investigated whether the monkey superior colliculus (SC), an important midbrain structure for the regulation of saccadic eye movements, contains neurons with activity patterns sufficient to control both the cancellation and the production of saccades. We used a countermanding task to manipulate the probability that, after the presentation of a stop signal, the monkeys canceled a saccade that was planned in response to an eccentric visual stimulus. By modeling each animal's behavioral responses, with a race between GO and STOP processes leading up to either saccade initiation or cancellation, we estimated that saccade cancellation took on average 110 msec. Neurons recorded in the superior colliculus intermediate layers during this task exhibited the discharge properties expected from neurons closely involved in behavioral control. Both saccade- and fixation-related discharged differently when saccades were counter-manded instead of executed, and the time at which they changed their activity preceded the behavioral estimate of saccade cancellation obtained from the same trials by 10 and 13 msec, respectively. Furthermore, these intervals exceed the minimal amount of time needed for SC activity to influence eye movements. The additional observation that saccade-related neurons discharged significantly less when saccades were countermanded instead of executed suggests that saccades are triggered when these neurons reach a critical activation level. Altogether, these findings provide solid evidence that the superior colliculus contains the necessary neural signals to be directly involved in the decision process that regulates whether a saccade is to be produced. PMID:12878689

  19. FAME: Freeform Active Mirrors Experiment: manufacturing process development

    Challita, Zalpha; Hugot, Emmanuel; Venema, Lars; Schnetler, Hermine; Ferrari, Marc; Cuby, Jean-Gabriel

    2014-07-01

    Extreme freeform mirrors couple a non-axisymmetrical shape and an extreme asphericity, i.e. more than one millimeter of deviation from the best fit sphere. In astronomical instrumentation, such a large asphericity allows compact instruments, using less optical components. However, the lack of freeform mirrors manufacturing facilities is a real issue. We present the concept and development of an innovative manufacturing process based on plasticity forming which allow imprinting permanent deformations on mirrors, following a pre-defined mold. The aim of this activity, pursued in the frame of the OPTICON-FAME (Freeform Active Mirrors Experiment) project, is to demonstrate the suitability of this method for VIS/NIR/MIR applications. The process developed can operate on thin and flat polished initial substrates. Three study cases have been highlighted by FEA (Finite Element Analysis) and the real tests associated were performed on thin substrates in AISI420b stainless steel with 100 mm optical diameter. A comparison between FEA and tests is performed to study the evolution of the mechanical behaviour and the optical quality. The opto-mechanical results will allow a fine tuning of FEA parameters to optimize the residual form errors obtained through this process to converge toward an innovative and recurrent process.

  20. NOVel Adaptive softening for collisionless N-body simulations: eliminating spurious haloes

    Hobbs, Alexander; Read, Justin I.; Agertz, Oscar; Iannuzzi, Francesca; Power, Chris

    2016-05-01

    We describe a NOVel form of Adaptive softening (NOVA) for collisionless N-body simulations, implemented in the RAMSES adaptive mesh refinement code. In RAMSES - that we refer to as a `standard N-body method' - cells are only split if they contain more than eight particles (a mass refinement criterion). Here, we introduce an additional criterion that the particle distribution within each cell be sufficiently isotropic, as measured by the ratio of the maximum to minimum eigenvalues of its moment of inertia tensor: η = λmax/λmin. In this way, collapse is only refined if it occurs along all three axes, ensuring that the softening ɛ is always of order twice the largest interparticle spacing in a cell. This more conservative force softening criterion is designed to minimize spurious two-body effects, while maintaining high force resolution in collapsed regions of the flow. We test NOVA using an antisymmetric perturbed plane wave collapse (`Valinia' test) before applying it to warm dark matter (WDM) simulations. For the Valinia test, we show that - unlike the standard N-body method - NOVA produces no numerical fragmentation while still being able to correctly capture fine caustics and shells around the collapsing regions. For the WDM simulations, we find that NOVA converges significantly more rapidly than standard N-body, producing little or no spurious haloes on small scales. We will use NOVA in forthcoming papers to study the issue of halo formation below the free-streaming mass Mfs; filament stability; and to obtain new constraints on the temperature of dark matter.

  1. Memory suppression is an active process that improves over childhood

    Pedro M Paz-Alonso

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We all have memories that we prefer not to think about. The ability to suppress retrieval of unwanted memories has been documented in behavioral and neuroimaging research using the Think/No-Think (TNT paradigm with adults. Attempts to stop memory retrieval are associated with increased activation of lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC and concomitant reduced activation in medial temporal lobe (MTL structures. However, the extent to which children have the ability to actively suppress their memories is unknown. This study investigated memory suppression in middle childhood using the TNT paradigm. Forty children aged 8 to 12 and 30 young adults were instructed either to remember (Think or suppress (No-Think the memory of the second word of previously studied word-pairs, when presented with the first member as a reminder. They then performed two different cued recall tasks, testing their memory for the second word in each pair after the Think/No-Think phase using the same first studied word within the pair as a cue (intra-list cue and also an independent cue (extra-list cue. Children exhibited age-related improvements in memory suppression from age 8 to 12 in both memory tests, against a backdrop of overall improvements in declarative memory over this age range. These findings suggest that memory suppression is an active process that develops during late childhood, likely due to an age-related refinement in the ability to engage PFC to down-regulate activity in areas involved in episodic retrieval.

  2. Salivary a-amylase protects enamel surface against acid induced softening

    Lazovic, Maja Bruvo; Moe, Dennis; Kirkeby, Svend;

    -TOF mass fingerprinting following trypsin digestion. Each persistent peak in the HPLC chromatograms was related to the protective effect against acid-induced enamel softening obtained by the corresponding saliva sample by multiple regression analysis. Results: One peak identified as a-amylase had an...... explanatory power of 39% in the analysis with high concentrations being most protective (p<0.001). In addition, a smaller peak retrieved later in the chromatograms also had a strong protective effect. Inclusion of this peak in the analysis increased the explanatory power of amylase on protective effect to 65...

  3. Improving the performance of biomimetic hair-flow sensors by electrostatic spring softening

    We report improvements in the detection limit and responsivity of biomimetic hair-flow sensors by electrostatic spring softening. Applying a dc-bias voltage to our capacitive flow sensors results in a reduced sensory threshold, improving the mechanical transfer and flow detection limit by more than 6 dB. We further show that the sensor's responsivity for airflows is also improved on application of high-frequency ac-bias voltages to the sensor's capacitive structures with little sensitivity to the bias frequency. (paper)

  4. Pseudo-periodic surrogate test to sample time series in stochastic softening Duffing oscillator

    Identification of typical noise-contaminated sample response is a hard task in a nonlinear system under stochastic background since irregularity of the sample response may come from measure noise, dynamical noise, or nonlinear effect, etc., and conventional dynamical methods are generally not useful. Here, the pseudo-periodic surrogate algorithm by Small is employed to test the sample time series in the softening Duffing oscillator under the Gaussian white noise excitation. The correlation dimensions of the noisy periodic and the noise-induced chaotic time series of the system are compared with those of their corresponding surrogate data respectively, the leading Lyapunov exponents by Rosenstein's algorithm are also presented for comparison

  5. Low-temperature behavior of core-softened models: Water and silica behavior

    A core-softened model of a glass forming fluid is numerically studied in the limit of very low temperatures. The model shows two qualitatively different behaviors depending on the strength of the attraction between particles. For no or low attraction, the changes of density as a function of pressure are smooth, although hysteretic due to mechanical metastabilities. For larger attraction, sudden changes of density upon compressing and decompressing occur. This global mechanical instability is correlated to the existence of a thermodynamic first-order amorphous-amorphous transition. The two different behaviors obtained correspond qualitatively to the different phenomenology observed in silica and water

  6. Drilling to investigate processes in active tectonics and magmatism

    Shervais, J.; Evans, J.; Toy, V.; Kirkpatrick, J.; Clarke, A.; Eichelberger, J.

    2014-12-01

    Coordinated drilling efforts are an important method to investigate active tectonics and magmatic processes related to faults and volcanoes. The US National Science Foundation (NSF) recently sponsored a series of workshops to define the nature of future continental drilling efforts. As part of this series, we convened a workshop to explore how continental scientific drilling can be used to better understand active tectonic and magmatic processes. The workshop, held in Park City, Utah, in May 2013, was attended by 41 investigators from seven countries. Participants were asked to define compelling scientific justifications for examining problems that can be addressed by coordinated programs of continental scientific drilling and related site investigations. They were also asked to evaluate a wide range of proposed drilling projects, based on white papers submitted prior to the workshop. Participants working on faults and fault zone processes highlighted two overarching topics with exciting potential for future scientific drilling research: (1) the seismic cycle and (2) the mechanics and architecture of fault zones. Recommended projects target fundamental mechanical processes and controls on faulting, and range from induced earthquakes and earthquake initiation to investigations of detachment fault mechanics and fluid flow in fault zones. Participants working on active volcanism identified five themes: the volcano eruption cycle; eruption sustainability, near-field stresses, and system recovery; eruption hazards; verification of geophysical models; and interactions with other Earth systems. Recommended projects address problems that are transferrable to other volcanic systems, such as improved methods for identifying eruption history and constraining the rheological structure of shallow caldera regions. Participants working on chemical geodynamics identified four major themes: large igneous provinces (LIPs), ocean islands, continental hotspot tracks and rifts, and

  7. Process for processing and conditioning radioactive effluents of low and medium activity

    Preferably continuous process for processing radioactive effluents of low and medium activity, comprising an effluent pre-treatment: precipitation of radioactive compounds to form a stable suspension that can be concentrated. Then a mix is made of 0.6 to 2 parts of cement by weight for one part by weight of suspension, from 0.5 to 5% by weight, in relation to the cement, of asbestos fibre and, if necessary, added water for the cement to set, this suspension containing from 15 to 75% by weight of dry extract and a suspension agent. The homogeneous mix achieved is poured into a container

  8. The insulin receptor activation process involves localized conformational changes.

    Baron, V; Kaliman, P; Gautier, N; Van Obberghen, E

    1992-11-15

    The molecular process by which insulin binding to the receptor alpha-subunit induces activation of the receptor beta-subunit with ensuing substrate phosphorylation remains unclear. In this study, we aimed at approaching this molecular mechanism of signal transduction and at delineating the cytoplasmic domains implied in this process. To do this, we used antipeptide antibodies to the following sequences of the receptor beta-subunit: (i) positions 962-972 in the juxtamembrane domain, (ii) positions 1247-1261 at the end of the kinase domain, and (iii) positions 1294-1317 and (iv) positions 1309-1326, both in the receptor C terminus. We have previously shown that insulin binding to its receptor induces a conformational change in the beta-subunit C terminus. Here, we demonstrate that receptor autophosphorylation induces an additional conformational change. This process appears to be distinct from the one produced by ligand binding and can be detected in at least three different beta-subunit regions: the juxtamembrane domain, the kinase domain, and the C terminus. Hence, the cytoplasmic part of the receptor beta-subunit appears to undergo an extended conformational change upon autophosphorylation. By contrast, the insulin-induced change does not affect the juxtamembrane domain 962-972 nor the kinase domain 1247-1261 and may be limited to the receptor C terminus. Further, we show that the hormone-dependent conformational change is maintained in a kinase-deficient receptor due to a mutation at lysine 1018. Therefore, during receptor activation, the ligand-induced change could precede ATP binding and receptor autophosphorylation. We propose that insulin binding leads to a transient receptor form that may allow ATP binding and, subsequently, autophosphorylation. The second conformational change could unmask substrate-binding sites and stabilize the receptor in an active conformation. PMID:1331080

  9. Time scales and dynamical processes in activity driven networks

    Perra, Nicola; Goncalves, Bruno; Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2012-02-01

    Network science has undergone explosive growth in the last ten years. This growth has been driven by the recent availability of huge digital databases, which has facilitated the analysis and construction of large-scale networks from real data and the identification of statistical regularities and structural principles common to many systems. Network modeling has played an essential role in this endeavor; however models are chiefly constructed by considering as relevant ingredients only the connectivity and statistical properties of the networks, while disregarding the actual agents' behavior. Here we address this challenge by measuring the agents' interaction activity in real-world networks and defining a minimal model capable of reproducing the intrinsically additive nature of connectivity patterns obtained from time-aggregated network representations. Additionally, we demonstrate that processes such as epidemic and information spreading in highly dynamical networks can be better characterized in terms of agent social activity than by connectivity based approaches

  10. Leachate Treatment by Batch Decant Activated Sludge Process and Powdered Activated Carbon Addition

    Y Hashempur; R Rezaei Kalantary; Jaafarzadeh, N.; Jorfi, S.

    2009-01-01

    "n "nBackgrounds and Objectives: Direct biodegradation of landfill leachate is too difficult because of high concentrations of COD and NH3 and also the presence of toxic compounds. The main objective of this study was to application of Strurvite precipitation as a pretreatment stage, in order to remove inhibitors of biodegradation before the batch decant activated sludge process with addition of powdered activated carbon (PAC)."nMaterials and Methods: Strurvite precipitated leachate was intro...

  11. Role of sympathetic nerve activity in the process of fainting

    Satoshi eIwase

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Syncope is defined as a transient loss of consciousness and postural tone, characterized by rapid onset, short duration, and spontaneous recovery, and the process of syncope progression will be described with two types of sympathetic change. Simultaneous recordings of microneurographically recorded MSNA and continuous and noninvasive blood pressure measurement have disclose what is going on in the course of progression of the syncope. Vasovagal or neurally mediated syncope, three stages are identified in the course of syncope onset, oscillation, imbalance, and catastrophe phases. The vasovagal syncope is characterized by the sympathoexcitation, followed by vagal overcome via the Bezold-Jarisch reflex. Orthostatic syncope is caused by the response failure or lack of sympathetic nerve activity toward the orthostatic challenge followed by the fluid shift, and subsequent cerebral low perfusion. Four causes are considered for the compensatory failure, which triggers the orthostatic syncope; hypovolemia, increased pooling in the lower body, failure to activate the sympathetic activity, and failure of vasoconstriction against sympathetic vasoconstrictive stimulation. Many pathophysiological conditions were described in the viewpoint of 1 exaggerated sympathoexcitation and 2 failure to activate the sympathetic nerve. We conclude that the sympathetic nervous system can control the cardiovascular function, and its failure resulted syncope, however, responses of the system by microneurographically recorded MSNA would determine the pathophysiology of the onset and progression of syncope, explaining the treatment effect that could be achieved by the analysis of this mechanism.

  12. Spectral Softening in the X-Ray Afterglow of GRB 130925A as Predicted by the Dust Scattering Model

    Zhao, Yi-Nan; Shao, Lang

    2014-07-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) usually occur in a dense star-forming region with a massive circumburst medium. The small-angle scattering of intense prompt X-ray emission off the surrounding dust grains will have observable consequences and sometimes can dominate the X-ray afterglow. In most of the previous studies, only the Rayleigh-Gans (RG) approximation is employed for describing the scattering process, which works accurately for the typical size of grains (with radius of a diffuse interstellar medium. When the size of the grains may significantly increase, as in a more dense region where GRBs would occur, the RG approximation may not be valid enough for modeling detailed observational data. In order to study the temporal and spectral properties of the scattered X-ray emission more accurately with potentially larger dust grains, we provide a practical approach using the series expansions of anomalous diffraction (AD) approximation based on the complicated Mie theory. We apply our calculations to understand the puzzling X-ray afterglow of recently observed GRB 130925A that showed a significant spectral softening. We find that the X-ray scattering scenarios with either AD or RG approximation adopted could well reproduce both the temporal and spectral profile simultaneously. Given the plateau present in the early X-ray light curve, a typical distribution of smaller grains as in the interstellar medium would be suggested for GRB 130925A.

  13. Biological Treatment of tannery wastewater using activated sludge process

    A study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of Activated Sludge Process (ASP) for the treatment of tannery wastewater and to develop a simple design criteria under local conditions. A bench scale model comprising of an aeration tank and final clarifier was used for this purpose. The model was operated continuously for 267 days. Settled tannery wastewater was used as influent to the aeration tank. Five days Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) of the influent and effluent were measured to find process efficiency at various mixed liquor volatile suspended solids (MLVSS) and hydraulic detention time. The results of the study demonstrated that an efficiency of above 90% and 80% for BOD5 and COD, respectively could be obtained if the ASP is operated at an MLVSS concentration of 3500 mg/L keeping an aeration time of 12 hours. (author)

  14. Detailed processes accompanying the decay of an active region

    High resolution (better than 1'') magnetograms obtained at the Sacramento Peak Vacuum Tower Telescope were used to study the decay of a small active region. The reduction process allows one to match intensity and magnetic pictures exactly. Some of the main results are: (i) The granulation massages a magnetic pore, probably inducing its fragmentation. The supergranules get rid of the decayed pieces transporting them away from the pore. (ii) Magnetic flux is removed from the photosphere through its submergence. (author). 5 figs., 10 refs

  15. Process for reduction of the volume of low activity waste

    The invention concerns a process for the reduction of the volume of low activity waste in a plant equipped with separate solid and liquid inputs, where the liquid is taken via a filter to a waste water container and the dry solids are taken to a solid container. Plant of this type should be used in hospitals and university clinics etc. It is an important aim of the invention to describe a process, which makes a particularly compact layout of such a plant possible. The solids are taken to a pulverizer and after passing through this, the dry material is separated from the process and taken to the solid container, while the wet material is dried in a flushing drying system and then also taken to the solid container. The humidity carried off with the hot air is condensed and the condensate is taken to the waste water container. The material taken to the solid container is compacted in a press, preferably adding glue. By separating the pulverized already dry solid material from the pulverized wet material, the plant itself can be made considerably smaller, as one does not have to take the whole volume of solids into account for further processing. (orig./HP)

  16. Kinetics of catalytically activated aggregation—fragmentation process

    We propose a catalytically activated aggregation—fragmentation model of three species, in which two clusters of species A can coagulate into a larger one under the catalysis of B clusters; otherwise, one cluster of species A will fragment into two smaller clusters under the catalysis of C clusters. By means of mean-field rate equations, we derive the asymptotic solutions of the cluster-mass distributions ak(t) of species A, which is found to depend strongly on the competition between the catalyzed aggregation process and the catalyzed fragmentation process. When the catalyzed aggregation process dominates the system, the cluster-mass distribution ak(t) satisfies the conventional scaling form. When the catalyzed fragmentation process dominates the system, the scaling description of ak(t) breaks down completely and the monodisperse initial condition of species A would not be changed in the long-time limit. In the marginal case when the effects of catalyzed aggregation and catalyzed fragmentation counteract each other, ak(t) takes the modified scaling form and the system can eventually evolve to a steady state. (condensed matter: structural, mechanical, and thermal properties)

  17. Phase transformations and indications for acoustic mode softening in Tb-Gd orthophosphate.

    Tschauner, O; Ushakov, S V; Navrotsky, A; Boatner, L A

    2016-01-27

    At ambient conditions the anhydrous rare earth orthophosphates assume either the xenotime (zircon) or the monazite structure, with the latter favored for the heavier rare earths and by increasing pressure. Tb0.5Gd0.5PO4 assumes the xenotime structure at ambient conditions but is at the border between the xenotime and monazite structures. Here we show that, at high pressure, Tb0.5Gd0.5PO4 does not transform directly to monazite but through an intermediate anhydrite-type structure. Axial deformation of the unit cell near the anhydrite- to monazite-type transition indicates softening of the (c1133  +  c1313) combined elastic moduli. Stress response of rare-earth orthophosphate ceramics can be affected by both formation of the anhydrite-type phase and the elastic softening in the vicinity of the monazite-phase. We report the first structural data for an anhydrite-type rare earth orthophosphate. PMID:26733233

  18. Reversible stress softening of collagen based networks from the jumbo squid mantle (Dosidicus gigas)

    Torres, F.G., E-mail: fgtorres@pucp.edu.pe [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Catholic University of Peru, Lima 32 (Peru); Troncoso, O.P.; Rivas, E.R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Catholic University of Peru, Lima 32 (Peru); Gomez, C.G. [Departament de Química Física and Institut de Ciencia dels Materials, Universitat de València, Dr. Moliner 50, Burjassot, E-46100 Valencia (Spain); Lopez, D. [Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnología de Polímeros, C.S.I.C., Calle Juan de la Cierva 3, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-04-01

    Dosidicus gigas is the largest and one of the most abundant jumbo squids in the eastern Pacific Ocean. In this paper we have studied the muscle of the mantle of D. gigas (DGM). Morphological, thermal and rheological properties were assessed by means of atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetry and oscillatory rheometry. This study allowed us to assess the morphological and rheological properties of a collagen based network occurring in nature. The results showed that the DGM network displays a nonlinear effect called reversible stress softening (RSS) that has been previously described for other types of biological structures such as naturally occurring cellulose networks and actin networks. We propose that the RSS could play a key role on the way jumbo squids withstand hydrostatic pressure. The results presented here confirm that this phenomenon occurs in a wider number of materials than previously thought, all of them exhibiting different size scales as well as physical conformation. - Highlights: • We studied the structure property relationships of the jumbo squid mantle. • Rheological tests showed that such a mantle exhibits reversible stress softening (RSS). • RSS could also play a role on the way jumbo squids withstand hydrostatic pressure.

  19. Reversible stress softening of collagen based networks from the jumbo squid mantle (Dosidicus gigas)

    Dosidicus gigas is the largest and one of the most abundant jumbo squids in the eastern Pacific Ocean. In this paper we have studied the muscle of the mantle of D. gigas (DGM). Morphological, thermal and rheological properties were assessed by means of atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetry and oscillatory rheometry. This study allowed us to assess the morphological and rheological properties of a collagen based network occurring in nature. The results showed that the DGM network displays a nonlinear effect called reversible stress softening (RSS) that has been previously described for other types of biological structures such as naturally occurring cellulose networks and actin networks. We propose that the RSS could play a key role on the way jumbo squids withstand hydrostatic pressure. The results presented here confirm that this phenomenon occurs in a wider number of materials than previously thought, all of them exhibiting different size scales as well as physical conformation. - Highlights: • We studied the structure property relationships of the jumbo squid mantle. • Rheological tests showed that such a mantle exhibits reversible stress softening (RSS). • RSS could also play a role on the way jumbo squids withstand hydrostatic pressure

  20. TO SELECTION OF TECHNOLOGICAL SCHEME OF SOFTENING HEAT TREATMENT FOR HIGH CHROMIUM CAST IRON

    V. G. Efremenko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. High chromium cast irons with austenitic matrix have low machinability. The aim of work is search of new energy-saving modes of preliminary softening heat treatment enhancing the machinability of castings by forming an optimum microstructure. Methodology. Metallographic analysis, hardness testing and machinability testing are applied. Findings. It was found out that high temperature annealing with continuous cooling yields to martensite-austenite matrix in cast iron 270Х15Г2Н1MPhT, which abruptly affects the machinability of cast iron. Significant improvement of machinability is achieved by forming of structure "ferrite + granular carbides" and by decline of hardness to 37-39 HRC in the case of two-stage isothermal annealing in the subcritical temperature range or by the use of quenching and tempering (two-step or cyclic. Originality. It was found that the formation of the optimal structure of the matrix and achievement of desired hardness level needed for improving machinability of high chromium cast iron containing 3 % austenite-forming elements, can be obtained: 1 due to pearlite original austenite followed by spherodization eutectoid carbides, and 2 by getting predominantly martensite structure followed by the decay of martensite and carbides coagulation at high-temperature tempering. Practical value. The new energy-saving schemes of softening heat treatment to ensure the growth of machinability of high chromium cast iron, alloyed by higher quantity of austenite forming elements, are proposed.

  1. Use of sonication for in-well softening of semivolatile organic compounds. 1997 annual progress report

    Peters, R.W.; Manning, J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (US); Hoffman, M.R. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (US); Gorelick, S. [Stanford Univ., CA (US)

    1997-01-01

    'This project investigates the in-situ degradation of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using in-well sonication, in-well vapor stripping, and bioremediation. Pretreating groundwaters with sonication techniques in-situ would form VOCs that can be effectively removed by in-well vapor stripping and bioremediation. The mechanistic studies focus on the coupling of megasonics and ultrasonics to soften (i.e., partially degrade) the SVOCs; oxidative reaction mechanism studies; surface corrosion studies (on the reactor walls/well); enhancement due to addition of oxidants, quantification of the hydroxyl radical formation; identification/quantification of degradation products; volatility/degradability of the treated waters; development of a computer simulation model to describe combined in-well sonication/in-well vapor stripping/bioremediation; systems analysis/economic analysis; large laboratory-scale experiment verification; and field demonstration of the integrated technology. Benefits of this approach include: (1) Remediation is performed in-situ; (2) The treatment systems complement each other; their combination can drastically reduce or remove SVOCs and VOCs; (3) Ability to convert hard-to-degrade organics into more volatile organic compounds; (4) Ability to remove residual VOCs and softened SVOCs through the combined action of in-well vapor stripping and biodegradation; (5) Does not require handling or disposing of water at the ground surface; and (6) Cost-effective and improved efficiency, resulting in shortened clean-up times to remediate a site.'

  2. Microstructure and Softening of Laser-Welded 960 MPa Grade High Strength Steel Joints

    Meng, Wei; Li, Zhuguo; Huang, Jian; Wu, Yixiong; Katayama, Seiji

    2013-12-01

    The microstructural evolution of laser-welded 960 MPa grade high strength steel joints and its effect on softening behavior of heat affected zone (HAZ) were investigated in this paper. The results show that microstructure of HAZ and fusion zone (FZ) is composed of lath martensite and bainitic ferrite. The microstructure of mixed grained zone presents strip-like characteristics and small block martensite distributes along the grain boundary. The grain size near the fusion line is about 25 μm, and the grain size in the fine grain zone is less than 5 μm. Microhardness of HAZ and FZ is lower than base metal. The soft zone locates in transitional region between tempering zone and mixed grained zone due to the interaction of the martensite tempering and the recovery and recrystallization of the rolled microstructure. Microhardness of soft zone is 310 HV and drops 18% compared to base material. Welding heat input has a remarkable effect on the width of soft zone and microhardness. The tensile properties of weld joints are closely related to the softening behavior of HAZ.

  3. Softening Behavior of a New Al-Zn-Mg-Cu Alloy Due to TIG Welding

    Zhang, Liang; Li, Xiaoyan; Nie, Zuoren; Huang, Hui; Sun, Jiantong

    2016-05-01

    A new Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy with T6 temper was welded by TIG welding, and the softening behavior of the joint was evaluated. Results show that the ultimate tensile strength of the joint is 436.2 ± 26.4 MPa which is about 64.5% of that of the base metal (BM). Fusion zone (FZ) is the weakest region even though its microhardness increases from 107.6 to 131.3 HV within 90 days after welding. Microhardness of the heat-affected zone (HAZ) adjacent to FZ increases from 125.2 to 162.3 HV within 90 days. However, a valley value of microhardness appears in the rest of the HAZ that increases from 112.1 to 128.1 HV within 90 days. The variation of grain size and precipitates is regarded as the main cause of softening in both FZ and HAZ. The grain size of FZ is about 33.9 μm, whereas 8.7 and 8.4 μm for HAZ and BM, respectively. A large number of η' phases distribute dispersively in BM, whereas precipitates in FZ identified as GPI zones are finer and fewer. Besides, precipitates in HAZ adjacent to FZ are also GPI zones. Precipitates in HAZ far away from FZ are coarser and fewer than those in BM and η phases begin to emerge.

  4. Piezoelectric softening in ferroelectrics: Ferroelectric versus antiferroelectric PbZr1 -xTixO3

    Cordero, F.; Craciun, F.; Trequattrini, F.; Galassi, C.

    2016-05-01

    The traditional derivation of the elastic anomalies associated with ferroelectric (FE) phase transitions in the framework of the Landau theory is combined with the piezoelectric constitutive relations instead of being explicitly carried out with a definite expression of the FE part of the free energy. In this manner it is shown that the softening within the FE phase is of electrostrictive and hence piezoelectric origin. Such a piezoelectric softening may be canceled by the better known piezoelectric stiffening, when the piezoelectric charges formed during the vibration are accompanied by the depolarization field, as for example in Brillouin scattering experiments. It is therefore possible to evaluate the average piezoelectric coupling from the usual elastic measurements of unpoled ceramics, where the piezoelectric stiffening does not occur. As experimental validation, we present new measurements on Zr-rich lead zirconate titanate (PZT), where the FE phase transforms into antiferroelectric on cooling or doping with La, and a comparison of existing measurements made on FE PZT with low frequency and Brillouin scattering experiments.

  5. Inexact fuzzy-stochastic constraint-softened programming - A case study for waste management.

    Li, Y P; Huang, G H; Yang, Z F; Chen, X

    2009-07-01

    In this study, an inexact fuzzy-stochastic constraint-softened programming method is developed for municipal solid waste (MSW) management under uncertainty. The developed method can deal with multiple uncertainties presented in terms of fuzzy sets, interval values and random variables. Moreover, a number of violation levels for the system constraints are allowed. This is realized through introduction of violation variables to soften system constraints, such that the model's decision space can be expanded under demanding conditions. This can help generate a range of decision alternatives under various conditions, allowing in-depth analyses of tradeoffs among economic objective, satisfaction degree, and constraint-violation risk. The developed method is applied to a case study of planning a MSW management system. The uncertain and dynamic information can be incorporated within a multi-layer scenario tree; revised decisions are permitted in each time period based on the realized values of uncertain events. Solutions associated with different satisfaction degree levels have been generated, corresponding to different constraint-violation risks. They are useful for supporting decisions of waste flow allocation and system-capacity expansion within a multistage context. PMID:19171474

  6. Metallization and softening of B{sub 6}O at high pressure

    Wang, Yuehui [Institute of Physics and Chemistry, HNUST, Qinhuangdao, Hebei 066600 (China); Wang, Yachun; Yao, Tiankai; Li, Hui; Wu, Lailei; Yang, Meng [Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, College of Material Science and Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Zhang, Jingwu, E-mail: ziw@ysu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, College of Material Science and Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Gou, Huiyang, E-mail: huiyang.gou@gmail.com [Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, College of Material Science and Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China)

    2014-07-05

    Highlights: • Structural searching identified a high-pressure phase for B{sub 6}O with monoclinic Cc structure. • Cc structure B{sub 6}O is mechanically and dynamically stable. • Cc phase characterizes in pentagonal pyramids and zig-zag O–B1–O chains. • Cc phase shows metallization and softened hardness as compared to zero-pressure structure. - Abstract: Structural stability, elastic and electronic properties of boron suboxide, B{sub 6}O, up to 300 GPa were investigated by first-principles calculations. Structural searching and enthalpy differences calculations identify a high-pressure phase for B{sub 6}O with monoclinic Cc structure (denoted as β-B{sub 6}O), which is energetically preferable to the known R-3 m-type phase above 245 GPa. β-B{sub 6}O phase forms a three-dimensional covalent network mainly composed of pentagonal pyramids and zig-zag O–B1–O chains extended along c-direction. β-B{sub 6}O phase is found to be stable examined by the calculated elastic constants and phonon dispersion and exhibits metallic behavior and greater elastic and hardness anisotropy, totally different from the semiconducting character and relative isotropy of ground state structure. Moreover, β-B{sub 6}O is predicted to soften significantly with a Vicker’s hardness of about 20.7 GPa.

  7. INVESTIGATION OF SOFTENING AGENT PREPARATION AND PERFORMANCE OF HANDMADE ECOCOMPOSITES WITH CONIFEROUS WOOD AND BASALT FIBERS

    Guangjian Wang; Deku Shang; Kailiang Zhang; Linna Hu; Zhenhua Guo

    2004-01-01

    In this investigation, basalt mineral fiber softening agent was prepared in order to obtain desirable flexible performance. Stability and physical chemistry natures of softening agent were evaluated by particle size distribution, dilution, storage and folding endurance etc. Constitutes of basalt and wood fibers were determined by energy dispersion analysis X-ray which served as an accessory of scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDAX). Naturally degradable ecocomposite was prepared by basalt and wood fibers. The results of SEM observation illustrated that the wood and basalt fibers were blended uniformly. The impact factors of beating degree, content of wood fibers and adhesive etc. were discussed. The structure of the naturally degradable ecocomposite was contrasted with that of pure wood fibers and the cause of excellent filtration performance was analyzed. Compared with traditional methods, it was of saving wood resource,a large amount of water and reducing second pollution. As a consequence, the ecocomposite harmonized with environment and accorded with requirement of benignly friendly environment.

  8. Reentrant softening as precursor to reentrant melting of the vortex-lattice in YBCO single crystal

    Hucho, C.; Carter, J. M.; Muller, V.; Petrean, A.; Kwok, W. K.

    1999-10-12

    A vibrating sample technique was used to study the elastic behavior of the magnetic vortex system in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} single crystal. The setup consists of a system of two weakly coupled mechanical oscillators (transducer, sample), the frequency and Q of which depends sensitively on the frequencies of the two subsystems as well as the coupling between both. By sweeping a magnetic field at temperatures below the superconducting transition temperature {Tc} the authors observe pronounced attenuation peaks of temperature-dependent characteristic field strengths H{sub 1} and H{sub 2}. These fields mark temperature-dependent points of constant elasticity of the vortex-ensemble. Since softening precedes the melting of the vortex-lattice by approaching H{sub o1} as well as H{sub o2}, the observed angular dependence of H{sub 1} and H{sub 2} is interpreted as due to reentrant softening as precursor to reentrant melting.

  9. Cloud condensation nuclei activity and droplet activation kinetics of wet processed regional dust samples and minerals

    P. Kumar

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This study reports laboratory measurements of particle size distributions, cloud condensation nuclei (CCN activity, and droplet activation kinetics of wet generated aerosols from clays, calcite, quartz, and desert soil samples from Northern Africa, East Asia/China, and Northern America. The dependence of critical supersaturation, sc, on particle dry diameter, Ddry, is used to characterize particle-water interactions and assess the ability of Frenkel-Halsey-Hill adsorption activation theory (FHH-AT and Köhler theory (KT to describe the CCN activity of the considered samples. Wet generated regional dust samples produce unimodal size distributions with particle sizes as small as 40 nm, CCN activation consistent with KT, and exhibit hygroscopicity similar to inorganic salts. Wet generated clays and minerals produce a bimodal size distribution; the CCN activity of the smaller mode is consistent with KT, while the larger mode is less hydrophilic, follows activation by FHH-AT, and displays almost identical CCN activity to dry generated dust. Ion Chromatography (IC analysis performed on regional dust samples indicates a soluble fraction that cannot explain the CCN activity of dry or wet generated dust. A mass balance and hygroscopicity closure suggests that the small amount of ions (from low solubility compounds like calcite present in the dry dust dissolve in the aqueous suspension during the wet generation process and give rise to the observed small hygroscopic mode. Overall these results identify an artifact that may question the atmospheric relevance of dust CCN activity studies using the wet generation method.

    Based on the method of threshold droplet growth analysis, wet generated mineral aerosols display similar activation kinetics compared to ammonium sulfate calibration aerosol. Finally, a unified CCN activity framework that accounts for concurrent effects of solute and adsorption is developed to

  10. Improved cosmetic activity by optimizing the Lithospermum erythrorhizon extraction process.

    Kim, Ji Seon; Seo, Yong Chang; No, Ra Hwan; Lee, Hyeon Yong

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to expand the use of Lithospermum erythrorhizon, which is a good source of natural dye, in skin whitening and immune activation cosmetics. The goal was to provide cosmeceutical data about the extraction yield and shikonin contents of this plant by optimizing the ultrasonic extraction and high pressure extraction conditions. Under optimal extraction conditions, which consisted of 500 MPa for 60 min and 120 kHz for 90 min, 27.49 and 3.19 % (w/w) of the highest extraction yield and shikonin contents were obtained, compared to 16.32 and 1.81 % from a conventional ethanol extract (EE) control. Hyaluronidase inhibition activity was measured as 44.24 % after adding 1.0 mg/ml of ethanol extract, but it was as high as 64.19 % when using extract produced by ultrasonication with high pressure extraction (UE + HPE). The MMP-1 expression levels from skin fibroblast cells (CCD-986sk) treated with or without UV irradiation were also lowered by as much as 110.6 % after adding 1.0 mg/ml of the UE + HPE extract, relative to 126.9 % from the EE. After UVA exposure, prostaglandin E2 production from RAW 264.7 was also lower, at 110.6 %, which also indicates that the extract from the UE + HPE process enhanced skin immune activation activities. For the skin whitening activity, tyrosinase inhibitory activity was observed at 67.15 % in the HPE + UE extract, which was ca. 20 % higher than that of the EE extract (57.48 %). To reduce melanin production in Clone M-3 cells, 79.5 % of the melanin production was estimated after adding 1.0 mg/ml of the UE + HPE extract compared to that of the control (no treatment), which was similar to the 77.4 % result found in an ascorbic acid positive control. The highest shikonin secretion was conclusively obtained under the optimal conditions and resulted in a significant improvement of the cosmetic activities of L. erythrorhizon extracts. PMID:24287611