WorldWideScience

Sample records for active regulatory processes

  1. Regulatory activities

    This publication, compiled in 8 chapters, presents the regulatory system developed by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) of the Argentine Republic. The following activities and developed topics in this document describe: the evolution of the nuclear regulatory activity in Argentina; the Argentine regulatory system; the nuclear regulatory laws and standards; the inspection and safeguards of nuclear facilities; the emergency systems; the environmental systems; the environmental monitoring; the analysis laboratories on physical and biological dosimetry, prenatal irradiation, internal irradiation, radiation measurements, detection techniques on nuclear testing, medical program on radiation protection; the institutional relations with national and international organization; the training courses and meeting; the technical information

  2. Rationales for regulatory activity

    Perhac, R.M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1997-02-01

    The author provides an outline which touches on the types of concerns about risk evaluation which are addressed in the process of establishing regulatory guides. Broadly he says regulatory activity serves three broad constituents: (1) Paternalism (private risk); (2) Promotion of social welfare (public risks); (3) Protection of individual rights (public risks). He then discusses some of the major issues encountered in reaching a decision on what is an acceptable level of risk within each of these areas, and how one establishes such a level.

  3. Hastening the regulatory process

    The state of the Canadian oil industry was discussed during this power point presentation with particular emphasis on its production, exports, drilling, industry revenues and capital investment levels. The proposed projects in each of northern Alberta's oil sands deposits, the Athabasca, Peace River and Cold Lake were were announced, along with the inventory of major Alberta projects and the projection of oil sands capital investment. Since 1998, $9 billion has been invested and a further $33 billion has been announced for new or expanded oil sands projects. The year 2000 estimates for Canadian crude oil and natural gas production are 2.3 million barrels per day and 6.3 trillion cubic feet per year respectively. This represented a record year for production of both crude oil and natural gas. In 2000, more than 15,500 wells were drilled in Canada. A graph depicting Canadian crude oil supply forecasted a steady increase in supply from year 2000 to 2010. The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) completed a review of the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board regulatory and enforcement processes. Both industry and government efforts are focusing on eliminating regulatory overlap and duplication. Some of the main areas of interest for exploration, drilling, production and pipeline facilities include the examination of regulatory processes for environmentally sensitive areas, rural municipalities with planning bylaws, aboriginal lands and additional fees. 8 figs

  4. Transparency of nuclear regulatory activities

    One of the main missions of nuclear regulators is to protect the public, and this cannot be completely achieved without public confidence. The more a regulatory process is transparent, the more such confidence will grow. Despite important cultural differences across countries, a number of common features characterise media and public expectations regarding any activity with an associated risk. A common understanding of transparency and main stakeholders' expectations in the field of nuclear safety were identified during this workshop, together with a number of conditions and practices aimed at improving the transparency of nuclear regulatory activities. These conditions and practices are described herein, and will be of particular interest to all those working in the nuclear regulatory field. Their implementation may, however, differ from one country to another depending on national context. (authors)

  5. International regulatory activities

    Different international regulatory activities are presented: recommendation on the protection of the public against exposure to radon in drinking water supplies, amendment to the legislation implementing the regulation on imports of agricultural products originating in third countries following the Chernobyl accident, resolution on the commission green paper towards a European strategy for the security of energy supply, declaration of mandatory nature of the international code for the safe carriage of packaged irradiated nuclear fuel, plutonium and high level radioactive wastes on board ships, adoption of action plan against nuclear terrorism. (N.C.)

  6. International regulatory activities

    Concerning International regulatory activities, we find for the european atomic energy community an entry into force of the lisbon treaty (2009), it amends the treaty on European union and replaces the treaty establishing the European Community by the new treaty on the functioning of the European Union; more, an amendment to council regulation on the conditions governing imports of agricultural products originating in third countries following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station (2009). About International atomic energy agency is reported an open-ended meeting of technical and legal experts for sharing of information on states implementation of the code of conduct on the safety and security of radioactive sources and its supplementary guidance on the import and export of radioactive sources (2010). (N.C.)

  7. Organization of nuclear regulatory activities

    The paper presents the structure, missions and organizational aspects of the CNCAN, the National Commission for the control of nuclear activities in Romania. The paper addresses the following main issues: 1.General aspects; 2.Organizational structure of the NRA in Romania; 3.General description of the Division for Nuclear Safety Assessments; 4.Specific activities; 5.Regulatory approaches and practices. Under the title of 'General aspects' the following three basic statements are highlighted: 1.CNCAN is a governmental organization responsible for the development of the regulatory framework, the control of its implementation and the licensing of nuclear facilities; 2.CNCAN is the national authority competent in exercising the regulatory activity, authorization and control in the nuclear field provided by the law No. 111/ 1996 republished in 1998; 3.The Commission exercises its functions independently of the ministries and other authorities of the public control administration being subordinated to the Romanian Government. The organizational structure is as follows: - President, the Managerial Council and the Advisory Council coordinating the four General Divisions that are responsible for: - Nuclear Safety with Division of Nuclear Safety Assessment and Division of Nuclear Objectives Surveillance; - Radiological Safety with Division of Radiological Safety Assessment and Division of Operational Radiation Protection; - Surveillance of Environmental Radioactivity with Division of Assessment and Analysis and Division of National Network; - Development and Resource with the Division of Economy and Division of Human Resources. In addition under direct coordination of the President operate the Division of Radiation Protection, Transport and Radioactive Waste and the Division of International Cooperation and Communication. Specific activities are listed describing among others the issues of: - Safety of nuclear installation; - Evaluation relating to licensing of nuclear

  8. Modelling Nonstationary Gene Regulatory Processes

    Marco Grzegorcyzk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An important objective in systems biology is to infer gene regulatory networks from postgenomic data, and dynamic Bayesian networks have been widely applied as a popular tool to this end. The standard approach for nondiscretised data is restricted to a linear model and a homogeneous Markov chain. Recently, various generalisations based on changepoint processes and free allocation mixture models have been proposed. The former aim to relax the homogeneity assumption, whereas the latter are more flexible and, in principle, more adequate for modelling nonlinear processes. In our paper, we compare both paradigms and discuss theoretical shortcomings of the latter approach. We show that a model based on the changepoint process yields systematically better results than the free allocation model when inferring nonstationary gene regulatory processes from simulated gene expression time series. We further cross-compare the performance of both models on three biological systems: macrophages challenged with viral infection, circadian regulation in Arabidopsis thaliana, and morphogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster.

  9. National legislative and regulatory activities

    OECD

    2006-01-01

    This article describes national nuclear legislative and regulatory activities in Australia, Brazil, France, Germany, Hungary, India, Ireland, Romania, the Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Sweden, and the Ukraine in 2005 and 2006.

  10. National legislative and regulatory activities

    OECD

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the national nuclear legislative and regulatory activities of Belgium, Brazil, Canada, France, Latvia, Moldova, Morocco, Norway, Romania, the Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain and Switzerland in 2006.

  11. National legislative and regulatory activities

    This paper presents different national legislative and regulatory activities of many countries, concerning the radiation protection, general legislation, transport and management of radioactive materials, regulations on nuclear trade. (A.L.B.)

  12. National legislative and regulatory activities

    Different national legislative and regulatory activities in the field of nuclear energy are exposed here; from the radiation protection and the safe use of nuclear energy, to the question of radioactive waste management, the nuclear area is seen through the national decrees, amendments orders and acts for eighteen countries. (N.C.)

  13. National legislative and regulatory activities

    This section of the Bulletin presents a summary of the recent national legislative and regulatory activities sorted by country and topic: - Algeria: Nuclear security. - France: Radioactive waste management; Nuclear safety and radiological protection; General legislation; International co-operation. - Germany: International trade. - Indonesia: Nuclear security, General legislation. - Ireland: Nuclear safety and radiological protection; General legislation. - Lithuania: Nuclear security; Nuclear safety and radiological protection. - Slovak Republic: International co-operation; Liability and compensation; Environmental protection. - Switzerland: Radioactive waste management. - United Arab Emirates: Liability and compensation. - United States: Radioactive waste management; Licensing and regulatory infrastructure

  14. National legislative and regulatory activities

    This section treats of the following National legislative and regulatory activities: 1 - Canada: Liability and compensation; 2 - France: Liability and compensation; Nuclear safety and radiological protection; 3 - Greece: Organisation and structure; 4 - Hungary: General legislation; 5 - India: Liability and compensation; 6 - Japan: Liability and compensation; 7 - Korea: Liability and compensation; 8 - Lithuania: General legislation; Transport of radioactive material; 9 - Slovak Republic: International co-operation; Liability and compensation; 10 - Slovenia: General legislation; 11 - Switzerland: Liability and compensation; 12 - United States: Radioactive waste management

  15. National legislative and regulatory activities

    The different national works and regulatory activities are: for Belarus, the statute on the state supervision in the field of nuclear safety and radiation protection (2008), amendment to the law on radiation protection of the public (2008), environmental impact assessment laws (2008), the statute on the discussion of questions of the public in the field of atomic energy(2009); for Belgium: decree regarding the minimum criteria for X-ray apparatus use in veterinary medicine (2009), decree of the Federal agency for nuclear control on the determination of exemption levels (2009); for Estonia: national development plan (2009), new radiation safety department (2009), amendment to the radiation protection act (2009); for Germany: ordinance on the shipment of radioactive waste or spent fuel (2009), amendments to acts and ordinances on the transport of dangerous goods (2009), amendments to the 1961 foreign trade and 1993 foreign trade ordinance (2009); for Italy: law no. 99 of 23. july 2009 including provisions on the resurgence of nuclear energy (2009); for Romania: decision on the prohibition of dangerous labour for children (2009), amendment to the regulations on the organisation and operation of C.N.C.A.N. (2009), decision on the repatriation of nuclear material to the Russian federation(2009), decision on the processing of uranium stocks (2009), general requirements on environmental impact assessment (2009); for Spain: regulation on the transboundary shipments of radioactive waste and spent fuel (2009), regulation on installation and use of X-ray devices for medical diagnostic purposes (2009); for United Arab Emirates: federal law on the peaceful use of nuclear energy (2009; for United States: final regulations criminalising unauthorized introduction of dangerous weapons (2009). (N.C.)

  16. The integration of optimization in the regulatory process

    The purpose of this paper is to describe how optimization fits in a complex regulatory regime aimed at protection of the public health and safety. The comments and observations about optimization in the regulatory process are based mainly on the authors' experience in a single agency, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The NRC regulates a broad spectrum of nuclear activities ranging from nuclear power reactors and the nuclear fuel cycle to the use of radioisotopes in industry, research and medicine

  17. National legislative and regulatory activities

    This section treats of the following National legislative and regulatory activities: 1 - Australia: General legislation - Bill to amend the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Act 1998; 2 - France: General legislation - Law No. 2015-992 of 17 August 2015 on the energy transition for green growth; ASN Report on the state of nuclear safety and radiation protection in France in 2014; 3 - Germany: Radioactive waste management - First Ordinance to amend the 2005 Gorleben Development Freeze Ordinance (2015); 4 - Greece: Radioactive waste management - Joint Ministerial Decision establishing the national policy on the management of spent fuel and radioactive waste; 5 - Lithuania: Nuclear safety and radiological protection - Revised requirements for modifications, Plan for enhancement of nuclear safety, New requirements for the commissioning of nuclear power plants, Revised requirements regulating the provision of information on abnormal events; Radioactive waste management - Revised requirements for acceptance criteria for near surface repository; Nuclear security - Revised requirements for physical protection; 6 - Romania: Licensing and regulatory infrastructure - Government Decision No. 600/2014 for approval of National Nuclear Safety and Security; International co-operation - Government Decision No. 525/2014 for approval of the Co-operation Agreement on the radioactive waste management between the French National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (ANDRA) and Nuclear Agency and Radioactive Waste (ANDR) Strategy; Memorandum of Understanding for Co-operation and Exchange of Information in Nuclear Regulatory Matters between the National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control (CNCAN) of Romania and the President of National Atomic Energy Agency (PAA) of Poland; Government Decision No. 540/2015 for approval of the Agreement between the Government of Romania and the Government of the People's Republic of China regarding co-operation in the peaceful

  18. National legislative and regulatory activities

    These columns treat of the legislative and regulatory activities of different OECD countries: Australia (environment protection and biodiversity conservation act and regulations, 1999-2000); Bulgaria (basic standards for radiation protection, 2000); France (decree on the standard tax charged on polluting activities due from operators of installations classified for environmental protection purposes, 2000; amendment of the orders on the transport of dangerous goods by road and by rail, 2000); Georgia (law on nuclear and radiation safety, 1998); Germany (amendments to nuclear legislation implementing EURATOM directives, 2000; amendment to the nuclear third party liability provisions of the atomic energy act, 2001; amendment to the foreign trade ordinance, 2000; ordinance on the treatment of foodstuffs with radiation, 2000; general administrative regulations on radioactivity limits in food and feeds); Ireland (European communities regulations on foodstuffs treated with ionizing radiations, 2000); Japan (law for nuclear sitting area development, 2000; Republic of Korea (amendments to the act on compensation for nuclear damage, 2001); Latvia (act on radiation safety and nuclear safety, 2000); Lithuania (resolution approving the decommissioning program for Unit 1, Ignalina NPP, 2001); Luxembourg (grand-ducal regulations on the protection of the public against the risks resulting from ionizing radiation, 2000; grand-ducal regulations relating to foods and food ingredients treated with ionizing radiation, 2000); Mexico (norm regarding selection, qualification and training requirements for staff of a NPP, 2000; norm regarding solid residue as radioactive waste, 2000); Mongolia (law on nuclear weapons free status and its implementing resolution, 2000); Netherlands (amendment to the nuclear energy act, 2000); Norway (act on radiation and use of radiation, 2000); Pakistan (nuclear authority ordinance, 2001); Poland (atomic energy act, 2000); Spain (royal decree on activities

  19. Regulatory control of food irradiation processes

    Ionizing radiation has a long history of successful use in treating a variety of nonfood products, but its application to foods is a new challenge. In order to meet this challenge, regulatory requirements and standards for the irradiation treatment of foods are needed. Many countries have already established rules and protocols for the use of ionizing radiation on a variety of food products and the food industry has recognized the need for standards for the irradiation treatment of foods, in many cases more stringent than those applied for other processes. While standardization and control of the irradiation process are imperative for its proper application to food, they are not the parameters that will govern the successful implementation and acceptance of food irradiation. The technology will be successful only if the public accepts it as a safe and useful process. Recent surveys show that dissemination of accurate and complete facts about irradiation is a key to public education about the technology. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) agrees that public information is important and, while it feels that industry must play the primary role, it is participating in several public information activities. Many U.S. government agencies are involved in food irradiation, protecting the public from hazards associated with ionizing radiation technology, monitoring the safety and wholesomeness of the food supply, and developing and transferring the technology to the private sector. There are only a few approved uses of food irradiation in the U.S. at the present time and very little food is being processed using the technology. The regulatory agencies are requiring proper labeling and packaging, and effective quality control systems as prerequisites for the use of irradiation. Methods for detecting if a food has been irradiated are also under development, although they should not be a prerequisite for the application of the technology to foods. (author)

  20. National legislative and regulatory activities

    OECD

    2012-01-01

    Armenia Nuclear safety and radiological protection Brazil General legislation Canada Environmental protection France Radioactive waste management Georgia Nuclear safety and radiological protection Greece Nuclear safety Emergency preparedness and response India Licensing and regulatory infrastructure Liability and compensation Ireland Nuclear safety and radiological protection Japan Nuclear Regulation Authority Act Lithuania General legislation Licensing and regulatory infrastructure Nuclear s...

  1. National legislative and regulatory activities

    This section reviews the recent National legislative and regulatory activities: Algeria (Establishment of a nuclear security centre); Armenia (Amendment to the Law of the Republic of Armenia on the Safe Utilization of Atomic Energy for Peaceful Purposes); Brazil (creation of a Support Centre for Safety and Radiation Protection - Centro de Apoio a Seguranca Fisica Nuclear e Radiologica - CENASF); Canada (enacting of the Nuclear Terrorism Act,4 which amends the Criminal Code, creating four new Criminal Code offences related to nuclear terrorism; proposal to replace the existing Nuclear Liability Act with the increase of the amount of compensation available to address civil nuclear damage); France (National plan for the management of radioactive materials and waste - PNGMDR; Law No.2013-580 of 4 July 2013 authorising approval of the agreement between France and Monaco on the management of Monegasque radioactive waste in the French territory; Decree No.2013-675 of 25 July 2013 publishing an agreement of co-operation between France and Saudi Arabia for the development of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes); Germany (Act for retrieving radioactive waste from and decommissioning the Asse II Mine); Greece (Decree transposing Council Directive 2011/70/Euratom); Ireland (Adoption of European Communities Regulations on Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road and Use of Transportable Pressure Equipment); Luxembourg (Transposition of Council Directive 2011/70/Euratom of 19 July 2011 establishing a Community framework for the responsible and safe management of spent fuel and radioactive waste); Poland (New requirements for employees concerning radiological protection; New detailed requirements for nuclear facility siting, design, commissioning and operation, organisational unit commissioning, periodical safety assessment, decommissioning and fund contributions; New regulation on subsidies related to nuclear safety and radiological protection; New requirements on transparency of

  2. National legislative and regulatory activities

    - International co-operation: Law ratifying the agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and Greece in the area of education and training; - Nuclear safety and radiological protection: Ministerial decision establishing requirements for nuclear safety and regulatory control of research reactors; Moldova - General legislation: New comprehensive law governing nuclear and radiological activities; United States - Issuance of the 'Strategy for the Management and Disposal of Used Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste'; - Ongoing activities: The Blue Ribbon Commission noted the need for near-term actions that can lay the groundwork for the next generation of nuclear waste policies and programmes included in its recommendations; - Physical protection of by-product material final rulemaking: On 19 March 2013, the NRC published a final rule amending its regulations to establish security requirements for the use and transport of category 1 and category 2 quantities of radioactive material; - Update on the NRC's response to the events at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear site regarding filtered vents and consideration of economic consequences

  3. Argentina's regulatory body: its communication activities

    Full text: The Nuclear Regulatory Authority of Argentina (ARN) is empowered to regulate and control the nuclear activity with regard to radiation and nuclear safety, physical protection and nuclear non-proliferation issues. It must also advise the Executive on issues under its purview. The objective of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority is to establish, develop and enforce a regulatory system applicable to all nuclear activities carried out in Argentina. Two of the goals of this regulatory system are to provide an appropriate standard of protection for individuals against the harmful effects of ionizing radiation, and to maintain a reasonable degree of radiological and nuclear safety in the nuclear activities performed in Argentina. The responsibility of the radiation protection community in performing the tasks to accomplish this goals is twofold. On one hand, it must ensure a high technical quality in performing these functions. It must also provide information on its activities which has to be accurate, comprehensive and understandable. The way a society understands the concept of 'risk' needs to be kept in mind. Risk perception is the subjective judgment that people make about the characteristics and severity of a risk. Cultural theory refers to theories of risk perception that focus on culture, rather than individual psychology as an explanation for differences in risk judgments. It is widely agreed that trust is a key factor in influencing people's perceptions of risk. It is understood there are two main ways trust may impact in risk perceptions: an activity is perceived as more risky if the people or agencies managing it are perceived as untrustworthy; and information presented by trusted sources is given more credibility than information from untrusted sources. One of the primary purposes of ARN's Communication Program is to provide a means whereby those engaged in radiation protection activities may communicate more readily with each other and the public and

  4. Review of NRC Regulatory processes and functions

    The Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) has spent much time over many years observing and examining the NRC licensing process. The Committee is, consequently, in a position to comment on the situation, and it believes this review will be helpful to those examining the regulatory process by discussing how it works, where it is weak, and the opportunities for improvement. The Committee's review may also help put current proposals and discussions in perspective

  5. Attribute Exploration of Gene Regulatory Processes

    Wollbold, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    This thesis aims at the logical analysis of discrete processes, in particular of such generated by gene regulatory networks. States, transitions and operators from temporal logics are expressed in the language of Formal Concept Analysis. By the attribute exploration algorithm, an expert or a computer program is enabled to validate a minimal and complete set of implications, e.g. by comparison of predictions derived from literature with observed data. Here, these rules represent temporal dependencies within gene regulatory networks including coexpression of genes, reachability of states, invariants or possible causal relationships. This new approach is embedded into the theory of universal coalgebras, particularly automata, Kripke structures and Labelled Transition Systems. A comparison with the temporal expressivity of Description Logics is made. The main theoretical results concern the integration of background knowledge into the successive exploration of the defined data structures (formal contexts). Applyi...

  6. A review of NRC regulatory processes and functions

    A reexamination by the ACRS of the Regulatory Process has been made. Objectives were to provide in a single source, ACRS' understanding of the Regulatory Process and to point out perceived weaknesses and to make appropriate recommendations for change

  7. National Legislative and Regulatory Activities

    OECD; Nuclear Energy Agency

    2007-01-01

    Brazil Resolution of the National Council on Energy Policy on the Resumption of Construction of a Thermonuclear Plant (2007) France Decree on Technical Enquiries in the Event of Incidents or Accidents Relating to Nuclear Activities (2007) Order on the Organisation of the General Directorate of Enterprises (GDE) within the Ministry of Industry (2007) Decree on the Listing of Basic Nuclear Installations (2007) Decree on Basic Nuclear Installations and Verifying the Nuclear Safety of Radioactive...

  8. National legislative and regulatory activities

    Laws in the field of nuclear industry are reported: resolution on the resumption of construction of a thermonuclear plant (Brazil); decrees on technical inquiries in the event of incidents or accidents relating nuclear activities, basic nuclear installations and verifying the nuclear safety of radioactive materials transport (France); implementation of EURATOM directive on the control of high activity sealed radioactive sources and orphan sources (Italy); amendment on the law on final disposal of high level radioactive waste (Japan); Grand Ducal regulations on the protection of the public against the risks resulting from ionizing radiations and information exchange with Belgium in the event of an accident (Luxembourg); regulations on the management and monitoring of nuclear safety equipment for civilian use and official reply of the state council to questions on the liabilities of compensation of damages resulting from nuclear accidents(people republic of China); orders in relation with nuclear safety for Romania; decree on the control of radioactive contamination in the shipment of scrap metal (Slovenia); law concerning the construction and operation of nuclear power plants and the sale of energy generated from those plants (Turkey). (N.C.)

  9. National legislative and regulatory activities

    Belarus: general legislation with amendments to laws on the use of atomic energy (2009) and criminal law on acts concerning the use of radioactive sources and administrative law for non criminal violations of radiation safety requirement (2009). Egypt: general legislation with law on activities in the nuclear and radiation field (2010). France: radioactive waste management with a decree establishing a committee on industrial co-ordination of radioactive waste (2010) and third part liability with a law on the recognition and indemnification of victims of nuclear tests conducted by France (2010). Germany: general legislation with a tenth amendment to the atomic energy act (2010), and act on environmental impact assessment (2009) concerning organisation and structure we find a revised version of statutes of the Radiation Protection Commission (2009), about radiation protection we find an act on the protection against non-ionizing radiation (2009), and for transport of radioactive materials we have an ordinance on the international transport of dangerous goods by road (2009). Ireland: In radiation protection we have an order to amend Regulations on active implantable medical devices (2010). Italy: general legislation we have a decree setting out rules for the sitting, construction and operation of nuclear installations (2010). Romania: general legislation with a law on the reorganisation of public authorities (2009). Slovak Republic: general legislation with an amendment of the atomic act (2009). spain: radioactive waste management with a law regulation limited investment companies quoted on the real estate market (2009). Ukraine: general legislation with an overview of recent amendments to laws in the field of nuclear energy (2009). (N.C.)

  10. National legislative and regulatory activities

    These columns summarize the recent changes made in the nuclear legislation and regulation of OECD countries: Argentina: Reorganization of the National Atomic Energy Commission (2001); Canada: Order aiming to increase security at major nuclear installations (2001); France: Establishment of the French Agency for Environmental Health Safety and the Institute for the Protection of Nuclear Safety (2001). Amendment of the Decree on the Holding Company of the Atomic Energy Commission (2001). Decree on the Special Commission for Major Nuclear Installations Classified as Secret (2001).Ordinance on the Implementation of EU Directives in the Field of Protection against Ionising Radiation (2001). Decree on Information of the Public (2001). Decree governing the Safety and Radiation Protection of Nuclear Installations and Activities used for Defence Purposes (2001). Order on Postal Deliveries of Radioactive Materials (2001). Order on the Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road ('ADR Order') (2001). Order on the Transport of Dangerous Goods by Rail ('RID Order') (2001). Germany: Agreement on the phase-out of nuclear energy (2001). Ordinance implementing Euratom Directives on Radiation Protection (2001). Greece: Radiation Protection Regulations (2001). Italy: Amendment of the Decree implementing the Euratom basic radiation protection standards (2001) Implementation of the European Directive on the Quality of Water Intended for Human Consumption (2001). JAPAN: Revision of the Nuclear Disaster Prevention Guidelines (2000). Republic of Korea: Amendments to the Act on Compensation for Nuclear Damage (2001). Lithuania: Regulations for the Classification of Legal Acts Regulating Nuclear Safety (2001); Hygiene Standard 'Radiation Safety in Nuclear Power Plants' (2001). Guidelines governing the Procedure on Radiological Monitoring and Limitation of Releases of Radionuclides into the Environment from Nuclear Facilities (2001). Law on the Decommissioning Fund for the Ignalina Nuclear Power

  11. Regulatory research and development activities in Japan

    Shinichi Nakayama (JAEA, NSRC) presented the 'Regulatory Research and Development Activities in Japan'. A stepwise approach is being applied in Japan to site selection for geologic disposal. According to the Implementation Act of 2000, areas for candidate sites are to be narrowed down to finally identify the repository site. In 2002, the NSC has provided guidelines for the first step to select the preliminary investigation areas. Guidelines for the subsequent steps will be given in accordance with the progress of the disposal programme. The implementer, NWMO will submit the license application for regulatory approval after the repository site is identified, and NISA will judge the compliance with the regulatory law. The role of NISA is twofold; 1) to make a technical review on site selection, and to devise safety requirements and 2) to make technical judgements on safety assessment. Regulatory research is needed in both areas. The Agency needs to keep technical competence based on best available science and technology, and accumulates research resources to keep the competence. The purpose of the research to support technical review on site selection is to identify geologic conditions that may cause adverse effects on operational and post-closure safety and therefore to select important scenarios that are associated with large uncertainty and, hence, are critical from a safety point of view. The following study subjects are envisioned: - Long-term leaching characteristics of vitrified waste. - Long-term alteration of engineered barriers. - Re-saturation of groundwater in buffer materials and gas transport. - Effects of geological evolution on hydrogeology. These studies will provide scientific and technical basis to judge the robustness of implementer's safety assessment methodology. JAEA has been developing a probabilistic safety assessment tool to check independently the implementer's assessment. The study topics will be evolving to more design-and site

  12. Safety indicators in the nuclear regulatory process in South Africa

    In support of the approach adopted by the nuclear regulatory authority (National Nuclear Regulator - NNR) in South Africa, which combines risk, deterministic and process based thinking, the use of safety indicators is considered an important means of providing objective evidence of the success or failure of safety related activities or processes, as well as direct evidence of the status of safety factors relating to the plant, licensed site, the workforce, the public and the environment. The use of safety indicators helps to focus attention on weak areas and to provide information in a format which can be trended and which is readily reportable and comprehensible to the licensee management, public and different levels of the various regulatory and government organisations. The primary objectives of the system of safety goals and indicators is as follows: - To provide an objective measure of compliance of the licensed site with the safety case for the site, in terms of factors relating to plant health, workforce, public and environment, and trending thereof. - To provide an objective measure of the status of supporting safety related activities and safety factors. - To help focus resources on areas of concern in all licensing and safety assurance activities (inspection, assessment, pro-active work, guidelines etc), in a graded manner taking into account the status of relevant safety factors. - To facilitate reporting of the safety status of licensed facilities to different levels of the licensee and regulatory organisations. This paper describes the recent developments of safety goals and indicators as applied in the reactor licensing process in South Africa. The monitoring of a nuclear facility in terms of nuclear safety assurance involves a large volume of information from diverse sources and of different levels of significance. An indicator system linked to a compliance assurance programme and reporting and assessment system as described in this paper provides an

  13. Regulatory aspects on NORM/TENORM activities in Malaysia

    Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) processing industries in Malaysia include oil and gas production and mineral processing plants. These industries are controlled by the Atomic Energy Licensing Board of Malaysia (AELB) through the enforcement of Atomic Energy Licensing Act 1984 (Act 304). However, more regulations are necessary for the safe handling of NORM. NORM processing generates various types of NORM/TENORM residues that require proper management and disposal. As for low-level NORM residues from oil and gas production and mineral processing plants, landfill disposal is commonly used. However, wastes generated from decommissioning and decontamination of mineral processing plant is disposed in engineered cell at the disposal site. This paper outlines the regulatory aspects on NORM/TENORM activities in Malaysia. (author)

  14. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's decommissioning process

    The term 'Decommission' is defined in the U.S.. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (USNRC's) regulations at 10 CFR 20.1003 as to remove a facility or site safely from service and reduce residual radioactivity to a level that permits 1) release of the property for unrestricted use and termination of the license; or, 2) release of the property under restricted conditions and the termination of the license. USNRC's decommissioning program encompasses the decommissioning of all NRC licensed facilities, ranging from routine license terminations for sealed source users, to the oversight of complex sites and those on the Site Decommissioning Management Plan (SDMP), as well as power and non-power reactors. This paper describes the USNRC's decommissioning process for materials and reactor facilities and presents an overview of USNRC's decommissioning program activities. (author)

  15. Overall review on waste management in Finland - Current regulatory activities

    The Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety is a competent authority responsible for the surveillance of the safety of nuclear installations. Its regulatory duties include surveillance of waste management operations and facilities under construction as well as safety related appraisal of future waste management concepts. The current activities of the Centre in the waste management field are concentrated on formulation of criteria for reactor waste disposal, surveillance of the construction of an interim storage for spent fuel and evaluation of the technical concepts and the preliminary site selection process for spent fuel disposal

  16. ICT Support for Regulatory Compliance of Business Processes

    Governatori, Guido

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we propose an ITC (Information and Communication Technology) approach to support regulatory compliance for business processes, and we report on the development and evaluation of a business process compliance checker called Regorous, based on the compliance-by-design methodology proposed by Governatori and Sadiq

  17. Status of the PSA use in the Czech regulatory process

    A review of previous probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) activities initiated by regulatory body and preparation of the preliminary PSA study and final PSA study (released in January 1994) for the nuclear power plant Dukovany with WWER-440 type 213 reactor is described. A brief information about the NPP Temelin (with WWER-1000) PSA Study, shutdown and PSA risk monitor current activities for the NPP Dukovany, next PSA activities in 1994 and about planned PSA activities in future is attached. (author). 21 refs

  18. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Selectively Suppress Sterol Regulatory Element-binding Protein-1 through Proteolytic Processing and Autoloop Regulatory Circuit*

    Takeuchi, Yoshinori; Yahagi, Naoya; Izumida, Yoshihiko; Nishi, Makiko; Kubota, Midori; Teraoka, Yuji; Yamamoto, Takashi; Matsuzaka, Takashi; Nakagawa, Yoshimi; Sekiya, Motohiro; Iizuka, Yoko; Ohashi, Ken; Osuga, Jun-ichi; Gotoda, Takanari; Ishibashi, Shun

    2010-01-01

    Sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1 is a key transcription factor for the regulation of lipogenic enzyme genes in the liver. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) selectively suppress hepatic SREBP-1, but molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. To gain insight into this regulation, we established in vivo reporter assays to assess the activities of Srebf1c transcription and proteolytic processing. Using these in vivo reporter assays, we showed that the primary mechanism for P...

  19. The role and activities of the ISCT Regulatory Affairs Committee.

    Kelley, L

    2003-01-01

    The following article is written as part of a series of reviews addressing regulatory issues relevant to the field of cellular therapy. The first in the series describes the activities and mission of the Legal and Regulatory Affairs Committee of ISCT. PMID:12944232

  20. Implementation of a Quality Management System in regulatory inspection activities

    The Institute for Radioprotection and Dosimetry - IRD -, of the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission, CNEN, started in 2001, the implementation of a quality management system (SGQ), in the inspection, testing and calibration activities. The SGQ was an institutional guideline and is inserted in a larger system of management of the IRD started in 1999, with the adoption of the National Quality Award criteria - PNQ, within the Project for Excellence in Technological Research of Associacao Brasileira das Instituicoes de Pesquisas Tecnologicas - ABIPTI (Brazilian Association of Technological Research institutions). The proposed quality management system and adopted at the IRD was developed and implemented in accordance with the requirements of NBR ISO/IEC 17025 - General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories, and ISO/IEC 17020 - General criteria for operation of various types of bodies performing inspections. For regulatory inspection activities, the quality system was implemented on three program inspection services of radiological protection led, respectively, by clinics and hospitals that operate radiotherapy services; industries that use nuclear gauges in their control or productive processes and power reactor operators (CNAAA) - just the environmental part. It was formed a pioneering team of inspectors for standardizing the processes, procedures and starting the implementation of the system in the areas. This work describes the implementation process steps, including difficulties, learning and advantages of the adoption of a quality management system in inspection activities

  1. Implications of the regulatory framework and activities on R and D supporting repository implementation

    In the context of geological disposal, the mission of the Belgian regulatory body is to ensure that the repository is developed, constructed, operated and closed in a safe manner, i.e. people and the environment are protected against the hazards of ionising radiation emitted by the radioactive waste, without imposing undue burdens on future generations. This mission involves several types of activities such as the establishment of regulatory requirements as well as of procedures and conditions for meeting these requirements for the various stages of the licensing process (IAEA, 2011). The roles of the regulatory body also include the oversight of the activities of the organisation in charge of waste disposal and the review of the safety case and of its updates throughout the whole process of developing and implementing the geological disposal programme. In order to fulfil its mission, the Belgian regulatory body (constituted by FANC and Bel V) carries out its own R and D programme. R and D work is essential for regulators as it allows maintaining and improving their scientific and technical skills, contributes to their independence and helps to build public confidence in the regulatory system. This paper gives an overview of the Belgian pre-licensing and licensing process. The paper then discusses the possible implications of the regulatory framework and activities (R and D, safety case reviews and issuance of regulatory advices) on the R and D programme developed by the implementer of a disposal programme. (authors)

  2. T regulatory cells and the immune aging process

    Jagger, Ann Titi; Shimojima, Yasuhiro; Goronzy, Jorg J.; Weyand, Cornelia M.

    2016-01-01

    Constant exposure to new and persisting antigens and the need to replace cellular attrition with newly build cells lead to profound remodeling of the immune system during the second half of life. The impact of the immunosenescence process varies amongst the different functional subsets represented within the immune system, and emerging data suggest that progressive aging significantly affects frequencies, subset distribution and functional competence of regulatory T cells (Treg). Given the central role of Treg cells in immune homeostasis, age-related loss of Treg function would be predicted to render the host susceptible to excessive immunity, encountered in elderly humans as a syndrome of chronic-smoldering inflammation. Conversely, age-dependent gain of Treg activity would expose the host to greater risk of immune failure, such as the rising risk of malignancies and infections in the aging population. Emerging data suggest that some Treg populations, specifically naturally occurring Tregs (nTreg), seem to accumulate with advancing age, whereas inducible Tregs (iTreg) appear to be less available in the older host. More studies are necessary to elucidate functional competence of old Tregs, with emphasis on comparing efficacy of young on old Tregs for defined functional domains. Mechanisms of declining Treg inducibility are not understood, but may provide an opportunity for targeted immunomodulation in the elderly. On the horizon is the potential to develop novel therapeutic interventions that target Tregs to make the elderly more efficient in fighting cancers and infections and dampen the risk for senescence-associated inflammation. PMID:24296590

  3. Managing the high level waste nuclear regulatory commission licensing process

    This paper reports that the process for obtaining Nuclear Regulatory Commission permits for the high level waste storage facility is basically the same process commercial nuclear power plants followed to obtain construction permits and operating licenses for their facilities. Therefore, the experience from licensing commercial reactors can be applied to the high level waste facility. Proper management of the licensing process will be the key to the successful project. The management of the licensing process was categorized into four areas as follows: responsibility, organization, communication and documentation. Drawing on experience from nuclear power plant licensing and basic management principles, the management requirement for successfully accomplishing the project goals are discussed

  4. Improving Regulatory Bodies’ Activities in Africa Through Regional Cooperation

    The Forum of Nuclear Regulatory Bodies in Africa (FNRBA) is presented as a good regional platform that plays key role in assisting the establishment of regulatory bodies and in enhancing and sustaining their activities. The FNRBA is founded on the aspirations of its members and the lessons learned from other similar regulatory networks. To achieve its objectives, the FNRBA needs more partners to learn and enhance its activities effectively, and particularly in the domain of radioactive sources control. The FNRBA is open to all nuclear regulatory bodies in the region and is voluntary. This cooperation makes use of the triangular cooperation mechanism that involves advanced and less advanced countries working together with assistance from the IAEA and other partners in development. (author)

  5. Examining Shifts in Medical Students' Microanalytic Motivation Beliefs and Regulatory Processes during a Diagnostic Reasoning Task

    Cleary, Timothy J.; Dong, Ting; Artino, Anthony R., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined within-group shifts in the motivation beliefs and regulatory processes of second-year medical students as they engaged in a diagnostic reasoning activity. Using a contextualized assessment methodology called self-regulated learning microanalysis, the authors found that the 71 medical student participants showed statistically…

  6. Overview of maintenance principles and regulatory supervision of maintenance activities at nuclear power plants in Slovakia

    The maintenance represents one of the most important tools to ensure safe and reliable operation of nuclear power plants. The emphasis of Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic to the maintenance issue is expressed by requirements in the regulations. The current practice of maintenance management in operated nuclear power plants in Slovak Republic is presented. Main aspects of maintenance, as maintenance programme, organization of maintenance, responsibilities for maintenance are described. Activities of nuclear regulatory authority in maintenance process are presented too. (author)

  7. Case law. Administrative decisions. National legislative and regulatory activities. International regulatory activities

    (Romania), act on administrative and property management of the civilian nuclear energy sector (Russian Federation), amendment of the atomic act (Slovak Republic), regulation on monitoring of radioactivity (Slovenia), regulations on the contents of the annual public report, regulations on the keeping of records, regulations on safety standards and regulatory practices (South Africa), amendment to the act and ordinance on nuclear activities (Sweden), council directive on the supervision and control of shipments of radioactive waste and spent fuel (European Union). (N.C.)

  8. The regulatory process for the decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    The objective of this publication is to provide general guidance to Member States for regulating the decommissioning of nuclear facilities within the established nuclear regulatory framework. The Guide should also be useful to those responsible for, or interested in, the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The Guide describes in general terms the process to be used in regulating decommissioning and the considerations to be applied in the development of decommissioning regulations and guides. It also delineates the responsibilities of the regulatory body and the licensee in decommissioning. The provisions of this Guide are intended to apply to all facilities within the nuclear fuel cycle and larger industrial installations using long lived radionuclides. For smaller installations, however, less extensive planning and less complex regulatory control systems should be acceptable. The Guide deals primarily with decommissioning after planned shutdown. Most provisions, however, are also applicable to decommissioning after an abnormal event, once cleanup operations have been terminated. The decommissioning planning in this case must take account of the abnormal event. 28 refs, 1 fig

  9. System engineering in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensing process: Program architecture process and structure

    In October 1987, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) established the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses at Southwest Research Institute in San Antonio, Texas. The overall mission of the center is to provide a sustained level of high-quality research and technical assistance in support of NRC regulatory responsibilities under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA). A key part of that mission is to assist the NRC in the development of the program architecture - the systems approach to regulatory analysis for the NRC high-level waste repository licensing process - and the development and implementation of the computer-based Program Architecture Support System (PASS). This paper describes the concept of program architecture, summarizes the process and basic structure of the PASS relational data base, and describes the applications of the system

  10. Examining shifts in medical students' microanalytic motivation beliefs and regulatory processes during a diagnostic reasoning task.

    Cleary, Timothy J; Dong, Ting; Artino, Anthony R

    2015-08-01

    This study examined within-group shifts in the motivation beliefs and regulatory processes of second-year medical students as they engaged in a diagnostic reasoning activity. Using a contextualized assessment methodology called self-regulated learning microanalysis, the authors found that the 71 medical student participants showed statistically significant and relatively robust declines in their self-efficacy beliefs and strategic regulatory processes following negative feedback about their performance on the diagnostic reasoning task. Descriptive statistics revealed that changes in strategic thinking following negative corrective feedback were most characterized by shifts away from task-specific processes (e.g., integration, differentiating diagnoses) to non-task related factors. Implications and areas for future research are presented and discussed. PMID:25209963

  11. Safety and regulatory aspects of radiation processing facilities in India

    The number of gamma and electron radiation processing facilities (RPFs) is increasing all over the world. This is mainly due to their multifarious applications in the field of medicine, industry, agriculture and research. The most wide spread use of these facilities are for sterilisation of medical and pharmaceutical products, preservation of food stuffs, polymer synthesis and modifications, eradication of insect infestation and in the management of public health and environment. In India, at present, a total of nineteen gamma radiation-processing facilities (GRAPFs) are under operation for various purposes, four are under construction and several facilities have obtained site clearance for installation of GRAPF. There are five radiation processing accelerator (RPA) facilities operating in the country for other than food irradiation purposes. The ISOMED, the first commercial gamma radiation processing plant for sterilisation of medical products was commissioned at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Mumbai in 1974 by the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE), Government of India. The regulatory controls have been briefly outlined in this article

  12. Enhancing regulatory effectiveness by improving the process for identifying and resolving generic issues

    The Generic Issues Program first began formally in response to a Commission directive in October of 1976. In 1983, it became one of the first programs to make successful use of probabilistic risk information to aid in regulatory decision-making. In the 16 years since the program became quantitative, 836 issues have been processed. Of these, 106 reactor safety issues were prioritized as requiring further evaluation to determine the final resolution. Approximately a dozen generic issues remain unresolved. Although there is far less reactor licensing activity than in the 1970s, new issues continue to be identified from research and operational experience. These issues often involve complex and controversial questions of safety and regulation, and an efficient and effective means of addressing these issues is essential for regulatory effectiveness. Issues that involve a significant safety question require swift, effective, enforceable, and cost-effective regulatory actions. Issues that are of little safety significance must be quickly shown to be so and dismissed in an expeditious manner so as to avoid unnecessary expenditure of limited resources and to reduce regulatory uncertainty. Additionally, in the time since the generic issue program began, probabilistic risk assessment techniques have advanced significantly while agency resources have continued to diminish. Accordingly, the paper discusses the steps that have been taken to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of the generic issue resolution process. Additionally, four resolved issues are discussed, along with key elements of a proposed new procedure for resolving potential generic issues

  13. Establishment of the nuclear regulatory framework for the process of decommissioning of nuclear installations in Mexico

    Today has not managed any process of decommissioning of nuclear installations in the country; however because of the importance of the subject and the actions to be taken to long term, the Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias (CNSNS) in Mexico, accordance with its objectives is developing a National Nuclear Regulatory Framework and defined requirements to ensure the implementation of appropriate safety standards when such activities are performed. In this regard, the national nuclear regulatory framework for nuclear installations and the particular case of nuclear power reactors is presented, as well as a proposed licensing process for the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde based on international regulations and origin country regulations of the existing reactors in nuclear facilities in accordance with the license conditions of operation to allow to define and incorporate such regulation. (Author)

  14. 45 CFR 73a.735-502 - Employees in regulatory activities.

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employees in regulatory activities. 73a.735-502 Section 73a.735-502 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION... regulatory activities. (a) An employee in regulatory activities (“control activity” employee) may...

  15. Regulatory Requirements and Comparing Required Documents for the Drug Registration Process in Indonesia and Vietnam

    Praneeth Pidaparthi

    2016-01-01

    The regulatory authorities in Indonesia and Vietnam and their procedures for registration of a drug are discussed in this document. The Indonesia and Vietnam comes under ASEAN countries. The drug medication is essential and important in ASEAN region. The process of manufacturing a drug will not vary but the regulatory authorities and requirements will differ. The regulatory authority of any country has to ensure the quality of the product and safety of the patients. As the regulatory requirem...

  16. Regulatory Oversight of Nuclear Activities in the Multinational Context

    The national responsibility for the safety of nuclear installations is the fundamental principle endorsed by the Convention on Nuclear Safety. An important role for meeting this responsibility is assigned to the regulatory authority. In addition to fulfilling their national duties, the nuclear regulators must have a common global goal: jointly providing a consistently high level of safety at all nuclear power plants in the world, which ensures an extremely low probability of large radioactive release from a nuclear accident. This goal can be achieved only through an active multinational cooperation. It is necessary to develop harmonized safety requirements that can be approved with consensus and establish harmonized regulatory practices that give confidence that these requirements are actually met. With successful cooperation, it could be possible to licence in any country a nuclear power plant that has been licensed in another, without making other modifications than those that are found necessary due to the specific local conditions. Striving for standardized plant designs would have many safety benefits, such as adequate resources available for careful design of details and for independent safety analysis. Standardization would also make it possible to learn from experience and to address potential problems promptly at all similar plants. Successful regulatory cooperation would enable the use of the same manufacturing and construction standards for the systems, structures and components, which could then be purchased from any qualified manufacturer operating in the global markets. The paper discusses the current situation and future challenges in these areas. (author)

  17. Current role of the USNRC safety research program in support of the regulatory process

    The current role of the USNRC's safety research program is shown. Some aspects of this role in the wake of the TMI accident are discused as well as some historical perspective on the development of USNRC's program, its relationship with the NRC mission, an overview of the program activities and some recent research results, and finally the impact of the TMI accident in clarifiying needs for expedited and new research activities, including the need for a greatly enhanced use of probabilistic analysis techniques to improve the coherence of its regulatory process. (author)

  18. Foxp3 Processing by Proprotein Convertases and Control of Regulatory T Cell Function*

    de Zoeten, Edwin F.; Lee, Iris; Wang, Liqing; Chen, Chunxia; Ge, Guanghui; Wells, Andrew D.; Hancock, Wayne W.; Özkaynak, Engin

    2009-01-01

    Foxp3 is a 47-kDa transcription factor central to regulatory T cell (Treg) function. The importance of Foxp3+ Tregs in controlling self-reactive T cells and preventing autoimmunity is well established. Our analysis of Foxp3 expression in natural Tregs led to identification of a shorter 41-kDa Foxp3 species in activated Tregs, indicating that Foxp3 may be processed by proteolytic cleavage upon cell activation. Searches of murine and human Foxp3 sequences for potential c...

  19. Peak-valley-peak pattern of histone modifications delineates active regulatory elements and their directionality

    Pundir, Sachin; Bagger, Frederik O; Lauridsen, Felicia K B; Rapin, Nicolas; Porse, Bo T

    2016-01-01

    from four ENCODE cell lines and four hematopoietic differentiation stages, we identified several enhancers whose regulatory activity is stage specific and correlates positively with the expression of proximal genes in a particular stage. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that PVP patterns......Formation of nucleosome free region (NFR) accompanied by specific histone modifications at flanking nucleosomes is an important prerequisite for enhancer and promoter activity. Due to this process, active regulatory elements often exhibit a distinct shape of histone signal in the form of a peak...... that NFRs predicted by H3K4me1 and me3 patterns are associated with active enhancers and promoters, respectively. Furthermore, asymmetry in the height of peaks flanking the central valley can predict the directionality of stable transcription at promoters. Using PARE on ChIP-seq histone modifications...

  20. A complex process - transforming scientific research into regulatory rules for environmental protection

    The protection of isolated wetlands from consumptive use withdrawals has been a policy in the South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD) for over 15 years. A guideline for protecting isolated wetlands was established in the mid-1980's for the consumptive water use permitting program administered by the SFWMD. The guideline specifies groundwater drawdown criteria associated with well field pumpage. In 1994, the SFWMD convened a panel of wetland scientists to review the existing groundwater drawdown criteria. The panel concluded there was insufficient information to determine if the criteria were either too restrictive or insufficient in protecting wetlands. The panel recommended that the SFWMD conduct research to answer related questions. Since that time, staff at the SFWMD have developed a research plan, selected 38 isolated wetland monitoring sites in seven study areas, collected over four years of data, and developed an integrated surface water and groundwater simulation model. However, the staff at the SFWMD has had difficulties in transforming the research results into regulatory rules. The nature of an isolated wetland is quite complicated. Its setting changes significantly from time to time depending on the variation of rainfall, hydro-geological conditions, and human activities. A regulatory rule requires simple and more easily measurable criteria. The regulatory staff need simple tools to evaluate many permit applications within a limited time frame. The tools used in the research process are often complicated and time consuming. This paper describes the wetland research, and the difficulties of transforming research results into regulatory rules. (author)

  1. Study on the establishment of efficient plan for regulatory activities at NPPs

    In-operation regulatory activities at sites are very important and it should be improved to cope with accidents efficiently and quickly. In case of site survey and safety regulatory inspection regulatory system based on not regulatory headquarter but site regional office should be constructed. In other words, safety assurance and pending problem management considering site situation are needed. In this study, regulatory system at Nuclear Power Plant sites all over the world were reviewed and effective regulatory system of Korea are suggested to maximize the efficiency of license and regulatory manpower and consider the interest of local government and residents

  2. Peak-valley-peak pattern of histone modifications delineates active regulatory elements and their directionality.

    Pundhir, Sachin; Bagger, Frederik O; Lauridsen, Felicia B; Rapin, Nicolas; Porse, Bo T

    2016-05-19

    Formation of nucleosome free region (NFR) accompanied by specific histone modifications at flanking nucleosomes is an important prerequisite for enhancer and promoter activity. Due to this process, active regulatory elements often exhibit a distinct shape of histone signal in the form of a peak-valley-peak (PVP) pattern. However, different features of PVP patterns and their robustness in predicting active regulatory elements have never been systematically analyzed. Here, we present PARE, a novel computational method that systematically analyzes the H3K4me1 or H3K4me3 PVP patterns to predict NFRs. We show that NFRs predicted by H3K4me1 and me3 patterns are associated with active enhancers and promoters, respectively. Furthermore, asymmetry in the height of peaks flanking the central valley can predict the directionality of stable transcription at promoters. Using PARE on ChIP-seq histone modifications from four ENCODE cell lines and four hematopoietic differentiation stages, we identified several enhancers whose regulatory activity is stage specific and correlates positively with the expression of proximal genes in a particular stage. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that PVP patterns delineate both the histone modification landscape and the transcriptional activities governed by active enhancers and promoters, and therefore can be used for their prediction. PARE is freely available at http://servers.binf.ku.dk/pare. PMID:27095194

  3. The Report on Activities of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic. Annual Report 2012

    A brief account of activities carried out by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD SR) in 2012 is presented. These activities are reported under the headings: Foreword; (1) Legislative activities; (2) Regulatory Activities; (3) Nuclear safety of nuclear power plants; (4) Stress tests on the nuclear power plants; (5) Nuclear Materials in SR; (6) Building Authority; (7) Emergency planning and preparedness; (8) International activities; (9) Public communication; (10) Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic; (11) Attachments; (12) Abbreviations used.

  4. Notch1 regulated autophagy controls survival and suppressor activity of activated murine T-regulatory cells

    Marcel, Nimi; Sarin, Apurva

    2016-01-01

    Cell survival is one of several processes regulated by the Notch pathway in mammalian cells. Here we report functional outcomes of non-nuclear Notch signaling to activate autophagy, a conserved cellular response to nutrient stress, regulating survival in murine natural T-regulatory cells (Tregs), an immune subset controlling tolerance and inflammation. Induction of autophagy required ligand-dependent, Notch intracellular domain (NIC) activity, which controlled mitochondrial organization and survival of activated Tregs. Consistently, NIC immune-precipitated Beclin and Atg14, constituents of the autophagy initiation complex. Further, ectopic expression of an effector of autophagy (Atg3) or recombinant NIC tagged to a nuclear export signal (NIC-NES), restored autophagy and suppressor function in Notch1-/- Tregs. Furthermore, Notch1 deficiency in the Treg lineage resulted in immune hyperactivity, implicating Notch activity in Treg homeostasis. Notch1 integration with autophagy, revealed in these experiments, holds implications for Notch regulated cell-fate decisions governing differentiation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14023.001 PMID:27267497

  5. Current and future applications of PRA in regulatory activities

    Speis, T.P.; Murphy, J.A.; Cunningham, M.A. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)] [and others

    1995-04-01

    Probabilistic Risk Assessments (PRAs) have proven valuable in providing the regulators, the nuclear plant operators, and the reactor designers insights into plant safety, reliability, design and operation. Both the NRC Commissioners and the staff have grown to appreciate the valuable contributions PRAs can have in the regulatory arena, though I will admit the existence of some tendencies for strict adherence to the deterministic approach within the agency and the public at large. Any call for change, particularly one involving a major adjustment in approach to the regulation of nuclear power, will meet with a certain degree of resistance and retrenchment. Change can appear threatening and can cause some to question whether the safety mission is being fulfilled. This skepticism is completely appropriate and is, in fact, essential to a proper transition towards risk and performance-based approaches. Our task in the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research is to increase the PRA knowledge base within the agency and develop appropriate guidance and methods needed to support the transitioning process.

  6. Regulatory activities and their research and developmental support in the CSSR

    The first part of the paper deals with implementation of the regulations, and the gradual development of the regulatory organization and practice. This covers the first stage of the construction and operation of research reactors only, the second stage of the design, construction, commissioning and operation of the first prototype nuclear power plant and the present stage of the construction and commissioning of industrially developed nuclear power reactors. The development of regulatory documentation concerning safety codes of practice and guides and the main safety requirements for PNR nuclear power plants, the general licensing procedures and organization for the licensing of siting, construction and operation of nuclear power plants are described. Inspection practices applied during construction, commissioning and operation of nuclear power plants to verify that the licensing conditions and requirements are fulfilled are also dealt with. Some basic information about the co-ordination of CSAEC's nuclear safety regulatory activity with the regulatory activities of other governmental bodies dealing with general standardization, radiation and environmental protection, labour safety etc. is given. Finally, the functional and organizational structure of the Department of CSAEC dealing with its regulatory role is described. The supporting R and D activity is the subject of the second part of the paper. Some main results obtained in the development of methods and computer codes for reliability and safety assessment for the evaluation of abnormal operational occurrences and accidental conditions, and for the assessment of the environmental impact of nuclear power plant etc. and their application in the licensing process are presented. The paper also gives some information on the future research programme. (author)

  7. Risk analysis of process plants: approach of the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board

    The analysis of the probable consequences and effects of the hazardous chemicals used in the process plants plays a vital role in regulatory decision-making. This analysis is required in the entire life cycle of the process plant. This paper presents the detail of risk analysis required at various life cycle stages viz. siting, design, and operation of a process plant. It also describes the regulatory methodology and safety review process adopted by Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) to ensure safety of the plant in its entire life cycle. (author)

  8. The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission regulatory process for decommissioning a uranium mining facility

    The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) regulates uranium mining in Canada. The CNSC regulatory process requires that a licence applicant plan for and commit to future decommissioning before irrevocable decisions are made, and throughout the life of a uranium mine. These requirements include conceptual decommissioning plans and the provision of financial assurances to ensure the availability of funds for decommissioning activities. When an application for decommissioning is submitted to the CNSC, an environmental assessment is required prior to initiating the licensing process. A case study is presented for COGEMA Resources Inc. (COGEMA), who is entering the decommissioning phase with the CNSC for the Cluff Lake uranium mine. As part of the licensing process, CNSC multidisciplinary staff assesses the decommissioning plan, associated costs, and the environmental assessment. When the CNSC is satisfied that all of its requirements are met, a decommissioning licence may be issued. (author)

  9. Application of best available science to the regulatory process

    The current grant is a continuation of a previous grant awarded to the Institute for Regulatory Science. In July, 1989, the functions of the Institute were transferred to the University of Maryland and the studies started at the Institute were continued at the University. The current grant started February 1, 1990. Therefore, much of the discussion in this progress report relies upon the grant funded at the Institute for Regulatory Science. This progress report covers the period from February 1, 1990 to January 31, 1991. The objective of the project is to assure that societal decisions are based on the best available science (BAS). A great deal of progress was made to establish relevant organizations for the development of consensus on relevant scientific information. During the next year, emphasis will be placed on Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), particularly as related to its reauthorization and mixed waste

  10. Legislation — quality improvement — the regulatory process

    Burge, Edward R

    1991-01-01

    Legislation governing the health professions has traditionally been drafted with differing regulations and provisions in statute for each profession. This legislation has often been the consequence of seniority or political lobbying, resulting in a disjointed regulatory system, where many professions performed similar procedures. Growing health care awareness by consumers has prompted a greater accountability by the professions. In Ontario, the government addressed this concern by formulating...

  11. The nuclear regulatory process in Canada experience and possible future direction

    The underlying principle in the Canadian licensing process is that the licensee (owner/operatopr) bears the responsibility for safety while the regulatory authority sets safety objectives and audits their achievement. As a consequence, Canadian Regulatory Requirements emphasize numerical safety goals, and minimize specific design or operational rules. This paper traces the evolution of this approach, and indicates direction for the future. (author)

  12. Prediction and Validation of Gene Regulatory Elements Activated During Retinoic Acid Induced Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation.

    Simandi, Zoltan; Horvath, Attila; Nagy, Peter; Nagy, Laszlo

    2016-01-01

    Embryonic development is a multistep process involving activation and repression of many genes. Enhancer elements in the genome are known to contribute to tissue and cell-type specific regulation of gene expression during the cellular differentiation. Thus, their identification and further investigation is important in order to understand how cell fate is determined. Integration of gene expression data (e.g., microarray or RNA-seq) and results of chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-based genome-wide studies (ChIP-seq) allows large-scale identification of these regulatory regions. However, functional validation of cell-type specific enhancers requires further in vitro and in vivo experimental procedures. Here we describe how active enhancers can be identified and validated experimentally. This protocol provides a step-by-step workflow that includes: 1) identification of regulatory regions by ChIP-seq data analysis, 2) cloning and experimental validation of putative regulatory potential of the identified genomic sequences in a reporter assay, and 3) determination of enhancer activity in vivo by measuring enhancer RNA transcript level. The presented protocol is detailed enough to help anyone to set up this workflow in the lab. Importantly, the protocol can be easily adapted to and used in any cellular model system. PMID:27403939

  13. Activated Sludge Process Overview

    B. Ahansazan; H. Afrashteh; N. Ahansazan; Z. Ahansazan

    2014-01-01

    In recent years the waste water ministerial regulations have led to a constant ascend in the purification performance demanded of waste water treatment plants. Because of this, the number of waste water treatment plants has been maturing, and technical complexity has also been growing. In order to hold the connected rising costs of capital expenditure and operation within bounds, sagacious process technology solutions have to be found. Besides having a deeper understanding of the individual p...

  14. Future nuclear regulatory challenges. A report by the NEA Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities

    Future challenges are considered that may arise from technical, socio-economic and political issues; organizational, management and human aspects; and international issues. The perceived challenges have been grouped into four categories, each covered by a chapter. Technical issues are addressed that many present regulatory challenges in the future: ageing nuclear power plants. External changes to industry are considered next that have an effect on regulators, privatization, cost reduction consequences, commercialization etc. It is followed by the impacts of internal changes: organizational, managerial, human-resources, licensing, staff training etc. Finally, international issues are discussed with potential regulatory impact. (R.P.)

  15. Neuroimaging of developmental psychopathologies: the importance of self-regulatory and neuroplastic processes in adolescence

    Spessot, Alexandra L; Plessen, Kerstin J; Peterson, Bradley S

    2004-01-01

    developmental and plastic processes during the transition from adolescence into adulthood. Tourette syndrome (TS), defined as the chronic presence of motor and vocal tics, has been increasingly conceptualized as a disorder of impaired self-regulatory control. This disordered control is thought to give rise to...... semicompulsory urges to perform the movements that constitute simple tics, complex tics, or compulsions. Neuroimaging studies suggest that the expression of the genetic diathesis to TS is influenced by genetic and nongenetic factors affecting activity-dependent reorganization of neuroregulatory systems, thereby...... influencing the phenotype, illness severity, and adult outcome of tic disorders. Similar developmental processes during adolescence likely determine the phenotype and natural history of a broad range of other complex neuropsychiatric disorders of childhood onset, and they likely contribute to the acquisition...

  16. Evolution of nuclear security regulatory activities in Brazil

    Mello, Luiz A. de; Monteiro Filho, Joselio S.; Belem, Lilia M.J.; Torres, Luiz F.B. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Diretoria de Radioprotecao e Segurania Nuclear. Coordenacao de Salvaguardas e Protecao Fisica], e-mail: gpf@cnen.gov.br

    2009-07-01

    The changing of the world scenario in the last 15 years has increased worldwide the concerns about overall security and, as a consequence, about the nuclear and radioactive material as well as their associated facilities. Considering the new situation, in February 2004, the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN), decided to create the Nuclear Security Office. This Office is under the Coordination of Nuclear Safeguards and Security, in the Directorate for Safety, Security and Safeguards (Regulatory Directorate). Before that, security regulation issues were dealt in a decentralized manner, within that Directorate, by different licensing groups in specific areas (power reactors, fuel cycle facilities, radioactive facilities, transport of nuclear material, etc.). This decision was made in order to allow a coordinated approach on the subject, to strengthen the regulation in nuclear/radioactive security, and to provide support to management in the definition of institutional security policies. The CNEN Security Office develops its work based in the CNEN Physical Protection Regulation for Nuclear Operational Units - NE-2.01, 1996, the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and the IAEA Nuclear Security Series . This paper aims at presenting the activities developed and the achievements obtained by this new CNEN office, as well as identifying the issues and directions for future efforts. (author)

  17. Evolution of nuclear security regulatory activities in Brazil

    The changing of the world scenario in the last 15 years has increased worldwide the concerns about overall security and, as a consequence, about the nuclear and radioactive material as well as their associated facilities. Considering the new situation, in February 2004, the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN), decided to create the Nuclear Security Office. This Office is under the Coordination of Nuclear Safeguards and Security, in the Directorate for Safety, Security and Safeguards (Regulatory Directorate). Before that, security regulation issues were dealt in a decentralized manner, within that Directorate, by different licensing groups in specific areas (power reactors, fuel cycle facilities, radioactive facilities, transport of nuclear material, etc.). This decision was made in order to allow a coordinated approach on the subject, to strengthen the regulation in nuclear/radioactive security, and to provide support to management in the definition of institutional security policies. The CNEN Security Office develops its work based in the CNEN Physical Protection Regulation for Nuclear Operational Units - NE-2.01, 1996, the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and the IAEA Nuclear Security Series . This paper aims at presenting the activities developed and the achievements obtained by this new CNEN office, as well as identifying the issues and directions for future efforts. (author)

  18. Health physics self-assessment and the nuclear regulatory oversight process at a nuclear power plant

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has developed improvements in their Nuclear Power Plant inspection, assessment and enforcement practices. The objective of these changes was to link regulatory action with power plant performance through a risk- informed process which is intended to enhance objectivity. One of the Strategic Performance Areas of focus by the U.S. NRC is radiation safety. Two cornerstones, Occupational Radiation Safety and Public Radiation Safety, make up this area. These cornerstones are being evaluated through U.S. NRC Performance Indicators (PI) and baseline site inspections. Key to the U.S. NRC's oversight program is the ability of the licensee to implement a self-assessment program which pro-actively identifies potential problems and develops improvements to enhance management's effectiveness. The Health Physics Self-Assessment Program at San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station (SONGS) identifies radiation protection-related weakness or negative trends. The intended end result is improved performance through rapid problem identification, timely evaluation, corrective action and follow-up effectiveness reviews. A review of the radiation protection oversight process and the SONGS Health Physics Self-Assessment Program will be presented. Lessons learned and management tools, which evaluate workforce and Health Physics (HP) staff performance to improve radiological practices, are discussed. (author)

  19. Paramutation: a process for acquiring trans-generational regulatory states.

    Erhard, Karl F; Hollick, Jay B

    2011-04-01

    Basic tenets of Mendelian inheritance are violated by paramutations in which trans-homolog interactions lead to heritable changes in gene regulation and phenotype. First described in plants, similar behaviors have now been noted in diverse eukaryotes. Genetic and molecular studies of paramutations occurring in maize indicate that components of a small interfering RNA (siRNA) biogenesis pathway are required for the maintenance of meiotically heritable regulatory states. Although these findings lead to a hypothesis that siRNAs themselves mediate paramutation interactions, an assessment of existing data supports the opinion that siRNAs alone are insufficient. Recent evidence implies that transcription of paramutation-associated repeats and siRNA-facilitated chromatin changes at affected loci are involved in directing and maintaining the heritable changes in gene regulation that typify paramutations. PMID:21420347

  20. A new risk-informed design and regulatory process

    The overall purpose of the new approach, termed Risk-Informed Regulation, is to formulate a method of regulation that is logically consistent and devised so that both the reactor designer and regulator can work together in obtaining systems able to produce economical electricity safely. In this new system the traditional tools (deterministic and probabilistic analyses, tests and expert judgement) and treatments (defense-in-depth, conservatism) of safety regulation would still be employed, but the logic governing their use would be reversed from the current treatment. In the new treatment, probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) would be used as the paramount decision support tool, taking advantage of its ability to integrate all of the elements of system performance and to represent the uncertainties in the results. The latter is the most important reason for this choice, as the most difficult part of safety regulation is the treatment of uncertainties, not the assurance of expected performance. The scope of the PRA would be made as large as that of the reactor system, including all of its performance phenomena. The models and data of the PRA would be supported by deterministic analytical results, and data to the extent feasible. However, as in the current regulatory system, the models and data of the PRA would require being complemented by subjective judgements where the former were inadequate. All of these elements play important roles in the current decision-making structure; the main departure from current practice would be making all of these treatments explicit within the PRA, therefore, decreasing the frequency of sometimes arbitrary judgments. In the intended sense the PRA would be used as a vehicle for stating the beliefs of the designer and regulatory decision-maker; the foundation of their decisions. Thus, the PRA should be viewed as a Bayesian decision tool, and be used in order to take advantage of its capabilities in integration and inclusion of

  1. Modelling the conditional regulatory activity of methylated and bivalent promoters

    Budden, David M.; Hurley, Daniel G.; Edmund J Crampin

    2015-01-01

    Background Predictive modelling of gene expression is a powerful framework for the in silico exploration of transcriptional regulatory interactions through the integration of high-throughput -omics data. A major limitation of previous approaches is their inability to handle conditional interactions that emerge when genes are subject to different regulatory mechanisms. Although chromatin immunoprecipitation-based histone modification data are often used as proxies for chromatin accessibility, ...

  2. Regulatory Requirements and Comparing Required Documents for the Drug Registration Process in Indonesia and Vietnam

    Praneeth Pidaparthi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The regulatory authorities in Indonesia and Vietnam and their procedures for registration of a drug are discussed in this document. The Indonesia and Vietnam comes under ASEAN countries. The drug medication is essential and important in ASEAN region. The process of manufacturing a drug will not vary but the regulatory authorities and requirements will differ. The regulatory authority of any country has to ensure the quality of the product and safety of the patients. As the regulatory requirements differ it will be challenging for the companies to produce drugs which are submitted for approval for various countries. The regulatory documents comparing Indonesia and Vietnam that should be submitted for the drug registration in the respective countries are enclosed in this article.

  3. Summary review of PSA topics in connection with Romanian regulatory body activities

    This presentation includes the Romanian regulatory body guide; PSA level 1 requirements; PSA level 1 project status; PSA level 2 support activities; Scenario for PSA activities; external and internal cooperation

  4. 2015 Summary Report on Industrial and Regulatory Engagement Activities

    Thomas, Kenneth David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    activities and future plans were made to Arizona Public Service, Exelon, Duke Energy, Pacific Gas & Electric, SCANA, Southern Nuclear, South Texas Project, STARS Alliance, Tennessee Valley Authority, and Xcel. Discussions were also held on the pathway goals and activities with major industry support organizations during FY 2102, including the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO), the Nuclear Information Technology Strategic Leadership (NITSL), the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI), and the Electric Power Research Institute. The Advanced II&C Pathway work was presented at five major industry conferences and Informal discussions were held with key NRC managers at industry conferences. In addition, discussions were held with NRC senior managers on digital regulatory issues through participation on the NEI Digital I&C Working Group. Meetings were held with major industry suppliers and consultants, to explore opportunities for collaboration and to provide a means of pilot project technology transfer. In the international area, discussions were held with Electricite’ de France (EdF) concerning possible collaboration in the area NPP configuration control using intelligent wireless devices.

  5. 2015 Summary Report on Industrial and Regulatory Engagement Activities

    activities and future plans were made to Arizona Public Service, Exelon, Duke Energy, Pacific Gas & Electric, SCANA, Southern Nuclear, South Texas Project, STARS Alliance, Tennessee Valley Authority, and Xcel. Discussions were also held on the pathway goals and activities with major industry support organizations during FY 2102, including the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO), the Nuclear Information Technology Strategic Leadership (NITSL), the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI), and the Electric Power Research Institute. The Advanced II&C Pathway work was presented at five major industry conferences and Informal discussions were held with key NRC managers at industry conferences. In addition, discussions were held with NRC senior managers on digital regulatory issues through participation on the NEI Digital I&C Working Group. Meetings were held with major industry suppliers and consultants, to explore opportunities for collaboration and to provide a means of pilot project technology transfer. In the international area, discussions were held with Electricite de France (EdF) concerning possible collaboration in the area NPP configuration control using intelligent wireless devices.

  6. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's antitrust review process: an analysis of the impacts

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) antitrust process is reviewed and its impacts to small systems and applicant systems are studied. This process takes the form of a description of the NRC's antitrust review process as implemented, a generic categorization of potential impacts and individual case-by-case studies of four different utilities

  7. Conduct of regulatory review and assessment during the licensing process for nuclear power plants

    This Safety Guide was prepared as part of the Agency's programme, referred to as the NUSS programme, for establishing Codes of Practice and Safety Guides relating to nuclear power plants. It supplements the Code of Practice on Governmental Organization for the Regulation of Nuclear Power Plants (IAEA Safety Series No. 50-C-G) and is concerned with the review and assessment by the regulatory body of all information submitted in support of licence applications, in the various phases of the licensing process. The purpose of the Guide is to provide information, recommendations and guidance for the conduct of these activities. The scope of the review and assessment will encompass the safety aspects of siting, construction, commissioning, operation and decommissioning of each nuclear power plant

  8. The role of independent scientific and engineering analyses in the regulatory process

    Since it was established in 1987 by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA) has assisted NRC in fulfilling its responsibilities under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act related to a potential repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and interim storage facilities for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. CNWRA attributes have assured its success in assisting NRC. These attributes include clearly defined roles and responsibilities, which encompass independent scientific and engineering analyses. Examples illustrate how these analyses have enhanced the regulatory process. (author)

  9. Status on the regulatory aspects in NORM/TENORM activities and waste in Malaysia

    In Malaysia, waste associated with TENORM are generated mostly in the tin mining and smelting, processing of minerals, and oil and gas industry. As one of a major tin producer in the world and the country current activities in oil production, the amount of waste generated in this kind of activities is quite substantial. Currently the government of Malaysia did not provide any provision in the law specifically for the exclusion of TENORM waste, however, the government did imposed the criteria for exclusion of this waste by adopting the guideline limit established by the IAEA safety series 26, which is very vital for the regulatory body i.e. Atomic Energy Licensing Board (AELB) to overcome the problems in managing some of waste related to TENORM industries. As one example, this guideline has been applied to one of the mineral processing industries in the country on decommissioning and disposing of their waste. Furthermore, due to economic reason and price of tin and its by-product is not viable and profitable so much, making this industry not significant in business and trade industries, several practices have been exempted from the regulatory control under the Atomic Energy Licensing Act, 1984. (author)

  10. Key regulatory and safety issues emerging NEA activities. Lessons Learned from Fukushima Dai-ichi NPS Accident - Key Regulatory and Safety Issues

    A presentation was provided on the key safety and regulatory issues and an update of activities undertaken by the NEA and its members in response to the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power stations (NPS) on 11 March 2011. An overview of the accident sequence and the consequences was provided that identified the safety functions that were lost (electrical power, core cooling, and primary containment) that lead to units 1, 2, and 3 being in severe accident conditions with large off-site releases. Key areas identified for which activities of the NEA and member countries are in progress include accident management; defence-in-depth; crisis communication; initiating events; operating experience; deterministic and probabilistic assessments; regulatory infrastructure; radiological protection and public health; and decontamination and recovery. For each of these areas, a brief description of the on-going and planned NEA activities was provided within the three standing technical committees of the NEA with safety and regulatory mandates (the Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities - CNRA, the Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations - CSNI, and the Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health - CRPPH). On-going activities of CNRA include a review of enhancement being made to the regulatory aspects for the oversight of on-site accident management strategies and processes in light of the lessons learned from the accident; providing guidance to regulators on crisis communication; and supporting the peer review of the safety assessments of risk-significant research reactor facilities in light of the accident. Within the scope of the CSNI mandate, activities are being undertaken to better understand accident progression; characteristics of new fuel designs; and a benchmarking study of fast-running software for estimating source term under severe accident conditions to support protective measure recommendations. CSNI also has ongoing work in human

  11. Synthesis of TP3 Fragment via One Pot Strategy and Its Immune Regulatory Activity

    WANG Li-feng; CHEN Jie; SHAN Hui-jie; LI Wei

    2005-01-01

    We have modified the previously described one-pot peptide synthesis method. The modified method has been successfully applied to the synthesis of TP3. Furthermore, the immune regulatory activity of TP3 has been characterized. The results show that the modified one-pot method can be used to synthesize the biological active peptide with the advantages of low cost and high productivity. Moreover, TP3 has a higher immune regulatory activity than TP5.

  12. Safety performance indicators used by the Russian Safety Regulatory Authority in its practical activities on nuclear power plant safety regulation

    The Sixth Department of the Nuclear, Industrial and Environmental Regulatory Authority of Russia, Scientific and Engineering Centre for Nuclear and Radiation Safety process, analyse and use the information on nuclear power plants (NPPs) operational experience or NPPs safety improvement. Safety performance indicators (SPIs), derived from processing of information on operational violations and analysis of annual NPP Safety Reports, are used as tools to determination of trends towards changing of characteristics of operational safety, to assess the effectiveness of corrective measures, to monitor and evaluate the current operational safety level of NPPs, to regulate NPP safety. This report includes a list of the basic SPIs, those used by the Russian safety regulatory authority in regulatory activity. Some of them are absent in list of IAEA-TECDOC-1141 ('Operational safety performance indicators for nuclear power plants'). (author)

  13. Redefining the transcriptional regulatory dynamics of classically and alternatively activated macrophages by deepCAGE transcriptomics

    Roy, S.

    2015-06-27

    Classically or alternatively activated macrophages (M1 and M2, respectively) play distinct and important roles for microbiocidal activity, regulation of inflammation and tissue homeostasis. Despite this, their transcriptional regulatory dynamics are poorly understood. Using promoter-level expression profiling by non-biased deepCAGE we have studied the transcriptional dynamics of classically and alternatively activated macrophages. Transcription factor (TF) binding motif activity analysis revealed four motifs, NFKB1_REL_RELA, IRF1,2, IRF7 and TBP that are commonly activated but have distinct activity dynamics in M1 and M2 activation. We observe matching changes in the expression profiles of the corresponding TFs and show that only a restricted set of TFs change expression. There is an overall drastic and transient up-regulation in M1 and a weaker and more sustainable up-regulation in M2. Novel TFs, such as Thap6, Maff, (M1) and Hivep1, Nfil3, Prdm1, (M2) among others, were suggested to be involved in the activation processes. Additionally, 52 (M1) and 67 (M2) novel differentially expressed genes and, for the first time, several differentially expressed long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) transcriptome markers were identified. In conclusion, the finding of novel motifs, TFs and protein-coding and lncRNA genes is an important step forward to fully understand the transcriptional machinery of macrophage activation.

  14. Transcription of Mammalian cis-Regulatory Elements Is Restrained by Actively Enforced Early Termination.

    Austenaa, Liv M I; Barozzi, Iros; Simonatto, Marta; Masella, Silvia; Della Chiara, Giulia; Ghisletti, Serena; Curina, Alessia; de Wit, Elzo; Bouwman, Britta A M; de Pretis, Stefano; Piccolo, Viviana; Termanini, Alberto; Prosperini, Elena; Pelizzola, Mattia; de Laat, Wouter; Natoli, Gioacchino

    2015-11-01

    Upon recruitment to active enhancers and promoters, RNA polymerase II (Pol II) generates short non-coding transcripts of unclear function. The mechanisms that control the length and the amount of ncRNAs generated by cis-regulatory elements are largely unknown. Here, we show that the adaptor protein WDR82 and its associated complexes actively limit such non-coding transcription. WDR82 targets the SET1 H3K4 methyltransferases and the nuclear protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) complexes to the initiating Pol II. WDR82 and PP1 also interact with components of the transcriptional termination and RNA processing machineries. Depletion of WDR82, SET1, or the PP1 subunit required for its nuclear import caused distinct but overlapping transcription termination defects at highly expressed genes and active enhancers and promoters, thus enabling the increased synthesis of unusually long ncRNAs. These data indicate that transcription initiated from cis-regulatory elements is tightly coordinated with termination mechanisms that impose the synthesis of short RNAs. PMID:26593720

  15. Regulation of Federal radioactive waste activities. Report to Congress on extending the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's licensing or regulatory authority to Federal radioactive waste storage and disposal activities

    The report contains two recommendations for extending the Commission's regulatory authority: (1) NRC licensing authority should be extended to cover all new DOE facilities for disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste and nondefense low-level waste. (2) A pilot program, focused on a few specific DOE waste management activities, should be established to test the feasibility of extending NRC regulatory authority on a consultative basis to DOE waste management activities not now covered by NRC's licensing authority or its extension as recommended in Recommendation 1

  16. Animal experimentation in Malta : regulatory processes and future perspectives

    Scerri, Charles

    2009-01-01

    Prior to Malta’s accession to the European Union (EU) in May 2004, new legislative processes regulating the use of animals for scientific research purposes were adopted in line with the provisions found under the European Union Council Directive 86/609/EEC. The scope of these regulations is to protect animals used or intended to be used in scientific experimental procedures which may cause pain, suffering, distress or lasting harm, using evaluation procedures that promote refinement, reductio...

  17. Regulatory control of food irradiation process for consumer protection

    The potential for food irradiation in the control of food-borne diseases is of particular importance in the developing countries of the Asian and Pacific region where considerable human resources are lost because of these diseases. Over the past few years there has been a growing interest in the irradiation process. To date, 29 irradiators, most of which were originally designed for sterilizing medical products, are being used for treating food and food ingredients. An additional 20 commercial/demonstration irradiators are either under construction or in advanced stages of planning. 3 refs, 4 tabs

  18. Regulatory network of inflammation downstream of proteinase-activated receptors

    Hurst Robert E

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protease-activated receptors (PAR are present in the urinary bladder, and their expression is altered in response to inflammation. PARs are a unique class of G protein-coupled that carry their own ligands, which remain cryptic until unmasked by proteolytic cleavage. Although the canonical signal transduction pathway downstream of PAR activation and coupling with various G proteins is known and leads to the rapid transcription of genes involved in inflammation, the effect of PAR activation on the downstream transcriptome is unknown. We have shown that intravesical administration of PAR-activating peptides leads to an inflammatory reaction characterized by edema and granulocyte infiltration. Moreover, the inflammatory response to intravesical instillation of known pro-inflammatory stimuli such as E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS, substance P (SP, and antigen was strongly attenuated by PAR1- and to a lesser extent by PAR2-deficiency. Results Here, cDNA array experiments determined inflammatory genes whose expression is dependent on PAR1 activation. For this purpose, we compared the alteration in gene expression in wild type and PAR1-/- mice induced by classical pro-inflammatory stimuli (LPS, SP, and antigen. 75 transcripts were considered to be dependent on PAR-1 activation and further annotated in silico by Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA and gene ontology (GO. Selected transcripts were target validated by quantitative PCR (Q-PCR. Among PAR1-dependent transcripts, the following have been implicated in the inflammatory process: b2m, ccl7, cd200, cd63, cdbpd, cfl1, dusp1, fkbp1a, fth1, hspb1, marcksl1, mmp2, myo5a, nfkbia, pax1, plaur, ppia, ptpn1, ptprcap, s100a10, sim2, and tnfaip2. However, a balanced response to signals of injury requires a transient cellular activation of a panel of genes together with inhibitory systems that temper the overwhelming inflammation. In this context, the activation of genes such as dusp1 and

  19. LWRS II&C Industry and Regulatory Engagement Activities for FY 11

    Ken Thomas

    2011-09-01

    To ensure broad industry support and coordination for the Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Controls (II&C) Systems Technologies research pathway, an engagement process will be continually pursued with nuclear asset owners, vendors, and suppliers, Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and the major industry support organizations of Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO), and Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI). Nuclear asset owner engagement is a necessary and enabling activity to obtain data and accurate characterization of long-term operational challenges, assess the suitability of proposed research for addressing long-term needs, and gain access to data and representative infrastructure and expertise needed to ensure success of the proposed research and development (R&D) activities. Engagement with vendors and suppliers will ensure that vendor expectations and needs can be translated into requirements that can be met through technology commercialization.

  20. Organization and practices on regulatory review in the licensing process of nuclear power plants in Spain

    The actual organisation, practices and experience of the JEN Nuclear Safety Department on the regulatory review in the licensing process of nuclear power plants in Spain, are presented. Topics to be covered are: The structure, organisation, staff and principal functional areas of the NSD, the academic qualifications and work experience of the NSD personnel, recruiting and training, the conduct of the regulatory review during the licensing process and working procedures, the manpower and coverage of the different technical areas, the principal problems and conclusions. (author)

  1. One hub-one process: a tool based view on regulatory network topology

    Sneppen Kim

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between the regulatory design and the functionality of molecular networks is a key issue in biology. Modules and motifs have been associated to various cellular processes, thereby providing anecdotal evidence for performance based localization on molecular networks. Results To quantify structure-function relationship we investigate similarities of proteins which are close in the regulatory network of the yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae. We find that the topology of the regulatory network only show weak remnants of its history of network reorganizations, but strong features of co-regulated proteins associated to similar tasks. These functional correlations decreases strongly when one consider proteins separated by more than two steps in the regulatory network. The network topology primarily reflects the processes that is orchestrated by each individual hub, whereas there is nearly no remnants of the history of protein duplications. Conclusion Our results suggests that local topological features of regulatory networks, including broad degree distributions, emerge as an implicit result of matching a number of needed processes to a finite toolbox of proteins.

  2. Innate Immune Activity Conditions the Effect of Regulatory Variants upon Monocyte Gene Expression

    Fairfax, B. P.; Humburg, P.; Makino, S.; Naranbhai, V; Wong, D.; Lau, E; Jostins, L; Plant, K.; Andrews, R; McGee, C.; Knight, J.C.

    2014-01-01

    To systematically investigate the impact of immune stimulation upon regulatory variant activity, we exposed primary monocytes from 432 healthy Europeans to interferon-γ (IFN-γ) or differing durations of lipopolysaccharide and mapped expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs). More than half of cis-eQTLs identified, involving hundreds of genes and associated pathways, are detected specifically in stimulated monocytes. Induced innate immune activity reveals multiple master regulatory trans-eQTL...

  3. Unique expression, processing regulation, and regulatory network of peach (Prunus persica miRNAs

    Zhu Hong

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs have recently emerged as important gene regulators in plants. MiRNAs and their targets have been extensively studied in Arabidopsis and rice. However, relatively little is known about the characterization of miRNAs and their target genes in peach (Prunus persica, which is a complex crop with unique developmental programs. Results We performed small RNA deep sequencing and identified 47 peach-specific and 47 known miRNAs or families with distinct expression patterns. Together, the identified miRNAs targeted 80 genes, many of which have not been reported previously. Like the model plant systems, peach has two of the three conserved trans-acting siRNA biogenesis pathways with similar mechanistic features and target specificity. Unique to peach, three of the miRNAs collectively target 49 MYBs, 19 of which are known to regulate phenylpropanoid metabolism, a key pathway associated with stone hardening and fruit color development, highlighting a critical role of miRNAs in the regulation of peach fruit development and ripening. We also found that the majority of the miRNAs were differentially regulated in different tissues, in part due to differential processing of miRNA precursors. Up to 16% of the peach-specific miRNAs were differentially processed from their precursors in a tissue specific fashion, which has been rarely observed in plant cells. The miRNA precursor processing activity appeared not to be coupled with its transcriptional activity but rather acted independently in peach. Conclusions Collectively, the data characterizes the unique expression pattern and processing regulation of peach miRNAs and demonstrates the presence of a complex, multi-level miRNA regulatory network capable of targeting a wide variety of biological functions, including phenylpropanoid pathways which play a multifaceted spatial-temporal role in peach fruit development.

  4. Emergent self-regulatory activity among young children during scientific inquiry: An analysis of six kindergarten children

    Lomangino, Adrienne Gelpi

    2000-10-01

    This qualitative investigation extends the study of self-regulation to examine young children's developing self-regulated learning competencies. The framework for this research draws upon social cognitive, developmental, and sociocultural perspectives on self-regulation and research on children's scientific thinking. Taking a multiple case study approach, this study examines six kindergarten children's emerging self-regulatory competencies during inquiry-based science instruction. Data were collected during two inquiry-based science programs of study, one pertaining to light and shadow and a second pertaining to motion on inclined planes. Data sources included: videotaped records of the instruction, transcriptions of the videotapes, interviews with the children and teacher, student work, and field notes. Taking an inductive approach to analysis, patterns in the children's activity were identified through a recursive process of defining and refining categories that characterized the children's verbal and behavioral activity. Each case study examines a child's behavior within each phase of the inquiry for evidence of emerging self-regulatory competence. Analysis revealed nascent forms of goal-setting and planning, monitoring, resource management, seeking social assistance, and evaluating. Monitoring activity occurred more frequently than planning or evaluating. For several children, animating materials served to promote motivation. Children's efforts to support peers' activity and monitor the meaning of ongoing discourse contrast with common assumptions about children's attention to others' thinking. Variations in self-regulatory activity were found across phases of instruction. The children exhibited interpersonal self-regulatory efforts, in which monitoring and control of the self was entwined with the activity of others. Joint participation also played a critical role in supporting the metacognitive demands of self-regulation and prompting metacognitive awareness

  5. The role of the US regulatory process in public acceptance of nuclear power

    This paper focuses, on NRC's regulatory responsibilities in relation to public acceptance of nuclear power. Since public attitudes in the United States may influence reaction to nuclear power in other nations, it is fair to say that the credibility of our regulatory program has international significance. Stated simply, unless the public is convinced that the regulatory process is effective in assuring safety, safeguarding nuclear facilities and materials, and protecting the environment, the use of nuclear power could be curtailed or even brought to a halt. Not only must the regulatory process be effective, it must at the same time be recognized by the public as being effective. Opinion polls in the United States have shown consistently that a majority of Americans believe it is important to develop nuclear power to help meet our future energy needs. The direction of public concern has shifted from year to year. Most recently, public apprehension has been expressed about the potential hazards of long-term storage of the high-level wastes from spent fuel reprocessing, and about the risks that nuclear materials and facilities may be subject to theft or diversion or sabotage. Uppermost in the public mind is the question whether the regulatory process can cope with these potential threats to public health and safety. The licensing process of the NRC is conducted in full public view. Issues of a generic nature are aired in rulemaking hearings, while each proposal to construct and operate a nuclear power plant or a facility such as fuel reprocessing plant is the subject of public hearings, which are held near the site of the proposed plant. During the last two years, we have noted that some persons who object to nuclear power plants have indicated that they believe that decisions to permit construction of such plants should be made at the State government level, rather than by a Federal agency. As a result, there now are movements to enact State laws and to set up State

  6. The regulatory perspective: Role of regulatory review of the safety case for preparing and performing the Swiss site selection process

    Swiss legislation requires for all types of radioactive waste the safe and permanent disposal in deep geological repositories within Switzerland by stipulating a step-by-step procedure for site selection and licensing of the disposal facilities. Each step requires safety considerations or safety analyses which are reviewed by the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI, former HSK). The principle steps of radioactive waste disposal include: i) Demonstration of disposal feasibility for all types of radioactive waste in Switzerland. ii) Site selection process in three stages to narrow down the number of suitable sites to one for realisation ('Sectoral Plan for Geological Repositories'). iii) Construction, operation and closure of the repositories according to Swiss legislation in five steps [licence for geological investigations, general licence (decision-in-principle), construction licence, operation licence, closure order. Step i) was completed in 2006 when the Swiss Federal Council (Swiss federal government) approved the demonstration of disposal feasibility for high-level and long-lived intermediate level waste submitted by the implementer in 2002. The site selection process started in 2008 [Step ii)] according to a site selection concept (BFE, 2008) which was approved by the Federal Council after broad consultation. The process is organised and co-ordinated by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE, in German BFE) and is carried out in accordance with the land use planning legislation. Safety is of highest priority in the site selection process, but socioeconomic aspects are also taken into account. The site selection procedure is based on a stepwise approach. In the first of three stages, six potential siting areas for L/ILW and three potential siting areas for HLW were proposed by the implementer (Nagra) for each repository type, based on safety criteria defined by the regulatory authority ENSI. ENSI has reviewed the documentation and has agreed with

  7. Activities of Nuclear Regulatory Authority and safety of nuclear facilities in the Slovak Republic in 1993

    A brief account of activities carried out by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA SR) in 1993 is presented. These activities are reported under the headings: (1) Introduction; (2) Regulatory activities at nuclear power plants units in operation; (2.1) Nuclear power plant SEP-EBO V-1; (4) Selected operation events and safety assessment in NPP SEP-EBO V-1; (2.2) Safety assessment of NPP SEP-EBO V-2; (3) Results of regulatory activities at the decommissioning of NPP A-1; (4) Regulatory activities at units under construction SEP-EMO - NPP Mochovce; (5) Further regulatory activities. (5.1) Preparation of designated personnel; (5.2) Inspection and accountancy of nuclear material; (5.3) Security provisions; (5.4) Accounted items and double use items; (5.5) Problem of radioactive wastes; (6.1) International co-operation activities of NRA; (6.2) Emergency planning; (6.3) International activities for quality enhancement of national supervision; (7) Conclusion

  8. Self-Regulatory Processes Mediate the Intention-Behavior Relation for Adherence and Exercise Behaviors

    Bruin, de M.; Sheeran, P.; Kok, G.; Hiemstra, A.; Prins, J.M.; Hospers, H.J.; Breukelen, G.J.P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Understanding the gap between people's intentions and actual health behavior is an important issue in health psychology. Our aim in this study was to investigate whether self-regulatory processes (monitoring goal progress and responding to discrepancies) mediate the intention-behavior re

  9. Self-regulatory processes mediate the intention-behavior relation for adherence and exercise behaviors

    M. de Bruin; P. Sheeran; G. Kok; A. Hiemstra; J.M. Prins; H.J. Hospers; G.J.P. van Breukelen

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Understanding the gap between people's intentions and actual health behavior is an important issue in health psychology. Our aim in this study was to investigate whether self-regulatory processes (monitoring goal progress and responding to discrepancies) mediate the intention-behavior re

  10. Neuroimaging of developmental psychopathologies: the importance of self-regulatory and neuroplastic processes in adolescence

    Spessot, Alexandra L; Plessen, Kerstin J; Peterson, Bradley S

    2004-01-01

    developmental and plastic processes during the transition from adolescence into adulthood. Tourette syndrome (TS), defined as the chronic presence of motor and vocal tics, has been increasingly conceptualized as a disorder of impaired self-regulatory control. This disordered control is thought to give rise to...

  11. Modelling non-stationary dynamic gene regulatory processes with the BGM model

    Grzegorczyk, Marco; Husmeier, Dirk; Rahnenfuehrer, Joerg

    2011-01-01

    Recently, a Bayesian network model for inferring non-stationary regulatory processes from gene expression time series has been proposed. The Bayesian Gaussian Mixture (BGM) Bayesian network model divides the data into disjunct compartments (data subsets) by a free allocation model, and infers networ

  12. Exploring the Fluctuation of Motivation and Use of Self-Regulatory Processes during Learning with Hypermedia

    Moos, Daniel C.; Azevedo, Roger

    2008-01-01

    We collected think-aloud, pre-test, post-test, and motivation data from 43 undergraduates to examine the impact of conceptual scaffolds on the fluctuation of certain motivation constructs and use of self-regulatory processes during learning with hypermedia. Participants were randomly assigned to either the No Scaffolding (NS) or Conceptual…

  13. Regulatory Assistance, Stakeholder Outreach, and Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning Activities in Support of Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy Deployment

    Geerlofs, Simon H.; Copping, Andrea E.; Van Cleve, Frances B.; Blake, Kara M.; Hanna, Luke A.

    2011-09-30

    This fiscal year 2011 progress report summarizes activities carried out under DOE Water Power Task 2.1.7, Permitting and Planning. Activities under Task 2.1.7 address the concerns of a wide range of stakeholders with an interest in the development of the marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) energy industry, including regulatory and resource management agencies, tribes, nongovernmental organizations, and industry. Objectives for Task 2.1.7 are the following: • to work with stakeholders to streamline the MHK regulatory permitting process • to work with stakeholders to gather information on needs and priorities for environmental assessment of MHK development • to communicate research findings and directions to the MHK industry and stakeholders • to engage in spatial planning processes in order to further the development of the MHK industry. These objectives are met through three subtasks, each of which is described in this report: • 2.1.7.1—Regulatory Assistance • 2.1.7.2—Stakeholder Outreach • 2.1.7.3—Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning. As MHK industry partners work with the regulatory community and stakeholders to plan, site, permit, and license MHK technologies, they have an interest in a predictable, efficient, and transparent process. Stakeholders and regulators have an interest in processes that result in sustainable use of ocean space with minimal effects to existing ocean users. Both stakeholders and regulators have an interest in avoiding legal challenges by meeting the intent of federal, state, and local laws that govern siting and operation of MHK technologies. The intention of work under Task 2.1.7 is to understand and work to address these varied interests, reduce conflict, identify efficiencies, and ultimately reduce the regulatory costs, time, and potential environmental impacts associated with developing, siting, permitting, and deploying MHK systems.

  14. Using giant scarlet runner bean embryos to uncover regulatory networks controlling suspensor gene activity

    Kelli F. Henry

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the major unsolved issues in plant development is understanding the regulatory networks that control the differential gene activity that is required for the specification and development of the two major embryonic regions, the embryo proper and suspensor. Historically, the giant embryo of scarlet runner bean (SRB, Phaseolus coccineus, has been used as a model system to investigate the physiological events that occur early in embryogenesis – focusing on the question of what role the suspensor region plays. A major feature distinguishing SRB embryos from those of other plants is a highly enlarged suspensor containing at least 200 cells that synthesize growth regulators required for subsequent embryonic development. Recent studies have exploited the giant size of the SRB embryo to micro-dissect the embryo proper and suspensor regions in order to use genomics-based approaches to identify regulatory genes that may be involved in controlling suspensor and embryo proper differentiation, as well as the cellular processes that may be unique to each embryonic region. Here we review the current genomics resources that make SRB embryos a compelling model system for studying the early events required to program embryo development.

  15. The Chromatin-Modifying Enzyme Ezh2 Is Critical for the Maintenance of Regulatory T Cell Identity after Activation

    DuPage, Michel; Chopra, Gaurav; Quiros, Jason; Rosenthal, Wendy L.; Morar, Malika M.; Holohan, Dan; Zhang, Ruan; Turka, Laurence; Marson, Alexander; Bluestone, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    Regulatory T cells (Treg cells) are required for immune homeostasis. Chromatin remodeling is essential for establishing diverse cellular identities, but how the epigenetic program in Treg cells is maintained throughout the dynamic activation process remains unclear. Here we have shown that CD28 co-stimulation, an extracellular cue intrinsically required for Treg cell maintenance, induced the chromatin-modifying enzyme, Ezh2. Treg-specific ablation of Ezh2 resulted in spontaneous autoimmunity ...

  16. Peptidomics and processing of regulatory peptides in the fruit fly Drosophila

    Dennis Pauls

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available More than a decade has passed since the release of the Drosophila melanogaster genome and the first predictions of fruit fly regulatory peptides (neuropeptides and peptide hormones. Since then, mass spectrometry-based methods have fuelled the chemical characterisation of regulatory peptides, from 7 Drosophila peptides in the pre-genomic area to more than 60 today. We review the development of fruit fly peptidomics, and present a comprehensive list of the regulatory peptides that have been chemically characterised until today. We also summarise the knowledge on peptide processing in Drosophila, which has strongly profited from a combination of MS-based techniques and the genetic tools available for the fruit fly. This combination has a very high potential to study the functional biology of peptide signalling on all levels, especially with the ongoing developments in quantitative MS in Drosophila.

  17. Automatic reconstruction of a bacterial regulatory network using Natural Language Processing

    Collado-Vides Julio; Martínez-Flores Irma; Salgado Heladia; Rodríguez-Penagos Carlos

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Manual curation of biological databases, an expensive and labor-intensive process, is essential for high quality integrated data. In this paper we report the implementation of a state-of-the-art Natural Language Processing system that creates computer-readable networks of regulatory interactions directly from different collections of abstracts and full-text papers. Our major aim is to understand how automatic annotation using Text-Mining techniques can complement manual cu...

  18. Magnetohydrodynamic process in solar activity

    Jingxiu Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetohydrodynamics is one of the major disciplines in solar physics. Vigorous magnetohydrodynamic process is taking place in the solar convection zone and atmosphere. It controls the generating and structuring of the solar magnetic fields, causes the accumulation of magnetic non-potential energy in the solar atmosphere and triggers the explosive magnetic energy release, manifested as violent solar flares and coronal mass ejections. Nowadays detailed observations in solar astrophysics from space and on the ground urge a great need for the studies of magnetohydrodynamics and plasma physics to achieve better understanding of the mechanism or mechanisms of solar activity. On the other hand, the spectacular solar activity always serves as a great laboratory of magnetohydrodynamics. In this article, we reviewed a few key unresolved problems in solar activity studies and discussed the relevant issues in solar magnetohydrodynamics.

  19. Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research summary of advanced reactors activities, June 4, 2001

    Pre-application interactions with potential licensee applicants will help NRC prepare for future submittals, through the development of the infrastructure necessary for licensing application reviews. RES has the lead for non-LWR advanced reactor pre-application initiatives and longer-range new technology initiatives. An advanced reactor group has been formed in REAHFB, and is currently performing a pre-application review of Exelon's Pebble Bed Modular Reactor. Recent industry requests for future pre application interaction include General Atomics' Gas Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR) and Westinghouse International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS) design. RES advanced reactors activities also include participation as an observer in DOE's Generation IV initiative. Pre-Application review objectives include the development of regulatory guidance, licensing approach, and technology-basis expectations for licensing advanced designs, including identifying significant technology, design, safety, licensing and policy issues that would need to be addressed in the licensing process. The presentation described the pre-application process for the Exelon PBMR. NRC first identifies additional information following topical meetings with Exelon, and Exelon formally documents and submits required topical Information. The staff then develops a preliminary assessment and drafts a response which is followed by stakeholder input and comments at a public workshop. Preliminary assessments are discussed with ACRS and ACNW, and Commission papers are written which provide staff positions and recommendations on proposed policy decisions. Some of the significant areas for the PBMR include: Process Issues, Legal and Financial Issues; Regulatory Framework; Fuel Performance and Qualification; Traditional Engineering Design (e.g, Nuclear, Thermal-Fluid, Materials); Fuel Cycle Safety Areas; PRA, SSC Safety Classification; PBMR Prototype Testing

  20. Dynamic transcription factor activity profiles reveal key regulatory interactions during megakaryocytic and erythroid differentiation.

    Duncan, Mark T; Shin, Seungjin; Wu, Jia J; Mays, Zachary; Weng, Stanley; Bagheri, Neda; Miller, William M; Shea, Lonnie D

    2014-10-01

    The directed differentiation toward erythroid (E) or megakaryocytic (MK) lineages by the MK-E progenitor (MEP) could enhance the ex vivo generation of red blood cells and platelets for therapeutic transfusions. The lineage choice at the MEP bifurcation is controlled in large part by activity within the intracellular signal transduction network, the output of which determines the activity of transcription factors (TFs) and ultimately gene expression. Although many TFs have been implicated, E or MK differentiation is a complex process requiring multiple days, and the dynamics of TF activities during commitment and terminal maturation are relatively unexplored. Herein, we applied a living cell array for the large-scale, dynamic quantification of TF activities during MEP bifurcation. A panel of hematopoietic TFs (GATA-1, GATA-2, SCL/TAL1, FLI-1, NF-E2, PU.1, c-Myb) was characterized during E and MK differentiation of bipotent K562 cells. Dynamic TF activity profiles associated with differentiation towards each lineage were identified, and validated with previous reports. From these activity profiles, we show that GATA-1 is an important hub during early hemin- and PMA-induced differentiation, and reveal several characteristic TF interactions for E and MK differentiation that confirm regulatory mechanisms documented in the literature. Additionally, we highlight several novel TF interactions at various stages of E and MK differentiation. Furthermore, we investigated the mechanism by which nicotinamide (NIC) promoted terminal MK maturation using an MK-committed cell line, CHRF-288-11 (CHRF). Concomitant with its enhancement of ploidy, NIC strongly enhanced the activity of three TFs with known involvement in terminal MK maturation: FLI-1, NF-E2, and p53. Dynamic profiling of TF activity represents a novel tool to complement traditional assays focused on mRNA and protein expression levels to understand progenitor cell differentiation. PMID:24853077

  1. Transcriptional Regulatory Circuits Controlling Brown Fat Development and Activation

    Seale, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Brown and beige adipose tissue is specialized for heat production and can be activated to reduce obesity and metabolic dysfunction in animals. Recent studies also have indicated that human brown fat activity levels correlate with leanness. This has revitalized interest in brown fat biology and has driven the discovery of many new regulators of brown fat development and function. This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of the transcriptional mechanisms that control brown an...

  2. Regulatory crosstalk by protein kinases on CFTR trafficking and activity

    Farinha, Carlos Miguel; Swiatecka-Urban, Agnieszka; Brautigan, David; Jordan, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) is a member of the ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily that functions as a cAMP-activated chloride ion channel in fluid-transporting epithelia. There is abundant evidence that CFTR activity (i.e. channel opening and closing) is regulated by protein kinases and phosphatases via phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. Here, we review recent evidence for the role of protein kinases in regulation of CFTR delivery to and retention in the plasma membrane. We review this information in a broader context of regulation of other transporters by protein kinases because the overall functional output of transporters involves the integrated control of both their number at the plasma membrane and their specific activity. While many details of the regulation of intracellular distribution of CFTR and other transporters remain to be elucidated, we hope that this review will motivate research providing new insights into how protein kinases control membrane transport to impact health and disease.

  3. Evaluation of regulatory processes affecting nuclear power plant early site approval and standardization

    This report presents the results of a survey and evaluation of existing federal, state and local regulatory considerations affecting siting approval of power plants in the United States. Those factors that may impede early site approval of nuclear power plants are identified, and findings related to the removal of these impediments and the general improvement of the approval process are presented. A brief evaluation of standardization of nuclear plant design is also presented

  4. Transportation package design certification process at the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission

    The Spent Fuel Project Office of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) certifies designs for Type B and fissile material transport packages. The Spent Fuel Project Office also conducts technical reviews for foreign-approved designs for import and export shipments. In an effort to improve efficiency and effectiveness, the Spent Fuel Project Office developed Standard Review Plans for transportation package design review and established internal policies and protocols to formalize the review process. The Standard Review Plans were developed to summarize the regulatory requirements for package approval, describe the procedures by which the staff determines that these requirements have been satisfied, and document the practices developed by the staff in previous reviews of package applications. The Standard Review Plans are used in conjunction with a Standard Format and Content Guide and other regulatory guidance documents developed by the NRC. Use of these documents is intended to assure high quality applications for package approval and to result in a technical review that is timely and consistent with regulatory requirements. A formalized review process was also developed that included work prioritization, scheduling, and review process templates. The development by IAEA of a standard format for applications for package approval and a review guide for competent authority approved designs and shipments based on Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, TS-R-1, could be used to assist package designers and shippers involved with international transport of radioactive materials. The author also comments on participation in the IAEA TranSAS Mission to the United Kingdom with respect to the package design certification process. (author)

  5. The regulatory cascade that activates the Hrp regulon in Erwinia herbicola pv. gypsophilae.

    Nizan-Koren, R; Manulis, S; Mor, H; Iraki, N M; Barash, I

    2003-03-01

    The pathogenicity of Erwinia herbicola pv. gypsophilae (Ehg) is dependent on a plasmid (pPATH(Ehg)) that harbors the hrp gene cluster and additional virulence genes. The hrp regulatory cascade of Ehg comprises an hrpXY operon encoding a two-component system; hrpS encoding a transcriptional factor of the NtrC family and hrpL encoding an alternative sigma factor. Results obtained suggest the following signal transduction model for activating the Hrp regulon: phosphorylated HrpY activates hrpS, HrpS activates hrpL, and HrpL activates genes containing "hrp box" promoter. This model was supported by studies on the effects of mutations in the regulatory genes on pathogenicity and complementation analysis. Nonpolar mutations in hrpX did not affect virulence or transcription of downstream genes. Site-directed mutagenesis of the conserved aspartate 57 in HrpY suggested that its phosphorylation is crucial for activating the hrp regulatory cascade. Studies on the effects of mutations in the hrp regulatory genes on transcriptional activity of downstream genes or of their isolated promoters in planta showed dependency of hrpS expression on active HrpY, of hrpL expression on active HrpS, and of hrpN or hrpJ expression on active HrpL. These results were also partially supported by overexpression of regulatory genes under in vitro conditions. The hrpXY is constitutively expressed with high basal levels under repressive conditions, in contrast to hrpS and hrpL, which exhibit low basal expression levels and are environmentally regulated. PMID:12650456

  6. [ASSESSMENT OF EXTREME FACTORS OF SHIFT WORK IN ARCTIC CONDITIONS BY WORKERS WITH DIFFERENT REGULATORY PROCESSES].

    Korneeva, Ya A; Simonova, N N

    2016-01-01

    A man working on a shift basis in the Arctic, every day is under the influence of various extreme factors which are inevitable for oil and gas indudtry. To adapt to shift work employees use various resources of the individual. The purpose of research is the determination of personal resources of shift workers to overcome the adverse factors of the environment in the Arctic. The study involved 191 builder of main gas pipelines, working in shifts in the Tyumen region (the length of the shift 52 days of arrival) at the age of 23 to 59 (mean age 34.9 ± 8.1) years. Methods: psychological testing, questioning, observation, descriptive statistics, discriminant step by step analysis. There was revealed the correlation between the subjective assessment of the majority of adverse climatic factors in the regulatory process "assessment of results"; production factors--regulatory processes such as flexibility, autonomy, simulation, and the general level of self-regulation; social factors are more associated with the severity of such regulatory processes, flexibility and evaluation of results. PMID:27430072

  7. Radiation protection infrastructure and regulatory activities in Bangladesh

    The paper describes briefly and in general terms past and present activities regarding radiation protection and the proposed programmes, including setting up an infrastructure with a legal framework in Bangladesh. The peaceful applications of radioactive materials and ionizing radiations, including X rays, for socioeconomic development in diverse sectors have been increasing steadily in Bangladesh over the years. Since 1964, the Atomic Energy Commission has been the only organization in the country offering radiation protection services covering its own activities and, on request, those of some other national organizations, on a very limited scale. As there is no legal framework in the country for controlling and regulating the uses of ionizing radiation there are reports of considerable misuses, particularly in diagnostic X rays and in industry, leading to damage to public health and the environment. In order to ensure safe usage, radiation protection rules, regulations, etc., are to be formulated under the umbrella of a Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection Act, the promulgation of which has been long awaited. For the enforcement and implementation of the provisions of the Act and the rules, regulations, etc., framed thereunder, the creation of a radiation protection infrastructure with the establishment of an optimum organizational set-up having trained manpower, laboratory equipment and supporting facilities has been suggested. The active co-operation and support of the IAEA and other international communities in the implementation of the proposed radiation protection programmes in Bangladesh are strongly urged. (author). 3 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  8. CO2 - Intrinsic Product, Essential Substrate, and Regulatory Trigger of Microbial and Mammalian Production Processes.

    Blombach, Bastian; Takors, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Carbon dioxide formation mirrors the final carbon oxidation steps of aerobic metabolism in microbial and mammalian cells. As a consequence, [Formula: see text] dissociation equilibria arise in fermenters by the growing culture. Anaplerotic reactions make use of the abundant [Formula: see text] levels for refueling citric acid cycle demands and for enabling oxaloacetate-derived products. At the same time, CO2 is released manifold in metabolic reactions via decarboxylation activity. The levels of extracellular [Formula: see text] depend on cellular activities and physical constraints such as hydrostatic pressures, aeration, and the efficiency of mixing in large-scale bioreactors. Besides, local [Formula: see text] levels might also act as metabolic inhibitors or transcriptional effectors triggering regulatory events inside the cells. This review gives an overview about fundamental physicochemical properties of [Formula: see text] in microbial and mammalian cultures effecting cellular physiology, production processes, metabolic activity, and transcriptional regulation. PMID:26284242

  9. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - New Zealand

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General regulatory regime: 1. Introduction; 2. Mining regime; 3. Radioactive Substances and Equipment; 4. Nuclear installations; 5. Trade in nuclear materials and equipment; 6. Radiation protection; 7. Radioactive waste management; 8. Nuclear security; 9. Transport; 10. Nuclear third party liability; II. Institutional Framework: 1. Regulatory and supervisory authorities - National Radiation Laboratory - NRL; 2. Advisory bodies - Radiation Protection Advisory Council; 3. Public and semi-public agencies - Research institutes

  10. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - Iceland

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General Regulatory Regime: 1. Introduction; 2. Mining regime; 3. Radioactive substances and equipment; 4. Nuclear installations; 5. Trade in nuclear materials and equipment; 6. Radiation protection; 7. Radioactive waste management; 8. Nuclear security; 9. Transport; 10. Nuclear Third Party Liability; II. Institutional Framework: 1. Regulatory and supervisory authorities (Minister of Health and Social Security; Icelandic Radiation Protection Institute)

  11. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - Luxembourg

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General Regulatory Framework: 1. General; 2. Mining; 3. Radioactive substances, nuclear fuel and equipment; 4. Nuclear installations (Licensing and inspection, including nuclear safety; Emergency measures); 5. Trade in nuclear materials and equipment; 6. Radiation protection; 7. Radioactive waste management; 8. Non-proliferation and physical protection; 9. Transport; 10. Nuclear third party liability; II. General Institutional Framework: 1. Regulatory and supervisory authorities (Minister of Health; Minister of Labour; Other Ministers competent); 2. Advisory bodies (Higher Health Council)

  12. Innate immune activity conditions the effect of regulatory variants upon monocyte gene expression.

    Fairfax, Benjamin P; Humburg, Peter; Makino, Seiko; Naranbhai, Vivek; Wong, Daniel; Lau, Evelyn; Jostins, Luke; Plant, Katharine; Andrews, Robert; McGee, Chris; Knight, Julian C

    2014-03-01

    To systematically investigate the impact of immune stimulation upon regulatory variant activity, we exposed primary monocytes from 432 healthy Europeans to interferon-γ (IFN-γ) or differing durations of lipopolysaccharide and mapped expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs). More than half of cis-eQTLs identified, involving hundreds of genes and associated pathways, are detected specifically in stimulated monocytes. Induced innate immune activity reveals multiple master regulatory trans-eQTLs including the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), coding variants altering enzyme and receptor function, an IFN-β cytokine network showing temporal specificity, and an interferon regulatory factor 2 (IRF2) transcription factor-modulated network. Induced eQTL are significantly enriched for genome-wide association study loci, identifying context-specific associations to putative causal genes including CARD9, ATM, and IRF8. Thus, applying pathophysiologically relevant immune stimuli assists resolution of functional genetic variants. PMID:24604202

  13. Radiation processing activities at OGFL

    CONCAST group of Industries has set up the first Radiation Processing Plant in Eastern India as 'VIKIRAN' named as Organic Green Foods Ltd., situated at Dankuni (Durgapur Highway Express) 25 km away from central Kolkata on August 21, 2004. Shri Sanjay Sureka, Managing Director of Organic Green Foods Ltd., Kolkata belongs to the famous CONCAST Group of Industries operates the largest plant of West Bengal engaged in manufacturing of Steel Industry. The facility was aimed at improving the quality of healthcare products and devices as well as Laboratory, Spice, Herbal and Ayurvedic Products of large volumes on an industrial scale. The operation of VIKIRAN for the last ten years, has unambiguously proved that both the above objectives have been fully met and now radiation sterilization has emerged as an efficient and effective industrial process. The irradiator is a panoramic wet storage class-IV type. This Facility is designed for 1000 KCi activity of source and is suitable in medium and high dose range application. VIKIRAN offers radiation sterilization service to more than 100 manufacturers

  14. Instream sand and gravel mining: Environmental issues and regulatory process in the United States

    Meador, M.R.; Layher, A.O.

    1998-01-01

    Sand and gravel are widely used throughout the U.S. construction industry, but their extraction can significantly affect the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of mined streams. Fisheries biologists often find themselves involved in the complex environmental and regulatory issues related to instream sand and gravel mining. This paper provides an overview of information presented in a symposium held at the 1997 midyear meeting of the Southern Division of the American Fisheries Society in San Antonio, Texas, to discuss environmental issues and regulatory procedures related to instream mining. Conclusions from the symposium suggest that complex physicochemical and biotic responses to disturbance such as channel incision and alteration of riparian vegetation ultimately determine the effects of instream mining. An understanding of geomorphic processes can provide insight into the effects of mining operations on stream function, and multidisciplinary empirical studies are needed to determine the relative effects of mining versus other natural and human-induced stream alterations. Mining regulations often result in a confusing regulatory process complicated, for example, by the role of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, which has undergone numerous changes and remains unclear. Dialogue among scientists, miners, and regulators can provide an important first step toward developing a plan that integrates biology and politics to protect aquatic resources.

  15. Guidance and methods for satisfying low specific activity material and surface contaminated object regulatory requirements

    The US Department of Transportation (DOT) and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) have prepared a comprehensive set of draft guidance for shippers and inspectors to use when applying the newly imposed regulatory requirements for low specific activity (LSA) material and surface contaminated objects (SCOs). These requirements represent significant departures in some areas from the manner in which these materials and objects were regulated by the earlier versions of the regulations. The proper interpretation and application of the regulatory criteria can require a fairly complex set of decisions be made. To assist those trying to apply these regulatory requirements, a detailed set of logic flow diagrams representing decisions related to multiple factors were prepared and included in the draft report for comment on Categorizing and Transporting Low Specific Activity Materials and Surface Contaminated Objects. These logic flow diagrams, as developed, are specific to the US regulations, but were readily adaptable to the IAEA regulations. The diagrams have been modified accordingly and tied directly to specific paragraphs in IAEA Safety Series No. 6. This paper provides the logic flow diagrams adapted to the IAEA regulations, and demonstrates how these diagrams can be used to assist consignors and inspectors in assessing compliance of shipments with the LSA material and SCO regulatory requirements

  16. EPA ACTIVITIES TO PREPARE FOR REGULATORY AND RISK ASSESSMENT APPLICATIONS OF GENOMICS INFORMATION

    Genomics will have significant implications for risk assessment and regulatory decision making. Since 2002, the U.S. EPA has undertaken a number of cross-Agency activities to further prepare itself to receive,interpret and apply genomics information for risk assessment and regul...

  17. Governing effect of regulatory proteins for Cl(-)/HCO3(-) exchanger 2 activity.

    Jeong, Yon Soo; Hong, Jeong Hee

    2016-05-01

    Anion exchanger 2 (AE2) has a critical role in epithelial cells and is involved in the ionic homeostasis such as Cl(-) uptake and HCO3(-) secretion. However, little is known about the regulatory mechanism of AE2. The main goal of the present study was to investigate potential regulators, such as spinophilin (SPL), inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate [IP3] receptors binding protein released with IP3 (IRBIT), STE20/SPS1-related proline/alanine-rich kinase (SPAK) kinase, and carbonic anhydrase XII (CA XII). We found that SPL binds to AE2 and markedly increased the Cl(-)/HCO3(-) exchange activity of AE2. Especially SPL 1-480 domain is required for enhancing AE2 activity. For other regulatory components that affect the fidelity of fluid and HCO3(-) secretion, IRBIT and SPAK had no effect on the activity of AE2 and no protein-protein interaction with AE2. It has been proposed that CA activity is closely associated with AE activity. In this study, we provide evidence that the basolateral membrane-associated CA isoform CA XII significantly increased the activity of AE2 and co-localized with AE2 to the plasma membrane. Collectively, SPL and CA XII enhanced the Cl(-)/HCO3(-) exchange activity of AE2. The modulating action of these regulatory proteins could serve as potential therapeutic targets for secretory diseases mediated by AE2. PMID:26716707

  18. Use of PSA in the regulatory process. Report of the specialist's meeting. Working material

    The objective of this meeting was to focus on the role of the regulator in relation to PSA, to give a picture of the present status, and near term plans, of the requirements placed on licensees and of the uses, formal and informal, made of PSA in regulatory decision making. One such use, in which there is currently much interest, is known as Risk-Based Regulation. This term has various connotations but essentially refers to a more flexible and efficient application of Technical Specifications in the interests of gains in both economy and safety. The position in many countries is one of change in the use of PSA by regulators, and hence any report can only give a snapshot in time. It has to be noted that a number of countries, with important nuclear power programmes, were not represented at the meeting, and so the overall picture is not as comprehensive as might have been hoped. The field of the discussion in the meeting was divided into three areas, progressed in three working groups, namely: Regulatory requirements related to PSA, Regulatory uses of PSA, and Risk-Based Regulation. The outcomes are covered in the next three sections. The fifth section of this report gives the overall conclusions of the meeting and the final section makes some recommendations for future IAEA activities in these areas. Refs, figs, tabs

  19. Regulatory In Vitro Diagnostics Landscape in Africa: Update on Regional Activities.

    McNerney, Ruth; Peeling, Rosanna W

    2015-10-15

    Improved diagnostic tests for tuberculosis case detection are urgently needed that are affordable, robust, and easy to use so that they can be implemented widely. The mandate of national regulatory authorities is to ensure the safety and effectiveness of diagnostics, protecting the population against unsafe products while expediting access to beneficial new devices. However, regulatory approval processes in the developing world are often complex, lengthy, and not transparent. Recent progress in building regulatory capacity using harmonized approaches will reduce duplication in clinical performance studies and manufacturing audits, facilitate information sharing through trust and mutual confidence building, and ultimately improve efficiency. These savings can be passed onto the consumers in the form of more affordable pricing and allowing new high-quality tests for tuberculosis to be introduced more quickly and without delay. PMID:26409274

  20. Actual operation and regulatory activities on steam generator replacement in Japan

    Saeki, Hitoshi [Kyushu Electric Power Co., Inc., Fukyoka (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    This paper summarizes the operating reactors in Japan, and the status of the steam generators in these plants. It reviews plans for replacement of existing steam generators, and then goes into more detail on the planning and regulatory steps which must be addressed in the process of accomplishing this maintenance. The paper also reviews the typical steps involved in the process of removal and replacement of steam generators.

  1. The role of learning environment on high school chemistry students' motivation and self-regulatory processes

    Judd, Jeffrey S.

    Changes to the global workforce and technological advancements require graduating high school students to be more autonomous, self-directed, and critical in their thinking. To reflect societal changes, current educational reform has focused on developing more problem-based, collaborative, and student-centered classrooms to promote effective self-regulatory learning strategies, with the goal of helping students adapt to future learning situations and become life-long learners. This study identifies key features that may characterize these "powerful learning environments", which I term "high self-regulating learning environments" for ease of discussion, and examine the environment's role on students' motivation and self-regulatory processes. Using direct observation, surveys, and formal and informal interviews, I identified perceptions, motivations, and self-regulatory strategies of 67 students in my high school chemistry classes as they completed academic tasks in both high and low self-regulating learning environments. With social cognitive theory as a theoretical framework, I then examined how students' beliefs and processes changed after they moved from low to a high self-regulating learning environment. Analyses revealed that key features such as task meaning, utility, complexity, and control appeared to play a role in promoting positive changes in students' motivation and self-regulation. As embedded cases, I also included four students identified as high self-regulating, and four students identified as low self-regulating to examine whether the key features of high and low self-regulating learning environments played a similar role in both groups. Analysis of findings indicates that key features did play a significant role in promoting positive changes in both groups, with high self-regulating students' motivation and self-regulatory strategies generally remaining higher than the low self-regulating students; this was the case in both environments. Findings

  2. Regulation of Mining and Mineral Processing Activities in South Africa

    In South Africa, the regulation of mining and mineral processing activities involving radioactive ores commenced in 1990. The paper provides an overview of the regulation of mining and mineral processing activities and the evolution of the authorization process from 1990 until recent times. Key developments in respect of controlling public exposure, occupational exposure, and environmental protection are provided. Future and present challenges are also identified with the resurgence of activities related to nuclear power generation linked to uranium mining. The centrality of nuclear and radiation safety requirements in the context of introducing improvements for effectively regulating mining are also cited and put forward. Reference is made to the role of the South African nuclear regulatory system and the impact of the nuclear safety and security regime. (author)

  3. 77 FR 70846 - Regulatory Guide 1.182, “Assessing and Managing Risk Before Maintenance Activities at Nuclear...

    2012-11-27

    ... 21, 2012 (77 FR 30030). Therefore, RG 1.182 is no longer needed, as the guidance in Regulatory Guide... COMMISSION Regulatory Guide 1.182, ``Assessing and Managing Risk Before Maintenance Activities at Nuclear... (Rev.) 0, ``Assessing and Managing Risk Before Maintenance Activities at Nuclear Power...

  4. Regulatory issues associated with exclusion, exemption, and clearance related to the mining and minerals processing industries

    The concepts of exclusion, exemption and clearance have been established in international recommendations and, standards for radiation protection and the management of radioactive waste in recent years. The consistent application of these concepts has given rise to various problems in different spheres of use. This is particularly the case in the mining and minerals processing industries dealing with materials exhibiting elevated concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides. This paper takes the South African mining industry as an example and highlights some of the issues that have arisen in applying these concepts within a regulatory control regime. (author)

  5. IMMUNOBIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF REGULATORY PEPTIDE FRACTIONS SYNTHESIZED BY NEUTROPHILS, AS TESTED IN A MACROPHAGE MODEL

    G. I. Vasilieva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents experimental data on regulatory effect of neutrophilokine helper fractions on the macrophage (Mph functional activity in the course of antiplague immunity formation. It has revealed that these fractions content biologically active, low-molecular weight peptides. They stimulate Mph killing activity by increasing phagosome-lysosome fusion, thus boosting transformation of monocytes to Mph, and causing redistribution of macrophage subpopulations in the total cellular pool. The helper effect of neutrophilokine fractions upon functional activity of MPh is more pronounced during secondary immune response.

  6. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - Slovak Republic

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General Regulatory Regime: 1. Introduction; 2. Mining Regime; 3. Radioactive Substances and Equipment; 4. Nuclear Installations (Licensing and Inspection, including Nuclear Safety; Emergency Response); 5. Trade in Nuclear Materials and Equipment; 6. Radiological Protection; 7. Radioactive Waste Management; 8. Non-proliferation and Physical Protection; 9. Transport; 10. Nuclear Third Party Liability; II. Institutional Framework: 1. Regulatory and Supervisory Authorities (Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic - UJD; Ministry of Health; Ministry of the Environment; Ministry of the Interior; Ministry of Economy; Ministry of Labour and National Labour Inspectorate); 2. Public and Semi-Public Agencies

  7. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - Canada

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General regulatory regime: 1. Introduction (Licensing system; Offences, compliance and enforcement; Regulatory documents; Other relevant legislation); 2. Mining regime; 3. Nuclear substances and radiation devices; 4. Nuclear facilities; 5. Trade in nuclear materials and equipment (Exports, Other imports); 6. Radiation protection; 7. Radioactive waste management; 8. Non-proliferation and nuclear security; 9. Transport; 10. Nuclear third party liability; II. Institutional Framework: 1. Regulatory and supervisory authorities (Governor in council; Minister of natural resources; Other Ministerial authorities; Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission - CNSC); 2. Public and semi-public agencies (National Research Council - NRC; Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council; Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. - AECL)

  8. Network and Database Security: Regulatory Compliance, Network, and Database Security - A Unified Process and Goal

    Errol A. Blake

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Database security has evolved; data security professionals have developed numerous techniques and approaches to assure data confidentiality, integrity, and availability. This paper will show that the Traditional Database Security, which has focused primarily on creating user accounts and managing user privileges to database objects are not enough to protect data confidentiality, integrity, and availability. This paper is a compilation of different journals, articles and classroom discussions will focus on unifying the process of securing data or information whether it is in use, in storage or being transmitted. Promoting a change in Database Curriculum Development trends may also play a role in helping secure databases. This paper will take the approach that if one make a conscientious effort to unifying the Database Security process, which includes Database Management System (DBMS selection process, following regulatory compliances, analyzing and learning from the mistakes of others, Implementing Networking Security Technologies, and Securing the Database, may prevent database breach.

  9. Anticipated Activities in Maritime Work, Process Control, and Business Processes

    Andersen, Peter Bøgh

    2004-01-01

    Most activities are anticipated before they are executed. The paper presents methods for describing this anticipated state and the processes that may lead to a new state where the activities are executed. The method builds on linguistic case-theory....

  10. Radiochemical processing of activated targets

    The selection or development of an ''appropriate'' radiochemical processing scheme can be a complex and relatively difficult task. A variety of illustrative and alternative approaches to the various steps involved have been outlined. A few representative processing schemes have been examined in some detail. While these examples may serve to highlight the skills and versatility of the radiochemist, the most difficult aspect of radiochemical processing is frequently found in reconciling trade-offs. If the proper facilities are available, and the intended application and the limitations which that application impose on product quality are understood, a safe and reliable ''appropriate'' radiochemical processing scheme can almost always be developed. In the absence of such an understanding, even the best of facilities and technical skills are no guarantee of success

  11. Evaluation of the safety culture in the regulatory activity in Camaguey province

    Previous studied accomplished in the country have permitted to evaluate the activity of the regulatory body in nuclear safety matter in part of the national territory. These studies did not encompass the Camaguey province. In the work are shown the results of the study in this part of the territory, accomplished as of the survey elaborated by the National Nuclear Safety Center using guides it ASCOT and other documents of the IAEA

  12. Using giant scarlet runner bean embryos to uncover regulatory networks controlling suspensor gene activity

    Henry, Kelli F.; Goldberg, Robert B.

    2015-01-01

    One of the major unsolved issues in plant development is understanding the regulatory networks that control the differential gene activity that is required for the specification and development of the two major embryonic regions, the embryo proper and suspensor. Historically, the giant embryo of scarlet runner bean (SRB), Phaseolus coccineus, has been used as a model system to investigate the physiological events that occur early in embryogenesis—focusing on the question of what role the susp...

  13. Panel discussion on 'the clearance of very low activity materials from regulatory control'

    'Full text:' Some activities on nuclear sites such as decommissioning generate large volumes of uncontaminated waste. What is an appropriate degree of rigour to apply to demonstrate that wastes are not contaminated, and are therefore suitable for release from regulatory control so they can be reused, recycled or disposed of in conventional waste facilities? Is there a level of demonstration that is practical to demonstrate on the scale required? If not, what are the practical alternatives for dealing with such wastes? (author)

  14. Ukrainian regulatory authority policy for reducing the quantity of radiation sources requiring processing, storage and disposal in Ukraine

    The problem of the safe management of disused radiation sources generated from the use of radionuclides in industry, research and medicine is very important for Ukraine. The paper discusses some methods of solving this problem. These methods can be considered preventive and are aimed at developing and implementing an appropriate national regulatory policy in the sphere of activities with sealed sources. This policy includes a wide spectrum of measures, from political steps to the creation of a State computerized inventory system, and leads to a reduction of the quantity of radiation sources that require processing, storage and disposal in Ukraine. The content, purpose and phases of realization of each component of this policy in Ukraine are discussed. (author)

  15. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - Poland

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General Regulatory Regime: 1. Introduction; 2. Mining regime; 3. Radioactive substances, nuclear fuel and equipment (Licensing; Registration and monitoring of nuclear materials and radioactive sources; High activity sources); 4. Nuclear facilities (Licensing and inspection, including nuclear safety; Emergency response); 5. Trade in nuclear materials and equipment; 6. Radiological protection; 7. Radioactive waste management; 8. Non-proliferation and physical protection; 9. Transport; 10. Nuclear third party liability; II. Institutional Framework: 1. Regulatory and supervisory authorities (The President of the National Atomic Energy Agency - Prezes Panstwowej Agencji Atomistyki (President of the PAA); Minister of Health; Minister of the Environment); 2. Advisory bodies (Council for Nuclear Safety and Radiological Protection); 3. Public and semi-public bodies (Radioactive Waste Management Plant); 4. Research institutes (Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection; National Centre for Nuclear Research; Institute of Nuclear Physics; Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology; Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion)

  16. Industrial Pollution Control and Efficient Licensing Processes: The Case of Swedish Regulatory Design

    Maria Pettersson

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Industrial pollution accounts for a large proportion of global pollution, and in the European Union, an integrated pollution and prevention approach based on individual performance standards has been implemented to regulate emissions from industrial plants. Crucial for the assessment of the licensing conditions are the Best Available Technique (BAT requirements, which should be set in accordance with the recently introduced Industrial Emissions Directive (IED. In this paper, we review and assess the licensing of industrial plants in one of the Member States, namely Sweden. Specifically, we discuss how the existing regulations (including the IED manage to address potential trade-offs between important regulatory design issues, such as flexibility, predictability and the need to provide continuous incentives for environmental improvements. The analysis indicates that while the EU regulations provide flexibility in terms of the choice of compliance measures, in Sweden, it enters an existing regulatory framework that adds a lot of uncertainty with respect to the outcome of the licensing processes. An important challenge for the implementation of the IED is to implement performance standards that lead to continuous incentives to improve environmental performance in industrial sectors without, at the same time, adding new uncertainties. While standards ideally should be both flexible and predictable, achieving one of these criteria may often come at the expense of the other.

  17. Development of joint regulatory guidance on the management of higher activity radioactive wastes on nuclear licensed sites - 16095

    In 2006 the UK Government's response (1) to recommendations by its Committee on Radioactive Waste Management (CoRWM) established, in England and Wales, that geological disposal, supported by safe and secure interim storage, is the preferred route for the long-term management of higher-activity radioactive waste (i.e. that which is not suitable for near-surface disposal). It also gave the responsibility for delivering the programme for a deep geological repository to the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA). The Scottish Government has a policy of long term, near site, near surface safe and secure interim storage. To support the open and transparent approach promised by Government, the Health and Safety Executive (HSE), the Environment Agency and the Scottish Environment Protection Agency (SEPA) are developing joint guidance on the management of higher-activity radioactive waste to explain regulatory objectives in securing safe and secure interim storage and the associated management of radioactive wastes. The guidance comes in two parts: - Guidance on the regulatory process; - Technical guidance modules. The guidance promotes a cradle to grave approach to radioactive waste management and by aligning the regulatory interests of environmental and safety regulators it delivers one of the Government's 'Better Regulation' objectives. This paper describes the process by which the joint guidance was produced with particular emphasis on stakeholder engagement. It describes the key features of the guidance, including the concept of the radioactive waste management case (RWMC). Finally the problems encountered with dissemination and implementation are discussed together with measures taken by the regulators to improve these aspects. (1) : UK Government and the devolved administrations, 'Response to the Report and Recommendations from the Committee on Radioactive Waste Management (CoRWM)', (PB 12303) October 2006. www

  18. Signal Processing under Active Monitoring

    Mostovyi, Oleksii

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a method of signal preprocessing under active monitoring. Suppose we want to solve the inverse problem of getting the response of a medium to one powerful signal, which is equivalent to obtaining the transmission function of the medium, but do not have an opportunity to conduct such an experiment (it might be too expensive or harmful for the environment). Practically the problem can be reduced to obtaining the transmission function of the medium. In this case ...

  19. Magnetohydrodynamic process in solar activity

    Jingxiu Wang; Jie Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Magnetohydrodynamics is one of the major disciplines in solar physics. Vigorous magnetohydrodynamic process is taking place in the solar convection zone and atmosphere. It controls the generating and structuring of the solar magnetic fields, causes the accumulation of magnetic non-potential energy in the solar atmosphere and triggers the explosive magnetic energy release, manifested as violent solar flares and coronal mass ejections. Nowadays detailed observations in solar astrophysics from s...

  20. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - Czech Republic

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General regulatory regime: 1. Introduction; 2. Mining regime; 3. Radioactive substances, nuclear items and spent fuel (Ionising radiation sources; Nuclear items; Spent fuel); 4. Nuclear installations (Licensing and inspection, including nuclear safety; Emergency response; Decommissioning); 5. Trade in nuclear materials and equipment; 6. Radiation protection; 7. Radioactive waste management; 8. Non-proliferation and physical protection; 9. Transport; 10. Nuclear third party liability; II. Institutional Framework: 1. Regulatory and supervisory authorities (State Office for Nuclear Safety - SUJB; Ministry of Industry and Trade; Ministry of the Interior; Ministry of the Environment); 2. Public and semi-public agencies (CEZ, a.s.; National Radiation Protection Institute - NRPI; Radioactive Waste Repository Authority - RAWRA; Diamo; Nuclear Physics Institute - NPI; National Institute for Nuclear, Chemical and Biological Protection; Nuclear Research Institute Rez, a.s. - NRI)

  1. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - Mexico

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General regulatory regime: 1. Introduction; 2. Mining regime; 3. Radioactive substances, nuclear fuel and equipment; 4. Nuclear installations (Licensing and inspection, including nuclear safety; Protection of the environment against radiation effects; Emergency response); 5. Trade in nuclear materials and equipment; 6. Radiation protection; 7. Radioactive waste management; 8. Non-proliferation and physical protection; 9. Transport; 10. Nuclear third party liability; 11. Nuclear terrorism; II. Institutional Framework - The federal government: 1. Regulatory and supervisory authorities (Ministry of Energy; Ministry of Health; Ministry of Labour and Social Security; Ministry of the Environment and Natural Resources; Ministry of Communications and Transport); 2. Public and semi-public agencies: (National Nuclear Safety and Safeguards Commission; National Nuclear Research Institute)

  2. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - Japan

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General Regulatory Regime: 1. Introduction; 2. Mining regime; 3. Radioactive substances, nuclear fuel and equipment; 4. Nuclear installations (Licensing and inspection, including nuclear safety; Emergency response); 5. Trade in nuclear materials and equipment; 6. Radiation protection; 7. Radioactive waste management; 8. Nuclear security; 9. Transport; 10. Nuclear third party liability; II. Institutional Framework: 1. Regulatory and supervisory authorities (Cabinet Office; Minister of Economy, Trade and Industry - METI; Minister of Land, Infrastructure and Transport - MLIT; Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology - MEXT); 2. Advisory bodies (Atomic Energy Commission - AEC; Nuclear Safety Commission - NSC; Radiation Council; Special Committee on Energy Policy; Other advisory bodies); 3. Public and Semi-Public Agencies (Japan Atomic Energy Agency - JAEA)

  3. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - Portugal

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General regulatory regime: 1. Introduction; 2. Mining regime; 3. Radioactive substances, nuclear fuel and equipment; 4. Nuclear installations (Licensing and inspection, including nuclear safety; Protection of the environment against radiation effects; Emergency response); 5. Trade in nuclear materials and equipment; 6. Radiation protection; 7. Radioactive waste management; 8. Non-proliferation and physical protection; 9. Transport; 10. Nuclear third party liability; II. Institutional Framework: 1. Regulatory and supervisory authorities (Ministry of Health; Minister of Science, Technology and Higher Education; Ministry of Economy and Innovation; Ministry of Environment and Territorial Planning; Other authorities); 2. Advisory bodies (Independent Commission for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety - CIPRSN; National Radiation Protection Commission - CNPCR; National Commission for Radiological Emergencies - CNER; Other advisory bodies); 3. Public and semi-public agencies

  4. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - Turkey

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General regulatory regime: 1. Introduction; 2. Mining regime; 3. Radioactive substances, nuclear fuel and equipment; 4. Nuclear installations; 5. Trade in nuclear materials and equipment; 6. Radiation protection; 7. Radioactive waste management; 8. Nuclear security; 9. Transport; 10. Nuclear third party liability; II. Institutional Framework: 1. Regulatory and supervisory authorities (Prime Minister; Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources; Ministry of Health; Ministry of the Environment and Forestry); 2. Public and semi-public agencies (Turkish Atomic Energy Authority - TAEK; General Directorate for Mineral Research and Exploration - MTA; ETI Mine Works General Management; Turkish Electric Generation and Transmission Corporation - TEAS; Turkish Electricity Distribution Corporation - TEDAS)

  5. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - Ireland

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General regulatory regime: 1. Introduction; 2. Mining regime; 3. Radioactive substances, nuclear fuel and equipment; 4. Nuclear installations; 5. Trade in nuclear materials and equipment; 6. Radiation protection (Radiation protection standards; Emergency response); 7. Radioactive waste management; 8. Non-proliferation and physical protection; 9. Transport; 10. Nuclear third party liability; II. Institutional Framework: 1. Regulatory and supervisory authorities (Minister for the Environment, Heritage and Local Government; Minister for Agriculture and Food; Minister for Communications, Marine and Natural Resources; Minister for Finance; Minister for Health and Children; Minister for Defence); 2. Public and semi-public agencies (Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland; Food Safety Authority of Ireland)

  6. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - Slovenia

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General Regulatory Regime: 1. Introduction; 2. Mining regime; 3. Radioactive substances, nuclear fuel and equipment; 4. Nuclear installations (Licensing and inspection, including nuclear safety; Emergency response); 5. Trade in nuclear materials and equipment; 6. Safeguards for nuclear material; 7. Radiation protection; 8. Radioactive waste management; 9. Nuclear security; 10. Transport; 11. Nuclear third party liability; II. Institutional Framework: 1. Regulatory and supervisory authorities (Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration - SNSA; Slovenian Radiation Protection Administration - SRPA); 2. Advisory bodies; 3. Public and semi-public agencies; 4. Technical support organisations - approved experts

  7. Foundations of regulatory activity in the sphere of WWER nuclear fuel usage in Ukraine

    Information about existing and prospective WWER type nuclear reactors in Ukraine is presented in this paper. Main laws, rules and regulations implemented for activity in the sphere of usage and licensing of nuclear fuel are briefly discussed. State control and state regulation in the field of nuclear power is conduced by an authorized regulatory body. Structure and tasks of Regulatory authority in the sphere of usage on nuclear power are described in order to clear the practice for licensing of nuclear fuel. The system for issuing of permissions for nuclear fuel usage and experience of its implementation is briefly discussed. There are presented some plans for implementation of new types of nuclear fuel for Ukrainian WWER-1000 reactors in cooperation with fuel suppliers. Nuclear Regulatory Authority of Ukraine is completed preparation and training for licensing of any new type of nuclear fuel. This means issuing of required permissions for the use of the new fuel type at individual stages of the fuel operation including, but not limited to, preparation and review of safety analysis documents. In the frame of this activity a methodology for performing an expert review of materials substantiating the introduction into operation of new types of fuel is developed

  8. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - Norway

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General Regulatory Regime: 1. Introduction; 2. Mining Regime; 3. Radioactive Substances, Nuclear Fuel and Equipment; 4. Nuclear Installations (Licensing and inspection, including nuclear safety; Emergency response); 5. Trade in Nuclear Materials and Equipment (Trade governed by nuclear energy legislation; Trade governed by radiation protection legislation; Trade governed by export/import control legislation); 6. Radiation Protection; 7. Radioactive Waste Management; 8. Non-Proliferation and Physical Protection; 9. Transport; 10. Nuclear Third Party Liability; II. Institutional Framework: 1. Regulatory and Supervisory Authorities: A. Ministerial Level (Ministry of Health and Social Affairs; Ministry of Trade and Industry; Ministry of Foreign Affairs; Other Ministries); B. Subsidiary Level: (The Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority - NRPA; The Norwegian Nuclear Emergency Organisation); 2. Public and Semi-Public Agencies - Institute for Energy Technology - IFE

  9. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - Hungary

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General regulatory regime: 1. Introduction; 2. Mining regime; 3. Radioactive substances, nuclear fuel and equipment; 4. Nuclear installations (Licensing and inspection, including nuclear safety; Emergency response); 5. Trade in nuclear materials and equipment; 6. Radiation protection; 7. Radioactive waste management; 8. Nuclear security; 9. Transport; 10. Nuclear third party liability; II. Institutional Framework: 1. Regulatory and supervisory authorities (Atomic Energy Co-ordination Council; Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority - HAEA; Minister for Health; Minister for Local Government and Regional Development and Minister for Justice and Law Enforcement; Minister for Agriculture and Rural Development; Minister for Economy and Transport; Minister of Environment Protection and Water Management; Minister for Defence; Minister for Education; President of the Hungarian Mining and Geological Authority; Governmental Co-ordination Committee); 2. Advisory bodies (Scientific Board); 3. Public and semi-public agencies (Institute for Electric Power Research - VEIKI; Atomic Energy Research Institute - AEKI; Institute of Isotopes; Department of Physical Chemistry of the University of Pannon; Hungarian Power Companies Ltd - MVM Zrt.)

  10. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - Spain

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General regulatory regime: 1. Introduction; 2. Mining regime; 3. Radioactive substances, nuclear fuel and equipment; 4. Nuclear installations (Licensing and inspection, including nuclear safety; Protection of the environment against radiation effects; Emergency response); 5. Trading in nuclear materials and equipment; 6. Radiation protection; 7. Radioactive waste management; 8. Non-proliferation and physical protection (Safeguards and non-proliferation; Physical protection); 9. Transport; 10. Nuclear third party liability; II. Institutional Framework: 1. Regulatory and supervisory authorities (Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Trade - MITYC; Ministry of the Interior - MIR; Ministry of Economy and the Exchequer - MEH; Ministry of the Environment and Rural and Marine Affairs - MARM); 2. Public and semi-public agencies (Nuclear Safety Council - CSN; Centre for Energy-related, Environmental and Technological Research - CIEMAT; National Energy Commission - CNE; 3. Public capital companies (Enusa Industrias Avanzadas, s.a. - ENUSA; Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos, s.a. - ENRESA)

  11. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - Australia

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I) - General Regulatory Regime: 1. Introduction; 2. Mining regime; 3. Radioactive substances and equipment; 4. Nuclear installations (Licensing and inspection, including nuclear safety; Protection of the environment against radiation effects); 5. Trade in nuclear materials and equipment; 6. Radiation protection; 7. Radioactive waste management; 8. Non-proliferation and physical protection (Bilateral safeguards agreements; International Atomic Energy Agency Safeguards Agreement; The South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty Act; The Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Act; The Nuclear Non-Proliferation (Safeguards) Act); 9. Transport; 10. Nuclear third party liability; II) - Institutional Framework: 1. Regulatory and supervisory authorities (Minister for Health and Ageing; Minister for Foreign Affairs; Minister for the Environment, Heritage and the Arts; Minister for, Resources, Energy and Tourism); 2. Advisory bodies (Radiation Health and Safety Advisory Council; Advisory Committees); 3. Public and semi-public agencies (Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA); Australian Safeguards and Non-Proliferation Office; Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO); Supervising Scientist)

  12. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - Denmark

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General Regulatory Regime: 1. Introduction; 2. Mining regime; 3. Radioactive substances, nuclear fuel and equipment; 4. Nuclear installations (Licensing and inspection, including nuclear safety; Emergency response); 5. Trade in nuclear materials and equipment; 6. Radiation protection; 7. Radioactive waste management; 8. Nuclear security; 9. Transport; 10. Nuclear third party liability; II. Institutional Framework: 1. Regulatory and supervisory authorities (Minister of Health; Minister for the Environment/Minister of Transport and Energy; Minister of Justice; Minister of Defence; National Board of Health; Emergency Management Agency); 2. Advisory bodies (The Danish Ministry of Energy, Supply and Climate and the Danish Energy Agency); 3. Public and semi-public agencies (Risoe National Laboratory)

  13. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - Netherlands

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General regulatory regime: 1. Introduction; 2. Mining regime; 3. Fissionable materials, ores, radioactive materials and equipment (Fissionable materials and ores; Radioactive materials and equipment); 4. Nuclear installations (Licensing and inspection, including nuclear safety; Protection of the environment against radiation effects; Emergency response); 5. Trade in nuclear materials and equipment; 6. Radiation protection (Protection of workers; Protection of the public; Protection of individuals undergoing medical exposure); 7. Radioactive waste management; 8. Nuclear security; 9. Transport; 10. Nuclear third party liability; II. Institutional Framework: 1. Regulatory and supervisory authorities (Minister for Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment; Minister for Economic Affairs; Minister for Social Affairs and Employment; Minister for Health, Welfare and Sports; Minister for Finance; Minister for Foreign Affairs); 2. Advisory body - Health Council of the Netherlands; 3. Public and semi-public agencies (Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group - NRG; Central Organisation for Radioactive Waste - COVRA)

  14. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - Finland

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General regulatory regime: 1. Introduction; 2. Mining regime; 3. Radioactive substances, nuclear fuel and equipment; 4. Nuclear installations; (Licensing and inspection, including nuclear safety; Emergency response); 5. Trade in nuclear materials and equipment; 6. Radiation protection; 7. Radioactive waste management; 8. Nuclear security; 9. Transport; 10. Nuclear third party liability; II. Institutional Framework: 1. Regulatory and supervisory authorities (Ministry of Trade and Industry - KTM; Ministry of Social Affairs and Health; Ministry of the Interior; Ministry of the Environment; Ministry of Foreign Affairs); 2. Advisory bodies (Advisory Committee on Nuclear Energy; Advisory Committee on Nuclear Safety); 3. Public and semi-public agencies (Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority - STUK; State Nuclear Waste Management Fund)

  15. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - Greece

    In Greece, there are no nuclear power plants and nuclear energy is not considered as an option in the foreseeable future. There is, however, one nuclear research reactor (in extended shutdown since 2014) and one sub-critical assembly. Radioactive waste originating from medicine, research and industry is classified as low level. Although there is no framework act dealing comprehensively with the different aspects of nuclear energy, there are various laws, decrees and regulations of a more specific nature governing several aspects of nuclear activities. This paper gives information on the general regulatory regime (mining regime, radioactive substances, nuclear fuel and equipment, nuclear installations (licensing and inspection, including nuclear safety, emergency response, trade in nuclear materials and equipment, radiation protection, radioactive waste management, nuclear security, transport, nuclear third party liability) and on the institutional framework with the regulatory and supervisory authorities (Greek Atomic Energy Commission (EEAE))

  16. Improving regulatory effectiveness in federal/state siting actions: water supplies and the nuclear licensing process

    The Interstate Conference on Water Problems (ICWP) is a national association of State, intrastate, and interstate officials concerned with water resources administration and related matters. The Conference was established in 1959 as an outgrowth of regional conferences on water problems as recognized in the same year by action of the General Assembly of the States. This report was produced by the Interstate Conference on Water Problems in an effort to provide a compilation and summary of the views of selected States regarding relationships of water supplies to the nuclear power plant licensing process. This publication does not represent the official position of the U.S Water Resources Council, or the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, nor does it represent the position of any single state or the ICWP

  17. Regulatory and law framework of agricultural methanization and composting activities. User's guide

    After a presentation of the general context of organic waste management (its techniques, materials, legal and regulatory sources, i.e. European and French laws), this guide indicates the main regulatory and law aspects to those wishing to implement a project of methanization or composting of organic by-products in the agricultural sector. Several aspects are therefore discussed and presented in practical sheets. They concern the health and environment regulation, but not the professional risk prevention (explosion, fire, and so on). These aspects are the project setting up, input materials (animal by-products, organic materials coming from agricultural production or from out of it), waste collection and transport, process steps, organic product valorization, biogas valorization, solid and liquid release management

  18. Perilipin-mediated lipid droplet formation in adipocytes promotes sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 processing and triacylglyceride accumulation.

    Yu Takahashi

    Full Text Available Sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1 has been thought to be a critical factor that assists adipogenesis. During adipogenesis SREBP-1 stimulates lipogenic gene expression, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ enhances perilipin (plin gene expression, resulting in generating lipid droplets (LDs to store triacylglycerol (TAG in adipocytes. Plin coats adipocyte LDs and protects them from lipolysis. Here we show in white adipose tissue (WAT of plin-/- mice that nuclear active SREBP-1 and its target gene expression, but not nuclear SREBP-2, significantly decreased on attenuated LD formation. When plin-/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs differentiated into adipocytes, attenuated LDs were formed and nuclear SREBP-1 decreased, but enforced plin expression restored them to their original state. Since LDs are largely derived from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER, alterations in the ER cholesterol content were investigated during adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells. The ER cholesterol greatly reduced in differentiated adipocytes. The ER cholesterol level in plin-/- WAT was significantly higher than that of wild-type mice, suggesting that increased LD formation caused a change in ER environment along with a decrease in cholesterol. When GFP-SREBP-1 fusion proteins were exogenously expressed in 3T3-L1 cells, a mutant protein lacking the S1P cleavage site was poorly processed during adipogenesis, providing evidence of the increased canonical pathway for SREBP processing in which SREBP-1 is activated by two cleavage enzymes in the Golgi. Therefore, LD biogenesis may create the ER microenvironment favorable for SREBP-1 activation. We describe the novel interplay between LD formation and SREBP-1 activation through a positive feedback loop.

  19. The Swiss Modification Process in Nuclear Power Plants Regulatory Regime - Regulator/Operator process and Experience Related to Events with Safety Impact

    Modifications at NPPs are one of the important processes in regulatory and operator tasks for safe operation. Experience shows that many of the most significant Swiss events have their origin in previous modifications. Failures were sometimes latent, over a long time. Important elements of the whole quality chain are the Quality Management Systems of the operators. The latter has also to control the activity of suppliers and manufacturers. The other important element is the regulation and the supervision by the regulatory body (RB), and their related organisations. The paper outlines the main Swiss regulatory guidelines and the RB impact, which depends on the safety impact of modifications and on the type of modifications (large or small, new technology or known standard technology). Experience shows that large modifications performed by qualified suppliers have resulted in few events, small modifications by plant personnel have led to significant events. Derived from these events, the following proposals are made: - Applying Human Factor principles should be an integral element of all modifications. Such principles should be defined in an IAEA safety guide or TECDOC. - Using operating experience should also be a standard element in the modification process. A powerful computerised intelligent search tool to extract the relevant information from large databases (e.g. IRS) should be developed by related organisations. In conclusion: The Swiss contribution should support international discussions on implementing operating experience feedback in the modification process. Condition: a 'powerful intelligent computerized tool' should be developed to find quickly and easily the important related 'lesson learned' e.g. in the IRS database. The existing tool is not helpful in this respect. This may help to reduce the risk of MINIMs recurrence and may lead to better design reviews and an improvement of acceptance or commissioning tests. Experience has showed that missing

  20. Regulatory T cells suppress systemic and mucosal immune activation to control intestinal inflammation.

    Izcue, Ana; Coombes, Janine L; Powrie, Fiona

    2006-08-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is the main interface where the body encounters exogenous antigens. It is crucial that the local response here is tightly regulated to avoid an immune reaction against dietary antigens and commensal flora while still mounting an efficient defense against pathogens. Faults in establishing intestinal tolerance can lead to disease, inducing local and often also systemic inflammation. Studies in human as well as in animal models suggest a role for regulatory T cells (Tregs) in maintaining intestinal homeostasis. Transfer of Tregs can not only prevent the development of colitis in animal models but also cure established disease, acting both systemically and at the site of inflammation. In this review, we discuss the major regulatory pathways, including transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), interleukin-10 (IL-10), and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4), and their role in Treg-mediated control of systemic and mucosal responses. In addition, we give an overview of the known mechanisms of lymphocyte migration to the intestine and discuss how CD103 expression can influence the balance between regulatory and effector T cells. Further understanding of the factors that control the activity of Tregs in different immune compartments may facilitate the design of strategies to target regulation in a tissue-specific way. PMID:16903919

  1. The mass media role in acceptance activities of Slovak Republic's Nuclear Regulatory Authority

    Communication is the vital link between Nuclear Regulatory Authority and the public. If people do not know and understand the facts on which optimal a safety energy choice decisions should be based they cannot make informed decisions on how their own objectives can be met. The following ten commandments of communications are pointed out: be yourself; be comfortable and confident; be honest; be brief; be human; be personal; be positive and consistent; be attentive; be energetic; be committed and sincere. The important aspect is to test whether the nuclear energy in the Slovak Republic is acceptable according to mandatory rules and if its operation is regulated by the state through the independent institution - the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD). The media in Slovakia has on important power. Many organizations are therefore apprehensive when dealing with the press, radio and television. Many people would simply prefer not to get panicked when the dreaded microphones and cameras do appear. UJD considers the whole area of public relations as an essential component of its activity. UJD intends to offer the public true, systematic, qualified, understandable and independent information, regarding the safety of nuclear power plants, as well as regarding the methods and results of UJD work. Generally, public information is considered a significant contribution to the creation of confidence into the regulatory work. The paper presents the UJD communication program and relations with media as well as the preparedness of public information in case of emergency

  2. Nuclear Regulatory Commission activities to prepare for reviewing license applications and issuing licenses

    Uleck, R.B.; DeFino, C.V. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1991-12-31

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (LLRWPAA) assigned States the responsibility to provide for disposal of commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) by 1993. The LLRWPAA also required the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to establish procedures and develop the technical review capability to process license applications for new LLRW disposal facilities. Under the LLRWPAA, NRC is required, to the extent practicable, to complete its review of an LLRW disposal facility license application within 15 months of its submittal by a State. This provision of the LLRWPAA helps ensure that NRC, in addition to protecting public health and safety and the environment, facilitates States` achievement of LLRWPAA milestones for new facility development. A timely NRC review is needed for States to accomplish their objective of having new disposal facilities in operation on the dates prescribed in the LLRWPAA. To help assure NRC and States` compliance with the provisions of the LLRWPAA, NRC has developed a licensing review strategy that includes: (1) the further development of regulatory guidance, (2) enhancement of licensing review capability, and (3) prelicensing regulatory consultation with potential applicants.

  3. Exploring the impact of permitting and local regulatory processes on residential solar prices in the United States

    This article statistically isolates the impacts of city-level permitting and other local regulatory processes on residential PV prices in the United States. We combine data from two “scoring” mechanisms that independently capture local regulatory process efficiency with the largest dataset of installed PV prices in the United States. We find that variations in local permitting procedures can lead to differences in average residential PV prices of approximately $0.18/W between the jurisdictions with the least-favorable and most-favorable permitting procedures. Between jurisdictions with scores across the middle 90% of the range (i.e., 5th percentile to 95th percentile), the difference is $0.14/W, equivalent to a $700 (2.2%) difference in system costs for a typical 5-kW residential PV installation. When considering variations not only in permitting practices, but also in other local regulatory procedures, price differences grow to $0.64–$0.93/W between the least-favorable and most-favorable jurisdictions. Between jurisdictions with scores across the middle 90% of the range, the difference is equivalent to a price impact of at least $2500 (8%) for a typical 5-kW residential PV installation. These results highlight the magnitude of cost reduction that might be expected from streamlining local regulatory regimes. - Highlights: • We show local regulatory processes meaningfully affect U.S. residential PV prices. • We use regression analysis and two mechanisms for “scoring” regulatory efficiency. • Local permitting procedure variations can produce PV price differences of $0.18/W. • Broader regulatory variations can produce PV price differences of $0.64–$0.93/W. • The results suggest the cost-reduction potential of streamlining local regulations

  4. Regulatory inspection activities on nuclear power plant sites during construction in the United Kingdom

    The work of regulatory inspection of the construction of the plant on the site is performed not only by the inspector who has been allocated to inspection duties for that site but also by the specialist staff who are involved with the safety assessment of the plant. The coordination of this work is described in the paper and examples are given of inspection activities associated with the enforcement requirements of license conditions as well as those related to the inspection of the plant itself

  5. Regulatory T Cell Responses to High-Dose Methylprednisolone in Active Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    Alexis Mathian

    Full Text Available A slight increase in the proportion of circulating regulatory T (Treg cells has been reported in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE patients taking oral prednisone. The effects of intravenous (IV high dose methylprednisolone (MP on Tregs have not yet been described, especially in active SLE.We prospectively analyzed the proportion of circulating CD4+ Treg cell subsets defined as follows: (1 naïve Treg (nTreg FoxP3lowCD45RA+ cells; (2 effector Treg (eTreg FoxP3highCD45RA- cells; and (3 non-suppressive FoxP3lowCD45RA- cells (non-regulatory Foxp3low T cells. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with active SLE were analyzed before the first infusion of IV high dose MP (day 0 and the following days (day 1, day 2, ±day 3 and ±day 8. The activity of SLE was assessed by the SLEDAI score.Seventeen patients were included. Following MP infusions, the median (range percentage of eTregs significantly increased from 1.62% (0.53-8.43 at day 0 to 2.80% (0.83-14.60 at day 1 (p = 0.003 versus day 0, 4.64% (0.50-12.40 at day 2 (p = 0.06 versus day 1 and 7.50% (1.02-20.70 at day 3 (p = 0.008 versus day 2, and declined to baseline values at day 8. Expanding eTreg cells were actively proliferating, as they expressed Ki-67. The frequency of non-regulatory FoxP3low T cells decreased from 6.39% (3.20-17.70 at day 0 to 4.74% (1.03-9.72 at day 2 (p = 0.005; nTreg frequency did not change. All patients clinically improved immediately after MP pulses. The absence of flare after one year of follow up was associated with a higher frequency of eTregs at day 2.IV high dose MP induces a rapid, dramatic and transient increase in circulating regulatory T cells. This increase may participate in the preventive effect of MP on subsequent flares in SLE.

  6. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - Sweden

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General regulatory regime: 1. Introduction; 2. Mining regime; 3. Radioactive substances, nuclear fuel and equipment; 4. Nuclear installations (Licensing and inspection, including nuclear safety; Protection of the environment against radiation effects (The Environmental Code, Environmental impact statement, Permit under the Environmental Code)); 5. Trade in nuclear materials and equipment; 6. Radiological protection; 7. Radioactive waste management; 8. Non-proliferation and physical protection; 9. Transport; 10. Nuclear third party liability (The Nuclear Liability Act; Chernobyl legislation); II. Institutional Framework: 1. Ministries with responsibilities concerning nuclear activities (Ministry of the Environment; Ministry of Enterprise, Energy and Communications; Ministry of Justice; Ministry of Foreign Affairs); 2. Swedish Radiation Safety Authority

  7. Development of a stable uranium recovery regulatory framework for uranium recovery activities in the United States

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has historically regulated operations at all uranium and thorium recovery facilities under the authority of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended. Uranium recovery facilities are those plants, or portions of facilities that process uranium- or thorium-bearing material primarily for its source material content. The uranium recovery industry expressed some concerns over several aspects of the NRC's practices, as described in the NRC's guidance documents. In April 1998, the National Mining Association submitted a report to the Commission, that identified specific concerns with NRC's current position and guidance regarding concurrent jurisdiction at uranium mills; dual regulatory authority at in situ leach facilities; the use of mill tailings impoundments for disposal of radioactive material other than 11e.(2) byproduct material; and the ability to process alternate feed material at uranium mills. The NRC staff addressed most of these concerns in two SECY (staff recommendations) papers that were concurrently provided to the Commission, along with a SECY paper on a draft rulemaking plan relating to these and other issues. The issues addressed in these papers included a new rulemaking, disposal of materials other than 11 e.(2) byproduct material, processing of materials other than natural ores, and improved efficiency for regulating in situ leach uranium facilities. The Commission issued final policy decisions on these issues and directions for NRC staff to implement those decisions in July 2000. (author)

  8. Regulatory oversight of uranium mines and mills

    Full text: The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) is the principal nuclear regulator in Canada. The CNSC is empowered through the Nuclear Safety and Control Act (NSCA) and associated regulations, to regulate the entire nuclear cycle which includes uranium mining and milling. The paper discusses the regulatory oversight of uranium mines and mills which include: - Who is CNSC, what is the CNSC's mission and CNSC background - Oversight Management System; - Regulatory Framework; - Expectations for Assessing Compliance; - QA Principles and Program Elements; - A Look to the Future; - Planning regulatory oversight activities; - Management System Documentation Review; - Regulatory Oversight Activities; - Following-up On Inspections; - Enforcing Compliance with Requirements; - Improving the Regulatory Oversight Process. (author)

  9. Improvements to the DOE low-level waste regulatory structure and process under recommendation 94-2 - progress to date

    Regnier, E.

    1995-12-31

    Among the concerns expressed by the Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board (DNFSB) in its Recommendation 94-2 was the lack of a clearly defined and effective internal Department of Energy (DOE) regulatory oversight and enforcement process for ensuring that low-level radioactive waste management health, safety, and environmental requirements are met. Therefore, part of the response to the DNFSB concern is a task to clarify and strengthen the low-level waste management regulatory structure. This task is being conducted in two steps. First, consistent with the requirements of the current DOE waste management order and within the framework of the current organizational structure, interim clarification of a review process and the associated organizational responsibilities has been issued. Second, in coordination with the revision of the waste management order and consistent with the organizational responsibilities resulting from the strategic alignment of DOE, a rigorous, more independent regulatory oversight structure will be developed.

  10. Improvements to the DOE low-level waste regulatory structure and process under recommendation 94-2 - progress to date

    Among the concerns expressed by the Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board (DNFSB) in its Recommendation 94-2 was the lack of a clearly defined and effective internal Department of Energy (DOE) regulatory oversight and enforcement process for ensuring that low-level radioactive waste management health, safety, and environmental requirements are met. Therefore, part of the response to the DNFSB concern is a task to clarify and strengthen the low-level waste management regulatory structure. This task is being conducted in two steps. First, consistent with the requirements of the current DOE waste management order and within the framework of the current organizational structure, interim clarification of a review process and the associated organizational responsibilities has been issued. Second, in coordination with the revision of the waste management order and consistent with the organizational responsibilities resulting from the strategic alignment of DOE, a rigorous, more independent regulatory oversight structure will be developed

  11. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - Belgium

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General Regulatory Regime: 1. Introduction; 2. Mining regime; 3. Nuclear facilities (Licensing and inspection, including nuclear safety; Protection of the environment against radiation effects; Emergency response; Decommissioning); 4. Trade in nuclear materials and equipment; 5. Radiological protection; 6. Radioactive waste management; 7. Non-proliferation of nuclear weapons and physical protection of nuclear material (International aspects; National control and security measures); 8. Transport; 9. Nuclear third party liability; II. Institutional Framework: 1. Regulatory and supervisory authorities (Federal Agency for Nuclear Control - FANC; Federal Public Service for Home Affairs; Federal Public Service for Economy, SME's, Self-Employed and Energy; Federal Public Service for Employment, Labour and Social Dialogue; Federal Public Service for Defence; Federal Public Service for Foreign Affairs, Foreign Trade and Development Co-operation; Federal Public Planning Service for Science Policy); 2. Advisory bodies (Scientific Council for Ionizing Radiation of the Federal Agency for Nuclear Control; Superior Health Council; Superior Council for Safety, Hygiene and Enhancement of Workplaces; Advisory Committee for the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons; Commission for Electricity and Gas Regulation - CREG)

  12. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - Italy

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General regulatory regime: 1. Introduction; 2. Mining regime; 3. Radioactive substances, nuclear fuel and equipment; 4. Nuclear installations (Licensing and inspection, including nuclear safety; Protection of the environment against radiation effects; Emergency response); 5. Trade in nuclear materials and equipment (General provisions; Patents); 6. Radiation Protection (Protection of workers; Protection of the public; Protection of the environment); 7. Radioactive Waste Management; 8. Non-proliferation and physical protection; 9. Transport; 10. Nuclear Third Party Liability; II. Institutional Framework: 1. Regulatory and supervisory authorities (Interdepartmental Committee for Economic Planning; Nuclear Safety Agency; Prime Minister; Minister for Economic Development; Minister for Labour and Social Security; Minister for Health; Minister for the Environment; Minister for the Interior; Minister for Transport and Navigation; Minister for Foreign Trade (now incorporated in Ministry for Economic Development); Minister for Education; Treasury Minister; Minister for Universities and for Scientific and Technical Research; Minister for Foreign Affairs; State Advocate General); 2. Advisory bodies (Inter-ministerial Council for Consultation and Co-ordination; Coordinating Committee for Radiation Protection of Workers and the Public; Regional and Provincial Commissions for Public Health Protection

  13. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - Austria

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I) - General Regulatory Regime - General Outline: 1. Introduction; 2. Mining Regime; 3. Radioactive Substances, Nuclear Fuel and Equipment; 4. Nuclear Installations (Licensing and inspection, including nuclear safety; Emergency response); 5. Trade in Nuclear Materials and Equipment; 6. Radiation Protection; 7. Radioactive Waste Management; 8. Non-Proliferation and Physical Protection; 9. Transport; 10. Nuclear Third Party Liability; II) - Institutional Framework: 1. Regulatory and Supervisory Authorities: A. Federal Authorities - Bund (The Federal Chancellery; The Federal Minister for Women's Affairs and Consumer Protection; The Federal Minister of the Interior; The Federal Minister for Economic Affairs; The Federal Minister of Finance; The Federal Minister of Labour, Health and Social Affairs; The Federal Minister of Science and Transport; The Federal Minister of Justice; The Federal Minister for the Environment; The Federal Minister for Foreign Affairs) B. Regional Authorities - Laender; C. District Authorities - Bezirksverwaltungsbehorden; 2. Advisory Bodies (Forum for Nuclear Questions, Radiation Protection Commission - SSK); 3. Public and Semi-Public Agencies (The Seibersdorf Austrian Research Centre; The Graz Nuclear Institute; The Nuclear Institute of the Austrian Universities; The Institute of Risk Research, University of Vienna)

  14. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - United Kingdom

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General Regulatory Regime: 1. Introduction; 2. Mining Regime; 3. Radioactive Substances; 4. Nuclear Installations (Licensing and inspection, including nuclear safety; Protection of the environment against radiation effects; Emergency response); 5. Trade in Nuclear Materials and Equipment; 6. Radiation Protection; 7. Radioactive Waste Management; 8. Non-Proliferation and Physical Protection; 9. Transport; 10. Nuclear Third Party Liability; II. Institutional Framework: 1. Regulatory and Supervisory Authorities (Department of Trade and Industry - DTI; Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs and the Secretary of State for Health; Secretary of State for Transport; Secretary of State for Education); 2. Advisory Bodies (Medical Research Council - MRC; Nuclear Safety Advisory Committee; Radioactive Waste Management Advisory Committee); 3. Public and Semi-Public Agencies (United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority - UKAEA; Health and Safety Commission and Executive - HSC/HSE; National Radiological Protection Board - NRPB; Environment Agencies; British Nuclear Fuels plc. - BNFL; Amersham International plc.; The National Nuclear Corporation Ltd. - NNC; United Kingdom Nirex Ltd.; Magnox Electric plc.; British Energy Generation Ltd.; Scottish Electricity Generator Companies; British Energy Generation Ltd.; Regional Electricity Companies in England and Wales)

  15. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - Switzerland

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General regulatory regime: 1. Introduction; 2. Mining regime; 3. Radioactive substances, nuclear fuel and equipment (Nuclear fuels; Radioactive substances and equipment generating ionising radiation); 4. Nuclear installations (Licensing and inspection, including nuclear safety; Protection of the environment against radiation effects; Emergency response); 5. Trade in nuclear materials and equipment; 6. Radiation protection; 7. Radioactive waste management; 8. Non-proliferation and physical protection; 9. Transport; 10. Nuclear third party liability; 11. Environmental protection; II. Institutional Framework: 1. Regulatory and supervisory authorities (Federal Council; Federal Assembly; Federal Department of the Environment, Transport, Energy and Communications - DETEC; Federal Office of Energy - SFOE; Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate - IFSN; Federal Department of Home Affairs - FDHA; Federal Office of Public Health - FOPH; State Secretariat for Education and Research - SER; Other authorities); 2. Advisory bodies (Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Commission - KNS; Federal Commission for Radiological Protection and Monitoring of the Radioactivity in the Environment; Federal Emergency Organisation on Radioactivity); 3. Public and semi-public agencies (Paul-Scherrer Institute - PSI; Fund for the decommissioning of nuclear installations and for the waste disposal; National Co-operative for the

  16. Identification of active transcriptional regulatory elements from GRO-seq data.

    Danko, Charles G; Hyland, Stephanie L; Core, Leighton J; Martins, Andre L; Waters, Colin T; Lee, Hyung Won; Cheung, Vivian G; Kraus, W Lee; Lis, John T; Siepel, Adam

    2015-05-01

    Modifications to the global run-on and sequencing (GRO-seq) protocol that enrich for 5'-capped RNAs can be used to reveal active transcriptional regulatory elements (TREs) with high accuracy. Here, we introduce discriminative regulatory-element detection from GRO-seq (dREG), a sensitive machine learning method that uses support vector regression to identify active TREs from GRO-seq data without requiring cap-based enrichment (https://github.com/Danko-Lab/dREG/). This approach allows TREs to be assayed together with gene expression levels and other transcriptional features in a single experiment. Predicted TREs are more enriched for several marks of transcriptional activation—including expression quantitative trait loci, disease-associated polymorphisms, acetylated histone 3 lysine 27 (H3K27ac) and transcription factor binding—than those identified by alternative functional assays. Using dREG, we surveyed TREs in eight human cell types and provide new insights into global patterns of TRE function. PMID:25799441

  17. Activities of OECD/NEA in the regulatory aspects of plant life management

    The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency has 28 Member countries. In 2004 the NEA issued its Strategic Plan covering the period 2005-2009. The plan identifies six sectorial arenas of work for the NEA, including as the first arena 'Nuclear Safety and Regulation'. In this arena the NEA operates through two senior standing technical committees. The Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA) dealing with regulatory aspects, and the Committee on the Safety on Nuclear Installations (CSNI) dealing with technological aspects. Recognizing that there are many common areas of interest, the close relationship between the work of the CNRA and the CSNI and the need for close co-ordination and co-operation between the two committees, it was decided to develop a joint CSNI/CNRA strategic plan. In developing the join strategic plan it was important to recognise the current status of the nuclear power industry and, in particular, the main challenges that regulators and safety research will face in the next five years. These will likely determine the focus of CNRA and CSNI activities. One of these challenges is related to the aim of this International Symposium, which is the necessity to ensure safety over the plant life cycle

  18. Unexpected T cell regulatory activity of anti-histone H1 autoantibody: Its mode of action in regulatory T cell-dependent and -independent manners

    Highlights: ► Anti-histone H1 autoantibody (anti-H1) acts on T cells to inhibit their activation. ► Anti-H1 suppresses T cell activation in Treg cell-dependent and -independent manners. ► Suboptimal dose of anti-H1 enhances suppressor function of Treg cells. ► High dose of anti-H1 directly inhibits T cell receptor signaling. -- Abstract: Induction of anti-nuclear antibodies against DNA or histones is a hallmark of autoimmune disorders, but their actual contribution to disease predisposition remains to be clarified. We have previously reported that autoantibodies against histone H1 work as a critical graft survival factor in a rat model of tolerogeneic liver transplantation. Here we show that an immunosuppressive anti-histone H1 monoclonal antibody (anti-H1 mAb) acts directly on T cells to inhibit their activation in response to T cell receptor (TCR) ligation. Intriguingly, the T cell activation inhibitory activity of anti-H1 mAb under suboptimal dosages required regulatory T (Treg) cells, while high dose stimulation with anti-H1 mAb triggered a Treg cell-independent, direct negative regulation of T cell activation upon TCR cross-linking. In the Treg cell-dependent mode of immunosuppressive action, anti-H1 mAb did not induce the expansion of CD4+Foxp3+ Treg cells, but rather potentiated their regulatory capacity. These results reveal a previously unappreciated T cell regulatory role of anti-H1 autoantibody, whose overproduction is generally thought to be pathogenic in the autoimmune settings

  19. Unexpected T cell regulatory activity of anti-histone H1 autoantibody: Its mode of action in regulatory T cell-dependent and -independent manners

    Takaoka, Yuki [Department of Molecular Biotechnology, Graduate School of Advanced Sciences of Matter, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima (Japan); Kawamoto, Seiji, E-mail: skawa@hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Molecular Biotechnology, Graduate School of Advanced Sciences of Matter, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima (Japan); Katayama, Akiko [Department of Molecular Biotechnology, Graduate School of Advanced Sciences of Matter, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima (Japan); Nakano, Toshiaki [Liver Transplantation Program, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-Kaohsiung Medical Center, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Yamanaka, Yasushi; Takahashi, Miki [Department of Molecular Biotechnology, Graduate School of Advanced Sciences of Matter, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima (Japan); Shimada, Yayoi; Chiang, Kuei-Chen [Kazusa Institute for Drug Discovery, Josai International University, Kisarazu (Japan); Ohmori, Naoya [Kazusa Institute for Drug Discovery, Josai International University, Kisarazu (Japan); Faculty of Nursing, Josai International University, Togane (Japan); Aki, Tsunehiro [Department of Molecular Biotechnology, Graduate School of Advanced Sciences of Matter, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima (Japan); Goto, Takeshi; Sato, Shuji [Kazusa Institute for Drug Discovery, Josai International University, Kisarazu (Japan); Faculty of Nursing, Josai International University, Togane (Japan); Goto, Shigeru [Liver Transplantation Program, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-Kaohsiung Medical Center, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Iwao Hospital, Yufuin (Japan); Chen, Chao-Long [Liver Transplantation Program, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-Kaohsiung Medical Center, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Ono, Kazuhisa [Department of Molecular Biotechnology, Graduate School of Advanced Sciences of Matter, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima (Japan)

    2013-02-08

    Highlights: ► Anti-histone H1 autoantibody (anti-H1) acts on T cells to inhibit their activation. ► Anti-H1 suppresses T cell activation in Treg cell-dependent and -independent manners. ► Suboptimal dose of anti-H1 enhances suppressor function of Treg cells. ► High dose of anti-H1 directly inhibits T cell receptor signaling. -- Abstract: Induction of anti-nuclear antibodies against DNA or histones is a hallmark of autoimmune disorders, but their actual contribution to disease predisposition remains to be clarified. We have previously reported that autoantibodies against histone H1 work as a critical graft survival factor in a rat model of tolerogeneic liver transplantation. Here we show that an immunosuppressive anti-histone H1 monoclonal antibody (anti-H1 mAb) acts directly on T cells to inhibit their activation in response to T cell receptor (TCR) ligation. Intriguingly, the T cell activation inhibitory activity of anti-H1 mAb under suboptimal dosages required regulatory T (Treg) cells, while high dose stimulation with anti-H1 mAb triggered a Treg cell-independent, direct negative regulation of T cell activation upon TCR cross-linking. In the Treg cell-dependent mode of immunosuppressive action, anti-H1 mAb did not induce the expansion of CD4{sup +}Foxp3{sup +} Treg cells, but rather potentiated their regulatory capacity. These results reveal a previously unappreciated T cell regulatory role of anti-H1 autoantibody, whose overproduction is generally thought to be pathogenic in the autoimmune settings.

  20. Laboratory Exercise: Study of Digestive and Regulatory Processes through the Exploration of Fasted and Postprandial Blood Glucose

    Hopper, Mari K.; Maurer, Luke W.

    2013-01-01

    Digestive physiology laboratory exercises often explore the regulation of enzyme action rather than systems physiology. This laboratory exercise provides a systems approach to digestive and regulatory processes through the exploration of postprandial blood glucose levels. In the present exercise, students enrolled in an undergraduate animal…

  1. Learning by Preparing to Teach: Fostering Self-Regulatory Processes and Achievement during Complex Mathematics Problem Solving

    Muis, Krista R.; Psaradellis, Cynthia; Chevrier, Marianne; Di Leo, Ivana; Lajoie, Susanne P.

    2016-01-01

    We developed an intervention based on the learning by teaching paradigm to foster self-regulatory processes and better learning outcomes during complex mathematics problem solving in a technology-rich learning environment. Seventy-eight elementary students were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 conditions: learning by preparing to teach, or learning for…

  2. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - United States

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General Regulatory Regime: 1. Introduction; 2. Mining regime; 3. Radioactive substances, nuclear fuel and equipment (Special nuclear material; Source material; By-product material; Agreement state programmes); 4. Nuclear installations (Initial licensing; Operation and inspection, including nuclear safety; Operating licence renewal; Decommissioning; Emergency response); 5. Radiological protection (Protection of workers; Protection of the public); 6. Radioactive waste management (High-level waste; Low-level waste; Disposal at sea; Uranium mill tailings; Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program - FUSRAP); 7. Non-proliferation and exports (Exports of source material, special nuclear material, production or utilisation facilities and sensitive nuclear technology; Exports of components; Exports of by-product material; Exports and imports of radiation sources; Conduct resulting in the termination of exports or economic assistance; Subsequent arrangements; Technology exports; Information and restricted data); 8. Nuclear security; 9. Transport; 10. Nuclear third party liability; II. Institutional Framework: 1. Regulatory and supervisory authorities (Nuclear Regulatory Commission - NRC; Department of Energy - DOE; Department of Labor - DOL; Department of Transportation - DOT; Environmental Protection Agency - EPA); 2. Public and semi-public agencies: A. Cabinet-level departments (Department of

  3. Environmental radiological aspects of mining and processing of beach sand minerals: regulatory perspective

    The coastal sands of India have large reserves of valuable minerals namely titanium bearing minerals (ilmenite, rutile, leucoxene), zircon, garnet, sillimanite and monazite (which is a source of thorium and uranium). In 1998, a Policy on Exploitation of Beach Sand Minerals (BSM) was notified by the Government of India in 1998 which encouraged the participation of companies outside Department of Atomic Energy in the field of beach sand mining and mineral separation. Since the beach sand minerals remain invariably associated with the radioactive mineral monazite, preferential separation of other heavy minerals results in enhancement of the monazite content in the left over sands generally referred to as tailings. Atomic Energy Regulatory Board took an independent assessment of all these facilities and a special Committee was constituted in 2004 with experts from AERB and BARC to evaluate the radiological safety aspects in these facilities. AERB evaluates the design of engineered trenches for storage of radioactive solid wastes, treatment methodology of gaseous and liquid wastes and prescribes limits on the activity content and quantity of gaseous, liquid and solid wastes such that there is no adverse impact on the environment. Independent Environmental Survey Laboratories of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre are stationed at these sites to carry out periodic surveillance of the surrounding environment, which includes bore well monitoring, environmental radiation monitoring, air, water, soil, and vegetation sample analysis. AERB reviews the periodic reports of ESL to assess the radiological impact from these facilities

  4. Changes in FDA enforcement activities following changes in federal administration: the case of regulatory letters released to pharmaceutical companies

    Nguyen Diane

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The United States (US Food and Drug Administration (FDA is responsible for the protection of the public health by assuring the safety, effectiveness and security of human drugs and biological products through the enforcement of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (FDCA and related regulations. These enforcement activities include regulatory letters (i.e. warning letters and notice of violation to pharmaceutical companies. A regulatory letter represents the FDA’s first official notification to a pharmaceutical company that the FDA has discovered a product or activity in violation of the FDCA. This study analyzed trends in the pharmaceutical-related regulatory letters released by the FDA during the period 1997–2011 and assessed differences in the average number and type of regulatory letters released during the last four federal administrations. Methods Data derived from the FDA webpage. Information about the FDA office releasing the letter, date, company, and drug-related violation was collected. Regulatory letters were classified by federal administration. Descriptive statistics were performed for the analysis. Results Between 1997 and 2011 the FDA released 2,467 regulatory letters related to pharmaceuticals. FDA headquarters offices released 50.6% and district offices 49.4% of the regulatory letters. The Office of Prescription Drug Promotion released the largest number of regulatory letters (850; 34.5% of the total, followed by the Office of Scientific Investigations (131; 5.3%, and the Office of Compliance (105; 4.3%. During the 2nd Clinton Administration (1997–2000 the average number of regulatory letters per year was 242.8 ± 45.6, during the Bush Administration (2001–2008 it was 120.4 ± 33.7, and during the first three years of the Obama administration (2009–2011 it was 177.7.0 ± 17.0. The average number of regulatory letters released by the Office of Prescription Drug Promotion also varied by

  5. Expression levels of microRNAs are not associated with their regulatory activities

    Wu Jiarui

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract MicroRNAs (miRNAs regulate their targets by triggering mRNA degradation or translational repression. The negative relationship between miRNAs and their targets suggests that the regulatory effect of a miRNA could be determined from the expression levels of its targets. Here, we investigated the relationship between miRNA activities determined by computational programs and miRNA expression levels by using data in which both mRNA and miRNA expression from the same samples were measured. We found that different from the intuitive expectation one might have, miRNA activity shows very weak correlation with miRNA expression, which indicates complex regulating mechanisms between miRNAs and their target genes. Reviewers This manuscript was reviewed by an anonymous reviewer and Dr Yuriy Gusev.

  6. Effects of self-regulatory strength depletion on muscular performance and EMG activation.

    Bray, Steven R; Martin Ginis, Kathleen A; Hicks, Audrey L; Woodgate, Jennifer

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of a self-regulatory strength depletion manipulation on performance of a physical endurance (isometric handgrip) task. In addition, the effect of depletion on EMG activity in the working forearm muscles during the endurance task was explored. Sedentary undergraduates (N=49) were randomly assigned to either a cognitive depletion condition (modified Stroop task) or a control (color word) group and completed two maximal isometric exercise endurance trials separated by the cognitive task. Participants in the depletion group showed significant (p<.05) degradations in performance and exhibited higher EMG activation on the second endurance trial (p<.05) compared to controls. Results are consistent with the limited strength model of self-regulation and are interpreted in light of the central fatigue hypothesis. PMID:17995906

  7. Regulatory guidance document

    NONE

    1994-05-01

    The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Program Management System Manual requires preparation of the OCRWM Regulatory Guidance Document (RGD) that addresses licensing, environmental compliance, and safety and health compliance. The document provides: regulatory compliance policy; guidance to OCRWM organizational elements to ensure a consistent approach when complying with regulatory requirements; strategies to achieve policy objectives; organizational responsibilities for regulatory compliance; guidance with regard to Program compliance oversight; and guidance on the contents of a project-level Regulatory Compliance Plan. The scope of the RGD includes site suitability evaluation, licensing, environmental compliance, and safety and health compliance, in accordance with the direction provided by Section 4.6.3 of the PMS Manual. Site suitability evaluation and regulatory compliance during site characterization are significant activities, particularly with regard to the YW MSA. OCRWM`s evaluation of whether the Yucca Mountain site is suitable for repository development must precede its submittal of a license application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Accordingly, site suitability evaluation is discussed in Chapter 4, and the general statements of policy regarding site suitability evaluation are discussed in Section 2.1. Although much of the data and analyses may initially be similar, the licensing process is discussed separately in Chapter 5. Environmental compliance is discussed in Chapter 6. Safety and Health compliance is discussed in Chapter 7.

  8. Regulatory guidance document

    The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Program Management System Manual requires preparation of the OCRWM Regulatory Guidance Document (RGD) that addresses licensing, environmental compliance, and safety and health compliance. The document provides: regulatory compliance policy; guidance to OCRWM organizational elements to ensure a consistent approach when complying with regulatory requirements; strategies to achieve policy objectives; organizational responsibilities for regulatory compliance; guidance with regard to Program compliance oversight; and guidance on the contents of a project-level Regulatory Compliance Plan. The scope of the RGD includes site suitability evaluation, licensing, environmental compliance, and safety and health compliance, in accordance with the direction provided by Section 4.6.3 of the PMS Manual. Site suitability evaluation and regulatory compliance during site characterization are significant activities, particularly with regard to the YW MSA. OCRWM's evaluation of whether the Yucca Mountain site is suitable for repository development must precede its submittal of a license application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Accordingly, site suitability evaluation is discussed in Chapter 4, and the general statements of policy regarding site suitability evaluation are discussed in Section 2.1. Although much of the data and analyses may initially be similar, the licensing process is discussed separately in Chapter 5. Environmental compliance is discussed in Chapter 6. Safety and Health compliance is discussed in Chapter 7

  9. Experience and regulatory activities on advanced instrumentation and control systems applied to nuclear power plants in Korea

    This paper describes the status for applying microprocessor-based systems to nuclear power plants in Korea and the regulatory activities performed by Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS). And this presents the development of safety and regulatory technology for advanced I and C systems that has been carried out as a part of the next generation reactor development program in Korea. (author). 3 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  10. Systems Level Analyses Reveal Multiple Regulatory Activities of CodY Controlling Metabolism, Motility and Virulence in Listeria monocytogenes

    Lior Lobel; Herskovits, Anat A.

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria sense and respond to many environmental cues, rewiring their regulatory network to facilitate adaptation to new conditions/niches. Global transcription factors that co-regulate multiple pathways simultaneously are essential to this regulatory rewiring. CodY is one such global regulator, controlling expression of both metabolic and virulence genes in Gram-positive bacteria. Branch chained amino acids (BCAAs) serve as a ligand for CodY and modulate its activity. Classically, CodY was c...

  11. Changes in FDA enforcement activities following changes in federal administration: the case of regulatory letters released to pharmaceutical companies

    Nguyen Diane; Seoane-Vazquez Enrique; Rodriguez-Monguio Rosa; Montagne Michael

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background The United States (US) Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is responsible for the protection of the public health by assuring the safety, effectiveness and security of human drugs and biological products through the enforcement of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (FDCA) and related regulations. These enforcement activities include regulatory letters (i.e. warning letters and notice of violation) to pharmaceutical companies. A regulatory letter represents the FDA’s fi...

  12. Legislative and Regulatory Control for the Safety of Radioactively Contaminated Scrap Metals Generated from Mining and Mineral Processing Facilities in South Africa

    In South Africa, enhanced levels of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) are associated with many mining and industrial processes. Significant amounts of waste materials are involved which can result in radiation exposure of the workers and the public particularly through the diversion of materials into the public domain. The following operations have been regulated in South Africa for the past twenty years: operating metallurgical plants utilizing NORM, underground mining operations, scrap recyclers and smelters, and rehabilitation and remediation activities involving the above sites. The radioactively contaminated scrap metal generated from the above mentioned facilities is available for recycling in amounts of thousands of tons. The South African government has, to a certain extent, responded to the above-mentioned challenges by introducing regulatory controls to the affected industries. The existing regulatory controls have, however, not provided absolute answers to all issues associated with the management of scrap. (author)

  13. Major Project Appraisal: Evaluation of Impact Assessment Methodologies in the Regulatory Review Process for the Northern Gateway Project

    Broadbent, Sean

    2014-01-01

    In Canada, there are six major oil pipeline projects either proposed or approved with an in-service date before 2020. The federal government has a regulatory process to evaluate the environmental, economic, and social impacts of proposed pipeline projects. This dissertation examines existing methods that project applicants use to evaluate pipeline impacts in the review process and recommends how current methodologies could be improved. The study uses the Northern Gateway Project as a case stu...

  14. Activation of counter-regulatory mechanisms in a rat renal acute rejection model

    Salomon Daniel R

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarray analysis provides a powerful approach to identify gene expression alterations following transplantation. In patients the heterogeneity of graft specimens, co-morbidity, co-medications and the challenges in sample collection and preparation complicate conclusions regarding the underlying mechanisms of graft injury, rejection and immune regulation. Results We used a rat kidney transplantation model with strict transplant and sample preparation procedures to analyze genome wide changes in gene expression four days after syngeneic and allogeneic transplantation. Both interventions were associated with substantial changes in gene expression. After allogeneic transplantation, genes and pathways related to transport and metabolism were predominantly down-regulated consistent with rejection-mediated graft injury and dysfunction. Up-regulated genes were primarily related to the acute immune response including antigen presentation, T-cell receptor signaling, apoptosis, interferon signaling and complement cascades. We observed a cytokine and chemokine expression profile consistent with activation of a Th1-cell response. A novel finding was up-regulation of several regulatory and protective genes after allogeneic transplantation, specifically IL10, Bcl2a1, C4bpa, Ctla4, HO-1 and the SOCS family. Conclusion Our data indicate that in parallel with the predicted activation of immune response and tissue injury pathways, there is simultaneous activation of pathways for counter regulatory and protective mechanisms that would balance and limit the ongoing inflammatory/immune responses. The pathophysiological mechanisms behind and the clinical consequences of alterations in expression of these gene classes in acute rejection, injury and dysfunction vs. protection and immunoregulation, prompt further analyses and open new aspects for therapeutic approaches.

  15. Survey of state regulatory activities on least cost planning for gas utilities

    Integrated resource planning involves the creation of a process in which supply-side and demand-side options are integrated to create a resource mix that reliably satisfies customers' short-term and long-term energy service needs at the lowest cost. Incorporating the concept of meeting customer energy service needs entails a recognition that customers' costs must be considered along with the utility's costs in the economic analysis of energy options. As applied to gas utilities, an integrated resource plan seeks to balance cost and reliability, and should not be interpreted simply as the search for lowest commodity costs. All state commissions were surveyed to assess the current status of gas planning and demand-side management and to identify significant regulatory issues faced by commissions during the next several years. The survey was to determine the extent to which they have undertaken least-cost planning for gas utilities. The survey included the following topics: (1) status of state PUC least-cost planning regulations and practices for gas utilities; (2) type and scope ofnatural gas DSM programs in effect, includeing fuel substitution; (3) economic tests and analysis methods used to evaluate DSM programs; (4) relationship between prudence reviews of gas utility purchasing practices and integrated resource planning; and (5) key regulatory issues facing gas utilities during the next five years. 34 refs., 6 figs., 10 tabs

  16. Review of regulatory activities associated with safety culture and management of safety at UK nuclear installations

    The management of health and safety and the culture of the people who participate in the process have been fundamental to the development of the United Kingdom's nuclear power programme. In the early years of development, the organizations and systems set up in companies which designed, manufactured, constructed and operated nuclear power stations were based upon the best practices needed to ensure, not only the operability of the plant, but also the safety of the workers at the power stations and the public. Over the years the nuclear industry in the UK has changed as has the regulatory body responsible for licensing. The economic environment within which the nuclear electricity generators operate has caused them to review their business and organizational structures. The UK nuclear industry has developed its approach to health and safety management and it is generally recognized that commercially successful companies have excellent health and safety records. This paper discusses the importance of effective health and safety management to the maintenance of high safety standards and the delivery of business goals. It also discusses the model that has been developed to help assess safety management in the changing UK nuclear industry. Finally, it comments upon regulatory developments in management of safety and safety culture. (author)

  17. Survey of state regulatory activities on least cost planning for gas utilities

    Goldman, C.A. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States) National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners, Washington, DC (United States)); Hopkins, M.E. (Fleming Group, Washington, DC (United States))

    1991-04-01

    Integrated resource planning involves the creation of a process in which supply-side and demand-side options are integrated to create a resource mix that reliably satisfies customers' short-term and long-term energy service needs at the lowest cost. Incorporating the concept of meeting customer energy service needs entails a recognition that customers' costs must be considered along with the utility's costs in the economic analysis of energy options. As applied to gas utilities, an integrated resource plan seeks to balance cost and reliability, and should not be interpreted simply as the search for lowest commodity costs. All state commissions were surveyed to assess the current status of gas planning and demand-side management and to identify significant regulatory issues faced by commissions during the next several years. The survey was to determine the extent to which they have undertaken least-cost planning for gas utilities. The survey included the following topics: (1) status of state PUC least-cost planning regulations and practices for gas utilities; (2) type and scope ofnatural gas DSM programs in effect, includeing fuel substitution; (3) economic tests and analysis methods used to evaluate DSM programs; (4) relationship between prudence reviews of gas utility purchasing practices and integrated resource planning; and (5) key regulatory issues facing gas utilities during the next five years. 34 refs., 6 figs., 10 tabs.

  18. Risk assessment of endocrine active chemicals: identifying chemicals of regulatory concern.

    Bars, Remi; Fegert, Ivana; Gross, Melanie; Lewis, Dick; Weltje, Lennart; Weyers, Arnd; Wheeler, James R; Galay-Burgos, Malyka

    2012-10-01

    The European regulation on plant protection products (1107/2009) (EC, 2009a), the revisions to the biocides Directive (COM[2009]267) (EC, 2009b), and the regulation concerning chemicals (Regulation (EC) No. 1907/2006 'REACH') (EC.2006) only support the marketing and use of chemical products on the basis that they do not induce endocrine disruption in humans or wildlife species. In the absence of agreed guidance on how to identify and evaluate endocrine activity and disruption within these pieces of legislation a European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC) task force was formed to provide scientific criteria that may be used within the context of these three legislative documents. The resulting ECETOC technical report (ECETOC, 2009a) and the associated workshop (ECETOC, 2009b) presented a science-based concept on how to identify endocrine activity and disrupting properties of chemicals for both human health and the environment. The synthesis of the technical report and the workshop report was published by the ECETOC task force (Bars et al., 2011a,b). Specific scientific criteria for the determination of endocrine activity and disrupting properties that integrate information from both regulatory (eco)toxicity studies and mechanistic/screening studies were proposed. These criteria combined the nature of the adverse effects detected in studies which give concern for endocrine toxicity with an understanding of the mode of action of toxicity so that adverse effects can be explained scientifically. A key element in the data evaluation is the consideration of all available information in a weight-of-evidence approach. However, to be able to discriminate chemicals with endocrine properties of low concern from those of higher concern (for regulatory purposes), the task force recognised that the concept needed further refinement. Following a discussion of the key factors at a second workshop of invited regulatory, academic and industry scientists

  19. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - Germany

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General regulatory regime: 1. Introduction; 2. Mining regime; 3. Radioactive substances, nuclear fuel and equipment (Definitions; Licensing requirements); 4. Nuclear installations (Licensing regime; Protection of the environment against radiation effects; Emergency response; Surveillance of installations and activities); 5. Trade in nuclear materials and equipment; 6. Radiation protection (General; Principal elements of the Radiation Protection Ordinance; Additional radiation protection norms); 7. Radioactive waste management (Atomic Energy Act 2002; Radiation Protection Ordinance; International obligations); 8. Non-proliferation and physical protection (Non-proliferation regime; Physical protection regime); 9. Transport; 10. Nuclear third party liability; II. Institutional Framework: 1. Regulatory and supervisory authorities: Federal authorities (Federal Minister for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, Federal Minister for Education and Research, Federal Minister of Finance, Federal Minister of Transport, Building and Urban Affairs, Federal Minister for Economy and Technology, Federal Minister of Defence, Federal Office for Radiation Protection - BfS, Federal Office of Economics and Export Control); Authorities of the Laender; 2. Advisory bodies (Reactor Safety Commission - RSK; Radiation Protection Commission - SSK; Disposal Commission - ESK; Nuclear Technology

  20. CRIMINAL PROCESS AND OPERATIONAL AND INVESTIGATIVE ACTIVITY

    Meretukov G. M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors of the article examine the relationship between the criminal process and investigative activity taking into consideration the requirements of the Criminal Procedure Law and the Law on Investigative Activities in the Russian Federation. Such important issues as main tasks and principles of the criminal process and investigative activity are considered in the article. The authors analyze interrelations of some investigative actions and operational search as well as the order of introduction and usage of the results of the investigative activities at the stage of criminal case initializing and in the course of investigative activities. The authors also pay attention to the data which must be submitted in the report or memorandum on the prepared or being committed crime giving grounds for criminal case initializing

  1. Electroweak processes in external active media

    Kuznetsov, Alexander; Mikheev, Nickolay [Yaroslavl State P.G. Demidov Univ. (Russian Federation). Theoretical Physics Dept.

    2013-06-01

    Covers new effects of a pure magnetic field on electroweak processes. Focus lays on the calculation technique for electroweak processes in external active media - hot dense plasma. Useful reference for researchers and for graduate students. Expanding on the concept of the authors' previous book ''Electroweak Processes in External Electromagnetic Fields,'' this new book systematically describes the investigation methods for the effects of external active media, both strong electromagnetic fields and hot dense plasma, in quantum processes. Solving the solar neutrino puzzle in a unique experiment conducted with the help of the heavy-water detector at the Sudbery Neutrino Observatory, along with another neutrino experiments, brings to the fore electroweak physics in an active external medium. It is effectively demonstrated that processes of neutrino interactions with active media of astrophysical objects may lead, under some physical conditions, to such interesting effects as neutrino-driven shockwave revival in a supernova explosion, a ''cherry stone shooting'' mechanism for pulsar natal kick, and a neutrino pulsar. It is also shown how poor estimates of particle dispersion in external active media sometimes lead to confusion. The book will appeal to graduate and post-graduate students of theoretical physics with a prior understanding of Quantum Field Theory (QFT) and the Standard Model of Electroweak Interactions, as well as to specialists in QFT who want to know more about the problems of quantum phenomena in hot dense plasma and external electromagnetic fields.

  2. Managing Regulatory Body Competence

    In 2001, the IAEA published TECDOC 1254, which examined the way in which the recognized functions of a regulatory body for nuclear facilities results in competence needs. Using the systematic approach to training (SAT), TECDOC 1254 provided a framework for regulatory bodies for managing training and developing and their maintaining their competence. It has been successfully used by many regulators. The IAEA has also introduced a methodology and an assessment tool - Guidelines for Systematic Assessment of Regulatory Competence Needs (SARCoN) - which provides practical guidance on analysing the training and development needs of a regulatory body and, through a gap analysis, guidance on establishing competence needs and how to meet them. In 2009, the IAEA established a steering committee (supported by a bureau) with the mission to advise the IAEA on how it could best assist Member States to develop suitable competence management systems for their regulatory bodies. The committee recommended the development of a safety report on managing staff competence as an integral part of a regulatory body's management system. This Safety Report was developed in response to this request. It supersedes TECDOC 1254, broadens its application to regulatory bodies for all facilities and activities, and builds upon the experience gained through the application of TECDOC 1254 and SARCoN and the feedback received from Member States. This Safety Report applies to the management of adequate competence as needs change, and as such is equally applicable to the needs of States 'embarking' on a nuclear power programme. It also deals with the special case of building up the competence of regulatory bodies as part of the overall process of establishing an 'embarking' State's regulatory system

  3. Activities of OECD/NEA in the regulatory aspects of plant life management

    The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency has 28 Member countries. In 2004 the NEA issued its Strategic Plan covering the period 2005-2009. The plan identifies six sectorial arenas of work for the NEA, including as the first arena 'Nuclear Safety and Regulation'. In this arena the NEA operates through two senior standing technical committees. The Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA) deals with regulatory aspects, and the Committee on the Safety on Nuclear Installations (CSNI) deals with technological aspects. Under the CSNI, the Working Group on the Integrity and Aging of Components and Structures (IAGE) is responsible for conducting studies, research projects and sharing information and reaching consensus on issues related to the integrity and aging of nuclear power plant. The IAGE Working Group has been actively working mainly in two areas: Aging management programmes, and External Hazards. Recently, as recognition of the worldwide nuclear 'renaissance', the mandate of the IAGE Working Group was changed to capture also the design aspects of SSCs. In the area of the aging management programmes, efforts have been devoted to address the environmental effects on the integrity of components, the reactor pressure vessel lifetime, passive components failure rates and structural behaviour, risk informed in service inspections and non destructive examinations, and the assessment of the containment integrity. In the area of external hazards, the work of the IAGE group has been focused on the seismic behaviour of SSC. This paper provides background on the Agency itself, the results of the joint CNRA/CSNI strategic plan in terms of the main challenges that regulators and the safety research community will face in the near term and the strategy that both committees follows to address these challenges and to identify and perform the work that will contribute to the resolution of these issues. It presents the accomplishments of the IAGE working group in addressing issues

  4. Antimutagenic and redox regulatory activities of curcumin in whole body γ - irradiated mice

    the aim of the current study is understanding the redox regulatory activity ( pro- and anti-oxidant properties) and mutagenic burden following whole body -irradiation with special reference to its control by curcumin in mice. the antimutagenic effects of curcumin; diferuloylmethane ( C21 H20 O6) were evaluated in vitro using chromosomal aberration assay in male mice,induced after-exposure to 3 Gy γ-rays that is a known mutagenic and carcinogenic agent, when curcumin was given at a dose of 400 mmol/kg body wt through gastric intubation for 5 following days either before-, after-or both before and after-exposure, the incidence of aberrant cells and aberration types (mostly chromatids, breaks and fragments) reduced with curcumin dosage as compared to irradiated group. the cellular biochemical changes were estimated using liver tissue damage marker enzymes: alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and γ -glutamyl transferase (GGT), pro-oxidant: xanthine oxidase (XO), lipid per oxidative indices: thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and hydroperoxide (HP. the non-enzymatic antioxidant : glutathione (GSH) and the enzymatic antioxidants: superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). TBARS ,HP,XO and liver marker enzymes were increased significantly , whereas the levels of GSH and the enzymatic antioxidants were significantly depleted in -irradiated groups. curcumin-treatment either before-, after-or both before and after -irradiation has attenuated the liver toxic effects of radiation obvious by reducing the levels of tbars and HP and diminished the increases of the activity of XO and liver marker enzymes. it has also re sued the depletion of the non enzymatic -and the enzymatic-antioxidant status.conclusion:curcumin has anti-oxidant potential against -rays-induced chromosomal mutations and redox imbalance regulatory status

  5. Shoreline processes, stranded oil and cleanup activities

    The initial character of stranded oil is a function of a large number of interactive variables that include the volume and character of the oil as it reaches the shore zone, nearshore oceanographic conditions at the time of stranding, and the character of the zone substrate. The fate of stranded oil on the shoreline is a function of weathering processes, natural removal, and of treatment activities. The presentation will review each of the major components described above and will present summary models to describe relative rates of natural change for selected scenarios. The role of coastal processes will be considered and used to illustrate how shoreline dynamics can remove or bury stranded oil. Examples will be provided to show some of the characteristic processes that cause changes in the distribution of stranded oil. Some shoreline treatment activities involve disturbance and relocation or removal of beach substrate; the effects of such activities will be illustrated and evaluated

  6. Spherical carbons: Synthesis, characterization and activation processes

    Romero Anaya, Aroldo José; Ouzzine, Mohammed; Lillo Ródenas, María Ángeles; Linares Solano, Ángel

    2014-01-01

    Spherical carbons have been prepared through hydrothermal treatment of three carbohydrates (glucose, saccharose and cellulose). Preparation variables such as treatment time, treatment temperature and concentration of carbohydrate have been analyzed to obtain spherical carbons. These spherical carbons can be prepared with particle sizes larger than 10 μm, especially from saccharose, and have subsequently been activated using different activation processes (H3PO4, NaOH, KOH or physical activati...

  7. Transcription factors GAF and HSF act at distinct regulatory steps to modulate stress-induced gene activation

    Fuda, Nicholas J.; Mahat, Dig B.; Core, Leighton J.; Guertin, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    The coordinated regulation of gene expression at the transcriptional level is fundamental to development and homeostasis. Inducible systems are invaluable when studying transcription because the regulatory process can be triggered instantaneously, allowing the tracking of ordered mechanistic events. Here, we use precision run-on sequencing (PRO-seq) to examine the genome-wide heat shock (HS) response in Drosophila and the function of two key transcription factors on the immediate transcription activation or repression of all genes regulated by HS. We identify the primary HS response genes and the rate-limiting steps in the transcription cycle that GAGA-associated factor (GAF) and HS factor (HSF) regulate. We demonstrate that GAF acts upstream of promoter-proximally paused RNA polymerase II (Pol II) formation (likely at the step of chromatin opening) and that GAF-facilitated Pol II pausing is critical for HS activation. In contrast, HSF is dispensable for establishing or maintaining Pol II pausing but is critical for the release of paused Pol II into the gene body at a subset of highly activated genes. Additionally, HSF has no detectable role in the rapid HS repression of thousands of genes. PMID:27492368

  8. Process for encapsulating active agents in gels

    Yilmaz, G.; Jongboom, R.O.J.; Oosterhaven, J.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention relates to a process for encapsulating an active agent in a biopolymer in the form of a gel, comprising the steps of: a) forming a dispersion or solution of the biopolymer in water; and b) adding the active agent to the dispersion or solution obtained in step a); wherein the biopolymer is at least partially dissolved before and/or after addition of the active agent. The gels obtained with the present invention are particularly suitable for coating or impregnating packagi...

  9. Regulatory inspection activities related to inspection planning, plant maintenance and assessment of safety. Proceedings of an international workshop

    The NEA Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA) believes that an essential factor in ensuring the safety of nuclear installations is the continuing exchange and analysis of technical information and data. To facilitate this exchange the Committee has established Working Groups and Groups of Experts in specialised topics. CNRA believes that safety inspections are a major element in the regulatory authority's efforts to ensure the safe operation of nuclear facilities. Considering the importance of these issues, the Committee has established a special Working Group on Inspection Practices (WGIP). The purpose of WGIP, is to facilitate the exchange of information and experience related to regulatory safety inspections between CNRA Member countries. This was the 3. international workshop held by the WGIP on regulatory inspection activities. The focus of this workshop was on 3 main topics; Inspection Planning, Plant Maintenance and Assessment of Safety. This document presents the proceedings from the workshop, including: workshop programme, results and conclusions, papers and presentations and the list of participants. The main purpose of the Workshop is to provide a forum of exchange of information on the regulatory inspection activities

  10. A regulatory adjustment process for the determination of the optimal percentage requirement in an electricity market with Tradable Green Certificates

    A system of Tradable Green Certificates (TGCs) is a market-based subsidy scheme designed to promote electricity generation from renewable energy sources such as wind power. Under a TGC system, the principal policy instrument is the “percentage requirement,” which stipulates the percentage of total electricity production (“green” plus “black”) that must be obtained from renewable sources. In this paper, we propose a regulatory adjustment process that a regulator can employ to determine the socially optimal percentage requirement, explicitly accounting for environmental damages resulting from black electricity generation. - Highlights: • A Tradable Green Certificate (TGC) system promotes energy production from renewable sources. • We consider an electricity oligopoly operated under a TGC system. • Welfare analysis must account for damages from “black” electricity production. • We characterize the welfare maximizing (optimal) “percentage requirement.” • We present a regulatory adjustment process that computes the optimal percentage requirement iteratively

  11. Activation of regulatory T cells during inflammatory response is not an exclusive property of stem cells.

    Jan-Hendrik Gosemann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sepsis and systemic-inflammatory-response-syndrome (SIRS remain major causes for fatalities on intensive care units despite up-to-date therapy. It is well accepted that stem cells have immunomodulatory properties during inflammation and sepsis, including the activation of regulatory T cells and the attenuation of distant organ damage. Evidence from recent work suggests that these properties may not be exclusively attributed to stem cells. This study was designed to evaluate the immunomodulatory potency of cellular treatment during acute inflammation in a model of sublethal endotoxemia and to investigate the hypothesis that immunomodulations by cellular treatment during inflammatory response is not stem cell specific. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Endotoxemia was induced via intra-peritoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS in wild type mice (C3H/HeN. Mice were treated with either vital or homogenized amniotic fluid stem cells (AFS and sacrificed for specimen collection 24 h after LPS injection. Endpoints were plasma cytokine levels (BD™ Cytometric Bead Arrays, T cell subpopulations (flow-cytometry and pulmonary neutrophil influx (immunohistochemistry. To define stem cell specific effects, treatment with either vital or homogenized human-embryonic-kidney-cells (HEK was investigated in a second subset of experiments. Mice treated with homogenized AFS cells showed significantly increased percentages of regulatory T cells and Interleukin-2 as well as decreased amounts of pulmonary neutrophils compared to saline-treated controls. These results could be reproduced in mice treated with vital HEK cells. No further differences were observed between plasma cytokine levels of endotoxemic mice. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results revealed that both AFS and HEK cells modulate cellular immune response and distant organ damage during sublethal endotoxemia. The observed effects support the hypothesis, that immunomodulations are not

  12. FOXP3+Helios+ Regulatory T Cells, Immune Activation, and Advancing Disease in HIV-Infected Children.

    Khaitan, Alka; Kravietz, Adam; Mwamzuka, Mussa; Marshed, Fatma; Ilmet, Tiina; Said, Swalehe; Ahmed, Aabid; Borkowsky, William; Unutmaz, Derya

    2016-08-15

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are functionally suppressive CD4 T cells, critical for establishing peripheral tolerance and controlling inflammatory responses. Previous reports of Tregs during chronic HIV disease have conflicting results with higher or lower levels compared with controls. Identifying true Tregs with suppressive activity proves challenging during HIV infection, as traditional Treg markers, CD25 and FOXP3, may transiently upregulate expression as a result of immune activation (IA). Helios is an Ikaros family transcription factor that marks natural Tregs with suppressive activity and does not upregulate expression after activation. Coexpression of FOXP3 and Helios has been suggested as a highly specific marker of "bona fide" Tregs. We evaluated Treg subsets by FOXP3 coexpressed with either CD25 or Helios and their association with HIV disease progression in perinatally infected HIV-positive children. Identifying Tregs by FOXP3 coexpression with Helios rather than CD25 revealed markedly higher Treg frequencies, particularly in HIV+ children. Regardless of antiretroviral therapy, HIV-infected children had a selective expansion of memory FOXP3+Helios+ Tregs. The rise in memory Tregs correlated with declining HIV clinical status, indicated by falling CD4 percentages and CD4:CD8 ratios and increasing HIV plasma viremia and IA. In addition, untreated HIV+ children exhibited an imbalance between the levels of Tregs and activated T cells. Finally, memory Tregs expressed IA markers CD38 and Ki67 and exhaustion marker, PD-1, that tightly correlated with a similar phenotype in memory CD4 T cells. Overall, HIV-infected children had significant disruptions of memory Tregs that associated with advancing HIV disease. PMID:27003495

  13. Use of PSA and PSC in the regulatory process in The Netherlands

    The paper presents the regulatory requirements, thinking, and plans regarding the use of plant specific PSAs in the Netherlands, the actual use of probabilistic safety criteria (PSC) in the existing regulations and the PSA based plant modifications and backfits. 1 fig., 6 tabs

  14. Improving regulatory effectiveness in Federal/State siting actions. Need for power: determinants in the state decisionmaking processes

    The Department of Energy's Nuclear Siting and Licensing Act of 1978 (S.2775; H.R.11704) proposes Federal/State coordination in need for facility decisionmaking for nuclear power stations. A prior study by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Office of State Programs, ''Improving Regulatory Effectiveness in Federal/State Siting Actions'', NUREG-0195, May 1977, considered the concept of need for power/facility. The present study expands the inquiry into need for power/facility by examining the decisionmaking criteria utilized by forty-four States in making a determination of need for power/facility. Specific criteria are identified along with the number of States which make those criteria a primary consideration or a secondary consideration in determining need for facility. Individual profiles of the studied States' decisionmaking criteria are provided. In addition, the study examines the different organizational and functional patterns found in the States' regulatory processes to certificate power stations. The coordination or lack of coordination of the issuance of associated environmental permits required for power stations is outlined for each State. Information concerning States' rate treatment of expenses associated with the construction and operation of a power station is provided. The relationship between the need for power decisionmaking process and the ratemaking process is explored

  15. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - France

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General Regulatory Framework: 1. General (The French nuclear power programme and its main players; French nuclear law); 2. Mining Regime; 3. Radioactive Substances and Nuclear Equipment (Regulatory diversity; Radioactive sources; Medical activities); 4. Trade in Nuclear Materials and Equipment (Basic nuclear installations - INB; Tax on basic nuclear installations, Additional taxes, Funding nuclear costs; Installations classified for environmental protection purposes (ICPE) using radioactive substances; Nuclear pressure equipment - ESPN; Defence-related nuclear installations and activities - IANID; Emergency plans); 5. Trade in Nuclear Materials and Equipment (General provisions; Patents); 6. Radiation protection (Protection of the public; Protection of workers; Radiation protection inspectors; Labour inspectors; Protection of individuals in a radiological emergency); 7. Radioactive Waste Management (General regulations; Radioactive waste regulations; Discharge of effluents); 8. Non-proliferation and physical protection (Materials not used for the nuclear deterrent; Materials used for the nuclear deterrent); 9. Transport (Licensing and notification regime: Transport of radioactive materials, Transport of nuclear materials, Transport of radioactive substances between member states of the European Union; Methods of transport: Land transport, Sea transport, Air transport, Transport by post); 10

  16. T Cell Epitope Immunotherapy Induces a CD4+ T Cell Population with Regulatory Activity

    Verhoef Adrienne

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Synthetic peptides, representing CD4+ T cell epitopes, derived from the primary sequence of allergen molecules have been used to down-regulate allergic inflammation in sensitised individuals. Treatment of allergic diseases with peptides may offer substantial advantages over treatment with native allergen molecules because of the reduced potential for cross-linking IgE bound to the surface of mast cells and basophils. Methods and Findings In this study we address the mechanism of action of peptide immunotherapy (PIT in cat-allergic, asthmatic patients. Cell-division-tracking dyes, cell-mixing experiments, surface phenotyping, and cytokine measurements were used to investigate immunomodulation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs after therapy. Proliferative responses of PBMCs to allergen extract were significantly reduced after PIT. This was associated with modified cytokine profiles generally characterised by an increase in interleukin-10 and a decrease in interleukin-5 production. CD4+ cells isolated after PIT were able to actively suppress allergen-specific proliferative responses of pretreatment CD4neg PBMCs in co-culture experiments. PIT was associated with a significant increase in surface expression of CD5 on both CD4+ and CD8+ PBMCs. Conclusion This study provides evidence for the induction of a population of CD4+ T cells with suppressor/regulatory activity following PIT. Furthermore, up-regulation of cell surface levels of CD5 may contribute to reduced reactivity to allergen.

  17. Extensive evolutionary changes in regulatory element activity during human origins are associated with altered gene expression and positive selection.

    Yoichiro Shibata

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the molecular basis for phenotypic differences between humans and other primates remains an outstanding challenge. Mutations in non-coding regulatory DNA that alter gene expression have been hypothesized as a key driver of these phenotypic differences. This has been supported by differential gene expression analyses in general, but not by the identification of specific regulatory elements responsible for changes in transcription and phenotype. To identify the genetic source of regulatory differences, we mapped DNaseI hypersensitive (DHS sites, which mark all types of active gene regulatory elements, genome-wide in the same cell type isolated from human, chimpanzee, and macaque. Most DHS sites were conserved among all three species, as expected based on their central role in regulating transcription. However, we found evidence that several hundred DHS sites were gained or lost on the lineages leading to modern human and chimpanzee. Species-specific DHS site gains are enriched near differentially expressed genes, are positively correlated with increased transcription, show evidence of branch-specific positive selection, and overlap with active chromatin marks. Species-specific sequence differences in transcription factor motifs found within these DHS sites are linked with species-specific changes in chromatin accessibility. Together, these indicate that the regulatory elements identified here are genetic contributors to transcriptional and phenotypic differences among primate species.

  18. Creating a Comprehensive, Efficient, and Sustainable Nuclear Regulatory Structure: A Process Report from the U.S. Department of Energy's Material Protection, Control and Accounting Program

    With the congressionally mandated January 1, 2013 deadline for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Nuclear Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC and A) program to complete its transition of MPC and A responsibility to the Russian Federation, National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) management directed its MPC and A program managers and team leaders to demonstrate that work in ongoing programs would lead to successful and timely achievement of these milestones. In the spirit of planning for successful project completion, the NNSA review of the Russian regulatory development process confirmed the critical importance of an effective regulatory system to a sustainable nuclear protection regime and called for an analysis of the existing Russian regulatory structure and the identification of a plan to ensure a complete MPC and A regulatory foundation. This paper describes the systematic process used by DOE's MPC and A Regulatory Development Project (RDP) to develop an effective and sustainable MPC and A regulatory structure in the Russian Federation. This nuclear regulatory system will address all non-military Category I and II nuclear materials at State Corporation for Atomic Energy 'Rosatom,' the Federal Service for Ecological, Technological, and Nuclear Oversight (Rostechnadzor), the Federal Agency for Marine and River Transport (FAMRT, within the Ministry of Transportation), and the Ministry of Industry and Trade (Minpromtorg). The approach to ensuring a complete and comprehensive nuclear regulatory structure includes five sequential steps. The approach was adopted from DOE's project management guidelines and was adapted to the regulatory development task by the RDP. The five steps in the Regulatory Development Process are: (1) Define MPC and A Structural Elements; (2) Analyze the existing regulatory documents using the identified Structural Elements; (3) Validate the analysis with Russian colleagues and define the list of documents to be

  19. FraTAct for Transforming A Nescient Process Activity Into an Intelligent Process Activity

    Rafiqul Haque

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Existing business process technologies support defining only nescient activities. Currently there is no solution that underpins transforming a nescient activity into intelligent activity. In this paper, we address this shortcoming of the state of the art. We offer a framework ‘FraTAct’ for transforming regulation intensive nescient activities of a financial service business process into intelligent activities. Financial service industries has been experiencing enormous challenges since the last decade. A recent financial crisis has unearthed various weaknesses in terms of administering the financial service industries. In order to prevent the future crisis, the regulators are constantly formulating new rules and also forcing the financial service industry to enact financial regulations in their financial service based application which automates financial operations. A financial service application underpins the financial service business process that contains activities. A nescient activity within a financial service process is prone to the risk of producing an inconsistent outcome that results in severe legal consequences for a financial institute e.g., a bank. In order to avoid these legal consequences, a financial institute should develop their financial service processes by composing activities that should be intelligent to understand and comply with financial regulations. Intelligent activities will produce outcomes that are consistent to financial regulations. It will reduce the possibility of financial regulation noncompliance in financial service process based application.

  20. Speech perception as an active cognitive process

    Shannon eHeald

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available One view of speech perception is that acoustic signals are transformed into representations for pattern matching to determine linguistic structure. This process can be taken as a statistical pattern-matching problem, assuming realtively stable linguistic categories are characterized by neural representations related to auditory properties of speech that can be compared to speech input. This kind of pattern matching can be termed a passive process which implies rigidity of processingd with few demands on cognitive processing. An alternative view is that speech recognition, even in early stages, is an active process in which speech analysis is attentionally guided. Note that this does not mean consciously guided but that information-contingent changes in early auditory encoding can occur as a function of context and experience. Active processing assumes that attention, plasticity, and listening goals are important in considering how listeners cope with adverse circumstances that impair hearing by masking noise in the environment or hearing loss. Although theories of speech perception have begun to incorporate some active processing, they seldom treat early speech encoding as plastic and attentionally guided. Recent research has suggested that speech perception is the product of both feedforward and feedback interactions between a number of brain regions that include descending projections perhaps as far downstream as the cochlea. It is important to understand how the ambiguity of the speech signal and constraints of context dynamically determine cognitive resources recruited during perception including focused attention, learning, and working memory. Theories of speech perception need to go beyond the current corticocentric approach in order to account for the intrinsic dynamics of the auditory encoding of speech. In doing so, this may provide new insights into ways in which hearing disorders and loss may be treated either through augementation or

  1. The additive effect of regulatory activities on top of intelligence in relation to academic performance in higher education

    Minnaert, A; Janssen, PJ

    1999-01-01

    This study investigated the additive, beneficial effect of regulatory activities on top of verbal, numerical, and diagrammatic intelligence in the prediction of academic performance. About 500 freshmen of different study domains participated in this research. The findings supported both the mixed an

  2. 76 FR 18165 - Request for Public Comments Concerning Regulatory Cooperation Activities That Would Help...

    2011-04-01

    ... Would Help Eliminate or Reduce Unnecessary Regulatory Divergences in North America That Disrupt U.S..., 2011. DATES: The comment period for notice published on March 3, 2011 (76 FR 11760), is extended to....-Canada Regulatory Cooperation Council. The notice published on March 3, 2011 (76 FR 11760)...

  3. US Department of Energy wind turbine candidate site program: the regulatory process

    Greene, M.R.; York, K.R.

    1982-06-01

    Sites selected in 1979 as tentative sites for installation of a demonstration MOD-2 turbine are emphasized. Selection as a candidate site in this program meant that the US Department of Energy (DOE) designated the site as eligible for a DOE-purchased and installed meteorological tower. The regulatory procedures involved in the siting and installation of these meteorological towers at the majority of the candidate sites are examined. An attempt is also made, in a preliminary fashion, to identify the legal and regulatory procedures that would be required to put up a turbine at each of these candidate sites. The information provided on each of these sites comes primarily from utility representatives, supplemented by conversations with state and local officials. The major findings are summarized on the following: federal requirements, state requirements, local requirements, land ownership, wind rights, and public attitudes.

  4. Development of regulatory guidance on safety reviews of nuclear power plants in Germany. A survey on accomplished and current PSA activities

    The paper describes the key points of the accomplished and current regulatory activities in order to revise PSA guide and the corresponding technical documents in Germany. The regulatory German PSA guide covers the fundamental requirements concerning the performance of PSAs in the frame of comprehensive safety reviews. The technical details regarding the performance of PSA are set out in two technical documents (PSA Methods and PSA Data) that have been developed by a working group of PSA experts (FAK PSA). Based on the experiences from the first series of PSRs, international experiences and the fact that PSR is mandatory since April 2002 revisions of all guides are underway. The first guide to be updated is the PSA guide together with the corresponding technical documents. The working programme and the revision process of FAK PSA was finished at the end of 2004 and the technical documents have recently been republished. (author)

  5. Demonstration of ''regulatory'' process controls on the TSTA cryogenic distillation system

    Due to the nature of its fusion reaction, most of the DT used to fuel the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) will exit unreacted. This effluent will be purified by the fuel cleanup system so that the isotope separation system (ISS) will be fed only hydrogen isotopes and possibly some helium. The ISS will separate this feed into streams nominally composed of He/H2/HD, D2, DT, and T2. These products will be recycled through appropriate fueling systems back to the fusion reactor or returned to storage. The ISS will have to respond properly to feed conditions which change rapidly. Feed changes will propagate quickly through the entire cascade. It is apparent that an automatic control system will be required to respond to these changes and maintain product quality. It is convenient to divide such a distillation control system into 'regulatory' controls and composition controls. The 'regulatory' controls include liquid levels, flowrates, reboiler heats, and pressure. A system of regulatory controls has been devised and installed on the four-column cascade of cryogenic columns at the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This tritium-compatible ISS is designed for approximately 1/10 the ITER flowrate and is dedicated to fusion fuel studies. Details of the TSTA ISS have been published previously

  6. Rewiring drug-activated p53-regulatory network from suppressing to promoting tumorigenesis

    Wei Song; Jiguang Wang; Ying Yang; Naihe Jing; Xiangsun Zhang; Luonan Chen; Jiarui Wu

    2012-01-01

    Many of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes have been found to exert variable and even opposing roles in different kinds of tumors or at different stages of cancer development.Here we showed that tumorigenic potential of mouse embryonic carcinoma P19 cells cultured in adherent plates (attached-P19-cells) was suppressed by a chemotherapeutic agent,5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (ZdCyd),whereas the higher pro-tumorigenicity of P19 cells growing in suspension (detached-P19-cells) was generated by the ZdCyd treatment.Surprisingly,p53 activity was highly up-regulated by ZdCyd in both growing conditions.By our developed computational approaches,we revealed that there was a significant enrichment of apoptotic pathways in the ZdCyd-induced p53-dominant gene-regulatory network in attached P19 cells,whereas the pro-survival genes were significantly enriched in the ZdCyd-induced p53 network in detached P19 cells.The protein-protein interaction network of the ZdCyd-treated detached P19 cells was significantly different from that of ZdCyd-treated attached P19 cells.On the other hand,inhibition of pS3 expression by siRNA suppressed the ZdCyd-induced tumorigenesis of detached P19 cells,suggesting that the ZdCyd-activated p53 plays oncogenic function in detached P19 cells.Taken together,these results indicate a context-dependent role for the ZdCyd-activated p53-dominant network in tumorigenesis.

  7. Activation of consolidation processes of alumina ceramics

    Matrenin, S. V.; Zenin, B. S.; Tayukin, R. V.

    2016-02-01

    The methods for activating sintering ceramics based on Al2O3 by mechanical activation in the planetary mill, by adding in the mixture of nanopowders (NP) Al, Al2O3, and submicron powder TiO2, and by applying the technology of spark plasma sintering (SPS) are developed. It has been shown that adding the nanopowder up to 20 wt. % Al2O3 in a coarse powder α-Al2O3 activates the sintering process resulting in increased density and hardness of the sintered alumina ceramics. Substantial effect of increasing density of alumina ceramics due to adding the submicron powder TiO2 in the compound of initial powder mixtures has been established.

  8. Decommissioning: Regulatory activities and identification of key organizational and human factors safety issues

    In the late 1990's the Swedish government decided to shut down Unit 1 of the Barsebaeck nuclear power plant. This report documents some of the efforts made by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) to address human factors and organizational issues in nuclear safety during decommissioning of a nuclear facility. This report gives a brief review of the background to the decommissioning of Barsebaeck 1 and points out key safety issues that can arise during decommissioning. The main regulatory activities that were undertaken were requirements that the plant provide special safety reports on decommissioning focusing on first, the operation of both units until closure of Unit 1 and second, the operation of Unit 2 when Unit 1 was closed. In addition, SKI identified areas that might be affected by decommissioning and called these areas out for special attention. With regard to these areas of special attention, SKI required that the plant provide monthly reports on changing and emerging issues as well as self-assessments of the areas to be addressed in the special safety reports. Ten key safety issues were identified and evaluated with regard to different stages of decommissioning and with regard to the actions taken by Barsebaeck. Some key conclusions from SKI's experience in regulating a decommissioning nuclear power plant conclude the report

  9. Systematic approach to training. Experiences from the training activities of regulatory body personnel in STUK

    The report describes the experiences obtained of a training programme for nuclear power plant inspectors arranged in the 90's by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority of Finland (STUK). In the implementation of the programme, a systematic method was used to analyse the training needs, to plan, develop and implement the training programme as well as to assess the programme's implementation and results. The method used, 'SAT Ae Systematic Approach to Training', is presented in 'Nuclear Power Plant Personnel Training and its Evaluation, A Guidebook', IAEA Technical Report Series No. 380, which is a publication of the International Atomic Energy Agency. It is recommended that this method be applied in the planning and implementation of nuclear power plant personnel training. The application of the method as a tool for developing the qualifications of nuclear power plant inspectors shows that the method is well suited for use in Finland. Until the 90's, STUK had no systematic approach to training activities. Some training was arranged internally, but training in most respects meant participation in external training events and international seminars. A more systematic approach was adopted in the early 90's. The main goal was to define basic competence profiles for inspectors working in different fields and to provide an internal basic training programme not available externally. The development of the training activities called for a profound renewal of the training function to ensure a systematic approach and high quality. The experiences gained in STUK are useful in co-operation with Eastern and Central European regulatory bodies; they can be utilized when the qualifications of personnel who carry out inspections are developed. This will extensively contribute to the safety of nuclear power plants. (orig.)

  10. Modeling Aspects Of Activated Sludge Processes Part I: Process Modeling Of Activated Sludge Facilitation And Sedimentation

    Process modeling of activated sludge flocculation and sedimentation reviews consider the activated sludge floc characteristics such as: morphology viable and non-viable cell ratio density and water content, bio flocculation and its kinetics were studied considering the characteristics of bio flocculation and explaining theory of Divalent Cation Bridging which describes the major role of cations in bio flocculation. Activated sludge flocculation process modeling was studied considering mass transfer limitations from Clifft and Andrew, 1981, Benefild and Molz 1983 passing Henze 1987, until Tyagi 1996 and G. Ibrahim et aI. 2002. Models of aggregation and breakage of flocs were studied by Spicer and Pratsinis 1996,and Biggs 2002 Size distribution of floes influences mass transfer and biomass separation in the activated sludge process. Therefore, it is of primary importance to establish the role of specific process operation factors, such as sludge loading dynamic sludge age and dissolved oxygen, on this distribution with special emphasis on the formation of primary particles